5361

                                                                R99100
                               COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF
                                PROPOSED EFFLUENT STANDARDS
                                    AND LIMITATIONS FOR
                                         FOUNDRIES
       U.f*. ff~./!"rr:mer:t?.i Protection Agency
       R -.•• ' n V.  - :!.-iT:ry
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  T

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                              TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER                            TITLE                                 PAGE

  1              INTRODUCTION                                             1-1

  2              BACKGROUND METHODOLOGY ON COST-EFFECTIVENESS             2-1

  3              COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS FOR FOUNDRIES                3-1
                 3.1  REGULATORY ALTERNATIVES                             3-1
                 3.2  ANALYTICAL APPROACH                                 3-1
                      3.2.1  Cost-Effectiveness Approach for              3-1
                             Regulatory Alternative 1 and 2
                      3.2.2  Cost-Effectiveness Approach for              3-4
                             Regulatory Alternative 3 and 4
                 3.3  SELECTED POLLUTANTS                                 3-6
                 3.4  FINDINGS                                            3-9

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                                LIST OF TABLES


NUMBER                              TITLE                                PAGE

  2-1      WEIGHTING FACTORS RASED ON COPPER FRESHWATER CHRONIC CRITERIA  2-2

  3-1      SUBCATEGORIZATION FOR THE METAL CASTING INDUSTRY               3-2

  3-2      FOUNDRIES EFFLUENT DISCHARGES                                  3-4

  3-3      FOUNDRIES BAT/PSES EFFLUENT REMOVALS                           3-5

  3-4      FOUNDRIES POUNDS EQUIVALENT REMOVED AT THE 90 PERCENT          3-6
           AND 50 PERCENT RECYCLE OPTIONS

  3-5      FOUNDRIES COMPARISON OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS BY DISCHARGE STATUS 3-10

  3-6      FOUNDRIES SUMMARY TABLE OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS                  3-11

  3-7      INDUSTRY COMPARISON COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR DIRECT DISCHARGERS  3-12
           (TOXTC AND NONCONVENTTONAT, POLLUTANTS ONLY) COPPER BASF.D
           WEIGHTS

  3-8      INDUSTRY COMPARISON COST-EFFF.CTIVENESS FOR INDIRECT            3-13
           DISCHARGERS (TOXIC AND NONCONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS ONLY)
           COPPER BASED WEIGHTS
                                      11

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                               LIST OF EXHIBITS

NUMBER                              TITLE                                PAGE

 3-1       POLLUTANT LOADINGS FOR CURRENT AND SELECTED OPTIONS            3-7
           FOUNDRIES DIRECTS

 3-2       POLLUTANT LOADINGS FOR CURRENT AND SELECTED OPTIONS            3-8
           FOUNDRIES INDIRECTS
                                     111

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         .COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED EFFLUENT STANDARDS
                        AND LIMITATIONS FOR FOUNDRIES
                               1.   INTRODUCTION

     This paper reports the results of a cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis of
alternative water pollution control regulations on the metal casting (found-
ries) industry.  These regulations include effluent limitations and standards
based on BPT (Best Practical Control Technology Currently Available), BAT
(Best Available Technology Economically Achievable), and PSES (Pretreatment
Standards for Existing Sources), which are being proposed under authority of
the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (the Clean Water Act).
For each of these regulations EPA has identified several pollution control
options, each with different levels of pollution abatement and compliance
cost.  The CE analysis is a useful tool for evaluating the options.

     The primary cost of interest in this paper is total annualized direct
cost incurred by industry in complying with the regulations.  Other economic
impacts are considered in the economic impact assessment report.  The effec-
tiveness measure used is pounds of pollutant removed weighted by an estimate
of their perceived toxicity.  The rationale for this measure, referred to as
"pound-equivalents removed," is described later in this paper.
                                     1-1

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                        2.  BACKGROUND METHODOLOGY ON
                              COST-EFFECTIVENESS
     Cost-effectiveness (CE) is defined as the incremental annualized cost of
a pollution control option in an industry or industry subcategory per incre-
mental pound equivalent of pollutant removed by that control option.'  CE
offer a useful way of quantifying comparisons among alternative pollution
control options.

     Cost-effectiveness analyses account for differences in toxicity among
the pollutants by computing toxic weighting factors.  These factors are
necessary because different pollutants have different potential effects on
human and aquatic life.  For example, a pound of zinc in an effluent stream
has a significantly different potential effect than a pound of PCBs.  Toxic
weighting factors for pollutants are derived using ambient water quality
criteria and toxicity values.  In the majority of cases, "toxic weighting
factors are derived using chronic freshwater aquatic criteria.  However, in
cases where a human health criterion has also been established for the con-
sumption of fish, then the sum of both the human and aquatic criteria are
used in deriving toxic weighting factors.  These factors are then standarized
by relating them to a particular pollutant.

     Copper is selected as the standard pollutant for developing weighting
factors since it is a toxic metal pollutant and is commonly detected and
removed from industrial effluents.  Some examples of the effects of different
aquatic and human health criteria on weighting factors are shown in Table 2-1,
                                     2-1

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TABLE 2-1. WEIGHTING FACTORS BASED ON
COPPER FRESHWATER CHRONIC CRITERIA
HUMAN* AQUATIC


POLLUTANT
Copper
Hexavalent Chromium
Nickel
Cadmium
Benzene
HEALTH
CRITERIA
(ug/1)
__
—
100
—
400
CHRONIC
CRITERIA
(ug/1)
5.6
.29
96.00
.025
"

WEIGHTING
CALCULATION
5.6/5.6
S.6/.29
5.6/100 + 5.6/96
5.6/.025
5.6/400

FINAL
WEIGHT
1.00
19.30
0.114
224.0
0.014
 *  Based on ingestion of 6.5 grams of fish products/day.

     As indicated in Table 2-1, 224 pounds of copper pose the same relative
hazard in surface waters as one pound of cadmium since cadmium has a toxic
weight 224 times as large as the toxic weight of copper.  Benzene, on the other
hand, is less potentially toxic than copper, as 71 pounds (I/.014) of benzene
would pose the same hazard as one pound of copper.

     The final weights are then used to calculate the "pound equivalent" unit:
a standard measure of toxicity.  Pound equivalents are calculated as the
number of pounds of pollutant multiplied by the weighting factor.  Thus, in
CE analyses, the amount of pollutant removed by a control option is weighted
by its relative toxicity. Cost-effectiveness is calculated as the ratio of
incremental annual cost of an option to the incremental pound equivalents
removed by that option.

     Indirect dischargers are treated differently from direct dischargers in
the CE analyses since the POTW removal efficiency of a pollutant is reflected
in the incremental pounds removed to surface waters.  For example, if a plant
is discharging 100 pounds of cadmium in its effluent stream to a POTW and the
                                     2-2

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POTW has a removal efficiency for cadmium of 38 percent, then the cadmium
discharged to surface waters is only 62 pounds.  If the regulation results in
a reduction of cadmium in the effluent stream to 50 pounds, then the amount
discharged to surface waters is calculated as 50 pounds multiplied by the
POTW removal efficiency factor (1-38 percent), i.e., 31 pounds (50 x 62 per-
cent).  Cost-effectiveness calculations reflect the fact that the reduction
of pollutant discharge to surface waters is not 50 pounds (the change in the
amount discharged to the'POTW), but 31 pounds (the change in the amount
actually discharged to surface waters).

     The pollutants included in CE analyses are the regulated pollutants and
selected non-regulated ones.  Non-regulated pollutants are included because
they can be removed incidentally as a result of a particular treatment techno-
logy, even though they are not specifically limited.  Some of the factors
considered in selecting non-regulated pollutants include toxicity, frequency
of occurrence, and amount of pollutant in the wastestream.

     Data sources for CE analyses include development documents from the
Effluent Guidelines Division, economic impact analyses from the Office of
Analysis and Evaluation, ambient water quality criteria documents from the
Criteria and Standards Division, and POTW removal efficiency data from the
Monitoring and Data Support Division.

     The data set for an industry specific CE analysis contains the following
information for each subcategory within the industry:

     •  Wastewater pollutants
     •  The pollution control options identified by EGD
     •  Annual volume of loadings by pollutant
        —  Currently, and at each BAT or PSES control level
     •  Toxic weighting factor for each pollutant
                                     2-3

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     •  POTW removal efficiencies (applicable to indirect
        dischargers only)
     •  Annualized costs for each control option (where
        results are adjusted to 1981 dollars for all
        industries).
     Criteria or toxicity values have been developed for all of the priority
pollutants and were taken from data in the 1980 Ambient Water Quality Criteria
Document (EP-440/5-80 Series).  Criteria for a few of the nonconventional
pollutants were taken from the Quality Criteria for Water, EPA-440/9-76-023,
EPA 1976 (the Red Book).

     POTW removal efficiencies were taken from one of three sources.  The pre-
ferred source was the 40-city study, U.S. EPA Determining National Removal
Credits for Selected Metals at POTWs, draft report, July 1981.  When data
were not available, then the POTW removal efficiency was taken from the 20-
city study, U.S. EPA Fate of Priority Pollutants in Publicly Owned Treatment
Works Interim Report, October, 1980, EPA-440/1-80-301.  When data were not
available from either of these studies, POTW removal efficiencies were taken
from the Federal Guidelines:  State and Local Pretreatment Programs Volume LL
Appendices 1-7, January 1977, EPA 430/9-76-0176b, Report 6.
                                     2-4

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                3.  COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS FOR FOUNDRIES

3.1  REGULATORY ALTERNATIVES

     In the process of developing the regulatory alternatives, EPA has exten-
sively studied the technical and economic characteristics of the metal casting
industry.  A discussion of the rationale for the regulatory alternatives as
well as general industry economic and technical characteristics appear in
the development document and the economic impact assessment report.  Four
regulatory alternatives were considered for the metal casting industry.  A
summary of these alternatives and their costs appears in the economic impact
analysis report.

3.2  ANALTYICAL APPROACH

3.2.1  Cost-Effectiveness Approach for Regulatory Alternative 1 and 2

     The industry information analyzed for this analysis included subcate-
gorization, pollutant concentrations, flows, and treatment costs.  The metal
casting industry was categorized first by product type.  The six basic pro-
ducts were aluminum, copper, iron products, lead, magnesium, and zinc.  The
iron products group was further subdivided into ductile iron, gray iron,
malleable iron, and steel.  As a result, nine product-based subcategories
were considered.  These groupings were also divided into direct and indirect
dischargers:  there are no lead producing direct dischargers nor magnesium
producing indirect dischargers.  Thus, 16 subcategories, listed in Table 3-1,
were studied.
                                     3-1

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         TABLE 3-1.  SUBCATEGORIZATION FOR THE METAL CASTING INDUSTRY
          DIRECT DISCHARGERS
          Aluminum
          Copper
          Ferrous-Duetile
          Ferrous-Gray Iron
          Ferrous-Malleable
          Ferrous-Steel
          Magnesium
          Zinc
INDIRECT DISCHARGERS
Aluminum
Copper
Ferrous-Duetile
Ferrous-Gray Iron
Ferrous-Malleable
Ferrous-Steel
Lead
Zinc
     The pollutant concentration information was provided on a pollutant
specific basis for each subcategory, with detail on effluents form -specific
productin processes.  For example, five processes in the aluminum subcategory
were identified as having water effluent:  investment casting, and casting
quench.  Concentration data were expressed in milligrams per liter for each
control option considered within each process-subcategory combination.

     The flow information was also categorized by process within each
subcategory.  Thus, pollutant loadings were derived by multiplying concentra-
tion by flow for each subcategory-process-control option combination.  These
loading results were then totaled across processes to yield pollutant loads
for each control option by subcategory.

     The cost information was arrayed by subcategory, process combination,
and control option.  The annual costs were totaled across processes to yield
costs for each subcategory-control option pair.

     The copper-based pollutant weights used in this analysis were provided
by OAE in a memo entitled Guide for Performing Cost-Effectiveness Analyses.
The weights for direct dischargers were extracted directly from the Guide.
The weights for indirect dischargers were derived by multiplying the copper-
based weight by the POTW removal factor.  The POTW removal factor reflects
                                     3-2

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the fraction of each pollutant loading that passes through a publicly owned

treatment work and is discharged to surface waters.  These factors were also

included in the Guide.   Any differences between the weights applied to direct

discharges and those applied to indirect discharges are due to the considera-

tion of pollutants removed during POTW treatment.


     The cost-effectiveness analysis for each of the regulatory alternatives

is summarized in equation (1) below:


(1)                      nr.         AS
                               n
                               I (Albi)(TWi)(STWi)
                               i
where

    CE = dollars per pound equivalent

     A$ = the incremental total annualized compliance cost

           )(TWi)(STWi) = the incremental changes in pound equivalents
                          discharged

        ^ = change in pounds discharged of toxic pollutant i (i.e., pounds
           removed

         = toxic weighting factor for pollutant i

         = number of toxic pollutants

          = one minus the secondary treatment efficiency factor for pollutant i
            (for direct dischargers STW =1).
                                     3-3

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    3.2.2  Cost-Effectiveness Approach for Regulatory Alternative 3 and 4

     This section reports on the approach that was used to provide cost-
effectiveness measures for the metal casting industry at the 90 percent and
50 percent recycle (regulatory alternative 3 and 4) levels.  A modified
approach was necessary because data (i.e., the amount of ammonia, antimony,
arsenic, etc. removed) on the specific types of pollutants removed by the
industry at these pollution control levels were not available.

     The total amount of effluent discharged by the industry at the 90 per-
cent and 50 percent recycle levels is provided by EPA's Effluent Guidelines
Division.  Table 3-2 below shows the amount of discharges for direct and
indirect dischargers at both levels.
TABLE 3-2. FOUNDRIES EFFLUENT DISCHARGES
(kilograms per year)
POLLUTANTS
Organics
Metals
'Conventional
Total
90% RECYCLE
DIRECT
17,301
2,098
74,137
93,536
INDIRECT
16,057
1,311
48,711
66,079
50% RECYCLE
DIRECT
17,325
6,398
225,729
249,452
INDIRECT
16,068
1,842
66,384
84,294
    SOURCE:  EPA, Effluent Guidelines Division.

     The amount of pollutants removed at the 90 percent and 50 percent recycle
levels by direct and indirect dischargers in the industry was determined by
                                     3-4

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subtracting the total amount of pollutant discharged at the 90 percent and
50 percent recycle levels from the current pollutant loadings.  Table 3-3 pro-
vides the current pollutant loadings and the estimated pollutant removals at
each treatment level and by their discharge status.
               TABLE 3-3.  FOUNDRIES BAT/PSES EFFLUENT REMOVALS
                              (pounds per year)
DISCHARGE
STATUS
Direct
Indirect
90% RECYCLE
CURRENT
DISCHARGE
4,341,161.6
279,711.6
POLLUTANT
REMOVALS
4,135,382.4
134,337.8
50% RECYCLE
CURRENT
DISCHARGE
4,341,161.6
279,711.6
POLLUTANT
REMOVALS
3,792,367.2
94,264.8
     The total number of pounds of pollutants removed was adjusted by toxicity
weighting factors to determine the pound equivalent of pollutants removed for
the treatment options.  Since effluent data were not available by specific
pollutant type, an alternative weighting technique was developed.  The pound
equivalent pollutants removed at the 90 percent and 50 percent recycle options
were determined using the relationship between pound equivalent pollutant
removed at the 100 percent recycle level and the current industry pollutant
loadings.  The approach is summarized below as follows:
(2)
Estimated Pound Eauivalent Removed =
                  Pound Equivalent 100% Recycle
                    Current Pollutant Loadings
                                  Estimated
                               Pollutant Removals
     Table 3-4 provides the estimates of  the  incremental pound equivalent
removed for the 90 percent and 50 percent recycle options.
                                     3-5

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               TABLE 3-4.  FOUNDRIES POUNDS EQUIVALENT REMOVED
               AT THE 90 PERCENT AND 50 PERCENT RECYCLE OPTIONS

TREATMENT OPTION
DISCHARGE STATUS
90% Recycle
Direct
Indirect
50% Recycle
Direct
Indirect
TOXIC
WEIGHTING
FACTOR!/

.139059
.0901789

.139059
.0901789
POLLUTANTS
REMOVED
(Ibs)

4,135,382
134,337

3,792,367
94,264
POUNDS
EQUIVALENT
REMOVED

575,062
12,114

527,362 •
8,500
   ]J Weighting factor is equal to the overall 100 percent recycle pounds
      equivalent removals divided by the current industry pollutant loadings
3.3  SELECTED POLLUTANTS

     The pollutants used in calculating CE ratios include all pollutants that
were considered for the regulation.  These include both pollutants that are
specifically regulated and certain nonregulated pollutants.  Although the
unregulated pollutants need not be monitored, they do provide a potential
benefit to the environment and, therefore, are included in the totals.  The
results of the CE analysis are highly sensitive to which pollutants are
included in the analysis.

     Exhibit 3-1 and 3-2 presents the pollutants and loadings for current
discharges and the selected options direct and indirect dischargers in the
                                     3-6

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metal casting industry.  For the direct subcategory the major pollutants in
terms of pounds currently discharged are ammonia, fluoride, and iron.  However,
when a measure of toxicity is incorporated, cadmium, lead, and sulfides con-
tribute the vast majority of pounds equivalent.  The largest current pollutant
loads (in pounds) for the indirect subcategory and ammonia, fluoride, and
iron.  The major pollutants after appliation of the copper-based weights (in
pounds equivalent) are cadmium, lead, and sulfides.

3.4  FINDINGS

     Tables 3-5 and 3-6 show the CE results for each option considered for
direct and indirect dischargers, respectively.  The selected options are
indicated by asterisks.  The cost-effectiveness figures shown are "incre-
mental" from the previous level except  for alternatives 3  and 4.  The regula-
tory alternatives are incremental from  current loadings.   Tables 3-5 and 3-6
present the current loadings and removals of each pollutant for each option
for direct and indirect dischargers, respectively.  Tables 3-7 and 3-8 pre-
sent inter-industrv comoarisons of cost-effectiveness.
                                      3-9

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          TABLE 3-6.  FOUNDRIES SUMMARY TABLF, OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS
                                   (S 1981)
TREATMENT OPTION
DISCHARGE STATUS
Alternative 1*
Direct
Indirect
Alternative 2
Direct
Indirect
Alternative 3.1/
Direct
Indirect
Alternative 4.i/
Direct
Indirect
INCREMENTAL
POUND-EQUIVALENT
REMOVED COOO)
602.0
25.0
1.7
0.2
575.1
12.1
527.4
8.5
INCREMENTAL
ANNUAL COST
($000)
10,220.96
11,011.28
1,507.24
2,329.05
10,083.80
10.883.90
9,918.70
10,883.90
INCREMENTAL
DOLLARS PER
POUND-EQUIVALENT
16.98
440.00
886.61
11,645.25
17.53
899.50
18.81
1,280.46
_•  Incremental of the current industry  loadings.

*Selected pollution control option.
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