October 1990
Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OS-305)

The Environmental
Consumer's Handbook
                              Printed on Recycled Paper

The  Cat's Out of  the Bag
                 • Reduce • Reuse
                 Recycle  • Respond
   This booklet descril>
 toward a serious problem...what to do with all your garbage. As a
 consumer, you can help alleviate the garbage glut by making
 environmentally aware decisions about the products and packap
 you purchase, use, and ultimately dispose of.
   Like the old tale that says cats have nine lives, so do many of the
 items you use everyday. The container that began its life as a peanut
 butter jar can be washed and reused to store buttons or thumb tacks.
 The lemon juice bought to bake a meringue pie is also an excellent
 household cleaner.
   Reusing products and packages is a practical way to cut down on
 what you throw away. This booklet describes many other waste reduc-
 tion steps that you as a consumer can take. Why should you choose to
 reduce? Because you'll save money, protect the natural environment.
 and help improve the quality of everybody's life.


    Be an Environmentally
           Alert  Consumer
  In one day, the average American
generates several pounds of gar-
bage. Just consider a typical family's
daily routine....
  Dad gets up, showers, and shaves
with a disposable razor. Before
heading to the daycare center,
Mom puts a fresh disposable diaper
on the baby. In the kitchen, the kids
pop their pre-prepared breakfasts
into the microwave and minutes
later throw away the multiple layers
of packaging the meals are wrapped
in. There's no time to wash dishes,
so everyone eats with throwaway
utensils. After the morning paper
gets a quick review, it gets tossed,
  It's not even 9 o'clock and this
family already has created a small
mound of garbage. The pattern is
likely to continue throughout the
day, too. Every hour, at least one
member of this family very likely
throws something away such as
disposable coffee cups from the
convenience store down the street,
lunch containers, used ballpoint
pens, shopping bags, and so on. Of
course, they're not unusual.
Americans generate millions of tons
of municipal solid waste each year
in the form of wrapping, bottles,
boxes, cans, diapers, yard waste,
food scraps, furniture, clothing,
and many other items.
  Though you may not realize it,
the products you buy and throw
away have a significant impact on
the environment. The improper
disposal of some products (such as
motor oil and household cleaners)
can introduce potential hazards
into the environment and endanger
plants and wildlife. Products and
packaging  designed to be thrown
away after a single use can increase
disposal costs, deplete our natural
resources, contribute to litter, and
add to our nation's waste disposal

  Integrated waste management refers to the complementary use of a.
variety of waste management practices to safely and effectively handle
municipal solid waste. The following is the preferred hierarchy of

  • Source reduction is the  design, manufacture, purchase, or use of
    materials or products (including packages) to reduce their amount
    or toxicity before they enter the municipal solid waste stream.
    Because it is intended to reduce pollution and conserve resources,
    source reduction should not increase the net amount or toxicity of
    wastes generated throughout the life of a product.
  * Recycling prevents potentially useful materials from being landfilled
    or combusted, thus preserving our capacity for disposal. Recycling
    also saves energy and natural resources.
  • Waste combustion and landfilling also are essential to managing
    waste that cannot be reduced or recycled. Waste combustion reduce
    the bulk of waste by burning it in specially designed facilities, and
    often provides the added benefit of energy production. Source
    reduction and recycling can make combustion safer and more
    efficient by removing items from the waste stream that may be
    difficult to burn, that may cause potentially harmful emissions, or
    that may make ash management problematic. Landfilling is—and
    likely to continue to be—a major component of waste management.
    "fou can, however, greatly reduce the portion of waste requiring land
    disposal by becoming aw;are of your own contributions to the garbage*
    glut and by modifying your habits to promote wise use and reuse of
    our valuable resources.

The Solid Waste Crisis
  It's no secret that many areas of
the country are facing a solid waste
crisis because there's too much
trash and not enough places to put
it all. Nearly half of the nation's
landfills will close in the next sev-
eral years. Few new landfills or
combustors are being built to
replace these facilities due to con-
cerns over noise, traffic, air  and
water pollution, and potential
health  risks.
  At the same time, many commu-
nities are finding creative solutions
to their waste problems. Across the
country,  these communities are
implementing "integrated waste
management systems" that use a
mix of solutions  (source reduction,
recycling, and combustion and
landfilling) to manage their trash.

Source Reduction
   Source reduction is any practice
that reduces the  amount or toxicity
of a waste. It includes making goods
last longer, reusing products, and
reducing packaging. Because
source reduction actually prevents
the generation of waste in the first
place, it is an approach that needs
to preceed other management
options  that deal with the waste
after it is already generated.
   Source reduction can be as
simple as reaching for a sponge
instead of a paper towel, or as com-
plex as redesigning a product so
that less packaging is needed.
   The concept is not new. Many
people used to make quilts out of
scrap clothing and buy their milk in
bottles that were cleaned and
reused by dairies.

The Throwaway Society
   It wasn't until the 1940s and
1950s that "throwaway behaviors"
really took root in American  cul-
ture. In  1955, a Life magazine
article called "Throwaway Living"
described the country's infatuation
with such disposables as throwaway
vases and draperies, disposable
duck decoys, and barbecue grills
that could be tossed after a single

The United States embraced a throwaway ethic
 in the 1950s, as depicted in this 1955 Life magazine photo.
Peter Stackpole, Life magazine, © 1955, Time, Inc.

  Over the years, consumers have
been persuaded that disposable
products and throwaway packaging
are more attractive and convenient
than reusable or durable goods. It's
easy to take for granted the vast
array of products that are designed
for one use and then discarded.
And, how often have you thrown
out broken items rather than repair
them, or disposed of perfectly good
products when "new and improved"
ones come on the market?
  Of course, every time you throw
away an item, you pay a price. As a
consumer, you pay to replace the
products you toss out. As a citizen,
you pay to have your trash hauled
away and disposed of. And everyone
pays for the toll all this waste can
take on the natural environment.
  It's time to change. You can
make a difference.

A New Attitude
  Solving the solid waste dilemma
requires more than simply finding
new places to put trash. It requires
making changes  in attitudes and
behaviors. Just as you feel uncom-
fortable when you litter, you need
to feel uncomfortable when you
don't reuse and recycle, when you
throw items away instead of repair-
ing them, and when you buy
products in "convenient" packages
that immediately get tossed out.
Evaluate your daily waste-producing
activities to determine which ones
are essential (such as buying
medicines and foods wrapped in
packaging for your safety and
health), and which are not (such as
throwing away glass jars that could
be reused or recycled).
A Fundamental Solution
  Changing behaviors does not
mean a return to a more difficult
lifestyle, however.  In fact, just the
opposite may happen. If individuals
don't practice  source reduction, the
economic and environmental costs
to dispose of waste will continue to
increase, and all
communities—large and
small—will face tough decisions
about where to put their trash.
Many municipalities already are
confronting these difficult issues.
  Source reduction is a fundamen-
tal solution to  the garbage glut—if
there's less waste,  there's less of a
waste problem. Source reduction
also saves natural resources  (such as
trees and oil) that must be used to
make new products, and prevents
the air or water pollution often
associated with manufacturing.

Everyone Has a Role
  All sectors of society have a role
in changing current patterns of
consumption and disposal. Manu-
facturers can design products that
are less toxic, that require less pack-

aging, that are recyclable, and that
result in less waste at the end of
their useful lives. Merchants can
stock products that are truly envi-
ronmentally friendly. You can
respond by purchasing those prod-
ucts and by expressing your
preferences for them.
  As large consumers, manufactur-
ers, retailers, schools, and all levels
of government can buy products
with source reduction attributes.
Besides creating incentives to
encourage all sectors of society to
create less waste, the federal
government can provide leader-
ship, disseminate information, and
assist communities in planning and
implementing source reduction
measures. State, local, and tribal
governments can create the most
appropriate source reduction mea-
sures for their locales. Some
communities are already consider-
ing user fee charges, requiring
households and businesses to pay a
certain dollar amount for every bag
of trash they toss.

Your Role
  The easiest, most direct way for
you to make a difference is to watch
what you buy and throw away. You
can alleviate your individual
"garbage glut" by following these
basic principles:
  • REDUCE the amount of trash
  • REUSE containers  and prod-
  • RECYCLE as much as possible;
  • RESPOND to the solid waste
    dilemma by reassessing waste-
    producing activities and by
    expressing preferences for less
  How can you put these principles
into practice? You can start by
taking a few simple steps.

      A Baker's Dozen Tips for the
    Environmentally Aware  Consumer

2. Buy, maintain, and repair durable products.

 , Reuse bags, containers, paper, boxes, and other items.

I. Select products with the most purposeful, least wasteful

>. Buy concentrates, larger-sized containers, or products in

6. Buy products that can be recycled and make sure to
 recycle them.

7, Buy products made of recycled materials.

8. Buy nonhazardous products for use around the house.

9. Compost food and yard wastes.

     Borrow, rent, or share things you use infrequently.

     Buy, sell, and donate used and secondary goods
     such as clothes, furniture, and appliances.

            12. Make your preferences known to
                merchants, politicians, and
               community leaders.

                   13. Be creative—look for
                      opportunities to practice
                      source reduction!

     Buy reusable products and avoid

                    disposable goods.

       Each year, the United States produces 1.6 billion disposable pens, 2 billion
    throwaway razors and blades, and 16 billion disposable diapers, to say nothing of
    eating utensils, plates, cups, and even cameras that are used once and then
    thrown away.
      • Instead of using disposable cups, take a ceramic mug or glass to work that can
       be washed and reused. Carry your own cup to working meetings or on
       breaks. At home, use reusable and durable plates, cups, silverware, and food
      • While disposable products for your baby may be necessary sometimes, when
       you can, consider using cotton or terry cloth diapers and washcloths you
       clean yourself.
      • Buy refillable pens or ones with replaceable cartridges.
      • Use razors with replaceable blades.
      • Use rechargeable batteries and rechargeable
       small appliances whenever possible.
      • Use sturdy washable utensils and dishes for
       picnics, outdoor parties, and potlucks.
      • Use cloth napkins. Reach for a sponge or
       dishcloth instead of a paper towel to clean
      • Consider purchasing milk, water, soft
       drinks, or seltzer in reusable
       containers. In some areas, these
       items can be delivered to your
       home, picked up, and reused by the
       company that provides them.

      Buy,  maintain,

          and repair

 durable products.

  Avoiding disposables goes hand in hand
with buying durable and fixable prod-
ucts. Long-wearing clothing, tires,
appliances, and other items may cost
more at first, but they often save money
in the long run. Ultimately, they need
less repair and will not have to be
replaced as frequently.
  • Select energy-efficient appliances and .
    electronic equipment with good warranties
    and service contracts. Check consumer reports
    for products with a record of high consumer
    satisfaction and low breakdown rates.
  • Keep appliances in good working order. Follow
    manufacturers' suggestions for proper operation and
    maintenance. Manufacturers' service departments may have toll-
    free numbers; phone toll-free directory assistance at 1-800-555-1212 to find
  • Buy long-lasting tires and maintain them. To extend tire life, check tire
    pressure once a month, follow the manufacturer's recommendations for
    upkeep, and rotate tires routinely.
  • Mend your clothes instead of throwing them away.
  • When possible, repair worn shoes, boots, handbags, and briefcases.
  • Purchase durable furniture, luggage, sporting goods, and tools that will stand
    up to use.

  • Buy low-energy fluorescent light bulbs rather than incandescent ones. They'll
    last longer and also reduce your electric bill.

       Reuse bags, containers, paper,

              boxes,  and other items.

      Many everyday household goods have more than one life. After being
    emptied and cleaned, common items can be used in countless money-
    saving and practical ways.
      • Reuse paper and plastic bags, and twist ties. You might keep a
       supply of bags or boxes in your car to reuse on your next
       shopping trip. Where merchants allow, bring a string, mesh, or
       canvas bag to the store. If you buy only one or two items,
       decline a bag altogether.
       • Reuse glass jars, coffee cans, and dairy tubs to store
       foods; hardware (screws and nails); and other useful
       items (buttons, thumb tacks, or paper clips). Reuse
       aluminim foil, pie tins, and the trays that come with
       some frozen and microwavable meals.
      • Reuse scrap paper. Staple together sheets of scrap
       paper to make note pads and shopping lists. Use both
       sides of a piece of paper before recycling it. Save and
       reuse gift boxes, ribbons, tissue paper, and larger
       pieces of wrapping paper.
      • Save packaging, colored paper, egg cartons, and
       other items for arts and crafts projects at day
       care facilities, scout troops, and senior citizen
       centers. Cut up old draperies, bedding,
       clothing, towels, and cotton diapers for use
       as patchwork, rags, doll clothes, or other

• Reuse newspaper, polystyrene "peanuts," and "bubble wrap" to ship your next
  fragile package. Use brown paper bags to wrap parcels.
• Wash and reuse empty plastic milk jugs, water bottles, and other similar
  containers. These containers can be used for various purposes, such as to
  store and transport used motor oil (and other liquids).
                        • Turn used lumber into birdhouses,
                            mailboxes, a compost bin, or other
                             woodworking projects. If the lumber is
                              unpainted and not pressure treated,
                                burn it as firewood.
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                     The Degradable Plastics Debate
          As a consumer, you must make some tough decisions every time you
        shop. Even with good intentions, however, it's not always apparent how to
        "do the right thing."
          One of the biggest debates has centered on degradable plastics, such as
        trash bags, grocery bags, and even biodegradable diapers. Is such technol-
        ogy the answer to the solid waste crisis? That remains to be seen. Little
        evidence exists that biodegradable plastics have the potential to reduce
        landfill space. Still, these products are tempting consumers with some
        rather remarkable claims.
          Biodegradable plastics are made with a filler, usually cornstarch, that is
        broken down by microorganisms. Under the right conditions, the product
        is supposed to break down into pieces small enough to naturally degrade
        into carbon dioxide and water.
          In reality, however, few data support these products' claims of
        biodegradability. First of all, little degradation of any kind is taking place
        in our modern landfills, which is where most of these "biodegradable"
        items would end up. Researchers have unearthed cabbages, carrots, and
        readable newspapers that have been in landfills for 30 years or more^ It is
        unlikely that biodegradable trash bags would achieve better results.
        Secondly, there are few studies on the impact of small pieces of plastics,
        which would result from partial degradation of these products, on wildlife
        and the environment.
          Even assuming that biodegradable plastics do perform exactly  as they
        are supposed to, they still use up valuable resources that will not be
        reclaimed as they would be in recycling. It is feared that biodegradable
        plastics will continue to encourage consumers to dispose of their plastic
        waste, rather than reduce or recycle it. Biodegradable plastics could also
        interfere with the cost effectiveness of recycling and with the recycling
        process itself.

Select products with  the  most pur-

           poseful, least wasteful


  Packaging materials account for a significant amount of all the trash consumers
generate. Packaging is necessary to prevent tampering,
and to preserve the hygienic integrity and fresh-
ness of certain products such as foods and drugs.
But some products are wrapped in packaging that
is difficult to recycle or serves no purpose       /^'
except to enhance a product's attractiveness.   /^/.  /ffjl,
  • Avoid buying goods with unnecessary
   packaging, such as "bubble-packs" that
   wrap items in plastic seals with
   cardboard backing just for display, or
   "double packaging" such as a bottle
   inside a box.
  • Avoid packaging made with
   mixed materials, such as
   containers made of paper
   laminated with plastic or foil.
   Given two equivalent products,
   choose the one packaged more
   simply, with  a single, recyclable
  • Buy fresh produce sold without
   packaging whenever possible. Avoid using
   plastic bags for purchases such as a couple of
   cucumbers,  cloves of garlic, or lemons.
  • Let store managers know you want less packaging.
   Ask clerks not to double or triple wrap your purchases.


        Buy  concentrates, larger-sized

      containers,  or products in bulk.

      The concept of buying in bulk is not new. Buying larger-sized packages not only
    saves money since you get more product, but it also makes sense environmentally
    because you get less packaging. For example, less waste is generated by using one
    64-ounce box of laundry soap compared to two or three
    smaller size packages of the same product.
      • Buy large or economy size items for household
        products you use regularly—laundry soap,
        shampoo, baking soda, pet foods, kitty litter,
        and the like.
      • Buy the largest size food packages available
        that you can use without spoilage.
      • Many manufacturers have  created
        refillable product containers. Buy the
        original container once, and then refill
        it from a bulk container. Especially
        look for household and laundry
        products available in refillable
      • If you currently buy single food
        servings, try buying the next largest
        serving and storing the leftovers in
        reusable, sturdy storage containers.
      • Buy concentrates such as fruit juices and
        drinks, detergents, and automobile windshield
        washer fluid to eliminate the need to pay for and
        carry a big package. Buy bouillon cubes instead of
        canned soup stock.
      • Buy grains, beans, cereal, pasta, and other items in bulk
        whenever possible.
      • If storage space is a concern, try sharing bulk purchases with friends and
        neighbors. You also can extend the "buying-in-bulk" concept to mail order
        purchases. Place an order with a group of people to save money on shipping
        costs and reduce packaging waste.

Buy products that can be recycled

   and  make  sure to recycle them.

  Producing goods from recycled paper, glass, and aluminum consumes
significantly less energy and water, and results in less air and water pollution than
producing goods from virgin or raw materials. Yet, our landfills are packed with
products people routinely throw away that can be recycled. Besides environmental
                  advantages, recycling can  have economic rewards. Many
                     groups around the country have made money from recy-
                       cling projects.
                           • Purchase products made of materials that are
                              collected for recycling in your community,
                              such as glass, aluminum, tin, some paper, and
                              certain plastics. Look for the standard
                              "recyclable" label depicted in the picture to
                              the left. If a system is not in place for you to
                              return a certain type of material, that
                              material is not recyclable.
                              If your community recycles, be sure to
                              participate, whether it is a curbside pickup or
                              drop-off program. Call your local  town hall
                              to find out the schedule, how to separate
                              your trash, what materials are accepted, and
                              where the drop-off stations are located. For
                              example, some communities require
                             individuals to separate glossy paper  from
                            newspaper, and different types of cans. You can
                           use a magnet to tell steel, tin, or bimetal cans
                           from aluminum cans  (a magnet does  not stick to
                         If your community does not have a recycling
                        program, participate in setting one up. Call local
                       salvage operators to see if they will accept or pick up
                   materials for recycling.
  • Encourage local businesses and your merchants to recycle office paper and
    beverage cans and bottles, and to use shredded paper for shipping.
    Businesses also can recycle cardboard boxes or donate them to recycling
  • Bring used car batteries and motor oil (saved in clean plastic jugs) to
    automobile service centers and other places that collect these items for

                Buy products made  of

                   recycled materials.

      Merely separating your glass, cans, paper, and plastic trash is only part of the
   recycling process. For recycling to be successful, these materials must be pro-
   cessed into new goods and marketed. And, to close the recycling loop, you must
                     purchase the products made from recycled materials.
                                Shop for cereals, detergents, pasta, cake mixes,
                                  and other items in packages made of
                                    recycled materials. Once you've bought a
                                     product, you'll be able to tell if it's a
                                     recycled package by examining its interior
                                     (recycled cardboard is grey not white). In
                                     addition, the recycling symbol may be
                                     displayed on the package or container.
                                    • Buy beverages in bottles  and cans that
                                     have been made from recycled materials.
                                    • Buy products with recycled content such
                                     as stationery, wrapping paper, toilet
                                     paper, paper towels, napkins, tissues,
                                     note pads, and computer paper. These
                                     items, along with plastic, glass, and other
                                     material, are available through mail-order
                                     catalogues, stationers, print shops, and a
                                    growing number of grocery and drug
                                  Encourage your employer to purchase and
                                  use recycled stationery, note pads, computer
                                 paper, and other such items.


              Reduce Your Advertising Mail
         1989, over 90 million Americans made one or more purchases
         tgh the mail. When consumers make these mail-order purchases,
         names are often added to a list and marketed to other places that do
    >,«~».*ess through the mail. While many people enjoy the catalogues,
f  ' .              (j                    / JT   JT    .j /          o
    sweepstakes offers, magazines solicitations, and other advertising mail
    they receive as a result of these lists, those who'd like to receive less
    national adver using mail can choose either of two options. Consumers
    making mail or telephone purchases can ask companies not to rent or
    share their names with other mailers. Consumers who choose not to shop
    at home can write to:
      Mail Preference Service
      Direct Marketing Association
      11 West 42nd Street
       '.O. Box 3861
        ew York, NY 10163-3861

       lie Mail Preference Service is a no-charge service program that
    removes consumers* names from many national mailing lists. Be sure to
    provide your name and address, including zip code, when writing to to
    the Mail Preference Service.
      It  may take a few months before there is a noticeable decrease in the
    amount of national advertising mail you receive. In addition, local adver
    tising mail, such as store flyers, will not be affected. In these cases, you
    write directly to the mailer and request that your name  be removed fror
    the mailing list.

      Buy nonhazardous products for
               use  around the house.
      You don't consciously think of putting
    "hazardous substances" on your shopping list, but
    that's just what you do when you purchase such
    items as corrosive toilet cleaners and ignitable
    paint thinners. Not only do these and similar
    products add to health risks in your home, but
    they become hazardous to the environment
    when you improperly use them, wash them
    down the drain, pour them in your backyard,
    or improperly dispose of the containers that
    contain product residuals. Hazardous wastes
    disposed of with the regular trash pick-up
    can potentially harm the collectors, catch
    fire, work their way into ground water, or
    create dangerous gases that can escape
    into the air.
      • Avoid buying products that contain
        toxic materials.
      • Be alert to labels. Words such as
        "danger," "poison," "warning,"
        and "caution" indicate that a
        product is harmful and may
        need to be specially disposed of.
        "Nontoxic" typically means a
        product is safe for humans, but
        may not be safe for the
        environment. Other warning
        signals include "do not get in contact
       with eyes," "do not swallow," "avoid
        inhalation of vapors," and "use in a well-
       ventilated area."
      • Ask your local merchants what nontoxic
       alternatives to toxic household items they
       carry, and use them. If they don't stock any,
       encourage them to.

• Check with your local library or bookstore for guidebooks containing non-
  toxic household tips or look in the "Bibliography" section of this booklet.
              • For products containing toxic substances, purchase only the
                              amount you can use at one time. If you do
                                have leftover materials, ask neighbors if
                                  they can use them or donate them to a
                                   nonprofit group, shelter, or theater
                                  • Dispose of product containers properly,
                                   according to your community's policy
                                   on household hazardous waste disposal.
                                   Product labels may also include specific
                                   disposal instructions.
                                  • Check with your local chamber of com-
                                    merce, county,  or state environmental
                                    agency to see if your town sponsors pe-
                                   riodic household hazardous waste col-
                                   lection days. On these days, qualified
                                  professionals collect hazardous wastes at a
                                  central location to ensure safe waste
                                 disposal. Refer to the list of state waste
                                 management agencies at the back of this
                            • Encourage your community to begin a collec-
                            tion program, if one does not already exist.

       1. The life
       butter jar begins on
       the supermarket shelf,
       filled with your favorite
       brand. When emptied
       and cleaned out, you
       and your family can
       use It In many practical ways.
2. It's a perfect container for displaying
a prized marble collection.
             9. When you collect
             too many peanut
             butter jars, be sure to
             recycle the extras.
             They may be used to
             manufacture new
             peanut butter jars or
             other glass containers.
                       8. Then use it to show
                       off the beautiful flowers
                       yog picked for the
                       dinner table when the
                       fishing is done.

                                          4. And to mix a batch
                                          of concentrated juice.
                       3. It can be used to
                       store leftovers...
                                     5. It can be taken back
                                     to the store to buy
                                     foods In bulk, such as
                                     honey, maple syrup,
                                     and even more peanut
7. Take the jar on your
next fishing trip to
carry live bait.
                                                  6. The jars also make
                                                  great cookie cutters.

                Hazardous Products Common!
                            Around the House
           Bathroom: air fresheners; disinfectants; tub and tile cleaners.
           Living and Storage Areas: furniture polish; fabric cleaner; rug
           shampoo; spot remover; flea spray; nail polish remover; mothballs.
           Kitchen: oven cleaner; floor wax; disinfectants; drain cleaner.
           Basement and Workshop: oil-based paints; stains and varnishes;
               §icides; and photographic chemicals.
               tge and Outdoors: antifreeze; lighter fluid; car batteries; used
               or oil; gasoline; rust remover; vinyl cleaner; degreasers: pesli-
               s; lawn fertilizers: swimming pool chemicals.

        Safer Substitutes for Household Hazards
   Here are a few of the hundreds of safe substitutes for household
hazardous products readily available. Some are time-tested favorite reme-
dies and others are modern day innovations.

                      In ) quart warm or hot water, mix 1 teaspoon liquid
                      soap, boric acid (borax), lemon juice, and/or vinegar.
                      Make stronger according to the job to be done.
All-purpose cleaner
Glass cleaner

Drain cleaner

Oven cleaner

Toilet bowl cleaner

Furniture polish

Laundry detergent
Rug deodorizer
and shampoo
Silver polish
Plant sprays


Fly paper

Roach and
ant repellent

Flea and tick powder
                      Mix 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice in 1 quart
                      water. Spray on and use newspaper to wipe dry.

                      Pour boiling water down drain once a week. Use a
                      plunger or snake.

                      Clean spills as soon as the oven cools using steel wool
                      and baking soda; for tough stains, add salt (do not use
                      this method in self-cleaning or continuous-clean ovens).

                      Use a toilet brush and baking soda or vinegar.

                      Wipe with mixture of 1 teaspoon lemon oil in 1 pint min-
                      eral or vegetable oil.

                      Use natural soap flakes. Add 1/4 cup vinegar during the
                      first rinse if the water is hard to prevent the soap from
                      leaving a film.

                      Deodorize dry carpets by sprinkling liberally widi baking
                      soda. Wait at least 15 minutes and vacuum. Repeat if nec-
                      essary. To clean rugs, vacuum first to remove dirt. Mix 1
                      quart white vinegar and 3 quarts boiling water. Apply to
                      nap of rug with wet rag being careful not to saturate rug
                      backing. Dry thoroughly. Then vacuum.

                      Boil 2 to 3 inches of water in a shallow pan with 1 tea-
                      spoon salt, 1 teaspoon baking soda, and a sheet of alu-
                      minum foil. Totally submerge silver and boil for 2 to 3
                      more minutes. Wipe away tarnish. Repeat if necessary.
                      Another alternative is to use nonabrasive toothpaste.

                      Wipe leaves with mild soap  and water; rinse.

                      Use cedar chips, lavender flowers, rosemary, mint, or
                      white peppercorns.

                      Boil together sugar, corn syrup, and water. Spread on
                      brown paper and hang.

                      Sprinkle powdered boric acid in cabinet edges, around
                      baseboards, and in cracks.

                      Put brewer's yeast or garlic in your pet's food; sprinkle
                      fennel, rue, rosemary, or eucalyptus seeds or leaves
                      around animal sleeping areas.

       Compost  food  and  yard wastes.

      Backyard composting of food and yard wastes can significantly reduce the
   amount of waste you produce. When properly composted, these wastes can be
                        turned into natural soil additives for use directly on your
                           lawn and garden. Composting will improve soil texture,
                            increase the ability of the soil to absorb air and water,
                             suppress weed growth, decrease erosion, and reduce
                            i the need to apply commercial soil additives and peat
                                 • Learn how to compost food and yard wastes in
                                   your backyard (see the guidelines below). For
                                   more information, see the materials listed in the
                                   back of this booklet, or check with your local
                                   environmental, agricultural, or park service.
                                   Unfortunately,  composting foods in highly
                                  populated areas is not recommended because it
                                 will very likely attract rodents and  other pests.
                                If you don't have room for a compost bin, see if a
                                neighbor or community garden project can use your
       3*-i——  i  •" ~  **• You can also donate your yard debris and leaves to a
        community composting program or garden project.
                                Composting Is Easy!
         You can set up a compost pile in a corner of your yard with few supplies. Choose a level spot
      about 3-feet square near a water source and preferably out of direct sunlight. Clear the area of
      sod and grass. If you build a composting bin, such as with chicken wire, scrap wood, or cinder
      blocks, be sure to leave enough space for air to reach the pile. One removable side makes it eas-
      ier to tend to the pile.
         Almost all foods can be composted, including vegetable trimmings, egg shells, coffee grinds
      with filters, tea bags, and fish leftovers. In addition to leaves, grass, and yard clippings, vacuum
      cleaner lint, wool and cotton rags, sawdust, shredded newspaper, and fireplace ashes can also be
      composted. DO NOT compost meats, dairy foods, or any fats, oil, or grease.
         Start the pile with a 4-inch layer of leaves, loose soil, grass clippings (not treated with weed
      killer), or other coarse yard waste. Now begin to build a 6-inch layer of food wastes. Continue
      alternating food waste with layers of soil, grass, or leaves, until the pile is about 4 ft high. Add
      alfalfa meal or clean cat litter to the pile to absorb odors. In dry weather, sprinkle water on the
      pile, but don't get it too soggy. Turn the pile every few weeks with a pitchfork to circulate air
      and distribute moisture evenly. Don't be surprised by the heat of the pile or if you see worms,
      both of which are part of the decomposition process.
         In most climates, the compost is done in 3 to 6 months when it becomes a dark crumbly
      material that is uniform in texture. Spread it in the garden or yard beds, or under the shrub-
      bery. You also  can use the compost as potting soil.

     Borrow,  rent, or share things

            you use infrequently.

  Seldom used items like certain power tools and party goods often just collect
dust, rust, and take up valuable storage space. Why not rent or borrow these
items the next time you need them?
  • Rent party decorations and supplies such as tables, chairs,
   centerpieces, linens, dishes, and silverware.
  • Rent or borrow audiovisual equipment instead of buying it.
  • Rent or borrow tools such as ladders, chain saws, floor
   buffers, rug cleaners, and garden tillers.
  • If you own any equipment others can borrow or rent from
   you, let them know what is available.
  • Before discarding old tools, camera equipment, or other
   goods, ask friends, relatives, neighbors, or nonprofit
   groups if they can use them.

  • Share newspapers and magazines with others. You'll
   save money and have less wastepaper to dispose of.


       Buy, sell, and donate used  and

     secondary goods such as clothes,

           furniture,  and  appliances.

      Peanut butter jars aren't the only products that have more
    than one life. Instead of discarding your unwanted
    appliances, tools, or clothes, try selling or donating
    them. You can also extend the lives of products by pur-
    chasing used and "irregular" items. Such products are
    often less expensive than new or "first-quality"
    goods, and buying them will keep them from
    being thrown away by retailers and
      • Donate or resell items to thrift stores or
       other organizations in need. Donors
       sometimes receive tax deductions or even
      • Buy and sell secondhand items at fairs,
       bazaars, swap meets, and garage sales
       if they will do the job just as well as
       newly manufactured goods.
      • Hand-me-down clothes can be
       given not only to other family
       members, but to neighboring
       families or the needy. Shop for
       used clothing at thrift or
       consignment stores. The
       condition of recycled clothing
       in these stores is carefully
       monitored. Clothes must be
       laundered, and cannot have tears
       or stains.  Some stores even have their
       own laundering facilities.
      • Encourage area merchants to donate
       damaged goods or food items that are still
       usable or edible, but may have expired "sell by"
       dates, to local charitable organizations, such as
       food banks, shelters, and groups that care for the

  Make your preferences known

   to  merchants,  politicians, and

            community  leaders.

  You have the power to influence others and help   x
create the type of world you want to live in. Inform busiT
nesses and decision-makers about critical solid waste
issues and inspire them to implement and promote
source reduction measures.
• Let stores and manufacturers know how you feel
  about unnecessary packaging.
• Ask companies hard questions about their
  products or operations. Write to company
  executives and tell them what you like or don't
  like about their policies. If you stop buying a
  product because it results in too much waste or
  poses a waste disposal problem, write to that
  company explaining why.
• Write to consumer magazines asking for coverage of
  the environmental impact of products.

• Encourage your community to set up yard waste composting
  programs, curbside recycling, or drop-off points for recyclables.
• Urge schools to provide environmental education by teaching source
  reduction and recycling.

• Encourage your workplace or company to be less wasteful, to use recycled
  and recyclable materials, and to perform double-sided copying.
• Let local government officials and business leaders know you need waste
  receptacles for separated garbage (especially if you live in an urban area).

• Write to your government representatives stating your opinions on
  environmental issues or legislation. Vote for candidates who share your desire
  for a cleaner, safer, and healthier environment, and tell them why you voted
  for them.
• Your community needs access to adequate and safe solid waste facilities such
  as recycling centers, combustors, and landfills. Support an environmentally
  sound waste program in your community that starts with source reduction.


                 Be creative—
       look  for opportunities to
      practice source reduction!
  The next time you lug out your trash, think
of how you and your family can reduce the
amount of garbage you generate. Can any-
thing be reused or recycled? Did you even
need to buy certain items in the first place?
Could you have selected products with
less packaging? Are less toxic alternatives
available? Also think of how businesses
and manufacturers can reduce the
amount of waste associated with the
products you buy. Let them know your
ideas. Here are just a few suggestions:

  • Turn a giant cardboard box into a child's
  • Transform a plastic ice cream tub into a flower pot or a bucket
    for toys.
  • Give your pet hamster or gerbil leftover paper towel and toilet paper
    cardboard tubes to play with.
  • Turn used tires into children's swings or other playground equipment.
  • Combine source reduction techniques. For example, when you accumulate
    more coffee cans than you or your friends need, store coffee bought in bulk
    in the empty containers.
  Now it's your  turn. The next time you're about to put something in the trash or
are faced with a consumer buying decision, stop a minute. What else can you do
to alleviate the solid waste dilemma? Besides incorporating these dozen-plus-one-
tips into your lifestyle, look around your house and remember the dancing jars....

     Success with Source Reduction

    Dozens of small towns, as well as big cities and whole states, are implementing
  innovative source reduction programs. Through consumer education campaigns,
  school curricula, tax incentives, and other legislative, financial, and educational
  measures, these communities are setting the pace for new ways to reduce solid
   Champaign-Urbana - A Model City.

     Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, is quickly becoming a model source reduction
   city. Developed by the Central States Education Center (CSEC), a nonprofit
   group, the Champaign-Urbana program has set up a "model" waste hauler, news-
   paper, and school, as well as several supermarkets and copy shops. These model
   facilities operate as examples to show other small communities how they, too, can
   reduce the amount of solid waste they generate.
     A model waste hauler provides discounts to customers who produce only one
   can of trash per week. In the city's model school, recycling bins are placed in
   classrooms, and the cafeteria uses durable, washable tableware. A model super-
   market has implemented a shelf-labeling program to highlight products with
   least-waste and recyclable packaging and those that do not contain harmful chem-
   icals. As a result of these model facilities, most Champaign-Urbana waste now gets
   routed to the community recycling center, rather than the landfill. Plans are
   underway to recruit volunteer model bars and restaurants, offices, a church, and a
   hospital, too.

Berkeley - Doing It Right from the Start.

   Berkeley, California, is implementing an active citywide campaign to help
consumers make environmentally sound decisions before they buy. Program
designers call it "Precycling," which stresses "demand-side waste management."
Consumers tell manufacturers which products they want and use, and which ones
they leave on the shelf.
   Using catchy slogans such as, "do it right from the start," "be picky about pack-
aging," and "overcome overpackaging," the program urges shoppers to think
about what they buy and how products are packaged and ultimately disposed.
Berkeley consumers are also asked to avoid buying goods purposefully manufac-
tured for automatic disposal. An informal status report of the Berkeley Precycle
program indicates that many people favor the concept of taking control of solid
waste management right from the beginning.
Smallest State Is Big on Source Reduction.

   By being the first state to pass a mandatory curbside recycling program, Rhode
Island became a maverick in solid waste management. Furthering its commitment
to a cleaner environment, the smallest state also has set up a Source Reduction
Task Force. Made up of representatives from industry, public interest groups, the
state government, and academia, the task force has initiated an aggressive pro-
gram to promote more careful and effective use of materials and products.
   The task force has established a product labeling and logo system to inform
shoppers about the environmental impact, durability, reusability, and recyclability
of various products. In the public schools, children in grades four to eight are
learning about source reduction through a specially prepared curriculum. A
public education campaign is waging a war on "disposables" to reduce their con-

   What have  you come  up with?
     We want to hear about your innovative
   ideas on source reduction. Send us a
   source reduction tip, and we'll send you a
   magnet (while supplies last) that can be
   used to stick your shopping list to your
   refrigerator and to discern aluminum
   cans from bimetal and steel cans (mag-
   nets are not attracted to aluminum). Send
   your name, address, and tip to Source
   Reduction Tip, the RCRA Docket (OS-
   305), U. S. Environmental Protection
   Agency, 401 M Street SW, Washington, DC

        Reusable Vocabulary

Bimetal - Typically refers to beverage containers with steel bodies and aluminum
   tops. Steel companies do recycle bimetal cans, but they are handled differently
   in the recycling stream than pure aluminum.
Combustion - The controlled burning of municipal solid waste to reduce volume,
   and commonly, to produce energy.

Composting - The controlled microbial decomposition of organic matter (such as
   food and yard wastes) in the presence of oxygen into a humus- or soil-like
Curbside collection - A method of collecting recyclable materials at individual
   homes, community districts, or places of business by municipal or private par-
   ties for transfer to a designated collection site or recycling facility.
Demand-side waste management - The process whereby you, through your pur-
   chasing decisions, communicate to product manufacturers your desire to buy
   environmentally sound products that are packaged with the least amount of
   waste, are made from recycled and recyclable materials, and do not contain
   hazardous substances.
Drop-off - A method of collecting recyclable materials whereby individuals trans-
   port the materials to a designated collection site.
Household hazardous waste - Products containing toxic substances that are used
   and disposed of by individual rather than industrial consumers.

Integrated waste management - The complementary use of a variety of waste man-
   agement practices to safely and effectively handle municipal solid waste.
   Integrated waste management techniques include source reduction, recycling
   and combustion and landfilling.
          *•                   .             .        v
                                     ••       ^T
            •          *       <•     »r

    Landfillmg - The disposal of solid waste in a series of compacted layers on land
       and the frequent (daily) covering of the waste with soil. Fill areas are carefully
       prepared to prevent nuisances or public health hazards and clay and/or syn-
       thetic liners are used to control water drainage.

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) - Waste generated in households, commercial estab-
       lishments, institutions, and light industries. Industrial process wastes,
       agricultural wastes, mining wastes, and sewage sludge are not MSW.
    Recycling - The process by which materials are collected and used as raw materials
       for new products. There are five steps in recycling: collecting components of
       MSW, separating waste materials by type (before or after collection), process-
       ing them into reusable forms, marketing the "new" products, and purchasing
       and using the goods made with reprocessed materials.
    Reuse - The use of a product more than once in its same form for the same pur-
       pose or for different purposes, such as reusing a soft-drink bottle when it is
       returned to the bottling company for refilling or reusing a peanut butter jar as
       a container for leftover food.
    Solid waste - According to the Recource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),
       garbage; refuse; sludge  from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment
       plant, or air pollution control facility; and other discarded materials, including
       solid, liquid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commer-
       cial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities.

    Source separation - Separating waste materials such as paper,  metal, and glass by
       type at the point of discard so that they can be recycled.
    Source reduction - The design, manufacture, purchase, or use of materials or prod-
       ucts (including packages) to reduce their amount or toxicity before they enter
       the municipal solid waste stream.
    Virgin materials - Resources extracted from nature in their raw form, such as tim-
       ber or metal ore.
    Yard waste - The component of solid waste composed of grass clippings, leaves,
       and garden refuse.

                 EPA Resources

   The following EPA publications are available at no charge through the
Agency's RCRA Hotline. Call 1-800-424-9346 Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to
7:30 p.m. EST. For the hearing impaired, the number is TTD (800) 553-7672, and
in Washington, D.C., call (202) 382-3000 or TDD (202) 382-9652.
Bibliography of Municipal Solid Waste Management Alternatives (EPA/530-SW-89-055).
   A listing of approximately 200 publications available from industry, govern-
   ment, and environmental groups.

Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1990 Update (EPA/530-
   SW-90-042A). The summary of the latest in a series of reports characterizing
   the nation's municipal solid waste stream.
Characterization of Products Containing Lead and Cadmium in Municipal Solid Waste in
   the United States, 1970 to 2000 (EPA/530-SW-89-015C). The summary of a
   report characterizing the products that contribute to  the lead and cadmium
   found in municipal solid waste.
Decision-Maker's Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management (EPA/530-SW-89-072). A
   guide book to help policy makers understand and evaluate their current waste
   management problems and formulate possible solutions.
Methods to Manage and Control Plastic Wastes - Executive Summary (EPA/530-SW-89-
   051 A). The summary of a report examining many issues related to plastics,
   including  reduction, recycling, degradability, and damage to marine life.
Plastics Fact Sheets
   A series of five fact sheets about plastics:
   • Plastics: TheFacts about Production, Use, and Disposal (EPA/530-SW-90-017A). A
     fact sheet reviewing major uses of plastic and impacts of disposal.
   •  TheFacts  about Plastics in the Marine Environment (EPA/530-SW-90-017B). Afact
     sheet summarizing the main sources and impact of plastic found in the
   • Plastics: TheFacts on Source Reduction (EPA/530-SW-90-017C). Afact  sheet
     describing the possibilities for source reduction of different types of plastic
   •  TheFacts  on Degradable Plastics (EPA/530-SW-90-017D). A fact sheet outlining
     the information currently available on degradable plastics, their uses, and
     impact on humans and the environment.
   •  TheFacts  on Recycling Plastics (EPA/530-SW-90-017E). A fact sheet summarizing
     the opportunities available for plastic recycling, and the current state of plas-
     tic  recycling technology.

Recycling (EPA/530-SW-88-050). A concise citizen's brochure on recycling and its
   role in solid waste management.


    Recycle Today!
      A series of five publications aimed at educators and students:
      • Recycle Today! An Educational Program far Grades K-12 (EPA/530-SW-90-025). A
        concise pamphlet explaining the goals and objectives of EPA's educational
        recycling program and the four resources listed below.

      • Let's Reduce and Recycle!: A Curriculum for Solid Waste Awareness (EPA/530-SW-
        90-005). A booklet of lessons and activities to teach students in grades K-12
        about solid waste generation and management. It teaches a variety of skills
        including science, vocabulary, mathematics, and creative writing.
      • School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators (EPA/530-SW-90-023). A
        handy manual with step-by-step instructions on how to set up a school recy-
        cling program.
      • Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin: Recycle and Combat a Life of Grime (EPA/530-
        SW-90-024). A comic book introducing students in grades 4-7 to the benefits
        of recycling.
      • Ride the Wave of the Future: Recycle Today! (EPA/530-SW-90-010). A colorful
        poster designed to appeal to all grade levels that can be displayed in conjunc-
        tion with recycling activities or used to help foster recycling.
    Recycling Works! (EPA/530-SW-89-014). A booklet describing 14 successful state
       and  local recycling programs in the United States.
    Reusable News. A periodic newsletter covering a diverse array of articles related to
       municipal solid waste management, including source reduction and recycling.
    Used Oil Recycling Publications
      A series of three brochures and a manual on ways to recycle used oil:
      • How to Set Up a Local Used Oil Recycling Program (EPA/530-SW-89-039A). An
        easy-to-follow manual for local decision-makers, environmental groups, and
        community organizations.
      • Recycling Used  Oil: What Can You Do? (EPA/530-SW-89-039B). How the general
        public can participate in used oil recycling.
      • Recycling Used  Oil: 10 Steps to Change Your Oil (EPA/530-SW-89-039C). How
        citizens can change their car oil.
      • Recycling Used  Oil: For Service Stations and Other Vehicle-Service Facilities
         (EPA/530-SW-89-039D). How service station owners can play a key role in
        facilitating used oil recycling.

  This bibliography provides a listing of resources and organizations used to
develop this booklet, which may also be of use to you. It is not, however, a compre-
hensive list of all available information on source reduction. The listing of
publications, products, or organizations does not constitute endorsement or
approval for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

                   General Information
Beck, M. et al. 1989. Buried alive. Newsweek, November 27, 66-76.
Council of Northeast Governors (CONEG). 1989. Final report of the source reduction
   task force. Washington, DC: CONEG.
Earthworm, Inc. 1986-1989. Earthworm News. Various issues. 186 South Street,
   Boston, MA 02111.
Endangered earth update.  1989. Time, December 18, 60-71.
Marinelli,J. 1989. Garbage at the grocery. Garbage, September/October, 34-39.
Peterson, C. 1989. What does waste reduction wean? Waste Age, January, 65-68.
	 1989. A waste reduction boom in the seventies! Waste Age, February,  100-106.
	1989. A look at current waste reduction. Waste Age, March, 112-118.
Rathje, W. 1989. Rubbish! The Atlantic, December, 99-109.
Rhode Island Solid Waste Management Corporation and Ocean State Cleanup
   and Recycling. 1987. Source reduction task force report. Providence, RI: Rhode
   Island Department of Environmental Management.
Robinson, D. 1989. One person's opinion: recycling in the inner city. Resource
   Recycling, January/February, 40-41.
Solid Waste Alternatives Project. 1989.  Solid waste fact pact, source reduction.
   Washington, DC: Environmental Action Foundation.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1989. EPA Journal, March/April.

                      Source Reduction Tips
    Community Composting Education Program. Home composting. Seattle, WA: Seattle
       Engineering Department, Solid Waste Utility and Seattle Tilth Association.
    Coop America. Living green: 101 green things you can do (brochure). Washington,
       DC: Coop America.
    Council on Economic Priorities. 1989. Actions that will make a difference. New York,
       NY: Council on Economic Priorities.
    Dadd, D. L. 1984. Nontoxic and natural. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc.
    	 1986. The nontoxic home. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc.
    Gladrags: recycled clothing. 1989/1990.  One Person's Impact, December/January.
       Westborough, MA.
    Greenpeace. 1986. Stepping lightly on the earth: everyone's guide to toxics in the home.
       Washington, DC: Greenpeace Toxics: Fall.
    Harbaugh, L. 1989. The first annual packaging awards and booby prizes from an envi-
       ronmental point of view. Washington Citizens for Recycling, October.
    Indoor composting. One Person's Impact. P.O. Box 751, Westborough, MA, 01581.
    New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and NJ Board of Public
       Utilities. A citizen's guide to reducing solid waste (brochure). Trenton, NJ: NJDEP.
    Pennsylvania Resources Council, Inc. (PRC). Become an environmental shopper
       (brochure). Media, PA: PRC.
    	 1989. Environmental shopping update. Media, PA:  PRC. August.
    Read, .K. 1989.  Packaging today...solid waste tomorrow. Boston Co-op News June.


Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. Compost (brochure).
   Providence, RI.

	 Municipal leaf and yard waste composting (flyer). Providence, RI.
Rhode Island Solid Waste Management Corp. Don't let your dollars go to waste.
   (poster). Providence, RI.

Seventh Generation. 1989. 110 things you can do for a healthy environment (booklet).
   Burlington, VT.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. You can help (brochure). Philadelphia, PA:
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region III. Center for Environmental
Will, R, et al. 1989. Shopping for a better world. New York: Council on Economic

                        Success Stories

Citizens for a Better Environment. 1989. A model of efficiency. Environmental
   Review. Winter.
Environmental Action Foundation. 1989. Berkeley, California, doing it right from the
   start. Wastelines, Summer.
	 1989. Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, towards a model community. Wastelines,
Model community (brochure). Champaign, IL: Central States Education Center.


Co-op America Order Service. 10 Farrell St. South Burlington, VT 05403. (800)
   658-5507. Reusable, recyclable, and nontoxic products (and other items.)
EarthCare Paper, Inc. Recycled paper catalogue. P.O. Box 3335. Madison, WI
   53704. (608) 256-5522.
EastWest Health Books. P.O. Box 1200. Brookline, MA02147. (800) 876-10001.
   Books related to the nontoxic home.
Livos PlantChemistry. Nontoxic home products. 1365 Rufina Circle. Santa Fe, NM
   87501. (505) 438-3448.
Seventh Generation. Products for a healthy planet. 10 Farrell St. So. Burlington,
   VT 05403. (800) 456-1177.
Solstice General Store. 201 East Main St., Suite H. Charlottesville, VA 22901. (800)
   979-0189.  Nontoxic household products (and other items).

                   EPA  Regional  Offices
Region 1
U.S. EPA - Region 1
J.F.K. Federal Building
Boston, MA 02203
(617) 565-3715

Region 2
U.S. EPA - Region 2
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
(212) 264-2657

Region 3
U.S. EPA-Region 3
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
(215) 597-9800

Region 4
U.S. EPA-Region 4
345 Courtland Street, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30365
(404) 347-4727
                                     Region 5
                                     U.S. EPA - Region 5
                                     230 South Dearborn Street
                                     Chicago, IL 60604
                                     (312) 353-2000

                                     Region 6
                                     U.S. EPA - Region 6
                                     First Interstate Bank Tower
                                     1445 Ross Avenue
                                     Dallas, TX 75270-2733
                                     (214) 655-6444

                                     Region 7
                                     U.S. EPA - Region 7
                                     726 Minnesota Avenue
                                     Kansas City, KS 66101
                                     (913) 551-7000
Region 8
U.S. EPA-Region 8
Denver Place (811WM-RI)
999 18th Street, Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202-2405
(303) 293-1603

Region 9
U.S. EPA-Region 9
1235 Mission Street
San Francisco, CA 94103
(415) 556-6322

Region 10
U.S. EPA-Region 10
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 9810
(206) 442-1200

       State  Environmental Agencies
Department of Environmental
Solid Waste Division
1751 Congressman Wm. Dickinson
Montgomery, AL 36109

Department of Environmental
Solid Waste Program
P.O. Box O
Juneau, AK 99801

Energy Office
1700 W. Washington Street
Phoenix, AZ 85017

Department of Pollution Control
and Ecology
Solid Waste Division
8001 National Drive
Little Rock, AR 72204

Recycling Division
Department of Conservation
1025 P Street
Sacramento, CA 95814

Department of Health
4210E. llth Avenue
Denver, CO 80220

Recycling Program
Department of Environmental
165 Capital Avenue
Hartford, CT 06106

Department of Natural Resources
and Environmental Control
89 Kings Highway
P.O. Box 89
Dover, DE 19903
District of Columbia
Department of Public Works
Office of Policy and Planning
2000 14th Street NW
Washington, DC 20009

Department of Environmental
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, FL 32301

Department of Natural Resources
205 Butler St., SE
Atlanta, GA 30334

Department of Health
P.O. Box 3378
Honolulu, HI 96801

Department of Health and Welfare
State House
Boise, ID 83720

Dept. of Energy and Natural
325 West Adams
Springfield, IL 62704

Department of Environmental
105 S. Meridian Street
Indianapolis, IN 46225

Department of Natural Resources
Waste Management Division
900 E. Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50319

Solid Waste Management Section
Department of Health and
Forbes Field
Topeka, KS 66620
Department of Environmental
Cabinet for Natural Resources and
Environmental Protection
Fort Boone Plaza, Bldg. #2
18 Riley Road
Frankfurt, KY 40601
Solid Waste Division
Department of Environmental
P.O. Box 44307
Baton Rouge, LA 70804
Waste Recycling and Reduction
Department of Economic and
Community Development
State House Station #130
Augusta, ME 04333

Department of the Environment
201 W. Preston Street, Room 212
Baltimore, MD 21201

Division of Solid Waste
Dept. of Environmental Protection
1 Winter St., 5th Floor
Boston, MA 02108

Recycling and Recovery Unit
Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 30038
Lansing, MI 48909

Pollution Control Agency
520 Lafayette Road, North
St. Paul, MN 55155

Pollution Control Bureau
Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 10385
Jackson, MS 39209

Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 176
Jefferson City, MO 65102

Solid and Hazardous Waste Bureau
Department of Health and
Environmental Sciences
Cogswell Building, Room B201
Helena, MT 59620

Department of Environmental
P.O. Box 94877
Lincoln, NE 68509-8922

Department of Conservation and
Natural Resources
Capital Complex
201 South Fall Street
Carson City, NV 89710

New Hampshire
Department of Environmental
6 Hazen Drive
Concord, NH 03301

New Jersey
Department of Environmental
401 E. State Street
Trenton, NJ 08625

New Mexico
Health and Environment
P.O. Box 968
Santa Fe, NM 87504

New York
Bureau of Waste Reduction and
Department of Environmental
50 Wolf Road, Room 2019
Albany, NY 12233

North Carolina
Solid Waste Management Branch
Department of Human Resources
P.O. Box 2091
Raleigh, NC 27602-2091
North Dakota
Division of Waste Management
Department of Health
1200 Missouri Avenue, Room 302
Box 5520
Bismarck, ND 58502-5520

Division of Solid & Hazardous Waste
Ohio Environmental Protection
1800 Watermark Dr.
Columbus, OH 43266-0149

Solid Waste Division
Department of Health
1000N.E. 10th Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73152

Department of Environmental
811 S.W. 6th Avenue
Portland, OR 97204

Bureau of Waste Management
Department of Environmental
P.O. Box 2063
Harrisburg, PA 17120

Rhode Island
Department of Environmental
204 Cannon Building
75 Davis Street
Providence, RI 02908

South Carolina
Department of Health and
Environmental Control
2600 Bull Street
Columbia, SC 29201

South Dakota
Dept. of Water and Natural
Foss Building, Room 416
Pierre, SD 57501

Department of Public Health
Division of Solid Waste-
Customs House, 4th Floor
701 Broadway
Nashville, TN 37219-5403
                                                                             Division of Solid Waste
                                                                             Department of Health
                                                                             1100 W. 49th Street
                                                                             Austin, TX 78756-3199

                                                                             Bureau of Solid and Hazardous
                                                                             Department of Environmental
                                                                             288 N. 1460 West Street
                                                                             P.O. Box 16700
                                                                             Salt Lake City, UT 84116-0690

                                                                             Department of Natural Resources
                                                                             103 S. Main Street, West Building
                                                                             Walerbury, VT 05676

                                                                             Department of Waste Management
                                                                             Monroe Building, llth Floor
                                                                             101 N. 14th Street
                                                                             Richmond, VA 23219

                                                                             Office of Waste Reduction
                                                                             Department of Ecology
                                                                             Mail Stop PV-11
                                                                             Olympia, WA 95804-8711

                                                                             West Virginia
                                                                             Department of Natural Resources
                                                                             1260 Greenbriar Street
                                                                             Charleston, WV 25311

                                                                             Bureau of Solid  Waste Management
                                                                             Department of Natural Resources
                                                                             P.O. Box 7921
                                                                             Madison, WI 53707

                                                                             Solid Waste Management Program
                                                                             Department of Environmental
                                                                             Herschler Building
                                                                             122 W. 25th Street
                                                                             Cheyenne, WY 82002
                                                                 •fr U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:  1990 - 281-724 - 814/28451