United States
Environmental Protection
Information Services
and Library
Washington DC 20460
February 1986
&EPA      Bibliographic Series
             in Schools

               BIBLIOGRAPHY ON

                FEBRUARY 1986
             Headquarters Library
Information  Management and Services Division
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
         401 M St., S.W.  PM-211A
          Washington, D.C.   20460
                (202) 382-5922
             U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
             Region V,  Library
             230 South Dearborn Street
             Chicago, Illinois  60604

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

       Introduction	  i

I.     EPA Reports	  1-1

II.    Books	  2-1

III.   Articles, Proceedings and Other Reports	3-1

IV.    Federal Regulations and Statutes	  4-1

V.     Contact Points for Information	  5-1


     Asbestos is known to be a potential hazard to the health of
millions of people.  There is increasing concern about asbestos
in school buildings.  The EPA Headquarters Library receives many
requests for information on asbestos in schools from EPA employees,
other government agencies, organizations and independent researchers
This bibliography was compiled by Michelle S.L. Lee, Reference
Librarian, to answer the requests for information on the topic
of asbestos in schools.

     The citations are organized by format:  (1) EPA reports,
(2) books, (3) journal articles, and (4) regulatory citations.
Most of the material cited in the bibliography is available in the
EPA Headquarters Library.

     The citations are followed by a list of contact points for more



    The EPA reports are listed in alphabetical order by author's
last name, or if there is no author, by title.  The citations are
followed by the EPA report number.  The report number assigned by
the U.S. National Technical Information Service (NTIS) is also
included.  EPA reports are for sale from National Technical Infor-
mation Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal
Road, Springfield, Virgina 22161.

    The abstracts following the citations are quoted from the EPA
Publications Bibliography, published by National Technical Infor-
mation Service.

Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings;  A Guidance
    Document.  Part 1.  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1979.  73 p.
    EPA 560/1-82-002.  NTIS PB 82-225962.

    Recently there has been an increasing awareness of the sig-
    nificance of environmental factors in causing illness.  The
    fibrous minerals known as asbestos, used in many different
    kinds of products and applications, have entered the environ-
    ment in both occupational and nonoccupational settings.  The
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned with the
    disease-causing potential of intermittent, low-level exposures
    that can occur in some school buildings from certain asbestos-
    containing materials.  EPA has established a guidance program
    to inform states and local school officials of the possible
    health hazards associated with asbestos.  EPA's guidance package
    contains two parts.  This manual, which is Part 1 of the package,
    is written for school officials.  Part 1 outlines steps that
    schools can take to conduct an asbestos control program.

Brandner, Wolfgang.  Asbestos Exposure Assessment in Buildings.
    Inspection Manual. (Final Report).  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1982.
    79 p.  EPA 907/9-82-009.  NTIS PB 83-250266.

    This manual describes procedures for inspecting buildings
    for friable, asbestos-containing materials and evaluating the
    hazard of being exposed to such materials.  A method of
    numerically grading eight factors and using numerical scores
    to set abatement priorities is presented.

Brantly, E. P. Jr., and Lentzen, D. E.  Asbestos-Containing Materials
    In School Buildings;  Bulk Sample Analysis Quality Assurance
    Program.  (Round One).  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1980.  32 p.
    EPA 560/13-80-23.  NTIS PB 80-217243.

    EPA has initiated a quality assurance (QA) program for
    laboratories claiming capability in the polarized light micro-
    scope  (PLM) analysis of bulk samples for asbestos.  Commercial
    and non-commercial laboratories participating in the program
    received samples of four fibrous materials:  chrysotile,
    anthophyllite, fiberglass, and mineral wool.  Laboratories had
    difficulty identifying anthophyllite and two false positives
    were reported for the mineral wool sample.  All laboratories
    properly identified chrysotile.  A performance rating based on
    proper identification of positive (asbestos) and negative
    (non-asbestos) samples was scored for and reported i:o the
    commercial laboratories.  Reference reports were sent to all
    participating laboratories.  Continuation of the program with
    future sample sets is anticipated.

Brantly, E. P. Jr.  Asbestos-Containing Materials in School
    Buildings; Bulk Sample Analysis Quality Assurance Program.
    (Final Report).  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1981.  34 p.  EPA
    560/5-81-001.  NTIS PB 81-225849.

    The second round of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    voluntary quality assurance (QA) program for commercial
    laboratories claiming capability in the polarized light micro-
    scope  analysis of bulk samples for asbestos was conducted in
    August and September, 1980.  Seventy-six laboratories each
    received bulk samples of two asbestiform minerals and two
    nonasbestos materials:  amosite, crocidolite, cellulose, and
    wollastonite.  A performance rating based on correct, classi-
    fication of positive  (asbestos) and negative (nonasbestos)
    samples was scored for and reported to participating laboratories
    Among  the inaccurate results reported were 3 false negatives
    (crocidolite) and 32 false positives (3 cellulose, 29
    wollastonite).  QA program results are made available to the
    laboratories, the EPA, and the public.  Continuation of the QA
    program with future samples sets is anticipated.

Brantly, E. P. Jr. e_t al.  Bulk Sample Analysis for Asbestos
    Content;  Evaluation of the Tentative Method.  Springfield,
    VA  : NTIS, 1982.  136 p.  EPA 600/4-82-021.  NTIS PB 82-

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Asbestos-in-Schools
    Program was established in March, 1979 to provide information

    and technical assistance to the public for addressing problems
    presented by asbestos-containing insulation materials in school
    buildings.  Because there were no existing standard procedures
    for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asbestos in
    bulk materials, the Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances,
    Washington, DC, and the Environmental Monitoring Systems
    Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC, jointly sponsored an
    effort to produce a practical and objective analytical protocol.
    Draft procedures were written for the analysis of bulk samples
    by polarized light microscopy (PLM) and X-Ray powder diffraction
    (XRD).  Following review, the Tentative Method for the Determi-
    nation of Asbestiform Minerals in Bulk insulation Samples
    (March, 1980) was submitted to a performance testing program
    that involved multiple laboratory analysis of prepared samples
    with known asbestos content.  This report presents the results
    of the testing study and provides observations and preliminary
    characterization of the utility and operational parameters of
    the Tentative Method.

Cesario, J. F., et al.  Identifying Potential Asbestos Exposures
    in Schools:  The New York City Experience.  Springfield, VA :
    NTIS, 1981.  55 p.  EPA 560/5-81-010.  NTIS PB 83-256214.

    This report describes the experience of the New York City
    (NYC) Board of Education and their asbestos-in-schools program.
    The program objectives were to:  (a) identify current and
    potential asbestos exposures in NYC public schools, (b) evaluate
    the seriousness of these asbestos exposures, (c) recommend
    appropriate abatement action, and (d) oversee the completion
    of the recommended action.  A survey of all school buildings
    was completed and priority problem areas were identified.
    Major abatement activities were scheduled for summer recess
    periods and completed as funds became available.

Constant, Paul C. Jr., et al.  Airborne Asbestos Levels in Schools.
    Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1983.  186 p.  EPA 560/5-83-003.
    NTIS PB 84-129683.

    Air (116) and bulk (192) samples were collected from 48 units
    at 25 different schools of an urban independent school district.
    These were analyzed respectively by transmission electron
    microscopy and polarized light microscopy techniques for asbestos
    fiber concentrations.  The new factor of releasability (of
    fibers) rating resulted from the bulk fiber analysis.   Each
    sampling site was rated by a special five-person team for
    assessment tools:  algorithm, condition, accessibility, part
    of air moving system, material exposure, friability and water
    damage, and people's activity at the site.  The results were

    statistically analyzed to document potential exposure to air-
    borne asbestos resulting from the friable, asbestos-containing
    material in schools and to develop an exposure assessment tool
    that would be based on the above stated factors.

Greerblatt, Janet.  Evaluation of the Asbestos-in-Schools Identi-
    fication and Notification Rule.  Springfield, VA :  NTIS, 1984.
    245 p.  EPA 560/5-84-005.  NTIS PB 85-135085.

    The Asbestos-in-Schools Identification and Notification Rule
    effective June 28, 1982, required all public and private local
    education agencies (LEAs) to (1) inspect for friable materials;
    (2) sample and analyze these materials when found;  (3) post notice
    of inspection results and notify employees and parents in
    schools with asbestos-containing friable materials (ACFM),;  and
    (4) maintain records of the findings at the LEAs and schools.
    A stratified systematic sample of 1,800 public and 800 private
    LEAs was randomly selected proportionate to the square root of
    enrollment.  A telephone survey found that 83 percent of the
    LEAs have begun or completed inspections and 94 percent of all
    schools have been inspected.  Of the schools inspected, 35
    percent found ACFM.  Almost all LEAs with ACFM have abatement
    programs (93%), about one-third of which (31%) are operations/
    maintenance only.  Only 9 percent of the LEAs were in compliance
    with the rule by June 28, 1983, the rule's compliance date;
    and 11 percent were by January 1984, the date of the survey.
    Record-keeping and notification were the major problem areas
    of noncompliance.  QA site visits were made to 38 LEAs and 94
    schools within these LEAs were inspected.  The LEA data collected
    during the site visits agreed substantially with the telephone
    survey data.

Indoor Air Pollution;  An Emerging Health Problem.  Springfield,
    VA : NTIS, 1980.  46 p.  CED-80-111.  NTIS PB 81-160087.

    Traditionally it has been presumed that a person was protected
    from polluted air when indoors.  Recent research has shown,
    however, that this may not always be true.  Various harmful
    pollutants including radon, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide
    have been found in the air in homes, offices, schools, and
    even in recreational facilities.  The problem may even be
    made worse by Government energy conservation programs which
    encourage the  'buttoning-up' of buildings.  Federal efforts to
    deal with the problem have been piecemeal, receiving little
    support primarily because no one Federal agency has responsi-
    b'lity for the problem.  Until responsibility is assigned to
    one agency to oversee Federal efforts, they will continue to
    be ineffectual.  In this report GAO recommends actions that
    the Environmental Protection Agency and the Congress can take
    to help resolve the situation.


Indoor Pollutants.  Springfield, VA  :  NTIS, 1985.  555 p.  EPA 600/
    6-82-001.  NTIS PB 82-180563.

    This report is intended to characterize the quality of the
    indoor environment-primarily with respect to airborne
    pollutants, although others are  discussed-and to determine the
    potential adverse health effects of indoor pollutants.  The
    charge was to review, compile, and appraise the available
    knowledge.  The committee has also identified the research
    needed for abatement of indoor pollution.   'Indoor1 refers to
    the environments in homes, schools, public buildings, and
    similar spaces to which the public has access; industrial
    working environments, however, are excluded from consideration

Keys, Dale L. and Bertram P. Price.  Guidance for Controlling
    Friable Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.  Springfield,
    VA : NTIS, 1983.  79 p.  EPA 560/5-83-002.  NTIS PB 83-214924.

    This document provides information that supplements previous
    EPA guidance on controlling asbestos-containing materials
    found in buildings.  The document (1) provides a current
    summary of data on exposure to airborne asbestos, (2) identi-
    fies organizational and procedural issues in establishing an
    asbestos program, (3) reviews technical issues confronted when
    assessing the potential for exposure to airborne asbestos in
    particular indoor settings, (4)  summarizes and updates infor-
    mation on applicability, effectiveness, and relative costs of
    alternative remedial actions, (5) suggests a structured process
    for selecting a particular course of action given information
    on exposure levels, assessment methods, and abatement techniques,
    (6) introduces and discusses criteria for determining successful
    asbestos control.  The material  presented is a summary of
    information and experience gained over the 4 years since previous
    guidance was published.

Lentzen, D. E., e_t a_l..  Interim Method for the Determination of
    Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples.  Springfield, VA : NTIS,
    1982.  54 p.  EPA 600/4-82-020.  NTIS PB 83-153643.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Asbestos-in-Schools
    Program was established in March, 1979 to provide information
    and technical assistance to the  public for addressing problems
    presented by asbestos-containing insulation materials in school
    buildings.  Because there were no existing standard procedures
    for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asbestos in
    bulk materials, the Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances,
    Washington, D.C., and the Environmental Monitoring Systems


    Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC, jointly sponsored an
    effort to produce a standard analytical protocol.  This report
    presents information on the development and characterization
    of the standard procedures for analysis of bulk samples with
    polarized light microscopy (PLM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD),
    and includes the Interim Method for the Determination of
    Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples.

Logue, Everett and Tyler Hartwell.  Characteristics of An Asbestos
    Exposure Assessment Algorithm.  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1981.
    85 p.  EPA 560/5-81-005.  NTIS PB 83-253500.

    This report describes the characteristics of a proposed
    asbestos exposure assessment algorithm.  Algorithm variable
    distributions are presented along with corrections between
    various algorithm variables in defferent locations (e.g., New
    York City, North Carolina and Montgomery County, Ohio).
    Available data are analyzed and discussed from the perspective
    of the algorithm's measurement reliability and validity.

Lucas, D., et a^.  Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings;
    Guidance for Asbestos Analytical Programs.  Springfield, VA :
    NTIS, 1980.  106 p.  EPA 560/13-80-017A.  NTIS PB 81-243586.

    This document is one in a series prepared in support of the
    EPA Asbestos-In-Schools Program.  It was developed to provide
    guidance to local school officials and their staffs in deter-
    mining the presence or absence of asbestos in school buildings.
    Data and information generated during the EPA Technical
    Assistance Program have been used to design a rigorous sampling
    and analysis scheme for bulk materials.  Implementation of the
    enclosed sampling protocol will reliably document the presence
    or absence of asbestos in the bulk materials and provide an
    interval estimate of the asbestos content.

Lucas, D., A. V. Rao, and T. Hartwell.  Asbestos-Containing Materials
    in School Buildings;  Guidance for Asbestos Analytical Programs.
    Statistical Background Document.  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1980.
    51 p.  EPA 560/13-80-017B.  NTIS PB 82-225343.

    This report presents detailed sampling procedures and laboratory
    quality assurance measures for bulk samples collected in school
    buildings.  Statistical support for these procedures is given.

Nicholson, William J. , e_t al.  Asbestos Contamination of the Air
    in Public Buildings.  Final Report.  Springfield, VA : NTIS,
    1975.  70 p.  EPA 450/3-76-004.  NTIS PB 250980.


    From 1958 through 1973  asbestos-containing material was used
    extensively for fire-proofing high-rise office buildings.
    Earlier use of this material for decorative and acoustical
    purposes dates from the mid-1930's.  Concern exists that
    these past uses of asbestos may lead to current contamination
    of building air.   This may occur either through damage or
    erosion of acousticc.1 spray materials or through erosion
    into building air supply systems of asbestos fibers from
    spray-lined plenum spaces in office buildings.  In order to
    access such possibilities, 116 samples of indoor and outdoor
    air have been analyzed for asbestos.  Nineteen buildings in five
    United States cities were chosen to represent the various
    construction uses of asbestos-containing spray materials.
    The results of this sampling and analysis demonstrate that
    significant contamination can occur in the air supply systems
    of buildings in which fibrous type-dry spray asbestos-containing
    fireproofing materials were used.   Moreover, erosion of
    similar materials applied for decorative or acoustical
    purposes was also found to occur.   In contrast, no contamination
    was demonstrable  in buildings in which cementitious spray
    material had been used.

Nicholson, William J.  Draft Asbestos  Health Assessment Update.
    Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1984.  146 p.  EPA 600/8-84-003A.
    NTIS PB 84-186832 .

    Data developed since the early 1970's from large population
    studies with long follow-up strengthen the association of
    asbestos exposure to disease.  Lung cancer and mesothelioma
    are the most important asbestos-related causes of death among
    exposed individuals.  The accumulated data suggest that the
    excess risk of lung cancer from asbestos exposure is proportional
    to the cumulative exposure (the duration times the intensity)
    and the underlying risk of lung cancer in the absence of
    exposure.  The risk of death from mesothelioma appears to be
    proportional to the cumulative exposure to asbestos in a given
    period.  Animal studies confirm the human epidemiological
    results.  All major asbestos varieties produce lung cancer
    and mesothelioma  with only limited differences in carcinogenic
    potency.  Some measurements demonstrate that significant
    asbestos exposure, exceeding 100 times the background, occurs
    to individuals in non-occupational environments.  Currently,
    the most important of these non-occupational exposures is from
    the release of fibers from asbestos-containing surfacing
    materials in schools, auditoriums, and other public buildings
    or from asbestos  fireproofing sprayed in high-rise office

Patton, Janice L., et al.  Asbestos in Schools.  Springfield, VA :
    NTIS, 1981.  264  p.  EPA 560/5-81-002.NTIS PB 81-225823.


    Four approaches to assessing the potential for asbestos
    exposure in schools were evaluated:  (1) a proposed exposure-
    ranking system or algorithm, (2) bulk sampling and analysis of
    the asbestos-containing materials, (3) a measurement of stimulated
    fiber release, and (4) air sampling.   The scoring consistency
    was evaluated for the factors in the algorithm;  friability and
    activity was scored with the least consistency,  and exposure
    and the presence of air-moving systems with the most consistency.
    Scoring consistency improved with rater training.  The variabi-
    lity in the determination of asbestos content was found to be
    associated with the laboratory analysis more so than with the
    sampling process.  False negatives were found to occur, even
    at asbestos levels greater than 10 percent.  The potential for
    release of fibers by physical disturbance of the asbestos -
    containing material was demonstrated with the use of a vibrator
    in contact with ceilings in schools;  the releasability was
    found to increase with asbestos content and friability.  Only
    a limited effort was devoted to air sampling, it was done for
    short periods (1 hour), and the analyses were done by phase
    microscopy (which detects only the fibers longer than 5 microns
    with an aspect ratio greater than 3:1).  The airborne fiber
    levels were less than 0.70 fibers/cc in all cases but one.

Price, Bert., et al.  Airborne Asbestos Levels in Schools;  Design
    Study.  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1981.  92 p.  EPA 560/5-81-006.
    NTIS PB 83-253492.

    This document describes a proposed field study to collect data
    in schools that are to be used to analyze and validate two
    asbestos exposure assessment algorithms as compared to levels
    of airborne asbestos.  This field study would involve algorithm
    scoring (including bulk asbestos sampling) and air sampling
    in sites (e.g., classrooms) within selected schools.

Roa A. V., et al.  Asbestos Analytical Programs Bulk Sample Analysis;
    New York City and Maryland.  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1980.  41 p.
    EPA 560/13-80-21.  NTIS PB 81-146722.

    This document describes the statistical analyses of bulk sample
    data taken from school buildings in two locations:  New York
    City and Maryland.  The bulk samples were analyzed for asbestos
    by various laboratories and the results given to the Research
    Triangle Institute for analysis.  In particular, Section I of
    this report describes the analysis of the New York City data
    which reported the presence or absence of asbestos (Amosite or
    Chrysotile) in 474 bulk samples taken from various typer of
    building material in New York City schools.  Section II des-
    cribes the analysis of the Maryland data which contains analysis

    of 37 split-asbestos bulk samples taken from Maryland public
    schools.   The split-samples in Maryland were sent to two or
    more laboratories which determined presence or absence of
    asbestos (Amphibole and Chrysotile) as well as actual levels
    of asbestos.
Sawyer, Robert N. and Charles M. Spooner.  Sprayed Asbestos-
    Containing Materials in Buildings;  A Guidance Document.  Part
    2_.  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1978.  119 p.  EPA 450/2-78-014.
    NTIS PB 82-225970.
    This guidance document summarizes the available information
    on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings.  It
    describes actions that may be taken when a building owner
    knows or suspects that friable asbestos materials are present.
    Application of sealant coats and removal of asbestos materials
    are discussed.

Sebastien, P., et al.  Measurement of Asbestos Air Pollution Inside
    Buildings Sprayed with Asbestos.  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1980.
    75 p.  EPA 560/13-80-026.  NTIS PB 81-147001.

    This report is a translation of a document prepared in 1977
    for the French Ministry of Health and the French Ministry for.
    the Quality of Life-Environment on the measurement and assess-
    ment of airborne asbestos levels in buildings throughout Paris.
    The methods of air sampling and transmission electron micro-
    scopic analysis, as well as a discussion of the results, are
    presented.  Also included are extensive tables and figures
    summarizing the data collected.  The study was completed in
    1977, by the Laboratoire d'Etude des Particules Inhalees
    (Prefecture de Paris) and the Institut de Recherches Univer-
    sitaires Sur 1'Environment (Universite'Paris-Val de Marne).
    Mr. Patrick Sebestien (Prefecture de Paris) provided this
    revised update of the study in July 1980.

Strenio, J., et al.   Asbestos in Buildings;  A National Survey of
    Asbestos-Containing Friable Materials.  Springfield, VA : NTIS,
    1984.  236 p.  EPA 560/5-84-006.  NTIS PB 85-136653

    A national representative sample of 231 buildings at 10
    sites was inspected for potentially asbestos-containing
    materials.  Bulk samples (1,510) were taken and analyzed by
    polarized light microscopy.  Estimates were made of the number
    and percent of buildings with asbestos-containing friable
    materials.  In 1973, EPA banned the use of asbestos thermal
    and acoustical insulation materials except for decorative
    purposes, and in 1978 EPA banned them for all purposes.


Wright, Susan, Stephen Schoepke, and Philip Mathias.  Economic
    Impact Analysis of Proposed Identification and Notification
    Rule on Friable Asbestos Containing Materials in Schools.
    Proposed Rule, Section 6 Toxic Substances Control Act.
    Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1980.  294 p.  EPA 560/12-80-004.
    NTIS PB 81-141640.
    This study examines the economic impact of the detection
    and notification of schools which have areas contaminated with
    friable asbestos-containing materials.  The problem is identi-
    fied by geographic area and by square footage of asbestos-
    containing materials per school.  Unit costs are examined by
    region for inspection and analysis of samples by X-Ray
    diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical microscopy.  The
    total impacts of Asbestos Schools Rule No. 1 are also presented
    and discussed.
Wright, Terry L. and Everett E. Logue.  Identifying Potential
    Asbestos Exposures in Schools;  The Montgomery County
    Experience.  Springfield, VA  : NTIS, 1980.  61 p.  EPA 560/
    13-80-039.  NTIS PB 81-243503.
    This report summarizes the experience of the Montgomery County
    Combined General Health District in their asbestos-i.n-schools
    control program.  A survey of all schools within the District's
    jurisdiction was completed.  Bulk samples of friable materials
    were collected and analyzed for their asbestos content, and
    asbestos exposure scores were obtained for those areas where
    asbestos was present.  Recommendations for appropriate abatement
    procedures were made based upon exposure scores, and the values
    of score components.


Citations include call numbers of the twenty-eight EPA libraries.

TITLE                                                       CALL NO.
Advisory Committee on Asbestos.  Asbestos/ Measurement and
     Monitoring of Asbestos in Air:  Second Report.
     Lodon, Great Britain :  H. M. Stationary Office., c
Amaducci, Sandro.  Asbestos, Directory of Unpublished        Z7914
     Studies.  Dordrecht, Holland :  D.  Reidel Pub. Co.,    .A7A43
Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Asbestos.  Washington,    TD370
     D.C.;  U.S. EPA, The Division of Criteria & Standards,   .A4
Asbestos in Schools;  A Dilemma;  Report.  Washington,
     D.C. : U.S. General Accounting Office,   1982.
Asher, Irvin M. and Phillip P. McGrath.  Symposium on        QH212
     Electron Microscopy  of Microfibers;  Proceedings       .E4S583
     of the First FDA Office of Science Summer Symposium.
     Rockville, MD : United States, Food and Drug
     Adminstration, office of Science, 1977.

Background Information on Development of National Emisson    TD883.2
     Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants;  Asbestos       .A33
     Beryllium and Mercury.  Springfield, VA : NTIS, 1973.

Baron, Paul A.  Use of Light Scattering for the Detection    HD7654
     of Filter Samples of Fibrous Aerosols.  Cincinnati,     .U543
     OH :  U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare,

Berrill, Norman John.  Tunicata with an Account of the       QL613
     British Species.  New York,NY :Johnson Reprint       .B4
     Corp., c!968.
Bogovski, P.  Biological Effects of Asbestos;  Proceedings
     of a Working Conference.  IARC Scientific Publica-
     tions No. 8.  Lyon, France : International Agency for
     Research on Cancer, 1973.

Bourne, Gaylord.  Asbestos Contamination in School
     Buildings.  Washington, D.C. ;   Public Interest
     Research Group,  c!978.
Brodeur, Paul.  Asbestos and Enzymes.  New York, NY
     Ballc.ntine Books,  c!972.
Campbell, William Joseph., et al,
     Characterization of Amosite
                         Chemical and Physical     RC965
                        Chrysotile, and Nonfibrous .A7
     Tremolite for Oral Ingestion Studies by the National
     Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
   Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Mines
William Joseph.
 Relationship of Mineral Habit to  TN23
for Tremolite Cleavage Fragments   .U7
     and Fibers.  Washington,
     Bureau of Mines, 1979.
            Dept.  of Interior,
Campbell, William Joseph.  Selected Silicate Minerals and    TN23
     Their Asbestiform Varieties;  Mineralogical Defini-     .U71
     tion Sand Identification-Characterization.
       D.C.: Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Mines,
Cancer Infomation Clearing House, Asbestos & Health;  An     DOC
     Annotated Bibliography of Public and Professional  "     NIH/78-
     Education Materials.  Bethesda, MD :  U.S. Dept. of     1842
     Health, Education & Welfare, Public Health Service,
     National Institute of Health, 1978.
Castleman, Barry I.  and Stephen L. Berger.  Asbestos;
     Medical and Legal Aspects.  New York, NY  : Law
     and Business, c!984.
Clifton, Robert A.  Asbestos.  Washington, D.C. : U.S.
     Bureau of Mines, 1979.
Dement, John M.  Occupational Exposure to Talc Containing    DOC
     Asbestos; Morbidity, Mortality, and Environmental       HE20.7111
     Studies of Miners and Millers.  Cincinnati, OH :        /2:80-115
     National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,

Development Document for Effluent Limitation Guidelines
     and New Sources Performance Standards for the Build-
     ing Construction and Paper Segment of the Asbestos
     Manufacturing Point Source Category.  Washington,
     D.C. :  Government Printing Office, 1974.
Direct Filtration of Lake Superior Water for Asbestiform
     Fiber Removal.  Cincinnati, OH :  U.S.
     Environmental Research Center, 1975.
                                            EPA, National
Enterline, Phillip E. and Nancy Sussman.  Asbestos and
     Cancer; The First Thirty Years.  Pittsburgh, PA  :
     P.E. Enterline, c!978.
Final Report on Determination and Evaluation of
     Environmental Levels of Selected Toxic Substances
     in the Environment.  Columbus, OH : Columbus
     Laboratories, 1981.
Final Report on Development of Methods for Preparing
     Particulate Standards.  Columbus, OH : Columbus
     Laboratories, 1982.
Fisheries and Environment Canada.
     Methods for Source Testing;
                                   Standard Reference
                                  Measurement of
     Emissions of Asbestos from Asbestos Mining and
     Milling Operation.  Canada : Environment Protection
     Service, Air Pollution Control Directorate, 1976.
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     Windsor, Ontario : International Joint Commission,
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Handbook of Asbestos.  Pompton Lakes, NJ  :  Asbestos
     Textile Institute, c!967.
Harwood, Colin F.  Asbestos Air Pollution Control.
     Springfield, IL :  Institute for Environmental
     Quality, c!971.
                                                             IL IEQ 1
Huff, James Edward.  Asbestos; A Perspective.  Oak Ridge,
     Tenn. : Oak Ridge National Laboratory.  Available
     from the National Technical Information Service,
International Agency for Research on Cancer.  Asbestos.
     Geneva :  World Health Organization, c!977.
Jaworski, J.F
                Effects of Chromium, Alkalihalides,
              Asbestos, Mecury, Cadmium in the Cana-
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     National Research Council of Canada, c!980.
Johnson, W. L. and
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Kramer, J. R., Łt_ a_l.  Asbestos in the Environme
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Leslie, Michaels
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Levine, Richard J.  Asbestos;  An Information Resource,
     Bethesda, MD : U.S. National Cancer Institute,
     Prevention Branch, c!978.
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Lewis, Barbara - Ann Gamboa and Argonne National Labora-
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     Report.  Washington, D.C.
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                        U.S. Nuclear Regulatory
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Michaels, L. and
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Nicholson, William J.  Chrysotile Asbestos in Air Samples
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Peters, George A. and Barbara J. Peters.  Sourcebook on
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     1980.Washington, D.C. :   U.S. G.P.O., 1982.

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"Asbestos."  Clean Air.  Vol. 13, No. 2, 1983 ,  p. 57.  (EN)
     Asbestos was once considered a health risk only for asbestos
     workers.  Now it is a known potential hazard to the health
     of many segments of the general population.  Exposure to
     asbestos dust and fibers can result in asbestosis, cancer,
     and roesothelioma.  OSHA has established limits for worker
     exposure to this substance.  EPA has prohibited virtually
     all uses of sprayed asbestos materials, and is continuing
     research on its health effects.
The Asbestos Dilemma:  Detection, Regulatory Options, and Statis-
     tical Approaches to Identification."  Hypotenuse.  July-August
     1983.  pp. 10-19.  (EN)

     The EPA regulations that took effect in June 1983 require
     that school buildings be inspected for the presence of friable
     asbestos.  Since the late 1970s, asbestos-containing materials
     have been removed from thousands of schools.  Although the
     substance is known to be toxic, no one knows for sure what
     risks are associated with low levels of exposure.  The cost
     effectiveness of several alternatives for regulating asbestos
     is discussed.  A discussion of statistical approaches to
     identification and asbestos hot-lines are included.
Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1979."  Sen.
     Comm.  Labor Human Relations Hearings.  96 Con. 2, March 17,
     1980.  (EN)

     Hearings were held to receive testimony on the proposed
     Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1979.  S.
     1658 would establish a program for the inspection of schools
     to detect the presence of asbestos, and provide loans to
     states or local educational agencies to replace it with other
     building materials.  The extent of asbestos contamination
     in U.S. schools and other buildings was estimated, and the
     potential human health effects of excessive asbestos exposure
     were reported.  Testimony was received from Sen. Jacob Javits
     (D-NY), Sen.  Clairborne Pell (D-RI), and Representatives
     from the National Institute of Environmental Health, New York
     City Board of Education, and Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
     Memoranda and related documents are transcribed.

Baldwin, C. C. e_t al.   "Asbestos in Colorado Schools."  Public
     Health Report. Vol. 97, No. 4, ujly-August 1982, pp. 325-331.


     The citations are listed in alphabetical order by author's
last name, or if there is no author, by title.

     The abstracts for the following material are either quoted
directly from the article, or are from a database that indexes
it.   Abstracts quoted from a database are followed by a two-letter
abbreviation that identifies the source.  These databases and their
abbreviations are listed below.
     (EB)  Environmental Bibliography
           Environmental Studies Institute
           2740 Alameda Padre Serra
           Santa Barbara, CA  93103

     (EN)  Enviroline
           Environmental Information Center, Inc.
           292 Madison Avenue
           New York, NY  10017

     (ER)  ERIC Processing and Reference Facility
           4833 Rugby Avenue,  Suite 303
           Bethesda, MD  20014

     (ME)  Medline
           Medlars Management Section
           National Library of Medicine
           8600 Rockville Pike
           Bethesda, MD  20209

     (NT)  National Technical Information Service
           U. S. Department of Commerce
           5285 Port Royal Road
           Springfield, VA  22161

     (PA)  Pollution Abstracts
           Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
           5161 River Road
           Bethesda, MD  20816

     (PS)  Public Affairs Information Service, Inc.
           11 West 40th Street
           New York, NY  10018

     (OS)  Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
           Technical Information Branch
           National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
           4676 Columbia Parkway
           Cincinnati, OH 45226

     Forty-one public schools in Colorado were drawn at random and
     surveyed for asbestos-containing materials.  After bulk samples
     of possible asbestos materials from the schools were collected
     and analyzed, the K2 asbestos screening test was used to
     eliminate samples that did not contain asbestos.  Samples with
     positive results on the K2 test were analyzed by an outside
     laboratory by polarized light microscopy.  The risk of potential
     exposure presented by these materials was then assessed for
     each site from which a sample was taken.  Of 113 samples
     collected, results were negative for asbestos for only 10.6
     percent by the K2 test.  Of the 101 samples for which results
     were positive, 56 actually contained 1 or more forms of
     asbestos.  Twelve of these 56 samples were from sprayed
     material; the remaining 44 were from other materials
     containing asbestos.  Of the 41 schools sampled, 31 had
     asbestos materials in one of more locations.  The potential
     exposure values for these materials ranged from very low to
     very high, but the majority had high-exposure potentials.
     Estimates based on the survey of the 41 schools indicated
     that 63 to 89 percent of the public schools in Colorado have
     asbestos materials that present potentially serious hazards,
     not only to the children, teachers, and staff, but also to
     members of the community who use the school buildings after
     regular school hours.

Becker, Susan.  "Asbestos in the Classroom."  Instructor.  Vol.
     94, No. 3, October 1984.  pp. 122-123.  (ER)

     Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which
     threatens the safety of students and teachers.  The Environ-
     mental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and
     advices on this problem.  Suggestions are offered for school
     personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos.

Bozzelli, Joseph W., Russell, Joel J.  "Airborne Asbestos Levels
     in Several School Buildings Before and After Bulk Asbestos
     Removal." International Journal of Environmental Studies.
     Vol. 20, No. 1, November, 1982.  pp. 27-30.  (EN)

     Airborne particulate samples were collected in several public
     schools before and after friable asbestos-containing insulation
     material had been removed from ceilings.  Transmission elec-
     tron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction tech-
     niques facilitated fiber identification and counting.  Asbestos
     fiber concentrations in indoor air were in the range 5-40 mg/M3
     before insulation removal.  Measurements made one week after
     removal showed reductions of 56-90%.

Brown, Arnold L., et al.  "The Reliability of Measures of Amphibole
     Fiber Concentration in Water."  Environmental Research.  Vol. 12,
     No. 210, October 1976, pp. 150-161.  (EN)

     Water samples from communities adjoining and from Lake
     Superior, Minn., itself are examined in eight laboratories by
     electron microscopy to determine the concentration of amphibole
     fibers.  Exact measurements between and among laboratories
     differed, although the relative variability among laboratories
     was reasonably uniform.  To compare precisely concentrations
     of amphiboles at two sites or under two different sets of
     circumstances, two provisions must be fulfilled:  All measure-
     ments must be made in the same laboratory using the same
     equipment and the same technician;  and several aliquots of
     each water sample must be examined independently.

Browne, R. C.  "The Newcastle Papers in Industrial Medicine Over
     the Last 21 Years."  British Journal of Industrial Medicine.
     Vol.  25, 1968, pp. 187-195.  (ME)

     A review of the papers published by the Chair of Industrial
     Health  in Newcastle upon Tyne shows that research on industrial
     lung disease has gradually shifted from coal to beryllium,
     asbestos, and antimony.  Coal miners with nystagmus were shown
     to be similar to miners without the disease but psychologically
     less stable.  Decompression sickness has also become an im-
     portant interest, and studies were conducted on lead poisoning
     in shipbreakers and smelters, vanadium poisoning in fitters
     and gasmakers, teeth decalcification in a fruit salt factory,
     noise levels in a glassblowing school and in several power
     stations, and the thermal decomposition of protective coatings
     and welding rods.

Carter, Luther J.  "Asbestos:  Trouble in the Air from Maryland
     Rock Quarry."  Science.  July 15, 1977.  Vol. 197, No. 4300,
     pp. 237-241.  (EN)

     During  recent months, a growing number of affluent residents
     in Montgomery County, Md., have been in an uproar over what
     they perceive as a serious possibility of a long-term cancer
     threat.  Crushed stone containing possibly dangerous con-
     centrations of asbestos fibers has been produced for some
     years at a large quarry near Rockville.  The asbestos-bearing
     stone has been used, often in a dusty, unbound form, in
     surfacing roads, school playgrounds, and park areas, not to
     mention private driveways and parking lots.  The controversy
     over use of the materials and potential health dangers is
     expla ined.

Castleman, B. I., Vera Vera, M. J.  "Impending Proliferation of
     Asbestos."  International Journal of Health Service.  Vol. 10,
     No. 3, 1980, pp. 389-403.  (ME)

     The international asbestos industry is under considerable
     pressure in some countries to control dust exposures in the
     workplace and restrict pollution.  In addition, major firms
     in the United States face mounting compensation costs for
     past failures to protect asbestos workers.  At the same time,
     however, the asbestos industry is expanding in developing
     nations, largely on the strength of sales of asbestos-cement
     construction materials.  This report describes problems
     encountered with the use of asbestos-cement in schools and
     low-income housing in Puerto Rico, resulting in the condem-
     nation of these buildings and the relocation of over 1,000
     families at public expense.  The manufacturer of the asbestos-
     cement panels, a Colombian affiliate of the European-based
     multinational Eternit, escaped all liability.  The issue is
     presented as a needless, expanding threat to public health
     worldwide.  Safe, economic alternatives exist, such as the
     use in some cases of crop waste fibers in place of asbestos
     as a cement binder.  There have also been major advances in
     the commercialization of asbestos-free brake and clutch
     friction products.

Chadwick, D. C., et al.  "Airborne Asbestos in Colorado Public
     Schools."  Environmental Research.  Vol. 36, No. 1, February
     1985, p. 1-31.  (ME)

     Levels of airborne asbestos for six Colorado public school
     facilities with sprayed-on asbestos materials were documented
     using three analytical techniques.  Phase contrast microscopy
     showed levels up to the thousandths of a fiber per cubic
     centimeter (f/cc), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) up to
     the hundredths of a f/cc, and transmission electron microscopy
     coupled to selected area electron diffraction and energy
     dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-SAED-EDXA) up to the tenths of
     an asbestos f/cc.  Phase contrast microscopy was found to be
     an inadequate analytical technique for documenting the levels
     of airborne asbestos fibers in the schools:  only large fibers
     which were not embedded in the filter were counted, and asbestos
     fibers were not distinguished from nonasbestos.

Charette, Mike J.  "Arizona's School Asbestos Program."  Journal
     of Environmental Health.  Vol. 45, No. 3, November-December
     1982 , pp. 135-137.  ( EB )

     The state of Arizona Dept. of Education operates a successful
     program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from
     schools. (Drawing from the expertise of the Dept. of Health
     Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation,
     Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school
     officials).  Includes an asbestos detection/control flow chart.

"Controlling Asbestos in Schools."  EPA Journal.  Vol. 5, No. 7,
     July-August 1979.  pp. 20-21.  (PA)

     Although the degree of risk to pupils in schools is not
     quantified, federal and state governments are establishing
     programs to help educators check for asbestos-containing
     materials in the schools and to correct hazardous conditions.
     Funds are currently being appropriated for school inspections
     and repairs.  Medical research has attributed lung cancer,
     asbestosis, mesothelioma, and gastrointestinal cancer to regular
     exposures to asbestos.  Asbestos-containing materials have
     been sprayed on walls, ceilings, structural components, and
     pipes in many schools.  An estimated 10,000 of the nation's
     90,000 schools contain asbestos materials.  An EPA-sponsored
     program established to help correct the problem includes a survey
     form to be filled out by school officials that will help
     determine the extent of exposure and the ability of state and
     local officials to correct problems encountered.

Dekany, John D.  "School Asbestos Control Program."  EPA.  Presented
     at National Environmental Health Association 43rd Annual Educa-
     tional Confrence.  Charleston, June 23-28, 1979.  p. 8A(9).

Drayton, William.  "America's Toxic Protection Gap:  The Collapse
     of Compliance with the Nation's Toxic Laws (American's Toxic
     Protection Gap:  An Overview).  Environmental Safety Report,
     PI (16), July 1984.  (EN)
      The collapse of compliance with the nation's toxic protection
      laws enacted largely in the 1970's is reviewed.  Millions of
      Americans live with one of the roughly 8,000 active and 22,000-
      35,000 abandoned hazardous waste sites, and there are 70,000
      underground storage tanks at local gas stations and other
      facilities leaking and probably polluting groundwater that
      half of all Americans use for cooking and drinking.  The
      Reagan Administration's goal of cutting back on regulation
      is partly responsible for the 80% noncompliance found in laws
      on water, hazardous waste, asbestos in schools, and probably

     In an attempt to control for the urban effect, geographic
     gradient and socioeconomic class, each county in the United
     States with asbestos deposits was matched for percent of area
     that was urban and for median years in school with two
     nearby counties that did not have known asbestos deposits.
     The study of cancer mortality rates in these matched counties
     provides no evidence that naturally-occuring asbestos, primarily
     chrysotile and amphibole, is a great hazard to the general
     population of counties with asbestos deposits.

Fodero, Severio D.  "Removal and Disposal of An Environmental
     Carcinogen: Asbestos."  Journal of Environmental Health.
     Vol. 40, No. 3, November-December 1977.  pp. 133-137.  (ER)

     This article details the removal and disposal of asbestos
     ceiling material in a Yale University building.  The removal
     process utilized a water and wetting agent technique used by
     firefighters and the debris disposal was in a sanitary land-
     fill, following federal regulations for the handling of
     hazardous materials.

Henderson, William J., et al.  "Analysis of Particles in Stomach
     Tumors from Japanese Males."  Environmental Research.  Vol. 9,
     No. 3, June 1975.  pp. 240-250.  (EN)

     The particulate material present in stomach tumors removed
     from Japanese males is analyzed.  An extraction-replication
     technique used in association with electron microscope-
     microanalysis provides evidence for the presence in tumor
     tissue of kaolin, talc, aluminum and calcium silicates, and
     some types of asbestos fibers.

Ingram, John D.  "Insurance Coverage Problems in Latent Disease
     and Injury Cases."   Environmental Law.  Vol. 12, No. 2, Winter
     1982,  pp. 3 17-362.  (EN)

     The anticipated flood of litigation from latent disease
     claims-stemming from initial exposure to a toxic substance-
     will impact the financial health of insurance companies and
     certain industries.  The basis for imposing liability on
     asbestos manufacturers and distributors for asbestos-related
     disease is examined.  There is general agreement that disease
     occurrence may be a gradual process, though the unspecified
     time of the disease-triggering mechanism obfuscates the
     obligations of health insurers.  Rules of construction for
     insurance policies are delineated.

Elias, J. D.  "Dry Removal of Asbestos."  American Industrial Hygiene
     Association Journal.  Vol. 42, No. 8, 1981.  pp. 624-625.  (PA)

     A method for the dry removal of friable asbestos has been
     developed.   The Workplace Safety and Health Branch in Manitoba's
     Labour and Manpower Department and Power Vac Manitoba Limited
     have cooperated in the production of an improved procedure.  It
     was employed for the first time in the fall of 1979 when the
     Industrial Hygiene Section was asked for advice about removal of
     asbestos from a Winnipeg school division warehouse.  Fans were
     used to maintain the work area under negative pressure to prevent
     the spread of asbestos throughout the building.  The exhaust air
     was filtered to prevent environmental contamination, and special
     precautions were taken to protect workers.

Enterline, Philip E.  "Extrapolation from Occupational Studies:
     A Substitute for Environmental Epidemiology."  Environmental
     Health Perspectives.  Vol. 42, December 1981.  pp. -39-45.  (ME)

     Three linear models - based on data from the U.S., Canada,
     and the U.K. - for extrapolating occupational data to general
     environmental exposures are described.  The models are applied
     to asbestos exposures resulting from heat shields in hair
     dryers and asbestos exposures in public school buildings;
     cancer mortality from these exposures are predicted.  Linear
     models are compared to a curvilinear dose-response curve which
     shows little response at low levels of exposure.  Asbestos
     exposure in school buildings poses more of a risk than hair

Faich, G. A.  "Asbestos Hazard Evaluation in Rhode Island Schools."
     American Journal of Public Health.  Vol. 70, No. 2, February
     1980, pp. 162-164.  (EN)

     Asbestos (1332214) hazards were studied in 326 Rhode Island
     public and private schools built between 1950 and 1973.  The
     presence of spray-on asbestos was confirmed in 24 schools; of
     these, the material in 15 schools showed no visible deterioration
     but was classified as a potential hazard.  Five schools had
     areas of minor deterioration, and four schools had major overt
     asbestos hazards.   Hazard abatement for these schools involved
     removing the material, applying sealants, or both.

Fears, T. R.  "Cancer Mortality and Asbestos Deposits."  American
     Journal of Epidemiology.  Vol. 104, No. 5, November 1976,
     pp. 523-526.  (ME)

"International Toxicity Update."  Dangerous Properties of Industrial
     Materials Report.  Vol. 3, No. 6, November-December 1983, pp.
     13-21.  (EN)

     Research conducted and standards issued in various nations
     concerning human exposures to toxic substances are examined.
     Safeguards necessary to prevent the accumulation of dangerous
     carbon monoxide concentrations in car parks were outlined in
     the U.K. EPA has issued regulations for reducing risks to
     human health from exposure to asbestos-containing materials
     in school buildings.  A comprehensive body of information on
     detection, fate, and biological effects of chromium in the
     environment has been published by API.  Other international
     activities surveyed focus on chloroform, the pesticide
     dibromochloropropane, PCS, paraquat dichloride, aerosols,
     and ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers.

Irving, K. F. , e_t al.  "Asbestos Exposure in Massachusett' s Public
     Schools."  American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal.  Vol.
     41, No. 4, April 1980.  pp. 270-276.  (OS)

     Asbestos exposures in 1,425 Massachusetts public schools
     were evaluated  by walk-through inspections, review of
     construction records, questionnaires distributed to school
     officials, and  bulk and air sample analysis.  All of the
     target schools  had been built or had had major construction
     done between 1946 and 1973.  Responses to the questionnaires
     were received from only 27.4 percent of the target schools,
     and many contained inaccurate samples, 173 contained asbestos.
     Most air samples contained less than 0.04 asz7c fibers per
     cubic centimeter (fibers/cc).  Samples from four schools
     contained 0.06  to 0.16 fibers/cc.  The asbestos material in
     these schools was badly damaged.  For 49 of the schools with
     documented asbestos exposures, control actions were

Julian, Y., and W. C. McCrone.  "Identification of Asbestos
     Fibers by Microscopical Dispersion Staining".  Microscope
     Vol.  18, No.   1, April 1970.  pp.  1-11.  (OS)

     The McCrone dispersive staining technique, based on the focal
     screening method of Cherkasov, was tested for identification
     of chrysotile   (12001295),  amosite  (12172735),  crocidolite
     (12001284),  actinolite   (12172677),  tremolite  (60649538)  and
     anthophyllite   (17068789)  asbestos fibers.  Axial illuminat
     liquid that gave matching wavelengths in the region near 550
     nanometers.  The matching wavelengths were plotted against
     the number of samples to obtain the range of colors for a
     given type of asbestos.  A polarized microscope was not re-
     quired, however, more definite data obtained with polarized
     light could eventually permit identification of the mine
     from which each asbestos sample came.  The authors conclude
     that asbestos can be identified by dispersion staining, but
     more work is needed.

Kannerstein, M., et al.  "Pathogenic Effects of Asbestos."
     Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.  Vol. 101, No. 12
     December 1977.  pp. 623-628.  (ME)

     The enormous increase in the use of asbestos during this
     century has necessitated the intensive study of its pathogenic
     effects.  The occurrence of pulmonary parenchymal and pleural
     fibres is and an increased prevalence of pulmonary and
     gastrointestinal carcinoma and of pleural and peritoneal
     mesothelioma have been established.  A relationship, also, to
     laryngeal carcinoma is probable.  Mesothelioma has been
     associated with indirect occupational, domestic, and neighbor-
     hood exposure, and the possibility of a similar correlation
     of pulmonary carcinoma with low exposure has been suggested.
     Pulmonary fibrosis and pleural plaques have been demonstrated
     under these circumstances.  The physical characteristics of
     the asbestos fiber appear to be the principal factors in its
     carcinogenic action.  The ability of fine, short fibers,
     especially fragmented chrysotile, to reach the pleura would
     appear to account for many of the pathogenetic and anatomical
     features of asbestos-related disease.

Kannerstein, M.  "Recent Advance and Perspectives Relevant to the
     Pathology of Asbestos - Related Diseases in Man."   presented at
     International Agency for Research on Cancer Biological Effects of
     Mineral Fibers Symposium, Lyon, France September 25-27, 1979.
     Vol. 1, pp.  149-163.  (EN)

     Technical feature the pathological contribution of asbestos
     fibers to occupational diseases is discussed.  The morphology
     of lesions and pathological diagnosis is surveyed.  Current
     studies focusing on the relationship between asbestos exposure
     and the incidence of mesothelioma, carcinoma, asbestosis, and
     other malignancies are examined.  Areas for further research,
     including the refinement of analytical techniques and instru-
     ments, are summarized.
                                 -i n

Knapp, Elaine S.  "Asbestos:  Still a Danger in Schools."  State
     Government News.  Vol. 27, No. 3, March 1984.  pp. 4-9.  (EN)

     The use of asbestos materials in school buildings was common
     from the mid-1940s until EPA banned sprayed asbestos in 1973.
     The agency requires schools to inspect for the material and
     notify parents and employees of asbestos hazards; no removal
     or abatement is required by EPA.  However, a recent EPA report
     found that many schools did not meet its June 1983 deadline
     for asbestos detection, recordkeeping, and notification.  The
     problem is attracting national attention.

Koch, Kathy.  "Congress Ready to Examine Asbestos Compensation
     Issue;  But Regulation Lags."  Congressional Quarterly Weekly
     Report.  Vol. 40, Feburary 6, 1982.  pp.  204-205.  (PS)

Lang, R. D.   "Asbestos in Schools: Low Marks for Government Action."
     Environment.  Vol. 26, No. 9, pp. 14-20, 1984.   (PA)

     The problem of asbestos in the U.S. public schools gives every
     indication of being one of the most pervasive issues in the
     area of toxic torts in the years to come.  The health hazards
     caused by exposure to asbestos result in a host  of wide-ranging
     environmental, political, and legal questions of every grade
     and order, many of which have not been finally determined.
     For the most part, the attention has been on asbestos as the
     cause of some occupational diseases, and has specifically
     centered on the exposure of asbestos workers who inhaled the
     fibers.  This article will outline another subject upon which
     increased focus may reasonably be expected:  the significant
     health problems, the full impact of which will not be felt for
     years to come, caused by the presence of asbestos materials  in
     American schools.
Langer, A. M, Pooley, F. D.  "Identification of Single Asbestos
     Fibres in Human Tissues."  Presented at International Agency
     for Research on Cancer Conference, Lyon, October 2-6, 1972.  pp.
     119-126.  (EN)
     Preparative techniques developed for the localization,
     characterization, and identification of single asbestos fibers
     in human tissues are discussed.  By utilizing the carbon
     extraction technique, standard histologic sections may be
     prepared; they can be examined with the transmission electron

     microscope and the electron microprobe analyzer.  All asbestos
     fiber types may be differentiated and identified on the basis
     of morphological, structural, and chemical data."

Lee, Douglas H. K., Selikoff, Irving J.  "Historical Background to
     the Asbestos Problem."  Environmental Research.  April 1979.
     Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 300-315.  (EN)

     The history of asbestos use and associated environmental
     hazards from 2500 B.C. to the present is surveyed.  Asbestos
     was used in the manufacture of pottery and clothing.  Additional
     uses of the mineral were discovered from 1600 to the present,
     including the production of yarn and paper.  Mining and pro-
     duction of asbestos has led to recognition of the mineral's
     carcinogenic properties.

Le Guen, J.  M., Brudett, G.  "Asbestos Concentrations in Public
     Buildings - A Preliminary Report."  Annals of Occupational
     Hygiene.  Vol. 24, No. 2, 1981, pp. 185-189.  (PA)

     Concentrations of asbestos (1332214) in various public
     buildings was determined.  Using several sampling and
     analytical methods, airborne asbestos concentrations
     were measured in four schools, two other educational
     institutions, five houses, a television studio, and a
     theater.  Asbestos containing building materials had
     been used at all of the test sites.  Airborne asbestos
     concentrations all were less than 0.000000009 gram per
     cubic meter.  At some sites, damage to the asbestos
     building materials was noted, and exposed fibers were
Lemegh, C., et al.  "Epidemiology of Mesothelioma in Israel.
     Environmental Research.  Vol. 12, No. 2, October. 1976.
     pp.  255-232.  (EN)
     The distribution of the mesothelioma cases in Israel
     during 1960-72 and factors determining the incidence of
     the disease are discussed.  Percentage distribution ac-
     cording to age, sex, and site of tumor;  survival time
     according to tumor site;  age-specific rates according to
     country of origin;   annual incidence per year by district
     of residence, by number of inhabitants in residence area
     and by comparison to percentage in Canda, ^he U.K. and
     Israel; and percentage distribution according to asbestos
     exposure history and occupation are listed.

Martin, B., et al.   "Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools."
     NIOSH, Grant No. 1 OH-01049-01, 24p., September 1980.  (ER)

     Information for the removal or encapsulation of asbestos
     (1332214) from public schools is presented.  The necessary
     notifications, permits, protective equipment, training, air
     monitors and medical examinations are outlined.  Requirements
     for emergency evacuation plans, caution signs, inspections,
     ventilation, wall and floor protection and the isolation of
     contaminated areas are discussed.  Approved protective equip-
     ment, contractors and supplemental materials are listed.

Martischnig, K. M., et al.  "Unsuspected Exposure to Asbestos and
     Bronchogenic Carcinoma."  British Medical Journal.   (6063), 19,
     March 1977, p. 746-755.  (ME)

     Two hundred and fifty men admitted to a thoracic surgical
     centre and matched controls were questioned in detail about
     their smoking habits.  Of 201 men with confirmed bronchial
     carcinoma 58 gave a history of occupational exposure to
     asbestos, whereas only 29 out of 201 men matched for age and
     residential area who were admitted with other diseases gave
     such a history.  This difference was statistically highly
     significant.  The usual association of bronchial carcinoma
     with heavy smoking was observed, but asbestos exposure
     increased the risk of carcinoma whatever the level of smoking.
     These results are consistent with the hypothesis that asbestos
     exposure and the level of smoking act independently in causing
     bronchial carcinoma.  The patients with carcinoma who had been
     exposed to asbestos presented on average three years earlier
     than those who had not been exposed.  Asbestos regulations
     have eliminated the risk of exposure to workers in scheduled
     industries, so asbestos-induced diseases will probably be
     increasingly found among the many workers who have had
     incidental exposure to asbestos.  It is therefore important
     to take a full occupational history.

McCrone, W.C.  "Detection and Identification of Asbestos by
     Microscopical Dispersion Staining."  Environmental Health
     Perspectives.   Vol.  9, December 1974. pp.  57-61.   (OS)

     Asbestos fibers as small as 1 micron in diameter can be
     uniquely identified by light microscopy by employing dispersion
     staining methods.  The technique described herein involves
     SMSpension of fibers in liquids of known refractive indices
     and observation of color display by means of dispersion staining
     objective.  Wavelengths or indices of refraction may be deter-
     mined at right angles to and parallel to fiber axes.  This
     method is rapid and sensitive for identification purposes.


McCrone, W. W.  "Evaluation of Asbestos in Insulation."
     American Laboratory.  Vol. 11, No.  12, December 1979.  (OS)

     Guidelines for asbestos (1332214) sampling in United States
     schools are presented.  Techniques for identifying the com-
     position of insulation, soundproofing, a.id other building
     materials are discussed.  Microscopic equipment used for
     fiber differentiation and quantitative chemical assessments
     are reviewed.  Environmental Protective Agency  (EPA) recom-
     mendations for friable materials sampling, preliminary analy-
     sis procedures to assure inclusion of principal fibers, and
     for polarized light microscopy for amphibole and serpentine
     identification are included.  The physical properties of
     various asbestiform minerals and representative slides of 15
     minerals are given along with appropriate slide preparation

McDonald A.D.  "Malignant Mesothelioma in Quebec."  Presented at
     International Agency for Research on Cancer Biological Effects
     of Mineral Fibers Symposium, Lyon.  September 25-27. 1979.
     Vol. 2, pp.  673-681.   (EN)

     Technical feature all known, fatal cases of mesothelioma
     from 1960-78 in Quebec are reviewed.  Of the 254 mesotheliomas
     registered, 181 occurred in males and 73 in females.  About
     40% of the male cases were  attributed to occupational asbes-
     tos exposure; only 5.4% of female cases had been exposed
     occupationally.  Intervals between first employment and death
     from mesothelioma were longer for miners and millers than
     for manufacturing workers.  Evidence from this survey supports
     the view that mesothelioma risk after exposure to crocidolite
     is many times greater than that after chrysotile exposure.

McDonald, J. C.  "Asbestos-Related Disease:  An Epidemiological
     Review."  Presented at International Agency for Research on
     Cancer Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres Symposium, Lyon,
     September 25-27, 1979.  Vol.  2.  pp.  587-602.  (EN)

     Evidence of the relationship between asbestos and specific
     diseases is culled from various cohort and epidemiological
     studies.  The incidence of lung cancer and mesothelioma is
     related to fiber type, duration of exposure, and synergistic
     interactions with cigarette smoking.  The risk of mesothelioma
     after chrysotile exposure appears small.  Areas for future
     research, including the etiology of pleuial calcification and
     the standardization of analytical tests, are identified.

Murphy,  D. C. and L. D. Reed.  "Health Hazard Evaluation Report
     No.  HETA 82-193-1222, Western Hill Post Office, Cincinnati,
     Ohio." National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
     Cincinnati, Ohio, 8p.  November 1982.  (NT)

     In April, 1982, NIOSH made an on-site inspection of the
     Western Hills Post Office, Cincinnati, Ohio, in response
     to a request for a health hazard evaluation.  Workers
     expressed concern about four cases of lymphoma which had
     reportedly occurred during the past 2 years among their labor
     force.  An analysis of medical records of the four workers
     with cancer revealed only two to have lymphoma.  There were
     no apparent sources of chemical exposure at the worksite.
     Environmental sampling revealed no airborne organic vapors
     or particulate heavy metals in excess of OSHA Standards or
     NIOSH-Recommended Standards.  Ceiling material contained no
     asbestos.  Analysis of questionnaire and industrial hygiene
     data failed to demonstrate any existing hazardous condition
     at the worksite which might be associated with the verified
     cases of lymphoma.  The cause or causes of the illness
     remains unknown, but it is unlikely that the lymphomas were
     related to work at the post office.

"New Study Shows States Not Regulating, Funding School Asbestos
     Cleanup."  AFL-CIO/CLC Service Employees International Union
     Newsrelease.  April 3, 1984.  (EN)

     A new study released by the Union shows little is being done
     at the state level to combat asbestos contamination of schools.
     This expensive cleanup undertaking is being advocated to
     reduce the future incidence of asbestos-related diseases in
     children and school workers.  Although EPA regulations require
     school districts to inspect for friable asbestos and report
     findings.  There are no regulations governing or mandating
     removal activities.  A lack of state funds and legislation
     supporting asbestos removal is also noted.

Newhouse, Muriel L.  "The Asbestos Industry and Statutory Control
     of Its Hazards."  Presented at International Agency for Research
     on Cancer Carcinogenesis Risks Strategies Symposium, Lyon,
     November 30 - December 2, 1977, pp.  59-71.  (EN)

     Described are the history of:  the asbestos industry, recog-
     nition of the association between asbestos and respiratory
     disease, and control regulations in the U.K.  The difficulties
     in balancing the possible hazards of asbestos against its
     useful properties, the cost of control measures, and the
     availability of adequate substitutes are discussed.


Nicholson, William J . ,  Łt_ al.  "Asbestos Contamination in United
     States' Schools from Use of Asbestos Surfacing Materials."
     Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  Vol. 330, 1979.
     pp. 587-596.  (OS)

     Samples of surfacing materials used in schools throughout
     the United States were analyzed for asbestos (1332214) con-
     tent.  In New Jersey schools, cafeterias, locker rooms, and
     custodial or boiler rooms.  Visual inspection and analysis
     samples revealed  three types of asbestos containing materials:
     a loose, friable  fibrous asbestos spray material, a moderately
     dense asbestos spray material, and a plaster or textured paint
     material with an  asbestos binder.  About 66 percent of the
     schools with asbestos surfaces had some visible evidence of
     damage to the mateial. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence
     of asbestos in sampled materials.  Air samples  were taken in 10
     schools located in New Jersey, New York, and Massachusetts,
     which had visible damage of asbestos materials.  Samples were
     collected on 0.8  micrometer pore size membrane filters and
     analyzed for chrysotile (12001295) asbestos content using
     electron microscopy.  Chrysotile asbestos concentrations
     ranged from 9 to  1,950 manograms per cubic meter (ng/cu om).
     The author concludes that damaged asbestos containing material
     increases asbestos air concentrations, and warns against the
     long term exposure of children to asbestos concentrations
     above lOOng/cu m.

Nicholson, William J.,  Pundsack, F. L.  "Asbestos in the? Environment."
     Presented at International Agency for Research on Cancer Con-
     ference, Lyon,  October 2-6, 1972, p. 126-131.  (EM)

     Sources from which asbestos may enter the ambient air and
     water are discussed, methods of measuring small quantities of
     asbestos are described, and data on the quantities found in
     the atmosphere and in rivers are presented.

Nicholson, William J., et al.  Environmental Asbestos Concentrations
     in the United States."  Presented at International Agency for
     Research on Cancer Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres Symposium,
     Lyon, Sept. 25-27, 1979.  Vol.  2, pp. 823-828.  (EN)

     Worker exposure to asbestos in and around construction sites,
     and asbestos distributions in ambient air of U.S. cities were
     determined.  Measurements of Chrysotile concentrations were
     maue in buildings with asbestos-lined return air plenums and
     damaged asbestos  surfacing material.  In houses of asbestos
     workers, and around building where asbestos fireproofing

     material was sprayed on steelwork, significant asbestos con-
     tamination was discovered:  43/89 air samples exceed 50
     ng/cu m.  Prompt appropriate control and remedial action is

Nicholson, William J.  "Public Control of Lnvironmentai Health
     Hazards (Regulatory Actions and Experiences in Controlling
     Exposure to Asbestos in the United States.)"  Annals of the
     New York Academy of Sciences.  Vol. 329, 1979, pp. 293-304.

     Historical regulatory efforts to control human exposure to
     asbestos in the U.S. are reviewed with the passage of the
     Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1971, significant changes
     occurred.   The principal manufacturers of asbestos products
     undertook  major dust control projects and were generally in
     compliance with OSHA requirements.  However, current occupational
     standards  must be reassessed in the light of newly available
     data on asbestos health effects, including cancer, and workplace
     environments must be controlled accordingly.  Few standards
     exist for  the control of environmental asbestos exposures,
     particularly those in buildings containing asbestos in friable,
     thermal, fire, or acoustic insulation materials.

Nicholson, William J.  "Toxic Substances:  Background and Nature
     of the Human Health Problem."   Presented at Government
     Institutes 1st Toxic Substances Law Seminar, Washington, D.C.,
     December 9-10, 1976, pp. 63-70.  (EN)

     Problems associated with controlling toxic substances in
     the workplace and in the environment are illustrated in a
     discussion concerning asbestos.  Data compiled by Irving
     Selikoff of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York
     City showed the 30 year effects of relatively high asbestos
     exposures  for insulation workers, but recent experience has
     indicated  that much lower exposures can also produce disease.
     Synergistic effects, vinyl chloride and chemical carcinogenesis,
     and the lack of threshold data for humans are discussed.

Novick, Lloyd F., et al.  "Asbestos in Vermont Schools:  Findings
     of a Statewide On-Site Investigation."  American Journal of Public
     Health. Vol. 71, No.  7, July 1981, p. 744.  (EB)

"Pollution Topics."  Environmental Health.  Vol.  91,  No.  12,
     December 1983.  p.  339.  (EB)
                                . _T7

"Public Awareness of Asbestos Hazards Creating New Jobs."  New York
     Times.  February 10, 1983, p. D4.   (EN)

     Asbestos abatement has emerged as a business in the wake of
     public awareness of asbestos hazards.  Asbestos was once a
     popular insulating material, but it was banned as a building
     material in 1973 because it causes lung disease.  Asbestos
     abatement involves stripping or sealing over-encapsulating
     asbestos fibers.  By June 27, 1983, all of the nation's public
     schools must report the presence of asbestos under an EPA

Reed, L. D.  "Health Hazard Evaluation Report.  No.  HETA-82-
     179-1154, Wilmington High School,  Wilmington, Ohio."  Hazard
     Evaluations and Technical Assistance Branch, NIOSH, Cincinnati,
     Ohio, 8 pages.  August 1982.  (NT)

     Ceiling materials were evaluated for asbestos (1332214)
     content in classrooms at Wilmington High School (SIC-8211),
     Wilmington, Ohio, on April 9, 1982.  The evaluation request
     came from the business manager of the school on behalf of
     2,200 students, teachers, and employees.  Bulk samples of
     ceiling materials and particulate air samples were analyzed.
     The bulk samples indicated that eight of nine ceilings con-
     tained 20 to 30 percent chrysotile asbestos.  No asbestos
     fibers were found in air samples.   The author concludes that
     students, teachers, and staff are not exposed to airborne
     asbestos fibers.  As long as the ceiling tiles remain uncom-
     promised, no health hazard exists.  If the integrity becomes
     compromised, appropriate sealants should be used, and in
     the event of installation or destruction of the ceilings,
     protective equipment should be used.

Rohl, Arthur N. , e_t aJL.  "Asbestos Exposure During Brake Lining
     Maintenance and Repair."  Environmental Research.  Vol. 12,
     No.  1, August 1976, pp.  110-129.  (EN)

     Data obtained on asbestos exposure of garage mechanics during
     brake lining maintenance and repair work show that fiber con-
     centrations frequently in excess of regulated limits are common.
     The presence of chrysotile, which ranges from chrysotile in
     both fiber and fibril form in air and brake drum dust samples,
     and the chrysotile asbestos content of personal air samples
     are measured by various techniques.  While the types of measure-
     ments correlate positively, the present technique of optically
     counting asbestos fibers may considerably underestimate the levels
     of total asbestos exposure.

Rohl,  A.  N.,  et al.   "Endemic Pleural Disease Associated with
     Exposure to Mixed Fibrous Dust in Turkey."  Science.  Vo.  216,
     No.   4545, April 30, 1982, pp.  518-521.  (EN)

     Such diseases as lung cancer, pleural mesothelioma, intersti-
     tial parenchymal fibrosis, and pleural classification and
     fibrosis were found in unusually high rates among the citizens
     of certain villages in South-Central Turkey.  Samples taken
     from the environment and lung tissues showed the presence of
     the  fibrous zeolite mineral erionite.  New test reveal the
     presence of asbestos minerals to also be contributing factor.

Rohl,  Authur N., et  a. 1.   "Environmental Asbestos Pollution Related
     to Use  of Quarried Serpentine Rock." Science.  June 17.  1977.
     Vol. 196, No. 4296, pp.  1319-1322.  (EN)

     Crushed serpentine quarried in Montgomery County, MD, has
     been used extensively for paving roads and othr surfaces.
     The  mineral assemblage includes antigorite or lizardite  as
     well as chrysotile and tremolite.  Air samples taken near
     serpentine-paved roads show that chrysotile concentrations
     are  about 1000  times greater than those typically found  in
     urban ambient air in the U.S.

Ryckman,  Mark D.,  et al.  "Asbestos Control Program for Institu-
     tional  Facilities."  Journal of Environmental Engineering-
     American Society of Civil Engineering.  Vol.  109, No.  2, April
     1983 , pp.  275-289.  (EN)

     Asbestos-containing materials have been used in 20-50% of
     the  institution in the U.S.  EPA estimates that between
     100-6800 people may be expected to die prematurely of cancers
     due  to  non-peak asbestos exposure at the prevailing levels in

Sawyer, Robert N.  et al.  "Airborne Fiber Control in Buildings
     During  Asbestos Material Removal by Amended Water in Methodology.
     Environmental Research.  Vol. 36, No. 1, Febrary 1985, pp.  46-
     56.   (EN)

     Removal of friable asbestos material from buildings can  cause
     high levels of  airborne contamination.  The efficacy of  control
     methods recommended by EPA was evaluated by examination  of 503
     air  samples obtained in 40 removal projects.  The EPA-amended
     water methodology,  when effectively administered, can provide
     a high  decree of contamination control.  Mean fiber levels in


     the work area were well below those of dry removal.  The range
     of fiber levels during removal was 0-37 fibers/cu cm.

Sawyer, Robert N. , Swoszowski, Jr. E. J.  "Asbestos Abatement in
     Schools:  Observations and Experiences."  Annals of the New York
     Academy of Sciences.  Vol. 330, 1979, pp.  765-776.  (PA)

     Technical, social, and political factors that affect the
     performance of asbestos (1332214) abatement programs under-
     taken in school buildings were discussed.  Over 50 abatement
     programs were evaluated, and in most cases the performance was

Sawyer R. N.  " Asbestos Exposure in a Yale Building - Analysis and
     Resolution."  Environmental Research.  Vol.  13, No.  1, February
     1977, pp.  146-169.  (ME)

     Over 500 air samples were obtained during surveillance,
     experimentation, and asbestos removal.  This report presents
     data obtained from 200 samples examined to date and outlines
     procedures used in the operaion.

Scheibla, Shirley Hobbs.  "Heat On Asbestos:  Legislative, Legal
     Challenges to Producers Mount."  Barrons, March 5, 1979.  pp.
     4-6.  (EN)

     About 800,000 tons of asbestos are used every year in 3,000
     products for which no acceptable substitutes exist.  Asbestos
     dust particles are very sharp and, once in the lungs, are not
     exhaled;  these particles cause asbestosis and cancer.  Armed
     with diagnostic proof of asbestos-induced cancers, many workers
     and their heirs are now suing industry.  Litigation is broaden-
     ing to  include workers' families contaminated by handling work
     clothing, and people who live downwind from  asbestos plants.
     Past and pending suits are discussed.  Congress has directed
     NIEHS to:  estimate the risk of low level exposure and costs
     of asbestos controls;  determine if there are other fibers
     that might cause problems similar to those of asbestos; and
     survey  schools for hazardous asbestos conditions.

Schmidt, William E.  "Huge Cost of Removing Asbestos Daunts Schools."
     New York Times.  October 5, 1983.  p.  A2 1 .  (EN)

     A recent report by the U.S. Dept. of Education indicates
     that it will cost about $1.4 billion to remove asbestos from
                                 _o n

     14,000 private and public school buildings around the country.
     Many school officials are alarmed about where they will be
     able to find money to finance these renovations.  Removal
     costs are estimated to run about $100,000 per school building,
     and a recent survey indicates that over half of the schools
     in the U.S. have not yet identified and reported on asbestos-
     containing buildings in their ares.

"School Asbestos Program."  Journal of Iowa Medical Society.
     Vol.  69, No.  6, June 1979, pp.  248-249.  (ME)

Selikoff, Irving J.  "Twenty Lessons form Asbestos."  EPA Journal.
     Vol.  10, No.  4, May 1984.  pp.  21-25.  (EN)

     Occupational and non-occupational exposures to asbestos over
     the last 60 years are manifest in the widespread incidence
     of related diseases.  There have been more than 100,000 deaths
     related to this mineral, and another 350,000 are anticipated
     before the effects of past exposures have run their course.
     The observation of so much serious disease has led to increased
     understanding of the circumstances in which it has occurred.
     Lessons learned form past asbestos exposure concern theories
     of latency, dose disease response, multiple factor inter-
     action, disease with brief exposure, environmental persistence,
     limitations of epidemiology, and other concepts and facts.

Silver, K. A. " Asbestos in School Buildings:  Results of a Nation-
     wide Survey."  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
     Vol.  330, 1979. pp.  777-786.  (PA)

     Descriptions are given of the activities pursued by these
     13 states.  Other factors which are discussed include federal
     involvement in the problem, issues surrounding an asbestos
     exposure standard for school buildings, the cost of correcting
     the problem, and public education on the situation.  The
     author presents a list of recommendations for the identification
     and control of asbestos in school buildings that can be imple-
     mented by both state and federal governments.

Skulas, I. M.  " Health Risks Associated with Asbestos:  An Instrument
     to Facilitate Removal of Point Sources from the Secondary Labora-
     tory." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A;  Humanities
     and Social Sciences.  Vol. 43, NO.  7, 1983.  (PA)

     The EPA School Asbestos Program has tried to eliminate asbestos
     found in school building materials.  However, the program has

     comprised the experimental abatement materials.   A sub-
     ignored the many serious health threats posed by smaller,
     individual ("point") asbestos sources prevalent  in specialized
     instructional areas (i.e. secondary chemistry laboratories).
     An instrument was designed to provide laboratory asbestos
     abatement guidance and magnify the usefulness of existing
     general materials.  A stratified, randomized, control group
     post test only design assessed the tool's effectiveness.  One
     high seniority chemistry teacher from each secondary school
     in a southeastern Michigan county was placed into either a
     larger or smaller school category, predicated on athletic
     class rating.  Half of each category was combined to form a
     control group which received general and asbestos materials.
     The remaining members of each category sequent post test
     assessed participant reaction to the materials.

Spooner, C. M.  "Asbestos in Schools - A Public Health Problem."
     New England Journal of Medicine.  Vol. 301, No.   14, October 4,
     pp.  782-783.  (ME)

Stavisky, L. P.  "State Responsibility for the Control of Asbestos
    in the Schools." Journal of School Health.  (United States).
    Vol.  52, No.   8, August 1982, pp.  358-364.  (ME)

Stupfel, Maurice,  Madaleine Mordelet-Dambrine.  "Penetration of
     Carcinogens Through Respiratory Airways."  Presented at Interna-
     tional Agency for Research on Cancer/French National Institute
     of Health & Medical Research Symposium on Environmental Pollution
     & Carcinogenic Risks.  Lyon, Nevember 3-5, 1975, pp.  61-73.

     Attempts made to explain lung carcinogenses is by physical
     processes, enzymatic activation or inhibition, and physio-
     logical and immunological reactions taking place during the
     travel of the potential carcinogenic substance through the
     respiratory airways are analyzed.  Volatility and solubili-
     ty determine the penetration of gases and aerosols in the
     respiratory tract.  Trace elements of fiber glass, metals,
     and polycyclic hydrocarbons absorbed into the asbestos
     fibers inhaled by factory workers may act as carcinogens.

Szendroi, M., et al.  "Asbestos Bodies in a Bile Duct Cancer
     After Occupational Exposure."  Environmental Research.  Vol.  30,
     No.  2, April 1983, pp.  270-281.  (EN)

     Factor affecting a case of asbestos after five years of
     occupational exposure are recounted.  An autopsy revealed

     the presence of cholelithiasis and a cancer developing from
     the cystic duct which were identified as a squamous cell
     carcinoma.  Short asbestos bodies and fragments were deter-
     mined to have the same shape as those observed in the lungs.
     The effects of asbestos exposure in ten carcinogenesis of
     the observed bile duct cancer are discusses.
Whitwell, F., Muriel L. Newhouse and Diane R. Bennett.  "A study
     of the Histological Cell Types of Lung Cancer in Workers
     Suffering from Asbestosis in the United Kingdom." British
     Journal of Industrial Medicine.  Vol. 31, No. 4, October.
     1974.  pp. 298-304.  (EN)

     (The predominant cell type of lung cancer in workers with
     certified asbestosis who died of carcinoma of the lung in
     the U.K. from 1962-72 is studied.) Clinical data, necropsy
     reports, histological sections, and in some cases paraffin
     blocks were obtained from the nine pneumoconiosis panels.
     The difficulty in finding a comparable series of non-asbestos
     -exposed individuals is pointed out.  Cigarette smoking can
     exert a carcinogenic effect on different parts of the
     bronchial tree, producing squamous tumors proximally and
     adenocarcinoma distally.  Asbestos dust lying in distal parts
     of the lung may exert a co-carcinogenic, probaly a multi-
     plicative, effect with tobacco smoke, thus producing
     adenocarcinoma of the distal part of the respiratory tract
     in the country and from hospitals where the patients had been
Zimmet, Nancy.  "Teachers Organize: Asbestos in the classroom."
     Science for the People.   Vol. 14, No. 5, September - October,
     1982.  pp!9-24.  (EN)

     In 1972 contractors used standard construction techniques to
     build a new high school in Newton, MA.  Standard procedures
     included the spraying of asbestos on all internal support
     structures.  Over the few years following the spraying the
     asbestos dried out as its dust contaminated the building's
     air.   Teachers organized the asbestos removal task force in
     1973, and students and their parents joined.  Public demon-
     stations and marches helped the school to appropriate financ-
     ing for enclosing the sprayed areas.  In 1980, further public
     appeals and campaigns led to the removal of asbestos from
     the school.
Zurer, Pamela S.  "Asbestos:  The Fiber that's Panicking America."
     Chemical & Engineering News.  Vol. 63, No. 9, March 4, 1985, pp.

Anxiety over asbestos in buildings began to grow in earnest in
1984 when EPA started highly publicized efforts to enforce its
asbestos-in-school rule.  Asbestos is also being taken out of
many private and public offices buildings.  While the health
risks of breathing high amounts of asbestos fibers are clear,
the relationship between the amount of fiber inhaled and the
amount of disease is less certain.  Problems inherent in
establishing dose-response curves, documenting exposure
measurements, and qualitative risk assessments are addressed.



The citations included here are taken from the Federal Register,
that contains announcements of the Federal regulations and legal
notices.  These regulations were promulgated by several different
agencies, and all have to do with asbestos.
Rule:      40 CFR Part 33
Source:    Federal Register.
           p. 24876.
                  Vol. 50, No. 114, June 13, 1985,
EPA issues class deviation to provide that procurement protest
determinations by Asbestos Abatement (Schools) Program recipients
shall be subject to appeal to EPA only in cases relating to
noncompetitive practices between firms and organizational conflicts
of interest, affecting those recipients anticipating issuance of
notices to contractors to proceed during June-August 1985.  Effective
June 13, 1985.  See also additional class deviations reference public
notice of bid or RFP solicitations and small business contracting
(June 13 ).
Rule:      40 CFR Part 3 0
Source:    Federal Register.
           p. 24876.
                  Vol. 50, No. 114, June 13, 1985
EPA issues class deviation to permit Asbestos Abatement (Schools)
Program recipients to receive reimbursement for certain preagreement
costs.  Effective June 13, 1985.  Contact:  Paul Wagner (202) 382-
5292 .
Rule:      40 CFR Part 32
Source:    Federal Register.
           p. 20210.
                  Vol. 50, No. 094, May 15, 1985,
EPA revises authorities under assistance programs debarment and
suspension regulations to include School Asbestos Abatement Program,
substitute avenue of internal administrative review to replace Bid
of Assistance Appeals, permit use of ordinary mail for case review
decision notification and eliminate unnecessary verbiage and
restructure content of section 32.207.  Effective May 15, 1985.
Contact:  Robert Meunier (202) 475-8028.
40 CFR Part 763
Federal Register.
p. 24552.
Vol. 49, No. 116, June 14, 1984
EPA proposes to grant Service Employees Intl Union (SEIU) request
abatement activities in schools and other buildings.  Doc. No. OPTS-
211012C;  TSH-FRL 2608-3 .   Contact:  Edward Klein (202) 544-1404.

40 CFR Part 763
Federal Register.
p. 15094.
Vol. 49, No. 75, April 17, 1984
SPA to hold public meeting reference current options for asbestos
abatement in E&S schools and public buildings, pursuant to the EPA
response to Service Employees Intl Union (SEIU) petition (see
March 7, 1984, 49 FR 8450);  May 7, 1984, 9 am, 330 Independence
Avenue SW, Washington, D. C., Doc. No. OPTS-21101A;  TSH-FRL 2566-5,
40 CFR Part 763
Federal Register.
p. 8450.
Vol 49, No. 46, March 7, 1984
EPA responds to Service Employees Intl Union (SEIU), AFL-CIO, for
rulemaking proceedings reference the abatement of friable asbestos-
containing materials in public and private E&S (elementary and
secondary) schools, and public/commercial buildings, and the
inspection and abatement of these materials.  EPA will continue
to gather information on the extent of compliance with cisbestos
standards, and its Technical Assistance Program (TAP) to assist
in detection.  SEIU requests establishment of standards and
requirements for corrective actions when asbestos is found to be
hazardous.  Comment deadline April 23, 1984.  Meeting, May 7,
location to be announced.  Doc. No. OPTS-211012.   Contact:  Jack
McCarthy (202) 554-1404.
Rule: .     40 CFR Part 763
Source:    Federal Register.
           p. 38535.
                  Vol. 47, No. 170, September 1, 1982
EPA corrects provision in regulation requiring schools to be
inspected for building materials containing asbestos to add
equivalent estimation method for determining amount of cisbestos
in bulk samples.  Effective June 28, 1982.  Doc. No. OPTS-61004C.

Rule:      40 CFR Part 763
Source:    Federal Register. Vol. 47, No. 103, May 27, 1982,
           p. 23360.

EPA requires public and private secondary and elementary schools
to inspect and identify friable asbestos-containing building
materials in order to correct potential for exposure to airborne
asbestos.  Requires schools to keep records and notify employees
on ways to reduce exposure.  Consultation with EPA regional
asbestos coordinators is encouraged.  Effective June 28, 1982.
Compliance by educational agencies by May 27.  Doc. No. 61004B.

Rule:      34 CFR Part 230 & 231
Source:    Federal Register. Vol. 46, No. 11, January 16, 1981,
           p. 4536.

"Department of Education makes available grants to LEAs and SEAs
to identify and correct asbestos hazards in schools pursuant to
Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act (45 FR 61950).

Rule:      40 CFR Part 763
Source:    Federal Register.  Vol. 46, No. 8, January 13, 1981,
           p.  3 03 3 .

"EPA correction to proposal reducing risk of exposure to asbestos-
containing materials  in school.  Doc. No. OPTS-61004A."

Proposed:  40 CFR Part 763
Source:    Federal Register. Vol. 45, No. 182, September 17, 1980,
           p.  61966.
 EPA to require all public and private elementary and secondary
schools to identify friable asbestos-containing materials in school
buildings, pursuant to PL 96-270, Asbestos School Hazard Protection
and Control Act.  Discusses history, definitions, test procedures,
etc;  forms and guides throughout.  Schedules hearing; November 17,
1980, 9 am, HHH Building, Washington, D.C.  Comment deadline
November 3, 1980.  Doc. No. OPTS 61004."

Rule:      34 CFR Parts 230 & 231
Source     Federal Register.  Vol. 45, No. 182, September 17, 1980,
           p.  61950.

"Department of Education to implement PL 96-270, Asbestos School
Hazard Detection and Control Act: makes available federal grants to
LEAs and SEAs, for identifying hazards in school buildings and
interest-free loans to LEAs to make corrections.  Comment deadline
November 3, 1980."

Proposed:  40 CFR Chapter 1
Source:    Federal Register, Vol. 44, No. 184, September 20, 1979,
           p.  54676.

"EPA publishes ANPRM on its plan for surveying E&S schools to
determine whether they contain friable asbestos containing materials;
corrective actions;  and periodic reevaluation.  Comment deadline
November 5, 1979.  Doc. No. OTS 61004.  See original notice on
school asbestos program at 44 FR 17790, March 23, 1979."

Proposed:  40 CFR Chaper I
Source:    Federal Register. Vol. 44, No. 136, July 31, 1979,
           p. 40900.

EPA accepts petitions from Environmental Defense Fund and New
Jersey with respect to regulating asbestos-containing material
in schools.

Public Law Notice:  S. 1658, Asbestos School Hazard Detection and
Control Act of 1980, became PL 96-270 on June 14, 1980 (94 Stat.487)
Source:    Federal Register, Vol. 45, No. 119, June 18, 1980,


   EPA Contacts
   0  Asbestos Information Hotline
(800)  424-9065
(202)  554-1404
   0  Asbestos Action Program
(202)  382-3949
   8  Asbestos Technical Information
       Service, Research Triangle Institute
(800)  334-8571
      EPA Regional Asbestos Coordinators

          Mr. Paul Heffernan
          EPA, Region I
          Asbestos Coordinator
          Air & Hazardous Materials Div.
          JFK Federal bldg.
          Boston, MA  02203

          Mr. Arnold Freiberger
          EPA, Region II
          Asbestos Coordinator
          Woodbridge Ave.
          Edison, NJ  08837

          Ms. Pauline Levin
          EPA, Region III  (3SA-00)
          Asbestos Coordinator
          841 Chestnut Building
          Philadelphia, PA  19107

          Mr. Jim Littell
          EPA, Region IV
          Asbestos Coordinator
          345 Courtland Street
          Atlanta, GA  30365

          Dr. Tony Restaino
          EPA, Region V
          Asbestos Coordinator
          230 S. Dearborn Street
          Chicago, IL  60604
(312) 886-6879
(FTS) 353-2291
(FTS) 886-6003

        Mr.  John  West
        EPA,  Region VI
        Asbestos  Coordinator
        First International Bldg,
        1201  Elm  Street
        Dallas, TX  75270

        Mr. Wolfgang Brandner
        EPA,  Region VII
        Asbestos  Coordinator
        726 Minnesota Ave.
        Kansas City, KA  66101

        Mr. Steve Farrow
        EPA,  Region VIII
        Asbestos  Coordinator
        1 Denver  Place
        999 - 18th Street
        Suite 1300
        Denver, CO  80212

        Ms. Jo Ann Semones
        EPA,  Region IX
        Asbestos  Coordinator
        215 Fremont Street
        San Francisco,  CA  94105

        Mr. Walter Jasper
        EPA,  Region X
        Asbestos  Coordinator
        1200  Sixth Avenue
        Seattle,  WA  98101
   EPA Headquarters Library
Additional Contacts
0  Consumer Product Safety Commission

    —  Asbestos in products or  homes
(800)  638-2772
0  American Federation of Teachers
   Public Relations Office

       School asbestos program
(202)  879-4458
                                       U.S. Environ' .'r;!.,! Prcteciion Agency
                                       Region  V, Utr^y
                                       230 South Deai born Street
                                       Chicago, Illinois 60604