DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FQR
 EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES
 AND STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE
           FOR THE

 MACHINERY &  MECHANICAL

 PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING

     POINT SOURCE CATEGORY
                   T* .
VOLUME 1  SECTIONS I, II & III (PART)
    UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

            JUNE 1975
                TT

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                               DRAFT
                                NOTICE


The attached document is a DRAFT CONTRACTOR'S REPORT.  It includes tech-
nical information and recommendations submitted by the Contractor to the
United States Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") regarding the sub-
ject industry.  It is being distributed for review and comment only.  The
report is not an official EPA publication, and it has not been reviewed
by the Agency.

The report, including the recommendations, will be undergoing extensive
review by EPA, Federal and State agencies, public interest organizations,
and other interested groups and persons during the coming weeks.   The
report—and, in particular, the contractor's recommended effluent limita-
tion guidelines and standards of performance—is subject to change in any
and all respects.

The regulations to be published by EP7^ under Section 304 (b)  and  306 of
the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, will be based to a
large extant on the report and the comments received on it.  However,
pursuant to Sections 304 (b)  and 306 of the Act, EPA will also consider
additional pertinent technical and economic information which is  developed
in the course of review of this report by the public and within EPA.  EPA
is currently performing an economic impact analysis regarding the subject
industry, which will be taken into account as part of the review of the
report.   Upon completion of the review process,  and prior to final pro-
mulgation of regulations, an EPA report will be issued setting forth EPA's
conclusions concerning the Machinery and Mechanical Products industry,
effluent limitation guidelines, and standards of performance applicable
to such industry.  Judgments necessary to promulgation of regulations
under Section 304 (b)  and 306 of the Act, of course, remain the respon-
sibility of EPA.  Subject to these limitations,  EPA is making this draft
contractor's report available in order to encourage the widest possible
participation of interested persons in the decision making process at the
earliest possible time.

The report shall have standing in any EPA proceeding or court proceeding
only to the extent that it represents the views of the Contractor who
studied the subject industry and prepared the information and recommenda-
tions.   It cannot be cited, referenced,  or represented in any respect in
any such proceedings as a statement of EPA's views regarding the  subject
industry.

                                   U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                   Office of Water and Hazardous  Materials
                                   Effluent Guidelines Division
                                   Washington, D. C.  20460

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                        OOOR75007

            D
            uu
  DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR
 EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES
 AND STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE
          FOR THE
 MACHINERY & MECHANICAL
 PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING
     POINT SOURCE CATEGORY
VOLUME 1  SECTIONS I, II & III (PART)
        EavJL .

        Chi       '-• '-


         CONTRACT NO. 68-01-2914
            JUNE 1975
                 TT

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                              DRAFT


                               ABSTRACT


This document presents the findings of an extensive study of the
Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing industries for the
purpose of developing effluent limitations and pretreatment standards
for existing point sources and standards of performance and pretreat-
ment standards for new sources to implement Sections 304, 306 and 307
of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1551,
1314, and 1316, 86 Stat. 816 et. seq.).

Effluent limitations contained herein set forth the degree of pollutanl
reduction attainable through the application of the best practicable
control technology currently available (BPT) and the degree of pollutai
reduction attainable through the application of the best available
technology economically achievable (BAT)  which must be achieved by
existing point sources by July 1, 1977, and July 1, 1983, respectively
The standards of performance' and pretreatment standards for new source;
contained herein set forth the degree of effluent reduction which is
achievable through the application of the best available demonstrated
control technology, processes, operating methods, or other alternative

Eased upon the application of the best practicable control technology
currently available, 1 of the 12 subcategories for which separate
limitations are proposed can be operated with no discharge of process
wastewater.  With the best available technology economically achiev-
able, 10 of the 12 subcategories for which separate limitations are
proposed can be operated with no discharge of process wastewater to
navigable waters.  No discharge of process wastewater pollutants is al
achievable as a new source performance standard for 11 of the 12 sub-
categories .

Supporting data and rationale for development of the proposed effluent
limitation guidelines and standards of performance are contained in
this report.
                                 iii/iv

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                              DRAFT
                               CONTENTS
                      Table  of  Contents  Volume  1   ]

Section                                                         Page

  I       CONCLUSIONS                                           1-1

  II      RECOMMENDATIONS                                        2-1

          BEST PRACTICABLE CONTROL  TECHNOLOGY CURRENTLY          2-1
          AVAILABLE

          BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVABLE      2-1

          NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE  STANDARDS                       2-1

  III     INTRODUCTION                                          3-1

          PURPOSE  AMD AUTHORITY                                 3-1

          APPROACH TO EFFLUENT  LIMITATIONS  DERIVATION            3-2
               Sources of Industry                               3-3
               Utilization of Industry Data                      3-24
               Effluent Limitations Derivation                   3-27

          INDUSTRY SUMMARY DESCRIPTION                           3-31

          PRODUCTION DATA                                        3-39
               Raw Materials                                     3-44
               Production Processes                             3-45
               Water Usage                                       3-47
               Waste Characteristics                             3-47

          INDIVIDUAL INDUSTRY SEGMENT DESCRIPTIONS               3-47
               Miscellaneous Plastics Products                   3-54
               Primary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous       3-63
                    Metals, Not Elsewhere Classified
               Secondary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous     3-69
                    Metals
               Rolling, Drawing,  and Extruding of Copper         3-75
               Aluminum Sheet,  Plate, and Foil                   3-81
               Aluminum Extruded  Products                        3-86
               Aluminum Rolling and Drawing, Not Elsewhere       3-91
                    Classified
               Rolling, Drawing,  and Extruding of Nonferrous     3-96
                    Metals, Except  Copper and Aluminum
               Drawing and Insulating of Nonferrous Wire         3-101
                                   v

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                      DRAFT
                 CONTENTS (Continued)


Table of Contents Volume 1,  Section III  (Continued)
       Aluminum Foundries (Castings)                      3-105
       Brass,  Bronze,  Copper,  Copper  Base  Alloy           3-110
            Foundries
       Nonferrous Foundries  (Castings),  Not  Elsewhere     3-115
            Classified
       Metal Heat Treating                               3-120
       Primary Metal Products,  Not  Elsewhere             3-124
            Classified
       Metal Cans                                        3-129
       Metal Shipping  Barrels,  Drums,  Kegs,  and  Pails     3-134
       Cutlery                                           3-139
       Hand and Edge Tools,  Except  Machine Tools and      3-144
            Hand Saws
       Hand Saws and Saw Blades                          3-151
       Hardware, Not Elsewhere  Classified                 3-155
       Enameled Iron and Metal  Sanitary  Ware             3-162
       Plumbing Fixture Fittings  and  Trim                 3-167
            (Brass Goods)
       Heating Equipment,  Except  Electric  and Warm        3-172
            Air Furnaces
       Fabricated Structural Metal                        3-177
       Metal Doors,  Sash,  Frames, Molding, and Trim       3-182
       Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler  Shops)               3-187
       Sheet Metal Work                                  3-194
       Architectural and Ornamental Metal  Work            3-199
       Prefabricated Metal Buildings  and Components       3-204
       Miscellaneous Metal Work                          3-204
       Screw Machine Products                             3-210
       Bolts,  Nuts,  Screws,  Rivets, and  Washers           3-214
            (Fasteners)
       Iron and Steel  Forgings                            3-219
       Nonferrous Forgings                               3-224
       Automotive Stampings                               3-228
       Crowns and Closures                               3-232
       Metal Stampings,  Not  Elsewhere Classified         3-236
       Small Arms Ammunition                             3-241
       Ammunition, Except for  Small Arms,  Not             3-246
            Elsewhere  Classified
       Small Arms                                        3-252
       Ordnance and Accessories,  Not  Elsewhere            3-257
            Classified
       Steel Springs,  Except Wire                        3-262
                          VI

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                     DRAFT

                 CONTENTS (Continued)

Table of Contents Volume 1,  Section III (Continued)
                                                         Paqe
       Valves and Pipe Fittings,  Except Plumbers'         3-267
            Brass Goods
       Wire Springs                                      3-272
       Miscellaneous Fabricated Wire Products            3-277
       Metal Foil and Leaf                               3-284
       Fabricated Pipe and Fabricated Pipe Fittings      3-289
       Fabricated Metal Products, Not Elsewhere          3-294
            Classified
       Steam, Gas, and Hydraulic Turbines and Turbine    3-300
            Generator Set Units
       Internal Combustion Engines,  Not Elsewhere         3-305
            Classified
       Farm Machinery and Equipment                       3-310
       Garden Tractors and Lawn and  Garden Equipment     3-317
       Construction Machinery and Equipment              3-322
       Mining Machinery and Equipment,  Except Oil         3-329
            Field Machinery and Equipment
       Oil Field Machinery and Equipment                 3-335
       Elevators and Moving Stairways                    3-340
       Conveyors and Conveying Equipment                 3-345
       Hoists, Industrial Cranes, and Monorail           3-350
            Systems
       Industrial Trucks, Tractors,  Trailers and         3-355
            Stackers
       Machine Tools, Metal Cutting  Types
       Machine Tools, Metal Forming  Types
       Special Dies and Tools, Die Sets, Jigs and
            Fixtures and Industrial  Molds
       Machine Tool Accessories and  Measuring Devices
       Power Driven Hand Tools
       Rolling Mill Machinery and Equipment
       Metalworking Machinery, Not Elsewhere
            Classified
       Food Products Machinery
       Textile Machinery
       Woodworking Machinery
       Paper Industries Machinery
       Printing Trades Machinery and Equipment
       Special Industry Machinery, Not Elsewhere
            Classified
       Pumps and Pumping Equipment
       Air and Gas Compressors
       Ball and Roller Bearings
                          VII

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                       DRAFT

                 CONTENTS (Continued)

Table of Contents Volume 2,  Section III  (Continued)
       Blowers and Exhaust and Ventilation Fans           3-445
       Industrial Patterns                               3-450
       Speed Changers,  Industrial  High Speed  Drives,      3-454
            and Gears
       Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment,  Not      3-454
            Elsewhere Classified
       Industrial Process Furnaces and Ovens              3-459
       General Industrial Machinery and Equipment,        3-464
            Not Elsewhere Classified
       Typewriters                                       3-471
       Office Machines, Not Elsewhere Classified         3-471
       Electronic Computing Equipment                    3-478
       Calculating and Accounting  Machines, Except        3-484
            Electronic Computing Equipment
       Scales and Balances, Except Laboratory            3-489
       Automatic Merchandising Machines                  3-494
       Commercial Laundry, Dry Cleaning,  and              3-498
            Pressing Machines
       Air Conditioning and Warm Air Heating              3-503
            Equipment and Commercial and Industrial
            Refrigeration Equipment
       Measuring and Dispensing Pumps                    3-508
       Service Industry Machines,  Not Elsewhere           3-512
            Classified
       Carburetors,  Pistons, Piston Rings and Valves      3-517
       Machinery, Except Electrical, Not Elsewhere        3-517
            Classified
       Power, Distribution, and Specialty Transformers    3-523
       Switchgear and Switchboard  Apparatus              3-528
       Motors and Generators                             3-533
       Industrial Controls                               3-538
       Welding Apparatus, Electric                       3-543
       Carbon and Graphite Products                      3-548
       Electrical Industrial Apparatus, Not Elsewhere    3-552
            Classified
       Household Cooking Equipment                       3-557
       Household Refrigerators and Home and Farm         3-562
            Freezers
       Household Laundry Equipment                       3-567
       Electric Housewares and Fans                      3-572
       Household Vacuum Cleaners                         3-578
       Household Appliances, Not Elsewhere Classified    3-582
       Electric Lamps                                    3-587
                         Vlll

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                       DRAFT
                 CONTENTS (Continued)


Table of Contents Volume 2,  Section III (Continued)
                                                         Paqe
       Current-Carrying Wiring Devices                   3-592
       Noncurrent-Carrying Wiring Devices                3-597
       Residential Electric Lighting Fixtures            3-601
       Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional         3-606
            Electric Lighting Fixtures
       Vehicular Lighting Equipment                      3-611
       Lighting Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified      3-616
       Radio and Television Receiving Sets,  Except       3-621
            Communication Types
       Phonograph Records and Pre-recorded Magnetic      3-626
            Tape
       Telephone and Telegraph Apparatus                 3-631
       Radio and Television Transmitting, Signaling,      3-636
            and Detection Equipment and Apparatus
       Radio and Television Receiving Type Electron      3-643
            Tubes, Except Cathode Ray
       Cathode Ray Television Picture Tubes               3-648
       Transmitting, Industrial,  and Special Purpose      3-652
            Electron Tubes
       Semiconductors and Related Devices                3-657
       Electronic Capacitors                             3-662
       Resistors for Electronic Applications             3-666
       Electronic Coils,  Transformers and Other          3-670
            Inductors
       Connectors for Electronic Applications            3-674
       Electronic Components, Not Elsewhere  Classified    3-678
       Storage Batteries                                 3-684
       Primary Batteries, Dry and Wet                    3-689
       Radiographic X-ray, Fluoroscopic X-ray,            3-693
            Therapeutic X-ray, and Other X-ray
            Apparatus and Tubes;  Electromedical
            and Electrotherapeutic Apparatus
       Electrical Equipment for Internal Combustion      3-698
            Engines
       Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and  Supplies,     3-703
            Not Elsewhere Classified
       Motor Vehicles and Passenger Car Bodies            3-708
       Truck and Bus Bodies                              3-714
       Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories               3-719
       Truck Trailers                                    3-725
       Aircraft                                          3-729
       Aircraft Engines and Engine Parts                 3-734
                          IX

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                      DRAFT

                 CONTENTS (Continued)

Table of Contents Volume 2,  Section III (Continued)
       Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment,  Not       3-739
            Elsewhere Classified
       Ship Building and Repairing                       3-746
       Boat Building and Repairing                       3-751
       Railroad Equipment                                3-756
       Motorcycles, Bicycles,  and Parts                  3-762
       Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles                3-767
       Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion       3-771
            Units and Propulsion Unit Parts
       Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Parts  and        3-776
            Auxiliary Equipment, Not Elsewhere
            Classified
       Travel Trailers and Campers                       3-782
       Tanks and Tank Components                         3-787
       Transportation Equipment, Not Elsewhere           3-792
            Classified
       Engineering, Laboratory, Scientific, and          3-797
            Research Instruments and Associated
            Equipment
       Automatic Controls for  Regulating Residential     3-804
            and Commercial Environments and Appliances
       Industrial Instruments  for Measurement,  Display,   3-810
            and Control of Process Variables;  and
            Related Products
       Totalizing Fluid Meters and Counting Devices      3-817
       Instruments for Measuring and Testing of          3-822
            Electricity and Electrical Signals
       Measuring and Controlling Devices, Not             3-829
            Elsewhere Classified
       Optical Instruments and Lenses                    3-835
       Surgical and Medical Instruments and Apparatus    3-841
       Orthopedic, Prosthetic, and Surgical Appliances    3-848
            and Supplies
       Dental Equipment and Supplies                     3-855
       Ophthalmic Goods                                  3-860
       Photographic Equipment  and Supplies               3-865
       Watches, Clocks, Clockwork Operated Devices,      3-872
            and Parts
       Jewelry, Precious Metal                           3-877
       Silverware, Plated Ware, and Stainless  Steel      3-882
            Ware
       Jewelers' Findings and  Materials, and Lapidary    3-887
            Work

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS  -(Continued)


        Table of Contents Volume  2,  Section  III  (Continued)
Section
               Musical Instruments                                3-892
               Dolls                                             3-899
               Games,  Toys,  and Children's  Vehicles; Except       3-903
                    Dolls and Bicycles
               Sporting and  Athletic  Goods,  Not  Elsewhere         3-908
                    Classified
               Pens, Mechanical Pencils,  and Parts                3-915
               Costume Jewelry and  Costume  Novelties,  Except      3-919
                    Precious Metal
               Brooms and Brushes                                 3-924
               Signs and Advertising  Displays                    3-928
               Burial Caskets                                    3-933

                      Table  of_ Contents Volume 3_

  IV      INDUSTRY CATEGORIZATION                                 4-1

          INTRODUCTION                                           4-1

          SUBCATEGORY SELECTION                                  4-1

          OTHER FACTORS                                          4-9

          SUBCATEGORY DESCRIPTIONS                                4-24
               Subcategory 1 - Casting and  Molding  - Metals       4-24
               Subcategory 2 - Mechanical Material  Removal        4-27
               Subcategory 3 - Material Forming  - All             4-27
                    Materials Except  Plastics
               Subcategory 4 - Physical Property Modification     4-28
               Subcategory 5 - Assembly Operations                4-29
               Subcategory 6 - Chemical-Electrochemical           4-29
                    Operations
               Subcategory 7 - Material Coating                   4-30
               Subcategory 8 - Smelting and Refining of           4-30
                    Nonferrous Metals
               Subcategory 9 - Molding and  Forming  - Plastics     4-32
               Subcategory 10 - Film  Sensitizing                 4-32
               Subcategory 11 - Dockside  Shipbuilding  and         4-33
                    Repair
               Subcategory 12 - Lead  Acid Batteries              4-33

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS  (Continued)



         Table of_ Contents Volume  3_,  Section rv (Continued)

Section

          EFFLUENT LIMITATION BASIS
               Production Related  Parameters
               Selection of Production-Oriented Parameter

          SUMMARY                                                4-00

  V       WASTE CHARACTERIZATION                                 5-1

          INTRODUCTION                                           5-1

          SUBCATEGORY 1 - CASTING  AND MOLDING METALS             5-1
               Process Schematic                                 5-1
               Water Usage                                       5-4
               Waste Constituents                                 5-4

          SUBCATEGORY 2 - MECHANICAL  MATERIAL REMOVAL            5-6
               Process Schematic                                 5-6
               Water Usage                                       5-6
               Waste Constituents                                 5-8

          SUBCATEGORY 3 - MATERIAL FORMING - ALL MATERIALS       5-8
          EXCEPT PLASTICS
               Process-Schematic                                 5-8
               Water Usage                                       5-11
               Waste Constituents                                 5-11

          SUBCATEGORY 4 - PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         5-13
               Process Schematic                                 5-13
               Water Usage                                       5-13
               Waste Characteristics                              5-13

          SUBCATEGORY 5 - ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    5-16
               Process Schematic                                 5-16
               Water Usage                                       5-16
               Waste Constituents                                 5-18

          SUBCATEGORY 6 - CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    5-18
               Process Schematic                                 5-18
               Water Usage                                       5-18
               Waste Constituents                                 5-18
                                 Xll

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS (Continued)



         Table of Contents Volume 3_,  Section V (Continued)

Section

          SUBCATEGORY 7 - MATERIAL COATING
               Process Schematic
               Water Usage
               Waste Constituents

          SUBCATEGORY 8 - SMELTING AND REFINING OF  NONFERROUS     5-24
          METALS
               Process Schematic                                 5-24
               Water Usage                                       5-27
               Waste Constituents                                5-27

          SUBCATEGORY 9 - MOLDING AND FORMING - PLASTICS          5-29
               Process Schematic                                 5-29
               Water Usage                                       5-29
               Waste Constituents                                5-31

          SUBCATEGORY 10 - FILM SENSITIZING                       5-31
               Process Schematic                                 5-31
               Water Usage                                       5-31
               Waste Constituents                                5-34

          SUBCATEGORY 11 - DOCKSIDE SHIPBUILDING ACTIVITIES       5-34
               Process Description                               5-34
               Water Usage                                       5-36
               Waste Characteristics                              5-36

          SUBCATEGORY 12 - LEAD ACID  BATTERY MANUFACTURE          5-37
               Process Schematic                                 5-37
               Water Usage                                       5-37
               Waste Constituents                                5-39

 VI       SELECTION  OF POLLUTANT PARAMETERS                       6-1

          INTRODUCTION                                           6-1

          RATIONALE  FOR THE SELECTION OF  POLLUTANT  PARAMETERS     6-5
               pH                                                6-5
               Total Suspended  Solids                            6-6
               Cadmium (Cd)                                       6-7
               Chromium (Cr)                                      6-8
               Copper (Cu)                                        6-9
               Cyanide (CN)                                       6-10
               Fluoride                                          6-11
                                 Kill

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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS  (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume  3,  Section VI (Continued)
     'Iron  (Fe)                                          6-12
      Lead  (Pb)                                          6-13
      Mercury  (Hg)                                       6-14
      Nickel  (Ni)                                        6-14
      Oil and Grease                                     6-15
      Chemical Oxygen Demand                             6-16
      Phosphates                                         6-17
      Silver  (Ag)                                        6-18
      Zinc  (Zn)                                          6-19

 RATIONALE FOR NOT SELECTING CERTAIN  POLLUTANTS AS      6-20
 PARAJM1,'M^  ;. J -,?R ^F^LUEN1*1 LIMITATIONS
      Color                                              6-20
      TurbidL-y                                          6-21
      Odor                                               6-21
      1,'. idle/                                            6-21
      A .Jc I n.U-                                          6-22
      Ammonia  . -i  ';.                                       6-,73
      Disso" v'ed Oxygen                                   6™23
      Conduct. u:c *                                        6-23
      r.hi.o-ii ;> -, :i)                                       6-24
      bulj-ides                                           6-24
      Hardness                                           6-25
      l-?l'- 1 t o.l \d-  M_      ,                              6-25
      Settiea^j.e  Solids                                  6-26
      Algicides                                          6-26
      /O.u.uirum (Ai }                                       5-26
      Antirnony (SD)                                       6-27
      Arsenic  (As)                                       6-27
      Barium (Ba)                                         6-28
      Beryll L •• (^e)                                     6-29
      I: OK or '.G)                                          6-30
      Calcium  (Ca)                                       6-30
      Chlorides                                          6-31
      Chlorinated Hydrocarbons                           6-31
      Dissolved Iron                                     6-32
      Magnesium (Mg)                                     6-33
      Manganese (Mn)                                     6-33
      Molybdenum  (Mo)                                    6-34
      Nitrates                                           6-34
      Nitrites                                           6-35
      Kjeldahl Nitrogen                                  6-35
      Biochemical Oxygen Demand  (BOD)                    6-36
      PCB's                                              6-36
                        XIV

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                              DRAFT


                         CONTENTS  (Continued)



         Table of; Contents  Volume  .3,  Section VI  (Continued)

Section                                                         Page

               Phenols                                           6-38
               Potassium (K)                                     6-39
               Selenium (Se)                                     6-40
               Silica/Silicates/Silicon                         6-40
               Sodium (Na)                                       6-41
               Strontium (Sr)                                    6-41
               Sulfates                                         6-42
               Sulfites                                         6-43
               Titanium (Ti)                                     6-43
               Volatile Solids                                   6-44
               Surfactants                                       6-44
               Plasticizers                                     6-44
               Bromide  (Br)                                      6-44
               Cobalt (Co)                                       6-45
               Thallium (Tl)                                     6-45
               Tin (Sn)                                          6-46
               Aldehydes                                        6-46
               Hydroquinone/Sodium Thiosulfate/Thiocyanates      6-47

  VII      CONTROL AND TREATMENT  TECHNOLOGY                       7-1

          INTRODUCTION                                           7-1

          IN-PLANT TECHNOLOGY                                    7-4

          INDIVIDUAL  TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES                      7-5

          NEUTRALIZATION                                        7-6
               Definition of the Process                         7-6
               Description  of the  Process                        7-6
               Advantages and Limitations                        7-8
               Specific Performance                             7-8
               Operational  Factors                              7-8
               Demonstration Status                             7-9

          CHEMICAL REDUCTION                                     7-9
               Definition of the Process                         7-9
               Description  of the  Process                        7-9
               Advantages and Limitations                        7-11
               Specific Performance                             7-13
               Operational  Factors                              7-13
               Demonstration Status                             7-13
                                  xv

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\
                     DRAFT

                CONTENTS (Continued)


Table of Contents Volume 3,  Section VII (Continued)
         SKIMMING                                               7-13
              Definition of the Process                         7-13
              Description of the Process                        7-15
              Advantages and Limitations                        7-15
              Specific Performance                              7-15
              Operational Factors                               7-15
              Demonstration Status                              7-16

         CLARIFICATION                                          7-16
              Definition of the Process                         7-16
              Description of the Process                        7-16
              Advantages and Limitations                        7-18
              Specific Performance                              7-18
              pnp.i nf:'onal Factors                               7-19
              L'vir\o;i:a .-ation Status                              7-19

         F LOT A" 1013                                              7-19
              Definition of the Process                         7-19
              Description of the Process                        7-20
              .i.dvc nU'ues and Limitations                        7-22
              Spec.' ?';'< c: Performance                              7-22
              Operational Factors                               7-22
              i 'em- istr ition Status                              7-24

         OXIDATION BY CHLORINE                                  7-24
              Definition o:~ the Process                         7-24
              Description of the Process                        7-26
              Advantages and Limitations                        7-29
              Specific Performance                              7-29
              Operational Factors                               7-29
              Demonstration Status                              7-30

         OXIDATION BY OXYGEN                                    7-30
              Description of the Process                        7-30
              Advantages and Limitations                        7-33
              Specific Performance                              7-33
              Operational Factors                               7-34
              Demonstration Status                              7-34

         CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION                                 7-35
              Definition of the Process                         7-35
              Description of the Process                        7-35
                                  xvi

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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS  (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume  3,  Section VII  (Continued)
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status

 COAGULATION/FLOCCULATION
      Definition of the  Process
      Description of the Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status

 SEDIMENTATION
      Definition of the  Process
      Description of the Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status

 MICROSTRAINING
      Definition of the  Process
      Description of the Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status

 DEEP BED FILTRATION
      Definition of the  Process
      Description of the Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
      Operational Factors.
      Demonstration Status

 SCREENING
      Definition of the  Process
      Description of the Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
                        XV11

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                       DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 3, Section VII (Continued)
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status

 ION EXCHANGE
      Definition of the Process
      Description of the Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status

 ADSORPTION
      11        o  the P -ocess
      Leborip-c n on of -die Process
      Adventaces and Limitations
      i',, >oo_f i c Per .ormance
      Operational Factors
      Demcnstr i .ion Status

 DISTILLAT 'Oil
      L NJ: •. ;i .. ->n of the Process
      De.---i   jH-.^on of tie Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Sued fie Performance
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status

 REVERSE OSHDL If:
      Definition of the Process
      Description of the Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status

 ULTRAFILTRATION
      Definition of the Process
      Description of the Process
      Advantages and Limitations
      Specific Performance
      Operational Factors
      Demonstration Status
                         XVlll

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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)



Table of Contents Volume 3_,  Section VII  (Continued)

                                                       Page

 ELECTRODIALYSIS                                       7-85
      Definition of the Process                         7-85
      Description of the Process              ,          7-85
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-88
      Specific Performance                             7-88
      Operational Factors                              7-88
      Demonstration Status                             7-90

 LIQUID/LIQUID EXTRACTION                              7-90
      Definition of the Process                         7-90
      Description of the Process                        7-90
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-92
      Specific Performance                             7-92
      Operational Factors                              7-94
      Demonstration Status                             7-94

 GAS PHASE SEPARATION                                  7-95
      Definition of the Process                         7-95
      Description of the Process                        7-95
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-95
      Specific Performance                             7-97
      Operational Factors                              7-97
      Demonstration Status                             7-97

 FREEZING/CRYSTALIZATION                               7-98
      Definition of the Process                         7-98
      Description of the Process                        7-98
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-100
      Specific Performance                             7-100
      Operational Factors                              7-100
      Demonstration Status                             7-100

 CHEMICAL DISINFECTION                                 7-101
      Definition of the Process                         7-101
      Description of the Process                        7-101
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-102
      Specific Performance                             7-102
      Operational Factors                              7-104
      Demonstration Status                             7-104
                         xix

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                     DRAFT
               CONTENTS  (Continued)
     of Contents Volume 3, Section VII  (Continued)
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION                                     7-104
     Definition of the Process                          7-104
     Description of the Process                         7-104
     Advantages and Limitations                         7-106
     Specific Performance                               7-108
     Operational Factors                                7-108
     Demonstration Status                               7-109

AEROBIC DIGESTION                                       7-109
     Definition of the Process                          7-109
     Description of the Process                         7-109
     A-^antages and Limitations                         7-111
     Specific? Performance                               7-111
     Operational Factors                                7-115
     Dt>morf;'.;rat.:.on St.v.:us                               7-115

THICKEI -<: G                                              7-115
     Df^cin:.t:'.on oT the Process                          7-115
     Description of the Process                         7-115
     Arl";uii:.:
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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS  (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 3,  Section VII  (Continued)
 HEAT DRYING                                            7-126
      Definition of the Process                          7-126
      Description of the Process                         7-127
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-128
      Specific Performance                              7-128
      Operational Factors                               7-128
      Demonstration Status                              7-128

 SAND BED DRYING                                        7-129
      Definition of the Process                          7-129
      Description of the Process                         7-129
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-129
      Specific Performance                              7-131
      Operational Factors                               7-131
      Demonstration Status                              7-131

 VACUUM FILTRATION                                      7-132
      Definition of the Process                          7-132
      Description of the Process                         7-132
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-132
      Specific Performance                              7-134
      Operational Factors                               7-134
      Demonstration Status                              7-134

 CENTRIFUGATION                                         7-136
      Definition of the Process                          7-13C
      Description of the Process                         7-136
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-13S
      Specific Performance                              7-138
      Operational Factors                               7-138
      Demonstration Status                              7-139

 SLUDGE DISPOSAL                                        7-139
      General                                           7-139
      Landfill                                          7-139
      Incineration                                      7-140
      Lagoons                                           7-142
      Land Spreading                                    7-144
      Wet Air Oxidation                                 7-146
      Ocean Disposal                                    7-146
      Pyrolysis for Sludge Disposal                      7-146
      Other Methods                                     7-148
                         xxi

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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 3, Section VII (Continued)
 EMULSION BREAKING                                      7-148
      Definition of the Process                         7-148
      Description of the Process                        7-148
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-149
      Specific Performance                              7-149
      Operational Factors                               7-149
      Demonstration Status                              7-150

 SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - DPT AND BAT                        7-151

 BEST PRACTICAL TECHNOLOGY CURRENTLY AVAILABLE {BPT)    7-1:1

 BASELINE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION (BPT)                      7-154

 ALTERNATE APPROACHES                                   7-158

 SUBCATEGORY 1, CASTING AND MOLDING - METALS - BPT      7-159

 SUBCATEGORY 2, MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL - BPT       7-162

 SUBCATEGORY 3, MATERIAL FORMING - ALL MATERIALS        7-162
 EXCEPT PLASTICS - BPT

 SUBCATEGORY 4, PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION - BPT    7-1C7

 SUBCATEGORY 5, ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS - i.P'i                7-167

 SUBCATEGORY 6, CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL                7-173
 OPERATIONS - BPT

 SUBCATEGORY 7, MATERIAL COATING - BPT                  7-173

 SUBCATEGORY 8, SMELTING AND REFINING OF NGNFERROUS     7-130
 METALS - BPT

 SUBCATEGORY 9, MOLDING AND FORMING OF PLASTICS - BPT   7-180

 SUBCATEGORY 10, FILM SENSITIZING - BPT                 7-180

 SUBCATEGORY 11, DOCKSIDE SHIPBUILDING ACTIVITIES -     7-184
 BPT

 SUBCATEGORY 12, LEAD ACID BATTERY MANUFACTURE - BPT    7-184

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS (Continued)
Section
  VIII
         Table of Contents Volume 3, Section VII (Continued)
BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVABLE
 (BAT)
     In-Plant Techniques
     End-Of-Pipe Treatment

EUBCATEGORY 1, CASTING AND MOLDING - METALS - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 2, MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 3, MATERIAL FORMING - ALL MATERIALS
EXCEPT PLASTICS - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 4, PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 5, ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 6, CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL
OPERATIONS - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 7, MATERIAL COATING - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 8, SMELTING AND REFINING OF NONFERROUS
METALS - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 9, MOLDING AND FORMING OF PLASTICS - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 10, FILM SENSITIZING - BAT

SUBCATEGORY 11, DOCKSIDE SHIPBUILDING ACTIVITIES -
BAT

SUBCATEGORY 12, LEAD ACID BATTERY MANUFACTURE - BAT

            Table of Contents Volume 4_

COST, ENERGY, AND NONWATER QUALITY ASPECTS

INTRODUCTION

COST ESTIMATES
     Technology Cost Estimates
     Technology Costs and Assumptions
     System Cost Estimates
     Cost Breakdown Factors
                                                                 7-20i
8-1

8-1

8-1
8-1
8-3
8-25
8-53
                                 XXlll

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS (Continued)



         Table of Contents Volume 4_, Section VIII (Continued)

Section

          ENERGY AND NONWATER QUALITY ASPECTS                    8-55
               Energy Aspects                                    0-55
               Nonwater Quality Aspects                          8-55

  IX      BEST PRACTICABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY CURRENTLY          9-1
          AVAILABLE - EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS

          INTRODUCTION                                           9-1

          APPLICABILITY                                          9-1

          BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS                               9-2

          IDENTIFICATION OF BPT                                  9-6

          RATIONALE FOR SELECTION OF BPT                         9-6
               Age and Size of Facilities                        9-6
               Processes Employed                                9-7
               Nonwater Quality Environmental Impact             9-7
               Engineering Impact on Treatment Facilities        9-8
               Process Changes                                   9-8
               Cost of Meeting the Effluent Limitations          9-8

          PROCEDURE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BPT EFFLUENT              9-10
          LIMITATIONS
               Screening Rationale                               9-3.0
               Determination of 30-Day Average Effluent          9-12
                    Limitations
               Single-Day Maximum Effluent Limitations           9-15

          APPLYING THE EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS                      9-15
               General Principles of Application                 9-15
               Examples                                          9-16

  X       BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVEABLE     10-1
          EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS

          INTRODUCTION                                           10-1

          APPLICABILITY                                          10--1

          BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS                               10-1
                                 xxiv

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS (Continued)



         Table o_f Contents Volume 4_,  Section X (Continued)

Section                                                          Page

          RATIONALE FOR SELECTION OF  BAT                         10-1

          APPLICATION OF BAT                                     10-2
               Introduction                                      10-2
               Pollutant Reduction or Elimination                10-15
               Water Use Reduction or Elimination                10-17
               Pollutant Control Measures                         10-17
               In-Plant Water Reuse                              10-17
               Wastewater Reclamation and  Reuse                   10-18
               Contract Removal                                  10-23

          APPLYING THE EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS                       10-24

          ECONOMIC IMPACT                                        10-24

  XI      NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS AND PRETREATMENT       11-1
          STANDARDS

          INTRODUCTION                                           11-1

          NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS                       11-1
               Applicability                                     11-1
               New Source Performance Standards                   11-1
               Rationale for New Source  Performance  Standards     11-1
               Best Available Demonstrated Control Technology     11-2
               Economic Impact                                   11-3

          PRETREATMENT STANDARDS                                 11-3
               Applicability                                     11-3
               Pretreatment Standards                            11-4
               Pretreatment Standards Rationale                   11-4
               Technology                                        11-9

  XII      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                       12-1

  XIII     REFERENCES                                             13-1

          INDUSTRY DESCRIPTION                                   13-1

          IN-PLANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY/RECYCLING                   13-4
                                  XXV

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                       UPVMT  ]










                CONTENTS  (Continued)









Table o_f Contents Volume £, Section  XIII  (Continued)




                                                         Page




 SCREENING                                               13-7




 EMULSION BREAKING                                       13-7




 SKIMMING/OIL REMOVAL                                    13-8




 FLOTATION                                               13-9




 SEDIMENTATION                                           13-9




 ULTRAFILTRATION                                         13-10




 REVERSE OSMOSIS  (HYPERFILTRATION)                       13-10




 OTHER FILTRATION                                        13-12




 LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION                                13-12




 ADSORPTION                                              13-13




 ION EXCHANGE                                            13-14




 GAS PHASE SEPARATION                                    13-15




 ELECTRODIALYSIS, ETC.                                   13-15




 DISTILLATION/EVAPORATION                                13-16




 MISCELLANEOUS REMOVAL TECHNIQUES                        13-16




 CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF CYANIDES, ETC.                    13-17




 CHEMICAL REDUCTION OF CHROMIUM, ETC..                   13-18




 NEUTRALIZATION WITH ACIDS                               13-19




 NEUTRALIZATION WITH BASES                               13-20




 FLOCCULATION (COAGULATION)                              13-20




 CLARIFICATION                                           13-21
                         XXVI

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS (Continued)


                                                      i
         Table o_f Contents Volume 4_,  Section XIII  (Continued)

Section                                                          Page

          MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICAL TECHNIQUES                       13-21

          BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES                                  13-22

          THICKENING                                             13-23

          CENTRIFUGATION                                         13-23

          SLUDGE DISPOSAL                                        13-24

          MISCELLANEOUS DISPOSAL                                 13-24

          INCINERATION                                           13-24

          PYROLYSIS                                              13-25

          CONTRACTOR REMOVAL                                     13-25

          MONITORING AND CONTROL                                 13-25

          WATER QUALITY CRITERIA AND  STANDARDS                    13-27

          INTEGRATED TREATMENT TECHNIQUES                         13-29

          ECONOMICS DATA                                         13-31

          COMPUTER PROGRAMMING                                   13-36

          GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS                              13-36

  XIV     GLOSSARY                                               14-1
                                 XXV11

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                              DRAFT
                                TABLES
Number                          Title                             Page

2-1       BPT Effluent Limitations (30-Day  Average)               2-2

2-1       BPT Effluent Limitations (Single-Day  Max)               2-3

3-1       Data Source                                            3-4

3-2       Trade Association Contacts                             3-
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                              DRAFT

                          TABLES  (Continued)
Number                          Title

3-16      Production Data - Aluminum Foundries

3-17      Production Data - Brass,  Bronze,  Copper Base Alloy
          Foundries

3-18      Production Data - Nonferrous  Foundries, NEC

3-19      Production Data - Metal  Heat  Treating

3-20      Production Data - Primary Metal Products, NEC

3-21      Production Data - Metal  Cans

3-22      Production Data - Metal  Barrels,  Drums, and Pails

3-23      Production Data - Cutlery

3-24      Production Data - Hand and Edge Tools, Except
          Machine Tools and Hand Saws

3-25      Production Data - Hand Saws and Saw Blades

3-26      Production Data - Hardware, Not Elsewhere
          Classified

3-27      Production Data - Enameled Iron and Metal Sanitary
          Ware

3-28      Production Data - Plumbing Fixture Fittings and
          Trim (Brass Goods)

3-29      Production Data - Heating Equipment, Except
          Electric

3-30      Production Data - Fabricated  Structural Metal

3-31      Production Data - Metal  Doors, Sash, Frames,
          Molding and Trim

3-32      Production Data - Fabricated  Structural Metal

3-33      Production Data - Sheet  Metal Work
                                  XXIX

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                            Page

3-34      Production Data - Architectural  and Ornamental         3-201
          Metal Work

3-35      Production Data - Prefabricated  Metal Buildings/       3-206
          Miscellaneous Metal Work

3-36      Production Data - Screw Machine  Products               3-211

3-37      Production Data - Bolts,  Nuts, Screws, Rivets and      3-216
          Washers

3-38      Production Data - Iron  and Steel Forgings              3-221

3-39      Production Data - Nonferrous  Forgings                  3-225

3-40      Production Data - Automotive  Stampings                 3-229

3-41      Production Data - Crowns  and  Closures                  3-233

3-42      Production Data - Metal Stampings, NEC                 3-238

3-43      Production Data - Small Arms  Ammunition                3-243

3-44      Production Data - Ammunition, Except for Small         3-249
          Arms, NEC

3-45      Production Data - Small Arms                           3-254

3-46      Production Data - Ordnance and Accessories, NEC        3-259

3-47      Production Data - Steel Springs, Except Wire           3-264

3-48      Production Data - Valves  and  Pipe Fittings, Except     3-269
          Plumbers' Brass Goods

3-49      Production Data - Wire  Springs                         3-2'M

3-50      Production Data - Miscellaneous  Fabricated Wire        3-281
          Products

3-51      Production Data - Metal Foil  and Leaf                  3-286

3-52      Production Data - Fabricated  Pipe and Fabricated       3-291
          Pipe Fittings
                                  XXX

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                              DRAFT
                          TABLES (Continued)
Number                          Title

3-53      Production Data - Fabricated Metal  Products, NEC

3-54      Production Data - Steam,  Gas and  Hydraulic Turbines
          and Turbine Generator Set Units

3-55      Production Data - Internal Combustion  Engines, Not
          Elsewhere Classified

3-56      Production Data - Farm Machinery  and Equipment

3-57      Production Data - Lawn and Garden Equipment

3-58      Production Data - Construction Machinery

3-59      Production Data - Mining  Machinery  and Equipment,
          Except Oil Field Machinery and Equipment

3-60      Production Data - Oil Field  Machinery

3-61      Production Data - Elevators  and Moving Stairways

3-62      Production Data - Conveyors  and Conveying Equipment

3-63      Production Data - Hoists, Cranes, and  Monorails

3-64      Production Data - Industrial Trucks and Tractors

3-65      Production Data - Machine Tools,  Metal Cutting
          Types

3-66      Production Data - Machine Tools,  Metal Forming
          Types

3-67      Production Data - Special Dies and  Tools, Die Sets,
          Jigs and Fixtures, and Industrial Molds

3-68      Production Data - Machine Tool Accessories and
          Measuring Devices

3-69      Production Data - Power Driven Hand Tools

3-70      Production Data - Rolling Mill Machinery
                                  XXXI

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                             Page

3-71      Production Data - Metalworking  Machinery, NEC           3-397

3-72      Production Data - Food  Products Machinery               3-403

3-73      Production Data - Textile  Machinery                     3-409

3-74      Production Data - Woodworking Machinery                 3-414

3-75      Production Data - Paper Industries                      3-419

3-76      Production Data - Printing Trades Machinery  and         3-425
          Equipment

3-77      Production Data - Special  Industry Machinery,  Not       3-432
          Elsewhere Classified

3-78      Production Data - Pumps and  Pumping  Equipment           3-437

3-79      Production Data - Ball  and Roller Bearings              3-442

3-80      Production Data - Blowers  and Exhaust and               3-447
          Ventilation Fans

3-81      Production Data - Industrial Patterns                  3-451

3-82      Proudction Data - Speed Changers, Drives, and           3-456
          Gears/Power Transmission Equipment,  NEC

3-83      Production Data - Industrial Process Furnaces  and       3-461
          Oven

3-84      Production Data - General  Industrial Machinery and     3-467
          Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified

3-85      Production Data - Office Machines, NEC                 3-474

3-86      Production Data - Electronic Computing Equipment       3-481

3-87      Production Data - Calculating and Accounting           3-486
          Machines

3-88      Production Data - Scales and Balances, Except           3-491
          Laboratory
                                  xxxi i

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES (Continued)



Number                          Title                            Pago

3-89      Production Data - Automatic Merchandising  Machines      3-495

3-90      Production Data - Commercial Laundry  Equipment          3-500

3-91      Production Data - Refrigeration  and Heating             3-505
          Equipment

3-92      Production Data - Measuring and  Dispensing Pumps        3-509

3-93      Production Data - Service Industry  Machines,  Not        3-514
          Elsewhere Classified

3-94      Production Data - Carburetors, Pistons,  Rings,          3-520
          Valves/Machinery, Except Electrical,  NEC

3-95      Production Data - Transformers                          3-525

3-96      Production Data - Switchgear and Switchboard            3-530
          Apparatus

3-97      Production Data - Motors and Generators                 3-535

3-98      Production Data - Industrial Controls                  3-540

3-99      Production Data - Welding Apparatus,  Electric          3-545

3-100     Production Data - Carbon and Graphite Products          3-549

3-101     Production Data - Electrical Industrial  Apparatus,      3-554
          Not Elsewhere Classified

3-102     Production Data - Household Cooking Equipment          3-559

3-103     Production Data - Household Refrigerators  and Home      3-564
          and Farm Freezers

3-104     Production Data - Household Laundry Equipment          3-569

3-105     Production Data - Electric Housewares and  Fans          3-575

3-106     Production Data - Household Vacuum  Cleaners             3-579

3-107     Production Data - Household Appliances,  Not             3-584
          Elsewhere Classified
                                  XXXlll

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                             Page

3-108     Production Data - Electric Lamps                        3-589

3-109     Production Data - Current-Carrying  Wiring  Devices       3-594

3-110     Production Data - Noncurrent-Carrying Wiring            3-598
          Devices

3-111     Production Data - Residential Lighting  Fixtures         3-603

3-112     Production Data - Commercial Lighting Fixtures          3--608

3-113     Production Data - Vehicular  Lighting Equipment          3-613

3-114     Production Data - Lighting Equipment, NEC               3-618

3-115     Production Data - Radio and  Television  Receiving        3-623
          Sets, Except Communication Types

3-116     Production Data - Phonograph Records and               3-628
          Pre-recorded Magnetic Tape

3-117     Production Data - Telephone  and Telegraph  Apparatus    3-633

3-118     Production Data - Radio and  TV Communication            3-640

3-119     Production Data - Radio and  Television  Receiving        3-645
          Type Electron Tubes, Except  Cathode Ray

3-120     Production Data - Cathode Ray Television Picture        3-649
          Tubes

3-121     Production Data - Transmitting, Industrial,  and         3-654
          Special Purpose Electron Tubes

3-122     Production Data - Semiconductors and Related            3-659
          Devices

3-123     Production Data - Electronic Capacitors                3-663

3-124     Production Data - Electronic Resistors                  3-667

3-125     Production Data - Electronic Coils and  Transformers    3-671
                                  xxxiv

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                              DRAFT
                          TABLES (Continued)
Number                          Title
3-126     Production Data - Electronic Connectors                 3-675

3-127     Production Data - Electronic Components,  NEC            3-681

3-12R     Production Data - Storage Batteries                    3-686

3-129     Production Data - Primary Batteries,  Dry  and  Wet        3-690

3-130     Production Data - Radiographic X-ray,  Fluoroscopic      3-695
          X-ray, Therapeutic X-ray, and Other X-ray Apparatus
          and Tubes; E] ectromedical and Electrotherapeutic
          Apparatus

3-131     Production Data - Electrical Equipment for Internal     3-700
          Combustion Engines

3-132     Production Data - Electrical Machinery, Equipment,      3-705
          and Supplies,  Not Elsewhere Classified

3-133     Production Data - Motor Vehicles and  Car  Bodies         3-710

3-134     Production Data - Truck and Bus Bodies                 3-716

3-135     Production Data - Motor Vehicle Parts and              3-722
          Accessories

3-136     Production Data - Truck Trailers                       3-726

3-137     Production Data - Aircraft                             3-731

3-138     Production Data - Aircraft Engines and Engine Parts     3-736

3-139     Production Data - Aircraft Equipment,  NEC              3-742

3-140     Production Data - Ship Building and Repairing          3-748

3-141     Production Data - Boat Building and Repairing          3-753

3-142     Production Data - Railroad Equipment                    3-759

3-143     Production Data - Motorcycles, Bicycles,  and  Parts      3-764

3-144     Production Data - Guided Missiles and Space        3-768A/3-76
          Vehicles
                                  XXXV

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                             Page

3-145     Production Data - Space Propulsion  Units  and  Parts      3-772

3-146     Production Data - Space Vehicle  Equipment,  NEC          3-778

3-147     Production Data - Travel Trailers and  Campers          3-784

3-148     Production Data - Tanks and  Tank Components            3-789

3-149     Production Data - Transporation  Equipment,  NEC          3-794

3-150     Production Data - Engineering, Laboratory,              3-801
          Scientific, and Research Instruments and
          Associated Equipment

3-151     Production Data - Automatic  Controls for  Regulating     3-807
          Residential and Commercial Environments and
          Appliances

3-152     Production Data - Process Control Instruments          3-814

3-153     Production Data - Fluid Meters and  Counting Devices     3-819

3-154     Production Data - Instruments to Measure                3-826
          Electricity

3-155     Production Data - Measuring  and  Controlling            .?~S'^
          Devices,  NEC

3-156     Production Data - Optical Instruments  and Lenses       3-838

3-157     Production Data - Surgical and Medical Instruments      3-8-i i
          and Apparatus

3-158     Production Data - Orthopedic, Prosthetic, and          3-831
          Surgical Appliances and Supplies

3-159     Production Data - Dental Equipment  and Supplies        3-837

3-160     Production Data - Ophthalmic Goods                      3-862

3-161     Production Data - Photographic Equipment  and            3-868
          Supplies

3-162     Production Data - Watches, Clocks,  and Watchcases      3-874
                                  xxxvi

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES (Continued)



Number                          Title                           page

3-163     Production Data - Jewelry,  Precious  Metal              3-879

3-164     Production Data - Silverware, Plated Ware, and         3-884
          Stainless Steel Ware

3-165     Production Data - Jewelers'  Materials  and Lapidary     3-889
          Work

3-166     Production Data - Musical  Instruments                  3-895

3-167     Production Data - Dolls                               3-900

3-168     Production Data - Games, Toys,  and Children's          3-905
          Vehicles

3-169     Production Data - Sporting  and  Athletic Goods, Not     3-911
          Elsewhere Classified

3-170     Production Data - Pens and  Mechanical  Pencils

3-171     Production Data - Costume Jewelry and  Costume
          Novelties, Except Precious  Metal

3-172     Production Data - Brooms and Brushes

3-173     Production Data - Marking Devices

3-174     Production Data - Burial Caskets

4-1       Manufacturing Processes

4-2       Grouping of Manufacturing Processes  by Major
          Subcategories

4-3       Industry Descriptions                                 4-10

4-4       Subcategory Analysis                                  4-22

4-5       Industry Subcategories                                4-25

4-6       Scope and Interfaces                                  4-26

4-7       Potential Production Based  Water Discharge             4-36
          Parameters
                                  xxxvii

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   -                         DRAFT


                          TABLES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                            Page

4-8       Analysis of Process  Water  Usage  - Subcategory 2        4-49

4-9       Analysis of Process  Water  Usage  - Subcategory 3        4-50

4-10      Analysis of Process  Wat«r  Usage  - Subcategory 4        4-51

4-11      Analysis of Process  Water  Usage  - Subcategory 5        4-52

4-12      Analysis of Process  Water  Usage  - Subcategory 7        4-57

5-1       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams - All       5-2
          Subcategories

5-2       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-5
          Subcategory 1

5-3       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-9
          Subcategory 2

5-4       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-12
          Subcategory 3

5-5       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-15
          Subcategory 4

5-6       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-19
          Subcategory 5

5-7       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-21
          Subcategory 6

5-8       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-25
          Subcategory 7

5-9       Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-28
          Subcategory 8

5-10      Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-32
          Subcategory 9

5-11      Waste Characteristics of Raw Waste Streams             5-35
          Subcategory 10
                                  xxxvin

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES (Continued)



Number                          Title                            Page

5-12      Waste Characteristics of  Raw Waste  Streams             5-40
          Subcategory 12

6-1       Pollutant Parameters                                  6-2

6-2       Raw Waste Analysis Summary                            6-3

6-3       Pollutant Parameter Selection Rationale                6-4

7-1       Plants Visited Using Neutralization                   7-10

7-2       Plants Visited Using Chemical Reduction                7-14

7-3       Plants Visited Using Skimming                         7-17

7-4       Plants Visited Using Clarification                     7-21

7-5       Plants Visited Using Flotation                        7-25

7-6       Plants Visited Using Chemical Oxidation                7-31

7-7       Oxidation of Phenolic Wastes                          7-34

7-8       Plants Visited Using Chemical Precipitation            7-40

7-9       Plants Visited Using Coagulation/Flocculation          7-46

7-10      Plants Visited Using Sedimentation                     7-51

7-11      Relative Performance and  Application  Characteristics   7-58
          of Solid/Liquid Separation Equipment

7-12      Plants Visited Using Filtration                        7-59

7-13      Plants Visited Using Screening                        7-63

7-14      Ion Exchange Removal Efficiencies for Heavy Metals     7-66

7-15      Plants Visited Using Ion  Exchange                      7-68

7-16      Granular Activated Carbon Applications                7-72

7-17      Plants Visited Using Adsorption                        7-71
                                  XXXIX

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES (Continued)



Number                          Title                            EjELS6.

7-18      Plants Visited Using Distillation                      7-75

7-19      Pollutants Vs. Removal Efficiency                      7-77

7-20      Typical Industrial RO Installations                    7-79

7-21      Plants Visited Using Ultrafiltration                   7-84

7-22      Summary List of Ten Electrodialysis Installations       7-89
          of 250,000 GPD or Greater Capacity

7-23      Liquid/Liquid Extraction Efficiencies                  7-94

7-24      Gas Phase Separation Efficiencies                      7-97

7-25      Typical Chlorine Dosages for Disinfection              7-102

7-26      Plants Visited Using Chlorination                      7-105

7-27      Anaerobic Digestion                                    7-108

7-28      Typical BOD Removal Efficiencies                       7-11-1

7-29      Loading of Dissolved-Air Flotation  Units               7-116

7-30      Plants Visited Using Thickening                        7-1'<>

7-31      Plants Visited Using Pressure Filtration               7-12-

7-32      Plants Visited Using Heat Drying                       7-128

7-33      Plants Visited Using Sand Bed Drying                   7-1->-

7-34      Plants Visited Using Vacuum Filtration                 7-135

7-35      Plants Visited Using Centrifugation                    7-13(,

7-36      Plants Visited Using Landfill                          7-141

7-37      Plants Visited Using Incineration                      7-1 4 J

7-38      Plants Visited Using Lagoons                           7-145

7-39      Plants Visited Using Emulsion Breaking                 7-150
                                  xl

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES (Continued)



Number                          Title                            Page

7-40      Intentionally Omitted                                  7-150

7-41      Waste Treatment Distribution  for all Plants Surveyed   7-152

7-42      Techniques for Metal Removal                           7-157

7-43      Alternate System Processes                             7-160

7-44      Subcategory 1 - BPT                                   7-161

7-45      Waste Treatment Distribution  for Subcategory 1         7-163
          Surveyed

7-46      Subcategory 2                                         7-164

7-47      Waste Treatment Distribution  for Subcategory 2         7-165
          Surveyed

7-48      Subcategory 3                                         7-166

7-49      Waste Treatment Distribution  for Subcategory 3         7-168
          Surveyed

7-50      Subcategory 4                                         7-170

7-51      Waste Treatment Distribution  for Subcategory 4         7-171
          Surveyed

7-52      Subcategory 5                                         7-172

7-53      Waste Treatment Distribution  for Subcategory 5         7-174
          Surveyed

7-54      Subcategory 6                                         7-176

7-55      Waste Treatment Distribution  for Subcategory 6         7-177
          Surveyed

7-56      Subcategory 7                                         7-178

7-57      Waste Treatment Distribution  for Subcategory 7         7-179
          Surveyed

7-58      Subcategory 8                                         7-181
                                  xli

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                             Pace

7-59      Waste Treatment Distribution for  Subcategory  8          7-182
          Surveyed

7-60      Subcategory 10                                         7-183

7-61      Waste Treatment Distribution for  Subcategory  10         7-1.15
          Surveyed

7-62      Subcategory 12                                         7-187

7-63      Waste Treatment Distribution for  Subcategory  12         7-138
          Surveyed

7-64      In-Plant Segregation and Treatment                      7-190

7-65      Subcategory 1 Pollutants and Removal  -  BAT              7™lf>4

7-66      Subcategory 2 Pollutants and Removal  -  BAT              7-195

7-67      Subcategory 3 Pollutants and Removal                    7-19"

7-68      Subcategory 4 Pollutants and Removal                    7-lvti

7-69      Subcategory 5 Pollutants and Removal                    7~,?00

7-70      Subcategory 6 Pollutants and Removal                    7-^Ci

7-71      Subcategory 7 Pollutants and Removal

7-72      Subcategory 8 Pollutants and Removal

7-73      Subcategory 10 Pollutants and  Removal                  7-2Or

7-74      Subcategory 12 Pollutants and  Removal                  7 2 r;

8-1       Index to Technology Cost Graphs                        1-2

8-2       Water Effluent Treatment Costs-BPT  -  Subcategory 1      5-28

8-3       Water Effluent Treatment Costs-BFT  -  Subcategory 2     3-2'.

8-4       Water Effluent Treatment Costs-BPT  -  Subcategory 3     8-30

8-5       Water Effluent Treatment Costs-BPT  -  Subcategory 4     8-31
                                  xlii

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                              DRAFT


                          TABLES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                            Page

8-6       Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BPT  - Subcategory 5     8-32

8-7       Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BPT  - Subcategory 6     8-33

8-8       Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BPT  - Subcategory 7     8-34

8-9       Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BPT  - Subcategory 8     8-35

8-10      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BPT  - Subcategory 10    8-36

3-11      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BPT  - Subcategory 12    8-37

8-12      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 1     8-41

8-13      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 2     8-42

8-14      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 3     8-43

8-15      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 4     8-44

8-16      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 5     8-45

8-17      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 6     8-46

8-18      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 7     8-47

8-19      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 8     8-48

8-20      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 10    8-49

8-21      Water Effluent Treatment  Costs-BAT  - Subcategory 12    8-50

8-22      Cost Program Pollutant  Parameter                       8-52

8-23      Nonwater Quality Aspects  of Wastewater Treatment       8-56

8-24      Nonwater Quality Aspects  of Sludge  and Solids          8-57
          Handling

9-1       BPT Effluent Limitations  (30-Day Average) mg/hr-m2     9-3

9-2       BPT Effluent Limitations  (Single-Day Max) mg/hr-m2     9-5
                                 xliii

-------
                          TABLES (Continued)
Number                          Title

9-3       Plant Effluent Discharge by Subcategory

9-4       Pollutant Concentration Comparison - mg/1

9-5       Example 1 Plant Data

9-6       Example 1 Pollutant Discharge Calculations

9-7       Example 1 Plant Maximum Allowable Discharge
          Calculations

9-8       Example 1 Compliance Comparison

9-9       Example 2 Plant Data

9-10      Example 3 Plant Data

9-11      Example 3 Pollutant Discharge Calculations

9-12      Example 3 Subcategory 3 Maximum Allowable Discharge    9-27
          Calculations

9-13      Example 3 Subcategory 5 Maximum Allowable Discharge    9-2R
          Calculations

9-14      Example 3 Subcategory 7 Maximum Allowable Discharge    V-23
          Calculations

9-15      Example 3 Plant Maximum Allowable Discharge            -~3C

9-IP      Example 3 Compliance Comparison                        0-3J

9-1?      Example 4 Plant Data                                   9-i3

9-18      Example 5 Plant Data     .                              9-35

9-19      Example 5 Pollutant Discharge Calculations             9-36
          Subcategory 3

9-20      Example  5 Subcategory  3 Maximum Allowable  Discharge    9-37
          Calculations

9-21      Example  5 Plant Maximum Allowable Discharge            9-38
          Calculations
                                   xliy

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                              DRAFT

                          TABLES  (Continued)
Number                         Title

9-22      Example  5  Compliance Comparison                        9-39

10-1      No Point Source  Plant Subcategory Discharge List       10-3

LO-2      Plant Process  Water Evaluation                         10-4

11-1      Existing Source  Pretreatment Standards                 11-5
          (30-Day  Average) mg/hr-m2

11-2      Existing Source  Pretreatment Standards                 11-6
          (Single-Day  Maximum) mg/hr-m2

11-3      New Source Pretreatment Standards                      11-7
          (30-Day  Average) mg/hr-m2

11-4      New Source Pretreatment Standards                      11-8
          (Single-Day  Maximum) mg/hr-m2
                                  xlv

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                               DRAFT



                               FIGURES



Number                          Title                            Page
IT — - - 	_ —                             •• •-—                             ..-,.»•.».—rL^mff

3-1       Telephone Interview Form and  On-Site  Evaluation        2-13
          Summary

3-2       Companies Surveyed - 1422                              3-14

3-3       On-Site Evaluations - 339                              3-16

3-4       On-Site Evaluation Data Portfolio                      3-17

3-5       Wastewater Sample Reporting Forms                      3-22

3-6       Composite Sample Reporting Forms                       3-25

3-7       Computer Data Organization and Analysis                3-32

3-8A      Overall Scope of Industry                              >-3.;;

3-8B      Approximate Correlation of Product Groupings to     3--34A/3-343
          SIC Designations

3-9      •Primary Metals Product Area                            3-35

3-10      Fabricated Metal Products Area                         3-36

3-11      Machinery, Except Electrical, Products Area            3-37

3-12      Electrical and Electronic Machinery Product Area       3-38

3-13      Transportation Equipment Product Area                  3-40

3-14      Instruments and Related Products Area                  3-41

3-15      Miscellaneous Manufactured Product Area                3-42

3-16      Plastics Products Industry Production Data             3-60

3-17      General Plastic Manufacturing                          3-61

3-18      Plastic Tray Manufacturing                             3-62

3-19      Nonferrous Primary Smelting and Refining Industry      3-67
          Production Data

3-20      Beryllium Manufacturing                                3-68

-------
                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)
Number                          Title                             Page

3-21      Nonferrous Secondary Smelting and  Refining  Industry     3-73
          Production Data

3-22      Gold and Silver Recovery Manufacturing                  3-74

3-23      Copper and Brass Rolling,  Drawing,  and  Extruding        3-78
          Industry Production Data

3-24      Copper Wire Manufacturing                              3-79

3-25      Brass Sheet Manufacturing                              3-80

3-26      Aluminum Sheet, Plate,  and Foil  Industry  Production     3-84
          Data

3-27      Aluminum Sheet Manufacturing                           3-85

3-28      Aluminum Extruded Products Industry Production  Data     3-89

3-29      Drawn Aluminum Tube Manufacturing                       3-90

3-30      Aluminum Rolling and Drawing of  Wire, Bar,  Rod, and     3-94
          Structural Shapes Industry Production Data

3-31      Aluminum Wire, Rod, Bar, and Structural Shapes          3-95
          Manufacturing

3-32      Rolling, Drawing, and Extrusion  of  Nonferrous           3-99
          Metals Industry Production Data

3-33      Zinc Strip Manufacturing                               3-100

3-34      Wire Drawing and Insulating  Industry Production         3-103
          Data

3-35      Wire Insulating Manufacturing                          3-104

3-36      Aluminum Foundries (Castings)  Industry  Production       3-108
          Data

3-37      Aluminum Die Casting Manufacturing                      3-109

3-38      Brass, Bronze, Copper,  Copper Base  Alloy  Foundries      3-113
          and (Castings) Industry Production  Data

-------
                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)
Number                          Title                             Page

3-39      Brass Sand Casting Manufacturing                        3-114

3-40      Nonferrous Foundries  (Except  Copper  and Aluminum)       3-118
          Industry Production Data

3-41      Zinc Die Casting Manufacturing                         3-119

3-42      Heat Treating Industry Production  Data                  3-122

3-43      Carbonitriding Manufacturing                            3-123

3-44      Nonferrous Powder, Paste,  Flake, Nails, Brads,          3-127
          Staples, and Spikes Industry  Production Data

3-45      Iron Powder by Oxide  Reduction Manufacturing            3-128

3-46      Metal Cans Industry Production Data                     3-132

3-47      Aluminum Can Manufacturing                             3-133

3-48      Metal Shipping Barrels,  Drum,  Kegs,  and Pails           3-137
          Industry Production Data
3-49      Shipping Container Manufacturing

3-50      Cutlery Industry Production Data                        3-142

3-51      Razor and Razor Blades Manufacturing                    3-143

3-52      Hand and Edge Tool Industry Production  Data             3~1<;"

3-53      Flat Hand Wrench Manufacturing                         3-149

3-54      Tape Rule (Metallic)  Manufacturing                      3-1 5C

3-55      Hand Saws and Saw Blades Industry Production  Data       3-153

3-56      Hack Saw Blade Manufacturing                           3-154

3-57      Hardware Industry Production Data                      3-159

3-58      Hardware (Locksets)  Manufacturing                      3-160

-------
                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)
Number                     '     Title                            Page

3-59      Portable Ice Chest or Cooler  Manufacturing             3-161

3-60      Enameled Iron and Metal  Sanitary Ware  Industry         3-165
          Production Data

3-61      Enameled Iron Sink Manufacturing                       3-166

3-62      Plumbing Fittings and Brass Goods  Industry             3-170
          Production Data

3-63      Metal Faucet Manufacturing                             3-171

3-64      Heating Equipment Industry Production  Data             3-175

3-65      Steel Boiler Manufacturing                             3-176

3-66      Fabricated Structural Metals  Industry  Production       3-180
          Data

3-67      Transmission Tower Manufacturing                       3-181

3-68      Metal Doors Sash and Trim Industry Production Data     3-185

3-69      Aluminum Window Frame Manufacturing                   3-186

3-70      Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops) Industry          3-192
          Production Data

3-71      Steel Boiler Drum Manufacturing                        3-193

3-72      Sheet Metal Work Industry Production Data              3-197

3-73      Siding (Aluminum Sheet Metal)  Manufacturing            3-198

3-74      Architectural Metal Work Industry  Production Data      3-202

3-75      Fire Escape Manufacturing                             3-203

3-76      Prefabricated Metal Buildings and  Components and       3-207
          Miscellaneous Metal Work Industry  Production Data

3-77      Roofing Panels Manufacturing                           3-208

3-78      Bars Concrete Reinforcing Manufacturing                3-209

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                               DRAFT



                         FIGURES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                            Page

3-79      Screw Machine Products  Industry  Production Data        3-212

3-80      Special Screw Machine Manufacturing                    3-213

3-81      Bolts, Nuts,  Screws,  Rivets,  and Washers  Industry      3-217
          Production Data

3-82      Bolt Manufacturing                                    3-218

3-83      Iron and Steel Forgings Industry Production Data       3-222

3-84      Alloy Steel Forging Manufacturing                      3-223

3-85      Nonferrous Forgings Industry  Production Data           3-226

3-86      Aluminum Forging Manufacturing                        3-227

3-87      Automotive Stamping Industry  Production Data           3-230

3-88      Inner Fender Wall Manufacturing                        3-231

3-89      Crowns and Closures Industry  Production Data           3-234

3-90      Bottle Cap Manufacturing                              3-235

3-91      Metal Stampings Industry Production  Data               3-239

3-92      Kitchen Utensil Manufacturing                         3-240

3-93      Small Arms Ammunition Industry Production Data         3-244

3-94      Shotgun Shell Manufacturing                            3-245

3-95      Ammunition, Except for  Small  Arms, Industry            3-250
          Production Data

3-96      Explosive Projectile  Manufacturing                     3-251

3-97      Small Arms Industry Production Data                    3-255

3-98      Pistol Manufacturing                                   3-256

3-99      Ordnance and Accessories Industry Production  Data      3-260

3-100     Seamless Forged Pipe  Manufacturing                     3-261

-------
                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES (Continued)



Number                          Title                            Page
 I- I III  ' —                           '••! 'I • "H •                              -^1

3-101     Steel Springs Industry Production Data                 3-265

3-102     Laminated Leaf Spring Manufacturing                    3-266

3-103     Valves and Pipe Fittings Industry Production  Data       3-270

3-104     Pipe Fitting Manufacturing                             3-271

3-105     Wire Springs Industry Production Data                  3-275

3-106     Mechanical Coil Spring Manufacturing                   3-276

3-107     Miscellaneous Fabricated Wire Products Industry         3-282
          Production Data

3-108     Wire Rope Manufacturing                                3-283

3-109     Metal Foil and Leaf Industry Production Data            3-287

3-110     Gold Leaf Manufacturing                                3-288

3-111     Fabricated Pipe and Fittings Industry Production        3-292
          Data

3-112     Fabricated Pipe Manufacturing                          3-293

3-13.3     Fabricated Metal Products Industry Production Data      3-298

3-114     Safe Manufacturing                                     3-299

3-115     Turbines and Turbine Generator Sets Industry            3-303
          Production Data

3-116     Steam Turbine Manufacturing                            3-304

3-117     Internal Combustion Engines (N.E.C.)  Industry          3-308
          Production Data

3-118     Internal Combustion Engine (N.E.C.)  Manufacturing       3-309

3-119     Farm Machinery and Equipment Industry Production        3-315

3-120     Farm Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing              3-316

3-121     Lawn and Garden Equipment Industry Production Data      3-320

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES (Continued)
Number                          Title                            Page

3-122     Lawn and Garden Equipment Manufacturing                 3-321

3-123     Construction Machinery and Equipment  Industry           3-327
          Production Data

3-124     Bulldozer Manufacturing                                3-328

3-125     Mining Machinery Industry Production  Data               3-333

3-126     Underground Scraper Loader Manufacturing                3-334

3-127     Oilfield Machinery Industry Production Data             3-338

3-128     Derrick Manufacturing                                  3-339

3-129     Elevators and Moving Stairways Industry Production      3-343
          Data

3-130     Escalator Manufacturing                                3-344

3-131     Conveyors and Conveying Equipment Industry             3-348
          Production Data

3-132     Belt Conveyor Manufacturing                            3-249

3-133     Hoists, Cranes, and Monorail Fabricating  Industry       3-353
          Production Data

3-134     Hoist Manufacturing                                    3-li»'l

3-135     Industrial Trucks and Tractors Industry Production      3-359
          Data

3-136     Industrial Trucks Manufacturing                        3-36C

3-137     Metal Cutting Machines Industry Production Data         3-366

3-138     Engine Lathe (Tailstock)  Manufacturing                  3-367

3-139     Machine Tools, Metal-Forming Types Industry            3-372
          Production Data

3-140     ECM Manufacturing                                      3-373

3-141     Special Dies, Tools, Jigs, and Fixtures  Industry       3-377
          Production Data
                                  lii

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                               DRAFT



                         FIGURES  (Continued)



Number                          Title                            Page

3-142     Washer Die Set Manufacturing                           3-378

3-143     Machine Tool Accessories Industry Production Data       3-383

3-144     Metal Working Drill Bits Manufacturing                 3-384

3-145     Power Driven Hand Tools Industry Production  Data        3-388

3-146     Electric Hand Drill Manufacturing                      3-389

3-147     Rolling Mill Machinery  Industry Production Data         3-393

3-148     Rolling Mill Machinery  Manufacturing                   3-394

3-149     Metal Working Machinery Industry Production  Data        3-398

3-150     Gas Welding Equipment Manufacturing                    3-399

3-151     Food Products Machinery Industry Production  Data        3-404

3-152     Pasteurizing Equipment  Manufacturing                   3-405

3-153     Textile Machinery Industry Production Data             3-410

3-154     Knitting Machine Manufacturing                         3-411

3-155     Woodworking Machinery Industry Production  Data          3-415

3-156     Lathe Manufacturing                                    3-416

3-157     Paper Industries Machinery Industry Production Data     3-420

3-158     Fourdrinier Machine Manufacturing                      3-421

3-159     Printing Trades Machinery Industry Production Data      3-426

3-160     Typesetting Machines Manufacturing                     3-427

3-161     Type Manufacturing                                     3-428

3-162     Special Industry Machinery Industry Production Data     3-433

3-163     Plastics Injection Molding Machine Manufacturing        3-434

3-164     Pumps and Pumping Equipment Air and Gas  Compressors     3-438
          Industry Production Data

-------
                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES (Continued)
Number                          Title                            Paqg
3-165     Hydraulic Gear Pump Manufacturing                      3-439

3-166     Ball and Roller Bearing Industry Production  Data        3-443

3-167     Ball Bearing Manufacturing                             3-444

3-168     Blowers and Fans Industry Production  Data               3-443

3-169     Centrifugal Blower Manufacturing                       3-449

3-170     Industrial Patterns Industry Production  Data           3-452

3-171     Pattern Manufacturing                                  3-453

3-172     Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment  and  Speed       3-^57
          Changer Equipment Industry Production Data

3-173     Universal Joint Manufacturing                          3-45S

3-174     Industrial Furnaces and Ovens Industry Production       3-462
          Data

3-175     Metal Melting Furnace Manufacturing                    3-463

3-176     General Industrial Machinery Industry Production        3-461
          Data

3-177     Screw Jack Manufacturing                               3-
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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES (Continued)
Number                          Title                            Page

3-185     Cash Register Manufacturing                            3-488

3-186     Scales and Balances Industry Production Data           3-492

3-187     Digital Readout Scale Manufacturing                    3-493

3-188     Automatic Merchandising Machines Industry              3-496
          Production Data

3-189     Coin Tester Manufacturing                              3-497

3-190     Commercial Laundry Equipment Industry Production       3-501
          Data

3-191     Washing Machine (Commercial)  Manufacturing             3-502

3-192     Refrigeration and Heating Equipment Industry           3-506
          Production Data

3-193     Air Conditioner Manufacturing                          3-507

3-194     Measuring and Dispensing Pumps Industry Production      3-510
          Data

3-195     Measuring and Dispensing Pumps Manufacturing           3-511

3-196     Special Service Machines Industry Production Data       3-515

3-197     Industrial Vacuum Cleaner Manufacturing                3-516

3-198     Carburetors,  Pistons,  Rings,  Valves and Machinery,      3-521
          Except Electrical (NEC)  Industry Production  Data

3-199     Flexible Metal Hose Manufacturing                      3-522

3-200     Transformer Industry Production Data                   3-526

3-201     Power Transformer Manufacturing                        3-527

3-202     Switchgear and Switchboard Apparatus Industry          3-531
          Production Data

3-203     Switchroar and Switchboard Apparatus Manufacturing      3-532

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES (Continued)
Number                           ,                                    .

3-204     Motor and Generator Industry Production  Data            ,,,-5J&

3-205     Electric Motor Manufacturing                           3-537

3-206     Industrial Control Industry Production Data             3-541

3-207     Industrial Environmental Control Manufacturing          3-542

3-208     Welding Apparatus Industry Production Data             3-546

3-209     Welding Apparatus (Electric)  Manufacturing             3-547

3-210     Carbon and Graphite Products Industry Production        3-550
          Data

3-211     Motor Brush Manufacturing                              3-551

3-212     Electrical Industrial Apparatus, NEC Industry           3-55?
          Production Data

3-213     Battery Charging Equipment Manufacturing               3-."36

3-214     Household Cooking Equipment Industry Production         -,-5nC
          Data

3-215     Electric Range Manufacturing                           3-561

3-216     Household Refrigerators and Freezers Industry           3- :f>5
          Production Data

3-217     Refrigerator Manufacturing                             3-566

3-218     Household Laundry Equipment Industry Production         3-570
          Data

3-219     Household Dryer Manufacturing                          3-571

3-220     Electric Housewares and Fans Industry Production        3-576
          Data

3-221     Food Mixer Manufacturing                               3-577

3-222     Household Vacuum Cleaners Industry Production Data     3-580
                                  Ivi

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES (Continued)
Number                          Title                            Page

3-223     Vacuum Cleaner Manufacturing                           3-581

3-224     Household Appliance NEC Industry Production  Data        3-585

3-225     Dishwasher Manufacturing                               3-586

3-266     Electric Lamp Industry Production Data                  3-590

3-227     Incandescent Light Bulbs Manufacturing                  3-591

3-228     Current-Carry Wiring Devices Industry Production        3-595
          Data

3-229     Switch Manufacturing                                   3-596

3-230     Non Current-Carrying Wiring Devices  Industry           3-599
          Production Data

3-231     Junction Box Manufacturing                             3-600

3-232     Residential Lighting Fixtures Industry Production       3-604
          Data

3-233     Drop Light Manufacturing                               3-605

3-234     Commercial Lighting Fixtures Industry Production        3-609
          Data

3-235     Lighting Fixture Manufacturing                         3-610

3-236     Vehicular Lighting Equipment Industry Production        3-614
          Data

3-237     Automobile Lighting Fixture Manufacturing               3-615

3-238     Lighting Equipment NEC Industry  Production Data         3-619

3-239     Flashlight Manufacturing                               3-620

3-240     Radio and TV Receiving Set Industry  Production Data     3-624

3-241     TV Tuners Manufacturing                                3-625

3-242     Phonograph Records and Prerecorded Magnetic  Tape        3-629
          Industry Production Data

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES (Continued)



Number                          Title                            i?age

3-243     Phonograph Record Manufacturing                        3 -630

3-244     Telephone and Telegraph Apparatus Industry             3-634
          Production Data

3-245     PBX Equipment Manufacturing                            3-635

3-246     Radio and TV Communication Equipment Industry          ,-s-64i
          Production Data

3-247     Electronic Communication Equipment Manufacturing       3-642

3-248     Electron Tube (Receiving Type)  Industry Production     3-646
          Data
3-249     Electron Tube Manufacturing                            3-64
3-250     Cathode Ray TV Picture Tube Industry Production        3-650
          Data

3-251     Cathode Ray Tube Manufacturing                         3-651

3-252     Electron Tube, Transmitting Industry Production        3-6M-
          Data

3-253     Electron Tube Manufacturing                            3-656

3-254     Semi Conductor Industry Production Data                3-66")

3-255     Transistor Manufacturing                               3-661

3-256     Electronic Capacitors Industry Production Data         3-664

3-257     Ceramic Disc Capacitor Manufacturing                   3-665

3-258     Resistors for Electronic Applications Industry         3-668
          Production Data

3-259     Carbon Film Resistor Manufacturing                     3-669

3-260     Electronic Coils and Transformers Industry             3-672
          Production Data

3-261     I.F. Transistor Manufacturing                          3-673

3-262     Electronic Connectors Industry Production Data         3-676
                                 1 \ri -i i

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)
Number                          Title

3-263     Electrical Connector Manufacturing

3-264     Electronic Component (NEC)  Industry  Production Data

3-265     Plated Through Hole Subtractive  Printed  Circuit
          Board Manufacturing

3-266     Storage Batteries Industry  Production  Data

3-267     Lead-Acid Storage Battery Manufacturing

3-268     Primary Batteries, Dry and  Wet  Industry  Production
          Data

3-269     Carbon Zinc Battery Manufacturing

3-270     Radiographic X-Ray, Fluoroscopic X-Ray,  Etc.
          Industry Production Data

3-271     X-Ray Apparatus Manufacturing

3-272     Engine Electrical Equipment Industry Production
          Data

3-273     Starting Motors Manufacturing

3-274     Electrical Equipment and Supplies (NEC)  Industry
          Production Data

3-275     Extension Cord Manufacturing                           3-7

3-276     Motor Vehicles and Car Bodies Industry Production       3-7
          Data

3-277     Auto Manufacturing

3-278     Automobile Frame Manufacturing

3-279     Truck and Bus Bodies Industry Production Data

3-280     Truck and Bus Bodies Manufacturing

3-281     Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories  Industry
          Production Data

3-282     Engine and Parts

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                            Pacje

3-283     Truck Trailers Industry Production  Data                3-727

3-284     Truck Trailer Manufacturing                            3-728

3-285     Aircraft Industry Production  Data                      3-732

3-286     Airplane Manufacturing                                 3-733

3-287     Aircraft Engines and Engirte Parts Industry             3-737
          Production Data

3-288     Aircraft Jet Engines                                  3-738

3-289     Aircraft Parts and Equipment  (NEC)  Industry            3-743
          Production Data

3-290     Wing Skin Manufacturing                               3-744

3-291     Aluminum Propeller Blade Manufacturing                 3-745

3-292     Shipbuilding Industry Production Data                  3-749

3-293     Ship Manufacturing                                    3-750

3-294     Boat Building and Repairing Industry Production        3-754
          Data

3-295     Fiberglass Boat Manufacturing                         3-755

3-296     Railroad Equipment Industry Production  Data            3-750

3-         Locomotive Manufacturing                              3-761

3-298     Motorcycle and Bicycle  Industry Production Data        3-765

3-299     Bicycle Manufacturing                                 3-766

3-300     Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles  Industry            3-769
          Production Data

3-301     Guided Missile Manufacturing                           3-770

3-302     Space Propulsion Industry Production Data             3-773

3-303     Engine Parts Manufacturing                            3-774
                                  Ix •

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES (Continued)
Number                          Title

3-304     Missile Engine Manufacturing

3-305     Guided Missiles and Space Vehicle Parts  and
          Auxiliary Equipment (NEC)  Industry Production  Data

3-306     Metal Cast Components  Manufacturing

3-307     Nose Cone Manufacturing

3-308     Travel Trailers and Campers Industry Production
          Data

3-309     Travel Trailers Manufacturing                          3-7

3-310     Tank Industry Production Data                          3-7

3-311     Tank Manufacturing                                     3-7

3-312     Transportation Equipment Industry Production Data       3-7

3-313     ATV Manufacturing                                      3-7

3-314     Engineering Laboratory, Scientific, and  Research       3-8
          Instruments and Associated Equipment Industry
          Production Data

3-315     Aircraft Integrated Data Systems (Aids)                 3-8

3-316     Automatic Control Industry Production Data             3-8

3-317     Thermostat Manufacturing                               3-8

3-318     Industrial Instruments for Measurement Display and      3-8
          Control of Process Variables and Related Products
          Industry Production Data

3-319     Temperature Control Manufacturing                      3-8

3-320     Totalizing Fluid Meters and Counting Devices           3-8
          Industry Production Data

3-321     Mechanical Counting Devices Manufacturing              3-8

3-322     Instruments for Measuring and Testing of               3-8
          Electricity and Electrical Signals Industry
          Production Data

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                            Paqe
WWMMH^HH^vWMV                         _•—«.—^fc—•                              III II "*|-| II

3-323     Electronic Volt Meter Manufacturing                    3-828

3-324     Measuring and Controlling Devices  Industry             3-833
          Production Data

3-325     Aneroid Barometer Manufacturing                        3-834

3-326     Optical Instrument and  Lens  Industry Production        3-839
          Data

3-327     Plastic Manufacturing                                 3-840

3-328     Surgical and Medical Instruments Industry              3-845
          Production Data

3-329     Medical Scissors Manufacturing                         3-846

3-330     Operating Table Manufacturing                         3-847

3-331     Orthopedic, Prosthetic  and Surgical Appliances and     3-852
          Supplies Industry Production Data

3-332     Arch Support Manufacturing                            3-853

3-333     Surgical Corset Manufacturing                         3-854

3-334     Miscellaneous Dental Equipment and Supplies            3-858
          Industry Production Data

3-335     Dental Instruments Manufacturing                       3-859

3-336     Ophthalmic Goods Industry Production Data              3-863

3-337     Eyeglass Manufacturing                                 3-864

3-338     Photographic Equipment  and Supplies Industry           3-869
          Production Data

3-339     Film Negative Manufacturing                            3-870

3-340     Camera Manufacturing                                  3-871

3-341     Watches, Clocks, Clockwork Operating Devices and       3-875
          Parts Industry Production Data
                                 Ixii

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)
Number                          Title

3-342     Clock Manufacturing

3-343     Jewelry and Precious Metals  Industry  Production
          Data

3-344     Class Ring Manufacturing

3-345     Silverware, Plated Ware,  and Stainless  Steel Ware
          Industry Production Data

3-346     Sterling Silver Plated Knife Manufacturing

3-347     Jewelers Findings and Materials  and Capodary Work

3-348     Jewelery Chain Manufacturing

3-349     Musical Instruments Industry Production Data

3-350     Pin Piano Manufacturing

3-351     Trumpet Manufacturing

3-352     Doll Industry Production  Data

3-353     Doll Manufacturing

3-354     Games, Toys, and Childrens Vehicles Industry
          Production Data

3-355     Wagon Manufacturing                                    3-9(

3-356     Sporting and Athletic Goods  Industry  Production         3-9:
          Data

3-357     Swimming Pool Manufacturing                             3-9

3-358     Golf Club Manufacturing                                3-9

3-359     Pens, Mechanical Pencils  and Parts Industry             3-9
          Production Data

3-360     Ball Point Pen Manufacturing                           3-9

3-361     Costume Jewelry and Costume  Novelties,  Except           3-9
          Precious Metals Industry  Production Data

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (continued)
Number                          Title                            Page

3-362     Costume Ring Manufacturing                             3-923

3-363     Brooms and Brushes  Industry  Production Data            3-926

3-364     Twisted Wire Brush  Manufacturing                       3-927

3-365     Signs and Advertising  Displays  Industry Production     3-931
          Data

3-366     Wire Display Rack Manufacturing                       3-932

3-367     Burial Caskets Industry  Production Data                3-935

3-368     Burial Caskets Manufacturing                          3-936

4-1       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-41
          for Subcategory 1

4-2       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-42
          Floor Area for Subcategory 1

4-3       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-43
          Floor Area for Subcategory 2

4-4       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-44
          Floor Area for Subcategory 3

4-5       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-45
          Floor Area for Subcategory 4

4-6       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-46
          Floor Area for Subcategory 5

4-7       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-47
          Floor Area for Subcategory 12

4-8       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-53
          Floor Area for Subcategory 6

4-9       Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-54
          Floor Area for Subcategory 7

4-10      Effluent Discharge  Analysis  Based on Production        4-55
          Floor Area for Subcategory 10
                                 Ixiv

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)
Number                          Title

4-11      Effluent Discharge Analysis  Based  on  Production
          for Subcategory 8

4-12      Effluent Discharge Analysis  Based  on  Production
          Floor Area for Subcategory 8

5-1       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  1

5-2       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  2

5-3       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  3

5-4       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  4

5-5       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  5

5-6       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  6

5-7       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  7

5-8       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  8

5-9       Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  9

5-10      Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  10

5-11      Typical Water Use  Areas in Subcategory  12

7-lA      Once Through Use of Water, Treatment, and  Reuse

7-lB      Multi-Use Operation and Treatment

7-1C      Single Operation and Treatment

7-2       Flow Diagram of 3-Stage Waste Acid Neutralization
          Unit

7-3       Flow Diagram for Treatment of Hexavalent Chromium       7-i:
          Waste by Reduction with Sulfur Dioxide

7-4       Air/Solids Ratio                                       7-2.

7-5       Flow Diagram for Treatment of Cyanide Waste  by          7-2'
          Alkaline Chlorination Process

-------
                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)
Number                          Title                            Page

7-6       Flow Sheet of Pilot Plant Process  for  Treatment of      7-28
          Waste Color and Phenol

7-7       Typical Ozone Plant for Waste Treatment                 ~! -32

7-8       Flow Diagram of Chemical Precipitation Unit             7-36
          Employing pH Adjustment and Sedimentation

7-9       Effect of pH Solubility of Trivalent Chromium           7-39

7-10      Flow Diagram of Chemical Coagulation Unit Employing     7-42
          Mixing, Flocculation,  and Sedimentation

7-11      Schematic of a Mechanical Gravity  Thickener             7-48

7-12      Micro Screening Schematic                              7-52

7-13      Typical Pressure Filter                                7-55

7-14      Cation Exchange Resin                                   7-65

7-15      Simplified Ultrafiltration Flow Schematic               7-81

7-16      Simple Electrodialysis Cell                            7-86

7-17      Mechanism of the Electrodialytic Process                7-87

7-18      Holley-Mott Washer Applied in the  Removal of            7-91
          Phenols from Wastewater

7-19      Flow Diagram of Nickel/Zinc Extraction from             7-93
          Phosphate Solution

7-20      Laboratory Scale Gas Phase Separator                    7-96

7-21      Counter Flow Ice Washing                               7-99

7-22      Typical Vacuum-Feed Chlorinator                        7-103

7-23      Anaerobic Contact Process                              7-107

7-24      Schematic Diagram of a Conventional Activated           7-110
          Sludge System
                                Ixvi

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                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)



Number                         Title                            Page

7-25      Schematic Cross Section  of a  Trickling Filter

7-26      Schematic Diagram of a Single-stage  Trickling
          Filter

7-27      Mechanical Gravity Thickening

7-28      Schematic Representation of Flotation Systems

7-29      Typical Pressure Filter

7-30      Feed Flow and Filtrate Drainage

7-31      Plan and Section of a Typical Sludge Drying Bed

7-32      Vacuum Filtration System

7-33      Conveyor Type Sludge Dewatering  Centrifuge

7-34      Wet Air Oxidation Process

7-35      Baseline System Schematic - BPT

7-36      Baseline System Schematic Modified with Cyanide
          Oxidation - BPT

7-37      Baseline System Schematic Modified with Chromium       7-17!
          Reduction - BPT

7-38      Baseline System Schematic - BAT                        7-19:

8-1       Emulsion Breaking                                     8-5

8-2       API Oil Skimmer                                       8-5

8-3       Holding Tanks                                         8-6

8-4       Equalization - Earthen Pond                            8-6

8-5       Equalization - Concrete  Tank                           8-8

8-6       Clarification - Settling Tank                         8-8

8-7       Clarification - Metal Removal Tube Settler             8-9

-------
                               DRAFT
                         FIGURES  (Continued)
Number                          Title                            Page
8-8       Clarification - Oil Removal  Tube  Settler                8-9



8-9       Neutralization - Acidic Influent                        8-11



8-10      Neutralization - Alkaline  Influent                      8-11



8-11      Gravity Thickening                                     8-13



8-12      Sludge Drying Beds                                     8-13



8-13      Contractor Removal - Total Flow                        8-14



8-14      Chemical Reduction of Chromium                          8-14



8-15      Chemical Oxidation of Cyanide                           8-16



8-16      Filtration - Without Alum  Precoat Filter                8-16



8-17      Filtration - With Alum Precoat  Filter                   8-17




8-18      Reverse Osmosis                                        8-17



8-19      Ultrafiltration                                        8-18



8-20      Ion Exchange                                           8-18



8-21      Distillation - Simple                                  8-20



8-22      Distillation - Wiped Film                               8-20



8-23      Flotation/Separation - Acidic  Influent                  8-22



8-24      Flotation/Separation - Alkaline Influent                8-22



8-25      Sludge Pumping                                         8-23



8-26      Copper Cementation                                     8-23



8-27      BPT Baseline Wastewater Treatment System  Schematic      8-27



8-28      BAT Baseline Wastewater Treatment System  Schematic      8-40



10-1      Water Reclamation Overview                             10-12
                                 Ixviii

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                              DRAFT
                        FIGURES  (Continued)








Number                        Title




10-2     Water Reclamation Alternatives




10-3     Water Reuse at Plant No.  230




10-4     Water Reuse at Plant No.  526




10-5     Water Reuse at Plant No.  984




10-6     Water Reuse at Plant No.  983

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                              DRAFT
                               SECTION I

                              CONCLUSIONS


The Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing Point Source Category
consists of more than 100,000 separate plants manufacturing over 4,000
different products.  The most effective method of subcategorizing this
diverse group of industries is by types of manufacturing processes
utilized within a plant.  The following nine subcategories reflect the
major types of manufacturing operations and fully cover the Machinery
and Mechanical Products Manufacturing category, except as discussed
below.

  Subcategory 1.  Casting and Molding - Metals
  Subcategory 2.  Mechanical Material Removal
  Subcategory 3.  Material Forming - All Materials Except Plastics
  Subcategory 4.  Physical Property Modification
  Subcategory 5.  Assembly Operations
  Subcategory 6.  Chemical-Electrochemical Operations
  Subcategory 7.  Material Coating
  Subcategory 8.  Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals
  Subcategory 9.  Molding and Forming - Plastics

In some limited cases, the nine basic process subcategories are not
amenable to a particular industry or industry segment because of the
uniqueness of such an industry relative to the bulk of the industries
in the point source category.  The film sensitizing segment of the
photographic industry, dockside operations of the shipbuilding industry
and the lead acid battery segment of the battery industry are unique
areas that do not fit into the process subcategories selected.  For
this reason, three additional subcategories were established to encom-
pass these industries and distinguish them from the basic process sub-
categories.  These are:

  Subcategory 10.  Film Sensitizing
  Subcategory 11.  Dockside Shipbuilding Activities
  Subcategory 12.  Lead Acid Battery Manufacture

Categorization  according to manufacturing process was selected after
consideration of the following potential discriminators:
     NOTICE THESE ARE TENTATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS BASED UPON INFORMATION IN THIS REPORT AND ARE
     SUBJECT TO CHANGE BASED UPON COMMENTS RECEIVED AND FURTHER INTERNAL REVIEW BY EPA

-------
                              DRAFT
          Type of product produced
          Standard manufacturing processes employed
          Waste characteristics
          Water usage
          Raw materials used
          Size and age of facility
          Quantity of work processed
          Number of employees
          Geoaraphic location

Categorization by manufacturing process has two major attributes.
First, it is related to pollutants discharged, not the product manu-
factured.  Second, manufacturing plants usually embrace several  sub-
categories permitting a building block approach to describe a plant
and individualize plant effluent limitations.  Furthermore, plant
size and water usage are fully accounted for in this method for  deter-
mining the limitations, except for Subcategory 11, Dockside Ship-
building Activities, which requires a different formulation because
of the nature and location of the work.

The effluent limitations are expressed in units of mass of pollutant
discharged per unit time per unit production floor area for all  sub-
categories except Subcategory 11.  The units in which the limitations
are expressed are practical to derive, apply, and enforce them.  A
pollutant rate limitation represents an absolute control on pollution
and is based on measurements that may be made with a minimum of  diffi-
culty.  Further, relating the limiting pollutant rates to production
floor area accounts for the range of plant sizes encountered and,
indirectly, for rate of production.

Effluent limitations were generally based on actual performance  by
plants visited during the study.  Thus, conclusions for the best
practicable technology currently available  (BPT) limitations repre-
sent the average performance of the best plants.  The best available
technology economically achievable  (BAT) limitations and new source
performance standards require no discharge of pollutants and are
based on the best available technology economically achievable as
demonstrated by some specific plants now in operation.  Pretreatment
standards for existing sources coincide with BPT limitations except
that certain pollutant parameters are excluded.  Pretreatment  stand-
ards for new sources are similar to those established for existing
sources but are more stringent.

BPT was determined from the results of plant visits.  It represents
the use of end-of-pipe treatment components and systems frequently
     NOTICE THESE ARE TENTATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS BASED UPON INFORMATION IN THIS REPORT AND ARE
     SUBJECT TO CHANGE BASED UPON COMMENTS RECEIVED AND FURTHER INTERNAL REVIEW BY EPA.


                                   1-2

-------
                               DRAFT
found at plants with exemplary wastewater treatment performance.   BPT
includes, where applicable, equalization, chromium reduction,  cyanide
oxidation, emulsion breaking, skimming, clarification, neutralization,
thickening, sludge dewatering and land filling.

BAT was also determined through plant visits.  However,  it  represents
a combination of localized in-plant and centralized end-of-pipe tech-
niques that are used at particular plants with the very  best  treat-
ment performance.  In-plant techniques include reduction of waotewater
and pollutant generation by process modifications, workpiece  material
modifications, good housekeeping procedures, reuse of water and other
process liquids, and waste segregation with localized in-plant treat-
ment.  These in-plant treatment techniques include filtration,  pre-
cipitation, electrolytic recovery, ion exchange, distillation,  ultra-
filtration, reverse osmosis and adsorption.  The centralized  treat-
ment systems include equalization, clarification, reverse osmosis,
distillation, thickening, sludge dewatering and land filling.   Con-
tract removal of process wastes is used as an alternative to  treatment
at many plants with no end-of-pipe pollutant discharge.
     NOTICE THESE ARE TENTATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS BASED UPON INFORMATION IN THIS REPORT AND ARE
     SUBJECT TO CHANGE BASED UPON COMMENTS RECEIVED AND FURTHER INTERNAL REVIEW BY EPA


                                   1-3

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                               DRAFT
                              SECTION II

                            RECOMMENDATIONS


Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available

The recommended effluent limitations based on the best practicable
control technology currently available (BPT)  for the Machinery and Mech
anical Products Manufacturing industries are summarized in Table 2-1
for the subcategories listed.  For Subcategory 9, Molding and
Forming - Plastics, the recommended effluent limitation is no discharge
of pollutants.  For Subcategory 11, Dockside Shipbuilding Activities,
the recommended effluent limitation is that the entire work area must
be broom cleaned to remove loose shot, paint, scale, oil spills and
other debris before flooding or submerging.  The effluent limitations
are based on information contained in Sections III through VIII and are
discussed in more detail in Section IX of this report.

Be_s t Available Technology Economically Achievable

The recommended effluent limitation based upon the best available tech-
nology economically achievable (BAT) by July 1, 1983 is no discharge
of process wastewater pollutants for all subcategories except Subcate-
gory 11.  For Subcategory i"L, Dockside Shipbuilding Activities, the re<
commended effluent limitation is that the entire work area must be
cleaned by vacuum cleaning to remove loose shot, paint, scale, oil-
spills, and other debris before flooding or submerging.  Section X of
this report details the rationale for these effluent limitations.

New Source Performance Standards

The new source performance standards  (NSPS) recommended for new source
in the Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing industries are
identical to the BAT recommended effluent limitations.  Section XI de-
tails the rationale for the performance standards for new sources.

-------
J
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                          DRAFT
                    -t>   X
                    O   01
                    t<   K
        KOTIcr: TTiese are tentative recommendations based upon Information in this

        report and are subject to change based upon comments received and further
        review by EPA.

-------
               DRAFT

















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-------
                               DRAFT
                             SECTION III

                             INTRODUCTION


PURPOSE AND AUTHORITY

Section 301 (b) of the Act requires the achievement by not latex,  than
July 1, 1977 of effluent limitations for point sources other than pub-
licly owned treatment works which are based on the application of the
best practicable control technology currently available as defined by
the Administrator pursuant to Section 304 (b)  of the Act.   Section 301(b)
also requires the achievement by not later than July 1, 1983 of  effluent
limitations for point sources other than publicly owned treatment works
which are based on the application of the best available technology eco-
nomically achievable which will result in reasonable further progress
toward the national goal of eliminating the discharge of all pollutants
as determined in accordance with regulations issued by the Administrator
pursuant to Section 304 (b) of the Act.  Section 306 of the Act requires
the achievement by new sources of a Federal standard of performance pro-
viding for the control of the discharge of pollutants which reflects the
greatest degree of effluent reduction which the Administrator determines
to be achievable through the application of the best available demonstra-
ted control technology, processes, operating methods, or other alterna-
tives including, where practicable, a standard permitting no discharge
of pollutants.

Section 304 (b) of the Act requires the Administrator to publish  regula-
tions providing guidelines for effluent limitations setting forth the
degree of practicable control technology currently available and the
degree of effluent reduction attainable through the application  of the
best control measures and practices achievable including treatment
techniques, process and procedure innovations, operation methods, and
other alternatives.

Section 306 of the Act requires the Administrator, within one year after
a category of sources is included in a list published pursuant to Section
306 (b)  (1) (A) of the Act, to propose regulations establishing Federal
standards of performances for new sources within such categories.  The
Administrator published, in the Federal Register of January 16,  1973 (38
FR 1624), a list of 28 source categories"Publication of an amended
list will constitute announcement of the Administrator's intention of
establishing, under Section 306, standards of performance applicable to
new sources within the Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing
point source category.  It is anticipated that the list will be  amended
when proposed regulations for the Machinery and Mechanical Products
Manufacturing category are published 'in the Federal Register.
                                  3-1

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                               DRAFT
APPROACH TO EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS DERIVATION

The effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance proposed
in this document were developed in the following manner.   The point
source category was first studied for the purpose of determining whether
separate limitations and standards are appropriate for different segments
within the point source category.  This analysis included a determination
of whether differences in raw material used, product produced,  manufac-
turing process employed, age, size, wastewater constituents, and othe
factors require development of separate effluent limitations and stan-
dards for different subcategories of the point source category.  The raw
waste characteristics for each subcategory were then identified.  This
included an analysis of 1) the source and volume of water used in the
process employed and the sources of waste and wastewaters in the plant,
and 2) the constituents of all contact process wastewaters including
toxic constituents and other constituents which result in taste, odor,
and color in water or aquatic organisms.  The constituents of waste-
waters which should be subject to effluent limitations and standards of
performance were identified.

The full range of control and treatment technologies existing within
each subcategory was identified.  This included an identification of
each distinct control and treatment technology and consisted of an
identification of the amount of each pollutant constituent to be treated
and the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of each of
these pollutants.  It further consisted of an analysis of the effluent
level resulting from the application of each of the treatment and con-
trol technologies.  The problems, limitations and reliability of each
treatment and control technology, and the required implementation time
was also identified.  In addition, the non-water quality environmental
inpact, such as the effects of the application of such technologies
upon other pollution problems, including air and solid waste, was also
identified.  The energy requirements of each of the control and treat-
ment technologies were identified as well as the cost of the application
of such technologies.

The information, as outlined above, was then evaluated in order to de-
termine what levels of technology constituted the "best practicable
control technology currently available", "best available technology
economically achievable", and the "best demonstrated control technol-
ogy/ processes, operating methods, or other alternatives".  In identi-
fying such technologies, various factors were considered.  These in-
cluded the total cost of application of technology in relation to the
effluent reduction benefits to be achieved from such application, the
age of equipment and facilities involved, the process employed, the
engineering aspects of the application of various types of control
technique process changes, non-water quality environmental impact
 (including energy requirements), and other factors.
                                  3-2

-------
                               DRAFT




Details of this approach are described in the paragraphs that follow.

Sources of Industry Data

Data on the Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing point source
category were obtained from inquiries to the literature, professional
consultants, federal and state environmental agencies,  trade associations,
and to the manufacturers themselves.  These contacts are summarized in
Table 3-1 and discussed below.

Literature Study - Published literature in the form of  books, period-
Icals") reports, papers, and promotional material was examined.   The
material researched covered manufacturing processes used in the indus-
tries, water use and recyling, waste treatment technology,  monitoring
and control, pollutant characteristics, economic data,  and guidelines
for allied manufacturing industries.  In addition,  it provided names
and descriptions of many plants with exemplary waste treatment facili-
ties.  A detailed literature listing is presented in Section XIII.

Consultant Contributions - Independent consultants  from both universi-
tiesaridIndustry assisted in identifying exemplary plants and contrib-
uted to various other parts of the report.  Four consultants, experienced
in industrial manufacturing and waste treatment technology, and one
waste treatment consultant provided assistance.  Specific consultant
assignments were as follows.

     1.   Primary Metal Products and Fabricated Metal Products
     2.   Nonelectrical Machinery and Miscellaneous Products
     3.   Electrical Machinery and Electronic Instruments
     4.   Plastic Products
     5.   Waste Treatment Technology

The first four consultants assisted in the identification of nonwater
use industries, suggested various approaches to industry subcategoriza-
tion, characterized waste streams, and provided names of plants with
exemplary waste treatment facilities.  The waste treatment technology
consultant recommended an approach to industry categorization,  provided
names of plants with exemplary waste treatment facilities,  defined a
variety of waste treatment processes, and assisted  in the selection of
pollutant parameters for which limitations would be established.

The information contributed by the consultants is integrated into the
final report and cannot be identified as a discrete item.  However,
consultant final reports are contained in Supplement B  to this report.
                                  3-3

-------
                       DRAFT
                 TABLE  3-1
      Data Source
  Number
of Contacts
Literature Sources

Consultants

EPA Regional Offices

States and Territories

Trade Associations

Companies Reviewed  and
Considered for this Study

Companies (Plants)  Contacted

Companies Visited for Data
Verification
     500

       5

      10

      51

      85

   6,000


   1,422

     339
                          3-4

-------
                               DRAFT
Federal and State Contacts - State environmental protection  agencies
and all Federal EPA Regions were contacted to:  1)  recommend  plants with
exemplary waste treatment, 2)  provide names of  local  water testing lab-
oratories, 3) submit current effluent standards, and  4)  review  proposed
plant visits.  Environmental protection agencies in eight highly  indus-
trialized states were visited to review potential plant  visits  within
their respective states.

Trade Association Contacts - Early in the project,  71 trade  associations
were "invited to a meeting in Washington, D. C.   The meeting  was attended
by 26 associations and other specific industry  representatives.   The
primary purpose of the meeting was to give industry a chance to contri-
bute to the project early enough to permit thorough evaluation  of their
input.  Specifically, the associations were asked to  recommend  plants
with exemplary wastewater control for possible  visits and to suggest
general effluent limitation formulation as well as  specific  limitations.
Subsequent responses to this request were evaluated and  considered in
formulating the limitations.  Fourteen additional associations  were
identified and contacted as the project progressed.   In  addition  to these
contacts, working conferences were held with 13 individual trade  asso-
ciations.  These conferences permitted thorough discussion of potential
approaches to establishing limitations and provided an understanding of
the position of various industries.  Table 3-2  summarizes the trade
association contacts.
                                 3-5

-------
            DRAFT
       TABLE 3-2




TRADE ASSOCIATION CONTACTS
Association
Aerospace Ind.
Asso. of America
Air Conditioning
& Refrig. Inst.
Air Moving and
Cond. Asso.
Aluminum Asso.
Alum. Foil
Container Mfg.
Asso.
Alum. Smelters
Research Inst.
American Gear
Mfg. Asso.
American Hardware
Mfg. Asso.
American Metal
Stamping Asso.
American Mining
Congress
American Pipe
Fittings Asso.
American Railway
Car Inst.
American Refrig.
Inst.
Asso. of
Electronic Mfg.
Received
Data
Request
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Attended
EPA Follow-up Supplied
Meeting Technical Data
7/24/74 Meeting Inputs
XXX
XXX
X
X X





X
X



              3-6

-------
     DRAFT
 TABLE 3-2
(Continued)
Association
Ab3O. of Home
Appliance Mfg.
Automotive
Elec. Asso.
Automotive Parts
Rebuilders Asso.
Battery Council
Int'l
Boating Industry
Asso .
Compressed Air &
Gas Inst.
Conveyor Equip.
Mfg. Asso.
Copper & Brass
Fabric. Council
Crane Mfg. Asso.
Cutting Tool
Mfg. Asso.
Engineered
Fasteners Asso.
Food Processing
Mach. & Suppliers
Asso .
Hand Tools Inst.
Heavy-Duty Truck
Mfg. Asso.
Hoist Mfg. Inst.
Hydraulic Inst.
Independent
Battery Mfg. Asso.
Attended
Received EPA
Data Meeting
Request 7/24/74
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
Follow-up Supplied
Technical Data
Meeting Inputs
X X




X

X X


X X

X




        3-7

-------
      DRAFT
TABLE 3-2
(Continued)
Association
Industrial
Fasteners Inst.
Investment
Casting Inst.
Lead Industries
Asso . , Inc .
Mfg. Jewelers
& Silversmiths
of America
Materials
Handling Inst.
Mech. Power
Transmission Asso.
Metal Cutting Tool
Inst .
Metal Treating
Inst.
Mobile Homes
Mfg. Asso.
Motor & Equip .
Mfg.
Motorcycle
Industry Council
Motor Vehicle
Mfg. Asso.
Nat. Asso. of
Engine & Boat
Mfg.
Nat. asso. of Mfg.
Nat. Asso. of Misc.
Ornamental &
Architectural Prod.
Nat. Asso. of
Pattern Mfg.
Attended
Received EPA
Data Meeting
Request 7/24/74
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X X
X
X X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
Follow-up Supplied
Technical Data
Meeting Inputs
X

X

X X

X
X
X


X X




        3-8

-------
      DRAFT
TABLE 3-2
(Continued)
Association
Not. As so. of
Photo. Mfg.
Mat. Asso. of
Saw Shops
Nat. Automatic
Merch. Asso.
Nat. Barrel &
Drum Asso., Inc.
National Castings
i Council
National Elec.
Mfg. Asso.
National
Elevator Ind.
Inc .
Nat, Machine Tool
Builders Asso.
l-Jat. Printing
Equip. Asso.
Nat. Telephone
Cooperative Asso.
Nat. Tool & Die
Asso .
Nab. Tool, Die &
Prec. Machining
Asso .
Nat. Welding
Supply Asso.
Non-Ferrous
Founders Society
Petroleum Equip.
Suppliers Asso.
Pipe Fabrication
Inst .
Attended
Received EPA Follow-up Supplied
Data Meeting Technical Data
Request 7/24/74 Meeting Inputs
X XX
X
XX X
XX X
X
XX X
X X
X X
X
X
X XX
X XX
X
X
X
X

-------
      DRAFT
 TABLE 3-2
(Continued)
Association
Plumbing Brass
Inst.
Porcelain Enamel
Inst.
Power Tool Inst.
Power Trans .
Dist. Asso.
Pulp & Paper
Mach. Asso.
Recreational
Boating Industry
Recreational
Vehicle Inst.
Scale Mfg. Asso.
Shipbuilders
Council of Amer.
Socket Screw
Prod. Bureau
Society of
the Plastics
Industry
Sporting Arms &
Ammunition Mfg.
Inst.
Spring Mfg. Inst.
Steel Shipping
Container Inst.
Toy Mfg. of
America
Trailer Coach Asso.
Truck Trailer
Mfg. Asso.
Received
Data
Request
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
Attended
EPA Follow-up Supplied
Meeting Technical Data
7/24/74 Meeting Inputs
X




X


XXX
X
X
X

X


X X
        3-10

-------
     DRAFT
TABLE  3-2
(Continued)
Association
U. S. Mach. Screw
Mfg. Asso.
Valve Mfg. Asso.
Water & Wastewater
Equip. Mfg. Asso.
Wire Mach.
Builders Asso.
Woodworking Mach.
Mfg. of Ama
Attended
Received EPA
Data Meeting
Request 7/24/74

X X
X
X
X
Follow-up Supplied
Technical Data
Meeting Inputs
X X




       3-11

-------
                               DRAFT
Plant Survey and Evaluation - As described in the preceding paragraphs,
a list of plants with potentially exemplary wastewater treatment was
compiled from several sources.  These sources included the literature,
consultants, NPDES permit listings,  trade associations,  and other in-
dustry representatives.  In all, some 6,000 manufacturing plants were
screened for possible visits.  Via discussions with EPA regional and
state environmental protection personnel, this list was refined to
1,422 potentially exemplary plants.   These plants were interviewed by
telephone to evaluate them further.   Figure 3-1 shows the telephone
interview form used both to determine whether a plant should be visited
and, if so,  to schedule the visit.  Figure 3-2 indicates the geograph-
ical distribution of the survey contacts.

Based on the evaluation of plants surveyed, 339 plants were chosen for
on-site evaluation.  The rationale for selecting this final list of
plants was primarily based on four considerations:

     1.   Each plant should utilize  above-average industrial wastewater
          management techniques, based on the prevailing industry
          practices.

     2.   The plants selected should provide a representative cross sec-
          tion of the products included in the Machinery and Mechanical
          Products Manufacturing point source category.   At least one
          plant was visited for each major product area which was deter-
          mined to be "wet", that is- has effluent discharge.  Additional
          visits were allocated based on the total number of plants in
          that area.  The number of  plants in each classification
          according to the 1972 Census of Manufacturers is shown below:

                                                    Number of
                     Product Area                 Establishments
          Miscellaneous Plastics Products              7,574
          Primary Metal Products                       4,266
          Fabricated Metal Products                   29,364
          Machinery, Except Electrical                40,309
          Electric and Electronic Equipment           11,889
          Transportation Eq\aipment                     8,642
          Instruments and Related Products             5,866
          Miscellaneous Manufactured Products         10,122

          Finally, more plant visits were allocated to cover a wide
          range of manufacturing processes and effluents within a
          given industry segment.

     3.   The selected companies should provide a representative range
          of plant size.  To differentiate between small and large es-
          tablishments, the definition of small business provided by
          the U. S. Government Small Business Administration was used.
          All establishments not meeting this definition were classified
          as large.

     4.   The selected companies should provide a representative geo-
          graphic distribution.  To get as broad an overview of the

                                 3-12

-------
DRAFT





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DRAFT
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                               DRAFT
          industry as possible, facilities were selected from Vv.ii.ion...>
          EPA regions throughout the country.  The geographical distri-
          bution of the 339 plants visited is shown in Figure 3-3.

On-site evaluation involved two major activities; data collection ana
sampling and testing.  Data on manufacturing processes employed, water
discharge rate, wastewater composition, waste treatment techniques, and
other factors were entered in a data collection portfolio.  This port-
folio was mailed out after a telephone contact was made but prior to a
visit to show the plant the type of information needed.  The data col-
lection portfolio was then reviewed and completed during the visit.
This portfolio is detailed in Figure 3-4.  It has sections for record-
ing general plant data, manufacturing process data, raw wastewater data,
water usage data, treated effluent data, treatment method data, and
treatment cost data.  The portfolio includes a three-page supplement
that presents more detailed information on manufacturing processes,
production floor area, water usage, electrical power, production capac-
ity, waste treatment techniques, and effluent disposition.

Figure 3-5 shows the reporting forms used for the wastewater sampling
during on-site plant evaluations.  These forms cover sample location,
description, and disposition and on-site analysis, local laboratory
analysis, and central laboratory analysis.

Grab samples of the raw wastewater leaving the production area and of
the treated wastewater discharge were taken.  Samples were subjected to
three levels of analysis depending on stability of various parameters.
On-site'analysis by the sample-taker determined flow rate, pH, turbid-
ity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and residual chlorine.  Equipment
used for these measurements was selected after consultation with the
£PA National Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati.  Sampling and
analysis techniques were also reviewed and approved by the Effluent
Guidelines Division of the EPA.  Analysis within six hours at a local
laboratory near the subject plant determined the acidity, alkalinity,
biochemical oxygen demand, color, and conductance of each sample as well
as the sulfide, cyanide, Kjeldahl nitrogen, phenol, and ammonia concen-
tration of samples.  Finally, part of the sample was preserved and shipped
to a central laboratory where it was analyzed for more stable parameters:
cotal solids, suspended solids, settleable solids, aluminum, barium,
cadmium,  calcium, chloride, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, copper,
fluoride, total iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, oil and
grease,  hardness, chemical oxygen demand, algicides, total phosphates,
"ilica,  sodium, sulfate, sulfite, titanium, zinc, arsenic, boron, dis-
solved iron, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nitrite, selenium, silver, and
strontium.   The sample was also analyzed in selected plants for beryl-
lium,  chlorinated hydrocarbons, total volatile solids, surfactants,
plasticizers, antimony, bromide, cobalt, thallium, tin, aldehydes, hy-
droquinone,  phosphorus, thiocyanate, and thiosulfate/sulfite.

Selected plants were reevaluated in more detail by means of composite
sampling.  During these composite visits, samples were taken every two
.-.ours and flow proportioned.   This procedure was then repeated for a
second 24-hour period.   These composite evaluations had two purposes.
The first was to verify that the samples taken during the previous

-------
         DRAFT
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            3-16

-------
                                                                DRAFT
I  0  KAMyrACTUKINO F3TABL1SHHENT DATA
     elephone	
     yt-e of Mani.
    Number of Employees
                                             Portfolio Kui
             ^ PRQPUCTIOM PROCESSES EHPf-QrEO
                                           Type
      KmboBHlng
      Spinning
      Seaming
      Hiqh Energy Toi
      Pfcening
      txtruding
      Htadi rig
      Fiov Turning
      Molding
      Casting
                                                                                                                                    (Txtenaion)
2.1   (Continued}

     Soldering
     Bending
     Laminating
     Smelting
     Refining
 2.2  Cutting or stock Removal
     Shearing
     Blanking
     Punching
     Notching
     Shaving
     Turning
     Threading
     Milling
     Drilling
     Boring
     Reaming
     Honing
     Tapping
     Planing
     Sawing
     Shaping
     Grinding
     Chemical Machin
                                FIGURE 3-4   ON-SITE EVALUATION DATA PORTFOLIO
                                                                   3-17

-------
                 DRAFT

fortfol10 Number
                                                                  tinlio Number
                                                                Page    of
                           3.0 COMPOSITION OF EFFLUENT STREAMS BEFOR£ TREATMENT
                              Quantity GPD

                              Alkalinity

                              Total solids

                              Total Dissolved
                                Solids
                               ettleable Solids
                              Sulfate

                              Chloride
            FIGURE 3-4 (CONT)

                     3-18

-------
                                                             DRAFT
4  (1  WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES

4  1A Mater Inputs to Plant
                        Total Quantity GPP
                                       Portfolio Number
                                                                                                                   Portfolio Number
                                                                          *•2  Effluents from Proce»» and/or Property

                                                                              Outfall HO.              Source
                                                                          4.3  Desoription of th« Current Requirements or Regulations Which Affect
                                                                              the Effluent! (ijjV Federal, State o^HunicipaT Rgguiatlona)
                                                                              Constituent!
                                                                                                              Ava	Range    Aye .  jtan;

Portfolio Numbei
Page of
4. 4 (Continued)
32 Magnesium
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
11.
42.
43.
44.
15.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
•J4.
55.
Manganese
Mercury
Holy bdellium
Nickel
Nitrate
Nitrite
Kjeldahl Nitrogen
Oil, Grease
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Phenol*
Total Phosphates
Poly ChlorobiphenylU) PCS
Potassium
Selenium
Silica
Silver
Sod t UP.
Strontium
Sulfate
sulfite
Titanium
Zinc

                                                       FIGURE 3-4 (CONT)

                                                               3-19

-------
   DRAFT
                               Portfol 10 Number
FIGURE 3-4 (CONT)




     3-20

-------
                           DRAFT
  MASTE TREATMBarr
?1 -iisnJcBl oxidation {1m
  ryania»'l
2^ Chemical reduction Mm
                PORTFOLIO NUMBER
             rr.t riant   Sevei
             BATCH
                   CONTINUOUS
Circle all processes and Indicate sequer
skimming, neutralisation, clarlfici
   —  77]_/^
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                   f3   Deep veil
                   "i*   leach field

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                           a a a n a n a a a a a
                         FIGURE 3-4 (CONT)

                             3-21

-------
                  DRAFT
                                         1 HI' KAi I! '.AMI IJ IMNT
FIGURE 3-5  WASTEWATER SAMPLE REPORTING FORMS



                    3-22

-------
                                                DRAFT
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                                                   3-23

-------
                               DRAFT
on-site evaluation had provided an frsentially correct profile of the
wasterwater.  The second was to analyze not only the raw waste from a
plant but also to analyze individual raw waste streams from individual
subcategories within the plant.  The composite sample analysis was re-
stricted to the more important pollutant parameters as shown by the
composite sample analysis reports in Figure 3-6.

The results of all analyses were returned to each plant for their review
and comment.

Utilization of Industry Data

Data collected from the previously described sources were used through-
out this report.  The following paragraphs discuss application of this
information in Sections III through XI.

Section III:  Introduction - The last part of this section contains a
description of the Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing point
source category.  Since this category was defined by the EPA in terms of
product areas, the descriptions are also organized by product areas.
These descriptions provide an overview of the industry and a general
description of the wastewater.  They are, therefore, regarded as back-
ground or introductory material.  In addition, this material provides
a foundation for Section IV, Industry Categorization.  The statistical
information presented in the industry description is derived from U. S.
Commerce Department data as well as statistical analysis of data obtained
from plants contacted during the study.  Other information, particulary
that on manufacturing processes, is based on inputs from the plant visits.

Sec tion IV:  Industry Categorization - Subcategorization of the point
source category required analysis of a wide range of industry character-
istics such as the manufacturing processes employed, waste characteris-
tics, raw materials used, size and age of facilities, quantity of work
processed, number of employees, and geographical location.  The data
collection portfolio provided the major source of this data.

Section V:  Waste Characterization - The information presented in Sec-
t-Toll V is" based "Entirely on an analysis of raw waste samples taken during
plant visits because published data were fragmented and incomplete.  The
rav; waste data are based on analysis of effluent samples taken downstream
of the manufacturing processes but prior to any treatment.  The quantity
of plant data was so overwhelming that a computer program was established
to compile  the data and facilitate subsequent retrieval and analysis.

Section VI:  Pollutant Parameters - The selection of a pollutant para-
meter generally requires that two primary criteria be met.  First, the
pollutant must be significant.  Second, it must be discharged at a sig-
nificant level.  The existence of a pollutant in the discharge from each
subcategory was determined by a computer-aided analysis of the raw waste
data.

Section VII:  Treatment Technology - Section VII consists of two parts.
The  first describes the performance of individual pieces of waste
                                 3-24

-------
                                                           DRAFT
                                               Portfolio  NumLtsr
4   leather
  Total number of  samples take.
  Local Lah
                                        Central Lab
                                        Attn.  M. Geoffrey
                                           Portfolio Number
                                           Page 	 of 	
                                                                                                                        Portfolio Numbfct
                                                                                                                        Page  	 ot
                                                                        .7  Complete description of point of discharge where •ample  IB
                                                                            taken   (Sample Point)  Describe Cully where sample is taken
                                                                            (Use reverse aide for schematic diagram if necessary.)   Check
                                                                            to show whether flew Is influent, intermediate, or effluent
                                                                            Describe the industrial process category associated with the
                                                                            sample point flow.  Also d«scrib« waste stream being sampled.
                                                                            (Color, odor, flow variation, etc.)
                                                                            Point 1  influent
                                                                                                      Intermediate
                                                                            Point 2  Influent
                                                                                                     Intermediate
                                                                            Point 3  Influent
                                                                                                     Intermediate
                                                                            Point r ,  Model t~i4ll-L2
                             FIGURE  3-6   COMPOSITE SAMPLE REPORTING FORMS

                                                              3-25

-------
                                                        DRAFT
                                     Cor t fi.i it, Niunlit
                               level required   0.01  mg/1
                               Sample water contained in
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                               t.nn(!
-------
                               DRAFT
treatment equipment.  The second concerns the system performance of
groups of such equipment.  Most of the equipment descriptions were de-
rived from the literature and supplemented by plant data analysis.
Where this information was inadequate, equipment makers were contacted
directly.  System descriptions are based on an anlysis of the treatment
techniques currently being used in the Machinery and Mechanical Products
Manufacturing point source category as observed during the plant visits.
Designation of systems as Level I or Level II is based on the relative
performance of the system and on the frequency with which it is used
throughout industry.

Section VIII;  Non-Water Aspects and Economics - Section VIII covers
two separate topics:non-water quality aspects and economics of control
and treatment technologies.  Non-water quality aspects are an extension
of Section VII to include environmental impact, pollution and energy,  of
the various technologies.  Pollution pertains to air, land, and noise
pollution resulting from use of the water pollution control techniques.

The wastewater treatment economics data presented in Section VIII were
calculated with the aid of a computer.  The basic program logic allows
the program user to vary both the types of unit wastewater treatment
processes to be used in the waste treatment system and the manner in
which the processes are interconnected.  Each unit process is described
in a separate subroutine which sizes the unit, calculates its perfor-
mance, and estimates the total investment and annual costs associated
with the process.  At the end of the system iteration, process costs
are summed, and auxiliary costs are estimated.

The technologies identified in Section VII were then input to the com-
puter program to calculate costs and performance.  Both single unit pro-
cesses and typical subcategory treatment systems describing the common
present systems, systems achieving Level I, and systems achieving Level
II were described by the input cards, as were the typical water pollutant
concentrations in the process or system influent streams.  The program
was executed for each system component or overall system several times,
each time utilizing a different raw wastewater flow rate.  These various
flow rates provided a relationship between plant size and estimated costs
of obtaining different levels of water pollution control.

Sections IX, X, and XI:  Effluent Limitations - The rationale for the
limitations for LeveTs" I, II, and III is discussed in detail in Sections
IX, X, and XI, respectively.  The general approach used to derive these
limitations is reviewed under the following headings:

Effluent Limitations Derivation

Sections IX, X and XI of this report define effluent limitations for
Levels I, II, and III, respectively, for each of 12 industry subcategorie
                                  3-27

-------
                               DRAFT
Level I or "Best Practicable Control  Technology Currently  Available"
(BPT) is to be implemented by 1977 and is to be representative  of
the average of the best waste treatment facilities.   Level II or "Best
Available Technology Economically Achievable" (BAT)  is  to  be imple-
mented by 1983 and represents the very best practical waste treatment
facility.  Level III or "New Source Performance Standards" (NSPS)  is
to be implemented immediately and represents the best available demon-
strated control technology, processes, operating methods,  or other
alternatives.

Formulation and Application of the Effluent Limitations -  The complex-
ity and sheer volume of products within the Machinery and  Mechanical
Products Manufacturing point source category required subcategorization
by a method which was independent of the actual product produced.  After
a review of the more traditional factors for subcategorization, which
included Standard Industrial Classification, products produced, and man-
ufacturing processes employed, the use of major groupings  of manufactur-
ing processes which are common to nearly all industries was established.

This resulted in the subcategories of:

     1.   Casting and Molding - Metals
     2.   Mechanical Material Removal
     3.   Material Forming - All Material Except Plastics
     4.   Physical Property Modification
     5.   Assembly Operations
     6.   Chemical-Electrochemical Operations
     7.   Material Coating
     8.   Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals
     9.   Molding and Forming - Plastics

This method considered what and how an operation was done  without  re-
lating directly to the actual product produced.  Since  the wastes  gen-
erated are a direct function of the manufacturing operation,  a  direct
relationship between the subcategory and its potential  for discharging
pollutants resulted.  Subcategorization by major manufacturing  process
made possible readily identifiable areas within a plant which are  dis-
tinguishable by the machine tools and operations involved  and in many
plants, readily identifiable by actual departments,  i.e. machining,
foundry, heat treating, plating, painting, and assembly.

Certain segments of the Machinery and Mechanical Products  Manufacturing
point source category utilize unique manufacturing processes  or opera-
tions that are not included in the major process groupings that defined
subcategories one through nine.  Hence, three additional subcategories
were established:
                                 3-28

-------
                              DRAFT
     10.  Film Sensitizing
     11.  Dockside Shipbuilding Activities
     12.  Lead Acid Battery Manufacture

Once the subcategories were established, a method to relate effluent
discharge to manufacturing processes was investigated.   For each major
subcategory, units of production was considered first.   However, due to
the wide range of products and the level at which the raw material
entered a plant  (i.e. as basic raw material or semi-finished or fin-
ished parts and assemblies) and how it left the plants  (as semi-finished
parts or piece parts or completed assemblies), a common production
unit could not be established within each subcategory and even within
many plants.

An example is one automotive plant which has its own foundry.   Some
parts are cast and subsequently machined and assembled  into engines.
At the same time, some of the castings are shipped to another plant.
In the same plant, intake and exhaust valves are manufactured for many
other plants as well as for in-plant use.  Bumper assemblies are made
from raw materials and assembled for use in automobile  assembly areas.
Detail subassemblies are also brought in for this assembly.  In addi-
tion, spare parts and other details are also manufactured.  Thus, sub-
categorization by units of production is impractical and virtually
impossible for a plant of this complexity.

Surface area treated was also examined for a relationship to effluent
discharge, but it was applicable only to a portion of Subcategory 7,
Material Coating.  It was not applicable to the other manufacturing  pro-
cess areas except for the major portion of Subcategory  6  (Chemical-Elec-
trochemical Operations) which is already covered by another effluent
limitation standard.

Power consumed was also considered, but the amount of data available
was extremely limited even on a total plant basis.  When available,  it
was not directly related to the effluent discharged.

Raw material used was also considered, but it presented the same pro-
blems as units of production since raw material for one plant was
a finished product for another and, in general, did not relate directly
to the effluent discharged.

Floor area which is a fixed, measurable quantity was established to  be
a direct function of effluent output.  It relates to the size of the
facility, the quantity of work done, and the waste effluent discharged.
The use of this parameter is discussed further in Section IV.

Since water quantity and effluent concentration were found to be directly
related to floor area, the parameter mg/sq m - hr was established as the
pollutant effluent limitation for each subcategory.  Since each plant has
its own discrete manufacturing processes, use of this method allows  a

-------
                               DRAFT
building block approach to establishment of an effluent limitation in
that the limitation can be customized for a particular plant by consid-
ering its size and specific manufacturing process subcatcgories.   Tho
allowable effluent parameters can then be determined and when related
to the quantity of effluent discharged,  the quantity and quality of
effluent allowed is directly established for each subcategory.   The
permissible pollutants from each subcategory are then added together
to establish the effluent limitations for the entire plant.

Data Collection and Analysis Computer Programs - A group of computer
programs were designed specifically to organize the data obtained from
on-site evaluation and telephone interviews and to analyze it.   The two
major elements of this group are the "portfolio generator" and "limita-
tions analysis" programs.

The portfolio generator program accepted data from a number of sources,
tested the data for self-consistency, and printed it out for each manu-
facturing plant.  The input data sources included information on manu-
facturing processes, raw waste load, and waste treatment methods for
each plant.  Also included were water use and production capacity infor-
mation, as well as laboratory analysis results for wastewater samples.
As this data was read onto the computer memory tapes, it was automatic-
ally screened for consistency.

The limitations analysis program used part of the portfolio generator
data to compute Level I effluent limitations.  To do this, the analy-
sis program retrieved the desired data from the portfolio generator
tapes.  Using the building block approach, each plant was regarded as a
combination of subcategories.  "Limitation terms" (normalized pollutant
rates) were formulated for each pollutant parameter in each subcategory
in each plant.  These limitation terms were then averaged, yielding a
limitation for each pollutant parameter in each subcategory.  Because the
data came from plants that were selected for their exemplary character,
the limitations represent the "average of the best" control and treatment
technology, as required by PL 92-500.  However, the computer did not au-
tomatically accept all data as exemplary; it printed out a list of plants
that were questionable in terms of pollutant levels and indicated why
each was questionable.  This printout was reviewed, and each questionable
plant data point was checked and analyzed.  If the data was correct but
not exemplary, the plant was removed from subsequent computer program
analysis.

Several additional "sort" programs printed out selected plant data and
evaluations of plant data, allocating one line of printout to each man-
ufacturing plant.  The data was sorted,  and the plants were listed
alphabetically, by product area, or by geographic location.   These
programs facilitated rapid comparison of selected characteristics from
one plant  (or group of plants) to another.

-------
                               DRAFT
Figure 3-7 shows how these computer programs were utilized in organizing
the collected data and in using it to generate effluent limitations.

Computer analysis was not utilized to determine Level II and III limi-
tations.  These limitations were manually derived from an evaluation
of individual exemplary plants and demonstrations.

INDUSTRY SUMMARY DESCRIPTION

The Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing point source cate-
gory is an assemblage of various industry segments defined in terms of
product areas.  In general, this industry consumes preprocessed materials
consisting largely of "mill products" such as sheet, bar, wire, tubes,
etc., and semi-finished products from which it manufactures finished
and semi-finished products.  These products range from very small items
such as pins and needles, fasteners, and pens to very large items such
as airplanes, locomotives, and ships.  The scope of the Machinery and
Mechanical Products Manufacturing point source category encompasses the
following major product areas as shown in Figure 3-8A:

               Miscellaneous Plastics Products
               Primary Metal Industries (Nonferrous)
               Fabricated Metal Products
               Machinery, Except Electrical
               Electric and Electronic Equipment
               Transportation Equipment
               Instruments and Related Products
               Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries

Within these major product areas, there are 173 discrete product group-
ings that are included in the point source category.  For economic and
other purposes, it may be desirable to relate these product groupings
to the Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) as established by the
Department of Commerce.  An approximate correlation is shown in Figure 3-8]

Miscellaneous Plastics Products is that segment of the Machinery and
Mechanical Products Manufacturing point source category engaged in
molding primary plastics for the trade and fabricating miscellaneous
finished plastic products.  The manufacture of fabricated plastic pro-
ducts or plastic film, sheet, rod, non-textile monofilaments and re-
generated cellulose products and vulcanized fiber are classified in
this area, whether from purchased resins or from resins produced in
the same plant.  The compounding of purchased resins is also included
in this industry segment.

The Primary Metals product area within the Machinery and Mechanical
Products Manufacturing point source category includes: the primary
smelting and refining of some nonferrous metals; the secondary smelting
and refining of nonferrous metals; rolling, drawing, and extruding of
nonferrous metals; nonferrous foundries making castings and die castings

-------
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in aluminum, brass, bronze,  and other nontervous  metals  and  alloys;  and
miscellaneous primary metal  products.  The scope  of this product area as
it pertains to the Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing point
source category is shown in  Figure 3-9.   Each product group  in this area
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industrial machinery and equipment is not incliidcd.  Figure 3-12 define:
this scope of this product area.  Each product qroup in this area i;»
discussed in detail later in this section.

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The Transporation Equipment product area includes the manufacture of
equipment for transportation of passengers and cargo by land,  air, and
water.  Important products produced in this group include motor vehi-
cles, aircraft, guided missiles and space vehicles, ships, boats, rail-
road equipment, and miscellaneous transportation equipment such as
motorcycles, bicycles, and snowmobiles.  The overall «cope of  this pro-
duct area is shown in Figure 3-13.  Each product grouping in this area
is discussed in further detail later in this section.

The Instruments and Related Products area includes the r.anufacture of
instruments (including professional and scientific) for measuring, test-
ing, analyzing, and controlling.  It also includes optical instruments
and lenses, surveying and drafting equipment, medical and dental instru-
ments and supplies, ophthalmic goods, photographic equipment and sup-
plies and watches and clocks.  The overall scope of this product area
is shown in Figure 3-14.  Each product group in this area is discussed
in further detail later in this section.

The Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries product area includes manu-
factured products not classified in any other major areas.  Industries
in this group fall into the following categories: jewelry, silverware,
and plated ware; musical instruments; toys and sporting and athletic
goods; pens and mechanical pencils; costume novelties; brooms  and brushes
and caskets.  The major product groups included in this area are shewn
in Figure 3-15.  Each of these product groups is discussed in  further
detail later in this section.

PRODUCTION DATA

According to the "1972 Census of Manufacturers", the Machinery and Me-
chanical Products Manufacturing point source category includes approx-
imately 113,000 plants, employs almost 10 million people, and  in 1972,
shipped over $314 billion in products.  The plants in this industry
vary in size from a single employee per shop to several thousand em-
ployees each,  with about two-thirds of the total plants employing less
than 20 employees.  A breakdown of this data by major product  areas is
shown in Table 3-3.
                                 3-39

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                               DRAFT
Raw Materials

The Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing point source cate-
gory consumes, in general, preprocessed materials commonly identified
as mill products.  These involve various shapes such as sheet,  bar,
wire, tubes, etc. from which the finished products are formed.   The  in-
dustry also uses materials in ingot or powder form to make castings  and
uses ores and scrap for the smelting and refining of some nonferrous
metals.

The principal material used is metal, with iron and steel being the
predominant metals consumed.  Other major materials used include alum-
inum, copper and copper alloys, rubber, zinc, lead, and plastics.  In
addition to these materials, this industry also consumes precious metals
(gold, silver, platinum, etc.), heat resistant metals (nickel and cobalt
based alloys) as well as many other nonferrous metals such as cadmium,
tin, titanium, mercury, etc.  In addition to plastics, other nonmetallic
materials consumed in large quantities by the industry are adhesives,
ceramics, and textiles.

The industry also consumes chemicals which are generally compounds of
metals used in painting and plating and developers for film sensitizing.
Paints involve hundreds of different raw materials and intermediates.
Plating involves the application of various metal coatings on base
materials.  Although plating and other associated metal finishing is
performed by many establishments within the Machinery and Mechanical
Products Manufacturing point source category, it is not a part of these
effluent limitations because it is covered by already promulgated limi-
tations as discussed in Section IV.  The film sensitizing industry uses
many chemicals for developers, most of which are proprietary to the
individual company.

Particularly significant to the Machinery and Mechanical Products Manu-
facturing point source category is the use of large amounts of lubri-
cants and cutting fluids.  Lubricants consist largely of both soluble
(emulsified) and insoluble oils and greases.  Cutting fluids consist of
both straight oils and chemical solutions.  Chemical cutting fluids  are
generally water solutions of such compounds as soda and sodium nitrite.
                                 3-44

-------
                               DRAFT
It is estimated the point source  category  in  the United States consumed
about 148 million gallons of lubricating oils  and cutting fluids in 1972
These are listed in Table 3-4.

Production Processes

The principal processes used in the  manufacture of machinery and mechan-
ical products involve the forming, shaping, and joining of raw materials
followed by cleaning and finishing  (usually painting or plating) of the
product.  Some of the specific  processes utilized are:
     Casting - Metals
       Sand Casting
       Die Casting
     Material Forming
       Forging
       Bending
       Stamping
       Rolling

     Assembly Operations
       Welding
       Brazing
       Soldering
       Testing
     Material Coating
       Painting
       Printing
       Ceramic Coating

     Molding - Plastics
       Forming
       Extrusion
       Molding
Mechanical Material Removal
  Milling
  Grinding
  Boring
  Electrical Discharge Machining
  Polishing

Physical Property Modification
  Annealing
  Tempering
  Carburizing
  Heat Treating

Chemical-Electrochemical Processing
  Anodizing
  Electroplating
  Conversion Coating
  Chemical Machining
  Pickling

Smelting and Refining
                                 3-45

-------
                             DRAFT
                            TABLE 3-4

                ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF CUTTING AND
                FORMING LUBRICANTS BY THE MACHINERY
              AND MECHANICAL PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN 1974
                TYPE
MILLION GALLONS
         Straight  Oils

         Chemical  Solutions

              Total
      125

       23

      148
   TOTAL BREAKDOWN BY  PRODUCT AREA
 Miscellaneous  Plastics  Products

 Primary Metals Products

 Fabricated Metal  Products

 Machinery Except  Electrical

 Electrical Machinery  Equipment

 Transportation Equipment

 Instrumentation and Related  Products

 Miscellaneous  Manufactured Products
     26.8

     65.7

     19.1

     22.2

      9.6

      4.6
*Data not available but assumed to  be  relatively  low.
                                3-46

-------
                               DRAFT
Water Usage

Annual water usage by industries within the Machinery and Mechanical
Products Manufacturing area is approximately 2,400 billion gallons of
which 291 billion gallons is process water.  Approximately 40 percent
of the 2,400 billion gallons annual water usage is discharged, and 13
percent of this discharged water is treated.  A breakdown of this data
by major groups is shown in Table 3-5.

Waste Characteristics

Generally, pollutants associated with the Machinery and Mechanical Pro-
ducts Manufacturing point source category are oil, heavy metals,  cya-
nide, suspended solids, and organic materials such as phenols.  The ma-
jor liquid effluent is process wastewater which contains various  amounts
of suspended solids, oils, and metals.  Oil, grease, and solids comprise
the major wastes as far as quantity is concerned.  Solid lubricants from
forming operations, for example, are usually heavy greases.  If separat-
ed, these wastes are combustible.  In addition, the solids of pigments
from painting operations are frequently recovered and resold as lower
grade pigments.  Metal chips or turnings from machining operations may
have scrap value and are usually recycled.  The principal toxic pollu-
tants are some metals, cyanide from plating processes, and acids  from
cleaning.  Some plating wastes can be treated and returned to the pro-
cess.  Residuals that cannot be reused or burned are generally deposited
in some type of approved landfill.

INDIVIDUAL INDUSTRY SEGMENT DESCRIPTIONS

The following sections are organized by the product groups that are
applicable to the Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing
point source category.  For each product group, a description of the
industry, the products, the size, the raw materials, the manufacturing
activities by subcatogory, the process water, and a typical manufac-
turing flow for a representative product is listed.  The information
reported is derived primarily from Department of Commerce statistical
data and direct industry communication via telecons and ©n-site visits.
A quantitative nummary of these direct communications is shewn in
Table 3-6A for tach product area and Table 3-6/^Pfor ©aeh product group.
These tables Hit the number of plants contacted, th© numbtr of plant
visits wade, tht number of plants which had and did net htvt wastt
treatment and where the waste effluent is discharged, and the number
of plants whieh had no point source discharge.

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                                DRAFT
Miscellaneous Plastics Products

This segment includes establishments primarily  engaged in molding pri-
mary plastics for the trade,  and fabricating miscellaneous finished
plastics products.   Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
fabricated plastics products  or plastics film,  sheet,  rod, nontextile
monofilaments and regenerated cellulose products,  and vulcanized fiber
are classified in this industry, whether from purchased resins or from
resins produced in the same plant.  Establishments primarily engaged
in compounding purchased resins are also classified in this industry.
The major products include:

        Air mattresses, plastics
        Aquarium accessories, plastics
        Awnings, fiber glass  and plastics com-
           bination
        Bands, cellulose
        Bands, viscose
        Battery cases, plastics or plastics com-
           position
        Bearings, plastics
        Billfold inserts, plastics
        Blister and bubble formed packaging,  plastics
        Boats, nonrigid:  plastics
        Bottles, plastics
        Bowl covers, plastics
        Boxes, plastics
        Brush handles, plastics
        Buckets, plastics
        Caps, cellulose
        Carafes, plastics
        Casein products, molded for the trade
        Cases, plastics
        Casting of plastics,  for the trade
        Cellophane
        Celluloid products, molded for the
           trade
        Closures, plastics
        Clothes hangers, plastics
        Clothespins, plastics
        Composition stone, plastics
        Containers, plastics:  except bags
        Cups, plastics, including foamed
        Custom compounding of purchased resins
        Dishes, plastic
        Doors, folding:  plastics or plastics coated
           fabric - metal frame

-------
                       DRAFT
Downspouts, plastics
Drums, plastics  (containers)
Engraving of plastics
Fiber, vulcanized:  sheets, rods, tubes,
   etc.
Film base, cellulose acetate or nitro-
   cellulose plastics (nonsensitized)
Floor and wall covering, unsupported
   plastics
Flower pots, plastics
Foamed pads and packaging, plastics
Foams, plastics
Gloves and mittens:  plastics
Gutters, fiberglass
Gutters, plastic:  glass fiber reinforced
Hardware, plastics
Heels, boot and shoe:  plastics
Ice chests or coolers, portable:  foam
   plastics
Identification cards, plastics
Injection molding of plastics, for the trade
Insulation and cushioning material, foamed
   plastics
Kitchenware, plastics
Kits, plastics
Laminated plastics sheets, rods, and
   tubes
Laminating of plastics,  for the trade
Lamp bases, plastics
Laundry tubs, plastics:   glass fiber base
Lenses,  plastics:  except ophthalmic or
   optical
Life rafts, nonrigid:  plastics
Molding primary plastics, for the trade
Monofilaments, nontextile
Netting, plastics
Novelties, plastics
Packing materials, plastics (sheet,
   shredded, or rigid foam)
Pails, plastics
Panels,  building:  corrugated and flat -
   plastics
Photographic film base (nonsensitized)
Pipe fittings, plastics
Pipe, plastics
Planters, plastics
Plates,  plastics
Plumbing fixtures and parts,  plastics
Polyethylene film

-------
                              DRAFT
        Polyvinyl film
        Pontoons, nonrigid:   plastics
        Regenerated cellulose,  except fiber
        Rods, plastics
        Saucers, plastics
        Septic tanks, plastics
        Sheets, plastics
        Shower stalls, fiberglass and plastics
        Shutters, plastics
        Siding, plastics
        Soles, boot and shoe:  plastics
        Soling strips, boot and shoe:  plastics
        Sponges, cellulose
        Spouting, fiberglass
        Spouting, plastics:   glass fiber reinforced
        Stock shapes, plastics
        Suitcase shells, plastics
        Synthetic food casings  (including fibrous,
           plastics regenerated collagen)
        Synthetic resin finished products:
           molded, cast, and laminated
        Tableware, plastics
        Tile, plastics:  unsupported
        Tires, plastics
        Tissue dispensers, plastics
        Tool handles, plastics
        Tops, plastics  (dispenser, shaker,  etc.)
        Trays, plastics
        Tubes, plastics
        Tubing, plastics
        Tubs, plastics
        Tumblers, plastics
        Valves, plastics
        Vials, plastics
        Vulcanized fiber sheets,  rods,  and  tubes
        Warmers, bottle:  plastics
        Watering pots, plastics
        Window screening, plastics
        Window sheeting, plastics
        Windshields,  plastics
        Work gloves,  plastics

Miscellaneous plastics products are produced by 7574  plants,
averaging 46 workers each.  Most of these plants  (57  percent)
employ less than 20 workers. Additional production data are  shown
in Table 3-7.  As shown in Figure 3-16, there is  a  wide diversity

-------
                               DRAFT
of products manufactured from plastics.   Thermoplastic and thermo-
setting resins are the major raw materials with the principal manu-
facturing operations being physical property modification, molding
and forming, assembly operations, and material coating.

In general, plastics products are made by forcing the compounded
raw material to conform to a mold shape,  usually by the application
of heat and pressure, and then causing the material to solidify to
the ir.old configuration by cooling or curing.  Additional work may be
done on the molded part such as machining to a finer tolerance or
joining of the part to another of a similar or dissimilar nature.
After fabrication a functional or decorative coating or other sur-
face alteration may be applied to the part in a finishing operation.
A general process flow diagram is shown in Figure 3-17.

Process water, which constitutes 20 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, may be used for the following purposes:

1.  Direct contact cooling as in the extrusion process.
2.  Direct contact heating as in the pre-expansion and compression
    molding of polystyrene foam.
3.  Washing of oils or water soluble heating/cooling/lubricating
    fluids from a plastic part if such were used during a machining,
    annealing, or molding process (mold release agents).
4.  Removal of dust or paint mist generated in a grinding or spray
    painting operation.
5.  Rinsing of plastics parts following an electroplating process.
6.  Washing of processing equipment contaminated in any of the above
    processes or in an otherwise clean process such as slush mold-
    ing.

The manufacture of plaptic trays is representative of the plastics
industry manufacturing processes.  A typical operation presently in
use in the plastic products industry is shown in Figure 3-18.  The
raw matieral, usually polyethylene, polypropylene, or polystyrene,
is received in a standard pre-compounded form from a volume supplier.
The manufacturer usually has a wide choice of standard formulations
available to meet his particular functional and esthetic requirements.
The resin as received may be dried in a circulating air oven depend-
ing upon its hygroscopic properties and the ambient relative humidity,

The raw dried plastic, usually in the form of pellets, is processed
by injection molding.  Injection molding is a thermoplastic process
in which a quantity or "shot" of material in plasticated form is
injected into a closed, cooled mold cavity and allowed to harden to
the shape of the mold.  The part is removed from the mold and then
trimmed of excess material.  The use of a "paintable" mold release
agent negates the need for any further cleaning operation.

-------
                               DRAFT
The tray is now ready for finishing,  which  consists  of  applying  a
decorative design by hot stamping.   Hot stamping  is  a process  in
which a heated die is applied to a  "color foil" which is  in  intimate
contact with the tray.  The die configuration  is  thereby  transferred
to the tray as a colored pattern.   This particular operation has no
process water involvement, however, slight  variations within the
industry could lead to a contaminated effluent stream.  For  example:
the use of a mold release agent which,  appearing  on  the part,  would
inhibit further processing unless removed by washing which could
contaminate an effluent stream with solvent and mold release fluid.
The selection of spray painting as  a decorating technique could  in-
volve the use of a water screen to  capture  paint  mist and would  cer-
tainly involve the cleaning of processing equipment  inadvertently
painted.  Paint and solvent would be the resulting contaminants.

-------
                               DRA,"T
PRODUCTION DATA  Miscellaneous plastics products
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       3223
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       4351
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 346,700
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $ 6417.2   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $11087.7   MILLION
                                                                *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS               0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            30
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                5
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           5
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    20
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    IQ
        7 MATERIAL COATING                        65
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          90
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             42.1 BILLION GALLONS
                                    159  BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           65
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           35
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        57
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          20
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
62
6.2
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                    *Based on Plant  Data Collected
                               TABLE 3-7
                                  3-59

-------
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                              DRAFT
Primary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals,  Not Elsewhere
Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in smelting  and
refining nonferrous metals,  not elsewhere classified.   The products
include:

        Antimony refining,  primary
        Beryllium metal
        Bismuth refining,  primary
        Cadmium refining,  primary
        Chromium refining,  primary
        Cobalt refining,  primary
        Columbium refining,  primary
        Germanium refining,  primary
        Gold refining, primary
        Ingots, magnesium
        Iridium refining,  primary
        Magnesium refining,  primary
        Nickel refining,  primary
        Nonferrous refining, primary:   except copper,  lead,
           zinc, and aluminum
        Nonferrous smelting, primary:   except copper,  lead,
           zinc, and aluminum
        Pigs, magnesium
        Platinum-group metals refining,  primary
        Precious metal refining, primary
        Rhenium refining,  primary
        Selenium refining,  primary
        Silicon, epitaxial  (silicon alloy)
        Silicon refining,  primary (over 99  percent pure)
        Silver refining,  primary
        Slabs, magnesium:   primary
        Tantalum refining
        Tellurium refining,  primary
        Tin base alloys,  primary
        Tin refining, primary
        Titanium metal sponge and granules
        Zirconium metal,  sponge and granules
                              3-63

-------
                              DRAFT
Nonferrous metals are produced by 83 plants,  averaging 87 workers each.
Most of these plants (60 percent) employ less than 20 workers.   Addi-
tional production data are shown in Table 3-8 and Figure 3-19.   Little
comparative data is available since the plants are limited in number
and highly competitive.  Concentrated ores and waste slags and drosses
from other industries are the major raw materials.  The principal man-
ufacturing operations include pyrometallurgical,  hydrometallurgical and
electrometallurgical ore processing and refining.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the non-
ferrous smelting and refining industry.  This is  so mainly because
of the differing products which are listed above.  Process water,
which constitutes 23 percent of the gross water used by the industry,
is used for direct contact cooling, leaching  and  electrolytic
processes and scrubbing of air pollutants.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the non-
ferrous smelting and refining industry, no particular ore refining
process can be considered typical.  However,  the  refining of
Beryllium illustrates many of the processes that  are utilized with-
in this SIC industry.

The Sawyer-Kjellgren process (Figure 3-20) is one means of producing
beryllium metal from Beryl (10 to 12 percent  Beryllium oxide in
ore).   The ore is first melted in an electric arc furnace and
quenched in cold water.  The resulting frit is then dried, ground
to a powder, mixed with sulfuric acid, steamed and agitated.  The
beryllium and aluminum sulfates in the frit dissolve and additional
water and steam are added to the slurry to fully  dissolve the
beryllium.

The slurry is next filtered and the liquid (containing soluble
beryllium) is treated with ammonium hydroxide to  precipitate some
of the impurities.  It is again filtered.  This filtrate is treat-
ed with a chelating agent which maintains certain impurities in
solution.  Then caustic soda is added to precipitate beryllium
hydroxide and filtration removes the excess liquid.  The filter cake
is ignited in an electric furnace to form beryllium oxide which has
some impurities separated from the gangue material in the original
ore.  This oxide is dissolved in an ammonium  biflouride solution,
heated to boiling and aluminum impurities are precipitated out with
the addition of a carbonate flour.  Manganese and chromium impurities
are precipitated with lead dioxide.  The precipitates and solution are
                               3-64

-------
                              DRAFT
separated by filtration.   Lead,  nickel and copper are precipitated
with the addition of ammonium polysulfide.  This precipitate is
then filtered out and the resulting solution evaporated producing
ammonium beryllium flouride crystals.   The crystals are thermally
decomposed to beryllium flouride solids and ammonium flouride fumes.

Beryllium flouride is finally pyrometallurgically reduced in an in-
duction furnace with magnesium metal in a graphite crucible.  When
the reduction is completed, the temperature is raised to 704.4C (1300F)
and the beryllium melted.  The beryllium floats above the slag.  After
solidifying, the metal is separated and remelted in a vacuum furnace
to volatilize magnesium and other impurities.   The refined beryllium
metal is now solidified.   The slag is  crushed and leached to recover
beryllium.  This leach is recycled to  the process.
                              3-65

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Primary  Smelting  and  Refining  of  Nonforrous  Metals,  NEC
                                                              33
                                                              50
                                                              7,200
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $162.3   MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $421.3   MILLION
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
      1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS              13
      2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
      3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
      4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
      5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
                                                  0
                                                  0
                                                  0
                                                  0
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPE RATIONS   13
        7 MATERIAL COATING
        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
                                                0
                                               38
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WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           142.9   BILLION GALLONS
                                     540     BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        87.2
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        12 . 8
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    54
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      23 . 3
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     87
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED          0.3%
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                     *Based on Plant Data  Collected
                                 TABLE 3-8

                                    3-66

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                              DRAFT
Secondary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in recovering
nonferrous metals and alloys from new and used scrap and dross.   This
industry includes establishments engaged in both the recovery and al-
loying of precious metals.   Plants engaged in the recovery of tin
through secondary smelting  and refining,  as well as  by chemical  processs
are also included in this industry.  The major processes included are:

        Aluminum extrusion  ingot, secondary
        Aluminum smelting and refining,  secondary
        Antimonial lead refining, secondary
        Babbitt metal, secondary smelting and refining
        Brass smelting and  refining, secondary
        Bronze smelting and refining, secondary
        Copper smelting and refining, secondary
        Detinning of cans
        Detinning of scrap
        Germanium refining, secondary
        Gold smelting and refining, secondary
        Ingots, nonferrous:  smelting and refining,
           secondary
        Iridium smelting and refining,  secondary
        Lead smelting and refining, secondary
        Magnesium smelting  and refining,  secondary
        Nickel smelting and refining, secondary
        Nonferrous metal smelting and refining,
           secondary
        Platinum group metals smelting and refining,
           secondary
        Precious metal smelting and refining,
           secondary
        Recovering and refining of nonferrous metals
        Recovery of silver  from used photographic film
        Selenium refining,  secondary
        Silver smelting and refining, secondary
        Solder (base metal), pig and ingot:
           secondary
        Tin smelting and refining, secondary
        Zinc dust, reclaimed
        Zinc smelting and refining, secondary

-------
                              DRAFT
Secondary refining and smelting is performed by 378 plants,  averaging
47 workers each.  Most of these plants (52 percent) employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-9.  As
shown in Figure 3-21, 41 percent of the reported recovered metal is
lead, 28 percent is aluminum, 19 percent is copper, 8 percent is zinc,
2 percent magnesium.  The remainder is unreported.  Scrap, drosses,
slags and mill shapes are the major raw materials.  The principal
manufacturing operations are pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical
and electrohydrometallurgical smelting and refining.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the
secondary smelting and refining industry.   This is so mainly because
of the differing raw materials.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the
secondary smelting and refining industry,  no single manufacturing
process can be considered typical.  However, the refining of gold
and silver from scrap and ingots is presented in Figure 3-22.

Refinery feed consists of customer shipments of ferrous and non-
ferrous metal scrap or alloys containing gold and silver, karat
gold scrap, and silver scrap.  The scrap is converted to ingots in
the melting area for later distribution to refining departments.

The resulting ferrous and nonferrous ingots containing gold and
silver are remelted and atomized to powder or shipped to outside
smelters.  The atomized metal is leached in a reactor with sulfuric
acid and mixed with air.  Most of the base metals in the ingots are
dissolved in the acid and the remaining powder residue, rich in gold
and silver, is transferred to the gold refinery.

Karat gold ingots and leach residue are melted in an induction furnace
crucible so that gaseous chlorine can be injected into the metal.  The
chlorine reacts with silver and the base metals in the Miller Process
to form molten metal chlorides which are lighter than the gold or
platinum metals and float on the top of the melt.  The chlorides are
skimmed off and the gold concentrate metal is poured into anodes for
the Wohlwill Process.  Gold anodes in the Wohlwill Process are
electrolytically dissolved and high grade gold is plated on gold start-
ing ribbons.

Silver chloride skimmed from the Miller Process crucible is put into
an agitated tank with iron plate and converted to silver metal powder.
Silver alloy ingots and converted silver metal powder are fed to a
                              3-70

-------
                              DRAFT
reverberatory refining furnace.  The melted silver alloy surface is
treated with oxygen impinging air lances and niter (Potassium Nitrate)
additions to convert copper, the main contaminant, and other metals
to oxides which float on the silver.  The contamination is skimmed
from the melt until the silver is pure enough to cast anodes for
electrolytic enrichment.

These contaminants (metal oxides),  predominently copper skimmed from
the reverberatory furnace dross, are crushed, ground and then leached
in a reactor with sulfuric acid and air to remove entrained silver
as a filtered residue.  This residue is returned to the reverberatory
furnace.  The liquid dross leach sulfates from the reactor are
crystallized for copper recovery.

The anodes from the reverberatory furnace are placed in the cell
basket and connected to an electric terminal.  The anodes, cradled
in a filter fabric, dissolve in silver nitrate electrolyte.  The
silver, copper, and most contamination metal ions migrate through
the filter cloth which prevents insoluble particulate from entering
the solution.  Silver electroplates on the cathodic stainless steel
cell bottom.  Electric potential is supplied through a wire attached
to the cathode.

The silver nitrate electrolyte is regenerated and purified in a
sealed reactor complex by high temperature dry decomposition.  New
silver nitrate from silver consumed by nitric acid is also made in
a similar closed reactor.  The silver crystals are rinsed to remove
electrolyte and then dried for shipment to another location where
it is further processed for consumer use.
                              3-71

-------
                                   DRAFT
DD^nnr-rinM P.ATA  Secondary Smelting  and  Refining of Nonferrous Metals
PRODUCTION DATA  (except aluminum  and  copper)
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       180



                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       198


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  17,700



   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $  408.4     MILLION



   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $2117.2     MILLION



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS*


        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 50



        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL              0


        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 25



        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            25


        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                       0



        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS      Q



        7  MATERIAL COATING                           0



        8  ORE PROCESSINGS'REFINING                 100


        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          3-3      BILLION GALLONS



                                   12.5      BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             48>5



   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            51.5



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        55



   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           62.5
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        52


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             4?
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                                 *Based on Plant  Data Collected



                                   TABLE  3-9


                                      3--72

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Rolling , Drawing, a_nd_ ^trua_u\g_ 9-1  Copper
r alloy
ss, bronze, and
This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in rolling,
drawing, and extruding  copper ,  brass,  bronze, and other copper base
alloy basic shapes,  such  as  plate,  ;/neet,  strip, bar, and tubing.
The major products and  processes  are:

        Bands, shell,   coy. per  and copper alloy -
           made  in copio.fr rolling mills
        Bars, copper and  copper alloy
        Brass rolling and draw ing
        Bronze rolling  and drawing
        Cartridge cups, discs,  and sheets:   copper
           and copper alloy
        Cups, primer and  cartridge:   copper and
           copper alloy
        Extruded shapes,  copper and copper alloy
        Pipe, extruded  ;r~'i dr^wru  brass,  bronze,
           and coppei
        Plates,  coppei  and copper ^ilc
        P r ime r c up s , c op p e r  a r c , -.. • ;_
        Rails, rolled and d,iav-r.   •
           copper
        Rods, coppei vand  CG^oei. ~..tloy
        Rolling, drawirc  ...aC  JA-« ' uoiag of copper
           and copper =..:. loys
        Rotating ba'.-Js, ..o^per ^-v: copper alloy
        Sheets,  copper  and  : opper s i.ioy
        Shell discs, copper  -iao. copper alloy
        Slugs, copper o.r/3 -  )pi_,«e£  alloy
        Strip, copper anJ Copper  aljoy
        Tubir""j.  j-.^^it. r  and copper .Vilcy
        Wire, copper and  c.'Opei" alley;  made in
           brass ir.il is

Copper and brass are rolled, drav«r-. or extruded by 146 plants,
averaging 262 workers eaci". ,.  Mo^r, of these plants (79 percent)
employ more than 20  worker c;    Additional production data are
shown in Table 3-10.  At;  t,oowri in Figure 3-23, 58 percent of
the product is bar,  rod or shaped stock, 22 percent is sheet  strip
and plate, 17 percent is  pipe  and tube and 3 percent is wire.  Cop
and copper base  alloys  and sine and zinc base alloys are the  major
raw materials.   The  principal  manufacturing operations are castinc
and molding, mechanical material  removal,  physical property
                               3-75

-------
                              DRAFT
modification, and material forming.

In general, bar, rod and other shapes are made by continuous casting
into billets which are cut off, heated to red hot and extruded.
Tubes and pipes are usually drawn from an extruded tube.   Wire is
drawn from rod stock.  Plate is continuous cast and cut off.  The
plate is rolled both hot and cold in a subsequent operation to
produce the finished sheet.  Since copper and brass work harden
during cold forming, annealing is used to restore ductility to the
sheet metal between cold rolling and the wire drawing operations.
Oxide scales formed on the metal surface in annealing and hot working
are removed by pickling.  Process water, which constitutes 45 percent
of the gross water used by the industry, is required mainly for rinsing
the metal following pickling and is  sometimes used for contact cooling
during casting, extruding, or hot rolling.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the copper
and brass rolling, drawing and extruding industry, no single product
can be considered typical.  However, the manufacture of wire and sheet
are good examples of the manufacturing processes used.

Wire  (Figure 3-24) is produced by melting copper and other metals and
scrap in a furnace.  The melt is cast in continuous molds that may use
contact or noncontact cooling.  Contact cooling water picks up scale
and carbon black which is used as a  mold lubricant and scale.  The
castings are then cut off into billets which are preheated and extruded
into bar stock around 12.7 mm  (h inch) diameter.  Water may be used to
contact cool rod for safe handling.   The rod is subsequently drawn
through shaped dies.  The metal must be annealed when ductility is lost
due to work hardening.  Annealing is performed by heating the metal fol-
lowed by a slow cooling.  Oxides formed on the metal surface are removed
in a two part pickling operation.  First, sulfuric acid pickling removes
cupric oxide (CuO).  Second, dichromate-sulfuric acid, ferric sulfate
sulfuric acid or ammonium persulfate pickling removes the cuprous oxide
(Cu2_0) .  The dragged out acid is rinsed from the wire with water.  The
drawing, annealing, and pickling operations are repeated until the
proper size wire is obtained.

Plate material  (Figure 3-25) is made by continuous casting and cutting
of billets approximately 4 meter (13 feet) long.  When carbon black is
used as a mold lubricant, it as well as scale appear in the wastewater
if direct chill cooling is used.  The billets are then rough rolled in
hot mills that are lubricated with emulsified oil or water.  The surface
of billets are milled to remove scale and carbon black following rough
rolling.  Cold rolling is used in repeated operations until final
sheet thickness is reached.  Since copper cannot be reduced more
than 80 percent by cold working, annealing and pickling is required
between cold rolling operations.
                               3-76

-------
PRf'O'jCT-Ois :•  "                      '  'i, and Intruding of  Copper
Vv
                                   •«••••' iV'Or?f  n|.M\; 20 EMPLOYEES

                                      "'  .  ^55 THAN  ?0 EMPLOYEES          30

                                       -.JSHME.NT?                     37,400

                                               >"- •,  i      MILLION

                                               ''.sG'JO.l     MILLION
                                                                                   *
                                    ,/ i •!•',,  ,/ARiOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

                                  ;•:-' ''/-L-r;                   92

                                  ;   - e':v!: .V'AL                69

                                                             100

                                                              92

                                                              38

                                                  \ iONS     69

                                                               0

                                                               0

                                                               0
                                             . ; , •.-    niLLION GALLONS

                                             ,:, t      B'l LION LiTERS

                                        '" r -~'-               70

                                          --: -,:-f               30

                               '  '  ;  ".'.;'J'NG A'ATRR          75

                               '-.   rv:" C'-.CSS U5s£             42
                                      OF" GROSS USE         Sd

                                      -:;':\TtD               15
                                                                   *Based on  Plant Data Collec

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                              DRAFT
Aluminum Sheet, Plate,  and Foil

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in flat rolling
aluminum and aluminum base alloy basic shapes such as sheet,  plate,
and foil, including establishments producing welded tube.  Also
included are establishments primarily producing similar products by
continuous casting.  The principal products are:
        Coils, sheet:  aluminum
        Foil, plain aluminum
        Plates, aluminum
        Sheets, aluminum
        Tubes, welded:  aluminum
Aluminum sheet, plate and foil are produced by 50 plants,  averaging
624 workers each.  Most of these plants (98 percent)  employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in  Table
3-11.  As shown in Figure 3-26, 85 percent product is in the form
of sheet.  Twelve percent is produced as foil, and 3  percent is pro-
duced as plate.  Aluminum and alloy metals (copper, magnesium,  zinc
and tin) are the major raw materials.  The principal  manufacturing
operations are casting and molding, material forming, and  physical
property modification.

In general, aluminum sheet and foil are made from an  ingot which is
preheated and hot rolled in a reversing mill for rough rolling  and
then coiled.  The stock is then annealed and further  rolled in
cold mills to final dimensions.  The sheet is then heat treated to
achieve proper hardness.  Process water, which constitutes 11 per-
cent of the gross water used by the aluminum rolling, drawing,  and
extruding industry, is used mainly for cooling of ingot castings
and extrusions.  Tr. addition, the hydrogen chloride,  aluminum
chloride and chlorine fumes from casting purges because they are
quite acidic, are frequently scrubbed from the air with a  caustic
to produce sodium hypochlorite.

The manufacture of aluminum sheet  (Figure 3-27) is representative
of the aluminum sheet, plate and foil industry.  Melting and alloy-
ing is the first operation in the forming of aluminum.  In this
operation, oxides of aluminum are removed by pumping  nitrogen and
chlorine gases into the melt (fluxing) which results  in flotation
of the oxides.  These oxides are then skimmed off. The melt is
then transferred to a holding section of the furnace.  Due to the
high solubility of hydrogen in aluminum, a chlorine gas, nitrogen
gas or combination of the two gases is bubbled through the molten
                               3-81

-------
                               DRAFT
metal just prior to ingot casting in order to purge  the  hydrogen.
Chlorine is the preferred gas since it reacts with hydrogen  to
form hydrogen chloride gas which is not soluble.

After degassing, the aluminum is direct chill cast in a  continuous  or
semi-continuous mold.  These resultant ingots are  in the form of  rec-
tangular plates or cylindrical billets.  The plate billets are  the  rough
stock for sheet and foil.  To produce sheet or foil,  they are preheated
in electric furnaces prior to hot rolling for initial reduction.
Emulsified oil  (4-10% concentration)  is used as a  lubricant.

After rough rolling, the sheet is further reduced by cold rolling
to the desired thickness.  A mineral oil (non-emulsified) is  used
as a lubricant.  Annealing is used to eliminate work hardening.   Heat
treatment may be used to impart desired qualities.   Some manufacturers
roll can stock and phosphate it for painting by the  can  manufacturer.
                                  3-82

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Aluminum sheet, plate, and foil
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      49


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       1


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                31, 200


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $  671.9    MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $2658.5    MILLION
                                                                    *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               100


        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             86


        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               100


        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            71


        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     43


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATJONS    57


        7  MATERIAL COATING                         57


        8  ORE PROCESSING a REFINING                  0


        9  MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS            Q
WATER USE  INCLUDES  335 j,  3354,  3355
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          111.8


                                    424

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   REUSED WATER AS .PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS


BILLION LITERS


        28


        72


        78


        11
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
        27


        45
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                        on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-11

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Aluminum Extruded Products

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in extruding
aluminum and aluminum base alloy basic shapes such as rod and bar,
pipe and tube blooms, including establishments producing tube by
drawing.  The major products are:

        Bars, aluminum:  extruded
        Coils, rod:  aluminum - extruded
        Extruded shapes, aluminum
        Pipe, aluminum:  extruded
        Rods, aluminum:  extruded
        Tube, aluminum:  extruded or drawn
        Tube blooms, aluminum:  extruded

Aluminum extrusions are produced by 174 plants, averaging 134
workers each.  Most of these plants (70 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-12.
As shown in Figure 3-28, most of the product in this industry is
rod and bar stock  (83 percent) and the remainder (17 percent) is
tube.  Aluminum base metal, alloys and scrap are the major raw
materials.  Copper, lead, zinc, magnesium and nickel are minor-
raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are cast-
ing and molding, material forming and physical property modification,

In general, aluminum tube, rod or bar are made by continuous casting
of cylindrical billets which are cut off at required lengths.  These
billets are extruded to the desired shape and subsequently further
shaped by drawing, swaging and/or stretching.  Heat treating to the
desired metallurgical characteristic completes the manufacture.

Process water is used mainly for direct chilling of casting molds,
quenching pieces after heat treating and rinsing of drawing compound
if it is used.

The manufacture of tubes  (Figure 3-29) is representative of the
aluminum extrusion industry.  The aluminum metal and scrap as well
as alloying ingredients are melted in a furnace and the oxides are
fluxed out of the melt using nitrogen and chlorine gas to float
these oxides.  The melt is then transferred to a holding furnace
for pouring.  Prior to pouring, the melt may again be gassed with
chlorine and nitrogen to purge hydrogen out of the melt.  The melt
is then cast in timber shaped billets using direct chilling to
solidify the metal.
                              3-86

-------
                             DRAFT
The billets are cut off at convenient lengths  and preheated  to  426.7
Degrees C (800 Degrees F)  to give the metal plasticity.   They are
then extruded through shaped dies with a center mandrel.   The pressure
is supplied by self contained oil reservoirs for machines up to
4,500 Metric tons and by water for larger machines.

The formed tube is subsequently reduced further by rotary swagging,
which uses the impact of hammers to cold flow  the metal,  and/or by
drawing through dies.  The metal must be annealed to  retain  ductility
during cold working and must be final heat treated and quenched to
achieve a soft condition.   The tube is stretched from each end  to
relieve stresses.  Finally, the tube is hardened by precipitation
hardening, i.e., it is allowed to sit at room  temperature for
several days or held at an elevated temperature for several  hours.
                              3-87

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Aluminum extruded products
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $ 358.7
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $ 911.4

20 EMPLOYEES 122
20 EMPLOYEES 52
23,300
MILLION
MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING — METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
50
0
50
0
0
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 0
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
0
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE NA
NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
I
NA NOT AVAILABLE

NA
NA


*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-12
3-88


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                              DRAFT
Aluminum Rolling and Drawing, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged an rolling,
drawing, and other operations resulting in the production of
aluminum ingot, including extrusion ingot, and aluminum and
aluminum base alloy basic shapes, not elsewhere classified, such
as rolled and continuous cast rod and bar.  The principal products
are:

        Bars, aluminum:  rolled
        Cable, aluminum:  made in rolling mills
        Coils, wire:  aluminum - made in rolling
           mills
        Extrusion ingot, aluminum:  made in
           rolling mills
        Ingot, aluminum:  made in rolling mills
        Rails, aluminum:  rolled and drawn
        Rods, aluminum:  rolled
        Slugs, aluminum
        Structural shapes, rolled aluminum
        Wire, aluminum:  made in rolling mills

Aluminum bars, cables, ingots, rails, rods, wire and structural
shapes from rolling mills are produced by 16 plants averaging 288
workers each.  Most of these plants (94 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-13.
As shown in Figure 3-30, 60 percent of the reported product is
ingot, 20 percent is rolled bar and rod, 15 percent is extrusion
billets and 5 percent is wire and cable.  Aluminum metal alloy and
scrap are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing
operations are casting and molding, material forming, and physical
property modifications.

In general, aluminum wire is made from an ingot, hot rolling, it
to a rough shape and then rolling it on shaped rollers to a rod.
The stock is then drawn through dies, heat treated, straightened,
cut to size and aged.  Process water is used mainly for direct
contact cooling of the casting, water quenching following heat treat-
ing and possibly rinsing of lubricants used in rolling and drawing.
                              3-91

-------
                             DRAFT
The manufacture of rolled rod (Figure  3-31)  is  representative  oi"
the aluminum rod,  bar,  wire and structural  shape  rolling  industry.
Material in the form of pig is first melted and cast  to shape  in
direct chilled continuous molds.   The  ingot is  then heated  to
plasticity and rough rolled in a bloom mill using an  emulsified
oil lubricant.  The surface is generally milled to remove oxides.

The billet is then preheated and rolled in  shaped rollers of de-
creasing size.  It is drawn to a final rod  size in a  general die.
The rod is heat treated and quenched resulting  in a soft  initial
condition which hardens by precipitation with time.   The  rod is
straightened by passing it through opposed  rollers and then is cut
off to the desired length.
                              3-92

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Aluminum rolling and drawing,  nee
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     15
                         WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               4,600
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $ 57.5     MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                $343.4     MILLION
                                                              *
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
     1  CASTING a MOLDING - METALS             100
     2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
     3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
     4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
     5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
     6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPE RATIONS
     7 MATERIAL COATING
     8 ORE PROCESSING & RtKINING
     9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
                                               100
                                                50
                                               100
                                                50
                                                50
                                                50
                                                50
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE
                                 NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                          BILLION GALLONS
                                          BILLION LITERS
                                                NA
                                                NA
                                                NA
                                                NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
                                              NA
                                              NA
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-13
                                   3-93

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Rolling,  Drawing, and Extruding o_f_ Nonferrous Metals/  Except Copper
and Aluminum

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in rolling,
drawing,  and extruding nonferrous metals other than copper and
aluminum.  The products of this industry are produced  in the form
of the basic shapes such as plate, sheet,  strip,  bar,  and tubing.
The major products are:

        Battery metal
        Britannia metal, rolling and drawing
        Extruded shapes, nonferrous metals and alloys,
           except copper and aluminum
        Gold and gold alloy bars, sheets,  strip,  and
           tubing
        Gold rolling and drawing
        Lead and lead alloy bars, pipe,  plates,  rods,
           sheets, strip, and tubing
        Lead rolling, drawing,  and extruding
        Magnesium and magnesium alloy bars,  rods,
           shapes, sheets, strip and tubing
        Magnesium rolling, drawing, and extruding
        Nickel and nickel alloy pipe, plates,
           sheets, strip, and tubing
        Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and extruding:
           except copper and aluminum
        Platinum and platinum alloy sheets and
           tubing
        Platinum-group metals rolling,  drawing,  and
           extruding
        Silver and silver alloy bars, rods,  sheets,
           strip, and tubing
        Silver rolling and drawing
        Solder wire, bar:  acid core and rosin core
        Tin and tin alloy bars, pipe, rods,  sheets,
           strip, and tubing
        Tin rolling and drawing
        Titanium and titanium alloy bars,  rods,
           billets, sheets, strip, and tubing
        Titanium from sponge
        Tungsten basic shapes
        Welding rods
        Wire,  nonferrous except copper and aluminum:
           made in rolling mills
        Zinc and zinc alloy bars, plates,  pipe,  rods,
           sheets, tubing, wire, etc.
                              3-96

-------
                              DRAFT
        Zinc rolling, drawing, and extruding
        Zirconium and zirconium alloy bars, rods,
           billets, sheets- strip, tubing

Rolling, drawing and extru.-'J.r.g of ncnfarrcus metal except copper and
aluminum is performed by 164 plant?, averaging 1G9 workers each.
Most of these plants (57 percent.} employ more than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-14.  As shown in
Figure 3-32, for the metals reported in this industry, 43 percent
is nickel, 20 percent is lead, 13 percent is zinc, 10 percent is
titanium,, 8 percent is magnesium and 6 percent are other metals.
Basic mill shapes  (e.g. ingot, slab, and billets), old scrap and
manufacturing scrap are the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are casting and molding, mechanical material re-
moval and material forming.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the
rolling, drawing and extruding of ncnferrous metals.  This is so
mainly because of the differing ra^T materials, and the differing
products.  Process water, >«'hich constitutes 9 percent of the gross
water used by the industry, is used mainly for rinsing and quenching.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the roll-
ing, drawing arid extruding industry, no single product can be con-
sidered completely typical.  However, the manufacture of zinc strip
is a good example.  This manufacturing process is shown in Figure 3-33
As can be seen froti this diagram, zinc strip is fabricated from blocks
which are melted.  At this time, alloy ingredients are added.  The
alloy is then cast in slabs and rough rolled to a prescribed sheet
thickness.   An oil/water emulsion is used as the lubricant.  Finish
rolling also uses an oil/water emulsion.  The roll is then slit to
form strips of various widths.
                              3-97

-------
                                     DRAFT
Dtv>r>iir-T-i/-,M n/>TA   Colling, Drawing, and Extruding of Nonferrous  Metals,
PRODUCTION DATA   except copper and aluminum
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     94



                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     70



   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               17,900



   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $378.3    MILLION



   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1244.0   MILLION

                                                                      ₯

   i3ERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING  VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,



        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              33



        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            0



        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              67



        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          67



        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     0



        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  50



        7 MATERIAL COATING                        0



        8 ORE  PROCESSING & REFINING                17



        9 MOLDING  8e FORMING - NON-METALS          Q
 WATEF USE
   ANN JAL GROSS WATER USE            22.9  BILLION GALLONS


                                       86.7  BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           50


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           50


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       86


   PROCI:SS WATE:R AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          9
 WASTE WATER
    DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      41



    PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            6
   N/*  NOT AVAILABLE                                                   _ in  .   ,
                                                    *Base  on Plant Data Collected


                                   TABLE 3-14



                                       3-98

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                              DRAFT
 Drawing  and  Insulating of Nonferrous Wire

 This  segment includes establishments primarily engaged in drawing,
 drawing  and  insulating, and insulating wire and cable of nonferrous
 metals from  purchased bars, rods, or wire.  The products are:

         Automotive and aircraft wire and cable, nonferrous
         Cable, nonferrous:  bare, insulated, or armored -
           mfpm.
         Coaxial cable, nonferrous
         Communication wire and cable, nonferrous
         Magnet wire, insulated
         Shipboard cable, nonferrous
         Signal and control cable, nonferrous
         Weatherproof wire and cable, nonferrous
         Wire, nonferrous:  bare, insulated, or armored-
           mf pm.

 Drawn and/or insulated wire is produced by 337 plants averaging
 205 workers  each.  Most of these plants  (82 percent) employ more
 than  20  workers.  Additional, production data are shown in Table
 3-15.  As shown in Figure 3-34, most of the wire and cable pro-
 duced  (60 percent) is copper.  Aluminum wire and cable makes up
 the remainder of the products.  Metal rod, wire and bar and in-
 sulating materials are the major raw materials.

 The principal manufacturing operations are material forming and
 chemical processing.  Process water, which constitutes 26 percent
 of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for a
 pickling rinse (in the case of wire drawing), soapstone recovery,
 and/or contact cooling.

 The manufacture of rubber insulated wire (Figure 3-35) is represen-
 tative of the wire insulating industry.  The wire drawing process
 is discussed in rolling drawing and extruding of copper (SIC 3351).
 The ingredients for coating are compounded in a Bandbury mill to
 form * homogeneous mass which is then coated with a zinc stereate
 powd«r to prevent sticking.  It is then calendered onto rolls.   The
 hot compound passes over cooling rolls and is stacked for storage.

 The coating material compound is applied to the wire by extrusion.
 Since the coating is soft, the coated wire is coiled on a pan
 cov«r*d with a cushion of powdered soapstone.  The coated wire is
 th«n placed in a chamber and heated to cure the coating (vulcanizing)
The soapstone cushion is washed out of the pan and the insulated wire
 is prepared for shipment.
                             3-101

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Drawing and Insulating of  Nonforroun Wiic
   NUMBER CF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       275

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        62
   N'JMBEROF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 69,200
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $1,446.2   MILLION
   \/f LUE CF SHIPMENTS                 $4,403.4   MILLION
                                                                   *
   PERCENT 0~ ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                8
        2 MECHANMCAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            25
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               83

        4 PHYSICAL  PROPERTY MODIFICATION           33
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     42

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    33
        "i MATERIAL COATING                        33

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          25
 WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSE WATER USE           33.3   BILLION GALLONS
                                     126    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         47
   REUSEC V/ATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        53
   PERCENT CF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    72
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       26
 WASTE
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     44
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED          3
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based  on  Plant  Data CollccU-d
                                 TABLE 3-15
                                     3-102

-------
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                              DRAFT
Aluminum  Foundries  (Castings)

This  segment  includes  establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
castings  and  die  castings  of s.lumi~u^ and ?J/»m.lnii:n-base alloys.   The
major products  are:
              nuTn and. ~.'."",r-.'!.;,»T,".-^" "'.
            and  die  caatir.cr,
        Castings , alumi:i;-Xi
        Cooking utensils,  cast al^i
        Die castings,  aluminum.
        Foundries .  aluirJ nun
        Hospital utensils, cast a 1.- <;,!.;. UT;I
        Household utensils ,  cast e Xurr.in"::.
        Kitchen utensils,  cast. aluTninuri.
        Machinery castings,  alv^irrun
        Pressure cookers,  domestic:  cast aluminum

Aluminum  castings are  produced b;r SS'5 plants,  averaging 47 v/crkers
each.  Most of  these plants  (57 perca.-.t)  employ fewar than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production  data c."z ?,hr.wn in  Tabla 3-16.   As
shown in  Figure 3-36,  61 percent of t'-.e castings are die cast, 25
percent are sand cast,  13  percent use permanent and semi -permanent
molds and the remainder use  other methods.   Aluminum metal, alloy
and scrap are the major raw  materials.   The principal manufacturing
operations  are  casting and molding, physical property modification,
mechanical  material  removal,  and chemical processing.

In general,  aluminum castings arc laade in metal molds.   The metal
is melted,  alloyed,  fluxed (to float oxides -  skimmed)  and trans-
fered to  a  holding  furnace.   Just before injection, the melt is
purged with nitrogen and/or  chlorine to remove any dissolved hydrogen
gas.  The melt  is then injected into a  lubricated, water jacket
cooled metal mold.   It is  then cooled,  removed and trimmed.  Process
water, which constitutes 28  percent of the gross water used by the
industry, is used mainly for rinsing when die  casting.   When sand
casting,  it is  used  for dust scrubbing (air pollution control) from
molding shake out,  rinsing,  and for sand reclamation (sand casting) .

The manufacture of  die castings (Figure 3-37)  is representative of
the nonferrous  casting industry since it encompasses 61 percent of
the industry.   Aluminum is commonly melted in  a reverberatory , wet,
hot melting furnace  heated by gas or oil.   Indirect fuel fired
furnaces  (crucible)  or induction type niay also be used.  The charge
may be preheated to  dry ito   Furnace efficiency i? increased by pre-
heating using the furnace  exhaust.   Charged metal should be clean
and dry.  To clean,  chlorine  and nitrogen are  used to float oxides
                              3-105

-------
                             DRAFT
and surface cleaning fluxes are used to aid in their skimming.
After melting, the metal is transferred to a holding furnace or
well in the melting furnace where it is hold at 02J to 704 clegi/eos c1.
Here dissolved hydrogen gas is purged by bubbling ch.lorine iind/Vi
nitrogen gas to chemically react with the chlorine (IICL)  or,  iu
the case of nitrogen,  to physically remove the hydrogen.   The ex-
haust fumes of hydrogen chloride, aluminum chloride and chlorine-
must then be scrubbed with a caustic solution which produces
sodium hypochlorite.  Sludge occasionally accumulates during hold-
ing and can be ladled out of the holding furnace or well.

The melt is next ladled from the holding furnace to the shot chamber
of a die casting machine.  Here a plunger pushes the molten metal
into the mold cavity of a water cooled, cold chamber machine.  The
mold facing is first lubricated with oil which carborizes slowly
upon exposure to molten metal and lasts for 5 or 6 shots.

After cooling, the plunger continues its stroke pushing the back of
the die open.  The plunger then retracts and the casting is manually
or mechanically separated.  The die is cleaned and lubricated at
various intervals.

The completed casting is then air biased to remove carbon and trimmed
of flash, runners, gates and overflow.  It may also be impregnated
to seal pores.

-------
                                      DRAFT
   PRODUCTION DATA   Aluminum Foundries
                                                                      428             5
                                  V":™H L;;:EA T:-^'! 20 KMp:,ov5:Es        567



      NUMBER OF EMPLOYED '- i-L ES^.EiJSHViENTS                  46,400




      VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE!         $7?.°.:.     MILLION




      VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   312£'-.S   MiUJG":




      PERCENT OF ESTASLISf-ir'ENTS USING VAF'ICJS ' :A?:J"ACTU|;>^"5 O^EPATJONP,




           i CASTING a MOLDING - MET/ LS              IQQ




           2 MECHANSCAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100



           3 MATERIAL FORS'/^JG - !^E7&L,S               40




           4 PHYSICAL. PROPERTY MGP'~;C.<> TSON          /.,-•)




           5 ASSEMBLY OPEP'-,TIONS                    ^Q




           6 CKEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICA'L. GYRATIONS   2C



           7 MATERIAL COATING                         4Q




           8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  g




           9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON— VETALE          -,-
   WATER USE
      ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          17.9     BILLION GALLONS




                                        67.8     PILLION LITERS                      |




      INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            48                           j




      REUSED WATER AS DERCENT OF GROSS USE            72




      PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        45




      PROCESS WATER AS °ERCEMT OF GROSS USE          28
|   WASTE WATER
      DISCHARGED WATER AS PE«?CEN~ "* 3ROSS 'J^-'z.        47




      PERCENT OF DiSCMftRGED WATER TREATED             2
      NA  NOT AVAILABLE                                ^ns«d on Plant  D"ta Collected




                                      TA9LS ."—!«i



                                          3-107

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                             DRAFT
Brass, Bronze, Copper, Copper Base Alloy Foundries (Castings)

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
castings and die castings of copper and copper base alloy.  Products
include:

        Bushings and bearings:  brass,  bronze, copper
           (non-machined)
        Castings:  brass, bronze, copper, and copper base
           alloy
        Copper and copper base alloy castings and die castings
        Die castings:  brass, bronze, copper, and copper base
           alloy
        Foundries:  brass, bronze, copper, and copper base
           alloy
        Machinery castings:  brass, copper, and copper base
           alloy
        Propellers, ship and screw:  cast brass,  bronze, copper
           and copper base

Brass and copper castings are produced by 499 plants, averaging 32
workers each.  The majority of these plants  (62 percent) employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in
Table 3-17.  As shown in Figure 3-38, 88 percent of these castings
are sand and 7 percent are die.  Copper metal alloy and scrap and
molding sand are the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are casting, molding, casting separation and
shake out, casting cleaning, and physical property modification.

In general, brass sand castings are made by melting a charge and
treating it to remove oxides and dissolved hydrogen.   The treated
charge is then poured from a ladle or crucible, solidified,
separated from the mold and shaken free of sand.   The core of the
casting may be hydraulically flushed and the surface sand blasted
or wire brushed.  Flaws are repaired by brazing and finally the
casting is further machined, heat treated and coated.  Sand is
reclaimed and conditioned.  It is blended and packed into a mold
and the core hardened and inserted for receiving another melt.
Process water, which constitutes 21 percent of the gross water
used by the industry, is used mainly for air scrubbing  (air pollu-
tion control) of the furnace, and in pouring and shake out efforts.
It is also used for cleaning and reclaiming sand.

The manufacture of brass sand castings (Figure 3-39)  is represen-
tative of the brass, bronze and copper foundry industry.  The metal
is melted in a crucible, reverberatory, induction or indirect-arc

-------
                               DRAFT
furnace.  The charge must be dry and clean and of a known composition.
Usually the fuel fired furnace uses the flue gas to preheat the charge
while in the electric furnaces the charge is preheated to eliminate
moisture.  Fluxes are added to help skim impurities.  Furnace atmo-
spheres may be oxidizing, neutral or reducing.  If the atmosphere
is a reducing one, hydrogen gas will be dissolved which is removed
by purging with dry nitrogen or air.  Oxygen is removed with de-
oxiding agents.  Wet or dry air pollution control is used to trap
zinc, phosphorous, sulfur, arsenic, cadmium and magnesium which are
volatized from the melt.  Zinc is the most susceptible to volatization,

The brass melt is then poured from the crucible or a ladle into a
prepared mold and solidified.  After solidifying, the casting is
separated from the mold and the sand shaken off.  Exhaust flow re-
moves the dust and then wet or dry scrubbers clean the exhaust air.
With wet scrubbers, suspended solids and phenol  (from binders) are
in the effluent water.  Occasionally, the core may need to be
hydraulically removed from the casting using a caustic solution.
After removal of the casting and core, the casting is physically
cleaned, welded or brazed to repair flaws, then heat treated and
impregnated to reduce porosity.

Sand from the shakeout table may be reclaimed wet or dry.  Large
foundries are more inclined to use the wet method which includes
screening (removes large metal fragments), hydraulic classification
to remove fines, and drying.  Dry classification and conditioning
is also used.  Small foundries generally dispose of the core material
and only reuse mold sand.

Sand preparation includes blending with., binders  (sometimes using
milling machines).  Aeration is sometimes used to fluidize and dry
transport the sand to the molding machine.  Other mechanical methods
may also be used.  The core, made of previously hardened sand and
binder  (including phenolic compounds), is inserted in the mold to
form internal shapes.  The mold is compacted by using piston ramming
(jolt) or similar machines.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Prass, Bronze,  Copper, Copper Base Alloy Foundries
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    190
                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    309
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 15,700
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $239.9  MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $473.3  MILLION
                                                                  *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS             100
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           67
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               0
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         33
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    0
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   0
        7 MATERIAL COATING                        0
        3 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            1.4    BILLION GALLONS
                                     5.3    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      64
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      36
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER  60
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     21
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE    64
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                             *Based on Plant Data  CoMc-ctcd
                                 TABLE 3-17

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                             DRAFT
Nonferrous Foundries  (Castings), Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
castings and die castings of nonferrous materials except aluminum,
copper, and copper base alloys.  It's products are:

        Beryllium castings
        Castings, nonferrous metal except aluminum, copper,
           and copper base alloy
        Castings, precision:  industrial and aircraft use -
           cobalt-chromium
        Die castings, nonferrous metal except aluminum/
           copper, and copper alloys
        Foundries, nonferrous metals:  except aluminum,
           copper, and copper alloys
        Lead wheel balancing weights
        Machinery castings, nonferrous except aluminum,
           copper, and copper alloys
        Magnesium castings and die castings
        Sash balances, lead
        Titanium and titanium alloy castings
        White metal castings (lead, antimony, tin)
        Zinc die castings

Nonferrous casting (except aluminum and copper)  are produced by
325 plants, averaging 62 workers each.  Approximately half of
these plants employ more than 20 workers.   Additional production
data are shown in Table 3-18.  As shown in Figure 3-40, 92 per-
cent of the reported production is zinc die castings.  Other types
of zinc castings and magnesium and lead castings represent the re-
mainder of the industry.  Zinc metal and alloy are the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are casting and
molding.

In general, zinc die castings are made by melting and fluxing the
metal,  injecting it into the die, solidifying the melt and finally
ejecting the casting.  Cleaning of the part and mold as well as
lubrication of the mold may follow.  Process water, which constitutes
9 percent of the gross water used by the industry,  is used mainly for
cleaning of the part and mold.

The manufacture of zinc die castings (Figure 3-41)  is representative
of the  nonferrous foundry (excluding copper and aluminum)  industry.
The charge must be dry, clean and oil free.  Chloride or flouride
flux is used for cleaning new scrap.  Old scrap is not normally
used.  The die is a metal water jacketed type with a lubricated face
                              3-115

-------
                              DRAFT
(oil diluted with mineral spirits or kerosene).   A water bayed
lubricant with graphics cr silicone may be used to aid die cooling
and mold release "with a separate oil generally needed on the ejector-
pins .

The furnace IB usually a fuel fired open pit, an immersion tube type
or an induction heated type.  Usually melting, alloying and holding
of the melt is done in a single furnace which is sometimes part of
the overall die casting machine.  The die casting machine is usually
a hot changer type t-hat keeps the shot melted (162 to 245 degrees C)
until it is injected, into the mold.  Injection is accomplished using
a hydraulic cr pne-jr"&-c.r.c pi = tor, at 102 tc 204 Atmospheres.
                              3-116

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Nonferrous Foundries,  NEC
                                                    163
                                                    162
                                                  20,000
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $312.2   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $589.1   MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1  CASTING &MOL DING - METALS
2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS

4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
                                              100

                                              100
                                                0
                                                0
                                               6C
       6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCKIVHCAL OPERATIONS  60
        7 MATERIAL COATING
        8 ORE PROCESSING «- REf'
        9 MOLDING a FORMING - WON—METALS
                                        80
                                         0

                                         0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROGS WA^ER USE         7 . 6

                                  28.8
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                  BILLION GALLONS
                                  BILLION LITERS
                                     18
                                     82
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    73
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       9
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     20

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED         NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-13
                                   3-117

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                                           DRAFT
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-------
                             DRAFT
Metal Heat Treating

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in heat treat-
ing of metal for the trade.  Processes include:

        Annealing of metal for the trade
        Brazing  (hardening) metal for the trade
        Burning metal for the trade
        Hardening of metal for the trade
        Heat treating of metal for the trade
        Shot peening - treating steel to reduce
           fatigue
        Stainless steel, brazing (hardening) for the
           trade
        Tempering of metal for the trade

Metal heat treating is practiced by 938 plants, averaging 18 work-
ers each.  The majority of these plants (72 percent) employ less
than 20 workers.  The principal manufacturing operation is physical
property modification.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-19.  As shown in Figure 3-42, no information is available on raw
materials utilized.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the metal
heat treating industry.  This is so because of the differing properties
of materials treated.  In general, heat treating is accomplished by
raising the metal to a desired temperature in a controlled or uncon-
trolled rate, followed by quenching in air, oil, brine, or water.
Process water, which constitutes 39 percent of the gross water used by
the industry is used mainly for rinsing subsequent to quenching and
washing.  Contaminants can include alkali, phosphates, detergents,
cyanides, and oils.  Sometimes pickling or plating is used in heat
treat shops.

Carbonitriding  (Figure 3-43) is a typical heat treating operation.  It
is done in a gas fired furnace with an endothermic atmosphere at 788
Degrees C.  After exposure to this atmosphere for 5 to 10 minutes,
ammonia and natural gas is introduced to this atmosphere for 15 min-
utes.  The carbon and nitrogen is absorbed by the metal surface and
hardens it.  The metal is then quenched in oil and subsequently washed
to remove the oil.

Carbonitriding may also be done using a molten cyanide salt bath as the
heat, carbon, and ammonia source.  The bath produces alkali carbonate
dust  (an irritant) which must be removed from the atmosphere using a
water scrubber.  The subsequent quench and/or washing of the part
produces an effluent containing cyanide salts.
                               3-120

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Metal heat treating
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       260


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       678


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  17,100


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $307.7    MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $463.7    MILLION
                                                                       *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 Q


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          100


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                      0


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100


        7 MATERIAL COATING                          0


        8 ORE  PROCESSING & REFINING                  0


        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
 WATER USE
    ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          4.9     BILLION GALLONS


                                    18.5     BILLION LITERS


    INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             76


    REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            24


    PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        46


    PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           39
 WASTE WATER
    DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        67


    PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
    NA NOT AVAILABLE

                                                   *Based on Plant  Data  Collected
                                   TABLE  3-19

-------
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                             DRAFT
Primary Metal Products, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
primary metal products, not elsewhere classified,  such as nonferrous
nails, brads, and spikes, and metal powder,  flakes,  and paste.   The
major products are:

        Aluminum atomized powder
        Balls, steel
        Brads:  aluminum, brass and other non-
           ferrous metal and wire
        Flakes, metal
        Iron, powdered
        Laminating steel for the trade
        Nails:  aluminum, brass, and other non-
           ferrous metal and wire
        Paste, metal
        Powder, metal:  except artists'  materials
        Reclaiming ferrous metals from clay
        Recovery of iron ore from open hearth slag
        Silver powder, except artists' materials
        Spikes, aluminum and other nonferrous metal
           and wire
        Staples, brass and other nonferrous metal
           and wire
        Tacks, brass and other nonferrous metal and
           wire
        Thermite

Metal powders and pastes and nonferrous fasteners  are produced  by 161
plants, averaging 48 workers each.  Most of these  plants (63 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production  data are shown in
Table 3-20.  As shown in Figure 3-44, 55 percent of  the powder  is iron
and steel, 37 percent is aluminum, and 8 percent is  copper.   Non-
ferrous nails, spikes, brads and staples represent 2.5 percent  of
the production reported.

Aluminum, iron, steel and copper ingot and wire are  the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations for powders  are
material forming and chemical and electrochemical  processing.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are  used in  the
powder, paste and flake industry.  The electrochemical or chemical
precipitation methods of metal powder production operations  use
water in solutions.  Shoting uses water as a quench.   Other  oper-
ations may use water as a machining coolant or as  a  paste media.
                              3-124

-------
                               DRAFT
Because of the diversity of products and materials  used in the
primary metal NEC industry, no single product can be considered
typical.  However, the manufacture of iron powder and aluminum
powder are good examples of the processes involved  in this SIC
category.  The oxide reduction method is the most common method
of iron powder production  (reference Figure 3-45, Process Flow
Diagram).  First, the metal oxide is ground to a fine powder.
Then it is mixed with a solid (carbon)  or gaseous (hydrocarbon)
reducing agent.  Water or solvents may be used to eliminate dust
and explosion hazards.

Electrolytic deposition or chemical deposition (carbonyl method)
may also be used for iron powder precipitation.   However,  it is
not as common as the oxide reduction method because of higher cost.
Water containing some dissolved iron is wasted.

Aluminum powder is primarily produced by melting aluminum metal
and ejecting it under pressure into a fast flowing  steam of air
or inert gas.  Water and/or mineral spirits may be  used to eliminate
dust and explosion hazards.  Ball milling with fatty acid or solveni
is used for paste.  Plasticizers and additives are  also added to the
paste.
                                 3-125

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Prirvmry metal products, nee
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $161.8
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $340.8

20 EMPLOYEES 101
20 EMPLOYEES 60
7,700
MILLION
MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
20
40
0
60
20
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 0
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
0
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE NA
NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
NA
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-20
3-126


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             3-128

-------
                             DRAFT
Metal Cans
     segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturi
metal cans from purchased materials.  The major products are:

        Beer cans, metal
        Cans, aluminum
        Cans, metal
        Containers, metal:  food, milk, oil, beer,
           general line
        Food containers , metal
        General line cans, metal
        Ice cream cans, metal
        Milk cans, metal
        Oil cans, metal
        Packers' cans, metal
        Pails, except shipping and stamped:
           metal
        Pans, tinned
        Tin cans

Metal cans are produced by 392 plants, averaging 174 workers each.
Most of these plants  (78 percent) employ more than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-21.  As shown in
Figure 3-46, 87 percent of the cans produced are steel (usually
tinplate) , and the rest are aluminum.  Sheet metal and various
organic coatings are the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal, material  form-
ing and material coating.

In general, metal cans are made by stamping and drawing the body
(cut)  of the can and stamping out the lid separately, for attach-
ment after filling by another industry.  Labeling of aluminum cans
by printing directly on the metal is often a part of the operation,
while steel cans are labeled by the industry that fills them.
Process water, which constitutes 14 percent of the gross water  used
by the industry, is used mainly for rinsing.  The rinsing operations
is associated with washing off the lubricating oil following the
drawing operation.  The resulting wastewater contains lubricants
and wash solution constituents.

The manufacture of aluminum cans is representative of the metal can
industry.   A typical operation for making aluminum cans is shown in
Figure 3-47.  The aluminum sheet is lubricated with a water-oil
emulsion before the stamping operation, which is called "cupping"
                              3-129

-------
                               DRAFT
in the can industry.  The next operation is drawing,  referred to
as "bodymaking".   The following reducing operation, which elongates
the "cup" into a shell with a bottom,  is lubricated and cooled with
a water-oil emulsion.  Following trimming to even the edges,  the can
is washed in a five-stage operation consisting of degreasing, wash-
ing, and a triple rinse.  Degreasing is done with a sulfuric  acid/
chromate/nonionic detergent bath.  Washing is done in a similar
bath but at a somewhat higher temperature.  The first two rinses
use fresh water,  while the third uses  deionized water.   Following
drying in an oven, labels are printed  directly on the can and the
bottom is given an epoxy coating and dried.  The inside of the can
is then epoxy coated and dried.  The final operation  before inspection
and pressure testing is necking, where the top of the can is  flanged
to accept the lid after filling.  The  lids are produced in a  separate
operation.  Lids and opener rings are  stamped out of  sheet aluminum.
Final forming of the lid is done in a  conversion press,  and an epoxy
sealant is applied to the periphery of the lid.
                                 3-130

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA
                        cans
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      305




                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       87




   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  68 , 200




   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $1815.9     MILLION




   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                $4505.3     MILLION




   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,




        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0




        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             25



        3 MATERIAL FORMING-METALS                75




        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION             0




        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                      25




        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     0




        7 MATERIAL COATING                         75




        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                   0



        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           2.2




                                     8.3



   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE




   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT O^ GROSS USE




   PERCENT OF ^.^ABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER




   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS




BILLION LITERS




        86




        14




        57




        14
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE




   PERCENT -?F DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
        82
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                  TABLE  3-31
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected

-------
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                             DRAFT
Metal Shipping Barrels, Drums,  Kegs,  and Pails

This segment includes establishments  primarily engaged in manufacturing
ferrous and nonferrous metal shipping barrels, drums,  kegs,  and pails.
The major products are:

        Containers, shipping:  barrels,  kegs,
           drums, packages - liquid tight (metal)
        Drums, shipping:  steel and other metal
        Fluid milk shipping containers,  steel  or
           other metal
        Milk  (fluid)  shipping containers, steel
           or other metal
        Pails, shipping:  metal - except tinned

Metal shipping barrels, drums,  kegs and pails  are produced by 154
plants, averaging 66 workers each.  Most of these plants (64 per-
cent) employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are
shown in Table 3-22.   As shown in Figure 3-48, most of the parts
in this category are made from steel  with sheet steel and various
organic coatings being the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are material forming, (shearing and bending),
assembly operations (welding, riveting)  and coating.

In general, metal shipping barrels, drums, kegs and pails are made
by cutting sheet metal and bending it to the desired configuration.
Sides are often joined by welding and/or riveting.  Parts are then
phosphated and painted.  Process water,  which  constitutes only 3
percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly
for cleaning following forming operations.  However, 94 percent of
the plants surveyed used no process water.

The manufacture of a shipping container  (Figure 3-49)  is represen-
tative of the metal shipping barrels industry.  A shipping con-
tainer is made in several sections that comprise the main body,
bottom, and lid.  Each of these parts are manufactured by identical
fabrication processes.

In general annealed sheet stock is sheared to a patterned layout.
The metal is usually formed by bending on a brake or it is hydro-
formed to the desired configuration.   Containers are then cleaned
and prepared for joining by piercing or drilling.  Joining is
usually accomplished by riveting or welding.  Sometimes joining
by mechanical lock seam forming is practiced.   Parts are then
heat treated and finish coated.  Anodizing is  performed on aluminum
                               3-134

-------
                               DRAFT
containers and phosphating and tinning is applied to steel  con-
tainers.   Phosphating  the steel provides an etching for adherence
of a subsequent coating such as paint.  Printed identification is
usually stenciled  onto the container prior to storing.

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Metal  barrels, drums,  and pails
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      98
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      56
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               10,100
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $188.5     MILLION
   VALLE OF SHIPMENTS                 $459.7     MILLION
                                                                *
   PERC-:NT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        I CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               0
        > MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100
        1  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             100
        t  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          0
        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100
        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100
        7  MATERIAL COATING                     100
        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER use          . e
                                  2.3
   INTAKE W/.TER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED W VTER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
   PROCESS V'ATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
      83
      17
      75
       3
WASTE WATEF
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED          NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                TABLE 3-22
                                    3-136
                                               *Based on Plant Data Collected

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-------
DRAFT
 3-130

-------
                             DRAFT
Cutlery

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in  manufacturin
cutlery.  The major products are:

        Barbers'  scissors
        Blades, knife and razor
        Butchers'  knives
        Carving sets:  except stainless,  silver,  silver
           plated, or other all metal
        Cleavers
        Clippers,  fingernail and toenail
        Cutlery,  except all metal
        Forks, table:  except all metal
        Hedge shears and trimmers, except power
        Kitchen cutlery
        Knife blades
        Knife blanks
        Knives:  butchers', hunting, pocket,  table,  etc. -
           except all metal and electric
        Potato peelers, hand
        Razors:  safety, straight
        Safety razor blades
        Shears, hand:  barbers', manicure, pedicure,
           tailors', and household
        Shears, metal cutting:   hand
        Snips, tinners'
        Swords
        Table cutlery, except all metal
        Tailors'  scissors

Cutlery is produced by 132 plants, averaging  102  workers each.   Most
of these plants (52 percent) employ more  than 20  workers.   Addition-
al production data are shown in Table 3-23.  As shown in Figure 3-50,
52 percent of the total value of this category are razor blades and
razors, and 48 percent are for all the remaining  items in  this  categor
Steel sheet and strip are the major raw materials.  The principal manu
facturing operations are casting and molding, material forming,
mechanical material removal, physical property modification,  electro-
chemical processing, and material coating.

In general, cutlery is made by stamping or forming steel sheet.  The
part usually has a cutting edge which necessitates grinding and
                               3-139

-------
                               DRAFT
honing.  Coating and/or plating is generally used particularly on
the cutting or working surfaces and heat treating is common.
Process water, which constitutes 8 percent of the gross  water used
by the industry, is used mainly for plating.

The manufacture of razors and razor blades are representative of
the cutlery industry.  A typical operation for making razors  and
razor blades is shown in Figure 3-51.   In blade manufacturing,
raw stock, which is usually annealed stainless steel in  a rolled
band, is fed through a stamping machine which perforates the  stock
into the razor blade configuration.  After this, the blade is heat
treated, then the cutting edge is ground and honed.   In  order to
maintain cutting edge life a sputtering process is used.  This
process dislodges atoms from the surface of the material- by colli-
sion with high energy particles.  For a smoother shave teflon is
sprayed on the edge.  Blades are then oiled, inspected and pack-
aged.  The packaging container is made by a one step stamping oper-
ation.

A razor consists of a plastic or metallic head which holds the blade.
A metallic link connects this head with a plastic handle.  The
metallic parts of the razor are made from brass, aluminum or  steel
which is stamped, formed and usually plated.  In one particular
case the entire waste process water effluent is generated entirely
from the nickel plating performed on this piece.  This effluent comes
from the rinsing done before and after plating.

The plastic parts of the razor are made in a one step injection mold
process.

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Cutlery
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     69

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     63

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               13,400

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $321.7      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $426.6      MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                 0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             75

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               100

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           75

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    75

        7  MATERIAL COATING                         50

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           25
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          7.4

                                   28.1

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

       76

       24

       86

        8
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       76

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             7
  NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-23

                                     3-141

-------
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                              DRAFT
Hand and Edge Tools, Except Machine Tools and Hand Saws

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
files and other hand and edge tools for metalworking,  woodworking,
and general maintenance.  The ruajor products are:

        Adzes
        Awls
        Axes
        Bits (edge tools for woodworking)
        Blow torches
        Caulking guns
        Caulking tools.  hand
        Can openers, except electric
        Cane knives
        Cant hooks  (hanc. tools)
        C-clamps
        Chisels
        Corn knives
        Counterbores and countersinking bits,
           woodworking
        Countersinks
        Cutters, glass
        Cutting dies:  except metal cutting,
           biscuit cutting, and paper cutting
        Drawknives
        Drill bits, woodworking
        Edge tools for woodworking:  augers, bits,
           gimlets, countersinks,  etc,
        Engravers' tools- hand
        Fence stretchers (.nand tools)
        Files, including rscutting and resharpening
        Forks:  garden,  hay and manure, stone and
           ballast
        Garden hand tools
        Gouges, woodworking
        Grass hooks
        Hammers (hand tools)
        Hatchets
        Hay knives
        Hoes, garden and masons'
        Hooks:  bush, grass, bailing, and husking
        Ironworkers' hand tools
        Jacks:  lifting, screw,  and ratchet  (hand
           tools)
                               3-144

-------
                       DRAFT
Jewelers' hand tools
Knives, agricultural and industrial
Leaf skimmers and swimming pool rakes
Levels, carpenters'
Machetes
Machine knives, except metal cutting
Masons' hand tools
Mattocks (hand tools)
Mauls, metal (hand tools)
Mechanics'  hand tools
Mitre boxes, metal
Peavies  (hand tools)
Picks  (hand tools)
Planes, woodworking:  hand
Pliers  (hand tools)
Plumbers' hand tools
Post hole diggers, hand
Pruning tools
Prying bars (hand tools)
Pullers:  wheel, gear, and bearing
    (hand tools)
Punches  (hand tools)
Putty knives
Rasps, including recutting and resharpening
Rules, and rulers, metal
Scoops, hand:   metal
Scrapers, woodworking:  hand
Screw drivers
Scythes
Shovels, hand
Sickles, hand
Sledges  (hand tools)
Soldering guns and tools, hand:  electric
Soldering iron tips and tiplets
Soldering irons and coppers
Spades, hand
Stone forks (hand tools)
Stonecutters'  hand tools
Strapping tools, steel
Test plugs:  plumbers' hand tools
Tinners' hand tools, except snips
Tongs, oyster
Tools and equipment for use with sporting
   arms
Tools, hand:  except power driven tools and
   saws
Trowels
Vises, carpenters'
Wrenches (hand tools)

-------
                              DRAFT
Hand and edge tools are produced by 613 plants, averaging 64 work-
ers each.  Most of these plants (60 percent) employ less than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-24.  As
shown in Figure 3-52, most of the products in this category are
made from steel with steel, copper and aluminum being the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are material form-
ing, mechanical material removal,  physical property modification, and
material coating.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the hand
and edge tool industry.  This is so mainly because of the differing
products included in this category.  Process water is used mainly
for surface treatment and cleaning, finishing and coating.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the hand
and edge tool industry, no single product can be considered typical.
However, the manufacture of flat hand wrenches and metallic tape
rules are good examples as they utilize many of the manufacturing
processes used in this industry.  The overall wrench manufacturing
process is shown in Figure 3-53.  Since considerable strength is
required in a wrench, it is made from forged steel.  The wrench con-
figuration (open end or box) is machined and ground to specifications
while the material is still in the annealed condition.  Parts are
then heat treated, washed and finished in a tumbling and polishing
operation.  In most cases nickel chrome plating is used for added
hardness.  After washing, parts are sometimes painted.  Wrench
working surfaces are generally masked during painting to preclude
paint from coating these surfaces.

The overall tape rule manufacturing process is shown in Figure 3-54.
In this process, an annealed steel blade is heat treated, washed
and painted.  Numbers and scale divisions are printed using auto-
matic machinery.  A protective finish is then applied to the blade.
This is done by a machine called a "Laminator".  Other associated
parts include a spring and a die cast case.  Any machining required
on the case is accomplished prior to assembly.
                               3-146

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA
                  lla»d -'"d Fdqo Tools, 1'xcopt Machine  Tools
                  and ll.iiui flaws
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISH ME NTS, WITH MORb THAN 10 EMPLOYEES      1MB

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      365

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                39,200

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $ 780.1      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $1229.0      MILLION
                                                                      *
   PCRCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                20

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             90

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                70

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            60

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                      70

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    40

        7  MATERIAL COATING                          70

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS           10
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           2.2

                                     8.3

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                             BILLION GALLONS

                                             BILLION LITERS

                                                    64

                                                    36

                                                    47

                                                     5
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *  Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-24

                                      3-147

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  3-150

-------
                              DRAFT
Hand Saws_ and Saw Blades

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur
hand saws and saw blades for hand and power driven saws.   The major
products are:

        Chain type saw blades
        Saw blades for hand or power saws
        Saws, hand:  metalworking
           or woodworking

Hand saws and saw blades are produced by 91 plants, averaging 78
workers each.  Most of these plants  (5'7 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-25.
As shown in Figure 3-55, more than 90 percent of the saws pro-
duced are made from steel.  In this production, sheet and strip and
alloy steel are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturin
operations are mechanical material removal, material forming and
physical property modification.

In general hand saws and saw blades are made by cutting annealed
high speed steel to the blade size, performing various machining
operations (punching holes, milling and setting teeth) heat treat-
ing, welding if required, painting, printing, boxing and shipping.
Process water, which constitutes 17 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly during cleaning and plating the saws

The manufacture of a hacksaw blade is representative of the hand saw
and saw blades industry.  A typical operation for making hacksaw
blades (hand or power)  is shown in Figure 3-56.  Raw stock, which
is annealed high speed steel, is cut to blade size.  Press work such
as shearing,  blanking,  punching, notching and drilling is accomplish
next.  Then the blade teeth are milled and set to specified cutting
angles.  The blades are then heat treated, tempered and straightened
Frequently, high speed steel is only used for the cutting part of th
blade with the remainder of the blade made from a steel such as
AISI6135.  An electron beam welding machine is used to fuse these
materials.  Following fabrication, blades are painted, printed, boxe
and shipped.
                               3-151

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA nand Saws and Saw Blades
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $137.2
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $210.2
EMPLOYEES 52
EMPLOYEES 39
7,100
MILLION
MILLION
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING A MOLDING — METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
100
100
100
100
5 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 50
' MATERIAL COATING
t ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
50
0
0
WATER USi:
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE .6 BILLION GALLONS
2.3 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS yVATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
67
33
67
17
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3-25
3-152
NA
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected



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 3-154

-------
                             DRAFT
Hardware, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments  primarily engaged  in manufacturing
miscellaneous metal products  usually  termed  "hardware", not elsewhere
classified.   The major products  are:

        Andirons
        Angle irons,  hardware
        Animal traps, iron and steel:   except
           wire
        Bellows, hand
        Brackets, iron and steel
        Builders' hardware,  including locks
           and lock sets
        Cabinet hardware,  .including locks  and
           lock sets
        Car seals, metal
        Casket hardware
        Casters, industrial
        Chain fittings
        Chair glides
        Clamps, hose
        Clamps, metal
        Couplings, hose
        Crab traps, steel:  except  wire
        Cuffs, leg:  iron
        Door bolts and checks
        Door locks and lock  sets
        Dzus fasteners
        Fireplace equipment  (hardware)
        Furniture hardware,  including casters
        Handcuffs
        Harness hardware
        Hinge tubes
        Hinges
        Horse bits
        Ice chests or coolers, portable:   except
           foam plastic
        Key blanks
        Keys
        Ladder jacks, metal
        Luggage hardware
        Luggage racks, car top
        Marine hardware
        Metal fasteners, spring  and cold rolled steel,
           not made in rolling mills
        Motor vehicle hardware

-------
                              DRAFT
        Nozzles, fire fighting
        Nut crackers and pickers,  metal
        Organ hardware
        Padlocks
        Parachute hardware
        Piano hardware
        Pulleys, metal:   except power transmission
           equipment
        Rope fittings
        Saddlery hardware
        Suitcase hardware, including locks
        Tackle blocks, metal
        Thimbles, wire rope
        Time locks
        Trimmings, trunk:  metal
        Trunk hardware,  including  locks
        Turnbuckles
        Utility carriers, car top
        Vacuum bottles and jugs
        Vehicle hardware:  aircraft, automobile,
           railroad, etc.

Miscellaneous hardware is produced by 1045 plants, averaging 97 work-
ers each.  Almost half of these plants (46 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-26.
As shown in Figure 3-57, 87 percent of the raw materials consumed
are steels with sheet and strip steel being the major raw material.
The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material re-
moval, electrochemical processing  and material coating.   A wide
range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the hardware
industry.  This is so mainly because of the differing products
listed previously.  Process water, which constitutes 34  percent of
the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for washing,
plating and rinsing.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used  in the hard-
ware industry, no single product can be considered typical.  However,
the manufacture of locksets and portable ice chests or coolers are
good examples as they utilize many of the manufacturing  processes
used in this SIC category.  The overall manufacturing process for
locksets is shown in Figure 3-58.   There are approximately 40
parts that constitute a lockset.  These parts are made from roll,
bar and sheet stock with typical materials being stainless steel,
carbon steel, aluminum,  brass and  bronze.  Parts made from bar
                               3-156

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                              DRAFT
Iron and Steel Forgings

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing iron and steel forgings, with or without the use of dies.   The
major products are:

        Anchors, forged:  not made in rolling
           mills
        Anvils, forged:  not made in rolling
           mills
        Armor plate, forged iron and steel:
           not made in rolling mills
        Axles, railroad:  forged - not'made in
           rolling mills
        Bumping posts, railroad:  forged - not
           made in rolling mills
        Calks, horseshoe:  forged - not made in
           rolling mills
        Chains, forged steel:  not made in rolling
           mills
        Crankshafts, forged steel:  not made in
           rolling mills
        Forgings, iron and steel:  not made in
           rolling mills
        Gears, forged steel:  not made in rolling
           mills
        Hammer forgings, not made in rolling
           mills
        Horseshoes, not made in rolling mills
        Locomotive wheels, forged:  not made in
           rolling mills
        Press forgings, iron and steel:   not
           made in rolling mills
        Railroad wheels, axles, frogs, and other
           equipment:  forged - mfpm
        Switches, railroad:  forged - not made
           in rolling mills
        Upset forgings, iron and steel:   not
           made in rolling mills
        Wheels, car and locomotive:  forged -
           not made in rolling mills

Iron and steel forgings are produced by 274 plants,  averaging  123
workers each.  Most of these plants (64 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-38.
As shown in Figure 3-83, 84 percent of the forgings  produced in
this category are closed die forgings made from carbon or alloy
                                 3-219

-------
                               DRAFT
steel with steel blooms,  billets,  slabs and bars  being  the  major
raw materials.

In general, iron and steel forgings are made by heating,  forging
and cleaning.   Process water,  which constitutes 11 percent  of the
gross water used by the industry,  is used mainly  for cleaning
following forging.

The manufacture of  alloy steel forgings is representative of the
iron and steel  forgings industry.   A typical operation  for  making
an alloy steel  forging is shown in Figure 3-84.   Alloy  steel
forging is accomplished by using an open or closed die,  or  by ex-
truding, upsetting, rolling or ring rolling.  Often, two or more
of these methods are used in a forging operation.   Bar  stock is
initially sheared to the required size.  The stock is then  heated
in an electric  or fuel-fired furnace.  Electric heating furnaces
are preferred because their temperatures can be closely controlled
and the possibility of contaminating the work metal is  minimized.
Dies, if used,  are  also heated and then lubricated.

Immediately after heating, parts are forged with  a press or hammer
of ample power  to work the metal uniformly throughout the section.
The forgings are brought as close as practical to finished  shape
and size by this hot mechanical work.

Next forged parts are cooled in air and the flash removed by
trimming, sawing, punching or machining.  Subsequent cleaning of
parts to remove scale and lubricants is usually accomplished by
chemical methods.  Salt bath descaling followed by acid pickling
and finally sand blasting are the cleaning procedures most  widely
used.
                                 3-220

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Iron  and  steel forgings
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       175

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        99

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  33,600

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $ 648.4    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1389.9    MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             80

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                60

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           60

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     40

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    40

        7  MATERIAL COATING                          0

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             13.2  BILLION GALLONS

                                       50    BILLION LiTERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            54

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           46

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        56

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          11
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       45

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            68
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *3ased on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-38

                                      3-221

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Nonferrous Forgings

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing nonferrous forings, with or without the use of dies.   The products
are:

        Aluminum forgings
        Nonferrous forgings, not made in hot
           rolling mills
        Titanium forgings, not made in hot
           rolling mills

Nonferrous forgings are produced by 47.plants, averaging 132 work-
ers each.  Most of these plants (72 percent) employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-39.  As
shown in Figure 3-85, most of the nonferrous forgings are aluminum
with the rest being primarily copper and titanium.  As such, aluminum
is the major raw material.  The principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal and material forming.

In general nonferrous forgings are made by forging, heat treating and
etching.  Process water, which constitutes 20 percent of the gross
water used by the industry, is used mainly during etching.

The manufacture of aluminum forgings is representative of the non-
ferrous forgings industry.  A typical operation for making an aluminum
alloy forging is shown in Figure 3-86.  Methods used for forging
aluminum alloys include an open-die, a closed-die, upset and roll
forging, and ring rolling.  Two of these are sometimes used in se-
quence to obtain the desired shape.  Initially, stock is cut to
lengths by sawing or shearing.  This cut stock is then heated to the
forging temperature  (usually to the high side when forging begins).
If closed dies are used, the dies are also heated and then they are
lubricated.

The average forging die is constructed so that some excess material
is forced out into a relief area between the dies when the dies are
closed and the impression is filled.  This excess material is called
flash.  Prior to shipment the flash is removed by trimming, sawing,
punching, or machining.

Cleaning to remove lubricant residue and oxide is generally done as
follows:

1.  Etch in a 4 to 8 percent solution of caustic soda.
2.  Rinse in hot water.
3.  Nitric acid neutralization.
4.  Rinse in hot water.
                                 3-224

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Nonferrous  forgings
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    34


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    13


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               6,200


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $111.7      MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $235        MILLION
                                                                      i

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                C


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            50


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               75


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          75


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     75


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   50


        7 MATERIAL COATING                          0


        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  °


        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            5.4


                                     20.4

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS


BILLION LITERS


       44


       56


       75


       20
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data  Collected
                                  TABLE 3-39

                                     3-225

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                  3-227

-------
                              DRAFT
Automotive Stampings

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing automotive stampings, such as body parts, hubs and trim.  The
major products are:

        Automobile stampings:  fenders, tops, hub
           caps, body parts, trim, etc.
        Body parts, automobile:  stamped
        Moldings and trim, automobile:  stamped

Automotive stampings are produced by 435 plants,  averaging 278
workers each.  Most of these plants (80 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-40.
As shown in Figure 3-87, the automotive stamping  field is a job
shop type of production employing steel, copper,  and aluminum as
the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operation is
material forming.

In general automotive stampings are made by cutting sheet stock and
stamping it into the desired shape.  After the stamp is made, the
excess metal is cut away and the piece is cleaned and sometimes
surface coated.  Process water is used mainly for washing and
rinsing of waxes and lubricants that are used in  the dies in the
stamping process and for plating and painting operations.

The manufacture of inner auto fender walls is representative of the
automotive stamping industry.  The production of  inner fender walls,
as shown in Figure 3-88, consists of four basic operations.  The
sheet metal is first put into a primary press. After this initial
press, the piece is stamped into the desired form.  The excess metal
is then trimmed off and finally any necessary holes are punched in-
to the piece.  In the stamping processes waxes, oils and other
lubricants are used in all the dies.  These lubricants must be re-
moved by subsequent washing and rinsing operations.  The piece then
goes to a finishing operation which may consist of painting or
plating depending upon the application.  Water is used for rinsing
following plating and often in a water curtain during a spray paint
operation.
                                 3-228

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Automotive stampings
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      351

                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       84

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               120,700

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $2601.£   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $5175.3   MILLION
                                                                i
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTINGS MOLDING - METALS               0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           25

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             100

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          75

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   25
/ MA 1 tKIAL. t_UA 1 IINIJ
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING 8t FORMING - NON-METALS
L~3
0
0
WATFR USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE N.A BILLION
NA BILLION
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
GALLONS
LITERS
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA
tiA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based on Plant Data Collected
                               TABLE  3—40


                                   3-229

-------
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                              DRAFT
Crowns and Closures

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in rnanufactur
ing metal crowns and closures.  The products are:

        Bottle caps and tops, stamped metal
        Crowns/ jar:  stamped metal
        Jar crowns and tops, stamped metal
        Tops, jar:  stamped metal

Crowns and closures are produced by 52 plants, averaging 156
workers each.  Most of these plants (90 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-41.,
As shown in Figure 3-89, the production in this category consists
of a variety of closures with steel, copper, aluminum and thermo-
plastic resins being the major raw materials.   The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal,  material
forming, molding and forming (non-metals), and material coating.

In general, crowns and closures are made by forming sheet stock,
coating it and applying seals.  The process water used in this
category is mainly for cleaning operations to remove any machining
lubricants or filings before finishing operations.

The manufacture of bottle caps is representative  of the crowns and
closure industry.   A typical operation for manufacturing bottle
caps is shown in Figure 3-90.  The sheet stock is initially sheared
and then blanked,  stamped and formed to the required shape.   After
forming, the part is cleaned and then coated and  finished.   The part
is cleaned again before applying a seal to the inside  of the cap.
                                 3-232

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Crowns and closures
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      47
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       5
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLI SHMENTS                 8,100
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $166.3   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $342.5   MILLION
                                                                  *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             0
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               100
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            0
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     0
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTORCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     0
        7 MATERIAL COATING                         0
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           NA    BILLION GALLONS
                                    NA    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE  3-41
                                   3-233

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Metal Stampings, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing metal stampings and spun products,  not elsewhere classified,  in-
cluding porcelain enameled products such as household appliance
housings and parts; utensils and consumer stamped and spun products
such as cooking and kitchen utensils;  and other nonautomotive job
stampings.  The principal products are:

        Appliance parts, porcelain enameled
        Architectural panels and parts, porcelain
           enameled
        Ash cans, stamped and pressed metal
        Ash trays, stamped metal
        Automobile license tags, stamped metal
        Bottle openers, stamped metal
        Capacitor and condenser cans and cases:  stamped
           metal
        Cash and stamp boxes, stamped metal
        Chassis, radio and television:   stamped
        Cookers, pressure:  stamped or drawn
        Cooking ware, porcelain enameled
        Curtain walls for buildings, steel
        Electronic enclosures:  stamped or pressed
        Enameled ware, porcelain:  except plumbers'
           supplies
        Fins, tube:  stamped metal
        Floor rile, stamped metal
        Furniture components, porcelain enameled
        Garbage cans, stamped and pressed metal
        Helmets, steel.
        Honeycombed metal
        Household utensils, stamped and pressed metal:  except
           cast aluminum
        Ice cream dippers
        Ironer parts, porcelain enameled
        Kitchen utensils, porcelain enameled
        Kitchen utensils, stamped and pressed metal:
           except cast aluminum
        Lunch boxes, stamped metal
        Machine parts, stamped and pressed metal
        Mail boxes, except collection boxes
        Pails, stamped and pressed metal:  except tinned
           and shipping type
        Pans, stamped and pressed metal:  except tinned
        Patterns on metal
        Perforated metal, stamped
        Perforating on light metal
                                 3-236

-------
                              DRAFT
        Porcelain enameled products:  except plumbers'
           supplies
        Rigidizing metal
        Spinning metal, for the trade
        Stamping metal, for the trade
        Store fronts, porcelain enameled
        Stove parts, porcelain enameled
        Table tops, porcelain enameled
        Teakettles, except electric:  metal
        Tool boxes, stamped metal
        Utensils:  household, commercial.- and hospital -
           porcelain enameled
        Utensils:  household, commercial, and hospital -
           metal, except cast aluminum
        Washing machine parts, porcelain enameled

Metal stampings are produced by 2324 plants, averaging 39 workers
each.  Most of these plants  (59 percent) employ less than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-42.  As
shown in Figure 3-91, job shop stampings and stamped utensils make
up the majority of the output of this category with steel, copper
and aluminum being the major raw materials.  The principal manufactur-
ing operation is material forming and material coating.

In general, metal stampings are made by cutting stock and stamping
it into the desired shape.  After stamping, excess metal is trimmed
and the piece is cleaned and the surface finished.  Surface finish-
ing sometimes includes the application of a porcelain enamel coat-
ing.  Process water, which constitutes 10 percent of the gross water
used by the industry, is used mainly for washing and rinsing of the
pieces after stamping to remove waxes and lubricants that are used
in the dies in the stamping process.

The manufacture of bottle openers and similar kitchen utensils is
representative of the metal stamping industry.  As shown in Figure
3-92, raw sheet stock is initially sheared to the approximate size.
Then, the raw shape of the utensil is formed in a blanking operation.
The ornamental work and sections such as tongs on a fork are then
stamped.  Curves are formed next by bending.  Once formed, the piece
is usually cleaned to remove any lubricants from the forming operations,
The item is then usually plated (nickel or chrome depending upon the
application).
                                 3-237

-------
                                    DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Metal  stampings,  nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       959




                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1365




   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  90,900




   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $1439.3   MILLION




   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $2644     MILLION




   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,



        1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS              0




        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL         72




        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             72




        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         9




        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  72




        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 13




        7 MATERIAL COATING                      46




        8 ORE PROCESSING* REFINING               Q




        9  MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS         o
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 82
310
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
I
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it
5
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
17 !
£
83
66 |
10
1
17
10
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                   TABLE  3-42



                                       3-238
                                                   *Based on Plant Data Collected

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                              DRAFT
Small Arms Ammunition

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing ammunition for small arms having a bore of 30 mm. (or 1.18 inch)
and below.  The major products are:

        Ammunition and component parts, small
           arms:  30 mm. and below
        Bullet jackets and cores, 30 mm. (or 1.18
           inch) and below
        Cartridge cases for ammunition, 30 mm. (or
           1.18 inch) and below
        Cartridges, 30 mm. (or 1.18 inch) and below:
           empty, blank, loaded
        Cores, bullet:  30 mm. (or 1.18 inch) and
           below
        Paper shells, 30 mm.   (or 1.18 inch) and
           below:  empty, blank, and loaded
        Percussion caps, for ammunition of 30 mm.
           (or 1.18 inch) and below
        Shells, small arms:  30 mm. and below -
           empty, blank, and loaded
        Shot, lead
        Shotgun ammunition:  empty, blank, and loaded
        Wads, ammunition:  30 mm.  (or 1.18 inch)  and
           below

Small arms ammunition is produced by 61 plants, averaging 228 workers
each.  Most of these plants (59 percent) employ less than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-43.  As shown
in Figure 3-93, the products include small arms ammunition and
ammunition components (e.g. wads, shells).  Steel, copper, aluminum
and smokeless powder are the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are casting and molding, material forming,
physical property modification and mechanical material removal.

In general small arms ammunition is made by first forming the shell
by drawing, swaging, heading, and stamping brass tubing, then the
projectile is formed by casting and extruding.  Assembly operations
involve loading with explosives  (e.g. primer and powder).  Process
water is used mainly for cooling of extruded and heated parts and
cleaning after machining processes to remove lubricants and metal
filings.
                                 3-241

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of shotgun shells (Figure 3-94}  is  representative
of the small arms ammunition industry.   The brass base to  a shot-
gun shell is formed by stamping,  drawing, swaging,  heading and
annealing brass tube stock.   The  base is sized in a die if the
shell is a used one and only being reloaded.   The plastic  case
(some are made of cardboard)  is made by thermoforming  and  sawing
procedures and it is then bonded  to the brass  base. The primer
(explosive detonator)  is press fit to the brass  shell  base for
ease of removal and replacement in reloading.   Powder  is inserted
into the shell from the top and the wad (an injection  molded
plastic seal)  is inserted to tamp and contain  the powder and act
as a buffer and shock absorber for the shot.   The shot is  loaded
next onto the top of rhe wad, a plastic or cupboard cap installed,
and finally the end of the plastic shell is crimped in a single or
multi-stage procedure.
                                 3-242

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Small arm£. ammunition
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      25


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      36

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                13,900

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $228.4     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $437.5     MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100

        7  MATERIAL COATING                       100


        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          50
  0


100

100


100

100
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE              NA   BILLION GALLONS


                                        NA   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant.  Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-43

                                      3-243

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   3-245

-------
                              DRAFT
Ammunition/ Except for Small Arms,
Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing ammunition, not elsewhere classified, or in loading and assembling
ammunition over 30 mm. (or over 1.18 inch)  for naval, aircraft,
antiaircraft, tank, coast, and field artillery; including component
parts.  This industry also includes establishments primarily engaged
in manufacturing bombs, mines; torpedoes, grenades, depth charges,
chemical warfare projectiles, and their component parts.   The major
products are:

        Ammunition and component parts, over 30 mm.
           (or over 1.18 inch)
        Ammunition loading and assembling plants
        Arming and fusing devices for missiles
        Bag loading plants, ammunition
        Bazooka rockets
        Bomb loading and assembling plants
        Bombcluster adapters
        Bombs and parts
        Boosters and bursters
        Canisters, ammunition
        Caps, bomb
        Chemical warfare projectiles and com-
           ponents
        Depth charges and parts (ordnance)
        Detonators for ammunition over 30 mm.
           (or over 1.18 inch)
        Detonators:  mine, bomb, depth charge, and
           chemical warfare projectile
        Fin assemblies, mortar:  over 30 mm.
           (or over 1.18 inch)
        Fin assemblies, torpedo and bomb
        Forgings, projectile:  machined - for
           ammunition over 30 mm.
        Fuses for ammunition over 30 mm. (or
           over 1.18 inch)
        Fuses:  mine, torpedo, bomb, depth charge,
           and chemical warfare projectile
        Grenades and parts
        Jet propulsion projectiles, complete
        Loading and assembling bombs, powder bags,
           and shells:  over 30 mm.
        Mines and parts  (ordnance)
        Missile warheads
                                 3-246

-------
                              DRAFT
        Mortar shells, over 30 mm. (or over 1.18
           inch)
        Primers for ammunition, over 30 mm. (or
           over 1.18 inch)
        Projectile forgings, machined:  for ammunition
           over 30 mm.
        Projectiles, chemical warfare
        Rockets (ammunition)
        Shells, artillery:  over 30 mm. (or over
           1.18 inch)
        Torpedoes and parts (ordnance)
        Tracer igniters for ammunition over 30 mm.
           (or over 1.18 inch)

Ammunition, except for small arms, is produced by 91 plants, averaging
567 workers each.   Most of these plants (80 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-44.  As
shown in Figure 3-95, artillery ammunition comprises over half of
the output of the industry with the rest of the output divided be-
tween bombs,  missiles, etc.  Steel, carbon, copper, aluminum and
resins are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, physical property modi-
fication, material forming  (metal), assembly operations, and material
coating.

In general, ammunition is made by forming, machining and heat treat-
ing steel or  other bar stock into the desired projectile shape to
accept a  rifling sleeve and eventually an explosive charge.  Process
water is  used mainly for cooling and cleaning.

The manufacture of an explosive projectile is representative of the
ammunition industry.  As shown in Figure 3-96, a steel square stock
piece with rounded corners is used as a base material.  The pro-
jectile is first sheared from this stock to the desired length.  The
square stock, is then forged to a round shape and a channel is formed
in the center by back extrusion.  The piece is then cleaned by
shot peening  and turned on a lathe.  A nose is then formed by driving
a nose die over the piece in a forging type operation.  The pro-
jectile is next heat treated and quenched in oil or water, shot
peened and sheared again to the final length.  The extruded channel
is then machined by boring, turning, and tapping it to accept an ex-
plosive charge package.  A brass band or collar to fit on the exterior
of the projectile is now turned and grooved to fit a particular gun

-------
                              DRAFT
barrel.   A base  cover  is then welded into place on the  base  and  the
projectile is  painted.  The explosive charge and detonator is  added
later in an armaments  plant, where the projectile charge  and the
detonator are  assembled.
                                 3-248

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Ammunition,  exc. for small arms, nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       73


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       18


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 51,600


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $ 657.6     MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $1442.5     MILLION
                                                                      *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS


        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL


        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS


        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION


        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS


        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   50


        7  MATERIAL COATING                        50


        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 g


        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
  0


100


 50


  0


100
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             NA   BILLION GALLONS


                                        NA   BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-44


                                       3-249

-------
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                              DRAFT
Small Arms

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing small firearms having a bore 30 mm.  (or 1.18 inch) and below, and
parts for small firearms.  Also included in this industry are es-
tablishments primarily engaged in manufacturing certain weapons
over 30 mm.  which are carried and employed by the individual, such
as grenade launchers and heavy field machine guns.   The major
products are:

        Barrels, gun:  30 mm. (or 1.18 inch) and below
        Carbines 30 mm.  (or 1.18 inch) and below
        Cylinders and clips, gun:  30 mm.  (or 1.18
           inch) and below
        Firearms, 30 mm. (or 1.18 inch)  and below
        Grenade launchers
        Gun sights, except optical:  30  mm.  (or
           1.18 inch) and below
        Guns, 30 mm. (or 1.18 inch) and  below
        Links, for ammunition 30 mm.  (or 1.18
           inch) and below
        Machine gun belts,  metallic:  30 mm. (or
           1.18 inch) and below
        Machine guns and parts,  30 mm. (or
           1.18 inch) and below
        Carts, machine gun and machine gun ammunition
        Clips, oun:  30 mm. (or 1.18 inch) and
           below
        Magazines, gun:  30 mm.  (or 1.18 inch)
           and below
        Pistols and parts,  except toy
        Pyrotechnic pistols and projectors
        Recoil mechanisms for guns, 30 mm. (or
           1.18 inch) and below
        Revolvers and parts
        Rifles and parts, 30 mm. (or 1.18
           inch) and below
        Rifles, high compression pneumatic:   30
           mm.  (or 1.18 inch)  and below
        Shotguns and parts
        Submachine guns and parts
                                 3-252

-------
                               DRAFT
Small arms are produced by 80 plants, averaging 200 workers each.
Almost half of these plants  (49 percent) employ more than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-45.  As
shown in Figure 3-97, most of the small arms produced are made
from steel with steel bar and bar shapes being the major raw materials.
The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
material forming, and physical property modification.

In general, small arms are made by drilling the main barrel from bar
stock raw material.  Finishing and fine machining of the barrel and
remaining piece parts follows.  Parts are then plated, heat treated,
assembled, proof fired and packed.  Process water is used mainly for
cleaning and plating.

The manufacture of a pistol is representative of the small arms
industry.  A typical operation for making a pistol is shown in
Figure 3-98.  A pistol consists of the barrel, several housings,
trigger, hammer, handle, magazine and associated parts.   Raw
materials for the various parts consist of steel castings, forgings
and extrusions.  The handles may sometimes be faced with a non-
metallic material such as plastic or wood.  A major rough operation
is course drilling (done to loose tolerances) of the main barrel.
Following roughing operations, parts are finish machined.  This
usually consists of milling, broaching, drilling and reaming to close
tolerances, and hand or mechanical deburring.

Mechanical fine finishing essentially consists of sanding and honing.
Chemical finishing is also used and consists of a 5 stage operation.

     1.  Cleaning with a strong alkaline cleaner.
     2.  Rinsing with water.
     3.  Blueing (Plating type operation).
     4.  Cold Rinsing in tanks.
     5.  Hot Rinsing in tanks - blow dry.

Oiling prior to final assembly is performed next.  In order to make
parts fit and operate smoothly, filing and deburring to  specifications
are performed during final assembly.

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA small arms
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $275
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $389

20 EMPLOYEES 39
20 EMPLOYEES 41
16,000
.6 MILLION
.3 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS NA
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
NA
NA
NA
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE NA
NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
NA
NA
*BASED ON PLANT DATA COLLECTED
TABLE 3-45
3-254


-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Ordnance and Accessories/ Not
Elsewhere Class i f ieci

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing ordnance and accessories, not elsewhere classified, such as naval,
aircraft, tank, coast, and field artillery having a bore over 30 mm.
(or over 1.18 inch), and components.  The principal products include:

        Antisubmarine projectors (ordnance)
        Artillery, over 30 mm.:   aircraft, anti-aircraft,
           field, naval, and tank
        Artillery parts, for artillery over 30 mm.  (or over
           1.18 inch)
        Barrels, gun:  over 30 mm.   (or over 1.18 inch)
        Bazookas (rocket projectors)
        Bofors guns
        Carriages, gun:  for artillery over 30 mm.  (or over
           1.18 inch)
        Catapult guns
        Depth charge release pistols and projectors
        Flame throwers (ordnance)
        Gun sights, except optical:   for guns over  30 mm.
           (or over 1.18 inch)
        Gun turrets and parts for artillery over 30 mm. (or
           over 1.18 inch)
        Guns, over 30 mm. (or over  1.18 inch)
        Hispano Suiza guns
        Howitzers, over 30 mm. (or  over 1.18 inch)
        Limbers, gun and caisson
        Links, for ammunition over  30 mm.  (or over  1.18 inch)
        Livens projectors (ordnance)
        Mortars, over 30 mm.  (or over 1.18 inch)
        Oerlikon guns
        Pistols, depth charge release
        Pontiac guns
        Projectors:  antisub, depth charge release, grenade,
           livens, and rocket
        Recoil mechanisms for guns  over 30 mm.  (or  over
           1.18 inch)
        Rifles, recoilless
        Rocket projectors
        Smoke generators (ordnance)
        Tampions, for guns over  30  mm.  (or over 1.18  inch)
        Torpedo tubes (ordnance)
        Y-guns (ordnance)

-------
                              DRAFT
Ordnance and Accessories are produced by 72 plants,  averaging 331
workers each.  Almost half of these plants (47 percent)  employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-46.
As shown in Figure 3-99, the recorded data in this category indi-
cates that the parts are manufactured primarily from steel with sheet
and strip carbon steel being the major raw materials.   The principal
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal, material
forming, physical property modification and material coating.

In general ordnance and accessories are made with a forged barrel
or tube that is attached to associated loading and firing mechanisms.
Process water is used mainly for surface treatment including plating,
coating or painting.  It is also used for cleaning parts.

The manufacture of seamless forged tube is representative of the
Ordnance and Accessory industry since most ordnance equipment in
this category requires it as the major component of barrel con-
struction.  A typical operation for making a seamless  forged tube
is shown in Figure 3-100.  From this diagram, it can be seen that
first a solid steel billet, already rolled from an ingot, is heated
to forging temperature.  In the initial operation, the heated billet
is pressed and pierced in a cylindrical "die pot".  The piercing is
done by a mandrel in a vertical press.  The forged cup that emerges
is given a thorough inspection of wall thickness and surface quality.

The forging is then pushed through a series of circular dies by a
mandrel inserted in the open end.  Multiple "draws"  are made to re-
duce the wall thickness and diameter and increase the  length.  The
closed end may then be retained or removed depending on product
application.

In heat treating, the pipe is generally normalized,  normalized and
tempered, or quenched and tempered, depending on specification re-
quirements.

The inside and outside surfaces of the pipe are next subjected to
impingement by high-velocity abrasive grit to disintegrate and re-
move scale.  Then the pipe is rotated in a chuck while stationary
tools face the ends square or bend them for welding.  In many cases,
complicated chemical washing is also done to assure "hospital clean-
liness" for the interior of the cylinder.  Following this, the pipe
ends are sealed and high-pressure water is introduced to establish
the test pressure.  The pipe then receives a complete inspection of
surface and dimensions.
                                 3-258

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  ordnance  and accessories, nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     34
                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     38
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS              23,800
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $370.8   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $464.2   MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              67
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          67
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   67
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    67
        7 MATERIAL COATING                       67
        8 ORE PROCESSING 8f REFINING                0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           NA    BILLION GALLONS
                                   NA    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                              *Based on Plant Data Collected
                               TABLE  3-46
                                  3-259

-------
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                              DRAFT
Steel Springs,  Except Wire

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing leaf springs, hot wound springs and coiled flat springs.   The
major products  are:

        Automobile springs
        Coiled flat springs
        Flat springs, sheet or strip stock
        Helical springs, hot wound:  for railroad equipment,
           vehicles, etc.
        Hot wound springs, except wire springs
        Leaf springs:  automobile, locomotive, and other
           vehicle
        Railroad equipment springs
        Steel springs, except wire
        Torsion bar springs

Steel Springs,  except wire, are produced by 108 plants,  averaging
78 workers each.  Almost half of these plants (53 percent)  employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in
Table 3-47.  As shown in Figure 3-101, 63 percent of the springs
produced are alloy steel with alloy steel bar shapes being  the
major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations  are
mechanical material removal, material forming and physical  property
modification.

In general, steel springs are made by hot forming.  Helical springs
are hot wound and leaf springs are hot press formed.  Process water
is used mainly  for plating and cleaning operations.

The manufacture of a leaf spring is representative of the steel
spring industry.  A typical operation for making leaf springs is
shown in Figure 3-102.  Leaf springs are composed of flat bars of
varying lengths clamped together so as to obtain greater efficiency
and resilience.  The springs are either full-elliptic, semi-elliptic
or cantilevered.  In general rolled alloy steels are used for auto-
motive springs  while rolled carbon steels are used for railway springs

The initial manufacturing operation consists of shearing steel bar
stock to size for the leaf.  Ends may be left square as  sheared or
trimmed to a shape, taper rolled or both.  These leafs are  then
heat treated.  Following this, the surface of the spring leaves are
                                 3-262

-------
                               DRAFT
ground or milled to give the  edges  a  flat bearing surface.  They
are then cleaned and plated to  avoid  corrosion.  Shot peening and
cold settling operations are  sometimes performed to improve ser-
vice life characteristics.

The leaf spring plates are  then assembled by bolting or clamping.
Other parts in the assembly include inter leaf liners, a stud welded
to the center of the longest  plate  for anchorage, rebound clips, a
center bolt and a clamp.
                                ^-263

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Steel Springs, Except  Wire
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      51
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      57
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                3,400
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $149      MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $330.7   MILLION
                                                                 *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                 0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             75
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               100
        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           75
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    50
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS      0
        7  MATERIAL COATING                        75
        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                  0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         0.6
                                  2.3
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
        83
        17
        20
        10
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based  on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-47
                                   3-264

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                              DRAFT
Valves and Pipe Fittings,  Except
Plumbers'  Brass Goods

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged  in  manufactur
ing pipe fittings and valves for controlling the  flow of liquids  or
gases in pipes and mains,  and for machinery.  The major products
include:

        Boiler couplings and drains
        Boiler gage cocks,  metal
        Control valves,  steering:  for ships
        Couplings, pipe:  except pressure  and
           soil pipe
        Elbows, pipe:  except pressure and soil
           pipe
        Electrohydraulic servo valves,  metal
        Expansion joints for piping systems,
           metal
        Flanges and flange  unions,  pipe
        Gas valves and parts, metal
        Line strainers,  for use in piping  systems
        Pipe fittings, except plumbers'  brass
           goods:  metal
        Pipe hangers
        Pipe joints, expansion metal:   for base-
           board heating
        Pressure regulators,  metal
        Process control  regulator valves
        Range valves, metal
        Reducer returns, pipe
        Reducing valves  (steam fittings)
        Regulators (steam  fittings)
        Shutoff valves
        Solenoid valves
        Sprinkler systems,  field
        Steam fittings and  specialties,  except
           plumbers'  brass  goods and fittings
        Steam traps
        Thermodynamic steam traps
        Thermostatic traps,  heating
        Valves,  air ventilating:   metal
        Valves and pipe  fittings,  metal
        Valves,  automatic control
        Valves,  hydraulic and pneumatic  con-
           trol

-------
                              DRAFT
        Valves, line:  steam, water,  oil,  and
           machinery-except plumbers' brass
        Valves, poppit:  metal
        Water valves, except plumbers' brass
           goods and fittings
        Well adapters, tipless:  brass
        Y-bends and branches, pipe

Valves and pipe fittings are produced by 767 plants,  averaging 126
workers each.  Most of these plants  (60 percent)  employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-48.  As
shown in Figure 3-103, scrap iron and steel, and carbon steel con-
stitute the bulk of the raw materials used in this category.  The
principal manufacturing operations are casting and molding,  mechanical
material removal, and material coating.

In general, valves and pipe fittings are made by melting scrap iron in a
foundry to form a casting.  Subsequent machining and  galvanizing of
this casting completes the manufacture.  Process water, which con-
stitutes 17 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used
mainly for foundry air pollution control,  cleaning subsequent to cast-
ing and for quenching following galvanizing.

The manufacture of pipe fittings is representative of the valves
and pipe fittings industry.  A typical operation for  making cast and
malleable pipe fittings is shown in Figure 3-104.  Initially scrap
iron is melted in a cupola, which essentially is a vertical steel
shrouded and refractory lined furnace with tapping spouts near the
bottom.  The molten metal from these tapping spouts is then run in
a trough to a holding furnace to obtain carbon control.  From here
the molten metal is poured into sand molds and allowed to cool and
solidify at room temperature.  The molds are then separated and the
resulting shaped fittings are deburred, cleaned and inspected.  Clean-
ing is performed using water by tumbling,  or by shot, or sand blasting.

The casting is then finished by machining, grinding and threading.
Some parts are also galvanized which consists of first cleaning by
shot blasting, then fluxing the part, and coating it  with melted zinc
heated to 416 degrees C,  (780 degrees F) and finally  quenching it in
a water tank.
                                 3-268

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Valves and Pipe Fittings, Except  Plumbers'  Brass Goods
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       457

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       310

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  96,400

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $1814.9     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $3035.6     MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                25

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            100

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                25

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            75

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     75


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    25

        ^ MATERIAL COATING                         5Q

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                   0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS            Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            6.2    BILLION GALLONS

                                     23.5    BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            73

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            27

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        58

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           17
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        69

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            19
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *3ased on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-48

-------
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                              DRAFT
Wire Springs

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing wire springs.  The major products are:

        Clock springs, precision:   made from purchased wire
        Furniture springs, unassembled:  made from purchased
           wire
        Gun springs, precision:   made from purchased wire
        Instrument springs, precision:  made from purchased
           wire
        Mechanical springs, precision:  made from purchased
           wire
        Sash balances, spring
        Spring units for seats,  made from purchased wire
        Springs, except complete bed springs:  made from
           purchased wire
        Upholstery springs, unassembled:  made from purchased
           wire

Wire Springs are produced by 279 plants, averaging 85 workers each.
Most of these plants  (76 percent)  employ more than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-49.  As shown in
Figure 3-105, more than 99 percent of the springs produced are steel,
and the rest are copper and aluminum.  Wire and wire products are
the major raw materials and the principal manufacturing operations
are material forming, physical property modification and material
coating.

In genera], wire springs are made by coiling purchased wire.  Stress
relieving is accomplished prior to any special forming, particularly
forming of the ends.  Parts are then cleaned, sometimes plated, and
inspected.  Process water is used mainly for plating and cleaning.

The manufacture of a mechanical coiled spring is representative of
the Wire Spring industry.  Figure 3-106 depicts the manufacturing
processes involved in the fabrication of a spring.  In general
springs are made from annealed purchased wire which is drawn to a
reduced diameter as required.  Usually there is an oil used in this
drawing process.  The body of the spring is coiled and then the
material is stress relieved and the end configuration formed.  The
end configuration in an extension spring is formed to the desired
shape by beiding, whereas the ends in a compression spring are
flat ground.  Tumbling is performed next to round any sharp edges.

-------
                               DRAFT
Many springs are  specially heat treated to obtain desired character-
istics and occasionally  shot peened to increase fatigue strength.
Finally,  springs  are  generally calibrated to ascertain specification
requirements such as  spring rate.
                                3-273

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA wire springs
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
Vt LUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $337.6
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $607.6
EMPLOYEES 213
EMPLOYEES 66
23,600
MILLION
MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
100
67
100
67
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 100
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING a FORMING - NON-METALS
67
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUA _ GROSS WATER USE 1.8 BILLION GALLONS
6>8 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCEN" OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
78
22
40
10
WASTE WATER
DISCHAFGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE

TABLE 3-49
3-274
72
8

*Based on Plant Data Collected



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                               DRAFT
stock are initially rougn machined using cutting oils and then fir
machined.  Washing and rinsing of these cutting oils precedes poli
ing which is done next.  Polishing creates dust and fine particles
which are removed from the air by water scrubbers located in exhai.
stacks.  After polishing, parts are rinsed, plated, rinsed again a
subassembled.

Parts made from roll or sheet stock are generally press formed anc
then annealed to relieve any work hardening.  Following forming ar
annealing, parts are washed, polished, and washed again.  Finally,
they are plated, rinsed and subassembled.  In all of the above ope
ations on both bar and sheet stock, 90 percent of the effluent is
generated from plating.

The overall portable ice chest or cooler fabrication process is
shown in Figure 3-59.  An ice chest essentially consists of an
inner jacket and an outside case.  Insulation material such as
fiberglass or foam is inserted between the jacket and case.  The
inside jacket is made from light gauge sheet metal such as aluminu
The outside case is made from a heavier gauge material, usually
steel.  The jacket and case are first formed to shape by bending
and the excess material is trimmed.  Parts are then coated, usuall
with a corrosion resistant paint, and then assembled.  The assembl
procedure consists of attaching piece parts by drilling and fasten
ing.  Hinges, brackets, handles and lids are then added.
                                  5-1 t; "7

-------
                                   DRAFT



PRODUCTION DATA  Hardware, Not Elsewhere Classified
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     479


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      566

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                101,200

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $2039.2    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $3269.1    MILLION
                                                                       1
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                57

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           29

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     71


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   71

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         71


        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING 8e FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            19.9  BILLION GALLONS

                                       75.3  BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            47

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           53

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       60

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          34
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       44

   :'._RCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            21
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant  Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-26

                                      3-158

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                              DKAhT
Enameled Iron and, ^etal Sanitary Ware

This segment includes establishments primary engaged in manufacturing
enameled iron, cast iron, or pressed metal sanitary ware.  The major
products are:

        Bathroom fixtures:  snameled iron, cast iron,
           and pressed metal
        Bathtubs:  enameled iron, cast iron, and pressed
           iretal
        Drinking fountains, except mechanically refrigerated:
           metal
        Flush tanks, metal
        Laurviry tubs, enameled iron and other metal
        Lavatories, enameled iron and other metal
        Plumbing fixtures:  enameled iron, cast iron, and
           pressed metal
        Portable chemical toilets (metal)
        Shower stalls, metal
        Sinks:  enameled iron, cast iron, and pressed metal
        Toiloc Z.,xtures:  enameled iron, cast iron, end
           prf :•. sed metal
        UrinaJs:  enameled iron, cast iron, and pressed
           mtval
        Water closets:  enameled iron, cast iron, and
           pressed metal

Metal sanitary ware is produced by 100 plants, averaging 118 workers
each.  Many of these plants (54 percent) employ more than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-27.  As shown
in Figure 3-60, a wide variety of sanitary ware products are pro-
duced including water closets, kitchen sinks and bathtubs.  Steel,
iron, copper and aluminum are the major raw materials and the
principal manufacturing operations are casting and molding, mechanical
material removal, physical property modification and material coating.

I.-; general, enameled iron is made by applying a prepared enamel mix-
ture onto a pickled and neutralized metal form.  This covered form
is then baked to glaze the enamel.  The metal form can be made of
Ccist iron or formed metal.  Process water, which constitutes 38 per-
cc?"it: cf the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
pickling, rinsing and neutralizing of the iron form before the coating
                            3-162

-------
                               DRAFT
and baking with enamel.  Water is also used to contact quench the
molten mixture of powders that form the enamel.

The manufacture of enameled iron sinks is representative  of the
enameled iron industry.  As shown in Figure 3-61,  enameled iron
sink manufacture begins with a basic iron form cast to shape. After
forming, the iron shape is heated and pickled in acid and then rinsed
and neutralized in an alkaline bath to prepare it for the ground coat
of enamel.

The enamel mixture itself is formed from a mixture of powders which
include borax, felspar and quartz.  These are ground down into fine
powder and melted.  The hot melt is quenched by pouring it into  water
and the glass-like "frit" that is produced is ground fine again.
During this grinding, water, clay and quartz powder are added and
the thick slurry obtained is allowed to stand for a few days before
use.  The ground coat of enamel is applied to the prepared metal
form by dipping or spraying and is then fired at a high temperature
(approximately 900°C.) so that it fuses to form a glass coating.  The
ground coated objects are then provided with one or more  coats of
cover enamel with each coat being fired at high temperature (approxi-
mately 800°C.) in a muffled furnace.
                                 3-163

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Enameled  Iron  and Metal  Sanitary Ware
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      54

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      46

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                11, SCO

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $221.8    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $400.3    MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERAT!ONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                  0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL              0

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 0

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION             0

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                       0

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     0
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS
0
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 4.2 BILLION
15.9 BILLION
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
GALLONS
LITERS
55
45
62
33
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
50
10
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                              an
                                                                   ata Collected
                                  TABLE  3-27

                                      3-164

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Plumbing Fixture Fittings and Trim (Brass Goods)

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturii
plumbing fixture fittings and trim (brass goods).   The major products
are:

        Backflow preventers
        Brass goods, plumbers'
        Breakers, vacuum:  plumbing
        Bubblers, drinking fountain
        Cocks, drain
        Drains, plumbers'
        Faucets, metal
        Flush valves
        Interceptors, plumbers'
        Nozzles, lawn hose
        Nozzles, plumbers'
        Plumbing fixture fittings and trim
            (brass goods)
        Sanitary pipe fittings (brass goods)
        Shower rods
        Spigots, metal
        Sprinklers, lawn
        Stopcocks  (plumbers'  supplies)
        Water traps

Plumbing fixture fittings and trim (brass goods)  are produced by 213
plants, averaging 83 workers each.  Almost half of these plants (46
percent) employ more than 20 -//^rkers.  Additional  production data
are shown in Table 3-28.  As shown in Figure 3-62, most of the
products of this industry are for bathrooms and include such items
as baths, showers, sinks and lavatory fittings.  Steel, copper and
brass are the major raw materials.  The principal  manufacturing
operations are casting and molding, mechanical material removal,
casting and molding of plastics,  and electrochemical processes.

In general, plumbing fixture fittings and trim are made by forming rav
stock by such methods as casting or forging.   The  part is then finish
machined and plated  (if necessary) and assembled along with the other
parts.  Process water, which constitutes 58 percent of the gross water
used by the industry, is used mainly for plating and rinsing operation
as well as for testing and cleaning of finished products.
                            3-167

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of metal faucets is representative  of  the plumbing
fixture fittings and trim industry.  Metal  faucets  are usually made
from brass.  As shown in Figure 3-63,  the brass  if  first die-cast
to form the basic shape of the faucet.   It  is  then  machined  to accept
the valve assembly by boring and reaming the valve  seat.  It is
further machined to accept a pipe fitting by either tapping  for
threads or reaming for a sweat joint.   The  outside  of  the valve
assembly is threaded to accept the valve mounting.   The unit is  then
cleaned and prepared for plating with nickel and chrome.  After
plating, the unit is cleaned, buffed and assembled  with the  valve
components.  A handle which can be plated brass  or  an  injection  mold-
ed plastic is then installed.
                                 3-168

-------
                                  DHAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Plumbing Fixture  Fittincjs and Trim (Brass Goods)
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       98

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      115

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 17,600

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $345.5      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $670.3      MILLION
                                                                       i
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               100

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL              0

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               100

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          100

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   100

        7  MATERIAL COATING                          0

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           1.2

                                      4.5

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

       75

       25

       50

       58
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-28

                                      3-169

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Jj^r^.irK; Equip.tie--;'.   £;:-£*;£t_ Electric and *;{arm Air  Furnacec

"'i::- -iocjineut:  Includes c -~.;V.lishraen,_,^ rrimaril" engaged in rarafacturing
;.  • •  '•:-.•', oquipr'.'-nt,  exropt. ..L^ctric and warn air  furnaces, including
g^s, oil, and  stoker coal fired equirrrient; fci: the  automatic utili-
zation of gaseouri,  liquid, and solid fuels.  Ine manor products are:

        I-."ilois.  lcv-;:rc ;sure heating:  ste <"

                              st^arr- or hot w-1.:;'
        r-ris burners,  domestic
        :'--.tr« heaters,  room
        - s infra-rea ."-eating units
        •'ccj-oil  bur;.era,  combination
        hf.--ters,  space:   except electric
        Heaters,  sv'imn.lng pool:  oil or gas
        ilenting  apparatus, except electric or
           vjrri  adr
        ~.i^ ^.nerat.crs , metal:  domestic and com-

        F roivsr...  ripace heaters
        L?M.;,  fireplace:   gas
        '",'.1 burners,  domestic and industrial
        "'ucJiatc,. j,  except electric
        ..nnye  boilers, galvanized iron and
           nonferrous metal
        ".-•••n heaters, except electric
        Salamanders,  coke and gas burning
        Solar  heaters
        Space  heaters, except electric
        Stokers,  mechanical:  domestic and in-
           dustrial
        Stoves,  household:  heating - except
           electric
        Unit, heaters, dcmesti"::  except electric
        Wall heaters, except electric

Heating eqai^n.-int is  produced by 426 plants, averaging 72 workers
each.  About half of  these plants  (47 percent) employ more than
                          3-172

-------
                              DRAFT
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-29.
As shown in Figure 3-64, 82 percent of the raw materials used in
this category are steels, and the rest mostly iron, copper and
aluminum.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, material forming, and material coating.

In general, heating equipment is made by cutting, rolling, forming,
machining and joining metal plates and sheets to a custom or
standard design for factory or field assembly.  Process w^ter, which
constitutes 56 percent of the gross water used by the industry,  is
used mainly for cleaning and painting of the fabricated parts.

The manufacture of steel boiler drums is representative of the heat-
ing equipment industry.  A typical operation for making steel boiler
drums is shown in Figure 3-65.  The principal steels used are plain
carbon, low-alloy, straight chromium, austenitic, and integral-clad
steels.

Drums are fabricated from hot or cold plate.  Small drums may be
formed in one cylindrical piece with larger drums assembled from
sheet and lead components.   Plates thicker than 2" are normalized.
On removal from the furnace,  the plates are quickly shaped to the
approximate drum contour in a press or on rolls.  When the plate
temperature drops to about 538 degrees C, the plate is returned to t
furnace, stress relieved at 649 degrees C and then air cooled to roo
temperature.   The rough formed plate is then returned to the press
for final forming operations.  After the plate curvature has been
formed, the longitudinal edges are machined to make a welding groove
Following assembly and welding at longitudinal seams, the cylinder
is machined for the head and other attachments.   These attachments
are usually fastened in place by welding.
                              3-173

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Heating equipment, except electric
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     190


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     236


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                30 , 700


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $ 560.8     MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $1053.6     MILLION
                                                                      1

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                0


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            75


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              100


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          25


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   25


        7 MATERIAL COATING                         50


        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0


        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             1.6    BILLION GALLONS


                                       6.1    BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            88


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            12


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        45


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           56
 WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-29


                                      3-174

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                              DRAFT
Fabricated Structural Metal

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturi]
fabricated iron and steel or other metal for structural purposes,
such as bridges, buildings, and sections for ships,  boats and barges.
The major products are:

        Barge sections, prefabricated metal
        Bridge sections, highway:   prefabri-
           cated
        Expansion joints:  iron and steel
           (structural shapes)
        Floor jacks, metal
        Floor posts, adjustable:  metal
        Gates, dam:  metal plate
        Highway bridge sections, prefabricated
        Joists, open web steel:  long-span series
        Radio and television towers
        Railway bridge sections, prefabricated
        Ship sections, prefabricated metal
        Steel joists, open web:  long-span series
        Steel tri-level railroad car racks (for
           transporting motor vehicles, etc.)
        Structural steel, fabricated
        Television towers
        Towers, transmission

Fabricated structural metal products are produced by 2117 plants,
averaging 49 workers each.  Many of these plants (about 50 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-30.  As shown in Figure 3-66, the products of this
category are structures used in buildings and bridges.  Steel,
aluminum and copper are the major raw materials.  The principal
manufacturing operations are material forming, mechanical material
removal, assembly operations, and material coating.

In general fabricated structural metal products are made by cutting
and forming steel and iron stock,  connecting them into the desired
structure by welding or riveting and finally painting the finished
product.  Process water, which constitutes 5 percent of the gross
water used by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning formed
sections before final metal finishing such as painting.
                               3-177

-------
                              DRAFT
The manufacture of transmission towers  (Figure 3-67)  is representative
of the fabricated structural metal industry.  Basic structural shapes
such as angle iron and  bar  stock are cut into desired lengths.  These
are joined into sections by welding, brazing, or mechanical fasteners.
These sections are then cleaned using water and painted.  Finally,  they
are shipped to the desired  installation location where the sections are
joined to form the completed structure.
                                 3-178

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATx\  Fabricated  Structural Metal
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1066

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1051
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                104,300
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $1727.2    MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $3902.8    MILLION
                                                                  *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 7
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             67
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                87
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           13
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     87
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     0
        7 MATERIAL COATING                         73
        8 ORE PROCESSING *• REFINING                  0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            2     BILLION GALLONS
                                   7.6     BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             70
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             30
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER         44
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            5
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             NA
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on  Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-30
                                    3-179

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Metal Doors, Sashf Frames,  Molding, and Trim

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing ferrous and nonferrous  metal and metal covered doors and sash,
window and door frames and  screens, molding, and trim.  Specific
products are:

        Baseboards, floor:   metal
        Casements, aluminum
        Door frames and sash, metal
        Doors, louver:  all metal or metal
           frame
        Doors, metal and metal covered
        Fire doors, metal and metal covered
        Garage doors, overhead:  metal
        Hangar doors, sheet metal covered
        Jalousies, all metal or metal frame
        Louver windows, all metal or metal
           frame
        Moldings and trim,  metal and metal
           covered:  except automobile
        Rolling doors for industrial buildings
           and warehouses,  metal
        Screen doors, metal
        Screens, door and window:  metal frame
        Shutters, door and  window:   metal and
           metal covered
        Store fronts, prefabricated:  metal, except
           virteous enameled
        Storm doors and windows, metal
        Trim and molding, except automobile:
           metal and metal  covered
        Weather strip, metal
        Window frames and sash, metal and
           metal covered

Metal doors,  sash and trim  are produced by 1520 plants,  averaging
46 workers each.  Most of these plants (59 percent)  employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-31.
As shown in Figure 3-68, framework for doors, windows and screens
are the principal products.  Steel, copper and aluminum are the major
raw materials and the principal manufacturing operations are material
forming, mechanical material removal and material coating.

In general, metal doors, molding and trim are made by extruding,
cutting and connecting aluminum or steel stock to form frameworks
onto which are mounted screens, louvres, etc.  Process water, which
                            3-182

-------
                               DRAFT
constitutes 27 percent of the gross water used by this  industry,
is used mainly for anodizing or plating operations or for  cleaning
operations prior to finishing.

The manufacture of window frames (Figure 3-69)  is representative  of
the manufacturing processes used in this industry.  Bar stock  is  pur-
chased or extruded into the desired shape.   General machining  processes
may also be performed to obtain desired shapes and forms.   The ex-
trusions are then cut to the desired length and angle by a mechanical
cutting process.  The resultant pieces  are  next joined  by  welding or
mechanical fasteners or brackets.   The  assembly is then cleaned in a
caustic cleaner to remove any chips, grease or oil and  this assembly
is finished either by painting or  anodizing.
                                 3-183

-------
                                     DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  y.etal Doers,  Sash,  Frames, Molding and Trim
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MOrjE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      630

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       890

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  69 . 300

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        S978.1      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $202.1      MILLION
                                                                       1
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                13

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             53

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                67

        4 PHYSICAL  PROPERTY MODIFICATION           27

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     93

         6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   40

         7 MATERIAL COATING                         40

       ' 8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS          20
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            3.3   BILLION GALLONS

                                      12.5   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             42

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            58

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        62

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           27


WASTE WATER



   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        39

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             23
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                   TABLE  3-31

                                      3-184

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Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops)

This segment includes establishments  primarily engaged in  manufactur-
ing power and marine boilers, pressure and nonpressure tanks,  process-
ing and storage vessels,  heat exchangers,  weldments  and similar
products by the process of cutting,  forming and joining metal  plates,
shapes, bars, sheet, pipe mill products and tubing to custom or
standard design for factory or field  assembly.   The  major  products
of this industry include:

        Absorbers,  gas
        Accumulators (industrial pressure  vessels)
        Acetylene cylinders
        Aftercooler shells
        Aftercoolers, steam jet
        Air preheaters, nonrotating:   plate type
        Air receiver tanks, metal plate
        Airlocks
        Annealing boxes,  pots, and covers
        Atomic waste casks
        Autoclaves, industrial
        Baffles
        Bails, ladle
        Bins, prefabricated metal plate
        Boiler shop products:  industrial  boil-
           ers, smokestacks, and steel tanks
        Boilers:  industrial, power,  and marine
        Boxes, condenser:  metal plate
        Breechings, metal plate
        Buoys, metal
        Cable trays, metal plate
        Caissons, metal plate
        Cars, for hot metal
        Casing, boiler:  metal plate
        Casings, scroll
        Chutes, metal plate
        Condensers, barometric
        Condensers, steam
        Containers, shipping:  metal  plate
           (bombs,  etc.)  - except missile
           casings
        Cooling towers, metal plate
        Cryogenic tanks,  for liquids  and gases:
           metal plate
        Culverts, metal plate
        Cupolas, metal plate
        Cyclones, industrial:  metal  plate

-------
                       DRAFT
Cylinders, pressure:  metal plate
Digesters, process:  metal plate
Ducting, metal plate
Economizers (boilers)
Evaporators (process vessels),  metal
   plate
Exchangers, heat:  industrial,  scientific,  and
   nuclear
Farm storage tanks, metal plate
Fermenters (process, vessels),  metal
   plate
Floating covers, metal plate
Flumes,  metal plate
Forms, collapsible:  for tunnels
Fractionating columns, metal plate
Fuel tanks, metal plate
Fumigating chambers, metal plate
Gas holders, metal plate
Gas tanks, metal plate
Heat transfer drives (finned tubing)
High vacuum coaters, metal plate
Hoods, industrial:  metal plate
Hooks, crane:  laminated plate
Hoppers, metal plate
Housing cabinets for radium, metal
   plate
Housings, pressure
Hydropneumatic tanks, metal plate
Intercooler shells
Jackets, industrial:  metal plate
Kettles  (process vessels), metal plate
Knockouts, free water:  metal plate
Ladles,  metal plate
Liners,  industrial:  metal plate
Liquid oxygen tanks, metal plate
Melting pots, for metal
Missile silos and components,  metal
   plate
Mixers,  for hot metal
Nuclear core structurals, metal plate
Nuclear shielding, metal plate
Oil storage tanks, metal plate
Penstocks, metal plate
Perforating on heavy metal
Pile shells, metal plate
Pipe, large diameter:  metal plate -
   made by plate fabricators
Plate work, fabricated:  cutting, punch-
   ing,  bending, and shaping
                         3-188

-------
                      DRAFT
I'roci p.i tators (process vessels),  uvtal
   plat r
Pressure vessels,  industrial:   metal
   plate - made in boiler shops
Pressurizers and auxiliary equipment,
   nuclear:  metal plate
Reactor containment vessels,  metal plate
Reactors, nuclear:  military  and industrial
Retorts, industrial
Rocket, casings
Separators, industrial process:  metal  plate
Septic tanks, metal plate
Skid tanks, metal plate
Smelting pots and retorts
Smokestacks, boiler plate
Space simulation chambers, metal plate
Spheres, for liquids or gas:   metal plate
Standpipes
Steam jet aftercoolers
Steam jet inter condensers
Sterilizing chambers, metal plate
Stills,  pressure:   metal plate
Storage tanks, metal plate
Surge tanks, metal plate
Tanks for tank trucks, metal  plate
Tanks, metal plate:  lined
Tanks, standard and custom fabricated:
   metal plate - made in boiler shops
Towers:   bubble, cooling, fractionating -
   metal plate
Towers,  tank:  metal plate
Trash racks, netal plate
Troughs, industrial:  metal plate
Truss plates, metal
Tunnel lining, metal plate
Tunnels, vacuum:  metal plate
Tunnels, wind
Vacuum tanks, metal plate
Vats, metal plate
Vessels, process and storage:  metal
   plate  (made in boiler shops)
Water tanks, metal plate
Weldments
                         3-189

-------
                              UKAr I
Fabricated plate work is produced by 1472 plants, averaging 65 work-
ers each.  Most of these plants (54 percent)  employ more than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-32.  As shown
in Figure 3-70, 98 percent of the material used in this category is
made from steel with plate, sheet and strip steel being the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, material forming, assembly operations and material
coating.

In general, fabricated plate work is made by cutting, rolling, forming,
machining and joining metal plates and sheet to custom cr standard de-
sign for factory or field assembly.  Process water, which constitutes
4 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
cleaning, painting and plating.

The manufacture of steel boiler drums is representative of the fabri-
cated plate work industry.  A typical operation for making steel boil-
er drums is shown in Figure 3-71.  The principal steels used are
plain carbon, low-alloy, straight chromium, austenitic and integral-
clad steels.

Drums are fabricated from hot or cold plate.   Small drums may be formed
in one cylindrical piece and larger drums are assembled from sheet
and head components.  Plates thicker than 50 mm are normalized.  On re-
moval from the furnace, the plates are quickly shaped to the approxi-
mate contour in a press or on rolls.  When the plate temperature
drops to about 538 degrees C the plate is returned to the furnace,
stress relieved at 649 degrees C and then air cooled to room tempera-
ture.  The rough formed plate is then returned to the press for final
forming operations.

After the plate curvature has been formed, the longitudinal edges are
machined to make a welding groove.  Following assembly and welding of
longitudinal seams, the cylinder is machined for the head and other
attachments.  These attachments are usually fastened in place by
welding.

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Fabricated Structural Metal
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $1782.6
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $3425.5

EMPLOYEES 790
EMPLOYEES 682
95,300
MILLION
MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
88
88
25
88
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 13
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
100
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 3.7 BILLION GALLONS
14 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
62
38
73
19
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE

TABLE 3-32
3-191
62
4

*Based on Plant Data Collected



-------
                                                                         DRAFT
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-------
                              DRAFT
Sheet Metal Work

This segment includes establishments primarily  engaged  in manufacturing
sheet metal work for buildings (not including  fabrication work  done
by construction contractors at the place of  construction),  and  the manu-
facturing sheet metal stovepipes,  light tanks,  etc.   The major  pro-
ducts are:

        Air cowls, scoops,  or airports (ship ventilators),
           sheet metal
        Awnings, sheet metal
        Bins, prefabricated; sheet metal
        Booths, spray:  prefabricated sheet  metal
        Canopies, sheet metal
        Casings, sheet metal
        Coal chutes, prefabricated sheet metal
        Cooling towers, sheet metal
        Cornices, sheet metal
        Culverts, sheet metal
        Curtain walls, sheet metal
        Door hoods, aluminum
        Downspouts, sheet metal
        Ducts, sheet metal
        Eaves, sheet metal
        Elbows, for conductor pipe, hot air  ducts,  stovepipe,
           etc.:  sheet metal
        Flooring, cellular steel
        Flues, stove and furnace:   sheet metal
        Flumes, sheet metal
        Forming machine work for the trade,  except  stamping:
           sheet metal
        Forms for concrete, sheet metal
        Furnace casings, sheet metal
        Furnace flues, sheet metal
        Guard rails, highway:  sheet metal
        Gutters, sheet metal
        Hoods , range :  sheet raetal
        Hoppers, sheet metal
        Irrigation pipe, sheet metal
        Laundry hampers, sheet metal
        Machine guards, sheet metal
        Mail chutes, sheet metal
        Mail collection or storage boxes, sheet metal
        Pile shells, sheet metal
        Pipe, sheet metal
        Post office collection boxes
        Radiator shields and enclosures, sheet metal
        Restaurant sheet metal work
        Roof deck, sheet metal
                             3-194

-------
                               DRAFT
        Sheet metal specialties, not stamped
        Siding, sheet metal
        Skylights, sheet metal
        Spouts, sheet metal
        Stove boards, sheet metal
        Stove pipe and flues,  sheet metal
        Vats, sheet metal
        Ventilators, sheet metal
        Wells, light:  sheet metal

Sheet metal work is performed by 3,056 plants,  averaging 23 workers
each.  Most of these plants (71 percent)  employ less than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-33.   As shown in
Figure 3-72, most of the products produced in this category are made
from steel while a limited number are made from aluminum.  Steel and
aluminum sheet stock are the major raw materials.   The principal
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal, material
forming and material coating.

In general sheet metal work is done by forming annealed sheet stock
fprecoated and painted)  to a desired configuration.   Process water is
used mainly during cleaning and plating.

The manufacture of sheet metal siding is representative of the sheet
metal industry.  A typical operation for making aluminum sheet metal
siding is shown in Figure 3-73.  Purchased rolled flat coil stock is
prewashed and coated in preparation for painting.   Electrostatic
painting is then done on one side only.  Next,  the first coat of a
backer material is applied.  Sides are then slit and roll formed to
the specified configuration.  A second and final coating of backer
is applied prior to boxing in preparation for shipment.  The effluents
generated consist of caustic from the pre-washing operation and
chrome from the painting process.
                                 3-195

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Sheet Metal Work
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     894
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    2162
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                   71,700
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE      1255.2       MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS              2587.5       MILLION
                                                                4
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            60
        3 MATERIAL FORMING — METALS               90
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           10
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    30
        7 MATERIAL COATING                       50
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0
        9 MO LDING& FORM ING-NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          1.1    BILLION GALLONS
                                  4.2    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            64
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            36
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        60
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           27
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                              *Based on Plant Data Collected
                               TABLE 3—33
                                   3-196

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Architectural and Ornamental Metal Work

This  segment includes establishments primarily engaged in mnnrfactura
architectural and ornamental metal work of ferrous and nonfeno\is
metals,  such as stairs and staircases, open steel flooring  (grating),
fire  escapes, grilles, railings, and fences and gates, except those
made  from wire.  The principal products are:

         Acoustical suspension systems, metal
         Balconies, ferrous and nonferrous
         Bank fixtures, ornamental metal
         Bannisters, railings, guards, etc.:  made from
           pipe
         Brasswork, ornamental:  structural
         Channels, furring
         Elevator guide rails
         Fences and posts, ornamental iron and steel
         Fire escapes, ferrous and nonferrous
         Ornamental and architectural metal work
         Partitions and grillework, ornamental metal
         Pipe bannisters, railings, guards, etc.
         Purlins, light gage steel
         Railings, prefabricated metal
         Flagpoles, metal
         Flooring, open steel  (grating)
         Gates, ornamental metal
         Gratings  (open steel flooring)
         Gratings, tread:  fabricated metal
         Ladders, chain
         Ladders, for permanent installation:  metal
         Lamp posts
         Lintels, light gauge steel
         Registers, hot air
         Scaffolds, metal (mobile or stationary)
         Stair railings, metal
         Staircases, prefabricated metal
         Stairs, prefabricated metal
         Treads, stair:  fabricated metal

Architectural metalwork is done at 1447 plants, averaging 1* work-
ers each. .  Most of these plants (83 percent) employ less th^.i 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-.^.
As shown in Figure 3-74, the primary products of this indust } are

-------
                               DRAFT
stairs, fire escapes, fences, gates,  open flooring and  grillwork.
Steel, copper and aluminum are the major raw materials.   The
principal manufacturing operations are casting and molding, electro-
chemical operations, material forming, assembly operations  and
material coating.

In general architectural and ornamental metalwork  is made by  cast-
ing, cutting and forming stock shapes and welding  these shapes into
the desired assemblies.  These assemblies are then plated or  painted.
Process water is used mainly for cooling and cleaning operations after
cutting and welding processes and for cleaning before plating and
painting.

The manufacture of fire escapes is representative  of the architec-
tural and ornamental metalworking industry.   Fire  escapes (Figure
3-75) are formed entirely from bar, plate, pipe and angle iron
stock.  The basic structure is formed by welding the stair  framework
into place.  This framework is usually made from I beams.  The stairs
and railings are then added.  The railings are usually  made from metal
pipe and tubing or angle iron or a combination of  both.  These are cut
and welded into place.  The stairs, which are also welded in  place,
are usually made from a grating or a diamond steel plate.  Upon com-
pleting the assembly, the entire structure is cleaned and usually
spray painted with a rust inhibitive paint.
                                 3-200

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Architectural and Ornamental Metal Work
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS. WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       247
                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1200
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  20,700
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $312.6    MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $575.9    MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             33
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                66
        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           33
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS      0
        7 MATERIAL COATING                         33
        8 ORE PROCESSING ft REFINING                   0
        9 MOLDING ft FORMING - NON-METALS             0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE
                                 NA
                                 NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                            BILLION GALLONS
                                            BILLION LITERS
                                                    NA
                                                    NA
                                                    NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             NA
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                 TABLE 3-34
                                     3-201
                                                  *Based  on Plant  Data  Collected

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-------
                             DRAFT
Prefabricated Metal Buildings and Components

This segment includes establishments  primarily  engaged  in manufactur-
ing prefabricated and portable metal  buildings  and parts, and prefabri-
cated exterior metal panels.   The principal products  are:

        Buildings, prefabricated and  portable:
           metal
        Carports, prefabricated:  metal
        Docks, prefabricated:  metal
        Dwellings, prefabricated or portable:
           metal
        Farm buildings,  prefabricated or port-
           able:  metal
        Garages, prefabricated or portable:
           metal
        Houses, prefabricated or portable:
           metal
        Panels for prefabricated metal build-
           ings
        Portable buildings, prefabricated metal
        Prefabricated buildings, metal
        Ramps, prefabricated:  metal
        Sections for prefabricated metal build-
           ings
        Silos, metal
        Utility buildings, prefabricated or
           portable:  metal


Miscellaneous Metal Work

This segment includes establishments  primarily  engaged  in manufactur-
ing miscellaneous ferrous and nonferrous metal  work,  such as metal
plaster bases, fabricated bar joists  and concrete reinforcing  bars.
The principal products are:

        Concrete reinforcing steel bars, fabricated
        Landing mats, aircraft:  metal
        Lath, expanded metal
        Plastering accessories, metal
                         3-204

-------
                              DRAFT
These product areas are described together because of the similarity
of products and the fact that available statistical data on these
industries is reported for the combined industries.

Prefabricated metal buildings and miscellaneous metal work are pro-
duced by 567 plants, averaging 57 workers each.  Most of these
plants  (54 percent) employ more than 20 workers.  Additional pro-
duction data are shown in Table 3-35.  As shown in Figure 3-76,
the bulk of material used in these industries is made fror1 steel
with bars and sheet stock being the major raw materials.  The prin-
cipal manufacturing operations are material forming, assembly oper-
ations, and material coating.

In general, prefabricated metal buildings and miscellaneous metal
work are made by forming heavy sheet stock to desired configuration.
Fastening piece parts together and coating completes the manufacturin
operation.  Process water is used mainly for rinsing following form-
ing, and for painting operations if a water curtain spray booth is
used to catch overspray paint particles.

The manufacture of roofing panels is representative of the pre-
fabricated metal building industry.  A typical operation for making
roofing panels is shown in Figure 3-77.  First, heavy sheet steel
is punched with holes for field assembly.  Then the panel moves in-
to a cold roll forming machine where shallow flutes are formed and
gradually expanded and. deepened by repeated rolling.  These flutes
or corrugations substantially strengthen the panel material.  The
ends of the panel are then bent for fastening purposes.  Finally the
panels are galvanized or aluininized.  For a roofing system two such
panels in a parallel arrangement are utilized with diagonal load
carrying struts connecting them.  The inner ceiling is usually paint-
ed and acoustically treated.  Insulation, if required, is blown or
poured between the two panels.

The manufacture of concrete reinforcing bars is representative of the
metal works industry.  A typical operation for making concrete rein-
forcing bars is shown in Figure 3-78.  For large diameters  (above
0.628") parts are hot rolled from billets (raw stock).  During the
rolling operation the surface of the bar is formed with lugs or pro-
trusions, called deformations, which inhibit longitudinal movement
of the bar relative to the surrounding concrete.

For small diameters (less than 16 mm),  the wire or bar is cold drawn
from rods that have been hot rolled from billets.   Unless otherwise
specified, the wire is "as cold drawn"  except for wire smaller than
10.7 diameter for welded fabric, which is galvanized once the final
diameter is achieved.

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Prefabricated metal buildings/Miscellaneous metal work
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $ 654
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $1624

20 EMPLOYEES 305
20 EMPLOYEES 262
32,500
.7 MILLION
.9 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
A PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
67
33
33
83
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 17
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING ft FORMING — NON-METALS
67
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE NA
NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
NA
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3—35
3-206


-------
                      DRAFT
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                              DRAFT
i'cri'w Machine Products

'I'llis segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing automatic or hand screw machine products from rod, bar,  or tube
stock of metal, fiber, plastics or other material.  The products of
this industry consist of a wide variety of unassembled parts and
are usually manufactured on a job or order basis.

Screw machine products are produced by 1790 plants, averaging 23
workers each.  Most of these plants (66 percent)  employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-36.
As shown in Figure 3-79, 87 percent of the products produced in
this category are made from steel.  The rest are  copper, aluminum
and other materials.  As such, steel bar and bar  shapes are the
major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operation is
mechanical material removal.

In general, screw machine products are made by machining various
steel bar shapes on automatic screw machines on a job or order basis,
Process water is used mainly for cleaning of detail parts following
machining and for surface coating.

The manufacture of special screw machine parts is representative of
the screw machine products industry.  A typical operation for making
special screw machine parts is shown in Figure 3-80.  A special
screw machine part is a part that requires one or more machine screw
operations for its manufacture.  In most applications, automatic
machinery is used to form the thread and perform any other feasible
operations such as heading and cutting the material.  Other features
on the part are machined and ground to specifications.  Parts are
then deburred and cleaned.  Occasionally heat treating, coating or
plating is performed.
                                  }_o i n

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA ;Vr
!
jv Machine
Products-
  NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       604
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1186
  NUMBER O.-" t MPI.OYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 40,300
  •MLUF- AODED BY MANUFACTURE         s &45      MILLION
  v/Ai.UE OF SHIPMENT S                 $1058.2   MILLION
                                                                 *
  PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
       1  CASTING ft MOLDING - METALS               11
       .' MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100
       } MATERIAL FORMING -- METALS               l]
       1 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           0
       '. ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    22
       n CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    0
       7 MATERIAL COATiNG                       H
       o ORE PROCESSING ft RLFINING                 0
        IJSf".
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            NA   BILLION GALLONS
                                     MA   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Baset> on Plant  Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-36
                                   3-211

-------
                                                          DRAFT
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                              DRAFT
Bolts, Nuts, Screws, Rivets/
and Washers (Fasteners)

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, washers, formed and threaded wire
goods, and special industrial fasteners.  The major products are:

        Bolts, iron and steel
        Cotter pins
        Dowel pins, metal
        Gate hooks
        Lock washers
        Machine Keys
        Nuts
        Rivets
        Screw eyes
        Screw hooks
        Screws
        Spring pins
        Spring washers
        Toggle bolts
        Washers, metal
        Wood screws

Fasteners are produced by 675 plants, averaging 90 workers each.
Most of these plants (59 percent) employ more than 20 workers.  Addi-
tional production data are shown in Table 3-37.  As shown in Figure
3-81, 98% of the products produced in this category are made from
steel.  The rest of the products are copper, aluminum and other mater-
ials.  Steel bar, bar shapes, wire and wire products are the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are material form-
ing, mechanical material removal, physical property modification,
electrochemical processing and material coating.

In general fasteners are made in mass quantities and, therefore,  auto-
matic fast production machines such as automatic screw machines are
used.  For strength and hardness heat treating is common to the
fastener industry.  For strength and corrosion resistance plating is
used.  Process water is used mainly for cleaning, plating and coating.

The manufacture of bolts is representative of the fastener industry.
A typical operation for making bolts is shown in Figure 3-82.  A bolt
is a rod threaded on one end with some type of flared end or head at
the other.  Coil or bar stock feeds into an automatic machine which
                                 3-214

-------
                               DRAFT
threads, heads and cuts the material.   In essence this completes the
manufacture except for finishing operations which usually consist of
grinding.  In the aircraft industry a  large percentage of bolts have
safety wire holes drilled in the bolt  head.  Heat treating completes
the manufacture of bolts with a typical heat treat operation as
follows:

        1)   Washing
        2)   Heat treating
        3)   Quenching
        4)   Washing
        5)   Tempering
        6)   Quenching

Some bolts  are plated and approximately 80% of the effluent in the
industry is generated from the plating process.   A typical plating
sequence includes:

        1)   Washing
        2)   Double Rinsing
        3)   Plating with a compound such as
            cyanide-cadmium or nickel  sulfamite
        4)   Acid Dipping
        5)   Double Rinsing
        6)   Chromating
        7)   Rinsing
        8)   Drying

Occasionally parts are oiled prior to  and after the plating sequence
                                 3-21

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Bolts,  Nuts,  Screws,  Rivets and Washers
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES   396

                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES   279
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                   60,900
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE      1209.9       MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS              2054.3       MILLION
                                                                   *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              4
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           75
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              83

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         71
        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   58
        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  75
        7 MATERIAL COATING                       29

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING               0
        9  MOLDING a FORMING — NON-METALS         4
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          NA      BILLION GALLONS
                                   NA      BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     NA
 WASTE WAI ER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE  NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED       NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                 TABLE  3-37
                                    3-216
                                                *Based on Plant Data  Collected

-------
                              DRAFT
Miscellaneous Fabricated Wire Products

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing miscellaneous fabricated wire products from purchased wire,  such
as noninsulated wire rope and cable; fencing;  screening,  netting,
paper machine wire cloth; hangers,  paper clips,  kitchenware,  and wire
carts.  The major products are:

        Antisubmarine and torpedo nets,  made
           from purchased wire
        Barbed wire, made from purchased
           wire
        Baskets, made from purchased wire
        Belts, conveyor:  made from purchased
           wire
        Belts, drying:   made from purchased
           wire
        Bird cages,  made from purchased  wire
        Bottle openers,  made from purchased
           wire
        Cable, uninsulated wire:   made from
           purchased wire
        Cages, wire:  made from purchased
           wire
        Carts, grocery:   made from purchased
           wire
        Chain, welded:   made from purchased
           wire
        Chain, wire:  made from purchased
           wire
        Clips and fasteners, made from purchased
           wire
        Cloth, woven wire:  made  from purchased
           wire
        Concrete reinforcing mesh,  made  from
           purchased wire
        Cylinder wire cloth, made from pur-
           chased wire
        Delivery cases,  made from purchased
           wire
        Diamond cloth, made from purchased
           wire
        Door mats, made  from purchased wire
        Fabrics, woven wire:  made from  pur-
           chased wire
        Fencing, made from purchased wire
                                 3-277

-------
                       DRAFT
Florists designs, made from purchased
   wire
Fourdrinier wire cloth, made from pur-
   chased wire
Gates, fence:  made from purchased
   wire
Grilles and grillework, woven wire:
   made from purchased wire
Guards, made from purchased wire
Hangers, garment:  made from pur-
   chased wire
Hardware cloth, woven wire:  made
   from purchased wire
Hog rings, made from purchased wire
Insect screening, woven wire:  made
   from purchased wire
Key rings, made from purchased wire
Keys, can:  made from purchased wire
Kitchen wire goods, made from pur-
   chased wire
Lamp frames, wire:  made from purchased
   wire
Lath, woven wire:  made from purchased
   wire
Mats and matting, made from purchased
   wire
Mesh, made from purchased wire
Netting, woven wire:  made from pur-
   chased wire
Paper clips and fasteners, made from
   purchased wire
Paper machine wire cloth, made from
   purchased wire
Partitions and grillework, made from
   purchased wire
Postal screen wire equipment:  mfpm
Potato mashers, made from purchased
   wire
Poultry netting, made from purchased
   wire
Rods, gas welding:  made from purchased
   wire
Rope, uninsulated wire:  made from
   purchased wire
Screening, woven wire:  made from pur-
   chased wire
Sieves, made from purchased wire
Skid chains, made from purchased wire
                         3-278

-------
                              DRAFT
        Slings, lifting:  made from purchased
           wire
        Spiral cloth, made from purchased wire
        Staples, wire:  made from purchased
           wire
        Strand, uninsulated wire:  made from
           purchased wire
        Ties, bale:  made from purchased wire
        Tire chains, made from purchased wire
        Traps, animal and fish:  made from
           purchased wire
        Trays, made from purchased wire
        Wire and wire products mfpm:  except
           insulated wire, and nails and spikes
        Wire, concrete reinforcing:  made from
           purchased wire
        Wire winding of purchased wire
        Woven wire products, made from pur-
           chased wire

Miscellaneous fabricated wire products are produced by 1194  plants,
averaging 28 workers each.  Most of these plants (66 percent)  employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown  in Table
3-50.  As shown in Figure 3-107, 99 percent of the products  fabri-
cated in this category are made from steel with steel wire being the
major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are
material forming, mechanical material removal, physical property
modification, material coating and assembly operations.

In general miscellaneous fabricated wire products are made from
annealed purchased wire that is formed and assembled into the re-
quired configuration.  Process water is used mainly for plating and
cleaning.

The manufacture of wire rope is representative of the miscellaneous
fabricated wire products industry.  A typical operation for  making
wire rope is shown in Figure 3-108.
                                 3-279

-------
                               DRAFT
Initially annealed purchased wire  is drawn to the desired wire
diameter.  Then,  depending on the  application, varying numbers of
these drawn wire  strands are combined and twisted to form the rope.
The wire of the strands  are twisted in one direction and the strands
laid into the rope in the opposite direction.  Wire ropes are usually
made with a hemp  core or center, but sometimes the hemp center is re-
placed by a wire  strand.  Linseed  oil is applied as a preservative.
The wire rope is  then spun on a  large spool in preparation for ship-
ment.
                                 3-280

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Misc_ fabricated wire products
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $505
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $943

20 EMPLOYEES 401
20 EMPLOYEES 793
32,900
4 MILLION
7 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
86
100
57
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 71
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
71
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE NA
NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
NA
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-50
3-281


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           3-283

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                              DRAFT
Metal Foil and Leaf

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing gold, silver, tin and other metal foil (including converted metal
foil) and leaf.  Also included are establishments primarily en-
gaged in converting metal foil (including aluminum)  into wrappers,
cookware, dinnerware and containers, except bags and liners.   The
principal products include:

        Copper foil, not made in rolling mills
        Foil containers for bakery goods and frozen foods,
           except bags and liners
        Foil, except aluminum:  not made in rolling mills
        Foil, laminated to paper or other materials
        Gold beating (manufacturing of gold leaf and foil)
        Gold foil and leaf, not made in rolling mills
        Lead foil, not made in rolling mills
        Leaf:  gold, silver, and other metals
        Magnesium and magnesium base alloy foil, not made
           in rolling mills
        Nickel foil, not made in rolling mills
        Platinum and platinum base alloy foil
        Silver foil and leaf
        Tin foil, not made in rolling mills
        Zinc foil, not made in rolling mills

Metal Foil and Leaf is produced by 65 plants, averaging 86 workers
each.  Most of these plants (66 percent)  employ more than 20  work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-51.  As
shown in Figure 3-109, aluminum and aluminum alloys are the major
raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal and material forming.

In general metal foil and leaf is made by cutting annealed material
and squeezing, hammering and pressing it to desired thickness.
Process water, which constitutes 6 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning and coating.

The manufacture of gold leaf is representative of the metal foil
and leaf industry.  A typical operation for making gold leaf  is
shown in Figure 3-110.  As shown in this diagram, gold alloy  (96
percent gold, 4 percent silver and copper)  is first melted, cast
and rolled with appropriate intermediate anneals to a thickness of
                                 3-284

-------
                              DRAFT
1.1 mm.  It is then cut into 50.8 mm squares.   These  are  then
assembled into packs of 480 leaves that are interleaved with sheets
of parchment about 12.7 cm square.  The pack is then  hammered  and
the process repeated several times until each leaf reaches  a final
thickness of .0001 mm.   In latter stages of hammering, special "gold
beaters' skin" is used in place of parchment.   These  skins  are
usually made from the intestines of an ox and are very tough and
durable.  The skins are coated with special non-metallic  powders to
prevent sticking and to provide the desired amount of friction.
Once the desired leaf thickness is obtained, the leaf is  trimmed to
a size  (a 3 3/8" (8.57 cm) square is standard in U.S.A.)  and assembled
in books of 25 sheets.

Where the leaf is to be applied to glass, a dilute solution of gela-
tin is first applied to a very clean glass surface.   The  leaf  is laid
upon this moist coating and is then burnished by lightly  rubbing with
absorbent cotton.

A number of other processes are used for producing leaf for stamping
and for various decorative uses.  These included electrolysis,
cathodic sputtering and vacuum vaporization.
                                 3-285

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Metal Foil and Leaf
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       43




                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        22




   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                   5,600




   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $134.8      MILLION




   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $309.9      MILLION




   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,




        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               0




        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            0



        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             100




        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         100




        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     0




        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   Q




        7 MATERIAL COATING                        0




        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0




        9  MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           7.8




                                    29.5



   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE




   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE




   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER




   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS




BILLION LITERS



  21




  79




  50




   6
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   21




   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED       NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based  on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-51




                                      3-286

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Fabricated Pipe and Fabricated
Pipe Fittings

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in fabricat-
ing pipe and pipe fittings from purchased pipe, by cutting,  threading,
bending, etc.  The major products are:

        Bends, pipe:  fabricated from purchased pipe
        Coils, pipe:  fabricated from purchased pipe
        Couplings, pipe:  fabricated from purchased pipe
        Manifolds, pipe:  fabricated from purchased pipe
        Nipples, pipe:  except pressure and soil pipe
        Pipe and fittings, fabricated from purchased pipe
        Pipe, fabricated from purchased pipe
        Pipe headers, welded:  fabricated from purchased
           pipe
        Piping systems for pulp, paper, and chemical
           industries
        Sections, pipe:  fabricated from purchased pipe
        Tube fabricating  (contract bending and shaping)

Fabricated Pipe and Fittings are produced by 409 plants, averaging
42 workers each.  Almost half of these plants (47 percent)  employ
more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in
Table 3-52.  As shown in Figure 3-111,  96 percent of fabricated
pipe and fittings are steel, and the rest are copper and aluminum
with purchased pipe being the major raw material.  The principal
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal, material
forming, and material coating.

In general, Fabricated Pipe and Fittings are made by cutting,  bend-
iig and welding heavy pipes for industrial applications.  Process
water, which constitutes 6 percent of the gross water used by  the
industry, is used mainly for cleaning and plating.

The manufacture of Fabricated Pipe is representative of the
Fabricated Pipe and Fittings industry.   A typical operation for
making fabricated pipe is shown in Figure 3-112.  Initially pur-
chased pipe is passed through sizing and finishing rolls that  bring
                                   .,89

-------
                               DRAFT
it to size and help remove  scale.   Then the pipe is cut to the
desired length.  Ends can be  threaded or machined to accommodate
plates or fittings.  Next the pipe  is bent to specifications.
The pipe is first annealed  and then hot or cold bending is accom-
plished.  Wet sand or other filler  material is sometimes used in
the pipe to minimize collapsing or  distorting during bending.
Methods of bending pipe are stretching, drawing, compressing, press-
ing, rolling and roll extruding.

Factory welding to incorporate fittings, plates and other pipes or
textures is next accomplished.   The pipe is usually cleaned by
pickling, and then painted.  A large percentage of welding is done
at the site of installation rather  than at the factory.
                                 3-290

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Fabricated Pipe and Fabricated Pipe Fittings
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        193
                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES         216
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                    17,000
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $350.2     MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $679.1     MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING & MOLDING — METALS               0
        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             100
        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         100
        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   0
        7 MATERIAL COATING                        0
        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           7.8
                                    29.5
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
  21
  79
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   50
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       6
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   21
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED       NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data  Collected
                                         2~52
                                      3-:-. 9:

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           3-293

-------
                              DRAFT
Fabricated Metal Products,  Not
Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing fabricated metal products, not elsewhere classified, such as fire
or burglary resistive steel safes and vaults and similar fire or
burglary resistive products; and collapsible tubes of thin flexible
metal.  Also included are establishments primarily engaged in manu-
facturing metal boxes, metal ladders, and metal household articles,
such as ice cream freezers and ironing boards.  The principal
products are:

        Aerosol valves, metal
        Ammunition boxes, metal
        Aquarium accessories, metal
        Automobile seat frames, metal
        Bank chests, metal
        Barricades, metal
        Book ends, metal
        Boxes for packing and shipping, steel
        Chair frames, metal
        Chests, fire or burglary resistive:   steel
        Collapsible tubes for viscous products
        Doors, safe and vault:  iron and steel
        Drain plugs, magnetic
        Drill stands
        Ferrules, nonferrous
        Fountains, metal (except drinking)
        Friction material,  made from powdered metal
        Furniture parts, chrome
        Hoops, steel:  other than wire
        Humidifiers, household furnace
        lea cream freezers, household:  metal
        Ironing boards, metal
        Ladder assemblies,  combination of workstand:  metal
        Ladders, metal:  portable
        Linings, safe and vault:  iron and steel
        Locks, safe and vault
        Machine bases, metal
        Magnets, permanent:  metallic
        Marine horns, compressed air or steam
        Money chests, steel
        Novelties and specialties, metal:  except advertising
           novelties
        Plugs, drain:  magnetic
        Reels, cable:  metal
        Safe deposit boxes and chests, iron and steel
                                 3-294

-------
                              DRAFT
        Safes, iron and steel
        Shims, metal
        Spray nozzles, aerosol
        Stabilizing bars (cargo),  metal
        Strapping, steel
        Tablets, bronze
        Target drones for use by ships, underwater and above
           water:   metal
        Trophies,  metal:  except silver,  nickel silver,
           pewter and plated
        Vault doors and linings,  iron and steel
        Vaults, except grave vaults:   iron and steel
        Wheels:  wheelbarrow, stroller-, lawn mower,  etc.  -
           disc type, stamped metal

Fabricated Metal Products are produced by 2296 plants, averaging
26 workers each.  Most of these plants (73 percent)  employ less
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-53.  As shown in Figure 3-113,  approximately 90 percent of the
products produced in this category are made from steel with steel
sheet and strip being the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal,  material
forming, and material coating.

In general fabricated metal products are made by shearing and
shaping flat sheet stock to a desired configuration.  Assembling
and painting completes the manufacture.  Process water,  which con-
stitutes 13 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is
used mainly for cleaning and painting.

The manufacture of a safe is representative of the fabricated metal
products industry.  A typical operation for making a steel safe is
shown in Figure 3-114.  Large sheets of rolled steel 25 to 200 mm
are generally used for the raw stock.  These heavy sheets are flame
cut or sheared to size.  They are machined by drilling for bolt
holes, milling for hinges and peripheral contouring.  The metal is
then finished by grinding,  deburring and other power brush oper-
ations.  Next, the surfaces are prepared for painting by phosphating
and chromating.  All internal surfaces are then painted.

The safe is then assembled.  One of the features used to burglar
proof a safe is the placing of a carbide filler between internal
                                 3-295

-------
                               DRAFT
and external surfaces.   Latching mechanisms, locks and other hinging
mechanisms are made from hard  carbide materials and assembled to the
safe.  Occasionally welding  is used as a fastening technique.  After
the safe is assembled,  the external surfaces are painted.  The
customary procedures for marking and identifying the safe are to use
decals and name plates.
                                 3-296

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Fabricated metal products,
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $1035.
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $1892.
nee
20 EMPLOYEES 621
20 EMPLOYEES 1675
59,200
i MILLION
4 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING- METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
29
57
100
29
57
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 57
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
71
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 2.7
10.2
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
63
37
57
37
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
52
14
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-53
3-297


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                              DRAFT
Steam, Gas, and Hydraulic Turbines and
Turbine Generator Set Units

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing steam turbines;  hydraulic turbines;  gas turbines,  except air-
craft; complete steam, gas, and hydraulic turbine generator set
units; and steam engines.  Specified products include:

        Gas turbines, mechanical drive
        Governors, steam
        Hydraulic turbines
        Steam engines, except locomotives
        Steam turbines
        Turbine generator set units, complete:
           steam, gas, and hydraulic
        Turbines:  steam, hydraulic, and gas -
           except aircraft type
        Turbo-generators
        Water wheels and turbines
        Wheels, water

Turbines and turbine generators are produced by 74 plants,  averaging
624 workers each.  Most of these plants  (61 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data  are shown in  Table 3-54.  As
shown in Figure 3-115, 95 percent of the turbines are  for use on land,
3 percent for use at sea, and 2 percent  are large gas  turbines, except
aircraft.  Steel, copper and aluminum mill shapes, castings, and
forgings are the major raw materials. The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, material  forming (metals),
assembly operations, and material coating.

In general, turbines and turbine generators are made  by flame cutting
and rolling steel plates into semicircular configurations for making
the hood.  The stator housing is made from half shell  castings and
then milled, drilled and tapped.  The turbine blades  are usually made
from forged alloy steels.  Process water, which constitutes 0.3 per-
cent of the gross water used by the industry, is used  mainly for
cleaning prior to painting.
                                   3-300

-------
                              DRAFT
The manufacture of a steam turbine is representative of the steam,
gas, and hydraulic turbines and turbine generator set units
industry.  Because of the quantity and diversity of parts that make
up a steam turbine, the manufacture of two typical parts (turbine
hood and stator)  is described.  Typical operations used in making
a turbine hood and stator are shown in Figure 3-116.  The raw
materials for the hood are large (25.4 mm thick)  rolled steel plates
and large cast bar stock.  The plates and bar stock are cut to
size by automatic flame cutting machines.  They are then rolled
into a dome shape.  The plate and bars (dome support)  are welded
and then annealed to stress relieve the material.  Cleaning is
accomplished next by grit blasting, then the hood is painted and
drilled and tapped to accommodate cover plates and other sections.
Prior to assembly, the hood is finished by grinding mating surfaces.

The raw materials for the stator or diaphragm are large half shell
steel castings about 1.8 or 2.1 meters in diameter.  They are milled
to size and drilled and tapped to accommodate mounting bolts.  The
halves are then assembled, ground to the finish diameter, and painted
to produce the finished stator.

The finished hood and stator, along with the rotor and other parts,
are then shipped to the field for on-site assembly.  Completion of
assembly is followed by cleaning, inspecting and testing the finished
turbine.
                                 3-301

-------
DRAFT
Steam Ga- ind Hydraulic TV
PRODUCTION DATA Generator " Set Units
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $1224.
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $2187.

Jrbincs dnd Turl tine1

20 EMPLOYEES 45
20 EMPLOYEES 29
46,200
1 MILLION
3 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
33.
100
100
100
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 67
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
100
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 87.6
331.6
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
84
14
82
,3
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
85
1.7
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-54
3-302


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DRAFT
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 3-304

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                              DRAFT
Internal Combustion Engines/ Not
Elsewhere Classiffed

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing diesel, semi-diesel, or other internal combustion engines,  not
elsewhere classified, for stationary, marine, traction, and other use

        Controls, remote:  for boats
        Diesel and semi-diesel engines:  for stationary,
           marine, traction, etc.
        Engine starters, pneumatic
        Engines and engine parts, military tank
        Engines:  diesel and semi-diesel and dual fuel -
           except aircraft
        Engines, internal combustion:  except aircraft and
           non-diesel automotive
        Gas and diesel engine rebuilding
        Governors, diesel engine
        Governors, pump:  for diesel engines
        Internal combustion engines except aircraft and non-
           diesel automotive
        Jet propulsion engines, except aircraft
        Marine engines:  diesel, semi-diesel, and other
           internal combustion
        Outboard motors
        Propelling units, outboard
        Radiators, stationary engine
        Semi-diesel engines for stationary, marine, traction,
           or other uses
        Tank engines and engine parts, military

Internal combustion engines (n.e.c.) are produced by 174 plants,
averaging 400 workers each,  Most of these plants (61 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-55.  As shown in Figure 3-117, 96 percent of the in-
ternal combustion engines in this industry are gasoline engines
while the remainder are mainly diesel engines. Also shown in Figure
3-117, steel (alloy, stainless and carbon), aluminum, copper,  copper
alloy and aluminum alloy in the form of sheet, bar, plate, and
other various shapes are the major raw materials.  The principal
                                 3-305

-------
                               DRAFT
manufacturing operations are mechanical material  removal,  material
forming, electrochemical processing,  physical  property modifica-
tion and material coating.

In genera], internal combustion engines are made by drilling,  tapping
and machining a cast block  to accept  other machined components such
as cylinder wall linings, pistons and connecting  reds, crankshafts
and valve assemblies.  Process water, which constitutes 20 percent
of the gross water used by  the industry, is used  mainly for contact
cooling and cleaning.

The nanufacture of engines  and associated parts is representative of
the :.nternal combustion engines (NEC) industry.  A typical operation
for manufacturing engines and engine  parts is  shown in Figure 3-118.
Engine blocks, rocker arms  and heads  are made  by  sand casting alumi-
num, iron or steel.  Non-contact cooling water is used to  cool the
furnaces in the foundry and water scrubbers are used to clean the air.
Party such as the crankshaft, camshaft, and connecting rods are
forged  (hammer or press), cleaned and then finish machined.  Sheet
metal parts including oil pans, fans, and rocker  arm covers are
stamped using a water-oil emulsion lubricant.   Following stamping,
blanking, piercing and forming are performed.   These parts are then
washed, cleaned and rinsed.  Cast, forged and  stamped parts (all or
some) are then machined where required by milling, drilling,  boring,
grinding, tapping and honing.  Those  that are  milled, drilled, bored
and ground are all lubricated with a  water-oil emulsion during the
operation.  Parts that are  honed are  lubricated with honing oil and
tapped parts are lubricated with cutting oil.   All parts are cleaned
after i he machining operations and some are also  heat treated and
cleanec again.  After the machining,  heat treating and cleaning have
been completed, the parts may be Conversion coated or plated before
assembly.  When the assembly is completed that engine is tested
(wherein contact cooling water is used), cleaned, painted  and shipped
to the  final automobile assembly area.
                                 3-306

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Internal  Combustion Engines,  Not Elsewhere Classified
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      106

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       68

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 69,700

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $1709.5  MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $3314.2  MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              29

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              43

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          71

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   57

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        71

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           22.4

                                     84.8

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

 48

 52
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER  73

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     20
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   46

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        18
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collectec
                                  TABLE  3-55

                                     3-307

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                  3-309

-------
                              DRAFT
Farm Machinery arid Equipment

This segmonL includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing farm machinery and equipment, including wheel tractors, for use
in the preparation and maintenance of the soil; planting and harvest-
ing of the jrop; preparing crops for market, on the farm; or for
use in performing other farm operations and processes.  Products
include:

        Agricultural implements and machinery
        Ammonia applicators and attachments (agricultural)
        Bale t h r owe r s
        Balers:  hay, cotton, etc.
        Barn cleaners
        Barn stanchions and standards
        Blowers and cutters, ensilage
        Blowers, forage
        Brooders
        Calf savers  (farm equipment)
        Cattie feeding, handling, and watering equipment
        Cat Lie oilers  (farm equipment)
        Chicken brooders
        Cleaning machines for fruits, grains,  and vegetables
        Clippers, hair:  for animal use - hand and electric
        Combine.? (harvester-threshers) , self-propelled and pull
        Con/eyors, farm (agricultural machinery)
        Corn pickers and shellers
        Cottor pickers and strippers  (harvesting machinery)
        Cream separators (agricultural equipment)
        Crop driers
        Crushers, feed (agricultural machinery)
        Cultivators  (agricultural implements)  field and row crop
        Carers, tobacco
        Cutters, ensilage
        Lraqs  'agricultural equipment)
        i:rieis:  grain, hay, and seed (agricultural implements)
        DusuorSf mechanical:  agricultural
        E Leva cor s, farm
        Farm machinery and equipment
        F^.ed grinders, crushers, and mixers (agricultural
           machinery)
        Foeders, chicken
        Fe.rLxlizing machinery (agricultural machinery)
        Faeld type rotary tillers (agricultural machinery)
        Fruit grading, cleaning, and sorting machines
        Fvuitf vegetable,  berry and grape harvesting machines
        Gates, holding (farm equipment)
                                 3-310

-------
                      DRAFT
Grading, cleaning, and sorting machines:  fruit,
   grain, and vegetable
Grain drills, including legume planters
   (agricultural machinery)
Grain grading, cleaning, and sorting machines
Grain stackers
Grinders and crushers, feed (agricultural machinery)
Hammer and roughage mills  (agricultural machinery)
Harrows:  disc, spring, tine,  etc.
Harvesting machines
Haying machines:  mowers, rakes, loaders, stackers,
   balers, presses, etc.
Hog feeding, handling, and watering equipment
Hulling machinery, agricultural
Incubators, except laboratory and infant
Land rollers and levelers  (agricultural machinery)
Listers
Loaders, farm type (general utility)
Milking machines -
Mowers and mower-conditioners, hay
Peanut combines, diggers, packers and threshers
   (agricultural equipment)
Planting machines, agricultural
Plows, agricultural:   disc, moldboard, chisel, etc.
Potato diggers, harvesters, and planters (agricultural
   machinery)
Poultry brooders, feeders, and waterers
Poultry vision control devices
Presses and balers:  hay, cotton, etc.
Rakesf hay  (agricultural machinery)
Rotary hoes  (agricultural machinery)
Roughage mills  (agricultural machinery)
Seeders  (agricultural machinery)
Separators, grain and berry (agricultural machinery)
Shears, sheep:  power
Shellers, nut  (agricultural machinery)
Shredders (agricultural machinery)
Silo fillers  (agricultural machinery)
Soil pulverizers and packers  (agricultural machinery)
Sorting machines for agricultural products
Sprayers, hand:  agricultural
Spraying machines  (agricultural machinery)
Spreaders, fertilizer
Tobacco curers
Towers, windmill
Tractors, wheel:  farm type
Trailers and wagons,  farm
Transplanters
                        3-311

-------
                              DRAFT
        Volume guns (irrigation equipment)
        Water troughs
        Weeding machines,  agricultural
        Windrowers, self-propelled and pull

Farm machinery and equipment are produced by 1526  plants,  averaging
about 70 workers each.  Most of these plants (72 percent)  employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data  are shown in
Table 3-56.  As shown in Figure 3-119, approximately 45 percent of
the units are for farm poultry equipment and 36 percent for sprayers
and dusters.  Of the remainder, farm machinery and other barn and
barnyard equipment comprise 13 percent, hog equipment 4 percent and
tractors and wagons 3 percent.  Various steels, copper and aluminum
are the major raw materials.  In addition,  major purchased parts
include engines, bearings, tires and containers.  The principal
manufacturing operations are casting and molding,  material forming,
mechanical material removal, assembly operations,  and material
coating.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the
farm machinery and equipment industry.  This is so mainly because
of the differing raw materials, which are shown in Figure 3-119
and the various products listed previously.  Tractors and attach-
ments are the major products.  These are fabricated from a variety
of piece parts including major purchased parts (motor, transmission,
seats, gages, etc.) and parts manufactured by the industry (frame,
axles, housings, covers, etc.).  Process water which constitutes
12 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly
during casting and in cleaning and rinsing parts and assemblies
prior to painting.  It is also used in a water curtain during spray
painting of parts and assemblies.

The manufacture of tractors, since it encompasses the bulk of the
industry's products, is representative of the farm machinery and
equipment industry.  A typical operation for fabricating tractors
is shown in Figure 3-120.   As can be seen from this operation de-
scription, the major components are fabricated from various gauges
of sheet metal and bar stock and eventually assembled along with
major purchased and cast parts into the final product.  Parts manu-
factured from heavy sheet metal  (frame, flooring,  some structural
members) are initially cut to size and then stamped or bent into
                                 3-312

-------
                               DRAFT
the desired shape.  Following this, holes are drilled or punched
and then the piece is cleaned and prepared for painting - generally
phosphated first and then painted.  Light sheet metal parts go
through a similar operation.  Bar stock is used primarily for
a:cles.  It is first cut to size and rough machined.   Bearing surfaces
are then ground, honed and lapped.  Drilling and tapping for various
attachments is accomplished next.  Some small piece  parts are cast
and then finish machined and deburred.  Finally all  the completed
r.iece parts, cast parts and purchased parts are assembled together
;.r,to the finished product which is tested and inspected prior to
shipment.
                                 3-313

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA    Farm machinery  and  equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    554


                              WITH LESS THAN 30 EMPLOYEES    972


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  104,200


   '/ALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $2241.3   MILLION


   VALUz OF SHIPMENTS                   $4518.2   MILLION
                                                                      *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        :  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                30


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             90


        3 MATERIAL FORMING — METALS               100;


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           go


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    70


        7 MATERIAL COATING                        100


        8 ORE  PROCESSING & REFINING                  C


        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS            Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            43.7   BILLION GALLONS


                                      165.4   BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        73


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       27


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    65


   PROCE 5S WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      12
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   69


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        43
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based  on Plant Data Collected

                                   TABLE  3-56

                                      3-314

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Cardon Tractors and Lawn and
Garden Equi pment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing lawn mowers, garden tractors, and other lawn and garden equipment
used for home lawn and garden care.  Also included are establish-
ments primarily manufacturing snowblowers and throwers for resi-
dential use.  The products include:

        Carts for wagons for lawn and garden
        Cultivators (garden tractor equipment)
        Grass catchers, lawn mower
        Hedge trimmers, electric
        Lawn edgers
        Lawn mowers, hand and power
        Lawn rollers
        Loaders (garden tractor equipment)
        Rototillers (garden machinery)
        Plows (garden tractor equipment)
        Snowblowers and throwers, residential
        Tractors,  garden
        Trimmers,  hedge:  electric

Garden tractors and Lawn & Garden Equipment are produced by 103
plants, averaging 200 workers each.  Most of these plants (82 per-
cent)  employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are
shown in Tab]e 3-57.  As shown in Figure 3-121, approximately 69
percent of the Lawn & Garden equipment is lawn mowers, 4 percent
snowblowers, 3 percent lawn tractors and 5 percent other units such
as gang mowers,  sickle bars and edgers, with the remaining pro-
duction devoted to the supply of replacement  (repair) parts.  Sheet
metal of various thicknesses and paint are the major raw materials.
The principal manufacturing operations are material forming,
mechanical material removal, assembly operations, chemical processing,
and material ccating.

In general Lawn &  Garden equipment is made by cutting, bending and
welding the frame  and mounting the engine, wheels, handles and trim
to this frame.  All components are usually painted except for gears,
bearings and sprockets which are heat treated to improve wear
                                 3-317

-------
                               DRAFT
characteristics.  Process water which constitutes  12  percent  of  the
gross water used by the industry,  is used mainly for  bonderizing
rinses and water wall paint booths.

The manufacture of snowblowers is  representative of the  Lawn  and
Garden equipment industry.  A typical operation in the manufacture
of a snowblower is shown in Figure 3-122.  The  frame  sheet  stock is
lubricated with oil prior to bending into the proper  shape.   The
next operation involves cutting of holes required  to  mount  the seat
(if included), engine, sheet metal covers, gas  tank and  other miscel-
laneous parts.  Punching and drilling are the major methods used and
each employ an emulsified oil as a cool lubricant.  Following purch-
ing and drilling, the item is prepared for painting,  by  using a
bonderizing process.  Paint is then applied in  manual and automatic
spray booths which frequently use  a wet (water) wall  method of con-
trolling overspray.  The final operations involve  assembly  of the
component parts, inspection, testing, cleaning  and shipping.   Parts
other than the frame are manufactured in a similar manner.
                                3-318

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Lawn  and garden equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       P2
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        21
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 20,000
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $  429.0  MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $1018.9  MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATION'
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              Q
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          1QO
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             IQO
        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          67
        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  LOO
        5  CHEMICAL-CLECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100
        7  MATERIAL COATING                      ]_oo
        8 ORE PROCESSING 8-REF^'ING                0
        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          . 0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            43.7  BILLION GALLONS
                                    165.4  BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        73
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       27
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    65
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      12


WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     69

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED          43
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                TABLE  3-57
                                   3-319
                                                *Based on Plant Ji'a

-------
                                  DRAFT
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                 DRAFT





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                              OftAFT
Construction Machinery and Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing heavy machinery and equipment used by the construction industries
The major products include:

        Aggregate spreaders
        Airport construction machinery
        Asphalt plants, including travel-
           mix type
        Backfillers,  self-propelled
        Backhoes
        Ballast distributors
        Batching plants,  bituminous
        Batching plants,  for aggregate concrete
           and bulk cement
        Blades for graders, scrapers,  dozers,
           and snow plows
        Breakers, paving
        Buckets:  clamshell,  concrete,  dragline,
           drag scraper,  shovel,  etc.
        Bulldozers (construction  machinery)
        Capstans, ship
        Carriers, crane
        Chip spreaders, self-propelled
        Cleaners, catch basin
        Compactors, soil:   vibratory-pan  and
           vibratory-roller types
        Concrete buggies,  powered
        Concrete grouting equipment
        Concrete gunning  equipment
        Concrete plants
        Construction  machinery, except mining
        Cranes,  except industrial plant
        Cranes,  locomotive
        Cranes,  ship
        Crushers, portable
        Derricks, except  oil  and  gas field
        Derricks, ship
        Distributors  (construction  machinery)
        Ditchers, ladder:   vertical boom  or
           wheel
        Dozers,  tractor mounted:  material moving
        Draglines,  powered
        Drags,  road (construction and  road
           maintenance equipment)
        Dredging machinery
                                3-322

-------
                       DRAFT
Entrenching machines
Excavators:  cable, clamshell, crane,
   derrick, dragline, power shovel, etc.
Extractors, piling
Finishers and spreaders (construction
   equipment)
Finishers, concrete and bituminous:
   powered
Grader attachments, elevating
Graders, road (construction machinery)
Grapples:  rock, wood, etc.
Grinders, stone:  portable
Hammer mills (rock and ore crushing
   machines), portable
Hammers, pile driving
Line markers, self-propelled
Loaders, shovel:  self-propelled
Locomotive cranes
Logging equipment
Mixers:  concrete, ore, sand, slag, plaster,
   mortar, and bituminous
Mortar mixers
Mud jacks
Pavers
Pile drivers (construction machinery)
Planers, bituminous
Plaster mixers
Plows, earth:  heavy duty
Power cranes, draglines, and shovels
Pulverizers, stone:  portable
Railway track equipment:  rail layers,
   ballast distributors, etc.
Rakes, lanri clearing:  mechanical
Road construction and maintenance
   machinery
Rock crushing machinery, portable
Rollers, road:   steam or other power
Rollers, sheepsfoot and vibratory
Sand mixers
Scarifiers, road
Scrapers (construction machinery)
Screeds and screeding machines
Screeners, portable
Ship cranes and derricks
Ship winches
Shovel loaders,  wheel tractor
Shovels, power
Silos, cement (batch plant)
Slag mixers
                        3-323

-------
                              DRAFT
        Snow plow attachments
        Soil compactors:  vibratory-pan and vi-
           bratory-roller types
        Spreaders and finishers  (construction
           equipment)
        Subgraders, construction equipment
        Subsoiler attachments, tractor mounted
        Surfaces, concrete grinding
        Tampers, powered
        Tamping equipment, rail
        Teeth, bucket and scarifier
        Tractors, contractors' off highway
        Tractors, crawler
        Tractors, tracklaying
        Trucks, off-highway:  heavy duty motor
        Vibrators for concrete construction
        Wellpoint systems
        Winches, all types

Construction machinery is produced by 734 plants, averaging 180
workers each.  Most of these plants (52 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-58.
As shown in Figure 3-123, approximately 90 percent of the products
produced in this category are made from steel, and the rest are
principally iron, copper and aluminum.  Plate carbon steel is th(-
chief raw material and the principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal, assembly operations  and material coat-
ing.

In general, construction machinery is made by assembly of various
manufactured or purchased components.   The bodies and frames are
usually made by forming metal plates and joining  as required.  Power
generation is from an engine, motor or similar device.  Their basic
elements are usually made from castings or forgings.  Process water,
which constitutes 9 percent of the gross water used by the industry,
is used mainly for rinsing, coating and washing.   Rinsing is per-
formed in conjunction with surface coating and washing is done on
the finished product.

The manufacture of bulldozers is representative of the construction
machinery and equipment industry.  A typical operation for making
bulldozers is shown in Figure 3-124.  The working or functional
feature of a bulldozer is the ram which is a broad blunt horizontal
forged steel blade made from bar stock.  It is initially sheared to

-------
                               DRAFT
the required size and then heated in a die assembly to a specified
temperature.  The die is then lubricated and placed in a press or
power hammer to form the ram in a forging process.   When the forging
is completed,  it is removed from the die and cooled in air.   The
flash is trimmed by machining.  Subsequent cleaning to remove scale
and lubricants is generally accomplished by chemical methods.  Salt
bath descaling, followed by acid pickling and finally sand blasting
are the cleaning procedures most widely used.

The basic frame of a bulldozer is fabricated by cutting, drilling,
slotting, forming and welding angle iron and channel stock.   The
assembly begins with the frame on which is attached the suspension
system, shock absorbers, torsion bars, ram and main cabin assembly.
Attachments such as hood, doors and lids follow.   The assembled body
is then surface coated, rinsed and painted.  After  painting, the
engine and transmission are added along with the  brake assemblies and
wheels.  The upholstery and interior fittings are finally assembled.
These fittings include seats, controls and dashboard components.  A
final inspection, testing and cleaning completes  the manufacturing.
                                 3-325

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Construction machinery
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      379

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      355

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               132 ,100

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $3099.1   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $6030.2   MILLION
                                                                    •i
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        I  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
 0

71

57

43

86
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   43
        7 MATERIAL COATING

        8 ORE PROCESSING a REFINING

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
86

 0

14
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           39.9   BILLION GALLONS

                                    151     BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           33

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           62

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       75

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          9
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       3^

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           33
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE  3-58

                                    3-326

-------
                                                      DRAFT
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                              DRAFT
Mining Machinery and Equipment,  Except Oil
Field Machinery and Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing heavy machinery and equipment used by the mining industries,  such
as coal breakers, mine cars, mineral cleaning machinery,  concentration
machinery, core drills, coal cutters, portable rock drills,  and rock
crushing machinery.  The products include:

        Amalgamators (metallurgical and min-
           ing machinery)
        Auger mining equipment
        Bits, rock:  except oil  field tools
        Cages, mine shaft
        Car dumpers, mining
        Clarifying machinery, mineral
        Classifiers (metallurgical and mining
           machinery)
        Cleaning machinery, mineral
        Coal breakers;  cutters,  and pulverizers
        Concentration machinery  (metallurgical
           and mining)
        Crushers, stationary
        Drills and drilling equipment, mining:
           except oil field drills
        Drills, core
        Drills, rock:   portable
        Dumpers, car:   mining
        Feeders, ore and aggregate
        Flotation machinery (mining machinery)
        Grinders, stone:  stationary
        Hammer mills (rock and ore crushing
           machines),  stationary
        Loading machines,  underground:  mobile
        Mineral machinery and equipment
        Mining cars and trucks (dollies)
        Mining machinery and equipment, ex-
           cept oil field machinery and tools
        Ore crushing,  washing, screening,  and
           loading machinery
        Pellet mills (mining machinery)
        Plow, coal
        Pulverizers, stone:  stationary
        Scraper loaders, underground
        Screeners, stationary
        Sedimentation machinery,  mineral

-------
                              DRAFT
        Separating machinery, mineral
        Shuttle cars, underground
        Stamping mill machinery (mining ma-
           chinery)
        Washers, aggregate and sand

Mining machinery is produced by 240 plants, averaging 90 workers each.
Most of these plants (53 percent)  employ more than 20 workers.  .Addi-
tional production data are shown in Table 3-59.   As shown in Figure
3-125, 98 percent of the products produced in this category are made
from steel and the rest are principally iron, copper and aluminum.
Carbon steel plates and steel castings and forgings are the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, assembly operations, and physical property modification,

In general, mining machinery is made by assembly of various manufactured
or purchased components.  Bodies and frames are  usually made by forming
metal plates and joining as required.  Power generation is from an
engine, motor or similar device.  Other basic elements are usually
made from castings or forgings.  Process water,  which constitutes 5
percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
cleaning after final assembly.

The manufacture of a scraper loader is representative of the mining
machinery and equipment industry.   An underground scraper loader
consists of a scraping bucket, wire rope, pulleys, motor vehicle base,
a chute and loading carts.  A typical operation  for making an under-
ground scraper loader is shown in Figure 3-126.

The scraping bucket is made from forged high alloy steel and is usually
carbide tipped.  Initially, a rolled billet is sheared to size.  It is
then enclosed in a lubricated die and heated to  a specified temperature.
The die assembly is then placed in a press or power hammer to form the
bucket in a forging process.  When the forging is completed, it is re-
moved from the die and cooled in air.  The flash is trimmed by sawing,
punching, or machining.  Subsequent cleaning to  remove scale and
lubricants is generally accomplished by chemical methods.  Salt bath
descaling, followed by acid pickling and finally sand blasting are
the cleaning procedures most widely used.  The carbide tips are usually
joined by brazing.

The base body, chute and loading carts are made  chiefly from low carbon
rolled steel plates.  These are cut, formed, and welded to desired

-------
                              DRAFT
configurations.   They  are then finish machined, cleaned (by vapor
degreasing or pickling)  and surface coated.  The frame of the  base  is
fabricated by welding  angle iron.

The scraper loader  is  assembled with the body, chute and other
accessories by bolting to the frame.  After final assembly,  the
scraper loader is inspected and washed prior to usage.
                                3-331

-------
                                   DRAFT
                  Fining Machinery and  Eouipment,  Except Oil Field
PRODUCTION DATA  Machinery and Equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     126


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     114


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                21,700


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $406.7     MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $790.6     MILLION
                                                                      j

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS


        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL


        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS


        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION


        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS


        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS


        7 MATERIAL COATING


        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING


        9  MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS
 0

50


50


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75


 0


50


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 0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            1.9    BILLION GALLONS


                                      7.2    BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           42


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           58


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       88


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           5
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       42


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-59

                                     3-332

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Oil Field Machinery and Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing machinery and equipment for use in oil and gas fields or for drill-
ing water wells.  The major products are:

        Bits, rock:  oil field tools
        Derricks, oil and gas field
        Drill rigs, all types
        Drilling tools for gas, oil, or water
           wells
        Gas well machinery and equipment
        Oil field machinery and equipment
        Water well drilling machinery

Oilfield machinery and equipment is produced by 303 plants, averaging
119 workers each.  About half of these plants employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-60.   As
shown in Figure 3-127, 95 percent of the products in this industry
are made from steel and the balance made from iron, copper or aluminum.
Carbon and alloy steel including bar, plate and structural shapes are
the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal, physical property modification, assembly
operations and material coating.

In general, oilfield machinery and equipment is made by manufacturing
drills and associated equipment, installing these in a derrick and pro-
viding the necessary power for drilling a well.  Process water, which
constitutes 4 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used
mainly for cleaning.

The manufacture of a derrick is representative of the oilfield machinery
and equipment industry.  A derrick consists of a foundation, structure
and working platforms.  A typical operation for making a derrick is
shown in Figure 3-128.  The derrick structure is mounted on a concrete
foundation and it is generally made from rolled, low carbon steel.  The
derrick legs 'are constructed of heavy angle iron while horizontal
and diagonal braces use slightly lighter material.  The lower sections
of the derrick are double diagonal braced and struts are used to
stiffen the bracing.  Bolts or rivets are used for fastening the
angles.

Platforms protected by guardrails are usually installed at 2 elevations
on the derrick in addition to a "crow's nest" at the summit.  The floors
of these platforms consist of steel grating covered with non-skid floor
plates.

-------
                              DRAFT
Power driven hoisting and drilling equipment is then  installed in
the derrick prior to its check-out and use.
                               3-336

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Oil field machinery
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       152

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       151

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 36 , 000

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $  783.0    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1199.0    MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS

        7 MATERIAL COATING

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
 20

100

 60

 60

100

 60

 60

  0

  0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           19.8   BILLION GALLONS

                                      74.9 '  BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE               8

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             92

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER          55

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             4
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on  Plant  Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3- 60
                                      3-337

-------
                                                   DRAFT
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-------
                              DRAhT
Elevators and Moving Stairways

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing passenger or freight elevators, automobile lifts, dumb waiters,
and moving stairways.  The major products are:
                 *
        Automobile lifts (elevators)
        Dumbwaiters
        Elevators and elevator equipment, passenger
           and freight
        Elevators, powered (nonfarm)
        Escalators, passenger and freight
        Lifts (elevators),  passenger and
           freight
        Stair elevators:  motor powered
        Stairways, moving

Elevators and moving stairways are produced by 152 plants, averaging
98 workers each.  Most of these plants (57 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-61.
As shown in Figure 3-129, steel (stainless, carbon and alloy), copper,
copper alloy, aluminum and aluminum alloy in the form of bar, sheet,
plate and other various shapes are the principal raw materials.  In
addition, motors are used and paint and various other coatings are
applied.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, material forming  (metals),  physical property mod-
ification, assembly operations and material coating.

In general, this industry primarily encompasses fabrication and
assembly of elevators and moving stairways.  As such, component
parts are generally bought or made and then assembled on location
to produce the completed unit.  Process water is used mainly for
cooling, cleaning and painting.

The fabrication and assembly of escalators is representative of the
elevators and moving stairways industry.   Figure 3-130 shows a
typical operation for manufacturing an escalator.  First, the steps
are cast, then trimmed, ground and drilled for assembly, and cleaned.
Next, the steps are plated and/or painted.  The rails on which the
steps operate are extruded, then ground,  drilled and tapped for
assembly.  The wheels and gears are formed by forging blanks, then
grinding and turning them and drilling holes for the axle shaft.
                                 3-340

-------
                               DRAFT
After the holes are drilled the  wheels  are  heat  treated.  The drive
gears have teeth cut and then they are  heat treated.   The axle
shafts are forged,  turned and heat treated.   Handrails are  formed
and trimmed.   Purchased parts such as the chain  are then assembled
along with the steps, rails,  etc.   The  wheels and  shafts are then
assembled to  the steps and the wheels are mounted  on  the rails.  The
chains are run around the drive  gears and over the gears on the
steps.  The stair assembly is then assembled to  the escalator in
the building  and the handrails are assembled into  place.  Assembly
is performed  by using mechanical fasteners  or by welding.   Finally,
the finished  unit is inspected and tested.
                                3-341

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Elevators and Moving Stairways
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $308
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $480

20 EMPLOYEES 86
20 EMPLOYEES 66
14,300
.7 MILLION
.8 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTINGS MOLDING -METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
100
0
0
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 0
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS
100
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE NA
NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
NA
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-61
3-342


-------
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                              DRAFT
Conveyors and Conveying Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing conveyors and conveying equipment for installation in factories,
warehouses, mines, and other industrial and commercial establishments.
The major products are:

        Belt conveyor systems for general industrial
           use
        Bucket type conveyor systems for general
           industrial use
        Overhead conveyor systems for general industrial
           use
        Passenger baggage belt loaders
        Pneumatic tube conveyor systems for general
           industrial use

Conveyors and conveying equipment are produced by 477 plants,  averaging
56 workers each.  About half of these plants (49 percent) employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-62.
As shown in Figure 3-131, steel (stainless, carbon and alloy), copper,
copper alloy, aluminum, and aluminum alloy in the form of bar, sheet,
plate, and other various shapes are the principal raw materials.  In
addition, motors, bearings, and various coatings are also used.  The
principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
material forming, assembly operations, and material coating.

In general, conveyors are made from various parts (such as the frame,
rollers, shaft, and belt) which are fabricated by stamping,  forming,
or rolling.  These parts are then assembled.  Process water is used
mainly for cleaning, cooling, painting and plating operations.

A typical manufacturing operation for conveyors and conveying  equipment
is shown in Figure 3-132.  Conveyors and conveying equipment are mada up
primarily of a frame, rollers, shafts, and a belt.  The frame  Is madt
by shearing, blanking, and punching sheet stock.  This stock Is th@n
formed and drilled after which it is assembled and plated or painted
to complete the frame.  Next, the rollers are fabricated from tubing
by cutting to length and machining to size.  Bearings art thin
pressed fitted Into ends of the rollers.  The shafts art forged, de-
burred and turned, then stamped and drilled.  After finish machining,
                                 3-345

-------
                               DRAFT
the shafts may be plated.   The belt is molded from fabric and rubber
in long strips and then placed around the finished rollers during
assembly.   The shafts  and  rollers are assembled, and these sub-
assemblies are attached to the conveyor frame.  The belt is placed
over the rollers and a motor  is  installed to drive the belt.  The con-
veyor is then inspected and tested.
                                3-346

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Conveyors  and Conveying Equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      235
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      242
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                26,600
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $526.4    MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $948.6    MILLION
                                                                 *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                75
        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            0
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   1QQ
        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     0
        7  MATERIAL COATING                         75
        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                 0
        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            NA   BILLION GALLONS
                                     NA   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
                                                 NA
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE  3-62
                                   3-347

-------
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                              DRAFT
Hoists, Industrial Cranes,  and
Monorail Systems

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing overhead traveling cranes, hoists and monorail systems for in-
stallation in factories, warehouses, and other industrial and
commercial establishments.   The major products are:

        Aerial work platforms, hydraulic or
           electric truck or carrier mounted
        Automobile wrecker hoists
        Boat lifts
        Cherry pickers  (elevated work platforms)
        Cranes, overhead travel
        Davits
        Go-devils  (hydraulic crane, pneumatic tired)
        Hoisting slings
        Hoists, except aircraft loading
        Hoists, hand
        Hoists, mine
        Monorail systems
        Stacking machines,  automatic
        Work platforms, elevated

Hoists, cranes and monorails are produced by 186  plants, averaging
88 workers each.  About half of these plants (49  percent) employ
more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in
Table 3-63.  As shown in Figure 3-133, 99 percent of the products
produced are steel with carbon steel plates being the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are structural
fabrication, mechanical material removal, assembly operations and
material coating.

In general, hoists, cranes and monorails are made by forming, bend-
ing, and machining steel plates for frame components.  In addition,
steel forgings are used in areas requiring high strength.  A wide
variety of such component parts are used and assembled into the
frame structure.  To this frame structure is added a chain or rope
and possibly a cab and motor for operation.  Process water, which
constitutes 92 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is
used mainly for cleaning.  Most cleaning is done  after the final
machining operations and prior to painting or plating.  Castings
and forgings are also cleaned to remove scale and other impurities.

The manufacture of hoists is representative of the hoists, cranes
and monorails industry.  A typical operation for  making hoists is
shown in Figure 3-134.  The essential parts of a  hoist are a wire
                                 3-350

-------
                               DRAFT
rope or chain which is wrapped around a drum or drive sheave.   A
hook, magnet or other device for handling the load is attached to
the free end.  The hoist is then attached to a crane or to a
trolley for running on an overhead track.

Wire rope is usually made from drawn high carbon steel.  The drawn
wire is laid in strands and twisted.  A number of strands are then
laid to form the rope and twisted in the opposite direction.  A
standard hoisting rope is made of 6 strands, each of 19 wires, the
strands being laid around a fiber core.  The core is sisal, saturated
with a lubricant.  It provides little additional strength but acts as
a cushion to preserve the shape and lubricate the wires.  Linseed oil
is; applied to the finished rope as an additional preservative.  Hooks
are made from drop forged steel by pouring hot molten metal into im-
pression dies and drop hammering.  After cooling, the "flash"  is cut
away from the forging in a trim operation.  Cleaning of parts to
remove scale and lubricants is sometimes accomplished by chemical
methods.  Salt bath descaling, followed by acid pickling and finally
shot blasting are the cleaning methods most widely used.  Parts are
then heat treated for strength and cadmium plated for corrosion
resistance.

Other components such as drums and sheaves are usually made of cast
iron or steel.  Larger units such as enclosures have separate shells
and components that are either cast or formed from rolled plate.
Usually parts made from plate stock are sheared, formed by a hydro-
press, machined, cleaned, painted and assembled.

Fincil inspection/testing is performed after all components have been
manufactured and assembled.
                                 3-351

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Hoists,  cranes,  and monorails
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     91

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      95

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                16,300

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $266.0   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $526.4   MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0

        /•  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            100

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 0

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            0

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     0

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        100

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                   0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           2.6    BILLION GALLONS

                                     9.«    BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            96

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             4

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        50

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           92
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        96

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED              0
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data  Collected
                                  TABLE  3-63

                                     3-352

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-------
                              DRAFT
Industrial Trucks,  Tractors,
Trailers and Stackers

This segment includes establishments  primarily engaged  in  manufactur-
ing industrial trucks,  tractors,  trailers,  stackers  (truck type),  and
related equipment,  used for handling  materials on  floors and  paved
surfaces in and around industrial and commercial plants, depots,
docks, and terminals.  The major  products  include:

        Adapters for multi-weapon rack loading
           on aircraft
        Aircraft engine cradles
        Aircraft loading hoists
        Boat cradles
        Bomb lifts
        Bomb trucks
        Cars, industrial:   except automotive  cars
           and trucks,  and mining cars
        Die and strip handlers
        Dollies (hand or power trucks),  industrial:
           except mining
        Drum cradles
        Engine stands and racks,  metal
        Hoists, aircraft loading
        Hoppers, end dump
        Hospital dollies
        Industrial  truck cranes
        Laundry containers on wheels,  fiber-
           glass
        Lift trucks, industrial:   fork,  platform,
           straddle, etc.
        Pallet assemblies for landing mats
        Pallets, metal
        Platforms,  cargo
        Skid boxes, metal
        Skids, metal
        Stackers, power (industrial truck
           stackers)
        Stacking carts
        Stands, ground servicing  aircraft
        Tables, lift:  hydraulic
        Tractors, industrial: for use in  plants,
           depots,  docks,  and terminals
        Truck trailers, for use in plants,  depots,
           docks, and terminals

-------
                              DRAFT
        Trucks, industrial (except mining)  for
           freight, baggage,  etc.
        Tunnel kiln cars

Industrial trucks and tractors are produced by 375 plants averaging
69 workers each.  Most of these plants (65  percent)  employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-64.
As shown in Figure 3-135, 99  percent of the products produced in this
category are made from steel  with carbon steel plate and bar shapes
being the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are mechanical material removal, assembly operations and material
coating.

In general, industrial trucks and tractors  are made by assembly of
various manufactured or purchased components.  The bodies and frames
are usually made by forming metal plate and joining as required.
They are powered by gasoline  or diesel internal combustion engines.
Process water, which constitutes 6 percent  of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning, rinsing/ coating, and
washing.  For example, water  is used for:  cleaning of die drawing
compounds on formed plates prior to phosphate coating, rinsing of
paint frcm extraneous surfaces, cleaning of machined parts prior to
assembly, and washing the finished product.

The manufacture of industrial trucks is representative of the indus-
trial trucks, tractors, trailers, and stackers industry.  A typical
operation for making industrial trucks is shown in Figure 3-136.
Initially* steel sheets are cut to size and formed into various
components such as side and roof panels, doors and deck lids. Draw-
ing compounde are used to enable the die to move freely over the
metal in the forming operation.  The formed component parts art next
welded intD the finished assembly.  The drawing compounds previously
applied arti then removed by washing so that an adherent phosphate
coating can be applied to serve as a base for paint.  After phesphating
and oven drying, bodies are dipped in a water-dispersible paint to
protect the inner surfaces of the structural members.  This paint is
removed by means of a water rinse from those exterior decorative
surfaces that are to receive the final color coat ef paint.  Exterior
surfaces art spray painted with a primer and surface cured.  They are
then wet sanded to improve the surface finish, driid, spray painted
with the chosen color, and cured.
                                 3-316

-------
                               DRAFT
Engines,  power steering units, transmissions, and brake  systems are
made of cast iron  or  aluminum that is machined to size,  cleaned and
assembled.

The frame is made  by  welding angle iron and channel stock and all
components  are attached to this frame.  After final assembly, the
truck is  inspected, tested and washed.

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Industrial trucks and tractors
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS

20 EMPLOYEES 132
20 EMPLOYEES 243
25,875
NA MILLION
NA MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING ft MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
50
100
50
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 50
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
100
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE l.G
6.1
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
25
75
71
6
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
25
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3- 64
3-358


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-------
                              DRAFT
Machine Tools,  Metal Cutting Types

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactui
ing machines, not supported in the hands of an operator when in use,
that shape metal by cutting or use of electrical techniques; the
rebuilding of such machine tools, and the manufacture of replace-
ment parts for them.  Metalworking,  or primarily metalworking,
machine tools designed primarily for home workshops are also in-
cluded.  Specific products are:

        Automatic chucking machines
        Boring, drilling, and milling machine combinations
        Boring machines  (machine tools)
        Boring mills
        Broaching machines
        Brushing machines (metalworking machinery)
        Buffing ana polishing machines  (machine tools)
        Burnishing machines (machine tools)
        Centering machines
        Chemical milling machines
        Countersinking machines
        Cutoff machines
        Cutting machines, pipe  (machine tools)
        Cylinder reboring machines
        Debarring machines
        Die sinking machines
        Drill presses  (machine tools)
        Drilling machine too1s  (metal cutting)
        Duplicators  (machine tools)
        Electrical discharge erosion machines
        Electrical discharge grinding machines
        Electrochemical milling machines
        Electrolytic metal cutting machine tools
        Electron-discharge metal cutting machine tools
        Facing machines
        Filing machines, metal  (machine tools)
        Flange facing machines
        Gear chamfering machines  (machine tools)
        Gear cutting and finishing machines
        Gear tooth grinding machines  (machine tools)
        Grindi.-.-f machines
        Grooving machines (machine tools)
        Home workshop machine tools, metalworking
        Homing .ind lapping machines
        Jig boring machines
        Jig griming machines
        Key-eat:ng machines (machine tools)

-------
                              DRAFT
        Lapping machines
        Lathes, metal cutting
        Lathes, metal polishing
        Machine tool replacement and repair parts,
           metal cutting types
        Machine tools, metal cutting, exotic  (chemical,
           explosive, etc.)
        Metal polishing lathes
        Milling machines (machine tools)
        Pipe cutting and threading machines (machine tools)
        Planers, metal cutting  (machine tools)
        Pointing, chamfering, and burring machines
        Polishing and buffing machines'  (machine tools)
        Polishing machines (machine tools)
        Plasma process metal cutting machines, except
           welding machines
        Reaming machines
        Rebuilt machine tools, metal cutting types
        Regrinding machines, crankshaft
        Rifle working machines  (machine tools)
        Sawing and cutoff machines (metal working machinery)
        Saws, power  (metalworking machinery)
        Screw and nut slotting machines
        Screw machines, automatic
        Shapers and slotters
        Shaving machines (metalworking)
        Slotting machines  (machine tools)
        Tapping machines
        Threading machines (machine tools)
        Turning machines (lathes)
        Turret lathes
        Ultrasonic assisted grinding machines
           (metalworking)
        Ultrasonic metal cutting machine tools
        Valve grinding machines
        Vertical turning and boring machines  (metal working)

Metal cutting machine tools are produced by 896 plants, averaging
59 workers each.  Most of these plants  (69 percent) employ less
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-65.  As shown in Figure 3-137, 93 percent of the metal cutting
machines produced are for use in home workshops, laboratories and
garages.  These constitute only 3 percent of the value of industry
shipments, however, the remaining types of metal cutting machines
are for industrial production.  Steel, copper, and aluminum mill
                                 3-362

-------
                               DRAFT
shapes, castings, and forgings are the major raw materials.   The
principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
physical property modification, assembly operations and material
coating.

In general metal cutting machine tools are machined from castings,
forgings, and bar stock.  External surfaces are usually painted
and gears, shafts, and miscellaneous steel parts are usually heat
treated.  Process water, which constitutes 21 percent of une gross
water used by the industry, is used mainly for cooling, rinsing,
and control of air pollution.  As a result, the waste water usually
contains soluble and mineral oils, rust inhibitors and solvents.

The manufacturing of engine lathes is representative of the metal
cutting machine tool industry.  A typical operation, that of making
the.tailstock, is shown in Figure 3-138.  The tailstock is an
assembly consisting of the housing and base casting, spindle,
handwheel, center, clamp, and bolt.  Some machine tool plants have
their own foundry wherein the tailstock housing is cast.  If such
is the case, a water curtain may be used as an air scrubber in the
cupola exhaust and also in rhe casting shake-out area.  Water is
also used in reclaiming the sand used in making the mold.  The
machining operations to the tailstock casting consist of milling
the base of the housing, boring and threading for the spindle
attachment, and drilling and tapping for the spindle clamp and bolt.
All of these are dry operations since the housing is made of cast
iron.  Instead of threading the bore, the bore may be machined to
accept a key and the spindle •=> key way.  External surfaces of the
housing, other than machined surfaces, are then painted.  A water
curtain may be used as an air scrubber in the painting area.
Cleaning of the casting consists of using compressed air followed
by wiping the machined surfaces with oil.  The base for the tail-
stock housing and the hand wheel are also cast iron and no water
for machining is required.

The manufacturing operations shown in Figure 3-138 for the base and
hand wheel are the same as those for the housing.  The spindle may
be turned from bar stock using a soluble oil as a coolant/lubricant,
A straight bore to accept the hand wheel and a tapered bore to
accept the dead center is machined in the spindle.  The spindle is
then ground end the tapered bore honed using a lubricating oil to
flush away the fine particles.  The part is then rinsed, threaded,
and degreased prior to heat treating.  Depending on the type of
heat treatment, a post degreasing operation may be required.  Those
manufacturing operations shown for the center, clamp, and bolt are
the same as those described for the spindle and require the same
coolants and lubricants.  The tailstock is then assembled and
transferred to the main assembly location where it is joined with
                                 3-363

-------
                              DRAFT
the bed,  headstock, carriage and feed mechanism to complete the
engine lathe.  Many inspections occur throughout the manufacturing
operations.
                               3-364

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Machine  tools,  metal cutting types
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      281

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      615

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                53,100

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $ 915.8   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $1438.2   MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                14%

        2  MECHANICAL. MATERIAL REMOVAL            100%

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                29%

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           29%

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     71%

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    43%

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         71%

        8  ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           4.3    BILLION GALLONS

                                     16.3    BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        79

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       21

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    52

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      21
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   77

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED         3
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant  Data Collectec
                                  TABLE 3-65

                                      3-365

-------
                                                 DRAFT
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 3-367

-------
                              DRAFT
Machine Tools,  Metal Forming Types

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing machines, not supported in the hands of an operator while in use,
for pressing, hammering, extruding, shearing, die casting or other-
wise forming metal into shape.  This industry also includes rebuild-
ing such machine tools and manufacturing repair parts for them.  The
major products  are:

        Arbor presses
        Headers, metal  (machines)
        Bending and forming machines
        Brakes, metal forming
        Bulldozers (metalworking machinery)
        Can making machines
        Chemical explosives metal forming machines
        Die casting machines
        Drop hammers, for forging and shaping metal
        Elastic membrane metal forming machines
        Electroforming machines
        Extruding machines (machine tools),  metal
        Forging machinery and hammers
        Hammers, power  (forging machinery)
        Headers
        High energy rate metal forming machines
        Knurling machines
        Machine tools, metal forming:  exotic
           (chemical, explosion, etc.)
        Machine tools, metal forming types:   in-
           cluding rebuilding
        Magnetic forming machines
        Mechanical-pneumatic or hydraulic metal
           forming machines
        Metal deposit forming machines
        Nail heading machines
        Plasma  jet spray metal forming machines
        Presses:  forming, stamping, punching
           and  sizing (machine tools)
        Presses:  hydraulic and pneumatic,
           mechanical and manual
        Punching and shearing machines
        Rebuilt machine tools, metal forming types
        Riveting machines
        Rolling machines, thread and spline
        Shearing machines, power
        Sheet metalworking machines
        Shock wave metal forming machines

-------
                               DRAFT
        Spinning lathes
        Spinning machines, metal
        Spline rolling machines
        Spring winding and forming machines
        Stretching machines
        Swaging machines
        Thread rolling machines
        Ultrasonically assisted metal forming
           machines
        Upsetter<5  (forging machines)

Machine tools, metal forming type?, are produced by 380 plants,
averaging 66 v,Toikers each.  Almost half of these plants (43 per-
cent) employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data
are shown in Table 3-66.  As shown in Figure 3-139, most of the
material produced in this category is made from steel with plate
steel being th^. major raw material.  The principal manufacturing
operations are material forming, mechanical material removal and
material coat.Jng.

In general metal tormina machine tools are made by forming, machining
and welding plates into a specific machine configuration.   These
plates are then a^f-embled along with associated accessories and the
final product painted.  Process water, which constitutes less than
5 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly
for plating, cleaning and painting.

The manufacture of an electrochemical machine  (ECM) is represent-
ative of the metal forming machine tool industry.  A typical process
for making thip machine is shown in Figure 3-140.  A complete in-
stallation for an KCM consists of o.n electric power supply, an electro
lyte system with clarifier, electrodes and machine tooling, and a
control console.  The basic housing of the machine is made from plate
steel which if cold formed, machined and welded.  The work table is
made from stainless steel or granite.  Heavy copper cables and con-
nectors are U3ed to supply the current.  The electrolyte tank is
made from welded stainless steel sheets or molded fiberglass and all
interconnecting piping is made from stainless steel.  The cathode
cutting tool is made from copper faced with "elkonite" (a copper
alloy).  This part is usually forged and machined as required.  Small
ECM installations use a clarifier for filtering the electrolyte.  The
clarifier is made from steel sheet, formed and welded.  Large ECM

-------
                               DRAFT
installations use a "swimming pool" for electrolyte clarification
and sludge removal.

After assembly,  all metal  portions of the machine are painted with
several coatings of epoxy-based paint to withstand corrosion caused
by the electrolyte if it is  accidentally spilled outside of the work
enclosure.  Final inspection and test complete the ECM.
                                3-370

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Machine Tools, Metal Forming
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $441.3
Types
EMPLOYEES 164
EMPLOYEES 216
NA
MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $734.4 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
100
100
50
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 0
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
100
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE .3 BILLION GALLONS
1.1 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
67
33
50
5
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3-66
3-371
67
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected


-------
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-------
                               DRAFT
Special Dies and Tools, Die Sets/ Jigs and
Fixtures and Industrial Molds

This segment includes establishments commonly known as contract tool
and die shops and primarily engaged in manufacturing, on a job or
order basis, special tools and fixtures for use with machine tools,
hammers, die casting machines and presses.  The products of establish-
ments classified in this industry include a wide variety of special
toolings, such as dies; punches:  die sets and components, and sub-
presses; jigs and fixtures; and special checking devices.  Establish-
ments primarily engaged in manufacturing molds for die casting and
foundry casting; metal molds for plaster working, rubber working,
plastic working, glass working and similar machinery are also included.
The major products are:

        Diamond dies, metalworking
        Die sets for metal stamping (presses)
        Die springs
        Dies and die holders for metal cutting, forming,
           die casting, etc.
        Dies, paper cutting
        Dies, plastics forming
        Dies, steel rule
        Extrusion dies
        Forms, metal (molds):  for foundry, plastic
           working machinery, etc.
        Industrial molds
        Jigs and fixtures  (metalworking machinery
           accessories)
        Jigs:  inspection, gauging and checking
        Punches, forming and stamping
        Subpresses, metalworking
        Welding positioners (jigs)
        Wire drawing and straightening dies

Special dies and tools, die sets, jigs and fixtures, and industrial
molds are produced by 6,565 plants, averaging 14 workers each.   Most
of these plants (81 percent) employ less than 20 workers.  Additional
production data are shown in Table 3-67.  As shown in Figure 3-141,
almost all of the products in this category are made from steel with
this being the major raw material.  The principal manufacturing oper-
ations are material forming (metals)  and mechanical material removal.
                                 3-374

-------
                               DRAFT
In general ;•/. -uuct s in this cateqcry are wade by machining annealec
steel to .* specified configuration, then heat treating it and
assembling 't into a die shape.  Process water, which constitutes
6 percent or t!'it- gross water used by the industry, is used mainly
for cleaning, plating and painting.  Specific contacts made during
this program rhow that 57% of the plants in this industry segment
have nc e no-o "-pipe process water discharge.

The manufacture of a washer die set is representative of the speci.
dies, tools,  jig-s, and fixtures industry.  A typical operation for
making .1 wash*.... die set is shown in Figure 3-142.  A production wa:
er die set consists of a die block and punches with the punch holdi
on top and die bJock on the bottom.  Heavy leader pins between the
top and Ivii.tom maintain the alignment between punches and die bloc.

Detail die frt parts are machined from die steel bar stock to the
desired configurations.  Parts are then heat treated to 58 to 62
Re.  Subsequent to heat treating, the parts are ground.  Then the
parts are assembled into the die set and oiled prior to usage.

-------
DRAFT
ppnniirTinN DATA sPecial Dies and Tools, Die Sets, Jigs and Fixtures,
PRODUCTION DATA and Industrial Molds
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $1792 .
EMPLOYEES 1243
EMPLOYEES 5322
79,300
1 MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $2416.0 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
98
22
22
67
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 19
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING -NON-METALS
3
0
6
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE i . e BILLION GALLONS
6.1 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
44
56
56
6
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3-67
3-376
44
0
*Based on Plant Data Collected



-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Machine Tool Accessories and
MeasurTng Devices

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufact
ing cutting tools, machinist's precision measuring tools and attac
ments and accessories for machine tools and for other metalworking
machinery, not elsewhere classified.  The major products are:

        Angle rings
        Arbors (machine tool accessories)
        Balancing machines (machine tool ac-
           cessories)
        Bits for use on lathes, planers, shapers,
           etc.
        Boring machine attachments (machine tool
           accessories)
        Broaches  (machine tool accessories)
        Calipers and dividers
        Cams (machine tool accessories)
        Chasers  (machine tool accessories)
        Chucks:   drill, lathe, and magnetic (ma-
           chine tool accessories)
        Cellars  (machine tool accessories)
        Collets  (machine tool accessories)
        Comparators  (machinists' precision
           tools)
        Counterbores, metalworking
        Countersinks and countersink drill combi-
           nations (machine tool accessories)
        Cutters,  milling
        Cutting  tools and bits, for use on lathes,
           planers, shapers,  etc.
        Diamond  cutting tools for turning,  boring,
           burnishing, etc.
        Diamond  dressing and wheel crushing attach-
           ments
        Dies,  thread cutting
        Dressers,  abrasive wheel:  diamond point
           and other
        Drill bits, metalworking
        Drill bushings (drilling jig)
        Drilling machine attachments and accessories
           (machine tool accessories)
        Drills (machine tool accessories)
        Files, machine tool
        Gauge blocks
                                 3-379

-------
                               DRAFT
        Gauges except optical (machine tool
           accessories)
        Headstocks, lathe (machine tool accessories)
        Hobs
        Honing heads
        Hopper feed devices
        Knives, shear
        Lathe attachments and cutting tools
           (machine tool accessories)
        Letter pins (gauging and measuring)
        Loading, unloading,  and transfer de-
           vices
        Machine knives, metalworking
        Machine tool attachments and accessories
        Mandrels
        Measuring tools and machines, machinists'
           metalworking type
        Micrometers
        Filling machine attachments  (machine tool
           accessories)
        Optical measuring devices
        Precision tools, machinists'
        Pushers
        Reamers, machine tool
        Scales, measuring (machinists' precision
           tools)
        Shaping tools  (machine tool accessories)
        Shear knives
        Sockets  (machine tool accessories)
        Tables, rotary
        Taps, machine tool
        Threading tools (machine tool accessories)
        Tool holders
        Tools and accessories for machine tools
        Veiniers (machinists' precision tools)
        Vises, machine  (machine tool accessories)
        Wheel turning equipment, diamond point
           and other (tool accessories)

Machine tool accessories are produced by 1210 plants, averaging
38 workers each.  Most of these plants (67 percent) employ less
than 20 worlcers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-68.  As shown in Figure 3-143, mill shapes, castings, forgings,
and metal powders of various metals are the major raw materials
along with industrial diamonds.  Data on the quantity of the various
machine too.l accessories have not been reported.  The principal
                                 3-380

-------
                               DRAFT
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,  material
forming and physical property modification.

In general, machine tool accessories are made by machining the part
to shape from forgings, castings, bar stock, or plate.   Parts are
then ground and polished to obtain the desired size and finish and
are finally heat treated.  Process water, which constitutes 8 per-
cent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
coolant make-up, machining, forming, heat treating, and cleaning.
These operations result in waste water containing soluble  and min-
eral oils, rust inhibitors, metal chips and  swarf, salts,  and solvent

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the machir
tool accessories industry, no single product can be considered typice
However, the manufacture of metal working drill bits as shown in
Figure 3-144 is a good example which utilizes many of the  manufacture
processes used in this industry.  The cylindrical stock is first
drawn to size, pickled and sawed to length.   Water is used for cool-
ing in the drawing operation.  The method of making the flutes depenc
on the ease with which the part can be twisted.  For relatively smal.'
diameters, straight flutes are rolled in the piece and the piece twi:
ed.  For large sizes which cannot be twisted, the flutes are forged
using dies.  Both methods for forming the flutes use process water f<
cooling.  The drill bit is then either annealed or normalized in
preparation for machining.  A soluble oil coolant is used  for the
turning operation.  On some drill bits, the  shanks are milled to
provide square shanks using a mineral oil as a lubricant.   This oil
is removed from the bit in a degreaser prior to heat treating.  Afte.
the bit has been hardened it is again degreased because of the salts
used in the quenching operation following heat treating.  The bit is
then wet tumbled, sand blasted, and ground to size.  The coolant/
lubricant used for the grinding operation is either mineral oil or
soluble oil.  A degreasing operation, not shown in Figure  3-144, is
required if the coolant/lubricant is mineral oil.  After polishing,
the drill bit is nitrided to provide hard cutting edges.  The bit is
then pickled to remove any oxides that may have formed.
                                 3-381

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Machine Tool Accessories and
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $ 863
Measuring Devices
EMPLOYEES 401
EMPLOYEES 809
46,000
.1 MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $1226.9 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS.
1 CASTING a MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING -METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
100
17
58
58
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 33
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMI NG - NON-METALS
17
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 2.6 BILLION GALLONS
9.8 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
35
65
62
8
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3-68
3-382
31
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected

-------
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                    3-384

-------
                              DRAFT
Power Driven Hand Tools

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing power driven hand tools, such as drills and drilling tools,
pneumatic and snagging grinders, and electric hammers.  Products in
this SIC include:

        Attachments for portable drills
        Buffing machines, hand:  electric
        Caulking hammers
        Cartridge-activated hand power tools
        Chain saws, portable
        Chipping hammers, electric
        Drills  (except rock drilling and coring),
           portable:  electric and pneumatic
        Drills, hand:  electric
        Flexible shaft metalworking machines,
           portable
        Grinders, pneumatic and electric:  portable
           (metalworking machinery)
        Grinders, snagging
        Guns, pneumatic:  chip removal
        Hammers, portable electric and pneumatic
           chipping, riveting, etc.
        Hand tools, power driven:  woodworking
           or metal working
        Masonry and concrete drilling tools,
           power:  portable
        Riveting hammers
        Saws, portable hand held:  power driven -
           woodworking or metalworking

Power driven hand tools are produced by 85 plants  averaging 266
workers each.  Nost of these plants (74 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.   Additional production data are shown  in Table 3-69.
As shown in Figure 3-145 and supported by more extensive census
data, the majority of the power driven hand tools  are electrical.
Carbon steel shapes and unfinished aluminum castings are the prin-
cipal raw materials.  The principal manufacturing  operations are
                                 3-385

-------
                               DRAFT
mechanical material removal, material forming, physical property
modification, assembly and material coating.

In general, power driven hand tools are made by assembly of metal
sheet, bar, and rod stock that is forir.ed and machined;  aluminum
castings in rough or semi-finished form that are machined to the
desired shape, and processed plastics components used as formed or
subjected to further machining.  Process water, which constitutes
7 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly
for rinsing and painting operations.  The rinsing operation is
associated with the cleaning and chemical treating of "in process"
components.  Contaminants of the rinse operation include oils and
a variety of ionic species depending on the component material and
on the nature of the chemical treatment.  Painting process water,
used on a screen to adsorb sprayed paint, is contaminated with paint
pigments and low volatility solvent elements.

The manufacture of electric drills is representative of the power
driven hand tool industry.  A typical operation for making electric
drills is shown in Figure 3-146.  In this operation, component parts
are fabricated, combined with vendor components and assembled into
the finished product.  A rough aluminum casting for the housing is
ground or sanded clean (a dry process) and then drilled and tapped for
assembly points.  This drilling and tapping is done with a water
soluble cooling/lubricating fluid.  Chemical surface treatment prior
to painting consists of an initial alkali detergent wash, then a
water rinse and a phosphoric acid dip with a subsequent water rinse
(bonderizing process).  The phosphoric acid reacts with the clean
aluminum forming a tight phosphate coating which is ideal as a base
for paint.

Sheet steel is stamped to form the cooling fan and cooling fan shield.
Insoluble oil lubricates the process and is removed from the finished
parts by vapor degreasing.  The hand grip shape is made of thermo-
plastic resin by injection molding.  It is trimmed to its finished
form.

Steel rod stock is cut, ground and hobbed in one operation to form
a gear shape.  Steel rod stock is also turned and ground to a shaft
shape in another operation.  The gear and shaft are vapor degreased
to remove the insoluble cooling/lubricating oil and then heat treat-
ed in a molten cyanide salt.  A water quench serves also as a water
rinse completing the operation.

The parts are then assembled together with an electric  motor and
cord, inspected and tested to produce the finished drill.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Power driven hand tools
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS. WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     63

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     22

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               22,600

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $418.9    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $705.2    MILLION
                                                                       *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                25

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            100

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                25

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           75

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   25

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         75

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           25
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            5.5   BILLION GALLONS

                                      20.8   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            35

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           65

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        75

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          7
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       25

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                               *Based on Plant Data Collected

                                  TABLE 3-69
                                      3-387

-------
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                              DRAFT
Rolling Mill Machinery and Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing rolling mill machinery and processing equipment for metal produc-
tion, such as cold forming mills, structural mills, and finishing
equipment.  The principal products are:

        Bar mills
        Billet mills
        Blooming and slabbing mills
        Cleaning lines, electrolytic (rolling mill
           equipment)
        Cold forming type mills  (rolling mill
           machinery)
        Ferrous and nonferrous mill equipment,
           auxiliary
        Finishing equipment, rolling mill
        Galvanizing lines (rolling mill equip-
           ment)
        Levelers, roller (rolling mill equip-
           ment)
        Mill tables  (rolling mill equipment)
        Picklers and pickling lines, sheet and
           strip (rolling mill equipment)
        Pipe and tube mills
        Rod mills (rolling mill equipment)
        Rolling mill machinery and equipment
        Steel rolling machinery
        Straightening machinery  (rolling mill
           equipment)
        Structural mills (rolling mill machinery)

Rolling mill machinery is produced by 43 plants, averaging 223
workers each.  Most of these plants (79 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-70.
As shown in Figure 3-147, most of the products in this category
are made from steel with iron and steel scrap and steel plate being
the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are mechanical material removal, material forming (metal), and
material coating.

In general, rolling mill machinery is made by casting, forging or
otherwise forming the basic parts and then machining them to finished
detail part configurations.  Assembling these detail parts and apply-
ing protective coatings where necessary completes the manufacture.
                                 3-390

-------
                               DRAFT
Process water, which constitutes 7 percent of the gross  water  used
by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning, plating, air scrubbing
and quenching.  Pickling, alkaline cleaning and solvent  degreasing
are commonly used cleaning processes.   In plating,  process water  is
used for rinsing prior to and subsequent to plating.  Also during
casting, process water can be used for water scrubbing of  polluted
air from furnace and sand shakeout areas.  In heat treating, process
water is used in quenching.

The manufacture of rolling mill machinery is representative of the
rolling mill machinery and equipment industry.   A typical  operation
for making rolling mill machinery is shown in Figure  3-148. In
general, rolling mill machinery consists of rolls,  housings, couplin
boxes, pinions, etc.  The rolls are made from cast iron  or cast or
forged steel.  The wood pattern for the roll casting  is  made by
shaping one edge to conform to the longitudinal contour  of the roll
as modified for casting.  The pattern is then mounted on a spindle
and rotated in moist sand to form an upper and lower  mold. The mold
are next baked in drying ovens and bonded.  Then, molten alloy steel
is poured into the bonded mold.  After cooling, the roll is removed
from the mold and heat treated.  The roll is then machined and groun
to the final configuration.

Housings generally are made from annealed cast steel  or  welded steel
plates or slabs and are shaped by bending to form the desired  con-
figuration.

Coupling boxes are hollow cylindrical castings deliberately made  wea
so that in the event of extreme overloading of the mill, the box
breaks and disconnects the motor from the mill.  Pinions are made
from cast or forged steel.  They are mounted on babitted bearings.

Following fabrication, detail parts are then cleaned, protective
coated and assembled.  Frames and housings are painted.
                                 3-391

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Kolling mill machinery
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $178.5
20 EMPLOYEES 34
20 EMPLOYEES 9
9,600
MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $289.9 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS NA
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS
NA
NA
NA
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 5.5
20.8
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
35
65
75
7
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
25
NA
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3— 70
3-392

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                              DRAFT
Metalworking Machinery, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturi
metalworking machinery, not elsewhere classified, such as gas cutting
and welding equipment, wire fabricating machinery and equipment,
except wire, drawing dies, and automotive maintenance machinery and
equipment.  The principal products are:

        Automotive maintenance equipment
        Balancing equipment, automotive wheel (garage
           equipment)
        Coil winding machines for springs
        Coilers (metalworking machines)
        Cradle assemblies (wire making equipment)
        Cutting-up lines
        Degreasing machines, automotive (garage equipment)
        Draw benches
        Drawing machinery and equipment, except wire drawing
           dies
        Frame straighteners, automobile (garage equipment)
        Marking machines, metalworking
        Pack-up assemblies (wheel overhaul)
        Pail mills
        Propeller straightening presses
        Rotary slitters  (metalworking machines)
        Screw downs and boxes
        Screw driving machines
        Soldering machines,  except hand
        Welding and cutting apparatus, except electric,
           laser,  ultrasonic, etc.
        Wheel mounting and balancing equipment
        Wire drawing and fabricating machinery and
           equipment, except dies

Metal Working Machinery is produced by 389 plants, averaging 36 worke
each.  Most of these plants (66 percent) employ less than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-71.   As shown in Figu
3-149,  most of the products made in the metal working machinery Indus
are steel with sheet and strip carbon steel being the major raw mater
The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material remova
material forming  (metal) and material coating.
                                 3-395

-------
                                DRAFT
In general metal working machinery is made by forming sheet or
bar stock for component parts to a particular configuration by
forging, pressing, drawing,  swaging and general machining and
then assembling all of the various component parts.   Process water,
which constitutes 7 percent of the gross water used  by the industry,
is used mainly for cleaning and plating.

The manufacture of Gas Welding Equipment is representative of the
Metal Working industry.  A typical operation for making gas welding
equipment is shown in Figure 3-150.  Gas welding equipment essentially
consists of gas cylinders, hoses, and torches.  Initially cylinders for
containing compressed gas are manufactured by heating alloy steel
plates to forging temperatures and pressing them in  a cutting die
where they are sheared to a circular plate or disc form.   These round
discs are then placed in a position concentric with  the circular
opening of a die and forced through it by a round-nosed plunger.
The hollow cup thus formed is then placed in a press where a mandrel
forces the cup through a smaller die to deepen the cup and, at the
same time, reduce its diameter and make it cylindrical.

After the cupping process, the formed cup is hot drawn to the desired
cylinder diameter and configuration.  The open end is cut and either
swaged or spun to form the cylinder neck.  Swaging is usually used
for cylinders over 10 inches in diameter.  The cylinder is then finish
machined, threaded, heat treated, and painted.  Upon completion, the
cylinder is pressure tested.

Basically, the parts of a torch are a nozzle, tubes, and a mixing chamber
along with such parts as mixing valves and fittings  which are generally
purchased.  The nozzle is cast in brass and then machined.  The mixing
chamber is cut and machined from bar stock, and the  tubing is cut
to length and machined.  All of these parts are cleaned prior to
assembly of the torch.

Final assembly of the cylinders, torch, and purchased parts, into the
completed welding equipment is followed by inspection and an operational
test.
                                  3-396

-------
                                 DRAFT
•xODUCTION DATA Ketalworking machinery, nee
  NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      131

                             W!TH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      256

  DUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  13,900

  VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $276.3   MILLION

  VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $438.5   MILLION

  rTPCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

       1  CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                  0

       2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL. REMOVAL            100
       3  MATERIAL FORMING — METALS                ±QQ

       4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            50

       5  ASStMEL/OPERATIONS                     100

       6 CHEMIGAL-ELECTRCCrie'lvilCAL OPERATIONS    50
       7  MATERiAL COATING                          ^Q

       8  ORF PROCESSING £ RErlNING                   0

       9  MOLDiNG ?- FORMING — NON-METALS             Q
   F.R USE
  ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           5.5
                                    20.8
  MTAKE WATE'R AJ. PERCENT OF GROSS USE
  -CUBED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
       35
       65
   F RCFNT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        75

   ROCCS3 WATER AS T'ERCEHT OF GROSS USE            7
   TE WATER
 -HSCHARGEO WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        25

  URGENT OF DlbC:;-lARGFU WATER TREATED             NA
     NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant  Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-71
                                     3-397

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                              DRAFT
Food Products Machinery

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
machinery for use by the food products and beverage manufacturing
industries in the preparation, canning, or packaging of food products;
and parts and attachments for such machinery.  The products include:

        Bakery machinery
        Biscuit cutters (machines)
        Bottling machinery:  washing, steriliz-
           ing, filling, capping, labeling, etc.
        Bread slicing and wrapping machines
        Brewers'  and maltsers' machinery
        Butter making and butter working machinery
        Canning and packing machinery, food
        Cheese making machinery
        Chewing gum machinery
        Chocolate processing machinery
        Choppers, food:  commercial types
        Cider presses
        Coffee roasting and grinding machines
        Condensed and evaporated milk machinery
        Confectionery machinery
        Corn popping machines, commercial type
        Cracker making machines
        Cream separators (food products ma-
           chinery)
        Cutters,  biscuit (machines)
        Dairy products machinery and equip-
           ment
        Deaerating equipment, for food and
           beverage processing
        Dehydrating equipment, food processing
        Dies, biscuit cutting
        Distillery machinery
        Dough mixing machinery
        Food choppers, grinders, mixers, and
           slicers:  commercial type
        Food packing and canning machinery
        Flour mill machinery
        Grain mill machinery
        Grinders, food:  commercial types
        Ice cream manufacturing machinery
        Juice extractors,  fruit and vegetable:
           commercial type
        Macaroni machinery:  for making macaroni,
           spaghetti, noodles, etc.
                                 3-400

-------
                              DRAFT
         Malt mills
         Meat grinders
         Milk processing  machinery
         Milk testers
         Mills  and presses:   beet,  cider,  sugar
            cane, etc.
         Mixers and whippers,  electric:   for  food
            manufacturing industries
         Mixers,  feed:  except agricultural
         Mixer0,  food:  commercial  types
         Ovens, bakery
         Packaging machinery,  food  products
         Packing  house machinery
         Pasteurizing equipment (dairy machin-
            ery)
         Peanut roasting  machines
         Popcorn  machines, commercial type
         Potato peelers,  electric
         Presses:  cheese, beet, cider, and sugar
            cane
         Sifters  (food machinery)
         Slicing  machines, fruit and vegetable:
            commercial types
         Sterilizers, bottle
         Stuffers, sausage
         Sugar  plant machinery
         Wrapping machines,  bread, confection-
            ery,  and other food products

Food products  machinery  is produced by 673 plants, averaging 47 work-
ers each.   Most  of these plants (58 percent) employ less than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-72.  As shown
in Figure 3-151, 96 percent of the products produced in this incLus-'.ry
are made from  stsel and  the remainder are aluminum or copper.  Sheec
and strip carbon and stainless steel are the major raw materials.  ,:':•
principal manufacturing  operations are mechanical material removal.
material forming (metals), assembly operations and material coating.

In general, food products machinery is made by assembling manufa.ct- _r«c
and purchased  parts.  It is essential that parts contacting food -'lo
not have contaminating characteristics.  This is accomplished by cr:'» .
stainless steel, unit construction and manufacturing parts for quick
and easy disassembly and cleaning.  Process water, which constitutes
less than 25 percent of  the gross water used by the industry, it> us>er;
mainly for cleaning the manufactured machinery after assembly.  The
                                 3-401

-------
                               DRAFT
usual method of cleaning is electropolishing or some other form of
etching.  Other areas that use process water are vapor degreasing
or abrasive cleaning after machining.   Cooling water is also used
in annealing.

The manufacture of pasteurizing machinery is representative of the
food products machinery industry.   Pasteurizing equipment includes
tubing, fittings, a float tank, a timing pump, a heat exchanger, a
circulating unit, an air supply and various valves and electrical
units.  A typical operation for making pasteurizing machinery is
shown in Figure 3-152.

Stainless steel tubing in this industry is usually made by curling
purchased strip stock into a tube and fusion  (heli-arc) welding
the seam.  The weld seam is smoothed out by cold forging on a mill
and then bright annealed in an ammonia atmosphere.  The tube is
then rolled to size, degreased, straightened, trimmed and inspected.

The tanks are made of annealed sheetstock.  The stock is cut to a
pattern and hydroformed to the desired shape.  The lid is made
similarly.  The tank legs are made of tubing and brazed to the tank.

The heat exchanger consists primarily of steel tubing and is support-
ed by a welded frame using suitable fittings.  A typical fitting is
made by sawing and then machining it to the desired shape.  The fitting
is then degreased, annealed in water and electropolished.  Fittings
are welded to the tubes and the subassembly  (tube and fittings) are
again electropolished.

The pump, valves and similar electrical units are purchased.  Assembly
of the parts is followed by cleaning,  inspection, and testing.
                                 3-402

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  KOCH! Products Machinery
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     284

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     389

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                31,600

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $398.0     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $986.9     MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                  0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             10°

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 60

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION             40

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     40

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         100

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                    0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS             0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE               .2   BILLION GALLONS

                                         .76  BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             100

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE              0

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER           0

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            25
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         100

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED               0
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                               *Based  on Plant Data Collected

                                  TABLE 3-72

                                      3-403

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-------
                              DRAFT
Textile Machinery

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
machinery for the textile industries, including parts, attachments,
and accessories.  The products include:

        Beaming machines, textile
        Bleaching machinery, textile
        Bobbins for textile machinery
        Braiding machines, textile
        Carbonizing equipment (wood process-
           ing machinery)
        Card clothing for textile machines
        Carding machines, textile
        Cloth spreading machines
        Combing machines, textile
        Creels, textile machinery
        Drawing frames, textile
        Drying machines, textile:  for stock,
           yarn, and cloth
        Dyeing machinery, textile
        Embroidery machines
        Finishing machinery, textile
        Frames, doubling and twisting (textile
           machinery)
        Garnetting machines, textile
        Heddles for loom harnesses, wire
        Hosiery machines
        Jacquard card cutting machines
        Jacquard loom parts and attachments
        Knitting machines
        Knot tying machines (textile ma-
           chinery)
        Lace and net machines
        Lace machine bobbins, wood or metal
        Loom bobbins, wood or metal
        Looms  (textile machinery)
        Loopers (textile machinery)
        Mercerizing machinery
        Napping machines (textile machinery)
        Picker machines  (textile machinery)
        Picker sticks for looms
        Printing machinery, textile
        Reeds, loom
        Rope and cordage ruachines
        Roving machines  (textile machinery)
        Shuttles for textile weaving
                                 3-406

-------
                              DRAFT
        Silk  screens, for the textile industry
        Slashing machines  (textile machinery)
        Spindles, textile
        Spinning machines, textile
        Spools, textile machinery:  wood
        Textile finishing machinery:  bleaching,
           dyeing, mercerizing, and printing
        Textile machinery
        Textile machinery parts
        Textile turnings and shapes, wood
        Thread making machines  (spinning
           machinery)
        Tufting machines
        Warp  and knot tying machines  (textile
           machinery)
        Warping machines  (textile machinery)
        Winders (textile machinery)
        Wool  and worsted finishing machines
        Yarn  texturizing machines

Textile machinery is produced by 568 plants, averaging 56 workers
each.  Most of these plants (62 percent) employ less than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-73.  As shown
in Figure 3-153, the bulk of the products produced in this category
are made from carbon steel bar and bar shapes being the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal,  material forming  (metals), assembly operations and
material coating.

In general, textile machinery is made by assembling assorted manu-
factured and  purchased parts.   Moving parts are usually machined, heat
treated, and  finished to close tolerances.  Most contact parts have
polished finishes, while non-contact moving parts are heavily lubricated
Process water, which constitutes 36 percent of the gross water used by
the industry, is used mainly for cleaning, plating, heat treating and
finishing.

Plated parts  are cleaned before and after plating.  Heat treated parts
require quenching.  The barrel finishing rinse water effluent contains
grit and detergents from parts.

The manufacture of knitting machines is representative of the textile
machinery industry.   A typical operation for making a knitting machine
is shown in Figure 3-154.  Needles are purchased while cams are made
from flat or  round low carbon steel and initially cut or blanked.
They are then drilled,  reamed, tapped, profiled and deburred with
                                 3-407

-------
                              DRAFT
emery rolls.  These parts are next heat treated,  ground  and barrel
finished.   (Effluent being generated by barrel  finishing.)

The cams are attached to a dial cap made from 25.4 mm  thick cast  iron
The dial caps are attached to a cam ring which  also  includes  a
cylinder and dial.  The cylinder and dial holds almost 2000 needles
each.  These are made from steel forgings rings and  machined  by
turning and slotting to desired shapes.   They are then heat treated
in a cyanide bath which generates an effluent that must  be carefully
controlled.

Other knitting machine flat parts are made from high carbon coiled
steel (.1 to .25 mm thick).  They are pierced,  heat  treated to 54Rc,
blanked and barrel finished.  After barrel finishing,  some of the
parts are surface coated usually with black oxide to minimize
corrosion.  Hot and cold water rinses are used  in this process.

Frame parts such as plates, legs and beds are made from  steel or
cast iron that is machined and spray painted.

When all parts are assembled the machine is lubricated,  tested and
stored or shipped.
                                 3-408

-------
                               DRAFT
PROL,, '. "i ;ON DATA  Tc-xt.i ]<_• Kachinery
   N,',/ibL '• OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    214

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    3L4
   NL"v  r -• OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               31,900
   VA1 '•  :- ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $477.9   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $804.8   MILLION
                                                                    *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           67
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              33

        1 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         100
        [> ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  iQO
        .', CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   g7
        7 MATERIAL COATING                       33

        8 ORE PROCESSING 8-REFINING                 0
        3 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS          33
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            2.5   BILLION GALLONS
                                     9 .5   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           92
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           8
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       44
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         36
WASTE WATER
  DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      92
  PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE                              *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-73
                                    3-403

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 3-411

-------
                              DRAFT
Woodworking Machinery

This segment includes establishments pr.Uv.
machinery for sawmills, planing mills, cs1.
pattern makers, and veneer workers.  The >.

        Handsaws, woodworking
        Box making machines, for wooden -.
        Cabinet makers' machinery
        Furniture makers' machinery (wood
           working)
        Jointers  (woodworking machines)
        Lathes, wood turning:  including
           sories
        Mortisers  (woodworking machines)
        Pattern makers' machinery  (woodw.
           ing)
        Planers  (woodworking machinery)
        Planing mill machinery
        Sanding machines except portable
           sanders  (woodworking machine-
        Sawmill machines
        Saws, power:  bench and table  (i
           working machinery) - except j-
           able
        Scarfing machines  (woodworKing m-.-
        Shapers  (woodworking machinery)
        Surfacers  (woodworking machines/
        Tenoners  (woodworking machines)
        Veneer mill machines
        Venetian blind machines (woodwork-
           machinery)
        Woodworking machines

Woodworking machinery is produced by 23B
ers each.  Most of these plants (55 pete '
workers.  Additional production data are
shown in P'igure 3-155, 53 percent of the
industry are made from steel and the rein
and aluminum.  Carbon steel bars,  sheet. :
are the major raw materials.  The princ'
are mechanical material removal, assembl/
coating.

-------
                                DRAFT
In general, woodworking machinery is made by manufacturing internal
and working parts from tool steel bar stock.  Parts subject to heavy
wear are usually plated.  Frames and covers are made from castings
and sheet and plate material that is formed and machined to the de-
sired shape and painted.  Motors, bearings and fasteners are purchasec
Process water, which constitutes 25 percent of the gross water con-
sumed by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning and plating.  Cleai
ing is done during the manufacturing process and after assembly prior
to oiling.  Washing and rinsing are performed before and af+-er platinc

The manufacture of a lathe is representative of the woodworking machii
industry.  A lathe consists of a fixed headstock, a moveable tailstoc}
a bed, spindles, a bench, a chuck, handwheel, feed levers and a motor,
A typical operation for making a lathe is shown in Figure 3-156.

In general, internal and moving parts are made from tool steel bar
stock while stationary parts like the frame and covers are made from
cast iron or steel sheet or plates.

Often in a wood lathe the bed on which the moveable tail stock rides
is made from metal tubes.  The tubes are purchased and power hack
sawed to specified lengths and finished by grinding.  The tubes are
inserted into cast iron fittings and clamped by bolts to the frame.
The frame is also cast iron that is machined to accomodate attachments
The cabinet and covers are made from low carbon steel sheet or plate
that is cut, formed and trimmed to a specified configuration.  The frar
cabinet, and covers are cleaned and painted and the metal tubes are
cleaned and plated.

In most cases, joining of lathe components is done by mechanical
fastening rather than by welding.  This is desirable to facilitate
disassembly for cleaning purposes.

The motor that runs the lathe is purchased and mounted on a bench at
the rear of the headstock or below on the bench shelf.  Typically it
is connected to a V-belt.  A hinge mount for the motor allows for
shifting the belt to different pulley stops to change the speed of
the lathe.  Pulleys are often made of steel that is machined to variov
diameters and plated.  Other working parts on a lathe such as the beds
and spindles are frequently chrome or nickel plated.

After the lathe is completely assembled, it is cleaned, oiled and in-
spected, and tested prior to usage.
                                  3-413

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Woodworking Machinery
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      106
                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      132
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                13,300
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $279.7   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $483.3   MILLION
                                                               *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS               0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              50
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         50
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   0
        7 MATERIAL COATING                      100
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          0

WATER USE

   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            .4   BILLION GALLONS
                                    1.5   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          75
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          25
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER      100
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         25

WASTE WATER

   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      75
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED          33
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE                            ^^ ^ pljmt ^ Collected
                               TABLE 3-74
                                  3-414

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                              DRAFT
Paper Industries Machinery

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturinc
machinery for the pulp, paper, and paper product industries.  The
products include:

        Bag and envelope making machinery
            (paper machinery)
        Box making machines, for paper boxes
        Coating and finishing machinery, paper
        Corrugating machines for paper
        Cutting and folding machines, paper
        Die cutting and stamping machinery
            (paper converting machinery)
        Folding machines, paper:  except office
           machines
        Fourdrinier machines  (paper manufac-
           turing machinery)
        Paper mill machinery:  platers, slitting,
           waxing, etc.
        Paper product machines, except print-
           ing machines
        Pulp mill machinery
        Sandpaper manufacturing machines

Paper industries machinery is produced by 218 plants, averaging 70
workers each.  About half of these plants employ more than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-75.  As shown
in Figure 3-157, most of the products produced in this category are
made from steel with steel plates, barstock and castings being the
major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal, assembly operations and material coating,

In general, paper industries machinery is made by manufacturing screei
rolls and associated hardware and assembling these to a metallic fram<
Provisions for movement or shaking are usually required.  Power is
generally supplied by a built-in electric motor.  Process water is
used mainly for cleaning and during plating operations.

The manufacture of a Fourdrinier machine is representative of the pap
industries machinery.  A typical operation for making a Fourdrinier
machine is shown in Figure 3-158, which describes the manufacture of
most essential parts of this machine; a wire screen belt and various
types of rolls.  This machine also consists of frame parts made from
                                  -41 1

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                              DRAFT
steel castings and plates machined to desired configurations,  and
a variety of purchased motors which are usually encased within the
machine.

The wire screen belt strands are made from specially annealed copper
or brass that is very finely drawn and woven into a web, usually from
60 to 70 mesh.

The Fourdrinier machine uses a wide variety of rolls.  Some of these
are made from cast iron or steel as follows:  one edge of a wooden
pattern is shaped to conform to the longitudinal contour of the roll
as modified for casting.  The pattern is then mounted on a spindle
and rotated in moist sand to form an upper and lower mold.  The molds
are next baked in drying ovens and bonded.  Then molten metal is
poured into the bonded mold.  After cooling, the roll is removed from
the mold and machined and ground to the final configuration.

Tube or table rolls consist of parallel rolls of seamless drawn steel
or brass tubing, covered on the face and over the ends with hard
rubber approximately 6.35 mm thick.  These rolls have special cast iron
heads with high carbon steel journals and head covers.  The roll
journals are brass cased where exposed and they run in heavy duty
roller bearings enclosed in waterproof housings adjustably attached
to the shake rails.

Dandy rolls are used for smoothing down the surface of the sheet and
for water marking.  Various meshes of wire cloth are used in covering
these dandy rolls depending on the type of paper to be made.  After
assembling, the machine is cleaned, inspected, and tested.
                                 3-418

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                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Paper Industries
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 30 EMPLOYEES      110

                              WITH LESS THAN 30 EMPLOYEES      108

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 15,200

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $252.3    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $444.8    MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               50

        a MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100

        3 MATERIAL FORMING — METALS                Q

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           0

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    50

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    0

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        50

        8 ORE PROCESSING Or REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            NA     BILLION GALLONS

                                      NA     BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant Data Collectec
                                  TABLE 3-75

                                      3-419

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