,,       AND SPILLS OF
              DOUS  SUBSTANCES
^Qiljftf Social Materials$ontrol Division
'; olice Jrbater Program Ojerfiions
   ^ " mmental Prtrtecti^ Agency


                            This document  represents  the third  edition of "Oil
                       Snills  and Spills of  Hazardous  Substances"  oriqinallv ore-
                       oared  in March  1973 by  the  Oil  and Special  Materials  Con-
                       trol Division.  We  have  found  this type  of  publication to
                       be  extremely  effective  in describing some of the more sig-
                       nificant spill  incidents and  the  mechanisms, both manager-
                       ial  and technological,  to deal  with them.   Already,  over
                       25,000  copies of  this booklet  have been  requested by  and
                       sent to schools,  the  general  public and  others.
                            The primary objective of  EPA's oil and  hazardous  sub-
                       stance  spill  program  is  to  protect water quality through
                       the prevention  of spills and  minimize the impact of  spills
                       on  the  environment.  Section  311  of the  Federal Water Pol-
                       lution  Control  Act, as  amended  in 1972,  specifies a  three-
                       fold approach to  the  control  of spills which consists of
                       response, prevention  and enforcement.  Essential to  the
                       implementation  of Section 311  is  the promulgation of  key
                       regulations,  development of the National Contingency  Plan,
                       establishment of  spill  response programs, and development
                       of  an  aggressive  spill  prevention program.
                            One should  recall that  prior  to the  passage of the Fed-
                       eral Water Pollution  Control  Act  of 1970, there was  a mini-
                       mal  effort at the State  and Federal levels  to prevent or
                       clean-up spills.  Since  then,  and bolstered by the FWPCA
                       amendments of 1972, spill prevention and spill response
                       have taken on an  added  impetus.  It is  heartening for us in
                       EPA to witness  the  progress being made  in both areas.

                                                 Kenneth E. Biglane
                                    Oil and Special Materials Control  Division, WH-548
                                            Office of Water Program Operations
                                           U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency
                                                 Washington, D.C. 20460

                                                      March 1977

                                                    Effects of Spills	2
                                                    Prevention of Spills	3
                                                    Responding to Spills  	  6
                                                    Spill Surveillance  	  9
                                                    Spill Incidents	11
                                                    Spills of Hazardous  Substances  26
                                                    International Cooperation.  .  .  32
                                                    EPA Regional Offices  	  38
Front cover:  Tanker Olympic
             Games, see p.  21.
Back cover:  Tanker Argo
             Merchant, see  p. 21.

     Photos by EPA (MERC)
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, VJ S Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402

                                           OIL   SPILLS
                         AND  SPILLS  OF HAZARDOUS SUDSTANCES
           For several years the  U.S. Environmental
      Protection  Agency and the U.S. Coast Guard  have
      played major roles in attempts to reduce the
      frequency and volume of spills of oil and haz-
      ardous substances, and to minimize environmen-
      tal damage  caused by those  spills that do occur.
           Spills add to any existing pollution
      stresses in lakes, streams,  estuaries, or the
      ocean itself.  These stresses accumulate from
      urban runoff, agricultural  operations, indus-
      trial activities, and many  other sources.
Among the 13,000 spills which have been  reported
annually in the United States, the effects of some
are easy to see, as in the photo below.
Over 95%  of the oil spills  are fairly small--
less than 1,000 gallons.  About 6,500 are  less
than 20 gallons.  Spilled into rivers, streams,
coastal waters, estuaries,  and lakes, oil  is
carried away in a matter of minutes by the
force of  currents, tides, and winds.  Hazardous
substances, which are generally soluble in
water, disperse just as quickly and are often
more difficult than oil to-  clean up.
     Spills not only damage the environment,
they may  threaten health and safety. They  are
expensive to clean up, and  cause wasted energy
and food  resources.  Because of the obvious
limitations to responding after the fact,  EPA's
Oil and Special Materials Control Division em-

 phasizes prevention  of spills.  EPA has issued
 regulations covering oil operations not related
 to transportation—for example, oil fields  and
 tank farms—while  the U.S. Coast Guard has  is-
 sued regulations for oil facilities related to
      The Federal program to combat spills has
 three goals:
      -To prevent spills.
       -To detect spills that do occur.
       -To contain, remove, and clean up  spills.
       Primed with  legal authority to fine spill-
  ers and to make  them  liable  for clean-up costs,
  the Federal program is committed to meeting
  those goals and protecting the Nation's water-
  ways from materials that are unwanted,  harmful,
  and wasted there.
                           EFFECTS   OF   SPILLS
     Because of the larae quantities often  in-
volved in spills,  their effects are not always
comparable to those caused by chronic pollu-
tion from sources  such as industrial  and muni-
cipal  discharqes.  Some of the effects of an
oil  spill  are obvious -- covered beaches,
rivers dotted with oil slicks, trees  and bushes
coated with oil, dead birds and fish.   A spill
of a hazardous substance such as acids,  bases
and pesticides can threaten health and safety.
It can kill birds  and fish; in some cases,  a
hazardous substances spill can literally steri-
lize a body of water.
      But the effects  of  spills are not confin-
ed to the  immediate or obvious.  They may also
involve subtle changes that over a long period
could change the composition  of aquatic commu-
nities or damage the  ability  of a species to
      Marine birds die as  a direct result of
oil spills.  They die when oil destroys the
natural insulating qualities  of their feathers.
 In addition, ingested oil can kill  birds  by
 interfering with their normal body processes.
      Fish  and shellfish are killed, stressed,
 or made  unfit for human consumption by an oily
 taste.   Damaged fishing grounds have meant
 financial  losses for fishermen and processors.
 Hazardous  substances can also accumulate  in
 organisms, damaging the organism itself or
 making  it  unfit for consumption by man and
 other animals.
      Spills can affect aquatic systems  in many
 other ways.  Oil and hazardous substances can
 interfere with vital processes such  as  photo-
 synthesis, and introduce subtle changes in the
 behavior patterns  of aquatic  organisms.   For
 example, fish may  lose their  ability to secure
 food, avoid injury,  escape  from enemies, choose
 a  habitat, recognize territory, migrate, com-
 municate, and reproduce.  Spills  interfere with
 the movement of fish such as  salmon,  striped
 bass, shad and others.   They  must leave the
 ocean coastal  areas  and go  into bays, estuaries,
wetlands, rivers,  or streams  in order to spawn.

                      PREVENTION   OF  SPILLS
     The causes  of spills are many — equipment
failure, human error, collisions,  natural dis-
asters.   The philosophy of the Federal snill
prevention proqram is that, whatever the cause,
most spills can be prevented by the use of pro-
per equipment and procedures.  Responsibility
for the  program is divided between EPA and the
U.S. Coast Guard.  EPA is responsible for all
facilities, both onshore and offshore (within
3 miles), that are not related to transporta-
tion.  Included are facilities that drill, pro-
duce, gather, store, process, refine, transfer,
distribute, or consume oil and hazardous sub-
stances. The Coast Guard is responsible for
transportation-related facilities, including
vessels, railroads, tank trucks, and pipelines.
     On  December 11,  1973, EPA published oil
pollution prevention  regulations in  the Code
of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part  112).  They
require  that a Spill  Prevention, Control and
Counter-measure (SPCC)  Plan be prepared and im-
plemented by any facility that could reasonably
      ttXl 112

be expected to spill  oil  into the  waters  of the
United States if it meets any of these  criteria:
      - Has  total buried  storaae greater
       than 42,000 gallons.
      - Has  total nonburied storaoe of
       greater than  1,320 gallons.
      - Has  any sinnle container greater
       than 660 gallons.
                 SPCC PLANS

     The SPCC plan is nrepared by the owner or
operator and must be certified by a registered
Professional Enoineer.  The EPA regulations con-
tain guidance as to what should be included in
a plan, the form in which the information should
be presented, and good prevention engineering
practices that have been successfully used by
industry in the past.
     This guideline approach is desioned to pro-
vide flexibility so that even older facilities
can prevent spills at a reasonable cost.  The
plan is not submitted to EPA unless the facility
violates the conditions specified below.  The
plan must, however, be available at the facility
for EPA review to assure that it has been pre-
pared and is implemented.  EPA Regional offices
conduct frequent inspections of facilities to
confirm that the required design changes are
constructed and prevention equipment is instal-
led as stated in the plan.
     If a facility experiences a single spill
of over 1,000 gallons or two spills which dis-
charge a harmful quantity of oil (as defined
by EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 110) within 12
consecutive months, the owner or operator must
submit his plan, along with additional data, to
the EPA Regional Administrator for review of
the facility's prevention devices and procedures.
     On reviewing the SPCC plan, the Regional
Administrator may determine that it is not ade-
quate to prevent spills.  In that case, he may
require the owner or operator to amend it.  Un-
less extensions were granted, plans for exist-
ing facilities had to be prepared by July 11,
1974, and implemented by January 11, 1975.
     EPA's oil spill prevention program covers
these major facilities:

     - About  30,000 oil  storage terminals,
       tank farms,  and  bulk  plants.
     - About  285 oil  refineries.
     - Several  thousand  production  facilities,
       both onshore and  offshore.   The num-
       ber changes  almost daily as  old oil
       fields are reopened,  stripped,  and
       closed or abandoned.
     - Larae  numbers  of  bulk oil  consumers
       such as  anartment houses,  office
       buildings, schools, hospitals, farms,
       and Federal  facilities.
     The number of oil  spills from nontranspor-
tation related facilities during calendar year
1975—the first year that the prevention regu-
lation was fully operational--were significantly
lower than the previous year.

     On December 21, 1972,  the Coast  Guard pub-
lished prevention regulations for vessels and
                   Below:  Oil-water separator equipment is being installed to avoid
                   harmful discharges of oily water during oil terminal operations.

oil transfer facilities (33 CFR Parts 154,  155,
156).  The regulations became effective on  July 1,
1974.  Regulations applicable to other modes of
transportation —pipelines, railroads, and
tank  trucks  -- are expected to be published,
     The regulations governing vessels emphasize
the need to assign responsibility for oil trans-
fer operations to a specific individual  experi-
enced in such operations.   They cover:

     - Onshore and offshore facilities  trans-
       ferring oil  in  bulk  to  and from  any
       vessel  havina a  capacity of 250  or
       more barrels.  Each  facility must
       prepare an operations manual  spell-
       ing out how it  will  meet the  operat-
       ing rules  and equipment requirements
       of the regulations,  as  well  as  the
       duties  and  responsibilities of those
       conducting  oil  transfer operations.
       The  Coast  Guard  can  inspect  the
       facility,  assess civil  penalties  for
       violations  of the regulations, and
       suspend  operations when  conditions
       are  found  that  threaten  the environ-
     -  Operations of vessels in  the naviqa-
       ble waters and contiguous  zone of the
       United States.  To receive a certifi-
       cate of  inspection from  the Coast
       Guard — in fact, an authority to
       operate  -- U.S. vessels must adhere
       to the design and equipment require-
       ments of the  oil pollution prevention
       reoulations.  Again,  operations can
       be suspended  if they threaten the
    - Transfer of oil  to or from vessels
       havinq a capacity of 250 or more bar-
       rels on the naviqable waters and con-
       tiguous zone of the United States.

      The  Coast Guard  regulations, together with
 vessel  traffic systems and  construction require-
 ments  under  the  Ports  and  Waterways Safety Act
 of 1972,  should  significantly reduce discharqes
 from vessels  and  oil  transfer operations.

     EPA has been conducting compliance inspec-
tions for preparation of SPCC plans since July
11, 1974, and for preparation and implementa-
tion of plans since January 11, 1975. As of June
1, 1976 EPA had completed 12,313 compliance
inspections, which resulted in 1,487 notices
of violations of the Oil Pollution Prevention
Regulation being issued.
Simple repairs at an oil facility may protect
environment  from spills durinrr truck loadina.

     On February 1,  1975,  EPA began receiving
plans for review from facilities  that had spill
problems.  To ensure reasonable uniformity in
its review and amendment procedures, EPA devel-
oped a course in oil spill  prevention engineer-
ing.  Among the first to take the course were
engineers from EPA Regional  Offices who review
SPCC plans, evaluate the facility's system de-
sign from a spill  prevention point of view, and
develop required amendments.

     EPA's program to prevent spills of hazar-
dous substances will probably follow the same
principles used in setting up the oil spill
prevention program.
     Spills of hazardous substances are fewer
in number compared with oil  spills, but far
more toxic and dangerous than oil spills. In
many instances they pose immediate and long-
term threats to human safety and health.
     In response to Section 311 of the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of
1972, EPA promulgated notice of proposed rule
making relative to spills of hazardous sub-
stances in the Federal Register on December

30, 1975.  Therein, over 300 substances were
designated as hazardous, along with corollary
regulations dealing with removability,  harmful
quantities, and penalty rates.
     Because of certain problems relating  to
degree of penalty assessment and enforcement
procedures, final  rule making has been  post-
poned.  It is expected that the final  rules
and regulations will  go into effect in  1977,
at which time EPA and the U.S. Coast Guard
can implement an  enforcement, control and
prevention program  similar to that in effect
for oil spills.   In the interim, they will  re-
spond to spills of  hazardous substances in  the
interest of public  welfare.
     Most spillers  have taken quick remedial
actions on a voluntary basis.  There is no
legal requirement at  the present time for re-
porting spills of hazardous substances.
There may be about  2,000 of them a year.
                       RESPONDING   TO   SPILLS
                                  Vacuum truck
                                             Oil &
    Pockets of oil  from oil
    spill upstream  of this
    flooded area are beina
    contained by booms and
    picked up by vacuum truck
     Success  in cleanina up an oil  spill depends
upon preparedness and rapid action  by  the spill-
er and by  Federal, State, and local  aqencies.
When a spill  occurs, the spiller must  report
it promptly to the nearest Coast Ruard Station
or EPA office.  If the spiller fails to give
immediate  notice, he can be fined up to $10,000
and inprisoned up to one year, or both.  The
spiller must  also take proper action to contain
and clean  up  the spill.  If he doesn't,  EPA or
the Coast  Guard may remove the spill using a
special Federal revolving fund.  In such cases,
the spiller is liable for the cost incurred.
     Cleaning up after an oil snill  that is
floating or partially submerged starts with con-
taining it.   Safety of work crews is an impor-
tant consideration.  The containment needed
depends on the type of waterway, the size of
the spill, weather  conditions, and the proce-
dure to be used  to  remove it.  In shallow water,
a dam of baled straw can absorb oil  and tran
or filter floating  materials.  In a  small,  fast-
moving stream, wire fencing such as  chicken
wire can be packed  with straw and laid across
the stream at an ancile.  A series of barriers
can be placed to catch any oil that  is already
moving downstream.
     In slow-moving water, small  booms with a
weighted apron or shield, or earthen dikes  mav
be used.  Such booms are commercially available.
In general,  containment procedures are adequate
for coastal  or slow-moving waters, but in  laroe
bodies of water  or  fast-moving streams, the
spills disperse  so  quickly that  effective  con-
tainment is  very difficult.

                                                                   RESPONSE TO SPILLS
                                                               OF  HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
                                                           Since most hazardous substances are solu-
                                                      ble in water, actually removing them from the
                                                      water is extremely difficult with current tech-
                                                      noloay.  Traditional methods of treatment—
                                                      adsorption with activated carbon, neutraliza-
                                                      tion with acids and alkalies, or precipitation,
                                                      for example—have proved their effectiveness
                                                      in industrial processes and laboratory appli-
                                                      cation.  However, they have not been demonstrated
                                                      satisfactorily in actual spills of hazardous
                                                           Even thouqh there is little technology
                                                      available to actually remove hazardous substances
                                                      spilled into the water, there are actions which
                                                      can be taken to minimize the damage.  For ex-
                                                      ample, an entire lake or pond of water conta-
                                                      minated by a hazardous material spill can be
                                                      dammed, bypassed, and filtered or treated to
                                                      make the water safe anain.   The bottom sediments
                                                      are then treated to make them safe.
     Several  different procedures  mav  be  used
to remove a snill  once it  has  been contained.
Liquid deposits that have  settled  can  be
dredged, sucked up,  or pumped  off.   Solid or
sludge deposits can  be shoveled  or dredged.
Contained oil  or other liquids can be  removed
by tank or vacuum trucks equipped  with pumps,
which are usually available  locally.   Large
amounts of oily water can  be removed by mechani-
cal skimmers;  the kind and type  to be  used de-
pend  upon water conditions  and  the amount of
debris, availability of equipment, and other
     Cleaning  oily sand from beach areas  can be
a long and tedious process.  Heavy aradinq equip-
ment is effective, but many  beach  areas have
limited access.  Manual labor  then becomes the
only method for picking up oil-soaked  debris
and sand.  Finding a site  for  permanent dispo-
sal of the oil and debris  — without creatinq
new pollution  — is  often  a  serious problem.
     The complex nature of oil removal opera-
tions has caused the oil industry  to establish
oil clean-up cooperatives. They  provide special-
ized equipment and personnel trained in oil
cleanup techniques.
 Water  flowing  into  lake is bypassed while the
 Endrin-poisoned water is being treated.

     A valuable tool now available to spill  re-
sponse personnel is the Oil  and Hazardous Mater-
ials Technical Assistance Data System (OHM-TADS).
This computerized information  retrieval  file is
accessible by telephone hookup to a computer
     OHM-TADS stores detailed  information on
some 900 chemical compounds.   The information—
numerical  data as well  as interpretative com-
ments—has been assembled into the computer
from technical literature.   It emphasizes the
effects the materials can have when spilled,
but much nore information is  provided,  includ-
ing trade  names, synonyms,  chemical formulas,
major producers, common modes  of transportation,
flammability, explosiveness,  potential  for air
pollution, methods of analysis, and chemical,
physical,  biolooical, and toxicolonical  pro-
perties.  In less than  15 minutes, OHM-TADS
can relay  procedures for safe  handling  and
clean-up of spilled materials.

     Another capability of OHM-TADS is identi-
fication of unknown materials.  After key
characteristics of the unknown are furnished
to the system, nH'1-TADS screens for candidate
substances with similar physical and chemical
properties.  For example, if the computer is
niven the color, odor, or density of an unknown
material, it will generate a list of candidates.
Continued elimination of substances on this list
will lead ultimately to identification of the
     OHM-TADS was first used in June 1971 in a
fire in an agricultural chemicals warehouse in
Farmville, North Carolina.  Since that time it
has been used on a wide variety of spills; it
is now beina expanded to provide a network of
data terminals for emerqency service to spill
response personnel all over the Nation and in
Canada and Sweden.
              OHMSETT FACILITY

     EPA supports a number of research and deve-
lopment activities to provide spill response
teams with more effective techniques and equip-
ment for the future.  In Leonardo, New Jersey,
a new spill research facility called OHMSETT
(Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environ-
mental Test Tank) is used to develop standard
test procedures and evaluate devices to con-
tain and pick up spills.
     The tank is 670 feet lono, 65 feet wide,
and 11 feet deep.  One end has a wave qenera-
tor capable of makino 2-foot-high waves with
a length of up to 16 feet.  Wave height and
length are selected for each test.  Waves can
be absorbed by a simulated beach at one end of
the tank, or reflected so as to generate a
Oil is being added to the water in the OHMSETT
tank in preparation for a test. A party of ob-
servers is on the moveable bridge.

choppy condition.  Currents are simulated by
towing test equipment down the tank from a
moveable bridge.
     The bridge and wave generator are controll-
ed from a three-story control building.  An
underwater observation area and instrumentation
equipment are also provided.   More information
about this facility may be obtained from the
Director, EPA Industrial Waste Treatment Re-
search Laboratory, Edison, N.J. 08817.
                 Device designed for picking up  oil  from the  surface of the water ,
                 being tested for the U.S.  Coast Guard  at EPA's new OHMSETT facility.

                          SPILL  SURVEILLANCE
     Even with adequate  laws and regulations,
 spills will probably continue to occur and
 must be quickly detected and controlled.  Spill
 surveillance, detection, reporting, and track-
 ing are useful in leaal  proceedings and enforce-
 ment actions.  The information gathered also
 helps in containment and removal operations.
   Spill surveillance is essential to discover
 and clean up spills, especially the larger
 ones that result from tanker accidents, off-
 shore oil well blowouts, storage lagoon fail-
 ures, catastrophic storms, and pipeline fail-
 ures.  Many details, useful in cleanup, are
 learned about such spills, which spread out
 over wide areas of water and shore.
     Remote sensinn is an effective surveill-
 ance tool, because it can be used in many lo-
 cations with low manpower costs.  Working to-
 gether, the Coast Guard  and EPA conduct  spill
 surveillance from aircraft in coastal and in-
 land waters.  The purpose is to detect unre-
 ported spills, as well as to check operations
 and maintenance of harbor areas and industrial
 oil handling facilities  adjacent to inland
 waterways in support of  EPA and USCG oil pollu-
 tion prevention regulations.
     A number of modern  remote sensing systems
 are used in the aircraft, including standard
 aerial  cameras, electromechanical scanners
 operating in the ultraviolet and thermal  infra-
 red ranqe, and various radar systems for all-
 weather and long-range detection.  All  systems
 can detect petroleum products on the water
 under varying atmospheric conditions.
     Apart from these surveillance activities,
 aerial  photographic mapping of large spills
 provides support during clean-up operations by
 mapping the extent and location of heavy con-
 centrations of oil.   For example, in 1976 EPA
 contractor aircraft conducted a number of
 aerial  photographic missions for major spills,
 occuring on the Chesapeake Bay, St.  Lawrence
 River,  and Hackensack River in New Jersey.
Also,  the Delaware River and the Nantucket
 Shoals  area, after the grounding and breakup
of the  tanker Argo Merchant,  were photographed.
 EPA's Environmental  Monitoring and  Support
Laboratory at Las  Vegas  processed and analyzed
 the photographic  data round the clock,  quickly
dispatching the data to  Federal  authorities  in
charge  of cleanup  and control.   With the  photo-
graphs,  EPA and Coast Guard officials and  the
oil company officials in charge of  clean-up
operations were able to direct their attention
to the  areas where  oil had accumulated.  They
even located access  routes for cleanup  equip-
ment to be moved  to  the  heavily polluted  areas.

      E ''A ard  the Coast  'luard  have  ?  -o embarked
 upon  p  .ioirt  effort  to  install  oil s-nsors on
 fixed nlatforms  in harbors  near nar  ie transfer
 terminals fnd in inland waterways  afl'acent to
 refineries and industrial complexes.  Research
 and development  supported by  the two anencies
 has resulted  in  several remote  sensina instru-
 ments that can detect oil on  water,  in day or
 night and in  varied  weather conditions.  These
 instruments can  record  spills and  notify spill
 response crews.   Thus,  they are truly oil spill
 sentinels.  Several of these sensors  are now
 being installed  in the  industrial  Rouge River
 in Detroit, Michigan. Other instruments under
 development will  afford greater range detection
 and a scanning capability.
    With improved detection capabilities for
 many  pollutants,  remote sensing will also be
utilized for monitoring  of industrial facilities
 producing and using  hazardous substances.
and Urban Development.  The MPT also serves as
the committee responsible for  revising  the
National Contingency Plan and  for Generally
overseeing  its operations.
     The NRT's emergency activities are coor-
dinated in  the National Response Center (NRC)
located at  Coast Guard Headquarters in Washing-
ton, D.C.,  where a continuously manned communi-
cations center, as well as other specialized
facilities  and personnel, are  on hand.
     In addition, a sni11-emergency Situation
Room is maintained by EPA's Oil and Special
Materials Control Division in  Washington; the
room is equipped with audiovisual and conmuni-
cation facilities, as well as  the OHM-TADS
computerized  information system.
     Regional  Response Teams (RRT)  exist in
each of the 10 EPA Regional  Offices.   When
necessary,  the teams  can  call  upon  skilled
emergency personnel  trained by EPA  and the
Coast Guard.  Coast Guard Strike Teams on  the
East, West, and Gulf Coasts are made up of
specialists in ship salvage, diving, and spill
removal techniques.  Each EPA Regional Office
has at least four emergency response special-
ists.  Thev are trained in bioloay, chemistry,
engineering, meteorology and oceanography and
experienced in cleaning up and removing spills
or mitigating their environmental effects.
     Spill   response cooperatives and fully
equipned response teams have been set up by
some coastal States, port authorities, local
agencies, and industrial  facilities.
     Most spills are  handled at the regional
level,  either with regional  resources or by
contract.  The Oil  and Special Materials Control
Division in EPA's Headquarters provides back-
up supnort when EPA Regions need additional
scientific  personnel  and equipment.  If a spill
involves more than one Region or requires out-
side assistance, EPA Headquarters assists in
coordination  the efforts, or arranges to bring
in additional personnel and equipment from other
EPA facilities.

      The National  Oil  and Hazardous  Substances
 Pollution Contingency  Plan (40  CFR 1510), pub-
 lished  by the  Council  on  Environmental Quality,
 is  put  into operation  when the  spiller is not
 taking  proper  action to clean up.  The plan  is
 intended to coordinate Federal  clean-up efforts.
 Responsibility for on-the-scene coordination
 on  spills into inland  waters rests with EPA.
 The Coast Guard deals  with those in  coastal
 waters  and the Great Lakes.

      When a spill  presents an  unusual  situation
 or transects reaional  boundaries, the  National
 Response Team (NRT) assumes certain  responsi-
 bilities.  Representatives to  the NRT  are  pro-
 vided by several Federal  agencies,  including
 the Energy Research and  Development  Adminis-
 tration and the Federal  Disaster Assistance
 Administration of the  Department of  Housing
 A spill-response team, with some relatively
 light and portable spill-containment and clean-
 up equipment.

                               SPILL   INCIDENTS
     A number of spectacular spills of the 1960s
and early 1970s  resulted in considerable harm
to the environnent.   But they did more than
that—they provided  the stimulus for enactment
of oil spill leqislation in the United States,
Canada, and Great Britain and also provided
valuable experience  in clean-up operations.
     The incident that alerted the world to the
disastrous consequences of spills was the ground
inn of the Torrey Canyon on the shoals off the
English coast in 1967.  The tanker spilled
approximately 30 million nallons o* oil  upon
the shores of Great  Britain and France.   Pro-
perty damane was extensive.   Tens of thousands
of seafowl were killed, and several hundred
miles of beaches and shorelines were covered
with oil.
    For two  months a  concerted attack was waaed
to clean  up the spill.  It was the first major
international  effort to clean up a very  large
oil spill, and manv  mistakes were made.   For
example,  the use of  chemical detergents  to
disperse  the oil  in  the water proved to  be
more toxic to aquatic life than the oil  itself.
A variety  of materials were  used to lessen  the
effects of the oil slick, including napalm,  saw-
dust, straw, hydrophobic chalk,  and detergents.
The attempts were  largely unsuccessful,  although
some valuable  lessons were learned from  experi-
menting with unproven methods  of control.
      The Torrey Canyon compelled  the United
  States to take its first step  in  planning for
  and  dealinn with oil  spills.   On  May 26, 1967,
  the  President of the  United  States directed
  the  Secretary of the  Interior  and the Secretary
  of Transportation to  examine how  the resources
  of the Nation could best be mobilized aoainst
  the  pollution of water by spills of oil and
  other hazardous substances.  Referring to the
  Torrey Canyon incident,  the President consider-
  ed it "imperative that we take prompt action
  to prevent similar catastrophes in the future
Re low:
Cleanup after  the Torrey Canyon oil  spill.
The Torrey  Can von breaking up.

 and to insure  that the Nation  is  fully equipped
 to minimize  the  threat from such  accidents to
 health, safety,  and our natural resources."
 An extensive report was subsequently prepared,
 with specific  recommendations  for new leaisla-
 tion to prevent  and control oil spills in U.S.
      In January  1969,  an oil Production  plat-
 form blowout off the Santa Barbara  coast re-
 leased 700,000 oallons of oil.  Spurred  by
 public reaction,  Congress enacted  the  Uater
 Quality Improvement Act of 1970 (PL  91-224).
 This Act established the policy that there
 should be no discharges of oil into  or upon
 the navigable waters of the United  States, ad-
 joining shorelines, or into or upon  the  waters
 of the contiguous zone  (12 miles  from the shore-
 line).  In addition, the Water Quality Improve-
 ment Act prescribed a three-pronged  program--
 including contingency planning and  cleanup,
 prevention, and  enforcement—to prevent  and con-
 trol oil spills.

    The  offshore platform blowout at Santa
      In  the period  from February 1970  to  Janu-
 ary 1971, four major  oil  spills occurred  in
 the United States and one in Canada, each in
 excess of 1 million oallons; estimated clean-
 up  costs totaled more than  $15 million.   The
 massive  spills presaned the difficult  battle
 ahead to control and  prevent oil spills.   There
 was a demonstrated  need for government assis-
 tance, oil recovery and disposal contractors,
 and industry personnel to coordinate efforts
 to  meet the emeraencies of oil spills.  EPA
 and the Coast Guard,  with their  Canadian  counter-
 parts, discovered that even monumental and costly
 clean-up efforts could retrieve  relatively small
 amounts of spilled  oil.
                                           3,000,000 gal.
February 1970   Arrow     Tanker      Chedabucto Bay
                    grounding    Canada
April 1970     Chevron   Blowout      Gulf of Mexico   1,500,000 gal.
November 1970   Waste     tagoon break  Schuylklll River, 3,000,000 gal.
            crankcase            Pennsylvania
December 1970   Shell     Blowout      Gulf of Mexico   4,000,000 gal.
January 1971    Oregon    Tanker      San Francisco Bay 1,200,000 gal.
            Standard   collision
                                                            Some  of the cleanup activity along the  coat-1
                                                            resulting from the Santa Barbara oil spill.

                                                              PACIFIC OCEAN
                                                                                                 OIL SLICK
                                                                                                .-: ESCAPING. -J?
                                                                                                '   OIL   •*•
                                                                     CASING STOPPED HERE. /
                                                                     239 FT UNDERGROUND -»-
                                                                      WHAT WENT WRONG?
                                                                   ///ft/ A WORNOUT DRILL WAS /
                                                                                             OIL FOLLOWED
                                                                                             CRACKS THRU

                 OIL SPILLS

     Oil spills occur in many types of facili-
ties, in many locations, and for many reasons.
In addition, oil sometimes enters the aquatic
environment from routine operations—for example,
cleaning out tankers and discharging process
water from offshore oil  platforms.
     River barges, rail  tank cars,  pipelines,
and highway tank trucks  carry millions of
gallons of crude oil, diesel and heating oil,
gasoline, and other products.  Collisions and
other accidents can result in oil spills. Human
error and equipment failure in loading and
transfer operations also cause spills.
     To protect human lives from fire and explo-
sions, fire fighters frequently hose down vola-
tile and flammable materials.  This can result
in pollutants being washed into sewers, rivers,
and harbors.  EPA frequently provides on-scene
technical assistance to fire department person-
nel.  But in some cases  there is little that
can be done to prevent pollution of waterways.

               PIPELINE  SPILLS

     Pipeline breaks and  leaks cause about 500
spills a year, discharging over  1  million gal-
lons of oil.   Small  leaks in  underground lines
may go undetected for years.   Some  breaks can
be observed indirectly, as when snow covers
the ground or when leaks  from offshore lines
produce an oil film on the surface  of the water.
Other causes of pipeline spills include acci-
dental rupture of a buried pipeline by heavy
equipment or underwater damaoe to an offshore
pipeline by a dragging anchor.  Gathering lines
and flowlines in oil fields as well as piping
in plants and terminals are frequent spill
      Pipeline break as seen from the air.

     Some older lines are not protected against
corrosion and are a common cause of spills.
Current Department of Transportation regulations,
which call for cathodic protection of major inter-
state pipelines, do not anply to intrastate pipe-
lines.  However, EPA's oil pollution prevention
regulations do apply to flow and gathering  lines
in oil fields.


      With present capabilities, men and equip-
ment  often cannot be deployed quickly enough to
                                                        Above:  Crude oil and debris on the San Juan
                                                        River.   Below: A portion has been enclosed
                                                        in a boom, being towed to shore for pickup.

meet every conceivable spill  emergency in all
types of terrain.  In October 1972, a broken
16-inch pipeline spilled over 285,000 gallons
of crude oil into the San Juan River, which
flows through isolated and rugged land in New
Mexico and southern Utah.  The soill threatened
the waters of an Indian reservation and a
National recreation area.  Several  days passed
as heavy rains, near-record floods  and snow-
storms delayed the actions necessary to contain
and remove the oil and debris in the river.

     In October 1975 an excavation  crane rup-
tured an 8-inch pipeline near Moosie, Pennsyl-
vania, spilling about 100,000 gallons of gaso-
line.  The product quickly spread for several
miles into the swift-flowing Lackawanna River.
     Thousands of dead fish were found, includ-
ing some which had jumped out to avoid the gas.
Conservation officers estimated a complete fish
kill  for six miles of river.   No containment or
cleanup of the light material was possible
because of rapid mixing into the water column.
     A 5-inch pipeline in Pennsylvania was
accidentally pierced in 1976 when an iron stake
was driven into the ground.  Over 100,000 gal-
lons of fuel  oil  from a plant were spilled into
a nearby stream and spread 40 miles downstream
to a reservoir and dam.
    Iron stake was driven Into pipeline.
           Pipeline was pierced accidentally.


                        -**  4

                          UNDERGROUND   OIL   LEAKAGE

: *7'1
           In March 1975 EPA was asked by the State
      of Ohio to assist in a project to cleanup an
      underground oil  seepage problem at Heath, Ohio.
      The source of the oil, estimated to be from
      500,000 to 1,000,000 gallons, was unknown.
           There was no simple solution to the pro-
      blem, since a large amount of oil was spread-
      ing above the water table, at a depth of about
      30 feet, under a large area of ground.  This
Long-term seepage of oil Into underground water
at Heath, Ohio, covered a wide area and emerged
in streams.

 was first noticed in 1961 and developed over
 the years into a considerable nuisance and
 hazard to safety and health.
     All  possible sources for the oil, includ-
 ing nearby  past and present oil, industrial,
 and other facilities had to be checked.  Action
 had to be taken to find and stop the leak and
 to clean  up the surface and subsurface water

     Booms and skimmers were used on the oil
which surfaced on a creek in the area.  Chemi-
cal analyses were made of the oil to assist in
tracing the source.  Wells and pumps were
installed in the ground to intercept and pick
up the flow of seepage.

                                                         Close-up of oil barge wrapped around pier.

  Skimming pond on bank of creek.
              OIL BARGE  SPILLS

     In January 1973 an oil  barge struck a
bridge pier on the Mississippi  near Helena,
Arkansas, spilling 800,000 gallons of diesel
fuel.  This was one of four oil barges which
broke loose during a wintry accident resulting
from flood conditions and fast current.  The
other barges stranded nearby, with two leaking.
     Response was coordinated by Region IV of
EPA, as the OSC, assisted by the Coast Guard,
the Army Corps of Engineers, the Arkansas High-
way Department, Civil Defense officials, and
others involved with public health and drinking
water safety, and with fish and wildlife pro-
tection.  The leaking barges were offloaded
after booms were placed near them.
     In March 1975 one of the four barges of
the tug Johnny Dan wrapped around the same
bridge and lost 770,000 gallons of crude oil.
The spill was carried downstream 40 miles.
     In these spills, although some of the oil
reached 120 miles downriver, most of the clean-
up was confined to a number of pockets close

     Oil barge wrapped around bridge pier.
 to  the  accident  site.   In spite of  the  condi-
 tions,  several thousand gallons were  recovered.

     In December 1973 a towed barge spilled
336,000 gallons of crude oil after an accident
on the Atchafalaya River west of Baton Rouge.
Much of the oil was contained within a one-
mile stretch of the river.  There were an es-
timated 50,000 ducks in the marshes along the
river, but the oil was prevented from reaching
them by protective booms placed by response
     In June 1974 a barge struck the Huey Long
Bridge on the Mississippi near New Orleans,
spilling an estimated 157,000 gallons of crude
oil.  Ribbons of the oil reached 30 miles down-
 river and oil  was collected at the  outside of
 each bend on the river.

      Late in  December 1975  a 240-ft.  barge
 pushed  by the  tug Peter Callahan  in dense fog,
 hit a  pier of  the Tappan  Zee Bridge over the
 Hudson  River.   More than  90,000 gallons of
 No. 2  home-heating oil  were spilled.
      Because  of the cold  water,  scientists from
 the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute  esti-
 mated  that 25  percent of the spill  went to the
 bottom.  They  indicated that the  effects of the
 spill  would persist in the  river  and its sedi-
 ments  for years.

             BARGE STC-101 SPILL
      On February 2, 1976 the Barge STC-101
 spilled about 250,000 gallons of heavy No. 6
 fuel  oil into Chesapeake Bay after she ran
 aground in gale-force winds and ice-cold water.
 Much of the oil sank and was not visible on the
                                                               Barge  STC-101 in  Chesapeake Bay.

      In a week a new mystery spill  was  suspec-
 ted,  some distance away.   It later  became evi-
 dent  that this was oil  which had spread under-
 water for several  miles from the STC-101.  It
 had simply reappeared on  the surface when the
 black underwater oil  was  heated  by  the  sun,
 during a freak warm spell.
      Investigation underwater and by aerial
 surveillance revealed the full extent of the
 spill.  Major environmental  damage  was  probably
 done  to the bottom of the bay as well as the
 water column.   The shores of islands and both
 sides of the bay could  be more readily  inspec-
 ted than the bay bottom and  water column.
  Oil on shore of Chesapeake Bay after  spill
   by Barge STC-101.

      Oil-coated  birds were  found every 20 or
30 feet  along  the shore of  Fisherman's Island
National Wildlife Refuge in  the bay.  About
500  whistling  swans and many more migratory
ducks wintered there.
      Spill  response was aided by aerial sur-
veillance and  photographic  interpretation,
to locate pockets of oil and the best access
routes for  cleanup and removal equipment.
      A remarkable coincidence in this spill is
that  just before it occurred Nancy G. Kelly of
the  Chesapeake Bay Foundation completed a study
of a  hypothetical case.  It  involved a spill
of 250,000  gallons of heavy industrial  oil which
occurred, in her model, only four miles from
this one.   Her study suggested that oil spills
might be causing more harm to the environment
than is realized at present.

      Many  birds were killed by the oil.
             ST.  LAWRENCE  SEAWAY
      On  June 23, 1976 the barge Nepco  140,  with
 almost 7 million gallons  of heavy fuel  oil,
 went  aground at  1:35  a.m. in the American
 Narrows  near the Thousand Islands Bridge. Three
 tanks  ruptured and  spilled about 500,000 gal-
 lons  of  oil.
      Barge Nepco 140 spilling oil on St. Lawrence
      River.  Arrow shows boom around vessel which
      was not effective in holding back the spill.

      The  spill moved  80 miles downstream  and
 covered 30  miles of it on  the first day.   Hun-
 dreds of  miles of beaches, shorelines,  inlets,
 coves, marshes or wetlands, and waterfronts
 were  covered with the tarlike substance,  re-
 quiring over $6.5 million for cleanup.
     Aerial photography obtained by EPA air-
 craft was used to assist the Joint U.S.-Canadian
 Spill Response Team in mapping out the spill
 and planning the logistics and other phases
 of the response efforts.
     Over 700 people, 50 vessels, several
 booms, seven skimmers and 14 vacuum trucks
were involved in cleanup.   Oil  containment
booms were placed in an effort to keep oil
from entering critical areas.  In spite of this
the Ho.  6 oil  penetrated  more  than five feet
into 16 miles of wetlands.

     Oil moved  downriver 80 miles.  Arrows show
     booms between islands, placed  there in an
     attempt to  capture some oil.

     In addition, it caused extensive damage
to beaches, private property, ducks, geese,
and other wildlife, and to the aquatic life
in the river, along its bottom, and in the
     In 1974 an oil  spill  from the  tanker
Imperial  Sarnia caused damages which cost  about
$2 million to clean up.   In October 1961 a tan-
ker spill  on the St. Lawrence was reported to
have caused the extinction of the last colony
of Greater Snow Geese.
Above: EPA aerial photos, showing oil moving
   into shore areas.  Photos were helpful in
   cleanup and locating access routes to oil.
 Below: Vacuum  trucks at  town  along the
       St. Lawrence after Nepco  140  spill.
- w~ '• :• •'*!'
                                                       Workboats after a day of cleanup at one of
                                                       thousands of oiled areas on St. Lawrence.

                                                                     OCEAN VESSELS

                                                           Tanker spills  have  occurred 1n the past
                                                      and can be expected to continue to occur.   The
                                                      world's tanker capacity  doubled from 1960  to
                                                      1970 and 1s still  Increasing.   New supertankers
                                                      and their facilities will  be required to re-
                                                      ceive oil from Alaska and  other world sources.
                                                      The rapid growth of the  numbers of tankers
                                                      will  Inevitably increase tanker-related spills
                                                      and also discharges.   At the same time, tankers
                                                      are getting larger; !25-m111 Ion-gallon super-
                                                      tankers are now 1n  operation and tankers with
                                                      a capacity of 250 million gallons are under
                                                      construction.  Thus, spills possibly will  be
                                                      proportionately larger.

                                                                 A supertanker  at sea.
                                                            In  late  January  1977  Brock  Adams,  the
                                                       Secretary  of  Transportation,  directed that  all
                                                       domestic and  foreign  vessels  operating  in United
                                                       States waters be  equipped  with a variety of
                                                       modern navigation and safety  devices.
                                                            In  February  1977 the  tanker Golden Jason
                                                       arrived  in Newport News, Virginia and was de-
                                                       tained by  the U.S.Coast Guard for safety reasons.
                                                       It was carrying 9.2 million gallons  of  heavy
                                                       fuel  oil from Venezuela to New York  when it
                                                       developed  engine  trouble off  North Carolina.
                                                       The Coast  Guard reported a number of major
                                                       defects  and expected  the ship would  be  off-
                                                       loaded at  Newport News by  the owners and then

     Continued efforts are being made toward
adoption of better designs, techniques, and
equipment to  reduce the pollution by tankers
and other vessels.  Cleaning practices for
tankers and bilge cleaning methods on vessels
are receiving Increased attention.
     EPA supports the use of the load-on-top
method for cleaning tanks on existing tankers
at sea, the incorporation of segregated ballast
designs in new tankers, and better tank cleaning
facilities at terminals.  Most large fleets now
use the load-on-top technique.  A properly
equipped tanker carrying 30 million gallons of
crude oil avoids washing 150,000 gallons of oil
into the sea after each delivery.


     In March 1973 the tanker Zoe Colocotroni,
with its cargo of 7.5 million gallons of crude
oil, ran aground near the southwest coast of
Puerto R1co.   Her captain quickly discharged
over 2 million gallons of crude oil Into the
sea to lighten and free the vessel, Instead
of waiting to offload it into a barge.   With
only minor damage, she proceeded to port, after
causing the most serious oil  spill  1n Puerto
R1co since the Ocean Eagle incident in 1968.
     The oil, driven by the wind, headed toward
Bahia Suda and Cabo Rojo.   Floating oil  covered
a wide area, moving about with the wind and
water currents.
     An estimated 1 million gallons of oil hit
the shore and beach areas; 400,000 gallons
reached the island's mangrove swamps, where
there was major damage to plant and animal life.
On the beaches the oil penetrated as deep as
12 inches.

  Below:   Crude  oil  floats  into mangrove  area
          after  Zoe  Colocotroni spill.
     The  Coast Guard assumed on-scene  coordi-
nation  in spill clean-up operations. EPA  soill
response  personnel  from Region  II and  Head-
quarters  provided technical assistance for oil
recovery  operations.
               Oil in mangrove area.

     Perpendicular trenches and sumps were dug
into the sand to trap the heavy oil slicks piled
up by wind and surf along some areas of the
shoreline.  Vacuum trucks pumped out oil large-
ly free of water and debris.  Any water taken
in was drained off.  The trucks drove to a
refinery near Ponce, a round-trip drive of 5
      Because  of  the  long turnaround time  and  a
shortage  of trucks,  larger  pits were dug  near
the  trenches  and sumps  for  temporary storage.


 Floating debris and seaweed could be cleared
 after filling each pit, increasing the effi-
 ciency of pumping the oil to the trucks.
     Above:  Perpendicular trendies in beach
             collect some oil coming ashore.
       low':  Tank trucks loaJ up.
                            •*>-  -jd '-4«^
                                                     Additional  temporary ponds were made as needed
                                                     to  contain  t'.ie oil  collected  from the sump/trenches.

     In January 1975, the tanker Corinthos,
while offloading crude oil  at Marcus Hook below
Philadelphia, was struck by the tanker Edgar M.
Queeny.  The Corinthos exploded and burned,
leaving three dead and 27 missing.  The Corinthos
carried approximately 13 million gallons of light
crude.  The Queeny, with its cargo of phenol,
gasoline, paraffin, and vinyl acetate monomer,
suffered relatively light damage.
     Flames from the fire reached 500 feet into
the air and could be seen for over 15 miles in
the heavily industrialized and populated area.
Favorable winds kept the flames from reaching
the tank storage area near the unloading ter-
minal.  The oil slick immediately began to spread
down river, and the Coast Guard provided an on-
scene coordinator for spill containment and
clean-up.  The chairman of the National Response
Team flew over the spill area and noted that
approximately 50 miles of the Delaware River
were covered with oil.
     EPA's Regions II and III provided technical
support in the response operations and EPA's
NERC Las Vegas provided aerial surveillance.
EPA placed booms to protect three wildlife areas
from oil, warned downstream water users to close
their intakes, directed six clean-up contractors,
      Removing  oil  from  the mangroves was more
 difficult.  The area was swampy and virtually
 inaccessible by trucks  and other equipment.  In
 addition,  the  wind shifted frequently  and moved
 the  oil  in and out of the mangrove areas. Local
 and  Federal agencies began a massive clean-up
 effort,  using  booms to  confine the oil  in a
 fairly small area  and foam to absorb it. The
 oil-soaked foam was then collected and removed.
      The damage by the  oil was considerable,
 but  the  percentage of oil recovered was larger
 than in  previous clean-up operations of oil
 tanker spills  at sea.   An estimated 700,000
 gallons  were collected  in the first 6  days of
 recovery operations.
                                                           Wreckage of the tanker Corinthos after fire.

made additional aerial photography and surveil-
lance of the spill areas, and suggested and
assisted 1n establishing bird-cleaning opera-
tions.  The cost of cleanup was over $1 million.
     In April 1974 the oil  tanker Elias exploded
and burned while offloading Venezuelan crude
oil in Philadelphia.   The blast was felt for 35
mi 1es.


      In December 1976 the Argo Merchant ran
aground on the Nantucket Shoals about  35 miles
southeast of Nantucket Island.  Efforts to free
the vessel were unsuccessful and she broke up,
spilling 7.6 million gallons of heavy  oil.
Some of the  slick moved into the fishery area
of the Georges Bank.
     Containment booms and skimmers were imprac-
tical because of the high winds and waves.
Burning of the thick oil on a cold and choppy
sea was tried but combustion could not be sus-
     The Argo Merchant spill threatened the
humpback whales, gray seals, and a large fish-
ing industry.  Twelve groups of fishermen, from
the local fishing industry which employs about
30,000 people, sued for $60 million in damages.
     Also in December 1976 the tanker Olympic
Games ran aground, spilling 134,000 gallons of
oil into the Delaware River near Marcus Hook,
Pennsylvania.  Within a few weeks of the spill
about 80,000 gallons of the oil had been reco-
vered.  Some of the oil remained trapped under
the ice along two shorelines and could not be
reached until warmer weather.
   "Long Is.
                                                                            Above:  Spill  situation  chart.
                                                                            Left:   Tanker Argo Merchant
                                                                                     aground and leaking.
                                                                            Inset:  Tanker breaks up.
                                                                            Below:  Aerial view of oil slick.


     The tanker Sansinena,  after unloading  a
cargo of crude oil,  exploded and burned  at  San
Pedro, California, December 17,  1976.  During  the
cleanup operations oil  was  recovered from the
vessel and surrounding  water.   See cages 40,  41.
      World-wide,  in the first nine months of
 1976  13  tankers had spilled more than 50 million
 gallons  of oil--a new  record.   Soon after these
 and  the  year-end  events, the tanker Grand Zenith
 sank  several miles south of Nova Scotia with
 over 6 million gallons of  oil.   Late  in January
 1977  the tanker Exxon  San  Francisco and Barge
 Exxon 119 exploded  and burned in  the  Houston
 Ship Channel.   A  loading arm failure  had sprayed
 heating oil  and a nearby tow boat  started  its
 engines, which may  have caused  the fire. Several
 people were  killed  or  injured in  the  incident.
      The tanker Irene's Challenge, with over
 9 million gallons of gasoline,  broke  up and
 sank near the Midway Islands  in the North
 Pacific Ocean, January 21, 1977.   To  end the
 month the Barge B-65 ran  aground at Buzzards
 Bay, Massachusetts  and spilled 100,000  gallons
 of heating oil.

                  METULA SPILL
      The Metula,  a  supertanker  carrying 64 million
 gallons  of crude  oil,  ran  aground  off the Coast
 of Chile in  August  1974, spilling  16 million
 gallons  of Its cargo.  The incident occurred at
 night during a high wind.
      Oil spread for  1,000  square miles, Into an
 estuary and  along 75 miles of Chilean coast. A
 team from the Coast Guard  flew  in  with  special
 equipment to offload some  of the  crude  oil from
 the  Metula into a smaller  tanker.   Winds of  50
 miles per hour and  intense cold hampered the
 process.  Refloating and removal  of the super-
 tanker was delayed  until late September because
 of high winds. No  attempt was  made to  clean UD
 the  spill.
                            Tanker Metula  aground in
       Five months later a joint study team from
  the United States, including a marine biologist
  from EPA, conducted a field investigation of the
  affected shorelines and islands to document some
  of the environmental effects.  At that time at
  least half of the stranded oil was still on the
  shore and in estuarlne areas.  The fate of the
  oil 1n the water and on the bottom was not es-
  tablished.  Because of the low rate of biodegra-
  dation 1n this cold climate, the stranded oil
  could be a source of oil pollution for a longer
  period than for a spill 1n a warmer climate.
  Massive environmental damage was recorded by
  the team.
   Crude  oil  from  the  Metula appeared  inland and
   ashore after being  driven there by  very high
   winds  which are normal  for Tierra del Fuego area.

               SHOWA MARU SPILL

       In January 1975 the supertanker Showa Maru,
  with over 67 million gallons of crude oil, ran
  aground on rocks and coral reefs in the Strait
  of Malacca.  Coastal and beach areas of Singapore,
  the Malay Peninsula, and adjacent islands were
  threatened after three of her 12 tanks released
  about  1 million gallons of light oil.  A I0-m1le

the Strait of Magellan.

 c-'-\\ '  ,   ,1 -u  ] ists  to port :               s- '  in
 sli':> iiioved  onto  several i1-  no-,  in f>e wi-ste'1'
 sect-.on of  the port of Singapore, as well as -'e-
 sort  and dock areas.  Large*'.cale measures  to
 combat  the  slick  had to be  organized and put into
 service almost immediately.
      An EPA  observer on the scene noted that
 massive amounts of chemical disoersants were used
 on the oil  slicks in an attempt to keep them away
 from  beaches and  shore areas.  In the United
 States dispersants are rarely used.
  Detergents, after being applied to an oil slick,
  can  create new pollution and other problems—
  they  are not favored over physical removal of
  the  oil in the United States.


      Early in January 1975 a supertanker spill
 occurred in Bantry Bay at the southwest corner
 of  Ireland.  It was the second spill there in
 a short time.  In October 1974, crude oil was
 spilled at a terminal on Uhiddy Island in Bantry
 Bay when a valve on the 92,000-ton tanker
 Universe Leader failed to close.
      During the 1974 spill over 750,000 gallons
 of  oil escaped, clogging Irish fishing ports and
 fouling coast and beach areas.  Seagoing tugs
 sprayed detergent on the slick along the coast
 to  sink it.  Removal of the oil was hampered by
 lack of manpower and suitable equipment.
     The Bantry Bay is rich in marine life.  On
 the south shore of the bay, all life was  reported
 virtually destroyed a month later.   Fishermen
 claimed that the entire southern end of the  bay,
where oil  was accumulated  by northerly winds, had
 become unfishable.   Marine biologists are watch-
 ing the area closely,  using surface inspection
techniques, as  well  as underwater  television
 and scuba divers.

     In late January 1975 the supertanker
Jakob Maersk, with over 26 million gallons of
Persian Gulf crude oil, struck a sandbar and
suffered four explosions while attempting to
enter the artificial deepwater port of the
city of Porto, Portugal.  Spilled and leaking
crude oil soon covered 20 miles of coastline
and additional damage was feared.  Although
the ship burned for two days after the inci-
dent, it continued to leak after that time.


     In Hay 1975 the tanker Epic Colocotronis,
carrying about 16.5 million gallons of Venezuelan
crude oil, split and burned near the Dominican
Republic.   In Hay 1972 the tanker Tien Chee,
carrying about 2 million gallons of crude oil,
burned and spilled oil after she was rammed by
the cargo vessel Royston Grange southwest of
Montevideo, Uruguay.  Oil spread in a fan shape
to the southeast covering an area of about 300
square miles.
     In August 1974 a broken submerged pipeline
caused the tanker Esso Garden State to spill
a large quantity of oil into the South Atlantic
Ocean at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  She was
moored five kilometers off Tramandai Beach,
discharging about 15 million gallons of crude
oil through the pipeline to a shore terminal
when the spill occurred.  The terminal serves
the refinery at Canoa, near Porto Alegre.
     In March 1975 the tanker Tarik Ibn Ziyad,
carrying about 28,000,000 gallons of light
crude oil, ran aground and spilled about three
million gallons of oil into the Guanabara Bay
at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  Some of the oil
was carried out of the bay by tides and wind.
A portion of the South Atlantic shore area was
       On  May 12,  1976,  the  tanker Urquiola
 exploded  and broke  open after it struck a
 reef near the mouth of La Coruna Bay  in  Spain,
 spilling  about 4.5  million  gallons of light
 crude oil.   The fire was extinguished May 15,
 and  the remaining oil  was pumped into another
 tanker.   Oceanographers  advised that  there
 was  a possibility that prevailing ocean  cur-
 rents could carry some of the  oil  to  the
 Caribbean area in the months  following the
 spill.   In January  1977 the tanker Exotic ex-
 ploded and burned in southern  Morocco.

      In September 1974 the  tanker Transhuron
 ran  aground on the  north shore of Kiltan Island
 in India  and spilled about  900,000 gallons
 of heavy  fuel oil.   In April  1975 the tankers
 Tosa Maru and Cactus Queen  collided south of
 St.  John's Island in the Strait of Singapore.
 The  Tosa  Maru burned and sank.   In July  1976
 five ship collisions and a  major oil  spill were
 reported  in the crowded  Strait of Malacca
 near Singapore.   In October 1975 a 123,484-
 ton  tanker was  struck by -lightning and broke
 into three parts  after catching fire  in  Singapore

      In November 1974 about 12.5 million gal-
 lons of naphtha and liquefied petroleum were
 spilled into Tokyo Bay when a tanker and
 freighter collided and exploded. On 18 December
 1974 about 11 million gallons of crude oil were
 spilled into the Inland Sea from a large storage
 tank at Mizushima, 300 miles southwest of Tokyo.
      Damages to fisheries were extensive in this
 first large oil spill into the Inland Sea. Winds
 and current pushed a slick 80 miles long and 15
 miles wide.  Payments by the oil company for
 damages soon reached $6.1 million, with $3.3
 million more promised.

      In September  1976  the  96,000-ton  tanker
 Ryoyo  Maru  broke in  half  during  a  typhoon  off
 southern Japan, east of Kyushu.
      In January 1975 the  tanker  Oswego Patriot
 leaked  about  1.3 million  gallons of crude  oil
 into  the Pacific Ocean.   During  a  three-week
 voyage  from Singapore to  Los  Angeles the oil
 came  through  a  hole  which was found in the
 No.3  port wing  tank  when  the  ship  reached  port.
               MYSTERY OIL SPILLS

      In January 1972 a mystery oil spill washed
 heavy No. 6 fuel oil ashore for 25 miles along
 the North Shore of Long Island.  Cold weather
 caused some of the oil on shore to congeal on
 rocks and debris.  It formed a solid band about
 18 inches wide on beaches and flat shoreline.
 Visible oil on the shore extended from Eatons
 Neck, past Sunken Meadow State Park and east-
 ward to Rocky Point.  EPA and Coast Guard in-
 vestigators suspected the cause was tank
 cleaning by a passing oil tanker.  It was typi-
 cal of hundreds of mystery oil spills which
 had been occurring along the world's coastlines
 for years.
             OIL SLICK
             CAME ASHORE
                            0   MILES   15
     In January 1975 a mystery spill of 25,000
gallons of oil in the Norfolk harbor spread  from
the vicinity of the Craney Island fuel depot
in Portsmouth to the Norfolk Naval Base, to
Norfolk International Terminal and into several

          U.S. Coast Guard Locates
          Source of Mystery Spill

     In July 1975 a mystery oil spill came
ashore and caused damage along Key West for
60 miles  from Marathon to Dry Tortugas.  To
locate the source, the U.S. Coast Guard checked
247 ships docking at ports from Maine to Texas.
Samples of oil were taken from 50 of them  and
chemically checked against the spilled oil.
     Late in October 1975 a match was made and
the captain of the oil tanker Garbis was ar-
rested and jailed—facing a $10,000 fine and
a year in prison for failure to report the

     There was a rash of offshore oil well
blowouts  in the early 1970s  in the  Gulf of
Mexico, causing considerable oil  pollution there.
Stricter  controls on proper  blowout prevention
equipment from the wells have  almost  eliminated
these  incidents.

         " MYSTERY" OIL SPILL. In January 1972 heavy
         oil—probably tank washings—came ashore for
         25 miles between Eatons Neck and Rocky Point.
                                                        Offshore oil platform blowout in Gulf of Mexico.
              TANKER RAMS OIL  RIG

     In August 1975 the oil tanker  Globtik  Sun
caused an oil spill after it ran into  an  off-
shore drilling rig at night and caught fire.
The platform had no working wells and  was being
built in 175 feet of water in  the Gulf of
Mexico, 120 miles southeast of Galveston, Texas.
The tanker was carrying almost 15 million gal-
lons of light crude oil and was abandoned by
the crew at the time of the accident because
of the fire.  The drifting and leaking ship
was later salvaged and offloaded of remaining
oil after the fire went out.

                 WELL BLOWOUT
     In October 1975 a new gas well near a
wildlife refuge in Louisiana blew out, spraying
a mixture of gas, oil, and salt water over a
wide area for about three weeks.  The heavy
spray covered an area of several miles of marsh,
canals, Vermillion River and Bay.  Booms were
only partially successful in keeping the para-
ffin-based oil from spreading beyond the areas
of impact. Considerable damage to fish and
wildlife was noted as a result of the incident.
     In cleanup, the Regional Response Team
agreed that burning would be the best for 300
acres of marsh area with a thick coating of the
oil and paraffin.  The remaining areas were
cleaned by physical removal and disposal.

      In April  1972 a  tank  car  exploded while
 loaded  at the  storage terminal  of an  oil  refin-
 ery in  Doraville,  Georgia.   A  fire started among
 the tanks of oil products  and  spread  to homes
 in the  neighboring area.   One  person  was  killed
 and several injured.   Civil  Defense evacuated
 400 from the area, and Region  IV  of EPA          **••"
     A contractor used about 50 persons and
heavy equipment, such as tank and vacuum trucks,
to clean up the contained oil.

      In May 1976 a considerable amount of oil
 polluted the  Hackensack  River as  a  result of
 the  rupture of a 3 million  gallon storage tank
 at an  oil  terminal  at Jersey City,  N.J.
     A containment dike  near the  ruptured tank
 failed.   The  dike  should have  kept  most  of the
 spilled oil confined at  the oil  terminal.  The
 facility had  been  fined  in  the  past due  to
 failure to have a  spill  prevention, control,
 and  counter-measure  plan.
               WASTE OIL LAGOON

     A  spill does not have to  involve a simple
discharge—as the case of an abandoned lagoon
in  Utah illustrates.  In late  1973, at the re-
quest of State officials, EPA's Region VIII in-
vestigated and found that waste oil sludge in
the 5-acre lagoon was seeping  into canals of
the nearby Ogden Bay Wildlife  Refuge.  Some of
    Storage terminal fire in Georgia caused
    oil spill which spread to nearby homes.

 constructed two underflow dams to protect an
 adjacent creek flowing into the Atlanta  water
      In  July 1974, a  storage tank in Glenmont,
 New York, was overfilled and approximately
 800,000  gallons of fuel  oil  flowed from  the  top.
 About 100,000 gallons leaked out through cart of
 the earthen dike area around the tank.   The  oil
 reached  a creek flowing  into the Hudson  River.
 When the leak was discovered, the tank owners
 had placed oil  booms  across the mouth of the
 creek, but 10,000 gallons still  reached  the
 Hudson.   Once there,  it  moved about 4 miles
 down river.  Directional  booms were extended at
 an angle from the shore  in an effort to  entrap
 some of  the oil  in the river.
            Aerial view of v;aste oil lagoon.

the  lagoon's containment walls were in danger of
collapsing and polluting the entire refuge and
even the nearby Great Salt Lake.  The lagoon's
contents were in three layers.  The bottom layer
was  an acidic and tarlike sludge containing a
high content of sulfurous acid and lead.  A
middle layer of watar and top layer of oil were
also high in these substances.
     At this point,  EPA, supported by the State
of Utah and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and
Wildlife,declared that the situation was an
"imminent and substantial threat" under section
311(c) of the FWPCA.  EPA took formal legal ac-
tion against the operator of the lagoon, and
while awaiting the court's decision, strengthened
the weak banks around the pond with sand bags.
     In March 1974, the court decided that EPA
should take action under section 311(c).   EPA
moved quickly to set up contracts for the re-
moval and disposal  of the contents of the lagoon.

*    *
   Numerous flocks of ducks landed and died.

  Both the oil  and water  had  to  be disposed of
  safely.   The  disposal problem  was solved when
  the nearby U.S.  Air Force base permitted EPA to
  establish a disposal  farm on an isolated tract
  of  land  near  the lagoon.  The  material could be
  biodegraded by farming  it into the land under
  controlled orocedures.
       After removing a large number of junked cars
  and other debris to gain access to all parts of
  the lagoon, the two top liquid layers were  pumped
  into small tank trucks  and  spread over prepared
  and fertilized ground on the Air Force land. The
  liquids were worked into the soil with farm
  machinery.  The pumping, hauling, and farming
  operation proceeded for several weeks until all
  the ponds of the lagoon complex were dry.
       The liquid was removed by summer, exposing
  the bottom sludge, which softened somewhat  in
  the Utah sun.  Disturbing it with a dragline and
  bulldozer created hazardous levels of sulfur
  dioxide, methane, ethane and propane on  hot days,
  requiring crews to wear self-contained breathing
       In this  dry and dusty setting, with  the sharp
  and pungent odor being  carried by the wind  for
  more than a mile, the sludge was thoroughly mixed
  with local clay until it was firm enough  to hold


        Aerial view of disposal farm.

 a  heavy layer of  clay and  topsoil.  This  task
 ended  the clean-up operations  at  the  lagoon.
 Monitoring of the farm will  be necessary  to check
 on the microbiological  degradation  of the liquids.
 Late in 1974 plants were growing  on many  of the
 farmed areas.

      Though far fewer in number than oil  spills,
 hazardous substances soil Is are extremely sig-
 nificant in terms of their immediate and  long-
 term threat to human life and the environment.
 Because final regulations governing hazardous
 substances are not yet in effect, EPA cannot
 implement the provisions of section 311  of the
 1972 Act.  In the interim, EPA actively responds
 to spills of hazardous substances.


      In July 1974 lightning struck a powerline,
 igniting a minion-dollar fire in a paint and
 herbicide manufacturing and storage facility in
 Alliance, Ohio.
             Waste oil lagoon after cleanup, showing
             the site near the time of final grading.
             The liquids were pumped out and farmed
AFTER        into the soil at a suitable nearby plot.
         Waste oil lagoon before cleanup.

     Soot, ashes, hydrogen chloride, and other
toxic gases were carried by a slight breeze over
residential areas into the Alliance Water Facility,
the Berlin Reservoir, and the Mahoning River.
Runoff from fire-fighting operations flowed toward
the reservoir and river.
Herbicide facility fire at Alliance, Ohio.

     The on-scene coordinator from EPA's Region
V called for local and county police to evacuate
citizens downwind; later a shift in the winds at
the site of the fire necessitated evacuation of
500 hospital patients.
     To reduce runoff, chemical foam was flown
in and used as much as possible to fight the
fire.  Bags of lime were dumped into gutters
and storm sewers in an attempt to neutralize
the acid liquid.  Several filter fence dams of
peat moss and fine limestone were erected across
a small creek near the site.  They neutralized
some of the pollutants before they reached the
river and the reservoir.
     About a day later, the fire was extinguished
and the air pollution hazard eliminated. The
Mayor of Alliance, after consultation with EPA
representatives, allowed citizens to return to
their homes.
     This did not end the EPA involvement.
Follow-up action included:
     - Monitoring the clean-up and disposal
       of contaminated debris and soil  to
       an approved landfill.
     - Maintaining a hotline for inquiries
       from citizens and the press.
     - Conducting an extensive water-sampling
       program in the Mahoning River and
       Berlin Reservoir.
     The reservoir was sampled for several days
until lab results showed that the water was safe.
At the end of the clean-up, EPA's on-scene coor-
dinator was given the Keys to the City in recog-
nition of his efforts.

              PESTICIDE  PLANT  FIRE
      In  March 1976  a  12-hour  fire at a  chemical
plant in Ennis,  Texas  sent  fireballs from
exploding drums  over  200  feet high.  About 500
nearby residents were evacuated when toxic
fumes spread over the southern portion of the
        Fire at chemical plant in Texas.

city.  Response by firemen had been trained for
several years for such an emergency and were
prepared with proper clothing, equipment and
     Because the contaminated runoff water from
firefighting operations contained insecticides,
fungicides, and herbicides, it was captured and
contained in a ditch.  After the fire it was
pumped into tanks and the debris was thoroughly
covered with lime, pending disposal.
     Testing and decontamination of fire debris
and areas affected by fallout were well coordi-
nated and executed through local, state, and
Federal levels.  The contaminated water was
deep-well injected after several alternate
methods were considered.
   Pesticide-contaminated runoff water from fire.

                TOXAPHENE SPILL
     In March 1975 about 50 pounds of toxaphene
pesticide were spilled into a pond near the
Plains, Virginia.  In response to a reported

fish kill in the pond, State and Federal  envi-
ronmental experts discovered the cause and
outlined a program of treatment or cleanup.
     The pond water which could drain into
Broad Run and the Manassas River, was fully
contained, pumped out, and treated by a trailer
unit recently developed by EPA for such emer-
gencies.  The visible chlorinated hydrocarbon
Fish killed in pond water by toxaphene spill.

residues  were then  picked up and  some  pond
sediments excavated and  decontaminated.
      In  similar  cases  all over  the  United
States  involving collected  water  contaminated
by spilled chemicals,  the Mobile  Hazardous
Materials Spill  Trailers have  been  useful.
         Above: Pumping out the pond.
         Below: Temporary holding tank.
                                                      jSP^twPfr^'' '''•^i^Ba?6*'
       Mobile Hazardous Materials Spill
          Trailer at toxaphene spill.

                  PCBs  SPILL

     A simple accident  in September 1Q74 caused
a major hazardous substance spill in the Duwamish
Waterway in the State of Washington.  An elec-
trical transformer being loaded onto a barge fell
from  its loading sling, spilling ?60 gallons of
polychlorinated biphenyls  (PCBs) onto the dock
and into the waterway.   By direct contact, this
liquid can cause sickness, serious  skin disease,
stunted growth, and other effects.  When spilled,
it does not harmlessly disappear, but persists
 in  the environment.  It  can  even penetrate  to
 underground water  supplies when  spilled  on  land.
 PCBs  can concentrate in  tissues, and  thus are
 harmful to aquatic  life,  livestock, and  birds.
      The spiller  handled  the incident as a  minor
 spill until a  follow-un  investigation by the
 Washington State  Department  of Ecology  revealed
 that  PCBs were involved.   The State requested
 EPA's assistance  in clean-up, and Region X
 assumed the  responsibility of on-scene  coordi-
 nation.  An  initial  plan called  for using a
 20-inch suction dredge and a slurry pipeline to
 a small  island with lined containment ponds
 about 100 yards from the soil! site.   Because
 of construction problems and concern over  oossi-
 ble soil  instability,  this nlan  was discarded in
 favor of a more secure method of containing the
      Using 4-inch  hand-held  suction dredges,
 divers picked  up pools of PCBs,  which are  heavier
  than water,  from the  bottom of the waterway.
 This, with  dredged material, was pumped into a
 series of  settling tanks.  The sludge was  sepa-
 rated from  this slurry and stored in 55-gallon

    Building  temporary holding tank on  dock.


 I'ocK  area Ju'
drums.   The water was processed through a  truck-
mounted unit brought in from an Ef,\ research
facility in New Jersey.  The nrototyne unit used
a series of charcoal filters to adsorb PCBs.  The
treated water was returned to the waterway.
     In the effort to locate and remove the
PCBs, divers searched the bottom of the waterway.
They discovered pools of the persistent PCRs  ly-
ing on the  bottom.  Clean-up operations contin-
ued for several weeks, with the main effort con-
centrated on removing the PCBs from the immediate
spill area.
     About  100 gallons of PCBs were recovered
using this  method.  The remaining nollutant was
so widely dispersed that removal would have re-
quired  dredging the entire channel.

     A hazardous  substance spill occurred near
Rush, Kentucky,  in  October 1973 when 15 railroad
cars were derailed.  There were several explo-
sions and a fire  involving three tank cars con-
taining acrylonitriles, metallic sodium, and
other hazardous  substances.
     Another car  containing tetraethyl lead did
not rupture.  OHM-TADS provided additional  in-
formation on the  characteristics of the spilled
substances and cargoes nearby that were still
     Fires and explosions had already occurred,
the fire was still burning from one huge tank
car, and another  even larger explosion was  a
good possibility.  The EPA on-scene coordinator
from Region IV requested Civil  Defense to evacu-
ate area residents.
»  v» «•*. «* •
                                                        Hazardous material leaking from rail tankcar.


      Reading TADS printout in aircraft.

     Headquarters EPA personnel flew in to pro-
vide technical assistance to the coordinator and
make a situation report by means of videotape.
     Because of an extensive fish kill  15 miles
downstream from the spill site, numerous water
quality sampling stations were set up for local
wells, Williams Creek, and the Ohio River.
     In addition, EPA set up air monitoring
stations, and residents were allowed to return
to their homes only after analysis indicated
that the air was safe.

      Spills caused by failure of storage
 ponds containing hazardous substances  are
 a constant threat.  In 1972, a strip mining
 pond in West Virginia gave way, releasing a
 wave of polluted water.   Such ponds are
 commonly constructed  in  strip mining areas
 (using tailings) to concentrate liquid
 wastes from mining operations.  There they settle
 and clarify; the liquid  then passes into lower
 ponds for additional  settling.

                                                            In February 1972, heavy rainfall and
                                                       melting snow overflowed one of the ponds
                                                       at Buffalo Creek and eroded a small dam on
                                                       the upper level.  The dam failed, cascading
                                                       water into the lower and larger ponds.  The
                                                       resulting wave crashed down a narrow valley,
                                                       destroying small towns and killing over
                                                       100 people.
                                                            Research on systems to provide early war-
                                                       ning of the failure of earth dams holding haz-
                                                       ardous substances has been sponsored by EPA.
    Above:   Earth dam failure brought spill disaster.
    Below:   Some of  the homes caught in  the event.
        On the Peace River in Florida in  1971 a
   storage pond released 2 billion gallons of
   sludge from phosphate mining operations.
   Composed of silica sand, clay and phosphate,
   the sludne is a gurmy, sticky, almost  rubber-
   like substance.
        The sludge polluted the Peace River and
   the Charlotte Harbor area for 60 miles.  The
   sheer volume and nature of the spill suffocated
   most forms of marine life in the river, de-
   stroyed the adult fish population, drastically
            Peace River after pollution.
    Lagoon perched high in strip mining  area.
mf .   «,/,""* i

 curtailed  growth,  and  seriously  altered  the
 total  environmental  structure of the area.
      Even  in  1974, sludge remaining on the
 bottom of  the river  was being flushed out by
 heavy  rains, polluting the water repeatedly.

      In March 1972 a barge loaded with liquid
                           in the Ohio River
                            Drifting backward in
chlorine broke its towline
near Louisville, Kentucky.
a 15-mile-per-hour current, the barge punctured
its hull as it struck a pillar of the McAlpine
Dam, part of a hydroelectric complex.  Then
the barge was pierced by submerged concrete
obstructions inside the snillway.  The four
70-foot long tanks held a total of 640 tons of
       Chlorine barge hung on dam.

liguid chlorine, capable of releasing a
poison gas cloud into Louisville, just down-
wind.  On EPA's recommendation, the National
Response Team was activated and the Office
of Emergency Preparedness joined in the
effort to avoid a national disaster.
     To prevent the heavy barge from breaking
loose and tumbling over the dam, a large
salvage catamaran was brought in and tied
to the barge by cables.  Plans were then
made to offload the chlorine to another
barge by slowly reducing the pressure in-
side the tanks.  Any aas released would be
neutralized by bubbling it through a caustic
solution.  As an extra precaution, a high-
pressure spray of water was set up and
directed downward from the superstructure
of the dam toward the tanks.  The spray was

Aerial view of barge at hydroelectric complex.
Less than one-half of chlorine barge can be seen.
                                                          ' r i LJ
                                                          ' i 11 ?
                                                       to  force  any  leaking  ch'onne  '>ack  into  v\(
                                                       water.   Instruments were  also  set up  to  detect
                                                       chlorine  in the  air or water,  and part of  the
                                                       city  was  evacuated.   The  tanks  were emptied  of
                                                       chlorine  without incident,  however, and  no
                                                       chlorine  escaped.
                                                                    HURRICANE AGNES  SPILLS
                                                              OF OIL AND  HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

                                                            Nature  often  causes  snill  problems.   In
                                                       June  of 1972, Hurricane Agnes lashed  up  from
                                                       the Gulf of  Mexico,  causing severe  floods  in
                                                       several  river basins  over the eastern half
                                                       of the  United States.  In her wake  she left
                                                       scores  dead,  thousands homeless,  and  property
                                                       damage  in the billions.
                                                            Water pollution  from snills  of oil  and
                                                       hazardous substances  was  general  and  wide-
                                                       spread.  EPA, together with other Federal,

                                                      State, local, and private agencies, worked
                                                      hard to restore clean water supplies.  Large
                                                      quantities of floatina oil were on the loose,
                                                      as well as thousands of drums of oil, chemicals,
                                                      and other materials, some of unknown com-
                                                      position.  Specialists from EPA and industry
                                                      helped in the oil clean-up and in identification
                                                      and removal of drums from the disaster areas.
                                                          Hurricane Agnes also inundated some oil
                                                      storage lagoons along the Schuylkill River in
                                                      Pennsylvania.  These same lagoons had over-
                                                      flowed in 1970, following 10 days of heavy rain,
                                                      and about 3 million gallons of oily sludge were
                                                      spilled into the river.

     The Hurricane Agnes spill released  6  to
7 million qallons  of the material, which had
a high acid  and lead content.  Carried by  the
flood water, the oily sludge penetrated
high ground  and damaged farms, homes, and
businesses as  it swept down the Schuylkill.
     Clean-up  and  removal of oil and debris
were an almost endless task.  Disposal of
the waste material collected was especially
difficult; after numerous delays, the
material went  via  dump trucks and railroad
hopper cars  to a sanitary landfill approved
by State and local authorities.
   Hurricane caused spill of several  million
   gallons  of gasoline at storage  terminal.


     Many nations  recognize that cooperative
programs must be broadened and strengthened
if countries are to  deal  effectively with the
problems of  global  pollution.   EPA has demon-
strated a willingness to share its knowledge
and experience  by  participating in international
activities  dealing with the pollution aspects
of ship design  and operations, ocean dumping,
designation  and control of hazardous substances,
and other related  programs.
     As a part  of  this effort, EPA provides
representatives to the Intergovernmental
Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO)
and to the  Joint Group of Experts on the
Scientific  Aspects of Marine Pollution
(GESAMP).   These United Nations organizations
provide an  international forum for airing of
marine pollution problems and establishing
international  conventions to regulate the
activities  of member nations.
     Since  IMCO began  in 1948, two  Inter-
national Conferences for the Prevention of
Pollution of the Sea by Oil were  held, re-
sulting in  the  1954 and 1973 Conventions.
Amendments  to  the  1954 Convention were pro-
posed  in 1962,  1969, and 1971.
     The 1973  Conference adopted  regulations
for the prevention of pollution by oil,
noxious liquid  substances in bulk, harmful
substances  carried in package form,  sewaae,
and garbage.   In  addition, the Conference
adopted a protocol  relating to intervention
on the high  seas  in cases of casualties  in-
volving marine pollution by substances other
than oil.  EPA was  instrumental at the 1973
Conference in  broadening the definition  of
oil to include all  types of petroleum oils,
such as light  refined products and other
nonpersistent  oils.
     One of  the principal causes of ocean
pollution has  been  the operational discharge
of oily ballast water. The traditional practice
for most tankers  has been to carry ballast
water in cargo tanks to weigh the ship down
in the water and  provide stability during the
return voyage.  This water mixed with oil cling-
ing to the sides  of the cargo tanks and  was
flushed into the  ocean on the return voyage  to
the loading  port.
     All tankers  subject to the 1973 Convention
would be required to be capable of operating
either retention-on-board (ROB) systems  with the
discharge of oily wastes to reception  facilities,
or load-on-top (LOT) systems.
                                                         The load-on-top system is  used to avoid the
                                                         problem of washing residues  from emptied oil
                                                         tanks into the sea.   Some  tanks must be filled
                                                         with water  after unloading  or the ship will
                                                         ride too high in the  sea.
       Full cargo-Clean ballast lank empty
       Clean ballast lank full (clean sea water)-Cargo tanks partially full (dirty ballast)
Otl settles on top-Clean water pumped from I
tanks-Tank wash water collected in waste tank
                                  cleaning of empty
       AT SEA
       Clean ballas
                                 and all residues for
       Clean ballast for docking-Waste tank drained of all clean water, leaving only
       collected residue-Before loading, all clean water pumped into sea
       Waste tank loaded on top of res
                                                                    Clean Sea Wate
                                                                    Oil Contaminated Sea Wat

          The 1973 If'CO regulation requiring ROB
      or LOT systems  was originally designed to re-
      duce operational discharges.   However, because
      of increased transportation of oil, these mea-
      sures have not  proved adequate to reduce  ocean
      pollution.  Accordingly,  the  Convention will
      require all  new tankers  of 70,000 tons dead-
      weight and above, contracted  or delivered after
      specified  dates, to  be fitted with segregated
      ballast tanks large  enough to provide adequate
      operating  draft without  the need to carry bal-
      last water in the cargo  tanks.
           The 1973 Convention  will enter into  force
      for those  nations signing the Convention, 12
      months after ratification by  a required number
      of countries.  Upon  ratification, the 1973
      Convention will supersede the 1954 Convention.
      The United States has not yet ratified the

           EPA was instrumental in  establishing the
      Marine Environmental  Protection Committee within
      IMCO.   The committee acquires and disseminates
      scientific,  technical, and practical  information;
      promotes international cooperation; and adopts
      or amends  regulations under international  conven-
      tions for  prevention and  control of marine pol-
      lution from ships.  EPA  provides representatives
      and technical information to  the MEPC.

           Additionally, EPA has been instrumental
      in development  of bilateral  agreements for
      prevention and  control of pollution,  with
      other North  American countries.   During
      development  of  the agreement  between  Canada
      and the United  States on  Great  Lakes  Water
      Quality, EPA, with other  Federal agencies,
      provided the technical criteria and standards
      for protection  of these  lakes.
           Together with Canadian counterparts,  EPA
      and the Coast Guard  prepared  a  Marine
      Pollution  Contingency Plan (HPCP) for joint
      response to  spills affecting  the boundary
      waters of  the Great  Lakes.  This plan,
      effective  in 1972, was later  expanded to
      include the  boundary waters of  both coasts.
           The plan has been successfully imple-
      mented a number of times.   It has served
      further as a guidance document  for other
      nations sharing coastal and river boundaries
      subject to spill  incidents.

Harbor scene after chemical loading accident
killed 576 persons at Texas City, Texas in 1947.
     EPA promotes international cooperation
because a uniform set of rules and regulations
will better enable the international
community to enforce the prevention and
control of marine pollution from shios.  With
IMCO's expanding role to prevent operational
and accidental discharges of oil and
hazardous substances into the oceans, EPA's
efforts will continue to increase at the
international level.

     The  following  list  of  spills  is  representa-
 tive of  thousands  which occur  each year.   The
 quantity does  not  always equate to the  amount
 spilled  into waterways.  In  the case of vessel
 strandings  and collisions, a portion may  have
 been recovered by  pumping  operations or burned.

 North Atlantic
   Tanker Grand Zenith
   Missing since 4  Jan 1977
                              8,000,000 + gal.
                                 NR 6 oil
 Delaware  River,  Pa.     No  leakage  -  refloated
   Tanker  Universe  Leader      (potential  spill
   5  Jan 1977              of  21,000,000  gals.
 Tampa  Bay,  Fla.
  Moran  Barge
  9  Jan  1977

 Grand  Traverse  Bav,
  Great Lakes
  Vessel  Amoco  Indiana
  11  Jan  1977
                                   80,000 gal.
                                   NR 2 diesel
                        No leakage - refloated
                             (potential spill
                          of 2,310,000 gals.
                          NR 2 diesel)
 Chesapeake  Bay  -Tangier  Is.
   Interstate  17         No  leakage  -  refloated
                              (potential  spill
                          of  608,000  gals.  Nr 6)

 Several  barges  grounded  during  harsh  winter
 weather  Jan.-Feb.  1977.  L'SCG  could  not respond
 to  large number of  vessels  needing  assistance.

                                Negligible  (50 gal)
                               (potential spill
                          of 27,000,000 gal.  of
                          light  crude  oil)

                          No leakage - refloated
                               (potential spill
Gravesend Bav, N.Y
   Tanker Harmonic
   13 Jan 1977
                                                             Potomac River, Md.
                                                                Barge STC 007
                                                                17 Jan 1977
                                                             Choc taw County, Ala.
                                                                Lebauf Barge
                                                                17 Jan 1977

                                                             Ganado, Texas
                                                                Pipeline spill
                                                                18 Jan 1977
                            of  840,000 gals.  NR  6)

                                   6,300 gals.
                               (potential major
                                spill  crude  oil)

                                   63,000 gal.
                                     crude oil
                                                             Midway Island area, Pacific  9,600,000 gallons
                                                                Tanker Irenes Challenge sank.  light crude
                                                                17 Jan 1977

Chesapeake Bay,
   Hoopers Strait
   24 Jan 1977
No leakage - refloated
     (potential spill
  276,000 gal. NR 2 and
  138,000 gal. kerosene)
Baltimore, Md.         No leakage - refloated
   Tanker Overseas Alice    (potential spill
   25 Jan 1977         5,880,000 gal. gasoline)
Good Hope, La.
   Barge NMS 2600 collided
   21 Jan 1977

Baytown, Texas
   Tanker Exxon San Francisco
   and Barge Exxon 119
   Explosion and fire
   27 Jan 1977

Arcade, N.Y.
   Pipeline spill
   25 Jan 1977

Buzzards Bay, Mass.
   Barge B-65
   28 Jan 1977
      63,000 gal.  asphalt

            10,000 gal.
           NR 2 diesel
           100,000  gal.
            heating oil
         (List incomplete for 1977)


 Brooklyn,  N.Y.  -  Gowanus Canal  2,000,000  gal.
   Storage  tank                     NR 6  oil
   6 Jan 1976
 Green  Pond,  Ala.  -  lake
   Pipeline  spill
   27 Jan  1976

 Chesapeake  Bay, Va.
   Barge  STC-101
   2 Feb  1976
          126,000 gal.
          NR 2 diesel
          261,500 gal.
          NR 6 bunker
    Cleanup crew after Barge STC-101 spill.

Gibson, La.                       79,800 gal.
  Barge Sully                      crude oil
  1 March 1976

Bradford, Pa. - Kendall Creek     84,000 gal.
  Pipeline spill                  NR 2 diesel
  2 March 1976

Isle de Cabras, Puerto Rico       19,500 gal.
  Tug Gelderland                  NR 2 diesel
  8 March 1976                   (potential -
                                  79,250 gal.

Valentine, Neb.                   12,000 gal.
  Train derailment                 crude oil
  9 March 1976

Billings, Montana                 27,300 gal.
Silver Tip Creek                   crude oil
  Pipeline spill
  9 March 1976
 Stonewall County, Texas
 Brazos River
  Pipeline spill
  9 Feb  1976

 Chalmette, La.  (Miss. R.)
  Barge  SJT-4
  24 Feb 1976
          125,000 oil
           84,000 gal.
          877,800 gal.)
       Oil coming ashore after Barge
       STC-101 spill on Chesapeake  Bay.
                                                     Silver Tip Creek after pipeline spill in Montana.
                                                       Cook Inlet, Alaska
                                                         Separator failure
                                                         12 March 1976

                                                       Buffalo, N.Y.
                                                       Buffalo R. threatened
                                                         Storage tank
                                                         13 March 1976
                                                                  10,000 gal.
                                                                   crude oil
                                                                 840,000 gal.
                                                               1,680,000 gal.

Lake Charles, La.
  Pipeline spill
  29 March 1976
  42,000 gal.
NR 6 fuel oil
and naptha
Martinsville, 111.             1,764,000 gal.
  Pipeline - manifold failure    crude oil
  1 April 1976

Glenwood, Pa.                    200,000 gal.
Monongahela and Ohio Rivers       NR 2 diesel
  Storage tank failure
  9 April 1976
                        Key  Blscayne,  Fla.
                         Mystery  Spill
                         29 June  1976

                        Jacksonville,  Fla.
                        McGirts  Creek
                         Abandoned  oil  pit
                         29 June  1976

                        Cook Inlet,  Alaska
                          Sea Lift Pacific
                          5  October  1976
                                                       Aguirre,  Puerto Rico
                                                         Tank Barge Caribsun
                                                         15 October 1976
                                                      P erth Amboy,  N.J.
                                                         Tanker Richard C.  Sauer
                                                         29 October  1976
                                                       Belt,  Montana
                                                         Railroad spill
                                                         26 Nov.  1976
                                      Slick  30  miles
                                      by  100 yards

                                       200,000 gal.
                                       waste oil
                                      1,260,000 gal.
                                      Jet fuel
                                      (potential -
                                      7,350,000 gal.

                                       No leakage
                                       (potential -
                                      2,940,000 gal.
                                       bunker oil)

                                         75,000 gal.
                                       Light Arabian
                                       (potential -
                                      9,240,000 gal.

                                         60,000 gal.
                                         NR 6 oil
   Placing skimmer in pocket of oil from
   storage tank failure at Clenwood, Pa.
Houston Ship Channel, Texas
  Tank Barge MS 3105 - sank
  4 May 1976

Shelburne, Vermont
Lake Champlain threatened
  Storage tank
  19 May 1976

Cleveland, Ohio
Cayuhoga River
  Tug Kinsdale & Barge Gaelic

Hackensack, N.J.
Hackensack River
  Storage tank
  26 May 1976

St. Lawrence Seaway
  Nepco Barge 140
  23 June 1976

Rockton, W. Va. - Elk River
  Train derailment
  23 June 1976

Houston Ship Channel, Texas
  Texas Sun & Barge Exxon 257
  28 June 1976
  220,000 gal.
  Bunker oil
   80,000 gal.
    5,000 gal.
      NR 6
  (potential -
  550,000 gal.

2,000,000 gal.
NR 6 oil
(150,000 gals.
reached river)

  500,000 gal.
  NR 6 heavy

   44,000 gal.
    Lube oil
   16,800 gal.
 NR 6 fuel oil
       Cartaret,  N.J.
         Pipeline spill
         30 Nov 1976
      Potomac River
       (near Quantico, Va.)
        Barge Elk River
        30 Nov 1976

      Nantucket, Mass.
        Argo Merchant
        15 Dec 1976
      Bluff Point, Va.
      Potomac River
        21 Dec 1976

      Marcus Hook, Pa.
      Delaware River
        Olympic  Games
         27  Dec 1976
       San  Juan Harbor, P.R.
         29  Dec 1976
                                                                                        200,000 gal.
                                                                                         NR 2 oil

                                                                                         200,000  gal.
                                                                                           NR  2 oil
                                                     7,500,000 +  gal.
                                                       NR  6  oil

                                                      No leakage
                                                       (potential -
                                                      1,680,000  gal.
                                                      NR 6 oil)

                                                        134,000  gal.
                                                       Arabian crude
                                                       No leakage
                                                       (potential -
                                                       47,160 tons
                                                      oil condensate,
                                                      500 tons bunker
A new gas well blew out in Louisiana, spraying paraffin-
based oil over a wide area near wildlife refuge.(See p.25)

     Norfolk, Va.                   30,000 gal.
       Naval base-unk. cause           oil

     Singapore                   1,000,000 gal.
       Tanker Showa Maru grounded     crude
     Galveston, Texas
       Pipeline fracture

     Albany, N.Y.
       Source unknown

     Bay St. Louis, Miss.
     90,000 gal.

     10,000 gal.
        NR 2

      4,000 gal.
     Limetree Bay, St. Croix       136,000 gal.
       T/V Michael C. Lemos disch.    crude
     Marcus Hook, Pa.
       M/T Corinthos struck
       by M/T Edgar Queeny
 13,000,000 gal.
Oil tanker Corinthos burning in Delaware River.  The
white area between ship and dock is chemical  foam,
used in firefighting.(See p.20.)EPA Las Vegas photo.
New Orleans, La.
  Freighter collided
  with tow of barges
Porto, Portugal
  Supertanker Jakob Maersk
  grounding and fire

Prudhoe  Bay,  Alaska
   Storage  tank  failure

San. Juan Harbor,  P.R.
   Barge  Z-102,  accident

Conway,  Pa.
   Ruptured pipeline

Alameda, Calif.
   Merchant Vessel Mosshill

Latania  Lake, La.

Intracoastal  City, La.
   gas well (oily) blowout
                                                         250,000 + gal.
 72,000 gal.

150,000 gal.
 mixed oils

100,000 + gal.
    NR 2

 13,000 gal.
 bunker oil

 42,000 gal.
                                                                                              882,000 gal.

Lake Superior
  Ore boat Edmund Fitzgerald

Dayton, Ohio
  Tank collapsed
Trenton, N.J.
  Pipeline break

Moosic, Pa.
  Pipeline damaged by equip.

Galveston, Texas
  Tugboat sank

Skagway, Alaska
  Tank rupture

Bronx, N.Y.
  Bouchard Barge 115 grounding

Lake City, Tenn.
  Tank truck accident
    70,000 gal.
    bunker oil
     2,000 gal.

   200,000 gal.

   100,000 gal.

    12,600 gal.

    25,000 gal.

    20,000 + gal.
       NR 4

     5,000 gal.
mixed chemicals
Portsmouth, Ohio
  Chemical facility,  fire

Gulf of Mexico
(90 mi. S. Cameron, La.)
Tanker Globtik Sun struck
oil rig, holed, and burned.
mixed chemicals

    crude oil
 (14,700,000 gal.
Tanker Globtik Sun after fire, as seen from
U.S.Coast Guard aircraft over Gulf of Mexico.
Baltimore, Md.
  Possible barge overfill

Roanoke, Va.
  Terminal accident

Strongstown, Pa.
  Termite treatment—
  to drainage
Key West, Fla.
  Mystery spill
   (later tied  to tanker

Cape May, N.J.
  Tanker Olympic Dale
  missed turn, ran
  aground.  Refloated

Chicago, 111.
  Storage tank explosion

Garfield Heights, Ohio
  Tank  car overflow

Detroit, Mich.
  Sewer system failure

Milton Freewater, Oregon
  Pesticide warehouse fire

Mississippi River near
New Orleans, La.
  Barge "Butane" collided
  with tug
       126,000 gal.
           NR 6

         3,500 gal.

    mixed chemicals

approx 100,000 gal.
   bunker C oil
    small quantity
    spilled out of
    5 million gal.

        17,000 gal.
        hot asphalt

          50 tons
      sulfuric acid

        20,000 gal.
    heavy waste oil
  mixed with sewage
    mixed chemicals

       193,000 gal.
        crude oil




                   VII-KANSAS CITY
         1975 Spill List  (continued)
                                                                   EPA REGIONAL OIL & HAZARDOUS
                                                                   MATERIALS SPILL COORDINATORS
 Atlantic Ocean
 (400 mi. off N.J. coast)
   Tanker Spartan Lady broke
   up in heavy seas

 Vandalia, 111.
   Storage tank
 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
   Tanker Taryk Ibn Ziyad
   ran aground

 The Plains, Va.
   Dumped in pond

 Salt Lake City, Utah
   Pipeline leak

 Vicksburg, Miss.
   Johnny Dan, barges
6,000,000 + gal.
    crude oil
     14,000 gal.
 transformer oil
    (not PCBs)

  3,000,000 gal.
 light crude oil

     50,000 gal.

  850,000 + gal.
   crude oil and
   other oil
               REPORTING  SPILLS

 The  National  Response  Center  (NRC)  is  the
 National  terminal  point  for receiving  notifi-
 cation  of spills  via the toll-free  telephone
 number  800-424-8802 and  via other telephone
 and  teletype  circuits.   NRC provides physical
 and  communications facilities for relaying  this
     If  you cause  a spill,  or  if you happen to
 see  one,  you  should report it immediately. You
 may  use the toll-free number  800-424-8802. All
 vessels and aircraft,  military, civil, or  pri-
 vate, may cooperate in observing and reporting
Mr. John Conlon
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region I
S & A Branch
New England Regional Lab.
60 Westview Street
Lexington, MA   02173

Mr. William Librizzi
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region II
Industrial Environmental
  Research Lab.
Edison, N.J.   08817

Mr. Howard Lamp'l
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region III
Curtis  Building
6th & Walnut Streets
Philadelphia,  PA    19106

Mr. AT  Smith
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region IV
345 Courtland  Street,  N.E.
Atlanta,  GA    30308

Mr. Russell Diefenbach
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region V
230 Dearborn Avenue
Chicago,  IL    60604
Mr. Richard Hill
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region VI
1201 Elm Street
First International Bldg.
Dallas TX   75270
Mr. Gene Reid
OHM Coordinator
Enforcement Division
EPA, Region VII
1735 Baltimore Avenue
Kansas City, MO    64108

Mr. Al Yorke
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region VIII
1860 Lincoln Court
Denver, CO   80203

Mr. Harold  Takenaka
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region IX
100 California Street
San Francisco, CA   94111

Mr. James Will man
OHM Coordinator
EPA, Region X
1200 6th Avenue
Seattle, WA   98101

                 OILED BIRDS

     Estimates of damage caused by oil  spills
are often erroneously based on the numbers of
birds found on the shore.  Millions of birds
may perish and sink on the open water every
year after contact with floating oil  spills.
Oiled aquatic birds are unable to fly,  lose
their insulation from the cold, cannot float,
are sick, and often blinded.  As scavengers or
food seekers, however, waterfowl in the area
of a spill may be attracted to dead or dying
fish and shellfish in oily water, or on shores
and beaches.
                          fJ    %"
                      ^  "'^-
A  -^k-
treatment, and keeping proper records,  The
birds are force fed for nourishment and to
clear oil from the digestive tract.  Those
lightly oiled are washed or immersed in a
detergent solution and the inside of the beak
is cleaned.  A second washing and rinsing is
done on heavily oiled birds.  They all dry in
a warm, roomy area for 12 to 24 hours.  If
space is available they stay 2 or 3 days and
go to a nearby long-term facility.  A bird
that relies on natural oil for waterproofing
its feathers should stay until  its own wax is
restored.  It may have to molt first, which
could take 6 months or a year.

     Birds are sometimes saved from oil spills
by alarms which employ noisemakers, flashing
lights, pennants, or other devices.  It does
not work with all birds.  Some ducks dive rather
than fly away.  This increases their chances of
becoming oiled.


     The U.S. Department  of the  Interior, Fish
and Wildlife Service provides information on
the rescue of oiled birds.  In addition, Reg-
 ional  Contingency  Plans  for oil  spill  cleanup
 identify organizations or institutions  that
 can and  are willing to participate  in water-
 fowl dispersal,  collection, cleaning and re-
 covery activities.  These  plans  are available
 from EPA Regional  offices  listed  on page 38
of this booklet  and from  district offices of
the U.S. Coast Guard.
                RESCUE OF BIRDS

     Rescue of oiled birds found on the shore
is generally done at low tide, using nets to
avoid injury to the active ones.  They are
carefully placed in boxes and promptly taken
to a cleaning station within the hour.   The
cleaning station is usually supervised by a
person with experience in bird rehabilitation,
who instructs the others in cleaning, drying,

                                                              The Congress hereby declares that
                                                              it is the policy of the United States
                                                              that there should be no discharges
                                                              of oil or hazardous substances
                                                              into or upon the navigable waters
                                                              of the United States, adjoining
                                                              shorelines, or into or upon the
                                                              waters of the contiguous zone.

                                                                      —Section 311, Federal Water
                                                                        Pollution Control Act
                                                                        Amendments of 1972
                                                                          (Public Law 92-500)


     A more  detailed  presentation  of  the  laws,
regulations  and  other subjects  pertaining to
spills  may  be found  in  these references:

Council on Environmental  Quality,  40 CFR,  1510,  "National
  Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution  Contingency  Plan,"
  Federal Register, vol.  38,  no.  155, August  13,  1973.
Executive Order 11735, "Assignment of Functions  Under  Sec-
  tion 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control  Act, As
  Amended," Federal  Register, vol.  38, no.  151,  August
  7, 1973.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972,  As  Amended,
  Public Law 92-500, 86 Stat. 816,  October 18,  1972.
U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 40  CFR, 114, "Civil
  Penalties for Violation of Oil  Pollution Prevention  Regu-
  lations," Federal  Register, vol.  36, no.  228,  November
  25, 1974.
U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 40  CFR, 116, "Desig-
  nation and Determination of Removability of Hazardous
  Substances from Water:  Notice of Proposed Rules, "Federal
  Register, vol.  39, no.  164, August 22,  1974.
U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, "Discharges of  Oil
  for Research, Development and Demonstration Purposes,"
  Federal Register, vol.  36, no.  75, April  17,  1971.
U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, "Field Detection and
  Damage Assessment Manual for Oil and Hazardous Material
  Spills," Division of Oil and Hazardous  Materials, June
U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 40  CFR, 112, "Oil
  Pollution Prevention: Non-Transportation Related Onshore
  and Offshore Facilities,"  Federal Register, vol. 38, no.
  237, December 11, 1973.
U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 40  CFR, 109, "Criteria
  for State, Local  and Regional Oil Removal Contingency
  Plans," Federal Register,  vol.  36, no.  145, July 28, 1971.
U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 40  CFR, 110, "Dis-
  charge of Oil," Federal Register, vol.  36, no. 228, No-
  vember 25, 1971.
U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 40 CFR, 113, "Lia-
  bility Limits for Small Onshore Storage  Facilities,"
  Federal Register, vol. 38, no. 177, September 13, 1973.

 U.S. Environmental  Protection  Agency,  "Tamano Oil  Spill
   Casco Bay:  Environmental  Effects  and Cleanup Operations,"
   (EPA 430/9-75-018)  December 1975,  Office of Water Program
   Operations,  EPA,  Washington, D.C.  20460.

 U.S. Environmental  Protection  Agency,  "Environmental Ef-
   fects of Schuylkill  Oil  Spill'II  (June  1972),"  (EPA 430/
   9-75-019)  December  1975, Office  of Water Program Opera-
   tions, EPA,  Washington,  D.C. 20460.
 Below:   Tanker Sansinena after explosion and  fire
           which began  December  17,  1976  at an oil
           terminal  in  San  Pedro, California.  U.S.
           Coast Guard  photograph.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  40  CFR,  129, "Water
  Programs: Proposed  Toxic  Pollutant Effluent Standards,"
  Federal Register, vol.  38,  no. 247, December 27,  1973.
U.S. Department of Commerce, "Shipboard Guide  to Pollution-
  Free Operations,"  December 1975, Maritime  Administration,
  Washington,  D.C. 20230.
American  Petroleum Institute, "Oil  Spill  Prevention-  A
  Primer,"  publication 4225, 1974.
Proceedings of 1977  Oil Spill Conference, sponsored by
  American Petroleum Institute, U.S.  EPA  and U.S. Coast
  Guard.   Published  by American Petroleum Institute,
  2101 L St.,  N.W.,  Washington, D.C.  20037.   (Also by the
  same title and at  the same publisher these proceedings
  are available for  1969,  1971, 1973,  1975.)

Arthur D.  Little Learning Systems,  "Guide to Water Cleanup
  Materials  and  Methods," New Boston House, 1974.
Commoner,  Barry,  "The Closing Circle: Nature, Man and  Tech-
  nology,"  Alfred A.  Knopf, New York,  1971.
Operation Rescue (Cleaning and Care of Oiled Waterfowl),
  American Petroleum Institute, 1801  K Street, N.W., Wash-
  ington, D.C.  20006. 1972.
 Proceedings of  the  1972 National  Conference on Control  of
   Hazardous Material Spills, sponsored by U.S. Environmen-
   tal  Protection Agency and University of Houston.  Published
   by Graphics Management Corporation, 1101 16th St.,N.W.,
   Washington, D.C.  20036,
 Proceedings of  the  1974 National  Conference on Control  of
   Hazardous Material Spills, sponsored by U.S. Environmen-
   tal  Protection Agency and American  Institute of Chemical
   Engineers,  published by American Institute of Chemical
   Engineers,  345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y.  10017.
 Shenton,  Edward  H., An Historical  Review of Oil  Spills
   Along  the Maine Coast, Maine State Planning Office,
   Coastal  Planning  Group, Augusta, Maine, August 1973.
 Report of  the Task  Force—Operation Oil  (Clean-up of
   the Arrow Oil  Spill in Chedabucto Bay) Atlantic Oceano-
   graphic  Laboratory, Bedford  Institute,  Dartmouth,  Nova
   Scotia  1970.
 Impingement of  Man  on the Oceans,  ed. by Donald E.  Hood,
   New York, John Wiley and Sons,  1971.
 Kaiser,  Robert,  Jones, Donald  and  Lamp'l, Howard, "Tropical
   Storm  Agnes:  Pennsylvania's  Torrey  Canyon" in Proceedings
   of the  Conference on Prevention  and Control  of Oil  Spills,
   March  1973.
 Marine Pollution  and Sea Life, ed. by Mario Ruvio, London,
   Fishing News  (Books) Ltd., 1971.
 McHale,  John, The Ecological Context, New York, George
   Braaziller,  1970.
 Oil on the  Sea,  ed. by David P.  Loult, New York, Plenum
   Press,  1970.
 Potter,  Jeffrey,  Disaster by Oil,  New York, Macmillan,  1972.
 Ross, William M., Oil Pollution as an  International  Problem:
   A Study of  Puget  Sound and the  Strait  of Georgia,  Seattle,
   University  of Washington Press,  1973.
 Inland Spills,  by U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency,
   Region VII,  Attn: Mr. W.L. Banks, 1735 Baltimore Ave.,
   Kansas  City,  Mo.  64108, 1973.


A 2,500-ton piece of the Sansinena smolders on
the dock, blown there by the force of explosion.
A closeup view of the bow of the tanker Sansinena.
           The  tanker Sansinena at San Pedro,  California. The unloading
           of her 34 crude oil cargo tanks was  completed about  2 hours
           before the explosion.  A flash fire  on deck carried  into  the
           vapor inside the No. 10 tank, causing the first explosion.
                         U.S. Coast Guard Photos
                                                        .:.                             '


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