Fourth International Symposium on Field Screening
        Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals
                          Tropicana Hotel
                         Las Vegas. Nevada
                        February 22-24. 1995
     Sponsored by: U.S. EPA, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas and the
     Air & Waste Management Association

                                                                         /„'/<-,' >->
                                  Table of Contents                    -,       .. , •,
                                                                      (           *

Platform Sessions

Panel A - Opportunities, Challenges and Future Technologies  	1

Panel B - Federal Initiatives	2

Poster Sessions

Chemical Sensors	7

Cone Penetrometer Deployed Sensors  	10

Emerging Technologies and New Developments	11

Field Mobile GC/MS  	  12

Gas Chromatography	'	13

Breakout Session

On-Site Measurements: A Guidance Document for Decisions Using On-site
Analytical Support  	14
                                                    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                                    Region 5, Library (PL-12J)
                                                    77 West Jackson Boulevard, 12th Floor
                                                    Chicago, IL  60604-3590


                                                       PANEL A - OPPORTUNITIES. CHALLENGES
                                                                   AND FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES

    Hank Wohltjen, Microsensor Systems, Inc , 62 Corporate Court, Bowling Green, KY -1^103

        Solid-state microsensor devices based on the modulation of piezoelectncally generated acoustic
 wave properties have demonstrated great potential as highly sensitive alternatives to more traditional
 electrochemical and spectrometnc sensors. Piezoelectric microsensors fall into three general categories
 namely, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices and acoustic plate
 mode (APM) devices.

        Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices have enjoyed considerable attention since Sauerbrey (1)  first
 described the influence of surface mass changes on the resonant frequency of piezoelectric crystals in
 1959 Since then they have been used in diverse applications including film thickness measurement,
 aerosol particle measurement, gas detection, and biosensors

        Surface acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor applications began to emerge in  the late 1970's.  Most
 work has focussed on using these devices for chemical vapor detection and probing the mechanical
 properties of thin polymeric films.  SAW devices are more attractive than BAW devices for some
 applications owing to the significantly higher sensitivity afforded by their higher operating frequencies.
 One shortcoming of traditional Rayleigh wave SAW devices has been their unsuitability to liquid phase
 monitoring resulting from compressional wave losses into the liquid. Heightened interest in biosensing
 and the need to conduct sensitive bio-assays in liquid media served as the catalyst for the development of
 new classes of acoustic plate mode  (APM) devices that do operate in liquids and afford very high
 sensitivity to surface mass changes.

        While these acoustic wave-based sensors are intrinsically mass-producible and inexpensive in
 high \ olume production, they have not yet been employed in any high volume analytical sensor
 applications. Instead, they have been most successful when used in specialized instruments where they
 offer some uniquely superior performance characteristic.  As these technologies mature, one can
 anticipate the introduction of a diverse array of new, high performance, field portable instrumentation that
 is based on piezoelectric microsensor technology.

        One objective of this presentation is to briefly describe several state-of-the-art instruments that
 are well suited  for the problem of field screening and which use piezoelectric SAW vapor microsensors as
 their core technology. These include a hand-held instrument for detecting trace quantities of chemical
warfare agent vapors, and a unique  hand-held instrument that can rapidly learn and identify vapors based
 on their SAW microsensor response signatures.

 References: (1) G. Sauerbrey, Verwendung von Schwingquarzen zur Wagung dunner Schicten und zur
 Mikrowagung, Z. Phys. 155 (1959)206-222.

Acknowledgments: The author would like to acknowledge the  significant contributions of Dr. N.L.
Jarvis. Mr. Mark Klusty, Mr. Harold McKee, Mr. Brent Busey, Mr. Norm Davis, and Mr. Robert Saling
of MSI; and Dr. Edward Poziomek of UNLV.

                                                 PANEL A -  OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES
                                                            AND FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES


Henk L.C. Meuzelaar and William H. McClennen, Center for Micro Analysis and Reaction
Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112

       Direct, coupling of compatible analytical techniques in tandem, also known as
"hyphenation" e.g., GC/MS, MS/MS (or even MS"), GC/TMS and GC/GC, has the potential of
providing a dramatic increase in specificity. Under favorable conditions, this may be
accompanied by increased speed (due to reduced sample preparation time) as well as lower
detection limits (due to reduced background interference.  The information content of the 2-
dimensional or n-dimensional data obtained can be several  orders of magnitude higher than that
of a single spectrum or chromatogram. This distinguishes  hyphenated (i.e., serially coupled)
methods from parallel coupled dual column and/or dual detector techniques which are also
gaining popularity in field analytical applications.

       The best known tandem method, GC/MS, arguably the most powerful analytical method
for complex mixtures of organic compounds with measurable vapor pressures, has all but
replaced the use of one-dimensional GC and MS techniques in the laboratory. In fact, the use of
standardized GC/MS procedures has become mandatory for numerous environmental,
occupational, clinical, pharmacological and forensic tests, especially if the results may need to
stand up in court.  Currently, few analytical chemists would dare to propose the use of one-
dimensional GC or MS techniques to characterize complex environmental samples.  Yet, this is
precisely the current state-of-the-art in field portable analytical techniques.

       Only a few years ago, it would have seemed preposterous to propose the development of
man-portable - let alone hand-portable - tandem instruments in view of the notoriously high
complexity, weight and cost of such equipment. However, fully functional prototypes of man-
portable GC/MS and hand-portable GC/IMS (gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry)
systems have already been developed in our laboratory as well as by several other groups (as
reported at the previous Las Vegas meeting) and the enticing prospect of personalized,  pocket-
sized GC/TMS or GC/GC systems has been held forward by some researchers. However, before
the birth of the "tri-corder" (Star Trek) can be announced,  major hurdles remain to be overcome,
particularly in the area of intelligent, man-machine interfaces including data reduction and
visualization techniques, self-adaptive learning and pattern  recognition methods and, last but not
least, advanced telemetry technology.

                                                 PANEL A - OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES
                                                            AND FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES


 Spencer M. Steinberg, Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, Las Vegas
 NV 89154-1017; Edward J. Poziomek, Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, University
 of Nevada-Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009; William H. Engelmann, U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV 89193-3478

       Molecular fluorescence and phosphorescence can be measured at very low concentrations
 for many important classes of organic contaminants. Because luminescence measurements are
 inherently more sensitive than other spectroscopies, such as UV/Vis, Raman, infrared (IR), and
 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), they are attractive for application to environmental
 monitoring.  Luminescence techniques have been employed as analytical methods for a variety
 of environmental contaminants.  The use of synchronous scanning and fluorescence lifetime
 filtering and matrix effects can further enhance sensitivity of fluorescence and phosphorescence
 based methods.  The development of fiber-optic based instrumentation should extend the use of
 luminescence measurements to remote sensing applications. The recent analytical literature on
 the application of luminescence techniques to analytical measurements of various classes of
 environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of
 luminescence for field screening measurements are discussed.  The major advantages projected
 for luminescence versus alternative instruments, kits, or methods are greater sample throughput,
 simplicity, greater selectivity and sensitivity,  and ease of operation.  However, all of these
 advantages do not apply over every competing technology.  The chemical compounds that might
 be analyzed by luminescence spectroscopy can be classified as follows: compounds that are
 intrinsically fluorescent, compounds that can form fluorescent derivatives, and compounds that
 can modulate fluorescence of another compound. Applications of luminescence spectroscopy to
 all three classes can be found in the literature. Examples include: volatile aromatics, including
 benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; PCBs, including the Aroclors™; PAHs; phthalates;
 phenols; some pesticides; several main group elements, such as selenium, tin, and aluminum;
 actinides and lanthanides; ammonia and various other amines; mercaptans and sulfides.  For
 some of these compounds, other well established methods exist  However, field applications,
 utilizing a luminescence approach, could serve as a useful adjunct to an existing method.
 Although the luminescence methods may not always represent the "best" technology, they
 remain sensitive, fast, versatile, and capable of screening for multiple analytes.

Notice:  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Office of Research and
Development (ORD), prepared this abstract for a proposed oral presentation.  It does not
necessarily reflect the views of the EPA or ORD. Mention of trade names or commercial
products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

                                                           PANEL B FEDERAL INITIATIVES


 M.D. Erickson, Argonne National Laboratory ER/203, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois

    The objective of any instrument, technique, or method development project is to deliver
 needed and usable technologies to our customers. To help DOE's Office of Environmental
 Management (EM) and its investigators meet that goal, technology performance specifications
 (PS) are being developed for implementation in R&D and DT&E projects.  Technology
 performance specifications will be used to establish milestones, evaluate the status of ongoing
 projects, and determine the success of completed projects. Preliminary  performance
 specifications will be required in proposals and will be highly weighted  in the  technical

    The general performance specification approach is to document what currently exists or is
 nearing completion and compare that baseline to the customers' needs to identify the unmet
 requirements.  These unmet requirements then form the basis for the technology development
 needs which OTD investigators must address.  The process needs to be quantitative where
 appropriate to focus project goals away from vague generalities like "better" toward specifics
 like "reduce detection limit from 50 ng/L to 100 ng/L" or "cheaper" to "reduction of labor
 costs for Step A from 4 hr to 0.5 hr."

    A report, Performance Specifications for Technology  Development:  Application to VOC
 Characterization and Monitoring  in the Environment by SC Carpenter, PV  Doskey, MD
 Erickson,  and PC Lindahl, describes the PS model in detail.  In addition, the report reviews
 the application of the available technologies for VOC characterization and monitoring and
 assesses their applicability to fixed-based labs, mobile labs, transportable, portable, and in-
 situ measurements.

    The application of performance specifications to field  analysis for VOCs and other areas
will be discussed. Status of implementation within EM will be presented.

                                                            PANEL B FEDERAL INITIATIVES


 Delmar D. Long and Mark D. Nickelson, Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, Martin
 Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-7606

    The Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and several other federal agencies
 have long recognized that the cost (and, to a degree, the quality) of environmental site
 investigations has been disproportionate to the results.  The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions
 Program (HAZWRAP), as a field organization, initiated a process development program termed
 Field Assessment Screening Team (FAST) that had as its primary objective the reduction of site
 characterization costs while maintaining, if not improving, sample quality.

    FAST is the technical integration of optimized investigative technology coordinated with on-
 site, full-suite, site-specific analytical capability and capacity, which is coupled with real-time
 data management/presentation on an iterative basis. The economic results of this process have
 been site characterization cost reductions up to 75%, a 50% reduction in field time, and the
 maintenance of improved data quality

    F A.ST has been shown to be singularly applicable to the Interim Final Data Quality Objective
 Process for Superfund as recently issued by the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Site characterization costs and the attendant functions represent up to 40% of the total
 environmental remediation costs. The FAST process could potentially reduce these costs to less
 :han 20% of the total.

    The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S Government under
 contract DE-AC05-84OR21400 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the U.S.
 Government retains a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or
reproduce the published form of this contribution, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to
the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, or allow others to do so, for U S.
Government purposes.

                                                                       PANEL B FEDERAL INITIATIVES

                                     PLATFORM:  PHASE II

J. Rossabi, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, C. May,  Westinghouse Savannah River Company, B.
Pemberton, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, T. Jarosch, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, B.
Looney, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, B. Riha, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    The principal goal in the development of new technologies for environmental monitoring and
characterization is transferring them to organizations and individuals for use in site assessment  and compliance
monitoring.   The DOE complex has devised several strategies  to facilitate this transfer including joint research
projects between private industries and government laboratories or universities (CRADAs),  and streamlined
licensing procedures. One strategy that has been under-utilized is a planned sequence gradually moving from
laboratory development and field demonstration to long term evaluation and onsite use.  Industrial partnership
and commercial production can be initiated at any step based on the performance, market, user needs, and costs
associated with the technology.  This approach allows use of the technology by onsite groups for  compliance
monitoring tasks (e.g. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management), while allowing  parallel research and
development  organizations the opportunity to evaluate the long term performance and to make modifications or
improvements to the technology.  This probationary period also provides regulatory organizations, potential
industrial partners, and potential users with the opportunity to  evaluate the technology's performance and its
utility for implementation in environmental characterization and monitoring programs.

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been  developing a program to rigorously field test
promising environmental  technologies that have not undergone EPA equivalency testing.  The infrastructure and
staff expertise developed as part of the activities of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration  Program (i.e.,
wells, available power, conventional baseline characterization and monitoring equipment, shelter structures)
allows field testing of technologies without the difficulties of providing remote field support. By providing a
well-characterized site and a well-developed infrastructure, technologies can be tested for long periods of time to
determine their appropriate applications in environmental characterization and monitoring activities.  Situation
specific evaluations of the technology following stringent test plans can be made in comparison with
simultaneous  baseline methods and historical data. This program is designed to help expedite regulatory
approval and  technology transfer to manufacturers and the user community.

    An advisory committee has been established consisting of representatives from local and national regulatory
groups, industry, universities, public interest groups, potential  users, and  SRTC  personnel.   The group helps
determine the technologies that are evaluated and reviews the evaluation strategy and specific test  plans for the
new technology. The inclusion of local regulatory personnel in the advisory groups facilitates the use of
appropriate innovative technologies in remedial facility investigations and remediation programs at SRS.
Successful internal transfers of technologies at SRS from research and development to users (e.g. Environmental
Restoration,  Industrial Health and Hygiene) include:  1) gas chromatography using  the headspace method to
rapidly evaluate volatile organic contamination  in water and soil samples;  2) a commercial infrared photoacoustic
gas analyzer for faster and more accurate measurements; and 3) the cone penetrometer with several sensors and
samplers for rapid, depth discrete  contaminant measurements.   These internal transfers have stimulated the use
of the technologies in both onsite  and offsite activities. The cone penetrometer and the headspace method are
now accepted field screening techniques in most areas of the country.

    As the new technologies are used, there is  a larger demand for their implementation both on and offsite.
This demand  leads industry  and users to the technologies.  Successful implementation of a technology as
compared with baseline technologies should facilitate their acceptance as standard protocols.

 Poster Number 101                                                     CHEMICAL SENSORS


 John M. Henshaw, ORS Environmental Systems, 7 Barnabas Road, Marion, MA 02738
    ChemSensor is a rugged, field-portable instrument capable of in-situ measurement of organic
compounds, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water and process streams. The
response to organics is reversible, requiring only that the user clean and re-zero the probe
between measurements.  ChemSensor gives field sampling personnel an indication of the
concentration at a  site in real time.  This helps in the assessment of leaking underground storage
tank (UST) sites prior to receipt of analytical lab test results and also provides a tool for
monitoring the cleanup at a site over time.  This paper discusses how to interpret the results
obtained from ChemSensor for site assessment at both gasoline and diesel contaminated UST

    ChemSensor consists of a probe connected to a meter via electrical cable that enables in-situ
sampling to standard depths up to 100 feet (custom lengths longer than 100 feet also available).
The sensing element of the probe is a quartz optical fiber coated with a hydrophobic and
organophyllic chemical coating sensitive to organic compounds.  ChemSensor responds to
virtually all organic species dissolved in water, dependent upon the aqueous solubility and
refractive index of the compound.

    Samples were obtained from both gasoline and diesel fuel contaminated sites and analyzed
with ChemSensor and in the laboratory using a gas  chromatograph. A linear relationship
between ChemSensor and the gas chromatograph data was demonstrated for total BTEX
(gasoline) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel). A discussion of the interpretation of
ChemSensor data for  monitoring contamination levels and remediation processes is presented.

    The test results demonstrate that ChemSensor is a useful field portable analytical tool for
determining concentrations of total organic compounds in water and a timely  supplement to
laboratory results. Interpretation of the data from ChemSensor monitoring of a remediation site
over time can give the user an indication of the progress of the clean-up without requiring
excessive characterization of the response via confirmatory laboratory analysis.  ChemSensor
can also be used to optimize the collection of samples for laboratory analysis at a new site by
indicating the level of contamination within and among the wells in real time.

Poster Number 102                                                   CHEMICAL SENSORS


                      Max A. Hilhorst, IMAG-DLO, The Netherlands
   A unique dielectric soil probing tool to monitor the subsurface distribution of non-aqueous
phase liquids (NAPLs) is developed.  Field tests were carried out down to 30 meters, to find
waste layers (NAPLs). The results are interesting and useful. The probe is low cost and simple
to use.  It is able to give routinely a measure of the  soil type (sand, silt, clay), the ion
concentration, the water content and the electrical conductivity of soil layers. It is also able to
locate the position of DNAPLs and LNAPLs.  To make the probe robust and low cost, we
designed an Application Specific Integrated Circuit  (ASIC) for the high frequency front-end
signal processing.  The ASIC can be mounted inside the probe close to the electrodes. The
output is RS232 for easy connection to some kind of computer or recorder.

   Though already useful, only the basic idea has been tested now. There are, however, many
new features in development for this technique, to which some already are working in the
laboratory.  The probe is also useful for continuous monitoring.

 Poster Number 103                                                     CHEMICAL SENSORS

                              OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

 M.A. Druy, P J. Glatkoski, R.A. Bolduc, and W.A.  Stevenson, Foster-Miller, Inc., 350 Second
 Avenue, Waltham, MA 02154; T.C. Thomas, Occupational and Environmental Health
 Directorate, Brooks AFB, TX 78235.

    Normal operations of the Air Force generate significant quantities of waste organic materials
 that must be disposed of in an  environmentally acceptable manner. These hazardous liquid
 wastes include varying quantities of fuel, acids, paints, thinners, strippers, solvents and oils.
 These wastes are collected in the various shops and then delivered to centralized collection sites
 at the base where they are typically stored temporarily in 55 gallon drums or other suitable tanks
 pending delivery to a disposal facility. During this collection process it is not uncommon for the
 liquid wastes gathered from different shops to be combined in a single storage tank or drum.  This
 creates a complex mixture containing a variety of different organic materials in unknown

    This poster presentation summarizes the effort to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a
 field-portable instrument that can perform a quick and accurate chemical analysis of unknown
 waste materials at Air Force bases. The development of this instrument is required in order to
 expedite and reduce the cost of hazardous liquid waste disposal. This instrument can perform the
 analysis without removing a sample from the storage container. The feasibility study
 demonstrated that devices containing an infrared fiber optic sensor can detect and quantify the
 entire range of liquid hazardous waste typically found at Air Force bases. The analytical
technique that was used is Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The demonstration
 involved the fabrication of three different configurations of sensing devices, each of which was
 shown to accurately predict mixtures of solvents. The overall objective of the current
 development effort is to deliver to the Air Force a system that will enable Air Force personnel to
perform on-site analysis/screening of liquid wastes typically found on bases without removing
the sample from the storage container

 Poster Number 104                                       CONE PENETROMETER DEPLOYED SENSORS


         J. Lary Jack, U.S.  EPA, EMSL-LV, P.O. Box 93478, Las Vegas, NV 89193-3478

     Developments in the fields of geophysics, analytical spectroscopy, and foundation engineering are being
 brought together to create a powerful tool for hazardous waste characterization  Originally developed to provide
 engineering data, the cone penetrometer (CPT) has become a vehicle for adaptations of geophysical and
 spectroscopic techniques.  With some distinct advantages over traditional drilling methods for hazardous waste
 work, there is need and interest in producing information on the advantages and limitations of cone penetrometers in
 general More specifically, with the rapid development or adaptation of sensors to the cone penetrometers, there is
 also tremendous interest in a thorough evaluation of these sensors under real site conditions.

     Under the EPA's Superlund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, the Monitoring and
 Measurement Technology Program (MMTP) is charged with demonstrating and evaluating monitoring and
 measurement technologies.  In response to input of EPA Regional Office needs, a demonstration of cone
 penetrometer-mounted chemical sensors was conducted in August and September of 1994. This demonstration
 evaluated the spectrum of available cone penetrometer sensor technology.  Representing the smaller sized units was
 Geoprobe Systems, while new optical analytical spectroscopy sensors were represented by the Rapid Optical
 Analytical Tool, or ROST, (a commercial system) developed by Unysis Corporation and the L'.S. Army's Site
 Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS). In addition, standard commercially-available, full-
 sized sensors were evaluated from a contracted ng made available to the demonstration participants by the MMTP.
 Traditional data for comparison were obtained by contracted drill ng and off-site analytical services.

     For the purpose of this demonstration, three sites were used  including the York Gas and Electric Company Coal
 Gasification Site in York, Nebraska,  which has polyaromtic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination; a former
 underground storage tank (UST) site at Ft  Riley, Kansas which has contamination resulting from fuel leaks; and the
 Atlantic Coal Gas Company site located in Atlantic, Iowa which has both PAH and fuel contamination. The various
 technologies and the drill ng independently examined through the three sites during the penod 13 August to 2
 September, 1994

     The demonstration sought to evaluate the participating systems m three main areas including:  (1) how the cone
 penetrometer systems data compared with conventional analytical results (pollution detection), and (2) their ability
 to provide vertical profiles of the contamination (pollution characterization), and (3) how well they can characterize
 and sample the subsurface materials (geotechmcal characterization). Additionally, all MMTP demonstrations seek
 to evaluate such planning factors as reliability, ruggedness, cost, operating range, required QA/QC parameters,
 training requirements, and ease of operation as compared to conventional techniques.

    As the demonstration is only recently concluded and the data has not yet been completely evaluated, this
discussion seeks to provide basic information about the participating technologies and the conduct of the field
activities.  The final report of the demonstration is scheduled to be completed in early 1995.

Notice; This abstract was prepared for an oral presentation. It does not necessarily reflect the views of the U S.
EPA. Mention of trade names does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

 Poster Number 105                                      EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND
                                                    NEW DEVELOPMENTS


 Christine Eberle, Ing.-Euro Rover+Partner, Neuhofstr. 1, 64625 Bensheim, Germany and Frieder
 Kern, Landesanstalt fur Umweltschutz Baden-Wurttemberg, Karlsruhe, Germany
    The formerly used methods of taking samples and carrying out lab analysis for soil, waste
and toxic deposits require  a lot of time and money.  Because of this, usually only a small amount
of samples is analyzed. The few samples and the complex environmental matrices are the reason
why the results of analysis  vary so much and are difficult to discuss.  The intention of the study
"Possibilities of application of Field Screening Methods with Sensor technique", which was
started in 1992, was to investigate the market to find new methods and instruments for detection
of toxic compounds in the  area of environmental protection.  With sensor technique  analysis
should get faster and cheaper. Another purpose of the study is to raise the acceptance of Field
Screening Methods at the responsible agencies

   F irst the national and international literature was investigated for new methods and
instruments.  The result was a list of about 20 instruments which looked interesting and were
chosen to be tested  under field conditions.  Some selected results of the first part of these field
tests are documented in this poster. The tests were realized on the site of a former sawmill with
wood impregnation in Sinsheim, Germany, where the pollutants PAH, aliphatic Hydrocarbons,
PCP and Chrome were found.

   The following methods and instruments were tested, compared and evaluated up to now:

   *  Immunoassays (PAH, aliphatic Hydrocarbons, PCP)
   *  Mobile GC/MS (organic compounds)
   *  Mobile XRF (HM)
   *  Lasersonde (PAH)
   *  Mobile IR-instruments (aliphatic and aromatic Hydrocarbons)
   *  Luminescent bacteria test

Poster Number 106                                                    FIELD MOBILE GC/MS


Marcus B. Wise, Roosevelt Merriweather, Michael Guerin, and Cyril V. Thompson, Analytical
Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN
   Rapid analytical methods which utilize Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for
field screening and compliance monitoring of volatile organic compounds in groundwater have
been under development in our laboratory for several years.  These methods can be used on
fieldable instrumentation, have low ppb detection limits, and require little or no sample
preparation.  The DSITMS analysis of VOCs in water uses a three minute direct purge of the
water sample with a stream of helium at a flow rate of 100 mL/min. VOCs partition into the
helium stream and are carried directly into the ion trap via a 100 um section of fused silica
capillary. Most of the sample is vented through an open/split interface, with only about 1
mL/min. entering the mass spectrometer.  Analysis of the VOCs is accomplished by alternating
conditions in the ion trap at roughly one second intervals between electron ionization and
chemical ionization (water reagent gas). Two such methods for the analysis of VOCs in water
have been submitted to EPA for regulatory approval, and in order to facilitate this process,
validation studies have been conducted comparing the DSITMS method to a standard method
such as purge-and-trap GC/MS.  One such study, recently completed, involved the analysis of
over 100 groundwater samples collected from the Oak Ridge reservation for compliance
monitoring.  Split samples of the groundwater were analyzed by DSITMS and by purge-and-trap
GC/MS at a local CLP laboratory. The results of the comparative study generally show excellent
qualitative and quantitative agreement between the DSITMS and standard methods, with the
DSITMS method being superior with respect to speed, cost, ease of use, and minimized artifacts.

Poster Number 107                                             GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

                       TESTING ON GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

       Jac,. Mott, SRI Instruments, 3882 Del Amo Blvd., Suite 601 Torrance, CA 90503

    Testing for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is one of the most common analytical tests
today.  A recent development in chromatography incorporates Thermal Soil Desorption
technology to enable analyses of unprepared soil samples for volatiles such as BTEX
components and semi-volatiles such as diesel, PCBs, PAHs and pesticides in the same
chromatogram, while in the field.

    A gas cnromatograph is the preferred method for determining TPH because the column in a
GC separates the individual hydrocarbons compounds such as benzene and toluene from each
other and measures each individually.  A GC analysis will determine not only the total amount of
hydrocarbon, but also whether it is gasoline, diesel or another compound.

    TPH analysis with a GC is typically conducted with a Flame lonization Detector (FID).
Extensive field and laboratory testing has shown that incorporation of a Thermal Soil Desorber
offers many benefits over traditional analytical testing methods such as Headspace, Solvent
Extraction, and Purge & Trap.

    This paper presents the process of implementing Thermal Soil Desorption in gas
chromatography, including procedures for, and advantages of faster testing and analysis times,
concurrent volatile and semi-volatile analysis, minimized  sample manipulation, single gas (H:)
operation,  and detection to the part-per billion levels.

                                                                           WEDNESDAY EVENING
                                                                             BREAKOUT SESSION

                                      ON-SITE MEASUREMENTS
                                       ANALYTICAL SUPPORT

         Joan F. Fisk, CST-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM; Mike Carter, US DOE,
         EM-263, Gaithersburg, MD, and Conrad Klevano, Dyncorp Viar, Gaithersburg, MD

            The purpose of this breakout session will be to discuss the direction of the draft document,
         On-Site Measurements - A Guidance Document for Decisions Using On-Site Analytical
         Support" and to provide input to the developers for improvement and to make it useful across
         Government and non-Government organizations. This document was developed under the
         auspices of DOE's Analytical Services Division (EM-263) to bring legitimacy to the appropriate
         use of on-site measurements and to  provide a rationale to the DOE complex decision makers for
         using on-site measurements (real time and pseudo-real time) for making necessary field

            The authors believe that there are three potential reasons for using on-site measurements (1)
         in situ monitoring/measurements, (2) provision of data for decisions that must be made in the
         field in real time, and (3) an option that falls out of the DQO process step 7, ''optimization of
         design," that is  the most cost effective design for meeting project goals.  The document under
         discussion focusses on reason number 2.

            Examples of using on-situ measurements to make decisions in real time are (1) to redirect
         sampling efforts based on new knowledge; (2)  to determine i an area of interest, such as a
         project-specific "exposure unit"  (EU) is clean or needs to be remediated, based on (e.g.)
         sampling sub-plots and analyzing composites that represent the EU while the removal equipment
         is still there, and (3) to determine the best locations for monitoring wells.

            The document describes program elements needed for success such as how to incorporate the
         use of on-site measurements for decision making into the planning process to assure that the data
         quality is adequate for making those decisions the kinds of QA and QC issues that must be
         addressed to support the use of the on-site measurements and to document the quality, and how
         to determine the adequacy of the data after it is collected to justify its use.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency                  14
Region 5, Library (PL-12J)
77 West Jackson Boulevard,  12th Floor
Chicago, IL  60604-3590