905R80106
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Gieat Lakes National
Program Office
536 South Clark Street
Chicago, Illinois 60605
                                  June, 1980
            Comparison Of The
            1978 Great Lakes
            Water Quality Agreement
            Water Quality Objectives
            To State Standards
            And Ontario Objectives
            Applicable To
            The Great Lakes

-------
                 COMPARISON
                     OF
THE 1978 GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY AGREEMENT
          WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES
                     TO
   STATE STANDARDS AND ONTARIO OBJECTIVES
    U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION  AGENCY
     GREAT LAKES  NATIONAL  PROGRAM  OFFICE
              CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS
                  JUNE  1980
   U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
   Region V, Library
   230 South  Dearborn Street
   Chicago, Illinois  60604

-------
U,S. Environmental Protection Agency

-------
                                                                          II,

                                   INTRODUCTION
     This report has been developed by the Great Lakes National  Program Office
to facilitate its review of the current status of state and federal  water
quality requirements for the Great Lakes.   A brief discussion summarizes the
water quality objective development process as referenced in the Great Lakes
Water Quality Agreement of 1978.   Efforts  have been made to ensure veracity
of the information contained in this report.  However, if errors are noticed
we would appreciate being informed of them so corrections could  be made.

     We wish to thank Mr. Kent Walker of the International  Joint Commissions's
Great Lakes Regional Office for his technical assistance and the clerical  staff
for their work in putting together the comparison table.  Mr. Paul J.  Horvatin
of the Great Lakes National Program Office served as the principal author of
this report.

                                          Madonna F. McGrath, Director
                                          Great Lakes National Program Office

-------
                                                                      Ill
                             CONTENTS


                                                                  Page

INTRODUCTION	  i i


TABLES	  IV


DISCUSSION	   1


REFERENCES	  12


APPENDIX
   1  - WATER QUALITY STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES AND CRITERIA
       APPLICABLE TO THE GREAT LAKES	  14

   2 - MIXING ZONES	  25

   3 - ONTARIO DISSOLVED OXYGEN OBJECTIVE	  36

   4 - GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY AGREEMENT, ANNEX 3, CONTROL
       OF PHOSPHORUS	  38

   5 - TEMPERATURE	  40

   6 - TOXIC SUBSTANCES	  56

-------
                                                                           IV,


                               LIST OF TABLES
1    POWERS, RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL
    JOINT COMMISSION	
2   STATUS OF AGREEMENT WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES	    4


3   MARCH 15, 1979 PROPOSED TOXIC POLLUTANT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA..    8


4   JULY 25, 1979 PROPOSED TOXIC POLLUTANT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA	   9


5   OCTOBER 1, 1979 PROPOSED TOXIC POLLUTANT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA..   11

-------
GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES

     Article IV of the 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty between the United
States and Canada states, among other things, that "boundary waters and
waters flowing across the boundary shall not be polluted on either side
to the injury of health or property of the other.1!  The 1978 Great Lakes
Water Quality Agreement is a specific application of this principle.
Articles III and IV of the 1978 Agreement set out the general and specific
water quality objectives to be met to ensure that pollution of the boundary
waters does not occur.

     Water quality objectives are minimum desirable levels of water
quality to be obtained in the boundary waters of the Great Lakes System
and are not intended to preclude the establishment of more stringent
requirements.   They take to account the criteria for a whole spectrum of
water uses:  supplies for municipal, industrial  and agricultural purposes,
recreation, aesthetic enjoyment and the propagation of aquatic life and
wildlife.  Once the United States and Canada accept water quality objec-
tives, they are obligated by the Agreement to develop programs and measures
(including water quality standards) consistent with achievement of these
objectives in boundary waters of the Great Lakes.   In general, water
quality objectives are goals to be maintained or achieved in all of the
boundary waters through effective pollution control programs in both countries.
Compliance with the objectives is intended to ensure protection of the
most sensitive uses of the international waters.

     On the other hand, water quality standards  and other legally enforce-
able regulatory requirements are prescribed levels of waters quality
established by governmental  authorities in each  jurisidction.  They are
generically different from objectives.   While water quality objectives
are developed on the sole basis of scientifically defensible data to
protect the most sensitive uses, standards and similar legal  requirements
are generally established by each jurisdiction after considering the
designated uses, the site specific ecology, and  the factors of social  and
economic consequences as well  as technological  ability.   For this reason,
standards are not necessarily identical  to water quality objectives.

HOW WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES ARE ESTABLISHED

     Under Article VII of the 1978 Agreement (Table 1),  the International
Joint Commission was designated to assist in the implementation of the
Agreement.   Among the responsibilities  given to  the Commission was the
"tendering of advice and recommendations to the  Parties  and to the State
and Provincial  Governments on problems  of and matters related to the quality
of the boundary waters of the Great Lakes System including specific recommen-
dations concerning the General  and Special  Objectives..."   Furtner, trie
Commission was  directed to establish a  Great Lakes Water Duality board to
assist it and serve as principal  advisor to the  Commission with regard to tne
exercise of powers and responsibilities  assigned to it under tne nyreement.

-------
                             TABLE 1

                           ARTICLE  VII

POWERS, RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTIONS OP THE  INTERNATIONAL JOINT
                           COMMISSION

1.        The International Joint Commission  shall  assist in the
implementation of this Agreement.   Accordingly/  the  Commission is
hereby given, by a Reference pursuant  to Article IX  of the
Boundary Waters Treaty, the following  responsibilities:

     (a)  Collation, analysis  and dissemination  of  data  and
          information supplied by the  Parties  and State  and
          Provincial Governments  relating  to  the quality of the
          boundary waters of the  Great Lakes  System  and  to
          pollution that enters the boundary  waters  from
          tributary waters and other sources;

     (b)  Collection, analysis and  dissemination of  data and
          information concerning  the General  and Specific
          Objectives and the operation and  effectiveness of the
          programs and other measures  established pursuant to
          this Agreement;

     (c)  Tendering of advice  and recommendations  to the Parties
          and to the State and Provincial Governments on problems
          of and matters related  to the quality  of  the boundary
          waters of the Great  Lakes System  including specific
          recommendations concerning the General and Specific
          Objectives, legislation,  standards  and other regulatory
          requirements, programs  and other  measures, and
          intergovernmental agreements relatina  to  the quality of
          these waters;

     (d)  Tendering of advice  and  recommendations to the Parties
          in connection with matters covered  under  the Annexes to
          this Agreement;

     (e)  Provision of assistance  in the coordination of the
          joint activities envisaged by  this  Agreement;

     (f)  Provision of assistance  in and advice  on  matters
          related to research  in  the Great  Lakes Basin Ecosystem,
          including identification  of objectives for research
          activities, tendering of  advice  and recommendations
          concerning research  to  the Parties  and to the  State and
          Provincial Governments,  and dissemination of
          information concerning  research  to  interested  persons
          and agencies;

      (a)   Investigations  of  such  subjects  related to the Gre?t
           Lakes  Basin  Ecosystem  as   the Parties may   from  time to
           time  refer  to  it.

 2.         In the  discharge  of  its responsibilities   under this
 Reference,  the  Commission  may  exercise all  of the powers
 conferred  upon  it  by  the  Boundary Waters Treaty and by anv
 legislation passed  pursuant  thereto including the power  to
 conduct public  hearings  and  to compel the  testimony of witnesses
 and  the production  of  documents.

 3.         The  Commission shall make a full report to  the Parties
 and  to the  State  and  Provincial  Governments no lซss frequently
 than bienniallv concerning  progress toward the achievement  of  the
 General and Soecifie  Objectives  including,  as aooropnats,
 matters related  to  Annexes  to  this  Agreement.  This report  shall
 include an  assessment  of  the  effectiveness of the orograms  and
 other  measures  undertaken pursuant  to this Agreement, and  advice
 and  recommendations.   In  alternate  years the Commission  may
 submit a summary  reoort.   The  Commission may at any time make
 special reports  to  the Parties,  to  the State and Provincial
 Governments and  to  the public  concerning any problem of  water
 quality in  the  Great  Lakes  System.

 4.         The  Commission  may  in  its discretion publish  any
 report, statement  or  other  document preoared by it  in the
 discnarge  of its  functions  under this Reference.

 5.         The  Commission  shall have authority to verify
 independently  the data and  other information submitted  by  tne
 Parties and oy  the  State  and  Provincial  Governments through  sucr.
 tests  or other  means  as  appear aoproonate to it, consistent  witrs
 tne  Boundary Maters Treaty  and with applicaole  legislation.

 6.         The  Commission shall carry out its responsibilities
 jnder  cms  Reference  utilizing principally the  services  of  tne
 Water  Quality  Board and  the Science Advisory Board  established
 under  Article  VIII  of  this  Aareement.  The Commission snail  also
 ensure liaison  and  coordination between the  institutions
 ปs:aolisfiซd under this Agreement and other institutions  which  sav
 address concerns  relevant to  the Great Lakes Basin  Ecosystem,
 including  ooth  those  within its purview, such as those  Boards
 related to  Great  Lakes levels  and  air pollution matters,  and
 other  international bodies,  as aoorODriate.

-------
                                                                             3.
     The Water Quality Board had formed a Water Quality Objectives Sub-
committee to assess the adequacy of the objectives in the 1972 Agreement
and develop new or revised objectives.  This Subcommittee, together with the
Research Advisory Board's Standing Committtee on Scientific Basis for Water
Quality Criteria, proposed specific water quality objectives designed to
protect the most sensitive beneficial use of the boundary waters.

     These two groups jointly reviewed all available scientific information
on each of the proposed objectives and recommended those levels that research
indicated would protect the most sensitive beneficial use.  The objectives
proposed were designed to protect aquatic life or its consumers (fish, birds
and mammals), public water supply and recreational use.

     The objectives were based on best available scientific information on
cause/effect relationships between pollutants and water use.  The objectives
provided a refinement of the restoration, enhancement and nondegradation
principles sat forth in the Agreement.

     The Water Quality Board reviewed the proposed objectives and in making
its recommendations to the International Joint Commission gave primary con-
sideration to the protection and enhancement of Great Lakes water quality.

     The Board reviewed all aspects of the proposed objectives including the
practical aspects of using them as a basis for regulatory action.  The Board
was aware of the fact that the dischargers and the public must bear the cost
of meeting regulatory requirements but did not use these factors in its
decisions to recommend objectives.

STATUS OF OBJECTIVES

     The status of water quality objectives is shown in Table 2.  The 1978
Water Quality Agreement contains 41  Specific Water Quality Objectives.   Four
others (chlorine, cyanide, silver, temperature) that were previously recom-
mended to the International Joint Commission by the Water Quality Board are
being reconsidered by the Board at the request of the governments and the IJC.
A revised objective for dissolved oxygen is being reviewed by the Board.

     An ecosystem objective and objectives for indicator organisms and patho-
gens, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polynuclear aromat-
ic hydrocarbons are being considered.

PROCEDURES UTILIZED BY JURISDICTIONS TO CONSIDER WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES
IN THEIR REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

     In Article V of the Agreement,  the Parties agreed to use their best
efforts to ensure that water quality standards and other regulatory require-
ments will  be consistent with the achievement of water quality objectives.
The following sections outline the procedures taken by each jurisdiction
towards this end.

-------
                                  TABLE  2
                                                                          4.
                  STATUS OF AGREEMENT WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES
       CONTAINED IN 1978 AGREEMENT
                            UNDER RECONSIDERATION
       Persistent Toxic Substances
Organic

Aldrin/Dieldrin
Chlordane
DDT and Metabolites
Endrin
Heptachlor/
  Heptachlor Epoxide
Lindane
Methoxychlor
Mi rex
Toxaphene
Phthalic Acid Esters
PCBs
Other Organic
  Contaminants
Inorganic

Arsenic
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Iron
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Zinc
Fluoride
Total Dissolved
  Solids
     Non-Persistent Toxic Substances
Organic
Inorganic
Diazinon
Guthion
Parathion
Other Pesticides
Unspecified Non-Persistent
  Toxic Substances and
  Complex Effluents
Oil and Petrochemicals
           Other Substances
Ammon i a
Hydrogen Sulfide
Dissolved Oxygen
PH
Nutrients
Tainting Substances
        Physical Characteristics

Asbestos                 Temperature
Settleable and Suspended
  Solids,  & Light Transmission

           Microbiological
            Radioloaical
Persistent Toxic Substances

       Inorganic

       Silver


  Non-Persistent Compounds

 Organic          Inorganic

 Cyanide          Chlorine


  Physical Characteristics

        Temperature
        UNDER REVIEW
      Dissolved Oxygen
                               UNDER DEVELOPMENT
  Ecosystem Objective

  Indicator Organisms and
     Pathogens

  Pentachlorophenol

  Polychlorinated dib-enzo-
     dioxins

  Polynuclear Aromatic
     Hydrocarbons

-------
                                                                         5.
CANADA AND ONTARIO
     Canada and Ontario have agreed to adopt the water quality objectives
as the minimal basis to be used by them in establishing water quality
standards or their regulatory requirements respecting the boundary waters.
They have also agreed that the objectives shall  be the basis for designing
and assessing pollution abatement programs and other measures taken to
improve or maintain water quality in the Great Lakes.  [From paragraph 3,
Canada-Ontario Agreement on Great Lakes Water Quality, March 1977.]

     The Province of Ontario employs guidelines  and criteria for water quality
management in approving the adequacy of facilities for waste discharge and
disposal.  The booklet, "Water Management - Goals, Policies, Objectives and
Implementation Procedures of the Ministry of the Environment", published in
November 1978 contains a statement that "the Province has agreed that the
revised Specific Water Quality Objectives contained in the Great Lakes Water
Quality Agreement shall be used in environmental programs to achieve and
maintain Great Lakes water quality".  The revision takes into account the
requirements of Article VI, Section l(b) of the  1978 Agreement, specifying
the establishment of effluent limitations for industrial facilities.  Such
requirements are incorporated in Certificates of Approval for new or expanded
work, and in formal programs and control orders  for existing waste dischargers.

U.S. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND GREAT LAKES STATES

     In accordance with the Agreement, the U.S.  Federal  Government has
assumed the responsibility to ensure that the water quality objectives are
considered in the State Water Quality Standards  review process which is
required at least once each three-year period as stipulated in Section 303
of PL 95-217, The Clean Water Act.

     It is U.S. EPA's policy that water quality  objectives under the Agree-
ment and water quality criteria outlined in the  U.S. EPA publication
Quality Criteria for Water 1976 should be considered.  In instances where
water quality objectives in the Agreement are more stringent than criteria
listed in the EPA publication, the more stringent values should be considered
for the Great Lakes waters.  The approach is recommended because the U.S.
Government recognizes the Great Lakes as a unique and sensitive water body
meriting special protection.

     The states conduct a technical evaluation of their water quality
standards incorporating the following steps:

     0    Review the proposed water quality objectives in the Agreement
          to verify their technical adequacy and achievabi1ity.

     0    Compare the proposed objectives with the water quality standards
          which are currently in effect.

-------
                                                                          6.
     0    Evaluate the impact of the proposed objective on present or future
          wastewater dischargers to determine if the objective would result
          in a change in the required level of treatment.

     0    Determine if implementation of existing -water quality standards
          and abatement programs would result in the achievement of water
          quality consistent with the proposed objectives.

     0    Evaluate the social and economic consequences of the proposed
          objective.

     0    Determine if the goals of the proposed objective are consistent
          with the maintenance of the designated use of the waters for the
          public interest.

     Each state distributes, for public review, the proposed revisions to
its standards usually upon issuance of a notice for public hearing,  binyle
or multiple hearings are held, depending on the area affected oy the standard
revisions, chaired by an impartial  hearing officer.  On the basis of comments
received, further revisions may be made.  Before adoption as final standards,
legal, legislative or administrative review and approval are required.  The
exact procedure for the final review will vary from state to state dependent
on administrative requirements.-  In most states, water quality standards
become state law upon promulgation.

     U.S. EPA reviews the proposed standards revisions concurrently with
the state prior to public hearings.  Once the standards are adopted oy tne
state, they are submitted to U.S. EPA for final approval under Section 303
of The Clean Water Act.   In the event that a state adopts standards not
acceptable to U.S.  EPA, the Agency can promulgate standards either wholly or
in part for that state as per Section 303 of The Clean Water Act.

CURRENT STATE OF STATE WATER gUALITY STANDARDS

ILLINOIS

     No changes to water quality standards proposed.

INDIANA

     Revised water quality standards for Lake Michigan are currently oeiny
reviewed by U.S. EPA Region V for approval.

MICHIGAN

     Proposed revisions are being prepared by the State for public neannys.

MKlilESOTA

     Proposed partial  revisions have been reviewed by U.S. iฃ?h Region V and
comments nave been submitted.  State has conducted public hearing on
proposed revisions.

-------
                                                                          7.
OHIO

     U.S. EPA is preparing to promulgate water quality standards under
Section 3U3 of The Clean Water Act.

WISCONSIN

     The State is reviewing their water quality standards for possible
revisions.

PENNSYLVANIA

     Revised water quality standards are currently being reviewed by U.b. EPn
Region III for approval.

NEW YORK

     The State is developing a process for public review of costs and benefits
of achieving various risk levels of several specific toxic criteria,  uevelop-
ment of the water quality standards proposal  will be based on this and an
economic impact statement which is to be developed.

WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVE COMPARISON TO JURISDICTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

     Appendix 1 summarizes the numerical values and statements for parameters
referenced in the Quality Criteria for Water 1976 (Red Book), the ureat Lakes
Water Quality Agreement Water Quality Objectives, the Great Lakes States'
Water Quality Standards, and Ontario's Water Quality Objectives.  As previously
discussed, oojectives and standards are not the same and any direct comparison
of the numbers is not valid.  It should be noted that many state standards
were last revised prior to signing of the 1978 Water Quality Agreement.

     Tables 3, 4, and 5 summarize the Federal  Register Notices (March 15,
July 25 and October 1, 1979, respectively) for the proposed water quality
criteria for pollutants listed as toxic under The Clean Water Act.  The criteria
were developed pursuant to Section 3U4 of the Act and in compliance with a court
order.  The criteria state maximum recommended concentrations consistent with
the protection of aquatic life and human health.

     A Section 304(a) water quality criterion is a qualitative or quantitative
estimate of the concentration of a water constituent or pollutant in amoient
waters which, when not exceeded, will ensure a water quality sufficient to
protect a specified water use.   Under the Act a criterion is a scientific
entity, based solely on data and scientific judgment.  It does not reflect
considerations of economic or technological feasibility,   a criterion based
on the protection and propagation of fisn, shellfish and wildlife, for example,
is simply the best estimate informed scientists are able to make of tne maxi-
mum concentration of a given pollutant that can oe tolerated while still main-
taining protection of aquatic life.  A criterion intended for tne protection
of human nealtn, by the same reasoning, is the best estimate of the concentra-
tion //hi en may exist and still  not pose an undue risk to numans ,vno arinx
water without further treatment or eat fisn or shellfish from tne water.

-------
co
         <
         3
   _J    O
   a    CL


   ^    ซ

         X
         o
         H-

         Q
         UJ
         VI
         o

         I



         CTi


0)
u
3
1 Freshwater /



I
•0 —i
S1*-
s
Maxiiiiuu
Ol
T
CM

5
3
"o
0.
o
X
o
! —
1
1
_
•31
3
31
3
C1




- _ r-i^- ^- -^-^> C7ป Lrt ^5 ฃ3 ~^fO -~- - ,*ป - - _,^, . _-_ _ ~l'^.- _r _ _„ _ __,J^
OOOOOO I i en •— OOOOOO I I 1 tO.lO lOOO— OIOOOOOOOOOซrOO
1 1 — •
— ซ^-ป V)
t/t Vt V>
0) 01 C
oo~5-5ou3'-- oooiooooo^ooun u ซ^CM oo
moi-4-Ot^'^i ' t I lOCOlOtO-triOO'— C3^Oซปltr*^rt3l i 1 t i *— CM CTi I O I O i
~S*G'~ "~ *~ "~ —
oj n ui
oi o> 0)
Lo'cO ^"
^o *r n
i i i
Wl O1 V)
V) t/1 Vป
0) 0) 01
•^ -5 '-n 3
u L. -ซr r— •ป. ei
voojz.ฃ7MO ICM i i i i 100 i ^ ^— o^ if">csi^nuio in^; i i i i ICSJP-.O i *— 10 i
^•"sT? o '"cSocS'c' us oi o •
CM GO trt
0) 01 01







ut EPA recommends minimizing
omblned.
criterion b
wl ฃ. ^J
O 01 wi
o. =
o o o
"a 3 —
> M O
0) = —
f- V<*-
J^ 3 3
•y ^
c ~ -o
— < 0
•a J2 u
^_,^,^^_

-------
      as
      o
      o-

      Oi
_!    O
ca    a.

1—    o
      >ซ^
      x
      o
      00
      o
      cn

      en
      in
      CM
      3
      "3
Human Health
Effects
cr
3
•^*
X
03
 CM CM CM CM 2.
~ O 0 O
CM CM CM CM
CD
CO O O O O
00 1 CO O O UO
en i— o CM
A M
CM r—
ซ*•
"-^ O 0 O CO
1 •— CM O i—
rj- en co
A
























C O 03 03 03 CJ
•O 3J O O O O
•r- -— - 5- i. S_ S_
Nt  +j •<-
-LJ 4-J i- i)
1 1 >5<— 1)
ซ • O VI 	 i 	
CM CSJ -C C 5- >,
O LJ UJ LjJ

-------
                   CMCMCMCM.CMOOO'-'I
                                   oo'sO^r
                                   3 CM ซr  p-
                                                 OIO
                       10  CO
                         •   •
                       co  CM o
                                                                            31-
                                                                                      O O
                                                                                      <-O ^3
                   o o  o o
                   OCMOO
o
C3
                                                 CTt
                                                  to
                                                  D
                                                  (O
- — o
 CO
                                                 o

                                                  OJ
o o o o o o
O UO CO {"•> O O
6.2
5,200

0.47
46
64
e
a
o
o
            CM
                   oooo
                   o-sro^r
                   o  -— o eo
                     MA
                   Pซซ     ^T
o
0
                                                 CM
                                                 O
                                                  C
                                                 •a
 TJO
J=co
— •<*•
                                                                                                             i-O

                                                                                                             o
a o en i--  o o
O ซ^ r-ป i-O  O O
r** CM        u"> ^o
  A            A
CM            r—
                                        O    O
                                        o    0
                                          .O   •
                                        O O
                                            CO
                                              A
                                            CM

























5
C

^
*"
C
.ฃ
t/> C
j: i.
*J ฃ.
V
























'• • • ~3 =S3J 	 ^-r-a


j • ซ ป— 5 ^ _ o •>- C • 3j-.j;ii!_'_c
i 5 /— i— ^ u- O^-cS CCS_S_-^-^l
i"g3~t: 5 5~-^ o5^ฃa"c.'E'=q-rr^ >, cj • • o -
4J 4^? JT* jปJ | • • ^ •
^ O --J 3 C\J * CJ CJ •






















. a.
IP
tS r^


" 3
C. S-
c C
rO U
3^ -J
i. C
                                           o  — o j-> j->
                                                                            -=    J=               CJ  O  O -^i
                                                                            C-    C.               O. I—  i— Ml

-------

<
'_!
t—
a:
o
:^
H-
D TOXIC POLLUTANT WATER QUAl
1979 PROPOSE
st
UJ
O
1—




4)
<<-
(J
13
3
1 Freshwater Ac





1=
= 11
c <*.
Maximum
4(
31
4)

C
•a

O
a.
u
0
J—

31
3
Ol
3
•3




1
^ป" co •^•••••vi' u) ^j r>^ , oj c^
oooo inoa ocnr-ปfป.3^. iiounoioio oao oo ooo
M
•*• ^™*
VI ^-*
VI i—
-^ a) ^ 0s cvj oo
. c . • • •
O— OOOO<^O OOOOOOO ^UOO CM COCO
O i ' 111 o ^*~ <^ CNJ co i t t o o ^*" ^o oo ^3 ^r w *"• i t
n oo tvj ป— ~—
o
-^ Cvl
O 4) O C\J O O
O"— OOOr— U3 OOOOOO ^™ I I I O ^3 ^™ C^J r1^ *T ^^ ^ ^^
"~ 'c
s
41

•••• ~~.. 4)CC 	 -C.C 	 S-

^™. • CL>S_D* D*4I .C <~ ^&_ซ* S3 41 •
1_ ,— — i O
^--— I/I— I.-— — •— l-.^'-* -So)S- ซO • - • • ปDD=4.i; "D •— — 3 C U C
ซc< ซC
VI • O Q.
VI CLUJ
O 4J O
11 O. 3
4) 4)i— •
 4J
•— •— D fO
*- •*>— -o
3 4) -^ 4J
VI •— V> C
C O — 4)
"~ 0 H ป-
(O 4) 3
tl 0 = C
o u- — —

-------
                                                                         12.
                               REFERENCES


Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1979).  Pennsylvania Department of Natural
Resources, Title 25, Chapter 93: Water Quality Standards.

Federal Register, Vol. 44, No.  52, March 15, 1979..

Federal Register. Vol. 44, No.  144, July 25, 1979.

Federal Register, Vol. 44, No.  191, October 1, 1979.

Great Lakes Water Quality Board.  Group 2 - New and Revised Specific Water
Quality Objectives Proposed for the 1972 Agreement Between the United States
and Canada on Great Lakes Water Quality by the Great Lakes l-/ater Quality
Board.Windsor, Ontario, January 1978.

Great Lakes Water Quality Board.  New and Revised Specific Water Quality
Objectives Proposed for the 1972 Agreement Between the United States and
Canada on Great Lakes Water Quality by the Great Lakes Water Quality Board.
Windsor, Ontario, September 1976,

International Joint Commission.  New and Revised Great Lakes Water Quality
Objectives,  International Joint Commission Report to the Governments of the
United States and Canadlu2 vols. Washington, D.C. and Ottawa, Ontario,
International Joint Commission, 1977.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment.  Water Management Goals, Policies,
Objectives and Implementation Procedures or the Ministry of the Environment.
Toronto, Ministry of the Environment, 1978.

State of Illinois (1977).  Illinois Pollution Control Board Rules and
Regulations, Chapter 3: Water Pollution.

State of Indiana (1977).  Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board Regulation
SPC IR-4: Water Quality Standards for All Waters Within the State of Indiana.

State of Indiana (1978).  Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board Regulation
SPC 4R-2: Water Quality Standards for Lake Michigan and Contiguous Harbor Areas.

State of Michigan (1973).  Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources
Commission General  Rules, Part  4: Water Quality Standards.

State of Minnesota (1973).  Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Regulation
WPC 15: Criteria for the Classification of the Interstate Waters of the State
and the Establishment of Standards of Quality and Purity.

State of Ohio (1977).  Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality
Standards.

State of New York (1974).  Mew  York Department of Environmental Conservation
Title 5, Part 701:  Classification and Standards of Quality and Purity.

-------
                                                                         13.

State of Wisconsin (1977).  Wisconsin Administrative Code Chapter NR 102:
Water Quality Standards for Wisconsin Surface Waters.

United States Department of State and Canada Department of External  Affairs.
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1978:  Agreement with Annexes and
Terms of Reference. Between the United States of America and CanadluwTndsor,
Ontario, International Joint Commission, 1978."

United States Environmental Protection Agency (1976).  Quality Criteria for
Water, (Red Book).

-------
                    APPENDIX 1
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES AND CRITERIA
          APPLICABLE TO THE GREAT LAKES

-------
General  Criteria, Objectives and Standards Applicable To  The  Waters  of the
Great Lakes System.
Waters of the Great Lakes should be free from substances  attributable  to
wastewater or other discharges that:
1)  Settle to form objectionable deposits;
2)  Float as debris, scum, oil, or other matter to  form nuisances;
3)  Produce objectionable color, odor,  taste, or turbidity;
4)  Injure or are toxic or produce adverse  physiological  responses
    in humans, animals or plants; and
5)  Produce undesirable or nuisance aquatic life.

-------
LU

t—


CSL




a
*  3

=3  UJ
^j  ^7
    ง
c-


QS
         1
              i-l,
              a *
              %(-
                                        |    i    ;-!^SL  s^  i^  iu  &L  i^
                                         ?-3-?2 il iTlfl  lil  3^  sis  1ft  '1
                       —
                      o i
                      ซ^ซ
                                         -^33aซi
                                         9—  — a ,
                                         i ซ e ซ

                                         =
                                                     3.0
                                                     ซ
                              : ^
                            -: 3
                            -
                                      !<
                                                 '
               Jo*
                             >. i a
                            — ' KI
         Us
        i   :   r*   •  11
                3     ? i
                                                                                        1   I
                                                                                     1-X  1-7 1
                                                                                -J ฃ *
                                                                                a.— s
                                                                                  —
                                                                                 - J  jj i 5 ^ ป

-------
II!
       i  s
       1  -3
!g  i 
-------
>— VI
Q J 3ป
~ 5 ~
p ^*->
o25g
3
I
i
i
i


z
VI
5
s
5

o
3
|
i



1
-



<
2^
1



ง
c

13:
^"^
c

*
s
2

AMI UK
f



__.
1
u
!
3



•


2
c
3
S
o



i

o
2
ill^I*
C .ฃ *J 41 — ,ฃ > v
J — Jl -— O 41 •
~* — — 5,c5"~ —
O ฃ C ^ ซ "J ••
— •% ฃ "a H * o-o E
u
-- i_
"* >
"" ** =
— i -ox
S| * S
ซ1 I —

1




siSit ^iง! j .--=! ซisi i-i s
^llll^ = !P!J|||K sH^i!^
t.— — •eSri,— cc.— "'"'1'-— w^r-n3i.> *3-*
Uปjฃ-?j; i— 3O "3^— -a^J ^vl — C^i^-S


5
3

*TT
-_
s^
5-
g w

I
|
| =
O
'J
3* 2
3 U
_J w ^ tit
"** i/ป
fj|-
^ J$ ป ^J
-f.||

a
*J Hi
•^ ^ 41
0 # — "S
— ป e w
C
u

3
0








1
s

E
u-ป
3; ซ
_ ^ > w
?^ - ^
sf J ?

;_
2.
"

-3

^. ^v
??
oiO
_j
S

Is
5




ป
^
un
og
o- o*— ^
3. a^ c

1
o



'





1
o



a
;C




^
~


-5
=
-



(


ซ
f|







>





•















'








y
i ?

y "~









'





'





















5
1







i
=
s
^

^
• — •
— *
s
ง



1
1




1



"a
3.

1
S
s


1




_,
Oi

s


1
1
?
i
|

,



X
o
-
— T5 W i
• -a irt — o i s- <"

^ 01-* 9-~ •5^_2aj5'!S^i .
V ฐi'Su usJ5'^*ซa>S^aj
I^".lll5J**5.iiS5
slllIJi'sllHll



1
















1










'




!!=VJi= J
^ 1 i i i I J I y * I ^
a-=^*l"'il^l
2 w— 5^— ฐ*vi— —
*S-^^c2**5j!-5
" "S
v'l
il —
-J



(











'





<
o









•









o ^
isjl^i1
^ 3
5 o ui ^3

i
1
.2

-------
CO
l|i
ggjj
3
i
1



z
i
™


2
O



O
S



S
i




i
X
X

1
i


1/1
i
3
~



2^^
ซ* < u
**i


*
3

o
5


i
3
~

•e
!
ง
jl
~" U 3*
Sis.2
""J*
^
4J
!]
o ^

— w—
•— •'**'

11
*"


!!i
g -, ~
** is? "*
—
.a
"5


s


1
1
f |
^ jjji^ i
51 i_ ^i —
2'S1

—
?
s



~
?
3

^ ซ

~ ~

— -
3 =
*™ 5



5
~
,
3 c X S ~ t -rf C -JMl O C tO
— •— ซ)* fl ^oi ง 5 — ej
— ^ O * — '-UU-—
o "e •ซ — A — ^ 'oooo
— 2 'S -o g 15>, o* l^vT0?™
Jงlsi ;?|S fss"

1



,_g
1*
S — S
ง~



s
s


3)
s



"a*
a

o


'


1
o
Lfl

^
a
O

— c

~ S— ?_. i
5<3 r^'wS
ll=^gl
_
it . sis i?-.vi
Z J^= f a 2 - ^^T J| ฃ
^ fl i ^1 2^i CTjS— rflj^'5'1

^t -j"' >— — — J==w'~E
?ฃ — _ = i'j'i"-! l^^al
">-O '— J — ^— -^U>.T
Jii1o*5ฃa.s35oi-j


•=
-

ง
a

'




a
0




3


1
3



"a*


O
ฑn





i



-
i
2







_
Z-
—

3,
2



JJ
c-
™
T

=. 21 o-
O





'!
^ M
o 2"

^
_<

ซ=.-
rj o

1
Ll!
— 'Jl ^ "~ —

o' ci c:*

t







-
^
^
ฐ

S
1
S

_

~-?
2 S
^j *r>

~2
3^
3- '~.

a-
•^ 5



>>
f
i
tallied I
S
3!
I
fl
=

S

•a
•^
-0
j

T3
S

S


1
OJ
I/I

1
5


u

^
*
1
ซ
?

s
1
2
^
u



J
^
•u
"
^
-5
w

•3
-J
yi

i
^
=
X
i
H
o

1












1/1
!
d


1/1
i
3


o

e
ซ5
SI






'





'











*
J
i
,
a


1



o
i
*
3
s
-1

S
o

1
s









'






^
a
1




3-
S

S
-
^

*>
~f —
Q v
C

—
^
5
— ^
1
o






•





i1
2


1
2


^
s
•fl


f
*

'






^J
?
o




1











•J
•3
z









•








,










<


.



_J
1
~










,





3
u
-




1




o








!
2



i








'




1





,


f
— ฃ
^ ~

= •v
o ?
—
z
•a a;
jj C
2 "
X
11
0 =


'




'








,













1










I










,
~ =
3 t:
r

-------
   — w     i  o "s  i  u  -3 — vป  S    ฃi  - ? 2 *"  - -'. *•* ^ -3?


5 SO    41  vl !_ "(J * ซ•* 41 I, •— * 3J  ••— 4>C    ^ป-Qvi'u       3    =
ar ae ^       •ซ    u *>  oป .a    'fl t-    a—'^a^ucfle-'^Oi.-oc-



           O  u g *•• *•> -a ซ ^ป  u S (j j u o **  u y •—  yi .q ^  o "q t.  •-*





           .2


   i







   z





   i






   z
   ^


   1      5







                   — o ^



            S    S    S "^    4)OE*4J4)4J2C
   ~         4J  O -g —  *  t —'     41<"-=*J'ซ
            y    ^fl    ^      ""yji    *    3*4)    OX---~
            •*  ^       O     S'^^^C    ^O— ^3 O  U 1* I.  -   •
           ^w-—  BviaajSga^^ainu—  *•*    so    DOJ—.
            w  .-fl  o —    u U —    *J         — i_    *J   — — — jj *v,
           ^-5^o^~j-5j:'5^^^^-Sa3gSSg I  Si1





   s

   I       I










   i       s

           I







            5 u  c — y     ~s.Jrioc~—""
   ^      — .C3Js.cyj33.ja_flu'ป-



            l. —  4; ~ -1  O.,- *ซ  U    3;  i. 4, 3 f-
            3 W ^3  3      .2X   -wi^O^J^i


           a 3  = — ^  >>**ซ_Ja of Xฃ<<
                                                                                                                                    ^
                                                                                                                                     •  C
                                                                                                                                    v o
                                                                                                                              l
-J O
•*>. 1^1
fi
_ S

=1
                 J v <•
                 o — o
                                 *i-    •
                         c      "€ o    3
                         ง•-      -5    -n
                                             -..

                                         C   *• '  u
                         ซ
                     •—  rf> 11    — o    -~ •••  D  en    >ซปs
                   1; — — -=    — v    — ซ—  s_   —  o —
                                                                          i  U   • 3 5" •
                                                                           — •  4. o *  ^
                                                                           jo—    s
                                                                            -o -^    _i
                                                                *-
   4)-^ซviJ<-qc    Tj^i    O"*-UJ



   3    _ซ^5—1-8 — -— v >S O  h. <—


j     •— S.   >"wlyl*JO-    iซ4Ua    ^   ซ    j aita c. u
                                                                            u —  )) 
-------
a~Z
iง5
'Si
M!
a a !
  i
            ! o
            I V
                  lii
                              111

1 S-? - -
 3 v 1 a i
    9*
                               I    !
                                    ill
            Sซ.
                   S  -
                                          *  i 7=
                                          -  I — =
                                                 •^i
          i 3ซ  il^fi:^
    33
    a a
          k at-l= s
         o a ; ป •

                       s|
-------
 >ZS


 Jtฃ

xx -
O Ua a
                 c

                   ซ
               c o  9 >ซ
                                 3. ซ3 a. I
                                            -S!
I  =

1 i
                                 S

                               I  —ซ
           i  .J,

           -0=

-------
,.
ONTARIO
\TER yUAL
OBJECTIVf
2
-
*"
'S

PENNSYLVANIA
WISCONSIN
o
i
MINNESOTA
1
C_J
z:
INDIANA
ILLINOIS
LWA1ER
l)UAI I TV
OB,)ffTIVfs
1
1
PARAMETER
•" J^ 1 M- i T3 1)
'.a' --6;uS>,0So--c ti 4,
S a -t-t c — — 03 -3 - ฃ "ฃ c * c

C O
11 11 fS IT x
"ฃฃซ ~5>(5 a"1
o •* 2 o .* x ฐ
c— c c ฃ t-
— Z ~ /9 ซJ UJ
1
8
V
•0
—1 OJ -J
_J
f
I
1
O. i- 11
plfljil
ji|j
f

^T
3 ' 	
11
C
25
3

'

! iSJ^i Js

1- CU J *J I. vi •— (U U
n_ i -4;i;SQ.LflC'
S ฃ Ssi-sS S4ff 5 S u
•

.
S
o
i'5.= .11 ซ
i- OOO O)*J"'"U
^ -^ -"S 0 2 ra
c >i * w D a. c
ง "^ E-S-w-^ S-^
•O — i— 4-> O ifl
.i~CSSoZ-o


i|
!|llppfh|j^
rci:^j- o >>— c -c ^ =
- o •• 5-^i^a->'"S'^ fl"
-3
1'
•a
l^>
3 jฃ ซ-J
1 — ' ^ "5
^ 2 f
i^

^
CM




'
o>
3.
'
'


'

>.0 M9/I- (d)
Ufidissociated
_ฃ
. — . (O
— • '^
3.-O
[Sulf ide- Hydrogen
Sulfide 1

0
CSJ




•
•
•
_J
t
S


fl1 e
tZti
o ""
—1
t
S
'


V

-------
>- VI
232
5ปS
2 uj a
i
*

<
1
;
1
rป

|
2


5

vim INN
X


z
5
X



I
3

W1
i
~



f ฃ
fir
j,
1
ซ
*• i
1
3
1 s
3
* :
1 fl
S

a
3
i *!
1 '
! *
Wl
I ^
*
S
|5s: r


— — — 35T*^^52 *'
ii^ssUs"! s
I 	 ป. a. t . a.

S
3
S
i
2
ซ
s :
ฃ ^ =
-ui-J =3~.ปJZe,3 '-5
— >."3 "" 3 5 ~ ^i3iซa>^ — — yv?^-ง— 2^5^~2.^;2,' 4
!!:lli.I ^--Jsli.! n^IisUlfs!^ 1
13
* 41 U 1 ^ w
2 |r ; f^
41 ! M W * ' 9 W1
1 '
ซ ~
4
S o
* J
2 ' i
* : : s-
s * —
* . c
5 i
3 • ,|
S 1 ,
1 :_
I 3
^ 0
I j^
' 1 i *
s !- ! -

1 i =
1 2 ' -=
* "^ S
s 2 I
! =
_ i
jj
i
3
•i i
1
S . '
*
O


1
i —
* - ~"
- "-  U                    _

   u-    —  2  = S 3. a— •
       -- -us
    w—  r^y-

^i^Z.s-.
 -^--l32JJ=


-------
AI133T80
vnft imvn
OIDV1ND
                   .
         u  -v = -ซ*   — •
                -

          ..2SSSS.2.S!
               ,
      xo.uป-   '^^
      -ซ a.,- 8. ..
     — 3   ซ 3 3 — a> Q,  .—

     a 5 S w — "5 ฃ5 S -2 j!
     3J-;
     s,
        3^  3ป u*
     Illii
                    w-Mปv4<
                    fl * C *" tt 4> >
                    w55o  S.--
                        O "O  t.
                        * 
                    u2So  0.—
                      ~
      iu—     —    y W  — C— 3,
        C^OWO    C   ^•O'fluv
         JJ   —
        .ซ   3
t
"8

                                                                                4;     U-
                                                                               )^i   i-J
                                                                                  o — a i*

                                                                                      '
      •  ^ X ซ tn ฃ ^ h- aj— ^iu"i^--t_;Q;*'*' — <*. 31^- 1*^ = 3 ซ ^ -* — u '
                                                                           i^-— u ซ — w  — j
                                                                           >tfปe^— t.'Sa.fl

-------
 APPENDIX 2
MIXING ZONES

-------
CM
             ; 43 CJ ^ 4? o *j "3 & io ^^ S "3 ฃ3 •** 22 "^ ^3 ^ *" *— ^  ^* "^  s-* 2 2 •^^ > -*•

             i"!'!JSflJt'-i Jibf Ps^ 1-s 1 J-i  IJil??-!!


             |||-2^||sl| 1^1-JJ1S|"iil  i1|^II^.|j
            'x •r'^'C b^J~* ?"— ฎ   ;P-3 ^ s
            a .H j; s ~ s ^ -2 "* '^3   .s s s KJ



            ^1jilll|lei5Ill
              a3.-sJ-ซZ3-3>a.ซ  ซSu =
                                                       ซ**
                                                       •si-;
                                                       !ซง•
                                                       2* ss>

                                                       III

                                                       %2Z
                                                       i — 5
                                                       3 •*
                                                       •31 g<3

                                                       lซld.
                                                       S s 5 e

                                                       Jl-li
                                                       11 M J
                                                                 8'Sl-S
628.

, N

onl
                                                              LU  ฃ3
                                                              I—  -
                                                     en
                                                     Ul
                                                     (J "".
                                                     Z O
                                                     LU ป_•

                                                     5 I
                                                     u. i
                                                     UJ a
                                                     IT b.
                                                        i ง S

                                                        ^P
                                                        ->",?
                                                        e. •— 43

                                                        > 2
CO
LJ
"Z.
o
O
z
            ^J ^J C •* — —1

            ฃ-lงS-=1
            >•} *— *i i3 • — "*
            .-* •— "ซ   - ^
                ฑ3 ij C
            ป'S-s1.s*
            v -"^ •— . x —
            ซ h w >*'= 5
            ••^ 2 ^s ^ ^ •>

            I = ^ is! 1
O  r"~ '."

i :5 ง--2
C  Z •- ?

-------
r
o




























INl
X!


Si














x
vj
























?;
>
O
>
l^S WATEK QUALIT
M
2


-J

s
^











w
••J 11
^ u
•a
— 3
3
a & ~
.•Q y ui
1 ^1
*> Ul l*J

O ui
a ฃ 41
e 0 Uk
-^ a 3
o y o
w ui a.
X
ปซ> 41 o
J3 2-1
w - ul
-• u, a
ซM 4| ifl

— Wi ฃ
fl ฃ
Ui 41 -M
1) 3 -u
w  C .fl
fl — * 41
w ซ4  'Jl
0 y •- .a
a i; -* ~


5 ^ f ~

'" *2 ^ -
— 0
*• •" i
ป S '•
•3) 3

y — — -^
3 — w **
" Jl


^ ^ • —
5 * ฃ
^ 3 — "3
it i c substances
n or its
O 3"t
Ui
G O
O
ifl W
Ui
w 0
G ->
V
O <•ซ
C 3
o 5
25 ^
C 41 ul
u e
ซ -3 3
3 U Ul
a — • C
ป .s o
u 3 o

—
—










1 ve and qualitative
rce waste discharges
oundary waters;
U 3 J
*J Jl 0
^ ^^


^ ~'~

C — ^
fl fl 3
— "*•
5 o ^
" , "

, ^ i'
— _j —
M i "*•


—
J Jl ฃ

^ -fl
>, Ui
s-1
0 41 1
O. i- ^
•fl tN
G UJ 4)
fl 41 —
fl 41 'O
C. 4)
01 Jl 4)
5j y
y jj x
c e ป
Jl U 0
Jl S ^
y n3
— 41 ^
X W CJ)
- "3 ?
O 41 *O
M 0 w
G N 11
0 ui
|Q 3 O
+j *3 it
ฃ y — •
41 -w j3 •
c"s S. S
O •-• 13 O
CJ *^ O -J


•• •







41 'O
ul ฃ
r limited use zortes
a rcjeuf
the proposed limited u
ial beneficial uses; a
a jฃ *j
** y ^ ฃ
Ul O 4)
Jl — • — i
41 'O w 0


•C - EG
ฃ '-^ •* 3

j i ^ ?
*4 ** ^
0 --. ^4 Ul
0 -
0 W w 4ป

-* TJ ~\i ~
ay ฃ 5
4) ฃ Jl

^ •• y ^j
— • Ji ? ~
= fl < s
that the zones
w
3
m
•^

j -Ji
T! u
S M
0
v a
- *
~i 4l
ifl -H
i $

ll S
S ui ซi
*j 4)
^j 4) -m
•0 4i i3
u 0

Ui
y 41 •>•ป


"^





._.
a, M
s
on of the extent of Hi
possible reduction in
accordance with
ent technology.
ซ|=5
•-* B -"• fl
> -4 'U
a x ซ u
Ui fl 3) w


ฃ 4) N JJ
y .ฃ fl
3 — y 3
41 .G 3
— y <& G

y *-
u. o 0 ซ

** i y y
- j y S
r ฃ '<- y

— ^ y 3

ฃ i- T: —
c -i ฃ s
^ 3 fl —
of flotsam,
: iny matter;
le colour/ odour ,
Is !
ง*• ฐ

* U 0
33 J "3
O 9 C
U C 31

US U a
-< 3 3 —
3i u 13 n
T: a 3 —
u j3
0 "• 3
••* Id -^
> 0 l)
-I U u
w - so
JZ 'A fl
•<* U ul *j
= a a fl
3 13 JI u

— —
~" C.








ia
iU w i
4J .2 U) C
U C -4
IK Ul O 3
O — ~i 0
V) O -t
U M O> O
u fl ^
w ซ* C
fl u o u
J *J — —
•Jl ^ w
> 3 —
fl C S -*
T3 — -
C — J
3 W
0 0 *- 1)
Ji *• 0 U
• w U 'M
fl y 0
c c ซ o
-, tj> ซ 0
-C - fl
u n C
— u -* c
Ju -
ji
'" S 'J c"
3 — • n ijv

3J • Jl -

3 —
* >
TJ a — -
U — 1 3
^ 71 ซ r

= '-r, '-J a
— Jl C
ปi nations thereof
life in nuisance
cher uses.
S O
9 ฐ
3 3 J

ODD
— * U *M
u 3 U
- TJ j
•g 0 .j

3 0.--
js u
T! O fl
C -ซ jฃ
ul * M
4) U) O
CJ — —
C V u
uป ^ C
3 4J 3
ji fl cr

>
"~









y
y
j)
C
fl
Ul
O
G
.
•73 Ui
y fl
W T3
— ฃ
S 3
= 5

0 ซ
fl
0 0

Irf fl
fl C

c y
^ ^



2 H

'ซ
o r
C TJ "1
TJ C
1) U TJ fl *-* 3
C 01 — fl Q
-• -3 3 Ul 'J ^t
.3 u o a 0 —
SO .c .* -> fl
0 ul fl
0 c jj w T;
- ul C 0 —i
V . 0) ••ซ 3
.= .= = ซ p
Ul 0 *J 4) U)
41 ut 3 3 y
G 41 U. G '-w
3 ui TJ 41 J< <ซ
•a G •-* o ui "3
"i 3 = <ป C
> — .a 3 yi
o T3 o y
c c ~ = -
>. O C fl J-ป
fl y —•ฃ. Ul .
41 •- y 71 W 4)
<8 Jฃ TS — ซ fl  41 *^ 0
J 4( Qi 4^ O Ui 41 O


fป ^






y
w 4f*4
y O ^=3
cat ion of a 1 1 in i ted us
, case- -by -case bas i s by
y. The size shall be
ss j ble deqree , bein9 n
hy all reasonable and
nt measures.
lit ions appl i cable to t
>e met at the boundary
,2 G a * g ฃ^
wOT*J.Q -J •ซ w ฃ -"3

^3-ฃ2wฃ ซl •?
-ytjCT'itjy ^J '
.3 41 —1 3 > J- 'Jl
a 3 41 -j -• - y
y ซ 31 — Ti ซ JUG
a, y .. .G '*- y y o
ay-^wy UWM
"jj"'y^ฃ4i J33y

-"- — T^J:^ 0*3
y ?! — y w o 'j G
•j ~ '.T N y ซ•* ซ* ^
— Jl C -ป ซJ - -44>U

y ^ - T ^ o y -
11 C .1 ฃ ซ ^ i • =
^ J4 - ฃ -* i. 'JTi-^
nited use zon&a
:he responsible
-ominiss ion .
the extent of the
coiiG . or anv ni Ktir
tn —3*3
-7 1^ -U *Q

u 4) C ฃ S
•a "0 0 0 •-•
ฃ - y —
O^ 41 ^

13 ,-, D ~ aj
0 > M -ซ• o
ซ-jJ^

41 <, O
uo a.

J -J W
•a ฃ a.
^-ซ i— — •


• ฃ. 4t -^ U

U
o
,1 , physical and
1 be def ined before
a new 1 imi ted use zone
y fl VM y
- - 0 ฃ
ts Jl 0
y ฃ


-.** a _-
^- w y -n

T< O 4)
o y -= ฃ
— w fl
— a T o*

._,..ซ
^ 3- i- *_i
ฃ w — 'J


Jl w ,T — t
-> ^ C -T
X >* C J
>
: c
1 G ฃ
h s
> y 41 Ji
' O •*•* ฃ
i ui g
ซ 0 Cj
ui y
C .ฃ Q

-. . c
s I I
y y

4>
-M tn -y

o"S
w tn i
4) > iป
u -* y

ji y ! i-J

ฃ -

0 ^
tJ
ป T?
w y
X W

G
JM 71
0 -•
Jl

3 ~5
J
< J
the area as a
>nt t he CoRtin i st, i on
>ssion agrees with
•si|
C T3 U
•<* > u

5ฃ|
TJ .2 -

fl C &
e u 3
0 = Jl
^Sfl .

o c o
c >,—
1" ง1
•ti •
o y 'Ji

U N >*
U> Ul Ul
G. 3 O O

jj ซ3 0
C 41 G W
3 *j.~. a


y -<-ซ ^

>"~* -
2 .^ l11 o
form barriers to mitjt ซ
interfete wl th bioloy
>-f important species tc
>syi*tt.m, or diminishes
-JO O
0 'Jl 4ป
i o .y
-H y ij —
>fl y ซj
" ~" *^ ^

i:2-!
0 a '- T;
** 3 ^
y J Ji "5
.1 y -
3 *- — ซ
0 -ป 3
^ —
it ji ฃ y
ป y 3 y
-• — — '—
S r = T1
-12-5-3
4) 4) 'C
— OJ — t *j ^
^ Ul fl -—
— 3 r 4f g
C C ui —
-?sซ-
!U *J — 'JJ >
•a - s ^ j
S u u
ซ — ซ T3
a t o —
S ^ 13 Q
,3 .G 3
a 3 w y y
o ^3 o fl y
> ••• Ul *M 41
'11ฐt
O "" Z u  **- 4) 4> ฃ
0 ^! -W
•™* -J 3 3 "y
3 G T- .,-
w ซ S —
c jj y u 3
O X — .Q
y 41 ** ^ ca

— ฃ C O G

Ul 4) y 4) ^
jj a) j; y
Ul (fl W
— C O ** C
^4 ,^ ^j ^j
fl ซ > ui a

-3 0 C
(U 0 *ซ G
i ซ O - 0
f- u W U
ul O
it T3 a. TJ
u c c

T3 3
01 ul g ui
O 4) •ซ 4>
0 C X .*
• ^ 0 fl fl

1)
0 T) ซ
>nately. Routes of pas
i require protection ar
: or pass through limit
jither by location of t
.tions within the zones
•ft :j •ซ ซ5
a. 'c 3


a. ji > .a
— c i— • v tr
^'e* ~j>
y o o <—^ "O
.n c fl
" ซ T; ^ ^

fl - 3 'Jl U
- y c y o
u y 3 ฃ


j "j y
ฃ u, - y G
y C -z -T o
i
















ui
S)
c
o
N

41

3

'?
S
G
3
y
y


0
ฃ
~ J=
C 'J
-ฃ "ซ
"3

C 'Jl
C y
•• ฃ

-i NJ
*^r
ฃ y
J 5


-------
                                                            28.
201  Mixing Zones             ILLINOIS

     (a)   In the application of any of the rules and regulations
          in this Chapter, whenever a water quality standard is
          more restrictive than its corresponding effluent stan-
          dard then an opportunity shall be allowed for the
          mixture of an effluent with its receiving waters.  Watei
          quality standards must be met at every point outside
          of the mixing zone.   The size of the mixing zone cannot
          be uniformly prescribed.  The governing principle
          is that the proportion of any body of water or seg-
          ment thereof within mixing zones must be quite small
          if the water quality standards are to have any
          meaning.  This principle shall be applied on a case-
          by-case basis to ensure that neither any individual
          source nor the aggregate of sources shall cause ex-
          cessive zones to exceed the standards .  The water
          quality standards must be met in the bulk of the
          body of water, and no body of water may be used
          totally as a mixing zone for a single outfall or
          combination of outfalls.  Moreover, except as other-
          wise provided in this Chapter, no single mixing zone
          shall exceed the area of a circle with a radius of
          600 feet.  Single sources of effluents which have
          more than one outfall shall be limited to a total
          nixing area no larger than that allowable if a
          single outfall were used.

          In determining the size of the nixing zone for any
          discharge, the following must be considered:

          1.  The character of the body of water,

          2.  the present and anticipated future use of
              the body of water',

          3.  the present and anticipated water quality
              of the body of water,

          4.  the effect of the discharge on the present
              and anticipated future water quality,

          5.  the dilution ratio, and

          S.  the nature of the contaminant.

     (b)   In addition to the .above, the mixing zone shall be so
          designed as to assure a reasonable zone of passage
          for aquatic life in which the water quality standards
          are -at.  The mixing zone shall not intersect any area
          of any such waters in such a manner that the mainte-
          nance of aquatic life in the body of water as a whole
          would be adversely affected, nor snail any mixing
                    in m ere than 25% of the cress-sectional area
          cr volume of flew of a stream except for these streams

-------
                            MIXING ZONES
                                                                   29.

                              INDIANA
            Sec. 5.        (Mixing Zone)  The mixing zone snail be considered
  a. place where waste and receiving waters mix and not as a place where
  effluents are treated.  All mixing zones will be determined on a case-by-
  case basis by the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board after consideration
  of the following:

            (a)  The dilution ratio,

            (b)  The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of
                 the receiving body of water,

            (c)  The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of
                 the waste effluent,

            (d)  The present and anticipated uses of the receiving body of
                 water,

            (e)  The existence of and impact upon any spawning or nursery
                 areas of any indigenous aquatic species, and

            (f)  The synergistic effects of overlapping mixing zones or
                 the aggregate effects of adjacent mixing cones.
                             MICHIGAN

 R 323.1082.   Mixing zones.

      Rule 1082.   (1)   A mixing zone to achieve a mixture of & point source
 discharge with the receiving waters shall be considered a region in which
 organism response to  water  quality characteristics is time-dependent.   Exposure
 iu u.lxli.5 zones  shell net CIMSS in irrป™ปTP*-i>>i #> response which results in
 deleterious  effects to populations of important aquatic life and wildlife.
 As a minimum restriction Che toxic substance 96 hour TL-^ for important species
 of fish or fishfocc organisms  shall not be exceeded in the mixing zone at any
 point inhabitable by  these  organisms, unless it can be demonstrated co the
 commission that  a higher concentration is acceptable.  The mixing zone at
 any transect of  a scream shall contain not more than 257. of the cross-secticr.al
 area or volume of flow of the  stream or both unless it can be demonstrated to
 the commission that designation of a greater area or volume of streaaflcv will
 allow passage of fish and fishfcod organisms so that effects on their immediate
 and future populations are  negligible or not measureable.  Watercourses cr
 portions thereof which, without one or more point source discharges, would have
 no flow except during periods  of surface runoff may be considered as a mixing
 zone for a point source discharge.  For Lake Michigan, mixing zones shall not
 exceed a defined area equivalent to that of a circle of radius of 1,OCC feet
 unless the discharger car. demonstrate to the commission that the defined area
 for a thermal discharge is  mora stringent than necessary to assure the
 protection and propagation  of  a balanced indigenous population of aquatic life
,and wildlife in  the receiving  water.

      (2)  All mixing  zones  established by the commission pursuant to sub rule
 (1) shall be determined on  a case-bv-case basis.

-------
                                                                      30.

                             MIXING  ZONES

                              MINNESOTA

Moans for expediting mixing arc! dispersion of  sewage,
industrial waste,  or other w.sts effluents in  the  receiving
interstate waters  arc to  b= provide^ so  far as practicable
v;hen dsered necessary by  the  r.r-ncy to maintain the  cmality
of  the receiving interstate waters  in accordance with
applicable standards,  .^ixinr zones he-: established by  the
Agency on an  individual basis,  with priory consideration be in
given to the  following Guidelines:   (a)  nixinrr zones in  rivers
shall pcrnit  an acceptable peปssare^?y for ths  noveancnt of
fish;  (b)  the total p.ixir.:?'s total surface area.

              (0 M.s:"  z,~i<  n^t in;erfc-r:.".i -.v,th -r^'.'.T.i.-j cr "urserv areas.
            !niปra:ory rcutc;;, njr ::uu;;n3 -•:' :r:.-jtary JCrs^ms.

              (g) Mist.-.r :?n?= net  oser:;:ci:-.s.  but  vihere they do. '.akir.j

-------
3745-1-11   LAKE ERIE STANDARDS        OHIO                         31.'


     (8)   MIXING ZONE

          (1)   Non-Thermal

               For Lake Erie,  outside of the eccepted areas  established
               in Division  (C) of this rule, the foMowing  criteria
               will  apply:

               (a)  Except  as  subsequent provisions of this section
                    provide different limits,  no mixing zone shall:

                    (1)  interdict the mouth of a stream,  thereby
                         blocking any portion of it; or

                    (2)  interdict the migratory routes or
                         interfere with natural  movements,
                         survival, reproduction,  growth, or
                         increase the vulnerability to pre-
                         dation of any representative aquatic
                         species;  or

                    (3}  include spawning  or nursery areas  of
                         any representative  aquatic species; or

                    (4)  include a public  water  supply intake; or

                    (5)  include any bathing area  where bath
                         houses and/or lifeguards  are provided;

                    (6)  contact the shoreline, whenever such
                         contact can be avoided.

               (b)   At  least 90 percent of the  volume of the mixing zone
                    shall not  exceed at any  time  the 24 to  96 hour  LC^Q
                    for any representative aquatic species, as determined
                    by  static  bioassays for  persistent toxicants  and
                    dynamic bioassays  for  non-persistent toxicants  in
                    accordance with  methods  described in "Standard  Methods
                    for the Examination of Water  and Wastewater," 15th
                    Edition, 1975  puolished  by  the American Public
                    Health  Association, American  Water Works Association
                    and the Water Pollution  Control  Federation.


          (2)   Thermal

               (a)   A thermal  nixing zone  to permit dilution and  cooling of
                    a waste heat discharge snail  be considered a  region in
                    which organism response  to  temperature  is time-dependent.
                    Exposure to 'tamceratures in  a  tnermal mixing  zcr.e  shall
                    not cause  an ineversible response which results in
                    deleterious effects to the  wildlife and acuatic life
                    representative of the  receiving waters. The  daily

-------
3745-1-11   LAKE ERIE STANDARDS       OHIO                                    32-


                    average  temperature  in a  thermal mixing  zone at  the
                    point'nearest  to the discharge  that  is accessible  to  the
                    resident aquatic organisms  shall not exceed the  temperatures
                    in Table 7d  at the corresponding ambient temperature.
                    at ambient temperatures of  59ฐF (15ฐC) and above the
                    daily  average  temperature in  a  thermal mixing  zone will
                    be determined  on a case-fay-case basis.


               (b)   Thermal  mixing zone  size  limitations shall be
                    established  by the Director pursuant to  Section
                    (B)(2)(a)  of this rule on a case-by-case basis
                    for  all  point  source discharges subject  to
                    permit.

               (c)   Except as  Divisions  (8)(2)(a) and  (8)(2)(b) of
                    this rule  establish  different limitations, no
                    thermal  mixing zone  shall:

                    (1)  interdict the migratory  routes  or interfere
                        with  natural movements,  survival, reproduction,
                        growth, or increase  the  vulnerability to
                        predation of any representative aquatic
                        species;

                    (2)  interfere with  or prevent  the recovery of
                        an  aquatic community or  species  population
                        'that  could reasonably  be expected as pre-
                        viously limiting water quality  conditions
                        improve;

                    (3)  include a  public water supply intake, or;

                    (4)  include any bathing  area where  bath  houses
                        and/or  life guards are provided.

               (d)  Closed-cycle cooling blowdown discharge will  be  exempt
                   from Divisions  (B)(2)(a)   and  (b) of  this  rule.

-------
3745-1-11  LAKE ERIE STANDARDS
              OHIO
                                                                          33.
Table 7d:  Daily average temperatures of thermal mixing zones at corresponding
           ambient temperatures.  Shown as degrees Fahrenheit and (celsius).
     Ambient
Daily Average
 Temoerature
Ambient
Daily Average
 Temperature
32(0)
33(0.6)
34(1.1)
35(1.7)
36(2.2)
37(2.8)
38(3.3)
39(3.9)
40(4.4)
41(5.0)
42(5.6)
43(6.1)
44(6.7)
45(7.2)
41(5.0}
41(5.0)
43(6.1)
45(7.2)
46(7.8)
48(8.9)
50(10.0)
52(11.1)
53(11.7)
55(12.8)
57(13.9)
59(15.0)
61(16.1)
62(16.7)
46(7.8)
47(8.3)
43(8.9)
49(9,4)
50(10.0)
51(10.6)
52(11.1)
53(11.7)
54(12.2)
55(12.8)
56(13.3)
57(13.9)
58(14.4)
59(15) and
65(18.3)
66(18.9)
68(20.0)
70(21.1)
71(21.7)
73(22.8)
75(23.9)
77(25.0)
73(25.6)
80(26.7)
82(27.8)
84(28.9)
86(30.0)
above-daily
                                              average limit will  be
                                              detarinined on a case-by-
                                              case basis.

-------
                                                                             34.
                                   MIXING ZONES
                                     New York

Tha following criteria shall apply to all waters of the State receiving therma'
discharges, except as provided in Section 704.6.

     (a)  The Department shall specify definable, numerical
          limits for all nixing zones (a set linear distance
          prom the point of discharge, surface area involvement,
          or volume of receiving water entrained in the thermal
          plume).

     (b)  Conditions in the mixing zone shall not be lethal in
          contravention of water quality standards to aquatic
          biota which may enter the zone.

     (c)  The location of mixing zones for thermal discharges
          shall not interfere with spawning araas, nursery areas
          and fish migration routes.

-------
POLICY 5 - MIXING ZONES       ONTARIO                              35
   Terms and conditions  reiated to  the  mixing zones  may be
outlined in  Certificates of Approval, based on  the minimum re-
quirements outlined below.  Inherent in these conditions, a mixing
zone may not be used as an alternative  to adequate treatment. The
mixing  zone dimensions will be kept as small  as possible  while
ensuring chat the  Provincial  Water Quality Objectives are met at
the boundary of the mixing zone.
1. Mixing zones should not contain:
   - materials which  form objectionable deposits, i.e. scums, oil
   or floating debns:
   - substances producing objectionable  colour, odour, taste or
   turbidity;
   - substances which produce objectionable growths of nuisance
   plants and animals:
   - substances which render the mixing zone aesthetically un-
   acceptable.
2. The presence of a  mixing zone should  in no  way pose a threat
   to the species survival of any  organism tn the receiving  water
   outside the mixing zone.
3.  No  conditions  within  the  mixing zone should be  permitted
    which:
   a)  are  rapidly lethal to important aquatic life (resulting in
        conditions which result in sudden  fish kills and mortality
        of organisms passing through the mixing zones); or
    b)  cause irreversible responses which could result in detrimen-
        tal post-exposure effects: or
    c)  result in bioconcentration of toxic materials which are
        harmful to the organism or its consumer: or
   d)  attract organisms to  the mixing zones, resulting  in a pro-
        longed and lethal exposure period.

4. A mixing zone shall not  be allowed to create a barrier to the
   migration of fish and aquatic life.
5. Rapid changes in the water quality which could kill organisms
   by shock effects must  not  be present. Such conditions  could
   have the effect of creating a higher  toxicity value.
6. Municipal and  other  water supply  intakes  and  recreational
   areas, as a general rule, should not lie within a  mixing zone.
   However, knowledge of the  effluent  characteristics  and  the
   type of  discharge associated with the mixing zone could allow
   such a mixture of uses.
7. Mixing zones may  overlap unless the combined effects exceed
   the  conditions specified m these mixing zone guidelines.
8. Limitations  on  mixing zones should  be established by  the
   Ministry  on  a  case-by-case  basis, where "case" refers to both
   local considerations and the waterbody as a whole or  segments
   of the -.vateroody.
0  Existing biological, chemical,  physical and hydrologica! condi-
   tions should be known  when considering the  location of a ne-A
   mixing zone or limitations on an existing one.
10. The design and location of  the outfall should be considered on
   a  case-by-case  -asis to  reduce the  impact of" the .Taxing ;or.c
   on the receiving waters.
1  1. Total loadings  into all the mixing zones within a river, lake or
   segment   thereof, must  not  exceed the acceptable  icacUr.is
   rrorn ad  point-source ciscnarges required to  maintain  satisrj^-
   torv '.vater aualuv

-------
            APPENDIX 3
ONTARIO DISSOLVED OXYGEN OBJECTIVE

-------
                                                                               37.
                             ONTARIO  OBJECTIVE
Dissolved Oxygen   At no  time  should dissolved oxygen concen-
                   trations  be  less  than  the  values  specified
                   below:

                                Dissolved Oxygen Concentration
                                Cold Water        Warm Water
                   Tempera-        Biota             Biota
                     ฃ^re     fcSatura-    mg/'L  % Satura-    mg/L
                               tlon              tion

                      0         54        8       47        7
                      5         54        7       47        6
                     10         54        6       47        5
                     15         54        6       47        5
                     20         57        5       47        4
                     25         63        5       48        4

                   In situations where additional physical and/or
                   chemical stresses are present these minimum
                   levels may prove  inadequate and more strin-
                   gent  Objectives may be necessary.
                   In some hypolimnetic waters, dissolved oxygen
                   is naturally  lower  than the above-specified
                   concentrations. Such  a condition should not
                   be altered by adding oxygen demanding mate-
                   rials causing  a depletion of dissolved oxygen.

-------
            APPENDIX 4
GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY AGREEMENT
              ANNEX 3
       CONTROL OF PHOSPHORUS

-------









^^

n











































2
—•*
2
'JJ
'^*J

^ "•>

^^ C/]

— S

< r^j O

— , xl 3:

2:1 '^
CC ri O

~ ' j

3 ฃ
Q



j^i
"**^


^_
<
— •

-T

Ul 'Jl -N
0 1 -a
^ ~
•.3 U
TJ • -
is. a. a
O t


M S- S
3 C
U W
O • 5;
.3 a] i
a -5 o
a a u
O 0
JT t ~
a. m
•A -t
•Jl 3 CJ
Ol U C
jS 0 -t
10 a. ป
— a o
•t m u
ฃ 0 a.
* -S
jj 113
M c
11 4) H S.

3 "*
0-a .=
-• r^ *j
~ ซ\ t
O t J
14* f
c
01 U O
.ฃ •ซ -t
c- a u
5s <3
i) ซ
Jl 0,
a 0
ฃ 0
u
V
^f.5
O 4)

ฃ*
11 V
N W
.t a .
t CP 6
ซ 4) 3)
C .W w
-* (/I
w cn
0 -ซ
JJ J M
4)
tfl C Jปt
-*ฐ3
at jj
s •ซ -w

U *! U
y. 1- W

C< 'jS 4j
^
•- V •*-
3 > 0
c 0
;ซ W U
<** TI -w
0 'JJ TJ C

ซ„• a 3 0

C — — • -T
2. 0 3

3 — • 0
~ _ ""* -?
- C 3 ui

3 'Jl ^.
CJ 3
01 0ป
- 01 C
5 j| c
 ป 41
u a ฃ
C '-
O 1)
— ฃ
01 • W
(A a 0
••* y
งc ซ -n
 4>
a -• 'U A
u "7 c; t jj y w
c it a jj o c
01 o
•* it
ป
-J
^
"3
3
O

4
4)
^
•3
3

VI
a
jซ
.c
.J
u
3


ซJ? C W
rป -• oi
cn a.
t ^
IS
Q



ง3. 010. T3 •
c g CN
O 01 -t 01 — ซ rป
(j ^ n j:
41 JJ in jJ
W 0
a t -
DO 'O
-= - .C il
3 ซ
JJ U> U -t
C C -
3 — — J2
Sal — a
•t Jj JJ
fl ซ a a


c
- o

Qi JJ
K^ *^
.at:
c
o 8
^3
41 C
> a
j; J2
3
JJ C
2
ii a
71

i o
-1
f-f

S 3


C D
o -a

Jj !-•
3 >
T3 a
u ซ
M '-
u 'J

n ฐ J


C Jl U

— 53
fl S —
— C

J.1 — -

ซ-  "H 0


3 U
jj U 41
e tn

Jl O ~i
a c a
•- a -
a Ji o
-• ->4

- C. 1
~
— 3 M
0 J

~ c —
•J t
^r 1 -1

i _ -.









C

Ul


o o
a Q

n ui


















oca
O O 











u c
O a
-t Ol
U t
a"5

Ul X

Ol 01
J* .X
al J j

u
•ซ 4)
C 01 J=
•t JJ JJ
41 (3 O
> Ul JJ
t ฃ a c
a 3 o
-H O-i 13
41 W ฃ C
w o> a 4
~ 0
|Q c or u tn
e 0 o jj >,
4 U CO O
3 a 01 .ฃ

JJ -t w^ c
0 -0 3 O —
jj C C
a ซ c u
ซ a u
- o o> o >a
jฃ t ^ jj 
y a ป— 3^ <3 il
•j = a —• c u
3 C - — — u
2 - ^0 = -

j '^ S ""*
"z 1 t* oi a a
— T1 — JC "C 11 11

s a -Ji - a J- a


n










!

3 >t 41
x fl e

.* C -C

*J -^
Olfi

— 0 w






Ul
•J
^
C JJ
4 a
01
•D W
U O
0.
0 01

oi S

11 O
•C JJ

i?
•4
_. ^
'^ J

3 u a
S ซ--
'J-i O O
-•3 -
0 *^
-. 01


** 0 'C


0 u

0 —
C 3


•^ -T 1
— * Ii .T1
•J -.

— •" C
Jl — ,— t
i 'J —
33 —
U J- S

C
ui a
c *-
— ^
ut U

<-* G

a.
-. ^
U 4)

cam
3 -* 3
sฃ *
o o
•^ fl J=
^ a


>*4 tJ Ji
— J-
U
JW V **

3
a c u
W O JJ
T3 ^ ^i

3 OV W
O ซ
ป c a
0
w — S
O*-ซ 
tn w **
ai U a .C ซ!
u C S -*H CU,w
"0*^4) -C C
a c c 3 -t ซ


> -. ^ a. u ^ ^
JJ fl C !fl O 4J *J

3 3 .ซC ^ JJ ^
.y .-. ,-t O. 0) -^ Q
J 14.4 ;"?,—•
j ปw ^. 3 Ul
U a jj 4J •-
S ป 3 ซ CL Ji
Ji jj *j a (Tj
c o c ^e ฃ ฃ
-. ^ J 2 J 2 a
JJ W C JJ Of* .C
>Q 0 -"^ •"* ** -*^ *J

0 - JJ -ป C
-^ 3 '-0 U JS -^ -*

a r-* u a— ซ
a 'M /i in jj
Oi j3 0 ฃ 1 * C
C ฃ ,13 -3 O fl
— (*1 U ^H
"2 a O1 3J ** -L


•"11 ^-i "30
w M — C C ***

-S T ^ S

T - • ^ C =
j -4 ,n u x

5 - 3 C C.= ฃ

c
t3
fl
Ul

yi
••*

0


a
^
4J

S


o
JJ

^
4)
U
^
cr
o

4) >
U 4)
a >
ซi
0% <0
c

•0
fl J=
o ^
u
4) 0*
*'ซ-JJQ- W tJซ3
C* OC 04) C C -C O* W
•*•* JJ '** C W s Jj O -U^Q4)
C 41 Q - — O> '- >
O*' ^aJJ!QJ^3--" 3J 1* Q. j^
ij X -QU03 W1^ JJ4) Cj
-^3'^1WU30 "^ -w^:
c ซ jj 0 a — ^ i cj o 3
0*^ OJJ^^fl) ^Jj
-*^J >O alT3^ ^-* c-
jj fl IJ 4J t3 S U U 'fl O > fl W
o u c. Ji c 3 cj a* a ซ u 3 c
3--* 3fl^DQ3 3Jfl'jlO
QO c1*-— ซ 3(rt3*J
MrtJ 4) ••* C *3 H .> ซJ * O^^1"*^
cOd x uoa^uc sj'oc
-• ซฃs33J: ="J CCJO
ฃ OS^S-j 3* — • O,Cj
013 ฃw 0 Ai30— 4tO
3ฃ 3W-T3U- jj— Jiwซ— .
U •-* ฃ C -J tj
Ox —'^•ac-i^.-jj u^>o
ฃtj xu -.- Cji 33^0
CLฃ flO* ii '.fl g 'O*^
10 ฃ r c ซ c-v a. ^
Oa ^OS^QS** ui f7 11 j-j
O.-J ^i--^3^w^s ^:— gj
*J *J — ^ fly iuOS
^3 -'JiOOjCu 3-*
0 J- 0 - - Ji — 0 -- ^ C

ฃซ Jl ^ U r^ j^S ซ
0 U C3ปi.— i5JC- C OU*-<


.flitj w"""0 Cwj *jjiQปai
• — — oc.x ^I—T-; '-jcjoic
— yui ^ci.-j^'ii--* "^Li^-^-iu,
M a -ป j_i-^-ao"j— ;j i) <— • iป — i



















































O

)-^
o

Jtf JJ
at c
4ป O •
a U cn
0 4) -*
U .C  jj
W — t
fl u o
ซ 4t C

4) ui
4) C
""* *n o
J3 C -i


> >, 3
- = 2
,^ ig< .
O iJ C


0 *** al
c a 3


^ 3 .-
w s a
C •• Jl
- x 3
fl n M
Z e i


-------
APPENDIX 5
TEMPERATURE

-------
                                                                           41

                               rEMPERATURE
                         Water Quality Objective

There should be no change in temperature that would adversely affect
any local or general use of the waters.
                                Mi nnesota
No Material Increase
                               Pennslyvania

No rise when ambient temperature is 58ฐF. or above; not more than 5ฐF.
rise above ambient temperature until stream temperature reaches 58ฐF.;
not to be changed by more than 2ฐF. during any one-hour period.

-------
                                                               42.
                 RED  BOOK
TEMPERATURE
CRITERIA

    Freshwater Aquatic Life

    For any time of year, there are two upper limiting temperatures
    for  a  location  (based on  the  important  sensitive species found
    there at that time):
    1.   One limit consists of a  maximum  temperature for short
        exposures that is time dependent and is given by the species-
        specific equation:
        Temperature (ฐC) = l/b[logio(time in minutes)-a] -2
        Where:
        a - intercept on the "y" or logarithmic axis of the line fitted
            to  experimental data  which are available for some
            species from Appendix II-C, NAS, 1974.
        b = slope of the line fitted to experimental  data which are
            available for some species from Appendix II-C, NAS,
            1974.

    2.   The second value is a limit on the weekly average tempera-
        ture that:
        a,  in the cooler months (mid-October to mid-April in the
            north  and  December to  February in the south)  will
            protect against mortality of important species if the
            elevated plume temperature is suddenly dropped to the
            ambient temperature, with the limit being the  acclima-
            tion temperature minus  2ฐC when  the  lower  lethal
            threshold temperature equals the ambient water temper-
            ature  (in some  regions  this limitation may  also be
            applicable in summer); or
        b.  in the warmer months (April through  October in the
            north  and March through November in the south) is
            determined by  adding to the  physiological  optimum
            temperature (usually  for growth) a factor calculated as
            one-third of the difference between the ultimate upper
            incipient  lethal temperature and the optimum tempera-
            ture for  the  most  sensitive important species  (and
            appropriate life state)  that normally is found at that
            location and time; or
        c.   during reproductive seasons  (generally  April  through
            June and September  through October in the north and
            March through May and October through November in
            the south) meets site-specific requirements for successful
            migration, spawning, egg incubation, fry rearing,  and
            other reproductive functions of important species. These
            local requirements should supersede ail other  require-
            ments when they are apoiicable: or
        d.  is a site-specific limit  th.it is found necessary to  preserve
            normal species  diversity or prevent appearance of nui-
            sance organisms.

-------
                         ILLINOIS
                                                            43.
(e)   Temperature  (STORET numbers  - (ฐF)  00011 and (ฐC)
     00010):

     (1)   (A)   All sources of heated effluents in exis-
               tence as of January 1, 1971 shall meet
               the following restrictions outside of a
               mixing zone which  shall be no greater
               than a circle with a radius of 1000 feet
               or an equal fixed  area of simple form.

               (i)   There shall -be -ao abnormal tempera-
                    ture changes  thac may affect aquatic
                    life.

              (ii)   The normal daily and seasonal tempera-
                    ture fluctuations that existed before
                    the addition  of heat shall be maintained.

             (iii)   The maximum temperature rise at any
                    time above natural temperatures shall
                    not exceed 3ฐF.  In addition, the water
                    temperature shall not exceed the maxi-
                    mum limits (ฐF) indicated in the following
                    table:

                    JAN.        45            JUL.        80
                    FEB.        45            AUG.        80
                    MAR.        45            SEPT.       80
                    APR.        55            OCT.        65
                    MAY         60            NOV.        60
                    JUN.        70            DEC.        50
              (B)   The  owner  or operator of a source of heated
                   effluent which discharges 0.5  billion British
                   Thermal Units per hour (3TU/HR.)  or more shall
                   demonstrate  in a  hearing before  this Board
                   not  less than five nor more than six years
                   after  the  adoption of this regulation,  that
                   discharges from that source have not caused
                   and  cannot be reasonably expected in future
                   to cause significant ecological  damage  to the
                   Lake.   If  such proof is not made to the satis-
                   faction of the Board,  backfitting of alterna-
                   tive cooling devices shall be  accomplished
                   within a reasonable time as determined  by the
                   Board.

              (C)   The  owner  or operator of a source of heated
                   effluent shall maintain such records and con-
                   due- such  studies of the effluents from such
                   source and of their effects as may be re-
                   quired by  the Environmental Protection  Agency
                   or in  any  ~erm.it  granted under tihe Environ-
                   mental Protection Act.

              (D)   Backfitting  of alternative cooling facilities
                   will be required  if,  upon complaint filed in
                   accordance with Board rules,  it  is found at
                   any  tir.e -hat any heated effluent causes sig-
                   -•'-•' (~,=>-i~ o.-r^l .^cr-i a^ 1 darrtaca to  the Lake.

-------
                                                      44.
                   ILLINOIS

(2)   Any effluent source under construction as of January
     1,  1971,  but not in operation,  shall meet all the
     requirements of Section 1 of this regulation and
     in  addition shall meet the following restrictions:

     (A)   Neither the bottom,  the shore,  the hypo-
          limnion,  nor the thermocline shall be
          affected by any heated effluent.

     (B)   No heated effluent shall affect spawning
          grounds or fish migration routes.

     (C)   Discharge structures shall be so  designed
          as to maximize short-term mixing  and thus
          to reduce the area significantly  raised
          in temperature.

     (D)   No discharge shall exceed ambient tempera-
          tures by more than 20ฐF.

     (E)   Heated effluents from more than one source
          shall not interact.

     (F)   All reasonable steps shall be taken to
          reduce the number of organisms  drawn into
          or against the intakes.

     (G)   Cleaning of condensers shall be accomplished
          by mechanical devices.  If chemicals must
          be used to supplement mechanical  devices, the
          concentration at the point of discharge shall
          not exceed the 96-hour TLm for  fresh water
          organisms.

(3)   (A)   No source of heated  effluent which was not
          in operation or under construction as of
          January. 1,  1971 shall discharge more than
          a  daily average of 0.1 billion  BTU/Hr.

     (B)   Sources of heated effluents which discharge
          less  than a daily average  of 0.1  billion
          BTU/Hr.  not in operation or under construction
          as of January 1,  1971 shall meet  all require-
          ments of  Sections 1  and 2  of this regulation.

-------
                                                              45.
                     INDIANA
                  TEMPERATURE
(ee) All new waste heat discharges or .enlargements
     of existing facilities exceeding a daily average
     of 0.5 billion BTU/hour, which had not begun
     operation as of February 11, 1972, and which
     plan to use Lake Michigan waters for cooling,
     shall be limited to tho amount essential for
     blowdown in the operation of a closed cycle
     cooling facility.  Plants not in operation as
     of February 11, 1972, will be allowed to go

     into operation provided they are committed to a
     closed cycle cooling system construction schedule
     approved by the State and Federal Regulatory .
     Agencies.

(ff) Water intakes shall be designed and located to
     minimize entrainment and damage to desirable
     organisms.   Requirements may vary depending
     upon local  conditions but,  in general,  intakes
     are to have niniaium water velocity and shall
     not be located in spawning or nursery areas of
     important  fishes.   Water velocity at screens
     and other  exclusion devices shall also be at a
     minimum.

(gg) Discharges  other than those now in existence
     shall be such that  the thermal plumes do not
     overlap or  intersect.

Chh) Facilities  discharging acre than a daily average
     of 0.5 billion STU/hour of waste heat shall
     continuously record intake and discharge temperature
     and flow and sake those records available to
     regulatory  agencies upon request.

-------
                        INDIANA                                   46,
(5)   (Temperature)   The following temperature standards
     and criteria shall apply:

     (aa)  All  temperatures  are  expressed both in degrees
          Fahrenheit and degrees  Celsius.   In all receiving
          waters the points of  measurement- shall normally
          be in the first meter below the surface at such
          depth as  to avoid thin  layer surface warming
          due  to extreme ambient  air temperatures,  but
          where required to determine the true distribution
          of heated wastes  and  natural variations in
          water temperatures, measurements shall be at a
          greater depth and at  several depths as a thermal
          profile.

     (bb)  There shall be no abnormal temperature changes
          so as to  be injurious to fish,  wildlife,  or
          other aquatic life or the growth or propagation
          thereof.   In addition,  pluae interaction with
          the  bottom shall  be minimized and shall not
          injuriously affect fish,  shellfish, and wildlife
          spawning  or nursery areas.

     (cc)  The  normal daily  and  seasonal temperature fluc-
          tuations  that existed before the addition of
          heat shall be maintained.

     (dd)  At any time and at a  maximum distance of a
          1,000 feet arc inscribed from a fixed point
          adjacent  to the discharge and/or as agreed upon
          by the Strean Pollution Control  Board and
          Federal Regulatory Agencies,  the receiving
          water temperature shall not be more than 3  Fahrenheit
          above the existing, natural water temperature
          nor  shall the maximum temperature exceed those
          listed in Table I below,  whichever is lower:
                                TABLE  I
                                                  ฐF    ฐC
              January                             45     7.0
              February                            45     7.0
              March                               45     7.0
              April                               55    13.0
              May                                 60    15.5
              June                                70    21.0
              July                                80    26.5
              August                              80    26.S
              September                           80    26.5
              October                             65    18.5
              November                            60    15.5
              December                            50    10.0

-------
                                                                        47,
  3745-1-11  LAKE ERIE STANDARDS      OHIO

                 (34)  Temperature

                       (a)  There shall be no water temperature
                            changes as a result of human activity
                            that cause mortality, long-term avoidance,
                            exclusion from habitat, or adversely
                            affect the reproductive success of
                            representative aquatic species, unless
                            caused by natural conditions.

                       (b)  At no time shall water temperature exceed
                            a monthly or bi-weekly average, or at
                            any time exceed the daily maximum temperature
                            as indicated in Table 7a and 7b.  The
                            average and daily maximum temperature
                            standards shall apply and be measured outside
                            of a thermal mixing zone at any point on a
                            thermal mixing zone boundary at depths
                            greater than three feet, as defined in
                            Rule 3745-1-11(B)(2)(a) and (b) of the Ohio
                            Administrative Code.

                       (c)  The temperature of the hypolimnetic waters
                            of Lake Erie shall not exceed at any
                            time a daily maximum as indicated in
                            Table 7c.
Table 7a: Lake Erie Western Basin - includes the area of Lake Erie west of a
          line drawn from Pelee Point, Canada to Scott Point on Catawba Island.
          Shown as degrees Fahrenheit and (Celsius).

                          Mar.    Mar.    Apr.    Apr.    May     May
                          1-15   16-31    1-15   16-30    1-15   16-31

Average:   -----      53       59     65       75
                                                (11.7)   (15.0) (18.3)   (23.9)

Daily
Maximum:    35      38      39      45     51      56      64      72      73
          (1.7)   (3.3)   (3.9)   (7.2)  (10.5) (13.3)   (17.3) (22.2)   (25.6)
          June    July    Aug.    Sept.   Sept.   Oct.    Oct.    Nov.    Dec.
         16-30    1-31    1-31    1-15   16-30    1-15   16-31    1-30    1-31

Average:  80       83      83      78     76       66     60      > 53
        (25.7)   (28.3)  (28.3)  (25.6) (24.4)   (18.9) (15.6)    (11.7)

Daily
Maximum:   83      85      85      83     81       71     65       58       46
         (28.3)   (29.4)  (29.4)  (28.3) (27.2)   (21.7) (18.3)    (14.4)   (7.3)

-------
                                                                             48,
3745-1-11   LAKE ERIE STANDARDS              OHIO


Table 7b:  Lake Erie Central Basin - includes the area of Lake Erie east of a
          line drawn from Pelee Point, Canada to Scott Point on Catawba Island
          to the Pennsylvania-Ohio state line.  Shown as degrees Fahrenheit
          and (Celsius).

          Jan,    Feb.    Mar.    Mar.    Apr.    Apr.    May     May     June
          1-31    1-29    1-15   16-31    1-15   16-30    1-15   16-31    1-15

Average:   ....        43    53       59     63       75
                                          (6.1) (11.7)   (15.0) (17.2)   (23.9)

Daily
Maximum:    35       38      39      45      48    56       63     72       78
          (1.7)   (3.3)   (3.9)   (7.2)   (8.9) (13.3)   (17.2) (22.2)   (25.6)


          June    July    Aug.    Sept.   Sept.   Oct.    Oct.    Nov.    Dec.
         16-30    1-31    1-31    1-15   16-30    1-15   16-31.    1-30    1-31

Average:   80      83      83      76      71      66     58       -48
        (26.7K (28.3)  (28.3)  (24.4) (21.7)   (18.9) (14.4)   (8.9)


Daily
Maximum:   83      85      85      81      76      71      63      53      46
        (28,3)   (29.4)  (29.4)  (27.2) (24.4)   (21.7) (17.2)   (11.7)   (7.8)
 Table  7c:  Seasonal daily maximum  temperature  limitations for the hypolimnetic
            regions of Lake  Erie.   Shown as degrees fahrenheit and (celcius).

                           Month                    Daily Maximum

                           January                    44  (6.7)

                           February                  44  (6.7)

                           March                      44  (6.7)

                           April                      47  (8.3)

                           May                        51  (10.6)

                           June                       54  (12.2)

                           July          '             59  (15.0)

                           August                     59  (15.0)

                           September                  55  (12.8)

                           October                    46  (7.8)

                           November                  41  (5.0)

                           December                  38  (3.3)

-------
                                                                               49,

                     WISCONSIN
  NR  102.05  Lake Michigan  and  Lake Superior thermal stand-
ards. For Lake Michigan  and Lake Superior the following thtrrr.il
standards are established  so 33  to  minimize elfects on  the aqua:ic
biota in the receiving waters.

  (1)  (a)  Thermal discharges shall  not  raise  the  receiving water
temperature more than oฐK abo<-e '.ne exiitinj natural tempera'.1.::? a;
the boundary of mixing zones established in paragraphs  I'D) and irjrrs to !,.iice  Michiiinn shall
nol raise the temperature o! the rcceiviiit; \vatcr> at the boundary of
the established mixing rone above the following limits:

January	-		--15'F   May	•	-	-	CO0
February	-	 -I5e     June-——-	.....		70ฐ
March	-15ฐ     July	SOS
Ajml	55ฐ     August	80ฐ

September	80ฐ     November	60ฐ
October	60ฐ     December	50"
  His(or>. Cr. Kซt5
-------
                                                                        50.
                              MICHIGAN
R 323.1069.  Temperature: general considerations.

     Rule 1069.  (1) In all waters of the state, the points of temperature
measurement normally shall be in the surface 1 meter; however, where turbulence,
sinking pluses, discharge inertia or other phenomena upset the natural
thermal distribution patterns of receiving waters, temperature measurements
shall be required to identify the spatial characteristics of the thermal
profile.

     (2)  Monthly maximum temperatures , based on the ninetieth percentile
occurrence of natural water temperatures plus the increase allowed at the edge
of the mixing zone and in part or long-term physiological needs of fish, may
be ny^iao^oH fnr 
-------
                                                                51
                      MICHIGAN
(f)   Lake Huron,  Saginsw bay:


(g)


00

(4_ ^


(j)


J
45
St.
*j '
40
Lake
J
40
J
40
Lake
J
45
F
45
Clair
F
40
St.
F
40
F
40
Erie
F
45
M
45
river:
M
40
Clair:
M
45
J 	
M
45
'•
M
45
A
60

A
50

A
55
A
60

A
60
M •
70

M
60

M
70
M
70

M
70
J
75

J
70

J
75
J
75

J
75
J
80

J
75

J
80
J
80

J
80
A
85

A
80

A
83
A
83

A
85
S
78

S
75

S
80
S
80

S
80
0
65

0
65

0
70
0
70

0
70
N
55

N
55

N
55
N
55

N
60
D
45

D
50

D
45
D
45

D
50

-------
                         NEW YORK                             52.
          No discharge which will be injurious
          to fishlife or make the waters
          unsafe or unsuitable for any best
          usage determined for the specific
          waters which are assigned to each •
          class.  See Part 704.


SccrCicm 704.1  WATER QUALITY STANDARD FOR THERMAL DISCHARGES.
     (&)  All ttr,a-ninl discharges to the waters of the Sta''e
          shall assure the protection  and propag-.ci'jr. of r.
          balanced, indigenous population of shellfish, fish,
          and wildlife in and on the body of water!,

     (b)  The criteria contained in this Part shall applv
          to all thermal discharges and shall be complied
          with,  except as provided in this Part.
Section 7C4.2  CRITERIA GOVERNING THERMAL DISCHARGES.

     (a)  General criteria.   The following criteria shall
          apply to all waters of the State receiving thermal
          discharges, except: as provided in Section 7C4.6:

          1.    The natural seasonal cycle shall be retained.

          2.    Annual spring and fall temperature changes
               shall be gradual.

          3.    Large day-to-day temperature fluctuations
               due to heat of artificial origin shall be
               avoided.

          4.    Development or growth of nuisance organisms
               shall not occur in contravention of water
               quality standards.

          5 .    Discharges which would lc-;er receiving -jater
               temperature shall not cavs^ a violation of
               water cuality standards and Section
          6.   For the protection of the aquatic biota from
               severe temperature changes, routine shut down
               of an entire thermal discharge at any site
               shall not be scheduled during the period from
               December thrcush March.

-------
                       NEW YORK
(b)   Special  criteria.   The following critex-ia shall
     apply  to all waters of the State receiving thermal
     discharges,  except  as  provided in Section 704.6:

     1.   Non-Trout  Waters.

          (i)   The water temperature at the surface of
               a  stream  shall  not  be raised to more than
               90ฐF  at any  point.

          (ii)  At least  50  percent of the cross sectional
               area  and/or  volume  of flow of the stream
               •> -n rป 1 • i<1 ' •>•> o- -i  m-f !ป•? p-i im o F Oil r< — f 'i 1ฐ >-<"! f) F I" hf1
               suriacc as uien^urcu ironi ijm.au  LJ sao^u
               shall not be raised to more than 5 Fahrenheit
               degrees over the temperature that existed
               before  the addition of hoat of  artificial
               origin or to a  maximum of 86ฐF  whichever is
               less .
         (iii)  At  least  50  percent  of the  cross
               sectional area  and/or  volume  of flow
               of  the  stream including a minimum of
               one-third of the  surface as measured
               from  shore to shore  shall not be
               1cuered more rhnn 5  Fahrenheit degrees
               from  the  temperature that existed
               immediately  prior to such lowering.

    2.   Trout  Waters.

         (i)    No  discharge at a temperature over 70ฐF
               shall be  permitted at  any time to streams
               classified for  trout.

         (ii)   From  June through September no discharge
               shall be  permitted that will  raise the
               temperature  of  the stream more than
               2 Fahrenheit degrees ever that which
               existed before  the addition of heat  of
               artificial origin.
                            •o-
         (iii) From October  through May,  no  discharge
              shall be  permitted  that will  raise-  the
              temperature of  the  stream  more  than
              5 Fahrenheit  degrees over  that  which
              existed before  the  addition of  heat of
              artificial origin or to a  maximum of
              50CF whichever  is less.

-------
                                                       54,

                    NEW YORK


      (iv)  From June through September no discharge
            shall be permitted that will lower the
            temperature of the stream more than
            2 Fahrenheit degrees from that which
            existed immediately prior to such lowering.
 3.    Lakes.
      (i)   The water temperature at the surface of
            a lake shall not be raised more than
            3 Fahrenheit degrees over the temperature
            t~ hi t' <"".- ">' e I" r> rl K n !~r M- r> |- h o ,T' •? i" f i mi < i F !i rv -i t~
            ot ai'LiiiciaL ui'3>;j.n.
                             ' o-
      (ii)  In lakes subject to stratification as
           defined in Part 652, thermal discharges-
           that will raise the temperature of the
           receiving waters shall be confined to
           the epilimnion.

      (iii) In lakes subject to stratification as
           defined in Part 652, thermal discharges
           which will lower the temperature of the
           receiving waters shall be discharged to
           the hypolimnion, and shall meet the
           water quality standards contained in
           Parts 701 and 702 in all respects.

4.   Coastal Waters.

     (i)   The water temperature a'c the surface of
           coastal waters shall not be raised more
           than 4 Fahrenheit degrees from October
           through June nor more than 1.5 Fahrenheit
           degrees from July chrcugh September over
           that which existed before the addition of
           heat of artificial origin.

     (ii)  The water temperature ac the surface of
           coastal waters shall not be lowered more
           than 4 Fahrenheit degrees from October
           through June nor -era than 1.5 Fahrenheit
           degrees from July through September from
           that which exir-ted immediately prior to
           such lowering.

-------
                                                                      55,
                  ONTARIO OBJECTIVE
Temperature        1)  General
                   The natural  thermal  regime  of  any body of
                   water shall not be altered so  as to impair the
                   quality of the natural environment. In partic-
                   ular, the diversity, distribution and abundance
                   of  plant and animal life shall not  be  signifi-
                   cantly changed.
                   2)  Waste Heat Discharge
                   (a) Ambient Temperature Changes
                   The temperature at the edge  of a mixing zone
                   shall  not exceed  the  natural ambient water
                   temperature  at a  representative  control loca-
                   tion by more than 10Cฐ (18Fฐ). However,  in
                   special  circumstances,  local  conditions may-
                   require  a  significantly  lower   temperature
                   difference than  10Cฐ (1SFฐ). Potential dis-
                   chargers are  to  apply  to the Ministry of the
                   Environment for guidance  as to  the allowable
                   temperature  rise for  each  thermal discharge.
                   This Ministry will also specify the nature  of
                   the mixing zone  and the procedure for the
                   establishment of a representative control loca-
                   tion for temperature recording  on a case-by-
                   case basis.
                   (b) Discharge Temperature Permitted
                   The maximum  temperature  of  the receiving
                   body of  water, at any point in  the  thermal
                   plume outside a mixing zone, shall not exceed
                   30ฐC (86ฐF) or the temperature  at a represen-
                   tative  control location plus  10ฐC (18ฐF) or
                   the  allowed  temperature  difference, which-
                   ever is the lesser temperature.  These maxi-
                   mum temperatures are  to  be measured on  a
                   mean daily basis from continuous records.
                   (c) Taking and Discharging of Cooling Water
                   Users of  cooling  water  shall  meet both the
                   Objectives for  temperature  outlined above
                   and the  "Procedures  for the  Taking and Dis-
                   charge of Cooling Water"  as outlined in the
                   Implementation Procedures for Policy 3 (pase
                   15\

-------
   APPENDIX 6
TOXIC SUBSTANCES

-------
                                                                          57.
WATER QUALITY
 OBJECTIVES
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
NEW YORK
               TOXIC SUBSTANCES

Unspecified non-persistent toxic substances and complex
effluents of municipal, industrial or other origin should
not be present in concentrations which exceed 0.05 of the
median lethal concentration in a 96-hour test for any
sensitive local species to protect aquatic life.

Any substance toxic to aquatic life shall not exceed one-
tenth of the 48-hour median tolerance limit 96-hour Tim)
for native fish or essential fish food organisms.

(Toxic Substances) Concentrations of toxic substances
shall not exceed one-tenth of the 96-hour median lethal
concentration (LCc/0 for important indigenous aquatic
species and those artificially propagated by the Indiana
Department of Natural Resources.  More stringent application
factors shall be used when justified on the basis of avail-
able evidence and approved by the Board after public notice
and opportunity for a hearing.

(Persistent or Bicconcentrating Substances) Concentrations
of organic contaminants which can be demonstrated to be
persistent, to have a tendency to bioconcentrate in the
aquatic biota, and are likely to be toxic on the basis of
available scientific evidence, shall be limited as determined
by the Board after public notice and opportunity for a
hearing.   (Note:  For substances in 6(b)(2) and 6(b)(3),
the United States Environmental Protection Agency Admini-
strator 's Quality Criteria for Water will be among the
documents used in establishing water quality standards for
toxic and/or persistent substances).

None in amounts that will interfere with use for primary
contact recreation or that will be injurious to the growth
and propagation of fish, or which in any manner shall
adversely affect the flavor, color or odor thereof or
impair the waters for any other best usage as determined
for the specific waters which are assigned to this class.

-------
                                                                     58,
                            TOXIC SUBSTANCES
                               MICHIGAN
R 323.1057.  Toxic substances

    Rule  1057.  (1)  Toxicity  of undefined toxic  substances noc specifically
included  in subruies (2)  and  (3) shall be determined by development  of 96
hour Tin's or other appropriate effect end points obtained by continuous-
flow or  in situ bioas says using suitable test organisms.  Concentrations of
undefined toxic substances in  the waters of the state shall not exceed safe
concentrations as determined by applying an application factor, based on
knowledge of the behavior of the toxic substances and the organisms  to be
protected in the environment,  to the TL^ or other appropriate effect end point.

    (2)   For all waters of the  state, unless on the  ba&is of recen
a more restrictive limitation is  required to protect a designated use,
concentrations of defined toxic substances, including heavy metals,  shall be
limited  by  application of the toxic substances recommendations contained ir.
the chapter on treshwater Organises, "rUyur;. uf the  "cticr.zl Techric?!  i.-""'<:
-------
                                                                             59.
                   TOXIC  SUBSTANCES
                       WISCONSIN
  (d) Unauthorized concentration^ of substances are not permitted
that alone or in combination with other materials present are ti.vn f>
fish  or  other aquatic  life. The determination  of  the  toxicitv <•;  a
substance shall  be  based  up<>n  the  available  scientific data  bj-*
References to be used in determining  the toxicitv of a substance sr.j;.
include, but not be limitea ro-

  1. "Quality Criteria  for Water". KPA~(-iO/9-7(i 00.!  United  states
Environmentai'Protection Agencv, Washington. D. C.. 197S. and
  2.  "Water  Quality  Criteria   1972".  EPA-R.'>-?.3-0.>o.
Academy  of Sciences.  National  Academy of  Knsrineerns.  I'm tea
States Government PrmtT.s Oifice, Washington, I) C.. ;9"-i.

  3. Questions  conccrnin; the permissible  levels, or changes  in \~t
same, of  a  substance,  or  comb. nation of  subst.inces.  of undrfirjd
to.xicity to fish and inner biota  srnil be resolved  in accoraar.c* •.•,,:.-•
the methods specified in "Watf-r  CJuallty  Criteria l?~2". "Stir.crjrt
Methods for the  K'xamination o;' \'. nter and \\'aste^ater". I4th Edi-
tion, 1975 (American Public ik-.ikh Association, New York)  or mh*r
methods approved by the departnien'. of natural  resources.

  (e) Streams cidsaified as trout waters by the department of natural
resources  (Wisconsin  Trout Streams. Publication 21.'i-7J;  -nail  nut .•;*
altered  from  natural background by  effluents  that  influence the
stream  environn-.rnt  :o  such MI  extent that trout population; are
adversely  affected.

  1. There shall  be no  sienificant  artificial increases in temperature
where natural trout reproduction is to be protected.

  2. Dissolved oxycen in classified  trout streams  shnli not be artificial-
ly lowered to less than  6.0 mg/ i  at any time, nur sh^i:l the di.-;oiv*c
oxygen be lowered to  less 7.0 ing/1 during the >pawnins: season.

  3. The dissolved oxv-jen in great lakes tributaries used by stoclirc
salmonids  for  spavinm::  runs shall  not  be  lowered  beiuw natural
background during the period of habitation.

-------
                                                           60,
                      TOXIC SUBSTANCES

                         OHIO
Toxic Substances

(a)  All pollutants or combinations of pollutants
     shall not exceed, at any time, one-tenth of the
     96 hour median tolerance limit (TLm) of
     LC5Q for any representative aquatic species.
     However, more stringent application factors
     shall be imposed where justified by "Quality
     Criteria for Water," U.S.  Environmental
     Protection Agency, 1976; "Water Quality
     Criteria 1972," National Academy of Sciences
     and National Academy of Engineering, 1973;
     or other scientifically based publications.

(b)  Pollutants or combinations of pollutants
     which are known to be persistent toxicants
     in the aquatic environment shall  not
     exceed, at any time, an application factor
     of one one-hundreth applied to the
     96 hour TLm or LC50.

(c)  Any criteria established for a water
     course or segment by this  regulation
     shall supersede less stringent criteria
     established in Rule 3745-1-07 of the
     Ohio Administrative Code after appropriate
     public hearings as required by Section
     6111.041 of the Ohio Revised Code.

(d)  The median tolerance limit (TLm) or
     LCgQ shall be determined by static or
     dynamic bioassays performed in accordance
     with methods outlined in "Standard
     Methods for the Examination of Water
     and Wastewater," Fourteenth Edition,
     American Public Health Association,
     American Water Works Association and
     the Water Pollution Control Federation,
     1975; or performed in accordance with
     procedures outlined in Methods of Acute
     Toxicity Tests v/ith Fish,  Macroinvertebrates
     and Amphibians, JSEPA 660/3-75-009.
     Tests will be conducted using actual
     effluent, receiving water  representative
     species of aquatic life whenever possible.

-------
           TOXIC  SUBSTANCES    - -    PENNSYLVANIA

 s'v,:.vi)cvelnpmenl of specific waier nu^iiiy criteria for the             c-i
  protection of ?quatic life.
    (a) When a specific water quality criterion tias not been
  establishec for a pollutnnc in section S3.7tc).  Table 3. or
  pursuant to section 93.7!:) of this title {.-elating to specific
  water quality criteria) and  a discharge of a pollutant into
  waters of this Commonwealth designated to be protected
  for aquatic life in section 93.9 of this cioleirelating to desig-
  nated water uses  and water quality criteria)  is  proposed, a
  specific water quality criterion for such pollutant may be
  determined by the Department through establishment of a
  safe concentration value.
    (b> Establishment of a  safe concentration  value shall be
  based  upon data obtained from relevant  aauatic field
  studies, standard continuous flow bioassay test data which
  exists in substantial available literature, or data obtained
  from specific tests utilizing one or more representative im-
  portant species of aquatic life designated on a case-by-case
  basis by the Department and conducted in a water environ-
  ment which is equal to or closely approximates that of the
  natural quality of the receiving waters.
    (c)  In those cases where  it has  been  determined that
  there is insufficient available data to establish a safe con-
 centration value  for a pollutant,  the safe concentration
 value shall be determined by applying the appropriate ap-
 plication factor to the 96-hour lor greater! LC50 value. Ex-
 cept where the  Department determines,  based upon sub-
 stantial available  data, that an experimentally  derived ap-
 plication  factor exists for a poiiutant.  the  following ap-
 plication factors shall be used in the determination of safe
 concentration values:
    (1)  Concentrations of pollutants that are noncumulativc
 shall not exceed 0.05 (1.20) of the 96-hour LC50.
    (2)  Concentrations of  pollutants that  are  cumulative
 shall not exceed 0.01 (MCO) of the 96-hour LC50.
    (3)  Concentrations of pollutants with known  synergistic
 or antagonistic effects with pollutants in the effluent or re-
 ceiving water will be established on a casc-by-case basis us-
 ing the best available scientific data.
   (d)  Persons seeking issuance of a permit pursuant to the
 Clean Streams Law and 33  U.S.C. ง 1342 authorizing the
 discharge of a pollutant for which a safe concentration val-
 ue is to be established using specific bioassay tests pursu-
 ant to subsection (c) of this section shall perform such test-
 ing with the approval of the Department and shall submit
 the following in writing to the Department:
   (1) A plan proposing tho bioassay testing  to  be per-
 formed.
•f
   (2) Such periodic progress reports of the testing as may
 bo required by the  Department.
   (3) A report of tho completed results of such testing in-
 cluding, but not limited to. the following:
   (i) all data obtained during the course of testing; and
   (ii)  all calculations made in the recording, collection, in-
 terpretation, and evaluation of such data.

    (e)  Bioassay testing shall be conducted in  accordance
 with the continuous flow methodologies outlined in EPA
 Ecological Research Series Publication. EPA-660/3/75-009,
 Methods of Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish, Macroinverte-
 brate-s, and Amphibians i April. 1975); Standard Methods
 for the Examination of \Yater and Vv'astewater (14th Edi-
 tion); Standard Method m'iV.-: for ASTM D1345-39 iReap-
 proved 1970)  and pubiisnH in  the  1975  Annual Book of
 ASTM  Standard:-.— ?..'.:  ,'. --  U.'.i.-r; or  EF\ Environ-
 mental  Monitoring Sera  •'. ... nation, EPA-6'H) 1-78-012,
 Methods for .Mi-a^ur.;-:/ •,-   \._LoTo.\icity ol LlfUueiits to
 Aquatic OrkjjniMi'1*  >.,'.,:•  :..- .  107S).  Use of  any other
 methodologies si1..il '.ป•ป•.:•,. • • :•••• i>r '<>r written approval by
 the  Department.  1-^si  •'.„.•-.,  s'uiil  be recon:-r..tuted
 according  to   rrcor.iir.rr VL.,•:!;•   and  methodoingies
 specified in the previous,\ >:.L^vi rc^'rences, or methodolo-
 gies approved in  .vritinj; ':;'• ti.e Department.

-------
                                                                    62.
                       ONTARIO
POLICY 4 - HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
   The term "hazardous substances" applies to chemicals consid-
ered  threats to man and the  environment. A hazardous substance
can be defined as a substance which (individually or in combina-
tion  with other substances) can cause death, disease including can-
cer,  behavioural abnormalities, genetic  mutations, physiological
malfunctions (including malfunctions in reproduction) or physical
deformities in organisms or their offspring.  In addition to the
above, the consequences of contamination of the environment by
hazardous substances include a loss of valuable species, restrictions
on important socio-economic activities and a variety of irreversible
ecological changes  that threaten  man's future use and enjoyment
of the environment.
   About two million chemical  compounds are known and each
year  thousands  more  are developed  by the chemical  industry.
many of which are introduced commercially.  Very little is known
about  the possible health and environmental effects of most of
these compounds. Many are  not  hazardous but the sheer number
of chemical compounds, the diversity of their use. and the adverse
effects already encountered by some have made chemical contami-
nants in our environment an important concern.
   To control the problem  of hazardous substances in the envi-
ronment requires the following tasks:

   — identification of potentially hazardous substances;
   - assessment of the impact of the substances:
   - control  and  regulation  of  the manufacture, processing.
   importing, use and disposal of the substances:
   - monitoring of the substances in  the environment and analy-
   sis and interpretation of the monitoring data: and
   - establishment of environmental  criteria, such as the Provin-
   cial Water Quality Objectives, for the protection of water uses.
   etc.
   To date,  due to resource and data  limitations, some of the
above  important tasks have been carried out to only a limited
extent for a few chemicals such as PCB, DDT, and mercury. Ade-
quate knowledge concerning the degree of  safety or hazard of
many chemicals  is  not available and may take years or even dec-
ades  to develop.  Further, control  technology for many substances
may  not be  practicable  under  many  circumstances. In light of
these limitations, the Ministry has adopted a policy which empha-
sizes that preventive measures be  taken in dealing with the releases
of both known and potentially hazardous substances.
   To implement  this preventive policy, the Ministry  must rely
largely upon existing knowledge  about many  substances. Present-
ly, scientific data are available for establishing criteria for the sub-
stances included  in the Provincial Water  Quality Objectives (Table
11. Some of these substances are hazardous if released in sufficient
amount. For the control of these substances, the Objectives and
the Implementation Procedures outlined for Policy 3 shall be used
in setting effluent loadings and concentrations.
   Based upon current scientific  knowledge, other compounds are
classified into one  of the  following  two categories t'or control
purposes

-------
                                                                      63,

                         ONTARIO
1)  Substances with Zero Tolerance Limits
   It has been established that the substances listed in Table 2. if
   released  in any  concentration can  bio-accumulate or concen-
   trate in the aquatic environment to  levels which are harmful or
   lethal to organisms. To provide long-term protection to aquatic
   organisms and man, any release of  these substances should be
   completely eliminated.  However, it  is recognized that trace
   concentrations of these substances  may be found in municipal
   effluents and other sources and may  not be completely removed
   by current practicable technology;further, some  contaminants.
   such as mercury,  may occur in surface waters due to natural
   conditions. Accordingly, the intent  of this policy is to prohibit
   any new discharges of these substances and to reduce all exist-
   ing releases to the lowest practicable levels.
   Although Provincial Water  Quality Objectives are specified in
   Table  1  for  some of the substances  included in Table 2, the
   Objectives are  intended  as  guidance  for dealing with past re-
   leases or accidental losses, but not for new releases.

2)  Substances with Undefined Tolerance Limits
   Ail substances not included in Table  2 or the Provincial Water
   Quality  Objectives (Table 1)  may  pose an adverse  effect on
   health or the  environment. Presently, there are  not enough
   scientific data for establishing  water quality  Objectives for
   these  substances.  Accordingly,  the release of  all such sub-
   stances shall  be  evaluated on a case-by-case basis, and  special
   measures should be taken to protect the environment.
   At the present time, substances listed in Table 3 are of primary
   concern m this regard.
   Note: The controlled application  of approved biocides  for the
   control of nuisance organisms  shall  be permitted  provided it is
   authorized by the Ministry  under Section  6 of the Pesticides
   Act.
   Unspecified Non-   For  non-persistent  compounds  or mixtures
   Persistent Toxic    with no Objectives because of a lack of specif-
   Substancss and     ic data, their concentration should not exceed
   Complex Effluents  0.05  of the  96 hour LC50 value for any  ap-
                      proved test species.

-------
                                                                 64,
                       ONTARIO
                        Table 2
       Substances with Zero Tolerance Limits
              Mercury
              Dichlorodiphenyitrichloroe thane
                   (DDT) and metabolites
              Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)
              Polybrominated Biphenyi (PBB)
              Dechiorane - CjQClp (Mirex)
                        Table 3
    Substances with Undefined Tolerance Limits
METALS
Aluminum
Antimonv
Barium
    COMMENTS
in most natural waters the ionized
or potentially ionizabie aluminum
would be in the form of amonic
or neutral precipitates, concen-
trations of 0.1 mg/L or greater of
these  would  be  deleterious  to
growth and survival of fish
sources are: mine wastes, weath-
ering of rock
very  toxic - 96 hr LC50 for fish
is 9  to 80 mg/L (dependent  on
hardness)
96 hr LC50 for Daphnia  is  20
mg/L
would expect it to be in the €03
or SC>4 form in natural waters;
BaCh lethalities to aquatic inver-
tebrates and fish are reported as
96 hr LC50 of 10-15 and 50-1500
mg/L; Barium can be concentrat-
ed from  water to aquatic  orga-
nisms by a factor of -150

-------
                        ONTARIO
                                                                       65.
Disulfocon (Disyston)        - pesticide, very toxic to fish - 96
                              hour LC50< lOmg/L
                           - use may be limited and composi-
                              tion unstable
Kelthane (Dicofol)          - pesticide,  extremely  toxic   to
                              aquatic  invertebrates  96  hour
                              LC50 < 1 mg/L
                           - frequency of use not identified
Methyl Parathion (Metaphos) - organophosphate pesticide
                           - very  toxic  to fish  -  96 hour
                              LC50< 10 mg/L
                           - degrades in water
                           - extent of use not identified
Naled (Dibrom)             - organophosphate pesticide
                           - extremely toxic   to  fish -  96
                              hour LC50 < 1 mg/L
                           - degrades in water
                           - common  use in flea control  for
                              dogs
                           - entrance  to  water limited   to
                              accidental spill
Rotenone                  — popular piscicide extremely toxic
                              to fish - 96 hour LC50< i mg/L
                           — turf fundcide on aolf courses
PMA
TFM
Herbicides Actively Used
in Ontario:
Alachlor (Lasso)
Amitrole
Atrazine
Cu trine
Cyanazine
Glyphosate
Paraquat
Trifluralin (Treflan)
2.4.5-T
lampracide,  extremely  toxic  to
fish, 96 hour LC50 < 1 mg/L

       Insecticides Actively Used
       in Ontario:
       Altosid
       Carbofuran (Furadan)
       Dimilin
       Temephos (Abate)
       Fungicides Actively Used
       in Ontario:
       Captan
       Dacanil
       Pentachlorophenol

-------

-------