United Sttttc              Offioi of P«tidd« «nd Toxic SutauncM
                   EnvironnMntil Protection       office of Pectidde Program* (TS-766C)
                   Aomey                 WWhington. DC  20460
                   Name Of Chemical: Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite
                   Reason for Issuance: Registration Standard

                   Date Issued: February 1986

                   Fact Sheet Number:   79

1.  Description of Chemical

    Generic Name:  Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorites

    Cannon Name:  Bleach

    Trade Name:  Clorox,  Purex

    EPA Shaughnessy Code:  014703  (Sodium Hypochlorite)
                           014701  (Calcium Hypochlorite)

    Chemical Abstracts  Service (CAS) Number:  778-54-3 (Sodium hypochlorite)
                                              7681-52-9 (Calcium Hypochlorite)

    Year of Intial Registration:   1957

    Pesticide Type:  Disinfectant, Algaecide or Sanitizer

    Chemical Family:  Inorganic Salts

    U.S. and Foreign Producers: Jones Chemical Inc., Allied Chlorine Corp.,
    Kuehne Chemical Company, Olin  Corporation, Surpass Chemical Company, Pennwalt
    "Chemical Corporation,  PPG Industries.

2.  Use Patterns and Formulations

    Application sites:  Porous and  nonporous food contact and nonfood contact
    surfaces, swiming  pool water, drinking water, waste water and sewage, pulp
    and paper mill process water.

    Percent of pesticide applied to nonporous food contact surfaces, 100 to 200
    ppm available chlorine; porous food contact surfaces, 600 ppm; nonfood contact
    surfaces, 600 to 1000  ppm; swimtiing pools start-up, 5 to 10 ppm available
    chlorine and maintain at 1.0 ppm to 1.5 ppm; drinking water, 0.2 ppm available
    chlorine; waste water, 0.5 ppm; pulp and paper mill process water, 5 to 10
    ppm initial dose and subsequent dose of 1 ppn available chlorine.

    Application rates:   N/A

    Types of formulations:  liquid (sodium hypochlorite) granular, powder and,          ;.
    tablet (calcium hypochlorite)                                                       !

    Usual carriers:  Water

3.  Science Findings

    Based on a review of the available product chemistry,  toxicity, environmental
    fate, and ecological effects data on sodium and calcium hypochlorites,  the Agenc
    has determined that any hazards associated with the uses of sodium and  calcium
    hypochlorite are relatively small. •

    Chemical Characteristics

    Physical state: clear liquid, sodium hypochlorite)  granular, powder,  and tablet,
    (calcium hypochlorite)

    Color: clear liquid, (sodium hypochlorite) white, (calcium hypochlorite)

    Odor: chlorine

    pH: Sodium Hypochlorite: 9.75-10.50
        Calcium Hypochlorite: 12.59-13.11,  concentrated aqueous solutions

    Boiling point: N/A

    Melting point: N/A

    Plash point: N/A

    Toxicity Characteristics

    Toxicity category and value for sodium hypochlorite
    Acute oral toxicity: IV; LD50, 192 mg/kQ
    Acute dermal toxicity: III; LD50, >3,000 rag/kg
    Primary eye irritation: I;  Corrosive
    Primary skin Irritation: I; Corrosive

    Toxicity category and value for calcium hypochlorite
    Acute oral toxicity: III ;  LD50, 850 mg/kg
    Acute dermal toxicity: II ; ID50, >2gAg
   -Acute inhalation: III ; LC50, <20mg/l
    Primary eye irritation: I ; Corrosive
    Primary skin irritation: I  ; Corrosive

    Physiological and Biochemical Behavorial Charateristics: N/A

    Environmental Characteristics: N/A

    Ecological Characteristics:

    Values for sodium hypochlorite
    Acute oral-Bobwhite Quail ; LD50, >2510 mg/kg
    Acute dietary-Mallard Duck  ; LC50, >5220ppm
    Acute dietary-Bobwhite Quail ; LC50, >5620ppm
    Acute fish-Rainbow Trout ;  LC50, 0.18-0.22 mg/1
    Acute fish-Bluegill Sunfish ; LC50, 0.44-0.79 mg/1
    Acute invertebrate-Daphnia  ; LC50, 0.033-0.048 mg/1

These values are representative for calcium hypochlorite also since both
chemicals generate  hypochlorous acid when dissolved in water. The hypochlorous
acid is the disinfecting agent which is also the toxic material to fish and
other non-target organisms. This is traditionally measured in terns of available
chlorine in parts per million.

Efficacy Results Review:

Product-by-product  efficacy data requirements normally levied on disinfectants
and sanitizers have been waived because the Agency has concluded that the published
literature can reasonably be extrapolated to the full range of these products.

Tolerance Assessment:

An exemption from the requirement for a tolerance was established (40 CFR 180.1054)
for residues of calcium hypochlorite which may occur in or on raw agricultural
commodity potatoes  resulting from the use of washing solutions containing calcium
hypochlorite.  After  reexamining the exemption from the requirement for a tolerance,
the Agency has determined that the exemption is still appropriate under current
scientific standards.

Pood processing plants, dairies, canneries, breweries, wineries, beverage bottling
plants and eating establishments use hypochlorites for sanitizing premises and
for disinfecting equipment and utensils.  A incidental food additive regulation
allowing the use of sodium or calcium hypochlorites as a terminal santizing
rinse on food processing equipment has been established (21 CFR 178.1010).  A
food additive regulation permitting the use of sodium hypochlorites in washing
or assisting in lye peeling of fruits and vegetables has been established (21
CFR 173.315) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

The provisions of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) (40 CFR Part
180 require the establishment of a tolerance for exemption from the need for a
tolerance) for the  use of calcium hypochlorite on mushroom pins (preharvest),
sweet potatoes (postharvest), pimento seeds, tomato seeds, pecans (postharvest),
fish fillets,.  EPA  plans to propose to issue an exemption from the requirements
of a tolerance for  these uses.

The provisions of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 CFR 173 Subpart D -
Specific Usage Additives) require the establishment of a food additive regulation
for calcium hypochlorite in sugar syrup and raw sugar.  Applicants whose product
labeling contains such uses must either obtain a food additive regulation for
the uses from the Food and Drug Administration within 12 months from the date of
issuance of this standard or delete the claims from the labeling.

Reported Pesticide  Incidents: N/A


4.  Sunmary of Regulatory Position and Rationale

    Uses: Final sanitizing rinses on food processing equiptment and utensils;
    disinfection of nonporous hard surfaces; algicides/slimicides for water
    treatment systems; disinfection of poultry drinking water; disinfection
    of human drinking water, swimming pool water, hubbard/immersion tank water,
    spas/hot tube, hydrotherapy pools, and human drinking water systems;
    laundry sanitizers; toilet bowl sanitizers.

    Formulations: Liquid sodium hypochlorite solutions; solid (granular, powder,
    or tablet) calcium hypochlorite.

    Sodium and calcium hypochlorite single active ingredient products are eye
    irritants, but the potential for hazard from use of these products may be
    mitigated with appropriate precautionary labeling.

    The hypochlorites are the most widely used chemicals for disinfecting
    water supplies, are generally recognized as safe for use as post harvest
    fungicides on agricultural commodities, and are listed as sanitizers, for
    use as terminal sanitizing rinses of food handling equiptment. In the
    absence of significant long term dietary exposure to the hypochlorites
    from these patterns of use, there is no need for chronic or subchronic
    studies. If it comes to the attention of the Agency that hazards due
    to long term dietary exposure may be significant, then long term studies
    will be required.

    Unique warning statements: None.

5.  Summary of Major Data Gaps                                     f

    There are no data gaps.

6.  Contact Person at EPA

    Jeff Kempter
    Acting Product Manager (32)
    Disinfectants Branch
    Registration Division (TS-767C)
    rj. S. Environmental Protection Agency
    401 M. Street SW
    Washington, DC 20460
    (703) 557-3964

DISCLAIMER: The information presented in this Pesticide Fact Sheet is for
informational purposes only and may not be used to fulfill data requirements
for pesticide registration and reregistration.