DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR
EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES
AND STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE
          FOR THE
MACHINERY & MECHANICAL
PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING
    POINT SOURCE CATEGORY
  VOLUME 2 SECTION III (PART)
   UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
           JUNE 1975

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                               DRAFT
                                NOTICE


The attached document is a DRAFT CONTRACTOR'S REPORT.   It includes  tech-
nical information and recommendations submitted by the Contractor to  the
United States Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA")  regarding the sub-
ject industry.  It is being distributed for review and comment only.   The -
report is not an official EPA publication,  and it has  not been reviewed
by the Agency.

The report, including the recommendations,  will be undergoing extensive
review by EPA, Federal and State agencies,  public interest organizations,
and other interested groups and persons during the coming weeks.  The
report—and, in particular, the contractor's recommended effluent limita-
tion guidelines and standards of performance—is subject to change  in any
and all respects.

The regulations to be published by EPA under Section 304 (b)  and 306  of
the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, will be based  to a
large extent on the report and the comments received on it.  However,
pursuant to Sections 304 (b)  and 306 of the Act, EPA will also consider
additional pertinent technical and economic information which is developed
in the course of review of this report by the public and within EPA.   EPA
is currently performing an economic impact analysis regarding the subject
industry, which will be taken into account as part of  the review of the
report.  Upon completion of the review process, and prior to final  pro-
mulgation of regulations, an EPA report will be issued setting forth  EPA's
conclusions concerning the Machinery and Mechanical Products industry,
effluent limitation guidelines, and standards of performance applicable
to such industry.  Judgments necessary to promulgation of regulations
under Section 304 (b) and 306 of the Act, of course, remain the respon-
sibility of EPA.  Subject to these limitations, EPA is making this  draft
contractor's report available in order to encourage the widest possible
participation of interested persons in the decision making process  at the
earliest possible time.

The report shall have standing in any EPA proceeding or court proceeding
only to the extent that it represents the views of the Contractor who
studied the subject industry and prepared the information and recommenda-
tions.  It cannot be cited, referenced, or represented in any respect in
any such proceedings as a statement of EPA's views regarding the subject
industry.

                                   U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                   Office of Water and Hazardous Materials
                                   Effluent Guidelines Division
                                   Washington, D. C.  20460

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          SIMIFTT
  DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR
EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES
AND STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE
          FOR THE
MACHINERY & MECHANICAL
PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING
    POINT SOURCE CATEGORY
  VOLUME 2 SECTION III (PART)
        Rev
        201'
        Cbic
        CONTRACT NO. 68-01-2914
           JUNE 1975
               TT

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                               DRAFT                 OOOR75008
                               CONTENTS
                      Table of Contents Volume 1^

Section                                                          Pa?e

  I       CONCLUSIONS                                            1-1

  II      RECOMMENDATIONS                                        2-1

          BEST PRACTICABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY CURRENTLY          2-1
          AVAILABLE

          BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVABLE      2-1

          NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS                       2-1

  III     INTRODUCTION                                           3-1

          PURPOSE AND AUTHORITY                                  3-1

          APPROACH TO EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS DERIVATION            3-2
               Sources of Industry                       ^        3-3
               Utilization of Industry Data              *        3-24
               Effluent Limitations Derivation                   3-27

          INDUSTRY SUMMARY DESCRIPTION                           3-31

          PRODUCTION DATA                                        3-39
               Raw Materials                                     3-44
               Production Processes                              3-45
               Water Usage                                       3-47
               Waste Characteristics                             3-47

          INDIVIDUAL INDUSTRY SEGMENT DESCRIPTIONS                3-47
               Miscellaneous Plastics Products                   3-54
               Primary Smelting and Refining  of Nonferrous        3-63
                    Metals,  Not Elsewhere  Classified
               Secondary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous      3-69
                    Metals
               Rolling,  Drawing,  and Extruding of Copper          3-75
               Aluminum Sheet,  Plate, and  Foil                   3-81
               Aluminum Extruded Products                         3-86
               Aluminum Rolling and Drawing,  Not Elsewhere        3-91
                    Classified
               Rolling,  Drawing,  and Extruding of Nonferrous      3-96
                    Metals,  Except Copper  and Aluminum
               Drawing and Insulating of Nonferrous Wire          3-101
                               111

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                      UHAT I
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 1,  Section III (Continued)
      Aluminum Foundries (Castings)                      3-105
      Brass, Bronze, Copper, Copper Base Alloy          3-110
           Foundries
      Nonferrous Foundries (Castings),  Not Elsewhere    3-115
           Classified
      Metal Heat Treating        '                       3-120
      Primary Metal Products, Not Elsewhere             3-124
           Classified
      Metal Cans                                        3-129
      Metal Shipping Barrels, Drums, Kegs, and Pails    3-134
      Cutlery                                           3-139
      Hand and Edge Tools,  Except Machine Tools and     3-144
           Hand Saws
      Hand Saws and Saw Blades                          3-151
      Hardware, Not Elsewhere Classified                3-155
      Enameled Iron and Metal Sanitary  Ware             3-162
      Plumbing Fixture Fittings and Trim                3-167
            (Brass Goods)
      Heating Equipment, Except Electric and Warm       3-172
           Air Furnaces
      Fabricated Structural Metal                       3-177
      Metal Doors, Sash, Frames, Molding, and Trim      3-182
      Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops)              3-187
      Sheet Metal Work                                  3-194
      Architectural and Ornamental Metal Work           3-199
      Prefabricated Metal Buildings and Components      3-204
      Miscellaneous Metal Work                          3-204
      Screw Machine Products                            3-210
      Bolts, Nuts, Screws,  Rivets, and  Washers          3-214
            (Fasteners)
      Iron and Steel Forgings                           3-219
      Nonferrous Forgings                               3-224
      Automotive Stampings                              3-228
      Crowns and Closures                               3-232
      Metal Stampings, Not Elsewhere Classified         3-236
      Small Arms Ammunition                             3-241
      Ammunition, Except for Small Arms, Not            3-246
           Elsewhere Classified
      Small Arms                         x              3-252
      Ordnance and Accessories, Not Elsewhere           3-257
           Classified
      Steel Springs, Except Wire                        3-262
                        IV

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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 1,  Section III  (Continued)
      Valves and Pipe Fittings,  Except Plumbers'
           Brass Goods
      Wire Springs                                      3-272
      Miscellaneous Fabricated Wire Products             3-277
      Metal Foil and Leaf                               3-284
      Fabricated Pipe and Fabricated Pipe  Fittings       3-289
      Fabricated Metal Products,  Not Elsewhere           3-294
           Classified
      Steam, Gas, and Hydraulic  Turbines and  Turbine     3-300
           Generator Set Units
      Internal Combustion Engines,  Not Elsewhere         3-305
           Classified
      Farm Machinery and Equipment                       3-310
      Garden Tractors and Lawn and  Garden  Equipment      3-317
      Construction Machinery and  Equipment              3-322
      Mining Machinery and Equipment,  Except  Oil         3-329
           Field Machinery and Equipment
      Oil Field Machinery and Equipment                 3-335
      Elevators and Moving Stairways                    3-340
      Conveyors and Conveying Equipment                 3-345
      Hoists, Industrial Cranes,  and Monorail            3-350
           Systems
      Industrial Trucks, Tractors,  Trailers and          3-355
           Stackers
      Machine Tools, Metal Cutting  Types                 3-361
      Machine Tools, Metal Forming  Types                 3-368
      Special Dies and Tools,  Die Sets, Jigs  and         3-374
           Fixtures and Industrial  Molds
      Machine Tool Accessories and  Measuring  Devices     3-379
      Power Driven Hand Tools                           3-385
      Rolling Mill Machinery and  Equipment              3-390
      Metalworking Machinery,  Not Elsewhere              3-395
           Classified
      Food Products Machinery                           3-400
      Textile Machinery                                 3-406
      Woodworking Machinery                             3-412
      Paper Industries Machinery                         3-417
      Printing Trades Machinery and Equipment            3-422
      Special Industry Machinery, Not  Elsewhere          3-429
           Classified
      Pumps and Pumping Equipment                       3-435
      Air and Gas Compressors                            3-435
      Ball and Roller Bearings                          3-440

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                       DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 2,  Section III (Continued)   [
      Blowers and Exhaust and Ventilation Fans          3-445
      Industrial Patterns                               3-450
      Speed Changers, Industrial High Speed Drives,      3-454
           and Gears
      Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment, Not      3-454
           Elsewhere Classified
      Industrial Process Furnaces and Ovens             3-459
      General Industrial Machinery and Equipment,        3-464
           Not Elsewhere Classified
      Typewriters                                       3-471
      Office Machines, Not Elsewhere Classified         3-471
      Electronic Computing Equipment                    3-478
      Calculating and Accounting Machines,  Except        3-484
           Electronic Computing Equipment
      Scales and Balances, Except Laboratory            3-489
      Automatic Merchandising Machines                  3-494
      Commercial Laundry, Dry Cleaning,  and             3-498
           Pressing Machines
      Air Conditioning and Warm Air Heating             3-503
           Equipment and Commercial and Industrial
           Refrigeration Equipment
      Measuring and Dispensing Pumps                    3-508
      Service Industry Machines, Not Elsewhere          3-512
           Classified
      Carburetors, Pistons,  Piston Rings and Valves      3-517
      Machinery, Except Electrical, Not Elsewhere        3-517
           Classified
      Power, Distribution, and Specialty Transformers    3-523
      Switchgear and Switchboard Apparatus               3-528
      Motors and Generators                             3-533
      Industrial Controls                               3-538
      Welding Apparatus, Electric                       3-543
      Carbon and Graphite Products                      3-548
      Electrical Industrial Apparatus, Not  Elsewhere     3-552
           Classified
      Household Cooking Equipment                       3-557
      Household Refrigerators and Home and  Farm         3-562
           Freezers
      Household Laundry Equipment                       3-567
      Electric Housewares and Fans                      3-572
      Household Vacuum Cleaners                         3-578
      Household Appliances,  Not Elsewhere Classified     3-582
      Electric Lamps                                    3-587

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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)



Table of Contents Volume 2_,  Section III (Continued)

                                                        Page

      Current-Carrying Wiring Devices                   3-592
      Noncurrent-Carrying Wiring Devices                3-597
      Residential Electric Lighting Fixtures             3-601
      Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional          3-606
           Electric Lighting Fixtures
      Vehicular Lighting Equipment                      3-611
      Lighting Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified       3-616
      Radio and Television Receiving Sets,  Except        3-621
           Communication Types
      Phonograph Records and Pre-recorded Magnetic       3-626
           Tape
      Telephone and Telegraph Apparatus                 3-631
      Radio and Television Transmitting, Signaling,      3-636
           and Detection Equipment and Apparatus
      Radio and Television Receiving Type Electron       3-643
           Tubes, Except Cathode Ray
      Cathode Ray Television Picture Tubes      «         3-648
      Transmitting, Industrial,  and Special Purpose      3-652
           Electron Tubes
      Semiconductors and Related Devices                3-657
      Electronic Capacitors                              3-662
      Resistors for Electronic Applications             3-666
      Electronic Coils,  Transformers and Other           3-670
           Inductors
      Connectors for Electronic  Applications             3-674
      Electronic Components,  Not Elsewhere  Classified    3-678
      Storage Batteries                                  3-684
      Primary Batteries,  Dry and Wet                    3-689
      Radiographic X-ray, Fluoroscopic X-ray,            3-693
           Therapeutic X-ray, and Other X-ray
           Apparatus and Tubes;  Electromedical
           and Electrotherapeutic Apparatus
      Electrical Equipment for Internal Combustion       3-698
           Engines
      Electrical Machinery,  Equipment,  and  Supplies,     3-703
           Not Elsewhere Classified
      Motor Vehicles and Passenger Car Bodies            3-708
      Truck and Bus Bodies                              3-714
      Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories                3-719
      Truck Trailers                                    3-725
      Aircraft                                          3-729
      Aircraft Engines and Engine Parts                 3-734

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                      unnr i
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 2, Section III (Continued)
      Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment, Not
           Elsewhere Classified
      Ship Building and Repairing                       3-746
      Boat Building and Repairing                       3-751
      Railroad Equipment                                3-756
      Motorcycles, Bicycles, and Parts                  3-762
      Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles                3-767
      Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion       3-771
           Units and Propulsion Unit Parts
      Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Parts and        3-776
           Auxiliary Equipment, Not Elsewhere
           Classified
      Travel Trailers and Campers                       3-782
      Tanks and Tank Components                         3-787
      Transportation Equipment, Not Elsewhere           3-792
           Classified
      Engineering, Laboratory, Scientific, and          3-797
           Research Instruments and Associated
           Equipment
      Automatic Controls for Regulating Residential     3-804
           and Commercial Environments and Appliances
      Industrial Instruments for Measurement, Display,   3-810
           and Control of Process Variables; and
           Related Products
      Totalizing Fluid Meters and Counting Devices      3-817
      Instruments for Measuring and Testing of          3-822
           Electricity and Electrical Signals
      Measuring and Controlling Devices, Not            3-829
           Elsewhere Classified
      Optical Instruments and Lenses                    3-835
      Surgical and Medical Instruments and Apparatus    3-841
      Orthopedic, Prosthetic, and Surgical Appliances   3-848
           and Supplies
      Dental Equipment and Supplies                     3-855
      Ophthalmic Goods                                  3-860
      Photographic Equipment and Supplies               3-865
      Watches, Clocks, Clockwork Operated Devices,      3-872
           and Parts
      Jewelry, Precious Metal                           3-877
      Silverware, Plated Ware, and Stainless Steel      3-882
           Ware
      Jewelers' Findings and Materials, and Lapidary    3-887
           Work
                        Vlll

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                              DRAFT
                         CONTENTS  (Continued)



         Table of Contents  Volume  2_,  Section  III  (Continued)

Section

               Musical Instruments                              3-892
               Dolls                                            3-899
               Games,  Toys, and  Children's Vehicles; Except      3-903
                    Dolls and Bicycles
               Sporting and Athletic  Goods, Not Elsewhere        3-908
                    Classified
               Pens, Mechanical  Pencils, and  Parts               3-915
               Costume Jewelry and Costume Novelties, Except     3-919
                    Precious Metal
               Brooms  and Brushes                                3-924
               Signs and Advertising  Displays                   3-928
               Burial  Caskets                                   3-933

                      Table of_ Contents Volume 3_

  IV      INDUSTRY CATEGORIZATION                                4-1

          INTRODUCTION                                  *        4-1

          SUBCATEGORY  SELECTION                                  4-1

          OTHER FACTORS                                         4-9

          SUBCATEGORY  DESCRIPTIONS                              4-24
               Subcategory  1 - Casting and Molding - Metals      4-24
               Subcategory  2 - Mechanical Material Removal       4-27
               Subcategory  3 - Material Forming - All            4-27
                    Materials Except  Plastics
               Subcategory  4 - Physical Property Modification    4-28
               Subcategory  5 - Assembly Operations               4-29
               Subcategory  6 - Chemical-Electrochemical  ,        4-29
                    Operations
               Subcategory  7 - Material Coating                  4-30
               Subcategory  8 - Smelting and Refining of          4-30
                    Nonferrous Metals
               Subcategory  9 - Molding and Forming - Plastics    4-32
               Subcategory  10  -  Film  Sensitizing                 4-32
               Subcategory  11  -  Dockside Shipbuilding and        4-33
                    Repair
               Subcategory  12  -  Lead Acid Batteries              4-33

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS  (Continued)
          Table of Contents Volume  3_,  Section  IV (Continued)

Section                                                          Page

          EFFLUENT LIMITATION BASIS                              4-34
               Production Related Parameters                      4-35
               Selection of Production-Oriented  Parameter         4-39

          SUMMARY                                                4-60

  V       WASTE CHARACTERIZATION                                 5-1

          INTRODUCTION                                           5-1

          SUBCATEGORY 1 - CASTING AND  MOLDING  METALS              5-1
               Process Schematic                                 5-1
               Water Usage                                       5-4
               Waste Constituents                                5-4

          SUBCATEGORY 2 - MECHANICAL MATERIAL  REMOVAL             5-6
               Process Schematic                                 5-6
               Water Usage                                       5-6
               Waste Constituents                                5-8

          SUBCATEGORY 3 - MATERIAL  FORMING - ALL MATERIALS        5-8
          EXCEPT PLASTICS
               Process Schematic                                 5-8
               Water Usage                                       5-11
               Waste Constituents                                5-11

          SUBCATEGORY 4 - PHYSICAL  PROPERTY MODIFICATION          5-13
               Process Schematic                                 5-13
               Water Usage                                       5-13
               Waste Characteristics                             5-13

          SUBCATEGORY 5 - ASSEMBLY  OPERATIONS                     5-16
               Process Schematic                                 5-16
               Water Usage                                       5-16
               Waste Constituents                                5-18

          SUBCATEGORY 6 - CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     5-18
               Process Schematic                                 5-18
               Water Usage                                       5-18
               Waste Constituents                                5-18

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                                DRAFT
                         CONTENTS  (Continued)



          Table of_ Contents Volume 3_,  Section  V (Continued)

Section

          SUECATEGORY 7 - MATERIAL COATING                       5-22
               Process Schematic                                 5-22
               Water Usage                                       5-22
               Waste Constituents                                 5-24

          SUBCATEGORY 8 - SMELTING AND REFINING OF NONFERROUS     5-24
          METALS
               Process Schematic                                 5-24
               Water Usage                                       5-27
               Waste Constituents                                 5-27

          SUBCATEGORY 9 - MOLDING  AND  FORMING  - PLASTICS          5-29
               Process Schematic                                 5-29
               Water Usage                                       5-29
               Waste Constituents                                 5-31

          SUBCATEGORY 10 - FILM SENSITIZING                .       5-31
               Process Schematic                                 5-31
               Water Usage                                       5-31
               Waste Constituents                                 5-34

          SUBCATEGORY 11 - DOCKSIDE SHIPBUILDING ACTIVITIES       5-34
               Process Description                               5-34
               Water Usage                                       5-36
               Waste Characteristics                             5-36

          SUBCATEGORY 12 - LEAD ACID BATTERY MANUFACTURE          5-37
               Process Schematic                                 5-37
               Water Usage                                       5-37
               Waste Constituents                                 5-39

  VI       SELECTION OF POLLUTANT PARAMETERS                       6-1

          INTRODUCTION                                           6-1

          RATIONALE FOR THE SELECTION  OF POLLUTANT PARAMETERS     6-5
               pH                                                 6-5
               Total Suspended  Solids                             6-6
               Cadmium (Cd)                                       6-7
               Chromium (Cr)                                      6-8
               Copper (Cu)                                        6-9
               Cyanide (CN)                                       6-10
               Fluoride                          .                6-11

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                       DRAFT
               CONTENTS (Continued)



Table of Contents Volume _3/ Section VI (Continued)

                                                       Page

     Iron (Fe)                                         6-12
     Lead (Pb)                                         6-13
     Mercury  (Hg)                                      6-14
     Nickel (Ni)                                        6-14
     Oil and Grease                                    6-15
     Chemical Oxygen Demand                            6-16
     Phosphates                                        6-17
     Silver (Ag)                                        6-18
     Zinc (Zn)                                         6-19

RATIONALE FOR NOT SELECTING CERTAIN POLLUTANTS AS      6-23
PARAMETERS FOR EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
     Color                                             6-20
     Turbidity                                         6-21
     Odor                                              6-21
     Acidity                                           6-21
     Alkalinity                                        6-22
     Ammonia  (NH3J                                      6-23
     Dissolved Oxygen                                  6-23
     Conductance                                       6-23
     Chlorine (Cl)                                      6-24
     Sulfides                                          6-24
     Hardness                                          6-25
     Total Solids                                      6-25
     Settleable Solids                                 6-26
     Algicides                                         6-26
     Aluminum (Al)                                      6-26
     Antimony (Sb)                                      6-27
     Arsenic  (As)                                      6-27
     Barium (Ba)                                        6-2S
     Beryllium (Be)                                     6-29
     Boron (B)                                         6-30
     Calcium  (Ca)                                      6-30
     Chlorides                                         6-31
     Chlorinated Hydrocarbons                          6-31
     Dissolved Iron                                    6-32
     Magnesium (Mg)                                     6-33
     Manganese (Mn)                                     6-33
     Molybdenum  (Mo)                                    6-34
     Nitrates                                          6-34
     Nitrites                                          6-35
     Kjeldahl Nitrogen                                 6-35
     Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)                    6-36
     PCB's                                             6-36
                         XI 1

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS  (Continued)



          Table of Contents  Volume  3_,  Section VI  (Continued)

Section

               Phenols                                          6-38
               Potassium (K)                                     6-39
               Selenium (Se)                                     6-40
               Silica/Silicates/Silicon                          6-40
               Sodium (Na)                                       6-41
               Strontium (Sr)                                    6-41
               Sulfates                                         6-42
               Sulfites                                         6-43
               Titanium (Ti)                                     6-43
               Volatile Solids                                   6-44
               Surfactants                                       6-44
               Plasticizers                                      6-44
               Bromide (Br)                                      6-44
               Cobalt (Co)                                       6-45
               Thallium (Tl)                                     6-45
               Tin (Sn)                                          6-46
               Aldehydes                                        6-46
               Hydroquinone/Sodium  Thiosulfate/Thiocyanates      6-47

  VII     CONTROL AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY                       7-1

          INTRODUCTION                                          7-1

          IN-PLANT TECHNOLOGY                                    7-4

          INDIVIDUAL TREATMENT  TECHNOLOGIES                      7-5

          NEUTRALIZATION                                        7-6
               Definition of the Process                         7-6
               Description of the Process                        7-6
               Advantages and Limitations                        7-8
               Specific Performance                             7-8
               Operational Factors                               7-8
               Demonstration Status                             7-9

          CHEMICAL REDUCTION                                    7-9
               Definition of the Process                         7-9
               Description of the Process                        7-9
               Advantages and Limitations                        7-11
               Specific Performance                             7-13
               Operational Factors                               7-13
               Demonstration Status                             7-13
                                 Xlll

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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 3,  Section VII  (Continued)
 SKIMMING                                               7-13
      Definition of the Process                         7-13
      Description of the Process                        7-15
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-15
      Specific Performance                              7-15
      Operational Factors                               7-15
      Demonstration Status                              7-16

 CLARIFICATION                                          7-16
      Definition of the Process                         7-16
      Description of the Process                        7-16
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-18
      Specific Performance                              7-18
      Operational Factors                               7-19
      Demonstration Status                              7-19

 FLOTATION                                              7-19
      Definition of the Process                         7-19
      Description of the Process                        7-20
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-22
      Specific Performance                              7-22
      Operational Factors                               7-22
      Demonstration Status                              7-24

 OXIDATION BY CHLORINE                                  7-24
      Definition of the Process                         7-24
      Description of the Process                        7-26
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-29
      Specific Performance                              7-29
      Operational Factors                               7-29
      Demonstration Status                              7-30

 OXIDATION BY OXYGEN                                    7-30
      Description of the Process                        7-30
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-33
      Specific Performance                              7-33
      Operational Factors                               7-34
      Demonstration Status                              7-34

 CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION                                 7-35
      Definition of the Process                         7-35
      Description of the Process                        7-35
                        xiv

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                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS  (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 3,  Section VII  (Continued)
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-37
      Specific Performance                              7-38
      Operational Factors                              7-38
      Demonstration Status                              7-38

 COAGULATION/FLOCCULATION                              7-41
      Definition of the Process                         7-41
      Description of the Process                        7-41
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-41
      Specific Performance                              7-43
      Operational Factors                              7-43
      Demonstration Status                              7-43

 SEDIMENTATION                                         7-44
      Definition of the Process                         7-44
      Description of the Process                        7-44
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-47
      Specific Performance                      *       7-47
      Operational Factors                              7-49
      Demonstration Status                              7-50

 MICROSTRAINING                                        7-50
      Definition of the Process                         7-50
      Description of the Process                        7-50
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-50
      Specific Performance                              7-50
      Operational Factors                              7-53
      Demonstration Status                              7-53

 DEEP BED FILTRATION                                   7-53
      Definition of the Process                         7-53
      Description of the Process                        7-53
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-56
      Specific Performance                              7-57
      Operational Factors                              7-57
      Demonstration Status                              7-57

 SCREENING                                             7-57
      Definition of the Process                         7-57
      Description of the Process                        7-60
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-61
      Specific Performance                              7-61
                         xv

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                      DKAI-T
                CONTENTS (Continued)



Table o_f_ Contents Volume 3_, Section VII (Continued)

                                                        Page

      Operational Factors                               7-61
      Demonstration Status                              7-62

 ION EXCHANGE                                           7-62
      Definition of the Process                         7-62
      Description of the Process                        7-62
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-64
      Specific Performance                              7-66
      Operational Factors                               7-66
      Demonstration Status                              7-67

 ADSORPTION                                             7-67
      Definition of the Process                         7-67
      Description of the Process                        7-67
      Advantages and Limitations                        "7-69
      Specific Performance                              7-69
      Operational Factors                               7-70
      Demonstration Status                              7-71

 DISTILLATION                                           7-71
      Definition of the Process                         7-71
      Description of the Process                        7-71
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-73
      Specific Performance                              7-74
      Operational Factors                               7-74
      Demonstration Status                              7-74

 REVERSE OSMOSIS                                        7-75
      Definition of the Process                         7-75
      Description of the Process                        7-75
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-76
      Specific Performance                              7-77
      Operational Factors                               7-78
      Demonstration Status                              7-78

 ULTRAFILTRATION                                        7-79
      Definition of the Process                         7-79
      Description of the Process                        7-80
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-80
      Specific Performance                              7-82
      Operational Factors                               7-83
      Demonstration Status                              7-84
                        xvi

-------
                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 3,  Section VII  (Continued)
 ELECTRO-DIALYSIS                                       7-85
      Definition of the Process                         7-85
      Description of the Process                        7-85
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-88
      Specific Performance                             7-88
      Operational Factors                              7-88
      Demonstration Status                             7-90

 LIQUID/LIQUID EXTRACTION                              7-90
      Definition of the Process                         7-90
      Description of the Process                        7-90
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-92
      Specific Performance                             7-92
      Operational Factors                              7-94
      Demonstration Status                             7-94

 GAS PHASE SEPARATION                          ,        7-95
      Definition of the Process                         7-95
      Description of the Process                        7-95
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-95
      Specific Performance                             7-97
      Operational Factors                              7-97
      Demonstration Status                             7-97

 FREEZING/CRYSTALIZATION                               7-98
      Definition of the Process                         7-98
      Description of the Process                        7-98
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-100
      Specific Performance                             7-100
      Operational Factors                              7-100
      Demonstration Status                             7-100

 CHEMICAL DISINFECTION                                  7-101
      Definition of the Process                         7-101
      Description of the Process                        7-101
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-102
      Specific Performance                             7-102
      Operational Factors                              7-104
      Demonstration Status                             7-104
                       xv 11

-------
                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 3,  Section VII  (Continued)
 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION                                    7-104
      Definition of the Process                         7-104
      Description of the Process                         7-104
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-106
      Specific Performance                              7-108
      Operational Factors                               7-108
      Demonstration Status                              7-109

 AEROBIC DIGESTION                                      7-109
      Definition of the Process                         7-109
      Description of the Process                         7-109
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-111
      Specific Performance                              7-111
      Operational Factors                               7-115
      Demonstration Status                              7-115

 THICKENING                                             7-115
      Definition of the Process                         7-115
      Description of the Process                         7-115
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-116
      Specific Performance                              7-116
      Operational Factors                               7-119
      Demonstration Status                              7-119

 PRESSURE FILTRATION                                    7-119
      Definition of the Process                         7-119
      Description of the Process                         7-119
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-121
      Specific Performance                              7-121
      Operational Factors                               7-124
      Demonstration Status                              7-124

 HEAT TREATMENT          -                               7-125
      Definition of the Process                         7-125
      Description of the Process                         7-125
      Advantages and Limitations                         7-125
      Specific Performance                              7-126
      Operational Factors                               7-126
      Demonstration Status                              7-126
                        xvi 11

-------
                      DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)
Table of Contents Volume 3,  Section VII (Continued)
 HEAT DRYING                                            '.'-126
      Definition of the Process                         '/-I26
      Description of the Process                        7-127
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-128
      Specific Performance                              7--12P
      Operational Factors                               7-128
      Demonstration Status                              7-126

 SAND BED DRYING                                        7-12?
      Definition of the Process                         7-129
      Description of the Process                        7-129
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-129
      Specific Performance                              7-131
      Operational Factors                               7-131
      Demonstration Status                              7-131

 VACUUM FILTRATION                                      7-132
      Definition of the Process                *         7-J32
      Description of the Process                        7-132
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-132
      Specific Performance                              7-13^
      Operational Factors                               7-134
      Demonstration Status                              7-134

 CENTRIFUGATION                                         7-11C
      Definition of the Process                         7-13C
      Description of the Process                        V-136
      Advantages and Limitations                        T-13C
      Specific Performance                              7-131
      Operational Factors                               7-138
      Demonstration Status                              7-139

 SLUDGE DISPOSAL                                        7-13S-
      General                                            7-139
      Landfill                                          7-13S
      Incineration                                      7-140
      Lagoons                                            7-142
      Land  Spreading                                    7-144
      Wet Air  Oxidation                                 7-146
      Ocean Disposal                                    7-146
      Pyrclysis for Sludge Disposal                      7-146
      Other Methods                                     7-148
                         xix

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                       DRAFT
                CONTENTS (Continued)



Table of_ Contents Volume 3_, Section VII (Continued)

                                                        Page

 EMULSION BREAKING                                      7-148
      Definition of the Process                         7-148
      Description of the Process                        7-148
      Advantages and Limitations                        7-149
      Specific Performance                              7-149
      Operational Factors                               7-149
      Demonstration Status                              7-150

 SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - BPT AND BAT                    "    7-151

 BEST PRACTICAL TECHNOLOGY CURRENTLY AVAILABLE (BPT)    7-151

 BASELINE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION (BPT)                       7-154

 ALTERNATE APPROACHES                                   7-158

 SUBCATEGORY 1, CASTING AND MOLDING - METALS - BPT      7-159

 SUBCATEGORY 2, MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL - BPT       7-162

 SUBCATEGORY 3, MATERIAL FORMING - ALL MATERIALS         7-162
 EXCEPT PLASTICS - EPT

 SUBCATEGCRY 4, PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION -  EPT    7-167

 SUECATEGORY 5, ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS - BPT               7-167

 SUBCATEGORY 6, CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL                7-173
 OPERATIONS - EPT

 SUBCATEGORY 7, MATERIAL COATING - BPT                  7-173

 SUBCATEGORY 8, SMELTING AND REFINING OF NONFERROUS      7-180
 METALS - BPT

 SUBCATEGORY 9, MOLDING AND FORMING OF PLASTICS - BPT   7-180

 SUBCATEGORY 10, FILM SENSITIZING - BPT                 7-180

 SUBCATEGORY 11, DOCKSIDE SHIPBUILDING ACTIVITIES -      7-184
 BPT

 SUBCATEGORY 12, LEAD ACID BATTERY MANUFACTURE -  BPT    7-184
                          XX

-------
                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS (Continued)



         Table of Contents Volume 3_,  Section VII (Continued)

Section

          BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVABLE
          (BAT)
               In-Plant Techniques
               End-Of-Pipe Treatment

          SUBCATEGORY 1, CASTING AND MOLDING - METALS - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 2, MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 3, MATERIAL FORMING - ALL MATERIALS
          EXCEPT PLASTICS - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 4, PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 5, ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 6, CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL
          OPERATIONS - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 1, MATERIAL COATING - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 8, SMELTING AND REFINING OF NONFERROUS
          METALS - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 9, MOLDING AND FORMING OF PLASTICS - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 10, FILM SENSITIZING - BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 11, DOCKSIDE SHIPBUILDING ACTIVITIES -
          BAT

          SUBCATEGORY 12, LEAD ACID BATTERY MANUFACTURE - BAT    7-201

                      Table of_ Contents  Volume 4_

  VIII     COST,  ENERGY,  AND NONWATER QUALITY ASPECTS             8-1

          INTRODUCTION                                           8-1

          COST ESTIMATES                                         8-1
              Technology Cost Estimates                         8-1
              Technology Costs and Assumptions                  8-3
              System Cost Estimates                              8-25
              Cost Breakdown  Factors                            8-53

-------
                         CONTENTS (Continued)
         Table of Contents Volume 4_, Section VIII (Continued)

Section                                                          Page

          ENERGY AND NONWATER QUALITY ASPECTS                    8-55
               Energy Aspects                                    8-55
               Nonwater Quality Aspects                          8-55

  IX      BEST PRACTICABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY CURRENTLY          9-1
          AVAILABLE - EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS

          INTRODUCTION                                           9-1

          APPLICABILITY                                          9-1

          BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS                               9-2

          IDENTIFICATION OF BPT                                  9-6

          RATIONALE FOR SELECTION OF BPT                         9-6
               Age and Size of Facilities                        9-6
               Processes Employed                                9-7
               Nonwater Quality Environmental Impact             9-7
               Engineering Impact on Treatment Facilities        9-8
               Process Changes                                   9-8
               Cost of Meeting the Effluent Limitations          9-8

          PROCEDURE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BPT EFFLUENT              9-10
          LIMITATIONS
               Screening Rationale                               9-10
               Determination of 30-Day Average Effluent          9-12
                    Limitations
               Single-Day Maximum Effluent Limitations           9-15

          APPLYING THE EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS                      9-15
               General Principles of Application                 9-15
               Examples                                          9-16

  X       BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVEABLE     10-1
          EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS

          INTRODUCTION                                           10-1

          APPLICABILITY                                          10-1

          BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS                               10-1
                                 xxi i

-------
                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS  (Continued)
          Table of Contents Volume £,  Section  X  (Continued)

Section

          RATIONALE FOR SELECTION CF BAT                         10-1

          APPLICATION OF BAT                                     10-2
               Introduction                                      1C-2
               Pollutant Reduction or Elimination                 10-15
               Water Use Reduction or Elimination                 10-17
               Pollutant Control Measures                         10-17
               In-Plant Water Reuse                              10-37
               Wastewater Reclamation and  Reuse                   10-lfi
               Contract Removal                                  10-23

          APPLYING THE EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS                       20-24

          ECONOMIC IMPACT                                        2C-24

  XI      NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS AND PRETREATMENT       11-1
          STANDARDS

          INTRODUCTION                                           11-1

          NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS                       11-1
               Applicability                                     11-1
               New Source Performance  Standards                   11-1
               Rationale for New Source  Performance Standards     11-1
               Best Available Demonstrated Control Technology     11-2
               Economic Impact                                   11-3

          PRETREATMENT STANDARDS                                 11-3
               Applicability                                     11-3
               Pretreatment Standards                             11-4
               Pretreatment Standards  Rationale                   11-4
               Technology                                        11-9

  XII      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                        12-1

  XIII     REFERENCES                                             13-1

          INDUSTRY DESCRIPTION                                   13-1

          IN-PLANT CONTROL  TECHNOLOGY/RECYCLING                   13-4
                                 xxin

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                       UHMF I









                CONTENTS (Continued)









Table of Content Volume 4_,  Section XIII  (Continued)




                                                        Page




 SCREENING                                              13-7




 EMULSION BREAKING                                      13-7




 SKIMMING/OIL REMOVAL                                   13-8




 FLOTATION                                              13-9




 SEDIMENTATION                                          13-9




 ULTRAFILTRATION                                        13-10




 REVERSE OSMOSIS (HYPERFILTRATION)                      13-10




 OTHER FILTRATION                                       13-12




 LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION                               13-12




 ADSORPTION                                             13-13




 IOK EXCHANGE                                           13-14




 GAS PHASE SEPARATION                                   13-15




 ELECTRODIALYSIS, ETC.                                  13-15




 DISTILLATION/EVAPORATION                               13-16




 MISCELLANEOUS REMOVAL TECHNIQUES                       13-16




 CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF CYANIDES, ETC.                   13-17




 CHEMICAL REDUCTION OF CHROMIUM, ETC.                   13-18




 NEUTRALIZATION WITH ACIDS                               13-19




 NEUTRALIZATION WITH BASES                               13-20




 FLOCCULAT10N (COAGULATION)                              13-20




 CLARIFICATION                                          13-21
                         XXIV

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                               DRAFT
                         CONTENTS  (Continued)









         Table of_ Contents  Volume  4_,  Section XIII  (Continued)




Section                                                         Page




          MISCELLANEOUS  CHEMICAL TECHNIQUES                      13-21




          BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES                                  13-22




          THICKENING                                            13-23




          CENTRIFUGATION                                        13-23




          SLUDGE  DISPOSAL                                       13-24




          MISCELLANEOUS  DISPOSAL                                 13-24




          INCINERATION                                          13-24




          PYROLYSIS                                              13-25




          CONTRACTOR REMOVAL                                     13-25




          MONITORING AND CONTROL                          *       13-25




          WATER QUALITY  CRITERIA AND  STANDARDS                   13-27




          INTEGRATED TREATMENT TECHNIQUES                        13-29




          ECONOMICS  DATA                                        13-31




          COMPUTER PROGRAMMING                                   13-36




          GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS                             13-36




  XIV     GLOSSARY                                              14-1
                                  XXV

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                              DRAFT
Blowers and Exhaust and Ventilation Fans

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
industrial and commercial blowers, industrial and commercial ex-
haust and ventilating fans, and attic fans.  The major products
are:

        Air purification and dust collection
           equipment
        Aircurtains (blower)
        Attic fans
        Blower filter units (furnace blowers)
        Blowers, exhaust fans, and air moving
           equipment
        Dust and fume collecting equipment,
           industrial
        Exhaust fans,  except household and kitchen
        Fans, general industrial and commercial,
           and all attic fans
        Filters, air:   for furnaces, air conditioning
           equipment,  etc.
        Furnace blowers (blower filter units)
        Precipitators, electrostatic
        Turbo-blowers, industrial
        Ventilating, blowing,  and exhaust fans:
           industrial and commercial use

Blowers and exhaust fans are produced by 371 plants,  averaging 61
workers each.  Most of these plants (58 percent) employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in  Table 3-80.
As shown in Figure 3-168,  the bulk of the products produced in this
category are made from steel with steel sheet and strip being the
major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal, material forming (metal), assembly
operations and material coating.

In general, blowers and fans are made by manufacturing a fan wheel
either from a complete precision casting or by joining sheet metal
blades to hub plates.   The fan housing is usually made by hydro-
forming sheet metal .plates and then joining these plates by welding
or other means to form a spiral type configuration.   The fan wheel

-------
is mounted on a shaft which is connected to the drive motor.
Process water is used mainly for plating which is sometimes
applied to fan wheels to minimize pitting.  If the fan wheels are
cast, parts are cleaned by both high pressure water which removes
mold and core material and by wet blast abrasive cleaning.

The manufacture of a centrifugal blower is representative of the
blower and fan industry.  A centrifugal blower consists of a blower
wheel, housing assembly, shaft and bearing assembly.  Typical oper-
ations used in making a centrifugal blower are shown in Figure 3-169.

The blower wheel is constructed from heavy guage steel plate.  Its
vanes are cut, bent, formed and welded to the sideplate, and then
riveted to the back plate.  Then the blower is balanced both statically
and dynamically.  The housing is formed from sheet steel.  A spiral
shape is cut and rolled while the end plates are cut, punched and
formed.  This cover and end plates are then welded together.  The
housing inlets are cut, punched and formed from plate steel and
riveted to the end plates.  The completed housing is then mounted
in a base made of angle iron which is cut, and riveted or welded
together.

Shafts are fabricated from medium carbon steel with larger ones
utilizing forged shafts that are cut, turned, ground, heat treat,
pickled and washed to size.  Bearing supports are bolted to the base
and are usually purchased.

Anti-friction bearings  (self aligning and grease lubricated) are
normally used.  Ball bearings are used for the higher speeds, and
roller bearings for heavy loads at slower speeds.  Assembly of the
parts is followed by inspection and test.
                                3-446

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Blowers and Exhaust  and  Ventilation Fans
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     157

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     214

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                22,800

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $438.6    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $781.3    MILLION
                                                                      t
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                 0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            100

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                67

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            0

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     67

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    67

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         33

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE              NA   BILLION GALLONS

                                        NA   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant  Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-80
                                      3-447

-------
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-------
Industrial Patterns

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
industrial patterns.  The major products are:

        Cores, sand  (foundry)
        Foundry cores
        Foundry patternmaking
        Patterns, industrial

Industrial patterns are produced by 1015 plants, averaging 8 workers
each.  Most of these plants  (90 percent) employ less than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-81.  As shown in
Figure 3-170, castings constitute the major raw materials.  The prin-
cipal manufacturing operations are casting and precision machining.

In general, industrial patterns are made by initially making a clay
mockup for visualization.  Then precision formed (by machining and
bench hand tooling) wooden patterns are made to establish the shape
on experimental or limited production castings.  When in production,
a metallized pattern is usually cast from the master.  Based on data
obtained during this survey, 100% of the plants contacted had no point
source discharge.  This is primarily due to the fact,, that most plants
in this industry segment do not use any process water.

A typical operation for making a pattern for a wood and a steel cast-
ing mold cavity is shown in Figure 3-171.  Experimental and limited
production patterns are usually made from wood.  The wood pattern is
generally made from kiln dried mahogany, walnut, white or sugar pine
and may be loose or mounted depending on the configuration.  A loose
pattern is made in one or more pieces.  Patterns fastened permanently
to a board or match plate are known as mounted patterns.  The wood
pattern is machined and finished by hand tools to the desired shape
and coated with shellac to keep out moisture.

Production patterns are made from metal and are commonly cast from
a master pattern.  It can thus be replaced readily if damaged or
worn.  A mockup of clay is sometimes made from the drawing specifi-
cation for a check to minimize possible errors prior to making a
metal pattern.  Proper allowance is given in the casting for shrink-
age, machining, distortion and draft.  After the metallic pattern is
cast, it i's fine finished to remove scratches, pits or other defects.
Various parts of a pattern may then be color painted for identification,
                                 3-450

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Industrie 1 Patterns
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      97

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      918

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 8,400

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $160      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $196.5     MILLION
                                                                     i
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                IQQ

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             100

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                  0

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           100

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS       0

        7 MATERIAL COATING                           0

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                    0

        9 MOLDING* FORMING-NON-METALS             0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             NA    BILLION GALLONS

                                       NA    BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA

NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE  3-81

                                    3-451

-------
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              3-453

-------
Speed Changers, Industrial High
Speed Drives, and Gears

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
speed changers, industrial high speed drives, and gears.  The major
products include:

        Gears, power transmission:  except
           motor vehicle and aircraft
        Reduction gears and gear units for
           turbines, except auto and aircraft
        Speed changers  (power transmission
           equipment)
        Torque converters, except motor vehicle
Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment,
Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
mechanical power transmission equipment and parts, for industrial
machinery.  The major products include:

        Ball joints, except automobile and air-
           craft
        Bearings, plain
        Belting, chain
        Clutches, except vehicle
        Collars, shaft (power transmission
           equipment)
        Couplings, shaft:  rigid, flexible, uni-
           versal joint,  etc.
        Drive chains, bicycle and motorcycle
        Joints, swivel:  except automobile and
           aircraft
        Joints, universal:  except motor vehicle
        Pillow blocks, with plain bearings
        Pivots, power transmission
        Pulleys, power transmission
                                 3-454

-------
                              DRAFT
        Railroad journal car bearings
        Shafts, flexible
        Sprockets (power transmission equip-
           ment)

Mechanical power transmission equipment and speed changers are
discussed together because the statistical production data has been
compiled together.  This equipment is produced by 485 plants averag-
ing 106 workers each.  Most of these plants (56 percent) employ
more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in
Table 3-82.  As shown in Figure 3-172, steel,  iron, copper, and
aluminum are the major raw materials.  Process water, which con-
stitutes 12 percent of the gross water used by the industry is pri-
marily used for cleaning, bonderizing and plating rinses.  Water may
also be used as a means of entrapping paint from a spraying operation.

The manufacture of universal joints is representative of the mechanical
power transmission industry.  A typical operation for making universal
joints is shown in Figure 3-173.  Scrap steel  is melted and then cast
to an unfinished yoke form.  Finish machining  such as grinding, boring
and reaming is employed to provide a bearing surface for the end caps.
The yoke is then degreased to remove machining oils by means of a
vapor degreaser (organic solvent reflux system).  This degreasing is
done prior to heat treating.

The yoke is heat treated and then quenched in  oil.  Reheating
to a lower temperature tempers the part and a  final vapor
degreasing treatment readies it for assembly.   The bearing block is
fabricated from rod  steel stock by turning, grinding, boring and
reaming.  A cleaning and heat treating procedure similar to the pro-
cedure used in the fabrication of the yoke is  employed.   Other
component parts are  fabricated similarly and combined with vendor
components,  such as  bearings, grease seals, and  retainers, and assemble'
to produce the finished product.

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Speed changers, drives, and gears/Power transmission
                                                   equipment, nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    273

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     212

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               51,300

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $ 972.3  MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $1537.2  MILLION
                                                                     >
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING-METALS               11

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            89

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               56

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          56

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    67

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   44

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        56

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          n
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          5

                                   18.9

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

       54

       46

       79

       12
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       52

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            4
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-82
                                     3-456

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
 Industrial Process Furnaces and Ovens

 This  segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
 industrial process furnaces, ovens, induction and dielectric heat-
 ing equipment, and related devices.  The major products are:

        Calcining kilns  (industrial furnaces)
        Ceramic kilns and furnaces
        Core baking and mold drying ovens
        Dielectric heating equipment
        Distillation ovens, charcoal and coke
        Driers and redriers, industrial process
        Enameling ovens
        Furnaces, industrial process
        Heat treating ovens
        Heating equipment, induction
        Heating units and devices, industrial:
           electric
        Induction heating equipment
        Infra-red ovens, industrial
        Japanning ovens
        Kilns:  except cement, chemical, and
           wood kilns
        Lacquering ovens
        Metal melting furnaces, industrial:
           electric and fuel fired
        Ovens, industrial process:  except
           bakery
        Paint baking and drying ovens
        Radiant heating systems, "industrial
           process":   dryers,  cookers,  etc.
        Rubber curing ovens
        Sherardizing ovens
        Smelting ovens
        Vacuum furnaces and ovens

Furnaces and ovens are produced by 248  plants, averaging 58  work-
ers.   Most of these plants (58 percent)  employ less than 20  work-
ers.   Additional production data are shown in Table 3-83.  As
shown in Fjgure 3-174, 96 percent of the recorded data reveals  that
the products produced in this  category  are made from steel with
carbon steel plates being the  major raw material.  The principal
manufacturing operations are structural fabricating,  mechanical
material removal and material  coating.

-------
                               DRAFT
In general, furnaces and ovens are made by fastening together heavy
formed plates by welding and riveting.   This forms the shell which
is then lined on the interior with durable non-inflammable material.
Entry and exit ports are provided and the entire outer surface of
the furnace is painted.  Process water  is used mainly for cleaning
of the exterior surface of the furnace  prior to painting and sub-
sequent to testing.

The manufacture of a metal melting furnace is representative of the
industrial furnaces and ovens industry.  A typical operation for
making a Heroult type direct-arc electric furnace is shown in Figure
3-175.  A Heroult type furnace consists of a shell,  lining,  door,
tapping spout, electrodes, and tilting  mechanism.

The shell is usually spherical and formed from heavy plate steel
that is either riveted or welded.  The  shell has a flat bottom upon
which is laid several layers of clay, magnesite, or silica brick.
Silica brick is also used to line the entire shell.   Electrodes are
inserted from the top of the furnace and provisions for electrode
charging are made at the furnace top or door.   Electrodes are usually
made from graphite or carbon that is bonded with material such as
hot pitch or tar.  The electrodes are formed by extrusion or molding.
These electrodes are then cooled, packed in powdered petroleum coke
and baked again.  After cooling the electrodes are cleaned,  then bored
and tapped - usually on both ends.  A power system is used to charge
the electrodes after they are inserted  into the furnace.   After fur-
nace assembly, external surfaces are cleaned and painted.
                                 3-460

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Industrial  Process  Furnaces and Oven
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     105


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     143

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                13,400

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $249.9   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $454.0   MILLION
                                                                     *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        i  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                NA

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            NA

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                NA


        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           NA

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     NA


        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    NA

        7  MATERIAL COATING                         NA


        8  ORE PROCESSING* REFINING                 NA

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           NA
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             NA   BILLION GALLONS

                                       NA   BILLIONttoJTERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            HA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-83

                                     3-461

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
General Industrial Machinery and Equipment,
Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
machinery, equipment, and components for general industrial use and
for which no special classification is provided.

        Altitude testing chambers
        Audiometric examination equipment
        Baling machines, for scrap metal,
           paper, and similar materials
        Blast cleaning equipment, dustless:   ex-
           cept metalworking
        Brake burnishing and washing machines
        Bridge and gate machinery, hydraulic
        Centrifuges, industrial
        Compactors  (packaging machinery)
        Cremating ovens
        Driers and reel, fire hose
        Engines, atomic
        Filter elements, fluid:  hydraulic line
        Filter systems for home swimming pools
        Filters, general line industrial:  except
           internal combustion engine
        Filters, pipe line
        Fire fighting apparatus, except auto-
           motive and chemical
        Fire hose, except rubber
        Gas producers (machinery)
        Gas separators (machinery)
        Generators, gas
        Generators:  steam,  liquid oxygen and
           nitrogen
        Heaters, swimming pool:  electric
        Hose, fire:  except  rubber
        Ice crushers (machinery)
        Jacks, hydraulic:  for general indus-
           trial use
        Label moisteners, industrial
        Labeling machines, for general indus-
           trial use
        Liquid automation machinery and equipment
                                 3-464

-------
                              DRAFT
        Lubricating systems, centralized
        Lubrication equipment, industrial
        Lubrication machinery, automatic
        Motors, air or hydraulic  (fluid power)
        Motors, water
        Ordnance testing chambers
        Ovens, surveillance:  for aging and
           testing powder
        Packaging machines, for general indus-
           trial use:  except food
        Powder testing chambers
        Presses, metal baling
        Purifiers, centrifugal
        Reels and racks, fire hose
        Rudder actuating hydromotors
        Screening and sifting machines, for
           general industrial use
        Screws, jack
        Separators for steam, gas, vapor, and
           air (machinery)
        Sifting and screening machines, for
           general industrial use
        Steam separators (machinery)
        Strainers, pipe line
        Temperature testing chambers
        Testing chambers:  for altitude, temp-
           erature, ordnance, power, etc.
        Vapor separators (machinery)
        Wrapping and packaging machines, ex-
           cept food wrapping machines

General industrial machinery and equipment is produced by 872 plants,
averaging 41 workers each.   Most of these plants (61 percent) employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-84.  As shown in Figure 3-176, steel  (stainless,  carbon and alloy),
copper, copper alloy, aluminum,  and aluminum alloy in the form of
sheet, bar, plate, and other various shapes are the principal raw
materials.  In addition, motors, generators, and various coatings
are also used.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal,  material  forming, assembly operations, and material
coatings.

In general, this industry involves assembly of many component parts to
form the final product.   These component parts are  made by forming or
removal of material from various metals.  These parts and/or the final
assembly may be painted or  plated.  Process water,  which constitutes
five percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly
for cleaning in preparation for or subsequent to surface coating.
Water is also used for cooling.

-------
                               DRAFT
The industrial machining and equipment industry is so diversified
that all the operations involved cannot be covered by a discussion
of the manufacture of any one product.  However,  the manufacture of
screw jacks and fire extinguishers utilizes a majority of the oper-
ations performed in this industry.  A typical operation for manu-
facturing a screw jack is shown in Figure 3-177.   While Figure 3-178,
shows a typical operation for manufacturing a fire extinguisher.
The essential parts of a screw jack include cross members,  top and
bottom plate, a screw, and the screw block.  The  cross members are
made by cutting, blanking and drilling bar stock  to the basic shape
required.  This stock is then final formed by machining and finished
by plating or painting.  The top and bottom plate are both fabricated
by cutting, blanking, and bending plate stock.  The stock is then
drilled and stamped.  These plates are finished by plating or painting,
The screws are made by cutting round stock to size and then turning
the stock and threading it.  The threaded pieces  are then cold headed
and heat treated.  Screw blocks are cut, formed,  and ground from
bar stock, then drilled, tapped, and heat treated before plating or
painting is done.  All of these component parts are then assembled,
and the jack is inspected and tested.

Fire extinguishers consist of a cylinder, a top and bottom, and
various associated parts (valve, meter, trigger,  nozzle, etc.)  as
well as a fire quenching agent.  For a water fire extinguisher, the
cylinder is sheared and rolled from sheet stock,  and seam welded.
The top and bottom of the cylinder are cut, blanked, punched and
then stamped from sheet stock.  Next, the tip and bottom are seam
welded to the cylinder and painted or plated.  The completed cylinder
and associated parts are then assembled, and the  unit is filled with
the fire quenching agent.  Finally, the fire extinguisher is inspected
and packaged for shipment.
                                 3-466

-------
                              DRAFT
                General Industrial Machinery  and Equipment,  Not
PRODUCTION DATA  Fisewhere Classified
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      340

                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      532

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                36 , 000

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $ 758.6  MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1263.9  MILLION
                                                                *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            67

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               67

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            0

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    33

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        33

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE              4   BILLION GALLONS

                                     15.1 BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            20

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           80

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        29

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           5
WASTE WATER
  DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


  PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
20

NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                              *Based on Plant Data Collected
                               TABLE 3-84

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Typewriters

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
typewriters and parts, including coded media typewriters and special-
ized composing typewriters.   The products include:

        Typewriters and parts
        Typewriters, including coded media
           and specialized composing type-
           writers
Office Machines,  Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing office machines and devices,  not elsewhere classified.   The  pro-
ducts include:

        Address labeling machines
        Addressing machines,  plates and plate
           embossers
        Binding machines, plastic and adhesive:
           for store or office use
        Canceling machinery,  post office
        Check protectors (machines)
        Check writing,  endorsing, or signing
           machines
        Coin wrapping machines
        Collating machines,  for store or office
           use
        Dating devices  and machines, except
           rubber stamps
        Dictating machines,  office types
        Duplicating machines
        Embossing machines,  for store and
           office use
        Envelope  stuffing, sealing,  and addressing
           machines
        Forms handling  equipment, for store and
           office use
        Gummed tape mcisteners, for store and
           office use
        Letter folding,  stuffing, and sealing
           machines
        List finders, automatic
        Mail tying (bundling)  machines

-------
                              DRAFT
        Mailing machines
        Moisteners, gummed tape:  for store
           and office use
        Numbering machines, office and store:
           mechanical
        Paper cutters and trimmers (office
           equipment)
        Pencil sharpeners
        Perforators  (office machines)
        Postage meters
        Punches, paper:  hand
        Registers, autographic
        Sealers, for gummed tape:  hand
        Seal presses, notarial, etc.  - hand
        Shorthand machines
        Slip sheeting machines
        Sorters, filing:  office
        Staple removers
        Stapling machines, hand or power
        Ticket counting machines
        Time clocks and time recording devices
        Time stamps, containing clock mechanisms
        Voting machines

The office machines and typewriter industries are described together
because of the similarity of their products and the fact that avail-
able statistical data on these industries is reported only for the
combined industries.

Typewriters and office machines are produced by 217 plants, averaging
156 workers each.  Almost half of these plants  (46 percent) employ
more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-85.  As shown in Figure 3-179, most of the products produced in
this category are made from steel with carbon steel sheet and strip
being the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are mechanical material removal, physical property modification and
assembly operations.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the type-
writers and office machines industry.  This is so mainly because of
the differing raw materials which are shown in Figure 3-180,  and the
wide range" of products.  In general,  typewriters are made by machining
punching and grinding metal sheet to form various parts and the frame
and housing.  Some of these parts are then heat treated and plated
depending on the application.  Frame and housing parts are painted
                                 3-472

-------
 and all of the parts are then assembled and the completed typewriter
 is tested and inspected.  In general, office machines are made by
 sawing or shearing low carbon steel and then forming it into a frame
 configuration.  The machining operations for the frame and internal
 parts include milling, notching,  turning,  drilling, tapping, grinding,
 buffing and tumbling.  The various parts are joined by welding, solder-
 ing, riveting and staking.  Parts are then phosphated, painted, in-
 spected, tested and shipped.  Process water in both of these indus-
 tries constitutes 27 percent of the gross  water used and is used mainly
, for cleaning following machining operations for plating.

 Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the type-
 writer and office machine industry, no single product can be con-
 sidered typical.  However, the manufacture of typewriters and cal-
 culating machines are good examples of items which utilize manu-
 facturing processes which are representative of these industries.

 A typical operation for making an electric typewriter is shown in Figure
 3-180.  There are basically two types of electric typewriters; key
 lever and ballhead.  The manufacturing processes for both types are
 similar.  There are approximately 2,400 parts in £ typewriter with the
 majority of these being made from low carbon annealed steel.  The oper-
 ations en most of these parts consist of machining, punching and grind-
 ing.  Parts are then degreased and if required, heat treated.  Quenchinc
 is done in salt or oil solutions  to obtain proper temper character-
 istics.  Where necessary, parts are plated, with eleetroplating being
 the usual method used.  Parts are rinsed prior to and subsequent to
 plating.  When all the parts are  available, they are assembled and the
 completed typewriter is cleaned and inspected.

 A typical operation for making a  duplicating machine is shown in
 Figure 3-181.   The majority of parts in such a machine are made from
 low carbon,  annealed steel.   Frame assembly manufacture starts with
 low carbon steel,  square tub.inc whach is sawed to length,  notched,
 drilled, tapped and welded to form the frame.   The mounting pads, made
 from leaded carbon steel stock, are welded to the frame and drill-
 ed and milled  to specified finish shapes.   The assembly then goes
 through a phosphating process which consists of degreasing,  washing,
 phosphating,  rinsing and drying.   Next the frame assembly is placed
 on a conveyor,  spray painted and  baked.  Other associated parts are
 manufactured in a similar manner.   Internal parts including levers
 and brackets are made from low carbon barstock or castings.   The oper-
 ations performed on these parts include milling, turning,  drilling,
 tapping, grinding,  buffing and tumbling.   Parts are fastened or joined
 by welding,  soldering,  riveting and staking.   The assembly is then
 cleaned, inspected,  and tested.
                                 3-473

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Office machines, nee
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE ? 800.9
EMPLOYEES 99
EMPLOYEES 118
33,900
MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $1232.3 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING -METALS 33
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
100
100
100
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 57
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING a REFINING
9 MOLDING a FORMING - NON-METALS
100
0
33
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 3.3 BILLION GALLONS
12.5 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
61
39
63
27
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3-85
3-474
61
5
*tased on Plant Data Collected

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 3-477

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                              DRAFT
Electronic Computing Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
electronic computers and peripheral equipment and/or major logical
components intended for use in electronic computer systems.   In-
cluded are general-purpose electronic analog computers,  electronic
digital computers, military, ruggedized,  and special purpose computers.
The electronic computers may be used for  data processing or  may be in-
corporated as components of control equipment for industrial use,  and
as components of equipment used in weapons and weapons systems, space
and oceanographic exploration, transportation and other  systems.  Elec-
tronic computer systems contain high speed arithmetic and program  con-
trol units, on-line information storage devices,  input/output equipment,
terminals, data communication devices, and punched card  equipment.
Examples of input/output equipment are converters (card  and/or tape),
readers and printers.  Examples of storage devices are magnetic drums
and disks, magnetic cores and magnetic film memories.  In addition to
providing technical manuals necessary for the operation  and  maintenance
of the equipment, establishments in this  industry usually furnish
general-purpose computer programs and basic operating systems programs
needed for effective use of the computer  system.   Establishments pri-
marily producing rebuilt electronic computers are also included in
this industry.  The major products are:

        Accounting machines using machine-
           readable programs
        Analog computers
        Auxiliary storage units
        Calculating machines, electronic:  uti-
           lizing machine-readable programs
        Card punching,  sorting, and tabulating
           machines
        Central processing units for electronic
           computing systems
        Computing machines, electronic
        Converters, digital and analog:  except
           instrumentation type
        Data computing  and correcting systems,
           electronic
        Digital computers
        Disk and drum drives and devices,
           magnetic
        Electronic computing machines
        Film reader and digital storage photo-
           theodolite devices
        Gun data computers
        Keypunches:  key to tape and key  to disk  devices

-------
                              DRAFT
        Magnetic ink readers, sorters, and in-
           scribers
        Office machine control panels
        Paper tape punches and readers
        Printers, including strip (computer
           peripheral equipment)
        Recorders, tape:  for data computers
        Scanners and readers, optical (input device)
        Speed computers
        Storage units, computer
        Tabulating machines
        Tape transport systems for electronic
           computers

Electronic computing equipment is produced by 606 plants, averaging
239 workers each.  Most of these plants (60 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-86.  As
shown in Figure 3-182, steel, copper and aluminum are the major raw
materials used in this category.  In addition, electric motors and
solid state semi-conductors are also used.  The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, material forming (metals),
material coating and assembly operations.   In general, electronic
computing equipment is made by assembling various electronic components,
including circuit boards and wiring, into coated steel cabinets.  Special
care must be maintained to insure cleanliness and quality of equipment.
Process water, which constitutes 3 percent of the gross water used by
the industry, is used mainly during plating of cabinets in water
rinsing prior to and subsequent to the actual plating operation.

The manufacture of electronic computing machines is representative of
the industry.  A typical operation for making electronic computing
machines is shown in Figure 3-183.  Generally, cabinetry is made from
low carbon sheet steel stock.  The stock is sheared and trimmed prior
to bending and forming to the desired configuration.  After all the
presswork has been completed, the joining flanges, shelves and en-
closures is accomplished by welding.  Prior to finish coating,  cabinets
and other metal parts are cleaned.  The cleaning process consists of
vapor degreasing using solvents such as stabilized trichlorethylene,
perchlorethylene (tetrachlorethylene) or trichlorehymane.  Cleaning
also includes pickling using a sulfuric acid bath followed by a water
rinse.
                                 3-479

-------
                              DRAFT
Finish coating may be plating  or  painting with dipping and spraying
being popular painting techniques.   Paint is baked in an oven.  Infra-
red lamps in banks are now common for  ovens because the method is fast,
clean and easily changed and adjusted.  Electroplating is the most
popular plating technique.   In this  process parts are rinsed, dipped
in acid, plated, cold and hot  water  rinsed and then dried.

The electronic components,  circuitboards and wires are then assembled
into the cabinetry.  The assembled units are thoroughly vacuum
cleaned, inspected, tested and certified as being ready for working
use.
                                 3-480

-------
                              DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Electronic  Computing Equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES   362

                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES   244
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS              144,700

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $3591.3   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $6484.8   MILLION
                                                                  *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            86
        3  MATERIAL FORMING-METALS               29

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           14
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPE RATIONS    71
        7  MATERIAL COATING                        57
                                                                »
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            25    BILLION GALLONS
                                     94.6  BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            42
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           58
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        68
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           3
WASTE WATER
  DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       41
  PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             5
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-86
                                   3-481

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 3-483

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                              DRAFT
Calculating and Accounting Machines/ Except
Electronic Computing Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
desk calculators, adding and accounting machines,  cash registers,
and similar equipment.  Included are electronic calculating and
accounting machines which even when augmented by attachments,  or
which include program control or have input/output capabilities,
must be paced by operator intervention.  The major products are:

        Accounting machines, not using ma-
           chine readable programs
        Adding machines
        Billing machines
        Bookkeeping machines
        Calculating machines, not utilizing ma-
           chine readable programs
        Cash registers, including adding ma-
           chines with cash drawers
        Change making machines
        Coin counters
        Registers, credit account

Calculating and accounting machines are produced by 80 plants, averaging
326 workers each.  Most of these plants (60 percent)  employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-87.  As
shown in Figure 3-184, products produced in this category are  made from
steel with carbon steel sheet and strip being the major raw materials.
The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
material forming  (metals), chemical-electrochemical operations, material
coating and assembly operations.

In general, calculating and accounting machines are made by machining
and forming sheet steel and barstock with screw machining and  punch
pressing being the predominant machining processes.  All metal parts
are surface coated or plated to minimize corrosion.  A large percentage
of these parts are purchased.  Process water, which constitutes 14 per-
cent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly during
plating operations with the washing and rinsing done before and after
the plating generating the most significant effluent.
                                 •J_>1 O A

-------
                                DRAFT
The manufacture of cash registers is representative of the calculating
and accounting machines industry. ,A mechanical cash register consists
of an upper and lower differential which contains the computing
inechanism, indicator link arm assembly (similar to clock hands),  key-
board, printer, main cam line, cash box,  cabinet and frame.  A typical
operation for making cash registers is shown in Figure 3-185.

There are approximately 5,000 parts per machine and these are made
primarily from leaded or nitrided steel.   Approximately 35 percent of
the parts are screw machine parts and are made from bar stock.  These
parts are turned, drilled and bored.  Some are swagged and some are
heat treated.  All parts are zinc plated to prevent corrosion and a
few of the parts are also nickel plated.   Approximately 15 percent
of the parts in a cash register require close tolerance fabrication
and these are usually centerless ground.   These parts are basically
screw machine parts such as studs, shafts, pawls, etc.

Approximately 20 percent of the parts in a cash register are considered
punch press parts and are made from flat steel stock.  Punch press
parts include internal links, cams,  shafts, etc.   These parts are
sheared, blanked, stampled and in general formed to specified config-
urations and then heat treated.  Parts are then finish machined by
drilling, reaming, deburring and fine reaming after zinc plating.
Cams are case hardened usually by nitriding.  Before further assembly,
these punch press parts are graphite coated for lubrication purposes.

Another 15 percent of the parts are considered milled parts.  These
are either end or straddle milled to specification.  Gears and tie
bars are typical examples of such parts,  however, some gears are
hobbed.  These milled parts are then heat treated,  drilled, reamed
and/or finish machined as required.   Some of these parts may be plated
and all are graphite coated.

The remainder of the parts in a cash register such as the plastic
cabinet, windows, powdered metal counterpinions and keys are purchased.
After assembly, the cash register is inspected and tested.
                                 3-485

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Calculating and  accounting machines
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    32
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    48
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS              26,100
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $447.3    MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $744.4    MILLION
                                                                 *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                 0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             67
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                57
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           33
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    67
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     33
        7  MATERIAL COATING                        33
        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                  0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           33
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             -7  BILLION GALLONS
                                     2.6  BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           71
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          29
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       50
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          14
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       71
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based or. Plant Data Collects
                                TABLE  3—87
                                   3-486

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                              DRAFT
Scales and Balances, Except Laboratory

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
weighing and force measuring machines and devices of all types,
except those regarded as scientific apparatus for laboratory and
experimental work.  The major products are:

        Baby scales
        Balances:  coin-operated, automatic -
           computing, etc., except laboratory
        Bathroom scales
        Industrial scales
        Motor truck scales
        Railroad track scales
        Scales, including coin-operated and
           electronic scales
        Weighing machines and apparatus:
           automatic computing, coin-operated,
           etc.

Scales and balances are produced by 92 plants, averaging 70 workers
each.  Almost half of these plants (45 percent)  employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-88.  As
shown in Figure 3-186, 99 percent of the recorded data reveals that
the products produced in this category are made from steel with carbon
steel sheet and strip being the major raw materials.  The principal
manufacturing operations are material forming (metals), material coat-
ing, mechanical material removal and assembly operations.

In general, scales and balances are made by machining, shaping and
assembling sheet metal, tubular stock, electric components, etc. in-
to the necessary parts for a scale and/or balance assembly.  Most of
the outside configuration parts are surface coated or enameled.
Process water is used mainly for cleaning and surface coating.

The manufacture of a digital readout scale is representative of the
scales and balances industry.  A typical operation for making a digi-
tal readout scale is shown in Figure 3-187.  Such a scale consists of
exterior parts including the frame and supports, scale platform, head
(which includes a transparent material for reading) and covers.  The
internal parts include levers, brackets, posts,  plates and electronic
devices.

Raw material (principally sheet stock made from steel, copper,
aluminum,  nylon fiberglass and plexiglass) is cut to size.  On ex-
terior parts, stamping, shearing and bending are the major forming

-------
processes.  On internal parts forming, machine turning and welding
are the most frequent manufacturing processes and these are used on
barstock and other structural shapes.   After the above basic form-
ing processes are completed, parts are finish ground, deburred,
degreased, and plated or painted.  External parts are surface treated and
painted which includes the following procedure:   pickling, rinsing,
phosphate coating, such as base plates and covers are painted with organi
or urethane base paint.  Plating is performed on some scales.

Finally, all parts are cleaned, assembled, inspection tested and
packaged in preparation for shipment.
                                 3-490

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Scales  and Balances., Except Laboratory
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
   41
   51
6,400
  NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
  VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $125     MILLION
  VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $194     MILLION
                                                                  ¥
  PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               °
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              100
        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          100
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100
        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   100
        7  MATERIAL COATING                       100

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
        9  MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           NA    BILLION GALLONS
                                    NA    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on  Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-88
                                    3-491

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-------
                              DRAFT
Automatic Merchandising Machines

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur
automatic merchandising units, also referred to as vending machines
(excluding music, amusement, or gaining machines), and coin-operated
mechanisms for such machines.  The major products are:

        Locks, coin-operated
        Mechanisms for coin-operated machines
        Merchandising machines, automatic
        Vending machines, for merchandise:
           coin-operated

Automatic merchandising machines are produced by 124 plants,
averaging 94 workers each.  Most of these plants (63 percent) employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-89.  As shown in Figure 3-188, steel (stainless,  alloy and carbon),
copper, copper alloy, aluminum and aluminum base alloy in the form of
bar sheet plate and various other shapes are the principal raw
materials.  In addition, paint and various coatings are also used.
The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material re-
moval, material forming  (metals), chemical/electrochemical operations
assembly operations, and material coating.

In general, automatic merchandising machines are made by cutting,
bending and forming sheet metal for a housing and other parts and
then assembling these items along with some purchased parts to form
the finished product.  Process water, which constitutes 14 percent
of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for rinsing
and plating operations.

The fabrication and assembly of coin testers for vending machines is
representative of the automatic merchandising machines industry.  A
typical operation for manufacturing coin testers is shown in Figure
3-189.  The manufacture is started by forming parts such as the in-
let chute, money return lever, rejected coin receptacle and flap, etc
from sheet metal.  This metal is sheared and blanked to the correct
size and then stamped, punched and formed to the required configurati
Other parts such as the weighing device, incline, rebound stop, and
guide are also formed in this same manner.  These pieces are then
painted or plated as necessary.  Parts such as the spring and magnet
are purchased and assembled in place with the various fabricated part;
The unit is then completely assembled using mechanical fasteners and
welding, then finish painted or plated and inspected/tested.
                                 3-494

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Automatic Merchandising Machines
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $201
20 EMPLOYEES 46
20 EMPLOYEES 78
11,700
9 MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $355.9 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
67
67
67
33
67
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 67
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
100
*
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE .7
2.6
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
29
71
75
14
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
29
NA
NA NOT AVAILABLE
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-89
3-495

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-------
                               DRAFT
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-_£,.-, ;":.e?£ij;ig f^^Jiirie^"""'

 :•'•:'.-.-; ^eg^'-^t : nc-'ludes  .;-- ;?.b;ii ehr;c-r\t£.  primarily engaged in nar.uf actur -
    -iry anc. c"r;/ clean:.':; eqviproer.t  arid  pressing machines for corru-r-
     wncl iudusvrial a?e   Tbe  rnajor products are;

        Dry cleaning equipment and  machin-
           ery, commercial
        Extractors and driers, commercial
           laundry except coin-operated
        Feather cleaning and  sterilizing ma-
           chinery
        Ironers, commercial laundry and dry
           cleaning
        Laundry machinery and  equipment,
           commercial
        Pressing machines, commercial laundry
           and dry cleaning
        Rug cleaning,  drying  and napping
           machines:   commercial laundry
        Washing machines, commercial

Commercial laundry, dry cleaning and  pressing machines are produced
by 108 plants, averaging 45 workers each.   Most of these plants  (56
percent)  employ less than 20  workers.   Additional, production data
are shown in Table 3-90.  As  shown  in Figure 3-190, steel  (stainless,
alloy and carbon), copper, copper alley, aluminum and aluminum alloy
in the form df bar, sheet, plate arid  other  vdr'ious shapes are the
principal raw materials.  In  addition,  motors, paint and various?
other coatings are also used.  The  principal manufacturing operations
are material forming  (metals), mechanical material removal, molding
and forming  (non-metals), material  coating  and assembly operationr-.

In general, commercial laundry, cleaning and pressing equipment is
made by forming and joining sheet metal into the desired housing
enclosure which is then painted.  Metal internal parts are made by
stamping and machining.  Plastic parts  are  formed by casting and
molding.  These metal  and plastic parts along with purchased
components such as timing controls  and electric motors are then
assembled to the housing to form the  final  product.  Process water
is used in' cleaning operations such as pickling, for cooling water
                                  3-498

-------
                               DRAFT
in the molding operations and for air scrubbing in the painting
operations.

The manufacture of washing machines (Figure 3-191)  is representative
of the commercial laundry, dry cleaning and pressing machines industry.
The metal enclosure and small parts are formed from sheet steel or
aluminum.  The sheet is first sheared to size, then drilled or punched
for screw attachments.   Threaded clips are used in oversize holes to
provide attachment points.  The framework is then made by shearing,
bending and forming metal to the desired shape and then assembled by
welding, brazing, or fastening mechanically.  The housing and frame  part,
are cleaned, phosphate  coated, painted and baked.  The sides are then
spotwelded or fastened  to the frame using mechanical fasteners.  Plastic
parts such as the agitator and dials are molded and then the required
printing applied.  Timers, electric motors and heating elements  are
usually purchased and brought together along with miscellaneous  fabri-
cated metal and plastic parts for the final assembly.   Finally the unit
is inspected and tested.
                                3-499

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Commercial  laundry equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     48




                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     60



   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                4,900




   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $ 29.8    MILLION




   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $163.6    MILLION
                                                                      i



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,



        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               NA




        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            NA



        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               NA




        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          NA




        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    NA




        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   NA




        7 MATERIAL COATING                        NA




        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                NA




        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          NA
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             NA   BILLION GALLONS




                                        NA   BILLION LITERS



   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA




   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA




   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA




   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA




   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
*BASED ON PLANT DATA  COLLECTED
                                   TABLE 3-90



                                     3-50C

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-------
                              DRAFT
Air Conditioning and Warm Air Heating
Equipment and Commercial and Industrial
Re f r i g e ratTon Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
refrigeration equipment and systems and similar equipment for
commercial and industrial use? complete air conditioning units for
domestic, commercial, and industrial use;  and warm air furnaces,
except electrice   Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
soda fountains and beer dispensing equipment, and humidifiers and
dehumidifierp, except for rooms, are also  classified in this industry.
Specific products of this industry are;

        Air conditioning condensers and con-
           densing units
        Air conditioning units,  complete:   domestic
           and industrial
        Beer dispensing equipment
        Boxes, metal:  insulated
        Cabinets, show and display:  refriger-
           ated
        Carbonators, soda water
        Cases, show and display:  refrigerated
        Cold drink dispensing equipment, except
           coin-operated
        Compressors for refrigeration equip-
           ment
        Coolers,  milk and water:  electric
        Counters and counter display cases, re-
           frigerated
        Dehumidifiers, except room:  electric
        Evaporative condensers (heat transfer
           equipment)
        Fountains, drinking:  mechanically re-
           frigerated
        Furnaces:  gravity air flow
        Humidifying equipment, except house-
           hold furnace or room electric
        Ice boxes, industrial:  metal or wood
        Ice making machinery
        Lockers,  refrigerated
        Refrigeration machinery  and equipment,
           industrial
        Room coolers, portable
        Showcases, refrigerated
                                 3-503

-------
        Siphons, soda water
        Soda fountains, parts, and accessories
        Tanks, soda water

Air conditioning and heating equipment is produced by 758 plants,
averaging 198 workers each.  Most of these plants (57 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-91.  As shown in Figure 3-192, 81 percent of the products
produced are steel and the remainder are mostly aluminum and copper.
Sheet metal is the major raw material.  The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, material forming, and
material coating.

In general, air conditioning and heating equipment is made by fabri-
cating coils from tube or pipe, shearing and forming sheet metal for
the case, machining and grinding forgings and castings (particularly
for the compressor, condenser and fans) and assembling and hermetically
sealing the individual components to make a complete unit.  Process
water, which constitutes 18 percent of the gross water used by the
industry, is used mainly for cleaning and plating.

The manufacture of an air conditioner  (Figure 3-193) is representative
of the refrigeration and heating equipment industry.  An air condition-
ing unit basically consists of a compressor, condenser, evaporator,
coils, fan, filter, controls and a case.

The making of coils is a typical example of air conditioner component
manufacture.  Coils are generally fabricated from copper, steel or
aluminum tube, or iron pipe.  When ferrous materials are used, they
are protected externally, generally by hot dip galvanizing.  In some
coils, fins are added.  They may be wound on the tubes under pressure
(in order to upset the metal slightly at the fin root) and are then
given a coating of solder at the contact joint.  In other types of
coils, a spiral fin may be knurled into a shallow groove on the ex-
terior of the tube.  The tube may be expanded after the fins are
assembled, or tube hole flanges of a flat or configurated fin may be
made to over-ride those in the preceding fin and so compress them upon
the tube.  There are also types of construction where the fin is formed
from some of the material of the tube itself.
                                 3-504

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Refrigeration and heating equipment
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $3487
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $7033

20 EMPLOYEES 433
20 EMPLOYEES 325
149,900
.9 MILLION
.1 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING -METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
47
87
27
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 47
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS
87
0
13
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 13.3
50.3
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
43
57
81
18
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE

41
5

*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-91
3-505


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-------
                              UKAhT
Measuring and Dispensing Pumps

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturin
measuring and dispensing pumps commonly used in service and filling
stations for dispensing gasoline, oil, and grease, including grease
guns.  The major products are:

        Dispensing and measuring pumps, gaso-
           line and oil
        Grease guns (lubricators)

Measuring and dispensing pumps are produced by 55 plants, averaging
131 workers each.  Most of these plants (56 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-92.  As
shown in Figure 3-194, steel  (stainless, carbon and alloy), copper,
copper alloy, aluminum and aluminum alloy in the form of bar, sheet,
plate and other various shapes are the principal raw materials.  In
addition, paint, motors and various coatings are also used.  The prin-
cipal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal, materic
forming, assembly operations, physical property modification and mater:
coating.

In general, measuring and dispensing pumps are made by casting, forginc
stamping and machining supports, gears, shafts, etc.  and assembling
these into sheet metal housings.  Purchased parts such as motors and
counting devices are also used.  Process water, which constitutes 33
percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
cleaning parts in preparation for various coatings.

The manufacture of a dispensing and measuring pump is representative
of the major processes used in this industry.  A typical operation for
making a pump is shown in Figure 3-195.  First the actual pumping
mechanism housing is cast.  After removing the casting it is cleaned
and then bored, turned and ground.  Parts that go inside this pump
housing are made by forging and then turning, grinding and heat treat-
ing as required.  Parts such as recoil mechanisms, counting devices,
etc. are usually purchased.  The outer cover and frame are made by
shearing sheet metal to size and then blanking, punching and forming
it to the desired configuration and then painting or plating it.
Plastic parts such as connectors and clear plates etc. are molded
and where applicable painted or plated.  Next the pump and other in-
ternal parts are assembled along with the various purchased parts
(counting device, record mechanism, etc.)  by mechanical fasteners or
weldments.  Finally the cover is added and the completed unit is paint-
ed, inspected and tested.
                                 3-508

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Measuring and Dispensing Pumps
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES 31
WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES 24
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $133.7
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $230,7

7,200
MILLION
MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
«p
NA
NA
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE .3 BILLION GALLONS
1.1 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
100
0
60
33
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3—92
3-509
100
NA
* BASED ON PLANT DATA COLLECTED



-------
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                              DRlftFT
Service Industry Machines, Not
Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
machines and equipment, not elsewhere classified,  for use in service
industries, such as floor sanding machines,  industrial vacuum clean-
ers, scrubbing machines, commercial cooking  and food warming equip-
ment, and commercial dishwashing machines.   The major products are:

        Cafeteria food warming equipment
        Car washing machinery, including coin-
           operated
        Carpet sweepers, except household electric
           vacuum sweepers
        Chock assemblies
        Cookers, steam:  restaurant type
        Cooking equipment, commercial
        Dirt sweeping units, industrial
        Dishwashing machines,  commercial
        Floor sanding, washing, and polishing machines:
           portable (commercial type)
        Food warming equipment, commercial
        Fryers, commercial:  gas
        Garbage disposers, commercial
        Janitors' carts
        Mop wringers
        Ovens, cafeteria food warming:   portable
        Ovens, microwave (cooking equipment):
           commercial
        Pressure cookers, steam:  commercial
        Sanding machines, floor:  portable
        Scrubbing machines
        Servicing machines, coin-operated:   ex-
           cept dry cleaning and laundry
        Sewage purification equipment
        Sewer cleaning equipment, power
        Vacuum cleaners and sweepers,  elec-
           tric:  industrial
        Water conditioners, for swimming pools
        Water filters and softeners, household
           type
        Water purification equipment,  household
           type
                                 »_K1 -5

-------
                              DRAFT
Service industry machines are produced by 683 plants, averaging
34 workers each.  Most of these plants (68 percent) employ less
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-93.  As shown in Figure 3-196, steel, (stainless, alloy and
carbon) copper, copper alloy, aluminum, and aluminum alloy in the
form of bar, sheet, plate and other various shapes are the principal
raw materials.  In addition, motors, paint, and various other coat-
ings are also used.  The principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal, material forming, molding and casting
(metals and non-metals), assembly operations, material coating and
chemical-electrochemical processes.

This segment primarily encompasses fabrication and assembly of service
industry machines.  In general, these are made by casting or forming
a housing (either plastic or metal) and machining this housing.
Components are fabricated by general machining methods and forming
operations and finally assembled into the main body which is usually
then painted.  Process water is used mainly for rinses after clean-
ing, vapor degreasing, paint curtains, and post-plating rinses.

The manufacture of industrial vacuum cleaners (Figure 3-197)  depicts
operations representative of the manufacture of service industry
machines.  Initially, two canister halves, which form the body of
the vacuum cleaner, are molded from plastic and the flaslj trimmed.
Handles, covers and attachments such as brushes are also molded
from plastic and the flash trimmed.  The tubing (wands)  are made
from rolled metal tubing with knurled ends or of extruded plastic.
The hose is made by molding and trimming plastic or is formed from
fabric and wire.  Metal parts such as trim are first stamped and
formed, then degreased, pickled and electroplated.   These metal parts
are then assembled into the canister with mechanical fasteners, or
by adhesion bonding, welding or brazing.   Next the  motor, switches
and wires are installed, and the canister halves are fastened to-
gether and the cover attached.  Lastly the unit is  painted, inspected
and tested.
                                 3-513

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Service Industry Machines,
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $482.
Not Elsewhere Classified
20 EMPLOYEES 220
20 EMPLOYEES 463
23.400
9 MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $872.6 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CA STI NG & MO LDI NG - M ETA LS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
20
60
80
40
80
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 60
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
100
0
0
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE NA
NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA
NA
NA NOT AVAILABLE
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-93
3-514

-------
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                              ORAI;-T
Carburetors, Pistons, Piston Rings  and Valves

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
carburetors, pistons, piston rings, and valves.  Products in the
category include:

        Carburetors, all types
        Pistons and piston rings
        Valves, aircraft
        Valves, engine
        Valves, motor vehicle
Machinery, Except Electrical, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
machinery and parts except electrical,  not elsewhere classified,
such as amusement park equipment, pneumatic and hydraulic cylinders,
and flexible metal hose and tubing.   This industry also includes
establishments primarily engaged in  producing or repairing machine
and equipment parts, not elsewhere classified, on a job or order
basis for others.  Products in this  category include:

        Amusement machines and equipment for carnivals
        Bellows,  industrial:   metal
        Boiler tube cleaners
        Carousels (merry-go-rounds)
        Catapults
        Chemical  milling job  shops
        Cleaners, boiler tube
        Column clamps and shores
        Crankshafts and camshafts, machining
        Cups,  oil and grease:  metal
        Cylinders:   fluid power, hydraulic and pneumatic
        Fan forges
        Ferris wheels
                                3-517

-------
                              DRAFT
        Filters, internal combustion engine:   oil,
           gasoline, air intake
        Grinding castings for the trade
        Hose, flexible metallic
        Leak detectors, water
        Machine shops, jobbing and repair
        Pump governors, for gas machines
        Riddles, sand  (hand sifting or screening
           apparatus)
        Sludge tables
        Swage blocks
        Ties, form:  metal
        Tubing, flexible metallic
        Weather vanes

Carburetors, Pistons, Rings, Valves and Machinery Except Electrical,
N.E.C. are described together because statistical data are not avail-
able for each code separately.  The data are  instead combined when
available.  The products of these industries  are produced by 16,298
plants, averaging 11 workers each.  Most of these plants (88 percent)
employ less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-94.  As shown in Figure 3-198, 69  percent of the products
in SIC 3592 are piston rings with the remainder intake and exhaust
valves, pistons and carburetors.  No production data is available for
SIC 3599.  Mill shapes and castings of iron,  steel, copper and alumi-
num are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing opera-
tions are mechanical material removal, material forming and material
coating.

Process water, which constitutes 18 percent of the  gross water
usage, is used mainly for machining, rinsing, and finishing.
As a result, the waste water contains oils, rust inhibitors,
solvents and chemicals.

Because of the range of diverse manufacturing processes and products
included in these industries, no single product can be considered
typical.  However, the manufacture of flexible metallic hose is
chosen as a suitable item for description.   In general, flexible
metal hose is manufactured by corrugating metal tubing and attaching
the metal fittings.  As shown in Figure 3-199, the  first step is
rolling a cylindrical copper alloy tube on a  mandrel to reduce the
wall thickness until the desired thickness is obtained.  In this
process the tube elongates.  The tube is then annealed in prepara-
tion for the forming operation.  This forming is done in a corrugat-
ing machine by spinning and then closing (i.e. push corrugations to-
gether to give the proper spacing).  The hose may now be 9 to 12
                                 3-518

-------
meters long.  It is then subjected to a pressure test using compressed
air or nitrogen under water.  The hose is then encased in braided
copper and sawed to length.  Ferrules are made from tube stock and
tumbled to remove rough edges.  These ferrules are attached by swaging
to the braid.  Copper end fittings (tubing) are assembled to the hose
and ferrule/braid assembly and brazed.  (If the operating temperature
is low enough, the assembly may be soldered.)  Another pressure test
is then conducted to determine the integrity of the braided hose
assembly.  The flexible tubing is then pickled in a sulfuric acid
solution to brighten the assembly and removes oxides.  After oven
drying, polishing is accomplished by sanding the brazing and scratch
brushing the end fittings.  Sizing consists of establishing the correct
diameter for the end fittings by either "rolling in" or "rolling out"
the fitting diameter.  This depends on whether it is to mate on the
outside or inside of the fitting.  A final inspection is then made and
the flexible metal hose is readied for shipping.
                                 3-519

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  carburetors, pistons, rings, valves/Machinery, except
	________^	electrical, nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1975

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     14323

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 185,400

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $3043.7  MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $4449.4  MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                13

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            79

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               54

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           25

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     79

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    39

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         50

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                   0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            9.3   BILLION GALLONS

                                     35.2   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       43

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      57

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER  77

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     18
 WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE  37

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED       12
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collectec

                                  TABLE  3-94

                                     3-520

-------
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                              DRAFT
Power,  Distribution/  and Specialty Transformers

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
power,  distribution,  instrument,  and specialty transformers.   The
principal products are:

        Airport lighting transformers
        Autotransformers,  electric (power transformers)
        Autotransformers for switchboards,  except telephone
           switchboards
        Ballasts for  lighting fixtures
        Control transformers
        Current limiting reactors, electrical
        Distribution  transformers, electric
        Doorbell transformers,  electric
        Electric furnace transformers
        Feeder voltage regulators and boosters (electric
           transformers)
        Fluorescent ballasts
        Generator voltage  regulators, electric induction
           and step type
        Ignition transformers
        Instrument transformers,  except  portable
        Lighting transformers,  fluorescent
        Lighting transformers,  street and airport
        Line voltage  regulators
        Luminous tube transformers
        Machine tool  transformers
        Ratio transformers
        Rectifier transformers
        Signaling transformers, electric
        Specialty transformers
        Street lighting  transformers
        Toy transformers
        Transformers,  electric power
        Transformers,  for electronic  meters
        Transformers,  reactor
        Tripping transformers
        Vibrators,  interrupter
        Voltage regulating transformers,  electric power
        Voltage regulators,  transmission  and distribution
                                3-523

-------
                              DRAFT
Power, distribution and specialty transformers are produced by 210
plants, averaging 222 workers each.  Most of chese plants (64 per-
cent) employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are
shown in Table 3-95.  As shown in Figure 3-200, 67 percent of the
transformers produced are fluorescent lamp ballasts,  31 percent are
specialty transformers and 2 percent are for miscellaneous uses.
Steel insulated wire and cable, copper and copper base alloys and
aluminum and aluminum based alloys are the major raw materials.
The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material
removal, material forming and material coating.

In general, transformers are made by stamping out steel core lami-
nations, binding them together, fitting a prewound coil over the
core, drying and sealing the core and assembling the coil and core
in a sheet metal tank.

Process water, which constitutes 3 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly for a water rinse after a pickling
operation in a bath usually a 5-80 percent concentration of sulfuric
acid at 65 - 88 degrees C (150 - 190 degrees F).  Vapor degreasing
is also done with solvents such as trichloroethylene, perchloro-
ethylene or trichlorethane which must be rinsed away using water.

The manufacture of power transformers (Figure 3-201)  is representative
of the transformer industry.  The manufacturing starts with silicon
steel stock which is pretreated in a pickling bath and then rinsed.
The laminations are cut, punched and then coated with varnish and
bonded together.  The coil form is fabricated by rolling paperboard
into a tube.  The coils are then wound on the forms and impregnated
with a sealer such as oil.  The coil is then installed on the core
and the core/coil assembly is dried.  The assembly is then installed
in an oil tank made from painted structural steel.  This tank has
plumbing to circulate the oil for cooling.   Some transformers are
filled with a cooling oil containing polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs).

-------
                             DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Transformers
  NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     134
                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       76
  NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                46,600
  VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $ 753.5   MILLION
  VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $1463.4   MILLION
                                                                *
  PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
       1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0
       2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL              63
       3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 75
       4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            38
       5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100
       6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS      33
       7  MATERIAL COATING                         75
       8  ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                  Q
       9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            33
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         13.1   BILLION GALLONS
                                 49.6   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             37
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            63
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER         63
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            3
WASTE WATER
  DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         33
  PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED              9
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                              *Based on Plant  Data Collected
                               TABLE 3-95
                                  3-525

-------
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-------
                               DRAFT
Switchgear and Switchboard Apparatus

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
switchgear and switchboard apparatus.  Important products of this
industry are:

        Bus bar structures
        Circuit breakers, air:  with interrupting
           ratings of over 10,000 amperes
        Circuit breakers, power
        Control panels, electric
        Cubicles (electric switchboard equipment)
        Distribution boards, electric
        Distribution cutouts
        Fuse clips and blocks, electric
        Fuse devices, power:  600 volts and
           over
        Fuse mountings, electric power
        Fuses, electric
        Generator control and metering panels
        Knife switches, electric
        Metering panels, electric
        Panelboards and distribution boards,
           electric
        Panels, electric control and metering
        Power connectors
        Power switching equipment
        Regulators, power
        Switchboard apparatus, except instruments
        Switchboards and parts, power
        Switches, electric power:  except snap-
           push button, tumbler, and solenoid
        Switchgear and switchgear accessories
        Time switches, electrical switchgear
           apparatus

Switchgear and switchboard apparatus is produced by  572  plants,
averaging 120 workers each.   Half of these plants  (50  percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production  data are shown
in Table 3-96.  As shown in Figure 3-202,  40  percent of  the  dollar
value of the products in this industry are switchgear, 40 percent

-------
                               DRAFT
are fuses or circuit breakers, 14 percent are control circuit re-
lays and 6 percent are ducts.  Steel insulated wire and cable, copper
and copper based alloys, aluminum and aluminum base alloys, and cast-
ings are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing oper-
ations are material forming, mechanical material removal, material
coating and assembly operations.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the
switchgear and switchboard apparatus industry.  This is so mainly
because of the differing products.  In general, the switchboard
is made from fabricating sheet steel stock including cleaning and
painting when finished.  The switchgear components are manufactured
by any number of diverse processes and then assembled on the switch-
board.  Process water, which constitutes 18 percent of the gross
water used by the industry, is used mainly in the electroplating of
components.  This plating operation involves cleaning, acid dipping
and pickling.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the switch-
gear switchboard industry, no single product is considered typical.
However, the manufacture of switchboards and relays (Figure 3-203)
are good examples of the manufacturing processes involved in this
industry.   The switchboards are made by shearing, trimming, bending
and forming steel sheet stock into the proper shape.  Other pieces
are blanked and welded into place.  The unit is then cleaned by vapor
degreasing, pickled and painted.

Relays are made by initially shearing and forming the contacts before
silver electroplating.  The first step for plating is copper pickling wit
a solution of 3-5 percent dichromate and 5-10 percent sulfuric acid
at 65.6 degrees C (175 degrees F).  A sealing dip composed of 25 per-
cent sulfuric acid,  29 percent nitric acid and .4 percent hydro-
chloric acid is used.   The contacts are then polished and buffed and
then degreased with a 1.5 percent solution of sodium metasilicate
and 1.5 percent sodium phosphate.  The contacts are then rinsed in a
10-30 percent hydrochloric or sulfuric acid solution.   They are then
rinsed and neutralized with a dilute solution of sodium of potassium
cyanide.  Electroplating is done next in a solution of silver cyanide,
potassium cyanide and potassium carbonate, and the contacts rinsed
and dried.   The coil is then wound and the relay assembled.  The
relay is then installed and wired in the switchboard along with the
other components including fuses, switches and circuit breakers.
                                 3-529

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Switchgear and Switchboard
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN
WITH LESS THAN
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $1304.
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $2121.

Apparatus
20 EMPLOYEES 281
20 EMPLOYEES 281
68,800
5 MILLION
8 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
50
75
100
50
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 100
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING a REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS
100
0
25
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 8
30.28
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
54
46
91
18
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED

NA NOT AVAILABLE
NA
NA
1
*Based on Plant Data Collected
TABLE 3-96
3-530


-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Motors and Generators

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
electric motors (except starting motors)  and power generators;
motor generator sets; railway motors and  control equipment;  and
motors, generators,  and control equipment for gasoline,  electric,
and oil-electric buses and trucks.   Specific products  include:

        Armatures,  industrial
        Coils,  for  motors and generators
        Collector rings,  for motors and gen-
           erators
        Commutators,  electric motor
        Control equipment for busses and  trucks
        Converters,  frequency (electric generators)
        Converters,  phase and rotary (electrical
           equipment)
        Dynamos, electric:   except  automotive
        Dynamotors
        Exciter assemblies (motor and generator
           parts)
        Frequency converters (electric generators)
        Generating  apparatus and parts, electrical:
           except auto and arc welding
        Generator sets:   gasoline,  diesel,  and dual
           fuel
        Generators  and sets,  electric:  except auto,
           welding  and turbo-generators
        Generators  for gas-electric and oil-electric
           vehicles
        Generators  for storage battery chargers,
           except auto and aircraft
        Inverters,  rotating:   electrical
        Motor generator sets,  except automotive
           and  turbo-generators
        Motor housings
        Motors, electric:   except starting  motors
        Power generators
        Railway motors and control  equipment,
           electric
        Resolvers
        Rotary  converters (electrical equipment)
        Rotor retainers and housings
        Rotors, for  motors
        Servo motors
        Slip rings,  for motors and  generators
        Starting equipment,  for street cars
        Stators, for motors
                              3-533

-------
                              DRAFT
        Storage battery chargers, motor and
           engine generator type
        Synchronous condensers and timing
           motors, electric
        Synchros
        Torque motors, electric

Motors and generators are produced by 416 plants, averaging 215 work-
ers each.  Most of these plants  (60 percent)  employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-97.  As
shown in Figure 3-204, of all the motors and generators manufactured
in 1972, 96 percent were fractional horsepower motors, 2 percent
were integrated horsepower motors, less than 1 percent were prime
mover generator sets and less than 1 percent were motor generator
sets.  Steel, copper, aluminum castings and semi-conductors are
the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are mechanical material removal, material forming, material coating
and assembly operations.

In general, motors and generators are made by forming the rotor and
then winding the rotor and stator.  The body frame and end bells
are then formed and assembled with the rotor, stator and other piece
parts.  The unit is then cleaned, painted and tested.  Process water
which constitutes 8 percent of the gross water used by the industry,
is used mainly for the pickling bath rinse.   Otherwise, this industry
uses little or no water.

The manufacture of motors (Figure 3-205) is representative of the
industry.  A typical motor is constructed by starting with silicon
steel stock that is cleaned in a pickling bath and rinsed.  This
stock is then used for the laminations which are formed by in-
sulating, shearing into strips and blanking into circles.   Next,
the stator laminations are notched.   The laminations are then
stacked and tack welded together forming the  rotor and stator cores.
The rotor and stator cores are next wound, dipped in lacquer and baked,

The body frame and bells are made from rough  castings which are
machined, cleaned and primed.  The motor shaft is machined and
chamfered and a keyway cut.   The motor shaft  is then pressed into
the rotor.  The rotor is then balanced.

The stator is assembled to the frame and the  rotor and bearings are
installed.  The assembled motor is cleaned,  painted and tested.

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Motors and Generators
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      250


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      166


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 89,440


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $1468.5     MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $2492.3     MILLION
                                                                     •»

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0


        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100


        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               67


        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           5Q


        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     83


        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   50


        7  MATERIAL COATING                         67


        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0


        9  MOLDINGS FORMING-NON-METALS           17
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          22.1


                                    83.6


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS


BILLION LITERS


       49


       51


       75


        8
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       47


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            31
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-97

                                    3-535

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Industrial Controls

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
motor starters and controllers; control accessories, electronic
controls, and other industrial controls.  The major products are:

        Armature relays
        Brakes, electromagnetic
        Controls and control accessories, indus-
           trial:  electric and electronic
        Controls, .resistance welder
        Electromagnetic clutches and brakes
        Marine and navy auxiliary controls
        Motor controls, electric
        Motor starters and controllers, electric
        Positioning controls, electric
        Resistors and resistor units, except for
           electronic end products
        Rheostats, except for electronic end
           products
        Solenoid switches (industrial controls)
        Timing devices, electronic
        Truck controls, industrial battery

Industrial controls are produced by 577 plants,  averaging 86 workers
each.  Most of these plants  (64 percent) employ less than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-98.  By dollar value
general industry devices make up 47 percent of the market,  specific
application controllers make up 32 percent and all others make up the
remaining 21 percent of the market.  As shown in Figure 3-206, steel,
copper and copper base alloys, aluminum and aluminum base alloys,
castings, resins and purchased industrial electrical control equipment
are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are mechanical material removal, material coating and material forming.

Industrial controls are made by a wide range of diverse manufacturing"
processes.  In general the manufacturing consists of machining
mechanical parts and soldering electrical parts in subassemblies for
specific functions.  Process water, which constitutes 31 percent of
the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning of
machined components.

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of industrial environmental  controls  (Figure  3-207)
is representative of the industrial  controls industry. The electrical
contacts and other mechanical parts  are  formed by  stamping, bending,
extruding and embossing.   The part mounting  chassis and case  are
formed by shearing,  drilling,  boring,  tapping, and bending.   A
temperature sensing tube,  filled  with  liquid, is formed by bending,
sawing and swaging.   All metal parts are  then bright dipped and
electroplated.   Plastic  parts such as  spacers and  control knobs are
injection molded.   Once  all  the parts  are assembled and the liquid
is added to the tube,  the  unit is inspected  and packaged.
                                  3-539

-------
                              DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Industrial Controls
  NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      210
                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      367
  NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                49,900
  VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE       $ 887.1     MILLION
  VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                $1388.3     MILLION
  PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
       1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS               0
       2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100
       3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              75
       4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          25
       5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                 100
       6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   75
       7 MATERIAL COATING                      25
       8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
       9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS         25
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          3.5   BILLION GALLONS
                                 13.2   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          77
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          13
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER      69
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         31
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      71
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           8
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE                            *BASED ON PLANT DATA COLLECTED
                               TABLE 3-98
                                 3-540

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Welding Apparatus, Electric

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
electric welding apparatus and accessories.  Establishments primarily
engaged in coating welding wire from purchased wire or from wire
drawn in the same establishments are also included.  The major
products of this industry are:

        Arc welders:  generator, a.c. and d.c.
        Arc welders, transformer-rectifier
        Arc welders, transformers  (separate)
        Electrode holders, for electric weld-
           ing apparatus
        Electrodes, electric welding
        Generators  (separate), for arc welders
        Resistance welders, electric
        Seam welding apparatus, electric
        Spot welding apparatus, electric
        Transformers (separate), for arc weld-
           ers
        Welding apparatus and accessories,
           electric
        Welding wire, bare and coated
        Welding wire, electric

Electric welding apparatus is produced by 166 plants,  averaging 202
workers each.   Most of these plants (54 percent)  employ less than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-99.   As
shown in Figure 3-208,  30 percent of the electric welder products
manufactured are arc welders, 69 percent are arc welding electrodes
and 1 percent are resistance welders.   Steel, insulated wire and cable,
aluminum and aluminum based alloys and copper castings are the major
raw materials.   The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, material coating, and assembly operations.

In general, electric welders are made by assembly of the transformer,
control panel,  fan and cable harness into a metal enclosure.  Process
water,  which constitutes 9 percent of the gross water  used by the
industry,  is used mainly for pretreating and degreasing.  The pre-
treating consists of a sulfuric acid bath with a water rinse.   Vapor
degreasing is done with trichloroethylene or trichloroethane.

-------
The manufacture of AC transformer welding apparatus  (Figure 3-207)
is representative of the welding apparatus industry.  Welding
apparatus manufacture is mainly an assembly process unless component
parts are manufactured in-house.  The sheet metal stock is first
pretreated in a sulfuric acid bath.  The metal components such as
the cabinet are fabricated and the skids are welded to the baseplate.
The covers, skids and other metal components are then painted.  The
transformer which can either be purchased or manufactured in-house,
is assembled to the baseplate along with the control panel, fan and
cable harness.  The unit is then inspected and tested, the covers
are assembled, and the unit is cleaned.
                              3-544

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Welding Apparatus, Electric
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      76

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      90

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                15,400

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $351       MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $654.6     MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                 0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            100

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                50

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            50

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    50

        7  MATERIAL COATING                         50
                                                                   *
        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                   0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            1.1

                                      4.2

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                          BILLION GALLONS

                                          BILLION LITERS

                                                 18

                                                 82

                                                 60

                                                  9
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
                                                    18
  NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE  3-99
                                     3-545

-------
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3-547

-------
                              DRAFT
Carbon and Graphite Products

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
lighting carbons; carbon, graphite, and metal-graphite brushes and
brush stock; carbon or graphite electrodes for thermal and electro-
lytic uses; and other carbon, graphite, and metal-graphite products.
The major products are:

        Brush blocks, carbon or molded
           graphite
        Brushes and brush stock contacts:
           carbon, graphite, etc, - electric
        Carbon specialties for electrical use
        Carbons, electric
        Electrodes, for thermal and electrolytic
           uses:  carbon and graphite
        Lighting carbons

Carbon and graphite products are produced by 70 plants, averaging
162 workers each.  Most of these plants  (62 percent) employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-100.  Forty percent of the dollar value produced in this category
is from electrodes, 17 percent from brushes, contacts and brush-
plates and 43 percent from other carbon and graphite products.  As
shown in Figure 3-210, carbon, insulated wire and cable and copper
are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are mechanical material removal, material forming (metals), and
casting and molding (metals).

Carbon and graphite products such as motor brushes are made by press-
ing the carbon into the desired form,  baking it in a furnace and
treating it with a metallic halide.  Process water,  which constitutes
18 percent of the gross water used by the industry,  is used mainly
for cleaning.

The manufacture of motor brushes (Figure 3-211)  is representative
of the carbon and graphite products industry.  A mixture of carbon
and a metal (powder)  such as silver or copper is pressed in a mold
to form the brushes.   Sometimes a pigtail is imbedded into the carbon
before molding to provide electrical contacts.   The  pigtail is form-
ed by cutting insulated extra flexible stranded wire to the proper
length, stripping the two ends of insulation and twisting the leads.
A contact lug is sometimes crimped onto the exposed  end of the wire.
After pressing, the motor brush is then baked.   The  brush is finially
treated by dipping with a metallic halide such as lead iodide which
is sometimes added prior to pressing and baking.   The lead iodide
produces a lubricating film which helps to increase  the life of the
brush.
                               3-548

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Carbon and Graphite Products
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      43

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      27

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                11, 300

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $216.4     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $374.8     MILLION
                                                                    <
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING — METALS               0

        2  MECHANICAL MATE RIAL REMOVAL          100

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             IQO

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         100

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   50

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    Q

        7  MATERIAL COATING                        0

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            7.1

                                    26.9

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

      42

      58

      41

      18
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      41

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           14
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-100
                                    3-549

-------
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                    3-551

-------
                              DRAFT
Electrical Industrial Apparatus,
Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
industrial and commercial electric apparatus and equipment, not
elsewhere classified.  The major products are:

        Battery chargers, rectifying or non-rotating
        Blasting machined, electrical
        Capacitors, a.c.:  for motors and fluorescent
           lamp ballasts
        Capacitors, except electronic:  fixed and
           variable
        Condensers, except electronic:  fixed and
           variable
        Condensers for motors and generators
        Current collector wheels, for trolley rigging
        Electrochemical generators (fuel cells)
        Inverters, nonrotating:  electrical
        Mercury arc rectifiers (electrical apparatus)
        Power conversion units, a.c.  to d.c.:
           static-electric
        Rectifiers (electrical apparatus)
        Series capacitors, except electronic
        Static elimination equipment, industrial
        Thermo-electric generators

Electrical industrial apparatus is produced by 257 plants,  averaging
80 workers each.   Almost half of these plants (47 percent)  employ
more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are  shown in Table
3-101.   As shown in Figure 3-212, 95  percent of  the products pro-
duced in this category are capacitors for industry, 4  percent are
rectifying apparatus, and 1 percent are other electrical industrial
apparatus.  Insulated wire and cable, copper, aluminum and semi-
conductors are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, material coating, and
material forming  (metal).

Electrical industrial apparatus are made by a wide range of diverse
manufacturing processes.  Capacitors  are manufactured  in the same
manner as discussed in the description of the electronic capacitors
industry.'  Process water, which constitutes 16 percent of the
                              3-552

-------
                                DRAFT
 gross water used by the  industry, is used mainly for cleaning,
 washing  and degreasing of parts.

 The manufacture of battery charging equipment  (Figure 3-213) is
 representative of the electrical industrail equipment industry.
 The cabinet is formed first by shearing sheet metal and drilling
 holes for component attachment.  The sheet metal is then bent and
 formed to the shape of the cabinet and spot welded together.  The
 cabinet  is next cleaned  in a pickling solution, galvanized by
 electrodeposition and painted.  The circuit board for the unit is
 etched,  cleaned and dried.  Rectifiers can be either silicon diodes,
 a  selenium rectifier or  diode -tubes.  These components may be either
 purchased or manufactured in-house.  Subassemblies are assembled on-
•to circuit boards and dip soldered.  Then, all the components, in-
 cluding  the circuit boards, switches, meter and potentiometers, are
 assembled onto the chassis.  The chassis is installed and screwed in
 place in the cabinet.  The unit is then inspected and tested.
                                   3-553

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Electrical Industrial Apparatus, Not Elsewhere Classified
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       121
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       136
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 20.20C
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $270       MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $187.3     MILLION
                                                                  1
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING-METALS
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
      NA
      21
      18
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        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   NA
        7 MATERIAL COATING
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
      21
      NA
      NA
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          2.5
                                   9.5
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
      68
      32
      71
      16
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USC       64
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3- 1 01
                                    3-554

-------
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  3-556

-------
                              DRAFT
Household Cooking Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing household cooking equipment, both electric and nonelectric types.
The major products are:

        Barbecues, grills, and braziers for out-
           door cooking
        Cooking equipment, household
        Gas ranges, domestic
        Microwave ovens, household
        Ovens, household:  except portable
        Ranges:  electric, gas, etc. -' household
        Stoves, disk

Household cooking equipment is produced by 83 plants, averaging 270
workers each.  Most of these plants (60 percent) employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-102.  As
shown in Figure 3-214, 56 percent of the household cooking equipment
are electric ranges and ovens and 44 percent are nonelectric cooking
equipment.  Steel, aluminum and aluminum based alloys, castings,
electric motors and timers are the major raw materials.  The principal
manufacturing operations are material forming (metal), material coat-
ing, mechanical material removal, and casting and molding (metals).

In general household cooking equipment is made by bending and forming
sheet steel stock into the outer housing shape,  welding it and
assembling components to it.  Process water, which constitutes 38 per-
cent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for clean-
ing of the metal stock by pickling and vapor degreasing.

The manufacture of electric ranges (Figure 3-215)  is representative of
the household cooking equipment industry.   Sheet steel stock is first
cleaned and galvanized.  It is then cut and trimmed to the proper size
and holes are cut for burners, controls, etc.  The stock  is next bent
and formed for the side panels, top surface, control box,  oven side-
walls and doors.  The frame is then cut and then welded together.  The
unit is then cleaned in a pickling bath and vapor degreased with
trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene or trichloroethyane  and all
surfaces are primed.   The outside surfaces are then painted with a
high heat resistant compound and the fixtures and trim are electro-
                               3-557

-------
plated.  Electric burners are made by embedding resistance coils in
fused magnesium oxide powder or refractory cement.  The oven side-
walls are then installed on the frame and they are packed with fiber-
glass or asbestos insulation and assembled with sheet metal screws.
The burner and controls are installed next and wired.  The oven is
then inspected and tested.
                                   3-558

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Household Cooking Equipment
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $409.5
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $935.2

EMPLOYEES 50
EMPLOYEES 33
23,900
MILLION
MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTINGS MOLDING -METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
33
33
100
0
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 100
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS
100
0
33
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 1.4 BILLION GALLONS
5.3 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
64
36
87
36
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3-102
3-559
57
38
*Based on Plant Data Collected



-------
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 3-561

-------
                              DRAFT
Household Refrigerators and Home
and Farm Freezers

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing household refrigerators and home and farm freezers.  The major
products are:

        Freezers, home and farm
        Ice boxes, household:  metal or wood
        Refrigerator cabinets, household:  metal
           and wood
        Refrigerators, mechanical and absorption:
           household

Household refrigerators and home and farm freezers are produced by
34 plants, averaging 94 workers each.  Most of these plants (68 per-
cent) employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are
shown in Table 3-103.  As shown in Figure 3-216, 82 percent of the
products produced in this category are household refrigerators and
18 percent are home and farm freezers.  Steel, copper and copper
based alloys, aluminum and aluminum based alloys, castings, electric
motors, metal powders, compressors and bearings are the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are material coat-
ing, material forming (metals),  and mechanical material removal.

In general household refrigerators and home and farm freezers are
made by bending and forming sheet steel stock into the proper shape,
welding it and assembling components to it.  Cutting and bending of
coolant (freon) tubes and installation of fiberglass or preformed in-
sulation is also involved.  Process water,  which constitutes 56 per-
cent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
cleaning of the metal stock in pickling baths and for vapor degreasing.

The manufacture of household refrigerators  (Figure 3-217)  is represen-
tative of the household refrigerators and home and farm freezer industry,
Sheet steel stock is first cleaned and galvanized.   It is  then cut and
trimmed to the proper size and holes are cut for controls  and wiring.
The next step is to bend and form these sheets into the sides of the
refrigerator.  Brackets and frame pieces are then cut,  blanked and
welded to form the frame to which is added  the outer cover sheets.
                              3-562

-------
                               DRAFT
The unit is then cleaned in a pickling bath and vapor degreased
with trichloroethylene,  perchloroethylene or trichlorethymane.
Following this,  the unit is primed  and painted with enamel.  The
fixtures and trim are formed and electroplated and the plastic
interior is blown with fiberglass or with molded insulation.  The
compressor is purchased  or assembled mostly from purchased com-
ponents and then it is attached  to  the refrigerator along with
temperature controls and wiring.  Finally, the trim is attached and
the refrigerator inspected and tested.
                                  3-563

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Household Refrigerators and Home and Farm Freezers
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      23


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      11

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                32 ,100

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $  748.0    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1610.5    MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             33

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               100


        A  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           33

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   1QO

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        100


        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING ft FORMING - NON-METALS           67
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            is.i  BILLION GALLONS

                                      66.5  BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            72

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           28

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        73

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          $6
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       70

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            56
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *:;ased  on  Plant  Data Collected

                                 TABLE 3-J03

                                      3-564

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   3-066

-------
                             DRAFT
Household Laundry Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing laundry equipment including coin-operated washers and driers.  The
major products are:

        Driers, laundry:  household and coin-
           operated
        Dry cleaning and laundry machines,
           household:  including coin-operated
        Ironers and mangles, household
        Laundry machinery, hpusehold and coin-
           operated
        Washing machines, household:  including
           coin-operated
        Wringers, domestic laundry

Household laundry equipment is produced by 27 plants, averaging
870 workers each.  Most of these plants (85 percent)  employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-104.  As shown in Figure 3-218, 57 percent of the laundry equip-
ment produced are washers, 32 percent are dryers and 11 percent are
washer-dryer combinations.  The major raw materials used are steel,
insulated wire and cable, aluminum and aluminum based alloys, cast-
ings, timing mechanisms and electric motors.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are material forming (metal), mechanical
material removal, material coating and assembly operation.

In general, laundry equipment is made by working, forming and join-
ing sheet metal into the desired housing enclosure which is then
painted.  Metal detail parts are made by stamping and machining.
Plastic parts are formed by molding.  These metal and plastic parts
along with purchased components, such as timing controls and electric
motors, are then assembled to the housing to form the final product.
Process water, which constitutes 25 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used in cleaning operations such as pickling,
for cooling water in the molding operations and for air scrubbing in
the painting operations.

The manufacture of household dryers (Figure 3-219) is representative
of the household laundry equipment industry.  Sheet steel or aluminum
is used to form the metal enclosures.   It is first sheared to size,
then drilled or punched for screw attachments.  Threaded clips are
used in oversize holes to provide an attachment point.  The framework
                              3-567

-------
                              DRAFT
is then welded together.  The parts are cleaned, phosphate coated
and two coats of paint  are applied.  The sides are spot welded or
screwed into the frame.

Plastic parts of the machine are molded and required printing
applied.  Parts such as timers, electric motors, and heating
elements are purchased  and brought together along with fabri-
cated metal and plastic parts for the final assembly.  The final
step is acceptance  testing.
                                  3-568

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Household laundry equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    23
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     4
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS              23,400
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $ 683.6  MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1349.1  MILLION
                                                                  1
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING* MOLDING-METALS               25
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           50
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             100
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          25
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   75
        7 MATERIAL COATING                      100
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          50
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          5.9
                                  22.3
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
       54
       46
       82
       25
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
       53
       32
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3—it»4
                                    3-569

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                             DRAFT
Electric Housewares and Fans

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing electric housewares for heating, cooking, and other purposes; and
electric fans, including ventilating and exhaust household-type fans.
Important products of this industry include:

        Bed coverings, electric
        Blenders, electric
        Blowers, portable:  electric
        Bottle warmers, household:  electric
        Broilers, electric
        Can openers, electric
        Casseroles, electric
        Chafing dishes, electric
        Cigar lighters, electric
        Cigarette lighters, electric
        Coffee makers, household:  electric
        Cooking appliances, household:  electric
        Curling irons, electric
        Deep fat fryers, household:  electric
        Dehumidifiers:  room, electric
        Desk fans, electric
        Driers:  hand, face, and hair - electric
        Dry shavers (electric razors)
        Egg cookers, electric
        Fans, electric:  household-exhaust and
           ventilating, except attic fans
        Floor fans, electric
        Food mixers, household:  electric
        Fryers, household:  electric
        Griddles and grills, household:  electric
        Hair curlers, electric
        Hair driers, electric:  except equipment de-
           signed for beauty parlor use
        Hassock fans, electric
        Heaters, immersion:  household - electric
        Heaters, space:  electric
        Heaters, tape
        Heating pads, electric
        Heating units, baseboard or wall:  elec-
           tric (radiant heating element)
        Heating units, for electric appliances
        Hot plates, electric
        Humidifiers, electric:  V« ip.p^ld
        Irons, dc;iu=scio:  electric
        Juice extractors,  electric
                             3-572

-------
                              DRAFT
        Knives, electric
        Massage machines, electric:  except de-
           signed for beauty and barber shop
        Ovens, household:  portable
        Percolators, electric
        Popcorn poppers, for home use:  elec-
           tric
        Propeller fans, window-type  (house-
           hold)
        Radiators, electric
        Razors, electric
        Roasters, electric
        Sandwich toasters and grills, house-
           hold:  electric
        Sauna heaters, electric
        Shoe polishers, electric
        Teakettles, electric
        Toasters, household:  electric
        Toothbrushes, electric
        Trouser pressers, electric
        Unit heaters, household:  electric
        Urns, electric
        Vaporizers, electric:  household
        Ventilating fans, electric:  household -
           kitchen
        Waffle irons, electric
        Wall heaters, household:  electric
        Water pulsating devices, electric
        Whippers, household:  electric

Electric housewares and fans are produced by 294 plants,  averaging
169 workers each.  Most of these plants (56 percent)  employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-105.
As shown in Figure 3-220, 12 percent of the products  produced in
this category are electrical fans, 6 percent are electric razors
and 82 percent are other small appliances.  Steel,  copper and copper
based alloys, aluminum and aluminum based alloy, castings,  timing
mechanisms and electric motors are the major raw materials.   The
principal manufacturing operations are material forming (metals),
material coating, and mechanical material removal.

Electric housewares and fans are made by a wide range of  manufacturing
processes.  Most typically,  machining or plastic molding  is  used to
manufacture the shell of the unit.  Welding is used to attach parts,
some of which are electroplated.  Finished products are usually
                              3-573

-------
                              DRAFT
painted.  Process water, which constitutes 43  percent of  the  gross
water used by the industry,  is used mainly for cleaning prior to and
after such processes as bright dipping,  and in rinses in  electro-
plating.  Other sources of effluent water are  from air scrubbers used
in the painting operation.

The manufacture of food mixers (Figure 3-221)  is  representative  of
the electric housewares and fan industry.   The shell  of the mixer is
made by turning and grinding a rough metal casting or by  plastic
molding.  Rolling, swaging,  bending and  forming are used  to make the
beaters which are then tumbled to remove any burrs and electroplated.
Two halves of the unit are butted together to  form the assembly  which
is then cleaned by pickling and neutralized in an alkaline solution.
The unit is then electroplated or painted.   Plastic parts are either
molded inhouse or purchased.  Assembly of  all  components  is the  last
operation and includes soldering of electrical connections.   Electric
motors are either purchased or manufactured (for  further  details see
SIC 3621).  Gears are formed by machining  and  tempered or plastic
molding.
                                   3-574

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Electric Housewares and Fans
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $ 840.7
EMPLOYEES 165
EMPLOYEES 129
49,900
MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $1579.4 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
100
100
67
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS iQQ
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING -NON-METALS
100
0
67
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 6 . 1 BILLION GALLONS
23 BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
69
31
68
43
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3-105
3-575
64
15
*Based on Plant Data Collected

-------
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Household Vacuum Cleaners

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing vacuum cleaners for household use.  The major products are:

        Vacuum cleaners and sweepers, elec-
           tric:  household

Household vacuum cleaners are produced by 37 plants, averaging 360
workers each.  Most of these plants  (68 percent)  employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-106.  As
shown in Figure 3-222, all of the products produced in this category
are household vacuum cleaners.  Steel, insulated wire and cable,
copper and copper based alloys, aluminum and aluminum based alloys,
castings and electric motors are the major raw materials.  The prin-
cipal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
material forming, material coating and electrochemical processes.

In general, vacuum cleaners are made by casting and machining the
body, then fabricating the components and finally assembling these
parts to the body.  Process water is used mainly for rinses after
cleaning, vapor degreasing and post-plating rinses.

The manufacture of canister vacuum cleaners (Figure 3-223)  is
representative of the vacuum cleaner industry.  Initially two plastic
halves which form the canister body are molded and the excess plastic
is trimmed.  Handles, covers and attachments (such as brush housings)
are also molded in plastic.  The wands are rolled metal tubing with
knurled ends or extruded plastic.  Metal trim is stamped, degreased,
pickled and electroplated.  This trim is then screwed or bonded to
the canister halves.  Purchased motors, switches and wires are in-
stalled next, and the canister halves are bolted together and covers
attached.  The vacuum cleaner is tested and then packaged along with
accessories.
                              3-578

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA
Household Vacuum Cleaners

   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      25


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      12


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                13,300


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $343.3     MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $359.9     MILLION
                                                                    4

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                6


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            24


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               26


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            9


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    NA


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    12


        7 MATERIAL COATING                        26
                                                                »


        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 NA


        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS            9
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE
                                   NA


                                   NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER


PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                           BILLION GALLONS


                                           BILLION LITERS


                                                  NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
  NA  NOT AVAIUVBLE
                                                *Basea on Plant Data Collected

                                 TA3L.E 3-106

                                    3-579

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       3-581

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                             DRAFT
Household Appliances, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing household appliances, not elsewhere classified.  Specific pro-
ducts are:

        Dishwashing machines, household
        Floor waxers and polishers, household:
           electric
        Garbage disposal units, household
        Trash compactors, household
        Water heaters, household

Household appliances are produced by 86 plants, averaging 163
workers each.  Most of these plants (57 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-107.
As shown in Figure 3-224, 48 percent of the household appliances
produced are water heaters  (both electric and nonelectric),  44 per-
cent are dishwashers and food waste disposers and 8 percent  are
miscellaneous appliances.  Steel, aluminum and aluminum base alloys,
copper and copper base alloy, wire and cable, castings and motors
are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are material forming  (metals), mechanical material removal,  material
coating and assembly.

In general household appliances are made by bending and forming the
sheet steel stock into the proper shape for a housing and then weld-
ing it and assembling components into it.  Process water, which con-
stitutes 20 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used
mainly for cleaning of the metal stock by pickling and vapor degreasing,

The manufacture of dishwashers (Figure 3-225) is  representative of the
household appliance industry.  Sheet steel stock  is first cleaned in
a pickling solution.  It is then sheared and trimmed to the  proper
size and holes are punched for mounting of the components.  The metal
is next bent and formed for the sides, doers and  control boxes and
these pieces are welded together to form the frame.  Brackets are cut
from sheet metal stock and welded to the frame.  Fixtures and trim
are blanked out of sheet metal stock,  cleaned and chromium plated.
All other metal parts are then cleaned in a vapor degreaser, pickled
with trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene ir trichloroethane and all
surfaces are given a primer coat of paint.  The exposed surfaces are
then porcelainized for protection from consent, exposure to  hot water.
The spray rotor and control knobs a^  ^ ->sto.o molded ard the wire racks
are formed by cutting, benuing ana welding the wire together.   These
racks are then dipped in a silicon compound for corrosion protection.
                              3-582

-------
                              DRAFT
Other parts  such as motors, pumps, controls  and timers are usually
purchased.   All parts are assembled next and fiberglass insulation
is put in the  side walls and the dishwasher  is wired.  The unit is
then inspected, tested and crated.
                                   3-583

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Household Appliances, Not Elsewhere Classified
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       49

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       37

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 14 , 000

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $339.2    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $682.5    MILLION
                                                                    *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING-METALS              33

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           67

        3  MATERIAL FORMING-METALS             100

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          67

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  67

        7  MATERIAL COATING                       67

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          2.0

                                    7.6

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

      55

      45

      44

      20
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
      50

      NA
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                 TABLE  3-107

                                    3-584
                                                 *Based  on  Plant Data Collected

-------
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                             DRAFT
Electric Lamps

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing electric bulbs, tubes and related light sources.  Important pro-
ducts of this industry include:

        Bulbs, electric light:  complete
        Electrotherapeutic lamp units for
           ultra-violet and infra-red radiation
        Flashlight bulbs, photographic
        Glow lamps
        Infra-red lamps
        Lamps, electric:  incandescent filament,
           fluorescent, and vapor
        Lamps, health:  infra-red and ultra-
           violet radiation
        Lamps, sealed beam
        Light bulbs, electric:  complete
        Photoflash and photoflood lamps
        Pilot lights, radio
        Strobotrons
        Tubes, electric light
        Ultra-violet lamps

Electric lamps are produced by 138 plants, averaging 225 .workers
each.  Half of these plants (50 percent)  employ more than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-108.   As
shown in Figure 3-226, 33 percent of the products produced in this
category are photographic incandescent bulbs,  34 percent are large
incandescent bulbs, 20 percent are miniature incandescent bulbs,
8 percent are electric discharge and 5 percent are Christmas tree
lamps.   Glass and glass products are the major raw materials with
the principal manufacturing operation being mechanical material
removal.

In general, electric lamps are made by drawing and forming the
filament, assembling the filament to the base and then cleaning,
electroplating and assembling the final product.  Process  water,
which constitutes 6 percent of the gross water used by the industry,
is used mainly in a vapor degreasing process following machining
operations and in rinses following electroplating.
                              3-587

-------
                              DRAFT
The manufacture of incandescent lightbulbs (Figure 3-227)  is
representative of the  electric lamp industry.  The filament wire
is drawn and the filament  is formed and attached to a stamped
base.  The filament and base unit is then pickled, cleaned, rinsed,
electroplated and dried.   The glass envelope is blown and  then
assembled to the base  and  filled with inert gas.  The bulb is tested
and packaged.
                                   3-588

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Electric Lamps
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       69

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       69

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                31,100

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $719.1    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1083.4    MILLION
                                                                   ¥
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING-METALS              NA

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           16

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              NA

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          NA

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   NA

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   NA

        7 MATERIAL COATING                       NA

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                NA

        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS         NA
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           3.6

                                   13.6

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

      47

      53

      57

       6
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
      42

       7
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 -Based en Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE  .-'OS

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Current-Carrying Wiring Devices

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing current-carrying wiring devices.  Important products of this
industry include:

        Bus bars (electrical conductors)
        Caps and plugs, attachment:  electric
        Connectors and terminals for electrical
           devices
        Contacts, electrical:  except carbon and
           graphite
        Convenience outlets, electric
        Cord connectors, electric
        Current taps, attachment plug and
           screw shell types
        Cutouts, switch and fuse
        Dial light sockets, radio
        Fluorescent starters
        Fuse cutouts
        Ground clamps  (electric wiring devices)
        Lamp sockets and receptacles (electric
           wiring devices)
        Lightning arresters and coils
        Lightning protection equipment
        Plugs, electric
        Rail bonds, electric:  for propulsion and
           signal circuits
        Snap switches, electric
        Sockets, electric
        Solderless connectors (electric wiring
           devices)
        Starting switches, fluorescent
        Switch cutouts
        Switches:  snap, tumbler, pressure,  etc.
           (electric wiring devices)
        Trolley line material,  overhead

Current-carrying wiring devices are produced by 398 plants,  averaging
125 workers each.  Most of these plants (53  percent)  employ  more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are  shown in Table 3-109.
As shown in Figure 3-228, 41 percent of the  products produced in this
category are lamp holders, 30 percent are  switches and 29 percent are
other current-carrying wiring devices.   Steel,  aluminum and  aluminum
based alloys,  copper and copper based alloys,  castings,  semiconduc-
tors,  resins and refinery shapes are the major raw materials.   The
principal manufacturing operations are  material forming (metals),
                              3-592

-------
                               DRAFT
mechanical material removal and molding and forming (non-metals).

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the
current-carrying wiring devices industry.  Switches are a good
example of this category.  They are made by stamping,  bending, forming
and finishing the contacts.  The contacts are assembled in a plastic
molded shell.  Process water, which constitutes 32 percent of the
gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning of parts
and electroplating rinses.

The manufacture of switches (Figure 3-229)  is representative of
the current-carrying wiring devices industry.  Copper  stock is
cut, drilled, milled, tapped, ground and electroplated to form
'contacts of the switch, the leaf spring, the handle and other
switch parts.  Either sheet metal or molded plastic is used to
form the body of the switch.  If sheet metal is used,  it must be
sheared, punched, bent and plated or painted.  Insulating washers
are also required with sheet metal.  If plastic is used for the
body, it is injection molded and no insulating washers are re-
quired.  The parts are then assembled into the switch  body (either
plastic or metal) to complete the manufacture.
                                 3-593

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Current-Carrying Wiring Devices
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       211



                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       187



   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 49,700



   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE       $ 794.4     MILLION



   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS               $1257.6     MILLION
                                                                   1


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,



        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               25



        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            50



        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              100



        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          50



        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100



        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   75


        7 MATERIAL COATING                       50



        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0


        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          25
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         2.5


                                  9.5


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS


BILLION LITERS


      72


      28



      85


      32
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       68



   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           12
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3- 109

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Noncurrent-Carrying Wiring Devices

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing noncurrent-carrying wiring devices.  Important products of this
industry include conduits and fittings; electrical insulators and
insulation materials, except porcelain insulators, glass insulators;
outlet, switch and fuse boxes; and pole line hardware.  Major products
are:

        Boxes:  junction, outlet, switch, and fuse
           (electric wiring devices)
        Conduits and fittings, electrical
        Face plates  (wiring devices)
        Insulators and insulation materials, electrical:
           except glass, porcelain
        Pole line hardware
        Raceways
        Snubbers for CATV systems
        Terminal boards

Noncurrent-Carryin.g Wiring Devices are produced by 176 plants,
averaging 145 workers each.   Most of these plants (65 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-110.  By dollar value of products produced, 22 percent
is for pole line transmission hardware, 55 percent for electrical
conduits and conduit fittings and 23 percent for other noncurrent
carrying wiring devices.  As shown in Figure 3-230,  steel,  insulated
wire and cable, copper and copper based alloys, aluminum and aluminum
base alloys,  castings, refinery shapes and resins are the major raw
materials.   The principal manufacturing operations are material form-
ing (metals), mechanical material removal, and material coating.

Process water which constitutes 50 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly for rinsing following pickling in
a sulfuric acid bath.

The manufacture of junction  boxes (Figure 3-231)  is  representative
of the noncurrent-carrying wiring device industry.  Sheet metal for
the box is stamped, blanked  and formed into the desired shape.  The
side pieces are then spot welded together to form the junction box
which is cleaned in a pickling solution.   Next, it is galvanized
either by hot dipping or electrodeposition, and finally inspected
and packaged for shipment.

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Noncurrent-Carrying Wiring Devices
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      115
                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       61
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 25,600
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $472.C   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $964.2   MILLION
                                                                   *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING  VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
                                                67
                                                100
1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              67
4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           0
5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   67
6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  67
7 MATERIAL COATING                        0
8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           2.2
                                     8.3
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                   BILLION GALLONS
                                   BILLION LITERS
                                         86
                                         14
                                         46
                                         50
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      82
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           17
   HA  NOT AVAiLA "H..~.
                                                       on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE  3—IK
                                     3-598

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Residential Electric Lighting Fixtures

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing residential electric lighting fixtures and equipment, fixed or
portable.  The principal products include:

        Boudoir lamps
        Chandeliers, residential
        Desk lamps, residential
        Floor lamps
        Fluorescent lighting fixtures, residential
        Garden, patio, walkway and yard lighting fixtures:
           electric
        Lamp shades, metal
        Lamps (lighting fixtures), residential:  electric
        Light shades, metal
        Lighting fixtures, residential:  electric
        Lights, yard:  electric
        Table lamps
        Wall lamps

Residential Electric Lighting Fixtures are produced by 694 plants,
averaging 40 workers each.  Most of these plants (60 percent)  employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-111.  Thirty-nine percent of the dollar value produced*in this
category is from residential type electric fixtures (except portable),
43 percent is from portable residential lighting fixtures and parts
and accessories, and 18 percent is from other residential lighting
fixtures.  As shown in Figure 3-232, steel, insulated wire and cable,
copper and copper base alloys, aluminum and aluminum base alloys,
castings and resins are the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal,  material forming
(metal), casting and molding (metal),  material coating and assembly
operations.

Residential Electric Lighting Fixtures are made by a wide range of
diverse manufacturing processes.   For example, portable lamps  are
made by stamping out the metal parts,  molding plastics parts,  finish-
ing these parts and assembling them.  Process water, which constitutes
31 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly
                              3-601

-------
                               DRAFT
for cleaning and rinsing and in air  scrubbing during painting.

The manufacture of portable drop lights  (Figure  3-233)  is repre-
sentative of the Residential Electric  industry.   The reflector
is formed by shearing sheet metal stock  and  then blanking it to
the correct size.  The metal is then formed  to the reflector
shape.  Following this, the reflector  is cleaned and electroplated,
The wire cage is formed by cutting and bending wire pieces which
are then welded or brazed together.  This formed cage  is pickled,
cleaned and electroplated.  A bulb socket including the switch is
purchased.  Bare ends of insulated wire  and  cable are  crimped into
this socket and a rubber shell is molded to  fit  over the socket.
The reflector is then clamped onto the rubber molded shell and the
cage is inserted into the reflector  completing the assembly.

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Residential lighting fixtures
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      280
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      414
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                27,000
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $403.1     MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $793.0     MILLION
                                                                 *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING-METALS               0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              50
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         25
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   50
        7 MATERIAL COATING                     100
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS         25
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         5.9
                                22.3
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                       BILLION GALLONS
                                       BILLION LITERS
                                             51
                                             49
                                             52
                                             31
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TI^ATEB ,^_
                                               41
                                               17
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                        Plant Data Collected

-------
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 3-60?

-------
                             DRAFT
Commercial/ Industrial,  and Institutional
Electric Lighting Fixtures

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing commercial, industrial, and institutional electric lighting fix-
tures.  The major products are:

        Chandeliers, commercial
        Commercial lighting fixtures
        Electroluminescents (lighting fixtures)
        Fluorescent lighting fixtures, commercial
        Luminous panel ceilings
        Ornamental lighting fixtures, commercial

Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Electrical Lighting Fix-
tures are produced by 226 plants, averaging 79 workers each.  Most
of these plants  (58 percent) employ more than 20 workers.  Addi-
tional production data are shown in Table 3-112.  Seventy-five per-
cent of the dollar value produced in this category is from incan-
descent fixtures, 23 percent is from industrial - type electric
lighting fixtures and 2 percent is from commercial lighting equip-
ment.  As shown in Figure 3-234, steel, insulated wire and cable,
copper, aluminum, castings and resins are the major raw materials.
The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material
removal, assembly operations, and chemical/electrochemical operations.

Process water, which constitutes 31 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly for rinses after electroplating, acid
dips and vapor degreasing.

The manufacture of Lighting Fixtures  (Figure 3-235) is representative
of the Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Electric Lighting
Fixtures industry.  First the sheet steel stock for the base is pre-
treated in an acid bath of 5-80 percent concentration of sulfuric
acid.  The base is then stamped out using cutting oils which
necessitates vapor degreasing to remove.  This vapor degreasing is
done with trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and trichloroethane.
The base is then rinsed in water.  If chromium plating is to be done,
the base is dipped in sulfuric acid.  If any other type of plating
is to be done the base is dipped in either sulfuric or hydrochloric
acid.  The base is then neutralized in dilute potassium or sodium

-------
                              DRAFT
cyanide, cleaned and  painted or electroplated.  The base is finally
rinsed and dried.   The  reflector ig made similarly.  The stem is
usually brass or chromium plated tube stock.  This is first cut
to size and usually threaded to attach to the base and/or socket.
The stem, reflector and other component parts are then assembled
and the final product is inspected and tested.
                                 3-607

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Commercial lighting fixtures
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       131

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        55

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 17,800

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $333.0   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $682.8   MILLION
                                                                    i
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             0

        3 MATERIAL FORMING-METALS              100

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           0

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100

        7 MATERIAL COATING                       100

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS           Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         5.9

                                  22.3

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

       51

       49

       52

       31
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
       41

       17
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-112

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Vehicular Lighting Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactu:
ing vehicular lighting equipment.  The major products are:

        Aircraft lighting fixtures
        Automobile headlights and spotlights
        Automotive lighting fixtures
        Bicycle lamps
        Boat and ship lighting fixtures
        Clearance lamps and reflectors, motor
           vehicle
        Dome lights, auto
        Flasher lights, automobile
        Fog lights
        Headlights (fixtures)  for motor vehicles,
           locomotives, etc.
        Lamps, marker and clearance:  motor
           vehicle
        Locomotive and railroad car lights
        Marker lamps, motor vehicle
        Motorcycle lamps
        Parking lights, auto
        Reflectors, clearance:  motor vehicle
        Spotlights, automobile
        Streetcar lighting fixtures
        Tail lights, motor vehicle

Vehicular lighting equipment is produced by 46 plants, averaging
292 workers each.   Most of these plants (65 percent)  employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-113 and Figure 3-236.  Five  percent of the dollar value of the
products produced in this industry is for spot, fog and auxiliary
lighting, while about 94 percent is for other motor vehicle lightinc
equipment and less than 1 percent is for parts and accessories.
Steel, copper wire, aluminum,  copper and aluminum alloys, resins
and glass are the major raw materials.   The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, material forming,  electi
chemical processes and assembly operations.

In general, vehicular lighting fixtures are made by machining  the
metal parts for such items as  cases, reflectors, etc. and attaching
these to molded plastic parts  and glass lenses.  Prior to assembly,
metal parts are generally followed by cleaning and electroplating.
                              3-611

-------
                               DRAFT
Process water, which constitutes 31 percent of  the  gross water  used
by the industry, is used mainly for rinses  after electroplating,
acid dips and vapor degreasing.

The manufacture of automobile lighting fixtures (Figure 3-237)  is
representative of the vehicular lighting industry.   First  the sheet
steel stock is pretreated in a sulfuric acid bath.   The reflector
is stamped using cutting oils which necessitate vapor  degreasing to
clean.  Vapor degreasing is done with trichloroethylene, perchloroe-
thylene or trichloroethane.  The reflector  is then  rinsed  in water
and dipped in sulfuric acid if chromium plating is  to  be applied.
Sulfuric or hydrochloric acid is used if any other  type of plating
is to be done.  The part is then neutralized in dilute potassium or
sodium cyanide.  The next step is to clean  and  electroplate.  The
electroplating can be done using chromium or brass.  The chromium
solution consists of chromic acid plus sulfites or  fluosilicates,
while the brass solution consists of zinc and copper cyanides plus
free cyanide and carbonates.  The reflector is  then rinsed and  dried.
The reflector frame and other component parts are assembled and the
final product is inspected and tested.
                                    3-612

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Vehicular  lighting  equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     30

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     16

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               73,500

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $298.3     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $497.8     MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING 8r MOLDING - METALS                  0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL               0

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                100

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           50

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     100

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    50

        7  MATERIAL COATING                         100

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                   0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           50
WATER USE
            INCLUDES  3645,  3646,  3647,  3648
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          5.9

                                   22.3

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

        51

        49

        52

        31
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
        41

        17
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-H3
                                     3-613

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Lighting Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing lighting fixtures and equipment, electric and nonelectric, not
elsewhere classified.  The major products are:

        Arc lamps, except electrotherapeutic
        Area and sports luminaries
        Aviation runway approach, taxi and
           ramp lighting fixtures
        Decorative area lighting fixtures, except
           residential
        Flashlights
        Floodlights
        Fountain lighting fixtures
        Gas lighting fixtures
        Lamp fixtures, infra-red
        Lanterns:  electric, gas, carbide, kerosene,
           and gasoline
        Miners' lamps
        Public lighting fixtures
        Reflectors, for lighting equipment:
           metal
        Searchlights
        Spotlights, except automobile
        Stage lighting equipment
        Street lighting fixtures, except traffic
           signals
        Swimming pool lighting fixtures
        Ultra-violet lamp fixtures
        Underwater lighting fixtures

Lighting equipment is produced by 184 plants,  averaging 68  workers
each.   About half of these plants (49 percent)  employ more  than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-114.   As
shown in Figure 3-238, 65 percent of the dollar value of the  products
in this category is in the outdoor lighting equipment area  and 35
percent is from other electric and nonelectric lighting equipment  (in-
cluding hand-portable equipment)  and parts and accessories.   Steel,
insulated wire and cable, copper, aluminum, castings, resins  and
glass are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing oper-
ations are mechanical material removal, material forming, electro-
chemical processing and assembly operations.
                             3-616

-------
                               DRAFT
Lighting equipment is made by a wide range of diverse manufacturing
processes that in general involve machining metal parts,  followed
by cleaning, electroplating and final assembly of these parts along
with molded plastic parts and glass.  Process water,  which constitutes
31 percent of the gross water used by the industry,  is used mainly for
rinses after electroplating, acid dips and vapor degreasing.

The manufacture of flashlights (Figure 3-239)  is representative  of
the lighting equipment industry.   First,  sheet steel  stock and wire-
stock is pretreated in a sulfuric acid bath.   The switch  contact (and
the metal contact ring located at the base of the reflector)  is
stamped.  The wire stock is wound to form a steel spring  and then heat
treated.  These metal parts are then degreased,  bright dipped and
electroplated.  The barrel, cap,  reflector and switch are all plastic
molded with the reflector then coated with graphite or electroless
plate and chrome plated.  The clear plastic face plate is cut from
sheets of plastic.  Batteries and bulbs are installed and the flash-
light is assembled.

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Lighting equipment, nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      90
                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      94
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               12,400
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $241.5   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $207.2   MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS             100
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             10Q
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           0
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  ICO
        7 MATERIAL COATING                      100
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           Q
WATER USE  INCLUDES 3645, 3646,  3647, 3648
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         5.9     BILLION GALLONS
                                22.3     BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           51
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          49
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       52
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         31
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       41

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           17
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE                            .          ,          . .  ^ ,
                                              *Based on Plant Data Collected
                               TABLE 3-114
                                   3-618

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Radio and Television Receiving Sets,
Except Communication Types

This segment includes establishments  primarily engaged  in  manufactur
ing electronic equipment for home entertainment,  including auto
radios and tape players.  This industry also includes establishments
primarily engaged in manufacturing public address systems  and  music
distribution apparatus.   The major products  are:

        Amplifiers:   radio,  public address,  or
           musical instrument
        Audio electronic systems, except com-
           munication
        Coin-operated phonographs
        FM and AM tuners
        Home recorders,  cassette, cartridge
           and reel
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           magnetic
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           records or tape
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        Radio receiving  sets
        Recording machines,  music and speech:
           except office and industrial
        Sound reproducing equipment:   except
           motion picture
        Speaker monitors
        Speaker systems
        Television receiving sets
        Turntables,  for  phonographs
        Video triggers  (remote control TV de-
           vices)
                              3-621

-------
                             DRAFT
Radio and television receiving sets are produced by 360 plants,
averaging 238 workers each.  Almost half of these plants (45 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-115.  As shown in Figure 3-240, 45 percent of the products
are household and auto radios, 33 percent are television sets, 12 per-
cent are phonographs, 9 percent are recorders and tuners and 1 per-
cent are electronic kits.  Steel, insulated wire and cable, copper,
aluminum, castings, electric motors, electron tubes, semiconductors
and cabinets are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing
operations are material forming  (metals), mechanical material removal,
material coating and assembly operations.

In general, radio and television receiving sets are made by an assembly
operation in which parts, both purchased and manufactured locally, are
assembled, soldered in place, and aligned and tested.  Process water,
which constitutes 21 percent of the gross water used by the industry,
is used mainly for cleaning the circuit boards (with detergents and
solvents) after soldering.

The manufacture of television tuners (Figure 3-241)  is representative
of the radio and T.V. receiving set industry.  Initially, diodes and
capacitors are assembled into shielded cans and the UHF and VHF head-
er plates are prepared.  The UHF shielding strip is inserted and tack
soldered.  The VHF shielding strip is then inserted and the electronic
components are mounted on printed circuit boards.  The boards are
inspected, the leads cut and the boards dip soldered.  The boards are
then cleaned in a detergent and/or solvent (chlorinated or fluorinated),
rinsed and dried.  All shields are installed along with the strip
wiring.  The soldering is inspected and touched up as necessary and
the components are checked.  The UHF and VHF tuner is aligned, then
any electronic or mechanical repairs are made.   The unit is finally
realigned, and the outer shell installed.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Radio  and  Television  Receiving Sets, Except
                  Communication Types	
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       159

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       201

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 85,800

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $1,788    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $4,418    MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              17

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           33

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              33

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          0

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  17

        7 MATERIAL COATING                       33

        8 ORE PROCESSINGS-REFINING               17

        9 MOLDING* FORM ING-NON-METALS         Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          5.7

                                   21.6

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

      47

      53

      50

      21
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
     44

      0
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data  Collected
                                 TABLE  3-515
                                    3-623

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Phonograph Records and Pre-recorded
Magnetic Tape

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing phonograph records and pre-recorded magnetic tape.  The major
products are:

        Magnetic tape, pre-recorded
        Master records or tapes, preparation of
        Phonograph record blanks
        Phonograph records (including prepa-
           ration of the master)
        Pre-recorded magnetic tape
        Record blanks, phonograph
        Recording studios
        Records, phonograph
        Tape, magnetic:  pre-recorded

Phonograph records and pre-recorded magnetic tapes are produced by
564 plants, averaging 36 workers each.  Most of these plants (79
percent) employ less than 20 workers.  Additional production data
are shown in Table 3-116.  As shown in Figure 3-242,  about 58 per-
cent of the products produced in this category are 45 rpm records
and 41 percent are 33 1/3 rpm records.  Cartridge tapes and cassette
tapes account for less than 1 percent of the total production.
Plastic and magnetic tapes are the major raw materials, while the
principal manufacturing operations are molding and forming (non-metals)
and chemical/electrochemical operations.

In general, phonograph records are made by molding plastic from a
negative master disc.  Pre-recorded magnetic tapes are made by pass-
ing mylar tape coated with iron oxide in front of a recording head.
Process water, which constitutes 11 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly for removing dust and dirt from the
master disc.

The manufacturing operations for fabricating phonograph records and
pre-recorded magnetic tapes are shown in Figure 3-243.  The first
step in the manufacture of phonograph records is to machine a metal
disc which serves as the master disc.  Next, this disc is coated
with plastic which is then grooved by the recording cutter.  The
disc is then coated with lacquer and a negative is made by electro-
forming.  If this negative master is to be used to make a large

-------
                             DRAFT
quantity of records,  it is made from high  grade  steel.  The negative
master is then used as a mold in a  plastic molding operation which
is usually done under pressure with heat.

The plastic, if it is for low cost  records,  is a synthetic thermo-
plastic containing fillers.  High quality  records are made with
vinyl plastic without filler because the fillers cause a  scratch-
ing sound when played.

Pre-recorded magnetic tapes are made from  thin sheets of  mylar that
are coated with iron oxide and slit into strips  of 6.35 mm or 3.175 mr
wide.  The magnetic tape is then wound  on  plastic spools.  It is
recorded by passing the tape at a constant speed through  a recording
machine.   Many manufacturers of pre-recorded tape simply  purchase
the magnetic tape and do only the recording themselves.
                              3-627

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Phonograph Records and Pre-recorded Magnetic  Tape
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       120


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       444

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  20 , 300

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $372.5     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $563.9     MILLION
                                                                    *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            50

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               50

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          50

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    50
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7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMiNG - NON-METALS
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WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE 4.6 BILLION
17.4 BILLION
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
GALLONS
LITERS
33
67
50
11
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
28
0
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-116

                                      3-628

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Telephone and Telegraph Apparatus

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing wire telephone and telegraph equipment, and parts especially de-
signed for telephone and telegraph use.  The principal products are:

        Autotransformers for telephone switchboards
        Carrier equipment, telephone and telegraph
        Communication headgear, telephone
        Data sets, telephone and telegraph
        Electronic secretary
        Headsets, telephone
        Message concentrators
        PBX equipment, dial and manual
        Switchboards, underwater:  telephone and telegraph
        Telegraph office switching equipment
        Telephone central office equipment, dial and manual
        Telephone dialing devices, automatic
        Telephone sets, all types
        Telephone station equipment and parts, wire
        Telephones, sound powered (no battery)
        Telephones, underwater
        Teletypewriters
        Telewriters

Telephone and Telegraph Apparatus are produced by 200 plants, averagir
675 workers each.  Most of these plants (56 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-117.
Forty percent of the dollar value produced in this category is from
Telephone Switching and Switchboard Equipment, 12 percent is from
Telephone carrier equipment, 40 percent is from Telephone instruments
sets, 7 percent is from Telegraph apparatus and 1 percent is from
other equipment.  As shown in Figure 3-244, steel, wire,  copper,
aluminum, castings, resins, electron tubes and semiconductors are the
major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal, material forming, material coating,
chemical/electrochemical operations, physical property modification,
and molding and forming (non-metals).

Telephone and Telegraph Equipment is made by a wide range of diverse
manufacturing processes.  Typically, the chassis and cabinet are
manufactured and the components are installed and wired.   Telephone
shells are molded plastic.   Actual process water is used mainly for
electroplating, etching, painting, anodizing, cleaning and air
scrubbing.

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of PBX Equipment  (Figure 3-245) is representative
of the Telephone and Telegraph  industry.  First the cabinet and
chassis are formed by stamping, shearing, bending, spot welding,
grinding,  pickling, and painting.   The chassis is then drilled and
the components such as purchased  pre-wired circuit boards, relays
and transformers are installed.   These parts are assembled either
by soldering or wire wrapping.  Wire wrapping is now being used
throughout the industry because of  its superior mechanical and
electrical properties.  It is also  a dry process as opposed to dip
soldering.
                                3-632

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Telephone and Telegraph Apparatus
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      111
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       &9
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               134,900
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $2,645.2   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $4,531.1   MILLION
                                                                 +
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING-METALS               28
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           86
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              72
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          72
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   86
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    72
        7 MATERIAL COATING                       43
        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                 0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          86
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          NA     BILLION GALLONS
                                   NA     BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
  DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
  PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                              *BASED ON PLANT  DATA COLLECTED
                                TABLE 3-117
                                   3-633

-------
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                             DRAFT
Radio and Television Transmitting,  Signaling,  and
Detection Equipment and Apparatus

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing (1)  radio and television broadcasting equipment;  (2)  electric
communication equipment and parts,  except telephone and telegraph;
(3) electronic field detection apparatus, light and heat emission oper-
ating apparatus, object detection apparatus and navigational elec-
tronic equipment, and aircraft and missile control systems;  and (4)
high energy particle accelerator systems and equipment designed and
sold as a complete package for radiation therapy, irradiation,  radio-
graphic inspection, and research (linear accelerators,  betatrons,
dynamotrons, Vandergraff generators, resonant transformers,  insulating
core transformers, etc.);  (5)  high energy particle electronic equip-
ment and accessories sold separately for the construction of linear
accelerators, cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and other high energy research
installations (transmitters/modulators, accelerating wave-guide struc-
tures, pulsed electron guns, vacuum systems, cooling systems, etc.);
(6) other electric and electronic communication and signaling products,
not elsewhere classified.  Particular products are:

        Accelerating waveguide structures
        Air traffic control systems and equip-
           ment, electronic
        Aircraft control systems, electronic
        Amplifiers:  other than radio, public address,
           and musical instrument
        Antennas, radar and communications
        Antennas, television transmitting
        Atom smasher (particle accelerators)
        Betatrons
        Broadcasting equipment, radio and tele-
           vision
        Burglar alarm apparatus, electric
        Cleaning equipment, ultrasonic
        Communication equipment and parts,
           electronic:   except telephone, tele-
           graph
        Communication equipment, mobile and micro-
           wave
        Control-receivers
        Countermeasure simulators,  electric
        Cyclotrons
        Detection apparatus:  electronic and mag-
           netic field, and light and heat
        Digital encoders

-------
                       DRAFT
Direction finders, radio
Door opening control devices, radio and
   photoelectric cell operated
Dynamotrons
Electron beam metal cutting, forming
   and welding machines
Electron beam welders
Electron linear accelerators
Electronic control, detection, or com-
   munication systems
Electronic field detection apparatus
Electrostatic particle accelerators
Facsimile equipment, radio
Fire alarm apparatus, electric
Fire control and bombing equipment,
   electronic
Flight simulators  (training aids)r  elec-
   tronic
Geophysical and meteorological elec-
   tronic equipment
Heat emission operating apparatus
Highway signals, electric
Hydrophones
Inertial guidance systems
Infra-red object detection equipment
Instrument landing systems (ILS), air-
   borne and ground
Intercommunication systems, electric
Laser systems and equipment, except
   scientific and engineering instru-
   ments
Light and heat emission operating apparatus
Linear accelerators
Loran equipment
Magnetic amplifiers, except home type
Magnetic field detection apparatus
Marine horns, electric
Maser equipment, all types
Micro-wave communication equipment
Missile control systems
Missile fuel management systems
Mobile communication equipment
Modems, except telephone and tele-
   graph data sets
Multiplex equipment
Navigational electronic equipment (ILS,
   DME, VOR, TACAN)
Object detection apparatus (radar/
Particle accelerators, high voltage

-------
Photographic control systems, electronic
Phototransmission equipment, radio
Pulsed electron guns
Radar equipment
Radio and television switching equip-
   ment
Radio antennas (transmitting and receiving)
   and ground equipment
Radio compasses
Radio receiver networks
Radio telephone and telegraph equip-
   ment, except tubes
Railroad signaling devices, electric
Receiver-transmitter units  (transceiv-
   er)
RF power amplifiers, and IF ampli-
   fiers:  sold separately
Satellites
Sighting and fire control equipment,
   electronic type
Signaling apparatus, electric
Signals:  railway, highway, and traffic -
   electric
Sirens, electric:  vehicle, marine, indus-
   trial, and air raid
Sonar equipment
Sound signaling devices, electrical
Target signals, synthetic:  to operate radar
   receivers and repeaters
Telemetering equipment, electronic
Television antennas (transmitting) and
   ground equipment
Television closed circuit equipment
Television monitors
Time decoders
Traffic signals,  electric
Training devices, electronic
Transmitting apparatus, radio and tele-
   vision:  except tubes
Transponders
Ultrasonic cleaning equipment
Ultrasonic generators sold separately
   for inclusion in tools and equipment
Ultrasonic welding machines and equipment
Underwater sound equipment
Waveguide pressurization equipment
Weapon simulators

-------
                             DRAFT
Radio and television transmitting, signaling, and detection equipment
and apparatus are produced by 1698 plants, averaging 188 workers each.
About half of these plants (51 percent)  employ more than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-118.  As shown in
Figure 3-246, 74 percent of the products produced in this category
are video equipment, 14 percent are transceivers, 4 percent are amatet
radios, 4 percent are cab radios and 4 percent are audio equipment.
Steel, copper, aluminum, insulated wire and cable castings, electric
motors, electron tubes, semiconductors,  and plastic resins are the
major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal,  material coating, material forming (metal
and chemical/electrochemical  operations.

In general, equipment in this category is made by bending and forming
sheet metal stock into the cabinet and the chassis, building the print
ed circuit boards, and final  assembly of all the components.  Process
water is used mainly for cleaning and pickling of the metal stock and
air scrubbing in the painting booths.

The manufacture of electronic communication equipment (Figure 3-247)
is representative of this industry.  The cabinet and the chassis for
the equipment is formed first by shearing sheet metal stock, trimming
the metal, drilling the holes for the components and deburring.  Next
the metal is bent and formed  and spot welded together to form the
cabinet which is then pickled, galvanized with zinc, and painted.

The circuit boards for the units are etched and the components (re-
sistors, capacitors, transistors, etc.)  are mounted into place.  The
leads are trimmed and the board is dip soldered.  These circuit boards
along with purchased components are then assembled into the chassis.
The components are wired by soldering or wire wrapping.   The unit is
then inspected, tuned and tested.

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Radio and TV commur.irM.ion
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      867

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      83i

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                319,600

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE      $5750.3      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS               $9] 28.2      MILLION
                                                                    1
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        ! CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               10

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            90

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               50

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           20

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    90

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   40

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        40

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDINGS FORMING-NON-METALS          30
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE
                                    NA

                                    NA
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

PROCES1 '  TER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
                                           BILLION GALLONS

                                           BILLION LITERS

                                                   NA

                                                   NA

                                                   NA

                                                   NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                             *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-1 Ifi

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
 Radio and Television Receiving Type Electron
 Tubes, Except Cathode Ray

 This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
 ing radio and television receiving type electron tubes, except cathode
 ray tubes.

 Radio and T.V.  receiving type electron tubes are produced by 24
 plants,  averaging  515 workers each.  Half of these plants  (50 per-
 cent) employ more  than  20 workers.  Additional production data are
 shown in Table  3-119.   As shown in Figure 3-248 70 percent of the
 radio and T. V.  receiving tubes manufactured are miniature, 14 per-
 cent are standard  tubes and  16 percent are subminiature and other types
 of tubes.   Steel,  copper, semiconductors, glass and resins are the
 major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are
 mechanical  material removal, physical property modification, material
 forming  (metals) and chemical/electrochemical operations.

 In general, electron tubes are made by machining the metal parts,
 working  the glass  parts, assembling the components, exhausting the
 tube, testing,  cleaning, and electroplating.  Process water, which
 constitutes 5 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is
 used mainly for cleaning before furnacing, glass working, testing
 and electroplating.

 The manufacture of electron  tubes for radio and television receiving
 sets  (Figure 3-249) is  representative of this industry.  Tubes
 generally consist  of a  button stem assembly, shields, spacers, heat-
 er cathode, grid,  plate and  a getter.  The button stem assembly is
 usually  preassembled from glass and electrodes.  The cathode, grid,
 plate,  spacers  and heater are combined into a cage assembly which is
 then mounted onto  the button stem.  A glass envelope is then placed
 over the cage and  heated to  seal it to the button stem.  The air is
 then exhausted  and sometimes an inert gas added and the envelope is
 sealed.  The shields and the spacers are usually stamped from thin
"£Keets of formica  or ceramic.  The heater is usually a tungsten wire
 coated with a layer of  aluminum oxide and the cathode is usually a
 tungsten filament  with  a coating of barium oxide, stranium oxide and
 calcium  oxide.   This coating is done by making a slurry of carbonates
 in nitro-cellulose that is highly diluted with organic solvents such
 as amye  acetate.   This  slurry is then sprayed onto the filament.
 The grid is made of two side rods with lateral wires wound around
 them.  The  rods are nicked to locate the lateral wires which are spot
                               3-643

-------
                                   on/, FT
PRODUCE 'ON DAT    Rcdio an' Television Receiving  Type  Eleccron j^
     	E, ce»t Ca .node ilav                     ____—.
   NUMBE -; OF tL^TAB ISHML;N  S VVI 'H MORE TH  ;•> 2J  MSLOY  ES
                              WiTH LESS T^AN 20 EMPLOYEES      12
   NUMBER OF ^MP OY 25 ALL ,rSs ABLJSHM :NTS               11, ^00
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $17J       MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $226.2     MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  C STING & MOLDING - PETALS
        2  MEr.HANICAL MATERIAL  €MOVAL
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METAL.S
        4  PHYSICAL P  OPE, TY MODIFICATION
        b  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
       33
       67
        0
        0
       33
        6 CHEMI<~AL-E ECTROCHEMICAL Oi-ERATICNS   1 00
         / MATERIAL COATING
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REF.NING
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-ME^A S
       67
        u
        0
WATER -I
               JWA  IR USE           5.9
                                    "2.3
   I, TAKE WATER AS PE  CEN  O ' CROSS USE.
    REUSED WATER f- S PERCENT OF CROSb S"
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSIN i V.AT
   PROr_SS WATER AS PERCENT OF ^ROSS USE
EILLI  N GAL: ->N
BILLION LITERS
       17
       83
       69
        5
   DlSCHArioED WAT^R AS PERCENT r.  GROSS JPE        25
   PERC£NT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             0
       NOTAVAIL/BLE
                                                 *Based on  Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-119
                                      3-645

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Cathode Ray Television Picture Tubes

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing television receiving type cathode ray tubes.  The major products
are:

        Cathode ray television receiving type
           tubes
        Picture tube reprocessing

Cathode ray television picture tubes are produced by 74 plants,
averaging 212 workers each.  Most of these plants (72 percent)
employ less than 20 workers.   Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-120, and Figure 3-250.  Thirty percent of the television
picture tubes produced are black and white and 70 percent are color.
Copper, kovar, nickel, aluminum, lead, glass, ceramic compounds
(aluminum oxides),  silver solders and brazing alloys are the majcr
raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, material forming (metals)  and chemical/electro-
chemical operations.

In general cathode ray T.V. picture tubes are made by machining the
metal parts, working the glass parts, assembling the components,
vaporizing the phosphors on the inside of the tube,  exhausting the
tube, testing, cleaning and electroplating.   Process water, which
constitutes 29 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is
used mainly for cleaning before furnacing, glass working, testing
and electroplating.

The manufacture of cathode ray picture tubes (Figure 3-251) is
representative of the processes used in this industry.  Cathode ray
tubes are made essentially the same as conventional electron tubes
with the major difference oeing the fact that cathode ray tubes
contain a phosphorescent screen and a cathode ray gun.  The phosphor-
escent screen is made of a thin coating of inorganic material that
becomes luminescent under electron bombardment.  The phosphers are
vapor deposited on the inside of the tube.  The electron gun is made
very similar to the metal parts of a conventional tube, the major
difference being the shape of the internal parts.   For further de-
tails on the manufacture of conventional electron tubes see the
description in SIC 3671.
                              3-648

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Cathode Ray Television Picture Tubes
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      21
                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       53
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 15,700
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $345.5     MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $696.4     MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                NA
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             NA
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                NA
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            NA
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                      NA
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    NA
        7 MATERIAL COATING                          NA
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  NA
        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS           NA
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           5.5
                                    20.8
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
       53
       47
       100
       29
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
       51
       39
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *BASED ON PLANT DATA COLLECTED
                                  TABLE  j  1
                                       3-04')

-------
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    3-651

-------
                             DRAFT
Transmitting, Industrial, and Special
Purpose Electron Tubes

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactui
ing transmitting, industrial, and special purpose electron tubes.
The major products are:

        Cathode ray tubes, except television re-
           ceiving type
        Electron beam (beta ray)  generator
           tubes
        Electron tubes:   transmitting,  indus-
           trial, and special purpose
        Gas and vapor tubes
        Geiger Mueller tubes
        Industrial electron tubes
        Klystron tubes
        Light sensing and emitting tubes
        Magnetrons
        Transmitting electron tubes
        Traveling wave tubes
        Tubes for operating above the X-ray
           spectrum (with shorter wave  length)
        Vacuum capacitors, relays, and
           switches

Transmitting, industrial and special purpose electron tubes are pro-
duced by 51 plants, averaging 394 workers each.   Most of these plant
(71 percent)  employ more than 20  workers.  Additional production dat
are shown in Table 3-121 and Figure 3-252.  Fifty-eight percent of
the electron tubes produced in this category are high vacuum tubes,
33 percent are gas and vapor tubes, 2 percent are magnetrons,  and 7
percent are other electron tubes.  Copper, kovar, nickel, aluminum,
lead, glass,  ceramic compounds (aluminum oxides), silver solders
and brazing alloys are the major  raw materials.   The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal, chemical/
electrochemical operations, material coating, material forming
(metals)  and physical property modification.
                              3-652

-------
                              DRAFT
         l~r - eiec: fe-r©n-~t-tttee s- -a r-e - ma de by. .m*&h in i-n g  t he- «e fe a 1
working the glass parts, assembling the components,.- exhausting !
the tube j J^stijigij cleaning^ and ^eleetrqjolating_.   Pr£cess_water, *
Which constitutes 10 percent of the gross water used by the  industry
is used mainly for cleaning before furnacing,  glass  working,  testing
and electroplating.^ " '-       " "'•  •     ,-   '•>   -.     . -   '- -'*

The manufacture of "special purpos'e electron  tubes (Figure 3-253)!>  is
representative of this  industry.  The raw materials-  are- divided up
into two classes, metal and glass.  The metals are machined  and fornv
as required, then degreased and cleaned in an  ultrasonic cleaner.
Furnacing is done to drive out any gases trapped,within the  metal.
The glass parts are cleaned in an alkalai bath and then worked into
the required shapes such as a glass envelope.

Next, the metal parts are brazed together, then inserted in  the glas
tube which is next exhausted of all gases.   The assembled tube is
then cleaned in a pickling solution and tested.   It  is cleaned again
and the external parts  of the tube are electroplated.
                               3-653

-------
                                   DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  n octroi".  Tutc-S
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       36

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       15

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 20. ICO

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          5337.1     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   5471.6     MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 33

        I  MECHANICAL. MATERIAL REVOVAL             £"

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                  C

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION             C

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                      33

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  IOC

        7 MATERIAL COATING                          67

        8  ORE PROCESSINGS-REFINING                   -

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS             C



WATER USE


   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             4.2    BILLION GALLONS

                                      15.9    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             36

   REUSED W ATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            64

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        75

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           10


WASTE WATER



   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        33

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             29
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                                *BAsr.u UIN t-i^ ^

                                   TABLE  3-121
                                      3-654

-------
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                             DRAFT
Semiconductors and Related Devices

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged  in  manufactur-
ing semiconductor and related solid state devices,  such as semi-
conductor diodes and stacks, including rectifiers,  integrated  micro-
circuits (semiconductor networks) transistors, solar  cells,  and  light
sensing and emitting semiconductor  (solid state) devices.   The princi-
pal products are:

        Computer logic modules
        Controlled rectifiers, solid state
        Diodesf solid state  (germanium,  sili-
           con, etc.)
        Electronic devicesf  solid state
        Fuel cells, soiJfS  state
        Gunn effect device
        Kail effect devices
        Hybrid integrated  circular
        Infra-red ;-; en £":.::£ , solid state-
        Light e-r.irti":g c'io>?es
        Light sensitive device;-: f solid state
        Magnetic buL'?]e meraory 03vice
        i»iagnetohydrccyj>imic  (Mi-iD} o.«v ic;
                               ' ^s C'
.Memories,, s
                      d  state
        #etai oxide  silicon  ^MCE)  devices
        Microcircuits ,  ir tegratec  (semicon-
           ductor ;
        Modules ; solid  ctate
        Molecular  devices, solid  state
        Monolithic integrated  circuits  (solid
        Kuclear detectors f  ,:>:, lid state
        Paremstric  clicaes
        Photoelectric  cells,  solid state (elec
            tronic eye/
        Fliotovoltaic devices,  scl:d £v,e:te
        Pectiliersf solid  state
        Semicor.ouctcr  circuit nstv^arks (solid
            state  integrated circuits)
        Semiconductors (transistors,  diodes,
            etc.)
        S"olar  cells
        Solid  state electronic devices
        Strain gages,  solid state
        Stud bases  or  mounts  for semicon-
            ductor devices
        Switches, silicon  control
                               3-657

-------
                               DRAFT
        Thermionic devices, solid state
        Thermoelectric devices, solid state
        Thin film circuits
        Transistors
        Tunnel diodes
        Ultra-violet sensors,  solid state
        Variable capacitance diodes
        Zener diodes

Semiconductors and related devices are produced by 313 plants,
averaging 270 workers each.  Most of these plants (59 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are
shown in Table 3-122.  As shown in Figure 3-254,  36 percent of
the products produced in this category are transistors, 44  per-
cent are diodes and rectifiers, 16 percent are integrated cir-
cuits and 4 percent are other semiconductors.   Steel, insulated
wire cable, aluminum, copper,  castings, silicon,  germanium  and
resins are the major raw materals.  The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, chemical/electro-
chemical operations and material forming (metals).

In general semiconductors are made from silicon or germanium wafers
that are doped with impurities.  These are joined together  and  lead
wires are attached.  Process water, which constitutes 6 percent of
the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for washing
the finished semiconductor device with ultra pure water.

The manufacture of transistors (Figure 3-255)  is representative
of the semiconductors industry.   (Crystals of silicon are first
grown by the Czochralski or Float Zone methods.  They are next  cut
and polished to form wafers.)   Next, the wafers are cast and sorted,
They are then bonded together and wires are bonded to the joined
wafers.  The unit is next washed in ultra pure water, dried and
baked.  A cap is finally soldered into place and the unit tested.
                                  3-658

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Semiconductors and Related Devices
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        184


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        129

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                   84,600

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $1423.6     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                $2176.2     MILLION
                                                                     *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING-METALS                 0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL              29

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 0


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            14

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                       86

         6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    100

        7 MATERIAL COATING                          57


        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                   0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            29
 WATER USE
    ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         44


                                   166.5

    INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

    REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

    PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

    PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS


BILLION LITERS


         75


         85


         86


          6
 WASTE WATER
    DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


    PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
         14

         43
    NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   * Based  on  Plant  Data  Collected
                                   TABLE  3-122

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Electronic Capacitors

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing electronic capacitors.  The major products are:

        Capacitors, electronic:  fixed and vari-
           able
        Condensers, for electronic end products

Electronic capacitors are produced by 107 plants,  averaging 251 work-
ers each.  Most of these plants (90 percent)  employ  more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in  Table 3-123.   As
shown in Figure 3-256, 18 percent of the capacitors  produced are
electrolytic capacitors, 76 percent are ceramic capacitors and 6 per-
cent are mica capacitors.  Various metal stock, wire and dielectric
materials are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing
operations are material coating, assembly operations, and physical
property modification.

In general, capacitors are made by forming discs,  applying a silver
surface to both sides, oven drying, attaching lead wires and plastic
coating the unit.  Process water,  which constitutes  12 percent of
the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning
after the leads are dip soldered in place.

The manufacture of ceramic disc capacitors {Figure 3-257)  is represen-
tative of the capacitor industry.   First a ceramic disc is formed and
oven fired.  A silver surface is applied to each side of the disc and
it is oven dried.  The discs are then loaded into  a  magazine where
wires which have been previously stripped, cut and bent are attached
by dip soldering.  The disc assembly is then cleaned in a detergent
or solvent.  A plastic coating is applied and the  capacitor is dried.
Identification is printed on the capacitor and a wax coating is
applied.  The wire leads are then sheared and samples of the capacitors
are tested.

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Electror.ic  capacitors
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      96
                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      11
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                26,900
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $296.0    MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $437.9    MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        i  CASTJNG & MOLDING - METALS               50
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           50
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              50
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         50
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100
         6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATfONS  50
        7 MATERIAL COAT5NG                       50
        8 ORE PROCESS5NG & REFINING                50
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          0
 WATER USE
    ANNUAL, GROSS WATER USE          2&. 3    bil.LIOrt GALLONS
                                    1C7.I    BILLION LITERS
    INTAKC WATER AS PERCKN1 CF GROSS USE           32
    REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           68
    PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       55
    PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         12
 WASTE WATER
    DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       29
    PERCENT or DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            33
    NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *'ili<,r-d on Plant Data Collected
                                   TABLE  3-123
                                       J-663

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Resistors for Electronic Applications

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing resistors for electronic end products.   The products are:

        Resistors, for electronic end products
        Thermistors, except temperature sensors
        Varistors

Resistors, for Electronic Applications are  produced by 83 plants,
averaging 234 workers each.  Most of these  plants (90 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-124.  As shown in Figure 3-258,  59 percent of all re-
sistors produced are composition resistors,  28 percent are de-
posited carbon or metal film resistors, 5 percent are variable  non-
wire wound resistors, 4 percent are wire wound resistors, 2 percent
are variable wire wound resistors and 2 percent are other types of
resistors.  The principal manufacturing operations are material
coating, molding and forming (non-metals),  assembly operations  and
physical property modification.

In general resistors are made by forming the ceramic substrate  and
filming, curing and coating it in the case  of a deposited film
resistor.  Wire wound resistors are produced very similarly to
transformers.  Process water which constitutes 12 percent of the
gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for cleaning.

The manufacture of carbon film resistors (Figure 3-259)  is representa-
tive of the resistor industry.   Initially the ceramic substrate
is formed and oven fired.  The carbon film  is then deposited on
the substrate in a methane atmosphere at (1038 degrees C).  The resis-
tance of the resulting film is measured next.  Silver contact bands
are applied as silver powder in a vehicle binder.  Drying and curing
is next, followed by a dip in a silicon compound and centrifuging.
The resistor is then cured, sorted, spiralled and capped.  An
epoxy coating is applied and the resistor is tested and marked.

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Electronic resistors
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
                    75


                     8


                19,400
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $251.7   MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $350.6   MILLION
                                                                      4

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              NA


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           NA


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              NA


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         NA


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   NA


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  NA


        7 MATERIAL COATING                       NA


        8 ORE  PROCESSING & REFINING               NA


        9 MOLDING  & FORMING-NON-METALS         NA
 WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE        28.3


                                  107.1


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS


BILLION LITERS


   32


   68


   55


   12
 WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
      29


      33
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
     *BASI:D ON PLANT DATA COLLECTED
                                   TABLE  3-124

                                       3-667

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Electronic Coils, Transformers
and Other Inductors

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing electronic coils, transformers and inductors.   The major products
are:

        Baluns
        Coil windings, electronic
        Coils, chokes and other electronic in-
           ductors
        Filters, electronic
        Inductors, electronic
        Transformers, electronic types

Electronic coils, transformers and other inductors are produced
by 222 plants, averaging 115 workers each.  Most of these plants
(83 percent) employ more than 20 workers.   Additional production
data are shown in Table 3-125.  As shown in Figure 3-260 23 percent
of the dollar value of products in this category is for television
transformers, 24 percent is for RF transformers, 24 percent is for
plate and filament transformers and 29 percent is for other electronic
coils.  Insulated wire and cable, steel and paper are the major raw
materials and the principal manufacturing operation is assembly.

In general, electronic coils are made by winding the coil, install-
ing the leads, and assembling the coil to a base.   Process water,
which constitutes 12 percent of the gross water used by the industry,
is used mainly for cleaning after soldering.

The manufacture of I.F. transformers (Figure 3-261) is representative
of the transformer industry.  First the coils are wound on a form
and the leads are pressed into a phenolic base.  The capacitor is
then installed on the base and dip soldered.  The joint is then
cleaned with a solvent.  Next, the base is connected to the coil
and the coil leads are soldered.  The slug and the ferrite cap is
then installed and the unit is inspected.   Finally the shielding
can is installed and the transformer is tested and adjusted.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Electronic coils and transformers
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS. WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      184


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       38

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 25, 500

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $214.7     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $355.8     MILLION
                                                                      ^

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS .MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS

        7  MATERIAL COATING

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
        0

      100

      150

        0

      100

        0

      100

        0

       50
WATER USE INCLUDES  3675,  3676,  3677,  3678,  3679
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          28.3


                                    NA

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

       32

       68

       55

       12
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
        29

        33
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based  on  Plant  Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-125

                                       3-671

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Connectors for Electronic Applications

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing connectors for electronic applications.

Connectors for electronic applications are produced by 90 plants,
averaging 179 workers each.   Most of these plants (87 percent)  employ
more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-126.  As shown in Figure 3-262, 21 percent of the products produced
in this category are radio frequency connectors,  10 percent are
cylindrical connectors, 68 percent are printed circuit connectors
and 1 percent are fusion sealed connectors.   Steel, copper, silver,
gold, wire and cable and plastics are the major raw materials.   The
principal manufacturing operations are molding and forming (non-
metals) , mechanical material removal, assembly operations, and
chemical/electrochemical operations.

In general electrical connectors are made by stamping electrical
contacts and electroplating them, molding the plastic shell and
assembling the parts.  Process water, which constitutes 12 percent
of the gross water used by the industry,  is used mainly for de-
greasing after machining operations, scale removal from metal stock
and cleaning before electroplating.

The manufacture of electrical connectors  (Figure 3-263) is represen-
tative of this industry.  The manufacture starts with pickling in
sulfuric acid to remove the scale on the  metal stock.  The electric-
al pin contacts are stamped, trimmed and  finished.  The bushings,
endbells, ferrules, coupling nuts and barrels are cut, turned and
threaded from bar stock on a lathe.  Cutting oils are used in this
operation.  These parts are then degreased and rinsed and treated
with a sodium carbonate solution at 3 percent concentration,  followed
by a sodium phosphate solution treatment  and then a sodium hydroxide
rinse solution for neutralization.  The contacts are electroplated
and then rinsed and dried.  The groumets  and insulators are molded
from various plastics, rubbers or teflon  materials depending on the
type of service for which the connector is designed.  All the piece
parts are then assembled and the unit is  inspected and packaged for
shipment.
                              3-674

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Electronic connectors
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      78

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      12

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                16,100

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $303.6    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $425.3    MILLION
                                                                    *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            50

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               50

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         100

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    50

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  IQQ

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        50

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          50
 WATER USE   INCLUDES  3675,  3676,  3677,  3678, 3679
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           28.3

                                    107.1
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

      32

      68

      55

      12
 WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       29

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            33
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE  3-126
                                       3-675

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                             DRAFT
Electronic Components Not
Elsewhere Classified
This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing electronic components,  not elsewhere classified,  such as  receiving
antennas, printed circuits, switches, and wave guides.   The major
products are:
        Antennas, receiving:   automobile,  home,
           portable
        Attenuators
        Circuit boards, television and radar:
           electric - printed
        Commutators, electronic
        Constant impedance transformers
        Cores, magnetic
        Cryogenic cooling devices (cryostats,
           etc.) for infra-red detectors,  masers
        Crystals and crystal  assemblies,  radio
        Delay lines
        Electronic circuits,  except semicon-
           ductor or solid state
        Electronic tube parts, except glass
           blanks
        Ferrite electronic parts
        Harness assemblies, for electronic use:
           wire and cable
        Headphones, radio
        Hermetic seals, for electronic equip-
           ment
        Impedance conversion  units,  high fre-
           quency
        Loads, electronic
        Magnetic recording tape
        Microwave components
        Oscillators, except laboratory type
        Parametric amplifiers
        Passive repeaters
        Phonograph needle cartridges
        Phonograph needles
        Piezoelectric crystals
        Power supplies, static:  regulated, un-
           regulated, variable frequency
        Printed circuits
        Pulse forming networks
        Quartz crystals, for  electronic appli-
           cation

-------
                               UHMT I
        Recording and playback heads, mag-
           netic
        Recording heads, for speech and musical
           equipment
        Rectifiers, electronic:  except solid
           state
        Relays, for electronic use
        Resonant reed devices, electronic
        Rheostats, for electronic end products
        Sockets, electronic tube
        Solenoids for electronic applications
        Step positioners for transmitting
           equipment
        Styli, phonograph record cutting
        Switches, electronic applications
        Switches, stepping
        Tape, magnetic recording, including
           paper type
        Thick film circuits
        Transducers, electrical
        Tube retainers, electronic
        Tube spacers, mica
        Tube transformer assemblies used in
           firing electronic tubes
        Video triggers, except remote control
           TV devices
        Voice controls
        Wave guides and fittings

Electronic components not elesewhere classified are produced by 1791
plants, averaging 64 workers each.  Most of these plants  (63 percent)
employ less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-127.  As shown in Figure 3-264, the major products in this
category are printed circuits,  crystals and filters, microwave compo-
nents and magnetic recording media.  Steel, aluminum, copper, insulate<
wire and cable, castings and electronic components are the major raw
materials.   The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, chemical/electrochemical operations, material coat-
ing, and assembly operations.

Electronic components in this category are made by a wide range of
diverse manufacturing processes with the manufacture of printed cir-
cuit boards being by far the major product in this category.  In
general, these circuit boards are made by drilling holes in a copper
clad board, applying a resist to those areas that are not to be etched
and then etching the board.   Process water, which constitutes 12 per-
cent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
cleaning and rinse waters.

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of printed circuit boards (Figure 3-265)  is  represen-
tative of the electronic components industry.   First  a  copper  clad
board is drilled then deburred,  scrubbed and soaked clean.   The  board
is then dipped into ammonium persulfate  and  then  sulfuric acid and
rinsed after each dip.  Hydrochloric acid is applied, activated,  and
accelerated.  Electroless copper is then deposited and  the board is
dipped into sulfuric acid and rinsed.  A thick  plate  of copper is
applied next and the board is rinsed and dried  in a blower.  The re-
sist is applied and it is then soaked, cleaned  and rinsed again.   Then
the board is again dipped in acid and rinsed.   If gold  is to be  used
as the etch resist, the board is nickel  plated, rinsed,  dipped in
acid and rinsed again.  A gold strike is applied  by plating  and  then
the board is gold plated.  The copper is then etched  and the resist
is removed and printed circuit board is  rinsed  and dried.  The gold
from the plating solution is recovered and recycled.
                                  3-680

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Electronic components, nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        662

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       1129

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  113,900

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE       $1895.7     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHiPMENTS                $3564.6     MILLION
                                                                    4
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               5

        2 MECHANICAL MATERiAL REMOVAL           57

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              14

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          24

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   81

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  67

        7 MATERIAL COATING                       33

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDiNC & FORMING - NON-METALS          24
WATER USE  INCLUDES 3675,  3676,  3677,  3678,  3679
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         28.3

                                  107.1

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

      32

      68

      55

      12
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       29

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            33
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
     *Based or.  Plant  Data Collected
                                 TABLE  3-127
                                     3-681

-------
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-------
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-------
Storage Batteries

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing storage batteries, and the products include:

        Alkaline cell storage batteries
        Lead acid batteries (storage
           batteries)
        Storage batteries

Storage batteries are produced by 208 plants, averaging 106 workers
each.  Most of these plants (56 percent) employ more than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-128.  As shown
in Figure 3-266, 7 percent of the storage batteries produced are
automobile replacement batteries, 2 percent are original equipment
automobile batteries, 10 percent are nickel cadmium batteries, 2
percent are lead acid batteries for other than motor vehicles, and
79 percent are for other uses.  Lead, purchased plastic cases,
litharge and sulfuric acid are the major raw materials.  The prin-
cipal manufacturing operations are molding and forming, material
forming and assembly operations.

In general storage batteries are made by casting the plates out of
lead, spreading a lead oxide and sulfuric acid paste on the plates,
drying, assembling and adding the acid.  Process water, ^which con-
stitutes 20 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is
used mainly for cleaning and rinsing.  Unused sulfuric acid is also
a major source of waste.

The manufacture of lead-acid storage batteries  (Figure 3-267) is
representative of the storage battery industry.  First lead is cast
to form the grids.  A paste is then made by mixing lead oxides with
sulfuric acid and water.  This paste is spread onto the lead grids
to form plates which are cured and dried.  The plates are then
stacked with a spacer material between them to form the battery cells.
At this point in the assembly, the operation varies for wet charged
and dry charged batteries.  The wet charged battery cells are assembled
in a plastic or rubber case, interconnected, sealed, tested and filled
with sulfuric acid.  An electrical charge is applied to the battery
terminals which converts the negative plates to lead sponge and the
positive .plates to lead peroxide.  This operation, called forming,
completes the battery manufacture.

The dry charge batteries are shipped and stored without sulphuric
acid to extend the battery shelf life.  For the dry charge battery,
the forming operation is accomplished by connecting the battery cells
                              3-684

-------
and immersing them in forming tanks containing sulfuric acid for the
actual forming.   The cells are then removed, washed and assembled in
the battery case.  Then they are tested, decorated and readied for
shipment.  Some  manufacturers of dry charged batteries are able to
conduct the forming operation with the cells in the battery case.
                                   3-685

-------
                              DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Storage  Batteries
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       117

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        91

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 22,000

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $474.3      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $959.6      MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS*

        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS             90

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL         20

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             10

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION        IQ

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                 1QO

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 2Q

        7 MATERIAL COATING                      IQ
                                                                  *
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING              10

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS        IQ
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE
                                   6.9
                                  26.1
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

     41

     59

     54

     20
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
     36

     35
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-128
                                      3-686

-------
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3-688

-------
Primary Batteries, Dry and Wet

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing primary batteries, dry or wet.  The products are:

        Batteries, primary:  dry or wet
        Dry cell batteries, single and multiple cell

Primary Batteries, Dry and Wet, are produced by 49 plants, averaging
171 workers each.  Most of these plants  (65 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-129.
As shown in Figure 3-268, 81 percent of the batteries produced in
this category are flashlight and radio dry cell batteries, 19 per-
cent are general purpose dry cells and less than 1 percent are wet
cells.  Zinc and zinc based alloys and carbon and graphite products
are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are material forming and assembly operations.

In general primary batteries, of which carbon zinc batteries are the
most common, are made by forming the container and inserting a liner.
The container is then filled with the depolarizer and the electrolyte.
The carbon rod is added next and the battery is sealed.  Process watei
which constitutes 22 percent of the gross water used by the industry,
is used mainly for cleaning of raw metal stock prior to assembling
and charging.

The manufacture of carbon-zinc batteries (Figure 3-269) is represen-
tative of the primary battery industry.  The container is drawn or
stamped from zinc sheet.  The paperboard liner is coated with a paste
containing HgC12_ and inserted in the zinc container.  The depolarizer
containing Mn02_ and carbon black and the electrolyte consisting of
NH4C1 and ZnCl2_ are added next.  The carbon rod is inserted in the
middle of the battery and a washer made out of paperboard is added
to support the carbon rod.  The cell is then sealed with an asphalt
compound and the top and bottom covers are formed from sheet steel
and the top and case are crimped over the container.  The batteries
are then tested and packed.
                              3-689

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Primary Batteries, Dry and Wet
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    32

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     17
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               8,400
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $221.9     MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $348.3     MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               40
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            20
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               40

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          20
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   40

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        20

        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                 0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            0.9   BILLION GALLONS
                                      3.4   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           57

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           33

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       64

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         22
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       77
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            Q
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-129
                                     3-690

-------
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-------
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Radiographic X-ray, Fluoroscopic X-ray,
Therapeutic X-ray, and Other X-ray Apparatus
and Tubes; Electromedical and Electrotherapeutic
Apparatus

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing radiographic X-ray, fluoroscopic X-ray, and therapeutic X-ray
apparatus and tubes for medical, industrial, research and control
applications.  This industry also includes establishments primarily
engaged in manufacturing electromedical and electrotherapeutic
apparatus except electrotherapeutic lamp units for ultra-violet
and infra-red radiation (Industry 3641).  The major products are:

        Arc lamp units, electrctherapeutic:
           except infra-red and ultra-violet
        Cardiographs
        Electrocardiographs
        Electroencephalcgraphs
        Electromedical apparatus
        Electromyographs
        Fluoroscopes
        Fluoroscopic X-ray apparatus and tubes
        Lamps, X-ray
        Phonocardiographs
        Radiographic X-ray apparatus and tubes:
           medical, industrial, and research
        Radium equipment
        Therapeutic X-ray apparatus and tubes:  for
           medical, industrial, research
        X-ray apparatus and tubes:   for medical,
           industrial, research, and control
        X-ray generators

X-ray apparatus and tubes are produced by 98 plants, averaging 108
workers each.   Half of these plants employ mere than ?0 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-130.  As showr in
Figure 3-270,  23 percent of the products in this category ere
medical, electronic equipment and 77 percent is X-ray equipment.
Steel,  copper, nickel, aluminum,, glass, ceramic compounds,  solders
and electronic components are the major raw materials.   The
                              3-693

-------
principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
material coating, material forming (metals) and assembly operations.

In general X-ray apparatus is made by metal" forming and machining
of the cabinet and then installation and wiring of the electrical
components and X-ray tube.  The X-ray tubes are made in essentially
the same manner as electron tubes.  Process water is used mainly
for cleaning of the components at various stages of manufacture.
Air scrubbing in the painting booths for the painting of the cabinets
also uses process water.

The manufacture of X-ray tube apparatus (Figure 3-271) is repre-
sentative of this industry.  The metal parts are machined then
degreased and cleaned and fired in a furnace.  The glass parts are
cleaned and then worked into the required shapes.  Both the metal
and glass parts are then assembled to form the tube and the tube
is exhausted of all gases, cleaned, tested and electroplated.

The circuit boards are fabricated and etched as described for
Electronic Components.  Electrical components (resistors, capacitor,
etc.)  are inserted into the board and the board is dip soldered.
The metal cabinet and case is formed by metal shearing, bending
and welding.   Holes are drilled to mount the components,  then
the cabinet is painted and the components, subassemblies and the
circuit boards mounted.  Finally, the X-ray tube is installed and
the unit is tested.
                             3-694

-------
                                DRAFT
                  Radiographic  X-ray, Fluoroscopic X-ray, Therapeutic X-ray,
PRODUCTION DATA   aricj other  X-ray Apparatus and Tubes; Electro-medical and
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       49


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       49

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLSSHMENTS                 10,600


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $2£3.8    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $429.0    MILLION


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                NA


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             NA

        3 MATERIAL FORMSNG - METALS                NA


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            NA

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     NA

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPE  ATIONS    NA


        7 MATERIAL, COATING                         NA


        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  NA

        9 MOLDING a FORM ING-NON-METALS           NA
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            NA   BILLION GALLONS


                                      NA   BILLION L5TERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA


   REUSED WATZTR AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA


NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *BASED ON PLANT DATA COLLECTED
                                 TABLE  3-130

                                     3-695

-------
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           3-697

-------
                             urcAr  i
Electrical Equipment for Internal
Combustion Engines

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing electrical equipment for internal combustion engines.  Important
products of this industry include:

        Alternators, automotive
        Armatures, automobile
        Automotive electrical equipment
        Battery cable wiring sets for internal
           combustion engines
        Battery charging generators, automobile
           and aircraft
        Coils, ignition:  automotive
        Generators, aircraft and automotive
        Harness, wiring for motor vehicles:
           ignition
        Ignition cable sets or wire assemblies
           for internal combustion engines
        Ignition systems, high frequency
        Motor generator sets, automotive
        Motors, starting:  automotive and aircraft
        Spark plugs, for internal combustion engines
        Voltage regulators, automotive

Electrical equipment for internal combustion engines are produced by
284 plants, averaging 202 workers.  About half of these plants (49
percent) employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data
are shown in Table 3-131.  As shown in Figure 3-272, 60 percent of
the products produced in this category are spark plugs, 2 percent
are battery charging generators, 2 percent are ignition harnesses
and cable sets, 1 percent are cranking motors and 35 percent is
miscellaneous electrical equipment for internal combustion engines.
Steel,  insulated wire and cable, copper, cluminum, castings, primary
metals and bearings are the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal, material form-
ing and material coating.

Electrical equipment for internal combustion engines is made by a
wide range of diverse manufacturing processes.  Cranking motors and
alternatbrs can be considered to be representative.   For these, the
stator and the rotor are formed and wound.  The body frame and end
bells are cast and machined and the unit is assembled.   Process
water,  which constitutes 21 percent of the gross water used by the
industry, is used mainly for cleaning and pickling.   Air scrubbers
at painting booths (for painted hardware) are also a major source of
wastewater.
                              3-698

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of starting motors (Figure 3-273)  is  representative
of this industry.  Silicon steel stock is first cleaned  in  a  pick-
ling solution.  The laminations are then formed and insulated.   They
are then sheared into strips and cut into circles.  The  form  for the
field windings is blanked out and notched.  The laminations are  then
stacked and tack welded to form the armature.   The armature and  field
are then wound, dipped in a lacquer and baked.

The body frame is cast and machined.   The end bells are  cast, turned
and machined and then cleaned in a pickling solution.  The  pieces are
then primed and painted.   The armature shaft is machined, and chamber*
and the keyway is cut.  It is then pressed into the armature  and
balanced.   All of these parts are then assembled along with purchased
carbon brushes and the starting motor is cleaned and  tested.
                                   T-fiQQ

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Electrical Equipment for Internal Combustion  EnaJnes
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS. WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    138
                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    146
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                57,400
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE       $1241.3     MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                $2095.1     MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              80
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         40
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   80
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  40
        7 MATERIAL COATING                       60
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS         100
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE              8
                                     30.3
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
       61
       39
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       88
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          21
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       56
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED          2.1
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-131
                                       3-700

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                             DRAFT
Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies,
Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactui
ing electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, not elsewhere
classified, such as appliance and extension cords, bells and chimes,
and insect traps.  The major products are:

        Appliance cords for electric irons,
           grills, waffle irons, etc. - mfpm
        Bells, electric
        Chimes, electric
        Christmas tree lighting sets, electric
        Clothing, electrically heated
        Door opening and closing devices, ex-
           cept photoelectric cell operated
        Electric fence chargers
        Electric lamp (bulb) parts
        Electrodes, cold cathode fluorescent
           lamp
        Extension cords, made from purchased
           insulated wire
        Filaments, for electric lamps
        Fly traps, electrical
        Gongs, electric
        Grids, electric
        Lamp (bulb) parts, electric
        Lamps, insect:  electric
        Lead-in wires, electric lamp:  made from
           purchased wire
        Logs, fireplace:  electric
        Ornaments, Christmas tree:  electric
        Supports and filaments, for electric
           lamps
        Trouble lights,  made from purchased
           materials

Electrical machinery is produced by 992 plants,  averaging 20 work-
ers each.   Most of these plants (81 percent) employ less than 20
workers each.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-132
and Figure 3-274.  Forty-one percent of the dollar value of the
products produced in this industry is from the manufacture of light
bulbs and components and other electrical products.  Another 41 per-
cent is from appliance wire and cord and flexible cord sets, and 18
percent is from other electrical machinery.  Steel, insulated wire
and cable, copper, and aluminum are the major raw materials.  The
                              3-703

-------
principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
material forming (metals)  and material coating.

In general, electrical machinery is made by a wide range of diverse
manufacturing processes.  Process water is used for various purposes
throughout this industry with most of it used for cleaning and
electroplating rinses.

The manufacture of extension cords (Figure 3-275) is representative
of the electrical machinery industry.  Insulated wire is purchased,
cut to length and the ends stripped of their insulation.  The leads
are twisted and tinned.  The metal prongs are manufactured by stamp-
ing them out of metal stock, bending them to shape, and electroplating
them if needed.  This plating is usually followed by a rinse.  The
tinned leads are then inserted into the metal contacts and either
soldered or crimped into place.  A plastic plug shell is molded
around the prongs.   The other end of the cord is finished off in
a similar manner and the cord is inspected and readied for shipment.
                                   3-704

-------
                                DRAFT
PDr,n.,r-rir,M naTA   Electrical  Machinery,  Equipment,  and  Supplies, Not
PRODUCTION DATA   Flsewhere classified
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       187



                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       805


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 20,100


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $282.7     MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $535.0     MILLION



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0


        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             0


        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                50



        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            50


        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     50


        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    50


        7 MATERIAL COATING                         0



        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 50


        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          NA      BILLION GALLONS


                                    NA      BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            JJA


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-132

                                      3-705

-------
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-------
Motor Vehicles and Passenger Car Bodies

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing or assembling complete passenger automobiles, trucks, commercial
cars and buses (except trackless trolleys),  and special purpose
motor vehicles.  This industry also includes establishments primarily
engaged in manufacturing chassis or passenger car bodies.  The
principal products are:

        Ambulances (motor vehicles)
        Amphibian motor vehicles
        Assembling complete automobiles, trucks,
           commercial cars, and buses
        Automobiles
        Bodies, passenger automobile
        Brooms, powered (motor vehicles)
        Cars, armored
        Chassis,  motor vehicle
        Fire department vehicles (motor vehicles)
        Flushers, street (motor vehicles)
        Hearses  (motor vehicles)
        Mobile lounges (motor vehicle)
        Motor buses,  except trackless trolley
        Motor trucks, except off-highway
        Motor vehicles, including amphibian
        Patrol wagons (motor vehicles)
        Personnel carriers (motor vehicles)
        Reconnaissance cars
        Road oilers  (motor vehicles)
        Scout cars (motor vehicles)
        Snowplows (motor vehicles)
        Station wagons (motor vehicles)
        Street sprinklers and sweepers   (motor vehicles)
        Taxicabs
        Tractors, truck:   for highway use
        Universal carriers, military
                               3-708

-------
                             DRAFT
Motor vehicles and passenger car bodies are produced by 231 plants,
averaging 1004 workers each.  Most of these plants  (52 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-133.  As shown in Figure 3-276, steel  (stainless, alloy,
and carbon), copper, copper alloy, aluminum, and aluminum alloy in
the form of sheet, bar, plate and other various shapes are the
principal raw materials.  In addition, metal powders, fabrics,
plastic film and sheets, resins and various coatings are also
used.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, material forming, material coating, and assembly
operations.

This industry primarily encompasses assembly of completed motor vehic]
and fabrication of chassis and bodies.  As such, component parts
are generally bought or made and assembled to produce the completed
motor vehicle.  The bodies and frames are made by forming metal
and plastic stock and joining component parts.  Process water,
which constitutes 8 percent of the gross water used by the industry,
is used mainly for rinsing and painting operations.

The assembly of automobiles and the manufacture of automobile frames
are representative of the motor vehicle and passenger car bodies
industry.  A typical operation for assembling automobiles is shown
in Figure 3-277, while Figure 3-278 shows a typical operation for mant
facturing an automobile frame.  The manufacture of automobile frames
as shown in Figure 3-278, starts with shearing or cutting metal sheet
stock to size.  The sheet metal is then lubricated with a water-oil
emulsion and stamped, blanked, punched and formed.  When the pieces
are formed they are fastened together by welding, brazing, and
mechanical fasteners.  Some of the welding operations use water as
a cooling agent.  After fastening the frame together, it is cleaned
and finally painted using a spray booth with water curtains.  The fran
is then inspected and aligned.

The actual assembly of automobiles is essentially a dry operation
as the block diagram indicates.  However, water is used for
water curtains in spray paint booths, for testing and for washing
the finished product.  This assembly basically proceeds along two
parallel paths, one involving the frame, motor and suspension system
and another for the body.  These two lines meet for a final line
where the body, frame, radiator, gas tank, hood, and front panels
are joined together.  Prior to this final line assembly,  the assem-
bled body is conversion coated and painted.  In the final assembly
line, the upholstery and interior are assembled into the automobile,
including seats, rug, wiring and dashboard components.   The assembled
automobile is then tested including a body water check.   Final in-
spection follows testing and then the car is washed.
                              3-709

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Motor vehicles and car bodies
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       120


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        HI


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  340,400


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE       $12 , 026 . 4     MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                $42,970.1     MILLION
                                                                      *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING  VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING& MOLDING - METALS                29


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             43


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                29


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            29


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                      86


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    71


        7 MATERIAL COATING                        100


        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                  0
                                                                    k
        9 MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS           14
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           242.7   BILLION GALLONS


                                     918.6   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        13%


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        87%


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    94%


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       6%
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     12%


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED         13%
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-133

                                       3-710

-------
                                                    DRAFT
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-------
Truck and Bus Bodies

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing truck and bus bodies, for sale separately or for assembly on pur-
chased chassis.  The products are:

        Ambulance bodies
        Automobile wrecker-truck body
        Bodies, dump
        Bus bodies  (motor vehicles)
        Cabs, for agricultural tractors
        Cabs, for industrial trucks
        Hearse bodies
        Truck, beds
        Truck bodies, motor vehicle
        Truck cabs, for motor vehicles
        Truck tops

Truck and bus bodies are produced by 762 plants averaging 55 work-
ers each.  Most of these plants  (56 percent) employ less than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-134.  The
raw materials and products are shown in Figure 3-279.   As can be
seen from this data, aluminum, steel (stainless, alloy and carbon),
copper, copper alloy and aluminum alloy are used in the form of
sheet, bar, plate, and other various shapes.  In addition, metal
powders, impregnated and laminated fabrics, plastic film, and
sheets, resins and various coatings are used.  The principal manu-
facturing operations for truck and bus bodies are mechanical material
removal, material forming, physical property modification, electro-
chemical processing, assembly operations, material coatings and
plastics molding.

The outer structure of truck and bus bodies is manufactured by
forming sheet metal.  Interior trim including seats, dashboards,
flooring, etc. is assembled to this outer shell to complete fabri-
cation of the body.  Process water is used mainly for cooling and
for cleaning rinses.

The manufacture of truck bodies is representative of the truck and
bus bodies manufacturing industry.  A typical operation for manu-
facturing truck bodies is shown in Figure 3-280.  Raw material in
                              3-714

-------
                              DRAFT
the form of sheet metal is sheared before being lubricated with a
water-oil emulsion before blanking and stamping.   Following stamping,
piercing is performed and then forming in dies using a forming
lubricant.  These formed parts are washed and, where required, sub-
assembled.  Then these pieces are conversion coated and painted or
plated.  Painting may be repeated several times.   Inspection and
alignment (where necessary)  are done on the subassembled pieces.
During the plating and painting process water is  used to clean,
wash and rinse the pieces.  Water is also used in paint spray booths
for water curtains.   Raw plastic is molded and trimmed to form many
finished plastic accessories.  Finished seats and upholstery are cut
from fabric, sewn together,  padded and attached to a frame.   The
accessories, seats,  shell and metal parts are joined,  which is done
by welding,  brazing, adhesion bonding or mechanical fasteners.

The finished bodies  are then baked and final assembly is initiated tc
add trim, glass, and instruments (these vary according to the parti-
cular product).   After final assembly, the bodies are inspected and
assembled to purchased chassis or shipped out and sold to be
assembled to frames  elsewhere.

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Truck  an(j  bus  bodies
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       336

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       426

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  42,000

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE       $  631.2      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                $1512.8      MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               25

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           50

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             100

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          50

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   25

        7 MATERIAL COATING                       100

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS         25
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           NA     BILLION GALLONS

                                     NA     BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED          NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
*Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE  3--134
                                       3-716

-------
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-------
                             DRAFT
Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur-
ing motor vehicle parts and accessories,  but not engaged  in manufartui
ing complete motor vehicles or passenger  car bodies.   The products  ere

        Acceleration equipment, motor vehicle
        Air brakes, motor vehicle
        Automotive wiring harness sets, other than
           ignition
        Axle housings and shafts, motor vehicle
        Axles, motor vehicle
        Bearings, motor vehicle:   except  ball and roller
        Brake drums
        Brakes and brake parts, motor vehicle
        Bumpers and bumnerettes,  motor vehicle
        Camshafts, motor vehicle
        Choker rods, motor vehicle
        Cleaners, air:   motor vehicle
        Connecting rods, motor vehicle engine
        Control equipment, motor vehicle:   acceleration
           mechanisms,  governors, etc.
        Crankshaft assemblies,  motor vehicle
        Cylinder heads, motor vehicle
        Defrosters, motor vehicle
        Differentials and parts,  motor vehicle
        Directional signals,  motor vehicle
        Drive shafts, motor vehicle
        Engines and parts, except diesel:   motor vehicle
        Exhaust systems and parts,  motor  vehicle
        Fifth wheels
        Filters:   oil,  fuel,  and air - motor vehicle
        Frames, motor vehicle
        Fuel pumps, motor vehicle
        Fuel systems and parts, motor vehicle:   gas tanks,
           fuel pipes,  and manifold
        Gas tanks,  motor vehicle
        Gears,  motor vehicle
        Governors,  motor vehicle
        Heaters,  motor  vehicle
        Hoods,  motor vehicle
        Horns,  motor vehicle
        Hydraulic fluid power pumps,  for  automotive steering
           mechanisms
        Instrument board assemblies,  motor  vehicle
        Lubrication systems and parts, motor vehicle
        Manifolds,  motor vehicle

-------
                             UNAi- I
        Motor vehicle engine rebuilding, on a factory
           basis
        Motor vehicle parts and accessories.(except motor
           vehicle stampings)
        Mufflers, exhaust:  motor vehicle
        Oil strainers, motor vehicle
        Pipes, fuel:  motor vehicle
        Power transmission equipment, motor vehicle
        Radiators and radiator shells and cores, motor
           vehicle
        Rear axle housings, motor vehicle
        Rebuilding motor vehicle engines and transmissions,
           on a factory basis
        Rims, wheel:  motor vehicle
        Sanders, motor vehicle safety
        Shock absorbers, motor vehicle
        Steering mechanisms, motor vehicle
        Third axle attachments or six-wheel units for motor
           vehicles
        Tie rods, motor vehicle
        Tire valve cores
        Tops, motor vehicle:  except stamped metal
        Transmission housings and parts, motor vehicle
        Transmissions, motor vehicle
        Universal joints, motor vehicle
        Vacuum brakes, motor vehicle
        Wheels, motor vehicle
        Windshield frames, motor vehicle
        Windshield wiper systems, all types
        Winterfronts, motor vehicle
        Wiring harness sets  (other than ignition) automotive

Motor vehicle parts and accessories are produced by 2083 plants,
averaging 193 workers each.  Most of these plants (55 percent)
employ less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-135.  As shown in Figure 3-281, steel (alloy, stainless
and carbon), aluminum, copper, copper alloy and aluminum alloy
in the form of sheet, bar, plate, and other various shapes are
the major raw materials.  In addition,  powders (jcast or forged) ,
impregnated and laminated fabrics, plastic film Sand sheets, resins
and various coatings are used.  The principal  manufacturing oper-
                              3-720

-------
                              DRAFT
ations are mechanical material removal, material forming, electro-
chemical processing, physical property modification, and material
coating.

The diversity of products in the motor vehicle parts and accessories
industry results in the utilization of all of the above process types
with particular processes and sequence depending on the specific
product.  Process water, which constitutes about 13 percent of the
gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for contact cooling.

The manufacture of engines and associated parts is representative
of the motor vehicle parts and accessories industry.  A typical
operation for manufacturing engines and engine parts is shown in
Figure 3-282.  Engine blocks, rocker arms and heads are made by
sand casting aluminum, or iron.   Non-contact cooling water
is used to cool the furnaces in the foundry and water scrubbers
are used to clean the air.  Parts such as the crankshaft, camshaft,
and connecting rods are forged (hammer or press), cleaned and then
machined.  Sheet metal parts including oil pans,  fans,  and rocker arn
covers are stamped using a water-oil emulsion lubricant.

Cast and forged parts (all or some)  are then machined where required
by milling, drilling, boring, grinding, tapping and honing.  Those
that are milled, drilled, bored and ground are all lubricated with
a water-oil emulsion during the  operation.  Parts that are honed are
lubricated with honing oil and tapped parts are lubricated with
cutting oil.   All parts are cleaned after the machining operations
and some are also heat treated and cleaned again.  After the
machining,  heat treating and cleaning have been completed,  the cast,
forged or stamped parts may be conversion coated or plated before
assembly.  When the assembly is  completed the engine is tested (where
contact cooling water is used),  cleaned,  painted and shipped to the
final automobile assembly area.

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       920
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1163
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                401,000
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE      $9146.9      MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS              $18285.4      MILLION
                                                                 a
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & FOLDING — METALS                 17
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             78
        3 MATERIAL FORMING — METALS                 61
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            50
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     78
        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     56
        7 MATERIAL COATING                         76
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  6
        9 MOLDING &FORM:NG-NON-METALS             6
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE
                                  673.7
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
  59
  41
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   94
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   12.6
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   55
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED       10
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based on Plant Data  Collected
                                TABLE 3-135
                                    3-722

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Truck Trailers

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturinc
ing truck trailers, truck trailer chassis for sale separately, detach-
able trailer bodies (cargo containers) for sale separately, and
detachable trailer  (cargo container) chassis, for sale separately.
Products in this SIC include:

        Bus trailers,  tractor type
        Demountable cargo containers
        Motor truck trailers
        Semitrailers for missile transportation
        Semitrailers for truck tractors
        Trailers or vans for transporting horses
        Trailers, motor truck
        Truck trailers

Truck trailers are produced by 244 plants, averaging 100 workers
each.  Most of these plants  (55 percent)  employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-136.
The raw materials are shown in Figure 3-283, and include sheet,
bar, plate and other various shapes of aluminum, aluminum alloy,
steel (carbon, alloy and stainless), copper and copper base alloy.
In addition, various coatings are also used.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal, assembly
operations, material forming (metals), and material coating.

This industry primarily encompasses manufacture of truck trailers.
These trailers are usually made from formed metal or plastic stock
sections that are joined together with rivets, bolts, or by weld-
ing.  Process water is not used in this industry.

The manufacture of truck trailers is representative of this
industry.  A typical operation for manufacturing truck trailers
is shown in Figure 3-284.  The manufacture is started by shearing
sheet stock to length and then blanking,  punching and forming it
to the desired shape.   This process forms the finished panels for
the side and top of the trailer.  Rails are bought and either
welded,  brazed, or mechanically fastened together to form the
frame that supports the trailer.  The suspension, wheels,  drums,
etc. are then assembled to the frame.  After this, upright rails and
top rails are welded,  brazed or assembled to the frame, and the side
panels are then riveted or welded to the rails.  After the side
panels are attached, the roof is welded or riveted in place and the
interior of the trailer is lined with plywood using mechanical
fasteners or adhesive  bonding.   Next, an oak plank floor is laid in
place and fastened down and the doors are hung.  The outer skin of
the trailer is then painted.

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Truck trailers
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       135
                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       109
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  24,500
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE            $  408.5 MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                     $1103 . 7 MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING  VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                  0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL              34
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                100

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION              0
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                      100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS      67

        7 MATERIAL COATING                          100

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                    0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS             0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE              .4
                                      1.5
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
   1
  9S
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   33
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       0
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   75
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE  3-136
                                       3-726

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Aircraft

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturi
or assembling complete aircraft.  This industry also includes es-
tablishments primarily engaged in research and development on air-
craft or in factory-type aircraft modification on a contract or
fee basis.  The products are:

        Aircraft
        Airplanes, fixed or rotary wing
        Airships
        Autogiros
        Balloons  (aircraft)
        Dirigibles
        Gliders (aircraft)
        Helicopters

Aircraft are produced by 167 plants, averaging 1387 workers each.
Most of these plants  (51 percent) employ more than 20 workers.
Additional production data are shown in Table 3-137.   The raw
materials and products are shown in Figure 3-285.  Major raw
materials include sheet, bar, plate and other various shapes made
of aluminum, aluminum alloy, steel  (alloy, stainless, and carbon),
titanium, titanium alloy, copper, copper alloy, and nickel alloy.
In addition, various coatings are also used.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal, physical
property modification, material forming, assembly operations, and
material coating,  and plastic molding.

This industry primarily encompasses manufacture and assembly of com-
plete aircraft.  As such, component parts are generally bought or
made inhouse and then assembled.  In general, complete aircraft bodiei
and wings are made by forming sheet metal, treating and joining to
structural members and painting the assembly.  To this are added
the major components and subassemblies such as engines, landing gear,
interior trim, controls, etc.  Process water is used  mainly for
rinsing and cooling during machining operations.   Rinsing follows
chemical milling,  anodizing, conversion coating,  heat treating,
plating and machining of parts.

The assembly of airplanes and the manufacture of associated sheet
metal assemblies are representative of the aircraft industry.  A
typical operation for assembling aircraft is shown in Figure 3-286.

-------
                               fc# !T% *-%
The assembly of airplanes is initiated with the fabrication of the
frame.  This is done by rolling and bending sheet stock using a
forming oil.  The frame parts are then cleaned, heat treated and
finish bent.  After the second bending, the parts are again cleaned
and heat treated.  Cutting the frame pieces to size and removing
the burrs follows, after which the pieces are anodized, assembled and
painted to complete the frame.  Major parts such as the engines
and landing gear, etc. are attached to the frame by welding,
brazing or by mechanical fasteners.  The assembly is then ready for
the skin which is seam welded or riveted to the frame.  The interior
is outfitted with guidance systems, seats, steering assemblies etc.
Final painting and decorative lettering is then applied.
                                  3-730

-------
                                DRAFT
DATA
                  Aircraft
   DUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 2C EMPLOYEES      S6

                             WITH LESS THAN ?C EMPLOYEES      tl
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               231,700
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $50f(4.4    MILLiON
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $£7'/4.7    M'LLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS (.'SING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING 8: MCLDING - METALS               40
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            90
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               8G

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          80
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    9C
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  IOC
        7 MATERIAL COATING                        9C

        8 ORE PROCESSING ft REFINING                0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           NA     BILLION GALLONS
                                     NA     BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
   PEPCFNT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   TW
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSC JSE      '•tf-
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS,USE   NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED       NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based  on  Plant  Data  Collected
                                 TABLE 3- 137

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Aircraft Engines and Engine Parts

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
aircraft engines and engine parts.  Research and development on air-
craft engines is also included in this industry.  The principal
products are:

        Air scoops, aircraft
        Aircraft engine starting vibrators
        Aircraft engines and engine parts, in-
           ternal combustion and jet propulsion
        Cooling systems, aircraft engine
        Engine heaters, aircraft
        Engine mount parts, aircraft
        Exhaust systems, aircraft
        External power units, for hand inertia
           starters, aircraft
        Jet assisted takeoff devices  (JATO)
        Lubricating systems, aircraft
        Pumps, aircraft engine
        Rocket motors, aircraft
        Starters, aircraft:  nonelectric
        Turbines, aircraft type
        Turbo-superchargers, aircraft
                                                         «
Aircraft engine and engine parts are produced by 229 plants, averaging
456 workers each.  Most of these plants (67 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production date is shown in Table 3-138.  The
raw materials and products are shown in Figure 3-287, Aluminum,
aluminum alloy, steel  (carbon, stainless,  and alloy) titanium,
titanium alloy, copper, copper alloy and nickel alloy are the major
raw materials and are used in the form of sheet, bar, plate and other
various shaper.  In addition x'arious coatings, adhesives, paints and
solvents are used.  The principal manufacturing operations are
mechanical material removal, material forming (metals),  physical
property modification, chemical/electrochemical operations, material
coating and assembly operations.

Because of the diversity of parts in this industry, no single product
discussion covers the whole field.  Engines are made from many piece
parts, which are made inhouse or bought and then assembled to form the
finished engine.  Process water, which constitutes 35 percent of the
gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for rinsing and cooling,
                                 3-734

-------
                               DRAFT
The water used is associated with chemical milling,  anodizing,  heat
treating, conversion coating, plating and washing of the lubricants,
chemicals, solvents, salts, etc.  following these operations.

The manufacture of aircraft jet engines is representative of  the
aircraft engine and engine parts  industry.  A typical operation for
manufacturing aircraft jet engine parts and assembling them into an
engine is shown in Figure 3-288.   Initially, raw material stock is
machined by milling, drilling, boring, and grinding  using a water
oil emulsion.  Honing is also done and uses a honing lubricant.
Chemical/electrochemical machining operations are also performed
as necessary in fabricating piece parts.   In addition, electron
beam and electrodischarge machining are used which are dry processes.
Many of the fabricated piece parts are next polished, buffed  or tumble
and then heat treated.  After heat treating, parts are pickled  to re-
move scale and then shot peened.

Subassemblies are fabricated next by welding, brazing and mechanically
fastening piece parts.  After this, etching is done  as required.  The
piece parts and subassemblies are then conversion coated before paint-
ing or the parts may be anodized  or plated.  The particular final
coating depends upon the final application of each part.  The finished
parts and subassemblies are then  assembled into the  final product
using mechanical fasteners, welding or brazing.  The finished assembly
is then calibrated, inspected, tested and shipped.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Aircraft engines  and  engine  parts
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    153

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     76

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS              104,400

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $2081.9  MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $3633.7  MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING--METALS               40

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           80

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               40

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          60

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPE RATIONS 100

        7 MATERIAL COATING                       100

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             155.9 BILLION GALLONS

                                       590   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            65

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           35

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        78

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          3
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       61

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             2
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                              *Based on Plant Data Collected

                                  TABLE  3-138
                                      3-736

-------
                                                                       DRAFT
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                              DRAFT
Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment,
Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
aircraft parts and auxiliary equipment,  not elsewhere classified.
Research and development on aircraft parts is included in this
industry.  The products are:

        Accumulators, aircraft propeller
        Actuators, aircraft:  mechanical,  electrical,
           and hydraulic
        Adapter assemblies, hydromatic propeller
        Ailerons,  aircraft
        Aircraft armament, except guns
        Aircraft arresting device system
        Aircraft assemblies, subassemblies, and parts,
           except engines
        Aircraft body assemblies and parts
        Aircraft power transmission equipment
        Aircraft propeller parts
        Airframe assemblies, except for  guided missiles
        Airplane brake expanders
        Alighting assemblies (landing gear) ,  aircraft
        Beaching gear, aircraft
        Blades, aircraft propeller:  metal or wood
        Bomb racks,  aircraft
        Brakes, aircraft
        Chaffing dispensers, aircraft
        Controls:   hydraulic and pneumatic, aircraft
        Countermeasure dispensers,  aircraft
        De-icing equipment, aircraft
        Dive brakes,  aircraft
        Dusting and spraying equipment,  aircraft
        Dynetric balancing stands,  aircraft
        Elevators, aircraft
        Empennage (tail)  assemblies and  parts,  aircraft
        Fins, aircraft
        Flaps, aircraft wing
        Fluid power and control components, aircraft
        Fuel tanks,  aircraft:  including self-sealing
        Fuselage assemblies, aircraft
        Gears, power transmission:   aircraft
        Governors, aircraft propeller feathering
        Hubs, aircraft propeller
        Hydraulic pumps,  valves, and cylinders:   aircraft
        Instrument panel mockups:   aircraft training  units

-------
                              DRAFT
        Landing gear, aircraft
        Landing skis and tracks, aircraft
        Link trainers (aircraft training mechanisms)
        Nacelles, aircraft
        Oleo struts, aircraft
        Oxygen systems,  far aircraft
        Panel assemblies (hydromatic propeller test stands),
           aircraft
        Pontoons, aircraft
        Power transmission equipment, aircraft
        Propeller alining tables
        Propellers, variable and fixed pitch:  and parts -
           aircraft
        Pumps, propeller feathering
        Pefueling equipment, airplane:  for use in flight
        Roto-blades for helicopters
        Rudders, aircraft
        Seat ejector devices, aircraft
        Spinners, aircraft propeller
        Stabilizers, aircraft
        Tanks, fuel:  aircraft
        Target drones
        Targets, trailer type:  aircraft
        Tow targets
        Training aids, aircraft:  except electronic
        Transmissions, aircraft
        Turret test fixtures, aircraft
        Turrets and turret drives, aircraft
        Wheels, aircraft
        Wing assemblies and parts, aircraft

Aircraft parts and auxiliary equipment are produced by 685 plants,
averaging 149 workers each.  Most of these plants (55 percent)
employ less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are  shown
in Table 3-139.  The raw materials and products are shown in
Figure 3-289.  Aluminum, aluminum alloy, steel (stainless, alloy
and carbon), titanium, copper, brass, titanium alloy, copper
alloy, and nickel alloy are the major raw materials and are used
in the form of sheet, bar,  plate and other various shapes.  In
addition, coatings, adhesives, paints and solvents are used.   The
principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
material forming, material coating, physical property modification,
                                 3-740

-------
                              DRAFT
assembly and plastics molding.  Because of the diversity of products
in this industry, no single description of a manufacturing operation
covers the whole field.  In general, products are made from many
piece parts.  These parts are machined, stamped or formed in metal
and plastic stock.  The pieces are then cleaned, tested, subassembled
and cleaned again.  The subassemblies are finally joined to form the
finished product which is usually tested.  Process water is used
mainly for cooling during machining and rinsing.  The rinsing oper-
ation is associated with chemical milling, conversion coating, heat
treating, plating and washing of lubricants chemicals, salts, etc.
following these operations.

The manufacture of aluminum propeller blades and wing skin sheets
is representative of the aircraft parts and auxiliary equipment
industry.  A typical operation for manufacture of aluminum propellers
is shown in Figure 3-290.  Aluminum propeller blanks are cast and
then machined to size and shape.  A water-oil emulsion is used when
drilling and boring the butt end of the propeller.  The butt is then
milled and following this, the chamber and the face are milled using
a water-oil emulsion.  The blade portion is rough ground (dry)
during which the blade is bent twisted and aligned as required.  It
is then finish ground and balanced.  Following this the blade is
shot peened, reground and rebent retwisted and realigned if necessary.
It is then anodized, washed and rinsed before being initially inspected
After this initial inspection, the anodizing is stripped and the blade
is again washed and rinsed.  Finish machining is done by boring the
inside and turning the outside of the butt-end using water-oil
emulsions for a coolant/lubricant.  The blade is then shot peened
inside and outside, and the curve in the butt end is cold rolled.  The
fairing is added next by putting a mold around the butt end of the
blade, pouring a lockfoam into the mold, curing it in an oven, sanding
it by hand when cured, and putting a sealed rubber sheet over it.
A heater is next bonded to the blade and the blade is anodized
again.  Warning strips are painted on in spray booths utilizing
water curtains.  The last step is a final inspection and balancing.

Another item typical of this industry is the manufacture of wing
skin  (Figure 3-291) from metal sheet stock.   The stock is first
inspected then sheared, stamped, milled (using water oil emulsions)
and bent to shape.   The sheet is next aged by heat treating, then
alkali cleaned and rinsed.   Following the rinse the metal is bright
dipped.   This is to detect flaws and helps prepare the skin for
conversion coating.  Between each dip, the metal is cleaned and air
dried.  Then chemical milling is performed and the piece is rinsed,
followed by dipping and another rinsing.  The skin is then inspected,
stripped,  milled,  ground,  degreased,  and inspected again.  The skin
is degreased a last time then cleaned dipped and rinsed twice.
Finally,  a conversion coat is applied and the piece is rinsed, assemble
and inspected.
                                  -7 A 1

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Aircraft equipment,  nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     307


                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     378


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               102,300


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $2024.3    MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $3036.6    MILLION
                                                                  i

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              27


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              55


        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          82


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   100


        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   82

        7  MATERIAL COATING                       73
                                                                *

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                Q


        9  MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS          27
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           NA    BILLION GALLONS


                                    MA    BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      MA


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   NA


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE  NA


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED       NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE  3-139

                                    3-742

-------
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                              DRAFT
Ship Building and Repairing

This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in build-
ing and repairing all types of ships, barges,  and lighters,
whether propelled by sail or motor power or towed by other craft.
This industry also includes the conversion and alteration of
ships.  Products in this SIC include:

        Barges, building and repairing
        Cargo vessels, building and repairing
        Combat ships, building and repairing
        Dredges, building and repairing
        Drilling platforms, floating
        Drydocks, floating
        Ferryboats, building and repairing
        Fireboats, building and repairing
        Fishing vessels, large:  seiners and trawlers-
           building and repairing
        Hydrofoil vessels
        Landing ships, building and repairing
        Lighters, marine:  building and repairing
        Lighthouse tenders, building and repairing
        Marine rigging
        Naval ships, building and repairing
        Passenger-cargo vessels, building and  repairing
        Radar towers, floating
        Sailing vessels, commercial:  building and repairing
        Scows, building and repairing
        Ship building and repairing
        Submarine tenders, building and repairing
        Tankers  (large craft), building and repairing
        Tenders:  large craft building and repairing
        Towboats, building and repairing
        Transport vessels, passenger and troop:  building
           and repairing
        Tugboats, building and repairing
        Yachts, building and repairing

Establishments primarily engaged in fabricating structural assemblies
or components for ships, or subcontractors engaged in ship painting,
joinery, carpentry work, electrical wiring installation,  etc.  are
classified in other industries.

Shipbuilding and repairing is done at 449 plants averaging 322 .
workers each.  Many of these plants  (61 percent)  employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-140.
As shown in Figure 3-292, 38 percent of the ships constructed are
                                 3-746

-------
                               CRAFT
non-propeller type  (e.g. barges, dredges, floats).  Sixty-two per-
cent of the ships constructed are self propelled ships (e.g. yachts,
passenger ships, tankers, cargo ships, commercial sailing vessels).
Steel, aluminum, copper, wood and resins are the major raw materials.
A wide range of manufacturing processes are used in the shipbuilding
industry because of the differing raw materials and magnitude of
the products.  These include material forming, mechanical material
removal, assembly operations, chemical processing, and material
coating.

In general, ship hulls are made by cutting and forming metal plates
and assembling then into large sections.  These sections are then
jojned into the main hull structure.  When the hull is unified, it,
is launched ard the super-structure and internal systems are com-
pleted.  Process water which constitutes 8 percent of the gross
water used by the industry is used mainly for rinsing and cleaning
of the construction area.  This rinsing is primarily for preparation
of the structure for painting.

r?he manufacture of large steel commercial ships is representative
of the shipbuilding industry.  A typical operation for construction
of ship?; •'s shown in Figure 3-293.  The sections of the hull are
formed iron plate steel.  The section shapes are often cut from
templates by a flame torch.  Bending and shaping of these pieces
is then performed with bends often kept in one direction to simplify
rolling and shaping operations.  Welding of hull pieces is the
dominant form of joining.  While these subassemblies are being con-
structed and joined in shops or outside  (maximum size and weight
are determined by limitations such as available hoist equipment,
etc.), the keel of the ship is laid in the dock area.  The hull
assemblies are then laid around this keel and structural members
are formed.  Often, as the ship begins to increase in size, scaffold-
ing must be formed around the keel.  As the hull is completed, in-
ternal structural members are added along with rudimentary assemblies
such as boiler casings and propeller bossing.  This prepares the ship
for launching.  Painting operations of the hull are done before
launching  (i.e. cleaning hull, abrasive blasting, washing metal as
well as actual painting).  A ship may be stern launched,  side launch-
ed or drydock flooded depending on the design and available space
and equipment.  After launching, the ship's superstructure and in-
ternal systems are completed.  Again, all the basic metal forming
techniques are used in constructing the superstructure.  At this
time duct work, wiring and other operational systems are added and
completed.   Painting and/or panneling of interior sections is done
as one of the finishing procedures. Finally the interior is completed
and the ship is inspected and tested.

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Ship Building and Repairing
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      275



                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      174



   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                144,600



   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $   1880   MILLION



   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $3278.9   MILLION
                                                                      *


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,



        1  CASTING ft MOLDING - METALS                 25



        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             100



        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 75



        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            25



        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     100



        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS      0



        7 MATERIAL COATING                         100
                                                                    *


        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                   0



        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS             0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             21.6  BILLION GALLONS



                                       81.7  BILLION LITERS



   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       88



   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       12



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   40



   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      8
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE  85



   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        1
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                              *Based on Plant Data  Collected



                                  TABLE 3-140

                                       3-748

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                              DRAFT
Boat Building and Repairing

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in building and
repairing all types of boats.  Products include:

        Boat kits, wooden (not a model)
        Boats, fiber glass:   building and repairing
        Boats:  motorboats,  sailboats, rowboats,  and
           canoes - building and repairing
        Boats, rigid:  plastic
        Canoes, building and repairing
        Dinghies, building and repairing
        Dories, building and repairing
        Fishing boats, small:  such as lobster boats,
           crab boats, and oyster boats
        Houseboats, building and repairing
        Hydrofoil boats
        Kayaks, building and repairing
        Life rafts, except inflatable  (rubber and plastic)
        Lifeboats, building and repairing
        Motorboats, inboard and outboard:  building and
           repairing
        Pontoons, except aircraft and inflatable
           (rubber and plastic)
        Skiffs, building and repairing
        Tenders  (small motor craft), building and
           repairing

Boat building and repairing is done at 1755 plants, averaging 23
workers each.  Most of these plants (79 percent)  employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-141.
As shown in Figure 3-294, 54 percent of the boats produced are out-
board motor boats, 3.5 percent are inboard outdrive boats and 35.7
percent are other boats such as sailboats, rowboats, and canoes.
Resins, wood, aluminum, steel and copper are the  major raw materials.
The principal manufacturing operations are material forming and
assembly operations.  However, a wide range of other manufacturing
processes are used in the boat building and repairing industry.
This is so mainly because of the differing raw materials which are
shown in Figure 3-295 and the different products  in this industry.

-------
                              DRAFT
In the fiberglass boat industry the hull is formed in a hollow mold
and the frame attached.  Purchased/ machined accessories are sub-
assembled and then the entire unit is assembled.   In the aluminum
boat industry sheet aluminum is cut and formed and then assembled
primarily by riveting and bonding.  The formed parts are usually
cleaned with caustic before final assembly.  Very little process
water is used in the boat building industry.  For fiberglass boats,
water is primarily used to hose down the final product.  For
aluminum boats, a degreasing agent may be used for cleaning before
assembly of the sections.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the boat
building and repairing industry, no single product can be considered
typical.  However, the manufacture of fiberglass  boats (Reference
Figure 3-295) is a good example of the manufacturing processes in
this industry.  A resin is sprayed into a hollow  mold and a
fiber matt is layed in the resin.  This is rolled and matted and
this whole process repeated several times to obtain the required
thickness.  After the hull is built up to sufficient thickness,
the framework, which is usually built up from extruded aluminum
tubing, is laid and attached to the hull.  Machined accessories
are usually purchased and for the most part consists of extruded
aluminum that is anodized for corrosion protection.  These
accessories include trimwork, framing for windshields, and symbols.
Also parts such as seat assemblies and steering gear are .often pur-
chased.  These parts are subassembled wherever possible before
attachment to the hull and frame network.  As an  example, the
plexiglass windscreen is attached to its supporting frame before
the frame and window subassembly is attached to the hull.  Finally
the boat is inspected and tested.
                                 3-752

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION iJ/'T X   "J^st  Buildin.j  ^-',d  Se
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Railroad Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in building
and rebuilding locomotives (including frames and parts, not else-
where classified) of any type or gage; and railroad, street, and
rapid transit cars and car equipment for operation on rails for
freight and passenger service.  This industry also includes
establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing trackless
trolley buses.  Products in this category include:

        Brakes, railway:  air and vacuum
        Cars and'car equipment, freight or passenger
        Dining cars and car equipment
        Engines, steam  (locomotives)
        Freight cars and car equipment
        Heating units, for railroad cars
        Industrial locomotives and parts, electric or
           nonelectric
        Interurban cars and car equipment
        Locomotives, locomotive frames and parts
        Lubrication systems, locomotive
        Mining locomotives and parts, electric or
           nonelectric
        Railway maintenance cars
        Railway motor cars
        Rapid transit cars and equipment
        Sleeping cars, railroad
        Street cars and car equipment
        Switching locomotives and parts, electric
           and nonelectric
        Tank freight cars and car equipment
        Tenders, locomotive
        Trolley bus poles
        Trolley buses, trackless
        Trolley retrievers
        Trolley shoes

Railroad equipment is produced by 158 plants, averaging 318 work-
ers each.  Many of these plants (63 percent) employ more than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-142.
                                 3-756

-------
                               DRAFT
As shown in Figure 3-296, the manufacture and rebuilding of freight
cars are the major products of the market with steel, copper and
aluminum being the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, material forming,
chemical processing, material coating and assembly operations.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the
Railroad Equipment Industry.  This is so mainly because of the
wide range of products and the complexity of these products.  In
general, a railroad car is made by parallel manufacture of diverse
parts and subsequent fabrication of these parts into subassemblies
such as wheel assemblies and coach assemblies and eventually assembly
of the car to the frame.  The construction of the body contains many
operations, such as sheet metal forming, application of insulation
and electrical wiring.  Aluminum parts are normally anodized for
protection and steel parts are painted as part of the final oper-
ations.  Most of the water used by the industry is used for plating
or cleaning operations.  Many of these operations recycle the water
and do not discharge to treatment facilities except on rare
occasions.  Water/oil emulsions used in cooling operations for
machining processes are often filtered and recycled through a
central reservoir unit which reclaims reusable solids from the
fluid.

The manufacture of Locomotives (Figure 3-297) is representative of
the Railroad Equipment industry because of the many processes in-
volved.  A locomotive is assembled from several basic building
blocks which include undercarriage, fuel tank, traction motor, wheel
assemblies, cab assembly, diesel engine, D.C. generator, hood
section assembly, and control assemblies.  Each of these assemblies
is constructed in parallel prior to the final assembly process.
Many parts and operations are involved in the construction of each
of these.  For example, the motor and generator housings are cast
or formed and then machined.  Many interior parts are cut, stamped and
then partially or completely plated before assembly.   Armatures
are formed and assembled.  The hood assembly starts from sheet or
plate steel.  Its sections are cut, stamped and rolled into the
desired shapes before assembly by welding or riveting.  The under-
carriage is formed from heavy plate and girder steel with the parts be:
cut,  welded and primed with a protective undercoat before being sent t(
final assembly.  The diesel engine itself is a maze of complex parts
fabricated by various processes.   The block assembly is cut from heavy
gage steel then formed and machined where necessary to interface
with precision components.   Pistons,  crankshafts,  cylinder walls
and the flywheel assembly along with many small components such as
valve assemblies are cut and undergo diverse machining processes before
ready for assembly to the engine.   Once the engine itself is
complete, it is tested. The wheel assembly is cut, forged, ground and
finish machined before welding the assembly.  The fuel tank is cut,
formed, welded and painted from sheet and bar stock.   The control
                                  3-757

-------
panel for the cab is cut, formed, welded and painted.  When all of the
major locomotive subassemblies are complete, the final assembly begins.
The subassemblies and purchase parts are assembled by welding, brazing,
mechanical fasteners or adhesion bonding.  After assembly the locomotive
is inspected and tested.
                                  3-758

-------
                                   DRAFT
i'-POUUCTIOK !">'•"
MJMBL-FGF F STALiL.'rHMENT^, WITH MORE THAN I' EMPLOYEES       95

                           vv!TH _LSS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       59
;-:,".•=.-= her ' v,L ..L>,EE£ ALL  ESTABLC-HV.' NTI                 fo.ioo

-'..'.i '  JDF'D lir MANUKACTUhL            $]ji:.3  MILLION
vAL'JT r-F SH1TK-LNTS                    f 2 .: ; ;•  i.  Ml! LION

FrLCCr,NTOF ESTABLISHMENT? USING V.;-MUUC MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
     1  CASTING 8t MOLDING - METAL?
     2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
     3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS

     '' PHYSICAL  PROPERTY MODIFICATION
     5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
     6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  25

     7 MATERIAL COATING                        75

     8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0
     9 MOLDING & FORMING  - NON-METALS           Q
                                                   75 \
                                                   25

                                                  100 ,
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            KA    BILLION GALLONS

                                       NA    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Baseci  on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-142
                                       3-759

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Motorcycles, Bicycles, and Parts

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
motorcycles, bicycles, and similar equipment and parts.  Establish-
ments primarily engaged in assembling motorcycles or bicycles from
purchased parts are also included in this industry.  Products in
this industry are:

        Bicycles and parts
        Brakes, bicycle:  friction clutch and other
        Frames, motorcycle and bicycle
        Gears, motorcycle and bicycle
        Handle bars, motorcycle and bicycle
        Motor scooters and parts
        Motorbikes and parts
        Motorcycles and parts
        Saddles, motorcycle and bicycle
        Seat posts, motorcycle and bicycle
Motorcycles,
averaging 80
less than 20
3-143.  As sh
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are the major
are casting e
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             bicycles and associated parts are produced by 219 plants,
             workers each.  Most of these plants  (79 percent) employ
             workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
             own -Jr. rirure 3-298, 98 percent of the products pro-
              industry are bicycles or bicycle products, while only
             the product line is motorcycles.  Steel and aluminum
              raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
             nd molding, mechanical material removal, material coat-
              fcrr.inc, and assembly operations.

In general motorcycles ard i::'cycles are made by bending, welding and
brazing tubing to forir. the frame.  The frame is then painted  (fre-
quently usinu electrostatic methods) before assembling wheels, handle-
bars, fenders, and the crank set.  Process water is used mainly for
rinsing following come cf the machining, forming ar.d plating oper-
ations and fcr water curtails when spray painting.

The manufacture of bicycles  (Figure 3-299) is representative of the
motorcycle and bicycle industry.  bicycles consist of three main
sections:  the- fr&:t;r? which includes the handlebars, forks, and kick-
stand, the wheels including the hub assemblies, and the crank set
including the sprockets and chain.   Lightweight frames are fabricated
by rolling', forming, and seam welding or extruding low-carbon steel or
aluminum material.  This tubing is then we-lded into connectors which
have been formed by casting and press forming raw material.
                                 3-762

-------
                               DRAFT
The use of aluminum tubing and aluminum and alloy steel forgings
for major components contributes significant weight reductions.
An alternate method to welding to pre-formed connectors is brazing
with double butted tubing which has thicker walls at the ends
for added strength.  The handlebars are made of either formed
aluminum tubing which is polished and buffed or chromium plated
steel tubing.

Front forks are made of seamless tubing that is cut to length,
plugged and swaged.  Tube sections are then brazed into the fork
crown.  Wheel rims are fabricated on a profile mill.  In this
fabrication process, coil stock is formed, resistance seamed and
flash welded, polished, punched to accept spoke nipples, and
chromium plated.  For lighter weight, polished aluminum alloy
rims are used.  Spokes are cold drawn steel wire, that is treaded,
nickel-plated and are assembled to the rim by threaded brass nipples.
The hub assemblies are usually made of aluminum alloy castings, that
are ground and the axles and hub bearings are made of hardened steel
that is stamped, turned, ground and heat treated.  The one piece crank
is a machined steel forging that is usually chromium plated for appearan
Sprokets are stamped from cold rolled steel strip, coined and chromium
plated.

Before assembly of the major components, the frame assembly under-
goes a painting process.  Due to the complex shapes of the frame,
an electrostatic painting process is usually favored followed by
a baking procedure.  The major assembly operations that follow
are done by hand.  The crank set is mounted on the frame to which
is also added the brake systems and wheel assemblies.  Trim such
as fenders and the chain guard are mounted next.   Items such as
seats and handlebars are generally not mounted to facilitate
shipment.
                                  3-763

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES   51

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES  168

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                17,600

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $306.7    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $658.7    MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS               0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             100

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION        100

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 100

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        0

        8 ORE  PROCESSINGS REFINING                0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            NA    BILLION GALLONS

                                       NA    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER    NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA
 WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-143
                                       3-764

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                               DRAFT
Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
complete guided missiles and space vehicles.  Research and develop-
ment and other services on or for guided missiles and space vehicles
are included in this industry.  Products in this industry include:

        Ballistic missiles, complete
        Guided missiles, complete
        Research and development of guided missiles
           and space vehicles
        Rockets (guided missiles), space and military:
           complete
        Space vehicles, complete

Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing guided missile
and space vehicle propulsion units and propulsion unit parts are
classified in Industry 3764; space satellite, and guided missile
and space vehicle airborne and ground guidance, checkout and launch
electronic systems and components in Industry 3662; and guided
missile and space vehicle airframes, nose cones, and space cap-
sules in Industry 3769.

Guided missiles and space vehicles are produced by 71 plants,
averaging 1725 workers each.  Most of these plants (82 percent)
employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
i.n Table 3-144,  The raw materials and products are shown in Figure
3-300.  Aluminum,  aluminum alloy, steel  (stainless, alloy, and
carbon), titanium, titanium alloy, copper, copper alloy, and nickel
alloy are used in the form of sheet, bar, plate and other various
shapes.  In addition, various coatings are also used.  The principal
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal, chemical/
electrochemical operations, physical property modification, material
forming (metal), assembly operations, material molding and forming
(plastics).

Guided missiles and space vehicles are built by manufacturing and
assembling various components into subassemblies.  The missile is
finished by assembling the various major subassemblies making up
the engine, main structure, guidance control and payload.  Process
water is used mainly for rinsing and cooling.  The rinsing oper-
ation is associated with chemical milling, anodizing, conversion
coatings,  heat treating, plating and the washing of the lubricants,
chemicals and salts, etc. following these operations.

The manufacture of guided missiles is representative of the guided
missile and space vehicle industry.   A typical operation for making
guided missiles is shown in Figure 3-301.  The outer housing case is
                                 3-767

-------
made by shearing sheet stock and rolling (using a forming lubricant)
the stock into a cylindrical shape that is seam welded.  The upper
dome is formed by casting the basic shape then milling and grinding
it to its finished form.  After this, a hole is drilled and thread-
ed (using soluble oil and cutting oil, respectively) in the center
of the dome, for assembly of the igniter.  The nozzle assembly is
made by casting the basic form then milling and grinding the casting
into its finished shape.  The final assembly is then started by
welding the upper dome to the case and then placing a rod down the
center of the case.  Next, the propellant is poured into the case,
the rod is removed and the nozzle assembly is welded into place at
the other end of the case.  Then the ignitor is threaded into the
hole in the dome.  Several engines (number depending on how many
stages) are bolted to one another using explosive bolts, and the
guidance control is bolted to the top engine also using explosive
bolts.  The guidance control contain all the instrumentation,
altitude control, self-destruct assemblies, etc.  The warhead (or
other payload) is then bolted to the guidance control unit.
                                 3-768

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Guided missiles  and space vehicles
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      -8
                         WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      13
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               122,500
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $3127.2  MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $4326.4  MILLION          ^
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
     1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
     2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
     3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
     4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
     5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
     6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS
     7 MATERIAL COATING                   100
     8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING              0
     9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS         0
                                              0

                                            100
                                            100
                                            100
                                            100
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          NA    BILLION GALLONS
                                  NA    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER  NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE  NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED      NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                             *Based on Plant Data Collected
                               TABLE 3-144
                             3-768A/J-768B

-------

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion
Units and Propulsion Unit Parts

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur
guided missile propulsion units and propulsion unit parts.  Research
and development on guided missile and space vehicle propulsion units
and propulsion unit parts is also included in this industry.  Produc
in this industry include:

        Engines and engine parts, guided missile
        Research and development of guided missile and
           space vehicle engines
        Propulsion units for guided missiles and space
           vehicles
        Rocket motors, guided missile

Guided missile and space propulsion units and parts are produced
by 29 plants, averaging 714 workers each.  Most of these plants
(96 percent)  employ more than 20 workers.  Additional production
data are shown in Table 3-145.  Figure 3-302 shows the materials
used which include aluminum, aluminum alloy, steel (stainless,
alloy, carbon), titanium, titanium alloy, copper, copper alloy and
nickel alloy.  In addition various coatings are also used.  The
principal manufacturing operations are casting and molding  (metal),
material forming, mechanical material removal, material coating,
and assembly operations.

Propulsion units are made by manufacturing the discrete component
parts and assembling them.  Inspection and testing complete the
finished propulsion unit.  Process water, which constitutes 11 per-
cent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
rinsing following both machining operations and any required plating
operations.

A typical operation for manufacture of a monopropellant hydrazine
altitude control engine is shown in Figure 3-304.  First, the reactic
chamber is machined from bar stock, as shown in Figure 3-303, finish*
parts manufacture.  It is then cleaned and injection tubes are bondec
(with an adhesive) to the chamber.  Diffusion screens, covering the
openings to the injection tubes, are spot welded to the chamber.  A
flow and pressure check is then run on the assembly and the assembly
is half filled with a catalyst.  Another diffusion screen is pressed
against the catalyst inside the chamber and then spotwelded in
place.  Next, the chamber is completely filled with catalyst.  Anothe
diffusion screen is pressed against this, spotwelded in place and th«
nozzle is welded to the reaction chamber.  Following this, the manifc
is brazed to  the injection tubes and a thermal standoff is brazed to
the reaction  chamber.   The manifold is then brazed to the thermal stc
off and the unit is inspected and then cleaned.   After cleaning, the
propellant valve is brazed to the manifold completing the assembly.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Space propulsion units  and  parts
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      28

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       1

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                20,700

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $506.7     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $716.3     MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                 0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            100
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                66

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           66

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   1QO

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         66

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL. GROSS WATER USE          42.1

                                   159.3
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

   27

   73

   79

   11
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   24

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED         9
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE  3-145
                                       3-772

-------
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                              DRAFT
Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Parts and
Auxiliary Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
guided missile and space vehicle parts and auxiliary equipment, not
elsewhere classified.  Research and development on guided missile
and space vehicle parts and auxiliary equipment, not elsewhere
classified, is also included in this industry.  The major products
include:

        Airframe assemblies, for guided missiles
        Bellows assemblies for missiles, metal
        Casings for missiles and missile components,
           shipping and storage
        Nose cones, guided missile
        Research and development of guided missile and
           space vehicle components
        Space capsules

Guided missiles and space vehicle parts and auxiliary equipment
are produced by 44 plants, averaging 461 workers each.  Most of
these plants (82 percent) employ more than 20 workers.  Additional
production data are shown in Table 3-146.  The raw materials and
products are shown in Figure 3-305, and include sheet, bar, plate
and other various shapes of aluminum, aluminum alloy, steel (stain-
less, carbon, and alloy), titanium, titanium alloy, copper,* copper
alloy and nickel alloy.  In addition various coatings are also used.
The principal manufacturing operations are casting and molding
(metals), material forming (metals), material coating, assembly
operations, mechanical material removal, molding and forming (non-
metals) .

Because of the diversity of products in this industry, no single
description of a particular product covers the whole field.  In
general, products are made from many piece parts.   These parts are
machined, stamped or formed in metal and plastic stock.  The parts
are then cleaned, tested, subassembled and cleaned again.  The
subassemblies are finally joined to form the finished product which
is then tested.  Process water, which constitutes  11 percent of the
gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for cooling and
rinsing.  The rinsing operation is associated with chemical milling,
conversion'coating, heat treating, plating, and washing of lubricants,
chemicals, salts, etc. following these operations.
                                .3-776

-------
   The manufacture of metal cast components and the manufacture and
   assembly of nose cones are representative of the guided missile
   and space vehicle parts and auxiliary equipment industry.  A typical
   operation for manufacturing metal cast components is shown in Figure
   3-306 while Figure 3-307 shows the manufacture and assembly of nose cone
   The manufacture of metal cast components is initiated by casting the
I  desired shape and then milling, turning, drilling or boring the
   casting using water-soluble oil.  The parts are then cleaned, ground,
   honed and cleaned again.  Finally, they are painted and then assembled
   with other components to form subassemblies and assemblies.

   The manufacture and assembly of nose cones  (Figure 3-307) is initiated
   with the fabrication of the frame.  This is done by first shearing,
   blanking, rolling, and bending sheet stock, sometimes using a form-
   ing oil.  The frame parts are then cleaned and heat treated.  Bend-
   ing and heat treating may be repeated to achieve the final shape.
   Cutting the frame pieces to size and removing the burrs follows,
   after which the pieces are anodized, riveted together (assembly),
   and painted.  A tungsten nose piece is formed and bolted to the front
   of the frame and then the skin is applied.  The skin is sheet metal that
   is sheared and bent, using a forming oil, and then assembled to the
   frame by riveting.  An asbestos phenolic cloth is wrapped around
   the skin and coated several times with a resin.  Finally, the in-
   struments, etc. are attached inside the nose cone, and it is inspected
   and tested.
                                   3-777

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Space  vehicle equipment,  nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        36

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES         8
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  20,300
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $507.1   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $775.7   MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING & MOLDING — METALS            '     0
        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              100

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          j_oO
        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100
        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   IQQ

        1 MATERIAL COATING                        100
        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0
        9  MOLDING a FORMING — NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            42.1   BILLION GALLONS

                                     159.3   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        27

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       73

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   79
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      11
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   24
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        NA
                                           I
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
*Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE  3-146
                                      3-778

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                               DRAFT
Travel Trailers and Campers

This  segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
travel trailers for attachment to passenger cars or other vehicles,
pickup coaches  (campers) or caps  (covers) for mounting on pickup
trucks and self-contained motor homes.  Travel trailers are gen-
erally 35 feet long or less, 8 feet wide or less, and have storage
facilities for water and waste.  Specific products include:

        Campers, for mounting on trucks
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        Camping trailers and chassis
        Chassis for camping trailers
        House trailers except as permanent dwellings
        Motor homes, self-contained
        Pickup coaches (campers), for mounting on pickup
           trucks
        Pickup covers, canopies or caps
        Tent-type camping trailers
        Trailer coaches, automobile
        Trailers, house:  except as permanent dwellings
        Truck campers (slide-in campers)

Travel Trailers and Campers are produced by 1013 plants,  averaging
34 workers each.  Most of these plants  (66 percent)  employ less than
20 workers.   Additional production data are shown in Table 3-147.
As shown in Figure 3-308, 49 percent of the units produced are the
recreational type while 51 percent are camping trailers,  campers or
pick-up covers (Kaps).  Steel,  aluminum, wood, copper, fiberglass,
plastics and fabrics are the major raw materials.  The principal
manufacturing operations are material forming, assembly operations,
and material coating.

In general travel trailers and  campers are made by assembly of ex-
truded and stamped parts on a welded chassis framework.  The floor-
ing is often wood and most of the permanent accessories (e.g.  sinks,
lavatory facilities, stoves) are directly fastened to the flooring
before the enclosing structure  is formed.  Based on data  obtained
during this  survey 92% of the plants contacted had no point source
discharge.  This is primarily due to the fact that most plants in
this industry segment do not use any process water.

The manufacture of Travel Trailers is representative of the Travel
Trailer and  Camper Industry. A typical operation for making Travel
Trailers is  shown in Figure 3-309.  Generally, the trailers frames are

-------
                               DRAFT
cut, formed and assembled.  Mounting brackets are assembled to the
frame.  The flooring is usually cut and finished from wood and
assembled to the frame.

Either vacuum formed plastic or formed metal wheel wells are attached
to this floor section before the flooring is attached to the frame
assembly.  The entire assembly then receives a protective under-
coat.  Next the interior flooring is added (either carpeting or a ti]
and the cabinetry and permanent interior fixtures are added (e. g.
sinks, lavatories).  The cabinets are pre-assembled and finished
before installation and are typically made of wood.  The sink and
lavatory facilities are either formed of plastic or fiberglass.
While this floor assembly is being unitized,  the shell of the trailer
which is typically made of stamped sheets and extruded aluminum
framework, is being formed and pre-assembled in sections ready for
installation around the finished interior.  Sometimes a foam insul-
ation is sprayed on the outer shell and sandwiched between the metal
exterior and wooden interior for thermal and acoustical insulation.
The metal exterior is typically finished before assembly to the
chassis so the final finish operation is assembly of extruded trim
work and window and door attachment.  Pre-assembled upholstery is
then added and everything is assembled to the frame.  The unit
undergoes operational inspection to test out any auxiliary power unit
that may have been incorporated.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Travel  trailers  and  campers
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       366

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       647

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  34,500

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $   449   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1213.2   MILLION
                                                                    *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            17

        3 MATERIAL FORMING — METALS               34

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           17

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    83

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS     0

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        34

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             NA   BILLION GALLONS

                                      MA   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data  Collected
                                 TABLE 3-147

                                     3-784

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                               DRAFT
Tanks and Tank Components

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturim
or assembling complete tanks, and specialized components for tanks.
Specific products are:

        Amphibian tanks, military
        Tank components, specialized:  mili-
           tary
        Tank recovery vehicles
        Tanks, military:  including factory re-
           building

Tank and tank components are produced by 22 plants, averaging 268
workers each.  Most of these plants (68 percent) employ more than 20
workers.  At the present time only one facility is actually making a
final tank assembly.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-148.  As shown in Figure 3-310, iron, steel, aluminum and copper
are the major raw materials consumed.  The major manufacturing processe
are mechanical material removal, material forming, chemical/electro-
chemical processing, material coating and assembly operations.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the tank
industry.  This is so mainly because of the differing raw materials
as shown in Figure 3-311 and the severe physical demands a tank must
be designed to meet.  Armor steel for tanks varies with application.
In general, armor steel contains between 0.2 and 0.4 percent carbon.
Armor is generally heat treated to increase its hardness, then temp-
ered to make it tough and less brittle.  Process water in this industry
is used in chemical processing  (alodining and phosphate coating)  and
in spray paint booths as a water curtain to catch overspray.

The manufacture of tanks (Figure 3-311) is representative of the tank
and tank component industry.  The basic unit of the tank assembly is
the hull which is formed by casting.  Machining operations are done
on this casting in the turret mounting area to accept the turret mount-
ing hardware.  Welding is also done on the hull casting to add support
brackets for engine and wheel mounting.  Following manufacture, the
hull is painted and then the suspension system is assembled to it.
The wheels, which consist of a rubber covered aluminum hub and idler
wheels (support wheels for upper portion of track), are mounted to the
suspension assembly.  The final drive sprocket, which ties the
transmission to the track,  is then added.   Next, most of the interior

-------
                               DRAFT
control and communication systems are assembled onto the tank.   The
tracks are then mounted.  They are formed from steel plates which
are joined in a hinged fashion and have a removable rubber shoe for
traction, smooth ride and quietness.   The engine is then mounted in-
to the hull along with the fuel tanks.  The drive system is tested
before the turret is mounted.

The turret is a cast assembly that is machined and welded to mate with
the hull to accept accessories such as gun assemblies and ammo  storage
racks.  The turret is prime painted after machining and welding oper-
ations and the gun barrel is then mounted.  The interior components of
the turret, such as communications and control wiring and ammo  storage
racks, are then added.  The turret platform, which is a floor assembly
that is connected to and rotates with the turret, is mounted under-
neath the turret.  This platform is constructed from welded and formed
plate and bar stock.  The pilot's cupola, which is a free rotating
turret located on the main turret, is then mounted.  This piece is a
cast assembly and is similar in construction technique to the main
turret.

After the track fenders are mounted over the tracks and the unit
undergoes a complete operational test, the entire assembly receives
a final coat of paint and is covered with a tent like structure for
shipping.
                                  3-788

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Tanks and tank components
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     15

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       7
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                5 , 900
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $111.7   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $272.2   MILLION
                                                                   *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
        3 MATERIAL FORMING-METALS

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 10°
        7 MATERIAL COATING                      10°

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                °
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          °
            0
           100
           50
           50
           100
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE
NA
NA
                                        BILLION GALLONS
                                        BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER      NA
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED          NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on  Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-148
                                     3-789

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                          3-791

-------
                               DRAFT
Transportation Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
transportation equipment, not elsewhere classified.  Products include:

        All terrain vehicles (ATV)
        Automobile trailer chassis, except house
           trailer
        Autos, midget:  power driven
        Caddy cars
        Chassis, automobile trailer:  except house
           trailer
        Electrocars, for transporting golfers
        Gocarts, except children's
        Pushcarts
        Snowmobiles
        Trailers, except house and recreational:  for
           automobiles
        Wheelbarrows

Transportation equipment is produced by 481 plants, averaging 36
workers each.  Most of these plants (62 percent) employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-149.
As shown in Figure 3-312, the majority of the products in this
category are trailers and carts.   A smaller part of the market con-
sists of snowmobiles and golf carts.  Steel, aluminum and .fiberglass
resin are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing oper-
ations are cutting, mechanical material removal, material forming,
and assembly operations.

In general small transportation vehicles are made by welding steel
or aluminum sheet stock and structural members into basic frames.
Over this, plastic or fiberglass  bodies are attached for appear-
ance or functions such as waterproofing for flotation.   Suspension
systems for wheeled small vehicles generally depend on large soft
tires rather than mechanical spring assemblies.   Often suspensions
are totally absent such as in go-carts.  Transmissions and power
plants, whether electric as in a  golf cart or gasoline such as an
all terrain vehicle (ATV), are manufactured in much the same way
as in larger vehicles such as automobiles.   For gasoline engines,
cast blocks are machined to accept other parts such as crankshafts,
pistons, bearings and connecting  rods.  Usually 2 stroke engines
are used in this class of vehicle due to their operating character-
istics and versatility as well as their operational simplicity
In electric vehicles such as golf carts, d. c. motors are manufactured

-------
                               DRAFT
to be powered from portable supplies such as lead-acid batteries.
Cast-housings accept armature ^assemblies containing wound copper
wire, commutators, and brush assemblies as well as permanent mag-
nets (high torque at slow speed and high efficiency).

Little process water is used in this industry and what water is
employed is used primarily in the machining processes as a clean-
ing agent or coolant.

The manufacture of All Terrain Vehicles (ATV's) (Figure 3-313)  is
representative of the Transportation Equipment Not Elsewhere Class-
ified Industry.  The typical ATV is a six wheeled, soft tired,
amphibious vehicle with a plastic body and a two stroke engine.
The construction begins with the forming of the basic chassis weld-
ment.  Angle iron and channel stock are cut, bent, formed, drilled,
slotted, and joined to form a rigid structure that will accept mount-
ing of all the drive components.  The body is vacuum molded, usually
in two pieces (bottom and top sections).  The bottom section is a
tub shape having holes to accept the mounting of the frame and the
protruding axle shafts.  Where the axle penetrates the body,
gaskets, bushings, and sealed bearings are used to form a water
tight shell for flotation.  The wheels and the drive assembly are
mounted next.  The drive mechanism consists mainly of a two stroke
engine which is bolted to the frame, a torque converter and a chain
and sprocket drive system.  All are mounted to prepared brackets on
the frame.   With the internal assembly complete, the upper body
assembly, which is primarily vacuum molded plastic,  is installed.
This assembly usually contains the cockpit for the passengers,  a
vent system for the power plant, and the fuel tank.   Painting may
be done on exposed metal such as the wheels, but the plastic body
does not need further protection.
                                 3-793

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Transportation equipment, nee
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      181



                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       300



   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  17,300



   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $248.1    MILLION



   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $705.8    MILLION



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING  VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,



        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              0



        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          50



        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS            IQO



        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         50



        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  10o



        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 50


        7  MATERIAL COATING                      100



        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
                                                                   *


        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            NA    BILLION GALLONS



                                      NA    BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA



   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER   NA



   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE     NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   NA



   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 •'Based  on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-149

                                      3-794

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Engineering/ Laboratory/ Scientific/ and Research Instruments and
Associated Equipment

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
engineering, laboratory, and scientific instruments,  including nautical
navigational, aeronautical, surveying, and drafting equipment and in-
struments for laboratory work and scientific research.  The major
products are:

        Acceleration indicators and systems
           components, aerospace type
        Airspeed instrumentation (aeronautical
           instruments)
        Aircraft flight instruments
        Alidades (surveying instruments)
        Altimeters,  standard and sensitive (aeronautical
           instruments)
        Angle-of-attack instrumentation
        Angle-of-yaw instrumentation
        Autoclaves,  laboratory
        Automatic pilots,  aircraft
        Bacteriological laboratory instruments:   except
           medical,  optical, and dental
        Balances, laboratory
        Bank and turn indicators and components
           (aeronautical instruments)
        Binnacles (compass housings)
        Blood testing apparatus
        Bunsen burners
        Calibration  tapes, for physical testing  machines
        Calorimeters
        Centrifuges, laboratory
        Chemical laboratory apparatus
        Clinical laboratory instruments,  except  medical
           and dental
        Coal testing apparatus
        Compasses and accessories,  except portable
           (navigational instruments)
        Degaussing equipment
        Distilling apparatus,  laboratory  type
        Drafting instruments and machines:   T-squares,
           templates, etc.
        Driftmeters, aeronautical
        Dust sampling and  analysis  equipment
                                 3-797

-------
Environmental testing equipment
Fathometers
Furnaces, laboratory:  except dental
Gas analyzing equipment
Generators, magnetic idealization
Glide slope indicators
Gyro gimbals
Gyrocompasses
Gyropilots
Gyroscopes
Haemoglobinometers
Horizon flight indicators
Hydrogen ion equipment, colorimetric
Incubators, laboratory
Integrators (mathematical instruments)
Laboratory equipment:  fume hoods, distillation
   racks, benches, cabinets
Laboratory testing and scientific instruments,
   except electric
Laser beam alinement devices
Laser scientific and engineering instruments
Machmeters
Magnetic idealization generators
Map plotting instruments
Micromanipulator
Microtomes
Meteorological instruments:  laboratory,
   except optical
Nautical instruments
Navigational instruments
Omni-bearing indicators
Pellicle mirrors
Petroleum product analyzing apparatus
Photogrammetry equipment
Photopitometers
Physics laboratory apparatus and instruments
Pi tapes (metal periphery direct reading
   diameter tapes)
Pictorial deviation indicators
Pipettes, hemocytometer
Pitometers
Plani'meters
Plotting instruments, drafting and map reading
Plumb bobs
Position indicators for landing gear, cowl
   flaps, stabilizersr  etc.
Pumps, vacuum:  laboratory
Radio magnetic instrumentation (RMI)
Rate-of-climb instrumentation
                            3-798

-------
                              DRAFT
        Seismographs
        Seismometers
        Seismoscopes
        Sewage testing apparatus
        Sextants
        Shadowgraphs
        Slide rules
        Standards and calibrating equipment,
           laboratory
        Surveying instruments and accessories
        Tables, work:  laboratory
        Taffrail logs
        Theodolites  (surveying equipment)
        Time interval measuring equipment, electric
           (laboratory type)
        Time measuring and counting equipment,
           electric  (laboratory type)
        Transits, surveyors'
        Turntable indicator testers
        Water testing apparatus

Engineering and scientific instruments are produced by 721 plants,
averaging 51 workers each.  Most of these plants (65 percent)  employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-150.  As shown in Figure 3-314, 52 percent of the production is in
the area of aeronautical and navigational instruments, while 31 per-
cent is in the laboratory and scientific instrument category.   The
remaining 17 percent consists of miscellaneous instruments.  Raw
materials used include copper, aluminum, steel, electric motors,
vacuum tubes, bearings and semiconductors.  The principal manufactur-
ing operations are mechanical material removal, material forming,
assembly operations and material coating.

A wide range of manufacturing processes are used in the scientific
instrument industry.  This is so mainly because of the differing
raw materials, which are shown in Figure 3-315, and the variety of
products produced.   Process water, which constitutes about 6.5

-------
percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for
surface treatment operations and cleaning.                >  . ,

The manufacture of an airborne integrated data system (AIDS) is
representative of the scientific instrument industry.  As shown in
Figure 3-315, sheet metal stock is stamped, punched, drilled, bent
and formed to make various parts of the chassis.  These parts are
then assembled by welding and after assembly, are usually surface
treated by anodizing or a similar process.  Electrical components
are then installed in the completed chassis and wired to complete
the AIDS controller itself.  To operate, electronic circuit cards
must be added to the chassis and inter-connections added to out-
side sensors and systems.
                                  3-800

-------
                                  DRAFT
                  Engineering, Laboratory, Scientific, and Research
PRODUCTION DATA  Instruments and Associated Equipment
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      255


                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      466

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 36 , 700

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $  654.1     MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $1018.6     MILLION


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING -METALS                0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            100

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               80


        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           20

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     80

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    0

        7  MATERIAL COATING                         40


        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            3.1

                                    11.7

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS

BILLION LITERS

       22.6

       77.4

       75

        6.45
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        22.6


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             NA
  NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based  on  Plant Data Collected
                              i   TABLE 3-150
                              i        3-801

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                               UKAS- !
Automatic Controls for Regulating Residential and Commercial
Environments and Appliances

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
temperature and related controls for heating and air-conditioning
installations and refrigeration applications, which are electrically,
electronically, or pneumatically actuated, and which measure and
control variables such as temperature and humidity; and automatic
regulators used as components of household applicances.  The prin-
cipal products include:

        Air flow controllers, air conditioning and
           refrigeration:  except valves
        Appliance regulators, except switches
        Building services monitoring controls, automatic
        Clothes drier controls, including dryness controls
        Combination limit and fan controls
        Combination oil and hydronic controls
        Damper operators:  pneumatic, thermostatic,
           electric
        Electric air cleaner controls, automatic
        Electric heat proportioning controls, modulating
           controls
        Electric space heater controls,  automatic
        Energy cutoff controls, residential ana commercial
           types
        Fan control, temperature responsive
        Flame safety controls for furnaces and boilers
        Float controls, residential and  commercial types
        Gas burner automatic controls, except valves
        Gradual switches, pneumatic
        Humidistats:  wall,  duct, and skeleton
        Humidity controls,  air conditioning types
        Hydronic circulator control,  automatic
        Hydronic limit control
        Hydronic pressure and temperature controls
        Ice bank controls
        Icemaker controls
        Ignition controls for gas appliances and furnaces,
           automatic
        In-built thermostats,  filled  system, and bimetal
           types
        Incinerator control  systems,  residential and commercial
           types
        Limit controls, residential and  commercial heating
           types
                                 3-804

-------
                               DRAFT
        Line or limit control for electric heat
        Liquid level controls, residential and
           commercial heating types
        Oven temperature controls, nonindustrial
        Pneumatic relays, air-conditioning type
        Pressure controllers, air-conditioning system
           type
        Primary oil burner controls, including stack
           controls and cadmium cells
        Refrigeration/air-conditioning defrost controls
        Refrigeration controls (pressure)
        Refrigeration thermostats
        Sequencing controls for electric heat
        Static pressure regulators
        Steam pressure controls,  residential and
           commercial type
        Surface burner controls,  temperature
        Switches, pneumatic positioning remote
        Switches, thermostatic
        Temperature controls, automatic:  residential and
           commercial types
        Temperature sensors for motor windings
        Thermocouples, vacuum:  glass
        Thermostats
        Time program controls, air conditioning systems
        Vapor heating controls
        Water heater controls

Environmental Controls are produced by 129 plants, averaging 228
workers each.  About half of these plants (47 percent)  employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-151.  On a dollar basis, about 50 percent of the environmental
controls are temperature responsive thermostats with the balance
being distributed among various other types of environmental controls
A diversity of raw materials is required, as can be seen from the
production data in Figure 3-316.   A multiplicity of operations are
performed on these raw materials  including mechanical material re-
moval, material forming, assembly operations, and material coating.

In general, environmental controls are made by forming mechanical
components in linkages to sense the desired environmental parameter
and produce a corresponding mechanical output.  These are then
mounted in a case along with a dial, pointer and clear cover.
Process water,  which constitutes  23 percent of the gross water used

-------
                               DRAF
by the industry, is used mainly for plating and cleaning operations
and ultrasonic machining.

The manufacture of thermostats is representative of the environmental
controls industry.  Figure 3-317 describes this manufacture.  Initially,
raw mill stock is stamped, shaped, formed, bent, etc.  to the confi-
gurations required in the final thermostat.  The bimetal strip is
fabricated by bonding two dissimilar metal strips together.   The
bimetal strip is then drilled and riveted to a ceramic back plate,
and an electrical contact is staked onto the bimetallic strip.
Metallic parts (except bimetal strip)  are usually finished by plating,
anodizing, or applying similar surface treatments.   Other components
such as the dial cover lens are then assembled to form the final
thermostat.
                                    3-806

-------
                                 DRAFT
                 Automatic Controls for Regulating Residential  and
PRODUCTION DATA  commercial Environments and Appliances
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      go


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      69


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                29 , 400


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $526.6    MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $754.5    MILLION


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING  VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              25


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           75


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              25


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          50


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   75


        7 MATERIAL COATING                      100


        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0


        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUALGROSS WATER USE          3.0     BILLION GALLONS


                                  11.625   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            go


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           40


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        60


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          23.33
WASTE WATER
  DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       56.67


  PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            17.65
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-151
                                     3-807

-------
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-------
Industrial Instruments for Measurement, Display, and Control of
Process Variables; and Related Products

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
industrial instruments and related products for measuring, displaying
(indicating and/or recording), transmitting, and controlling process
variables in manufacturing, energy conversion, and public service
utilities.  These instruments operate mechanically, pneumatically,
electronically, or electrically to measure process variables such
as temperature, humidity, pressure, vacuum., combustion, flow, level,
viscosity, density, acidity, alkalinity, specific gravity, gas and
liquid concentration, sequence, time interval, mechanical motion,
and rotation.  The major products include:

        Absorption analyzers, industrial process
           type:  infra-red, X-ray, etc.
        Analyzers, industrial process type
        Annunciators, relay and solid state types:
           industrial display
        Boiler controls:  industrial, power, and
           marine type
        Buoyancy instruments, industrial process
           type
        Chromatographs,  industrial process type
        Combustion control instruments, except
           commercial and household furnace type
        Computer interface equipment for industrial
           process control
        Controllers for  process variables:  electric,
           electronic, and pneumatic
        Coulometric analyzers, industrial process
           type
        Data loggers, industrial process type
        Density and specific gravity instruments,
           industrial process type
        Differential pressure instruments, industrial
           process type
        Digital displays of process variables
        Draft gauges, industrial process type
        Electrodes used  in industrial process measure-
          . ment
        Electrolytic conductivity instruments,
           industrial process type
        Flow instruments,  industrial process type
                                3-810

-------
                       DRAFT
Fluidic devices, circuits, and systems for
   process control
Gas and liquid analysis instruments,
   industrial process type
Gas flow computers, industrial process type
Humidity instruments, industrial process
   type
Hydrometers, industrial process type
Hygrometers, industrial process type
Industrial process control instruments
Infra-red instruments, industrial process
   type
Level and bulk measuring instruments,
   industrial process type
Liquid analysis instruments, industrial
   process type
Liquid concentration instruments, in-
   dustrial process type
Liquid level instruments, industrial
   process type
Magnetic flow meters, industrial process
   type
Manometers, industrial process type
Moisture meters, industrial process type
Nuclear reactor controls
Panelboard indicators, recorders and
   controllers:  receiver type
PH instruments, industrial process type
Potentiometric self-balancing instruments,
   except X-Y plotters
Pressure gauges, dial and digital
Pressure instruments, industrial process
   type
Primary elements for process flow measurement:
   orifice pletes, etc.
Programmers, process type
Pyrometers, industrial process type
Refractometers, industrial process type
Resistance thermometers and bulbs, in-
   dustrial process type
Telemetering instruments, industrial
   process type
Temperature instruments:   industrial
   process *"/p;t:l. ":
-------
                               DM AI" 1
        Thermometers, filled system:  industrial
           process type
        Time cycle and program controllers,
           industrial process type"
        Transmitters of process variables,
           standard signal conversion
        Turbidity instruments, industrial process
           type
        Turbine flow meters, industrial process
           type
        Viscosimeters, industrial process type
        Water quality monitoring and control
           systems

Process control instruments are produced by 176 plants, averaging
196 workers each.  Most of these plants (68 percent) employ more
than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-152.  As shown in Figure 3-318, pressure control instruments are
by far the largest product area in this industry.  Mill shapes and
forms, fractional H.P. motors and semiconductors are the major raw
materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, material forming, assembly operations and material
coating.

In general, process control instruments are made by fabricating the
various parts of the instrument such as the case, dial and. glass or
plastic face and then painting or coating the case and calibrating
the dial before assembling the parts into the final instrument.
Process water, which constitutes 33 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly during plating, cooling and cleaning
operations.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the process
control instruments industry, no single product can be considered
typical.  However, the manufacture of a temperature control instrument
(Figure 3-319) is a good example which illustrates the types of manu-
facturing processes involved in this product area.  First, sheet metal
is stamped, blanked, sheared and bent to form the cabinet, chassis,
and front panel sections.  These parts are then drilled, punched,
and deburred.  The chassis parts are cleaned and plated for protection
and electrical conductivity, while cabinet and front panel parts are
usually cleaned and painted.  Electrical and electromechanical
                                 3-812

-------
                               DRAFT
components are then mounted onto the chassis and front  panel/
and two subassemblies are mounted together.   Wiring  of  the
electrical/electromechanical components is performed next.
Finally, the unit  is assembled into the cabinet for  inter-
connection to the  rest of the temperature control system.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Process controi instruments
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      119


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       57


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 34 , 500


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $595.1   MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $845.7   MILLION
                                                                    *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              50


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL          100


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             100


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION         100


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100


        7 MATERIAL COATING                      100


        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                 0


        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           4.6   BILLION GALLONS


                                    17.41  BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           65 . 2


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           34. 8


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       76. 5


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          32 . 6
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       63.0


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            3.45
   NA NOT AVAILABLE                              *Based on Plant Data Collected

                                 TABLE  3-152

                                      3-814

-------
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            3-816

-------
                              DRAFT
Totalizing Fluid Meters and Counting Devices

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturi
totalizing (registering)  meters, for monitoring fluid flows,  such
as watermeters and gasmeters.   It also includes producers of  mechani-
cal and electromechanical counters and associated metering devices.
The major products are:

        Controls, revolution and timing instruments
        Counter type registers
        Counters:  mechanical, electrical,  elec-
           tronic totalizing
        Counters, revolution
        Electromechanical counters
        Electronic totalizing counters
        Gasmeters; domestic, large capacity,
           industrial
        Gasoline dispensing meters (except  pumps)
        Gauges for computing pressure-temperature
           corrections
        Impeller and counter driven flow meters
        Integrating meters, nonelectric
        Linear counters
        Magnetic counters
        Measuring wheels
        Meters:  gas, liquid,  tallying, and me-
           chanical measuring - except electrical
        Odometers
        Parking meters
        Pedometers
        Positive displacement meters
        Predetermining counters
        Production counters
        Propeller type meters  with registers
        Registers, linear tallying
        Rotary type meters, consumption registering
        Speed  indicators  and recorders, vehicle
        Speedometers
        Tachometer,  centrifugal
        Tally  counters
        Tallying meters:   except electrical  in-
           struments, watches,  clocks
        Tank truck meters
        Taximeters
        Totalising meters,  consumption registering,
           except aircraft

-------
        Turbine meters, consumption registering
        Vehicle tank meters
        Watermeters, consumption registering

Fluid meters and counting devices are produced by 56 plants, averaging
150 workers each.  Most of these plants  (73 percent) employ more than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-153.  As
shown in Figure 3-320, 65 percent of the production value is involved
with the production of totalizing fluid meters, while 14 percent is
for counting devices, and 21 percent is for non-electrical motor
vehicle instruments.  Various stock metals, motors, tubes, and semi-
conductors are the major identified raw materials.  The principal
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal, material
forming (metal), assembly operations and material coating.

In general, fluid meters and counting devices are made by die cast-
ing or stamping the indicating wheels and cases which are then sur-
face finished, and assembled into the meter.  Process water, which
constitutes 33 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is
used mainly for cleaning, plating, and surface finishing operations.

The manufacture of mechanical counting devices (Figure 3-321) is
representative of the fluid meter and counting devices industry.
The shell of the counter is stamped and formed from heavy gauge sheet
stock with a window blanked into the case for viewing of the counter
mechanism.  Holes are drilled for mounting bushing blocks, etc.  The
counter mechanism wheels are die cast, deburred,  and drilled.  Numbers
are painted onto the wheel edge and the wheels placed on a length of
steel shaft previously cut to length and drilled.  The shaft and wheels
are assembled into the case along with a bottom plate (also previously
stamped).   The case is plated inside and the outside is painted.  A
molded plastic cover (clear)  is installed in the case in front of the
counter wheels to seal the case and insure readability.
                                 3-818

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Fluid meters and counting devices
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      41

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      15
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  8,400
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $182.4   MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $283.7   MILLION
                                                                      *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                 0
        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL              0
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 Q

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            0
        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                       0

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    100
        7 MATERIAL COATING                           0

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0
WATER USE  INCLUDES 3823,  3824, 3829
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           4.6    BILLION GALLONS
                                    17.411  BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            65
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            35
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        76
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           33
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       63

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            3.5
   NA  ,4O~'~ AvAILALiLfc.
                                                  *Based  on  Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE  3-153
                                      3-819

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Instruments for Measuring and Testing o^f Electricity and Electrical
Signals"

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
instruments for measuring the characteristics of electricity and
electrical signals,  such as voltmeters,  ammeters,  wattmeters,  watt-
hour meters, demand  meters, and equipment for testing the electrical
characteristics of electrical,  radio,  and communication circuits and
of internal combustion engines.  Specific products include:

        Alternator and generator testers
        Ammeters
        Ampere-hour  meters
        Analog-to-digital converters,  electronic
           instrumentation type
        Analyzers for testing electrical characteristics
        Audiometers
        Automotive ammeters and voltmeters
        Battery testers,  electrical
        Bleed control cabinets  (engine testers)
        Bridges:  Kelvin, Wheatstone,  vacuum tube,
           megohm, etc.
        Current measuring equipment
        Decade boxes:  capacitance,  inductance,  and
           resistance.
        Demand meters,  electric
        Diode and transistor testers
        Digital panel meters, electricity measuring
        Digital test equipment, electronic and electrical
           circuits  and  equipment
        Digital-to-analog converters,  electronic instrumentation
           type
        Distortion meters and analyzers
        Elapsed time meters,  electronic
        Electrical power  measuring equipment
        Electron tube test equipment
        Electronic test  equipment for  testing  electrical
           characteristics
        Energy measuring  equipment,  electrical
        Field strength  and intensity measuring equipment,
           electrical
        Frequency meters:   electrical, mechanical,  and
           electronic
        Frequency synthesizers
        Function generators
        Galvanometers
                              3-822

-------
                       DRAFT
Ignition testing instruments
Impedance measuring equipment
Indicating instruments, electric
Instrument relays, all types
Instrument shunts
Instruments, electric:  for testing electrical
   characteristics
Instruments for measuring electrical quantities
Integrated-circuit testers
Integrating electricity meters
Internal combustion engine analyzers, to test
   electrical characteristics
Laboratory standardsf electric:  resistance,
   inductance, and capacitance
Logic circuit testers
Measuring equipment for electronic and electrical
   circuits and equipment
Measuring instruments and meters, electric
Meters, electric:  pocket, portable, panelboard,
   and graphic recording
Meters, power factor and phase angle
Microwave test equipment
Multimeters
Network analyzers
Ohmmeters
Oscillators, audiofrequency and radio-frequency
   (instrument type)
Oscillographs and oscilloscopes
Potentiometric instruments; except industrial
   process type
Power measuring equipment, electrical
Pulse (signal) generators
Radar testing instruments, electric
Radio apparatus analyzers, for testing
   electrical characteristics
Radio frequency measuring equipment
Radio set analyzers,  electrical
Radio tube checkers,  electrical
Recorders, oscillographic
Reflectometers, sliding shorts
Resistance measuring equipment
Semiconductor test equipment
Signal generators and averages
Spark plug testing instruments, electric
Spectrum analyzers
Standard cells
Standards and calibration equipment for electrical
   measuring,  except laboratory
Standing wave ratio measuring equipment
                           ^-823

-------
                              DRAFT
        Stroboscopes
        Sweep generators
        Sweep oscillators
        Synchroscopes
        Tachometer generators
        Test equipment for electronic and electrical
           circuits and equipment
        Test sets, ignition harness
        Time code generators
        Transducers for volts, amperesr watts, vars,
           frequency, and power factor
        Transformers, instrument:  portable
        Tube testers
        Voltmeters
        Volt-ohm milliammeters
        Watt-hour and demand meters, combined
        Watt-hour and time switch meters, combined
        Watt-hour meters, electric
        Wattmeters
        Waveform measuring and/or analyzing equipment
        X-Y recorders (plotters) except computer
           peripheral equipment

Instruments to measure electricity are produced by 622 plants,
averaging 87 workers each.  Most of these plants (60 percent) employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-154.  As shown in Figure 3-322, 61 percent of the production in
this category is for test equipment for testing electrical, radio,
and communications circuits, while 14 percent is for integrating
instruments, and 25 percent is for miscellaneous test instruments.
Metal mill forms, motors, electron tubes, and semiconductors are
the major raw materials.   The principal manufacturing operations are
material forming, assembling operations, chemical/electrochemical
processing, and material  coating.

In general instruments for measuring electricity are made by forming
a chassis and cabinet from metal and/or plastic, and then mounting
electronic components and printed circuit boards onto the chassis and
wiring these components  to the required electric circuit.  Process
water is used mainly for  plating and rinsing operations.
                                 3-824

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of an electronic volt meter  is  representative of
instruments to measure electricity.   As  shown in Figure  3-323, sheet
metal is stamped,  sheared,  and bent  to form  the chassis, the corners
of which are then  spot welded.  The  chassis  is  drilled and punched
to accept electrical component mounting.   Sheet metal is also stamped,
sheared, bent, folded, and  welded to form  the outer case of the
instrument.

Electrical components are next mounted on  the chassis, printed circuit
boards installed,  and interface connectors installed on  the front pane
and/or rear chassis apron.   The electrical components on the chassis
are then wired together.  After fabrication, the case is painted and
trim pieces and handles are installed.   The  chassis is then installed
into the cabinet and affixed with hardware,  usually by machine or
sheet metal screws.  The  instrument  is then  tested and calibrated.
                                  3-825

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Instruments to measure electricity
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        251

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        371

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                   53,900

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $1,036.9    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1,531.2    MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0

        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           80

        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              80

        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          60

        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    80

        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100

        7  MATERIAL COATING                        80

        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9  MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS         40
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          NA      BILLION GALLONS

                                    NA      BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
*Based on Plsnt Data Collected
                                  TABLE  3-154
                                      3-826

-------
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-------
                               DRAFT
Measuring and Controlling Devices,  Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturir
measuring and controlling devices,  not elsewhere classified,  including
testing instruments to determine the physical properties of materials,
nuclear instruments, aircraft engine instruments, and liquid-in-glass
and bimetal thermometers.  The principal products are:

        Accelerometers, except aerospace type
        Barometers, mercury and aneroid types
        Cable testing machines
        Compasses, magnetic:  portable type
        Count rate meters, nuclear  radiation
        Chronometers, electronic
        Dynamometer instruments
        Electrogamma ray loggers
        Fare registers, for street  cars, buses,  etc.
        Fatigue testing machines, industrial:  mechanical
        Fire detector systems, nonelectric
        Fuel densitometers, aircraft engine
        Fuel mixture indicators, aircraft engine
        Fuel system instruments, aircraft
        Fuel totalizers, aircraft engine
        Gauges except electric, motor vehicle:   oil pressure,
           water temperature
        Gauging instruments, thickness:  ultrasonic
        Geiger counters
        Hardness testing equipment
        Humidity instruments,  except industrial  process  and
           air-conditioning type
        Hydrometers, except industrial process  type
        Hygrometers, except industrial process  type
        Instrumentation for reactor controls, auxiliary
        Ion chambers
        Kinematic test and measuring equipment
        Level gauges, radiation type
        Medical diagnostic systems, nuclear
        Moisture density meters, except industrial  process
           type
        Nuclear instrument modules
        Nuclear radiation detection and monitoring
           instruments
        Personnel dosimetry devices
        Physical properties testing and inspection  equipment

-------
                               DRAFT
        Pressure and vacuum indicators, aircraft engine
        Pulse analyzers, nuclear monitoring
        Radiation measuring and detecting (radiac)  equipment
        Salinity indicators, except industrial process type
        Sample changers, nuclear radiation
        Sealers, nuclear radiation
        Scintillation detectors
        Spectrometers, liquid scintillation and nuclear
        Stress, strain, and flaw detecting and measuring
           equipment
        Synchronizers, aircraft engine
        Temperature sensors, except industrial
           process and aircraft type
        Testers for checking hydraulic controls on
           aircraft
        Testing equipment: abrasion, shearing strength,
           tensile strength, torsion
        Thermocouples, except industrial process and
           aircraft type
        Thermomagnetic oxygen analyzer
        Thermometers, liquid-in-glass and bi-metal type
        Thrust power indicators, aircraft engine
        Toll booths, automatic
        Transducers, pressure
        Turnstiles, equipped with counting mechanisms
        Ultrasonic testing equipment
        Vibration meters, analyzers, and calibrators
        Viscosimeters, except industrial process type
        Whole body counters, nuclear

Measuring and Controlling Devices NEC are produced by 585 plants,
averaging 38 workers each.  Most of these plants (75 percent)  employ
less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-155.  As shown in Figure 3-324, the largest production value (36
percent) is in the area of nuclear radiation detection equipment.
Physical property testing equipment is next with 19 percent of the
production value.  Aircraft engine instruments and commercial,
meteorological, and general purpose instruments account for the
rest of the production.  Stock metals, fractional horsepower motors,
electron tubes and semiconductors are the major raw materials.  The
principal manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal,
material forming (metals) of the raw stock metals,  and assembly of
component level parts into the final instrument.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the
Measuring and Controlling Devices Industry.   This is so mainly
because of the differing raw materials, which are shown in Figure
3-325, and the variety of products, which range from anemometers
to geiger counters.  Process water, which constitutes 33 percent
                                   3-830

-------
                               DRAFT
of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for plating,
surface finishing, and cleaning.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the
Measuring and Controlling Device industry, no single product can
be considered typical.  However, the manufacture of an aneroid
barometer (Figure 3-325) is a good example which utilizes many of
the manufacturing processes in this product area.  The mechanical
framework and mechanical linkages are stamped and blanked from sheet
stock.  Holes are drilled and, in some cases, bushings are installed
or the hole is tapped.  The formed pieces are then cleaned.  The
pressure sensing bellows is a metal box with a corrugated top and
bottom.  The sides of the box are stamped and welded.  The corrugated
top and bottom are made by stamping and forming of sheet stock.   They
are then welded (or soldered) to the box sides, and the total box is
evacuated and hermetically sealed.  The completed box is clamped to
the barometer frame and a mechanical linkage is soldered to the  cente
of the corrugated top.  The rest of the linkages are then assembled.

The barometer case is made by slush molding of plastic resins.   The
case is machined as required for lens mounting and mechanical inter-
face.   The outside is polished,  and a scale is painted on the front
of the case.  The mechanical workings are then installed and the
barometer is calibrated.  A clear plastic or glass lens is installed
on the case front.

-------
                                 DRAFT




PRODUCTION DATA  Measuring  &  controlling devices,  nee




   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS,  WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       147

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       438

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  22,500

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $349      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $545.1    MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS  USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                 0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             33

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 0

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            0

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    g7

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         33

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS            0




WATER USE   COMBINED FIGURES FOR 3823, 3824, 3829



   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          4.6     BILLION GALLONS

                                   17.411   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            65.22

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            34 . 78

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       76.47

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          32. 60



WASTE WATER




   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       63.04

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             3.45
   NA NOT AVAILABLE                                        _.   ,  ,  r  r-r,vprted
                                                  *33.sec jn Plant Jat.-^ coixfc' ceu

                                 TABLE 3-',i5
                                      3-832

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                              DRAFT
Optical Instruments and Lenses

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturir
instruments that measure an optical property;  apparatus except photo-
graphic that projects or magnifies such as binoculars, prisms, and
lenses; optical sighting and fire control equipment;  and related
analytical instruments.  Particular products include:

        Aiming circles (fire control equipment)
        Antiaircraft directors,  except electronic
        Binoculars
        Boards:  plotting,  spotting, and gun fire
           adjustment
        Borescopes
        Chromatographic equipment (laboratory  type)
        Chronoscopes
        Cinetheodolites
        Coddington magnifying instruments
        Colorimeters (optical instruments)
        Contour projectors
        Correctors:   percentage,  wind,  roll (sighting  and
           fire control equipment)
        Coulometric analyzers, except industrial process
           type
        Dyna-lens
        Electron paramagnetic spin type apparatus
        Electrophoresis equipment
        Fiber optical devices
        Fuse setters (fire  control equipment)
        Glasses,  field or opera
        Gratings, diffraction
        Gun sights,  optical
        Interferometers
        Laboratory analysis instruments,  optical
        Lens coating
        Lens grinding,  except ophthalmic
        Lens mounts
        Lenses, optical:  photographic, magnifying, projection,
           and instrument
        Light sources,  standard
        Lupes magnifying instruments,  optical
        Magnifying instruments,  optical
        Metallographs
        Meteorological instruments,  optical
        Microprobes,  electron
        Microprojectors
        Microscopes,  escept corneal
                                 3-835

-------
                               DRAFT
        Mirrors, optical
        Nephelometers
        Nuclear magnetic resonance" type apparatus
        Optical comparators
        Optical elements and assemblies, except ophthalmic
        Optical measuring instruments
        Perimeters (optical instruments)
        Periscopes
        Ph meters
        Photometers
        Photomicrographic apparatus
        Phototheodolites
        Polariscopes
        Polarizers
        Prisms, optical
        Reflectors, optical
        Reflectoscopes
        Refractometers, except industrial process type
        Searchlight mirrors and reflectors
        Sighting and fire control equipment, optical
        Specific ion measuring instruments
        Spectrographs
        Spectrometers and spectroscopes, optical instruments
        Spyglasses
        Telescopes:  elbow, panoramic, sighting,
           fire control, etc.
        Titrometers
        Triplet magnifying instruments, optical
        Turbidometers

Optical Instruments and Lenses are produced by 482 plants, averaging
38 workers each.  Most of these plants  (72 percent)  employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-156.
As shown in Figure 3-326, 78 percent of the production value is for
analytical, optical,  and scientific instruments and 22 percent is
for miscellaneous sighting and fire control systems.  Mill shapes
of steel and aluminum are the major raw materials.  The principal
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal, material
forming of the raw materials, and molding and forming (non-metals).

In general,, Optical Instruments are made by fabricating a housing
or other supporting structure to hold the optical elements which
are ground and polished prior to installation in the housing.
Process water, which constitutes 3 percent of the gross water used
                                 3-836

-------
                               DRAFT
by the industry, is used mainly for plating and  cleaning of the
metal parts, and as a suspension medium for grinding  and polishing
compounds in making lenses.

The manufacture of binoculars (Figure 3-327)  is  representative of the
optical instruments and lens industry.   Standard commercial prismatic
binoculars are generally manufactured with  molded plastic cases and
glass lenses.  The various portions of the  case  are slush molded.
The individual pieces are then deburred and lens and  prism mounting
areas are machined for a precise fit.   The  lenses and prisms are
then ground, polished and mounted in the case.   After installation
and adjustment of the lens,  the lens retainers are installed and final
adjustments are made in the  optic system.   Lens  covers are then in-
stalled to complete the binoculars.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Optical instruments and lenses
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      136


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      346


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 18,100


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $375.7   MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $525.3   MILLION
                                                                     *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS                33


        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             67


        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                 0


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION             0


        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     67


        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS      0


        7 MATERIAL COATING                         67
                                                                  *>

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                   0


        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS            0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           3.8     BILLION GALLONS

                                   14.383   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             10.53

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            89.47

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        83.3

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             2.63
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         10.53


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED              25 . 0
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 ",=•-• eel on Plant Oa-:a Collected
                                 TABLE  3-156

                                     3-838

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Surgical and Medical Instruments and Apparatus

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
medical, surgical, ophthalmic, and veterinary instruments and apparatus
The principal products are:

        Anesthesia apparatus
        Auriscopes
        Biopsy instruments and equipment
        Blood pressure apparatus
        Blood transfusion equipment
        Bone drills
        Bone plates and screws
        Bone rongeurs
        Bronchoscopes
        Cannulae
        Catheters
        Clamps, surgical
        Corneal microscopes
        Cystoscopes
        Diagnostic apparatus,  physicians'
        Eye examining instruments and apparatus
        Fixation appliances, internal
        Forceps, surgical
        Gastroscopes
        Hemodialysis apparatus
        Holders, surgical needle
        Hypodermic needles and syringes
        Inhalation therapy equipment
        Inhalators, surgical and medical
        Instruments and apparatus:   medical,
           surgical, ophthalmic,  and veterinary
        IV transfusion apparatus
        Knives, surgical
        Metabolism apparatus
        Muscle exercise apparatus,  ophthalmic
        Needle holders, surgical
        Needles, suture
        Operating tables
        Ophthalmic instruments and  apparatus
        Ophthalmometers and Ophthalmoscopes
        Optometers
        Otoscopes
        Oxygen tents
        Peivimeters
        Physiotherapy equipment,  electrical

-------
                              DRAFT
        Probes, surgical
        Retractors
        Rifles for propelling hypodermics into
           animals
        Retinoscopes
        Saws, surgical
        Skin grafting equipment
        Slit lamps (ophthalmic goods)
        Speculums
        Sphygmomanome te r s
        Stethoscopes and stethographs
        Suction therapy apparatus
        Surgical instruments and apparatus
        Surgical knife blades and handles
        Tonometers, medical
        Trocars
        Ultrasonic medical equipment
        Veterinarians' instruments and apparatus

Surgical and medical instruments are produced by 487 plants,
averaging 66 workers each.  Most of these plants (61 percent)
employ less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are
shown in Table 3-157.  As shown in Figure 3-328, surgical instru-
ments and hypodermic syringes constitute 40 percent of the pro-
duction and hospital furniture about 11 percent.  Raw materials
inclxide metal mill forms, plastics, and fabrics.  The principal
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal, molding
and forming and material coating.

In general, surgical and medical instruments are made by metal work-
ing operations, such as turning, drawing and grinding to form and
finish the raw stock into the desired surgical instrument.  Process
water is used mainly for plating, cleaning, and sterilization of
the products.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the
surgical and medical instruments industry, no single product can
be considered typical.  However, the manufacture of medical scissors
(Figure 3-329) and operating tables (Figure 3-330)  illustrate many
of the manufacturing processes used in this industry.  Scissors for
medical purposes are stamped from stainless steel sheet stock.  The
mating halves are then ground, buffed, and formed.   One half section
is drilled and tapped, while the other is clearance drilled for a
mounting screw.  The halves are assembled using a machine screw and

-------
                               DRAFT
the scissors are then cleaned.

Operating room furniture,  such  as an operating table, is made of
heavy gauge metal for stability.  The base is cast and machined at
the mounting surfaces and  at  the junction of the base and bed
sections.  The upper bed portion is die cast, machined at the mount-
ing interface, and buffed.  Cross braces are welded to the base and
a sheet plate is welded to the  braces as a platform for the mattress,
Holes are then drilled and tapped for control levers, if required,
to rotate or otherwise change the position of the bed.  The bed
assembly is completed by plating, and cleaning.
                                  3-843

-------
                                 DRAFT





PRODUCTION DATA  Surgical and Medical  Instruments  and Apparatus





   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       192


                              WITH LESS THAN 30 EMPLOYEES       295

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 31,900

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $583.6      MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $902.7      MILLION


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING  VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            33

        3 MATERIAL FORMING — METALS               33


        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION            0

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     33

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   33

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         33
                                                                     «•

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE              NA  BILLION GALLONS

                                        NA  BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA



WASTE WATER




   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                                . ^ on Piant L:i,   Collected

                                  TABLE  3-K-7
                                      3-844

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                             DRAFT
Orthopedic,  Prosthetic/  and Surgical Appliances and Supplies

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
orthopedic,  prosthetic,  and surgical appliances and supplies,  arch
supports, and other foot appliances; fracture appliances, elastic
hosiery, abdominal supporters,  braces,  and trusses; bandages;  surgical
gauze and dressings;  sutures;  adhesive  tapes and medicated plasters;
and personal safety appliances  and equipment.  The principal products
are:

        Abdominal supporters,  braces, and trusses
        Absorbent cotton,  sterilized
        Adhesive tape and  plasters,  medicated or non-
          medicated
        Applicators,  cotton tipped
        Atomizers, medical
        Autoclaves, hospital and surgical
        Bandages and  dressings,  surgical  and orthopedic
        Bandages:   plastic, muslin,  plaster of paris, etc.
        Belts:   sanitary,  surgical,  and corrective
        Braces,  elastic
        Braces,  orthopedic
        Bulletproof vests
        Canes, orthopedic
        Cervical collars
        Clothing,  fire resistant and protective
        Colostomy appliances
        Corn remover  pads, bunion pads, etc.
        Corsets, surgical
        Cosmetic restorations
        Cotton,  absorbent:  sterilized
        Cotton,  including  cotton balls, sterile and nonsterile
        Crutches and  walkers
        Drapes,  surgical:   cotton
        Dressings,  surgical
        Ear  stoppers
        Elastic  hosiery, orthopedic
        Extension  shoes, orthopedic
        First aid,  snake bite, and burn kits
        Foot appliances, orthopedic
        Fracture appliances, surgical
        Gas  masks
        Gauze, surgical:   not made in weaving mills
        Grafts,  artificial:  for surgery  -  made of braided
          or mesh artificial fibers
                                3-848

-------
                       DRAFT
Gynecological supplies and appliances
Hearing aids
Helmets,  space
Hosiery,  support
Hydrotherapy equipment
Infant incubators
Intra-uterine devices
Iron lungs
Life preservers, except cork and inflatable
Ligatures, medical
Limbs, artificial
Linemen's safety belts
Models, anatomical
Noise protectors, personal
Orthopedic devices and material
Pads, incontinent and bed
Personal  safety appliances and equipment
Plugs, ear and nose
Prosthetic appliances and supplies
Radiation shielding aprons, gloves, sheeting, etc,
Respirators
Respiratory protection equipment, personal
Restraints, patient
Safety appliances and equipment, personal
Safety gloves, all materials
Socks, stump
Space suits
Splints, pneumatic and wood
Sponges, surgical
Sterilizers, hospital and surgical
Stockinette, surgical
Stretchers
Suits, firefighting:  asbestos
Supports:  abdominal, ankle,  arch, kneecap, etc.
Surgical appliances and supplies, except medical
   instruments
Suspensories
Sutures, absorbable and nonabsorbable
Swabs, sanitary cotton
Tongue depressors
Traction apparatus
Trusses:  orthopedic and surgical
Welders' hoods
Wheelchairs
Whirlpool baths,  hydrotherapy equipment

-------
                               DRAFT
personal fitting to the individual prescription of a physician are
classified in trade industries.

Surgical Appliances and Supplies are produced by .861 plants, averaging
50 workers each.  Most of these plants (71 percent) employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-158.  As
shown in Figure 3-331, the largest product group in this industry is
surgical, orthopedic, and prosthetic supplies with 69 percent of the
shipment value.  Industrial safety devices follow with 20 percent.
The major reported raw materials are cotton fabric and cotton linters.
The principal manufacturing operations are material forming and
assembly of fabric into final configurations, such as surgical corsets,
dressings, etc.; and casting and molding and material forming of metal
to produce artificial limbs, and other surgical and special devices
which involve metal structures.

In general, surgical supplies are made by suitably forming the
component parts of the appliance and joining these parts to form the
finished product.   Frequently, sterilization of the product is per-
formed at some stage or manufacture, such as with surgical dressings.
Process water, which constitutes 24 percent of the gross water used
by the industry, is used mainly for sterilization of the finished
products in producing fiber supplies and in the plating and cleaning
of metal products.
                                                         *
Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the
surgical appliances and supplies industry, no single product can
be considered typical.  However, the manufacture of arch supports
and surgical corsets are good examples of the type of manufacturing
processes used in this industry.  Arch supports are produced in
many ways, and two of these are shown in Figure 3-332.  Commercially
available arch supports are made by stamping a metal pattern from a
sheet of stainless steel and forming this pattern on a last, and
drilling holes for attaching a soft pad cut from a foam plastic or
rubber sheet.   The foam may also be glued to the metal form.  The
edges of the steel brace are then ground smooth and buffed to remove
sharp edges.

Custom made arch supports are most commonly made by molding a thermo-
plastic over a plaster mold of the foot.   The plastic/ when set, is
ground to conform to the shoe and any sharp edges are removed that
would otherwise annoy the foot.

Surgical corsets (Figure 3-333) are made by cutting cotton or other
fabric to a pattern and joining the pattern pieces by sewing.  Re-
inforcement of the corset is achieved by cutting some pattern pieces
at different orientations to the fabric weave, and sewing over the
basic pieces to control the "give" of the sewn corset.

-------
                                 DRAFT
                  Orthopedic,  Prosthetic,  and  Surgical Appliances
PRODUCTION DATA   and supplies
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       249


                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       612


   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 43,400


   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $933.2   MILLION


   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1444.9   MILLION
                                                                    *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,


        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                0


        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100


        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               50


        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          50


        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   1QO


        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100


        7 MATERIAL COATING                        50


        8  ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0


        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          50
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          3.4     BILLION GALLONS


                                   12.869   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            58.82


   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            41.18


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        46.15


   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           23.53
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE


   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
55.88


    0
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE  3-158

                                      3-851

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Dental Equipment and Supplies

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturer
artificial teeth,  dental metals,  alloys and amalgams,  and a  wide
variety of equipment, instruments,  and supplies used by dentists,
dental laboratories, and dental colleges.   The major products  are:

        Abrasive points, wheels,  and disks:
           dental
        Autoclaves,  dental
        Broaches,  dental
        Burs,  dental
        Cabinets,  dental
        Cement,  dental
        Chairs,  dentists'
        Compounds, dental
        Cutting  instruments,  dental
        Glue,  dental
        Gold,  dental
        Hand pieces  and  parts,  dental
        Impression material,  dental
        Investment material,  dental
        Orthodontic  appliances
        Plaster, dental
        Dental alloys for  amalgams
        Dental engines
        Dental equipment and  supplies
        Dental laboratory  equipment
        Dental metal
        Denture  materials
        Drills,  dental
        Enamels, dentists'
        Forceps, dental
        Furnaces, laboratory:   dental
        Pliers,  dental
        Sterilizers,  dental
        Teeth, artificial:  not made in dental
           laboratories
        Tools, dentists'
        Ultrasonic dental  equipment
        Wax, dental

-------
                               DRAFT
Dental equipment and supplies are produced by 427  plants,  averaging
29 workers each.  Most of these plants  (75 percent)  employ less  than
20 workers.  Additional production-data are shown  in Table 3-159.   As
shown in Figure 3-334, production is evenly divided  between dental
supplies and dental equipment.  Raw  materials are  primarily metal
stock, plastics and ceramics.  The principal manufacturing operations
involve mechanical material removal, molding and forming (non-metals),
and material coating.

In general, metal dental equipment and  supplies  are  made by metal  work-
ing operations, including turning, drawing, grinding,  heat treating,
and plating.  Chemical preparation of amalgam (filling)  and porcelain
compounds are also included in this  industry. Process water is  used
mainly for plating, cleaning, and rinsing operations.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used  in the dental
equipment supplies industry, no single  product can be  considered
typical.  However, the manufacture of dental hand  instruments
(Figure 3-335) illustrates the manufacturing processes used in this
industry.  Dental hand instruments are  made of stainless steel which
is drawn, formed, knurled, turned, bent,  and forged  to form the  re-
quired shape.  After the instrument  has been formed, it  is buffed  to
remove any sharp burrs.  Then the manufacturers  trademark  or name  is
stamped onto the shank of the tool which is next cleaned to remove
oil and contaminants.
                                   3-856

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Dental  Equipment and Supplies
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
                         WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
                                                            105
                                                            322
                                                         12,300
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE         $259.7    MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $402.4    MILLION
                                                               *
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
     1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS               NA
     2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            NA
     3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               NA
     4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           NA
     5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    NA
     6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    NA
     7  MATERIAL COATING                        NA
     8  ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                NA
     9  MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS           NA
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             NA   BILLION GALLONS
                                      NA   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
  DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
  PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
  NA  NOT
                                            * BASED ON PLANT DATA COLLECTED
                                  B,/£ 3-159

-------
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                               DRAFT
 Ophthalmic Goods

 This  segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
 ophthalmic frames/ lenses, and sunglass lenses.  The principal products
 are:

        Contact lenses
        Eyeglasses, lenses, and frames
        Eyes, glass and plastic
        Frames and parts, eyeglass and spectacle
        Glasses, sun or glare
        Goggles:  sun, safety, industrial, underwater, etc.
        Lens grinding, ophthalmic
        Lenses, ophthalmic
        Lorgnettes
        Magnifiers (readers and simple magnifiers)
        Mountings, eyeglass and spectacle
        Optical grinding service for the trade
        Protectors, eye
        Spectacles
        Temples and fronts, ophthalmic

Ophthalmic goods are produced by 502 plants, averaging 52 workers
each.  Most of these plants (79 percent)  employ less than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-160,.  The
primary products are eyeglasses and sunglasses, including frames.
Also included are industrial goggles and eye protectors.   Figure
3-336 shows the quantity and dollar value of products in this
industry.   Glass blanks for lenses and metal and/or plastic for
the frames constitute the major raw materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are mechanical material removal in forming the
glass lenses and material forming with subsequent chemical process-
ing are used in making metal frames.   Plastic frames are made using
injection molding techniques.

In general eyeglass lenses are made by grinding glass lens blanks
using an emery slurry, then rinsing them,  polishing them with a
polishing compound (typically a metallic  oxide compound).   This is
followed by another rinsing and finally edging with a grinding
wheel.  Process water, which constitutes  8 percent of the gross
water used, by the industry, is used mainly as a suspension medium
for the grinding and polishing compounds  in lens manufacture.  It
is also used for plating rinses in the manufacture of metal rims.

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of eyeglass lenses and frames  is  representative of
the ophthalmic goods industry.   A typical operation  for making eye-
glass lenses and frames is shown in Figure 3-337.  The  glass  blanks
are first ground using an emery slurry,  then rinsed.  Next  a  polish-
ing operation is performed using a metallic oxide compound.   This is
followed by a second rinse.  The blank is then edged on a grinding
wheel to obtain a smooth, even  edge on the lens.

Plastic eyeglass frames are generally made by  injection molding of
plastic formulations.  The molded members are  polished, and then
assembled with hinge hardware,  etc.

Metal frames are fabricated from sheet stock by stamping and  bending
operations.  The formed sections are then assembled  using spot weld-
ing and riveting.  Following assembly,  the metal  is  electro finished
using any of several techniques such as  plating or anodizing.  Plastic
accessories, such as nose rests and ear  pads,  may be  added after sur-
face finishing.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Ophthalmic Goods
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       104




                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       398




   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  26 , 300




   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $395.8    MILLION




   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $567.9    MILLION




   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,




        1  CASTING & MOLDING — METALS                 0




        2  MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            100




        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                33




        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           67




        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     67




        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    33




        7  MATERIAL COATING                         33




        8  ORE PROCESSING 8r REFINING                  0




        9  MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS           33
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          10.6    BILLION GALLONS




                                    40.121  BILLION LITERS



   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            82.08




   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           17.92




   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        71.43




   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            7 . 55
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       82.08




   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA NOT AVAILABLE                             *Based on Plant Data Collected



                                 TABLE 3-160



                                      3-862

-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Photographic Equipment and Supplies

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturir
(1) photographic apparatus, equipment,  parts,  attachments/ and
accessories, such as still and motion picture  cameras and projection
apparatus; photocopy and microfilm equipment;  blueprinting and dia-
zotype (white printing)  apparatus and equipment;  and other photo-
graphic equipment; and (2) sensitized film,  paper,  cloth, and plates,
and prepared photographic chemicals for use  therewith.  Specific
products include:

        Aerial cameras
        Blueprint cloth  or paper, sensitized
        Blueprint reproduction machines and
           equipment
        Brownprint paper and cloth, sensitized
        Brownprint reproduction machines and
           equipment
        Cabinets, cassette film transfer
        Cameras, microfilm
        Cameras, still and motion picture:   all
           types
        Densitometers
        Developers, prepared photographic:   not
           made in chemical plants
        Developing machines and equipment,
           still or motion picture
        Diazo (whiteprint) paper and cloth,
           sensitized
        Diazotype (whiteprint)  reproduction
           machines and  equipment
        Driers,  photographic
        Editing equipment, motion picture:   re-
           winds, viewers, titlers, splicers
        Enlargers, photographic
        Exposure meters,  photographic
        Film,  sensitized:   motion picture, X-
           ray,  still camera,  and special purpose
        Fixers,  prepared  photographic:   not
           made in chemical plants
        Flashlight apparatus for photographers,
           except bulbs
        Graphic arts plates,  sensitized
        Hangers:  pnotographic  film,  plate,  and
           paper
        Heat sensitized paper made from pur-
           chased paper

-------
                       DRAFT
Holders:  photographic film, plate, and
   paper
Lantern slide plates, sensitized
Lens  shades, camera
Light meters, photographic
Metallic emulsion sensitized paper and
   cloth, photographic
Microfilm equipment:  cameras, pro-
   jectors, readers, etc.
Motion picture apparatus and equipment
Motion picture film
Photo reconnaissance systems
Photo equipment, all types
Photocopy machines
Photoflash equipment, except lamps
Photographic chemicals, prepared:  not
   made in chemical plants
Photographic equipment and accessories
Photographic instruments, electronic
Photographic paper and cloth, sensitized;
   all types
Photographic sensitized goods
Plates, photographic:  sensitized
Printing equipment, photographic
Printing frames, photographic
Processing equipment, photographic
Projectors, still and motion picture:
   silent and sound
Range finders, photographic
Reels, film
Screens, projection
Sensitometers, photographic
Shutters, camera
Sound:  recording and reproducing
   equipment, motion picture
Stands, camera and projector
Stereopticons
Tanks:  photographic developing,  fix-
   ing, and washing
Toners, prepared photographic:   not
   made in chemical plants
Trays, photographic printing and proc-
   essing
Tripods, camera and projector
Washers, photographic print and film
X-ray film
X-ray plates, sensitized
                         3-866

-------
                               DRAFT
Photographic equipment and supplies are produced by 616 plants,
averaging 152 workers each.  Most of these plants  (63 percent)
employ less than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-161.  As shown in Figure 3-338, about 50 percent of the
production is in the area of cameras and equipment, and 50 percent
in the photosensitized material category.  A wide range of raw
materials are used in this industry, with details shown in the pro-
duction data in Figure 3-338.  The principal manufacturing operations
are chemical processing of film, plastic molding and assembly in the
making of cameras and, mechanical material removal, material forming
(metals) in the manufacture of photographic equipment, such as pro-
jectors, cameras, etc.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the photo-
graphic equipment industry.  This is so mainly because of the differ-
ing raw materials, shown in Figure 3-339, and due to the diversity of
products in this industry.  Chemical processes are involved in making
film, while plastic molding, metalworking, and lens grinding is in-
volved in making cameras.  Process water, which constitutes 12 percent
of the gross water used by the industry, is used mainly for the process
ing of film emulsions and other photosensitized materials, and for
plating and cleaning in the making of cameras.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the photo-
graphic industry, no single product can be considered typical.  However
the manufacture of negative film and cameras are good examples of the
type of manufacturing processes used in this product area.  These manu-
facturing processes are illustrated in Figures 3-339 and 3-340.
Referring to Figure 3-339, film is made by preparing an emulsion of
silver salts, gelatine, and other special purpose chemicals which is
then spread in a thin uniform layer on a clear acetate or other plastic
base.  The negative film is then dried and packaged in a variety of
configurations, e.g.  sheet, cartridge, roll, etc.

The manufacturing of a camera is a good example of the manufacture of
photographic apparatus (Figure 3-340).  In the case of a pocket
type camera (chosen because of the high volume of sales)  plastic parts
such as the case, lens, lens cover, etc. are injection molded.  Metal
parts, for the shutter, battery contacts, etc. are stamped and formed
to the desired configurations.  The parts are then assembled to form
the completed camera.

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Photographic Equipment and Supplies
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      227

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      389

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 93,500

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE      $4053.2       MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS               $5534.9       MILLION
                                                                    *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              25

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           25

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              25

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          25

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                   25

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   25

        7 MATERIAL COATING                       75
                                                                  «•
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         86       BILLION GALLONS

                                  325.51   BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            21.05

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           78.95

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        84.62

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          12 . 09
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE      NA

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
   NA NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-161


                                     3-868

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                               DRAFT
Watches/ Clocks, Clockwork Operated Devices, and Parts

This  segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
clocks  (including electric), watches, watchcases, mechanisms for
clockwork operated devices, and clock and watch parts.  This industry
includes establishments primarily engaged in assembling clocks and
watches from purchased movements and cases.  Principal products are:

        Appliance timers
        Chronographs, spring wound
        Chronometers, spring wound
        Clock materials and parts, except crystals and jewels
        Clocks, assembling of
        Clocks, including electric
        Mechanisms for clockwork operated devices
        Movements, watch or clock
        Timers for industrial use, clockwork mechanism only
        Watchcases
        Watches and parts:  except crystals and jewels

Watches, clocks and watchcases are produced by 202 plants,  averaging
157 workers each.   About half of these plants (49 percent)  employ
more than 20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table
3-162.  As shown in Figure 3-341, the largest product group is clocks,
with a production of over 24 million, followed by watches «(with im-
ported movements)  with over 9 million units.  Timing motors, watch-
cases and watch movements are the major raw materials.  The principal
manufacturing operations are mechanical material removal and material
forming on watch and clock parts, plastic molding operations, electro-
chemical processing and assembly operations.

In general,  clocks and watches are made by assembly of precision
mechanical parts into a metal or plastic case that is then  equipped
with a face and clear cover.   Process water, which constitutes 67
percent of the gross water used by the industry,  is used mainly for
plating, machining and cleaning operations.

The manufacture of clocks is representative of the watch and clock
industry.   Figure  3-342 descibes the manufacturing operation for
clocks.  The plastic case and accessory plastic parts are generally
injection molded.   The various timing gears for the clock movement
are produced by stamping (for the larger gears)  and by extrusion and
                                 3-872

-------
                               DRAFT
cutting (for the small, thick gears).   Grinding, deburring and
cleaning of the gears precedes assembly.   The  frame members  for
the movement are formed by stamping,  blanking  and  bending oper-
ations.  Holes are drilled and tapped,  and bushings installed
where required.  The movement is then assembled, and a timing
motor  (manufactured in-house or purchased)  is  installed.  The
movement is then inserted in the case along with the face and
fastened to the case.  Hands, which may be stamped or formed,
are fastened to the movement.  A clear  plastic lens and bezel
assembly is installed completing the  clock.  The clock is in-
spected and packaged for shipment.

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Watches,  clocks,  and watchcases
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      99



                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     103



   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                31,700



   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          §506.9    MILLION



   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $995.2    MILLION
                                                                     *


   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,



        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0



        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100



        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              100



        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          100



        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100.



        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS   100



        7 MATERIAL COATING                          0



        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0



        9 MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS            n
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           2.7    BILLION GALLONS



                                    10.22   BILLION LITERS


   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         81



   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        19



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER     75



   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       67
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE   81



   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED        NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                  *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                  TABLE 3-162



                                       3-874

-------
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                              DRAFT
Jewelry, Precious Metal

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged ir. rar.ufactur:
jewelry and other articles worn on or carried about the person,  made
of precious metals with or without stones (including the setting of
stones where used), including cigarette cases and lighters,  vanity
cases and compacts; trimmings for umbrellas  and canes; and jewel
settings and mountings.  The major products  are:

        Cases,  cigar, cigarette,  vanity - pre-
           cious metal
        Cigar lighters, precious  metal
        Cigaretle lighters,  precious metal
        Collar  buttons, precious  metal and pre-
           cious or semiprecious  stones
        Compacts, precious metal
        Cuff buttons, precious metal and pre-
           cious or semiprecious  stones
        Handbags, precious metal
        Handles, umbrella and parasol:  gold
           and  silver
        Jewel settings and mountings,  precious
           metal
        Jewelry, made of precious metal or precious
           or semiprecious stones
        Jewelry polishing for the trade
        Jewelry soldering, for the trade
        Medals, of precious  or semiprecious  metals
        Mountings, gold and  silver:   for pens,
           leather goods, umbrellas, etc.
        Pins, precious metal
        Rings,  precious me^al
        Rosaries and other small  religious articles,
           precious metal
        Shirt studs, precious metal  and precious  or
           semiprecious stones
        Trimmings for canes, umbrellas, etc.  -
           precious metal
        Watchbands, precious metal

-------
                               DRAFT
Precious metal jewelry is produced by 1502 plants/ averaging 21
workers each.  Most of these plants- (80 percent)  employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-163.
As shown in Figure 3-343, the production value of this industry
was $960 million in 1972.  Gold, silver, platinum and solder pre-
forms are the major raw materials used to produce rings, necklaces,
brooches, and other jewelry items.

The principal manufacturing operations are material forming, physical
property modification, mechanical material removal, and assembly oper-
ations.  In addition, casting is used to obtain intricate patterns
in large items such as class rings.

In general, jewelry is made by forming the basic  raw materials into
the desired configurations by casting or other means.  Then, a sur-
face treatment such as a precious metal plating is applied.   Process
water is used mainly for cleaning prior to and after surface treat-
ments .

The manufacture of a gold class ring (Figure 3-344) is represen-
tative of the precious metal jewelry industry. A gold (alloy)  is
melted and poured into a mold to form the crown of the ring.  Once
the gold has set, the crown is removed from the mold, deburred and
polished.  The surface is then chemically cleaned using a sulfuric
acid pickling solution to remove the black compound formed *on the
ring's surface during casting.  A loop is formed  around an arbor
and then gold soldered to the crown.   A stone is  then set into the
crown.

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Jewelry, Precious Metal
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      303
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     1199
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                31, 700
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $166.6      MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                 $327.3      MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        I CASTING & MOLDING - METALS              86
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           71
        3  MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              71
        4  PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          43
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  100
        7  MATERIAL COATING                       28
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                0
        9  MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS          14
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE           NA    BILLION GALLONS
                                    NA    BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       NA
   PERCENT OF UNCHARGED WATER TREATED           NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                               *Based DP. Plant Data  Collected
                                TABLE 3-t63

-------
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                               DRAFT
 Silverware/ Plated Ware/ and Stainless Steel Ware

 This  segment  includes establishmeats primarily engaged in manufacturing
 flatware  (including knives, forks, and spoons), hollow ware, toilet
 ware,  ecclesiastical ware, and related products made of sterling
 silver; of metal plates with silver, gold, or other metal; of nickel
 silver; of pewter; or of stainless steel.  The major products are:

        Carving sets:  silver, nickel silver, and
           stainless steel (all metal)
        Cutlery:  silver, nickel silver, stainless steel,
           and plated (all metal)
        Ecclesiastical ware:  silver, nickel silver, pewter,
           and plated
        Flatware:  silver, nickel silver, pewter, stainless
           steel, and plated
        Hollow ware:  silver, nickel silver, pewter, stainless
           steel, and plated
        Loving cups:  silver, nickel silver, pewter, and
           plated
        Silversmithing
        Silverware:  nickel silver, silver plated, solid
           silver, and sterling
        Table and kitchen cutlery:  silver, silver plated,
           and stainless steel
        Toilet ware:  silver, nickel silver, pewter, and  *
           plated
        Trays:  silver,  nickel silver, pewter,  stainless
           steel,  and plated
        Trophies:   silver,  nickel silver, pewter, and
           plated

Silverware and plated ware are produced by 205  plants,  averaging
61 workers each.   Most of these plants (65 percent)  employ less
than 20 workers.   Additional  production data are shown  in Table
3-164.  The major raw materials,  as shown in Figure  3-345, are
steel, copper and precious  metals.   The principal manufacturing
operations are mechanical material removal, material forming and
electrochemical processing.

In general,  silverware is made by forming the base metal to the
desired shape by stamping and forming sheet steel and then finish-
ing the metal surface by  plating.   Process water,  which constitutes
12 percent of the  gross water used by the industry,  is  used mainly
for plating and cleaning.
                                 3-882

-------
                               DRAFT
The manufacture of sterling  silver plated knives  (Figure 3-346)
is representative of the  silverware industry.  The blade is first
stamped from stainless  steel sheet to the desired configuration.
It is then ground to produce a  cutting edge and deburred, if
necessary.  The handle  is extruded from a silver alloy, such as
nickel silver,  to form  a  hollow shell.  One end is closed, while
the other has a slit for  the blade.  The handle is polished and
then silver plated and  the blade  is inserted and silver soldered.
Finally, the whole knife  is  polished.
                                3-883

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Silverware, Plated Ware, and Stainless Steel Ware
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      71

                             WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     134
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                12,600

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $199.2   MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $366.3   MILLION

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING-METALS              100
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL           100
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               50

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           50
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    50
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    50

        7 MATERIAL COATING                         0

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           Q
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          5.2
                                  19.682
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
BILLION GALLONS
BILLION LITERS
       92.31
        7.69
       44.44
       11.54
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        75

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED             NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3—164
                                     3-884

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                               DRAFT
Jewelers' Findings and Materials/ and Lapidary Work

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufactur
unassembled jewelry parts, and stock shop products such as sheet,
wire, and tubing; and establishments of lapidaries primarily en-
gaged in cutting, slabbing, tumbling, carving, engraving, polish-
ing, or faceting stones from natural or man-made precious or semi-
precious gem raw materials, either for sale or on a contract basis
for the trade; in recutting, repolishing, and setting gem stones;
or in cutting, drilling, and otherwise preparing jewels for instru-
ments, dies, watches, chronometers, and other industrial uses.  This
industry includes the drilling, sawing, and peeling of real or
cultured pearls, but does not include the manufacture of artificial
pearls.  The major products are:

        Diamond cutting and polishing
        Diamond points for phonograph needles
        Jewel bearings, synthetic
        Jewel cutting, drilling, polishing, re-
           cutting, or setting
        Jewel preparing:  for instruments, tools, watches,
           and jewelry
        Jewelers' findings and materials
        Jewelry parts, unassembled
        Lapidary work, contract and other
        Pearls, drilling of
        Pin stems (jewelry findings)
        Stones:  preparation of real and imitation gems
           for settings

Jewelers materials are produced by 563 plants, averaging 14 workers
each.  Most of these plants (85 percent)  employ less than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-165.  As shown
in Figure 3-347, products in this category are about evenly divided
in dollar value between jewelers findings and lapidary work.
Precious and semi-precious metals and precious and semi-precious
gems are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing oper-
ations are material forming and mechanical material removal.

In general,  jewelers findings are made by stamping and forming metal
stock intotdesired shapes.   Once the required shape is obtained, part
are usually finish plated and polished.   If a gem is added,  it is
usually applied with an adhesive after polishing.  Process water
is used mainly for cleaning following some forming and plating
operations.

-------
                              DRAFT
The manufacture  of  a  jewelry chain  (Figure 3-348)  is representative
of the jewelers  findings  industry.  The chain is generally made  from
sheet metal by stamping and forming to shape the links,  or it is
made from wire which  is cut and twisted into links.   The links are
made into a continuous chain and then soldered or brazed at the
junctions.  The chain is  then plated with a finish metal and polish-
ed for luster.
                                     3-888

-------
                               DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  jewelers' materials & lapidary work
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     87
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES    476
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                7,900
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $121.4  MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                   $322.8  MILLION
                                                                  i
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTINGS MOLDING-METALS               50
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL       ^     50
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS              100
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION          50
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS          '        100
        6  CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS  10°
        7 MATERIAL COATING                        0
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                 tf
        9 MOLDING & FORMING- NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            NA   BILLION GALLONS
                                     NA   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        NA
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                              *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE 3-165
                                    3-88Q

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Musical Instruments

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
pianos, with or without player attachments; organs; other musical
instruments; and parts and accessories for musical instruments.  The
major products are:

        Accordions and parts
        Autophones (organs with perforated
           music rolls)
        Banjos and parts
        Bassoons
        Bells (musical instruments)
        Blowers, pipe organ
        Bugles and parts  (musical instruments)
        Calliopes  (steam organs)
        Carillon bells
        Cellos and parts
        Chimes and parts  (musical instruments)
        Clarinets and parts
        Concertinas and parts
        Cornets and parts
        Cymbals and parts
        Drummers'  traps
        Drums, parts, and accessories (musical
           instruments)
        Flutes and parts
        Guitars and parts, electric and non-
           electric
        Harmonicas
        Harps and parts
        Harpsichords
        Heads, banjo and drum
        Mandolins and parts
        Marimbas
        Mouthpieces for musical instruments
        Music rolls, perforated
        Music stands
        Musical instrument accessories:   reeds,
           mouthpieces, stands, traps, etc.
        Obpes
        Ocarinas
        Octophones
        Organ parts and materials, except
           organ hardware
        Organs, all types:  pipe, reed,  hand,
           street, barrel, electronic, player
                                 3-892

-------
                               DRAFT
        Piano parts and materials, except piano
           hardware
        Pianos, all types:  vertical, grand,
           spinet, player, coin-operated, etc.
        Piccolos and parts
        Saxophones and parts
        Stringed musical instruments and parts
        Strings, musical instrument
        Trombones and parts
        Trumpets and parts
        Ukeleles and parts
        Vibraphones
        Violins and parts
        Xylophones and parts
        Zithers and parts

Musical instruments are produced by 340 plants, averaging 71 work-
ers each.  Most of these plants (68 percent) employ less than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-166.  As
shown in Figure 3-349 the yearly production value of musical in-
struments is nearly $100,000,000.   A large variety of raw materials
are involved in this industry ranging from wood to precious metals.
The principal manufacturing operations are as varied as the musical
instruments produced.  For instance, pianos are primarily manu-
factured by woodworking whereas horns are fabricated by material
forming of brass tubing.

Process water, which constitutes about 16 percent of the gross water
used by the industry, is used mainly for plating operations, rinsing,
and as a lubricant in some metalworking operations.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the musical
instrument industry, no single product can be considered typical of
the manufacturing operations performed.  However, the manufacture of
pianos and trumpets are good examples.  As shown in the process flow
diagram of Figure 3-350, pianos are constructed primarily of wood,
with a cast iron string frame and steel strings.   The string frame,
after being cast, is machined as required for mounting to the sound-
ing board, and for proper insertion of the string tension adjustment
pins.  The remainder of the construction is primarily woodworking --
cutting, planing, gluing, bolting, etc.

The manufacturing of a trumpet, sho./n in Figure 3-351, is represen-
tative of the manufacturing of bra;-swind instruments in general.
The operation starts with a tube o4*" the base material, usually brass,
which is bent in sections to form the various pieces of the instrument
The valve housings, also made of tubing, are machined to a precision
inside dimension and drilled in appropriate locations for mounting to
the interconnecting tubing.  The '^rious tubing sections are then

-------
                               urtMr  i
brazed to the valves.   Another section of tubing is then drawn
and flared to form the bell of the trumpet,  and it is brazed to
the pipe section on the horn.  The entire instrument is then
plated and polished prior to insertion of the valve mechanisms,
which are machined and finished in a separate operation.
                                   3-894

-------
                               DfcAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Musical  Instruments
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      106
                            WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      232
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                 24,200
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE            $327.5  MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $607.2  MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERA71 ONS
        7 MATERIAL COATING
        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING
        9 MOLDING & FORMING — NON-METALS
 0
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 0
 0
 0
 0
 0
 0
 0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE         0.3     BILLION GALLONS
                                  1.1355  BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE             100
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE              NA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER         16.66
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            16
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
100
 NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                TABLE  3-166

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-------
                               DRAFT
Dolls

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacture
dolls, doll parts, and doll clothing.  Establishments primarily en-
gaged in manufacturing stuffed toy animals are also included in
this industry.  The major products are:

        Animals, stuffed:  toy
        Dolls, doll parts, and doll clothing
           except wigs
        Toys, stuffed

Dolls are produced by 243 plants, averaging 43 workers each.  Most
of these plants (57 percent)  employ less than 20 workers.  Addi-
tional production data are shown in Table 3-167.  As shown in Figure
3-352, the major raw materials include thermoplastics, fabrics,
paperboard containers and metal mill forms.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are plastic molding and assembly operations.

Ir general, dolls are made by molding and assembling plastic parts,
such as heads, arms, legs and trunks, into the finished doll.   This
type of manufacturing is essentially dry, however,  50% of the plants
contacted use process water and do not treat it.

The manufacture of dolls, Figure 3-353,  is representative of the doll
industry.  The various features of the doll, head,  arms, torso, etc.
are slush molded.   Specific color features for eyebrows, lips,  etc.
are hot stamped.  The plastic parts are  then machined, assembled and
the assembled doll is dressed and then packaged for sale.  Kair is
plastic and clothing is purchased either complete or as already
colored material to be made into clothing.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Dolls
                                                               105

                                                               138

                                                            10,400
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES

                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS

VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $  96.5     MILLION

VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $199.0     MILLION
                                                                  5
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING & MOLDING — METALS

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
                                               0

                                               0

                                               0

                                               0

                                               0
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        7 MATERIAL COATING

        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING

        9 MOLDING & FORMING-NON-METALS
                                               0

                                               0

                                               0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE            NA    BILLION GALLONS

                                      NA    BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE         NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
                                                  NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                 *Based on Plant Data Collected
                                 TABLE 3-167
                                     3-900

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-------
                              DRAFT
Games,  Toys, and Children's Vehicles; Except Dolls and Bicycles

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturim
games and game sets for adults and children, and mechanical and non-
mechanical toys.  Important products of this industry include:

        Air rifles, toy
        Airplanes, toy
        Automobiles and trucks, toys
        Automobiles, children's
        Banks, toy
        Baskets, toy
        Bells, toy
        Blocks, toy
        Books, toy:  picture and cutout
        Carriages, baby
        Cars, play  (children's vehicles)
        Craft and hobby kits and sets
        Cycles, sidewalk:  children's
        Dishes, toy
        Doll carriages and carts
        Drums, toy
        Engines, miniature
        Erector sets, toy
        Games for children and adults:   puzzles,
           bingo, marbles, poker chips, chess
        Gocarts, children's
        Guns, toy
        Hobbyhorses
        Horns, toy
        Kites
        Magic lanterns (toys)
        Models, toy and hobby:  airplane,  boat,
           ship, railroad equipment, etc.
        Musical instruments, toy
        Paint sets, children's
        Pistols, toy
        Poker chips
        Rocking horses
        Scooters, children's
        Sleds, children's
        Strollers, baby (vehicles)
        Structural toy sets
        Sulkies, baby (vehicles)
        Tenders, baby (vehicles)

-------
                              DRAFT
        Toys:  except dolls,  children's vehicles,
           and rubber toys
        Trains and equipment, toy:   electric and
           mechanical
        Tricycles
        Vehicles except bicycles, children's
        Velocipedes
        Wagons, children's:   coaster,  express,
           and play
        Walkers, baby (vehicles)

Games, toys and childrens vehicles are produced by 649 plants,
averaging 93 workers each.  Most of these plants (58 percent)
employ less than 20 workers.   Additional production data are shown
in Table 3-168.  As shown in Figure 3-354 metal mill shapes, plastics
fabrics and paperboard containers are  the major raw materials.   The
principal manufacturing operations are mechanical  material removal,
material forming, plastic molding,  and material coating.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing  processes are used in the game,
toys and children's vehicles industry.  This is so mainly because of
the differing raw materials  which are  shown in  Figure 3-355 and to
the diversity of finished products in  this category.  Process water,
which constitutes 7 percent  of the gross water  used by the industry,
is used mainly for plating and cleaning of metal parts.

Because of the diversity of  products and materials used in the games,
toys and children's vehicles industry, no single product can be con-
sidered typical.  However, the manufacture of wagons is a good ex-
anple of the manufacturing operations  performed in this industry.
The body of the wagon is stamped from  a piece of sheet metal stock,
then bent and formed to make the sides and lip  of  the body.  The
body is drilled to accept mounting hardware, then  cleaned and painted
Brackets for the wheels are  stamped, bent, formed, drilled and paint-
ed.  Steel tube or rod is cut to length to form axles.  The handle is
stamped, formed and rolled and then riveted to  the front wheel assemb!
Plastic wheels are molded, and nylon bushings inserted into the wheel
hub.  Assembly is most frequently left to the purchaser, so the final
production step is packaging of the individual  components.  Nuts,
bolts and sheet metal screws are used  in assembling a wagon.
                                 3-904

-------
                              DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  GaneE/  tcySi and children's vehicles
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     272
                           WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES     377
   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS               60,200
   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE        $ 947.7    MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                $1683.8    MILLION
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
        1 CASTING a MOLDING - METALS               0
        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL            0
        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS             IQO
        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           0
        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                  100
        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    o
        7 MATERIAL COATING                      ]_00
        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                0
        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           0
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE          i.s     BILLION GALLONS
                                  5.677   BILLION LITERS
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            60
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           40
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        62.5
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           6.66
WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE       60
   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
  NA  NOT AVAILABLE
*Based on Plant Data Collected
                               TABLE 3-168

-------
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-------
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-------
                              DRAFT
Sporting and Athletic Goods,  Not Elsewhere Classified

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
sporting and athletic goods,  not elsewhere classified, such as fish-
ing tackle;  golf and tennis goods;  baseball,  football, basketball,
and boxing equipment; roller skates and ice skates;  gymnasium and
playground equipment; billiard and  pool tables;  and  bowling alleys
and equipment.   The principal products are:

        Ammunition belts,  sporting  type:   of  all materials
        Archery equipment
        Arrows, archery
        Athletic and sporting goods:  except  clothing,
           firearms, and ammunition
        Badminton equipment
        Bait, fishing:  artificial
        Balls:   baseball,  basketball,  football,  golf,  tennis,
           pool, and bowling
        Baseball equipment and supplies,  except  uniforms
        Bases,  baseball
        Basketball equipment and supplies, except uniforms
        Baskets, fish and  bait
        Bats:  baseball, cricket, etc.
        Billiard and pool  balls,  cues,  cue tips, and tables
        Billiard chalk
        Boomerangs
        Bowling alleys and accessories
        Bowling pin machines, automatic
        Bowling pins
        Bows, archery
        Boxing  equipment
        Bridges, billiard  and pool
        Buckets, fish and  bait
        Cartridge belts, sporting type
        Cases,  gun and rod (sporting equipment)
        Creels, fish
        Cricket equipment
        Croquet sets
        Decoys, duck and other game birds
        Dumbbells
        Exercising machines
        Fencing equipment  (sporting goods)
        Fishing tackle (except lines,  nets, and  seines)
        Flies,  artificial:  for fishing
        Floats, for fish lines

-------
                       DRAFT
Footballs and football equipment, and supplies,
   except uniforms  '
Game calls
Gloves, sport'and athletic:   boxing, baseball,
   handball, etc.
Golf carts, hand
Golfing equipment:  caddy carts and bags,  clubs,
   tees, balls, etc.
Guards: football, basketball,  soccer, lacrosse,
   etc.
Gymnasium, and playground equipment
Helmets, athletic
Hockey equipment, except uniforms
Indian clubs
Lacrosse equipment
Mallets, pole, croquet, etc.
Masks:  baseball, fencing,  hockey, etc.
Nets:  badminton, basketball,  tennis, etc.  -
   not made in weaving mills
Pads:  football, basketball,  soccer, lacrosse,
   etc.
Pigeons, clay (targets)
Pin setters for bowling, automatic
Playground equipment
Polo equipment,  except apparel
Pool balls, pockets, tables,  and equipment
Protectors:  baseball, basketball, hockey,
   etc.
Rackets and frames:   tennis,  badminton,  squash,
   lacrosse, etc.
Scoops, crab and f;sh
Shafts, golf clubs
Shooting equipment,  except  firearms and  ammunition
Sinkers (fishing tackle)
Skates and parts, ice and roller
Skin diving equipment, scuba  type:  except  clothing
Skis and skiing equipment,  except apparel
Snowshoes
Soccer equipment, except apparel
Spears, fishing
Sporting goods:   except clothing,  firearms,
  • and ammunition
Squash equipment, except apparel
Sticks:  hockey, lacrosse,  etc.
Striking (punching)  bags
Strings, tennis racket
Swimming pools,  plastic
Tables:  billiard, pool, bagatelle, and  ping  pong
Target shooting equipment,  except firearms  and  ammunition

-------
        Targets, archery and rifle shooting
        Targets, clay
        Tennis goods:  balls, frames, rackets, etc.
        Toboggans
        Track and field athletic equipment, except
           apparel
        Trap racks  (clay targets)
        Wading pools, plastic coated fabric

Sporting and Athletic Goods NEC are produced by 1529 plants, averaging
39 workers each.  Most of these plants  (70 percent) employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-169.
As shown in Figure  3-356, a wide range of raw materials are used in
the manufacture of  sporting goods because of the wide array of finished
products.  Stock metals, plastics, broadwoven fabrics, and leather
are the major raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations
are determined by the product and range from casting and molding of
plastics to mechanical material removal and material forming of
metal.

A wide range of diverse manufacturing processes are used in the
sporting and athletic goods industry.  This is so mainly because
of the differing raw materials, which are shown in Figure 3-356
and because of the diversity of products in this category.  Process
water is used mainly for plating and cleaning at various .stages of
manufacture of such products as golf clubs, fishing tackle, etc.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the
sporting and athletic goods industry, no single product can be
considered typical.  However, the manufacture of golf clubs and
swimming pools are good examples of the type of manufacturing
processes used in this industry.  Golf club manufacture, as
illustrated in Figure 3-357, starts with the shaft which is usually
made of steel tubing which is pickled, rinsed, heat treated, drawn,
cut, tempered, cleaned, plated, and cleaned again.  The head of the
club is forged or cast and machined.  It is then drilled to fit the
shaft, heat treated, plated, and cleaned.  The head and shaft are
joined to form the club, and a handle grip is added.  Then it is
balanced, polished, inspected, and tested.

Swimming pools (above ground, over 15 foot diameter, metal), as illus-
trated in Figure 3-358, are made from various mill forms or sheet metal,
usually steel.  The wall sections are sheet steel which is sheared,
punched, stamped, blanked,  cleaned, and painted.  The bracing members
of the framework of the pool are built up with angular stock, tubing,
and rolled sheet stock.  Rolled sheet metal forms the top edge of the
pool and all metal parts are painted.  The vinyl liner is made by
calendering vinyl into a large continuous sheet of the appropriate
size for the pool.  The liner is a purchased item for many of the
pool manufacturers.

-------
                                DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA   Sporting and Athletic Goods, Not Llsewhere Classified
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      451

                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES      1078

   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                  60,200

   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE          $ 905.1    MILLION

   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                  $1701.3    MILLION
                                                                     *
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,

        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 0

        2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             ; 5

        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS               iQO

        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION           25

        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                     100

        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    50

        7 MATERIAL COATING                        100

        8 ORE PROCESSINGS REFINING                  0

        9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS           25
WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE             NA    BILLION GALLONS

                                       NA    BILLION LITERS

   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA

   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        NA

   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE          NA
 WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE

   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
*Based on Plant Dato Collecte
                                  TABLE 3-169
                                       3-')l 1

-------
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-------
                               DRAFT
Pens, Mechanical  Pencils,  and Parts

This segment  includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
pens, pen points,  fountain pens, ball point  pens,  refill cartridges,
porous tipped felt tip markers, and parts.   The major products are:

        Cartridges,  refill:  for ball point  pens
        Fountain  pens and fountain, pen desk  sets
        Markers,  soft tip  (felt, fabric,- plastic,
           etc.)
        Meter pens
        Nibs  (pen  points):  goldf steel; or  other
           metal
        Per, points:   gold, steel, or other metal
        Pencils and pencil parts, mechanical
        Penholders and parts
        7'ans  and  pen pares:  fountain, sr.vlcqrapMc
           ?nd ball point

Pe-s ana n,sc;?^;i: :ral pencJIs ?re >:rDdijca.;'. by  llf yiar-tr,,  averaging
liJ v")o-'-er-s each,   Most -•?_ these, p'^nts  (55  percent)  employ rcore
th'-n 20 v..xJ.erSc   A6o.iticMc 1 prr-ouctio--  flata are snown in Table.
3-lT'O,  As shc.wn  in Fig-j.re 3-35S-- over 3 billic*  pers were produced
:.r. the J. I;,  .vt 1372.  Kav. matfvic-ls- are Tietals -including some
azotic rietalss . plastics and gun- f'^r srasejrs.   lr.e p.,incipa] niaiiu-
'.aci:ui*r.:g e;-s;.av.ions are mechan:'Ccl m--;"er''.al removal   pic.?tic nold-
ir.g anc1 esseyOiy  operations.

~>.ii general- psnc  and mec'".s.riccLl pencils  ere  rno.c t ::y n ttr.oo, scamp-
ing; swaging  anc:  crirapin^, mete Is cV:ici plastic tc rcrr: • he --'^SF to
v;hich 5.L- aoosd c.  lead or inr c? -."." .\ldcs,  Process, warer is used main-
;.y for pis ting 5^.5 cJ.-3aiii';-gf x-:'.':'i c rr.inor amour t used in metal work-
ing along with a  lubricating oilt

The T.aivufactu.re of ball r-civc pans  (F:.'-r::e  2-360;  is representative
of the pens f.nd mechanical pencil industry.   The case of v,he pen is
slush r.olded  of clear or color£-5  (as dseirec)  plastic.  The ink con-
tainer is a section of extruced plastic  tube with a tip assembly in-
stalled in one end.   The top assembly is the key to the pen's oper-
ation and is  manufactured by extruding and  forming a case  (usually
brass) to which is installed an iridium  ball bearing.  A stop is
placed behind the  base to prevent its slipping out of the case.
The plastic ink tube is attached to the  tip  and filled with ink.
Then the tip  assembly along with ink tube is installed into the
molded case.

-------
DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA pens and mechanical pencils
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20
WITH LESS THAN 20
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE $215.1
EMPLOYEES 64
EMPLOYEES 52
13,800
MILLION
VALUE OF SHIPMENTS $310.2 MILLION
*
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,
1 CASTING & MOLDING - METALS
2 MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL
3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY MODIFICATION
5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
0
100
100
100
100
6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS 100
7 MATERIAL COATING
8 ORE PROCESSING 8r REFINING
9 MOLDING & FORMING - NON-METALS
100
0
100
WATER USE
ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE NA BILLION GALLONS
NA BILLION LITERS
INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER
PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
NA
NA
NA
NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
«
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
NA NOT AVAILABLE
TABLE 3-170
3-916
NA
NA
* BASED ON PLANT DATA COLLECTED


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                              DRAFT
Costume Jewelry and Costume Novelties,  Except Precious Metal

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
costume jewelry,  costume novelties,  and ornaments made of all materials
except precious metal,  precious or semi-precious stones,  and rolled gol
plate and gold filled materials.  The major products include:

        Compacts, except precious metal and solid
           leather
        Costume jewelry, except precious metal and
           precious or semiprecious  stones
        Novelties, costume:  except  precious me-cal
           and gems
        Ornaments, costume:  except  precious metal and      •
           gems
        Pearls, artificial
        Rings, finger:   gold plated  wire
        Rosaries and other small religious articles,
           except precious metal
        Vanity cases, except precious metal and
           leather
        Watchbands, base metal

Costume jewelry is produced by 76? plants, averaging 28 workers
each.  Most of these plants (73 percent) employ less than 20 work-
ers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-171.  Figure
3-361 shows the production value of  this industry.  Costume jewelry,
including rings, necklaces, chains,  and other personal items are
manufactured from base metals, possibly with a semi-precious metal
plate, and frequently with non-precious stones affixed to the :'cem.
The principal manufacturing operations are material forming, physical
property modification, casting and molding  (metals), mechanical
material removal and assembly operations.

In general costume jewelry is made by forming the basic raw materials
into the desired configurations by casting or other mechanica] form-
ing means.  The formed piece is then surface treated with such
materials as chrome or silver plating.  Process water, which con-
stitutes 60 percent of the gross water used by the industry, is used
mainly during plating, rinsing, and surface cleaning operations.

The manufacture of a ring  (Figure 3-362) is representative of the
costume jewelry industry.  The base metal is initially melted and
poured into a mold to form the crown of the ring.  Once the poured

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                              DRAFT
metal has set,  the  crown is removed from the mold,  debarred, and
polished.  A loop of  the base metal is then formed  around an arbor
and soldered to the crown.  The entire ring is next chemically
cleaned to remove flux and other impurities from the surface.  The
ring is then plated with a finish metal (e.g. silver),  and polished.
                                 3-920

-------
                                  DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA  Costunie  Jewelry and Costume Novelties,
PRODUCTION DATA  Fxcept precicu£ Metal
   NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES       205



                              WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES        557



   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ALL ESTABLISHMENTS                   21,500



   VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE           $281,3    MILLION



   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $^79.0    Mi
                                                                       *

   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING VARIOUS MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS,



        1  CASTING & MOLDING - METALS                 50



        ? MECHANICAL MATERIAL REMOVAL             2b



        3 MATERIAL FORMING - METALS                25



        4 PHYSICAL PROPERTv MODIFICATION            C



        5 ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                      50



        6 CHEMICAL-ELECTROCHEMICAL OPERATIONS    75



        7 MATERIAL COATING                          C



        8 ORE PROCESSING & REFINING                  0



        S MOLDING 8: FORMING — NON-METALS           0
 WATER USE
   ANNUAL GROSS WATER USE              0.5   BILLION GALLONS



                                         1.69 BILLION LITERS



   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            80



   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            20



   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER        50



   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           60
 WASTE WATER
   DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE        60



   PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED            NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE                              *BASED ON PLANT DATA CCllICTED



                                   TABLE 3-171

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                              DRAFT
Brooms and Brushes

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
household/ industrial, and street sweeping brooms; and brushes.  The
major products are:

        Artists' brushes, hand
        Brooms, hand and machine:  bamboo, wire, fiber,
           splint or other material
        Brushes for vacuum cleaners, carpet sweepers,
           and other rotary machines
        Brushes, household and industrial
        Hair pencils  (artists' brushes)'
        Paint brushes
        Paint rollers
        Push brooms
        Shaving brushes
        Street sweeping brooms, hand and machine
        Toilet brushes
        Toothbrushes, except electric
        Varnish brushes
        Whisk brooms

Brooms and brushes are produced by 446 plants, averaging 39 work-
ers each.  Most of these plants  (63 percent)  employ less than 20
workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-172.
As shown in Figure 3-363, the bulk of the industry production is
in the areas of paint brushes and "other" (personal and artists)
brushes.  These comprise 77 percent of the dollar value production.
Mill forms, nylon and boar bristle, wood and plastic are the major
raw materials.  The principal manufacturing operations are mechanical
material removal, material forming, and plastic molding.

In general, brooms and brushes are made by installing bristles on a
handle.  Both the bristles and handles vary with the type of brush
being produced.  Process water is used mainly for plating and clean-
ing.

Because of the diversity of products and materials used in the brooms
and brushes industry, no single product can be considered typical.
However, the manufacture of twisted wire brushes, as shown in Figure
3-364, is 'a good example of the manufacturing processes used in this
industry.  A length of wire (of suitable gauge) is first plated
to resist corrosion.  It is then folded.  Bristles are placed between
a portion of the parallel folded wire, and the wires are tightly twisted
in a special twisting machine fixture to tightly hold the bristles and
add strength to the brush.  A plastic or wood piece is-then mounted on
the end of the twisted wire to form the brush handle.

-------
                                 DRAFT
PRODUCTION DATA Brooms and Brushes
NUMBER OF
NilMRFR OF
ESTABLISHMENTS, WITH MORE THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
WITH LESS THAN 20 EMPLOYEES
FMPLfWFFS Al 1 FRTAR1 ISHMFNTS
' ' 164
282
17 e. ii r,
   VALUE: ADDED BY MAISSUFACTURE           $234.6    MILLION
   VALUE OF SHIPMENTS                    $437.2    MiLLSOi'
   Pll^CFHT Or ESTABLISHMENTS USING VA«iC',S fv^i'!UFACT!,miN3 OPERATIONS,
        1  CASTING 'i MOLDING - METALS                0
        2  MEX ;-:AN!CA!_ MATERIAL REMCV.-'L             0
        :; vi/'T^.RiAL FORMING — METALS               100
        4  .'-hYSICAL FDROPEi7TV MOCtFiC/.'. '•. ;-J           C
        5  ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS                    100
        6 CKEf/aOAL-ELECTROCKEr-.IICA:. ."PERATEOHS   0
        : :.'.\T::RIAL COATING                         •;.
        '!, ORE PROCESSING & RLl-'iNsNG                 0
        9 MOLDING at OR-vlING — NOH—MJn -'. S          0
   a-\NU/'!. -5ROSP WATER 'JSE            NA    P'.LL.'ON GALLj;
                                       :;a    BILLION LITEF.S
   INTAKE WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE            NA
   REUSED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE           HA
   PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS REUSING WATER       NA
   PROCESS WATER AS PERCENT  OF GROSS USE          NA
WASTE WATER
DISCHARGED WATER AS PERCENT OF GROSS USE
PERCENT OF DISCHARGED WATER TREATED
                                                    NA
   NA  NOT AVAILABLE
                                                   * BASED ON PLANT  r.-.T.-. COLLECTED
                                   TABLE  3-172

-------
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                               DRAFT
Signs and Advertising Displays

This segment includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
electrical, mechanical, cutout or plate signs and advertising displays,
including neon signs and advertising novelties.  The principal products
are:

        Advertising displays, except printed
        Advertising novelties
        Cutouts and displays, window and lobby
        Displays, paint process
        Electrical signs and advertising dis-
           plays
        Letters for signs, metal
        Name plates, metal:  except engraved,
           etched, etc.
        Neon signs
        Scoreboards, electric
        Signs, not made in custom sign painting
           shops

Signs and advertising displays are produced by 3261 plants,  averaging
15 workers each.  Most of these plants (81 percent) employ less than
20 workers.  Additional production data are shown in Table 3-173.
The overall production value in this industry is shown in figure 3-365.
All types of advertising displays, except electrical signal  and
commercial lighting, are included in this category with neon signs,
wooden signs and metal painted signs the most common.   A wide range
of raw materials are used including metal, plastics, wood, glass,
paper, electrical wiring and coating materials.  The principal manu-
facturing operations are material forming, mechanical material re-
moval, assembly operations and material coating.

In general, displays are made by cutting the various component parts
of the display  (plastic, metal, wood, etc.)  to the desired form and
joining these parts to form the finished product.  Other parts such
as lighting fixtures may be added.  Process water is used mainly
during plating and cleaning operations.

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                                       DRAFT
        Because of the diversity of products  and materials used in the dis-
        play industry, no single product can  be considered typical.  How-
        ever, the manufacture of wife display racks  (Figure 3-366) illustrates
        some of the manufacturing processes used in  this category