United States        '     Office of Pesticides
       Environmental Protection      and Toxic Substances
       Agency                (H7501C)             540/FS-91-130
       Fact Sheet
       Name Of Chemical:  Cadmium Chloride

       Reason for Issuance: Announcement of the termination of the

       Date Issued: 4/1/91  CadBdum Chloride Special

       Fact Sheet Number: 220

Description of Chemical

 Chemical name: cadmium chloride

 Common name:    cadmium chloride

 Trade name:    CADDY, Liquid Cadmium Turf Fungicide

 EPA Shaughnessy code: 012902

 Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)  number: 135

 Year of Initial Registration:  1952

 Pesticide type:     fungicide

 Chemical family:     cadmium salts

 U.S.  producers:     There are no  remaining U.S. producers.
                     W.A.Cleary Chemical Corporation
                     requested voluntary cancelation of the
                     only remaining cadmium chloride
                     pesticide registration on July 9,  1990.
                     Cancelation became effective on August
                     19,  1990.

 Use Patterns and formulations

 Application sites: Golf  course tees and greens.

 Types of  formulations: soluble concentrate/solid.
                                                     Printed on R*~ycknl Paper

Types and methods of application: cart-drawn boom spray
equipment (mini-boom).

Science Findings

Physical and Chemical Characteristics:

     Physical state: solid
     Boiling point:  765*C
     Melting point:  321*C

Human Toxicology Characteristics:

     Acute toxicity:

     Moderate to moderately high (Toxicity Categories III
     and II); specific values are unavailable for this
     compound since there are no technical registrations and
     there are data gaps on formulated products.

     Acute effects to kidneys are formation of fatty bodies
     in the kidneys and degeneration of renal tubules.

     Chronic toxicity:

     Cadmium chloride is carcinogenic, as demonstrated in
     laboratory animal and human epidemiological studies:

          Rat chronic inhalation study — LOEL 12.5 ug
             Cd chloride/m  (lowest dose tested) for lung

          Rat chronic injection study — 3.6% Cd chloride
             (lowest concentration tested)  caused testicular
             and pancreatic islet tumors.

          Epidemiological studies of factory workers —
             chronic exposure to cadmium oxide and dust has
             shown statistically significant increases in
             the incidence of lung tumors.

     Kidney effects of proteinuria, glucosuria, excretion  of
     amino acids and decreased renal function:

          Rat drinking water study (24 wks) — NOEL 10 mg/L
             (lowest dose tested) for proteinuria.

          Epidemiological study  of factory workers exposed
             to cadmium oxide dust (50 yrs)  — LOEL
             2 ug/m  for renal tubular proteinuria.

     Mutagenic effects from 36 studies on various cadmium
     compounds are  equivocal; depending on protocol and end
     point examined, results vary.

          Developmental, fetotoxic and reproductive effects have
          been shown in laboratory animal studies; however, the
          data are inadequate to support that cadmium would
          produce these types of effects in humans.  Further, the
          data suggest that these effects are dependent on routes
          of administration which may not be analogous to human
          exposures from the pesticidal use.

4.  Summary of Regulatory Position and Rationale

     On August 19, 1987, EPA issued its Final Determination and
Notice of Intent to Cancel all uses of cadmium chloride except
application on golf course tees and greens.  This action was
based on the determination that risks associated with the use of
this product outweighed its minor benefits.  Risks (kidney and
carcinogenic effects to applicators), together with the lack of
satisfactory risk reduction measures, and the number of
effective, registered alternatives, outweighed the estimated
minor economic impact of cadmium chloride cancelation.

     Continued use of cadmium chloride on golf course tees and
greens was permitted, with label changes ,  while an applicator
exposure study was being conducted.  The study was required
because comments received from the registrant in response to the
Proposed Cancelation (PD 2/3 issued Oct. 10, 1986) stated that
EPA had calculated exposure for the wrong application method.
The Agency had calculated applicator exposure as if they applied
cadmium chloride to tees and greens by hand-held spray guns, but
commenters pointed out that most cadmium chloride was applied to
tees and greens by cart-drawn boom sprayers (mini-booms).
Because the Agency did not have sufficient data in its surrogate
data base to recalculate exposure levels for the primary
application method, a Data Call-in Notice was issued in July 1987
to acquire this information.

     EPA completed its review of the mini-boom exposure study in
September 1989.  As anticipated, exposure from mini-boom
application was lower than exposure from hand-held spray guns;
however, EPA determined that the reduced exposure was not
significant enough to alleviate applicator risk.
        Label  changes  included the  following  stipulations:  that
cadmium  chloride  be applied  by  mini-boom sprayer  only,  that
protective clothing be worn during  application  (including chemical
resistant gloves, long sleeve shirt, long legged pants), and that
a chemical  resistant apron  be worn  during mixing and loading.
Cadmium chloride's classification was also changed to "Restricted
Use" pesticide.

     In a meeting between the registrant and the Agency, EPA
explained its review of the mini-boom study, the impact of the
study on the Cadmium Chloride Special Review, the registrant's
reregistration responsibilities, and the possibility of a
voluntary cancelation.   Subsequently, on July 9, 1990, EPA
received a request from W.A. Cleary Chemical Corporation for
voluntary cancelation of its product registration.

     A notice was published in the Federal Register on August 1,
1990, announcing the Agency's receipt of the voluntary
cancelation request, and specifying the existing stocks
provisions to be allowed following cancelation.  After the
comment period expired, the cancelation became effective on
August 11, 1990.

     Voluntary cancelation of this product was requested by the
registrant because the Agency had determined that continued
cadmium chloride use on golf course tees and greens would result
in unreasonable adverse effects to applicators.  Cancelation of
this product would eliminate the risks to applicators.  Because
cadmium chloride risk is chronic, the limited, continued use of
this product for a short period does not pose a risk to
applicators.  Furthermore, because cadmium chloride is applied in
small amounts, continued use does not pose a risk to golfers,
pets or wildlife who might cross tees and greens.  Although
cadmium chloride was considered effective and was less expensive
than most of its substitutes, there are a number of effective,
registered alternatives  which do not pose similar risk

     Under the existing stocks provision, no cadmium chloride
product may be sold, distributed, or released for shipment by the
registrant after July 31, 1991, and no cadmium chloride product
may be sold or distributed by a retailer, dealer, or any person
after December 31, 1991.  Golf courses or end-users may not
obtain or take possession of cadmium chloride product after
December 31, 1991; supplies in their possession as of December
31, 1991 may be used until exhausted.

     On November 30, 1990, EPA published a notice in the Federal
Register proposing to terminate the Cadmium Chloride Special
Review based on the registrant's request for voluntary
cancelation of the Agency's last cadmium chloride registration.
This Notice also initiated a 30-day comment period.

     EPA received no comments during the comment period.  Thus,
EPA is announcing that it has terminated the Cadmium Chloride
Special Review.
       Anilazine, chlorothalonil, chloroneb,  fenamirol, iprodione,
propiconizole, thiram, triadimefon, and vinclozolin.

5.   Contact person

Ann Sibold, Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide
Programs, Special Review and Reregistration Division (H7508C),
401 M Street SW, Washington, D.C.  20460. telephone (703) 308-



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