5404
001^77103
          Industiy  in  the  United States purchases  about  27 quads- annually,
     ap Dvoxlmately  --0/<  of  rot^l  national energy  usage  (sec Table "< ,  Col. 6 • ..
     This energy is used  for  chcndcal process i ng,  iv-ifainj.  steam, drying,
     space cooling,  aud  heating,  proces ; ctv-'in1 boating,  and rascol 1 aneox:s
     other purposes.

          In Ecmy industrial  sectors energy consuTptri 01,  GJU be reduced : '.g-
     nificantly by  bet.te:'  "housekeeping" (i.e.,  shutting orf standby furnaces,
     bett.-r theimost it  control,  ellminat ion of ฐ,Leani and heat "'oaks, ei:c.)
     and j/,r?,rit:er r'n:i"naris  ra  oorimi/arion of  eneryv u'ja^c.   In addritioa,
     hoi.7?vors "indus rv  can be e::pe;-ted to ;u;  roduco ru:'W  iuci;.:serial  p':;n.i-ices
     or processes cither  to conserv" --nerpy rr •..1  taiie  ;:c'vapta:je ol: a ;,'ore
     readily availa'.-. Le  or  less o->stlv fuel,    Such  changes  in indnstrlaJ
     practices iray  -ejniit  in  ch  i.i^es in air, water o.  solid waste discharge;-;,
     The E-'A is interested in identjryjng the j-o.i ] ctica  loads uf snch ^cw
     energy-conserving  industrial pracc.ices o-~ [recesses and nn eef'-riiiiiiing
     where -:ddi Lion-'il  research,  development,  or  de-ncnslrr tion is ni'odcd  co
     characterize and  control the efflaent streams.

          In the first  phase  of  thLS study ve identified manuiacruring in-
     dustry sectors that  have a  potential for change,  emphasizing those
     changes which  have an environment'a! /energy  impact.   We focused on identi-
     fying changes  ?'n  the  primary production  processes which have clearly
     defined pollution  consequences.  In selecting those to be included  in
     this study, ve have  ronsicU red  the needs ana  liiiiitni ions of the F.PA
     as d i scus,-,ed u -n c  completely in the Ji'.dusLry  i'rjci'ity R-po.L.   Speci f i cal ly,
     eneiv', ;0;:,-;etv :!ii'i  has  been lei ini'd n]..a(0%  10  ini'i'o.i.j, in •;(!.•' i ti on
     to piHH'-S'-; chai.;;.'i-;  cov,ojvat.i  v of t :x r^y  >r energy  lorn (.i-ns, oil,  co;-.i)
      :           1 5
      i. ijuad   10

-------

-------
      AVAILABILITY OF REPORTS FROM EPA PROJECT ON ENVIRONMENTAL

     ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY-CONSERVING INDUSTRIAL PROCESS OPTIONS


     Copies of reports from a major industrial environmental assessment
are available upon request for specific volumes from the address given
at the lower right hand corner of this sheet.

     The full title of this EPA study, individual volume titles, and
report numbers are as follows:

"Environmental Considerations of Selected Energy Conserving Manufacturing
Process Options" - Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development
Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1976:

     Volume I.  Industry Summary Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034a.

     Volume II.  Industry Priority Report,  EPA-600/7-76-034b.

     Volume HI.  Iron and Steel Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034c.

     Volume IV.  Petroleum Refining Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034d.

     Volume V.  Pulp and Paper Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034e.
   t
     Volume VI.  Olefins Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034f.

     Volume VII.  Ammonia Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034g.

     Volume VIII.  Alumina/Aluminum Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034h.

     Volume IX.  Textile Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-0341.

     Volume X.  Cement Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034J.

     Volume XI.  Glass Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034k.

     Volume XII.  Chlor-Alkali Industry Report.  EPA-600/7-76-0341.

     Volume XIII.  Elemental Phosphorus and Phosphoric Acid Industry
                   Report.  EPA-600/7-76-034m.

     Volume XIV.  Primary Copper Industry.  EPA-600/7-76-034n.

     Volume XV.  Fertilizer Industry Report.  EAP-600/7-76-034o.
Copies should also be available for sale from the Superintendent of
Documents, Government Printing Office and from the National Technical
Information Service.

                          Power Technology and Conservation Branch
                          Energy Systems Environmental Control Division
                          Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
                          U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                          Cincinnati, Ohio  45268
                           (513) 684-4318  FTS or commercial

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                                TABLE .1

           DISTRIBUTION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR (1971)
                                       Purchased Fuels   Purchased Fuels
                                       Plus Electricity" Plus Electricity
                                       Valued on Thermal Valued on Fossil
                     Purchased Fuels   Basis             Fuel Basis"""'
Sector
Industrial
-Manufacturing
-Non-Manufacturing
Total Industrial
Household /Commercial
Transportation
Electrical Generation
Total
12
10 Btu %

14,329
5,965
20,294
14,281
16,971
17,443
68,989T

20.8
8.6
29.4
20.7
24.6
25.3
100.0
1012Rtu

16,085
6,538
22,623
17,441
16,989
_
57,053
%

27.9
11.7
39.6
30.6
29.8
-
100.0
10l2Btu

19.732
7,728
27.460
24,006
17,026
-
68,492f
%

28.8
11.3 '
40.1
35.0
24.9
-
100.0
 Purchased electricity valued at its thermal equivalence of 3,412 Btu/kWhand  i
 allocated to  consuming sectors.                                               i

 Purchased electricity valued at an approximate fossil fuel  equivalence       |
 of  10,500 Btu/kWh and allocated to consuming sectors.                         '
t
  Totals would be equivalent if all electric energy were generated from
  fossil fuels at a rate of 10,500 Btu/kWh.

 Source:  FEA, Project Independence, Blueprint, Vol. 3, November 1974, and
          Arthur D.  Little, Inc. estimates.
                                                                   Arthur H I Ittk1 I IK

-------
by a process or feedstock change.  Natural gas has been considered as
having the highest energy form value followed in descending order by
oil, electric power, and coal.  Thus, a switch from gas to electric
power would be considered energy conservation because electric power
could be generated from coal, existing in abundant reserves in the
United States in comparison to natural gas.  Moreover, pollution control
methods re;  alt ing in energy conservation have also been included within
the scope cf this study.  Finally, emphasis has been placed on process
changes with near-term rather than long-term potential within the 15-year
span of tine of this study.

     Industries were eliminated from further consideration within this
assignment if the only changes that could be envisioned were:

     * energy conservation as a result of better policing or "housekeeping,"
     o better waste heat utilization,
     o fuel switching in steam raising,
     o power generation or production of synthetic fuels.

     After discussions with the EPA Project Officer and his advisors, 13
industry sectors were selected for inclusion in this study as shown in
Table 2.  These 13 industries or industry segments account for about
two-thirds of the energy used in the manufacturing indsutries (Table 2).
In consultations with the EPA Project Officer and his advisors from EPA,
FEA, NBS, and other agencies, several hundred manufacturing processes
or process options were screened and some 80 were selected for in-depth
analysis (see Table 3).   The results of the study are summarized in fifteen
(15) reports prepared for EPA (an Industry Priority Report ,  13 Industry Assess
ment Reports, and an overall Summary Report).  Highlights of this study are
given below.
                                  -3-
                                                                ArtluirD Mule, Inc.

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        SUMMARY OF  1971  FNCRGY  PIJRCHASFO TU  SFI.FCTFD INDUSTRY  SKCTORS
             Indus try Sec tor
 1.  Blast furnaces and steel mills
 2.  Petroleum refining
 3.  Paper and allied products
 4.  01of ins
 5.  Ammonia
 6.  Aluminum
 7.  Textiles
 8.  Cement
-9.  Glass
10.  Alkalies and chlorine
11.  Phosphorus and phosphoric
     acid production
12.  Primary copper
13.  Fertilizers (excluding ammonia)

o15
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
u
0
0

Btu/Yr
/(oO)'
'9G(2)
.59
.984(3)
.63(4)
.59
.54
.52
.31
.24
.12(5)
.081
.078
SJC Code
In Which
Industry Found
33 ir
2911
-26
2818
287
3334
22
3241
3211, 3221, 3229
2812
2819
3331
287
   Estimate for 1967 reported by FFA Project Independence Blueprint, p. 6-2,
(2)

(3)
(4)
(5)
USGPO, November 1974.
Includes captive consumption of energy from process byproducts  (FEA Project
Independence Blueprint)
Olefins only, includes energy of feedstocks:  ADL estimates
Ammonia feeds toek energy included:  ADL estimates
ADL estimates
Source:   1972 Census of Manufactures, FFA Project Independence Blueprint,
         USGPO, November 1974, and ADL estimates.
                                                                   Arthur I) Little, Iiic

-------


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                                                                                                                     ArthurDI.ittlc.Int

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-------
     In orcior to properly assess the in.pa< t of  these processes, an
analysis was made of both the currently practiced technology and  the
alternative technology that may be implemented  in new  facilities  or
rebuilt plants within a time frame of about the next 15 years.  Where
processes could be retrofited we attempted to identify such situations.
To the extent possible we attempted to si  art with similar raw materials
to make similar end products.  For both laseline and new technology,
three main factors entered into the assessment:
     e identification of the pollutants,
     a development of capital and operat:  ng costs for both production
       and pollution control aspects, am
     0 determination of energy vised in baseline and alternative technology
       for both production and pollution  control.
Judgments were then made about economic viability and  likelihood  of
implementation of the alternative process.  Finally researc-h areas were
identified.

     Since most processes in the heavy industrial chemicals and metal
industries take anywhere from five to tvTenty years from initial inception
to commercialization, it is clear that few if any of the processes being
considered for implementation have been developed in the United States
as a result of a concern with high cost energy.  "Energy-conserving
technology" when it is being applied now  in the United States has been
developed largely abroad, mainly in Europe or Japan.  Examples that can
be cited are collection of carbon monoxide gas  from basic oxygen  furnaces
(developments by Japanese and French companies) , suspension preheaters
in the cement industry (German and Japanese developments) , and flash
smelting in the copper industry (Finnish  development).
           Sjyn Ajrn_jra INDUSTIU AL JJ_^Ci:SS        _
     In examining the 80 processes considered lie re in depth a wide di-
versity of process changes were considered.  Scpe of the process changes
could have upstream or downstream impacts.  For example substitution  of

                                    -7-                          AithurI)I.ittic>.lnc

-------
electric furnaces for gas-fired furnaces woul-1 generally lessen process
pollution problems but increase emissions at the electric power generating
site.  A number of processes weiv  identified as having potentially smaller
pollution control costs while at the s.ire '.  ii.,- reducing energy requirements.
Sorie examples are shown in Tables 4A-E.  Table 4F gives an overall picture
of the relationship between energy conservation and pollution control  costs
for all the new process technologies studied.  In addition some problems/
impacts extend across several industries and are discussed below.


1.  Availa ility of Petroleum-Based Feedstocks and Coal Gasification
     Major concerns faced in the United States today are:
     ป The capital availability problem
     o Assi ring continuing supplies of a given energy form such as
       natural gas for fuel 01 feedstock.

     For example in the glass industry natural gas is in short supply,
ani many of the glass companies have been looking at coal gasification
processes.  Sucli coal gasification processes tend to be capital intensive
and are thus not particularly interesting from an investment/economic view-
point.  Moreover a gasified coal would effectively increase the price
of fuel to about $3 per million Btu compared to the regulated prices
of about $.60 to $1.00 per million Btu that were being paid by industry
in early 1975.  Similarly increased concern is being expressed about
the use of natural gas in the manufacture of ammonia and attention is
being given to making ammonia from heavier  feedstocks or from coal.  As
another example, injection of natural gas into blast furnaces is no
longer being actively considered as a viable option for new facilities
and increased consideration is being given  to injection of liquid fuels,
possibly slurried with coal, or direct coal (steam coal) injection.
Considering the price of regulated gas at below $1 per million Btu, all
such coal based options tend to be more expensive, but are being actively
censidered and even implemented by industry because of concerns with
natui.il gas availability.  Thus in industry WL expect more oil and coal
use in place of natural gas as a fuel as well as feedstock substitute.
                                  -8-
                                                                Arthur I) Little-, Inc.

-------
 EXAMPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
HAVING POTENTIALLY SMALLER POLLUTION CONTROL COSTS

         ป  Aluminum
              — Alcoa Chloride*
              - Hall-Heroult/Refraclory Metal Cathodes*
              — Clay Chlonnation vvith Alcoa Chloride*
         •  Coppet (. 85% Sulfur Recovery)
              — Noiancla Smelting Process*
              — Flash Smelting"
          ป  Copper
              - She, Flotation"'
              — Us" of OxyrjC'iT*
          *Btu Saving as Well :>s Energy Form Saving
                                                               Arthur HI ittlc-ln

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                         TABLE_4B

 EXAMPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
HAVING POTENTIALLY SMALLER POLLUTION CONTROL COSTS

          ซ Cement
               — Susponsion Proheatei
               — Flash Calciner*
          9 Glass
               — Prehonting/Batch Arjt lomeration *
               — Coal
          *Btu Savincj as Well as Enorcj1' Form Saving
                              -10-
                                                                 ArthurDl.itiluInc

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                        TABLE  4C

 EXAMPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
I-AVING POTENTIALLY SMALLER  POLLUTION CONTROL COSTS

       ป  Chioralkali: Dimensionally Stable Anodes
               — Standard Membrane'
               — Stabilized Asbestos*
               — Microporons Mombiane*
               — Ion Exchange Membrane*
       ฎ  Iron and Steel
               - Collection of CO Gr.scs from Basic Oxygen Process*
               — External  Dr,suifuri/at;on of Blast Furnace Pig Iron'
               — Direct Redurtion'
               — Diy Qucncl'iiif! of  Cokev
       *Btu S
-------
                          TABLE 4D

 EXAMPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
HAVING POTENTIALLY SMALLER POLLUTION CONTROL COSTS

           •  Phosphoric Acirl (Detergent Grade)
                — Cleanup of Wet Acid by Neutralization/
                  Precipitation *
                — Solvent Extraction*
           •  Phosphoric Acid via Strong Acid Process *
           *  Pulp and Paper
                — Rapson Effluent Ftce Process*
                — Alkaline — Oxygen Process"
           *Btu Saving as Well as Energy Form Saving
                             -12-

                                                                  Arthur!) Little,In

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  EXAMPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
HAVING POTENTIALLY SMALLER POLLUTION CONTROL COSTS

               ซ Textiles — Knit Fabrics
                   — Advancer! Aqueous T -occss*
                   — Solvent Processing*
               o Textile- Woven
                   — Advanced Aqueous*
               ฐ Nitric Acid (NOX Control
                   — Molecular Sieve"
                   — Giancl Paroisse*
                   -CDL/Vitok"'
                   - Masar*
           * Btu Saving as Well as Energy Foini Saviny
                                   -13-
                                                                      Aithui'Dl ittli-

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                      TABLE 4F
DISTRIBUTION OF NEW PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES



Energy
Conservation
Potential



More Than
rriv
D/o
Savings
No
Change

Increased
Energy
Use

12

2


3


6

2


0


24

3


2

                 Increase1      No Cha.igo Mote Than
                 In Control              5%
                 Costs                  Savings
                 Savings in Pollution Conttol Costs
                            -14-
                                                              ArthurD! itilc.ln

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2j. _ NO /SO  ^missions



     a. Coal use:  With increased use of coal, one can expect higher NO
                                                                       y^

emissions from reverberatory furnaces in the copper industry, cement kilns, etc,


In addition sulfur emissions can be expected to increase because of sul-


fur found in coal but not in pipeline quality natural gas.  Generally, the


use of coal increases NO  emissions compared to firing with natural gas
                        2C

or fossil fuels, mainly because 1) coal generally requires larger amounts


of excess air to achieve complete combustion and 2) nitrogenous compounds


in coal are apparently easily oxidized to NO .
                                            X




     b. Oxygen Use:  Another area in which NO  emissions are of conceri is
         . ^_^-_                                 -^

in the increased use of oxygen which has received considerable attenticn,


Generally oxygen use tends to conserve fuel use because flame temperati res


are somewhat raised which increases the efficiency of the furnace.  Foi


example, when oxygen was introduced into the open-hearth steclmaking


furnaces the throughput rates increase by as much as 50%,  Such use of


oxygen is now being considered in the iron and steel industry, in the


glass industry and in nearly all industries now u.^ing fossil fuels iu


furnaces.  The increase in the flame temperature would tend to raise N0_r


levels.  Holding NO  levels constant would demand better control of


the air fuel combustion ratios in bringing them closer to stoichiometric .





     Thus both coal use and oxygen use can be expected to increase NO
                                                                     X

emissions .





JL_ Preheating
     With energy costs escalating, increased emphasis is being given


to preheating.  Preheating can be accomplished in a variety of vessels


or types of vessels such as static beds, moving beds, fluid bed devices,


gas liquid heat exchangers, gas-gas heat exchangers, etc.  All of these


processes or procedures have the commonality of extracting waste heat


from product streams or providing process heat at lower temperatures.


Major environment a] problems with solid preheating are dusting, incomplete


coaihu.s ticn 01 vo];. tiles, and potential for fugitive emission;-,.
                                                                              n,'

-------
     Solid preheat ing generally has the environmental advantage of re-
ducing NO  emissions per ton of product because less energy is being
         x
supplied by high temperature combustion.  In addition capital investments
for prehe.aters tend to be modest in comparison with the total plant.
Since many preheaters can be retrofitted to existing facilities the impact
on energy use can be felt in a shorter t-'rr.e frame than other options
requiring completely new plant facilities entailing high investments.
Thus increased NO  emissions from coal and oxygen use ran be somewhat
ameliorated by application of preheaters
     In conclusion major process changes promoted by a desire to conserve
energy that are being considered involve increased use of coal due to
shortage of natural gas and increased ust  of oxygen and use of preheaters
for energy conservation.

     Overall because of concerns on capital availability and risks en-
tailed in application of new process technology, we expect the pace of
process change to be slower than in the 1950's and 1960's, with industry
making every attempt to get as much production as possible out of existing
plants before starting construction of new facilities.
                                    -16-
                                                                 Arthurl)l.iltk',lnc.

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ENV T.RONMENTAT. FIND INGS
     In the course of this studv Involving thirteen bฃistc  Industries, a
number of energy conserving processes were identified as having potentially
smaller pollution problems than currently practiced technology."  Examples
include such options as the Rapson effluent, free process in pulp  manufacture
and the Alcoa aluminum process.  However, in the majority  of options  examined
the types of pollutants will not change significantly because  the energy con-
serving mar ^facturing processes involved over  the next  10  to 15 years will
utilize essentially the same raw materials to  produce essentially the. same
products.   'loroover, the quantities of pollutants emitted  from these  processes
and the ene-gy source", used will generally increase.  More stringent  regula-
tions on em .ssions will increase simultaneously the amounts of concentrated
pollutants  ;hat must be prevented from entering the environment and the amounts
of energy aid resources used in removing pollutants.  In particular,  the
replacement of natural gas and oil with coal will mean  a concomitant  increase
in:
     s    The amounts of gaseous pollutants such as sulfur oxides and
          nitrogen oxides, and

     o    the amounts of sludges containing toxic and hazardous
          substances such as heavy metals corning frotn the  energy
          supply sources.
Furthermore, in switching from gas to oil to coal increased environmental
impact can be expected in obtaining the fuel,  for example, strip  mining,
tailings disposal and in disposal of residuals as sludges, etc.   In short,
the single most important cause of  increased environnenta] impact will cone
from changing fuel forms/feedstocks and not as a result of introducing new,
anergy conserving processes.

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AREAS
     With a few exceptions, pollution control  technology is available today
to meet probable emission standards over the next five  to  ten  years.  (Exceptions
such as for fine particulate control are noted below.)
*Sce Tablo A.
                                   -17-
                                                                 ArthuiT)! ittlc.lnc

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     However,  research and development efforts are needed to establish more
cost effective pollution control technologies especially in reducing capital
investment requirements and ope? at in;,; costs.  In particular, it is necessary
to establish the effectiveness of pollution control technologies in each industry
sector by demonstration projects in order to provide a firm basis for estab-
lishing practicable and achievable emission standards.  These research and
development needs must focus on demonstrating:
     a    effectiveness of removal of designated pollutants,
     o    cross-media effects, and
     a    health and ecological impact of pollutants where removal
          may be either beyond the capabilities of existing technologie 3
          or unacceptable dn socio-economic terms.

     Consequently, establishing the technical and economic capabilities of
pollution control systems through research and development must be done in
consonance with the ecological and health aspects of pollution emissions.
If maximum utilization of R&D funds are to be made, it is apparent tha^
priorities of allocation must be established on a broader base than merely
improving the capabilities of technology, i.e., consideration must be given
to the need for reducing emissions from an ecological and health viewpoint,
the cross-media impacts and the socio-economic effects,

     Specific areas for research and development efforts in the particular
industries of major concern are as follows.

1.   Air Pollution Control Technology
     With regard to air emissions in the new process technologies investigated,
we have identified the following to be deserving of R&D attention:

     *    Improving fine particulate removal technology.  This would
          include those participates resulting from metallic smokes and
          sublimed substances such as mercury, arsenic, zinc, etc.  For
          example tins problem can be found in glass furnaces where compounds
          are sublimed and volatilized.  Similarly direct firing of coal or
          hot gas generation from coal for use in furnaces or kilns can involve

                                    -18-
                                                                 Arthuri)l.iUic,lnc

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volatilizing of the trar<  fnctalr; foiiad in coal.  Other  industry
sectors examined that face thcf;e kinut-. of fine particulnto removal
problems are aluminur., ammonia, cement, copper,  f IT t i 1 i x.or ,  iron
and steel, petroleum refining, phosphorus, and pulp  and paper.

Collection or contro 1__o_f _f uj^i_tjA'_e_ _erri ssions from process
equipment.  The collection and removal of emissions  from equip-
ment at points other than associated with process requirements
(so-called fugitive emissions) such as from high temperature
processes like preheaters for cenent kilns or external  desulfuriza-
tion of blast furnace hot metal can be expected  to become of
increasing importance.   Besides the cement and iron  and steel
industries, fugitive emission   >roblems will be  found in the
aluminum, ammonia, copper and fertilizer industries.

Better definition_of the ^environmental, hea.l th,  and  ecol ogical
imp n c t s o f g. a s e o u s e mi s s i on s  (such. as	SO  , NO  ,  CO ,  IIF _ CA,^,
Process in steelmaking, NO  emissions from nitric  acid  plants,
and ammonia emissions from aeration of scrubbing liquors  found
in the fertilizer mixing industry,  metallic smokes  from  molten
metal transfers and volatile impurities in iron and  steel and
copper are examples.    Other new technologies facing these
type of emission problems are found in the following industry
sectors; aluminum, ammonia, cement, chlor-alkali,  glass,
petroleum refining, and pulp and paper industries.

Better definition of the environmental , ecological , _an_d health
impacts of compounds that have high smog  forming characteristics
and/or have toxic effects.  Examples can  be found  in the  use of
volatile organic solvents in some new textile  technology  (solvent
processing), or emissions from coke ovens.  The major industries
where this is a problem is aluminum, iron and  steel, olefins,
petroleum refining, and textiles.

                           -19-
                                                      ArihurDl.ittklnc

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     e    Improvements in odor control.   Examples whore  this has been  a
          problem is the sulCur emissions (c.;;., Il^S, mcrcaptans, etc.) as
          found in petroleum refining and pulp and paper.

     0    Improved ins trumentat icn _ for rapid nrinitorjmg and  recording of
          airborne emissions.   The major needs for such  instrumentation  are
          (1) to provide a rapid indication of the effectiveness of  control
          and (2) provide records for rejul^tory agencies.   Industries  where
          the improved instrumentation is especially needed  are alumina,
          copper, glass, iron and steel and pulp and paper.

2 .    EfLtJLLJ ollution Control Technology
     With r< gard to water pollution control in new technology investigated
in this stui y, we have identified the following as deserving consideration
for additional  research and development.
          Better de f_i nit ion of th e_ _ env ir onn en t a 1 , h e -. ' J^th_^_ฃnd_ ecological
          biolor,Jcal_ hal f-1 ivy^ or tox_ic e_f_fect_s_.  I'.xarnples  in  the  major
          industries include wet scrubbing  liquors in  the  aluminum  and
          petroleum refining industries.  Another example  is  hydrometallurglcal
          technology involving dissolved trace metals  such as leaching  copper
          ores/concentrates.  Other major industries where this is  a
          problem is ammonia, iron and steel, phosphorus,  and pulp  and
          paper.

     o    Improvements in suspended solids  removal from  treated wastewaters.
          This is a problem found particularly in the  pulp and  paper
          industry (biological floes), the  "phossy-water"  problem found in
          the manufacture of phosphoric acid, and the  slimes  generated  in
          mining phosphate rock.
                                      -20-
                                                                  ArthurDI ittldnc.

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     9    Ident i fic a L ion o f  jrv f ray t c -ry_ orj;an i_c_ compounds	and improvement
          ^J_'L(zEL(2X2J -J-J-l^100-^0*' M?s •   Such problems can be potent j n 1 Ly found
          in textiles,  manufacture of phosphoric acid, or extraction of
          alumina where such organic compounds may be generated as a result
          of solvents used or as a result of high temperature synthesis
          (e.g. Alcoa process),

     e    Improved instrumentation for rapid monitoring and recording
          of waterborne pollutants.   Examples are found in the iron and
          steel industr> where temporary upsets or transient conditions
          may cause large amounts of pollutants to enter the control sy items,
          e.g., such as cyanide emissions from external desulfurization or
          zinc or other tramp elements from electric arc furnaces.

3 •    Solid Waste Disposal
     As the quantities  of pollutants emitted to the air and water environment
are decreased, there is usually a concomitant increase  in solid waste or
sludges.   These must either be destroyed, or disposed of in a manner which
presents further dJssemination into the environment.  The following areas
have been identified as deserving R&D attention.

     o    Technica 1 d cmons t r a t i cm o f a d e a u a t a land_f i 1 _1 di sposal techniques .
          Aluminum (extraction of alumina which can produce 1 to 2 tens
          of dry solids per ton of alumina), cement (leachable alkali
          metal dusts), iron and steel (basic oxygen furnace and electric
          furnace dusts containing tramp elements ]ike lead and zinc),
          petroleum refining (disposal of sulfur and/or its compounds from
          desulfurizing operations or stack gas scrubbing) and phosphoric
          acid processes involving disposal of calcium sulfate or calcium
          chloride.

     9    Demonstration of thermal destruction technologies.   The thermal
          destruction of residues and tars from some of the new olefin
          technology may be the best overall method of handling such wastes.
          Other examples can be found in the aluminum and petroleum refining
          sectors.
                                         21~                      Arthur!) I.itildnc

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           Addi t ional r c s ca r cV> into
           and research into It rvi i  m.ethodo 1 :rj,i c-.s_ lor__cmUj"o_UJ_ni;_ tlie__d_i s
           of  solid  wastes.   Ex. imp 1 es can be ritid In the manufacture of
           ammonia from coal  involving disposal  of mine wastes and coal
           residues  from gasifying facilities or the disposal of kaolin
           clay  wastes  in the manufacture of alumina via acid Iciichlng processes,
           Other examples can be  found in the cement, copper, fertilizers,
           glass,  iron  and steel.,  olcfins,  petroleum refining and manufacture
           of  phosphoric acid.

 ENV IRO_NMENTAL^ REG : AP ITULAT ION
      Thus, in each  case, the direction o  research programs should be viewed
 with the objective  of  attaining  the maxi mm effectiveness for removal or
 controlling pollutants at the minimum economic penalty, since it is rarely
 possible to remove  or  control pollutants to present and anticipated standards
 without  entailing  at  least  some costs.  Consequently, research programs must
 be  examined within  the f raniework of cost/benefits to the environment, to
 human health  and to the economy.

      Table 5  provides  our perception of those areas in each industry examined
 where the first and second level priorities for research, deve1 opment and
demonstration should be  placed.   Tables  6A-C  show summaries  of  these results.
Examination of  this table Indicates  to  us  that  the  first  two industries  into
which  the  most  effort  should  be placed  are petroleum refining,  iron and
steel, pulp and paper  and aluminum.   A  second tier  includes  all of  the  re-
maining  industries  except chlor-alkali  and fertilizer  mixing plants which
are judged to not have  significant  problems requiring  further RD&D  efforts.

•REGIONAL IMPACTS
     Impacts of the new  technology  will  be felt largely in  regions  where
today's  production  facilities  are located, shown for several industries
in Figure  1 .  As  can be  seen  by this  figure regions  with  the heaviest con-
cent rat ion  of industrial development, such as the Gulf region and the Great-
Lakes  area, would be expected  to  experience the greatest  impact.
                                    -22-

                                                                ArthuiT)l.utSe.!nc

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                                                TABLE  5

                 AREAS  FOR RESEARCH  AND  DEVELOPMENT  IN POLLUTION  CONTROL
Air
   Fine  particulate
   This would  include
   participates  re:nl
   smokes and  sublm.'
   as Mercury,  arseni

   Collection  or cont
   emissions  frcn prc

   Be ttcr definition c
   and biological iry
   ing emissions witl
   ing more  quant it,it
   establishing  ei.iss

   a. Gases  such as 5

   b. Metallic  smoke;
removal technology.
 especially  thos'e
-ing from metallic
f  substances such
_ ,  zinc ,  etc.

rol of fugitive
 ess equipment
'.  the environmental
lets of the  f-illow-
 respect  to  obtain-
ive knovledi'.f  for
icn regulations.

Ox, >!0x,  CO, F,  Cl,  J.'H.
   c.  Organic  cor.pom ds  that have hieh
      snog chavactcri ;tics or carcinogenic
      aspects

   Odor Control
   Better definiticn  of  the  envircnrontal
   and biolorical  irpart  of  sut>str.r" '.'S which
   cannot be  rr-p.oved  ^y  best available teci-.!ir-i
   ecor.ociical ly  ac!;i cvabl e .  This will include
   principally,  r.elals ."-i-i or^ar.ic coir.pounr.s
   that have  long  biological half-lines or
   carcinogenic  effects.

   Suspended   solids  removed fro-i treated -
   wastcwateis
   Color Removal

   Renoval of  dissolved  metals

   Improved instrunientation  for  rapid
   monitoring  and  recovery of waterborne
   pollutants

Sol_id Wastes

   Demonstration of  adequate landfill
   disposal techniques

   Dcironstrnton  of thornal destruction
   technologies

   Research into the t-ethod;; of  ca t evor i ;a--
   tioa, i ei'ulat ion  an.'.  UT\| i i-t iuuio 1 op i c;.
   for tout-oiling  the  disposal  of  solid
   wastes
    (1)  DenoLos  First Level Priority      -23-
    (2)  Denotes  Second  Level Priority
                                                                     Arthur I)!.iitlc,Inc

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                  TABLE  6A
      AIR POLLUTION CONTROL R&D
  Research Area
Number of Industries
    Represented
   Priority Lovcl
• Fine Participate
ซ Fugitive Emissions
ป Quantifying impacts
       -S0y, NO , CO, etc.
            x    x
       — Metallic Smokes
       — Organic Compounds
o Odor Control
9 Instrumentation
  (Rapid Monitoring)
 FJฃSj.
   10
    6

    9
    6
    5
    2
Second
   0
   5

   1
   2
   1
   1
   2
                     --24-
                                                           ArthurDi Htlr.lnc

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                 TABLE 6B
    WATER POLLUTION CONTROL R&D
   Research Area
•ป Quantifying Impacts of
  Metals/Ortjnnics
e Removal of Suspended
  SoSids
     — Refractory Orcjantcs
     — Coioi
     - Dissolved Metals
o instrumentation
  (Rapid IVionitOi ing)
Number of Industries
   Represented
   Priority Level
                           First
   2
   2
   3
   2
            Second
4
1
1
4
4
                     -25-
                                                           ArthurDhu

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                   TABLE_6C

              SOLID WASTE R&D

  Research Area             Number of Industries
                               Represented
                              Priority Level
                             Fijst     Sec OIK)

o Landfill Disposal              5       7
e Thermal Destruction          3       3
* Categorization, Rnyula  ion,
  Legal Methodologies         10       3
                  -26-

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