systems planning

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 SOLID WASTE  SYSTEMS  PLANNING
 This training course manual has been specially
 prepared for the trainees attending the course
 and should not be included in reading lists or
 periodicals as generally available.
                Conducted by
Training Academy, Planning and Training Branch
        Systems Management Division
   Office of Solid Waste Management Programs
   ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY


               Chicago,  Illinois


                 March 1972
                                                           Ctl

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Region I
Region II
Region III
Region IV
Region V
Region VI
Region VII
Region VIII
Region
Region X
                              REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES
                        Office of Solid Waste Management Programs
Earl J. Anderson
John F. Kennedy Federal Bldg.
Government Center
Boston, Massachusetts 02203
Phone: (617)-223-6687

Gordon E. Stone
Federal Building, Rm. 3400
26 Federal Plaza
New York, New York 10007
Phone: (212)-264-0503

Joseph F.  Mastromauro
6th and Walnut Streets
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania 19106
Phone: (215)-597-9156

Elmer G. Cleveland
Suite 300
1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia  30309
Phone: (404)-526-3921

William Q. Kehr
1 North Wacker
Chicago, Illinois 60606
Phone: (312)-353-6560

Grover L.  Morris
1600 Patterson, Suite 1100
Dallas, Texas  75201
Phone: (214)-749-2007

Donald A.  Townley
1735 Baltimore Avenue
Kansas City, Missouri 64108
Phone: (816)-374-3307

Lawrence P. Gazda
9017 Federal Office Bldg.
19th and Stout Streets
Denver, Colorado 80202
Phone: (303)-837-3926

Rodney L;.  Cummins
Acting Representative
100  California Street
San Francisco,  California 94111
Phone:  (415)-556-5010

Lester E.  Blaschke
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, Washington 98101
Phone:  (206)-442-1260
Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts,  New
Hampshire, Rhode
Island,  Vermont
New Jersey, New York,
Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands
District of Columbia,
Maryland,  Virginia,
West Virginia, Delaware,
Pennsylvania

Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Mississippi,
S. Carolina,  Tennessee,
Kentucky, N.  Carolina
Illinois,  Indiana,
Michigan, Ohio,
Wisconsin, Minnesota
Arkansas,  Louisiana,
New Mexico, Oklahoma,
Texas
Iowa, Kansas, Missouri,
Nebraska
Colorado, Montana,  Utah,
Wyoming, N. Dakota,
S. Dakota
Arizona, California,
Hawaii, Nevada,  Guam,
American Samoa
Oregon, Washington,
Idaho,  Alaska

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                SPEAKERS
   MICHAEL F.  DE BONIS
   Training Officer, Training Academy
   Planning and Training Branch
   Systems Management Division
   Office of Solid Waste Management Programs
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Cincinnati, Ohio
   FRANCIS T. MAYO
   Regional Administrator, Region V
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Chicago, Illinois
, XCHET MC LAUGHLIN
   Sanitary Engineer-Planner,  Region VII
   Office of Solid Waste Management Programs
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Kansas City, Missouri
       R. PERRY
   Senior Training Officer,  Training Academy
   Planning and Training Branch
   Systems Management Division
   Office of Solid Waste Management Programs
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Cincinnati,  Ohio
   /?. h .   fro-PP
  2-U,.   G,P.  rf,
  4302.  ^ .  niat/n,
                       L f  
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SOLID WASTE SYSTEMS PLANNING

          Chicago,  Illinois

        March 28-30,  1972


            AGENDA
                                    Moderator:  M. F. DeBonis
DAY AND TIME
Tuesday,
9:00 -
9:15 -
9:30 -
9:45 -
10:15 -
10-30 -
11:00 -
11:30 -
12:00 -
1:00 -
1:30 -
2:00 -
2:30 -
2:45 -
3-45 -
March 28
9:15
9:30
9:45
10:15
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
1:00
1:30
2:00
2:30
2:45
3:45
4:00
SUBJECT
Registration
Welcome
Course Objectives
Solid Waste Characteristics and Related
Health Problems
Break
Introduction to Planning
Solid Waste Storage
Solid Waste Collection Systems
Lunch
Solid Waste Collection Equipment
Public Relations and Basic Studies
Occupational Health and Safety
Break
Volume Reduction
Film: "Where Will It All End? "
SPEAKER

F . T . Mayo
M F. DeBonis
J. R . Perry

C McLaughlin
M. F. DeBonis
J R. Perry

J R. Perry
C. McLaughlin
M. F DeBonis

J R. Perry

Wednesday, March 29
9:00 -
9:30 -
10-00 -
10:15 -
11-15 -
12-00 -
1-00 -
1:30 -
2-15 -
2:30 -
3-00 -
3:30 -
9:30
10-00
10-15
11:15
12-00
1-00
1-30
2:15
2-30
3:00
3:30
4-00
Problem Definitions and Objective Formulations
Transfer Operations
Break
Incineration
Solid Waste - A Resource
Lunch
Alternative Determination and Evaluation
Sanitary Landfill I
Break
Sanitary Landfill II
Film: "The Green Box"
Alternative Selection and the Plan
C. McLaughlin
M. F DeBonis

J R Perry
M F. DeBonis

C. McLaughlin
M F DeBonis

M. F DeBonis

C. McLaughlin

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                                      AGENDA
 DAY AND TIME
             SUBJECT
   SPEAKER
Thursday, March 30

   9:00 -  9:30

   9:30 - 10:00

 10:00 - 10:15

 10:15 - 10:45

 10:45 - 11:15

 11:15 - 11:45

 11:45 - 12:00
Implementation and Feedback

Dump Closing and Conversion

Break

Rural and Recreational Systems

Federal Solid Waste Planning Programs

Keeping the Public Informed

Course Summary and Critique
C  McLaughlin

J  R. Perry



M. F. DeBonis

C. McLaughlin

J  R  Perry

M F. DeBonis
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                      CONTENTS



SECTION I


    Solid Waste Characteristics and Related Health Problems


    Solid Waste Storage


    Solid Waste Collection Systems


    Solid Waste Collection Equipment


    Occupational Health and Safety


    Volume Reduction I:  On-Site Systems


    Volume Reduction II:  Central Systems



SECTION II
    Transfer Operations


    Incineration


    Solid Waste - A Resource


    Sanitary Landfill I


    Sanitary Landfill II



SECTION III


    Dump Closing and Conversion


    Rural and Recreational Systems


    Keeping the Public Informed



APPENDICES

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SECTION   I

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                            SOLID WASTE CHARACTERISTICS
                           AND RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS

                                      Training Staff*
I  INTRODUCTION

A  Improper management of solid waste may
   lead to accidents  and disease, blighted re-
   creational and living areas, subtle cultural
   and environmental damage.  It may mean
   lost money, lost enjoyment,  lost resources.
   The problem has  grown upon us in recent
   years through:

   1  The trend toward living  in cities or
      metropolitan regions

      1900 -  40% lived in urban areas

      1960 -  70% lived in urban areas

      2000 - 90-95% in urban  areas  estimated

   2  Population growth

   3  Intensive production of crops,  livestock,
      poultry - often near suburbs

   4  Development and use of recreational
      areas

   5  Continued growth of our whole industrial
      complex

   6  Increased use of packaging, and an
      emerging philosophy of "use and throw"
      extending even to large appliances:

         20 billion pounds of paper and card-
         board/year,  (including 70 billion
         grocery bags); over a billion pounds
         of plastic film for packaging; 48 billion
         cans (including  2 billion aerosols);
         28 billion bottles and jars;  7 million
         automobiles.  Composition of home
         refuse is changing  - less ashes and
         garbage; more paper and plastic.
         Volume, rather than  weight,  is be-
         coming the problem.

B  Public awareness  and interest in the mount-
   ing problems of solid waste storage,
   collection, and disposal have lagged.  In
   recent months there has been a remark-
   able awakening of interest in environmental
   matters.
-Training Branch,  Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati,  Ohio
 II  DIRECT EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

 A Insects and rodents resulting from improper
    refuse handling are vectors of human disease.

 B Accidental injuries are a direct consequence
    of improper refuse handling practices.

 C Air pollution through the open burning of
    solid wastes creates hazards.
Ill  DIRECT EFFECTS ON THE HUMAN
    ENVIRONMENT

 A Nuisances resulting from improper refuse
    handling are increasingly serious with
    crowding.

 B Blighting of the natural scenery with
    scattered refuse is now too evident to
    ignore.  This "visual pollution" now
    reaches  out to spoil our  dwindling beauty
    sites.

 C Air pollution results from open burning
    at dumps or home  storage sites,  or from
    burning at makeshift incineration or sal-
    vaging operations.

 D Water pollution occurs as a consequence of
    open dumping or improper disposal site
    selection or design. Untreated quench water
    and scrubber water from some outmoded
    incinerator designs add to the problem.
IV  ECONOMIC LOSSES TO POOR REFUSE
    MANAGEMENT

 A  Decreased property values are a certain
    consequence of poor operating practices.

 B  Economic losses due to poor service are
    perhaps more common,  and more often
    tolerated, than is the case with other
    municipal services.
                                                                            SW.AD.cp.1.8.70  1

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 Solid Waste Characteristics and Related Health Problems
 V  BASIC DATA

 A Information on the volume and character-
    istics of solid waste generated within the
    refuse shed is  needed:

    1  As a basis for planning future collection
       and disposal operations

    2  As a consideration in determining the
       disposal method

    3  As a basis for proper administration of
       the collection and disposal system

       a  Cost data

       b  Proper routing

       c  Proper vehicle selection

 B Data developed on the solid waste volumes
    and characteristics for residential, com-
    mercial or industrial establishments in a
    given area can fulfill immediate needs  and
    can also be useful in estimating future
    solid waste volumes in that area.

 C A knowledge of "average"  municipal waste
    characteristics and per capita contributions
    would also be useful in estimating future
    solid waste volumes.

 D The use of any published information for
    estimating either commercial,  industrial
    or municipal solid wastes  should be done
    with great caution.  Basic information on
    actual volumes and characteristics  should
    be developed as soon as possible.
VI  DESCRIPTIONS AND SOURCES OF SOLID
    WASTE CONSTITUENTS

 A Residential and Commercial Solid Wastes

    1  Mixed garbage is separately collected
       in some  residential and commercial
       collection systems.  It consists of food
       wastes for the most part; is rapidly
       decomposable with ultimate residue
       as little  as 10%  of initial mass.  Weight
       is about  600 Ibs/cu.yd.

    2  Rubbish  includes the  nonputrescible
       combustible or noncombustible wastes;
       ashes, paper, cans,  yard trimmings,
       plastics, glass, wood, and  similar
       materials.  Weight uncompacted is
       about 250 Ibs/cu.yd.
   3  Combined garbage and rubbish is the
      most common municipally collected
      waste.   Weight uncompacted is about
      300 Ibs/cu.yd.; in a packer truck about
      500 Ibs/cu. yd. Production  varies
      greatly by area; national average in
      1968 was about 5. 3 Ibs/person/day.

B  Construction and Demolition Wastes

   1  These are typically heavy,  (up to 2000 Ibs.
      or more/cu. yd. ),  bulky,  often with low
      fuel value.

   2  Typical  composition includes wood,
      steel, plaster, concrete bricks.  If
      wood is  minimized the category is
      often called solid fill.

C  Institutional Solid Wastes

   Wastes from hospitals, nursing homes,
   prisons,  schools, are often similar to
   residential and commercial wastes.
   Quantities of hospital wastes may be high,
   10-20 Ibs.  per patient per day  or more,
   with large amounts of paper  and cloth.
   Contaminated  materials (bandages,
   catheters,  etc.) may be separately stored,
   and often are disposed of by  onsite
   incineration.

D  Industrial Solid Wastes

   It is almost impossible to generalize about
   composition or quantities, because of the
   variety of industrial operations.  There is
   usually a food waste and rubbish component
   from cafeteria and other  personnel service
   which resembles home waste,  but the
   wastes from the industry itself may be
   unique to the operation.

E  Agricultural Solid Wastes

   These are also highly variable.  The two
   principal categories are:

   1  Crop residues - that portion of the crop
      left in the field.

   2  Animal manures

F  Miscellaneous Municipal Solid  Wastes

   1  Street cleaning residues consist of dirt,
      leaves,  paper. Weight is usually high
      - about 1000 Ibs/cu.yd.

   2  Digested sludge from the  sewage treat-
      ment plant is  sometimes buried, sometimes
      dewatered  and burned.
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                                   SOLID WASTE STORAGE

                                        Training Staff*
 I  INTRODUCTION


 With the planned obsolescence in our affluent
 society,  the statement repeated more and
 more often that we may well smother  in our
 own refuse is rapidly assuming added signi-
 ficance.  In some areas future community
 survival depends on today's community
 sanitation plans.  Included in community
 planning must be plans  for optimum refuse
 storage.
H  COMMUNITY REFUSE  STORAGE
    OBJECTIVES


 A  Good refuse storage techniques must be
    practiced primarily for health and sani-
    tation reasons, to prevent:


    1  Vectors


    2  Odors


    3  Unsightliness


 B  Proper  storage expedites collection.
    Better health and better economy are
    interrelated.
Ill  RESPONSIBILITY FOR STORAGE


 A  Refuse storage is an individual
    responsibility


 B  Government also shares a responsibility

    by:


    1  Providing guidelines through
       recommendations and ordinances


    2  Enforcing ordinances
IV  RESIDENTIAL REFUSE STORAGE


 A  Factors to consider in establishing
    container standards:


    1  Manageable size, shape


       a  Usually 20-30 gallon capacity


       b  Convenient shape,  tapered for
          easy emptying.


    2  Material


       a  If reusable,  must be durable,
          cleanable; includes metals,  plastics.


       b  Single service includes kraft paper
          bags, plastic liners.


    3  Complete enclosure of contents


       a  Protection from  weather


       b  Prevention of scattering


       c  Exclusion of vectors


    4  Convenient hand holds


 B  Containers may be given proper care
    and protection by:


    1  Wrapping refuse


    2  Using racks


    3  Washing cans


    4  Providing  sheds,  storage pits,  other
       shelter


       a  May improve sightliness,  protection


       b  Add to cleaning responsibility
 * Training Branch,  Division of Technical
 Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
 Cincinnati,  Ohio
                   SW. ST. gn. 2. 1.67

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 Solid Waste Storage
 C Container placement may be:

   1  In attached garage or basement

      a  Most convenient for householder

      b  Collector must enter  premises un-
         less containers are set out by
         householder

      c  Aesthetics of inside storage are
         usually desirable from community's
         viewpoint;  may not be from house-
         holder's  viewpoint.  Nearness of
         containers helps householder
         remember to maintain them.

   2  At rear or side of house

      a  Does not detract from neighborhood
         appearance

      b  Convenient location for householder

      c  Reasonably close for  collection  from
         either  street or alley.

   3  At rear of property line  by the alley

      a  Convenient to  collectors; less so to
         householder.

      b  Containers are apt to be damaged
         or stolen,  and contents scattered.

      c  Isolation predisposes to littered
         storage areas and makeshift
         containers.

-D The area surrounding the container should
   be kept:

   1  Free from litter

   2  Free from vectors

   3  Free from materials not intended for
      collection
 E  Factors affecting storage include:

    1  Types of refuse

    2  Method of disposal

    3  Per capita contribution

    4  On-site  processing

    5  Climate

    6  Seasons

    7  Multifamily _vs single occupancy.

 F  Human factors  also affect storage
    practices

    1  Attitude of homeowner

    2  Socioeconomic level

    3  Local  customs and aesthetic standards
V   COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL
    STORAGE

 A  Commercial and industrial operations
    share responsibility with individuals and
    government for good refuse storage.

 B  Nature and quantity of refuse generated
    may be of special character.

 C  Containers are of shape, volume,  and
    construction to meet the particular needs
    of the nature and volume of waste
    generated.

    1  Detachables

    2  Compactors
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                            SOLID WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS

                                        Training Staff*
 I   PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY

 The aspects of public health and safety must
 not be ignored when considering refuse
 collection methods.

 A  Flats, flies and other vectors are  possible
    sources of diseases or, more commonly,
   nuisances to the general public.

 B The design of an adequate collection
    system minimizes public nuisances by
   recognizing their existence and preventing
    their occurrence.
II   FACTORS AFFECTING COLLECTION
   METHODS

 An evaluation of an interrelated set of fixed
 and variable factors is necessary for the
 proper development of a refuse collection
 system

 A Fixed Factors May Include:

    1  Type of refuse produced

    2  Population density

    3  Physical layout of area

    4  Zoning

    5  Climate

 B Variable Factors May Include:

   1  Responsibility for disposal

   2  Disposal methods

    3  Material handled and collection
      frequency

    4  Type of equipment

    5  Extent of municipal,  contract and/or
      private collection agencies

    6  Location of refuse

    7  Organization of crews
 *Trammg Branch, Division of Technical
 Operations,  Solid Waste  Management Office,
 Cincinnati, Ohio
III  CO LLECTION AGENCIES

 A Municipal collection is performed by
    public employees and equipment under
    direction of a regular department or
    official.

    1  Advantages are:

       a  Sanitation can be  a primary motive

       b  Department is  directly responsible
          to the public

    2  Disadvantages are:

       a  Adverse political influences may
          exist; there may be a frequent
          turnover of supervisory staff.

       b  There is a possibility of operation
          by untrained officials.

       c  Emphasis may be on cheapness,
          rather than efficiency

 B Contract Collection  is Performed by a
    Private Company, Paid by the City.

    1  Advantages are:

       a  The service is run as a business

       b  Political influence  is less evident

       c  The city's part in collection is
          simplified

       d  Cost is  established in advance

       e  Contractor must raise the capital

       f  The city can stipulate and enforce
          adequate collection standards

    2  Disadvantages are:

       a  Profit,  rather than sanitation,  is
          the  prime motive.

       b  Contracting permits less flexibility
          of service

       c  If contract is broken,  no alternative
          service  may be available.
                     SW.CL.gn.5. 12.68   1

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 Solid Waste Collection Systems
       d   Contractor is not necessarily assured
          of contract renewal.

 C  Private collection is performed by
    individuals or companies, with arrange-
    ments for service being made directly
    with each householder or business.

    1  Art advantage  is that some service is
       offered where none may be available
       otherwise.

    2  Disadvantages are:

       a  Expensive overlapping of routes
          occurs

       b  Competition may result in price
          cutting and lowering of sanitation
          or  service standards.

 D  Regardless of the collecting agency used,
    refuse collection is a governmental
    responsibility and should be under the
    constant  supervision of the appropriate
    government agency.
IV  UNIT OPERATIONS

 Careful analysis of the various methods
 available for each individual operation
 involved in collection is required to arrive
 at the most efficient and economical
 collection system.

 A  The pick-up operation is the act of
    transferring refuse from the householders'
    premises to the collection vehicle.   The
    various types of service provided to  the
    householder may include:

    1 Curb service
   2 Set-out service

   3 Complete backyard service

     a Set-out, set-back service

     b Backyard carry service

B  Method of Organizing Work

   Integrated analyses of the method of
   refuse  pick-up to be used,  types  of equip-
   ment available and the various methods
   of organizing work should be accomplished
   to provide efficient and economical
   collection.


   1  Individual crews  may be organized to
     accomplish collection by a variety of
     methods.  These include:

     a  Daily route

     b  Large route

     c  Single load

     d  Definite working  day

     e  Relay

   2  It is sometimes advantageous to
     integrate the work of several crews
     in a collection system.  The method
     under such circumstances may include:

     a  Swing crew

     b  Variable size crew

     c  Inter-relief

     d Reservoir route
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                         SOLID WASTE COLLECTION EQUIPMENT

                                       Training Staff*
I  COLLECTION

Speaking very generally, we can say that
collection represents three-fourths  of the
whole refuse management cost; and  of the
collection cost,  about three-fourths  is labor.
Most of the day-to-day management  headaches
involve labor, too, so the trend has  been to
the increasing mechanization of the  collection
process.  This is  true of rural collection as
well.  Labor is becoming too expensive for
us to justify the use of makeshift equipment.

A  Manually Loaded Compacting Bodies

   1   Some economic advantages of  suitable
      equipment over makeshift vehicles
     are:

      a  They can carry a  useful load because
         loose refuse is  compacted

      b  Low loading height and other loading
         conveniences are  built in

      c  Loads are easily emptied

         1) Dump  bodies

         2) Ejector plate bodies

   2  Some sanitary, safety, and esthetic
     advantages are:

     a   Leak-proof, covered body built to
         withstand corrosion

      b  Cleanable body and  respectable
         appearance

      c  Safety advantages

         1) Traffic signals, mirrors

         2) Handholds, steps, emergency
           stop bars

   3  Crews and loading practices vary

      a  A usual crew for a 16 to 24 cubic
         yard truck is a driver and one or
         two loaders.  The driver may help
         load.
 ''•Training Branch, Division of Technical
 Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
 Cincinnati, Ohio
      b  Sometimes the loaders drive
        motor scooters or small pickups
        ("Satellite System") to save walking
        time.  This is particularly true where
        there are long driveways or some
        distance between houses.

     c  The "one man"  collection system
        usually employs a vehicle specially
        equipped for one-man operation.
        It has been used in both rural and urban
        situations.

B  Mechanically Loaded  Bodies

   There are almost all  detachable container
   systems.  It is only a partially mechanized
   service in that the customer and  collector
   still do something.

   1  The customer puts the refuse  in the
      container; special  equipment is used
      to empty the containers.

   2  The container may be emptied at the
      storage site;  or  it  may be carried to
      the disposal site and emptied there.

   3  The refuse may be compacted at
     the point of origin with a  stationary
      packer, or in the collection vehicle,
      or not at all.

   4  There are several types  of detachable
      container systems:

     a  Lift and Carry - usually 3 to 15
        cubic yard capacity containers,
        trucked to the disposal site.

      b  Side Loader Rollouts - usually 1
        to 3 cubic  yard  containers, hoisted
        at the side of the truck and emptied
        at point of collection.

      c  Rear Loader  - similar in concept to
        the side loader.  Some are rather
        makeshift  accessories to the con-
        ventional manually loaded truck.

      d  Front End Loader - handles containers
        from 1 to 10 cubic yards.  Arms
        move the container up over the cab,
        dumping contents  into the truck body.
                                                                         SW.CL.ce.3.4.70  1

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Solid Waste Collection Equipment
         The system is fast and sparing of
         labor.  Interesting variations in-
         clude the refuse trains (bulk con-
         tainers on wheels); container stations
         for rural collection like the Chilton
         County,  Alabama  system; and me-
         chanical collection of household
         waste like "Godzilla" and the
         "Garbage Grabber"  of Scottsdale,
         Arizona.

     e   Pull-ons - also called drop-offs.
         These are large detachable contain-
         ers of up to 40 cubic yards or more,
         pulled onto a  lowboy or tiltbed with
         cables or hydraulics and trucked to
         the disposal site.   May have a
         stationary compaction unit provided.
         These were first used for commer-
         cial and industrial use.   However,
         they have some good application for
         small communities or rural service,
         acting as a sort of small transfer
         station or "removable disposal site".

     Detachable  containers may be cleaned
      at  the storage or disposal site, or at
      the truck.  Truck-mounted cleaners
      are available.
C Other Systems or Applications

   1  Small covered, compacting,  side-
      loading bodies.  These are inexpensive,
      designed usually for about a  1-ton
      chassis,  and good for narrow alleys,
      1-man rural collection, collection from
      small recreational areas, and so on.
      They may be provided with side-loader
     hoists to handle barrels.

   2  Vacuum systems.  These are just
      leaf-collection trucks adapted for
      cleaning out litter barrels,

   3  Non-compactor, open body collection
      vehicles,  hopefully with dumping
      mechanism.  These have some legi-
      timate uses for hauling bulky items
      like furniture, appliances, wrecked
     cars.  They may conceivably also be
      used for collecting home or recrea-
     tional refuse stored in plastic or
      paper disposable sacks.
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                          OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

                                        Training Staff*
 I  INTRODUCTION

 The solid waste management business is one
 of the most hazardous in America.  It has
 been criticized for the severity of its acci-
 dents, for lacking equipment standards and
 for having poorly trained personnel.  At best,
 only a guess can be made of the overall number
 of injuries occurring annually.  Usually only
 the spectacular type injuries are the ones we
 learn of through the news media.
 II  THE NATIONAL PROBLEM IN REFUSE
    COLLECTION


 A Injuries Per Million Man-Hours - 1966

    1  Industry                        6.91


    2  Federal Civil Service            7.30


    3  Municipal Employees           22.20


    4  Underground Mining            36.64

    5  Sanitation (refuse collection)    60.77


 B National Safety Council is Attempting to
    Create an Awareness Through:


    1  Assemblage and presentation of injury
       data


    2  The Government Refuse Collection and
       Disposal Association


 C Reasons for Lack of Data


    1  Municipalities combine functions and
       their records:

       a   Sanitation and health


       b  Sanitation and streets


       c  Public Works
III  ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENTS IN REFUSE
    COLLECTION

 A Types of Accidents Include:
 * Training Branch,  Division oiTecrmical
 Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
 Cincinnati,  Ohio
    1  Struck against


    2  Struck by


    3   Overexertion


    4  Contact


    5  Caught in


    6  Falls


 B  Nature of Injury:


    1   Back strain


    2  Sprain


    3  Contusion


    4  Fracture


    5  Bruise


    6  Laceration


    7 Hernia

    8  Muscle spasm


    9   Cuts


  10   Dislocations



IV  FACTORS IN CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS

 A  Narrow Streets


 B  Old or Otherwise Unsuitable Equipment

 C  Ordinances Not Enforced

 D  Haste in Completing Route


 E  Carrying Refuse From Home to Truck



 V  HAZARDS IN REFUSE COLLECTION


 A  Equipment Types Include:


    1   Rotary blade - blade close to worker
                                                                        SW.HS.hi.2 .6.70   1

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Occupational Health and Safety
   2  Packer - blade travels on rollers in
     tracks. Edges come close to body frame
     and may pinch or amputate fingers or
     hands.


   3  Ejector-Packer blade  - retracted,
     lowered and pushed forward by hydraulic
     cylinders.  Packing action starts ten
     inches from rear of hopper.  In one city,
     nine hand losses in six years.


   4  Side loader truck - high loading height

   5  Front-end loader - arms close to cab


B  Design Deficiencies Include:


   1  Most equipment is designed for speedy
     reception and packing of refuse,  and
     maximum pay load.


   2  There is insufficient guarding at point
     of rotation or operation.

C  Human Errors of Collectors (Greater than
   Equipment Design Errors) Include:


   1   Poor physical condition


   2   Insufficient rest


   3  Daydreaming


   4   Negligent attitude


   5 Chance-taking


D Street Collection is Hazardous

   1   Back-up of vehicle  causes 80 percent of
     vehicle accidents

   2   Riding on hoppers or steps is dangerous

E Unsanitary Health Conditions Include:

   1   Lack of toilet facilities


   2  Lack of storage place for lunches


   3 Lack of shower facilities


   4   Lack of drinking water
           DISPOSAL INJURIES
In an environment where men are working in
and around moving vehicles and machinery
there is the potential for accidents resulting
in injuries and even death.  Compound the
problems created by the moving vehicles and
machinery with the presence of hazardous
material and the  potentials for the injuries
increases.  These are the working conditions
for the men employed at refuse disposal
facilities.
I  TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS


Traffic accidents are among the most com-
monly occurring accidents at a disposal
facility.


A  Hazards to the Public


   1   Collection vehicles waiting to enter
      disposal site

   2  Collection vehicles turning off access
      roads


   3  Private homeowner dumping waste at
      facility


      a Stranger at site unfamiliar with
         operation


      b  Small vehicle difficult to see

B  Hazards to Facility Personnel

   1   Congestion of collection vehicles

   2  Operation of dozer


      a  In marshy areas

      b  On steep slopes


      c  Over uncertain slopes of refuse


C  Hazards to Collection Personnel


   1   Improperly constructed access road


      a  Dusty roads


      b Blind corners

      c  Uncertain terrain
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                                                          Occupational Health and Safety
   2  Improperly constructed dumping area

      a  Backing into pits or trenches

      b  Falling into pits or trenches  during
         dumping

      c  Unstable soil conditions giving away



II  FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS

 Although a properly operated disposal facility
 minimizes the potentials for accidents, the
 acceptance at the site of such materials as
 floor sweepings, magnesium shavings, chemical
 and  petroleum waste products,  sawdust,
 plastics and ground rubber presents additional
 hazards to the personnel.

 A Hazards to the Public

   1  Wind blown contaminants  air borne by
      explosion

   2  Projectiles air borne by explosion

   3  Direct injury to homeowner dumping
      at facility

   4 Children  injured playing near fire

   5 Spread of fire to nearby property

   6 Accidents caused by smoke obscuring
      vision

      a  Highways

      b  Airports

 B Hazards to Facility Personnel

   1  Direct injury from explosion or fire

      a  Burns

      b  Punctures

      c  Severance

   2 Inhalation of contaminants

   3  Asphyxia from smoke

   4 Underground fire
 C  Hazards to Collection Personnel

    1  Dumping of unknown waste

    2   Traveling over underground fire

    3  Visibility obscured by smoke

    4   Unloading of a "hot load".



Ill  TOXIC OR PATHOGENIC INGESTIONS

 The  ingestion of toxic or pathogenic agents
 dispursed at a disposal facility is not of parti-
 cular concern to  the average homeowner, but
 to the facility and collection personnel and
 the homeowner who delivers his own waste
 to the disposal site,  this is of grave concern.

 A  Hazards to the Public

    1   Air-borne contaminants from burning or
      explosion at a disposal site

    2   Water-borned  contaminants from
       leachate

    3 Children and scavengers utilizing the site

 B  Hazards to the Facility Personnel

    1  Breathing of air-borne contaminants
       from:

      a   Explosion of empty container

      b   Dumping procedure

       c   Rehandling  procedure

    2   Physical transmission of contaminants

      a   Handling the waste

      b   Contaminated lunch

      c   Handling the residue

 C  Hazards to Collection Personnel

    The dangers to the collection personnel of
    ingestion of toxic or pathogenic agents
    will generally be  from the breathing of
    air-borne  agents or the physical transmission
    by handling the waste.

 D  Sources of Hazardous Waste

    1  Hospital

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Occupational Health and Safety
    2  Sewage disposal facilities

    3  Colleges

    4  Dispensaries

    5  Drug stores

    6  Medical offices

    7  High schools

    8  Industries

    9  Commercial laboratories

   10  Home



IV  MISCELLANEOUS INJURIES

 A  Lacerations

    1  Walking on refuse

    2  Children playing

    3  Scavengers  handling refuse

    4  Flipping up or flying objects

 B  Bites

    1  Animals

    2  Vectors



 V  CONSTRUCTIVE PREVENTIVE STEPS

 A  An Aggressive  Safety Program

    1  A "Program Guide for Public Employee
      Safety" from NSC is available

    2  Safety programs that have been successful:

      a  Dallas, Texas
                                                     b  North Miami, Florida

                                                     c  National Disposal Contractors

                                                  3  A safety program may be organized
                                                     through committees:

                                                     a  Department heads

                                                     b  Selected individuals

                                                     c  Should meet regularly


                                                  4   Training program essential

                                                     a Supervisory training

                                                        1) General safety

                                                        2) First aid

                                                     b  Employee training

                                                     c  Get help from State Industrial
                                                        Commission (Ohio; Florida; Californ-
                                                        ia; Michigan).

                                                  5  Driver and heavy equipment operator
                                                     training


                                                      a  Use  of collection and other heavy
                                                        equipment

                                                      b Use  of safety equipment

                                                  6   Safety equipment (as situation warrants)

                                                      a Leather shoulder and hip pads

                                                      b  Rubber gloves and aprons

                                                      c  Safety shoes

                                                      d  Eye  shields

                                                      e  Goggles
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                         VOLUME REDUCTION I:  ONSITE SYSTEMS

                                       Training Staff*
 I  DEFINITION OF ONSITE

 A Onsite is any physical location where
   solid wastes are produced such as a
   factory,  restaurant, institution,  multiple
   dwelling unit or the private home.

 B Some Types of Volume Red iction Are:

   1  Mechanical compacting

   2  Incineration

   3  Pulping

   4  Composting
II   REASONS FOR ONSITE VOLUME
    REDUCTION

 A For Health and Economic Reasons, Onsite
   Volume Reduction is Beneficial.

   1  Elimination or reduction of food and
      harborage for mosquitos,  flies, rats,
      roaches.

   2  Smaller quantities of refuse may be
      stored, which generally keeps the area
      neater.

    3  Reduces chances of accidents such as
      children being poisoned, or fires.

 B  Economic

    1  With reduced  volume of refuse there  is
      correspondingly less handling of refuse
      and lower labor costs.

      a  Refuse usually goes directly into
         reducing mechanism at large
         establishments such as apartments,
         restaurants, factories.

      b  Garbage is fed directly into grinders
         with no secondary handling.

      c  Fewer items are  carried from
         storage area to collection truck.

   2  Collection costs may be reduced or
      better service may result from onsite
      volume reduction.

 ^Training Branch,  Division of Technical
 Operations,  Solid Waste Management Office,
 Cincinnati, Ohio
       a  Municipality might collect the
          smaller quantities involved from
          apartments which were not
          previously served.

       b  Less work is done by collectors.

       c  Charge by private contractors may
          be lower.
Ill  METHODS OF ONSITE VOLUME REDUCTION
    FOR INDIVIDUAL HOMES

 A  Composting  - Includes Standard Farm
    Composting and Bottomless Cans Set In
    Ground with Tight-Fitting Tops.

    1  Advantages:  in bottomless cans food
       wastes shrink and decompose to about
       \ of original volume.

    2  Disadvantages:

       a  Open pile encourages breeding of
          flies and rats.

       b  With open pile it is difficult if not
          impossible, to do a good job with-
          out first  shredding or grinding.

       c  Can must be cleaned out every 8
          to 14 months.

       d  Residue is  odorous,  must be buried
          or composted  elsewhere with other
          material  such  as leaves or garden
          wastes.

       e  Container rusts  and is difficult to
          dig out.

 B  Dump - is not satisfactory generally and
    its use even on a farm or ranch is ques-
    tionable for the reasons of fire hazards,
    rodent, fly and mosquito breeding and
    accident potential for humans and domestic
    animals.

 C  Backyard Burning -  a simple method of
    refuse volume  reduction by open burning
    on ground,  in wire  mesh container,  drum
    or outdoor fireplace.
                                                                      SW.VR.os.2.1.70   1

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 Volume Reduction I: Onsite Systems
    1  Advantages: reduces volume for
      collection.

    2 Disadvantages:

      a  Produces air pollution due to low
         burning temperature and  incomplete
         combustion.

      b  Attracts flies,  rats  and small
         animals.

      c  Produces odors.

      d  Residue  remains to  be disposed of.

      e  Safety -  fire
IV  METHODS OF ONSITE VOLUME
    REDUCTION FOR INDIVIDUAL HOMES
    AND MULTIPLE UNITS

 A  Garbage Grinders - in the mind of the
    housewife or whoever uses a grinder this
    is a true type of garbage disposal.  How-
    ever,  it is really a means of preparing
    garbage for water transport to another
    location for treatment.

    1   Advantages:

       a   Reduces total collected refuse
          volume about  10%.

       b   Convenient - particularly at
          restaurants,  institutions,  produce
          markets

       c   Reduces length of storage  time.

       d   May eliminate home garbage  can.

    2   Disadvantages:

       a   Does not handle all food wastes
         (large bones,  fibrous  material).

       b   Considerable  variance in size of
         grind.

       c   Considerable  difference in safety
          features between makes.

 B  Domestic Incinerators

    Indoor domestic incinerators without
    auxiliary fuel - slightly better than
    outdoor types due to taller chimney.
Domestic incinerators using gas for
auxiliary fuel are of three general
types:

a  Dehydrating units - provide a
   continuous flame (or hot plate if
   electric) which heats and dries
   refuse which then ignites.  The
   flame is not in direct contact with
   refuse.

b  High Btu input units - act as a
   storage unit until ignited when
   full.  Often has timer on burner
   to turn off at preset time.

c  High Btu input units with afterburner
   - similar in appearance to other
   home incinerators except that the
   combustion chamber is baffled so that
   the  gases of combustion from the
   primary chamber must  pass  down and
   under the baffle to reach the secondary
   chamber. About 1/3 of gas Btu
   output is discharged into the primary
   chamber and 2/3 into the secondary
   chamber. Secondary flame burns
   smoke and oily vapors from the
   primary chamber.

Problems with  domestic incinerators
include:

a  Limited air  supply

b  Small combustion chamber volume

c  Low flue gas temperature

d  Poor  residue quality

e  Odors

f  Air pollution -  fly ash,  smoke

g  Lack of proper insulation

h  Danger of flashbacks

i  Personal cost to homeowners usually
   more  than municipal collection

j  Householder may cut back on timer
   to save gas

k  Householder may pile incinerator
   full of wet material it can not
   handle.
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                                                        Volume Reduction I:  Onsite Systems
 C  Flue-Fed Incineration - Primarily apart-
    ment house systems which are composed
    of a single or multiple basement chamber
    with either an integral flue for both refuse
    delivery, and flue-gas exhaust, or a.
    double flue comprising one flue for refuse
    delivery and other for flue-gas exhaust.

    1   The elementary designs of single-flue
       incinerators have proved unsatisfactory
       for achieving complete combustion of
      refuse.

       a  Excess of combustibles found in
         residue

       b  Incompletely oxidized materials
         discharged to the atmosphere con-
         tain a wide range of hydrocarbons
         and other odorous and harmful
         emissions including:

         1) Highly odorous aldehydes - acrid,
            citric, rancid butter

         2) Organic acids and esters - fruity

         3) Small amounts of oxides  of
            nitrogen

         4) Small amounts of sulfur compounds

       c  Fly ash, charred paper,  and other
         particulate materials discharged to
         the atmosphere.

      d  Smoke and odorous gases from flue
         escape into corridors

    2  Despite the  disadvantages,  existing
       apartment house flue-fed incinerators
       have  continued in use  in some
       communities because they are:

      a  Simple and convenient for the
         occupant

      b  Economical for the apartment owner

      c  Reduces load on municipal disposal
         facilities

D Home Compaction Units
V  METHODS OF ONSITE VOLUME
   REDUCTION FOR MULTIPLE - FAMILY
   UNITS, HOSPITALS, OFFICE BUILDINGS

A Pulping^' - A process in which paper
   wastes are ground in a water vortex then
   squeezed semi-dry. Originally designed
   for elimination of secret documents -
   banks use them.
   1  Advantages:

      a  Provide fast and reduced handling
         of wastes

      b  Aid prevention of contamination of
         hospitals

      c  80% volume reduction

      d  Good for "high-rise" developments

      e  Can have more than one service
         unit serving central dewatering unit

      f  Has trash receptacle; restaurants
         save  silverware

   2  Disadvantages:

      a  Expensive initial cost

      b  Require specialized equipment

      c  Chutes may plug up

      d  Increase water consumption

B Compaction

   A method of onsite volume reduction,
   consisting of packaging refuse under
   compression into paper sacks or containers.

   1 Advantages:

      a  High  compaction ratio up to 75%

      b  Reduce space needed for waste
         storage

      c  Eliminate rubbish barrels

      d  Quieter, lighter,  easier to take
         refuse to collection point

      e  Eliminate onsite incineration where
         air pollution legislation is in  force

      f  Reduce manhours

      g  Reduce handling and hauling costs

      h  Can be manually operated; or
         automatically with chutes

   2  Disadvantages:

      a  Require compressed air for some
         models

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Volume Reduction I: Onsite Systems
b Must have facilities for wheeling
containers to collection truck
c Chutes plug
d Chutes must be sanitized
VI OTHER ITEMS CONCERNING ON-SITE
VOLUME REDUCTION
A Research
B Planning for New Buildings
C Ordinances and Enforcements
D Field Evaluation Techniques
4

REFERENCES
1 APWA, Municipal Refuse Disposal, Public
Administration Service, Chicago,
Illinois, 2nd Ed. 528 pp. 1966.
2 U.S. Public Health Service. Community
Wide Installation of Household Garbage
Grinders. Washington, GPO, 41 pp.
1952.
3 Kaiser, E.R. Unsolved Problems With
Flue-Fed Incinerators, APCA Journal,
Vol. 11, No. 5, 524-527. May 1961
4 Incinerator Institute of America, 1. 1. A.
Incinerator Standards. New York.
April 1963.
5 Waste Handling Now Critical for Planners.
Material Handling Engineering, p. 64.
November 1966.
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                       VOLUME REDUCTION II:   CENTRAL SYSTEMS
                                       Training Staff*
 I   INTRODUCTION

    Even with on-site volume reduction methods
    finding increasing use in the United States,
    there still exists a very real need for more
    centralized volume reduction systems.
    Some of the newer approaches to volume
    reduction are grinding,  baling and liquid-
    waste pulping.  All of these techniques
    serve to reduce the  amount of land required
    for final disposal.
II  GRINDING

   To date refuse grinding has been utilized
   principally in conjunction with the com-
   posting process.  Recently the grinding
   process  has been considered  for use with
   baling, sanitary landfill, and incineration.
   Several manufacturers are now producing
   or developing grinders suitable for use with
   municipal refuse.

 A Reasons For Grinding

   1  Some volume reduction achieved

   2  Elimination of voids

   3  Permits easier handling of material

   4  Permits easier compaction of material

   5  Homogenizes material somewhat

   6  Promotes more complete burnout from
      incineration

 B Disadvantages of Grinding

   1  Some materials not grindable

   2  Need  for downtime alternative procedure

 C Grinder  Designs

   1  Horizontal hammermills - Floating
      hammers on a rapidly rotating rotor
      strike the material.   When sufficient
      size reduction is achieved, the material
      passes through grate bars. Several
      mills may be arranged in series to
      achieve even further  particle  size
      reduction.

 '"Training Branch,  Division of Technical
 Operations, Solid  Waste Management Office,
 Cincinnati,  Ohio
    2  Vertical hammermills - These are
       similar to horizontal mills except that
       the rotor is now vertical.   Material is
       fed in at the top of the mill and passes
       down through a series of rapidly moving
       hammers. No grate system is used.

    3  Other designs

       a  Impact mills

       b  Knife hogs


III  BALING

    Baling of material has  been widely practiced
    by agriculture and industry.  Balers have
    been developed to handle material ranging
    from hay to paper to metal.  The refuse
    balers being developed now in the U. S. are
    generally variations of the  older baler
    designs.

 A Advantages of Baling

    1  Volume reduction

    2  Increased payload after  transfer

    3  Easy handling

    4  Better dust and odor control

    5  Possible use for bales

 B Disadvantages of Baling

    1  Non-baleable items  exist

    2  Too high moisture content can cause
       extrusion of juices

    3  Need down-time alternative procedure
       or stand-by baler

 C Baler Designs

    1  Agricultural type baler - The basic baler
       has been '"beefed-up" to withstand
       abrasiveness of solid waste.

       a  Nearly continuous operation

       b  Single reciprocating hydraulic ram
                        SW. VR. cs. 1. 11. 69  1

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Volume Reduction II:  Central  Systems
      c  Compression is one direction only

      d  Tie-wires used to enclose bale

   2  Scrap metal type baler - This baler is
      similar to junk automobile balers.

      a  Batch operation - one bale  per cycle

      b  Several hydraulic rams used

      c  Compression in two or three direc-
         tions

      d  Bales may or may not be enclosed

   3  The Tezuka-Kosan Press  - This is
      essentially a large scrap metal type
      baler.   Publicity concerning this baler
      has been widespread.
      Consists of:

      a  Preliminary compression system
         (pressure of 221 to 425 pounds per
         square inch)

      b  Main compression system - two
         step pressure  exerted (675 psi, then
         5120 psi)

      c  Optional 12 cylinder kneading
         sequence main compression system
         available (5, 278 psi)

      d  May enclose bales with chicken wire
         and coat with cement or asphalt

      e  Bale height determined by compressi-
         bility or refuse

D  Grinding May Be Beneficial To Baling For
   the Following Reasons:

   1  Increase bale densities

   2  More uniform moisture distribution
    3  Less loss of fines

    4  Less presorting

    5  Less bridging problems


IV  LIQUID WASTE  PULPING

    Recently,  wet-paper pulping equipment
    has been adapted to handle general muni-
    cipal refuse.  The addition of water to the
    refuse apparently makes a large portion
    of the wastes (particularly cardboard and
    paper) more readily grindable.

 A  The pulper consists  of a drum,  into which
    refuse and water are mixed.  At the bottom
    of the drum is a rapidly rotating grinding
    blade overriding a perforated face plate.
    The pulped material is  extruded through
    this plate.  Other features of this pulper
    are:

    1  Junk-chute where nongrmdables are
       automatically ejected

    2  Grit (ground glass and heavy particles)
       is separated from process in liquid
       cyclone

    3  Pulp is dewatered

    4  Process water is recycled

 B  Material From This Process Is Not Used
    For Baling
 V  GRINDING AND BALING COSTS

    Grinding and baling costs are not well
    established yet, since most of this equip-
    ment is still  in the developmental  phase.
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SECTION  II

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                                  TRANSFER OPERATIONS

                                        Training Staff*
 I  INTRODUCTION


 A  Background


    1  Transfer stations used during horse-
       drawn collection era


    2  Transfer stations made obsolete by
       faster trucks used for refuse collection


 B  The Need for Transfer Stations Today


    1  Close-in disposal sites becoming
       harder to find


    2  Wasting time of collection crew during
       haul


    3  Collection agency and disposal agency
       may be separate


 C  Considerations for Use of Transfer
    Operations


    1  Cost Analysis and engineering
       economics


    2  Efficiency of system


    3  Length of haul to disposal site


    4  Time of travel to disposal site


    5  Suitability of transfer operations to
       area



II  REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD TRANSFER
    STATION


 A  System Must he Equal to or Better Than
    Collection System  In:


    1  Capacity


    2   Sanitation


    3  Reliability


    4 Adequacy


    5  Standards of operation
^Training Branch,  Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, Ohio
 B System Must Not'


    1  Provide uneconomical delivery at the
       disposal site

    2  Create confusion or loss of time

    3  Create nuisances



III  DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

 A Location of Transfer Stations

    1  Locate near center of population it
       serves


    2  Be convenient for supplemental modes
       of transportation

    3  Minimize public objection

 B Actual  Design of System Depends On:

    1  Character of refuse handled

    2  Quantity of refuse handled

    3  Disposal method


    4  Site availability

    5  Community attitude

    6  Collection equipment and methods

    7  Any peculiar condition of transport

 C Other Design Considerations

    1  Provisions for sanitation

    2  Layout for efficiency

    3  Accessories



IV  TRANSFER EQUIPMENT

 A Transportation Equipment

    1  Large body motor trucks with or
       without compaction
                                                                       SW.TR.to.3.11.69

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Transfer Operations
   2  Water transport

      a   Self-propelled

      b   Ancillary propulsion

   3  Rail haul equipment

      a   Adaption of existing equipment

      b   Specialized equipment

B  Transfer Stations - General Types

   1  Direct dump - utilizes gravity


   2  Storage type - involves rehandling


   3  Ancillary equipment

      a   Air pollution control devices

      b   Handling equipment

      c   Sweepers

C  Mobile Transfer Equipment - Considered
   As Collection System

   1  Train or scooter system

   2  Detachable containers



V  ECONOMICS OF TRANSFER

A  Transfer Cost Usually Linked With
   Disposal Operation

B  To Justify Use of Transfer, Total Cost
   of Collection, Transfer and Disposal
   Must Be Less Than Total Cost of Collection
   and Direct Haul With Disposal.

C  Transfer Station Costs

   1  Total unproductive cost = per ton
      cost of owning,  operating and
      maintaining station, plus billing and
      accounting ^xpense,  plus  expense of
      extra time used at disposal site
      Haul cost - given in dollars
      per minute
per ton
                       Plot Cost per ton versus round trip
                       driving time  (minutes) for the transfer
                       system and its alternatives.
 VI  TYPICAL COSTS

  A  Los Angeles County,  California

     1   Operation and maintenance     $2.49/ton

     2   Amortization                   0.19/ton

     3   Total                           2.68/ton

     4   Includes transfer to sanitary landfill

  B Orange County, California

     1   Operation and maintenance     $0.72/ton

     2   Cost of transfer haul            0. 92/ton

     3   Total                           1.64/ton

     4   Includes no collection costs

        26 miles round  trip; 4 stations  - average
        910 tons/day each



VII  ASSOCIATED OPERATIONS

  A  Grinding  and Pulverizing

  B  Baling

  C  Salvage
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                                                                        Transfer Operations
REFERENCES                                    2  Orange County Road Department.  The
                                                      Orange County Refuse Disposal Program.
1  American Public Works Association,                Santa Ana: Orange County Road
      Committee on Refuse Collection,                  Department.  44pp.,  1055.
      Refuse Collection Practice,  APWA
      Research Foundation Project No.  101,        3  Stirrup, F.L.   F.  Inst.  P.C.  Public
      Chicago:  Public Administration Service,          Cleansing: Refuse Disposal,  Pergamon
      3rd Edition,  522pp.  1966.                        Press Ltd. ,  London.  144 pp.,  1965.

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                                       INCINERATION
                                        Training Slat'i
 I  INTRODUCTION

 A  Incineration is normally used as a disposal
    method in favor of some other type because
    of:

    1  Shorter haul distances because of a
       more  central location.

    2   Nonavailability of suitable sites or
       conditions conducive to other disposal
       methods.

    3  In some cases community officials may
       feel that they have "grown up1' to the
       point where incineration is what they
       need regardless of the economics or
       other  factors,  or they may have the idea
       that a physical structure will be easier
       to sell the citizens.

 B  The Purpose of Incineration is to Provide
    as Complete a Combustion Process  as
    Possible  to-

    1  Reduce the volume of the solid waste
       to a more easily disposed of quantity.

    2  Minimize environmental pollution from
       the process such as air, water, or
       land.

    3  The residue should contain as little
       combustibles and putrescibles as
       possible.  (Present recommendations
       call for a maximum of 5% combustibles
       and 1% putrescibles in terms of total
       dry weight  of residues. )

 C  The Process Should be Planned, Designed
    and Operated to Reduce Such Nuisances
    as:

    1  Traffic problems such as heavy truck
      travel through  residential areas.

    2  Dust which is  generated in operations
       such as unloading and charging.

    3  Noise  which may be particularly
       objectionable at night.

    4  Steam plume which may be aesthetically
      objectionable.
-Training Branch,  Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, Ohio
    5  High stacks which may not be in
      conformance with area architecture.
IT   GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

 A Site Selection

    1   Population growths and trends to
       determine a site as close as possible
       to the center of generation.

    2   Good access to the site is essential.

    3   Incinerators require a complete range
       of utilities.

       a  Electricity  for cranes, fans,  grates,
         etc.

       b  Water supply for sanitary, fire
         protection and process purposes.

       c  Sewers and  in some cases pretreat-
         ment facilities to handle waste
         waters.

       d  Gas  for auxiliary fuel and plant
         heating.

       e  Telephone communication with
         entire solid waste management
         system.

    4   Topography and soil conditions can
       have  a major effect on plant construc-
       tion costs.

    5   Land cost  is a  major consideration in
       many cases.

    6   Residue disposal site  must be  considered
       when selecting the incinerator site.

    7   Meterological  conditions and the
       relationship to air pollution potential
       is particularly important.

    8   Public opinion  and political considera-
       tions  may be one of the most difficult
       of all the problems associated with
       the selection of a site for an incinerator.
                                                                          SW. IN. do. 3.7. 68  1

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 Incineration
 B  Selection of the Size of the Incinerator
    Required is Based On;

    1 A design period must be selected which
      'the incinerator is expected to serve
       normally 20-30 years.  Bonding or
       amortization limits may influence this.

    2  Predictions for this  period must  be
      made for:

       a  Population growth

       b  Per capita solid waste production

       c  What sources of solid wastes will
          be handled

    3  Stages  of construction can be used to
       meet greater solid waste production
      demands at various time periods  during
      the expected life of the incinerator.

    4  The hours of operation to meet the
       demands of production should be
      continually studied to provide the best
       economy of operation.

    5  There are three types of capacities
       which must be defined and applied to
       each incinerator:

       a  Design Capacity - the quantity of
          solid waste expressed in tons per
          24 hour period that the designer
          expects that the plant will handle.

       b  Rated Capacity -  the quantity of
          solid waste expressed in tons  per
          24 hour period that the incinerator
          will process while meeting all
          environmental criteria such as air
          pollution, water pollution and
          acceptability of residue.  (This may
          be more or less than the design
          capacity.)

       c  Actual Capacity - the quantity of
          solid waste expressed in tons  per
          24 hour period that the operator of
          the incinerator actually processes,
          e.g., the incinerator may only
          operate for 8 to 16  hours out of the
          24 hour period.
Ill  DESIGN AND OPERATION OF UNIT
    PROCESSES

 A Scales - These are essential to the
    incineration process  in order to provide
   information on efficiency, operational
   changes required, and to assist in planning
   for future facilities.

B  Unloading Area - The area must be
   sufficiently large to provide easy access
   to vehicles and enough dumping areas to
   prevent a back-up of traffic.

C  Storage Pit - Must be of durable construc-
   tion, cleanable,  and provided with a
   method of removing nonincmerable
   materials.

   1 Capacity must not be less than  100%
     of design capacity but should be small
     enough that it is periodically emptied.

   2 Dust control, although difficult to
     achieve, must be provided in this area.

D  Furnace Charging Equipment

   1 Types available include overhead crane
     and charging hopper, conveyor-fed
     and end-loading rams.

   2 Overhead cranes have been by far the
     most prevalent in incinerator designs.

     a  Two types are used:

         1)  Monorail - horizontal movement
            in only one direction

         2) Bridge - horizontal movement in
            both directions

     b  The cranes serve three important
         functions which must be  considered
         in their  selection and operation.

         1) Charging of the furnaces

         2)  Casting of material from the
            front of the pit to the  rear

         3)  Mixing of the solid wastes to
            obtain a more homogeneous
            mixture for burning

E  Types of Furnaces

   1  Batch feed  - May have fixed or move-
      able grates

      a  Has  the  advantage of being cheaper
         in  initial cost, and smaller capacities
         are possible.
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                                                                               Incineration
     b  Has several distinct disadvantages
        including very poor temperature
        control, high maintenance costs,
        poor residue quality and a high
        degree of air pollution potential.

   2  Continuous Feed - Moveable grates
      required.

      a  Advantages over batch feed include
        larger capacity, better temperature
        and air supply control, greater
        flexibility in operating rate, and
        much less thermal shock to furnace
        refractories.

      b  The disadvantages compared to
        batch feed plants are actually minor
        compared to the advantages.  They
        include a higher initial cost and a
        higher degree of skilled labor.

F  Grate Types

   1  Fixed grates  for batch feed incinerators
      require hand stoking to remove the
     residue.  This type is almost obsolete
     for municipal incineration.

   2  Conical grates  sometimes equipped
      with moving arms  for batch or inter-
     mittent feed furnaces.

   3  Traveling grates which are a continuous
      belt on which the burning takes place.
     Only mixing and breaking up that occurs
      is when the solid wastes  falls  from one
      grate to the next if the furnace has a
      series  of these grates.

   4  Rocking grates move the solid wastes
      through the combustion chamber as the
      grate sections alternately raise and
     push the material ahead.   This action
      breaks up the material and enhances
      more complete combustion.

   5  Reciprocating grates, by  means of
      alternate moveable horizontal grate
     sections which slide back and forth,
      move   the solid wastes through the
      combustion chamber and breaks up
      the material.

   6  Rotary kilns, in addition to some type
      of moveable grates for drying and
      ignition, provide for an excellent
      residue with very complete burnout
      because of the breaking up and mixing
      action which the material receives
      while tumbling through the kiln.
   7  There are other types of grates used
      in Europe and other places which
      appear to have some merit for incinera-
      tion.  In  addition, other ty;  >s are
      being investigated in this c  untry.

G Combustion  Chambers

   1  Most present-day combustion chambers
      are refractory brick lined in order to
      maintain incineration temperature.

      a  One waterwall type furnace has
         been built in this country and the
         degree of success has not been
         determined at this time.

      b  Temperatures are normally main-
         tained within  a range of 1500 -  1800°F
         to provide for combustion of odor
         producing materials but not damage
         the refractory lining.

   2  The design of the dimensions  of the
      chamber should  be done on an
      individual basis.  The BTU content
      of the solid wastes must be determined
      and the best design based on this.  Some
      rules of thumb which should be used
      only with caution are:

      a  Grate area based on a heat release
         of approximately 300, 000 Btu/sq. ft. /hr.

      b  The primary  combustion chamber
         volume based on 20, 000 - 35, 000
         Btu/cu.ft./hr.

      c  The width of the grates and the
         furnace are determined mainly by
         the grate widths available.

   3  Combustion and  cooling air is intro-
      duced into the furnace at various
      points for various purposes:

      c   Underfire air is used to promote
         burning on the grate and cool the
         grates.  An excess of air introduced
         here will result in an increased
         particulate air pollution loading.

      b  Overfire  air through the sidewalls
         and  roof to provide for combustion
         of the gases and provide turbulence
         and  mixing.

H  Residue Handling and Disposal

   1  The residue from normal incineration
      will be about 20-25% by weight and

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Incineration
      10  - 15% by volume of the solid wastes
      charged.

   2  After  leaving the end of the grate the
      residue is quenched either by

      a  Water sprays before direct dis-
         charge to transport vehicle.

      b  Submersion in a water bath from
         which it is  carried by conveyor to
         transport vehicle.

   3  The residue is a corrosive and
      abrasive material which cause consider-
      able wear in all the equipment used to
      handle the residue,

   4  Residue from  almost all the presently
      operating incinerators requires
      disposal in a sanitary landfill.  Excessive
      combustible and putrescible content
      excludes disposal by open  dumping.

   5  In  some cases such as rotary kiln
      incinerators,  metals and tin cans may
      be salvaged from the residue.
I  Air Pollution Control Equipment

   1   All incinerators must be equipped with
      some type of properly maintained air
      pollution control facilities.

      a  State and local regulations are
         becoming more difficult to meet.
      b  The Federal code for Federal
         installations requires that particu-
         late emissions not exceed 0.2 grain
         per standard cubic foot of dry flue
         gas corrected to 12% CC>2.  (Very
         few of the incinerators  in this
         country could meet this code.)

      c  As better air cleaning is  required,
         the percentage of the construction
         and operating costs for air pollution
         control  is increasing tremendously.
         At present gaseous pollutants such
         as SOX and NOX are not considered
         to be a problem.  They may however
         at some future date, e.g.,  with
         high temperature burning the  pro-
         duction of NOX will increase signi-
         ficantly and may become a consider-
         ation in the future.
2  Types of particulate contro] equipment -
   a summary of some of the types
   available:

   a  Settling chamber

      1) Efficiency - 40 to 60%; large
        particles are the only ones
        efficiently removed (greater
        than 40 microns).

      2) Costs  -  installation costs are
        low ($0.10  - $.30/cfm) and
        operating costs are low.

   b  Inertial cyclones

      1) Mechanical (wet cyclones are
        very similar)

        a)  Efficiency - 75 to 90%; low
            efficiency on small particles
            (less than 10 microns)

        b)  Costs -  installation costs are
            medium ($0.40 - $1.20/cfm)

      2) Multi-cyclones (miniature)

        a)  Efficiency - 90 to 98%; not
            too efficient on particles less
            than  5 microns.

        b)  Costs -  installation costs are
            low ($0.20 - $0.60/cfm)  and
            operating costs are low.

   c  Scrubbers

      1)  Flooded baffle

        a)  Efficiency - 90 to 99%; good
            removal down to 1 micron.

        b)  Costs -  installation costs are
            medium ($0.35 - $1.00/cfm)
            and operating costs are high.

      2) Venturi

         a)  Efficiency - 90 to 99%; removal
            down to submicron (less than
            1 micron).

         b)  Costs -  installation costs are
            medium ($0.50 - $1.50/cfm)
            and operating costs are high.

   d  Bag house  filters (self-cleaning)
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                                                                              Incineration
         1) Efficiency - 98 to 99.9%; removal
           down to submicron

         2) Costs - installation  costs are
           medium ($0.75 - $2.00/cfm) and
           operating costs are medium to
           high.

      e  Electrostatic precipitator

         1) Efficiency - 90 to 99. 9%; removal
           down to submicron

         2) Costs - installation  costs are
           high ($1.00 -  $5.00/cfm) and
           operating costs are low.

J  Water Supply and Treatment

   1  Water at an incinerator is used for:

      a  Potable  sources  such as  drinking,
         toilets,  etc.

     b   Process purposes

         1) Air pollution control

         2) Sluicing fly ash

         3) Cooling and residue quenching

         4) Heat utilization  (steam production)

         5) Lubrication

         6) Housekeeping

      c  Another important use is that  of
         fire fighting. Sufficient quantities
         at high pressure must  be available
         for any fire  emergencies at the
         incinerator.

   2  The waste waters from the plant  must
      be discharged in such a manner that
      no water pollution will result.

      a  In many cases discharge of all
         waste waters to a sanitary sewer
         for carriage to a waste water
         treatment plant.

      b  On-site treatment may be used

         1) Some waste waters  such as
           residue quenching and particulate
           scrubbing waters may have to be
           treated before disposal through a
           sanitary sewer.
          2) Plants which practice recirculation
            of process will require treatment
            of the water before r ^circulation
            can be done.

          3) Where heat utilization is  done
            the water for boilers and other
            equipment may have to be
            treated before use and before
            recirculation.
IV  COST AND COST ACCOUNTING

 A  Capital Costs

    1  Cost factors

       a  Planning costs

       b  Actual construction costs

       c  Equipment costs

    2  Capital costs for incinerators range
       from as low as $5000 to  $10, 000 or
       more per ton of design capacity.
       Because of increased mechanization,
       air pollution control requirements,
       and construction costs are increasing.

 B  Total Cost of Incineration - defined as
    the operating cost plus the capitalization
    (amortization) cost for the incinerator

    1  Operating costs  include such items as:

       a  Labor - including fringe benefits

       b  Maintenance

       c  Overhead

       d  Materials and supplies

       c  Utilities

    2  Capitalization  Costs - this is the cost
       to be applied for the depreciation of
       the building and  all major equipment
       used in the process.

    3  The total cost  of incineration will
       range from about $4.50 to $9.00 per
       ton of incoming refuse processed.  The
       capitalization cost will vary depending
       on the estimated life  of the facilities
       and the interest  rate.

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Incineration
REFERENCES

1  Aerospace Commercial Corporation.
      CPU-400 Solid Waste Disposal System,
      Preliminary Design Study"!  Public
      Health Service Contract PH 86-67-259.
      Palo Alto: Aerospace Commercial
      Corporation,  1968.

2  American Public Works Association,
      Committee on Refuse Disposal.
      Municipal Refuse Disposal.  Second
      Edition, Chicago:
      Service,  1966,
Public Administration
3  American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
      The Incinerator  Committee.  Proceed-
      ings of 1964 National Incinerator"
      Conference.  New York:  AmerTcan
      Society of Mechanical Engineers,  1 964.
4  American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
      The Incinerator Committee.  Proceed-
      ings of the  1966 National Incinerator
      r1 oriTe^FencTe".  TTew~York~  American
      iaoHety~oT"Mechanical Engineers,  1966.

5  American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
      The Incinerator Committee.  Proceedings
      of the 1968 National Incinerator
      CcinTere n ce".  New~York:A merle an
      SocTefy~oT~Mecnanical Engineers,  1968.

6  Day and Zimmerman Associates.  ^Air-
      Pollution Study_gf Municipal Incinerator
      Gases. " Special Studies for Incinerator
      No." b, Government of the District of
      Columbia,  Department of Sanitary
      Engineering, February 1966.   (Avail-
      able from Solid Wastes Program,  PHS,
      C moujri.'tti, Ohio)
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                                 SOLID WASTE - A RESOURCE

                                        Training Staff*
 I   INTRODUCTION

 A  The definition of solid waste as a "resource1
    implies that solid waste can be utilized as
    a secondary source of materials to supple-
    ment our natural raw materials.  This
    utilization, rather than disposal  of any
    waste material is known as  salvage.

 B  The extent to which any salvage operation
    is carried on is dependent on many vari-
    ables among which are-

    1 Characteristics of the waste

    2 Nature of material to be  salvaged from
      the waste

      a  Form

      b  Concentration

    3 Method necessary  for salvage

      a  Physical

      b  Mechanical

      c  Chemical

    4 Market studies

 C  The actual salvage operation could be  used
    as:

    1 A volume reduction method

    2 The disposal method

 D  Volume reduction is utilized by some in-
    dustries and could be  utilized by some
    municipalities as a means of reducing the
    total volume of waste  material to ultimately
    be disposed of.

 E  Industries and commercial establishments
    use salvage operations as a disposal meth-
    od by recycling the total volume of waste
    material,  or recovering and selling this
    material  to the secondary industries.

II   SALVAGE POTENTIALS

 A  Prior to utilizing any  salvage operation,
    certain factors must be  considered and a
 *Trainmg Branch, Division ot Technical
 Operations,  Solid Waste Management Office,
 Cincinnati, Ohio.
     decision reached as to whether or not sal-
     vage should be practiced.

     1  Does the salvage operation fit into the
       present method of disposal or operation ?

     2  What is the market value of salvaged
       material ?

       a  Cost studies

       b  Market trends

     3  From a public  health standpoint,  will
       the salvage operation  be efficient and
       most importantly, nuisance free:

       a  Excess noise

       b  Odor

       c  Esthetics

  B  Some of the advantages of utilizing salvage
     are:

     1  Provides  a source of revenue

     2  Decreases amount of refuse to be dis-
       posed of

  C  Some of the disadvantages of utilizing  sal-
     vage are

     1  Market for most salvage  materials is
       unstable.

     2  During high market value the amount to
       be salvaged will decrease.

     3  Standby disposal facilities and/or stor-
       age facilities must be  provided for  per-
       iods of very low market value.

     4  Salvage operations,  if conducted as a
       part of another disposal method, may
       interfere with the orderly disposal  of
       refuse.

Ill   SALVAGE AS A DISPOSAL METHOD

  A  In talking about salvage as a disposal meth-
     od, it must be remembered that the direct
     recycling or recovery of  waste material is
     applicable only when these wastes are
                       SW. GD.sv.3.7.68   1

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Solid Waste - A Resource
   homogeneous and their recovery will not
   interfere with the storage-collection
   practices.

 B The present labor and wage scales that
   must be adhered to by industry plus the
   fact that most secondary industries will
   only buy properly cleaned,  sorted,  and in
   some cases, prepared  items limits the
   cyclic reuse of waste materials to those of
   commercial and  industrial establishments.

   1   Reuse if material within same industry.

   2   Sold to secondary industry as source of
       revenue.

   3   Salvage by scavenger

       a  Generally on bid  with contract basis
         for one year

       b  Scavenger  pays industry annual fee
         for pick-up of industrial waste and
         scavenger  uses waste as source of
         revenue

       c  Scavenger  picks up waste with indus-
         try paying  scavenger for service.

IV SALVAGE FOR VOLUME REDUCTION

 A With respect to municipal solid waste,  sal-
   vage operations have been initiated as a
   volume reduction method.

   1   To extend life of disposal facility.

   2   With available market, to provide source
       of revenue.

 B These salvage operations could occur at
   numerous areas:

   1   At point  of generation

   2   During collection

   3   At disposal facilities


 C Salvage may be carried on by the house-
   holder.

   1   Paper

   2   Cardboard

   3   Metal

 D Materials may be salvaged during,  or after,
   collection-
   1  By collection personnel

   2  At transfer stations

E  Materials may also be salvaged at the dis-
   posal facilities.

   1  Sanitary landfill

      a Storage area

      b Separation area

   2  Incinerators

      a Prior to charging

      b After incineration

   3  Composting plants,  normally as integral
      part of the process.

F  Industrial wastes can also be reduced in
   volume by utilizing salvage  operations.

V  SALVAGEABLE MATERIALS

A  Garbage

   1  The method of disposal known as reduc-
      tion is a process through which garbage
      is converted to fats and oils with a res-
      idue called tankage.

   2  This method of volume reduction was
      popular and productive prior to World
      War I.

   3  In the reduction process, garbage was
      cooked with steam in digesters and
      grease was extracted and sold to soap
      manufacturers.  The residue, tankage,
      was sold as feed for livestock.

   4  The reduction process is now obselete
      due to the use of synthetic or petrochem-
      icals in soap manufacturing.

   5  Garbage has also been used as feed for
      livestock,  notably hogs.

      a All states require cooking of garbage

      b One state prohibits  feeding hogs garbage

B  Rags

   1  Rags salvaged from municipal refuse is
      of little use to the paper industry today
      as only natural fibers can be used in
      paper manufacturing.
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                                                                 Solid Waste - A Resource
   2  Textile wastes (both natural and synthe-
      tic fibers) are widely used by the textile
      industry as a major source of revenue.
      These wastes not only supplement the
      primary raw materials used  in the in-
      dustry, but have a wide range of nontex-
      tile applications:

      a  Filler materials

      b  Insulating materials

      c  Gift box nesting used by jewelers

      d  Absorbent medical cotton

      e  Mattress manufacturing

      f  Papermaking

      g  Linoleum

   3  Competition from plastics has closed
      some markets for textile wastes entire-
      ly, notably in the manufacture of
      records.

C  Paper and Paper  Products

   1  Waste paper continues to be the most
      important source of the so called sec-
      ondary fibers in papermaking, with
      25% of the material being used by the
      industry coming from salvage.

   2  Grading,  sorting and decontaminating
      of waste papers has become a vital seg-
      ment of the industry,  as plastics,  ad-
      hesives and other coatings pose numer-
      ous problems in reclamation.

   3  Waste paper can be used in manufac-
      turing:

      a  Container board

      b  Box board

      c  Gypsums and paper board

      d  Cylinder board

      e  Roofing materials

      f  Molded paper containers

D  Glass

   1  The trade name for broken glass is cul-
      let, and broken glass  salvaged for
      reheating - whatever its origin - is
      universally known as cullet.

   2  An advantage of cullet, that has been
      properly sorted and segregated, is
      not only that it economically stretches
      the supply of virgin materials,  but that
      it melts more rapidly than the virgin
      sands,  and thus shortens the melt time
      of a furnace  batch.

   3  The trend  toward throw-away "dispos-
      able" bottles has  essentially eliminated
      the market for salvaged bottles from
      municipal  solid waste.

   4  The major source of cullet is from indus-
      trial wastes  and is generally recycled
      within  the same industry.

   5  Scrap glass  is also sold by the  primary
      manufacturers to the secondary indus-
      tries for various  uses:

      a Spun glass decorative fabrics

      b Match and abrasive  industry

      c Flashlight lens

      d Flat glass circles for gauges

E  Tin Cans (Ferrous Metal)

   1  Tin  cans are salvaged for the ferrous
      metal content rather than the tin content.

   2  Salvaged tin  cans are used in:

      a Copper precipitation

      b Recovery of ferrous metal

F  Rubber

   1  Rubber scrap today is segregated  into
      several hundred grades,  with most of
      this scrap rubber being reclaimed from
      automobile tires.

   2  Various grades of recovered rubber are
      ground and chemically  treated by the
      reclaimer and processed into rubber
      sheets  marketed for the manufacture
      of new  rubber articles.

   3  An idea of the value of secondary scrap
      rubber may be gained from the fact that
      a 20 pound tire contains the equivalent
      of 6 pounds crude rubber and 100 pounds
      of old inner tubes equals 65 pounds of
      crude rubber.

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 Solid Waste - A Resource
    4  Scrap rubber can be used in the manu-
      facturing of:

      a  New rubber items

      b  Recapping tires

 G  Plastics

    1  Plastic wastes are almost completely
      recovered from the plastic industry as
      an in-house salvage operation.

    2  Plastic scrap can be utilized in manu-
      facturing:

      a  Protective coatings

      b  Packaging materials

      c  Toys

 H  Industrial  Wastes

    1  Metal scrap

      a  Principal nonferrous  scrap metals
         commercially recovered in the United
         States are copper, brass,  lead, zinc,
         aluminum, nickel and magnesium.

      b  Most collectors sell their scrap to
         wholesale metal dealers.  The dealer
         segregates the scrap according to
         types and grades,  based upon the
         actual metallic content  and degrees
         of contamination.

    2  Food processing and farm animal wastes.

      a  Feathers can be hydrolyzed and fed
         back to poultry.

      b  Chicken manure is being fed to cattle.

      c  Cull fruits and vegetables are fed to
         stock.

      d  Charcoal has been made from fruit
         pits.

VI  SPECIAL SALVAGE ITEMS

 A  Incineration Wastes

    1  Waste heat can be used to  produce steam.

      a  Used for heating buildings

      b  Conversion of salt water' 2)

      c  Many complicating factors to consider
   2  Residue -  as a fill material

   3  Fly ash

      a   Concrete Products

      b   Fertilizers

B  Automobile Bodies^3*

   1  Approximately 6 million automobiles
      were retired from the highway in 1965.

      a   All of these are not salvaged as metal
         scrap.

      b   Many are stripped at auto wrecking
         yards.

      c   Some are used to improve fishing
         sites or control erosion.

      d   Others  are held in indefinite storage.

   2  New changes in steel scrap processing
      have decreased the market for automo-
      bile scrap.

      a   The newer furnaces have reduced the
         percentage of scrap which may be
         added.

      b   Changes since advent of oxygen con-
         verter furnaces;

         1) Open hearth furnace - 35 to 50%
           scrap

         2) Oxygen converter - 25 to 30%
           scrap

   3  The car body is a solid waste product,
      legally, administratively, and physically
      cumbersome to handle.

      a   Burning out body prepares it for la-
         ter bundling,  or at least accelerates
         the rusting process.

      b   Stripped cars may be flattened with
         a D-8 or D-9 tractor, or with a car
         crusher; or compressed into a bale.

      c   Stripped cars may be sheared into
         scrap,  before  or after burning.

      d   Complete processing plants reduce
         body into sized and sorted scrap,
         salvage nonferrous metals, and
         remove nonmetals and dirt.
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                                                                  Solid Waste -  A Resource
REFERENCES                                    3  Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel.  Pro-
                                                       ceedings of the National Conference
1  American Public Works Association,                 on Auto Salvage!   Washington: Insti-
      Committee on Refuse Disposal.                    tute of Scrap Iron and Steel.  October
      Municipal Refuse Disposal.  Chicago:              1, 1964.
      "Public Administration Service.
      522 pp.   1961.                               4  Lipsett, Charles  H.  Industrial Wastes
                                                       and Salvage, 1963.
2  Velzy, Charles R. and Velzy, Charles O.
      Unique Incinerator Develops Power and
      Provides Salt Water Conversion.  Public
      Works 95:4:90,  April 1964.

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                                  SANITARY LANDFILL I
                                       Training Staff*
I  INTRODUCTION

A  Definitions and Description

   1  American Society of Civil Engineers

      "Sanitary landfill is a method of dis-
     posing of refuse on  land without creating
      nuisances or hazards to public health
      or safety, by utilizing the principles
     of engineer ing to confine the refuse to the
     smallest practical area, to reduce it to the
     smallest practical volume, and to cover it
     with a layer of earth at the conclus ion of
     each day's operation or at such more fre-
     quent intervals as may be necessary. "^'

   2  Training Branch, Office of Solid
     Waste Management  Programs, EPA

     "A Sanitary landfill  can be  defined
      as a system for the final disposal of
      solid waste on land, in which the  waste
     is spread and compacted on an inclined,
     minimized working  face in  a series of
     cells and a  daily cover of earth is  pro-
     vided so that no hazard or  insult to the
      environment results."

B  History and Development

   1   Used by the Greeks over 2, 000 years
     ago (burial  without compaction)

   2   Early municipal waste burial in United
     States

      a  Champaign,  Illinois, 1904

     b  Columbus, Ohio, 1906-1910

     c   Davenport,  Iowa, 1916

   3  Mixing and covering waste in inert
     material (soil or ash)

     a   Germany

     b  England, called  "controlled tipping"

   4   Landfill practices with compaction by
     heavy equipment started in U.S. around
     1930
-'Training Branch,  Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati,  Ohio
       a  New York City

       b  Fresno,  California; Jean L. Vincenz
          originated term "Sanitary Landfill"

    5  Used by U.S.  Army during World War II
 II  METHODS OF SANITARY LANDFILLING

 A Area Method

    1  Best suited for gently sloping land and
       is  also used where quarries,  ravines
       or other suitable land depressions exist.

    2  Cell walls are formed by the adjacent
       cells.

    3  Normally the  earth cover material is
       hauled in or obtained from, adjacent
       areas.

 B Trench Method

    1  Best suited for flat or gently sloping
       land where the water table is not near
       the surface.

    2  A trench is cut in the ground and the
       solid waste placed at the bottom of a
       working slope.

    3  Excavated earth from the cut  is used
       as the  cover material.
Ill  PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

 A Preliminary Planning - Should Include
    Consideration Of-

    1  A competent designer and planning group

    2  A public information program

    3  A survey of solid waste practices

    4  Financing methods

    5  Use of completed site

    6   Site zoning arrangements
                           SW.SL.doI.7. 1.70 1

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Sanitary Landfill I
B  Design Responsibilities and Resources

   1  Planner or planning agency

      a  Responsible for area planning

     b  Extent of planning detail does vary

      c  Legal responsibility will vary with
         establishing authority

   2  Design engineer

      a  Must collect and evaluate data,
         schedule implementation activities,
         and consider such items as landfill
         life,  public health and personnel
         safety potentials, and ultimate use.

      b  Should have a thorough understanding
         of the state, county and local laws,
         rules or regulations concerning
         sanitary landfill site selection,  design
         and operation.

      c  Responsible for final site selection

         1) Each government agency having
            area authority should be contacted

         2) Health department should not be
           excluded as an information source

         3) State geological survey agencies
           may assist in site selection

         4)  The U.S. Soil Conservation Service
            may provide additional data

   3  Additional resource personnel

      a  Land surveyor

         1) Property description and location

         2)  Topographic description of existing
            conditions

         3) Field layout of proposed project

         4) Final topography survey and
            facility location

      b  Geologist

         1) Soil types  and suitability

         2) Bedrock elevations  and rock types
   c  Hydrogeologist

     1) Estimated ground water table
        elevation

     2) Surface water location and
        interrelationship

   d  Meteorologist  or climatologist

     1) Prevailing winds

     2) Rainfall predictions

     3) Frost penetration determinations

     4) Temperature variations

   e  Health officials

     1) State and local laws

     2) Sanitation practices

     3) Nuisance evaluations

     4) Aesthetic acceptability

   f  Public works officials

     1) Potable and fire control water
        supplies

     2) Sewers— storm and sanitary

     3) Roads — bridges  and tunnels

     4) Collection methods (if applicable)

   g  Utility officials

     1) Telephone availability

     2) Electricity —location and adequacy

     3) Estimate of available assistance

   h  Equipment specialist

     1) Selection of proper equipment

     2) Maintenance methods

     3) Proper operating techniques

4  Other public officials may be able to
   assist in site selection and in the
   solicitation of citizen support.
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                                                                         Sanitary Landfill I
    5   The engineer's responsibility does not
       end with initial design or construction
       of facilities but includes:

       a Continuing operating evaluation

       b  Ultimate usage


IV  SITE SELECTION

 A  Land Requirements

    1   In place refuse densities

    2   Cover material requirements

    3  Per capita refuse production

 B  Relative Location to Generating Areas

    1   Time spent in hauling refuse more
       important than distance

    2   Highway systems available with ready
       access to and from the site

    3  The capacities of vehicles operating in
       the system

    4  Utilization of transfer operations

 C  Relationship to Community Growth

    1  Direction  and magnitude of projected
       growth

    2  Redevelopment and density of refuse

    3  Long-range area development

    4   Commercial and industrial development

 D  Utilities

    1  Electrical power for lights and equip-
       ment

    2   Water supply for sanitary purposes,
       equipment washing and fire protection

    3   Sewer service for sanitary waste

    4   Telephone, radio communications

 E  Nuisances That Can Affect Site

    1  Traffic to  and from site

    2  The noise  of mechanical equipment
   3  Dust is inevitable under certain
      weather conditions

F  Soil Conditions

   1  Less suitable soils can sometimes
      be improved.

   2  Cover material may have to be brought
      to site

G  Ground Water

   1   Location of ground water  table and
      proximity to surface

   2  Leachate from fill

H  Access to Site

   1  Preferably over high speed, unrestricted
      routes with easy on-off access in both
      directions

   2  All  weather on-site roads constructed
      for  heavy traffic

      a  Laid out to eliminate crossing of
        traffic and consequent  tie-ups

      b Waiting space on-site for scales

      c  Parking space for employee's
        automobiles  and stand-by equipment

   3   Traffic controlled by signs and, if
      necessary, traffic control lights

I   Legal Aspects

   1  Jurisdiction,  or lack of same,  in any
      area for  solid waste disposal

   2  State, county and/or local laws

J  Public Opinion

   Public opinion toward sanitary landfilling
   is  generally negative and  the term
   "sanitary landfill" is synonymous with
   open dump.

K  Political Considerations

   Political considerations must also be
   considered and may range from lack of
   political support to lack of authority.

L  Climatic Conditions

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Sanitary Landfill I
   1  Wind

   2  Rain or snow

   3  Temperature

 M Ultimate Land Use

   1  Parks and playgrounds

   2  Industrial sites

   3  Agriculture


V  SITE PREPARATION

 A Preliminary Work

   1  On-site inspection, site surveys,
      clearance and cleanup of site

   2  Construction of all weather access and
      on-site roads

   3  Provision of utilities  and drainage
      facilities

   4  Provision of adequate employee
      facilities

   5  Provision of weighing facilities

   6  Provision of communication facilities

   7  Provision of adequate fire  protection

   8  Provision of equipment maintenance
      facilities

   9  Provision of adequate fencing

 B Nature of Work

   It must be  remembered  that the finished
   design of a sanitary landfill is an engineered
   project and all work undertaken to prepare
   the site and operate the  sanitary landfill
   be considered as any other engineered
   job including:

   1  Use  of proper equipment

   2  Use  of proper construction techniques

   3  Adequate  supervision of all preliminary
      site  work and actual landfill operation

 C Additional Facilities

   1  Guard rails or bumper logs at the top
      of the working face
    2  Guide barrels and directional signs

    3  Identification signs and information
       signs

    4  A fence completely enclosing the
       landfill site

    5  Drop-off boxes for after hours usage


VI  SANITARY LANDFILL EQUIPMENT

 The selection of equipment for sanitary land-
 fill operations is dependent upon many variables,
 including (1) type of refuse to be handled,
 (2) compaction requirements,  and (3) versatility.

A  Crawler  Tractor

   The crawler tractor, and less  commonly,
   the  rubber-tired tractor and the steel
   wheel compactor, are basic pieces of equip-
   ment.  The crawler tractor can use dozer
   blades, landfill blades, front-end loader
   and can pull scraper.  It is versatile and
   can  perform all operations including (1)
   spreading,  (2) compaction,  (3)  covering,
   (4) trenching, and (5) hauling material.

B  Rubber-Tired Tractor

   1   Found where only one piece of equip-
     ment can be purchased

   2  With bucket can rapidly carry and
      distribute cover material

C  Steel-Wheeled Compactor

   Can increase densities.  Used where
   operation is on relatively flat terrain and
   normally found working in conjunction  with
   crawler-tractor.

D  Auxiliary Equipment

   1 Water truck — to keep down  dust

   2  Sheepfoot and rubber-tired  roller —
     additional compaction

   3  Dump trucks — for hauling cover material

   4  Motor graders—for finished grading of
     completed fill

   5  Refuse shredders

   6  Draglines
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                                  SANITARY LANDFILL II

                                       Training Staff*
I  OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS


The cell concept is used in both the area and
trench methods.

A  Cell Development
         CELL CONSTRUCTION
           layer  Thickness
    Solid Watt* Spread In 2 Foot layers
       Compacted M I Fool
        LAYER THICKNESS
•\
                     \
                   t S 4 5 4 ? «.« 10

                   LAYER  THICKNESS
         NO. OF PASSES
   Density
            1500
            WOO
             500
                 123456789 10

                   NO, Of CASSIS
^'Training Branch, Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, Ohio
                                      This technique requires the initial
                                      construction of a 3:1 slope or berm.
                                      Refuse is deposited at base of slope,
                                      spread upward in two foot layers
                                      and then compacted to about a one
                                      foot thickness.
                                                       This recommended practice is based
                                                       on field determinations which show
                                                       that an optimum density is achieved
                                                       by using a two foot thickness.
                                      To achieve this optimum density
                                      requires about 5 passes over each
                                      layer of refuse.
                                              SW. SL. doll. 8. 12.70

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Sanitary Landfill II
         CELL CONSTRUCTION
          WORKING FACE COVER
   Compacted Earth
     Minimum 6 Inch*!
        CEIL CONSTRUCTION
           FINAL TOP COVER
  Compacted Earth
    Minimum » fMl
         CELL CONSTRUCTION
               CELL HEIGHT
    Compacted Solid Watttt
      About 8-IO r.et High-
        CELL CONSTRUCTION
        INTERMEDIATE TOP COVER
   Compacted Eorth
           ''
Building of cell continues  (as outlined
in step 1 above) until the day's in-
coming  refuse is  compacted in place
or desired length is reached.  The
working face is then covered with
6" of compacted soil.
Top of cell is covered by no less
than two feet of compacted earth.
Additional mounding can be provided
to allow for settlement and graded
to prevent ponding on surface.
Cell height is measured vertically
and is normally 8-10 feet.  This will
vary and in some cases may be
greater, depending on the skill of
the operator and amount of refuse
being handled.
If additional lifts (layers of cells)
are to be placed above, an inter-
mediate cover of 1 foot of compacted
earth can be provided.
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                                                                        Sanitary Landfill II
   8  Other considerations


      a  In area method,  side slopes are also
         maintained at 3:1 slope and covered
         with 6" of compacted earth.


      b  Minimum cell width in Trench Method
         is about twice the width of a tractor.


      c  Cell width in Area Method dependent
         on amount of solid waste deposited
         and number of pieces of equipment
         working on slope.


      d  In both methods the width is main-
         tained as narrow  as possible without
         interfering with unloading of refuse
         and movement of equipment.


B  Control of Dust and Blowing Litter


   1  Protection of existing terrain


   2  Litter fences


   3  Water sprays  and waste oil on on-site
      roads

   4  Apply ground cover


C  Winter Operations


   1  Sanitary landfill trenches may be dug in
      advance of cold weather


   2  Area to be excavated may be covered
      with leaves  or straw

   3  Cover materials may be stockpiled in
      loose fashion


D  Wet Weather Operations

   1  Standby disposal site near all-weather
      access road


   2  All-weather access roads constructed
      to  the disposal point as fill progresses

   3  Cover material covered or demolition
      and construction materials stockpiled
      for this purpose


   4  Surface drainage slopes and  ditches

E  Ground Water and Related Pollution
   Problems


   1  High water table operational difficulties
   a  Inability to properly compact the
      refuse


   b  Flotation of refuse


   c  Limitations on the mobility and
      usefulness of  landfill equipment  and/or
      collection vehicles


 2  Water pollution caused by direct hori-
   zontal or verticle leaching as result of:


   a  Chemical contaminants


   b  Biological contaminants


   c  Decomposition products
        C0
      2)  CH4


      3)  Hydrogen sulfide



      4)  NH
3  Remedial action


   Sites having high water tables may be
   utilized by using one or more of the
   following methods:


   a  Use only that portion of the site suf-
      ficiently above the water table  to
      preclude pollution (2* to 5' above
      known highwater is recommended as
      a minimum).  Cover material may
      be  obtained-


      1)  On-site,  above the water  table;
         or,


      2)  Tn an adjacent site by excavating
         a pond or lake; or,


      3)  By hauling from another location
         to the site


   b  Permanently lower the water table
      with-


      1)  Underground drains; or,


      2)  Drainage ditches


   c  Temporarily lower the water table
      with:


      1)  Well points or wells; or,

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Sanitary Landfill II
         2) Direct pumping

         3) Deposit only nonputrescible,
            relatively inert materials to a
            point sufficiently above the high-
            est known water table so that
            possible water pollution is
            avoided

 F  Conditioning of Cover Material

    1   Rock at the fill site

       a  The selection of a  sanitary landfill
         site containing massive rocks may
         result in the following problems:


         1) On-site cover may be unavailable,
            difficult  to separate and use,  or
            too coarse to be effective

         2) Equipment operation is hindered
            and/or increased maintenance costs
            result

         3) Uneven and unpredictable terrain
            may upset  landfill equipment and/or
            collection vehicles

       b  Sites containing massive rocks may
         be used by employing one or more of
         the following methods:

         1) Haul cover material  from some
            other source

         2) Remove excessively  large rocks
            or bury them on site

    2   Coarse cover materials

       a  Sanitary landfill cover materials
         which are coarse and/or permeable
         may result in the  following conditions-

         1) Surface waters  may seep into the
            refuse fill

         2) Noncohesive soils may be subject
            to wind erosion

         3) The cover material may shift under
            the vibration and pressure of heavy
            equipment

       b  Sanitary landfill cover material which
         is too granular may be  improved by
         adding quantities of cohesive soil
         during placement,  spraying cover with
         asphalt emulsion,  or simply applying
         a clay cover over the coarser material.
   3  Clay cover material

      a  Cover materials containing a high
         percentage of clay may result in the
         following conditions:

         1)  Greasy surface,  difficult to compact
            when wet

         2)  Excavation difficulties

         3)  Cracking in the process of drying

      b  Clay covers can be  improved by add-
         ing coarser material; sand, cinders,
         etc.

G  Salvaging Operations

   The reuse and receiving of solid waste holds
   great promise as a means of reducing the
   nation's total waste problem.   At the pres-
   ent time,  however, a real need is seen for
   prohibiting salvaging  operations  at sanitary
   landfills  in order to insure clean, orderly
   sites and to help maintain their integrity.
   No matter how commendable, .a salvaging
   operation almost inevitably leads to poor
   sanitation and should  be located elsewhere.

H  Large Bulky Items

   Cars, refrigerators and other white goods,
   etc. ,  can be handled simply by reducing
   their volume and placing at the bottom of
   the fill.

I  Animal Feeding

   Hog feeding,  sea gulls, etc. ,  have no place
   in the sanitary landfill and should be elimi-
   nated.

J  Hot Loads

   Should be handled according to a precon-
   ceived plan, away from the working area,
   in a place where everyone should be familiar
   with its proper handling.

K  Sewage Sludge and Reprocessed Oil Sludge

   This type of waste, together with other
   waste such as magnesium and chromate
   waste, can be accommodated at a sanitary
   landfill provided their disposal has
   been anticipated and the site designed ac-
   cordingly.
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                                                                        Sanitarv Landfill  II
II   LANDFILL COSTS AND ULTIMATE USE

 A  Total Cost of Operation

    1  Generally falls between $2 - $4/ton of
      solid waste landfilled
    2  In large operations may be less than
      $l/ton of solid waste landfilled

    3  Consists of initial investment for land,
      equipment,  construction features and
      operating costs

 B  Ultimate Use

    1  Depends on rate of settlement  (95"^  dur-
      ing first 2-5 yrs)

    2  Must coincide with regional plan

    3  Should consider problems with gas
      production

    4  Must utilize effective planning, parti-
      cularly when considering construction of
      buildings  and facilities in the proximity
      of the sanitary landfill
REFERENCES

1  American Society of Civil Engineers,
      Committee on Sanitary Landfill Practice.
      Sanitary Landfill ASCE-Manuals of
      Engineering - No. 39,  62 pp.  1959.

2  American Public Works Association,
      Committee on Refuse Disposal.  Muni-
      cipal Refuse Disposal.  APWA Research
      Foundation Project No.  104.  Chicago:
      Public  Administration Service,  2nd Ed.
      528 pp.  1966.

3  Hughes, G.M.,  R.  A. Landon and R. N.
      Farvolden. Summary of Findings on
      Solid Waste Disposal Sites in
      Northeastern Illinois.  April 1971.


4  Orange County Road Department.  The
      Orange County Refuse Disposal Program.
      Santa Ana: Orange County Road Depart-
      ment,  44 pp.   1965.
   Planning is the Key to Ames' Landfill
      Success.  Refuse Removal Tournal,
      July 1958.
1:7:9,
                                                     Weaver, Leo and Keagy,  Donald M.  The
                                                        Sanitary Landfill Method of Refuse
                                                        Disposal in Northern .States.  Public
                                                        Health Service Publication No. 226, U. S.
                                                        Government Printing Office, Washington,
                                                        D. C.   1952.

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SECTION  III

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                             DUMP CLOSING AND CONVERSION

                                       Training Stall*
 I   INTRODUCTION

 A  The closing of a dump is a planned pro-
    cedure and not merely the act of
    abandonment.

 B  Plans for closure or conversion include:

    1   Advising public of  intended changes and
       enlisting their cooperation.

    2   Preparing acceptable disposal facilities
       to replace those being closed.

    3   Abating  existing nuisances at the closed
       dump and preparing the site for its
       ultimate use.
II   PUBLIC INFORMATION RESPONSIBILITIES

 A  The public needs to know, and has a right
    to know, your plans for the existing site
    and any new sites.

    1   The change must be an environmental
       improvement; rumors to the contrary
       can be anticipated, particularly in the
       absence of factual information.

    2   Location of new disposal sites must be
       made known.

    3   New restrictions at  the old site may
       include:

       a Limited access,  particularly during
         poisoning operations.

       b Elimination of dumping, burning,
         rat shooting, scavanging.

    4   Operating rules at the new site may
       include:
 ^Training BrancnjDivision of Technical
 Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
 Cincinnati, Ohio
       a  Hours of operation; access limitations.

       b  Disposal fees.

       c  Nature of refuse accepted,  vehicles
          allowed.

       d  Traffic regulations.

       e  Restrictions on scavenging, burning.

  B Public support to help you do the job may
    be developed by:

    1  Direct approach to;

       a  People directly involved - political
          figures,  residents near the sites.

       b  Civic and social organizations.

    2  News, other mass media

       a  Press, radio,  television

       b  House cards, leaflets, displays


III  DUMP CLOSURE

  A Prepare plans  for sanitary landfill opera-
    tions at same or adjacent site,  observing
    all requisites for suitable operation and/or;

  B Prepare plans  for abatement of existing
    dump, with conversion to ultimate use of
    site.  Proper sequence of closing opera-
    tions is important.

    1  Fence or otherwise restrict  unauthorized
       access.

    2  Place necessary informational signs and
       assign dump manager  to the  site.
                                                                      SW. SL. dc.3. 10. 70

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Dump Closing and Conversion
   3  Close dump to incoming refuse or es-

     tablish a specific spot on the dump for

     sanitary landfill operation during

     closing.


   4  Extinguish fires.
5  Control vectors.


6  Provide necessary  drainage.


7  Establish grades.


8  Compact and cover.
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                            RURAL AND RECREATIONAL SYSTEMS
                                        Training Staff*
 I  INTRODUCTION

 A  The principles of design and operation for
    a small sanitary landfill differ little from
    the principles for a large operation.

    Many responsibilities are necessary
    whether the operation is large or small
    and certain criteria must be met for any
    operation to be termed  a sanitary landfill.

 B  Types of Operation

    1  Individual community

    2  County

    3  Small district


II  INDIVIDUAL COMMUNITY

 A  How small can a community be and still
    operate a sanitary landfill1?

    1  Proper operation must be practiced

       a  Cover at end  of each day's operation
          but may not require full time
          operator,

       b  Schedule operation to fit collection
          practice

       c  Limit operation to specific time

    2  Use a plan that will utilize minimum
       size  working face.

    3  If operator is not present full time,
       arrange so that dumped refuse will be
       protected from wind until spread and
       compacted.

    4  Close the site to public use when
       attendant is not present.

    5  Use minimum size equipment that can
       handle the load,  but  arrange for stand-
       by equipment to  be available in case
       of breakdown.

 B  New Hampton, Iowa - Population 3, 600
"Training Branch,  Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, Ohio
1  History and background

   a  Prior to  1964, disposal by open,
      burning dump

   b  In 1962,  City Planning Commission
      investigation began,  without success,
      to locate a new disposal site.

   c  Search for new site began again in
      latter part of 1963.

   d  Through  efforts of Mayor,  City
      Council and  interested citizens
      during January 1964,   a new site
      was located  on a farm 2-3/4 miles
      from town.

   e  After various meetings to convince
      farmer's groups a sanitary landfill
      would be  run,  on July 27,  1964, city
      passed an ordinance which estab-
      lished a sanitary landfill area and
      provided for its regulation.

   f  Subsequently,  City Council passed
      a resolution establishing rules and
      regulations for the rise of landfill
      area.

   g  Consulting engineer retained to lay
      out basic plan  for earth movement
      and operation of the sanitary landfill.

   h  The consulting engineer's plan
      together  with State Health Department
      recommendations were very impor-
      tant in successful development of
      the landfill area.

2  Regulations

   a  Open  to  public on Wednesday  and
      Saturday, one  to four p.m., from
      April 1st to  November 1st; on each
      Saturday from one to four p.m.,
      from November 1st to April 1st.

   b  A man will be  on duty whenever
      open to general public to direct
      traffic and enforce regulations

   c  Operating area of 7 acres fenced
      with no dumping outside the fenced
      area.
                                                                     SW SL cd.4. 1. 70

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Rural and Recreational Systems
     d  Will not accept junked autos, dead
        animals, explosive materials or other
        items so large as not to be compress-
        ible for landfill operations.

     e  Use of sanitary landfill is restricted
        to residents or agencies,  businesses
        or commercial establishments
        outside corporate limits but served
        by the City's collection service.

     f  All users shall deposit refuse directly
        into the trench for spreading, com-
        paction and cover,

     g  Licensed hauler s fee  is $10 per
        load.  Residential fee  for dumping
        is $.75,  and commercial  fee is
        $1,50 and $2.50.

   3  Soil conditions and land requirements

     a  Soil is well graded coarse to fine sand
        with trace  of nonplastic fines and
        drains well.

     b  Precipitation averages 31 inches
        per year, snowfall averages 35
        inches per j-ear; and,  temperatures
        vary from  minus 20 degrees to 100
        degrees.

     c  Present site total  90 acres which
        cost $13,000.

     d  Original 7  acres fenced off in
        August 1964, will be filled by
        spring 1969.  In November 1968,
        operating area expanded to include
        10 more acres.

     e  Remainder of 90 acres rented for
        $800 per year for agricultural use.

   4  Operating procedures

     a  When a city collection truck is at
        the site unloading,  one member of
        the collection crew operates the
        track-type tractor to  spread, com-
        pact and cover.

     b  A city sanitary landfill equipment
        operator is present during public
        disposal hours.

     c  If a major contractor or business
        within New Hampton wants to dump
        solid wastes when the  landfill is
        normally closed, they must arrange
     for one of the equipment operators
     to be at the sanitary landfill.

5  Equipment

   a Initially an Allis Chalmers ED-9
     track-type dozer which was too
     small.

   b Initially trench digging contracted
     locally to an earth-moving contractor
     at $100 per month.

   c City operated for 15 months in this
     manner or until November 1965,
     City then purchased a 1950 model
     977 Caterpillar Traxcavator with
     a 2 cubic yard bucket.

   d Traxcavator could dig trenches but
     trench sides tended to cave  in during
     excavation.  In August 1967, a used
     1950  model Lorain dragline was
     purchased, repaired and put into
     operation during January 1968.   The
     dragline has proven quite  effective.

   e A movable garage equipped  with
     lighting, telephone, and which can
     be heated is provided.

   f Consideration being given to pur-
     chase of a wood chipper

6  Operational costs

   a In 1967, New Hampton spent
     $41, 930 for operating entire solid
     wastes management system. This
     includes:

     1) Purchase and repair of dragline
         -  $16,500

     2) Operation and maintenance of
        two compactor collection vehicles
        - $3,680

     3) Packer unit reserve - $5,000

     4) Operation and maintenance of
        the sanitary landfill equipment
        - $6,180

     5) Salaries of four men working
        42 to 45 hours per week
         -$19, 970.

   b In 1968, the city budgeted $37, 000
     for the annual operation of their
     solid wastes management system.
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                                                              Rural and Recreational Systems
    7  Public acceptance

       a  City collection is not mandatory

       b  Initially 300 homeowners, businesses,
          and institutions subscribed to service.

       c  City collection vehicles now make
          over 800 separate stops per week.

       d  Collection crews pick up approxi-
          mately 90 per cent of all solid
          wastes generated with two private
          collectors and individuals hauling
          the balance.

       e  The monthly service charge is
          $2.00 for collection  and disposal.


Ill  COUNTY SANITARY LANDFILLS

 A Huron County, Ohio Sanitary Landfill

    1  Location, population and type of  county

       a  Located in north  central Ohio

       b  Rural county with approximately
          52, 000 population

    2  Political subdivisions include:

       a  Three cities

       b  Seven villages

       c  Nineteen townships

    3  History and background

       a  Public awareness began about
          1956 with a  dump problem

       b  Dumps in adjacent northern county
          closed and no provisions made

       c  Many problems with fires, roaches,
          rats.

       d  One city tried to  interest county
          several times, the latest in 1963,
          in joining forces, but was unsuccess-
          ful.  This city established their own
          landfill in January 1964.

    4  Organization,  investigation,
       recommendations
      At a joint meeting of county
      commissioners and County Board
      of Health on August 5,   965,  committee
      composed of two health ooard members,
      a county commissioner and two county
      sanitarians appointed to study needs,
      existing services and make
      recommendations.

      Data obtained from  a questionnaire
      sent to subdivisions representing
      about  22,000 residents  indicated:

      4, 600   invested in real estate for
      dumps

      2, 667  paid annually to  rent dump sites

      5, 643  paid annually for attendants
      labor

      1, 700  annually for equipment rental

      Costs  ranged from $. 50 to $1. 00
      per  resident per year to maintain
      dumps which in most cases did not
      provide place to put garbage,  com-
      bustibles or liquids.

      In addition to the  one landfill and
      14 remaining dumps, refuse was
      being  hauled out of county from
      5 villages and another  city was in
      dire need of a new facility.

      The committee report,  endorsed
      by the Board of Health and passed
      on to the  county commissioners
      in January 1966,  recommended that
      the county commissioners establish
      and  operate a centrally located
      county sanitary landfill.
5  Results
      In July 1966,  the county commission-
      ers decided to proceed and appointed
      a committee to develop standards,
      recommend a method of operation,
      and find a site.

      A site was  purchased in January
      1967,  and opened on a limited basis
      on  June 1,  1967.

      Site facilities include a service
      building, scales, fencing and
      sanitary facilities.

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Rural and Recreational Systems
      d  Equipment includes a D7E Caterpillar


      e  A lagoon for septic tank and other
         liquid wastes is provided


      f  One city closed their dump in
         July 1967


   6 Initial costs in 1967 - $74,340,  including:


      a  Land - 91 acres         $13,000

     b   Equipment -            $45, 000


     c   Building, fence,  etc. -  $16,430


   7  Expenditures in 1967  - $7,240, including:


     a   Salaries for half year -  $5, 900

     b   Other -                 $1,340

   8  Income in 1967  - $30,910, including:


     a   Receipts -              $  3, 635

     b   From general fund -     $27,275


   9  Expenditures in 1968 approx. -$23,260


  10  Income in 1968 approximately-$14, 975


  11  Expenditures for 8 mos of 1969-$20, 340


  12 Income for 8 mos of 1969     -$16,250

  13 Fee schedule

      a  Minimum of $. 50 for private car


     b   Maximum of $2  per ton


B  Henry County, Ohio Sanitary Landfill

   1  Rural county with 27, 000 population
      located in north-western Ohio


   2  History and background


      a  Each village operated open dump


      b  Only city in county had two to three
         months operating time left in their
         landfill.


     c   County commissioners  declared the
         county a refuse  district August 8, 1967.
   d  County commissioners purchased
      87 acre farm on August 7,  1967.


3  Initial costs - $157, 800 - including:

   a  Land - $69, 600

   b  Caterpillar D7 - $25,000


   c  1  cu. yd. dragline - $39,000


   d  Maintenance building - $17,000


   e  Scales  - $7,200


4  Initial estimated volumes per year:


   a  One city - 3, 000 tons


   b  Industrial plant - 3, 000 tons



   c  Balance of the county - 4, 000 tons



5  Volumes actually received during first
   six months from July 1,  1968 through
   December 1968.


   a  From city - 1,450 tons

   b  Industrial plant - 4, 475 tons


   c  Balance of county - 1, 200 tons


6  Fee schedule

   a  Minimum of $.75 for cars

   b  Scaled from $. 80 for 450 pounds
      to $3. 50 for one  ton


   c  Total receipts for first six months
      were $25, 000


7  Public acceptance


   a  The only city and at least 4
      villages joined refuse district


   b  Farmers  satisfied to use the landfill

   c  Neighbors satisfied with operation.


8  Additional equipment purchased


   a  Used air compressor

   b  Used road grader
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                                                             Rural and Recreational Systems
IV  OREGON RURAL DISPOSAL SITES

 A  County-wide Solid Waste Disposal

    1  Counties  experienced large quantities
       of illegal roadside dumping.


    2  Goal to reduce or eliminate roadside
       dumping by providing free dumping
       sites open seven days a week.

    3  In three counties responsibility of
       the program given to the county health
       department.

    4  In other counties program assigned to
       the county road department or public
      works department.

    5  Operation of sites

       a Maintained once or twice weekly


       b No caretaker on duty

      c  Public directed by signs

       d No salvage allowed to accumulate
   6  Equipment

      a  7 to 9 cubic yard dump truck

      b  18 ton tilt-deck trailer


      c  D-6 with 4 in 1 bucket



REFERENCES

1  Degner, Dennis A.  Sanitary Landfill
      Country - New Hampton, Iowa, Un-
      published Report, Bureau of Solid
      Waste  Management, CPE, EGA,  USPHS,
      DHEW, Region VI,  Kansas City,
      Missouri, 15 pp. October 1968.


2  Henry County, Ohio.  Information obtained
      during on-site visits and personal
      communications with Robert C. Jones,
      Consulting Engineer, Napoleon, Ohio.

3  Huron County, Ohio.  Information obtained
      during on-site visits and personal
      communications with Clarence R. Ellett,
      Deputy Health Commissioner,  Huron
      County Health Department, Norwalk,
      Ohio.

4  Oregon Rural Landfill Disposal Sites.
      Information obtained from Bruce  B.
      Bailey,  Solid Waste Program, Oregon
      State'Board of Health, Portland, Oregon.

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                              KEEPING THE PUBLIC INFORMED
                                        Training Staff*
  I   INTRODUCTION

  A  The solid waste system must be designed
     properly to work properly but the social,
     cultural, psychological implications of
     refuse must be recognized and considered
     for the system to work.
 II THE PUBLIC HAS A RIGHT AND A NEED
    TO KNOW

 A Support Comes Through Understanding

    1  The public sits in judgment on your
       proposed disposal operation and will
       decide whether or not they want it.  To
       judge realistically they must know.

       a  The need to stop improper operations

       b  Needed human and material resources

       c  The role of individuals and public and
          private agencies in helping with the
          needed changes.

    2  Their cooperation is needed.  It is
       affected by their attitudes toward your
       operation and  their understanding of
       what is required on their part.

 B The Public Are Customers and Partners in
    Your Disposal  Program

    1  Householders  and businessman, industry,
       and city or private solid waste collection
       agencies are probably all users of your
       disposal site.  They must learn how to
       use it.

    2  The individuals and groups served by
       you want to know the benefits (or
       disadvantages) that your disposal system
       offers them.
HI  THE INFORMATION MUST BE
    APPROPRIATE

 A Timing Is Important

    1  Your message is weakened if it comes
       too early or too late.

    2  The sequence of events and activities
       must be logical.
 '''Training Branch, Division of Technical Opera-
 tiorus, Solid Waste Management Offiee,
 Cincinnati, Ohio
  B  The Message Should Be Clear,  Sufficient,
     and Properly Directed.
       Absence of information breeds mistrust.
       People tend to be "down on what they are
       not up on. "  Rumor and misinformation
       flourish when good information  is
       lacking.

       Always be honest, but do not stir up
       people unnecessarily with controversial
       matters.

       Material which is not understandable,  or
       is directed to the wrong group,  just
       causes confusion.

       Last minute "once over lightly" efforts
       to reach the public may actually just
       stir up misunderstanding,  speculation,
       and resentment.
IV  BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

 A Differences In Backgrounds Hinder
    Understanding

    1  Language is an imperfect tool.  People
       may not understand what you mean,
       particularly when the subject is technical.

    2  Because  of interests and problems
       different from yours, the public may
       view your program differently than you
       do.   Try to anticipate their attitudes.

    3  There may be other matters (a school
       bond issue,  a local governmental crisis,
       etc. ) which will affect your program
       even though not directly related to it.
       Keep your eyes open for these possible
       conflicts.

 B Solid Waste Tends To  Be an Emotionally
    Negative Subject

    1  Solid waste is unwanted,  by definition.
       The public has to understand that money
       and equipment for proper  disposal are
       not being expended on the  refuse per se,
       but on maintaining a livable environment.

    2  Solid waste is boring, useless, ugly, or
       degrading to some people  to the point
       where they block their minds to rational
       solutions.

                      SW.AD.ki.2. 12.70   1

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Keeping the Public Informed
C  There Is Tremendous Competition for
   Public Attention
•V  ASSETS TO COMMUNICATION

A Your Cause Is Obviously Worthy in
   Principle

   1  The  open dump with its rats, flies,
      smoke and unsightliness is generally
      recognized to be evil.

   2  You  represent a respected agency.

B The Public is Already Somewhat Informed
   and Interested About  Disposal Practices

   1  Interest in pollutional control has
      already been stimulated by recent
      national publicity.  This helps
      tremendously.

   2  Getting heard or read is no longer so
      much of  a problem.   This makes it
      easier for you to proceed with the
      business of convincing the public that
      your approach to the disposal problem
      is the right one, and ought to be
      supported.
VI  WHAT NEEDS TO BE TOLD

 A  What Is to Be Done, and Why

 B  Effects (Favorable and Unfavorable) on
    the User

    1  Better environment, better service

    2  Higher costs, etc.

 C  The User's Expected Role in Helping
    Improve the Disposal System

 D  The User's Responsibilities in Using the
    System

 E  Progress Reports on Your Program

    1  Before-and-after pictures and stories
      of your work in eliminating dumps  and
      establishing sanitary landfills can be
      most persuasive arguments in winning
      public support.

    2  You need to update information on what
      is going on so the public will not lose
      interest or faith in you.
VII  HOW TO DO IT

   A Read "Getting Your Message Across" and
     get to work. Forget excuses that you do
     not speak well,  or that this is not really
     your job.  Public relations is everyone's.

   B Remember that the public is a part of
     your operation.  Work with:

     1  Responsible  individuals

        a  Those particularly affected by your
           proposed  changes

        b  Generally accepted leaders

     2  Social,  civic, religious,  fraternal,  and
        volunteer organizations.  Do not forget
        the school kids.

     3  Mass media:

        a  The  press

        b  Radio and television

        c  Posters,  leaflets, displays

   C Your Organization and Actions Can Win
     Public Support Directly

     1  Be sure your personnel and equipment
        help you create a  good image.

        a  Simple, neat uniforms

        b  Clean, well-maintained equipment

        c  Signs that look nice, help the user
           instead of just telling him what he
           cannot do.

        d  Courteous,  informed workers

     2  Early in the  effort,  make a few  obviously
        desirable improvements and make sure
        the public knows about it.

        a  News coverage of dump cleanup

        b  Neat signs, early planting of trees
           and  shrubs
VIII   SOME FINAL THOUGHT

   A  Tell the whole story.   Tell the good and the
      bad and never  lie.  Do not be bashful
      about your achievements,  though.  You
      have a concept to sell.
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                                                                   Keeping the Public Informed
B  Do not Expect Overnight Miracles  in
   Changing Public Attitudes.  There is much
   competition for individuals' attention and
   communication can be a slow process.


C  Expect Some Opposition and Be Prepared
   to Overcome It. Some will misunderstand
   your program  and  some will be adversely
   affected despite all you can do.  And a very
   few are opposed to any change.  Answer
   reasonable opposition and do not wear
   yourself out on the others.


D  Notice That This Outline is Entitled
   "Keeping the Public Informed."  Your
   Efforts Must be Diversified and Sustained
   to be Effective.
REFERENCES


1  Air Pollution Control Association.  How
      to Tell the Air Pollution Control Story.
      Pittsburgh, 12pp.  1965.


2  National League of Cities.  Careers in
      Municipal Public Relations.  Washington,
      D.C.,  9 pp.   1965.


3  Wilcomb, M.J.   Getting Your Message
      Across.   DREW, PHS,  EGA Training
      Institute, Cincinnati, 15 pp. 1969.

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APPENDICES

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                                 SOLID WASTE DEFINITIONS

                                        Training Staff*
  ACRE
     Unit for measuring land,  equal to 43, 560
     sq. ft.; or 4840 sq.  yd. ; or 160 sq. rds.

  ACTINOMYCETES
     A large group of microorganisms closely
     related to bacteria,  but the cells show
     branching, and form masses like the fungi
     do, except that the cells are much smaller.
     Actinomycetes give the characteristic odor
     of rich earth, are important in giving off-
     tastes to food and water,  and are of signi-
     ficance in the stabilization of solid waste
     (composting) and sewage.

  AERATION
     The process of exposing something to air
     or charging a liquid with gas.

  AFTERBURNER
     A device used to burn or oxidize the
    combustible constituents remaining in the
    effluent gases from prior combustion
     processes.

  AGGREGATE

     Crushed rock or gravel screened to sizes
     for use in  road surfaces, concrete,  or
     bituminous mixes.

  AIR, AMBIENT

     The surrounding environmental air.

  AIR, COMBUSTION (EXCESS)

     Air supplied in excess of theoretical air,
    usually expressed as  a percentage of the
     theoretical air.   Also called excess air.

  AIR. COMBUSTION (OVERFIRE)

     See AIR, COMBUSTION (SECONDARY)

  AIR, COMBUSTION (PRIMARY)

     Air admitted to a combustion system at
    the point of initial oxidation of the fuel.
    For example the air admitted through the
     fuel bed.
-Training Branch, Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, Ohio
AIR COMBUSTION (SECONDARY)
   Air introduced above or beyond the fuel
   bed by natural, induced,  or forced draft.
   It is generally referred to as overfire air
   if supplied above the fuel bed through the
   side walls and/or the bridge wall of the
   primary chamber.

AIR, COMBUSTION (STOICHIOMETRIC  AIR)

   See AIR, COMBUSTION (THEORETICAL)

AIR, COMBUSTION (THEORETICAL)
   Air, calculated from the chemical com-
   position of waste, required to burn the
   waste completely without excess air.
   Also designated as stoichiometric air.

AIR, COMBUSTION (UNDERFIRE)

   See AIR, COMBUSTION (PRIMARY)

AIR DEFICIENCY

   Insufficient air, in an air-fuel mixture,
   to supply the oxygen theoretically required
   for  complete oxidation of the fuel.

AIR POLLUTANT

   A substance when present in the atmosphere
   in concentrations large enough to interfere
   directly or indirectly with man's comfort,
   safety, health,  or full use or enjoyment
   of his property. The substance  source
   may be natural or man-made.

AIR POLLUTION
   The presence of contaminants in the air
   to such a degree that the normal self-
   cleansing or dispersive ability of the
   atmosphere  cannot cope with them.

AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
   Levels of atmospheric contamination by
   specific pollutants or combinations of
   pollutants prohibited under laws or ordin-
   ances enforced by municipal or state
   governments or regional agencies.
                                                                          SW.AD.pa.3. 1.70  1

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 Solid Waste Definitions
 ALKALINITY
   A quantitative measure of the capacity of
   liquids or suspensions to neutralize strong-
   acids or to resist the establishment of
   acidic conditions.  Alkalinity results from
   the presence or bicarbonates,  carbonates,
   hydroxides, volatile acids, salts, and
   occasionally of borates, silicates and
   phosphates.  Numerically it  is expressed
   in terms of the concentration of calcium
   carbonates that would have an equivalent
   capacity to neutralize strong acids.

 ALGAE
    Plants found in sunlit situations on land as
    well as in fresh and salt water over a wide
    range of latitude.  They grow as individual
    cells,  small clumps or large masses.

ANGLE OF  REPOSE
   The maximum angle which the inclined
   surface of a pile of loosely divided mater-
   ial can make with the horizontal.

AQUIFER
   Underground water-bearing geologic forma-
   tion or structure.

ARCH. DROP
   Any vertical refractory wall supported bv
   arch construction which serves to deflect
   gases in a downward direction. (Sometimes
   referred to as a curtain wall.)

ARCH, FURNACE
   A substantially horizontal structure
   extending into the furnace to serve as a
   deflector of gases.

ASHES
   The residue from the burning of wood, coal,
   coke,  and other combustible material.

AUXILIARY-FUEL FIRING EQUIPMENT
   Equipment to supply additional heat by
   the combustion of an auxiliary fuel for
   the purpose of attaining temperatures
   sufficiently high (a) to dry and ignite the
   waste material, (b) to maintain ignition
   thereof, and (c) to effect complete  com-
   bustion of combustible solids, vapors,
   and gases.

BACKFILL
   The material used in refilling a ditch or
   other excavation or the process of such
   refilling.
BACKUPS
   A mechanical hoe or pull shovel.

BACTERIA
   Single-celled organisms,  microscopic in
   size, which possess rigid cell walls and
   when motile have flagella. The cell nucleus
   is not surrounded by a membrane.  There
   are three major groups  true bacteria,
   actinomycetes, and budding bacteria. .
   Some are capable of causing  human, animal,
   or plant diseases.  Some  are important
   in sewage or refuse stabilization.

BACTERIA, AEROBIC

   Bacteria which require the presence of
   free (dissolved or molecular) oxygen for
   their metabolic processes.  Oxygen in
   chemical combination will not support
   aerobic organisms.

BACTERIA, ANAEROBIC

   Bacteria that do not require the presence of
   free or dissolved oxygen for  metabolism.
   Strict anaerobes are hindered or completely.
   blocked by the presence of dissolved oxygen
   and in  some cases by the  presence of highly
   oxidized substances such  as  sodium
   nitrates, and perhaps sulfates.

BACTERIA, FACULTATIVE
   Bacteria which can exist and reproduce
   under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

BAFFLE

   Any refractory construction intended to
   change the direction of flow en the products
   of combustion.

BAFFLE CHAMBER
   A device designed to promote the settling
   of fly ash and/or coarse particiilate
   matter by changing the direction and/or
   reducing the velocity of the gases produced
   by combustion.

BAFFLE,  WATER-COOLED
   A baffle composed essentially of closely
   spaced boiler tubes.

BEARING CAPACITY
   Maximum ability of a material to support
   an imposed load before failure.
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                                                                        Solid Waste Definitions
BECCARI PROCESS
   Composting process developed by Dr.
   Giovanni Beccari in 1922.  Initial anaerobic
   fermentation is coupled with a final stage
   in which decomposition proceeds under
   partially aerobic conditions.   Later
   modifications were the Verdier and Bordas
   processes.

BEDDING, ANIMAL
   Material,  usually organic, which is placed
   on the floor surface of livestock buildings
   for animal comfort to absorb urine
   and other  liquids and thus promote
   cleanliness.

BEDDING,  PIPE
   Ground or supports in which pipe is laid.

BEDROCK
   The solid rock underlying soilc and the
   regolith, or exposed rock at the surface
   without a cover.

BENCH MARK
   A point of known or assumed elevation used
   as a reference in determining and record
   ing other elevations

BERM
   An artificial ridge of earth.

BITUMINOUS
   Containing asphalt or tar

BLADE
   Steel plate,  concave in vertical plane,
   affixed to a tractor used for excavation and
   spreading.

BLADE (SANITARY LANDFILL)
  A U-blade with extension fabricated on top
   to increase volume of solid waste that may
   be pushed and spread.

BLADE (U)

  A dozer blade with extension on both sides,
   protruding forward at an obtuse angle to
  the blade, enabling handling of a larger
   volume of solid waste.

BLUE TOPS
   Grade stakes whose tops indicate finish
   grade level.
BOGIE (TANDEM) (TANDEM DRIVE UNIT)
   A two axle driving unit in a truck.  Also
   called tandem drive unit or a tan--em.

BOOM
   In a revolving shovel, a beam hinged to the
   deck front, supported by cables.  Any
   heavy beam which is hinged at one end
   and carries a weight-lifting device  at tne
   other.

BORING
   Rotary drilling.

BORROW PIT
   An excavationfrom which material is taken
   to a nearby job.

BOULDER

   A rock which is too heavy to be lifted
   readily by hand.

BREECHING OR STOCK OONNECTION

   A passage for conducting the products of
   combustion to the  stack or chimney.

BRICK, ALUMINA -  DIASPORE FIRECLAY
   Brick made essentially of diaspore or
   nodule clay, and having an alumina content
   of 50, 60, or 70 per cent plus or minus
   2|  percent.

BRIDGE WALL
   A partition wall between chambers over
   which pass the  products of combustion.
   (see CURTAIN  WALL).

BTU (BRITISH THERMAL UNIT)
   The quantity of heat required to increase
   the temperature of one pound of water
   from 59. 5° to 60. 5OF.

BUCKET
   An open container affixed to movable
   arms of a loader to move and spread solid
   waste and soil, and also to excavate soil.

BULKY WASTE
   Large items of refuse such as appliances,
   furniture, large auto parts, trees and
   branches, palm fronds, stumps,  flotage,
   etc.

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Solid Waste Definitions
BULL CLAM
   A bulldozer fitted with a curved bowl hinged
   to  the top of the front of the blade.

BULLDOZER

   A tractor equipped with a  front pusher
   blade.

BURNER, PRIMARY

   A burner installed in the primary
   combustion chamber to dry out and ignite
   the material to  be burned.

BURNER, RE FUSE
   A device of simple construction for either
   municipal or on-site volume reduction of
   refuse by burning.  Not to be
   confused with incinerator which, pro-
   perly designed and operated, can produce
   an acceptable emission and residue.

BURNER, SECONDARY
   A burner installed in the secondary
   combustion chamber to maintain a minimum
   temperature  and complete the combustion
   process.  (Sometimes  referred to as  an
   afterburner. )

BURNING AREA (INCINERATOR)

   The horizontal projected area of grate,
   hearth, or combination thereof on which
   burning takes place.

BURNING RATE, INCINERATOR
   The amount  of heat released (Btu) per
   unit size (ft^, ft^) per  unit of time (min.,
   hr.,  day) e. g. Btu per ft^ of furnace
   volume per hour. Another, though less
   exact, expression may be by quantity of
   solid waste (pounds, tons) per unit or
   unit size (furnace or ft^, ft^) per unit of
   time e.g. (tons per furnace per day).

BYPASS (BREECHING)
   An arrangement of breechings or flue
   connections and dampers to permit the
   alternate use of two or more pieces of
   equipment by directing or diverting the
   flow of the products of combustion.

CAPACITY,  INCINERATOR
   a) Design Capacity —  the capacity at
     which the designer  expects that the
     incinerator will be capable of operating;
     the number of tons of solid waste per
     24 hour period, which is anticipated that
     the plant  can process.
   b)  Rated Capacity - tons of waste per 24
      hour day which can be processed,
      according to specified criteria.  Trend
      is to use criteria relating to residue
      quality and  air pollution standards.

   c)  Dependable  Capacity  - plant capacity
      considering nonoperating time (main-
      tenance, down-time etc.) - usually
      expressed as a percentage of the rated
      capacity.

   d)  Actual Output - actual amount of material
      processed per day even though the plant
      may be operated for only a portion of the
      day.

CAPILLARY ATTRACTION
   The tendency of water to move into fine
   spaces, as between soil particles,  regard-
   less of gravity.

CAPILLARY WATER
   Underground water held above the water
   table by capillary attraction.

CARBON DIOXIDE
   An odorless, colorless,  and nonpoisonous
   gas.  One source is from sanitary landfills
   undergoing aerobic and/or anaerobic
   microbial decomposition which is highly
   soluble in water, forming carbonic acid.

CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)

   A colorless gas  characterized by an
   exceedingly faint metallic odor and taste.
   It is  extremely poisonous, inducing
   asphyxiation.  As much a 0.2% in air is
   poisonous and 0.43% will induce
   asphyxiation.

CARBON NITROGEN RATIO
   The ratio of carbon to nitrogen.
   Abbreviated C/N.

CARRIER
   A person who harbors a specific  infectious
   agent in the absence of discernible clinical
   disease and serves as a potential source
   or reservoir of infection for man.

CARRY-CLOTH
   A large canvas or burlap cloth square
   used in transfer of refuse from homes by
   collectors in backyard carryout service.
   Serves as a carrying container (see
   CARRYING  CONTAINER).
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                                                                  Solid Waste Definitions
CARRYING CONTAINER
   A transfer container carried by the
   collector in backyard carryout service.
   Usually of 30-50 gallon capacity and
   especially constructed of plastic or
   aluminum. In England these are called
   skips.

CAT
   A trademark designation for any machine
   made by the Caterpillar Tractor Company.
   Widely used to indicate a crawler tractor
   or mounting of any make.

CATALYTIC COMBUSTION SYSTEM
   A catalytically active substance, inter-
   posed in the exhaust gas stream to burn
   or oxidize vaporized hydrocarbons or
   odorous contaminants.

CELL
   The volume of compacted solid waste
   enclosed by natural soil and/or cover
   material in a sanitary landfill.

CELL DEPTH
   Vertical thickness of compacted solid
   waste enclosed by natural soil  and/or
   cover material in a sanitary landfill.

CELL THICKNESS
   Perpendicular distance between cover
   material placed over the  last working
   faces of two successive cells in a sanitary
   landfill.

CHARGING CHUTE
   A passage through which waste materials
   are charged into an incinerator from
   above by gravity.

CHARGING RAM

   A reciprocating device to meter and force
   refuse into a furnace.

CHECKER WORK
   A pattern of multiple openings in refractory
   through which the products of combustion
   pass to promote turbulent mixing of the
   gases.

CHIMNEY (STACK, FLUE)
   See STACK.
CHIPPER
   A size reduction device relying primarily
   on the shearing, cutting, or chipping
   action produced by sharp-edged blades
   attached to a rotating shaft (mandrel)
   which shaves or chips off pieces of the
   charged object.

CLAMSHELL
   A shovel bucket with two jaws which clamp
   together by their own weight when it is
   lifted by the closing line.

CLAY

   Soil particles less than 0.002  mm in diameter
   according to  USDA classification.

CLEANER BARS
   Metallic bars affixed  to wheeled equipment
   to  remove mud and solids from wheel
   area.

CLIMATE
   Long-term manifestations of weather.
   More rigorously, the  climate of a
   specific area is specified by the statistical
   collection of  its weather conditions during
   a specified interval of time  (usually several
   decades).

COLLECTION
   The act of picking up refuse at home, busi-
   ness or industrial site and putting it in a
   truck.

COLLECTION, CONTRACT
   City pays a contractor for doing collection
   work.

COLLECTION METHODS (CREW ORGANIZATION)

   a) Daily Route Method

      A collection crew is assigned a weekly
      route, divided into daily routes.  The
      crew is then responsible for refuse
      pickup at an collection points on the
      assigned daily routes. Weather, refuse
      quantities  and other variables  will cause
      the elapsed time for completion of each
      daily route to vary.  The crew is allowed
      to go home after completion of the day's
      route, whether it takes less or more than
      the established work day to  complete.

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Solid Waste Definitions
   b) Definite Working Day
     A variation of the large route method.
      Definite routes are laid out and a crew
      assigned to each. Collection proceeds
      along a route for the length of time
      adopted for a working day.  The next
      day,  collection begins where the crew
      stopped the day before.  This continues
     until the route is completely collected,
      whereupon the crew starts collection
     again at the beginning of the route with-
     out interruption.

   c) Large Route Method

      A variation of the task system in which
      work is laid out for a normal week's
      activity for a single crew.  The crew
      may work each day without a fixed
     stopping point or number of hours, but
      the route must be entirely completed
     within the working week.

   d) Single Load Method
      A variation of the task system whereby
      areas or routes are laid out and under
      normal conditions each provides a full
      load of refuse.  Each crew usually has
      two or more such routes for a day's
      work.  The crew quits for the day when
     the assigned number  of routes are
      completed.  See also TASK SYSTEM.

COLLECTION METHODS (CREW
INTEGRATED)
   a) Inter-Route Relief Method
      A collection method in which regular
     crews help collect other routes when
     their own assignments are completed.

   b) Reservoir Route  Method

      The use of several crews to pick up a
     central route after having collected
     marginal routes around the central
     route.

   c) Swing Crew Method

      The provision of one or more extra
      crews to help out at any point where
      they are needed.

   d) Variable Size Crew Method

     System which provides a variable
     number of collectors for the individual
     crews,   depending on the amount and
      conditions of work on particular routes.
COLLECTION METHODS (PICK UP OPERATIONS)
   a) Backyard Carry Service
     The collection personnel proceed to the
     place on a householder's premises where
     the refuse is regularly stored and
     transfer  the   accumulated material from
     the householder's containers to a
     carrying barrel.  The carrying barrel
     is then taken to the collection vehicle
     and emptied.    A number of premises
     may be served before barrel has to be
     emptied.

   b) Curb Service

     The householder sets the refuse con-
     tainer at the curb where  it is then
     emptied into the collection truck by the
     collection personnel.  The householder
     then takes the  empty container back to the
     regular storage area.

   c) Set-out Service
     A special set-out crew carries  the
     full refuse containers to the curb a few
     minutes before the collection vehicle
     arrives.  The  refuse is then emptied
     into the truck and the empty containers
     are left at the  curb.  The householder
     has the responsibility to take back the
     empty containers.

   d) Setout, Setback Method
     Full refuse containers  are carried by a
     special set-out crew from back doors
     or other places on the householder's
     premises to curbs or alleys a few
     minutes before the collection vehicle
     arrives.  Refuse is loaded in the same
     manner as when it is placed at curbs or
     alleys by the householders, leaving
     empty containers at the curbs or alleys.
     A special set-back crew returns the
     empty cans to  their regular locations
     within a short  time after they are
     emptied.

COLLECTION, MUNICIPAL

   City pays  employees; operation by city
   departments.

COLLECTION, PRIVATE
   Citizens or firms, individually or in
   limited groups,  pay collectors or private
   operating agencies.
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                                                                       Solid Waste Definitions
COLLECTION STOP
   Stop made by the collection vehicle and
   crew on the route to collect refuse from
   one or more service stops.

COLLECTION TIME (PICK-UP TIME)
   Elapsed or cumulative time spent by the
   refuse collection crew in collecting
   refuse from a collection stop.  Does not
   include travel time between collection
   stops on the route.

COLLECTOR, BAG-TYPE
   A filter wherein the cloth filtering medium
   is made in the form of cylindrical bags.

COLLECTOR, CYCLONE

   A structure without moving parts  in which
   the velocity of an inlet gas stream is
   transformed into a confined vortex from
   which centrifugal forces tend to drive  the
   suspended  particle to the wall of the
   cyclone body.

COLLECTOR, FILTER FABRIC
   A device designed to remove solid disper-
   coids from a carrier gas by passage of the
   gas through a porous medium.

   Two basic types of filters are presently
   employed.  In one,a fibrous medium is
   used as the collecting element  and  in the
   other,a medium is utilized as a support for
   a layer of collected particles, relying on
   the coat of collected particles to serve as
   the principal collecting medium.

COMBUSTION CHAMBER (PRIMARY)
   Chamber where  ignition  and burning of the
   waste occurs.

COMBUSTION CHAMBER (SECONDARY)

   Chamber where  combustible solids,
   vapors,  and gases from  the primary
   chamber are burned and settling of fly
   ash takes place.

COMBUSTION, COMPLETE
   The complete oxidation of the fuel, regard-
   less of whether it is accomplished with
   an excess amount of oxygen or air or just
   the theoretical amount required for
   perfect combustion.
COMMERCIAL OPERATOR (OHIO'S
DEFINITION)
   All persons,  firms,or corporations who
   own or operate stores,  restaurants,
   industries, institutions, and other similar
   places, public or private, charitable or
   non-charitable, including all responsible
   persons other than householders, upon the
   premises  of which garbage or other refuse
   or both is or are created.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
   An illness due to an infectious agent or
   its toxic products which is transmitted
   directly or indirectly to a well person
   from aft infected person or animal, or
   through the agency  or an intermediate host,
   vector, or inanimate environment.

COMMUNICABLE PERIOD
   The time or times during which the etiologic
   agent may be transferred from an infected
   person or animal to man.

COMPACTED YARDS

   Cubic yard measurement of material after
   it has been placed and compacted in a fill.

COMPACTION

   Reduction in bulk of fill by rolling and
   tamping.

COMPACTOR COLLECTION TRUCK

   Enclosed vehicle provided with special
   mechanical devices for loading the refuse
   into the main compartment of the body,
   for compressing the  loaded materials,  and
   for distributing the refuse within the body.

COMPACTOR (STEEL WHEEL)
   A gas or diesel powered machine equipped
   with steel wheels to provide good compaction
   and crushing effort,  used to spread and
   compact soil  and solid waste.

COMPOSTING
   A controlled microbial degradation of
   organic waste yielding a nusiance-free
   product of potential value as a soil
   conditioner.

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Solid Waste Definitions
COMPRESSION
   For steel wheel rollers, the compacting
   effect of the weight at the bottom of the
   roll, measured in pounds per linear inch
   of roll width.

CONDUIT
   A pipe or tile carrying water, wire, or
   pipes.

CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

   Waste building materials and rubble
   resulting from construction, remodeling,
   repair,  and demolition operations on
   houses,  commercial buildings,  pavements,
   and other structures.

CONTAINER, CARRYING

   A transfer container carried by the collector
   in backyard carryout service.  Usually of
   30-50 gallon capacity and especially
   constructed of plastic  or aluminum.  In
   England these are called skips.

CONTAINER, STORAGE  (DETACHABLE)

   A partially mechanized self-service
   refuse removal procedure with specially
   constructed containers and vehicles.   It
   is mechanized in that special equipment
   is used to empty the containers  and haul
   refuse to the disposal  site.   It is self-
   service in that the customer puts the
   refuse in the container.

CONTAINER, STORAGE  (DISPOSABLE)

   Specially designed plastic or paper sack
   refuse storage containers which are intend-
   ed for disposal along with its contents.

CONTAINER STORAGE (LIFT AND CARRY)
   Detachable container system in which
   service vehicle has lifting arms to pick
   up container and contents together for
   transportation to disposal site.

CONTAINER STORAGE (PULL-ON)

   Detachable container system in which
   large container (approximately  20-40
   cubic yards) is pulled onto service
   vehicle mechanically and carried to
   disposal site for emptying.
CONTAINER STORAGE (REAR LOADER,
DETACHABLE)
   Detachable container system in which
   roll-out containers, typically 1 to 3 yard
   capacity are hoisted at the rear of the
   collection vehicle and mechanically
   emptied.  Container is left with the
   customer.

CONTAINERS, STORAGE (REUSABLE.
IINDIVIDUATT
   Galvanized metal or plastic containers
   specifically intended for use to store
   solid waste.  Sizes normally vary from
   20 to 82 gallons.  The  container has tight
   fitting cover and  suitable handles.

CONTAINER STORAGE (SIDE  LOADER.
DETACHABLE)

   Detachable container system similar to
   rear loader (which  see) except loaded at
   side of collection vehicle.
CONVEYOR
   A device that transports material by belts,
   cables, or chains.

CONVEYOR, SCREW
   A revolving shaft fitted with auger-type
   flights that moves bulk materials through
   a trough or tube.

CORE
   A cylindrical piece of an underground
   formation cut and raised by a rotary drill
   with a hollow bit.

COVER MATERIAL
   Granular material, generally soil, that
   is used to cover compacted solid waste
   in a sanitary landfill,  generally free of
   large objects that would hinder compaction
   and free of organic content that would be
   conducive to vector harborage, feeding
   and/or breeding.

CRANE
   A mobile machine used for lifting and
   moving loads without use of a bucket.

CRANE.  BRIDGE
                                                     A crane consisting of a lifting unit that
                                                     hangs from,  and can travel along, a
                                                     movable horizontal rail which rides  between
                                                     two parallel, horizontal rails.
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                                                                   Solid Waste Definitions
CRANE, MONORAIL
   A crane consisting of a lifting unit that
   hangs from a suspended, horizontal rail in
   such a way that the unit can travel the
   length of the rail.

CRAWLER
   One of a pair of roller chain tracks used
   to support and propel a machine, or any
   machine mounted on such tracks.

CUT
   Portion of land surface or area from which
   earth or rock has been removed or will
   be removed by  excavation. The depth below
   original ground surface to excavated
   surface.

DAMPER
   A manually or automatically controlled
   device to regulate draft or the rate of
   flow of air or other gases.

DAMPER,  BAROMETRIC
   A hinged or pivoted balanced blade,  placed
   so as to admit air to the breeching,  flue
   connection or stack,thereby automatically
   maintaining a constant draft in the
   incinerator.

DAMPER,  BUTTERFLY

   A plate or blade installed in a duct,
   breeching, flue connection or stack, which
   rotates on an axis in its plane to regulate
   flow of gases.

DANO BIOSTABILIZER SYSTEM
   Aerobic, thermophilic composting process
   in which conditions of moisture, air, and
   temperature are maintained in a single
   slowly revolving cylinder that retains the
   compostable refuse for one to five days.
   The refuse is later  windrowed.

DEAD ANIMALS
   Those that die naturally or from disease
   or are accidentally killed. Condemned
   animals or parts of animals from
   slaughter houses or similar places are
   not included in this term, but are  regarded
   as industrial refuse.

DEADHEADING
   Traveling without load, except from the
   dumping area to the loading point.
DECOMPOSITION (AEROBIC)
   Reduction of the net energy level and change
   in chemical composition of organc matter
   by aerobic microorganisms.

DECOMPOSITION (ANAEROBIC)
   Reduction of the net energy level and
   change in chemical composition of organic
   matter caused by microorganisms in an
   anaerobic environment.

DEGLASSER
   See OSBORNE SEPARATOR.

DENSITY
   The ratio of the weight of a substance to
   its volume.

DEPTH OF  FILL
   Total distance between undisturbed earth
   or bottom of  solid waste in the sanitary
   landfill and top of final cover material.

DESIGN  RUNOFF  RATE
   Maximum runoff rate (occurring expected)
   in a given period of time, during and
   immediately following rainfall.

DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION

   The heating of organic matter when air
   is not present,  resulting in the evolution
   of volatile matter and leaving solid char
   consisting of fixed carbon and ash.

DIKE
   Bank of material,  normally earth,
   constructed to form a barrier.A levee.

DISEASE AGENT
   Any organism or material capable of
   causing disease.

DISINFECTION
   Killing of pathogenic agents outside the
   body by chemical or physical means
   directly applied.

DISPOSAL AREA
   A site, location, tract of land, area,
   building, structure or premises used or
   intended to be used for partial and/or
   total refuse disposal.

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Solid Waste Definitions
DISPOSAL,  OCEAN

   A sea dumping process which had been
 -  used extensively in the past, but which
   lost considerable popularity after the U.S.
   Supreme  Court in 1933 outlawed dumping
   off the New Jersey shore by the city of
   New York.

DISPOSAL,  ON-SITE

   Includes  all means of disposal  of refuse
   on premises before collection.  Examples
   are garbage grinding, burning or incinera-
   tion, and burial.

DISPOSAL,  WASTE
   The final deposition of waste by man.  This
   does not include its ultimate dessemination
   by forces other than man.

DOZER
   Abbreviation for bulldozer or shovel dozer.

DOZER SHOVEL (SHOVEL DOZER)
   A tractor equipped with a front-mounted
   bucket that can be used for pushing,
   digging, and truck loading.
DRAFT
   The pressuredifference between the
   incinerator or any component part and the
   atmosphere which causes the products of
   combustion to flow through the gas passages
   of the incinerator to the atmosphere
   Natural:
   Induced:
   Forced:
DRAGLINE
The negative pressure created
by stack or chimney due to its
height and the temperature
difference between the flue gases
and the  atmosphere.
The negative pressure created
by the action of a fan, blower,
or ejector, which is located
between the incinerator and the
stack.

The positive  pressure created
by the action of a fan or blower,
which supplies the primary or
secondary air.
   A revolving shovel which carries a bucket
   attached only by cables, and digs by
   pulling the bucket toward itself.
                                    DRAWBAR

                                       In a tractor,  a fixed or. hinged bar extend-
                                       ing to the rear; used as a fastening for line
                                       and towed machines  or  loads.

                                    DRAWBAR HORSEPOWER
                                       A tractor's flywheel horsepower minus
                                       friction and slippage losses in the drive
                                       mechanism and the tracks or tires.
                                    DREDGE
                                       To dig under water.
                                       under water.

                                    DRUM MILL
                       A machine that digs
                                       A long, inclined steel drum that rotates
                                       and grinds solid waste in the rough interior
                                       of the drum,  the smaller ground material
                                       falling through holes near the end of the
                                       drum and the larger material dropping out
                                       the end.
                                    DUCT
   A pipe, tube, or channel that conveys a
   substance.

DUMP

   See (OPEN DUMP)

ECOLOGY
   The science that deals with the study of the
   interrelationships of living organisms to
   their environment.

EFFLUENT SEEPAGE
   Diffuse discharge of ground water to the
   ground surface.

EFFLUENT (STACK)
   The gas and particulates that reach the
   atmosphere from the burning process.

EMISSION (STACK)

   See EFFLUENT (STACK)

ENDEMIC
   The regular occurrence of a fairly constant
   number of cases of a disease within an
   area.

ENERGY  SOURCE
                                                    The source from which an organism
                                                    derives the energy for metabolic activities,
                                                    e.g., sunlight, sulfur,  cellulose, hydrogen,
                                                    etc.
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                                                                  Solid Waste Definitions
ENGINE SIDESCREEN
   A rugged fabrication to fit on engine
   housing o' a tractor or other machine to
   prevent accumulation of paper and protect
   the engine from damage.

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

   A device for collecting dust, mist,  or fume
   from a gas stream  by placing an electrical
   charge on the particle and removing that
   particle to a collecting electrode.

EPIDEMIC
   The occurrence in a community or region
   of a group of illnesses of a similar nature,
   clearly in excess of normal expectancy
   and derived from a common or propagated
   source.

EPIDEMIOLOGY
   The study of the causes, transmission,
   and incidence of diseases in communities
   or other  population groups.

EROSION, SOIL
   The wearing away of the land surface
   normally by wind or running water.

ET IP LOGICAL AGENT
   The pathogenic organism causing a
   specific disease in a living body.

EVAPO-TRANSPIRATION
   The sum of water removed by vegetation
   and that lost by evaporation for a particu-
   lar area during a specified time.

EXCESS AIR
   See (COMBUSTION  AIR (EXCESS))

EXPANSION CHAMBER
   See (SETTLING CHAMBER)

EXPANSION JOINT (REFRACTORY)
   An open joint left for thermal or permanent
   expansion of refractories.  Also, small
   spaces or gaps built into a refractory
   structure to permit  sections of masonry to
   expand and contract freely and to prevent
   distortion or buckling of furnace structures
   from excessive expansion stresses.
FAIRFIELD-HARDY DIGESTER (COMPOST)
   A patented product of Fairfield Engineering
   Company, Marion, Ohio, which decomposes
   garbage, sewage sludge, industrial and
   other organic waste by a controlled
   continuous aerobic-thermophilic process.

FAN, INDUCED-DRAFT

   A fan exhausting hot gases from the heat-
   absorbing equipment, dust collector or
   scrubber.

FAN, OVERFIRE AIR
   A fan used to provide air to  a combustion
   chamber above the fuel bed.

FERMENTATION
   Any energy-yielding oxidation in which the
   oxidant is organic.

FIELD CAPACITY  (SEE MOISTURE-HOLD ING
CAPACITY)

   Quantity of water held by compacted
   solid waste where application of additional
   water will cause it to drain rapidly to
   underlying material.

FILL DEPTH

   See DEPTH OF FILL.

FIREBRICK
   Refractory brick of any type.

FLUE  (CHIMNEY, STACK)

   See STACK.

FLUE  GAS
   Waste gas from combustion processes
   which may contain water vapor or dilution
   air added after the combustion chambers.

FLUE GAS SCRUBBER (WASHER)
   Equipment for removing fly ash and other
   objectionable materials from the  flue gas
   by means of sprays, wet baffles,  etc.
   Also reduces excessive temperatures of
   effluent.

FLUIDIZING
   Causing a mass of finely divided solid
   particles to assume some of the properties
   of a fluid, as by aeration.
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FLUME

   An artificial channel, often elevated above
   the ground, used to carry fast flowing water.

FLY ASH
   All solids including ash,  charred paper,
   cinders,  dusty soot,  or other partially
   incinerated matter carried in the flue
   gases.

FLY ASH COLLECTOR
   Equipment for removing  fly ash from the
   products of combustion.

FOMES (PLURAL,  FOMITES)
   An inanimate object not supporting
   bacterial growth but serving to transmit
   pathogenic organisms from human to
   human.

FOMITE
   See FOMES.

FOOD WASTE DISPOSER
   See GARBAGE GRINDING.
FOOT
   In tamping rollers, one of a number of
   projections from a cylindrical drum.

FRONT END LOADER (COLLECTION)
   Detachable container system in which
   collection vehicle has arms which engage
   container (usually  1-10 yard capacity)
   move it up over the cab and empty it into
   the vehicle body.  Container is left with
   the customer.

FUNGI
   Simple plants without photosynthetic
   pigment.  The cells have a nucleus
   surrounded by a membrane,  and the cells
   are connected together in long filaments
   called hyphae,  which may grow together
   to form a visible body.  Simpler fungi are
   involved in stabilization of solid waste
   (composting) and sewage.

FURNACE

   The chambers of the incinerator into
   which the refuse is charged, ignited and
   burned.
GARBAGE

  Animal and vegetable waste resulting from
   the handling, preparation, cooking and
   serving of foods.  It does not include
   food wastes from industrial processing.

GARBAGE GRINDING
   A method of uniformly reducing food waste
   or garbage and placing the reduced product
   in sewer systems.  The reducing device
   may be a home sink grinder,  or a  large
   central grinder which serves industry or
   the community. It is  noted that the ground
   garbage, which should pass  through a
   sewage treatment plant,  must still be
   disposed of as sewage sludge after
   treatment.

GARBAGE GRINDING (CENTRAL)

   The grinding by mechanical means of
   garbage accumulated by municipal,
   commercial, or private delivery vehicles.

GARCHEY (GANDILLON)
   A patented system for the water carriage
   and temporary storage of household
   wastes by means of a storage and flushing
   device mounted under the sink and tubing
   to convey the refuse to a central holding
   tank.

GAS BARRIER
   Any device or material used to divert the
   flow of gases through soil from a sanitary
   landfill or other land  disposal technique.

GASES
   Normally formless fluids which occupy the
   space of enclosure  and which can be
   changed to the liquid or solid state only
   by the combined effect of increased
   pressure and decreased temperature.

GASES (COMBUSTION)
   Mixture of gases produced in the
   combustion chambers.

GASES,  (FLUE)
   Waste gas from combustion  process, which
   may contain water vapor or dilution air
   added after combustion chambers.
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                                                                   Solid Waste Definitions
GASIFICATION

   The process or processes whereby solid
   or liquid matter is converted to such
   gases as carbon dioxide, methane, or
   ammonia through biological activity.

GRADER
   A gas or diesel pneumatic wheel machine
   equipped with a centrally located blade
   that can be angled to cast to either side,
   with  independent hoist control on each
   side.

GRADE STAKE
   A stake indicating the amount of cut or
   fill required to bring the ground to a
   specified level.

GRADIENT

   Slope along a specific route, as of a road
   surface, channel or pipe.

GRAPPLE

   A clamshell-type bucket having three or
   more jaws.

G_RATE_
   Surface with suitable openings,  to support
   the refuse and permit passage of air
   through the burning fuel.

GRATE, DEAD PLATE
   A stationary grate through which no air
   passes.

GRATE, FIXED
   A grate which does not have movement.
   A stationary grate.

GRATE,  RECIPROCATING
   A forced-draft grate whose sections move
   continuously and slowly,  forward and
   rearward, for the purpose of agitating and
   moving the burning refuse material from
   the charging to the discharge ends of an
   incinerator furnace.

GRATE,  ROCKING
   An incinerator stoker with moving (and
   stationary) grate bars which are trunnion
   supported.  In operation,  the moving bars
   oscillate on the trunnions, imparting a
   rocking  motion to the bars, and thus
   agitating and moving the burning refuse
   along the grate.
GRATE, STATIONARY
   See GRATE FIXED

GRATE, TRAVELING GRATE
   A traveling grate stoker consists of an
   endless grate similar to a chain grate,
   but with grate keys mounted on transverse
   bars.  The lead nose of each key on one
   bar overlaps the rear end of the keys
   on the preceding bar.  The transverse bars
   are mounted on chains and are driven by
   sprockets.

GRAVEL
   Rock fragments from 2 mm to 64 mm (. 08
   to  2. 5 inches) in diameter.  Or a mixture
   of  such gravel with sand, cobbles, boulders,
   and not over 15 percent of fines.

GROUND PRESSURE
   The weight of a machine divided by the
   area in square inches of the ground
   directly supporting it.

GROUNDWATER

   Water occurring in the zone of saturation
   in an aquifer or soil.

GROUNDWATER FLOW

   Flow of water in an aquifer or soil.  That
   portion of the discharge of a stream  which
   is derived from groundwater.

GROUNDWATER, FREE
   Groundwater in aquifers not bounded or
   confined by impervious strata.

GROUNDWATER RUNOFF
   That part of the groundwater which is
   discharged into a stream channel as  spring
   or seepage water.

GROUSER
   A ridge or cleat across a track shoe
   which improves its grip on the ground.

GROUT
   A cementing or sealing mixture of cement
   and water,  to which sand, sawdust, or
   other fillers may be added.
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HAMMERMILL_
   A grinding machine that operates by
   impaction of material against heavy metal
   hammers loosely pinned to a shaft rotating
   at a high velocity.

HAMMERMILL SYSTEM
   A composting  process similar to the
   rasping system (which see),  except that
   a rapidly spinning hammermill shreds the
   refuse, instead of a slowly turning rasping
   machine which serves the same purpose.

HARDPAN
   Hardened,  compacted or cemented soil
   horizon.

HAUL DISTANCE
   a) Distance which cover material must
      be transported to the working face.

   b)  Distance collection truck must  travel
      from its last pick-up stop to the working
      face of a sanitary landfill or tipping
      floor of a solid waste volume reduction
      or disposal facility.

   c)  Distance transfer vehicle must  travel
      from solid waste processing station to
      point of final disposal.

HAUL TIME
   Elapsed or cumulative time spent  hauling
   collected refuse from the route or from
   transfer station to the disposal point.

HEARTH,  DRYING
   A  solid surface upon which waste material
   with high moisture content, or liquids or
   waste material which may  turn to liquid
   before burning,  is placed for drying or
   burning.

HEAT, AVAILABLE

   The quantity of useful heat per unit of
   fuel available from complete combustion
   after deducting dry-flue-gas and water-
   vapor losses.

HEAT BALANCE
   An accounting of the distribution of the
   heat input and output, usually on an
   hourly basis.
HEAT EXCHANGER
   A set of tubes to accommodate exhaust
   gases with means for passing room air
   over outside of tubes such that heat of
   gases is transferred to room air used for
   heating ventilation air supply to room or
   process equipment.

HEAT OF COMBUSTION

   See HEAT VALUE

HEAT RELEASE RATE
   The amount of heat liberated during the
   process of complete combustion and ex-
   pressed in BTU per hour per cubic
   foot of the internal  furnace volume in which
   such combustion takes place.

HEAT VALUE, HIGH
   The heat liberated per pound of refuse
   when burned completely and the products
   of combustion are cooled to the initial
   temperature,  as in a calorimeter.

HEAT VALUE, LOW
   The high heat value minus the latent heat
   of vaporization of the water formed by
   burning the hydrogen in the fuel.

HOG FEEDING
   A conservation process in which the food
   waste or garbage portion of refuse is
   disposed of by feeding to hogs.  State
   regulations throughout the country require
   that garbage  be treated prior to feeding.

HORSEPOWER
   A measurement of power that includes the
   factors of force and speed.  The force
   required to lift 33, 000 pounds one foot in
   one minute.

HORSEPOWER. DRAWBAR_
   Horsepower available to move a tractor
   and its  load,  after deducting losses in the
   power train.

HORSEPOWER  SHAFT (FLYWHEEL OR
BELT
   Actual horsepower produced by the engine,
   after deducting the drag of accessories.
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                                                                   Solid Waste Definitions
HOST
   The living body, human or animal, that
   provides food and shelter for the disease
   organisms.

HUMUS
   Decayed organic matter.  A dark fluffy
   swamp soil composed chiefly of decayed
   vegetation,  that is also called peat.

HYDRAULIC GRADIENT
   Change in the hydraulic head per unit
   distance.

HYDRAULIC HEAD (WATER IN SOIL)
   The elevation with respect to a standard
   datum at which water stands  in a riser
   or manometer connected to the point in
   question in the soil.

HYDROGEN SULFIDE
   Gas product of the reduction of sulfate,
   odorous in concentrations as small as
   parts per billion.

HYDROGRAPHER
   Person who measures and analyzes dis-
   charge, precipitation and runoff,  etc.

HYDROLOGY
   Science dealing with the properties,
   distribution and flow of water on or in the
   earth.

ID_LE_R
   A wheel or gear which changes the
   direction of rotation of shafts,  or the
   direction of movement of a chain or belt.

IMPACTMILL
   A grinding machine that operates by
   impaction of material against heavy metal
   projections rigidly attached to a shaft ro-
   tating at  a high velocity.

IMPERVIOUS
   Resistant to penetration by fluid.

INCINERATION
   The controlled combustion process of
   burning solid, liquid, or gaseous
   combustible wastes to gases and to a
   residue containing little combustible
   material.
INCINERATOR

   Any device used for the burning of refuse
   where the factors of combustion, i. e.,
   temperature, retention time, turbulence;
   and combustion air,  can be controlled.

INCINERATOR, BATCH FED
   An incinerator which is charged with
   refuse periodically;  the charge being
   allowed to burn down or burn out before
   another charge is added.

INCINERATOR, COMMERCIAL
   A predesigned, shop-fabricated unit,
   possibly shipped assembled as a package
   for general refuse.

INCINERATOR, CONTINUOUS FEED

   An incinerator into which refuse is charged
   in a nearly continuous manner so as to
   maintain a steady rate of burning.

INCINERATOR, INDUSTRIAL
   A specifically designed,  site-erected unit
   for disposal of a particular  industrial
   waste.

INCINERATOR, MULTIPLE CHAMBER

   An incinerator consisting of two or more
   refractory-lined chambers, interconnected
   by gas passage ports or ducts and designed
   in such a manner as  to provide for complete
   combustion of the material to be burned.
   Depending upon the arrangement of the
   chambers,  multiple-chamber  incinerators
   are  designated as in-line or retort types.

INCINERATOR, MUNICIPAL
   A specifically designed,  site-erected unit
   for disposal of refuse collected from
   residential,  commercial, and industrial
   sources.

INCINERATOR, RESIDENTIAL
   A predesigned, shop-fabricated unit,
   shipped assembled as a package for
   individual dwellings.

INCUBATION PERIOD
   The time interval between the infection of
   a susceptible person or animal arid the
   appearance of signs  or symptoms of the
   disease.
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Solid Waste Definitions
INDORE PROCESS
   Anaerobic composting method originating
   in India iu the 1920's.  Organic waste such
   as garbage, straw, and leaves is placed in
   alternate layers with night soil, sewage
   sludge or animal manure into pits or
   trenches 2  or 3 feet deep or piled on open
   ground to a height of about 5 feet.  Pile
   is turned twice m six months; drainage
   is used to keep compost moist.  Similar
   to Bangalore process.  The Van Mannen
   process is  a  recent modification.

INFECTION
   The entry and development or multipli-
   cation of a particular pathogen in the body
   of man or animal.

INFECTION (RESERVOIR OF)
   Man,  animals, plants, soil or inanimate
   organic matter in which  an infectious
   agent lives and multiplies and depends
   primarily for survival, reproducing itself
   in such manner that it can be transmitted
   to man.  Man himself is  the most frequent
   reservoir of  infectious agents pathogenic
   to man.

INFLUENT STREAM
   Stream or portion of stream that contrib-
   utes  water to the groundwater supply.

INOCULUM
   Material such as bacteria placed in a
   culture medium, soil, compost,  etc.
   in order to initiate biological action.

INTERFLOW
   That portion of rainfall which infiltrates
   the soil and moves laterally through
   the upper soil horizons until intercepted
   by a stream channel or until it returns to
   the surface  at some point down slope
   from its point of infiltration.

ISOTROPIC SOIL
   Soil having the same property (or
   properties)  such as permeability,  in all
   directions.

JUNK
   A collection of secondary materials;
   sorted but unprocessed.
LANDFILL
   Deposition of refuse on land with earth
   cover applied on a weekly or more
   frequent basis so that no nuisance or
   insult to the  environment results.

LANDFILL,  SANITARY
   a)  A method of disposing of refuse on
      land without creating nuisances or
      hazards to public health or safety, by
      utilizing the principles of engineering
      to confine the refuse to the smallest
      practical area, to reduce it to  the
      smallest practical volume, and to
      cover it with a layer of earth at the
      conclusion of each day's  operation or
      at such more frequent intervals as
      maybe necessary.ASCE

   b) A sanitary landfill is a system  for
      final disposal of solid waste on land,
      in which the waste is spread and
      compacted on an inclined, minimized
      working face in a series  of cells and a
      daily cover of  earth  is provided so that
      no hazard or insult to the environment
      results. Environmental Protection Agency,
      Office of Solid Waste Management
      Programs,  Training Branch.

LANTZ PROCESS

   A destructive distillation process  in
   which combustible fractions of solid waste
   are converted to combustible gas,  char-
   coal, and a variety of distillates.

LEACHATE
   Liquid emanating from a land disposal
   cell that contains dissolved,  suspended
   and/or microbial contaminants from the
   solid waste.

LIFT
   A layer of cells covering a designated area
   of a sanitary landfill.

LIFT DEPTH

   Vertical thickness of a compacted volume
   of solid waste plus  thickness of cover
   material immediately above the same
   volume of solid waste  in a sanitary landfill.

LIQUID LIMIT
   Minimum moisture  content which will
   cause soil to flow if jarred slightly.
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                                                                   Solid Waste Definitions
LOAM
   A soft, easily worked soil containing sand,
   salt, anc clay.

LOAMY
   A broad grouping of soil texture classes;
   includes all sandy loams,  clay loams,
   loam, silt, and silt-loam textures. Some-
   times subdivided into moderately coarse-
   textured,  medium-textured, and moder-
   ately fine-textured groups.

LYSIMETER
   Device to measure the quantity or rate of
   water movement through or from a block
   of soil, usually undisturbed and in situ,
   or to collect such percolated water for
   analysis.

MANOMETER
   A u-shaped tube or an inclined tube filled
   with a liquid used to measure pressure
   difference.

MANURE

   The fecal and urinary defecations of
   livestock and poultry.  Manure may often
   contain some spilled feed, bedding or
   litter.

MEMBRANE BARRIER

   Thin layer or thickness of material
   impervious to the flow of gas or water.

METALS

   In the secondary materials industry,
   includes all  nonferrous materials, copper,
   brass, aluminum,  zinc,  lead, etc.; not
   iron and steel.

METHANE
   An odorless, colorless, nonpoisonous
   and explosive gas. One source is from
   sanitary landfills undergoing anaerobic
   microbial decomposition.

MICROORGANISMS
   Generally any living things microscopic
   in size and including the bacteria, actino-
   mycetes, yeasts, simple fungi,  some algae,
   rickettsiae, spirochaetes,  slime molds,
   protozoans,  and some of the simpler
   multicellular organisms.  Some produce
   disease in man, animals,  or plants;
   some are involved in stabilization of solid
   waste (composting)  and sewage.
MIXING CHAMBER

   Chamber usually placed between 1he
   primary combustion chamber and the
   secondary combustion chamber where
   thorough mixing of the products  of
   combustion and air is accomplished by
   turbulence created by increased velocities
   of the gases, checker-work and/or turns
   in direction  of the gas flow.

MOISTURE  PENETRATION
   Depth to which moisture penetrates
   following irrigation or rainfall before
   the rate of downward movement becomes
   negligible.

MULTICYCLONE

   A dust collector consisting of a number of
   cyclones,  operating  in parallel through
   which the  volume and velocity of gas can
   be regulated by means of dampers in order
   to  maintain dust-collector efficiency over
   the load range.

MUNICIPAL  COLLECTION
   See COLLECTION, MUNICIPAL

MULTIPLE CHAMBER INCINERATOR
   See INCINERATOR,  MULTIPLE CHAMBER.
NITROGEN OXIDES
                    (NOX)
   Gases formed from atmospheric nitrogen
   and oxygen whenever anything is burned
   in air.  Usually NOX breaks down to
   oxygen and nitrogen except when NOX
   is cooled suddenly from a high temperature.

OCEAN DISPOSAL
   See DISPOSAL, OCEAN

ODORANT
   A gaseous nuisance which is offensive
   or objectionable to the olfactory senses.

ODOR THRESHOLD
   The lowest concentration of an odor in
   air that can be detected by a human.

OFFAL
   Intestines and discarded parts  from the
   slaughter of animals.

OPACITY RATING
   The apparent obscuration of an observer's
   vision to a degree equal to the apparent
   obscuration of smoke of a given rating on
   the Ringelmann Chart.
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Solid Waste Definitions
OPEN BURNING
   Uncontrolled burning of wastes in the open
   or in an open dump.

OPEN DUMP
   The consolidation of waste from one or
   more sources at  a central disposal site
   which has little or no management.  Some
   of the problems associated with open dumps
   are: vector breeding, fires, air pollution,
   water pollution, unsightliness, wasted
   land,  disease and accident potentials.

ORGANIC
   Containing carbon. Organic materials
   oxidize or burn easily and,  when they
   contain nitrogen or sulfur, or both, they
   give off odorous by-products.  See
   METHANE, HYDROGEN-SULFIDE.

ORGANIC ACID

   A product of biochemical activity contain-
   ing the carboxyl group  which readily
   reacts with other compounds.

ORGANIC CONTENT

   Synonymous with volatile solids except
   for small traces of some inorganic
   materials such as calcium carbonate
   which will lose weight at temperatures
   used in determining volatile solids.

ORSAT
   An  apparatus used for analyzing flue  gases
   volumetrically by measuring the amounts
   of carbon dioxide, oxygen,  and carbon
   monoxide.

OSBORNE SEPARATOR
   Device to effect the efficient removal from
   compost of  small  particles  of glass,
   metals, and other products .  Patented by
   R. G,. Osborne Laboratories, Los Angeles.
   Utilizes a pulsed rising column of air to
   separate heavy items contained in compost.
   Also called deglasser.

OVERFIRE AIR

   See AIR, COMBUSTION (SECONDARY)

OXIDATION
   Reinoval of electrons from  an atom or
   molecule.
OXYGEN RECORDER
   An instrument for continuously monitoring
   the percentage oxygen content of flue gas.

PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
   Concentration expressed in terms of
   number of particles per unit volume of
   air or other gas.  (Note:  On expressing
   particle concentration, the method of
   determining the  concentration should be
   stated; that is, number/vol.  or wt./vol.)

PARTICLES

   A small,  discrete mass of solid or liquid
   matter.  Included under particles are
   aerosols,  dusts, fumes, mists, smokes.
   and sprays.

PARTICLE SIZE
   An expression of the size of liquid or
   solid particles  expressed as the average
   or equivalent diameter.

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

   The  relative percentage by weight or
   number of each of the  different size
   fractions of particulate matter.

PARTICULATE MATTER
   Material which is suspended within or
   discharged to the atmosphere in finely
   divided liquid or solid form at atmospheric
   temperature and pressure.

PATHOGEN
   Any infective agent capable of producing
   disease; may be a virus,  rickettsia,
   bacterium,  protozoan,  etc.

PEAT (HUMUS)
   A soft light swamp soil consisting mostly
   of decayed vegetation.

PERCHED WATER TABLE
   Underground water lying over dry soil,
   and sealed from it by an impervious layer.

 PERCOLATION
   A qualitative term applying to the down-
   ward movement of water through soil.

 PERMEABILITY (QUALITATIVE)
   The quality or state of a porous  medium
   relating to the readiness with which it
   conducts or transmits fluids.
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                                                                  Solid Waste Definitions
pH
   Negative log of Hydrogen Ion concentration.

PICKING TABLE OR BELT
   Table or belt at which solid waste is sorted
  by removing certain items.  Normally
  associated with composting and salvaging
   operations.

PIN, TRACK
   A hinge pin connecting two sections or
   shoes or a crawler track.

PITOT TUBE
   An instrument which will sense the total
   pressure and the static pressure in a
   gas stream.  It is used to determine gas
   velocity.

PLASTICITY (SOIL)
   Property of a soil which allows it to be
   deformed without appreciable volume-
   change or cracking.

PLASTIC LIMIT
   The minimum amount of water in terms
   of percent of oven-dry weight of soil that
   will make the soil plastic.

POLLUTANTS, AIR
   Any solid, liquid or gaseous matter in the
   effluent which tends to pollute the
   atmosphere.

POLLUTION
   The presence in a body of water (or soil
   or air) of substances of such character
   and in such quantities that the natural
   quality of the body of water (or  soil or
   air) is degraded so it impairs the water's
   usefulness or renders it offensive to the
   senses of sight, taste, or smell. Contam-
   ination may accompany pollution. In
   general,  a public health hazard is created,
   but in some cases only economy or  esthetics
   are involved as when waste salt brines
   contaminate surface waters, and when foul
   odors pollute the air.

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE -  (PVC)

   A common plastic material (general
   formula CH2 = CHC1) which releases
   HC1 when burned.
POROSITY

   Ratio of the space in any porous material
   (such as a soil) that is not filled with
   solid matter, to the total space occupied;
   generally expressed as a percentage.
   The porosity of an aquifer is equal to the
   sum  of the  specific yield and the specific
   retention.

POWER TAKEOFF

   A place in a transmission or engine to
   which a shaft can be so attached as to
   drive an outside mechanism.

POWER TRAIN

   All moving parts connecting an engine
   with  the point or point where work is
   accomplished.

PREMISES
   A tract or parcel of land with or without
   habitable buildings.

PRESSURE
   Total load or force acting upon a surface
   expressed as a weight per unit area
   i.e.  pounds per square inch (psi).

PRIMARY AIR
   (See PRIMARY COMBUSTION AIR)

PRIMARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

   See COMBUSTION CHAMBER (PRIMARY)

PRIVATE COLLECTION
   See COLLECTION, PRIVATE

PROCESS WEIGHT
   The total weight of materials introduced
   into an incinerator including solid fuel
   charges but excluding liquid or  gaseous
   fuels and combustion air.

P.S.I. (PSI)

   Pressure in pounds per square  inch.

PULVERIZATION

   The crushing of brittle material, such as
   glass, to a small size.

PUTRESCIBLE
                                                    Capable of being decomposed by micro-
                                                    organisms with sufficient rapidity as to
                                                    cause nuisances from odors,  gases,  etc.
                                                    Kitchen wastes,  offal, and dead animals are
                                                    examples of putrescible components of
                                                    solid waste.
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PUTRESCIBLE MATTER IN RESIDUE

   Unburned organic matter in the residue
   that is fermentable, or capable of decaying,
   or of assimilation by animals and micro-
   organisms.

PYROMETER
   An instrument for measuring and/or re-
   cording temperature.

QUARRY

   A rock pit.  An open cut mine in rock
   chosen for physical rather  than chemical
   characteristics.

RADIATION PYROMETER
   A pyrometer which  determines tempera-
   ture by measuring the intensity of
   radiation from a hot body.

RASPING MACHINE

   A grinding machine consisting of a large
   verticle drum containing heavy hinged
   arms which rotate horizontally over a
   rasp and sieve floor.

RASPING SYSTEM
   A composting procedure  in which refuse
   is ground through a screen partly covered
   with steel pins that  have the effect of a
   rasp. Compost piles are turned during a
   three to six week period.  Developed in
   the  Netherlands in 1951.

RATED LOAD
   The maximum load which a crane is
   designed to handle safely.

REDUCTION (IN CHEMISTRY)

   Addition of electrons to an atom or
   molecule.

REFRACTORY (REFRACTORIES)

   Nonmetallic substances capable of
   enduring high temperatures and used in
   linings of furnaces.  While their primary
   function is resistance to high temperature,
   they are usually called upon to resist one
   or more of the following destructive
   influences: abrasion, pressure, chemical
   attack and rapid  changes in temperature.
REFUGE
   A hiding place or shelter for rats, mice,
   and insects.  It is important to distinguish
   between refuge and refuse, the latter
   being synonymous with solid waste.  The
   confusion comes about because refuse
   frequently serves as a refuge for vermin.

REFUSE

   Comprises all solid waste of the
   community and semi-liquid or wet waste
   with insufficient  liquid content to be free
   flowing.  Synonym  Solid Waste.

REFUSE,  COMMERCIAL
   All solid waste which orginates in
   businesses operated for profit even as
   office buildings,  stores,  markets, theaters
   and privately owned hospitals and other
   institutional buildings.

REFUSE,  DOMESTIC
   All those types which normally originate
   in the residential household or apartment
   house.   Does not include bulky wastes
   requiring special pickup.

REFUSE FILL
   A systematic and periodic operation
   conducted to compact and cover the refuse,
   on less than a daily basis.  (See OPEN
   DUMP)

REFUSE.  INDUSTRIAL
   All solid waste which results from
   industrial processes and manufacturing
   operations  such  as factories, processing
   plants, repair and cleaning establishments,
   refineries and rendering plants.

REFUSE,  MOISTURE CONTENT
   The weight loss  on drying a sample to
   constant weight under standard conditions,
   tentatively 7Qoc  for refuse.

REFUSE (RESIDENTIAL)
   See REFUSE (DOMESTIC)
REFUSE SHED
   A region or area which for reasons of
   topography, contiguous population and/or
   other common features, includes refuse
   sources which may be considered collective-
   ly in general planning.  Usually synonymous
   with the general populated or metropolitan
   area  and not necessarily limited by lines
   of political jurisdiction.
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REFUSE, STREET_

   Material picked up by manual and mechani-
   cal sweeping of streets and sidewalks,
   litter from public letter receptacles and
   dirt removed from catch basins.

REFUSE TRAIN
   A number of open carts hitched in series
   and pulled by a motor vehicle, its purpose
   being to collect solid waste.

RENDERING

   A process of salvaging fats and oils,
   animal feed,  and other products from
   animal waste by cooking.  Dead animals,
   fish, and waste from slaughter houses
   and butcher shops are commonly used.

RESIDUE
   All of the solid material collected from
   the process of incineration,  consisting of
   grate siftings, material from off the end
   of  the grates  and particulate collected from
   air pollution control devices.

RESPIRATION
   Any energy-yeilding oxidation in a living
   organism in which the oxidant is an
   inorganic compound.  Oxygen need not be
   involved, though it is the most common
  oxidant.

RESPIRATION, AEROBIC

   Oxidation of organic compounds by oxygen.
   (See also RESPIRATION).

RESPIRATION, ANAEROBIC
   A type of respiration among some bacteria
   in which an inorganic oxidant (NOg, 804)
   other  than oxygen is used.  (See also
   RESPIRATION)

RETAINING WALL
   A wall separating two levels.

RINGELMANN CHART

   A printed or photographically reproduced
   series of four shades of gray,  by which
   density of smoke emissions from an in-
   cinerator may be estimated. A clear
   stack is recorded as 0,  and 100% black
   smoke as 5.  No. 1 smoke is 20% dense;
   No. 2, 40% dense; No. 3, 60% dense;
   No. 4, 80% dense.
RIPARIAN RIGHTS

   Rights  of a land owner to water rn or
   bordering his property, including right to
   prevent diversion or misuse of upstream
   water.

RIPPER
   A towed machine equipped with teeth,
   used primarily for loosening hard soil
   and soft rock.

ROLL BAR

   Steel protection over the cab of a tractor
   or loader to prevent injury to the operator.

ROLLER, SUPPORT
   In a crawler machine,  a roller that
   supports the slack upper part of the
   track.

ROLLER, TRACK
   In a crawler machine,  the small wheels
   that rest on the track and carry most of
   the weight of the machine.

RUBBISH
   Non bulky domestic and commercial
   solid waste exclusive of garbage.

RUBBISH CHUTE
   A pipe,  duct or trough through which waste
   materials are conveyed by gravity from
   the upper floors to a storage area prepara-
   tory to burning or compaction.

RUBBISH,  COMBUSTIBLE
   Miscellaneous burnable materials. In
   general,  the combustible component of
   rubbish.

RUBBISH, NONCOMBUSTIBLE

   Miscellaneous refuse materials that are
   unburnable in ordinary incinerators.

RUBBISH, YARD
   Prunings, grass clippings,  \f-eeds,  leaves,
   and general yard and garden waste.

RUBBLE
   Broken pieces of masonry and concrete.

RUNOFF

   The portion of precipitation or  irrigation
   water which is returned to  the stream as
   surface flow.
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SAND
   Soil particles ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 mm
   in diameter. Soil material containing 85
   percent or more particles of this size.

SALVAGING

   The controlled  removal of reusable
   materials.

SANITATION
   The control of all those factors in man's
   physical environment which exercise or
   may exercise a deleterious effect on his
   physical development, health,  and survival.

SATURATE
   To fill all the voids in a material with fluid,
   to form the most concentrated solution
   possible under a  given set of physical
   conditions  in the  presence of an excess of
   the  substance.

SCARIFIER
   See RIPPER

SCAVENGING

   The uncontrolled picking of materials.

SCOOTER
   A small, usually single-passenger,  3-
   whee:led vehicle with body of 1 cubic yard
   capacity, used in refuse collection especial-
   ly to negotiate long driveways and narrow
   alleys.   Collected refuse is emptied into
   a collection truck.  Some have dump bodies,
   others have a stationary bed which holds
   the  collector's carry-cans.

SCRAP
   In the secondary  materials industry, applies
   to iron and  steel  scrap only.

SCRUBBER, FLUE  GAS
   See FLUE GAS SCRUBBER (WASHER)

SECONDARY AIR

   (See COMBUSTION AIR (SECONDARY)

SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

   (See COMBUSTION CHAMBER SECONDARY)
SECONDARY MATERIALS
   Those materials which might go to waste
   if not collected and processed for reuse.
   Includes scrap, metals,  waste, and junk.
   (See under definitions  of each),

SECTION
   An area equal to 640 acres or 1 square mile.

SEEPAGE
   Movement of water through soil without
   formation of definite channels.

SEPARATOR.  BALLISTIC
   A separating device that operates by
   dropping mixed material onto a high speed
   rotary impeller so that materials of different
   physical characteristics are hurled off at
   different velocities and subsequently land
   in several separate collecting bins.

SEPARATOR,  INERTIAL
   A material separation device that relies
   on ballistic or gravity separation of
   materials having different physical
   characteristics.

SEPARATOR, MAGNETIC
   Any separating device that removes metals
   by means of magnets.

SEMI-GROUSER
   A crawler track shoe with one or more low
   cleats.

SERVICE STOP

   Residence,  commercial establishment,  or
   other living or business unit receiving
   periodic refuse collection service.

SETTLEMENT
   A gradual subsidence of material.

SETTLEMENT, DIFFERENTIAL

   A subsidence of material that is not uni-
   form throughout the plane of the material.

SETTLING CHAMBER
   Any chamber designed to reduce the
   velocity of the  products  of combustion to
   promote the settling of fly ash from the
   gas stream.
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SETTLING VELOCITY
   The velocity at which a given dust will fall
   out of dur,t-laden gas under the influence
   of gravity only.  Also known as "terminal
   velocity".

SEWAGE SLUDGE

   A semiliquid substance consisting of
   suspended sewage solids combined with
   water and dissolved material in varying
   amounts.

SEWAGE TREATMENT  RESIDUES

   Coarse screenings,  grit,  and dewatered
   or air-dried sludge from sewage treat-
   ment plants, and pumpings of cesspool
   or septic tank sludges which require
   disposal with municipal solid waste.

SHALE

   A rock formed of consolidated mud.

SHEARS

   A size reduction machine that operates
   by cutting material between large blades.

SHEEPSFOOT
   A tamping roller with feet expanded at
   their outer tips.

SHOE

   A ground plate forming a  link of a track,
   or bolted to a track link.  A support for a
   bulldozer blade or other digging edge to
   prevent cutting down.

SHORING
   Temporary bracing to hold the sides of an
   excavation from  caving.

SHOVEL
   A digging and loading machine or tool.

SHOVEL, DIPPER (SHOVEL) (DIPPER
STICK)

   A revolving shovel that has a push type
   bucket rigidly fastened to a stick that
   slides on a pivot in the boom.

SHOVEL DOZER (DOZER SHOVEL)
   A tractor equipped with a front-mounted
   bucket that can be used for pushing,
   digging, and truck loading.
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                               PU L LS HO VE L
     _       -    .        __-
DITCHING SHOVEL,  BACKHOE)
   A revolving shovel having a pull-t;-pe
   bucket rigidly attached to a stick hinged
   on the end of a live boom.
SHOVEL-OFF
   Any collection vehicle lacking a mechanical
   emptying device, and which must be
   unloaded by hand.

SHOVEL, REVOLVING
   A digging machine that has the machinery
   deck and attachment on a vertical pivot
   so that it can swing independently of its
   base.

SHOVEL-UP
   Refuse which is not stored in containers
   for collection and must be laboriously
   hand loaded with forks or shovels into a
   carrying container or collection vehicle.

SHREDDERS
   Chops up discarded automobiles and other
   ordinarily low-grade sheet and coated scrap
   in continuous operation producing premium
   grade fistsized pieces that are 99 per
   cent steel.

SHRINKAGE
   Loss of bulk of soil when compacted in a
   fill. Usually is computed on the basis
   of bank measure.

SILT
   Small,  0.05 to  0.002 mm in diameter,
   mineral soil grains intermediate between
   clay and sand. Waterborne sediment with
   diameters of individual grains approaching
   that of  silt. Soil material containing 80
   percent or more silt and less than 12 per-
   cent clay.

SINTERING
   A heat  treatment which causes adjacent
   particles of material to cohere at a tem-
   perature below that of  complete  melting.

SLAG

   A liquid mineral substance formed by
   chemical action and fusion at furnace-
   operated temperatures.
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SLAGGING OF REFRACTORIES

   Destructive chemical action upon refractor-
   ies at high temperatures,  resulting in the
   formation of slag. Also the coating of
   refractories by ash particles, which form
   a molten or viscous slag on the refractories.

SLOPE
   Degree of deviation of a surface from the
   horizontal, usually expressed in percent
   or degrees.

SLOUGH

   Wet or marshy area.

SLURRY

   Cement grout.

SMOKE
   An aerosol consisting of all the dispersible
   particulate products from the imcomplete
   combustion of carbonaceous materials
   entrained in flue gas as gaseous medium.

SMOKE ALARMS

   Instruments that provide an objective
   method of continuous measurement and
   recording of smoke density by measuring
   the amount of light obscured by smoke
   when a beam of light is shone through the
   smoke in a flue.  Most of the  instruments
   have on them a scale,  graded according to
   Ringelmann shades.  They can be fitted
   with an alarm that operates when the smoke
   is above a preset density.

SMOKE DENSITY
   The amount of solid matter contained in
   smoke and often measured by systems
   that relate the grayness of the smoke to
   an established standard.

SOIL
   Natural body, developed from weathered
   minerals and decaying organic matter,
   covering the earth. Theupper layer of the
   earth in which plants  grow.

SOIL EROSION
   Detachment and movement of soil from the
   land surface by wind or water, including
   normal soil erosion and accelerated
   erosion.
SOIL,  (HEAVY)
   A fine grained soil, made up largely of
   clay or silt.

SOIL,  ISOTROPIC
   Soil having the same property (or properties)
   such as permeability,  in all directions.

SOIL,  TIGHT
   Soil that is relatively impermeable to
   water movement.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
   The purposeful systematic control of the
   storage, collection,  transportation,
   processing and disposal of solid waste.

SPARK ARRESTER
   A screen-like device to prevent sparks,
   embers, or other ignited materials above
   a given size from being expelled to the
   atmosphere.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SOLIDS OR LIQUIDS)

   The ratio of the mass of a body  to an
   equal volume of water.

SPOIL
   Dirt or rock which has been removed from
   its original location.

SPOT LOG
   A log or marker placed to show a truck
   driver  the spot where he should stop to
   be loaded.

SPOTTER
   In truck use, the man who directs the
   driver into loading or dumping position.

STABILIZE
   To make soil firm and to prevent it from
   moving.

STACK (CHIMNEY,  FLUE)
   A vertical passage  for conducting products
   of combustion to the atmosphere.

STACK EFFECT
   The  phenomenon of vertical movement of
   hot gases in a stack because of the tempera-
   ture (density) difference between the  gases
   and the atmosphere.
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STADIA
   Measurement of distance by proportion to
   the space on a vertical rod seen between
   upper and lower instrument cross hairs,
   usual proportion is one vertical to  100
   horizontal.

STAKE, SLOPE

   A stake marking the line where a cut or
   fill meets the original grade.

STATION
   Any one of a series of stakes or points
   indicating distance from a point of beginning
   or reference.

STATIONARY PACKER

   An  adjunct of a refuse container system
   which compacts refuse at the site of
   generation into a pull-on detachable
   container (see PULL-ON CONTAINER).

STEERING BRAKE

   A brake which slows or stops one side of
   a tractor.

STEERING CLUTCH
   A clutch which can disconnect power from
   one side of a tractor.

STERILIZATION
   Destruction of all microorganisms and
   their spores outside the body by chemical
   or physical  means.

STOCKPILE
   Material dug and piled for future use.

SUBSIDENCE
   To settle or sink.  Usually applied to
   peat and muck soils and refers to the
   settling due to oxidation, compaction,
   shrinkage, and wind erosion.

SUBSOIL
   That part  of the  soil beneath the topsoil,
   usually that not having an appreciable
   organic matter content.

SULFUR,  OXIDES OF

   Compounds of sulfur combined with oxygen.
   Those of significance in air pollution in-
   clude sulfur dioxide (802) and sulfur
   trioxide (803).
SUMP
   Pit,  tank, or reservoir in whir'i water is
   collected or stored.

SURFACE COMPACTION

   Molding together and collapse of structure
   of surface soil when subjected to pressure.

SURFACE CRACKING
   Creation of discontinuities in the cover
   material of a sanitary landfill as a result
   of settlement and decomposition of solid
   waste and/or a change in moisture content
   of the cover material which may result
   in exposure of solid waste,  entrance or
   egress of vectors and entrance of water.

SURFACE WATER

   A body of water whose top surface is
   exposed to the atmosphere including a flowing
   body as  well as a pond or lake.

SURVEYING
   To find and record  elevations,  locations,
   and directions by means  of instruments.

SWILL (SLOPS)

   Semiliquid waste material consisting of
   garbage and free liquids.

TAILINGS

   Second grade or waste material separated
   from pay material during screening or
   processing.

TAMP
   Pound or press soil to compact it.

TAMPING ROLLER
   One or more steel drums fitted with
   projecting feet and towed by means of a
   box frame.

TANDEM
   A double-axle drive unit for a truck or
   grader.  (A bogie).

THEORETICAL AIR

   (See COMBUSTION AIR - THEORETICAL)

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

   The specific rate of heat flow per hr. through
   refractories, expressed inBTUpersq.  ft.
   of area, for a temperature difference of
   one degree Fahrenheit,  and for a thickness
   of one inch. BTU/(sq. ft. ) (hr) (deg. F) (in.)
                                                                                          25

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Solid Waste Definitions
THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE

   The ability to withstand sudden heating or
   cooling,or both, without cracking or spalling.

THERMOCOUPLE

   Two lengths of wire made from different
   homogeneous metals, connected to form a
   complete electric circuit which develops
   an electromotive force (emf) when one
   junction is at a different temperature than
   the other.

THERMO PHILS

   Bacteria or other microorganisms which
   grow best at temperatures of roughly 45°
   to  60°C.  Not to be confused with thermo-
   durics,  which resist high temperatures."
   Others:  mesophils -grow best at medium
   temperature, 25° to 40°C; psychrophils -
   grow best at colder temperatures, below
   2QOC.

TIDAL MARSH

   Low flat marshlands traversed by inter-
   laced  channels and tidal sloughs and
   subject to tidal inundation.  Vegetation
   usually consists  of bushes,  grasses, and
   other  salt-tolerant plants.

TILTH

   Soil condition in relation to lump or
   particle size.

TILTING DOZER
   A bulldozer whose blade can be pivoted
   on a horizontal center pin to cut low on
   either side.

TIPPING FLOOR
   Unloading area for vehicles that are
   delivering refuse to an incinerator.

TOE
   The  projection of the bottom of a face
   beyond the top.

TONS PER DAY (INCINERATION)

   Denotes the weight of refuse which can be
   properly processed by an incinerator
   within a 24 hour period.

TOPSOIL
   The topmost layer of soil, usually refers
   to  soil containing humus which is capable
   of supporting a good plant growth.
26
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

   A map indicating surface elevation and
   slope.

TORQUE, FULL LOAD

   The torque necessary for a motor to
   produce its rated horsepower at full-load
   speed.

TOTAL COST OF BIDDING

   A method of establishing the purchase price
   for movable equipment   whereby the buyer
   is guaranteed that maintenance shall not
   exceed a set maximum amount  during a
   fixed period of time (normally 5 years)  and
   that the equipment will be repurchased by
   the seller at a set minimum price at the
   end of the  fixed time period.
TRACK^
   A crawler track.

TRACK, CRAWLER
   One of a pair of roller chains used to
   support and propel a machine. It has an
   upper surface which provides a track to
   carry the wheels of the machine, and a
   lower surface providing continuous ground
   contact.

TRACK ROLLER
   In a crawler machine,  the small wheels
   which are under the track frame and
   which rest on the track.

TRACTOR (CRAWLER)

   See TRACTOR TRACK

TRACTOR LOADER (TRACTOR SHOVEL OR
STgJVEL DOZ'JJR)	
   A tractor equipped with a bucket which
   can be used to dig and to  elevate to dump
   at truck height.

TRACTOR, PNEUMATIC WHEEL

   A gas or diesel powered machine equipped
   with 4 pneumatic tires, used to  spread,
   excavate and compact  soil and solid waste.

TRACTOR, RUBBER-TIRED

   See pneumatic wheel tractor.

TRACTOR, TRACK
   A gas or diesel powered machine equipped
   with continuous roller belt over cogged
   wheels for moving over rough or low
   bearing capacity terrain, used to spread,
   excavate and compact soil and  solid waste.
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                                                                      Solid Waste Definitions
TRANSFER STATION
   A fixed facility used for removing refuse
   from col ection trucks and placing it in
   long-haul vehicles.

TRASH
   Exact meaning is vague but it is usually
   synonomous with rubbish.

TRAVEL TIME
   The elapsed or cumulative time of travel
   between collection stops on the route.

 TREAD
   The ground contact surface on a tire or
   track shoe.

 TROUGHING
   Making repeated dozer pushes in one track,
   so that ridges of spilled material hold
   dirt in front of the blade.

TRUCK,  BOTTOM DUMP (DUMP WAGON)
   A trailer or semitrailer that dumps bulk
   material by opening doors in the floor of
   the body.

TRUCK. COMPACTOR COLLECTION
   Enclosed vehicle provided with special
   mechanical devices for loading the refuse
   into the main compartment of the body,
   for compressing the loaded materials,
   and for distributing the refuse within the
   body.

TRUCK CAPACITY
   Volumetric capacity for refuse.

TRUCK, DUMP
   A truck or semitrailer that carries  a
   box body with a mechanism for discharging
   its load.

TRUCK,  PLATFORM (RACK BODY TRUCK)
   A truck having a flat open body.

TRUCK. REAR DUMP (END DUMP)
   A truck or semitrailer that has a box body
   that can be raised at the front so the load
   will slide out the rear.
UNDERGROUND RUNOFF (SEEPAGE)
   Water flowing toward stream channels after
   infiltration into the ground.
UTILITY (PR1VATE)_
   Firm providing service under a g jvermnent
   license or monopoly franchise.  Tlay collect
   or dispose of solid waste.

VAN MANNEN PROCESS
   Anaerobic composting process which is a
   modification of the Indore method (which
   see).  Used in the Netherlands from about
   1932.  City refuse is heaped in long rows
   and moistened.  Decomposition takes about
   six months.

VAPOR PLUME
   The  stack effluent consisting of flue gas
   made visible by condensed water droplets
   or mist.

VAPORS
   The  gaseous form of substances which  are
   normally in the solid or liquid state and
   which can be changed to these states either
   by increasing the  pressure or decreasing
   the temperature alone.

VECTOR (OF DISEASE)

   A living insect or other arthropod, or
   animal (not human) which transmits
   infectious diseases from one person or
   animal to another.

VEHICLE,  ABANDONED

   Motor vehicles and trailers that are dis-
   carded on public or private property longer
   than a specified time.

VEHICLE (OF INFECTION)
   Water, food, milk, or any substance or
   article serving as an intermediate means
   by which the pathogenic agent is transported
   from a reservoir and introduced into a
   susceptible host through ingestion, through
   inoculation or by deposit on the skin or
   mucous membrane.

VOLATILE  MATTER OF REFUSE

   The weight loss of a dry sample on heating
   to red heat in a closed crucible.

VOLATILE  SOLIDS

   The sum of the volatile matter and fixed
   carbon of a refuse sample a   J.. i- , joined
   by allowing a dried sample to burn in a
   heated and ventilated furnace.

WALL, AIR-COOLED

   A wall in which there is a  lane for the
   flow of air directly in back of the refractory.
                                      27

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Solid Waste Definitions
WALL, CURTAIN

   A partition wall between chambers, which
   serves to deflect gases  in a downward
   direction. (Sometimes referred to as a
   drop arch.)

WALL, SUPPORTED

   A furnace wall that is anchored to and
   has its weight transferred to a structure
   (usually steelwork and castings) outside
   of the high temperature zone.

WALL, WATER-COOLED
   A furnace wall containing water tubes.

WASTE
   Useless, unwanted, or discarded materials
   resulting from normal community
   activities.  Waste includes  solids, liquids,
   and gases.   Solid waste is classed as
   refuse.

WASTE HANDLING
   The manipulation or transportation of
   waste.

WASTE, PROCESSING OF
   An operation in which the physical or
   chemical characteristics of the waste are
   changed.  Example of this would include
   compaction, composting and incineration.

WATERSHED
   Total land area above a given point on a
   stream or waterway which contributes
   runoff to that point.

WASTE, SOLID
   See REFUSE

WATER TABLE

   The  surface of underground,  gravity-
   controlled water.

WET DIGESTION

   A solid waste stabilization process
   proposed by Dr. William Oswald of the
   University of California on the basis of
   experience with anaerobic sewage lagoons.
   A wide variety of mixed solid organic
   waste is  placed in an open digestion pond
   to decompose anaerobically.   Much of the
   carbonaceous matter is converted into
   carbon dioxide and methane.   The soluble
   and suspended fraction is converted
   aerobically by algae in a biooxidation pond.
28
WET MILLING
   Mechanical size reduction of solid waste
   after it has been wetted to soften the paper
   and cardboard constituents.

WETTfNG AGENT
   A chemical that reduces the surface
   tension of water so that it soaks into
   porous material more readily.   Example -
   synthetic soap powder.

WORKING DRAWING
   Any drawing showing sufficient detail so
   that whatever is shown can be built
   without other drawings or instructions.

WORKING FACE
   That portion of the compacted solid waste
   at a sanitary landfill which will have more
   waste placed on it and/or is being
   compacted prior to placement of cover
   material.

ZOONOSIS
   A disease of animals transmissible
   to man.  Some examples are  anthrax,
   bubonic plague, murine typhus,  some of
   the salmonellae.
REFERENCES

1  American Public Works Association,
      Committee on Refuse Collection.
      Refuse Collection Practice.  APWA
      Research  Foundation Project No. 101,
      Chicago:  Public Administration Service.
      3rd Edition,  525 pp.  1966.

2  Schwartz, Dari.  Lexicon of Incinerator
      Terminology. Proceedings - 1964
      National Incinerator Conference.* New
      York:  American Society of Mechanical
      Engineers, pp. 20-31.  1964.

3  U.S.  Public Health Service and American
      Public Works Association.  Proceedings
      - National Conference on Solid Waste
                          American  Public
      Research.Chicago-
      Works Association, 228 pp.
      1964.
February
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                                                                     Solid Waste Definitions
5  American Society of Civil Engineers,            6  Nichols, Herbert L.  Moving the Earth,
      Committee on Sanitary Landfill Practice.          The Workbook of Excavation.
     Sanitary Landfill. ASCE... Manuals of            North Castle Books, Greenwich,
     Engineering... No. 39, 62 pp.   1S59.              Connecticut. 1962.
                                                                                      29

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      REFUSE MATERIAL BY KIND,  COMPOSITION, AND SOURCES*
Kind
REFUSE
GARBAGE
RUBBISH
ASHES
STREET
REFUSE
DEAD
ANIMALS
ABANDONED
VEHICLES
INDUSTRIAL
WASTE
DEMOLITION
WASTE
CONSTRUCTION
WASTE
SPECIAL
WASTE
SEWAGE
TREATMENT
RESIDUE
Composition
Waste from preparation, cooking,
and serving of food; market waste;
waste from handling, storage, and
sale of produce.
Combustible: paper, cartons, boxes,
barrels, wood, excelsior, tree
branches, yard trimmings, wood furni-
ture, bedding, dunnage.
Noncombustible: metals, tin cans,
metal furniture, dirt, glass,
crockery, minerals.
Residue from fires used for cooking
and heating and from on- site
incineration.
Sweepings, dirt, leaves, catch basin
dirt, contents of litter receptacles.
Cats, dogs, horses, cows.
Unwanted cars and trucks left on
public property.
Food processing waste, boiler house
cinders, lumber scraps, metal scraps,
shavings.
Lumber, pipes, brick, masonry, and
other construction materials from
razed buildings and other structures.
Scrap lumber, pipe, other construc-
tion materials.
Hazardous solids and liquids: explo-
sives, pathological waste, radioactive
materials.
Solids from coarse screening and from
grit chambers; septic tank sludge
Sources
Households, restaurants,
institutions, stores,
markets.
Streets, sidewalks,
alleys, vacant lots.
Factories, power
plants.
Demolition sites to be
used for new buildings,
renewal projects,
expressways.
New construction,
remodeling.
Households, hotels, hos-
pitals, institutions,
stores, industry.
Sewage treatment plants;
septic tanks.
(1) . 1 A • 4.- /- -4.4. D 11 4." ' ' 1
Refuse Disposal.  Chicago:  Public Administration Service.  2nd Edition,  1966.  528 pp.
                                                                SW. ST. gn. 1. 1. 67

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           PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING SURVEY FOR SANITARY LANDFILL SITES

                                   Richard W. Eldredge*
 I  SITE IDENTIFICATION
 II  SITE LOCATION
III  ACREAGE
       LENGTH
_ACRES


    WIDTH
                    (Provide Sketch of Irregular Sites)
IV  OWNER OF RECORD
    OWNER'S REPRESENTATIVE (IF ANY)
      A AVAILABILITY
      B PRESENT USAGE
       C TERMS AND CONDITIONS


         1  LEASE:  PRICE PER ACRE_


                    TOTAL COST
                     PER YEAR;


                     PER YEAR
         2  SALE:  PRICE PER ACRE:_


                   TOTAL COST
V  LAND CHARACTERISTICS


      A  GENERAL DESCRIPTION
      B DRAINAGE


              NATURAL
               STORM SEWERS
                              _ACRES


                               ACRES
  * Formerly Assistant Bureau Director for
  Program Development, Bureau of Solid Waste
  Management,  EGA,  Cincinnati, Ohio.
                                                                     SW. SL. ss.2.1.67

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Preliminary Engineering Survey for Sanitary Landfill Sites
              FARM TILE	      	ACRES


              OPEN DITCH                                   ACRES
                              SUMMER	INCHES


                              FALL	INCHES


                              WINTER	INCHES


     D OUTFALL (DESCRIBE CRITICAL CONDITIONS UP TO ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM
        OF OPEN DRAINS,  ETC. )
     E GROUND COVER


                                     Estimated Acreage


                   1  HEAVILY WOODED	


                      LIGHT BRUSH
                      GRASSES OR PASTURE


                      CULTIVATED
                   2  ESTIMATED CLEARING COST	PER ACRE


                      (REDUCE CLEARING COST BY ANY AMOUNTS RECEIVED
                       FROM SALE OF TIMBER)


                   3  SUGGESTED METHOD OF CLEARING
      F AGRICULTURAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION


                   	    % SAND


                   	% SILT  TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION


                                % CLAY
                                                          I
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                                                          I
              (Provide Sketch of Drainage Facilities if Other Than Natural)


     C RAINFALL                                                                                 |


                                     Quantity Estimate


                              SPRING               INCHES
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                                       -              I

(See Page 209 - Soil Survey Manual USDA)   ~              •



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™                                             Preliminary Engineering Survey for Sanitary Landfill Sites


I
                   G  ATTACH BORING LOGS OF REPRESENTATIVE TEST HOLES, BORED TO
•                    DETERMINE WATER TABLE AND SOILS PROFILE (Logs of Nearby Wells
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         May Be Used In Lieu of Test Borings - If The Area Presents a Generally
         Consistant Soils Pattern)

       F IF COVER MATERIAL IS NOT AVAILABLE AT THE SITE - WHERE WILL
         IT BE OBTAINED?
         WHAT COSTS ARE INVOLVED?
         OWNER (COVER MATERIAL)
VI  OPERATIONAL SUPPORT

      A FIRE PROTECTION

         1     WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR FIRE PROTECTION?
         2     WHAT ARE THE COSTS,  IF ANY?
         3     WHERE IS THE NEAREST WATER SOURCE FOR FIRE-FIGHTING?
         4     FOR DRINKING WATER?
       B ARE THERE ANY OTHER SOURCES OF WATER WHICH MIGHT BE ADVERSELY
         AFFECTED BY A LANDFILL?
       C UTILITIES

                 On Site                                      Nearby (State Where)

            WATER                                         	

            GAS

-------
 Preliminary Engineering Survey for Sanitary Landfill Sites
            ELECTRICITY


            TELEPHONE
            SANITARY
            SEWERS
            STORM
            SEWERS
VII PHYSICAL AND GOVERNMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS


       A OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS


         1     CITY
         2     COUNTY


         3     STATE
         4     WATER BOARD
         5     HEALTH DEPARTMENT


         6     PLANNING COMMISSION


         7     OTHER
            PROVIDE COMMENTARY ON EXTENT OF CONTROL
            AND COPY OF SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS


       B ZONING


         1     ZONING CLASSIFICATION	


         2     ENFORCEMENT AGENCY	


         3     RESTRICTIONS - IF ANY
               ACTIONS NECESSARY TO USE SITE
       C EXISTING OPERATIONS


         1     DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES SERVING THE SAME AREA
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                                       Preliminary Engineering Survey for Sanitary Landfill Sites
                SUMMARY OF REFUSE DISPOSAL HISTORY IN THE AREA
                         (Include Adjacent Areas if Pertinent)
       D LAND USE OF ADJACENT PROPERTIES


                                                  South       W.est      North       East


          1    RESIDENTIAL	


          2    COMMERCIAL                     		


          3    LIGHT INDUSTRIAL                	      	      	     	


          4    HEAVY INDUSTRIAL               		      	    	


          5    RURAL	


          6    MIXED                            			    	


                          IF LAND IS NOT ZONED MARK USE "O"
                          IF LAND USE AGREES WITH ZONING MARK "Z"
                          IF LAND USE AND ZONING DO NOT AGREE MARK "V"




VIII  SITE ACCESS


       A ROADS MAINTAINED BY:


          1    CITY
          2     TOWNSHIP


          3     COUNTY	


          4     STATE
          5    INTERSTATE


          6    OTHER
                EXPLAIN:
       B  TYPES OF ROAD SURFACE


          1    CONCRETE

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Preliminary Engineering Survey for Sanitary Landfill Sites	™



                                                                                                     I
        2     ASPHALT
        3     SEAL COAT
        4     SOIL CEMENT


        5     GRAVEL
        6     CRUSHED STONE


        7     DIRT
                                                                                               I



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                            —                                                          I



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                            -—-—-                                          I



                                                                                               I
           (Include Information on All Bridges in
            Immediate Vicinity)                                                                  •

D  RAILROAD CROSSINGS
        8     OTHER	



      C BRIDGES


        1     LOCATION
        2     LOAD LIMIT


        3     CONDITION
         I     GRADE CROSSING	  VISIBILITY


         2     ELEVATED	  CONDITION


         3     UNDERPASS                         HEIGHT
      E DISTANCE TO COMMUNITY CENTER



        1     PROBABLE MAXIMUM HAUL DISTANCE
                                                            (ONE WAY)



              PROBABLE MINIMUM HAUL DISTANCE
                                                             (ONE WAY)


              PROBABLE AVERAGE HAUL DISTANCE
                                                             (ONE WAY)



              AVERAGE TIME OF AVERAGE HAUL
                                                             (ONE WAY)



              CHARACTERISTICS OF AREA ADJACENT TO MAJOR HAUL ROUTES
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                                    Preliminary Engineering Survey for Sanitary Landfill Sites
IX  RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE


       A  PROPOSED LANDFILL METHOD


          1    TRENCH
          2    CUT AND COVER


          3    AREA	


          4    RAMP
          5    OTHER OR COMBINATION
                          (Attach Detailed Recommendations)


       B  PROPOSED COMPLETED SITE USE


          1    PARKS	


          2    PLAYGROUNDS _____	


          3    AGRICULTURE	


          4    PARKING
          5    LIGHT INDUSTRIAL


          6    OTHER
               DESCRIBE
       C  PROPOSED MAXIMUM FINISHED ELEVATION:
       D  ESTIMATED CAPACITY OF SITE:
X   POPULATION DATA


       A  POPULATION SERVED BY LANDFILL


          1     NOW
          2     NEXT TEN YEARS

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      B TOTAL AREA POPULATION

        1    NOW	

        2    NEXT TEN YEARS	

XI  SUMMARY:
Preliminary Engineering Survey for Sanitary Landfill Sites ______           •
                                                                                   I
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                          Report Submitted By: _____ __

                          Date __________^___. __ _ _ _              I
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              PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING SURVEY FOR INCINERATOR SITES
 I  SITE IDENTIFICATION


 II  SITE LOCATION
III  ACREAGE	ACRES

          LENGTH	WIDTH	
                                (Provide Sketch of Irregular Sites)


IV  OWNER OF RECORD
    OWNER'S REPRESENTATIVE (IF ANY)
       A  AVAILABILITY
       B  PRESENT USAGE
       C TERMS & CONDITIONS


         1  LEASE
            a  PRICE PER ACRE	PER YEAR


            b  TOTAL COST	PER YEAR


          2  SALE	


            a  PRICE PER ACRE	


            b  TOTAL COST
 V  LAND CHARACTERISTICS


    A  GENERAL DESCRIPTION
    B  DRAINAGE

       NATURAL	ACRES

       STORM SEWERS	ACRES

       FARM TILE	 ACRES

       OPEN DITCH	ACRES
                        (Provide Sketch of Drainage Facilities if Other Than Natural)


  --Formerly Assistant Bureau Director for
  Program Development, BSWM, Cincinnati, Ohio.

                                                                      SW. IN. ss.2.1.67

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 Preliminary Engineering Survey for Incinerator Sites
    C ATTACH BORING LOGS OF REPRESENTATIVE TEST HOLES BORED TO
      DETERMINE BEARING ABILITY OF SOILS


    D THE DISPOSAL SITE FOR THE RESIDUE FROM THE INCINERATOR SHALL BE

      EVALUATED BY FURNISHING THE INFORMATION AS REQUIRED IN THE PRELIMINARY
      "ENGINEERING SURVEY - SANITARY LANDFILL SITES"


    E WEATHER


      1  ANNUAL RAINFALL
      2  PREDOMINANT WIND DIRECTION
VI  OPERATIONAL SUPPORT


    A FIRE PROTECTION


      1  WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR FIRE PROTECTION ?
      2  WHAT ARE THE COSTS, IF ANY?
      3  WHERE IS THE NEAREST WATER SOURCE FOR FIRE-FIGHTING?
      4  FOR DRINKING WATER?
    B UTILITIES





    WATER


    GAS


    ELECTRICITY


    TELEPHONE


    SANITARY

     SEWERS


    STORM

     SEWERS
ON SITE
NEARBY
SIZE OR ESTIMATED

QUANTITY AVAILABLE
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                                         Preliminary Engineering Survey for Incinerator Sites
VII  PHYSICAL & GOVERNMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS


     A OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS


       1  CITY	


       2  COUNTY	


       3  STATE
       4  WATER BOARD
       5  HEALTH DEPARTMENT


       6  PLANNING COMMISSION


       7  OTHER
                 (Provide Commentary on Extent of Content and Copy of Specific
                  Requirements)
     B ZONING


       1  ZONING CLASSIFICATION


       2  ENFORCEMENT AGENCY


       3  RESTRICTIONS - IF ANY
       4  ACTIONS NECESSARY TO USE SITE
     C EXISTING OPERATIONS


       1  DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES SERVING THE SAME AREA
       2  SUMMARY OF REFUSE DISPOSAL HISTORY IN THE AREA

                    (Include Adjacent Areas if Pertinent)

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  Preliminary Engineering Survey for Incinerator Sites
     D  LAND USE OF ADJACENT PROPERTIES
                                          South
West
                                                                     North
                           East
        1  RESIDENTIAL


        2  COMMERCIAL


        3  LIGHT INDUSTRIAL


        4  HEAVY INDUSTRIAL


        5  RURAL
       ,6  MIXED
                      IF LAND IS NOT ZONED MARK USE "0"
                      IF LAND USE AGREES WITH ZONING MARK "Z"
                      IF LAND USE AND ZONING DO NOT AGREE  MARK "V"
VIII  SITE ACCESS


     A  ROADS MAINTAINED BY:


        1  CITY
        2  TOWNSHIP


        3  COUNTY	


        4  STATE
        5  INTERSTATE


        6  OTHER
          EXPLAIN:
     B  TYPES OF ROAD SURFACE


        1  CONCRETE	


        2  ASPHALT
        3  SEAL COAT
        4  SOIL CEMENT
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                                     Preliminary Engineering Survey for Incinerator Sites
   5   GRAVEL
   6  CRUSHED STONE


   7  DIRT
   8 OTHER	



C  BRIDGES


   1 LOCATION
   2  LOAD LIMIT


   3  CONDITION
      (Include Information on All Bridges in Immediate Vicinity)



D  RAILROAD CROSSINGS


   1   GRADE CROSSING	         VISIBILITY


   2   ELEVATED	         CONDITION


   3   UNDERPASS                                     HEIGHT
E  DISTANCE TO COMMUNITY CENTER


   1  PROBABLE MAXIMUM HAUL DISTANCE
                                                      (ONE WAY)


   2 PROBABLE MINIMUM HAUL DISTANCE
                                                      (ONE WAY)


   3  PROBABLE AVERAGE HAUL DISTANCE
                                                      (ONE WAY)


   4  AVERAGE TIME OF AVERAGE HAUL
                                                      (ONE WAY)



   5  CHARACTERISTICS OF AREA ADJACENT TO MAJOR HAUL ROUTES

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 Preliminary Engineering Survey for Incinerator Sites
IX  RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR RESIDUE DISPOSAL


    A RECOMMENDED METHOD OF RESIDUE DISPOSAL (AND ITEMS WHICH MAY NOT
      BE INCINERATED)
    B DISTANCE FROM THE PROPOSED INCINERATOR SITE TO THE LOCATION OF
      PROPOSED RESIDUE DISPOSAL
 X  POPULATION DATA



    A POPULATION SERVED BY INCINERATOR


      1  NOW
       2  NEXT TEN YEARS
       3  NEXT TWENTY YEARS
    B TOTAL AREA POPULATION


      1  NOW
       2  NEXT TEN YEARS
       3  NEXT TWENTY YEARS
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                                          Preliminary Engineering Survey for Incinerator Sites
XI  SUMMARY:
                                                  Report Submitted By:
                                                  Date:

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                        RATING METHOD FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS-
 This rating method is an approach to measuring
 the level of acceptability of the various
 operations taking place at a given land disposal
 site, as well as an overall comparison of its
 suitability with that of other rated  sites.  The
 rating consists of two subsets of criteria.
 The first subset  is a series of eight Require-
 ments.  These must be satisfied for the site
 to qualify as a sanitary landfill. If the
 operation meets  all eight requirements a
 score of 72 is  given for the subset. If the
 operation fails to meet all of the requirements
 it is not a sanitary landfill.

 If the operation is a sanitary landfill,  the
 second subset  is  completed.  Fourteen Items
 are rated on the basis of a maximum of two
 points each to  determine the level  of per-
 formance attained at  the operation. Although
 not shown,  an  item could receive a rating of
 one point if the operation is only partially
 deficient in one of the recommended pro-
 visions.  A "perfect" sanitary landfill would
 achieve a score of 100.  No sanitary landfill
 will ever rate below 72 since this is the
 score obtained to qualify in the first subset
 of the rating.

 Each Requirement and Item in the  rating has
 a statement of what is needed to qualify,  the
 reasoning for the statement,  and the criteria
 to meet the rating.  The sanitary landfill
 should be visited and inspected in detail in
 order to complete the rating.  Some categories
 will require that  the operator or supervisor
 supply answers to certain questions and pre-
 cautions should be taken to assure  that the
 questions are understood and the answers
 reliable.  If possible, written documentation
 should support the answers.

                   PART I
 REQUIREMENTS FOR SANITARY  LANDFILL

 REQUIREMENT A: Open Burning  Prohibited.
No solid waste shall be burned at the sanitary
landfill.

Basis: Open burning of solid waste creates
odors, air pollution and  fire and safety
hazards.  Such burning adversely affects
public acceptance of the operation and proper
location of future sanitary landfill sites.
Local laws which allow or require  the open
^Training Branch,  Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, Ohio
burning of select materials (such as diseased
elm trees or condemned dry foods) are out-
moded.  Such materials can either be in-
corporated within the sanitary landfill  or
disposed of in such a manner as to prevent
health hazards or nuisances. Open burning
at a sanitary landfill site for any reason
converts the operation to that of an open
dump.

      Burning of Solid Waste on the Site
      is Never Permitted:
                          Yes       No
REQUIREMENT B:  Spreading and Compaction.
Solid Waste to be compacted shall be spread
on a slope of approximately 3:1 in uniform
layers not to exceed an average depth of two
feet prior to compaction.

Basis:  Successful operation and maximum
utilization of a sanitary landfill depends upon
adequate compaction of the solid waste.  In
addition,  settlement will be excessive and
uneven when the solid  waste  is not well
compacted.  Such settlement permits  invasion
by insects and rodents and severely limits
the usefulness of the finished area.

Compaction is best initiated by spreading the
solid waste evenly in shallow layers on a
slope rather than placing the material in a
single deep layer.  Further compaction is
provided by the repeated travel of equipment
over the layers and, if necessary, by the
use of special compacting equipment.  Addi-
tional compaction also can be achieved by
routing collection trucks so that they travel
over the finished fill area.

      S Dlid Waste is Properly Spread  and
      Compacted on a  Slope:
                          Yes      No
REQUIREMENT C:  Daily Cove_r.  A uniform
compacted layer of at least sTx~mches of
suitable earth cover shall be placed on all
exposed solid waste by the end of each working
day.

Basis: Daily covering of the solid waste is
necessary to prevent insect and rodent in-
festation, blowing litter,  fire hazards and
                                                                    SW.SL.rm.5. 1.70

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Rating Method for Sanitary Landfills
an unsightly appearance.  Fly emergence
generally is prevented by six inches of
compacted soil.  Daily covering also divides
the fill into "cells" that will limit the spread
of underground fires should one occur.  The
soil should have good workability and com-
paction characteristics and be able to serve
the stated needs.

        A Uniform, Compacted Layer of
        at Least Six Inches of Suitable Earth
        Cover is Used for Daily Cover:
                            Yes      No
REQUIREMENT D:  Final Cover.  A uniform
layer of suitable earth cover compacted to
a minimum depth of two feet shall be placed
over the entire surface of each portion of the
final lift,  not later than one week following
the placement of solid waste within that
portion.

Basis: A  minimum final cover of two feet of
compacted suitable earth cover will  prevent
emergence of insects from the compacted
solid waste, minimize escape of odors, pre-
vent rodent burrowing, support plant growth
and provide for an aesthetically acceptable
finished site.  This cover also provides an
adequate bearing surface for vehicles and
sufficient  thickness for cover integrity in the
event of settlement or erosion.  Workability
and compaction characteristics should be at
least equal to  those provided for daily cover.

        A Minimum Final Cover of  Two
        Feet of Compacted,  Suitable Earth
        Cover is Used as Stated:
                            Yes       No
REQUIREMENT E:  Contamination Control.
There shall be no  existing contamination of
ground or surface waters by deposited solid
wastes or their products of decomposition,
nor ha2;ard or nuisance caused by gases or
other products generated by the biologically
or chemically active wastes.  Furthermore,
in locations where a potential for such
contamination or hazard may be reasonably
considered to occur, both the location and
the operation must have the approval of the
appropriate governmental agency such as the
State Department of Health.

Basis: Circumstances  of location, nature of
waste deposited and operational procedure
may lead to pollution of underground aquifers.
Offensive and dangerous concentrations of
gases may occur in the soil or aboveground
and cause undesirable influences upon the
environment.  It may be necessary to provide
special construction techniques or alter
operations to control these conditions.

        Solid Waste is Placed so that the
        Environment is not and will not be
        Adversely Affected, as Determined
        by Competent Authority:
                          Yes      No
REQUIREMENT F:  Blowing Litter Controlled.
Blowing litter shall be controlled by providing
fencing near the working area or by use of
earth banks or natural barriers.  The entire
sanitary landfill site shall be policed
constantly and unloading shall be performed
so as to minimize scattering of the solid waste.

Basis: The purpose of the sanitary landfill
is to dispose of solid waste in a sanitary
nuisance-free manner. If papers and other
light materials are scattered and the area is
not policed, fire hazards,  nuisances  and
unsightliness result.

        Blowing Litter is Controlled and the
        Site and Surrounding Area Routinely
        Policed:
                          Yes      No
REQUIREMENT G: jjalvage Prohibited.
Salvaging shall not be permitted at the sanitary
landfill. *

Basis: Nothing can be tolerated that interferes
with the prompt sanitary disposal of solid
waste.  Salvaging on  the sanitary  landfill
delays the filling operation and creates
insanitary conditions.  The accumulation of
salvaged materials at the sanitary landfill
also provides harborage for vectors and
promotes an unsightliness which can be
detrimental to public acceptance of the operation.

        Salvaging is  Never Allowed at the
        Site:
                          Yes      No
*Any salvage or reclamation of solid waste
materials must take place in a systematic and
controlled manner at some site other than the
sanitary landfill operating area.  If such a
facility is physically located on the  same land
plat or nearby, it should not be considered to
be part of the sanitary landfill operation and
should be rated by  some other means.
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                                                       Rating Method for Sanitary Landfills
REQUIREMENT H: Operational Considera-
tions.  Provision shall be made for all-
weather access roads leading to the working
face and written provisions  and guarantees
shall be made for the replacement of operat-
ing equipment during periods when the normal
operating equipment is down for a period of
more than 24 hours.

Basis: The purpose of a sanitary landfill is
The immediate disposal of solid waste,
resulting  in the elimination  of nuisances and
producing an aesthetically acceptable opera-
tion.  The major breakdown of operating
equipment resulting in equipment down  time
of more than 24 hours  reverts the sanitary
landfill operation to an open dump.  Access
roads, which are not negotiable by collection
vehicles,  cause unnecessary delays in the
disposal operation.
Sanitary landfills utilizing more than one
piece of equipment normally are able to
operate effectively even when or ;  piece of
equipment has a major breakdo- ri and thus
may already have  sufficient res, rve
capacity.  Smaller operations, which utilize
only one piece of equipment, require some
type of prior written agreement which
guarantees the equivalent of standby equipment
within a 24-hour period after any major
breakdown.

Due to heavy duty  use of equipment, a
schedule of  inspection and maintenance must
be followed  to keep equipment operational
under normal conditions.  (See Recommended
Item #6)

      Provisions Have Been Made to Assure
      Ail-Weather Access Roads and to
      Guarantee the Equivalent of Standby
      Equipment Within a 24-Hour Period
      Following Major Breakdowns to Normal
      Operating Equipment:
                           Yes     No

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Rating Method for Sanitary Landfill
                    PART II
 RECOMMENDED ITEMS FOR SANITARY
 LANDFILL

 ITEM 1:  Public Information.  The sanitary
 landfill shall have posted signs which clearly
 indicate the purpose of the operation; the
 owner or operator of the site; hours of
 operation; instructions for after hours
 delivery; materials accepted and/or excluded;
 fees charged and emergency telephone
 numbers.
 Basis:  The site is typically intended to
 include use by the general public,  and guidance
 must be given as to the location and purpose
 of the activity,  and  its relationship to the
 user.  Proper use of the site is not guaranteed
 by clearly instructing the public, but it is
 an essential step in gaining compliance.

 A sanitary landfill may sometimes be called
 a "land reclamation project" or other such
 terms but never a "dump" since this term
 connotes an unacceptable operation.  Pro-
 vision of some method of storage, such as
 a bulk container near the gate, is  an added
 service  for the small hauler or householder
 who arrives after hours.  Persons arriving at
 the site  should quickly be able  to determine
 if their material will be  accepted and if so,
 the cost per unit (ton,  cu.yd.,  etc.).  If
 there should be an emergency such as a fire,
 either during or after working  hours, or a
 person injured, the  clearly posted emergency
 telephone numbers  will expedite obtaining
 the proper assistance.

    1  If suitable informational and directional
      signing is provided at the entrance and/or
      other appropriate locations.
                                    2 points
       If the site is not marked with
       appropriate signs.
                                     0 points
 ITEM 2;  Limited Access.  Access to a
 sanitary landfill shall be limited to those
 times when an attendant is on duty and only
 to those authorized to use the site for disposal
 of solid waste.
 Basis:  If public use of a sanitary landfill
 is allowed when no attendant is on duty,
 scavenging, burning and indiscriminate
 dumping commonly occur.  Men  and equip-
 ment must then be diverted from operations
 to restore sanitary conditions.  When
 access to the  site during operating hours is
 limited to those authorized,  traffic and other
 accident hazards are minimized.

    1  If access by unauthorized vehicles
       or pedestrians  is controlled.
                                     2 points
    2  If access is uncontrolled.
                                     0 points
ITEM 3:  Measuring Facilities.  Provision
shall be made for weighing or adequately
measuring all solid waste delivered to the
sanitary landfill.

Basis:  A suitable method of measuring
incoming and/or deposited solid waste is
desirable to provide a reliable quantity of
data, to determine trends and to estimate
future needs.  Estimates of volumes based
on truckloads rather than weights are
misleading.  Weighing provides the best
basis for  establishing fees  requiring scales
as an integral part of the sanitary landfill
operation.  Weighing discourages trips to
the site with half-filled trucks.  Determina-
tion of the volume increments  in deposited
solid waste  may be done by periodic volu-
metric surveys, permitting evaluation of
the use-rate and remaining capacity of the
site.

   1  If suitable fixed or  portable scales  have
      been installed at the sanitary landfill
      and are used continuously or  if the
      sanitary landfill is  routinely  "cross-
      sectioned"  at least  every 30 days to
      determine volumes  in place.
                                   2 points

   2  If neither weighing  is accomplished
      nor routine (30 days minimum) measure-
      ments of volume in place are taken.
                                   0 points


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                                                            Rating Method for Sanitary Landfills
ITEM 4:  Communications.  Telephone or
radio communications shall be provided at
the sanitary landfill site.

Basis:  Communications are desirable at the
generally remote sanitary landfill sites,  in
case of emergency.  If the  sanitary landfill
is part of a combined collection and disposal
system,  good communications will result in
better performance throughout the system.

   1  If reliable telephone or radio
      communications are installed at the
      site.
                                  2  points

   2  If communications are not available
      at the site.
                                  0  points


ITEMS:  Employee Facilities.  Suitable shelter
and sanitary facilities shall~5e provided for
personnel.

Basis: Shelter is a desirable protection of
the sanitary landfill employees during in-
clement weather.   Toilet and handwashing
facilities are desirable for  good personal
hygiene for sanitary landfill employees and
collection personnel.

   1  If permanent or temporary shelter of
      adequate size is provided, along with
      safe drinking water,  sanitary handwash-
      ing and toilet facilities, suitable heating
      facilities, screens  and electricity (if
      needed).
                                    2 points

   2  If no shelter  and/or toilet facility is
      furnished.
                                    0 points
ITEM 6:  Equipment Maintenance Facilities.
Provisions shall be made for tiie"~rouTin.e
operational maintenance of equipment at the
sanitary landfill site  and for the prompt repair
or replacement of equipment.

Basis:  Equipment  breakdowns of a day or
more result  in the  accumulation of uncovered
solid waste (as  in an open dump) with all the
attendant health hazards or nuisances.  Sys-
tematic,  routine maintenance of equipment
reduces repair  costs, increases life expectancy,
and helps to  prevent breakdowns that interrupt
 sanitary landfill operations.  In the event of
 breakdown, prompt repair of equipment will
 materially reduce down time an-* insure
 continuity of operations.

   1  If facilities for routine maintenance
      are available on site,  and if adequate
      provisions for major maintenance and
      repair have been made.
                                    2 points

   2  If maintenance facilities and repair
      provisions are not provided or are
      inadequate; or if equipment is inoper-
      able 01  of limited capability because
      of poor maintenance.
                                    0 points


 ITEM 7;  Unloading Area and Working Face.
 The unloading" of the solid waste shall be
 controlled and restricted to an area such that
 the material can easily be incorporated  into
 the working face with the available equipment.

 Basis:  Proper operation requires systematic
 placement of the solid waste in a restricted
 unloading area.  Unloading must be coordin-
 ated with spreading and  compacting.  Con-
 trolled unloading reduces work, conserves
 landfill volume, permits better compaction,
 minimizes scattering of solid waste and
 expedites unloading of collection vehicles.

 The type and size of the unloading area is
 dependent on the type of operation and the
 size of the working face.  A large working
 face increases the area  to be compacted
 and covered,  with resulting high cost,  delays
 and unnecessarily exposed solid waste.

   1  If unloading is controlled at all times
      by signs and/or an unloading supervisor,
      and the  size of the unloading area is
      balanced with the size of the working
      face allowing collection vehicles to
      v.nload promptly.
                                    2 points

   2  If the unloading is  uncontrolled and/or
      the working face is much larger than
      necessary.
                                    0 points

 ITEM 8: Fire Protection.  Suitable measures
 shall be taken to  prevent and control fires
which may accidently start.

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Rating Method for Sanitary Landfills
Basis:  Fires endanger life and property.
Smoke and odors create nuisances to
surrounding property owners,  endanger dis-
posal personnel and interfere with sanitary
landfilling operations.  Deliberate burning on
sanitary landfills causes them to revert to a
status  equivalent to open dumps.

   1 If an adequate supply of water under
      suitable pressure is  available with
     necessary hose,  etc.; a stockpile of
     earth is maintained reasonably close
     to the working face of the fill for
     smothering fires; and a suitable fire
      extinguisher is maintained on all  equip-
      ment and in all buildings.
                                    2 points

   2  If adequate fire protection is not
      present.
                                    0  points

ITEM  9:  Special Waste Handling. Large
or bulky items, sewage solids or liquids
(septic tank or cesspool pumpings, sewage
sludge and grit), and other materials which
are either hazardous or hard to manage shall
be disposed of in a sanitary landfill only if
special provisions are made for such disposal.

Basis:  Sewage solids  or liquids are  hard to
handle, potentially infectious and capable of
creating health hazards or nuisances if not
properly handled.  Other materials,  s uch as
oil sludges,  chemical wastes,  magnesium
shavings and empty insecticide containers may
present special hazards.  Unless properly
handled these wastes can be dangerous to
sanitary landfill employees.  When the
sanitary landfill design includes special
provisions for disposal of  hazardous materials
and large or bulky  items such as  car bodies,
refrigerators, water heaters,  demolition
wastes, tree stumps,  logs  and branches,
these materials can be disposed of safely and
need not be excluded.

   1  If suitable procedures are established
      and followed  for disposal of special
      materials.
                                    2  points

   2  If all hazardous and  bulky materials
      are accepted without provision for
      suitable disposal; or if hazardous or
      bulky materials are  excluded without
      provision for disposal elsewhere.
                                    0  points
 ITEM 10:  Vector Control.  Conditions un-
 favorable for Ihe production of insects and
 rodents shall be maintained by carrying out
 routine sanitary landfill operations promptly
 in a systematic manner.   Supplemental vector
 control measures shall be instituted whenever
 necessary.

    1  If vector control is  not needed or is
      adequately provided.
                                    2 points

    2  If vector control is  needed and is not
      promptly furnished.
                                    0 points


ITEM 11: Dust Control.  Suitable control
measures shall be taken wherever dust is
a problem at the  sanitary landfill.

Basis:  Excessive dust at the sanitary land-
fill can cause or  create a slowdown of
operations,  accident hazards,  excessive
equipment wear,  aesthetic problems and eye
irritation or other injury to sanitary landfill
personnel.

   1  If dust control is not required or if
      suitable control  measures are applied
     as needed.
                                   2 points

   2 If dust control is necessary and is
     not applied.
                                   0 points
ITEM 12:  Accident Prevention and Safety.
Employees shall be instructed in the principles
of first aid and safety and in the specific
operational procedures necessary to prevent
accidents. Accident precautionary measures
shall be employed at the site.  An adequate
stock of first-aid supplies shall be maintained
at the site.

Basis:  The use of  heavy earth-moving equip-
ment; the maneuvering of collection trucks
and other vehicles; and the infectious,  ex-
plosive or flammable items that may be in the
solid waste can create accident hazards at
sanitary landfills.  The remote location of
some sites makes it particularly important
that personnel be oriented to accident hazards,
trained in first aid and provided first-aid
supplies.  For reasons of safety,  access
should be limited to those authorized to use
the site for the disposal of solid waste.
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                                                        Rating Method for Sanitary Landfills
      If employees are given periodic safety
      training; and if an adequate first-aid
      kit, and at least one employee,  trained
      ii first aid, is available on the site at
      all times.
                                   2 points

      If employees are not given periodic
      safety training; or if neither an on-site
      first-aid kit nor trained first-aid
      assistance is available.
                                   0 points
ITEM 13:  Drainage and Grading.  The entire
site shall be graded and/or provided with
drainage facilities to minimize run-off onto
the sanitary landfill, to prevent the erosion
of earth cover and to drain rain water falling
on the surface of the sanitary landfill.  The
final surface of the sanitary landfill shall be
graded to a slope of at  least one  percent, but
no surface slope shall be so steep as to cause
erosion of the cover.  The surface drainage
shall be consistent with the surrounding area
and shall in no way adversely affect proper
drainage from these adjacent lands.

Basis:  Run-off from lands adjacent to the
site, unless diverted, and rain falling on the
surface of the site may percolate into the
sanitary landfill and may contaminate either
ground or  surface waters.  Cover material
may also be removed by erosion and standing
water may permit mosquito breeding or
interfere with access,  unloading, compacting
of placement of cover.   To promote sanitary
landfill as an acceptable solid waste disposal
practice it is important that the complete
sanitary landfill blend with its surroundings
and not impair adjacent land usage.

   1  If the sanitary landfill is properly
      graded and permits proper drainage.
                                    2 points
      If the sanitary landfill has evidence
      of scouring of cover, ponding or other
      evidence of improper drainage or
      grading.
                                    0 points
ITEM 14: Operational Records and Plan
Execution.  A daily log shall be maintained
by the sanitary landfill supervisor to record
operational information,  including the type
and quantity of solid waste received, the
portion of the site used, and any deviations
made from the plans and specifications.  A
copy of the original plans  and specifications,
a copy of the daily log, and a plan of the com-
pleted sanitary landfill shall be filed with the
local governmental agency responsible for
maintaining titles to land.

Basis:  Completed sanitary landfill sites are
ultimately utilized for a variety of purposes.
When the ultimate use of the site  is known
beforehand, the operation can be  planned so
that suitable building sites, roads and utilities
can be provided.  Final grades  can be
established and allowances made  for land-
scaping and adequate drainage.  A record of
the construction  of the sanitary landfill is
necessary for the most efficient utilization
of the completed site and for the prevention
of health hazards or nuisances.
   1  If complete records are maintained as
      delineated above.
                                    2 points

   2  If there are no records or the records
      are inadequate.
                                    0 points

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                   CHECK LIST FOR SANITARY LANDFILL EVALUATION
LANDFILL                                      POINTS
LOCATION                                      RATING
RATER                                        DATE
CONTACTS
                                 BASICS OF OPERATION
                  REQUIREMENTS                                      YES      NO


A   Open Burning Prohibited                                            	     	


B   Spreading and Compaction                                           	     	


C   Daily Cover                                                        	     	


D   Final Cover                                                        	     	


E   Contamination Control                                              	     	


F   Blowing Litter Controlled                                           	     	


G   Salvage Prohibited                                                  	     	

H   Operational Continuity                                              	
If all above Requirements are met

    (Require all YES)                                                    72

If all of the above are not met (Comment

    as to why Requirement(s) is/are not met)                               0



Comments:

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Check List for Sanitary Landfill Evaluation
ITEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Public Information
Complete signs
Inadequate
Limited Access
Controlled
Uncontrolled
Measuring Facilities
Scales or cross -
sections
No measurement
Communications
Adequate
None
Employee Facilities
Satisfactory
None
Equipment Maintenance
Facilities
Adequate
Inadequate
Unloading Area and
Working Face
Adequate
Inadequate
Fire Protection
Satisfactory
Inadequate
COMMENTS:


2



POINTS POINTS
ALIX3CATED ITEM ALIjOCATE.
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0




9 Special Waste
Handling
Special Provisions 2

No Provisions 0
10 Vector Control

Not needed or provided 2

Needed 0
11 Dust Control
Not needed or provided 2
Needed 0
12 Accident Prevention
and Satety

Adequate 2

Inadequate 0
13 Drainage and Grading

Adequate 2

Inadequate 0
14 Operational Records
and Plan Execution

Adequate 2

Inadequate 0
TOTAL FOR REQUIREMENTS

TOTAL FOR PROVISIONS
TOTAL RATING






1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

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             TENTATIVE RATING METHOD  FOR INCINERATOR OPERATION
                                       Training Staff*
ITEM 1: Access Roads. Access roads shall
be designed and constructed so that traffic
will flow smoothly and will not be interrupted
by ordinary inclement weather.  Refuse
collection vehicles shall not interfere with
normal traffic operation while waiting for
access  to the  disposal facility.
Reason.  Delays at the disposal facility may
impede local traffic,  hamper unloading of
refuse, result in unproductive time for
collection crews and  delay collection
schedules.  These delays result in on-site
refuse storage facilities becoming overtaxed.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If an all-weather access road, negotiable
   by loaded collection vehicles,  with pro-
   per on-site parking  areas for  vehicles
   waiting for access to the  unloading
   area has been provided:         „   .  ,
                                   2 points

   If the access road provided is negotiable
   by loaded collection vehicles in any weather,
   but parking facilities for  vehicles awaiting
   access to the unloading area ar>e not
   provided;                           .
   ^                               1 point

   If the road is negotiable in good weather
   only:                            _   .  ,
      J                             0 points

ITEM 2:   Employee  Facilities.  Suitable
shelter and sanitary facilities shall be pro-
vided for personnel.
Reason.  Private handwashing and toilet
facilities are desirable for the good personal
hygiene of incinerator employees as well as
the collection personnel.  Under inclement
weather  conditions, theemployees' desire for
comfort  results in lack of attention to the
 *Training Branch, Division of Technical
 Operations,  Solid Waste Management
 Office,  Cincinnati, Ohio.
operational requirements for the olant.  Em-
ployee morale and efficiency are enhanced by
provision of adequate sanitation facilities.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If all operational areas provide adequate
   shelter,  are screened (if required),  and
   are adequately ventilated and personnel
   are furnished with adequate  safe drinking
   water, sanitary handwashing, toilet,
   locker and shower facilities:     0    . .
                                    2 points

   If shelter, ventilation and screening are
   provided in all operational areas  but only
   minimal handwashing and toilet facilities
   are available.                    ,    .  ,
                                    1 point

   If shelter, sanitation and ventilation
   facilities are not adequate :
                                    0 points

ITEM 3: Communications. Telephone or
radio communications shall be provided at
the incinerator plant.

Reason. Communications are necessary at
incinerators in case of emergency.  If the
incinerator is part of a combined collection
and disposal operation,  better service and
sanitary conditions can be rendered  through
good communications.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If a reliable telephone or radio communi-
   cation system is  installed at the
   incir.erator:                          .
                                    2 points

   If no communications are installed at
   the incinerator:
                                    0 points
                                                  1
                                                   Not for general distribution
                                                   Subject to revision
                                                                         SW.IN.rm.4.2.68  1

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Tentative Rating Method   for Incinerator Operation
ITEM  4:  Fire Protection.  On-site fire
protection shall be provided and arrangements
shall be made with a responsible agency to
provide adequate fire-fighting forces in an
emergency.

Reason.   Combustion in the  refuse storage
pits  or malfunction of the incineration equip-
ment may generate fires which could endanger
men and equipment.

   This item shall  be rated  as follows:

   If sufficient approved water hose stations','
   (adequate to fight localized large fires),
   are available at appropriate locations
   throughout the structure; sufficient
   approved fire extinguishers  are so located
   to extinguish smaller fires immediately,
   and arrangements have been made with the
   local fire-fighting agency to assist in an
   emergency:                     2 points

   If the  incinerator must rely upon hand-
   operated extinguishers for fire-fighting
   while  awaiting    assistance which has
   been arranged for from the local
   fire-fighting agency:                1 point

   If fire-fighting techniques to be used in
   case of fire have not been developed, or
   if an adequate water supply under pressure
   is not  available for use by fire-fighting
   agency, or if a local fire-fighting agency
   is not  available:                       .
                                     0 points

ITEM  5:  Accident Prevention and Safety.
Employees  shall  be instructed in first-aid
and  safety principles and in the procedures
necessary to prevent accidents or control
dangerous situations. Accident precautionary
measures and suitable safety equipment shall
be employed at the site.  An adequate stock    j
of first-aid supplies shall be maintained at
the site.

Reason.  The  complexity of incineration
equipment,  the continual handling of flam-
mable (sometimes explosive) materials,  and
high temperatures create  potential accident
hazards for incinerator employees.
  This item shall be rated as follows:

   If a periodic safety-training program is
   employed, safety equipment is provided,
   an adequate first-aid kit is available, and
   at least one employee,  trained in first-aid,
   is available on the site at all times:
                                   2 points

   If a periodic safety-training program is
   employed, safety equipment is provided,
   an adequate first-aid kit is available, and
   trained first-aid assistance is available
   at locations within three miles of the site
   and if Item 3,  C ommunications,  is rated
   2 points •                        ,    . ,
                                   1 point

   If a periodic safety-training program is
  not  employed,  no safety equipment is
  provided, an on-site first-aid kit is not
   available, a person trained in first-aid is
  not  available within three miles, or com-
  munications to the trained first-aid
   assistant are not available at all times'-
                                   0 points

  If no positive accident prevention program
  is employed, or if unsafe practices are
   carried on at the site:
                          Deduct 5 points
ITEM 6: Operation Records.  A daily log
shall be maintained by the incinerator super-
visor to record operational information,  in-
cluding the type and quantity of refuse
received,  hours of operation, maximum and
minimum temperatures  of the furnaces
during operation, and quantities of both re-
jected refuse and incinerator residue
with the disposal method used therefore.

Reason. An incinerator is designed to burn
specific quantities of refuse under controlled
conditions including rate,  temperature, air
supply,  etc.  It is essential that enough data
be maintained in the operational records  to
determine if satisfactory destruction of the
refuse material is accomplished.  Operational
records will help establish the need for
additional men and/or equipment and will
indicate when changes in operating methods,
or hours,  should be made to accomplish
adequate incineration.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If adequate operational records  are
   accurately maintained,  correlated, and
   used to review and  improve operational  •
   procedures:                    „   .  ,
                                  6  points
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                                         Tentative Rating Method for Incinerator Operation
   If the operational records are inadequate,
   or are not used for operational control:
                                    2 points

   If there are no operational records:
                                    0  points

ITEM 7: Operational Maintenance.  Pro-
visions  shall be made for the routine opera-
tional maintenance of the incinerator.  Repair
or replacement of operational equipment  shall
be made efficiently and quickly.  The incinera-
tor shall be so designed and maintained that
the operational failure of one furnace and/or
component part will not result in a complete
shutdown of the incinerator. Should exten-
uating circumstances result in a situation
whereby the incoming wasteload exceeds  the
plant capacity, an approved temporary alter-
nate disposal plan should be available and
used.

Reason. Routine maintenance of mechanical
equipment  reduces repair cost, increases
life expectancy, and helps to prevent break-
downs.  Advance arrangements for  making
major repairs  will materially reduce down
time.  Complete  equipment breakdown of a
day or more results in accumulations of  re-
fuse, creating  health hazards and nuisances
at the plant and throughout the collection
system. A temporary disposal method in-
sures protection  against these health hazards
and nuisances until corrective measures  have
been made at the incinerator.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If routine  maintenance is employed and if
   a decrease in  plant capacity caused by
   malfunction of a component part  can be
   overcome by extending the hours of opera-
   tion  or by alternate disposal in a properly
   operated sanitary landfill or other approved
   facility:
                                    14 points

   If no routine maintenance is employed and
   if a decrease in plant capacity caused  by
   malfunction of a component part  can be
   overcome by extending the hours of opera-
   tion  or by alternate disposal in a properly
   operated sanitary landfill or other
   approved facility:
    ^                              10 points
    If routine maintenance is employed but no
    alternate disposal method is available, or
    an extension of the operating fiours to
    adequately incinerate all refuse generated
    from the community is not possible:

                                    4 points

   If no routine  maintenance is employed and
    no alternate  disposal method is available,
    or an extension of the operating hours to
    adequately incinerate all refuse generated
    from the community is not possible:

                                    0 points

ITEM 8: Limited Access.  Access to an
incinerator shall be limited to those times
when operational employees are on duty.
Only those authorized to visit or to use  the
disposal facility shall be allowed access.

Reason.  When only authorized persons are
permitted access to the incinerator during
operating hours, traffic, fire, and accident
hazards are minimized.

    This item shall be rated as follows:

    If all access is  controlled so that neither
    vehicles nor pedestrians have access to
    the incinerator  at other than working
    hours:
                                    2 points

    If uncontrolled or partially controlled
    access is allowed:
                                    0 points

ITEM 9: Area Sanitation.  All refuse shall
be  confined to the dumping area within the
building.  The entire incinerator site  shall
be policed  regularly as necessary.

Reason.  The purpose of an incinerator is to
dispose of  refuse in a sanitary nuisance-free
manner. If scattering of papers and other
light materials is not controlled and if the
area is not  policed, fire hazards and
nuisances are created.

   This item shall  be rated as follows:

   If all refuse unloading is done within a
   suitable  enclosure  or within the building^

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Tentative Rating Method for Incinerator Operation
   and if policing of the area is practiced
   so that the incinerator site is neat and
   clean:
                                    4 points

   If scattering of paper and refuse is allowed
   at the  incinerator site and policing is not
   done or is inadequate:
                                    0 points

ITEM 10: Building Sanitation.  All areas
within the building shall be maintained free
of paper, refuse, dirt, and debris.

Reason.   A  we 11-maintained building will
improve working conditions  and the general
acceptability of the operation, thus attracting
a better  class of labor, improving the occupa-
tional environment,  and  maintaining a better
health and safety record for the employees.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If the interior of the building is main-
   tained free of paper, refuse, dirt and
   debris:
                                    4 points

   If the  interior of the building is usually
   free of paper, refuse, dirt, and debris,
   with only occasional lapses:      _    .  ,
          J              ^2 points

   If the  interior of the building shows
   general lack  of good housekeeping
   practices:                       .    .  ,
   ^                                0 points

ITEM 11:  Weighing_facilities.  Provisions
shall be made  for weighing all refuse de-
livered to the incinerator.

Reason.   An accurate method of measuring
and recording the quantity of incoming refuse
and outgoing residue  is necessary to measure
operating capacity and efficiency in relation-
ship to the design capacity.  Weighing provides
an  equitable basis for establishing fees, and
is  an integral part of the incinerator operation.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If suitable fixed or portable scales have
   been installed and are used continuously
   for recording the weight of incoming
   refuse and outgoing  residue:
                                    4 points
   If no weighing is accomplished, only
   partial weighing is accomplished, or
   quantities are established in volume
   estimates only:                  Q points

ITEM 12: Unloading Area.  The unloading
area shall be adequate in size and design to
facilitate the rapid unloading of all refuse
in collection trucks with a minimum of delay
or confusion.

Reason.  Delays at the unloading area reduce
the efficiency of collection.  Uncontrolled use
of the unloading area will reduce the safety
and efficiency of the  incinerator operation.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If the unloading area is adequate for the
   prompt discharge of refuse from the
   trucks as they arrive and traffic is well-
   organized and supervised:
                   ^               4 points

   If the unloading area is too small for
   proper,rapid unloading of collection trucks
   or   unloading operations are poorly
   supervised so that delays are  caused:

                                    0 points

ITEM 13: Dust  Control at Unloading and
Charging ATeluDust resulting from the un-
loading and  furnace  charging operations shall
be controlled at all times.

Reason.  The dust generated by the unloading
and furnace charging operations is a health
hazard to both incinerator and collection
personnel.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If adequate dust control is in effect during
   the unloading and charging operations  and
   personnel continually exposed to dust are
   supplied with proper protective equipment:

                                    2 points

   If control of  dust during the unloading or
   charging operations is  inadequate but
   personnel are furnished protective
   equipment:                        ,
    ^  ^                             1 point
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                                            Tentative Rating Method for Incinerator Operation
    If neither dust control nor protective
    equipment is adequate:               .
                                     0 points

 ITEM 14:  Capacity and Operation of Storage
 Pit.  The capacity  of the  storage pit shall
 be equivalent to at  least the rated capacity
 of the incinerator for one day's operation.
 The unloading operation shall  be organized
 so that pit capacity is conserved for use in
 the event of breakdown or temporary
 overload.

 Reason.   In the  event of incinerator mal-
 function, the storage pit will furnish interim
 storage of refuse until the incinerator can
 be operated.  Care in the loading of the
 storage pit will conserve capacity so that it
 will be readily available in an emergency.
 Refuse should not be stacked high enough
 to impede unloading of vehicles.

    This item shall be rated as follows:

    If the storage pit will hold at least one
    day's collection volume, and an unused
    volume equivalent to one day's refuse
    collection remains at the end of each
    working day,  and  no more than three
    days  collection volume will be stored
   at any time:
                                   2 points
   If the storage pit will hold one day's
   volume of refuse,but less than one day's
   volume remains at the  end of each
   working day,  and no more than three
   days collection volume will be stored at
   any time:                       ,    .  ,
      J                             I point

   If the storage pit will hold less than one
   day's volume  and no other provisions are
   made for storage or emergency capacity,
   or if more than three days collection
   volume is stored at any time:
ITEM 15:  Segregation of Refuse.  If the
incinerator cannot incinerate bulky items or
certain  materials   must be excluded, such
items shall be removed from the incoming
refuse and disposed of by sanitary landfill
or by other means acceptable to the local
health authority.
Reason.  Attempting to incinerate items for
which the incinerator is not designed serves
no purpose and interferes with proper
incineration of the normal refus-; charge.
Segregated materials need to be  disposed of
in a satisfactory manner as they are removed,
and should not be stored.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If appropriate items are separated from
   the refuse prior to furnace  charging and
   are disposed of each working day by
   sanitary landfill or other means  satis-
   factory to the local public health
   authority
           J                        2 points

   If all appropriate items are removed
   prior to incineration but are stored on-
   site and/or not disposed of by means satis-
   factory to the local public health authority:

                                   0 points

ITEM  16:  Furnace Temperature Control.
Operating temperatures   at the combustion
chamber exit  in the furnaces of most
incinerators  shall be maintained between
1300°F to 1800°F,  or according to  the limits
established by  the design engineer.  The
furnace shall not be consistently operated
at temperatures lower than  1300°F.

Reason.   To insure best combustion and
minimize gaseous andparticulate emissions,
furnace temperatures must be maintained
between 1300°F and 1800°F.   Furnace
temperatures in excess of 1800°F in most
incinerators  may damage furnace refrac-
tories, requiring expensive repairs and
causing shutdowns.  In incinerators of
special design,  temperatures  exceeding
1800°F may be permitted.

   This item shall  be rated as follows:

   If furnace charts or records indicate
   that temperatures above 1500° F are
   successfully maintained, and that furnace
   temperatures are maintained within the
   upper range established by the designer:

                                  10 points

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Tentative Rating Method for Incinerator Operation
   If the furnace chart or records indicate
   that temperatures  above 1300° F are
   successfully maintained,and upper tem-
   perature design limits are not exceeded:
                                    5 points

   If furnace charts or records are not
   maintained, or  furnace temperatures
   are consistently lower or higher than those
   required for proper incineration:
                                    0 points

ITEM  17:  Residue and Fly Ash Disposal.
The residue from the  incinerator shall
contain less than four percent volatile
solid or disposition shallbe made in a properly
operated sanitary landfill.

Reason. The purpose of incineration is to
reduce the volume of refuse to an  inert re-
sidue without creating air pollution,  water
pollution,  odor, insect, or rodent vector
problems.   If residue is not organically inert,
public health hazards  are caused.

   This item shall be rated  as follows:

   If residue contains  less than four percent
   volatile  solids   by weight (as determined
   by the standard procedure listed in APWA
   Publication "Municipal Refuse Disposal, "
   page 375,  for the determination of volatile
   solids in residue) orr if incinerator residue
   is disposed in a properly operated sani-
   tary landfill and not used as cover material.
   (See  "PHS Tentative Rating Methods for
   Sanitary Landfill Operations"):
                                   8 points
   If the incinerator residue containing more
   than four percent of volatile solids by
   weight or the fly ash disposition is by
   improper means:
                                  0 points
ITEM 18: Emission Quality.  Gaseous and
particulate emissions from an incinerator
shall be  of a quality acceptable  in the com-
munity and in the area in which the  incinera-
tor is established.

Reason.  Gaseous and particulate emissions
beyond certain levels from improperly in-
cinerated refuse are aesthetically unaccept-
able  and may create public health hazards.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If the gaseous and particulate emissions
   are maintained  within the Federal Standards
   (Executive Order 11282):        8 points

   If the gaseous and particulate emissions
   are maintained  within the standards  es-
   tablished for the area.  (In lieu of local
   air pollution standards, use recommended
   standards from the ^National Center for
   Air Pollution Control);          6 points

   If emissions are not maintained within
   local air pollution standards,  (In lieu of
   local air pollution standards, use re-
   commended standards from the National
   Center for Air  Pollution Control)-
                                   0 points
ITEM 19:  Sewage Solids,  Liquids,  and Other
Hazardous Materials. Sewage soTTdsTor
liquids (septic tank or cesspool pumpings,
sewage  sludge and grit) and other hazardous
materials shall  be disposed of in an incinera-
tor only  if special provision has   been made
for such incineration.

Reason.   Sewage solids or liquids are in-
fectious  and create health hazards if not
properly handled.  Other materials
ing oil sludges,  waste chemicals,  magnesium
shavings, explosives and empty  insecticide
containers  may also present special hazards.
Unless properly handled, incineration of these
wastes can be dangerous to incinerator
employees. When the design and operation
of an incinerator includes  special provisions
for disposal of these  materials,  they can be
disposed of safely and need not be  excluded.

   This Jtej:n_j5haU_b_e_rja.tejj as follows:

   If suitable procedures are  established
   and followed  for the disposal of hazardous
   materials, or  If all hazardous  materials
   are excluded  from the incinerator charge-.

                                    2 points

   If hazardous  materials are incinerated
   without special provisions or precautions^

                                    0 points
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                                            Tentative Rating Method for Incinerator Operation
 ITEM 20:  Salvage.  Salvaging,  if permitted,
 shall not interfere with the prompt incinera-
 tion of refuse, nor create unsightliness or
 health hazards.  Scavenging shall not be per-
 mitted.
 Reason.  No activity that interferes with
 prompt, sanitary disposal of refuse can
 be tolerated.   Improperly conducted sal-
 vaging delays incineration and creates un-
 sanitary conditions.  Accumulation of sal-
 vaged materials at the incinerator results
 in vector problems and unsightliness.
 Scavenging is an unhealthy, aesthetically
 objectionable practice  which interferes with
 the orderly, efficient operation of an
 incinerator.
   This item shall be rated as follows:
   If no salvaging is allowed:
                                    2 points
   If salvaging is controlled and all salvaged
   items are removed from the site each
   working day:
                                    1 point

   If scavenging is allowed or salvaged
   materials are allowed to accumulate be-
   yond the end of a working day.    „   .  ,
   J                        &   J     0 points

ITEM 21:   Open Burning.  No refuse shall be
burned except in the incinerator.  Burning of
items too large for the incinerator shall be
done elsewhere and materials segregated for
this purpose  shall be removed from the site
daily.

Reason.  Garbage can not be burned without
nuisance except in high-temperature incinera-
tors.  Any other method of combustion creates
odors, air pollution,  fire   and safety  hazards,
and such burning adversely affects public
acceptance of the operation.  Controlled
burning of certain combustible materials not
readily incorporated into the  incinerator (such
as lumber, tree stumps, and brush) may pro-
vide  a satisfactory means of disposal.  Burn-
ing of such materials should be done at an
alternate site so that the public will not asso-
ciate  this  practice with operation of the
incinerator.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If no burning  outside of the .icinerator
   furnaces  is allowed at any time and items
   segregated for burning elsewhere are re-
   moved from the site daily:
                                    4 points

   If on-site burning of combustible materi-
   als is allowed outside of the furnaces at
   any time or if such items are  accumulated
   beyond the end of the  work day: n   •  t
     J                           J  0 points

ITEM 22: Vector Control.  Conditions per-
mitting insect and rodent attraction or pro-
duction shall be minimized by  handling and
incinerating all refuse in a systematic
manner.   Supplemental insect  and rodent
control measures shall be instituted when-
ever necessary.

Reason.  Proper operation of an incinerator
will minimize insect and rodent problems,
but any lapse in proper operation may result
in attraction and rapid production of insects
and rodents, especially in the  storage pit.
Frequent emptying and  cleansing of the
storage pit, proper disposal of residue and
off-site disposal of  segregated items  are
key factors in minimizing vector  problems.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If vector-preventive  operation activities
   are maintained and supplementary vector
   control is rarely required:         .   . ,
                                    4 points

   If vector-preventive  operation activities
   are not maintained and supplementary
   vector control is provided frequently :

                                    2 points

   If no vector-preventive operational
   activities are maintained and no vector
   control activities are prpvided-       .
                        r           0 points
ITEM 23:  Disposal of Quenching and
Scrubbing Waters.  Water used to quench
the incinerator residue or scrub  the flue
gases shall be discharged into a sanitary
sewer or disposed of as required by the

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Tentative Rating Method for Incinerator Operation
local health authority.  Vehicles for trans-
porting quenched residue shall be water-
tight.


Reason.  The residue quenching operation
may contain considerable chemical and
bacteriological contamination (especially
when used to quench poorly-incinerated

residue) and should be considered  a potentially
hazardous liquid waste.  Scrubbing water
presents the same problems.  Improper dis-
posal of these waste waters may pollute sur-
face or underground water supplies in the
area.  Leaking of quenching water from
residue trucks may also pose health hazards
and unaesthetic conditions.

    This item shall be  rated as follows:

    If quenching and scrubbing water is dis-
    posed of in a sanitary sewer or as
    directed by the  local health authority,
    and quenched residue when transported
    on public roads is contained  in water-
    tight trucks-                         .  .
                                    8 points

    If quenching and scrubbing water is im-
    properly disposed of,or water drains
    from residue  trucks'-             „   .  ,
                                    0 points


Incinerators rated by  the foregoing schedule
shall be classified as  follows:


A-Rated Incinerator - For Industrial Areas
The following items must score as follows:

   Item  7 (Operational           - 10 points
           Maintenance)
        16 (Furnace Temperature- 5 points
           Control)
        17 (Residue Quality)      -   8 points
        18 (Emission Quality)     -   6 points
        21 (Open Burning)        -   4 points
        23 (Disposal of Quenching -   8 points
           and Scrubbing Waters)

Total rating must equal 80 or more points.

B-Rated Incinerator - For heavy industrial
or rural areas.  The following items must
score as follows:

   Item  7 (Operational           - 10 points
           Maintenance)
        16 (Furnace Temperature -   5 points
           Control)
        17 (Residue Quality)      -   8 points
        18 (Emission Quality)     -   6 points
        21 (Open Burning)        -   4 points
        23 (Disposal of Quenching -   8 points
           and Scrubbing Waters)

The sum of all item points scored should
equal 60 or more points.

C-Rated Incinerator - For rural areas or
remote sites.  The following items must
score as follows:

   Item  7 (Operational           - 10 points
           Maintenance)
        16 (Furnace Temperature -   5 points
           Control)
        17 (Residue Quality)      -   8 points
        18 (Emission Quality)     -   6 points
        21 (Open Burning)        -   4 points
        23 (Disposal of Quenching -   8 points
           and Scrubbing Waters)

Total rating must equal 40 or more points.

Any rating less than 40 points, regardless
of rating of Item  16, 17,  18, 21 and 23 is
uns atisf actory.
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                        CHECK LIST FOR INCINERATOR EVALUATION
 INCINERATOR^

 LOCATION	

 RATER	

 CONTACTS
                                    POINTS_

                                    RATING
                                    DATE
 ITEM

 1.   Access Roads
 all-weather with parking
 all-weather,  no parking
 undesirable

 2.   Employee Facilities
 satisfactory
 limited
 none

 3.   Communications
 reliable on-site
 none on-site

 4.   Fire Protection
 satisfactory
 limited
 none

 5.   Accident Prevention and
     Safety
 training,  on-site aid
 training,  near-by aid
 no training, remote aid
 unsafe practices
6.   Operational Records
satisfactory
limited
none

7.   Operational Maintenance
routine maintenance and
 alternate plan
alternate plan only
routine maintenance only
neither

8.   Limited Access
controlled
uncontrolled
   POINTS
  ALLOTTED
 2
 1
 0
DEDUCT
 5
14
10
 4
 0
 ITEM
                    9.   Area Sanitation
                    neat and clean
                    littered
1 0 .
                                 S anitatin
 POINTS
ALLOTTED
                                                     4
                                                     0
                                                     4
                                                     0
             _    __
 neat and clean
 occasional lapses
 littered

11.   Weighing Facilities
 scales continually  used
 no scales
12.  Unloading Area
 spacious and supervised
 limited and uncontrolled

13.  Dust J^ontrol at Unloading
 controlled, personnel protected   2
 uncontrolled, personnel
    protected                      1
 no control or protection          0

14.   Capacity and Operation of
     Storage Pit
 remaining capacity >
    1 day; amount stored <         2
    3  day's collection.
 remaining capacity <
    1  day; amount stored <         1
    3  day's collection.
 available capacity <
    1 day; amount stored >        0
    3 day's  collection.

15.   Segregation of Refuse
 satisfactory disposal             2
 indiscriminate handling          0
                                                                     PAGE TOTAL

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 ITEM

16.   Furnace Temperature
     Control
 1500°F to maximum design
 1300°F to maximum design
 no records/not maintained
 POINTS
ALLOTED
10
 5
 0
17.   Residue and Fly Ash Disposal
 sanitary landfilled or < 4%
    organics                      8
 > 4% organics not sanitary
    landfilled                     0
18.   Emission Quality
 meets Federal standards
 meets area standards
 does not meet standards

19.   Hazardous  Materials
 special provisions
 exclusions
 no special provisions
     MUST ITEMS AND RATINGS
FEM
7
16
17
18
21
23
RATING
A
10
5
8
6
4
8
B
10
5
8
6
4
8
C
10
5
8
6
4
8
POINTS
ALLOTED






 ITEM

20.
 none
 controlled
 uncontrolled

21.   Open Burning
 none
 any

22.   Vector Control
 rarely required
 frequently required
 not maintained

23.   Disposal of Quenching
     and Scrubbing Waters
 properly handled
 improperly handled

              PAGE TOTAL
                  TOTAL POINTS_

                  RATING
 POINTS
ALLOTTED
                                                  4
                                                  2
                                                  0
                                                 SUITABILITY
                                                 TOTAL POINTS FOR RATING:
                                                 A  -  80 or more
                                                 B  =  60-80
                                                 C  -  40 or more
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                             TENTATIVE RATING METHOD  FOR
                           OPERATION OF COMPOSTING PLANTS
ITEM 1:  Access Roads.   Access roads shall
be designed, constructed, and maintained so
that traffic will flow smoothly and will not be
interrupted by ordinary inclement weather.
Collection vehicles  shall not interfere with
normal traffic operation  while waiting for
access to the disposal facility.

Reason.  It is  of the utmost importance that
collection not be delayed at the disposal
facility and that unloading of vehicles at the
facility not impede local  traffic.  A smoothly-
operated disposal operation permits collec-
tion crews to accomplish collection routes on
schedule,  but delays in unloading result in
deviations  from normal collection  schedules
and refuse storage facilities become
overtaxed.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If an all-weather access road, negotiable
   by loaded collection vehicles, with adequate
   on-site parking areas for collection
   vehicles, have been provided  and unloading
   of vehicles  is accomplished without delay.

                                     2 points

   If the access road provided is negotiable
   by loaded collection vehicles, but collec-
   tion vehicles impede  traffic flow or delay
   unloading because of lack of adequate
   parking.                         ,   .  ,
   ^     &                          1 point

   If the access road is negotiable in good
   weather only.                    „   .  ,
                                    0 points

ITEM  2:  Employee  Facilities.   Suitable
shelter and sanitary facilities shall be pro-
vided for personnel.
Reason.   Sanitary facilities are desirable for
good personal hygiene of both plant employees
and collection personnel.  If employees are

'^Training Branch, Division of  Technical
Operations,  Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, Ohio
required to operate the plant under inclement
weather conditions without adequate shelter,
a lack of attention to  the operational require-
ments will result.  Employee morale and
efficiency are enhanced by provision of ade-
quate sanitation facilities.

   This item shall be rated  as follows:

   If all operational areas of the plant are
   provided with adequate shelter,  including
   ventilation and screens (if required), and
   personnel are  furnished with adequate
   drinking water, sanitary handwashing,
   toilets,  locker, and shower facilities.

                                   2 points

   If adequate shelter is provided  in all
   operational areas of the plant,  but only
   minimal handwashing and toilet facilities
   are available.
                                   1 point

   If shelter or sanitary facilities are
   inadequate.
                                   0 points

ITEM 3:  Communications.  Telephone or
radio communications shall be provided at
the composting plant.

Reason.   Communications are necessary at
composting plants  in case of emergency.
If the plant is part of a combined collection
and  disposal operation, better service and    ;
sanitary conditions can be rendered through-
out thi? collection area by providing good
communications.

   This item shall be rated  as follows:

   If reliable telephone or radio communica-
   tions  are maintained at the plant.

                                   2 points
1
 Not for General Distribution
 Subject to Revision
                       SW. CP. rm.3.5.67  1

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Tentative Rating Method for Operation of Composting Plants
   If no communications are installed at the
   compost plant.

                                    0 points

ITEM 4:  Fire Protection.  On-site fire pro-
tection  shall be provided and arrangements
shall be made with a responsible agency to
provide adequate fire-fighting forces in an
emergency.

Reason.  Combustion in refuse storage or
processing areas or  malfunction of equip-
ment may generate fires which will be of
particular danger to  men and equipment.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If the plant has an adequate water supply
   under  sufficient pressure for fire-fighting
   purposes  available at appropriate loca-
   tions throughout the plant; approved ex-
   tinguishers are so located to extinguish
   small  fires or equipment fires; and arrange-
   ments have been made with the local fire-
   fighting agency to assist in an emergency.
                                    2 points

   If personnel must rely upon hand-operated
   extinguishers while   waiting for assistance
   which  has been arranged  for from the local
   fire-fighting agency.
                                    1 point

   If suitable emergency procedures to iso-
   late or confine a fire have not been
   established, a local fire-fighting agency
   is not available,  or suitable water under
   pressure is not available.
                                    0 points

ITEM 5:  Accident prevention and Safety.
Employees shall  be instructed in the
principles of first-aid and safety and in the
specific operational procedures necessary
to prevent accidents  or  control dangerous
situations.  Accident precautionary measures
shall be employed at the site.   An adequate
stock of first-aid supplies shall be maintained
at the site.
Reason.  The complex mechanical equipment
required for composting and the processing
of flammable (sometimes explosive) materials,
creates a potential accident hazard for com-
posting plant employees.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If all employees are given adequate  and
   periodic operational and safety training; an
   adequate  first-aid kit and at least one
   employee trained in first-aid are avail-
   able on the site at all times.
                                  2 points

   If all employees are given periodic opera-
   tional and safety training; an adequate
   first-aid kit is available at the  site and
   trained first-aid assistance  is available
   within three miles of the site and Item 3,
   Communications,  is rated 2 points.
                                  1 point

   If periodic operational and safety training
   is not given; an on-site first aid kit is not
   maintained, trained first-aid assistance is
   not available within  three miles, or  com-
   munications to the trained first-aid assis-
   tant are not available at all times.
                                  0 points

   If all  hazardous machinery is not equipped
   with appropriate safety  devices and warn-
   ing signs  or unsafe practices are used at
   the site.
                         Deduct 5 points

 ITEM 6:  Operational Records. A daily log
 shall be maintained  by the plant supervisor
 to record operational information, including
 the type and quantity of refuse  received;
 hours of operation; maximum and minimum
 temperatures of the composted material and
 quantities of rejected refuse or salvageable
 items and disposal method used.

 Reason.  A composting plant is designed to
 reduce refuse to a sanitary, nuisance-free
 material through biochemical degradation
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                                  Tentative Rating Method for Operation of Composting plants
of compostable materials.  It is essential
that adequate operational records be kept
in order to determine if satisfactory reduc-
tion oi the refuse is routinely accomplished,
if the plant's capacity is being exceeded and
what disposition  is made of rejected
materials.  Such records will indicate if
changes in operating methods or if additional
men, equipment  or facilities should be
sought to more adequately dispose of the
incoming refuse.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If adequate records are routinely and
   accurately maintained.            „
            J                       6 points

   If the operational records are inadequate.

                                    2 points
   If there are no records.
                                    0 points
ITEM 7: Operational Maintenance.  Adequate
provisions shall be made for the routine
operational maintenance of the composting
plant.  Repair or replacement of operational
equipment shall be made efficiently and
promptly.  The plant shall be so designed
and maintained that failure of one component
of the composting plant will not result in
complete plant shutdown.  Provision shall
be made for diversion of refuse to an approved
alternate disposal facility in the event of a
breakdown of more than 24 hours duration.

Reason.  Routine  maintenance of equipment
reduces repair cost,  prolongs equipment life
and helps to prevent breakdowns that  interrupt
plant operations.  If a failure of one compo-
nent does not completely disable the compost-
ing plant, hours of operation may be extended
to insure  continuity of operations.   Advance
arrangements for making major repairs  will
materially reduce down-time.   Complete
breakdown of a day or more results in accu-
mulation of refuse at the plant with develop-
ment of health hazards and nuisances at  the
plant and  throughout the collection system.
Alternate disposal provisions will reduce
health hazards and disruption of collection
operations.
  This item shall be rated as follows:

  If routine maintenance is em, toyed and if
  a decrease in plant capacity Caused by
  malfunction of a component part can be
  overcome by extending the hours of opera-
  tion or by alternate disposal in a properly
  operated sanitary landfill or other approved
  facility-                      12 points

  If no routine maintenance is employed and
  if a decrease in plant capacity caused by
  malfunction of a component part can be
  overcome by extending the hours of opera-
  tion or by alternate disposal in a properly
  operated sanitary landfill or other approved
  facility.                       .   .  ,
                                9 points
  If routine maintenance is employed but
  extension of the operating hours to ade-
  quately compost the refuse  generated from
  the community is  not possible or no al-
  ternate disposal method is provided.

                                3 points
  If np_ routine  maintenance is employed and
  if extension of the operating hours to ade-
  quately compost the refuse generated from
  the  community is not possible or no alter-
  nate disposal method is provided.

                               0 points

ITEM 8:  Limited Access.  Access to the
composting plant shall be limited to those
times when operational employees are on
duty.  Only those authorized to visit or to
use the disposal  facility shall be allowed
access to the compost plant.  Particular
caution shall be taken to insure that access
to ha  -.ardous areas shall be restricted to
authorized persons only.

Reason.  When only authorized persons are
permitted access to the composting plant
during operating hours, traffic, fire, and
accident hazards are minimized.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If neither vehicles nor pedestrians have
   access to plant outside of working hours.

                                   2 points

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Tentative Rating Method for Operation of Composting Plants
    If uncontrolled or partially controlled
    access is allowed.
                                   0 points

 ITEM 9:  Area Sanitation.  All refuse shall
 be confined to the unloading area, preferably
 within a building.  No refuse, paper, etc. ,
 should be scattered adjacent to the plant
 site.

 Reason.  The purpose  of the composting
 plant is to dispose of refuse  in a sanitary,
 nuisance-free manner.  If paper and other
 light refuse are allowed to be scattered, fire
 hazards and nuisances are created and the
 appearance of the composting plant will
 cause depreciation of land value  in the
 surrounding area.

    This item shall be rated as follows:

    If the plant site and areas are kept neat
    and clean.
                                   4 points

   If paper or light refuse is scattered  on or
   adjacent to the plant  site.          Q  pointg


 ITEM 10:  Plant Sanitation.   All areas within
 the plant  shall be maintained free of paper,
 refuse, dirt and debris.

 Reason.   A well-maintained plant will con-
 tribute to better working conditions and pro-
 mote acceptability of the operation,  thus
 attracting a better class of labor, improving
 the occupational environment, and maintain-
 ing better health and safety record for  the
 employees.

    This item shall be rated as follows:

    If the interior of the plant is  continually
    maintained free of paper, refuse, dirt,

    and debris'                       4  points

    If the interior of the plant is  generally
    free of paper, refuse,  dirt and debris,
    showing only occasional lapses in house-
    keeping practices.
                                     2 points
   If the interior of the plant shows general
   lack of good housekeeping practices.

                                    0 points

ITEM  11:  Weighing Facilities.  Provisions
shall  be made for accurately weighing or
suitably measuring all quantities of refuse
delivered to the composting plant.

Reason. Weighing of incoming refuse is
necessary to establish operating capacity in
relationship to the design capacity of the
plant and provide a basis for establishing fee
schedules,  and  is an integral part of the
plant operation.  Weighing discourages
collectors from making trips to the plant
with half-full trucks.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If suitable fixed or portable  scales have
   been installed for weighing refuse collec-
   tion trucks or if they are continuously
   used to record plant quantities.
                                  4 points

   If suitable scales for  weighing refuse
   collection vehicles are  located on the way
   to the plant and are in use; or other
   suitable measuring facilities, * which
   accurately measure incoming refuse,  are
   in continuous use.
                                   2 points

   If no weighing or measuring is accomp-
   lished or   weighing or measuring pro-
   cedures are inadequate.
                                   0 points

ITEM 12:  Unloading Facilities.  Unloading
facilities shall  be  of sufficient  capacity and
design to facilitate rapid and orderly unload-
ing of collection trucks.

Reason.  If collection vehicles are delayed
at the unloading facilities, the  efficiency
and  scheduling  of collection  services are
disrupted.  Confusion at the unloading area
reduces the safety and efficiency of plant
operations.
                                                   *Manufacturer's rated capacity for vehicles
                                                   is not acceptable.
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                                  Tentative Rating Method for Operation of Composting Plants
    This item shall be rated as follows:

    If the unloading facilities are adequate,
    tru:ks   are unloaded without delay,
    and  traffic   is well organized and
    supervised.
                                    4 points

    If the unloading facility is not adequate
    for proper rapid  unloading of collection
    trucks or the facility is poorly super-
    vised so that prompt unloading and re-
    lease of collection trucks is not
    accomplished.
                                    0 points

 ITEM 13:  Dust Control.  Dust  generated by
 all components of the composting operation
 shall be controlled at all  times.

 Reason. Dust is a health hazard to plant
 employees and collection personnel.

   This  item shall be rated as follows:

   If adequate dust control is in effect at all
   times during the unloading operation and
   personnel  continually exposed  to dust
   use proper protective equipment.

                                   2 points

   If control of dust during the unloading
   operation is inadequate but personnel use
   protective equipment.


   If neither dust control nor protective
   equipment is adequate.
                                   0 points

ITEM 14: Capacity and  Operation of Storage
Facilities.  The capacity of the refuse
storage pit  shall  be equivalent to at least
the rated capacity of  the composting plant
for one day's operation.   The unloading
operation shall be organized such that
reserve  capacity is retained in  the storage
pit.
Reason.  In the event of overload or plant
malfunction, reserve capacity in the storage
pit will permit storage of refuse until the
composting plant can catch up or again be-
come operational.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If the storage pit can hold at 1 -ast one
   day's collection volume and t/e plant
   routinely processes  one day's collection
   of refuse each working day.     „    . .
                        &  J      2 points

   If the refuse  storage pit can hold one day's
   collection volume of refuse, but the plant
   does not process an  equivalent volume
   on some working days.         .    . ,
                  &  J           1 point

   If the refuse  storage pit holds less than
   one day's refuse  or  the plant cannot pro-
   cess an  equivalent  volume each working
   day.                           _    . ,
     J                             0 points

ITEM  15:  Grinding  and Separation.  For
effective composting, municipal refuse
shall  be ground at  least once.

 Refuse components  that cannot be  ground and/
 or composted,  such as metals, tires and
 glass, plastics, and masonry shall be re-
 moved,  and adequate provisions shall be
 made  for these  operations.  Materials re-
 moved from the refuse  shall  not  be stored
 on the premises.

 Reason.  Grinding of refuse accomplishes
 several things:  1) vastly increases  the
 surface area  available  to the micro-
 organisms to attack; 2) mixes  the refuse
 into a  more uniform mass; 3) breaks  down
 the cell structure, releases fluids, and in
 general,  makes the material more suscep-
 tible to decomposition; and  4) reduces  the
 attractiveness of the putrescible material to
 insects and rodents. Separation of the
 material protects the grinding equipment and
 improves the finished  compost.

   This item  shall be rated as follows:

   If all noncompostable material  is separated
   from the refuse and the grinding produces
   a particle  size which  is suitable for  the
   composting method  employed.


   If some noncompostable  items are apparent
   in the finished compost but the  grinding
   produces a particle  size which  is
   suitable.
                                   1 point

-------
Tentative Rating Memod for Operation of Composting Plants
   If the grinding does not produce a
   particle size suitable for the composting
   method employed.
             r  J                 0 points

ITEM 16: Time and Temperature for Com-
post Curing.   The ground refuse shall be
composted by methods in which each and
every portion of the compost material is
subject to a minimum temperature of 140°F
for no less than forty hours.

Reason.  In normal composting,  temperatures
of 140UF or higher are achieved for several
hours or even days.  This time/temperature
exposure is believed to be adequate to des-
troy most, if not all, pathogens in the com-
post.  Pasteurization of all of the compost
must be  relied upon for maximum protection,
and it is essential that all portions of the
compost be exposed to the minimum  of 140 F
temperature for at least forty hours  to destroy
pathogens throughout the  compost.

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If plant design and operation assure that
   all compost materials will be consistently
   heated to  at least 140°F for forty  hours
   or more,  or laboratory  examinations of
   appropriately selected compost samples
   are used as a routine control measure to
   certify that occurrence of pathogens is
   maintained at a level satisfactory to the
   responsible health officer.
      ^                           10 points

   If the above described design and  opera-
   tion requirements are not fulfilled and
   routinely-made laboratory examinations
   are not available to assure the adequacy of
   the composting operations for pathogen
   destruction.                    „    .  .
                                  0 points

ITEM 17: Compost Quality.  Compost shall
be of uniform quality, acceptable from patho-
genic and hygienic viewpoints.  Inert materials,
such as glass and metals, shall be finely
ground,  intimately mixed and uniformly dis-
persed.  Sharp slivers of glass and metal shall
not be contained in the finished product.
Reason.  The production of safe high-quality
compost is essential for the successful mar-
keting and utilization of this material.  If
successful marketing of compost is vital to
the continued operation of the  composting
plant, production of safe high-quality compost
has to be assured.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If the finished compost contains less than
   10% inorganic or inert material by weight,
   as determined by the standard procedure
   listed in the APWA publication Municipal
   Refuse  Disposal.  Appendix A for the
   determination of volatile solids  in residue;
   those  inert  materials are finely divided
   and intimately mixed; the pathogens
   in the finished compost have been main-
   tained at  or below a level approved by
   the local  health officer; and the  compost
   is acceptable for favorable marketing.

                                  10 points

   If the compost fails to qualify as listed
   above.
                                   0 points

ITEM  18:  Emission Quality.  Gaseous and
particulate  emissions or objectionable odor
from compost plant operations, including
those from combustion of refuse shall be of
a quality acceptable to the community where
the plant is established.

Reason.  Proper management,  facilities,
and control devices can prevent emission
of gases,  particulates or objectionable odor
from composting plants.   In order for such
plants to maintain acceptability in locations
best suited for the needs of the refuse dis-
posal system, they have to continually com-
ply with local emission limitations. (Recom-
mendations for standards can be obtained
from the National Center for Air Pollution
Control.)

   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If the  emissions from the composting
   plant continually comply with the air
   pollution standards established for the
   area.

                                  8 points
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                                Tentative Rating Method for Operation of Composting Plants
   If the emissions from the composting
   plant do not continually comply with local
   air '>ollution standards.

                                  0 points

 ITEM 19:  Sewage Solids, Liquids, and Other
 Hazardous  Materials.  If sewage solids and
 liquids (septic tank or cesspool pumpings
 and  sewage sludge and grit),  and other
 hazardous materials, are accepted or dis-
 posed of in a composting plant, special
 provisions  shall be made to insure proper
 handling.

Reason.  Sewage solids or liquids are infec-
tious and create health hazards if not properly
handled.  Other materials including oil
sludges, chemicals,  magnesium shavings,
and empty insecticide containers, may also
present special hazards.  These materials
can endanger plant employees and harmful
elements may persist in the compost unless
proper handling and processing is routinely
employed.   When the design and operation of
a composting plant includes special provisions
for the disposal of these hazardous  materials,
they can be  disposed of safely and need not be
excluded.

   This item shall be rated as follows:
   If suitable procedures are established and
   routinely followed for the disposal of
   hazardous materials,  all hazardous
   materials are excluded from the compost-
   ing plant and pathogens do  not survive
   in the compost.
                                    2 points
   If hazardous materials are accepted with
   no provision for proper handling or dis-
   posal or pathogens survive in the
   compost.                         „   .  .
       ^                            0 points

ITEM 20:  Salvage.  Salvaging conducted at a
composting plant shall be so organized that
it will not interfere with the prompt and sani-
tary disposal of the refuse through the com-
posting operation.  Personnel shall be
protected from potential health and accident
hazards.  Salvaged material shall be stored
in a neat and orderly manner in vermin-proof
containers, if necessary,  but excessive
amounts of salvaged materials  shall not be
stored upon the premises.

Reason. Nothing can  be tolerated  that
interferes  with prompt sanitary composting
of refuse.  Improperly conducted salvaging
delays the  composting operation and creates
insanitary  conditions.   Accumulation of sal-
vaged items at the plant often results in vec-
tor problems and unsightliness, both
detrimental to  public acceptance of the opera-
tion.  Proper collection, storage, and
disposal of salvaged materials will aid in
maintaining high public health standards and
will increase the efficiency of plant operation.

    This item shall be rated as  follows:

    If the salvaging is well organized,
    salvaged material is properly stored and
    no  excessive  quantities of salvaged
    material are kept on the premises.

                                   8 points

    If the salvaging is well organized and
    salvaged materials  are stored in a proper
    manner, but excessive amounts of sal-
    vaged materials have accumulated.

                                   4 points

    If salvaging is disorganized, proper
    storage is not provided or  salvaging
    contributes to odor  production or the
    attraction or production of insects and
    rodents.                        ..   .  .
                                   0 points

 ITEM 21:  Disposal of Nonsalvageable
 Materials. Materials  separated from the
 refuse  which have no marketable value  shall
 be disposed of in a sanitary landfill.  If
 market or other conditions make the salvage
 of any particular material impractical, sal-
 vaging  of the material  shall be discontinued
 or the material shall be stored elsewhere or
 disposed of by sanitary landfill.

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Tentative Rating Method for Operation of Composting Plants
Reason.   Most noncompostable items which
have no salvage value cannot be incinerated
because of bulk or noncombustible content.
On-site storage or unsatisfactory disposal
of these materials will be unsightly or con-
tribute to vector problems.
   This item shall be rated as follows:

   If noncompostable items separated from
   the refuse are disposed of immediately
   in a sanitary landfill or are removed to
   proper storage elsewhere.           .
   ^   ^                            8 points

   If noncompostable items are allowed to
   accumulate at the plant or the disposal
   of the items is improper.            .
                    ^   ^           0 points

ITEM  22:   Vector Control.  Attraction or pro-
duction of insects and rodents shall be pre-
vented by conducting all plant operations in a
systematic well-organized manner.  Supple-
mental vector control measures shall be
instituted if necessary.

Reason.  Routine  operation of a composting
plant according to these standards  will pre-
vent or minimize  insect and rodent problems.
Any lapse in proper operating procedures
may result in attraction and production of in-
sects and rodents, requiring supplemental
vector control measures.
   This item shall be rated as follows:
   If vector control is not needed.
                                    2 points
   If vector control is properly supplied
   when conditions warrant such control.
                                    1 point
  If vector control is needed or is not
   promptly furnished.
                                    0 points
Suggested Method for Evaluating Numerical
Rating

A-Rated Composting Plant - For industrial
areas.  The following  items must score
points as follows:

   Item  16 (Time and Temperature  - 10 points
           for Compost Curing)
         17 (Compost Quality)       - 10 points
         18 (Emission Quality)       -  8 points
         20 (Salvage)                -  8 points

Total rating must equal 80 or more points.


B-Rated Composting Plant - For heavy in-
dustrial or rural areas.  The following items
must score as follows:

   Item  16 (Time and Temperature  -10 points
           for Compost Curing)
         17 (Compost Quality)       -10 points
         18 (Emission Quality)       - 8 points

Total rating must equal 60 or more points.


C-Rated_Composting Plant - For very rural
areas.   The following items must score as
follows:

   Item  16 (Time and Temperature  -10 points
           for Compost Curing)
         17 (Compost Quality)       -10 points

The total rating must equal 40 or more
points.

Any rating less than 40 points  regardless of
the ratings of Items 16, 17,  18 or 20 is
unsatisfactory.
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CHECK LIST FOR COMPOST PLANT EVALUATION
COMPOST PLANT
LOCATION
RATER



POINTS
RATING

DATE




CONTACTS

ITEM
1. Access Road
all-weather with parking
all-weather, no parking
undesirable
2. Employee Facilities
satisfactory
limited
none
3. Communications
reliable on-site
none on-site
4. Fire Protection
satisfactory
limited
none
5. Accident Prevention and
Safety_
training, on-site aid
training, nearby aid
no training, remote aid
unsafe practices
6. Operational Records
satisfactory
limited
none
7, Operational Maintenance
routine maintenance and
alternate plan
alternate plan only
routine maintenance only
neither
8. Limited Access
controlled
uncontrolled
POINTS
ALLOTTED
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
DEDUCT
5
6
2
0
12
9
3
0
2
0
ITEM
9. Area Sanitation
neat and clean
littered
10. Plant Sanitation
neat and clean
occasional lapses
littered
11. Weighing Facilities
on-site scales continually used
off-site scales continually used
none
12. Unloading Facilities
spacious and supervised
limited and /or uncontrolled
13. Dust Control
controlled, personnel protected
uncontrolled, personnel
protected
no control or protection
14. Capacity and Operation of
Storage Facility
remaining capacity
> 1 day
remaining capacity
< 1 day
available capacity
< 1 day
15. Grinding and Separation
suitable
limited
not suitable
PAGE TOTAL
POINTS
ALLOTED
4
0
4
2
0
4
2
0
4
0
2
1
0
2
I
0
2
1
0


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 ITEM

16.   Time and Temperature
     for Compost Curing
 suitable
 not suitable

17.   Compost Quality
 suitable
 not suitable

18.   Emission Quality
 meets area standards
 does not meet area standards

19.   Hazardous  Mat erials
 special provisions
 exclusion
 no special provisions
 POINTS
ALLOTTED
10
 0
10
 0
         MUST ITEMS AND RATINGS
ITEM
16
17
18
20
RATING
A
10
10
8
8
B
10
10
8
-
c n
10
10
-
-
POINTS
ALLOTED




 ITEM

20.   Salvage
 organized
 partially organized
 disorganized

2 1.   Disposal of Nonsalvage-
     able Materials
 properly handled
 improperly handled

22.   Vector Control
 not needed
 supplied when needed
 needed
                                PAGE TOTAL
                                                                                    POINTS
                                                                                  ALLOTTED
                 TOTAL POINTS

                 RATING	

                 SUITABILITY
                                                  TOTAL POINTS  FOR RATING:

                                                  A  -  80 or more

                                                  B  -  60 or more

                                                  C  :  40 or more
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                           A SIMPLE KEY TO SOME FLIES FOUND
                                ASSOCIATED WITH REFUSE

                                       Training Staff*
 I  FLIES WITH DULL BODIES COLORED
    BROWN, GRAY OR BLACK


 A  Thorax (the part of the body to which legs
    and wings are attached) gray,  with three
    distinct black stripes; abdomen checkered,
    usually with tip (tail light) of red or
    orange - Flesh Fly (Sarcophaga).


 B  Thorax with four dark stripes, underside
    of abdomen - House Fly (Musca
    domestica).


 C  Thorax with four dark stripes, abdomen
    usually spotted.  About the same size and
    general color as a house fly.  Long,
    slender piercing mouthparts stick out from
    head - Stable Fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
^Training Branch, Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, Ohio
 II  FLIES WITH THORAX DULL,  AND
    ABDOMEN METALLIC OR SHINY
    BLUE OR GREEN


 A Blue Bottle Fly (Calliphora)
III  FLIES WITH SHINING,  METALLIC
    BODIES COLORED GREEN,  BLUE
    OR BLACK


 A Body metallic, with no  stripes, colored
    bronze, coppery green, light or bright
    green.  Garbage or Green Bottle Fly
    (Phaenicia).


 B Body metallic with no stripes,  colored
    very dark blue or  very  dark  green.  Black
    Blow Fly (Phormia regina).
                                                     Body shining black,  slender, and rather
                                                     small size.   Dump Fly (Ophyra).
                                                                     SW.VC.vc. 1.9.67

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                                    VECTOR CONTROL
                                       Training Staff*
 I   INTRODUCTION

 In the almost endless variety of discarded
 materials many organisms find food, shelter
 from enemies or extremes of weather,  and
 other  comforts which lead to their develop-
 ment, or at any rate, concentration,  at dis-
 posal  sites.  Most of these organisms are at
 least nuisances; many are carriers (vectors
 of human or animal disease); and a few,
 seagulls for example, present the risk of
 accidents.  Ordinarily the problems presented
 from these insects or animals are inversely
 proportional to the care given to proper
 refuse disposal.   However,  supplemental
 control measures are occasionally necessary
 even at well operated sanitary landfill sites.
II   PESTS OR DISEASE VECTORS PRESENT

 A  Flies

    1  Housefly, Musca domestica

    2  Stablefly or "Biting Housefly", Stomoxys
      calcitrans

    3  Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga sp.

    4  Greenbottle or Garbage Fly, Phaenicia
      sp.

    5  Black Blowfly, Phormia regina

 B  Mosquitoes

    1  Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    2  Brown House Mosquito, Culex pipiens

 C  Rodents

    1  Norway Rat,  Rattus norvegicus,  and
      climbing rat,  Rattus rattus

    2  House Mouse, Mus musculus
 '-Training Branch, Division of Technical
 Operations,  Solid Waste Management Office,
 Cincinnati, Ohio
    3  Various native rodents - wood rats,
       cotton rats, white-footed mice, etc.

  D Miscellaneous Pests,  Disease Vectors

    1  Seagulls,  other flocking birds

    2  Cockroaches

    3  Dogs,  cats

    4  Mongooses, nutria,  raccoons, bears


III  DISEASE TRANSMISSION POTENTIALS

  A The fact that domestic flies can carry
    many agents of human disease is firmly
    established in the laboratory and in one
    study houseflies  were  proven to be impor-
    tant in the spread of bacillary dysentery.

  B Rodents,  similarly, arc carriers of
    enteric and other infections.

  C Mosquito species associated with open
    dumping, including container breeders
    and those liking dirty water, may carry
    important viral diseases of man,  particularly.


IV  ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

  A Insects, in addition to needs for food and
    protection from enemies, are vulnerable to
    extremes of temperature and humidity.
    Basic needs may be summarized as:

    1  Food

    2  Warmth

    3  Moisture

    4  Time to develop
                     SW.SL.vc. 1.9. 67

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 Vector Control
 B  Rodents may or may not require drinking
    water (rats do,  mice do not).  Basic
    needs may be summarized as:


    1  Food


    2  Water (sometimes)


    3  Shelter


 C  Environmental control consists largely of
    denying these needs or making them
    unsuitable.
V   CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROL


 A  Flies and Other Insects


    1  Trapping,  screening


    2  Attractants,  repellents


    3  Insecticides


      a  Pyrethrum


      b  Chlorinated hydrocarbons


      c  Organic phosphorus compounds


    4  Formulations


      a  Solid and wet baits


      b  Fogs, mists, residual sprays


 B  Rodents


    1  Trapping,  rodent proofing
    2  Rodenticides


       a  Gassing of burrows


       b  Red squill,  zinc phosphide,  ANTU,

          norbromide


       c  Sodium fluoroacetate (1080),
          fluoroacetamide


       d  Anticoagulants  - water baits, dry
          baits, paraffin blocks


 C Birds


    1  Trapping, scare devices


    2  Poisons, narcotics



VI  SUMMARY


 Your vector control program should be a
 supplement to, not a substitute for, proper
 refuse handling procedures.  It is always
 easier to breed pests than it is to kill them.



 REFERENCES


 1  Shepard, Harold H.   The Chemistry and
       Action of Insecticides.  McGraw-Hill/
       New York,  1951.   504pp.


 2  Mallis, Arnold. Handbook of Pest Control.
       MacNair-Dorland, New York, 1960.
       1132 pp.


 3  PHS Communicable Disease Center.  Re-
       port on Public Health Pesticides,  1600
       Clifton Rd. , N.E., Atlanta,  Georgia,
       1966.
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               SOME GUIDELINES FOR CONTROL OF RATS IN DISPOSAL SITES

                                        Training Staff*
 Properly operated Sanitary Landfills should
 not require supplemental use of rodent poisons
 ordinarily, since the operation itself should
 deny all food and shelter to vermin.   Routine
 pesticiding of open dumps is administrative
 insanity, and calls to mind Voltaire's com-
 ments about the Russian foot  soldiers, who
 poured perfume in their boots instead of
 washing their feet.

 Still, there are times when dump poisoning
 is clearly indicated:  for example, prior to
 closing a dump or converting it to a  Sanitary
 Landfill.  Unless the rat population is des-
 troyed,  the rats  may, with the loss of food
 and shelter,  move into surrounding areas.

 There is really no such thing as an absolutely
 safe rat poison.  Freak accidents have occurred
 even with squill and the anticoagulants.  It
 behooves us therefore, to use the safest pos-
 sible pesticides, apply them safely,  and guard
 the disposal site during the poisoning period.
 There are more  effective, but more  dangerous,
 rodent poisons on the market.  Only  trained
 pest control operators  should  use them.
 FORMULATIONS

 Red Squill

 This product has probably been used for more
 than a thousand years,  and still has merit.
 Its greatest advantage is its safety, because
 it  contains a natural emetic.  Rats do not
 vomit, and are poisoned by it.  The greatest
 disadvantage is its bitter taste, which must
 be overcome with tasty baits.  Here  is a
 suggested bait  formula:
    Fortified red squill
    Corn oil or salad oil
    Chicken mash or corn meal
    Ground beef, horse meat,
      or fish
 1 Ib.
 2 Ibs.
 2 Ibs.

 5 Ibs.
10 Ibs.
•'•Training Branch,  Division of Technical
Operations, Solid Waste Management Office,
Cincinnati, OhiO
Depending upon availability, you may wish to
substitute ground up returned bakery goods
for some of the grain.  Rats also love bacon
grease and you can substitute it for the  corn
oil.  Cheap canned mackerel and  tuna fish
also go well and increase bait acceptance.

The finished baits may be rolled up in 6 inch
squares  of wax paper,  about a tablespoon to
the bait, or distributed with a tablespoon at
the site on paper squares where there is rat
infestation. Larger "bait stations" of 4 to  8
ounces may be placed,  cover with a board  so
they will be accessible to rats but screened
from the weather.  You would not know how
much to  use except by rebaiting on successive
days as the baits are taken until no more
"takes" are seen.  Then remove all baits when
the public or pets again have access  to the  site.
For initial baiting figure  for about one bait
for each rat hole or a half pound every hundred
square feet (10 feet by  10 feet).


Zinc Phosphide

Here is another old favorite, still very good
for this kind of work.   This rodenticide  is a
black powder with a distinct phosphine odor
which makes it unattractive to children and
pets, though the rats accept it.  It may be
advisable to add tartar emetic (antimony
potassium tartrate) to your bait formula to
induce vomiting in case the rodenticide is
accidentally eaten by pets or humans.  It will,
however, make it a little harder to get the
rats to eat it.

   Zinc phosphide                4 oz.
   Ground meat, canned fish,
     bacon or fresh tomatoes    25 Ibs.
   Tartar emetic                1-|  oz.

Canned mackerel is a good material  for at
least some of the bait.  Many operators sub-
stitute oats or  corn meal for half  or  more of
the bait to get a drier and more economical
mixture.  Distrubute as was suggested for
                                                                      SW. VC. re. 5. 10. 67   1

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Some Guidelines for Control of Rats in Disposal Sites
the squill bait.  If your dump has a face,
figure; about a pound of bait for each ten
running feet of face on the first application.
If your dumping area is unrestricted you will
have to bait accordingly,  and may come to
feel that  you are trying to bait the world.  At
this point the merits of Sanitary Landfill
become more evident.

Anticoagulants

These rodenticides are comparatively safe
to use where the public may have access to
them.  They reduce the clotting properties
of the blood and cause internal bleeding,
which results  in death of  rats after they have
fed on the bait for 4-10 days.  Besides the
safety factor,  they are advantageous to use
because  the rats accept the bait well,  and
cheap dry baits  consisting mostly of grain can
be used.   The main disadvantage lies in the
amount needed.   You must put out about 4
ounces of bait per rat.  During the  period of
poisoning,  birds may eat  up a lot of your
grain bait.  It would not hurt  them but may
cause you to have to use more bait.

In the anticoagulant group are warfarin,
pival,  fumarin,  and diphacinone.  It really
does not  matter which one you use.  Another
one, PMP,  has  similar properties  but if you
use it you should put in twice as much as
the formula indicates.
   Anticoagulant (0. 5%
     concentrate)
   Corn oil or mineral oil
   Powdered sugar
   Rolled or ground oats
   Corn meal or corn chop
 25 Ibs.
 25 Ibs.
 25 Ibs.
100 Ibs.
325 Ibs.
500 Ibs,
The complete bait may be placed in small
pans not over one-half inch high and inserted
under boards or other protected locations at
the dump site.  The bait should be  checked
at two-day intervals and replenished until
there is  evidence that no more feeding has
taken place.

Most of the anticoagulants mentioned above
may also be purchased as wax treated bait
blocks or rodent cakes with meat or fish
flavor  to attract rats.
If you want to try some water baits, try the
water-soluble anticoagulants:  warfasol,
fumasol, or pivalyn.  Use as instructed on
the package.

For dump poisoning,  I personally prefer to
use red squill or zinc phosphide to reduce the
rat population, and follow up with bait stations
of anticoagulant for final  cleanup.


Calcium Cyanide

This is  a material commonly used for gassing
rats.  In the presence of moisture in the air
or soil, this  chemical forms hydrocyanic acid
gas (HCN).  Both calcium cyanide and the  gas
are deadly poisons for animals and man, and
must be handled with extreme care.

Calcium cyanide is commercially available as
a dust and should be applied with a pump made
and sold for this specific purpose.  The pump
is so constructed that it may be held in place
with the foot,  and both hands are free for the
operation of the pump.  A glass jar holds about
three-quarters of a pound of dust, which is
sufficient to treat approximately thirty-six
burrows at one time without reloading.  Air
is forced through the glass jar containing the
powder,  and  the dust-laden air passes through
a hose into the rat burrow.  The end of the
hose is  placed 10 to 12  inches inside the bur-
row, the entrance closed with earth, and
several strokes are made with the pump.  If
the dust  comes out  of other holes, they should
be covered with soil.  The valve on the bottom
of the pump is then switched over to "air"
position and the gas is forced through the en-
tire burrow system.

Control should not be attempted during a
strong wind.   In opening cyanide cans or
loading the pump the  operator should stand
to windward to avoid exposure to dust or
fumes.  He should also be careful to apply
the dust so that it will not drift toward other
individuals in the area.
                   SOME SUGGESTED SOURCES FOR SUPPLIES

                   These are merely put forth to give you a start
                   in looking for materials.  The list  is by no
                   means exhaustive, and mention of these
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                                        Some Guidelines for Control of Rats in Disposal Sites
suppliers in no way should be construed as an
endorsement of their products over those of
any not mentioned.

Rat Control Products

American Cyanamid Co.,  Agricultural
   Chemicals Div. ,  30 Rockefeller Plaza,
   New York 20,  New York.

California Spray-Chemical Corp. , Richmond,
   California.

Continental Chemiste Corp., 2256 West Ogden
   Avenue, Chicago  12, Illinois.

J. T. Eaton & Co. ,  Inc.,  SHOW. 65th
   Street, Cleveland, Ohio  44102 (squill,
   and warfarin bait blocks).

Elco Manufacturing Co. , 2039 Fifth Avenue,
   Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania.

Hopkins Agricultural Chemical Co. , P.O.
   Box 584, Madison, Wisconsin.

Hub States Chemical & Equipment Co. ,  2002
   N. Illinois Street, Indianapolis, Indiana
   46202.

Miller Chemical & Fertilizer Corp. , 2226 N.
   Howard Street, Baltimore 18,  Maryland.

Niagara Chemical Div. , Food Machinery &
   Chemical  Corp. ,  Middleport,  New York.
S. B. Penick & Company, 50 Church Street,
   New York 8, New York.

John Powell & Company, 10 Light Street,
   Baltimore 3,  Maryland.

Prentiss Drug & Chemical Co., 101 W. 31st
   Street, New York 1, New York.

Pyrrole Chemical Corp.,  817 Spring Lane,
   Portsmouth, Ohio.

Gallard Schlesinger Chemical Corp., 37-11
   29th Street, Long Island City 1,  New York.
   (zinc phosphide)

Seacoast Laboratories, Inc. ,  156 Perry
   Street, New York 14, New  York.

Selco Supply Co. ,  109  Elm Street,  Eaton,
   Colorado.

Stephenson Chemical Co., P.O. Box 188,
   College Park,  Georgia.

Wil-Kil Pest  Control Co. , 522 West North
   Avenue, Milwaukee 12, Wisconsin.

Andrew Wilson,  Inc. ,  Springfield,  New
   Jersey.

Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation,
   506 North  Walnut  Street,  Madison,
   Wisconsin.

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                    CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
                                 SOLID WASTES SECTION
              RODENT CONTROL PROGRAMS AT REFUSE DISPOSAL AREAS
When closing a site or converting an open-face
dump to a sanitary landfill type of operation,
it will be necessary to carry out  a rodent-
baiting program.  The rodents must be
exterminated so that they will not migrate to
surrounding areas when their food supply is
cut off at the refuse disposal site.

A  Time Schedule

   1  It will be necessary to close the site for
      a minimum of three days.

      a On the first day, the site must remain
        free of activity to allow  the rodents to
        feed on refuse deposited on the
        previous day.

      b On the second day, the bait is
        distributed in burrows and in
        sheltered areas.

      c On the third day, the rodents are
        allowed to feed on the bait.

   2  Dumping may be resumed and heavy
      equipment should be brought in on the
      fourth day to initiate conversion to
      sanitary landfill  and/or to spread,
      compact, cover and seal the area if
      the site is being  closed.  There  should
      be no delay in completing this work.

B  The Bait

   1  Upon agreement  with local  officials to
      bait an area, the Connecticut State
      Department of Health will order the
      poison and have it sent to the town.
      The town should  notify this  department
      when the poison has been delivered  in
      order that a  date for baiting may be
      scheduled.

   2  The town will be responsible for storing
      the poison safely, preferably under lock
      and key.

   3  The ingredients are to be purchased by
      the town and mixed under the supervision
      of the staff of the Connecticut State
      Department of Health.
   4  Ingredients for a 100 pound mix:

      a  90 pounds of fish meal cat food.

      b  10 pounds of corn meal.

      c  25 ounces of zinc phosphide poison
         (contains an emetic).

C  Distributing the Bait

   1  The town will be responsible for the
      following:

      a  Have men with heavy shoes
         available for  work.

      b  Provide,  for  each worker,  gloves
         which are to be disposed of afterwards.

      c  Provide a mixing container, hoes for
         mixing,  and a spade.

      d  Provide long-handled  spoons and
         buckets or pails for each worker.

      e  Provide soap and water for immediate
         hand washing after distributing the
         poison.

   2  There will be no smoking while
      distributing the bait.

   3  The Connecticut State Department of
      Health will supervise the distribution
      program.

Baiting should not be done on days when rain
or snow is predicted during the next 24 hours.
On the morning of the  day scheduled for the
baiting program,  there should be close com-
munications between the state and town
officials to be certain  that the weather con-
ditions are favorable for the baiting program.

Rats may contain disease-bearing fleas and
ticks, therefore care should be taken
to assure they are promptly buried in with
the  refuse during conversion operations with
minimum of handling.

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«£?.<«%

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                                                                      #. DATA SHEET 618
                                                                     _ *
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REFUSE    COLLECTION
IN
MUNICIPALITIES
                                    This data sheet was prepared by the Special Projects Section,
                                    National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago,
                                    III. 60611, and is published by the Council.
  .EFUSE COLLECTION is di-
rectly related to the preservation,
protection, and the health and wel-
fare of citizens. Problems associated
with collection and disposal of ref-
use must be faced by all communi-
ties regardless of size. It should be
recognized that certain hazards are
inherent in the riature of refuse han-
dling activities and will vary with the
types of equipment used and the
various conditions surrounding the
operations.  Experience of various
cities and communities indicates that
these activities are  in an area to
which management should develop a
proper amount of attention in order
                                    Figure 1 illustrates a two-wheel hand truck
                                    —the type  used to haul refuse containers.
                                                        to motivate employees to maintain
                                                        the highest level of safety. The cir-
                                                        cumstances contributing to potential
                                                        hazards for employees' injuries will
                                                        vary greatly among organizations.
                                                          2. This data sheet will discuss the
                                                        hazards pertaining to refuse collec-
                                                        tion in municipalities and the meas-
                                                        ures which  should be followed to
                                                        avoid them.

                                                          3. Some organizations operate on
                                                        an incentive program in refuse col-
                                                        lection, thereby conceivably  putting
                                                        an added strain on a safety program.
                                                        The incentive system is so ingrained
                                                        in some organizations that it would
                                 COPYRIGHT© 1969 NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL
                                         ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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Figure 2 is a typical refuse truck with a ser-
rated metal  step  and hand-hold safety rail.
be  extremely  difficult  to  change.
(Certain "bonuses" grant each
worker permission to leave for home
when his route has been completed.
This  leads to  excessive speed and
"chance-taking.") Some crews may
pick up  more  refuse per day than
other crews.  This added workload
and the speed of operation may add
additional hazards to an  already po-
tentially hazardous job.

 Hazards
   4.  Refuse collection requires the
use of large amounts of costly equip-
ment, and sufficient  operating, su-
pervisory, and administrative per-
sonnel.  Table I analyzes accidents
that have occurred in  refuse collec-
tion within a given city operation,
indicative of the type of  hazards en-
countered. The analysis  of these ac-
cidents,  suggests countermeasures
that may be taken.
   5.-  Employees have had  frequent
accidents involving packing blades,
which have caused partial loss of fin-
 gers, hands,  arms, and feet. Mean-
ingful statistics on accidents  in refuse
collections are  not numerous, but
the few that are available will illus-
 trate the magnitude of the problem.
   6.  Cities, with a population of
over 100,000  have submitted data
which totaled  16.5  million  man-
 hours of exposure. The frequency
 rate  was 60.77  and the severity
 2,012 (Table  II).  This frequency
 rate  is nine  times that of the aver-
 age industrial worker! The frequency
 rate  is the number of disabling in-
juries per million hours worked com-
puted according to the following
formula:

   Frequency rate —
     Number of disabling injuries
            x 1,000,000
     Employee-hours of exposure
The severity rate is the total  days
charged per  million hours worked,
as follows:
   Severity rate —
    Total days charged x 1,000,000
     Employee-hours of exposure

All fatalities, permanent total disa-
bilities,  permanent partial disabili-
ties, total  and temporary disabilities
arising out of and during the course
of  employment are reportable
whether due to accidental injury or
occupational disease. The number of
lost-time injuries, and  not the num-
ber of accidents,  is included.

Hazards  encountered
   7.  The hazards  encountered  in
carrying heavy containers  and in
stepping on or off refuse trucks were
reflected in  one out of every two
lost-time  injuries during  a  period
under study. This involved a strain,
sprain,  or dislocation.  (About one-
third of all disabling injuries in Cali-
fornia industries,4 which were taken
as  a  group,  are  strains, sprains, or
dislocations.)  Back strains repre-
sented the leading single type of in-
jury  sustained by refuse  collectors,
accounting for about  one-fourth of
the injuries  recorded.  Back strains
in the state of California are just un-
der one-fifth of  the lost-time work
injuries.  Sprained ankles were re-
corded  more frequently for workers
injured in refuse collection than for
all injured workers taken as a group.
Ankle  sprains accounted for seven
per cent of the disabling injuries in
refuse collection  compared with only
three and one-half  per cent of the
lost-time  injuries reported.
   8. The wide variety of hazards to
employees engaged  in refuse collec-
tion  is  reflected in the industry's
manual  of Workmen's Compensa-
tion  premium rate, i.e.,  $8.05 per
 $100 payroll.  This  is  four times the
rate  for  all manual  classifications
taken together.  (In other industries,
 the manual rate  may be modified to
 individual employers who are eligi-
 ble for experience rating. Modifica-
tions may be either upward or down-
ward depending upon the individual
employer's own experience.)  The
increasing cost  of work injuries to
the employees within  industry is
clearly indicated by the fact that the
manual rate per $100 payroll for
Workmen's Compensation insurance
was $8.05 in  1967  compared with
$4.12 ten years earlier.  The rise of
95.4 per cent  in the manual rate
level for this industry is greater than
the overall raise for all manual clas-
sifications, which was 81.4 per cent
for the same period.4

   9.  Nationally, some of the con-
tributing factors to hazards  encoun-
tered  are: narrow streets and  alleys,
inadequate,  old or poorly  main-
tained equipment, faulty  design, var-
iation  in  requirements  for size,
weight, type, and contents of  refuse
containers and bundles.  All of these
contribute to  the diversity  of acci-
dents within various organizations.
Some of the hazards faced by refuse
collectors arise from  the "booby
traps" unwittingly laid by the house-
holders whom they serve. The
householder increases the likelihood
of injury for refuse  collectors when
broken glass is placed loose  in the
refuse container; when lightweight
trash cans are filled with chunks of
concrete  or  other heavy  objects;
when the outside of a heavy  object
is covered with paper or other trash;
or when a garden hose or other ob-
ject is left strewn along the  pathway
to  a  rubbish can.  A householder
who  continues  to  use  a  container
which is rusted through  or one with
unserviceable handles also increases
the risk of a job injury for the refuse
collector.

   10.  Cuts, lacerations, and punc-
tures accounted for 14  per cent of
the lost-time  injuries  to refuse col-
lectors; whereas, within industry
generally, 17 per cent of the workers
suffered such injuries.  As refuse col-
lectors handle  sharp or jagged ob-
jects  frequently in the course of their
work, it appears that the likelihood
of sustaining cuts, lacerations, and
puncture wounds would have been
minimized through the use  of heavy
work gloves.

    11.  Refuse collectors carry loads
which may exceed safe maximum
loads, and handle heavy and bulky
 1
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containers.  Sharp edges on garbage
cans, metal splinters, and  perfora-
tions add to the injury potential.
Containers often are of makeshift
construction and are frequently not
designed for easy lifting.
   12.  Street loading should take
place during non-peak traffic hours,
thereby affording the collector free-
dom of movement on the streets
where  refuse is  collected.  The em-
phasis  in  refuse collection is  on
speed; this, however, may lead to a
complete disregard of safety. Listed
below are types  of accidents and in-
juries which occur most often during
refuse  collection:
a. Accident type:   Slips and  falls,
   over-exertion, struck-by (blades or
   motor  vehicle), falling objects, fly-
   ing objects, animal  and insect at-
   tacks,  and  exposure to extreme
   temperatures.
b. Injuries:  Strains,  sprains, back in-
   juries,  cuts,  amputations, bruises,
   lacerations, fractures,  and eye in-
   juries.
Factors in refuse collection
   13.  Most ordinances regulate the
size, type and material, metal or
plastic, of containers  and  specify
suitable handles  and configurations.1
The  guiding principle should be the
weight and bulk  that an average man
can lift safely.  Many municipalities
specify  the use  of tapered  contain-
ers, made of galvanized steel. Others
have set up their own ordinances so
that  they virtually rule out any  other
material for containers  except that
specified.  Disposable paper  and
plastic bags are used as well as plas-
tic containers in some areas.
   14.  A large "carry-barrel," made
of plastic or aluminum, is  used by
some organizations to transport the
refuse from the  rear of the home to
the trucks, thereby  eliminating the
need for carrying the containers to
the collection vehicle.  Some proce-
dures include the use of two-wheel
rubber-tire hand trucks (Figure 1),
while in others  the collector carries
the load to the truck.

Training
   15.  Collectors should be trained
in proper lifting techniques and in
the handling of  all containers,  plas-
tic, aluminum, or steel, etc., used for
backyard  carry-out  service.  In or-
der  to  avoid  injuries,  collectors
should not carry  containers to the
truck in undue haste. This is partic-
ularly true where stairs, or  uneven
walkways are involved.
   16.  The presence of moving me-
chanical parts on automatic, packer-
type compaction units is potentially
hazardous  and  could  cause severe
injury  or amputation.  An  analysis
of accidents  show that "human na-
ture" is responsible for more  acci-
dents and injuries  than those of
purely mechanical causes. This the-
ory stems from  the fact that collec-
tors  are often drawn from the  most
unskilled  segment of the  working
force, have little  or  no experience
with heavy equipment, and receive
little or  no initial or  subsequent
training and supervision. Therefore,
a training  program should be  insti-
tuted for  new employees  and re-
fresher courses for  employees re-
quired to  operate new equipment.
Some cities  use audio-visual  aids,
such as a  slide  presentation during
their training program  for collectors.
This could be of great value in ex-
plaining what or indicating how cer-
tain hazards inherent to a job, occur.3
   17. Some  of the causes of human
failure include insufficient rest, poor
physical  condition,  personal prob-
lems resulting in lack  of proper at-
tention  to the  job,  daydreaming,
faulty observation, negligent  atti-
tude, and  "chance-taking." Many
accidents  result from workers' at-
tempts to salvage  articles from a
hopper after the packing motion has
begun. Salvaging refuse from collec-
tion  trucks  should be  forbidden.
"Chance-taking" such as an attempt
to push materials into the hopper by
hand  or foot while the blade is de-
scending, should also be prohibited.
   18.  Containers should be tilted
to check the weight  before trying to
lift them, and  assistance  obtained
whenever necessary.
   19.  Only approved  walks or
routes should be used  when collect-
ing on private property. If contain-
ers are not placed in proper location
for pick-up, the supervisor should be
notified.  Backyard  carry-outs inevi-
tably  invite  dog-bites.   A good  dog
repellent should be  used  when  this
possibility exists.  (Training  classes
on how to understand and control
dogs have been  successful in some
areas.)
   20.  Riding trucks between stops
should be done only  on  the steps
provided.  Sturdy riding  steps  and
hand-holds are  necessary require-
ments. Members of each crew should
keep their arms, limbs, and shovels
and "carry-barrels"  within the body
lines of the  vehicle  and away from
packing mechanisms.
   21.  Collectors should not jump
on or off moving vehicles during col-
lection. Although the practice of
   Figure 3 shows a refuse collector unloading refuse into an escalator conveyor-type truck.
   Note bar across hopper.  If prevents the possible exposure of the workman to the blades.

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Figure 4 shows a rotary blade pushing refuse into a truck. The control
lever, located on the side above the step, must be depressed a second
time to lower the blade completely.
                   Figure 5  shows a  workman watching closely while  the edge of the
                   blade, which  rides against the body of  the frame, pushes the refuse
                   into the storage area of the truck.
 I
boarding or dismounting from mov-
ing trucks is widespread, it is  ex-
ceedingly  dangerous and  is con-
demned by safety personnel. Trucks
should be halted when employees
are boarding or getting off.  Collec-
tors  should exercise  extreme care
when dismounting from a vehicle
onto loose or slippery  surfaces.
   22.  Signals  to the driver should
be visible  and  clearly  understood
and all back-up operations standard-
ized.  The driver should always keep
the loader in view while backing up
his vehicle.  Certain municipal regu-
lations concerning back-up opera-
tions  state: NO BACKING WITH-
OUT  SOMEONE  WATCHING
AND SIGNALING  TO THE
DRIVER. This statement should be
appropriately posted on all vehicles.
   23.  When dumping loads, load-
ers should stand  clear while empty-
ing truck beds.  Rakes should be
used  for  this purpose.  Shovel-out
trucks for refuse service are a make-
shift operation and  should be  dis-
couraged.  In hydraulically operated
self-dumping trucks,  the operator
should avoid using erratic  or "jer-
ky"  movements of the truck while
the body  is in the dumping position
and the hopper is raised. Such move-
ments cause severe strains and pos-
sible  breakage at the  pivot joints.
They may also cause the vehicle to
overturn.  Floor chains should be re-
quired whenever  and wherever hy-
draulic operated self-dumping trucks
are used.  There should be no loos-
ening of turnbuckles en  route to
dump areas or while en route.  This
causes undue strain on  the turn-
buckle and pivot point and  may
cause the  tailgate to open prema-
turely and injure  a workman stand-
ing nearby.
Health  provisions
  24.  Arrangements  should  be
made for crews to use  rest rooms
and washing facilities at  service sta-
tions  along  the route at the collec-
tion site, and particularly before the
lunch period.  Locker  facilities
should be provided for a collector's
lunch box and for raincoats and pro-
tective equipment.  Potable water
should be available  at the  disposal
site,  along with sealed  containers,
and paper cups unless, of course,
running water is available.  Employ-
ees should be encouraged to shower
and change into  clean clothing be-
fore leaving for home.2

NOTE: Flu  shots, other immuniza-
       tions and innoculations,  if
       desired, are  economically
       feasible and  should be con-
       sidered for a complete health
       program.

              	7	
Personal protective equipment
  25.  Workers should wear safety
shoes or high  top  boots with safety
toes. No tennis or dress shoes should
be permitted.   Sturdy work gloves
should also be worn for handling all
refuse  containers.  A  cotton, latex-
covered  (full dip)  glove with  a
rough gripping area is most accept-
able  for use.  Rubber shoulder  pads
and hip pads will prevent bruises or
cuts from edges of metal containers.
Approved  respirators  should be
worn when handling  loose or  dusty
materials and liquids. Employees
wearing  prescription eye glasses
should be  required to have safety-
type prescription lenses fitted to
safety frames.
  26.  Workers should wear  long-
sleeved shirts,  sturdy work clothes,
jackets  or  sweaters,  except during
the summer months. These garments
will  retain  body heat and  prevent
possible  muscle strains.  Raincoats
and non-slip  safety boots  should be
worn during inclement weather.

Vehicle  design
  27.  Refuse collection trucks usu-
ally include a cab where one, two, or
three crewmen may  ride;  in some,
there may be room for a crew up to
five. A well-rounded step of serrated
metal,  or one coated with adhesive
material with  a handhold and safety

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                    •MHM^^^^HBBHBBIBBBBB     •^^•^•^••^^••^^^^^^••^^^^•^^H
Figure 6 shows a safety gate in the UP position. The gate  rides up     Figure 7 shows a safety gate in the DOWN position.  The loading table
and down in a I'/^-inch pipe-sleeve guide.  A "dog" holds  the gate     is two feet, nine inches from the street level. Total vertical  travel is
in  position.                                                 12  inches.
rail, should be provided on each side
of the body and at the rear for col-
lectors to  ride  between  loading
points. The hand-hold should be lo-
cated in a position where the work-
man can stand on the  step and bal-
ance himself against inconsistent
truck movements. This  will elimi-
nate a potential hazard where trucks
are required to operate in tight
places  (Figure 2). Wherever steps
are used, safety belts similar to those
used on fire trucks,  should be  pro-
vided for use  on long trips. Safety
belts are not practical for riding be-
tween pick-up points. To prevent in-
juries while riding on or  driving ref-
use trucks, it  is recommended that
workers be taught the proper way to
grip  hand-holds on  the  truck; that
they be cautioned to watch out for
low-hanging wires  and tree limbs
while sitting on top of the truck; and
that  all employees be encouraged to
ride  in the truck whenever possible
(See paragraph 33-h).

Equipment
   28.  Equipment used  in refuse
collection is often designed for a
maximum pay load with insufficient
regard to  safety.  Consequently,
many cities are using specifications
under which  manufacturers are re-
quired to provide  safety  features.
Often these features become stand-
ard equipment. Care should be ex-
ercised to ensure that the type of
equipment selected is the best suited
for local conditions.  The following
equipment  features should be  con-
sidered:  Capacity, size, loading
height, loading speed,  compaction,
loading devices, and water tightness.
Other criteria should include maneu-
verability, crew size, number of pick-
ups per mile, nature of refuse ac-
cepted, and the terrain over which
the vehicle is to operate. Important
mechanical features that should be
considered are (a)  air brakes,  and
power steering,  (b) engine suffi-
ciently powerful to pull steep grades,
(c) anti-carburetor  overloading de-
vice, (d) hopper designed to prevent
refuse from falling  onto  the road-
way,  (e)  pinch points and shear
points protection.
   29.  There are several  types of
refuse collection vehicles:
a.  Open trucks.
b.  Enclosed non-compactors.
c.  Enclosed compactor.
d.  Other (new).
   30.  The open truck is being rap-
idly displaced by other vehicles
which are more  sanitary for refuse
collection.  The  appearance of  the
open type vehicles and  the losses
due to scattered refuse, overturned
loads, and the extra effort in loading
and stowing make the use of  open
trucks uneconomical, compared with
other types of equipment.
  31. The enclosed non-compactor
truck completely encloses the refuse
material, except when doors  are
open  for loading.  Refuse  may be
loaded by means of an hydraulic
hoist from the front or rear, or man-
ually from the side.
  32. The enclosed compactor
truck is the most widely used.  Me-
chanical devices load the refuse  into
main compartments,  and  compress
the refuse, then eject it to the  rear.
In some batch-type vehicles the
packing mechanism may "double cy-
cle." When the packer-blade (double
cycle mechanism) is actuated, by the
same truck  motor,  the gear shift of
the  truck's  automatic transmission
should be placed in "neutral." There
have been instances where the pack-
ing operations accelerated the motor
and the truck moved off. Care should
be taken to keep this possibility from
happening.
   33.  A brief description  of the
types of compactor trucks now used
is listed below:
a.  Escalator-conveyor loader.  Ref-
    use is elevated into the enclosed
    body by means, of a continuous
    conveyor.  Sprockets and  caps
    are exposed during the continu-
    ous travel of the chain-like  con-
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    veyor.  This critical moving ma-
    chinery is extremely close to the
    point-of-operation and creates a
    hazard (Figure 3).  Some vehi-
    cles have a safety bar across the
    hopper to prevent the container
    or workmen's hands from being
    caught in the exposed mecha-
    nism.  Refuse is dumped into a
    lower  hopper at the rear of the
    truck.  A moving conveyor car-
    ries the refuse to the roof and to-
    wards  the front of the truck and
    then deposits  it into the main
    compartment. Collectors actuate
    levers  and controls near the load-
    loading hopper with power  ob-
    tained from a take-off  unit lo-
    cated under the vehicle.
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Figure 8 shows the safety gate in the upper-
most position.  The packer  control  lever  is
activated by a downward  movement of the
lever. Upon cycling, the control lever is  re-
turned to its normal position.
b.  Trough or bucket loader. Refuse
    is dumped  into a  low-loading
    height,  ll/2  cubic yard trough,
    suspended at the rear or side of
    the body. When filled, the trough
    is raised  and dumped into  an
    opening at the top of the truck.
    Side doors for bulky items  are
    installed on  some trucks,  while
    others have  internal compacting
    devices.  The platform buckets
    are about 36  in. from the ground,
    making it easier for the collector
    to load.
c.  Rotary  blade type.   This  equip-
    ment  is  extremely dangerous
    since there is direct power and
    no release. The close proximity
    of  the  rotating blade to  the
    worker is a critical hazard (Fig-
    ure 4).  This unit can be modi-
    fied to such  a degree that unless
   the  operator deliberately  de-
   presses the control lever,  the
   blade will stop about 4 in. from
   the hopper, thus allowing the
   employee to remove his hand be-
   fore resetting  the blade into ac-
   tion by  depressing the  control
   lever a second time.  Gravity
   causes the blade to fall, thereby,
   creating a source of injury.  An-
   other  serious  problem in this
   type of vehicle is  double-cycling.
   (Refer to paragraph 31.)   This
   occurs when the packing mecha-
   nism is actuated  and the blades
   complete one  cycle. The packing
   mechanism  continues operating
   through a  second cycle without
   the  operator  touching the  con-
   trols. This is quite common when
   the vehicle is  nearly loaded.
d. The batch-loader.  This  equip-
   ment consists  of a rear-end load-
   er  in  which  the slope of the
   blade  is  so designed as  to  pro-
   vide an upward packing action.
   This type loads and consolidates
   in  one operation.  Refuse is
   dumped into  a hopper approxi-
   mately 30-in. above the pave-
   ment. An auxiliary  engine is now
   used on many of the vehicles to
   improve  safety operations.  The
   blade,  which  follows guide  rails
   in a sweeping motion within the
   hopper, pushes the refuse from
   the hopper into a  13-25-  cubic
   yard truck body. Prior to the for-
   ward packing motion, the  edge
   of the  blade,  sinks flush against
   the body frame  (Figure  5).
   Sometimes  this will catch the
   operator's fingers or hand.  The
   blade will sever objects protrud-
   ing over the hopper's edge  dur-
   ing its downward travel.  The
   blade may also be equipped with
   two-stop operating controls, i.e.,
   the blade stops half-way through
   its motion and the controls must
   be  actuated  again to  complete
   the cycle. Equipment of this type
   must have manual or  automatic
   controls to prevent the hazardous
   "double-cycling," which can oc-
   cur when the unit is nearly load-
   ed.  When dumping, the hopper
   is raised hydraulically from the
   truck body,  and the  vehicle is
   driven  forward  permitting  the
   refuse to fall to the ground by its
   own weight, as  the  refuse  is
   ejected hydraulically from the
   rear of the load  tank.  The fol-
   lowing  steps should serve  as  a
   guide  toward  understanding
   batch-loader  equipment  and
   thereby avoid  possible hazards.

NOTE:  In the interest of  safety, all
       new  batch-loaders equipped
       with the  12-second cycle will
       be revised  to include  a  two-
       stop  operating control.  Each
       refuse  collection vehicle  shall
       come   equipped,  when  pur-
       chased, with  a 4-way emer-
       gency flasher system.
(1) Personnel should understand the
    operation  of power equipment on
    the trucks and be made aware
    of the injury potential  before
    operating. Workers should learn
    the location of all stop buttons
    and  emergency  levers.  Hands
    should be kept clear of blades and
    other hazardous areas.
(2) Collectors should be instructed to
    stand clear of truck body and the
    hopper  when  the motor, which
    operates the packing mechanism,
    is operating regardless  of whether
             Figure 9 shows small 4-by-4-drive trucks in use hauling refuse.

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    the mechanism is driven by the
    truck motor or auxiliary motor.
(3) One crew member should be sole-
    ly responsible for  operating the
    packing mechanism. The controls
    should be located at the rear cor-
    ner of the truck where the opera-
    tor has a full  view of the blade.
(4) A shield may be provided during
    the un'oading operations, at the
    disposal site,  to prevent  material
    under compaction, from ejecting
    to the  sides where a worker or a
    driver may be standing.
e.  Safety gate.  Since many accidents
   involve "packer-loader" refuse
   trucks it is  obvious that  a safety
   gate can provide the mechanical
   safeguards  which will protect
   employees from direct contact
   with moving  parts.  A specially
   designed safety gate has been de-
   veloped for the  packer-loader
   type mechanism. With a simple
   control, the  safety gate is released
   to an "up"  position which keeps
   the worker  away from the blade
    (Figures 6  and 7).  This part of
   the operation  is "spring-loaded"
   and calls  for  a minimum effort
   on the part  of the operator.  The
   blade descends only  when the
   gate  is up  and the  hopper is
   loaded, by  a  downward move-
   ment of a control lever.  Safety
   gates have  been  successfully in-
   stalled  on  some packer  type
   units and it is a relatively simple
   device to operate. It consists of
   a gate,  1-ft, 4-in. by 6-ft, 11-in.,
   and is installed over the loading
   area  or platform. The  gate is
   made of an  angle-iron frame cov-
   ered  with expanded metal.  The
   gate is  lightweight and affords a
   view of the packing blade while it
   is  in motion (Figure 8).
f.  Hydraulic hopper. Another type
   of packer-loader is the hydraulic
   hopper which places refuse in a
   1  to 2-cubic  yard hopper.  The
   hopper is raised hydraulically by
   an auxiliary engine.  The refuse
   is  then swept into  a 25-cubic
   yard body  against an ejector
   panel by a packer blade which
   operates with a sweeping mo-
   tion. Dumping is achieved by
   raising  the  hopper hydraulically
   and actuating the ejector panel
   which forces  the refuse  out of
   the truck. The body need not be
   raised.
g.  Movable bulkhead loader.  The
   body of this loader may be
   square or round in transverse
   section,  with loading  through
   openings  in  each side, near the
   front. Refuse  is moved from
   front to rear by an hydraulically
   operated  plate, which fills and
   compacts at the same time. Ejec-
   tion is accomplished by opening
   the rear of the body and moving
   the plate to the rear.

h.  Other equipment (new)
(1) Trucks are  available with right-
   hand-drive  chassis and steps
   which permit the driver to aid
   collectors. One type contains an
   hydraulically  actuated compact-
   or plate,  which  compresses the
   refuse from  a one-cubic  yard
   hopper into a detachable body of
   4 to 6 cubic yards, with a force
   of 30,000 Ib. The filled container
   is  brought to a  centralized col-
   lection point, and replaced with
   an  empty container.  The  con-
   tents of these containers are then
   loaded  into  a  21-  to 30-cubic
   yard "mother truck"  by means
   of a front-end loader.
(2) A  relatively  new (about 10
   years) type  of  equipment for
   bulk containers  consisting  of  a
   20-to  24-cubic yard capacity
   truck with  front-end  loaders is
   gaining acceptance.  Some of
   these, however, do have certain
   hazardous features,  e.g., loader
   arms that come past the cab and
   can  sever an arm. A safer design
   has  U-shaped arms  that do not
   pass  the driver's window.  An-
   other design is one in which win-
   dows are prevented from open-
   ing  fully,4 and  interlocks in-
   stalled to prevent the arms from
   operating  when the  doors are
   open.
(3) Another method for refuse pick-
   up is the use of a small 4x4-
   drive  trucks. These  pull three
   large boxes on wheels, thus form-
   ing a "train" (Figure 9). A 20- to
   24-  cubic yard capacity "mother
   truck" removes the contents of
   these trains  to the disposal site
   while the crews and the trains are
   engaged  in  collection.  When
   moving on  thoroughfares these
   trains should not exceed 25 to
   30  mph, because they may
   "whip"—at higher speeds. Also,
   these trains  should  be  driven

            — 10 —
    with  extreme care on  hills  and
    under icy conditions.
(4) Fifty-cubic  yard front-end load-
    ing collection  (front  end load-
    ers) trucks, serviced by diminu-
    tive scooters, are also used. Col-
    lection crews consist of a truck
    driver, two motorized scooter
    operators, and generally a  third
    crewman, who  collects refuse
    from locations inaccessible to
    the  scooters,  using a hand-
    wheeled metallic container of l/2
    cu. yd. capacity. The procedure
    is as  follows:
 a. A giant packer pulls into a city
    block and  parks. The  collectors
    drive their  scooters up driveways,
    and can service up to three homes
    before returning to the truck.
    They dump their refuse from their
    l'/3 cu. yd. hydraulically operated
    containers,  into the  three cu. yd.
    collection  truck hopper, which
    has been lowered to the ground
    in front of  the truck. The driver
    then raises  this hopper over the
    cab  to  drop the load into the
    truck box.  Shields on either side
    enclose the debris and prevent it
    from scattering.  After  scooters
    have dumped their load, packer-
    rams compact  each  load and the
    truck is moved to the next block.
 b. The  introduction of scooters, in-
    stead of the use of large 50 cu. yd.
    capacity  trucks,  has reduced the
    incidence of back injuries  and
    worker fatigue complaints.

Special lights  and
reflectorized signs
   34. The lights  and  signs  illus-
trated in  Figure 10 may be installed
parallel to the  ground  on the tail-
gate of the refuse collection  truck
with the  center line of the light six-
feet six-inches above the stand  plat-
form.  The lights and signs may be
attached  to a separate piece of  2 in.
angle  iron extending the full width
of the body.  The lights are to work
in unison with  all other lights.  The
turn signals should be located  with
the center line  of  the  light 5l/2  in.
from the  outside of the body and the
lens not  less than 4 in. from the
chassis.  The stop lights should be
located with  the center line of the
light 15 in. from the outside of the
bed and the lens not less than  7 in.
from the chassis. The signs, 1  by 3
ft,  should be centered between the
stop lights  and  should be  placed on
a sheet of aluminum and reflector-
ized with an alternate 2 in. red and
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2 in. white diagonal line. The word
"CAUTION" should be in 4 in. let-
ters and centered on the sign. Local
and state vehicle  codes for  lighting
should be followed.

Driver responsibility
  35.  The  actions  of the  driver
greatly affect the safety of the crew.
In most cases the driver is the  crew
leader.  Therefore,  the manner in
which the individual drivers perform
their duties determines the safety of
the crew and mobility of the vehicle.
The driver should  be  dependable,
alert, sober, steady, ambitious,  have
good judgment, and a good mechan-
ical aptitude.  The driver should be
taught safety rules  and given the
authority to enforce them.
   36. The driver should be directed
by a crew member when backing his
truck.  The safety of individuals de-
pends upon the condition and proper
use of controls, consequently, correct
usage is  mandatory.
   37.  An  unsafe practice among
some  packer-loader  drivers  is to
drive over cardboard or  wooden
boxes  thereby, flattening them to fa-
cilitate loading into a hopper. A pop-
ular activity of  children is to play
with and hide  inside  cardboard or
wooden boxes. The practice  of pack-
er-loader trucks crushing these  emp-
ty boxes  should be prohibited.  Cor-
ollary to  the  training of drivers,
articles in local newspapers should
instruct  citizens to breakdown  card-
board and wooden  boxes  prior to
being  placed  in  trash  areas for dis-
posal. Several children have suffered
injury and death because this proce-
dure had been neglected.

Vehicle   inspection
   38.  Daily and weekly routine in-
spections  should  be conducted by
qualified personnel to locate:
 a.  Cracks and operating parts to the
    packing mechanism.
 b.  Hydraulic oil leaks.
 c.  Indications of metal fatigue.
 d.  Signs of improper truck operations.
 e.  Potential electrical failure.
 f.  Any deficiencies that would be in
    violation of motor  vehicle laws
    should be observed by  a cursory
    inspection of the normal operating
    vehicle.

 Preventive maintenance
   39.  Preventive  maintenance,  as
 the name implies,  is  the means  of
detecting and correcting those incip-
ient  causes  of equipment casualties
before they occur, and the precau-
tions and actions constantly taken to
maintain satisfactory day-to-day op-
erating conditions of the equipment.
Truck maintenance  should include
the  bleeding  off  of moistutre  col-
lected  in  the air tank  to  prevent
brake  failure, and  keeping  wind-
shields clean and signal lights  in op-
erating condition at all times. A pre-
ventive maintenance program should
be  established  and  maintained  by
qualified personnel. Such a program
should include:
a. Comprehensive  testing and  clean-
   ing of the hydraulic system.
b. Replacement  of  critical  parts at
   regular intervals.
c. Cleaning, checking, and adjusting
   the electrical controls  at defined
    intervals.
d. Checking the wiring system  for
   wear, loose connections, bare wires,
    etc.
 e.  Checking the condition of the load-
    ing parts, body, and hopper.
 f.  Regular lubrication at definite in-
    tervals.
                Checking and repairing the vehicle
                where it affects  the  proper  func-
                tioning of the vehicle.
                      ACKNOWLEDGMENT
               This data sheet was  prepared by the
             Special Projects Section, National Safety
             Council,  425 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago
             60611, and is published by the Council.
             Material  was supplied by the members of
             the  Executive Committee, Public  Em-
             ployee Section,  American Public Works
             Association, U.S. Department of Health,
             Education, and  Welfare,  Government
             Refuse Collection and Disposal Associa-
             tion of California, Inc., and other inter-
             ested groups.  Illustrations courtesy of the
             Safety Departments,  cities of: Baltimore,
             Md., Baton  Rouge,  La., and  Charlotte,
             N.C.; shop drawings  available through
             the  National Safety  Council, or through
             Safety Office, City of Detroit,  Michigan.
                         BIBLIOGRAPHY
             The American City Magazine, Oct. and
               Nov.,  1967, 757  3rd Ave., New York,
               N. Y.  10017.
             Cities and Safety, National Safely News,
               Nov.,  1967, National  Safety Council,
               425 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago 60611.
             Arkansas Municipalities, Sept., 1967.
               Arkansas Muncipal League, 416 Maple
               St., North Little Rock, Ark.
           DELINEATOR—3  FT. X 1 FT. RED  AND WHITE OR 4 IN.
                       BLACK DIAGONAL STRIPES ON TRAFFIC
                       YELLOW BACKGROUND (REFLECTORIZED).
         51/2 IN.
              _L
LENS 4  IN.
FROM CHASSIS  £
TURN
SIGNALS
BACK-UP       .-f
LIGHT (WHITE) /X1
(Also used    If
for Night    //
pick-up)     /
        3 FT.
  ,  . \\\\\   .
NCAUTION:
LENS 7 IN. FROM SIGN

15 IN.

       — STOPLIGHTS
                            HOPPER OPENING
           TAIL
           LIGHTS
                               LSTAND
                                 PLATE
                                2 IN.
                                ANGLE
                                IRON
                                    BACK-UP
                                    LIGHT
                                    (WHITE)
                                                                       Z
                                                                       •o
                                                                STAND
                                                                PLATE
                             SIGNAL
                             LIGHTS
        L—NOTE: 12 IN. MORE ADDED TO TAIL  STAND TO PRO- -
                 VIDE BETTER FOOTING  FOR COLLECTOR.

 Figure  10 is a schematic drawing showing the use and location of lights,  reflectors, and
 CAUTION signs.

              — 11 —

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                REFERENCES
   1.  "Refuse  Collection  Practice,"  1966
edition,  American Public Works Associa-
tion,  1313 E.  60th St.,  Chicago,  60637.
Published by:  Interstate  Printers & Pub-
lishers, Danville, 111.
   2.  "Study on the  Effects of Work Con-
ditions on the Health of Uniformed Sani-
tation Men of New York  City."  E.
Scepcevitch,  Ph.D.,  Springfield College,
Springfield, Mass., District (Public Health
Report).
   3.  "Slide  Series," City of Milwaukee,
Milwaukee, Wis. (Available from Nation-
al Safety Council).
   4.  Work Injuries in  California," State
of  California,  Department of  Industrial
Relations,  Division  of Labor  Statistics
Research, P.O.  Box 965,  San Francisco,
94101.
   An  Alphabetical  Index  of  all
   Industrial  Safety  Data Sheets
   (Stock No. 123.09) is available
   from  the Council on  request.
The information and recommendations contained in this publication
have been compiled from sources believed to be reliable and to
represent the  best current opinion  on the subject  No warranty,
guarantee, or  representation is made by the National Safety Coun-
cil as to the absolute correctness or sufficiency of any  representa-
tion contained in this and other publications, and tK« National


nor can it be assumed that all acceptable safety measures are con-
tained in this  (and other publications), or that other or additional
Treasures may not be required under particular or exceptional con-
ditions or circumstances
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  2.5M87009  Rep.
             Printed in U.S.A.
                                                                     Stock No.  123.04-618
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