U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Annapolis Field Office
      Annapolis Science Center
     Annapolis, Maryland  21401
         TECHNICAL REPORTS
           Volume 3

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                         Table of Contents

                             Volume 3
19         Potomac-Pi seataway Dye Release and Wastewater
           Assimilation Studies
21          LNEPLT


23         XYPLOT


25         PLOT3D
27         Water Quality and Wastewater Loadings
           Upper Potomac Estuary During 1969

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                            PUBLICATIONS

                U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                             REGION III
                       ANNAPOLIS FIELD OFFICE*


                              VOLUME 1
                          Technical  Reports

 5         A Technical  Assessment of Current Water Quality
           Conditions and Factors Affecting Water Quality in
           the Upper Potomac Estuary

 6         Sanitary Bacteriology of  the Upper Potomac Estuary

 7         The Potomac Estuary Mathematical Model

 9         Nutrients in the Potomac  River Basin

11         Optimal  Release Sequences for Water Quality Control
           in Multiple Reservoir Systems

                              VOLUME 2
                          Technical  Reports

13         Mine Drainage in the North Branch Potomac River Basin

15         Nutrients in the Upper Potomac River Basin

17         Upper Potomac River Basin Water Quality Assessment

                              VOLUME  3
                          Technical  Reports

19         Potomac-Pi seataway Dye Release and Wastewater
           Assimilation Studies

21         LNEPLT

23         XYPLOT

25         PLOT3D

     * Formerly CB-SRBP, U.S. Department of Health, Education,
       and Welfare; CFS-FWPCA, and CTSL-FWQA,  Middle Atlantic
       Region, U.S. Department of the Interior

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                             VOLUME  3   (continued)
                         Technical Reports


27         Water Quality and Wastewater Loadings - Upper Potomac
           Estuary during 1969


                             VOLUME  4
                         Technical Reports


29         Step Backward Regression

31         Relative Contributions of Nutrients to the Potomac
           River Basin from Various Sources

33         Mathematical Model Studies of Water Quality in the
           Potomac Estuary

35         Water Resource - Water Supply Study of the Potomac
           Estuary

                             VOLUME 5
                         Technical Reports


37         Nutrient Transport and Dissolved Oxygen Budget
           Studies in the Potomac Estuary

39         Preliminary Analyses of the Wastewater and Assimilation
           Capacities of the Anacostia Tidal River System

41         Current Water Quality Conditions and Investigations
           in the Upper Potomac River Tidal System

43         Physical Data of the Potomac  River Tidal System
           Including Mathematical Model  Segmentation

45         Nutrient Management  in the Potomac Estuary


                             VOLUME 6

                         Technical Reports


47         Chesapeake  Bay Nutrient Input Study

49         Heavy Metals Analyses of  Bottom  Sediment  in  the
           Potomac  River Estuary

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                                  VOLUME  6  (continued)

                              Technical  Reports

     51          A System of Mathematical Models for Water Quality
                Management

     52         Numerical Method for Groundwater Hydraulics

     53         Upper Potomac Estuary Eutrophication Control
                Requirements

     54         AUT0-QUAL Modelling System

Supplement      AUT0-QUAL Modelling System:  Modification for
   to 54        Non-Point Source Loadings

                                  VOLUME  7
                              Technical Reports

     55         Water Quality Conditions in the Chesapeake Bay System

     56         Nutrient Enrichment and Control Requirements in the
                Upper Chesapeake Bay

     57         The Potomac River Estuary in the Washington
                Metropolitan Area - A History of its Water Quality
                Problems and their Solution

                                  VOLUME  8
                              Technical Reports

     58         Application of AUT0-QUAL Modelling System to the
                Patuxent River Basin

     59         Distribution of Metals in Baltimore Harbor Sediments

     60         Summary and Conclusions - Nutrient Transport and
                Accountability in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin

                                  VOLUME  9

                                 Data Reports

                Water Quality Survey, James River and Selected
                Tributaries - October 1969

                Water Quality Survey in the North Branch Potomac River
                between Cumberland and Luke, Maryland - August 1967

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                            VOLUME 9  (continued)

                           Data Reports

           Investigation of Water Quality in Chesapeake Bay and
           Tributaries at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Department
           of the Army, Aberdeen, Maryland - October-December 1967

           Biological Survey of the Upper Potomac River and
           Selected Tributaries - 1966-1968

           Water Quality Survey of the Eastern Shore Chesapeake
           Bay, Wicomico River, Pocomoke River, Nanticoke River,
           Marshall Creek, Bunting Branch, and Chincoteague Bay -
           Summer 1967

           Head of Bay Study - Water Quality Survey of Northeast
           River, Elk River, C & D Canal, Bohemia River, Sassafras
           River and Upper Chesapeake Bay - Summer 1968 - Head ot
           Bay Tributaries

           Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary - 1967

           Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary - 1968

           Wastewater Treatment Plant Nutrient Survey - 1966-1967

           Cooperative Bacteriological Study - Upper Chesapeake Bay
           Dredging Spoil Disposal - Cruise Report No. 11

                            VOLUME 10
                           Data Reports

 9         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary - 1965-1966

10         Water Quality Survey of the Annapolis  Metro Area - 1967

11         Nutrient  Data on Sediment Samples of the Potomac Estuary
           1966-1968

12         1969 Head  of  the Bay Tributaries

13         Water Quality Survey of the Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity  of  Sandy  Point - 1968

14         Water Quality  Survey of the Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity  of  Sandy  Point - 1969

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                             VOLUME 10(continued)

                           Data Reports

15         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1967

16         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1968

17         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1969

18         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transects,
           Intensive and Southeast Water Laboratory Cooperative
           Study - 1969

19         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Phosphate
           Tracer Study - 1969

                             VOLUME 11
                            Data Reports

20         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transport Study
           1969-1970

21         Water Quality Survey of the Piscataway Creek Watershed
           1968-1970

22         Water Quality Survey of the Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy Point - 1970

23         Water Quality Survey of the Head of the Chesapeake Bay
           Maryland Tributaries - 1970-1971

24         Water Quality Survey of the Upper Chesapeake Bay
           1969-1971

25         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Consolidated
           Survey - 1970

26         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Dissolved Oxygen
           Budget Studies - 1970

27         Potomac Estuary Wastewater Treatment Plants Survey
           1970

28         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Embayments
           and Transects - 1970

29         Water Quality of the Upper Potomac Estuary Enforcement
           Survey - 1970

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   30


   31


   32
   33
   34
Appendix
  to 1
Appendix
  to 2
    3


    4
                  VOLUME 11  (continued)
                 Data Reports

Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary - Gilbert Swamp
and Allen's Fresh and Gunston Cove - 1970

Survey Results of the Chesapeake Bay Input Study -
1969-1970

Upper Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Studies - Bush River,
Spesutie Narrows and Swan Creek, C & D Canal, Chester
River, Severn River, Gunpowder, Middle and Bird Rivers -
1968-1971

Special Water Quality Surveys of the Potomac River Basin
Anacostia Estuary, Wicomico .River, St. Clement and
Breton Bays, Occoquan Bay - 1970-1971

Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1970

                  VOLUME 12

               Working Documents

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Danville, Pennsylvania and
Conowingo, Maryland

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Danville,
Pennsylvania and Conowingo, Maryland - November 1966

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Cooperstown, New York and
Northumberland, Pennsylvnaia - January 1967

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Cooperstown,
New  York and Northumberland, Pennsylvania - November 1966

                  VOLUME 13
               Working Documents

Water Quality and Pollution Control Study, Mine Drainage
Chesapeake  Bay-Delaware River Basins - July 1967

Biological  Survey of Rock Creek (from Rockville, Maryland
to  the  Potomac River)  October 1966

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                             VOLUME   13   (continued)

                          Working  Documents

 5         Summary of Water Quality  and  Waste  Outfalls,  Rock  Creek
           in Montgomery County, Maryland and  the  District of
           Columbia - December 1966

 6         Water Pollution Survey  -  Back River 1965 -  February  1967

 7         Efficiency Study of the District  of Columbia  Water
           Pollution Control  Plant - February  1967

                             VOLUME   14
                          Working Documents

 8         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study -  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland to  West Pittson
           (Including the Lackawanna River Basin)   March  1967

 9         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Juniata
           River Basin - March 1967

10         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Rappahannock
           River Basin - March 1967

11         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Susquehanna
           River Basin from Lake Otsego,  New York, to Lake  Lackawanna
           River Confluence, Pennsylvania -  April  1967

                             VOLUME 15
                          Working Documents

12         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, York  River
           Basin - April 1967

13         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, West  Branch,
           Susquehanna River Basin - April 1967

14         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, James River
           Basin - June 1967

15         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Patuxent  River
           Basin - May 1967

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                             VOLUME 16

                          Working Documents

16         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland, Pennsylvania,  to
           Havre de Grace, Maryland - July 1967

17         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Potomac
           River Basin - June 1967

18         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Central  Western
           Shore of Chesapeake Bay Area (Magothy, Severn,  South, and
           West River Drainage Areas)  July 1967

19         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Northwest
           Chesapeake Bay Area (Patapsco to Susquehanna Drainage
           Basins in Maryland) August 1967

20         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs - The Eastern
           Shore of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia -  September 1967

                             VOLUME 17
                           Working Documents

21         Biological Surveys of the Upper James River Basin
           Covington, Clifton Forge, Big Island, Lynchburg, and
           Piney River Areas - January 1968

22         Biological Survey of Antietam Creek and some of its
           Tributaries from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania to Antietam,
           Maryland - Potomac River Basin - February 1968

23         Biological Survey of the Monocacy River and Tributaries
           from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to Maryland Rt. 28 Bridge
           Potomac River Basin - January 1968

24         Water Quality Survey of Chesapeake Bay in the Vicinity of
           Annapolis, Maryland - Summer 1967

25         Mine Drainage Pollution of the North Branch of Potomac
           River - Interim Report - August 1968

26         Water Quality Survey in the Shenandoah River of the
           Potomac River Basin - June 1967

27         Water Quality Survey in the James and Maury Rivers
           Glasgow,  Virginia - September 1967

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                             VOLUME   13   (continued)

                          Working  Documents

 5         Summary of Water Quality  and  Waste  Outfalls,  Rock  Creek
           in Montgomery County, Maryland and  the  District of
           Columbia - December 1966

 6         Water Pollution Survey  -  Back River 1965 -  February  1967

 7         Efficiency Study of the District of Columbia  Water
           Pollution Control  Plant - February  1967

                             VOLUME   14

                          Working  Documents

 8         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study - Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland to  West Pittson
           (Including the Lackawanna River Basin)  March 1967

 9         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Juniata
           River Basin - March 1967

10         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Rappahannock
           River Basin - March 1967

11         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Lake Otsego, New York, to  Lake Lackawanna
           River Confluence, Pennsylvania - April  1967

                             VOLUME  15
                          Working  Documents

12         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  York River
           Basin - April 1967

13         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  West Branch,
           Susquehanna River Basin - April 1967

14         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  James River
           Basin - June 1967 .

15         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Patuxent  River
           Basin - May 1967

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                             VOLUME 16
                          Working Documents

16         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland, Pennsylvania,  to
           Havre de Grace, Maryland - July 1967

17         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Potomac
           River Basin - June 1967

18         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Central  Western
           Shore of Chesapeake Bay Area (Magothy, Severn,  South, and
           West River Drainage Areas)  July 1967

19         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Northwest
           Chesapeake Bay Area (Patapsco to Susquehanna Drainage
           Basins in Maryland) August 1967

20         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs - The Eastern
           Shore of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia - September 1967

                             VOLUME 17
                           Working Documents

21         Biological Surveys of the Upper James River Basin
           Covington, Clifton Forge, Big Island, Lynchburg, and
           Piney River Areas - January 1968

22         Biological Survey of Antietam Creek and some of its
           Tributaries from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania to Antietam,
           Maryland - Potomac River Basin - February 1968

23         Biological Survey of the Monocacy River and Tributaries
           from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to Maryland Rt. 28 Bridge
           Potomac River Basin - January 1968

24         Water Quality Survey of Chesapeake Bay in the Vicinity of
           Annapolis, Maryland - Summer 1967

25         Mine Drainage Pollution of the North Branch of Potomac
           River - Interim Report - August 1968

26         Water Quality Survey in the Shenandoah River of the
           Potomac River Basin - June 1967

27         Water Quality Survey in the James and Maury Rivers
           Glasgow,  Virginia - September 1967

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                             VOLUME  17  (continued)

                           Working Documents

28         Selected Biological  Surveys in the James River Basin,
           Gillie Creek in the  Richmond Area, Appomattox River
           in the Petersburg Area, Bailey Creek from Fort Lee
           to Hopewell - April  1968

                             VOLUME  18
                           Working Documents

29         Biological  Survey of the Upper and Middle Patuxent
           River and some of its Tributaries - from Maryland
           Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury Mills to the Maryland
           Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner, Maryland -
           Chesapeake Drainage Basin - June 1968

30         Rock Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study Report
           March 1969

31         The Patuxent River - Water Quality Management -
           Technical Evaluation - September 1969

                             VOLUME 19
                          Working Documents

           Tabulation, Community and Source Facility Water Data
           Maryland Portion, Chesapeake Drainage Area - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Patuxent River Basin - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Potomac River Basin below Washington, D.C.- November 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Chesapeake Bay Area of Maryland Excluding Potomac
           and Patuxent River Basins - January 1965

           The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections -
           February 1968

           Patuxent River - Cross Sections and Mass Travel
           Velocities - July 1968

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                            VOLUME  19  (continued)

                         Working Documents

          Wastev;ater Inventory - Potomac River Basin -
          December 1968

          Wastewater Inventory - Upper  Potomac River Basin -
          October 1968

                            VOLUME 20
                         Technical Papers -

 1         A Digital Technique for Calculating and Plotting
          Dissolved Oxygen Deficits

 2         A River-Mile  Indexing System for Computer Application
          in Storing and Retrieving Data      (unavailable)

 3         Oxygen  Relationships in Streams, Methodology to be
          Applied when  Determining the Capacity of a Stream to
          Assimilate Organic Wastes - October 1964

 4         Estimating Diffusion Characteristics of Tidal Waters -
          May  1965

 5         Use  of  Rhodamine B Dye as a Tracer in Streams of the
          Susquehanna  River Basin - April 1965

 6         An  In-Situ Benthic Respirometer - December 1965

 7         A Study of Tidal Dispersion in the Potomac River
          February  1966

 8         A Mathematical Model for the Potomac River - what it
          has  done  and what it can do - December 1966

 9         A Discussion and Tabulation of Diffusion Coefficients
          for  Tidal Waters Computed as a  Function of Velocity
           February  1967

10          Evaluation of Coliform  Contribution by Pleasure Boats
          July 1966

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                            VOLUME  21

                         Technical Papers

11        A Steady State Segmented Estuary Model

12        Simulation of Chloride Concentrations  in the
          Potomac Estuary - March 1968

13        Optimal Release Sequences for Water Quality
          Control in Multiple-Reservoir Systems  - 1968


                            VOLUME  22
                         Technical  Papers

          Summary Report - Pollution of Back River -  January 1964

          Summary of Water Quality - Potomac River Basin in
          Maryland - October 1965

          The Role of Mathematical  Models in the Potomac River
          Basin Water Quality Management Program - December 1967

          Use of Mathematical Models as Aids to Decision Making
          in Water Quality Control  - February 1968

          Piscataway Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study
          Report - August 1968


                            VOLUME  .23
                        Ocean Dumping Surveys

          Environmental  Survey of an Interim Ocean Dumpsite,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - September 1973

          Environmental  Survey of Two Interim  Dumpsites,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - January 1974

          Environmental  Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites
          Middle Atlantic Bight - Supplemental  Report -
          October 1974

          Effects of Ocean Disposal  Activities on Mid-
          continental Shelf Environment off Delaware
          and Maryland - January 1975

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                            VOLUME 24

                           1976 Annual
               Current Nutrient Assessment -  Upper Potomac  Estuary
               Current Assessment Paper No. 1

               Evaluation of Western Branch Wastewater Treatment
               Plant Expansion - Phases I  and  II

               Situation Report - Potomac  River

               Sediment Studies in Back River  Estuary, Baltimore,
               Maryland

Technical      Distribution of Metals in Elizabeth River Sediments
Report 61

Technical      A Water Quality Modelling Study of the Delaware
Report 62      Estuary

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   Chesapeake Technical Support Laboratory
            Middle Atlantic Region
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
       U. 3. r>epartmerit of the Interior
              POTOMAC-PISCATA; /AY
                 LYE RELEASE"

                     AKD
        v / AT TEWATTCR A.-.: o IKTLATIOH STUDIED
              "lortert A.  Ja.vocc-.ii
                      and
             •' ant;s } 1. -Jon ;\so.1,  Jr .
            'TechnicaJ Report  Ho.  19

                 De-emter  l.^'.9
          JohanA. Aalto,  Chief,,  CTSL
               Field Survey  Crew:

            Robert- L. Vallandiagham
                Alan l-Cirochtaiim
                 G-erald Donovan

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                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                             Page

FOREWCRD	           iv

LIST OF FIGURES	            v

LIST OF TABLES	         viii

Chapter

   I    INTRODUCTION	            I - 1

        A.   Purpose and Scope  	            1-1

        B.   Authority	            1-2

        C.   Adaiowledgments	            1-3

  II    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS	           II - 1

 III    DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA	          Ill - 1

  IV    SURFACE DYE RELEASE NEAR PROPOSED POTOMAC
        OUTFALL LOCATION   	           IV - 1

        A.   Release Conditions	           IV - 1

        B.   Transect Locations and Monitoring
               System	           IV - 3

            1.  Analytical Measurements	           IV - 3
            2.  Visual Monitoring	           IV - 3

        C.   Analysis of Dye Release Data	           IV - 4

   V    SUBSURFACE RELEASE NEAR PROPOSED POTOMAC
        OUTFALL LOCATION   	            V - 1

        A.   Release Conditions	            V - 1

        B.   Transect Locations and Monitoring
               System	            V-l

        C.   Analysis of Dye Release Data	            V-l

            1.  Dye Intrusion	            V-l
            2.  Time of Travel	            V-3
            3.  Dispersion Coefficient  	            V -15
                                 ii

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.)

Chapter                                                         Page

  VI      PISCATAWAY EMBAYMENT DYE RELEASE                      VI -  1

          A.  Release CondlLions	    VI -  1

          B.  Transect Locations and Monitoring
                System   	    VI -  1

          C.  Analysis of Dye Release Data	    VI-  3

 VII      ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS                           VII -  1

          A.  Dispersion	   VII -  1

          B.  Dilution and Transport	   VTI -  2

          C.  Intrusion Into Embayments	   VII - 13

          D.  Time of Travel	   VII - 1k-

          E.  Discussion of Considerations	   VII - 16

          APPENDIX

          A.  Mathematical Models  .  .	     A -  1

          B.  Determination of Dispersion Coefficient  ...     B -  1

          C.  Pioeataway Creer. Survey	     C -  1

          GLOSSARY

          BIBLIOGRAPHY

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                                FOREWORD




     The determination of the assimilation capacity of tidal waters




receiving wastewater discharges is complicated not only "by tidal




excursion but by hydrographic features such as fresh water inflow




that may affect mixing and dispersion.  Ety-e studies, in conjunction




with the use of mathematical models, are feasible means of investi-




gating the effects of various parameters on water quality at both




present and proposed outfall locations.




     Previous studies have shown that nutrient intrusions into the




lower portion of the Piscataway Embayment from the Potomac Estuary




are far greater than the contribution from the Piscataway Wastewater




Treatment Plant located in the upper portion of the embayment.   However,




it was not known what nutrient concentrations could be expected within




the embayment under higher anticipated loading to the Piscataway plant




if the outfall remained in the embayment.




     A need existed for a stud,} of the effects on water quality of




alternative locations of the discharge from the Piscataway plant.




While this report presents the results of dye and mathematical model




simulation studies for the proposed Potomac Estuary and current out-




fall locations from the Piscataway Wastewater Treatment Plant,




techniques and findings may give insight to other wastewater outfalls




currently discharging into embayinents of the Potomac Estuary.

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LIST OF FIGURES
Number
m_ i
-*-
m_ ?
t_
III- 3
IV- 1
IV- 2
IV- 3
IV- k
IV- 5
IV- 6
IV- 7
IV- 8
V- 1
V- 2
V- 3
V- k
V- 5
V- 6
V- 7
V- 8
V- 9
V-10
V-ll


Potomac Estuary Study Area . 	
Potomac Estuary Chloride Concentration . ...
Potomac Estuary near the Piscatavay Enibayment . . .
Dye Release Sampling Stations - December 1968 . . .
Tidal Stages for Potomac near Piscataway
December 10, 1968 	
Dye Position at 9:00 A.M. December 10, 1968 . . .
Dye Position at 10:00 A.M. December 10, 1968 . . .
Dye Position at 11:00 A.M. December 10, 1968 . . .
Dye Position at 1:00 P.M. December 10, 1968 . . .
Dye Position at 3:00 P.M. December 10, 1968 . . .
Dye Concentration Isopleth - December 12, 1968 . .
Dye Concentration Isopleth - April 26, 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - April 30, 1969 • • •
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May 2, 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May 5> 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May 5, 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May 7, 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May 10, 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May 13, 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May Ik, 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May 20, 1969 ....
Spacial Concentration of Dye - May 26, 1969 ....
V
Page
III- k
J__i_^_ ^r
m_ 5
x
III- 7
IV- 2
IV- 6
IV- 7
IV- 8
IV- 9
IV-lO
I V-ll
IV- 12
V- 4
V- 5
V- (>
V- 7
V- 8
V- 9
V-10
V-ll
V-12
V-13
V-14


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                      LIST OF FIGURES  (Continued)

Number
	- -IL i-__i_                                                             1.1 i mii

  V-12      Peak Concentration Movement Rate	     V-16

  V-13      Low Water Tidal Heights    	     V-17

  V-1^4-      Dispersion Coefficient vs  Distance  from
              Chain Bridge    	     V-20

 VI- 1      Transect Locations - June  16, 1969	•    VI- 2.

 VI- 2      Dye Concentration Isopleth - June 18, 1969   ...    VI- h

 VI- 3      Dye Concentration Isopleth - June 20, 1969   .  .  .    VI- 5

 VI- ^      Dye Concentration Isopleth - June 23, 1969   .  •  •    VI- 6

 VI- 5      Dye Concentration Isopleth - June 26, 1969   .  .  .    VI- 7

VII- 1      Simulated Pollutant Profiles - Potomac
              River Estuary   	VII- 5

VII- 2      Piscataway Creek Surveys - TPO,  as  PO,^	VII- 6

VII- 3      Piscataway Creek Surveys - TK5I as N	VII- 7

VII- 4      Piscataway Creek Surveys - Chlorophyll a   ....   VII- 8

VII- 5      Piscataway Creek Surveys - DO	VII- 9

VII- 6      Simulated Pollutant Profiles - Piscataway
              Embaysient   	   V1I-10

VII- 7      Peak Movement for Varying  Flows - Potomac
              Estuary    	   VTI-15
  A- 1      Interface Cross-sectional Area vs Distance   ...     A~ 3

  B- 1      Upier Potomac Estuary - April 30, 1969	     B- 2

  B- C      u].,-;r Potomac Estuary - May  2, 1969	     B- 4

  B- 3      Upper Potomac Estuary - May  5, 1969	     B- 6

  B- ^      Upper Po-comac Estuary - May  5, 1969	     B~ 8

                                vi
o

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                      LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Number                                                             Page
  B- 5      Upper Potomac Estuary - May  7, 1969	    B-10
  B- 6      Upper Potomac Estuary - May 10, 1969	    B-12
  B- 7      Upper Potomac Estuary - May 13, 1969	    B-14
  B- 8      Upper Potomac Estuary - May iV, 1969	    B-16
  B- 9      Upper Potomac Estuary - May 20, 1969	    B-18
  B-10      Upper Potomac Estuary - May 26, 1969	    B-20
  B-ll      Piscatavay Creek - June 20,  1969	,  .   .    B-22
  B-12      Piscataway Creek - June 23,  1969	    B-24
                                      vii

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                             LIST OF TABLES




Number                                                             Page
III-
V-
V-
VII-
VII-
B-
B-
B-
B-
B-
B-
B-
B-
B-
1
1
2.
1
2
1
2
3
if
5
6
T
8
9
B-10
B-ll
B-12
Wastevater Loadings
Intensive Survey,
Potomac Estuary Sam;
Dispersion Coefficii
Potomac Estuary
Potomac Estuary Phyi
Nutrient Loadings -
Treatment Facilit:
Potomac Estuary Dye
Potomac
Potomac
Potomac
Potomac
Potonac
Potomac
Potomac
Potomac
Potomac
Estuary
Estuary
Estuary
Sstuary
Estuary
Estuary
Estuary
Estuary
Estuary
Dye
Dye
Dye
Dye
Dye
Dye
Dye
Dye
Dye
- Potomac Estu)
August 11-18, .
pling Stations
snt Summary -
ary
1969




sical Parameters
Piscataway Wastewater
f 	 	
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Piscataway Creek Dye Analysis
Piscataway Creek
Dye Analysis
- April 30, 1969 • •
- May
- May
- May
- May
- May
- May
- May
- May
- May
2,
5,
5,
1,
10,
13,
i*,
20,
26,
1969 . . .
1969 . . .
1969 • • •
1969 • • •
1969 . . .
1969 . . .
1969 . . •
1969 . . .
1969 . . .
- June 20, 1969 . .
- June 23
, 1969 . •
Ill- 2
V- 2
V-19
VII- 3
VII -12
B- 3
B- 5
B- 7
B- 9
B-ll
B-13
B-15
B-17
B-19
B-21
B-23
B-25
                                viii

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                       LIST OF TABLES (Continued)




Number                                                            Page




  C- 1       Piscataway Creek Survey - 1968   	    C- 1




  C- 2       Piscatavay Creek Survey - April 30-May 1,  1969 .  .    C- 4




  C- 3       Piscataway Creek Survey - May 13,  1969   	    C- 5




  C- U       Piscatavay Creek Survey - June 23,  1969	    C- 6




  C- 5       Piscataway Creek Survey - July 15,  1969	    C- 7




  C- 6       Piscataway Creek Survey - August 5,  1969	    C- 8




  C- 7       Piscatavay Creek Survey - December  8,  1969 ....    C- 9
                                   ix

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                                                                1-1






                             CHAPTER I



                            INTRODUCTION



A.  PURPOSE AND SCOPE



    As part of the Chesapeake Bay-Susquehanna River Basins Project,



the Chesapeake Technical Support Laboratory (CTSL)* of the Middle



Atlantic Region, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration



(FWPCA) has undertaken an extensive water quality management study



of the Potomac River Basin.  A significant part of this study has



been to determine the effect of organic matter including nutrients



on the water quality in the upper Potomac Estuary.



    In the early summer of 1968, there was considerable public



interest in the operation of the new Piscataway Wastewater Treat-



ment Plant (PWTP) and the effect of the highly-treated plant



effluent on water quality in the Piscataway embayment.  An inves-



tigation was made and a report prepared by CTSL on operation of



the plant and effect on water quality conditions in the Piscataway



embayment [1] .



    One of the recommendations in the report was the extension of



the outfall to the main channel of the Potomac Estuary as originally



proposed by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC).  To



assist in the engineering analysis, dye releases were made in the



vicinity of the proposed outfall point and in the embayment to









*  Formerly Chesapeake Field Station

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                                                                1-2






aid  in determining the following:



     1.  The amount of possible direct intrusion of treated effluent



into the embayment during the first flood tide,



     2.  The transport of wastewater constituents into and out of



the  Piscataway embayment from the Potomac Estuary during tidal



flushing,



     3.  The possible use of aerial photography as a means of



supplementing fluorometric dye studies,



     4.  A comparison of the dispersion capacity of the Piscataway



embayment and the Potomac Estuary by use of a "dispersion coeffici-



ent," and



     5.  The verification of the previously determined dispersion



coefficients required in the use of mathematical models of the




Potomac Estuary.



     This study was limited to diffusion, dispersion, and dilution



effects of the receiving water.  Studies are currently being made



by CTSL on specific wastewater treatment requirements by zones



and  nutrient transport mechanisms required to investigate and



develop alternative water management plans for the upper estuary.



B.  AUTHORITY



    This report is prepared under the provisions of the Federal



Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33 tf.S.C. 466 eฃ sea.)



which directed the Secretary of the Interior to develop programs



for eliminating pollution of interstate waters in cooperation



with other federal agencies, state water pollution control

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                                                               1-3
agencies, and the municipalities and industries involved.

C.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    The assistance and cooperation of the following agencies is

gratefully acknowledged:

          Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission
          Maryland State Department of Health
          Maryland Department of Water Resources
          Maryland Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs
          NFIC, FWPCA, Cincinnati, Ohio

Their contributions enabled CTSL to collect, assemble, and evalu-

ate the necessary data in a much shorter tine period than would

otherwise have been required.  Special acknowledgment is made for

the aerial photography provided by C. L. Robey of the Division of

Marine Police, Maryland Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs.

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                                                                II-l
                             CHAPTER II
                      SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

     Two dye releases were made in the main channel of the Potomac
Estuary to simulate the movement of the effluent from the proposed
outfall of the Piscataway Wastewater Treatment Plant.  A third
release was made in the upper portion of the Piscataway embayment
to study movement of an effluent discharged in that area.  Based on
the data from the releases and the results from numerous simulations
by mathematical models of the upper estuary, and of the Piscataway
embayment, the following summary and conclusions were prepared:
     1.  Res-alts of the first study in which dye was released
at the surface indicated that direct intrusion into the embayment
(on the first tidal cycle with no mixing) would occur if the
Piscataway Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP
outfall were placed
at a 20 foot depth at the proposed location
     2.  No direct intrusion was observed during the second dye
release which was made at the same general location but at a depth
of kO feet.  After two tidal cycles, intrusion of dye into the
embayment was confirmed.  The intrusion was by a well-mixed dye,
similar in concentration to that in the Potomac, and not by a "slug"'
as occurred during the first flood tide after surface release.
     3.  The average time of travel of the peak dye concentration,
although greatly affected by wind conditions, showed good agreement
with values calculated by the Potomac Estuary mathematical model.

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                                                                  II-2





     4.  The dye release in the upper Piscataway embayment, in




which there is very little fresh water flow, indicated that move-




ment of the dye is caused mainly by tidal dispersion. Approximately




three weer.s were required for the dye to diffuse out of the




embayment.




     5.  Dispersion coefficients determined from data from the sub-




surface Potomac dye release were consistent with values previously




calculated from an earlier dye study and from salinity intrusion




data.




     6.  The dispersion coefficients in the Potomac Estuary near




Washington, D. C. are about 0.0^ square miles per day (smpd) and




increase downstream as a function of the cross-sectional area




with a maximum value of 10.0 smpd near the Chesapeake Bay.




     7.  The dispersion coefficient is about 0.66 smpd in the




Potomac Estuary near the Piscataway embayment and about 0.05 smpd




in the embayment.




     8.  Visual observation of the dye as well as use of aerial photo-




graphy were most helpful during the initial days.  Visible movement




can be detected over large areas in a relatively short time.




     9-  The results of these investigations indicated that the




following should be considered in locating any outfall in the upper




Potomac Estuary:




          a.  Relative locations of existing and proposed waste-




          water outfall s,




          b.  Dispersion characteristics of the receiving water,

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                                                               II-3


         c.  Effects of dilution and transport as influenced by


    cross-sectional areas and tidal exchange, and


         d.  Protection of high water quality use areas such as


    shellfish beds.


    10.  Mathematical model simulations indicate that the Potomac


Estuary near the proposed outfall has, about a hundred-fold greater


capacity to receive and transport a pollutant than does the


Piscataway embayment.


    11.  Based on the dye release, water quality surveys and mathe-


matical simulations, the most advantageous wastewater discharge


locations (in terms of a predicted response to a given pound loading


of waste) appears to be the main channel of the Potomac Estuary and


not in embayments with relatively small fresh water inflow rates


such as the Piscataway embayment.


    12.  In order to maintain the same increase in nutrient levels


in the Piscataway embayment as used in developing the removal require-


ments for the main stem of the Potomac Estuary, the maximum loadings   i/


of phosphorus and nitrogen were determined to be 50 and 250 Ibs/day,


respectively.


    13.  With the proposed expansion of the Piscataway Waste Treatment


Plant capacity to 15 mgd, the removal requirements for phosphorus and

                                                                          ; ,
nitrogen as recommended by the conferees in the recent Potomac Enforce-


ment Conference will result in nutrient concentrations in the upper


Piscataway embayment similar to those in the main channel of the


Potomac Estuary.

-------
                                                              Il-k
    ik .   Any significant expansion over the lr> :ngd system will




require nutrient removal above that recommended by the Enforcement




Conference.

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                            CHAPTER III



                     DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA



    The  Potomac River Basin is the second largest watershed in the



 Middle Atlantic States.   Its tidal portion begins at Little Falls in



 the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area and extends 116 miles south-



 eastward to the Chesapeake Bay,  (Figure III-l)



    The  estuary is several hundred feet in width at its head near



 Washington and broadens to nearly six miles at its mouth,  A



 shipping channel with a minimum depth of 24 feet is maintained in



 the estuary up to Washington.  Except for the channel and a small



 reach just below Chain Bridge where depths up to 80 feet are found,



 the estuary is relatively shallow with an average cross-sectional



 depth usually less than 15 feet.



    The  upper tidal portion of the estuary from Marshall Hall at



 River Mile 21.5 to Washington contains fresh water.  In the middle



 portion  of the estuary from Marshall Hall to Indian Head at River



 Mile 29.5, there is a transition zone from fresh water to brackish



 water.   The upper boundary of the salt wedge varies with fresh water



 in flow  and tidal stage.  Figure III-2 exhibits the intrusion of



 salt from the Chesapeake Bay measured during an intensive survey in



September, 1966 when the fresh water flow was about 780 cfs.



    The  effluent from 12 wastewater treatment plants,  serving a



population of about 2,500,000 people,  is discharged into the upper



estuary.   (Table III-l)

-------
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-------
                                                            LOCATION MAP
                         71 ESTXARY SEGMENT
                         • MAJOR  \WSTE  TREATMENT PLANTS
                         A G*3NO  STATION
                         !-i POTOMAC RIVEN <* wtASHNGTON, ac
                         A OSTHICT Of CQtjuMBA
                         8 AHLNGTON COUNTY
                         C ALEXANDRIA SAMTARV ALnXORtTV
                         0 FARFAX COUNT> - WESTGATt CLANT
                         E FAJRFAX COUNTY - LITTLE HUNTING CREEK PLANT
                         f rMftx OX*TV -  DfJfMt CREW PLANT
                         G V*SHINGTDN SUBURB SANITARY COMMISSION - PSCATAWiY
                         H ANDREWS AR FORCr  BASE  - PLANTS *l oM *4
                  SCALฃ  M  MLES
POTOMAC       ESTUARY

-------
Q.  I-
O  O
                                                                                                      FIGURE  m - a

-------
                                                             Ill- 6



     Fig'iire  III-3  shows  the  Piscataway  embayment  and it's  location


along the  estuary  which  1s about  l8.2 miles  from  Chain Bridge.   The


embayment  is about 2.6 miles  long with  an average depth of U -feet and


a width averaging  from 2,000 to l+.OOO feet.


     The Piscataway  Creek watershed  has a drainage are*a,of 31..5


Square mile.? .  The maximum, mean,  and minimum flowo  for a stream

                                                                 e
paging station established in 1965 near Piscataway.,  Maryland,  with


a, drainage arซa of 39-5  square miles, were approximately  328,  20,  and.


0 cfs, rcc.f ectively.  Using the longer  term  record'"  for Heri^ou  Creek,


with a drainage area of  16.7  square  miles  in the  adjacent watershed,


the average annual flow  for the entire  watershed  was  estimated to  be


about 90 cfs.


     Using a tidal prism height of 2.it  feet  and a surface area, of


39,100,000 square  feet,  93,8^0,000 cubic feet  of  water, or about 700


million gallons enter and leave Piscataway embayment  during each tidal


cycle.  This tidal movement of about 2,000 cfo, when  compared  to the

average fresh water flow of 90 cfs,  is  one of  the main  driving  force?

for most of the mixing and transport of any pollutant in  the lower

portion of the embayment near the confluence with the Potomac Estuary.

-------
   POTOMAC  ESTUARY
         near  fhซ
PISCATAWAY  EMBAYMENT
       SCALE IN MILES
                                MGURE. IE - 3

-------

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                                                                IV-1


                              CHAPTER IV

      SURFACE DYE RELEASE NEAR PROPOSED POTOMAC OUTFALL LOCATION

     The  intrusion of a pollutant into the Piscataway embayment from

 the proposed outfall of the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission

 facility was simulated by a surface dye release.  Use of aerial

 photography as a means of supplementing fluorometric dye studies

 was also investigated during the release.

 A.  RELEASE CONDITIONS

     Approximately 1,000 feet from the shoreline and in about 20

 feet of  water, 250 pounds of Rhodamine WT dye were released

 instantaneously at the surface of the site of the proposed outfall

 in the Potomac channel.  A map of the area shows the release point

 (Figure  IV-1).  The red channel marker "N 76" was used as the pri-

 mary reference point.

     To simulate the flow of the effluent into the embayment under

 the most adverse conditions, the release was made during low slack

 water or when the tidal velocity was zero following a low tide.*

 On December 10, 1968, the following were the tidal stages for the

 Potomac near Fort Washington:

           Low tide            6:06 a.m.

           Low slack water     6:47 a.m.

           Time of dye dump    8:00 a.m.**
 *  In the Potomac Estuary, low slack water lags low tide by about
    3/4 of an hour

**  The release was scheduled for 6:47 a.m. but was delayed by ice
    conditions

-------
CO
   FIGURE   3Z

-------

-------
                                                                IV-3





 Figure IV -2 is  a  graphical presentation of tidal  conditions  for the



 release date.



 B.   TRANSECT LOCATIONS  AND MONITORING SYSTEM



     During the  first  flood tidal  stage, dispersion and  movement of



 the dye were monitored using both  analytical measurements  of  concen-



 tration at predetermined  transects  and  visually from  a  helicopter.



 During the two  days following the release,  only analytical measure-



 ments  were made.



 1.   Analytical  Measureiqents



     To facilitate dye detection,  eight  transects  in the Potomac



 Estuary and three in  the  Piscataway embayment were established.



 (Figure IV-l)   Discrete samples were  taken  at various depths and



 locations  across  each transect.



     The concentration of  dye in the samples was measured using  a



 fluorometer equipped  with excitation  and light  emission filter



 designed to measure selectively the fluorescence  of the dye being



 used.   With this  tracer measurement system, a sensitivity of about



 0.01 parts  per  billion  (ppb) was attained.



 2 .  Visual
    As an experiment, visual observations were also made of the



dye movement from a helicopter.  Photographs were taken at ele-



vations varying from 300 to 600 feet using Ektachrome high speed



color film at shutter speeds of about 1/500 of a second.  Flights



were made at 8:00 a.m., 9:00 a.m., 10:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m., 1:00 p.m.,



and 3:00 p.m.  The weather was clear except for some cloud cover

-------
during the 3:00 p.m. flight.



C.  ANALYSIS OF DYE RELEASE DATA



    As can be seen in Figures IV-3, TV-4, and IV-5, the dye moved



upstream hugging the Maryland shoreline at the confluence of the



Piscataway embayment and the estuary upstream near Fort Washington.



This caused a slight dye intrusion into and out of the Piscataway



embayment resulting in a horseshoe configuration.




    During flood tide, the movement of dye in this configuration



was from the southern shore to the northern shore as shown in



Figure IV-5.  A slight intrusion^Lnto Swan Creelc can also be seen




in Figure IV-4.



    At 11:00 a.m., the upstream movement was about at its maximum



limit with an upstream excursion of approximately 4.0 miles.  To



allow for the delay in starting, the total upstream movement was



estimated to be about 4.5 miles.



    In Figures IV 6 and IV-7, the downstream movement of dye can



be seen during the first phase of ebb tide.  High tidal currents



in the main channel near Fort Washington caused the dye to disperse



fairly rapidly.  The net downstream movement during *bb tide was



estimated to be about 5.3 miles.  With this ebb tide excursion,



the effluent from the proposed outfall would almost reach Guneton



Cove.



    During the afternoon flights, no significant dye concentrations



were observed visually in the embayment.  Some samples of water



taken in the embayment during the afternoon sampling runs contained

-------

-------
                                                                TV-S
very small concentrations of dye.




     During the first tidal cycle, the dye layered at the surface.




This appears to have been caused by the density difference between




the cold water and the dye and to a lesser degree in the erabayinent




by ice conditions.




     After four complete tidal cycles, the dye was fairly well




dispersed both vertically and horizontally.  As can be seen in




Figure TV-8, the concentration was in the main channel at the




confluence.




     When dye distribution configurations in Figures 3TV-3 through




IV-7 are compared, it can readily be seen that during flood tide




the bulk of dye remained relatively concentrated.  However., during




ebb tide, the dye appeared to diffuse and disperse much more




rapidly.  Lack of adequate fluorometer data makes accurate calcu-




lation of dispersion coefficients  impossible.

-------
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-------
      DYE   POSITION
             at
*•
9:00 A.M., DECEMBER 10, 1968
„     POTOMAC   ESTUARY
                                               rCRT  WASHIMGTQ
                                                NATIONAL PARK

-------
                         \ I
     DYE   POSITION
             at
10:00 A.M., DECEMBER 10, 1968"   \
     POTOMAC ESTUARY

-------
       DYE   POSITION
               at
  i 1:00 A.M., DECEMBER 10,  1968 !l
       POTOMAC ESTUARY
                                                     WASHINGTO
                                                 NATIONAL  PARK
""-•OPOSeO
    O' ' 'ALL'

-------
       DYE   POSITION

               at

  1:00  P.M., DECEMBER K),  19681
                              ij
       POTOMAC -ESTUARY        >
PROPOSED
                                                     WASMINGTO

                                                NATIONAL PARK
                                                                            FIGURE  TV - F

-------
        DYE   POSITION
                at

  3:00  P.M., DECEMBER  10,  ฃ68

        POTOMAC  ESTUARY
                                                rORT  WASHINGTO
                                                 NATIONAL
DDOPO-SฃD
x   O1 IT'ALL''
                                                                            FIGURF  PJ-7

-------

-------
 DYE  CONCENTRATIONS  ISOPLETH
               (ppb)
          DECEMBER  12, 1968
'                11:30
          POTOMAC  ESTUARY
           FORT  HUNT
          NATIONAL PARK
                                                   FORT WASHINGTON
                                                    NATIONAL  PARK
                                                                              FIGURE  ffi-8

-------
                                                                V-l






                             CHAPTER V



     SUBSURFACE RELEASE NEAR PROPOSED POTOMAC OUTFALL LOCATION




    The direct intrusion of a pollutant into the embayment, time of



travel, and the dispersion characteristics of the upper Potomac



Estuary were simulated by a subsurface release.



A.  RELEASE CONDITIONS



    On April 25, 1969, 750 pounds of 20 percent concentration of



Rhodamine WT dye were instantaneously released during low tide at



9:00 a.m.  The dye was pumped down to a depth of 40 feet below the



surface about 1,500 feet from the shoreline in the same general



location as the previous release (Figure IV-l).  The average fresh



water flow into the estuary during the release was about 4,700 cfs.



B.  TRANSECT LOCATIONS AND MONITORING SYSTEM



    Samples were taken at all points indicated in Table V-l and



shown in Figure IV-1.  Monitoring was done on a daily basis, either



by CTSL personnel or by Steuart Petroleum Company personnel in con-



junction with a nutrient transport study.  The dye was followed for



22 days to provide the necessary data required to determine the



objectives of the atudy.



C.  ANALYSIS OF DYE RELEASE DATA



1.  Dye Intrusion



    During the first flood tide following the release, no dye was



detected in the embayment.   About one hour after the release a



considerable amount of dye was  observed at the surface in the main



channel of the Potomac Estuary  near the Fort Washington lighthouse.

-------

-------
                                                                7-2
                             Table V-l

                 POTCWAC ESTUARY SAMPLING STATIONS
                           April 25, 1969
                            Dye Studies
Station                                  Miles From Chain Bridge

   A                                              14.6

   B                                              15.6

   C                                              17.1

   D                                              17.6

   H                                              18.2

   J                                              19.4

   K                                              20.4

   L                                              21.6

   M                                              22.5

   N                                              24.3

   0                                              24.8

   P                                              26.0

   Q                                              26.3

   R                                              27.2

   S                                               29.5

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-------
                                                                  V-3
Based upor: iluororaetric readings, it appears  that  considerable  quan-




tities of dye came to the surface as a result of turbulence  caused




by a change in channel direction and elevation.  As with  the  first




release, the maximum excursion during flood tide was about 4.5  miles




reaching a point just below Broad Creek.




    On April 26, 1969.7 or two complete tjdal  cycles after the release,




the. dye was still visually detectable near the release point  and




along the shoreline near Mount Vernon.  Fluorometrie readings Con-




firmed tiiese visual observations.




    Figure V-l shows the intrusion of the dye into the Piscataway




embaymenr, after two complete tidal cycles .  The dye remained  close




to the southern side of the embayment with very little dye moving




upstream.




    A comparison of Figures V-l and 17-3 indicates that movement  of




dye from surface and subsurface releases at the proposed loi-ation




of the outfall will result in intrusion into  the embaymeni, (visible




and measured) to 3>700 feet from trie confluence of the embaymf- n'. and




the Potomac.




2.  Time of Travel




    Time of travel is an important parameter  in determining  -.he




position of a pollutant and in calculating the residual of any  non-




conservative pollutant.




    Figures V-2 through V-ll present spacial plots of dye for various




sampling periods.  The rate of movement of peak concentration can be

-------
                     DYE  CONCENTRATIONS  ISOPLETH
                                   (ppb)
                               AWIL ?6,  1969
                                   10:00
                              POTOMAC  ESTUARY
SCALE  IN MILES
                                                    2-1

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-------
                                                                V-15
determined by observing the positions of the peak concentration on




the various special plots.




    As can be seen in Figure V-12, the peak movement was greatly




affected by tidal conditions.  On April 29-30; northwest winds at




a. velocity of about 20 miles/hour caused extremely low tides.




(See Figure V-13)




    Compensating for the extremely low tides, an adjusted low tide




peak movement is presented in Figure V-32 .   A comparison of the




time-of-travel of the adjusted movement with the travel time as




determined by a mathematical model of the estuary for a freshwater




inflow of 5,000 cfs, indicates a fairly close agreement.  It appears




that the large peak movement caused by extreme tides was temporary.




    As can also be seen in Figure V-12, the rate of movement or the




advective velocity decreases with distance from Chain Bridge.  The




velocity in the vicinity of the Piscataway embayment was 1.^- mi/day




as compared to about 0.5 mi/day at Indian Head.




3•  Dispersion Coefficient




    As indicated previously, the dispersion coefficient can serve as




a parameter indicative of an estuary's ability to diffuse pollutants




discharged from wastewater treatment facilities.  The method of cal-




culating the dispersion coefficient used in this report is the same




as outlined by O'Connor [5] and is presented in the appendix.




    For the sub-surface release, the calculated dispersion coefficients




in the Potomac Estuary below the proposed Piscataway outfall ranged

-------
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-------
                     LOW  WATER  TIDAL  HEIGHTS
                             WASHINGTON, D.C.
                                   1969
                             DATUM = 4.26 fป. MLW
   6.0-
   5.0-
5 4-0-
  3.0-
  2.0
                                                                     DATUM
        i  i  i  i   I  I  f  I   I  I
     20          25          30
              APRIL
I  I   1  I  I  T  T  I  J   I  I  T  I  I  I  I   I  I  I
      5           10          15          20
                 MAY
                                                                        FIGURE  2-13

-------
                                                                  V-18






from 0.76 to 2.17 as presented in Table V-2 and Figure V-l4 shows close




agreement with values determined by Hetling [ 3 J •  In the area near the




Piscataway embayment, the dispersion coefficient was about 0.60 smpd.




    Except for the May J, 1969 data, the dispersion coefficient for




the trailing edge of the release was higher than for the leading edge.




This could  possibly be due to shearing effects caused by differences




in the cross-sectional velocities.

-------

-------
                                            V-19
          TABLE V-2
Dispersion Coefficient Summary
        Potomac Estuary

Dispersion Coefficient
Date
Release
Trailing
Leading
Average
Remarks
(sq_ mi/day) (sq. mi/day )(sq mi /day)
4.30-69
5-02-69
5-05-69
5-05-69
5-07-69
5-10-69
5-13-69
5-14-69
5-20-69
5-26-69
5.12
7.16
10.16
10.25
12.08
15-12
17-75
19.13
25.25
31-50
2.58
2.45
2.60
1.70
0.22
1.50
1.69
2.33
2.30
1.84
1.19
0.90
1.30
1.50
1.29
1.03
1.66
2.01
1.86
1.19
1.89
I.o7
1.95
1.60
0.76
1.26
1.68
2.17
2.08
1.51
Extreme low tides


•
Extreme high tides




Near background

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-------
                                                               VI-1






                             CHAPTER VI




                  PISCATAWAY EMBAYMENT DYE RELEASE




    A Piscataway embayroent dye release was made to simulate the move-




ment of a wastewater discharge into the embayment.  The results




obtained were used to determine the feasibility of locating an out-




fall in the embayment.




A.  RELEASE CONDITIONS




    At approximately midstream and 0.25 miles east of Transect A




(Figure VI-l), 8 pounds of a 20 percent concentration of Rhodamine




WT dye were released instantaneously at the surface.  The release




was made during high tide to simulate the maximum flow and mixing




effect in the embayment.  Tidal stages on June 16, 1969, the day of




the release, were as follows:




       High tide            9:26 a.m.




       High slack water    10:10 a.m.




       Time of dump         9:45 a.m.




B.  TRANSECT LOCATIONS AND MONITORING SYSTEM




    Samples were taken along each transect (Figure VI-1) during high




and low water slack tides during the first day of the dye release.




Samples were taken every day for the next four days and then twice




a week until the measured dye concentrations decreased to approxi-




mately the background concentration before the release.  Transect




locations were chosen in such a manner as to demonstrate the effects




of the embayment configuration and tidal flushing and to provide




information describing the movement of the dye.

-------
FIGURE 33-

-------
                                                                 VI-3






C.  ANALYSIS OF DIE RELEASE DATA




    Figures VT-1 through VT-5 show that the movement of the dye was




influenced by wind direction.  Figure VT-1 indicates that the dye




moved in the same direction as the prevailing wind on that day.




    Figures VT-2 through VI-5 show that most of the dye remains in




the same area indicating that the net tidal movement is very slight,




in that section of the embayment.  It took approximately three weeks




for the dye to diffuse out of the embayment during which the concen-




tration  isopleth of the transect  data indicated little evidence




of mixing in the embayment.



    The dispersion coefficient based upon the method outlined by




O'Connor [5] was about 0.05 square miles per day.  Because of the very




low inflow from the tributary streams, the velocity of the fresh




water inflow to the embayment was assumed to be zero.




    The embayment can be divided into three distinct segments each




having different characteristics.  The first segment, extending from




the most eastward point shown in Figure VT-1 to the end of the




floral growth shown, has no significant mixing because of this growth.




The upper segment is flushed only during heavy rains or extreme high



tides.




    The second or middle segment extends from the floral growth west-




ward to Transect C.   There is no significant mixing in this segment




and only minimal tidal transport which occurs mainly at extremely



high or low tides.

-------
FIGURE SI-2

-------
FIGURE Sl-3

-------

FIGURE 21-4

-------
FIGURF  ffl --

-------
                                                                  Vl-8
    The third segment extends from transect C to the estuary and is




marked by pronounced tidal transport from the Potomac Estuary.  It




is in this third segment that mixing and flushing occurs during




each tidal cycle (FiguresVI-2 and VI-5).

-------
                                                                   VII-1
                             CHAPTER VII





                      ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS




     In evaluating the location of the outfall, four engineering




criteria were considered:




          A.  Dispersion,




          B.  Dilution and transport,




          C.  Intrusion into the numerous embayment ,  a.nd




          D.  Time of travel.




Thest-j are discussed separately below:




A.  DISPERSION




     The dispersion coefficient is the parameter used in this report to




indicate how rapidly  a pollutant diffuses.  Dispersion coefficients




in the upper Potomac Estuary range from 0 to 3 -ffipd with a value of




0.66 srapd in the vicinity of the proposed outfall.




     The Piscataway embayment ha:, an average dispersion coefficient




of 0.05 smpd.  Based upon the dispersion coefficient,  the lower value




in the embayment indicates that it is advantageous to discharge the




effluent into the main stem of the Potomac.




     As shown in Figure V-6,  the dispersion coefficient increases




exponentially with distance from Chain Bridge.  Consequently,




considering dispersion only,  it is more advantageous to locate the




outfall as far downstream as  possible.

-------
                                                                   VII-2






B.  DILUTION AND TRANSPORT




     1-  Discharge into Main Stem;of Potomac




          Figure VII-1, which is based on numerous mathematical model




     runs, indicates that there is  no particular advantage in locating




     an outfall in either Segment 9>  10,  or 11 (Figure III-l gives the




     estuary segments).  The effects  of dilution and dispersion in




     each of the segments are the same (Table VII-1 gives  segment




     volumes).




          There would be a slight advantage in locating the outfall




     in Segment 11 as far downstream as possible from the  large load-




     ing in Section 6 which is from the Washington,  D.C. metropolitan




     area.  However, the projected population discharging  into Section




     12 from the Gunston Cove area in Virginia is expected to be about




     310,000 in 1980 and over 1,600,000 by 2020 and must be considered




     as well as the future loading from the Piscataway area in Maryland.




     Hence, if  the proposed outfall were located in Segment 11, it




     would result in a combined population of over 2,000,000 by 2020




     from Maryland and Virginia discharging wastewater into Segments




     11 and 12.




     2.   Discharge iuto Piscataway Embayment




          Stream survey data as reported in 1968 [8] and as summarized




     for 1969 in Figures yjI-2,  VII-3,  VII-4,  and VII-5 also indicated




     that the water quality in the  embavment near the Potomac Estuary




     is  controlled by the quality in  the, Potomac.   In the  upper end

-------
                          Table VII-1



              POTCMAC ESTUARY PHYSICAL PARAMETERS
                                                            Vll-3
Segment
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Length
(Miles)
2.69
2.09
1.75
1.31
1.87
2.11
2.57
2.19
2.44
2.06
2.25
3.95
2.94
2.93
4.41
4.26
4.42
4.57
5.36
5.20
Volume*
(Cubic Feet)
x 107
25
24
33
40
45
52
76
66
79
65
92
252
170
250
330
445
520
535
620
525
Surface Area
(Square Feet)
x 106
3.3
14.3
26.4
40.0
33.8
46.4
93.4
63.9
85.0
60.8
78.3
219.7
124.1
201.7
301.9
314.3
368.6
428.5
131.4
334.5
Mean*
Depth
(feet)
30.1
16.7
12.5
10.0
13.3
11.2
8.1
10.3
9.3
10.7
11.7
11.5
13.7
12 ..4
10.9
14.1
14.1
12.5
26.7
15.7
21
5.69
630
387.2
16.3
 Mean Tide Level

-------
                                                          VTI-4
of  the embayment, the water quality is mainly under the influence




of  the discharge from the Piscataway wastevater treatment facility.




     Because of the slow diffusion process, the concentration of




nutrients was consistently higher in the upper part of the embay-




ment as exhibited in Figures VTI-2 and VII-3.  Because of the




high concentration of algal cells as indicated by chlorophyll a




(Figure VTI-4), the DO (Figure 7II-5) vas also higher in the




ujper portion.  These data were for daylight conditions only.




The reduction in all four parameters in August 1969 was due to




a flushing action caused by heavy rains.




     Simulated profiles for a discharge into the upper end of




the embayment, presented in Figure VTI-6, verify this slow dif-




fusion process and also show  the effect of various decay rates




and wastewater flows on the concentration of a pollutant.  It




also can be seen that major effects of the discharge were in the




upper and middle portion of the embayment near the discharge




point.




     When the profiles in Figure VTI-1 are compared to Figure VTI-6,




it can readily be observed that the capacity to receive and trans-




port nutrients for given residuals in the receiving water is about




100-fold greater in the main Potomac than in the embayment.  For




example,  a discharge of 100,000 Ibs/day will increase the concen-




tration about 1.5 mg/1 in the main Potomac while only 1,000 Ibs/day




will increase the concentration in the upper embayment to about




the same level.

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                                                               VTI-11










    Assuming the wastewater treatment requirements are met for




discharges into the main Potomac, the maximum loading of total




phosphorus to the embayment would be 50 Ibs/day with total




nitrogen being 250 Ibs/day.  This is based on ma.i • taining a




maximum increase in concentration of 0.1 mg/1 of ihosphorus and




0.5 mg/1 of total nitrogen in the upper part of the embayment.




    When the waste flow of about 5.0 mgd co the Piscataway facility




is increased to 15 mgd as currently being planned,  the treatment




requirements as stipulated by the conferees at the May 1969 Potomac




River Enforcement Conference will result in phosphorus concentra-




tions within these limits.  The concentration of nitrogen will




be slightly above the recommended maximum of 0.5 mg/1-  If the




plant's capacity is expanded above 15 mgd, a higher degree of




treatment than that stipulated at the Enforcement Conference would




be required if the maximum phosphorus and nitrogen limits are to




be met,.  Table VII-2 gives projected loadings before and after




treatment.

-------
                                                          VII-12
                         Table VII-2

                      NUTRIENT LOADINGS

                  For Various Flow From The
           Piscataway Wastewater Treatment Facility
             Before Treatment*
After Treatment**
Flow
(mgd)
*>
1>
30
100
TPO, as P
H
(Ibs/day)
460
1,380
2,760
4.600
T. Nitrogen
(Ibs/day)
840
2,500
3,040
8,400
TPOj as P
( IDS /day)
18
54
110
184
T. Nitrogen
(Ibs/day)
126
378
756
1 , 260
Based on average concentration of TPO,  of 11.0 mg/1 and 22 mg/1
of total nitrogen.
Based on Potomac Enforcement Conference report of 96 percent
removal of phosphorus and 85 percent removal of nitrogen.

-------
                                                             VII-13






C.  INTRUSION INTO SMBAYMEWTS




     Direct intrusion into 3wa:. Cree,.c and *.he Piscataway embayment




was observed visually after the surface release.  This consisted




of a "slug" of dye that hugged the Maryland side of the Potomac




Estuary from the proposed outfall location 'o Swan Creek.




     A horseshoe configuration of dye was formed L>i the Piscataway




embayment indicating the upper range of tidal intrusion therein.




In Swan Creek a wedge-llx.e intrusion was olserved initially and




later a horseshoe configuration.  Direct intrusion into Swan Green




could possibly be eliminated by moving the o itfall downstream, but




direct intrusion into the Piscataway embayse^t and hugging along




the shore of the Fort Washington Park woulu still occur.




     The subsurface release gave no indication of direct intrusion




in "slag" concentrations into any of the errbayments .   Neither did




the subsurface release give any indication o:" hugging the par1




shoreline.




     While placement of the proposed outfall in the main channel at




a depth of about ko -feet will eliminate direct intrasion into the




embayments. it will not eliminate intrusior Caused by tidal




excnanges after mixing.  Moreover, since tl>-re are numerous embay-




ments along the Potomac Estuary, tidal intrusion into an embayment




will always occur to some degree.

-------
D.  TIME OF TRAVEL




     Oyster harvesting is one of Maryland'3 leading seafood industries.




The effects of the pollutants in the effluent on oyster production




is beyond the scope of this report.  Consideration was given to an




outfall location that would yield the longest time of travel for bio-




logically degradable pollutants and coliforr:s originating in wastewater




discharges in the Washington area.  The longer the travel time the




more "buffer zone" is provided and thus any adverse effect on the




oyster beds, located about 6^ miles below Chain Bridge, will be




minimized.




     For a freshwater inflow of about 5,000 cfs, the advection velocity




an the Potomac Estuary in the region of th-  Piscataway embayment is




l.J4 mi/day and decreases to 0.5 mi/day at Mile Point 30-  The travel




time from the proposed outfall to the oyster beds is about 8J+ days




at a flow of ^,000 cfs.   This travel time would be reduced to 72 days




if the outfall were at Indian Head.  Trave-*- "Ame Tor other flows are




given in Figure VTI-7-




     The best possible outfall location, considering the time of




travel of the pollutant,  would be at the most upstream position.




This would allow the  maximum time for decax of any biological pollu-




tant,  including coliforms, before it reaches the oyster beds.

-------
                                                                                            —tc.




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-------
                                                                VII-16







E.  DISCUSSION OF CONSIDERATIONS




     The two basic alternatives in locating the outfall from the




Fiscataway wastewater facility are (l) advanced wastewater treat-




ment with discharge into the main Potomac, and (2) a higher degree




of advanced wastewater treatment with discharge into Piscataway




embaymerit.  Dye .Ttudles and simulation analyses from mathematical




models indicate that the most advantageous location of the outfall




i:; into the main channel of the Potomac in the vicinity of the uro-




ioced oucfaJj .   Based on the subsurface dye released, it appears,




that if the outfall is extended out into the main channel where the




depth of water is over ^4-0 feet, maximum transport and minimum embay-




ment intrusion would occur.




     During the course of this study., it also has been pointed out




thai: if a sufficient level of treatment is provided 'with a given




riant reliability, wastewater can bo discharged at any joint in




the system.  Nevertheless, with ever increasing need for protecting




ths. water quality and with the current state of waste treatment




technology, the most advantageous discharge point is the main channel




of the Potomac estau^y and not the present discharge point.

-------
                                                                A-l


                            APPENDIX A

A.  MATHEMATICAL MODELS

    During the past 50 years, engineers and scientists have investi-

gated the use of mathematical models to simulate the response of

natural phenomena to varied conditions.  Recently, with the develop-

ment of computers, the use of such models has become feasible.

    Mathematical models are useful tools in determining the distri-

bution and resulting effect on water quality of conservative and non-

conservative substances discnarged into the receiving waters.

    O'Connor [6] and Thomann [7] have developed mathematical models

to simulate the effects of pollutants on the water quality in

estuaries.  O'Connor's model is based primarily on the conservation

of mass, and for a one-dimensional estuary is as follows:




                                                  M
                               ftc   +  S
                               ?>r   ~    (c,r,t)

where:

       A  =  Cross-sectional area

       c  =  Concentration of the substance

       E  =  Dispersion coefficient

       r  =  Distance from point of release

       S  =  Sinks and sources

       t  =  Time in days

       u  =  Velocity

-------
                                                               A~2



    The variable c may apply to any substance.  In this report, c


is dye concentration.


    In most estuaries, the cross-sectional area is a function of


distance and can be related to distance by one of the following


expressions as suggested by O'Connor [6]:



       A  =  Ao er                                (2)



       A  =  Ao (-L-)                            (3)
                  ro


       A  =  Ao (— ) n                           U)
                  ro


The upper Potomac Estuary appears to be best described by a power


function of the form of equation 4, as shown in Figure A-l.


    An analytical solution to equation 1 is not available for the


particular case of the Potomac Estuary.  Therefore, a constant


cross-sectional area was assumed and the following solution was


obtained using O'Connor's model for an instantaneous release:
                       -( (r-ut)2 _kt)
       C  =      M     e  UEt                      (5)
              2A
where :


       M  =  mass of dye released


       k  =  1st order decay rate with r, u, t, E as defined
             previously


    The dispersion coefficient, which is the only unknown value


in the above equation, can be directly related to the cross -


sectional area as suggested by O'Connor [6],

-------
                                                                    -X)
NOI1D3S-SSOH3 3OWM31M

-------
                                                               A-4


    Thomann found some advantage in a numerical solution, which

today is applicable through the use of high speed digital and

analog computers.  In Thomarm's model, a rrass balance of a substance

in each of a system of "n" segments, shown ;n figure II-1, includes

terms describing changes in dye concentration caused by advection,

dispersion, and losses.  A mass balance constituted for the "i" th

segment takes the following form:


        ___

             -  Qi  *  (?i  + Ci  + (1 -  ?i  4



             -  dV-j Ci  + PJ


where:

    V.   =  Volume of "i" th j-egnent icf)

    C.   =  Mean dye concentraiion in "i" -h segment (Ib/of)

    4.   -  Net v/aterflow a TOPS the upstrern., boundary of the
           segment (c f/day}

        -  A dimensionless proportionality factc1" used to ^s
           the concentration at the upper boundary of the ''i" th
    E.  =  Turbulent exchange iactor for u;jtreaii; boundary of the
           ('i" th segment (cf/day)

    .1   =  Dye loss rate constant (day  )

    i.  =  Rate of dye added from external source? (Ibs/day>

    t   =  T ice (days)

    There exist 28 linear first order, non-homogeneous, ordinary

differential equations which were solved simultaneously by numerical

-------
                                                               A-5





methods using a digital computer.  The only value  in  the 28 equations



which was not known was the turbulent exchange  factor which was



determined by use of Pick's first law of difussion; i.e.,






       Ni (Ib/sf/day) =  K dC/dr (k dc/dr)         ('•')






where:



       "N1' is rate of mass transfer of substance per  unit area across



a boundary and "K" is the longitudinal dispersion  coefficient.



Thomann's dispersion coefficient, is the same as the one described in



the mathematical model by O'Connor.



    The dispersion coefficient as described by both models is the



unit square miles per day and is an indict:,ion of  the ability of the



receivJng water to diffuse the polluting .^Dstance,   Values of "K"



for the Potomac Estuary using Thomann's mathematical  model as deter-



mined by Hetling [3] for a dye release in May, 19'-'.'5,  range from



zero at Little Falls to 1C) in the lower Potomac iiear the Chesapeake



Bay.  The dispersion coefficient used in the models is an average



over the tidal cycle.



    As mentioned previously, Thomann's mathematical model makes use of



Fick's first law of diffusion to relate the dispersion coefficient to



the turbulent exchange factor as follows:
       E  =  K.A.
              i i


          0.5 (L. + L. _x)     cf/day

-------
                                                               A-6





If the mean concentration in two segments  is  known then  it  can "be



shown from geometry that:
             0.5 (L,.  _1  + L.)
where :




       K..  =  Dispersion coefficient




       A,  =  Area in  "i" th segment
         i



       L,  =  Length ''i" th segment




     i+1   =  Length ("i" + i) th segment




       C.  =  Concentration in "i" th segment,


    Q

     i+1   =  Concentration in (''i1' + 1) ti. segment




       N   =  Mass transferred across the  , uterface substituting

              equation 9 into Pick's la?/




       N.  =     k (C. -i + C.)
                0.5 (Li +    + L.)   Ibs/sf/day    (10)





multiplying (11) by the cross-sectional area across which turbu-




lent exchange takes place arid setting D = K.A yields






       D  =     A.k. (C. - C.    )
                 i 1 x i     i ~i


               0.5 (L. - Li  + 1)                  (11)






which is the expression used in Thomann's model to describe turbu-



lent exchange across a boundary.




    The preliminary values of ' E" had to be adjusted to bring the




calculated and actual values of the dye concentration closer.




O'Connor [5J suggested that the calculated "K" should serve only as




preliminary values and are not Immune to change or adjustment.

-------
                                                                 A-7





     The longitudinal dispersion coefficient can be computed from dye




mass transfer studies resulting in variations in tidal velocity over




a. given cross-section and from turbulent diffusion.  The variation in




tidal velocity is a "shear" tyre phenomena whereas diffusion is related




to concentration and density gradients.  I-. essence, the coefficient




doer, not represent pure dispersion but rather a combination of the




diversion and advection transfer mechanism  of the estuary system.




     The magnitude of the longitudinal di.~  <:~. ion coefficient is




dependent upon factors such as (l) cross-sectional area, (2) salinity




(density) gradients, (3) fresh water inflow. ('-) tidal characteristics,




and (5) frictional properties.




     The dispersion coefficient computed from O'Connor's Model repre-




sents a slac^ tide approximation.  Thomann'.  Model incorporates a




coefficient which is time-averaged over a :,_.ial cycle.  The two may




not be comparable and care must be t,a.ป:en i:; ' nterchanging the dis-




persion coefficient between the two models.

-------
                                                                B-l

                              APPENDIX B


B.  DETERMINATION OF DISPERSION COEFFICIENT

     O'Connor has outlined two methods for the determination of "E".

One method involves a plot of the following:



     In c  ..  e kt vs. (r - ut)2                  (13)
                         kt


the sloje of which will be 1/E.  Although a:.y direct method used

for determine "E" will only yield an approximate value, this

method introduces more error by the ommissioi; of a term,  /E.

     The other method outlined by 0"Connor i~ a plot of In c/c_

squared.  The slope of this plot is equal t-o 1/UEt, from which

"E" can be determined and are presented in Tables B-l through B-12.

The "E" thus determined is the dispersion coefficient at the place

where the peak occurs.

-------
                           Table B  - 1


                   POTOMAC ESTUARY  DYE ANALYSIS
                          April 30, 1969
                                             1
                                            x1
Mile
Point
30
25
30
.35
37
E -
El =
-ri _
0.076
0.200
0.355
0.175
0.025
I/slope * 4t,
1.19
2.58
C/Co
0.160
0.560
1.000
0.492
0.071
t = 5.12


                                           -10           100


                                                          25


                                             0             0


                                             5            25
Eave =1.39


Where:


E    = Dispersion coefficient


E ,E+= Dispersion coefficient of the leading and trailing edges


Eave = Average of the leading and trailing edges


t    = Time and days

-------
           UPPER  POTOMAC ESTUARY

                   APRIL 30, 1969
                    I -  5.12 doyi
                                                LLGEND
                                                 UPSTREAM
                                                 DOWNSTREAM
20
40         60         80          100

    DISTANCE FROM  PEAK SQUARED - SQ ML
                                                                  140
                                                            HGUPF

-------
            UPPER  POTOMAC  ESTUARY
                    MAY 2, 1969
                        7.i6 days
EGEND
UPSTREAM
DOWNSTREAM
                                40         50

             DISTANCE  'ROM PEAK 'SQUAREC - SQ. Ml.
                                                           FIGURE B n

-------
 Mile
                            Table B - 2

                    POTOMAC ESTUAHY DYE ANALYSIS
                           May 2, 1969
Point
20
25
28.3
30
35
c
0.095
0.250
0.267
0.262
0.042
C/Co
0.35
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.15
X1
-0.3
-3,3
.0
+ 1.7
+o.7
(x1)2
08.89
10.89
.00
2.89
44 . 89
E    = I/slope * 4t, t = 7.16

EI   = 0.90

Et   = 2.45

Save = 1.67

-------
                             UPPER  POTOMAC  ESTUARY
                                      MAY  5, 1969
                                       t - 10.35 day*
   0.5
   0.4
u
   0.3
   0.2-4
  i-EQENQ
+  UPSTREAM
•  DOWNSTREAM
                20
                                      60          80          100

                              DISTANCE FROM  PEAK SQUARED - SQ. Ml.
                                                                      140
                                                                             FIGURE 8-3

-------
                            Table  B  - 3

                     POTOMAC ESTUARI  DIE ANALYSIS
                           May 5,  1969
Mile
Point
20
25
29.4
30
35
40

C
0.054
0.138
0.192
0.189
0.077
0.031

C/Co
0.28
0.71
1.00
0.94
0.40
0.16

1
- 9.4
- 4.4
.0
+ 0.6
+ 5.6
+10.6

U1)2
88.36
19.36
.00
.36
31.36
112.36
E    = I/slope * 4t, t = 10.25

E!   = 1.50

Et   = l'7Q

Eave = 1.60

-------
                             UPPER  POTOMAC  ESTUARY

                                     MAY   5 , 1969
                                      t = 10.16  day*
D.5-
0.4-
X3-
             LEGEND
           +  UPSTREAM
           •  DOWNSTREAM
20
                        40          60         80         100

                           DISTANCE FROM PEAK  SQUARED - SQ. Ml.
                                                        120
140
                                                                             FIGURE B 4

-------
        Table B - 4

POTOMAC RIVER DYE ANALYSIS
       May 5, 1969
Mile
Point
20
23
25
28
30
35
39
E
El =
Et =
Eave =
0.115
0.170
0.196
0.213
0.205
0.080
0.020
I/slope * 4t,
1.30
2.60
1.90
C/Co X1
0.53 - 8
0.79 - 5
0.92 - 3
1.00 0
0.96 + 2
0.37 + V
0.09 +11
t = 10.16



(X1)2
64
25
9
0
4
49
121





-------
                           UPPER  POTOMAC  ESTUARY

                                    MAY  7,  1969

                                     ป - 12.08 day*
  0.8


  n ?
  0.6 -
  0 4-
X
U
  03-
  0.2 -
+  UPSTRE AM
•  DOWNSTREAM
                           1

                           80
                                       I
                                     r
                                                 I
        l
-------
        Table B - 5

POTOMAC ESTUARY DYE ANALYSIS
        May 7, 1969
             '
Mile
Point
15
20
25
28.5
30
35
40
E
El =
Et =
Eave =
C
.044
.089
.14?
.186
.172
.072
.024
I/slope * 4t, t =
1.29
0.22
1.79
C/Co x1
0.23655 -13.5
0.47849 - 8.5
0.79032 -3.5
1.00000 .0
0.92473 + 1.5
0.38709 + 0.5
0.12903 +11.5
= 12.08



(x1)2
182.25
72.05
12.25
.00
2.25
42.25
132.25





-------
              UPPER POTOMAC ESTUARY
                      MAY  10, 1969
                       t - I 5. I 2 day*
UPSTREAM
JOWNSTREAV
             DISTANCE  FROM PEAK SQUARED - SQ. Ml.
                                                            FIG'.'RE

-------
                           Table B  - 6

                   POTOMAC ESTUARY  DYE ANALYSIS
                          May 10, 1969
Mile
Point
23
25
30
34.5
35
40
45
.062
.062
.137
.166
.150
.076
.032
C/Co
0.230
0.373
0.825
1.000
0.904
0.458
0.193
1
-11.5
- 9.5
- 4.5
.0
+ .5
+ 5.5
+10.5
(x1)2
132.00
90.25
20.25
.00
.25
30.25
110.00
E,
     = I/slope * 4t, t - 15.12
1.03

1.50
Eave =1.26

-------
           UPPER  POTOMAC ESTUARY
                  MAY 13.  1969
                    t : 17.25 days
UPSTREAM
DOWNSTREAM
80         120         160         200

   DISTANCE fRO/ PEAK SQUARED -SQ. Ml.
                                                      240
?.&0
                                                           FIGURE B-7

-------
        Table B - 7

POTOMAC ESTUAHT D3TE ANALYSIS
       Jfey 13, 1969
Mile
faioi c
15 .028
20 .050
25 .100
30 .125
35 .109
40 .0601
45 .0199
E = I/slope * 4t, t
E1 = 1.66
Et ซ 1.69
Eave * 1.68
C/Co ^
.224 -15
.400 -10
.600 - 5
1.000 0
.872 - 5
.481 +10
.160 +15
= 17.75



(x1)2
225
100
25
0
25
100
225





-------

-------
              UPPER  POTOMAC  ESTUARY
                      MAY 14, 1969
                       t - 19.13 days
LEGEND
 UPSTREAM
 DOWNSTREAM
                      120          (60          200

              DISTANCE  FROM  PEAK SQUARED - SQ. Ml.
240
            280
                                                            FIGURE 8-8

-------
                            Table B  -  8

                    POTOMAC ESTUAET DIE ANALYSIS
                           May 14, 1969
Mile
Point
17
20
25
30
33.5
35
40
45
C
.022
.039
.073
.099
.106
.105
.080
.045
a/Co
.20
.36
.68
.93
1.00
.99
.75
.43
1
-16.50
-13.50
- 8.11
- 3.50
.00
+ 1.50
+ 6.50
+11.50
(X1)2
272.25
182.25
65.77
12.25
.00
2.25
42.25
132.25
E    = I/slope * 4t, t ป 19.13

EI   = 2.01

Et   = 2.33

Have = 2.17

-------
'1.4 -
                         UPPER  POTOMAC ESTUARY

                                 MAY 20, 1969

                                  t  r >5.25 days
                  +  UPSTREAM
                  •  DOWNSTRtAM
              I
             20
 I
40
60
                            DISTANCE.
       80

PEAK  SQUARED - SC Ml.
T
100
120
140
                                                                         FIGURE H - 9

-------
                            Table B - 9
                    POTOMAC ESTUABY DTE ANALYSIS
                           May 20,  1969
Mile
Point
20
25
30
33
35
40
45
E
El '
Et =
.046
.054
.105
.110
.106
.087
.075
I/slope * 4t,
2.30
1.86
C/Co
.419
.492
.958
1.000
.960
.790
.680
t ซ 25.25


jd
-13
- 8
- 3
0
+ 2
+ 7
+12



                                                          169
                                                           64
                                                            9
                                                            0
                                                            4
                                                           49
                                                          144
Eave = 2.08

-------
                         UPPER  POTOMAC  ESTUARY
                                 MAY  26, 1969
                                  i - 31.50 days
0.4-
3.1-
           •ป•  UPSTREAM
           •  DOWNSTREAM
             20
 I
4Q
60
I
SO
                                DISTANCE  FROM PEAK
100
120
140
                                                                         FIGURE  B-!

-------
                            Table B - 10

                    POTOMAC ESTUARY DYE ANALYSIS
                           May 26, 1969
Mile
Point
25
30
33.5
36.5
39
41
45
.057
.063
.075
.081
.077
.068
.053
C/Co
0.70
0.77
0.92
1.00
0.95
0.83
0.65
1
-11.50
- 6.50
- 3.00
.00
+ 2.50
+ 4.50
+ 8.50
(x1)2
132.25
42.25
9.00
.00
6.25
20.25
72.25
E
"t
Eave
I/slope * 4t, t

1.19

1.84

1.57
                       = 31.5

-------

-------
                 PISCATAWAY  CREEK
                    JUNE  20, 1969
0.2         0,4          0.6
            DISTANCE  PROM  PEAK  CONCENTRATION,  MILES
                                                              FIGURE  8-It

-------
                            Table B-ll

                         PISCATAWAY CREEK
                          June 20,  1969
                              Q = 0
 Distance from                         Concentration
Peak (X1)
(mile)
.00
.40
.50
.70
1.00
(x1)2
.000
.160
.250
.490
1.000
E = I/slope * 4t, t =4.1

E = .03 smpd
                                            C                 C/Co
                                          [ppb)	
                                            .70                1.00

                                            .60                 .85

                                            .40                 .57

                                            .20                 .28

                                            •10                 1

-------
                                PISCATAWAY  CREEK
                                   JUNE  23, 1969
o i -
                        0 -i         0.6         0.8

                         DISTANCE  FROM PEAK CONCENTRATION. MILES
1
1.0
T
1.2
1.4
                                                                         FIGURE 8-12

-------
                           Table B-12

                        PISCATAWAY CREEK
                         June 23, 1969
                             Q = 0
Distance from                         Concentration
Peak (X1)
. (pile)
.00
.05
.20
.35
.70
(x1)2
.0000
.0025
.0400
.1225
.4900
C
(cub)
.45
.40
.30
.20
.10
C/Co
1.00
0.89
0.67
0.45
0.22
E = I/slope * 4t, t = 7.2

E = .08 smpd

-------
X
&
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                                                                                                                                                      •

-------




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-------
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-------
                              GLOSSARY"


A   =  Cross-sectional area, miles'"

c   =  Concentration of the substance, parts per billion  (ppb)

C.  =  Mean dye concentration in  "i" th segment, Ib/cf

C   =  Peak concentration, (ppb)

d   =  Dye loss rate, constant (day  )

D   =  Mass flow rate, (ibs/day)

E   =  Dispersion coefficient, square miles per day (smpd)-O'Connor's
       Method; Analogus to K, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient-
       Thoinann's Method

E.  =  Turbulent exchange factor for upstream boundary of the "i" th
 1     segment, (of/day)

pp   =  A dimensionles proportionality factor used to estimate the
       concentration at the upper boundary of the "i" th segment

k   =  1st order decay rate, per day

K   =  Longitudinal dispersion coefficient (smpd)

M   =  Mass of substance released

N   =  Rate of mass transfer across a boundary; (Ib/sf/day)

P..  =  Rate of dye added

^.  =  Net waterflow across the upstream boundary of the "i" th
       segment, cubic feet per day (cf/day)

r   =  Distance from point of release, miles

S   =  Sinks and sources

t   =  Time, days

U   = Velocity of fresh water, cubic feet per second (cfs)

-------
                                        BIBLIOGRAPHY
            1.  Jaworski, N. A., Lear, D. W., Aalto, J. A., "A Technical Assess-
                ment of Current Water Quality Conditions and Factors Affecting
**              Water Quality in the Upper Potomac Estuary," Technical Report
                No. 5. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Middle
                Atlantic Region, Chariottesvilie, Virginia, 2^69
ซ**ป
            2.  Hetling, L. J., O'Connell, R. L., "A Study of Tidal Dispersion
                in the Potomac River," CB-SRBP Technical Paper No. .7. Federal
                Water Pollution Control Administration, Region III, 1965

            3.  Hetling, L. J., "The Potomac Estuary Mathematical Model,"
                Technical Report Np. 7. Federal Water Pollution Control Admini-
**              stration, Middle Atlantic Region, Charlottesville, Virginia,
                1969

,ป          4.  Hetling, L. J., "Simulation of Chloride Concentrations in the
                Potomac Estuary," CB-SRBP Technical Paper No. 12. Federal Water
                Pollution Control Administration, Middle Atlantic Region,
                Charlottesville, Virginia, 1968

            5.  O'Connor, D. J., "Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study,"
                Technical Report No. 1. U. S. Department of Health, Education,
ซ*•              and Welfare, Public Health Service, Division of Water Supply
                and Pollution Control, 1962

m          6.  O'Connor, D. J., "Estuarine Distribution of Nonconservative
                Substances," Jpurnajl pf the Sanitary Engineering Division. ASCE.
                No. SA1, pp. 24-42, February, 1965

**"          7.  Thomann, R. V., "Mathematical Model for Dissolved Oxygen,"
                Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division. ASCE. No. SA5,
                pp. 2-30, October, 1963
In
            3.  Aalto, J. A., Jaworski, N. A., "A Water Quality Study of the
                Piscataway Creek Watershed," Federal Water Pollution Control
^              Administration, Middle Atlantic Region, Charlottesville,
                Virginia, August, 1968

-------
    Chesapeake Technical Support Laboratory
            Middle Atlantic Region
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
        U.S. Department of the Interior
            Technical Report No. 21
                    LNEPLT

                      by


                 Paul R. Dorn


                  August 1969
          Johan A. Aalto, Chief, CTSL
Norbert A. Jaworski, Chief, Engineering Section
          Richard Burkett, Draftsman

-------
     LNEPLT was written to aid the Chesapeake



Technical Support Laboratory of the Middle



Atlantic Region, Federal Water Pollution Control



Administration in analyzing and displaying data.



     The collection of subroutines uses a modified



version of the subroutine PPLOT written by the



computing center of the Johns Hopkins University.



     LNEPLT is operational on the IBM 360/Model 65



at the United States Geological Survey computer



center, Department of the Interior in Washington, D.C.



This package was compiled using the IBM G-level



compiler.  The subroutines should work with



little or no change on any 360 IBM computer with



a G or H level compiler.



     For further information regarding this and



other available plotting routines, contact,



Dr. Norbert Jaworski, CTSL, Annapolis Science



Center, Annapolis, Maryland 21401, or phone



1-301-268-5038.

-------
                   TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                Page
ABSTRACT 	    1




DESCRIPTION  	    2




SUBROUTINES  	    3




RESTRICTIONS 	   16




TIMING	   17




STORAGE REQUIREMENTS 	   17




APPENDIX I:  PROGRAM LISTING 	   18




APPENDIX II:  SAMPLE MAIN PROGRAM  AND SAMPLE




     PROBLEM .	   26

-------
PROGRAM;  LNEPLT








ABSTRACT:  LNEPLT is a collection of subroutines which



enables the user, with a minimum of programming, to



create a plot of one or two dependent variables versus



a common independent variable on the 1403 line printer.
                       - 1 -

-------
DESCRIPTION;



     LNEPLT consists of three subroutines (with multiple



entries) which allow the user to plot on the 1403 line



printer one or two dependent variables (Y-variables)



versus a common X-scale.  The normal size of the plot is



101 printing spaces along the X-axis and 51 lines in the



Y-direction.  However, the size of the Y-axis may be



changed if desired.



     The axes' scales are normally calculated using the



maximum and minimum values of the points to be plotted.



This is done by the plotting subroutine itself.  When



plotting two Y-variables, ID'S are given to identify



the different variables; this feature is not available



when only one Y-variable is plotted.



     A description of the subroutines in the package,



and their various entries, follows.  Each entry is



considered a separate subroutine (and to the programmer,



they act as separate routines.)

-------
SUBROUTINE TWOPLT



Usage:



     CALL TWOPLT (NSP1,NSP2,X1,Yl,X2,Y2,M,IHEAD)



Purpose:

     This subroutine is used to plot two Y-variables

     versus a common X-scale.  The plot is labeled with

     a one line title.  Each graph begins on a new page.

     However, at the end of the plot,  the routine does

     not skip to the next page.  The coordinates of the

     points are re-arranged in descending Y-order.

     However the pairs  [X(I),Y(I.)]  remain together

     Ci.e. the X's are interchanged as well as the Y's).

     The two sets of lists (corresponding to Y~variables

     one and two) remain distinct.



List of Variables:

     NSP1 - The number of points of variable Yl to be
            plotted.

     NSP2 - The number of points of variable Y2 to be
            plotted.

     XI   - The vector containing the X-coordinates of
            the first Y-variable to be plotted (Yl).
            Dimension  sNSPl.

     Yl   - The vector containing the Y-coordinates of
            first Y-variable to be plotted.
            Dimension  S

-------

-------
     X2   - The vector containing the X-coordinates of
            the second Y-variable to be plotted (Y2).
            Dimension  SNSP2.

     Y2   - The vector containing the Y-coordinates of
            the second Y-variable to be plotted.
            Dimension  ^ NSP2.

     M    - If zero, separate Y-scales are calculated
            for Yl and Y2.  If one, a common Y-scale
            is used.

     IHEAD- The title of the graph.  Dimension = 20.
NSP1, NSP2, M and IHEAD are INTEGER*4; all others are

REAL*4.

-------
SUBROUTINE PLTTWO



Usage:

     CALL PLTTWO (NSP1, NSP2, XI, Yl,  X2,  Y2, M)



Purpose:



     PLTTWO plots two Y-variables versus a common

     X-variable.  This subroutine is identical to

     TWOPLT except it assumes the user has supplied

     a title and (if desired) skipped to a new page.

     To conform with the output of TWOPLT, the user

     has three lines for the title (TWOPLT gives a

     one line title and skips two lines before

     beginning the actual plot).

     The coordinates are the points are re-arranged

     in descending Y-order.  However the pairs

      [X(I),Y(D]   remain together (i.e. the X's

     are interchanged as well as the Y's).  The

     two sets of lists (corresponding to Y-variables

     one and two) remain distinct.



List of variables:

     NSP1 - The number of points of variable Yl to be
            plotted.

     NSP2 - The number of points of variable Y2 to be
            plotted.

     XI   - The vector containing the X-coordinates of
            the first Y-variable to be plotted (Yl).
            Dimension  =NSP1.

-------
     Yl   - The vector containing the Y-coordinates of
            the first Y-variable to be plotted.
            Dimension  sNSPl.

     X2   - The vector containing the X-coordinates of
            the second Y-variable to be plotted (Y2).
            Dimension = NSP2.

     Y2   - The vector containing the Y-coordinates of
            the second Y-variable to be plotted.
            Dimension  ^NSP2.

     M    - If zero, separate Y-scales are calculated
            for Yl and Y2.  If one, a common Y-scale
            is used.
NSP1, NSP2 and M are INTEGER*4.  All others are REAL*4,

-------
SUBROUTING ONEPLT



Usage:

     CALL ONEPLT (NSP1, XI, Yl,  IHEAD)



Purpose:

     This subroutine is used to plot one Y-variable

     versus an X-variable.  The plot is labeled with

     one line of title.  Each graph begins on a new

     page.  However, at the end of the plot, the

     routine does not skip to the next page.

     The coordinates of the points are re-arranged

     in descending Y-order.  However the pairs

      [X(I),Y(D]  remain together (i.e. the X's are

     reordered as well as the Y's).



List of Variables:

     NSP1  - The number of points to be plotted.

     XI    - The vector containing the X-coordinates
             of the points to be plotted.
             Dimension  ง NSP1.

     Yl    - The vector containing the Y-coordinates
             of the points to be plotted.
             Dimension  ง NSP1.

     IHEAD - The title of the graph.  Dimension = 20.



NSP1 and IHEAD are INTEGER*4; XI and Yl are REAL*4.

-------
                                                    8


SUBROUTINE PLTONE



Usage:

     CALL PLTONE (NSP1, XI, Yl)



Purpose:

     This subroutine is used to plot one Y-variable

     versus an X-variable.  The plot is the same as

     from ONEPLT except the user must supply the title

     and the paging (if desired).

     The coordinates of the points are re-arranged in

     descending Y-order.  However the pairs  [ X(I),Y(I) ]

     remain together (i.e. the X's are interchanged as

     well as the Y's).



List of Variables:

     NSP1 - The number of points to be plotted.

     XI   - The vector containing the X-coordinates
            of the  points to be plotted.

     Yl   - The vector containing the Y-coordinates
            of the  points to be plotted.



NSP1 is INTEGER*4;  XI and Yl are REAL*4.

-------
     The previous four subroutines are the ones the user



employs to do the plotting. The basic subroutine of the



package is PLOT1.  The subroutine is not directly



accessed by the programmer.  It is used by the previous



routines to plot a symbol in a specific location.



     Initialization of the program is done using the



pseudo-subroutine BLOCK DATA.  This subroutine is not



directly referenced by the program.



     The following subroutines are employed to change



certain characteristics of the plotter. Once these changes



have been made, the new parameters are used until further



use is made of these utility routines.  That is, once



a plot has been made, the program does not reset its



paramters back to their initial values.

-------
                                                   10


SUBROUTINE LNECHG



Usage:

     CALL LNECHG (LINE)



Purpose:

     This subroutine changes the number of lines in the

     Y-axis.  This is initially set: at 50 (actually 51

     since a zero line is plotted).  Calling LNECHG (LINE)

     sets the Y-axis as LINE+1 lines.  Calling LNECHG (50)

     sets the Y-axis back to normal. At this position,

     the program completely fills one computer page.

     LINE should be a multiple of 10.  If more than 50

     lines are specified, the user must insure that the

     page overflow test is suppressed.



List of Variables:

     LINE - The number of lines in the Y-axis
            (Actually the number of lines minus one).



LINE is INTEGER*4.

-------
                                                   11


SUBROUTINE SYMCHG



Usage:

     CALL SYMCHG (EXTRA, NUMBER)



Purpose:

     This subroutine replaces the symbols used in

     plotting.  Originally the plotting symbol for

     Yl is a dot (.).  The plotting symbol for Y2

     is normally an asterisk (*).  If both symbols

     should appear in the same printing location,

     an oh (0) is plotted.

     These symbols should not be used as replacements:

                     +    1

     since they are used to draw the graph's axes.



List of Variables:

     EXTRA  - This is the replacement symbol.

     NUMBER - This variable specifies which symbol is
              to be replaced, coded as follows:
                   1 - Replaces the plotting symbol
                       for Yl.
                   2 - Replaces the plotting symbol
                       for Y2.
                   3 - Replaces the plotting symbol
                       used to show that variables
                       Yl and Y2 both occupy the same
                       printing location.



NUMBER is INTEGER*4 while EXTRA is INTEGER*2.

-------
                                                   12


SUBROUTINE NAMCHG



Usage:

     CALL NAMCHG (NAME, I)



Purpose:

     This subroutine changes the names of the Y-variables,

     They are used only when plotting two Y-variables.

     Originally the two names are 'VAR 1   '  and

     1VAR 2   '.



List of Variables:

     NAME - This variable gives the replacement name.
            Its printing format is 2A4.  Dimension =2.

     I    - This is the number of the Y-variable whose
            name is to be changed (either 1 or 2).



Both NAME and I are INTEGER*4.

-------
                                                   13


SUBROUTINE GIVMM



Usage:



     CALL GIVMM (I)



Purpose:

     This subroutine is used to signify the user is

     supplying the axes' scales.  If this routine is

     never called, it is the same as calling GIVMM(O).



List of Variables:

     I - If zero,  the program determines the axes' scales,
         If one, the user must supply the axes' scales.
         (See subroutine MAXMIN.)



I is of type INTEGER*4.

-------
                                                   14


SUBROUTINE MAXMIN
Usage:
     CALL MAXMIN (II, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, XMIN, XMAX,
                  Y1MIN, Y1MAX, Y2MIN, Y2MAX)
Purpose:

     This subroutine gives the user-selected maxima

     and minima of the X and Y scales.  To use the

     supplied values of maxima and minima requires a

     call to GIVMM(l).  (See SUBROUTINE GIVMM.)

     When using this option, note that the program

     either calculates all its own scales or uses all

     the given ranges—a combination of the two is not

     permitted.  However,  if the coordinate of a point

     to be plotted is outside the selected range, the

     normal method of selection is used to calculate

     the offending range value.  Therefore by selecting

     obviously incorrect ranges, certain scales may be

     calibrated by the program and others by the user

     (e.g. setting XMIN = +9.E+40 assures that the

     subroutine will recalculate XMIN).

-------
                                                   15
List of Variables:

     II    - If zero, a new value for XMIN ฑs not given.
             If one, a new value of XMIN is given.

     12    - If zero, a new value for XMAX is not given.
             If one, a new value for XMAX is given.

     13    - If zero, a new value for Y1MIN is not given,
             If one, a new value for Y1MIN is given.

     14    - If zero, a new value for Y1MAX is not given.
             If one, a new value for Y1MAX is given.

     15    - If zero, a new value for Y2MIN is not given.
             If one, a new value for Y2MIN is given,

     16    - If zero, a new value for Y2MAX is not given.
             If one, a new value for Y2MAX is given.

     YMIN  - The new value for XMIN  (requires II = 1).

     XMAX  - The new value for SMAX  (requires 12 = l).

     Y1MIN - The new value for Y1MIN (requires 13 = 1).

     Y1MAX - The new value for Y1MAX (requires 14 = 1).

     Y2MIN - The new value for Y2MIN (requires 15 = 1).

     Y2MAX - The new value for Y2MAX (requires 16 - 1).
II - 16 are INTEGERM; the others are of type REAL*4,

Initially all the range values are set to 0,0.  See

SUBROUTINE GIVMM(l) for further instructions.

-------
                                                   16






RESTRICTIONS:








     The following names may not be referenced by the




     programmer except as previously described:




                         GIVMM




                         LNECHG




                         LNEPLT




                         MAXMIN




                         NAMCHG




                         ONEPLT




                         PLOT1




                         PLTONE




                         PLTTWO




                         SYMCHG




                         TWOPLT

-------
                                                   17




TIMING:


     To plot one graph consisting of two Y variables


and 25 points for each variable took 0.60 seconds.



(See the sample problem in Appendix II.)
STORAGE REQUIREMENTS:



     This subroutine package requires 686 f   bytes
                                         ID

-------
                                                   18






APPENDIX I:  PROGRAM LISTING

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-------
                                                    26






APPENDIX II:  SAMPLE MAIN  PROGRAM AND SAMPLE PROBLEM

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-------
    Chesapeake Technical Support Laboratory
             Middle Atlantic Region
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
        U.S. Department of the Interior
             Technical Report No. 23
                          XYPLOT
                       Paul R. Dorn
                         July 1969
               Johan A. Aaltos  Chief„  CTSL
       Norbert A. Jaworski,  Chiefs  Engineering Section
               Richard Burkettj  Draftsman

-------
XYPLOT was written to aid the Chesapeake Technical Support




Laboratory of the Middle Atlantic Region^  Federal Water




Pollution Control Administration in analyzing and displaying




data.






This program uses a modified version of the subroutine PPLOT




written by the computing center of the Johns Hopkins Univer-




sity.  This modified subroutine was incorporated in the




plotting packagea LNEPLT.  For further information on this




packages see Technical Report No. 21.






XIPLOT is operational on the IBM 360/Model 65 at the United




States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior in




Washington} B.C.  The program was compiled using the IBM




G-level compiler.  The program should work with little or




no change on any 360 IBM computer having a G or H level




compiler.






For further information regarding this and other current




plotting routines;, contact Dr. Worbert JaworsHia CTSLS




Annapolis Science Center, Annapolis9 Maryland} 21401S




or phone 1-301-268-5038.

-------
                         TABLE OF CONTENTS
PURPOSE   ซซeeซ0oooซซ1




DESCRIPTION    	  2




RESTRICTIONS   ..........  3




PROGRAM RUN PREPERATION  ........  4




JOB CARD  oซoซซซ<ปo0ex>5




SYSTEM CONTROL CARDS     ........  8




HEADER CARD    .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .    .     .10




OPTIONS   .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .    .     .11




VARIABLE SELECTOR CARD	12




OBSERVATION SELECTOR CARD     .    „    .    .     .    .     .13




VARIABLE ID CARD    .    .    .    ,    .    .     .    .     .14




LINE COUNT CARD     .    .    .    .    .    .     .    „     .15




RANGE CARD     .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .    .     .16




END CARD  .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .    .     .17




DRAWINGS  .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .     .    .     .18




APPENDIX2  FLOWCHART AND SOURCE LISTING  	  23




APPENDIX?  USE OF XYPLOT WITH CARD ENTRY PROGRAM   .    .     .34




APPENDIX:  SAMPLE PROBLEM ........  37

-------
PROGRAM;  XYPLOT








PURPOSE;  XYPLOT is a STATPAC format program which produces a  line




plot of one or two dependent variables versus a  common independent




variable.

-------
DESCRIPTIONS




     XYPLOT will plot on the 1403 printer one or two dependent




variables versus a common independent variable for any number of




observations.  Each plot can contain from 1  to 400 points for each




Y (dependent) variable,,  If more observations are selected^  they




are plotted on another graph,.  The scales are varied from graph




to graph, even within the same job (e0ge if 600 points are to be




plotted, the scale for the first plot—which might contain 400




points^ is different from the scale for the second graph—which




contains the other 200 points,)  This feature may be overridden by




selecting your own scaling factors,,  (See the RANGE SELECTOR CARD.)




     Options are available to vary the number of lines in the Y di-




rection (50 lines is the default option), to specify the number of




points per plot (default selection is 200),  to use a common Y as




well as a common X scale,, to select your own scales for the axess




to rename the selected variables^ and to select specific observations.




     The program will handle indeterminant values as well as complete




observations.  The program checks the indeterminant codes of the




three (or two) selected variables.  If all of them are blank,, the




observation is used.  If the X-variable is indeterminants the obser-




vation is skipped.




     Normally, the observation is also skipped if either of the Y-




variables has an indeterminant code.  However, an option is available




so if only one of the Y-variables does not contain an indeterminant.,




that point will be plotted and the other Y-value ignored.  (Naturally

-------
this option is not used when plotting a single Y-variable.)   Therefore,




the number of points of the first Y-variable plotted does not have




to equal the number of points of the second Y-variable plotted.   The




plot is generated as soon as one of the Y-variables has the  maximum




number of points per plot8 regardless of the status of the other




Y-variable.  (See the NUMBER OF POINTS/PLOT CARD.)









RESTRICTIONS;




     A maximum of 99999 rows (observations) and 199 columns  (var-




iables) is permitted on the input tape, with a maximum of 199 pairs




of selected rows with a total of 99999 individual rowsj  and  two




or three selected columns.

-------

-------
PROGRAM RUN PREPERATION;

     The following is a complete deck setup for this program;

          1. JOB card

          2. System control cards (including object or source  deck)

          3. Header card

          4. Variable selector card

          5ซ Observation selector card*

          60 Variable ID card*

          7. Line count card*

          8, Number of points/plot card*

          9. Range card*

         10. End card (delimiter)
    *0ptional cards—-see the various sections for the usage of each
     card.
     If more than one run is to be performedj  repeat cards three

through nine as necessary.  The final card should be the delimiter

card.

-------

-------
JOB CARD;

     The JOB card cannot be catalogued and is installation as well

as machine dependent.  Below is the specification for the 360/65

located in the Department of the Interior buildings  in Washington

B.C.  The structure of the JOB card changes occasionally, and one

should check with the computer center before using the below

form.
Card 1 -

Card Columns

   1 - 2

   3
   4-5

   6-8

   9-10
  11

  12

  15

  16

  17
- 14
                                   Contents
- 20
Center Code;
             D = Denver9 Colorado
             F = Flagstaff., Arizona
             I = Crystal Plazas Virginia
             M = Menlo Park, California
             R = Rollas Missouri
             W = Washington B.C.

Agency Code.

User registration code.

User's ID,  May be changed by user as
desiredo  Do not use the same two char-
acters for different jobs run during the
same day.

Blank.

JOB (i.e. the word JOB).

.Blank,

(   (Left parenthesis).

Program Number.

-------
                                      Contents

                        ,    (Comma).

                        Auxiliary account number.

                        t    (Comma).

                        Estimated execution time in minutes.
                        Requires four numeric digits.

3\                      ,    (Comma).

32 - 35                 Estimated lines of print expressed in
                        thousands of lines.  Requires  four digits.

36                      sป    (Comma).

37 „ 40                 Estimated number of cards  to be punched.
                        Requires four numeric digits.

41                      ป    (Comma).

42                      Reserved for future use; must  be a 1  punch,

43                      ,    (Comma),

44                      Reserved for future use; must  be a 1  punch.

45                      8    (Comma).

46                      Type of run:
                                     C = Compile only
                                     T = Test of program
                                     p = Production use of program

47                      s    (Comma).

48 - 49                 Number of lines per page.   A value of zero
                        suppresses page overflow tests.  If this
                        field (and the preceding comma) is elimin-
                        ated, a default option of  61 lines per page
                        is used.  In this case the following fields
                        are shifted left 3 columns. (Except 62-72)

50                      )    (Right parenthesis).

51                      ,    (Comma).

-------

-------
Card Columns                            Contents




  52                      '    (Apostrophe).




  53-61                 Name of the usera




  62                      '    (Apostrophe).




  63                      9    (Comma).




  64 - 71                 Blank.




  72                      X    (The letter X).









Card 2 -




Card Columns                            Contents




   1-2                  //




   3-15                 Blank.




  16-25                 MSGLEVEL=1




  26                      9    (Comma),




  27-33                 CLASS=C




  34 - 72                 Blank.

-------

-------
SYSTEM CONTROL CARDS;

   If an object deck is used:

      Card 1 -

1
//bEXECbLINKFORTj REGION.G0=1OOK, TIME.GO=J

where J is the time required to run the program (in minutes)•
The b stands for a blank space*

      Card 2 -

1
//LKED.SYSINbDDb*

Next comes the object deck (including its delimiter).
   If a source deck is used:

      Card 1 -

1
//bEXECbFORTGCLGs FARM,, FORT=' DECKป, REGION. G0= 10OK,, TIME. G0=J

where J is as before.

      Card 2 -
1
//FORT.SYSINbDDb*

Next comes the source deck  (including its delimiter).
      Cards 3 & 4 -

If the data resides on the disc SYSDK:


//GO.FT1OFO01bDDbDSN=&NAME3 UNIT=SYSDK,DISP=(OLDB I^T™, >DELETE)
                                                DELETE
//bDCB=(RECFM=VB,LRECL=RRRS BLKSIZE=BBBB)

where &NAME is the name of the storage space.  (The & signifies the

storage is temporary—it exists only for the extent of the job.)

PASS is used if the data file is used later on; otherwise use DELETE.

-------

-------
If the data resides on magnetic tape,  use the following cards:

1
//GO.FT10F001bDDbUNIT=2400,LABEL=(8SL),VOLUME=(,RETAIN,, sSER=YYYYY),

//bDCB=(RECFM=VB,LRECL=RRR,BLKSIZE=BBBB),

//bDISP=(OLD,KEEP),DSN=STAPAC

The letters "YYYYYY" in the first tape card represent a six digit
input tape number (leading zeros must be given).

The quantities "RRR" and "BBBB" are computed as follows:

     RRR = 8M + 24 where M = number of columns in the data matrix.

    BBBB = K(RRR) + 4 where K is an integer chosen so that the
           positive difference (7200-BBBB) is as  small as posible.

If a tape is used, a tape setup card is required.  Its form is:

Columns                                 Contents

  1 - 9                  /*MESSAGE

 10-12                 Blank.

 13-20                 The same characters as in columns 3-10  of
                         the JOB card,

 21-22                 Blank.

 23 - 27                 SETUP

 28 - 29                 Blank.

 30 - 36                 The number of the tape used (i.e. YYYYYY).
         *
 37 - 38                 /9

     If the tape is written on as well as read during this jobs  in

column 39 place an R (for ring in).  This card should be placed

right after the JOB card.  (This card's format is particular to  the

360/65 in Washington D.C.)



     Card 5 -

1
//GO.SYSINbDDb*

-------
                                                            10
Columns     Format
  1-30
7A49A2
 31-38
 39-43
 44-46
2A4
15
13
 47-56      1011

 73-77      15
Entry       Description

TITLE       Up to 30 characters of alpha-
            numeric information used to
            title the output for this data
            set.  It is also used as the
            title of the graph.

INPUT ID    Up to 8 characters of alpha-
            numeric information used to
            identify the input data set.

INPUT N     The number of rows in the input
            data matrix (right justified),

INPUT M     The number of columns in the
            input data matrix (right just-
            ified,  199).

OPTIONS     See the following sheet.

PRON        The number of pairs or row
            numbers needed to select the
            desired rows of the input matrix.
            (If blank,, all rows are included.
            If not blanks this number must
            be right justified and row
            selector cards must be included.)

-------
                                                             11
OPTIONS -


             0-50 lines are used for the Y-axis.
OPTIONC 1) - 1 - LINE COUNT  card gives the number of lines in
                 the Y-direction.

             0 - 200 points for each Y-variable are plotted per
OPTIONC 2) -     graph,
             1 - POINTS/PLOT card gives the number of points for
                 each variable to be plotted per graph,,

             0 - Both Y-variables must not contain indeterminants
OPTIONC 3) -     fฐr the Pฐlnts to be
             1  - If one of the Y-variables does not contain an
                 indeterminants, that point will be plotted.,

nprr,TOW/ .*   0 - Two Y-variables will be plotted.
OPTIOIH 4) -         Y^variable will be plotted.
np Tr).,/ ,.ป   0 - Seperate Y-scales are calculated.
             1 - A common Y-scale is used.

             0 - The program calculates the minimum and maximum
OPTIONC 6) -     values of the plot's scale.
             1 - The user supplies maximum and minimum values to
                 be used in scaling*

OPTIONC 7) - NOT USED.

OPTIONC 8) - NOT USED,

OPTIONC 9) - NOT USED.

             0 - No action taken.
OPTIONC 10) - 1 - New variable names are read in for the three (or
                 two) selected variables.

-------
                                                            12
VARIABLE SELECTOR CARD -




     In columns 1-3 place the number of the independent variable.




The first Y variable should be placed in columns  4-6.   The  second




dependent variable should be placed in columns 7-9.   (If only one




Y variable is to be plottedj leave columns 7-9 blank.)   The numbers




should be right justified.

-------
                                                            13






OBSERVATION SELECTOR CARP -




     These cards are used only if PRON on the HEADER card is




non~zero.  The number of pairs of row numbers used to select the




desired rows of the data matrix is entered in the field PRON,  right




justified.  Each pair specifies that the rows FROM and including the




first member of the pair TO and including the last member of the




pair to be selected.  The pairs must be entered starting in the




left most field of the card (columns 1-5) and continuing across




eight pairs per cardc  If more pairs are used, continue on another




card.  If a particular pair consists of only one observation,  the




FROM portion should be completed and the TO portion left blank,,




The 'FROM1 members are entered in columns 1~5, 11-15,  21-25S  etc.s




while the "TO9 portions are entered in columns 6-10,  16-20,  26-30,




etc.




     The row numbers must form an increasing sequence (except the




blank 'TO* field signifying a single observation);  i.e.  rows




must be selected in the order they appear in the data matrix.




These numbers must also be right justified.

-------
                                                             14
VARIABLE ID CARD -




     This card is used if OPTION(IO)  is not blank.   In  columns  1-8




place the new name of the independent variable.   In  columns 9-16




place the new name of the first dependent  variable and  in  columns




17-24 place the name of the second dependent variable.  Note that




these names do not replace the original names  on  the STATPAC tape.

-------
LIKE COUNT CARD -



     This card is used if OPTION(1) is not blank or zero.   In




columns 1-39 place the number of lines to be used for the  Y-axis.




This number should be right justified.  Note that this is  actually




one less than the number of lines actually plotted since a zero




line is used.  This number should be a multiple of ten (10).




Leaving this option blank gives a plot which just fills one page




of output (50 lines)*  When using this optionj  be sure to  specify




page overflow test suppression on the JOB card  if more than




fifty lines/plot is desired.

-------
                                                            16






RANGE CARD -




     This card is used if OPTION(6) is non-zero.   It gives the




coordinates of the maximum and minimum values of  the plot for  the




X and I axeso  If this option is not used<,  the maximum and minimum




values of the variables being plotted gives the graph's range*




The format of the card is;




                      Columns        Value
1
11
21
31
41
51
- 10
- 20
- 30
- 40
- 50
- 60
XMIN
XMAX
YMINI
YMAX1
YMIN2
YMAX2
     The data may be entered in decimal or scientific notation.




If only one Y-variable is plotted,  columns 41-60 may be left blank.




If a common Y-scale is desired,, the Y-minima and Y-maxima should be




the same.  These values must be at  least as large as the actual




coordinates of the plotted values or else the normal method is used




to select the ranges,,

-------
MS CARD (delimiter) -

     This must physically be the last card of the deck*   It has

the forms

1
/*

(Note that another delimiter occurs right after the object  or  source

decko)

-------






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-------
                                                                       21
L
                SUBROUTINE TWOPLT
         r
     I  //LKED.SYSIN DD *
// EXEC LINKFORT
//  JOB
                                  DECK SETUP

-------
                                                                   22
                                             OTHER RUNS
                                    RANGE CARD
                               # POINTS/PLOT CARD
                            LIFE COUNT CARD
                   OBSERVATION SELECTOR CARD
              VARIABLE SELECTOR CARD
          HEADER CARD
     // SYSTEM CONTROL CARDS
/*MESSAGE
                              PROGRAM SETUP

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                                                            23
APPENDIX;   Flowchart and Source Listing

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                      PROGRAM XYPLOT

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APPENDIXi  Use of XYPLOT with the Card Entry Program






     XYPLOT already assumes the data is located on a magnetic




device in STATPAC format,,  STATPAC programs allow the user to




perform tranformations on the data9 select observations,, change




data in error and other desired changes in the data0  Therefore




the serious user of this program should consult the STATPAC




manual for the other programs in this series0  It may be obtained




from the U0S0 Geological Surveys Computer Center Division.,




Department of the Tnterior0




     The program which transfers the data from cards to tape is




D00920  It is available as an object deck9 a source deck, or on




the system Iibrary0




     The deck setup for using this program in conjunction with the




XYPLOT program is shown on the next page*,  (This assumes the




library is used to obtain a copy of D00920)

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-------







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-------
                                                            37
APPENDIX; SAMPLE PROBLEM




     Suppose one is given 50 observations with 6 variables,, and one




wants the X-variable to be input variable number 38 the first depend-




ent variable to be input variable 2, and the second Y-variable to




be input variable 5ป  Only observations 6 and 31ป50 are to be used




for the plot.  The plot is to have 50 lines in the Y-direction, with




the scales selected by the program,,  There are to be 50 points per




plot; the variable names are also to be changed*  The data is




named DATAblNb*




     The data is located on the tape 003516.  The input deck and




the results follow.

-------

-------
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-------

-------
    Chesapeake Technical Support Laboratory
             Middle Atlantic  Region
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
       U.S. Dep
artment of the Interior
           Technical Report No.  25
                      PLOT3D
                   Paul R. Dorn
                    August 1969
            Johai
    Norbert A.  J
            Rich?
 .  A.  Aalto,  Chief,  CTSL
 .worski,  Chief,  Engineering  Section
 ird Burkett,  Draftsman

-------
     PLOT3D was written to aid the Chesapeake Technical




Support Laboratory of the Middle Atlantic Region, Federal




Water Pollution Control Administration in analyzing and




displaying data.  It has especially been used to display




chemical concentrations at sampling stations at various




times of the year.




     This program uses a modified version of the subroutine




PLDT3D written by Ronald W. Durachka of the Goddard Space




Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.




     PLDT3D is operational on the IBM 360/Model 65 at the




United States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior




in Washington, B.C.  The program was compiled using the




IBM G-level compiler.  The program should work with little




or no change on any 360 computer having a G or H level




compiler, and the North American Aviation's Stromberg-




Carlson 4020 plotting package.




     For further information regarding this and other current




plotting routines, contact Dr. Norbert Jaworski, CT5L.,




Annapolis Science Center, Annapolis, Maryland,, 21401, or




phone 1-301-268-5038.

-------
                         TABLE OF CONTENTS







                                                             Page




Introduction	...........	    i




Program	    1




Abstract 	 ........ 	  ..    1




Description	<>	    2




Restrictions	,	    5




Program Run Preparation	    6




JOB card .  . .	    7




System Control  Cards	10




Header Card  .	13




Options	   14




Basic Parameter Card .... 	  ...........   15




Selected Observation Card  ......  	  ......   17




Variable ID Card ......................   18




Title Card .....  	  ..............   19




Axis Label  Cards	20




Range Card	   21




Object Time Format Card	22




Data Cards	23




Delimiter Card		   24

-------
                                                             Page




Appendix I-. STATE AC Data Cards	   29




Appendix II: Sample Output	,	35




Appendix III: EBCDIC Characters	   45




Appendix IV: Program Listing .........  .......   46

-------
                          LIST OF FIGURES







                                                            Page




Deck Setup ..................  	   25




Program Setup  ........................   26




Control Cards  .......................   27




STATPAC Data Cards .... ......  	  ......   34




Program Output (Sample)  	  ...   35




USGS 4020 Request Form	64

-------
PROGRAM:  PLOT3D



ABSTRACT:  PLOT3D is a STATPAC1 format program which provides

a means of plotting data in three dimensions at various degrees

of rotation (0ฐ-90ฐ).  It also allows data to be read directly

from cards.
 STATPAC is an acronym for the U.S.  Geological Survey Statistical
Package.  For further information, see the STATPAC manual which
is available at the Department of the Interior., Computer Division^
in Washington, DoC.

-------
DESCRIPTION:







     PLDT3D allows the user to view a plot three dimensionally




at various angles of rotation., using the 5TRQMBERG-CARL50N




4020 plotter.  It only plots points in the first octant of three




space (i.e. the three coordinates of the point must all be




greater than or equal to zero).




     The program plots the points on the graph, and connects




them with straight lines.  Any number of plots may be made on




the same graph, but the same number of points is required for




each plot.




     The graph may be viewed at any degree of rotation about




the Z-axis  (0ฐ-90C).  The same graph may easily be drawn at more




than one angle of rotation to allow the user to select the best




viewing angle.




     Options are available to label the axes, to title the graph,,




to read the data from cards rather than tape, to supply new




variable identifiers, and the reorder the points in decreasing




values of X and I.




     The axes' labels consist of 24 characters each.  The title




is 64 characters in length and is of larger print than the rest




of the labeling.  The labels are placed in the upper right-hand




corner of the page; the title is centered at the bottom.

-------
     The variable names are not written on the graph but are




only used in the accompanying 1403 line printout.




     It is often desirable to reorder the points to make the




graph more meaningful.  Two methods*are available:




     (i)  Assume there are N points per line on the graph.  The




points are first rearranged in decreasing value of Y.  Then the




first group of N points is rearranged in decreasing value of X.




Next the second group of N points is rearranged in decreasing




X.  This continues until all the points are reordered.




     (ii)  The second method is identical to the first except




the points are first reordered in X and then in Y.




     The output from this program is written on a 7-track3 non-




labeled magnetic tape which is then run on the STROMBERG-




CARLSON 4020 plotter to form the actual graph„




     This program handles indeterminants in the Z coordinate




but not in the X or Y coordinate.  If the code is N, L, or 1S




a value of +0.0 is assumed.  If the indeterminant is a G or H,




a value of +1.QE+49 is assumed.  This point is not actually




plotted and does not affect the graph's scales.  Instead the




line connecting the points is broken^, signifying the point is




off scale.  If the indeterminant code is B (implying no data




given), the program assigns it the weighted average of the pre-

-------
ceding and succeeding points.  If it is the first (or last)




point in the line, it is given the Z coordinate of the second




(or last) point in the line.  Note that the program does not




consider the values of points in other lines of the same graph.




This action occurs after the points have been reordered (if this




option is chosen).




     Although the plot must be entirely in the first octant,




this program is capable of handling values in other parts of




3-space.  The program will translate the coordinate axes if




necessary to make all the points lie in the first octant.




Diagnostic messages are provided to indicate this has occurred.




     Because the axes' scales are printed using a decimal format,




it may be necessary to rescale the input data.  Provisions are




made to multiply the coordinates by a power of ten.  The




accompanying line printout lists these scaling factors.




     Rather than using scaling factors, it is also possible




to delete the printing of the scales.  The user can then insert




them by hand.

-------
RESTRICTIONS;







     A maximum of 99999 rows (observations) and 199 columns




(variables) are permitted on the input tape or data cards.,,




with a maximum of 199 pairs of selected rows with a total of




200 individual rows.  Indeterminants are allowed in the 2




but not in the X and Y variables.

-------

-------
PROGRAM RUN PREPARATION;






The following is a complete deck setup for this program:




     1. JOB card




     2. System control cards (including the object or source deck)




     3. Header card




     4. Basic parameter card




     5. Selected observation card(s)*




     6. Variable ID card*




     7. Title card*




     8. Axes label cards*




     9. Range card*




    10. Object time format card*




    11. Data cards*




    12. Delimiter card




*0ptional--see the individual sections on the various cards.









     If more than one run is to be made,  repeat cards 3-11 as




necessary.  Card number 12 (delimiter) should be placed last




in the deck.

-------
JOB CARD:


     The JOB card cannot be catalogued and is installation as

well as machine dependent.  Below is the specification for the

360/Model 65 located in the Department of the Interior building,

in Washington, D.C.  The structure of the JOB card changes

occasionally, and one should check with the computer center before

using the below form.


Card 1 -

Card Columns                            Contents


   1-2              //

   3                  Center Code:
                                   D = Denver, Colorado
                                   F = Flagstaff, Arizona
                                   I = Crystal Plaza., Virginia
                                   M = Menlo Park., California
                                   R = Rolla, Missouri
                                   ฅ = Washington, D.C.

   4-5              Agency Code.

   6 - 8              User registration code.

   9 - ID             User's ID.  May be changed by the user
                      as desired.  Do not use the same two
                      characters for different jobs run during
                      the same day.

  11                  Blank.

  12 - 14             JOB (i.e. the word JOB).

-------
Card Columns                            Contents


  15                  Blank.

  16                  (    (Left parenthesis).

  17 - 20             Program Number.

  21                  ,    (Comma)„

  22 - 25             Auxiliary account number.

  26                  ,    (Comma).

  27 - 30             Estimated execution time  in minutes.
                      Requires four numeric  digits.

  31                  ,    (Comma).

  32 - 35             Estimated lines  of print  expressed in
                      thousands of  lines. Requires  four numeric
                      digits.

  36                  ,    (Comma).

  37 - 40             Estimated number of cards  to be  punched.
                      Requires four numeric  digits.

  41                  ,    (Comma)„

  42                  Reserved for  future use;  must  be a 1 punch.

  43                  ,     (Comma).

  44                  Reserved for  future use; must  be a 1 punch.

  45                  ,    (Comma).

  46                  Type  of Run:
                                   C = Compile  only
                                   T = Test  of program
                                   P = Production use  of program

-------
Card Columns
                                   Contents
  47

  48 - 49
  50

  51

  52

  53

  62

  63

  64

  72
- 61
- 71
,   (Comma)„

Number of lines per page.  A value of zero
suppresses page overflow tests.  If this
field (and the preceding comma) is elim-
inated, a default option of 61 lines per
page is used.  In this case,, the following
fields are shifted left 3 columns.
(Except columns 62-72.)

)   (Right parenthesis).

,   (Comma).

'   (Apostrophe).

Name of the user.

'   (Apostrophe).

,   (Comma).

Blank.

X   (The letter X).
Card 2 -

Card Columns
                                   Contents
   1

   3

  16

  26

  27

  34
  2

  15

  25



  33

  72
Blank.
,   (Comma) .

CLASSIC

Blank.

-------

-------
                                                               10
SYSTEM CONTROL CARDS;


     Cards 1 & 2:

   (a) If the object deck is used -

1
//bEXECbLINKFORT,REGION.GO=252K,TIME.GO=J
//LKED.SYSINbDDb*

where J is the time required to run the program (in minutes).
The 'b1 stands for a blank space.  Next comes the object deck
(including its delimiter).

   (b) If the source deck is used -

1
//bEXECbFORTGCLG,PARM.FORT='DECK',REGION.GO =2 52K,TIME.GO =J
//FORT.SYSINbDDb*

where J is as before.  Next comes the source deck (including
its delimiter)„


     Cards 3 & 4:

   (a) If the data resides on the disc STSDK -


//GO. FT10F001bDDbDSN=&NAMEJUNIT-SYSDKJDISP = (OLD5^TS2   DELETE),
                                                -U.hj.Li.Ei I ill
//bDCB=(RECFM=VB,LRECL=RRR,BLK5IZE=BBBB)

where &NAME is the name of the storage space.  (The '&' signifies
the storage is temporary—it only exists for the extent of the
job.)  PASS is used if the data file is used later on; otherwise
use DELETE.

The letters ปRRR' and 'BBBB' are computed as follows:

     RRR  = 8M + 24 where M - number of columns in the data matrix.

          = K(RRR) + 4 where K is an integer chosen so that the
            positive difference (7200-BBBB) is as small as possible.

-------
                                                                11
     (b) If the data resides on magnetic tape -

 1
 //GD.FT10F001bDDbUNIT=24DD,LABEL=(,SL),VOLUME=(JRETAIN3,J5ER=YYYYYY)
 //bDCB=(RECFM=VB,LRECL=RRR,BLKSIZE=BBBB),

 //bDISP=(OLD,KEEP),DSN=STAPAC

where 'YYYYYY' in the first tape card represents a six digit
input tape number (leading zeros must be given).

The letters 'RRR1 and 'BBBB' are as before.

When a tape is used, a tape setup card is required.  Its form
is:

Card Columns                          Contents
   1-9               /^MESSAGE

  10 - 12              Blank.

  13 - 20              The same characters as in columns 3-10
                       of the JOB card.

  21 - 22              Blank.

  23 - 27              SETUP

  28 - 29              Blank.

  30 - 36              The number of the tape used.

  37 - 38              /9

     If the tape is written on as well as read, in column 39
place an R (for ring in).  This card should be place right after
the JOB card.  (This card's format is particular to the 360/65
in Washington, B.C.)

-------
                                                               12
   (c) If the data is on cards -

1
//GO.FTlOFQOlbDDbDUMMY
     Cards 5 & 6:

1
//GO.FTllF001bDDbUNIT=24QO-2,VOL=SER=ZZ2ZZZ,LABE]>(,NL),
//bDCB=(DEN=l,TRTCH=C,RECFM=U,BLK5IZE=40Q)

The letters 'ZZZZZZ'  in the first tape card represent a six
digit output tape number.  (Leading zeros must be given.)  This
tape also requires a  tape setup card,,  Its form is identical to
the above setup card  except in columns 37-40 place the four
characters /7NR.  In  the event both input and output tapes are
used, only one message card is required.  Place a comma in
column 40, the plot tape in columns 41-46, and'/7NR' in
columns 47-50.
     Card 7:

1
//GO.SISlNbDDb*

-------
HEADER CARD:
                                                               13
Columns     Format
  1-3Q
7A4,A2
Entry

TITLE
 31-38



 39-43



 44-46



 47-56

 73-77
2A4



15



13



1011

15
INPUT ID-



INPUT N



INPUT M



OPTION

PRON
Description

Up to 30 characters of alpha-
numeric information used to
title the output for this
data set.  It is also used
when listing the total number
of plots createdo  It is not
used on the graph.

Up to 8 characters of alpha-
numeric information used to
identify the input data set.

The number of rows in the
input data matrix.  (Right
justified „)

The number of columns in the
input data matrix,  (Right
justified,, g 199.)

See the following sheet.

The number of pairs of row
numbers needed to select the
desired rows of the input
matrix.  If blank., all rows
are included^  If not blank,
this number must be right
justified and row selector
cards must be included.

-------

-------
                                                               14
OPTIONS -
OPTIONf 1) -D " Nฐ action taken-
            1 - A title is read for the graph(s).


OPTIONf 2) -ฐ ~ No action "taken.
            1 - Labels for the three axes are read.


            0 - No action taken.
OPTION( 3) -1 - Data resequenced on Y, then X.
            2 - Data resequenced on X, then Y.


            0 - Data read from STATPAC tape.

OPTIQNf 4) -1 ~ •Data read usinฃ STATPAC 10 values/card,  G-format.
            2 - Data read using STATPAC  7 values/card,  G-format,
            3 - Data read using object time format.


OPTIQNf 5} -ฐ ~ Program calculates scales.
            1 - User supplies scales.



OPTION( 6) -ฐ ~ Nฐ actiฐn taken'
      v  '  1 - Data is listed.
OPTIQNf 7} -ฐ ~ ^x^s scales are printed.
            1 - Axis scales are not printed.


            0 - Cameras left unchanged (originally 9-inch on).
   Tn-,^ _\ _1 - 35mm camera on; 9-inch camera off.
            2 - Both cameras on.
            3 - 9-inch camera on; 35mm camera off.


OPTION( 9) -Not used.


OPTION(IO) -? - f3 action taken.
            1 - New variable ID's are read.

-------
                                                               15
BASIC PARAMETER CARD:


     This card is used to give the  individual  characteristics

of the plot.
Columns     Format     Entry

                       IX
1-3
  4-6
  7-9
 10-12
 13-15
 16-18
 19-21
 22-24
13
          13
          13
          13
          13
          13
          13
          13
           IXMULT
           II
           IYMULT
           IZ
           IZMULT
           IPER
           NPLOT
Description

Number of the X variable.
Must be right justified.

The power of 10 to multiply
times the X variable.
Must be right justified.

Number of the Y variable.
Must be right justified,,

The power of 10 to multiply
times the Y variable.
Must be right justified.

Number of the Z variable.
Must be right justified.

The power of 10 to multiply
times the Z variable.
Must be right justified.

The number of points per plot.
The total number of selected
observations must be evenly
divisible by IPER.

The number of graphs to be
made for this run; i.e. the
number of different angles
at which the data is to be
displayed.

-------
                                                               16
Columns     Format     Entry        Description
 25-29      F5.0       THETAS       The viewing angle for the
                                    first plot, (in degrees).

 30-34      F5.0       DELTA        The increment to be added
                                    to  THETAS between graphs.
                                    (in degrees) .

-------
                                                               17
SELECTED OBSERVATION CARD:







     These cards are used if PRON on the HEADER card is non-zero,




The number of pairs of row selectors used to pick the desired




rows of the data matrix is entered in the field PRON, right




justified.  Each pair specifies that the rows FROM and including




the first member of the pair TO and including the last member




of the pair to be selected.  The pairs must be entered starting




in the left most field of the card (columns 1-5) and continuing




across eight pairs per card.  If more pairs are used, continue




on another card.  If a particular pair consists of only one




observation, the FROM portion should be completed and the TO




portion left blank.  The FROM members are entered in columns




1-5, 11-15, 21-25, etc., while the TO portions are entered in




columns 6-10, 16-20, 26-30, etc.




     The row numbers must form an increasing sequence (except




the blank TO fields signifying a single observation);  i.e.,




rows must be selected in the order they appear in the data




matrix.  These numbers must also be right justified.

-------
                                                               18
VARIABLE IT) CARD:







     This card is  used if OPTION(IO) is not blank or zero.   In




columns 1-8, place the new name of the X variable.  In columns




9-16, place the new name of the Y variable and in columns 17-24,




place the name of  the Z variable.  Note that these names do not




appear on the graph but only on the accompanying line printout.




The names do not replace the original names on the STATPAC




tape.

-------
                                                              19
TITLE CARD:







     This card is used if DPTION(l)  is not blank or  zero.   This




title is placed at the bottom of the graph(s)  produced  by  this




run.  It should be placed in columns 1-58  of the card.   For




aesthetic reasons, the title should  be centered, although  it  is




not required.  The allowed characters are  shown  in Appendix III,




Since the title is printed in A format, BCD characters  may




print differently.

-------
                                                               20
AXIS LABEL CARDS:







     This card is used if OPTION(2) is not blank or zero.  In




columns 1-28, place the label of the axis.  The first card should




be the X axis' label, the second card for the Y axis, and the




third should be the label for the Z axis.




     The labels are printed in the upper right-hand corner of




the graph(s).  They are printed in the form:




                             X = LABEL

-------
                                                               21
RANGE CARD:







     This card is used if OPTION(5) is non-zero or blank.  It




gives the coordinates of the maximum and minimum values of the




plot for the X, Y, and 2 axes.  If this option is not used, the




maximum and minimum values of the variables being plotted gives




the graph's range.  The format of the range card is:







                      Columns        Value
1-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
XMIN
XMAX
YMIN
YMAX
ZMIN
ZMAX
     The data may be entered in decimal or scientific notation.




These values must be at least as large as the actual coordinates




of the plotted values or the normal method is used to select the




ranges (i.e., the minimum and maximum values of the points gives




the ranges).




     For aesthetic reasons, it is best to supply the range values




rather than letting the program calculate them.  To make the




axes' scales whole numbers, the ranges should be divisible by




5.

-------

-------
                                                               22
OBJECT TIME FORMAT CARD:







     This card is used if OPTION(4) is equal to 3.   That is,




if the data is read from cards in a non-STATPAC formate   If




this method is used, indeterminants are not allowed;  they are




not even to be read.  Nor are any observation identifications




to be used.




     The format of this card is identical to the standard FORTRAN




FORMAT statement except it begins with the left parenthesis




rather than the word FORMAT.  It must end with a right parenthesis,




It is only to be used to read in the data values, not indeter-




minant codes.







     Example -




Standard FORMAT statement:      FDRMAT(3X,F10.1,12X,F5.0/F3.0)




Object time FORMAT statement:   (3X,F1D.1,12X,F5.0/F3.0)

-------
                                                               23
DATA CARDS:






     The data cards are used only if OPTION(4) is not zero.




The type of data card depends upon the value of DPTIDN(4):




     (1) STATPAC cards - ID values/card




     (2) STATPAC cards -  7 values/card




     (3) Non-standard cards; given by Object Time Format




If non-standard cards are read, indeterminants are not used.




For STATPAC cards the row sequence number (columns 79-80) is




not checked.  For further information on the STATPAC format




cards, see Appendix I.

-------
DELIMITER CARD:


     This card must physically be the last card of the  deck.

It has the form:

1
/*

-------
                                                                    25

                                                  PROGRAM CARDS
                                            //GO.5KIN DD *
                           r
r
'/ TdPE CARDS

/*
ROUTINE SWITCH
FNE ARRANG I


1

                        SUBROUTINE SEARCH
                    SUBROUTINE FLOTD3
            r
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        r
         MAIN - PLT1D
|
    r
    //EXEC LINKFORT
    //LKED0SYSIN DD *
AMES s AGE
//   JOB
                                DECK SETUP

-------
                                                                 26
                                          NUMBER 1DATA CARDS
                                     OBJECT TIME FORMAT
               SELECTED OBSERVATION CARDS
         BASIC PARAMETER CARD
//SYSTEM CONTROL CARDS
                                PROGRAM SETUP

-------


















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-------
                                                               29
Appendix I_:  5TATPAC Data Cards


     These cards contain the elements in the data matrix.  Each

element (or data value) in the matrix is made up of a number

and an associated code.  The code can be omitted in which case

the data value is a number (e.g., 3.75) or a code can be used

with a data value to qualify that value (e.g.,  S3.75).


     The following types of codes are provided in the STATPAC

system:

         Code          Deseription

          N            Not detected, looked for not found, or
                       less than some indefinite lower limit
                       of analytical sensitivity.

          H            Present in concentrations greater than
                       some indefinite limit of sensitivity.

          L            Concentration is less than some stated
                       lower limit of analytical sensitivity.

          G            Concentration is greater than some stated
                       upper limit of sensitivity.

          B            No data - blank.

          T            Trace, concentration is near the lower
                       limit of sensitivity.


     The meaning of these codes is only relative; therefore they

can be used to indicate any situation the user has where the

definition applies.  Programs in the STATPAC system treat qualified

-------
                                                               30
values in various ways and therefore the user is cautioned, to

read the documentation of the particular programs he is interested

in using.  For this program, see the section DESCRIPTION.

     Each data card contains the following fields:

     Columns                  Format                 Entry

      1-70                    (See                   data  field
                               below)

     71-78                    2A4                    row
                                                     identifier

     79-80                    12                     sequence
                                                     number


(i) Data field -

     The format selected must be the same for all data cards

pertaining to a given data matrix (see OPTION(4))0  The elements

of the data matrix are entered onto the data cards,  starting

with the value of row one, column one, placed in the first

position of the first data card.  The remaining values in  this

same row are placed across the balance of the card,  with a

maximum of either 7 or 10 values per card.  The maximum number

of values per card depends upon the format selected.  If the

rows of the data matrix contain more than the maximum allowed

per card, then the remaining values are placed on subsequent

cards, starting in position 1 of the next data card, and placing

-------

-------
                                                               31
the maximum allowed per card.  A new row of the data matrix always

begins on a new card (position 1).

     Types of Data Field Formats

1.  10 values per card, G-Format

     This format allows a maximum of 10 values per card.   Each

value occupies 7 card columns and is expressed in either  decimal.,

scientific, or integer notation.  The first value is placed in

columns 1-7, the second in columns  8-14, etc., the last (or 10th

value) in columns 64-70.

The following is a description of the value field:

     P_p_sition       Description

        1           The code used with this value.

       2-7          The data value  in either decimal, scientific,
                    or integer notation.

If decimal notation is used, a decimal point must appear  in the

number and the number may be placed anywhere in the field.  If

scientific notation is used, then the number must be expressed

in exponential form and right aligned in the field.  If integer,

then the number must not contain a  decimal point and must be

right justified in the field.  If any of the positions are left

blank, then a zero is assumed for those positions.  Different

notations may be used on the same card.

-------
                                                               32
2.  7 values per card, G-format

     This format is similar to the '10 values per card, G-format'

except that 7 values are punched per card with each value occupying

10 columns.  The first value is placed in columns 1-9, with its

code in column 10, the second in columns 11-19, with its code

in column 20, etc.; the last (or 7th value) is placed in columns

61-69 with its indeterminant code in column 70.

     Position       Description

       1-9          The data value in either decimal, scientific,
                    or integer notation.

       10           The code used with this value.

(ii) Row Identifier field -

     In columns 71-78 of the data cards, eight alphanumeric char-

acters can be inserted to identify each row of the data matrix.

This identifier must be repeated for each of the data cards per-

taining to a particular row.

(iii) Sequence Count field -

     In columns 79-80 of each data card, a sequence number can

be inserted.  This number is the sequence of data cards pertaining

to one row of a data matrix.  The units position of the number

must be placed in column 80.

     The sequence number for the first card of each row of a

data matrix must be a 1.  The sequence numbers for subsequent

-------
                                                               33
data cards pertaining to this must form a consecutive  increasing




sequence.




     Although this program does not check the  sequence count.,




it is necessary if the data cards  are used with the 5TATPAC




card entry program^

-------
PUNCHING INSTRUCTIONS












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-------
Appendix II;  Sample Output

-------
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-------
Appendix III:  EBCDIC Characters
                                                              45
Alphabetic
Characters

    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F
    G
    H
    I
    J
    K
    L
    M
    N
    0
    P
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Card
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 12-1
 12=2
 12-3
 12-4
 12-5
 12-6
 12-7
 12-8
 12-9
 11-1
 11-2
 11-3
 11-4
 11-5
 11-6
 11-7
 11-8
 11-9
 0-2
 0-3
 0-4
 0-5
 0-6
 0-7
 0-8
 0-9
Numeric
Characters

    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
Special
Characters
Card
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  0
  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
Card
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11
0-1
12-8-3
12-8-5
12-8-6
11-8-3
11-8-4
11-8-5
0-8-3
8-6
8-7

-------
                                                              46
Appendix IV:  Program Listing

-------
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   Chesapeake Technical Support Laboratory
            Middle Atlantic Region
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
        U.S. Department of the Interior
          Technical Report No.  2J
               WATER QUALITY

                    AND

            WASTEWATER LOADINGS

           UPPER POTOMAC ESTUARY

                DURING 1969



            Norbert A. Jaworski


               November 1969



             Supporting Staff:

        Johan A. Aalto, Chief,  CTSL
  Donald W.  Lear, Jr., Chief, Ecology Section
   James W.  Marks, Chief,  Laboratory Section

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                  Page
      LIST OF TABLES                                                ii

      LIST OF F-'GUBES                                              ill

  1 .  INTRODUCTION                                                 I- 1

 II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS                                     II- 1

III .  DESCRIPTION OF THE POTOMAC ESTUARY                         III- I

 IV.  FACTORS AFFECTING WATE? QUALITY                             IV- 1

      A.  General                                                 IV- 1

      B.  Wastewater Discharges                                   IV- 3

      C.  Fresh Water Inflow                                      IV- 6

      D.  Comparison of Sources                                   TV- 8

  V.  CURRENT WATER QUALITY                                        V- 1

      A.  Bacteriological                                          V- 1

      B.  Dissolved Oxygen,Total Organic Carbon and
            Carbon Dioxide in the Upper Estuary                    V- -

      C.  Nutrients (Phosphorus and Nitrogen)                      V-10

      D.  Chlorophyll                                              V-l1!

      F.  Dissolved Oxygen in the Middle and Lower Estuaries       V-19

      F.  Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticides                       V-21

 VI.  WASTEWATER CONTROL REQUIREMENTS                             VI- 1

      A.  General                                                 VI- 1

      B.  Zone I                                                  VT- 4

      C.  Zone II                                                 VI- 5

VII.  CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS AND RESEARCH NEEDS                  VII- 1

      REFERENCES

      APPENDIX - Data Summaries and Survey Data

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                                                             ii
                        I1ST OF TABLES
Number                      Table.                          Page

 IV-1     BOD, TOG and S. Solids, Wastewater Loadings      IV- 4

 IV-2     Nitrogen and Phosphorus, Wastewater Loadings     IV- 5

 IV-3     BOD, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus,            IV- 7
            Fresh Water Inflow Contributions

 IV-k     BOD, Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus,            IV- 9
            Summary of Contributions

  V-l     Potomac Estaary Fish Kill Cruise-                 V- >
            May 8, 1969

  V-2     Potomac Estuary Fish Fall Cruise-                 V- 6
            May 15, 1969^

  V-3     Potomac Estuary Fish Kill Cruise-                 V- 7
            May 16, 1969

  V-4     Pesticides Analyzed and Minimum Detectable        V-22
            Limits

 VI-1     Zones of Upper Potomac Estuary                   VI- 3
  A-l     Upper Potomac Estuary Intensive Survey,
            Field Data, August 12-14, 1969

  A-2     Upper Potomac Estuary Intensive Survey,
            Chemical Analyses, August 12-14, 1969

  A-3     Potomac Fever Bacteriological Survey,
            July 30-August 5, 1969

  A-4     Bacteriological Survey, Potomac Estuary
            March 24-April 4, 1969  •

  A-^     Potomac Estuary Data, Water Pollution Control
            Division,  D. C.  Department of Sanitary
            Engineering

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                                                              111

                         L1L1T OF FIGUKEo
Number                       Figure                              Page


 III- 1     Vastewai er Discharge Zones in Upper Potomac          III- 2
              Estuary

  TV- 1     Slreairi I'low,  Potomac Payer near Washington,  D.C.      IV- 2

   V- 1     Fecal Coilfora, Upper* Potomac Estuary, 1969            V- 2

   V- 2     DO Profiles,  lh t,er Potomac Estuary, 1969               V- 8

   V- 3     Total Organic Carbon Profiles, Upper Potomac          V- 9
              Estuary, 1969

   V- 1)     101  as II Profiles, Upper Potomac Estuary, 1969         V-ll

   V- 5     N02+W0,, as K Profiles, Upper Potomac                   V-12
              EstuaVy, 19^9

   V- 6     Total Phosphorus Profiles, Upper Potomac               V-13
              Estuary, 1969

   V- 7     Chlorophyll a, Upper Potomac Estuary, 1969              V-15

   V- 8     Chlorophyll a, Potomac Estuary at                      V-16
              Piscataway Creek

   V- 9     Chlorophyll a, Potomac Estuary at                      V-17
              Indian Head

   V-10     Chlorophyll a, Potomac Estuary at                      V-18
              Possum Point

   V-ll     DO Profiles,  Lower Potomac Estuary,                    V-20
              June ^.J-30, 1969

  VI- 1     Carbonaceous  and Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand            VT- 6
              Loading for Maintaining an Average of 5-0  rag/1
              of Dissolved Oxygen in Zone IT

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                                                              1-1






                            CHAPTER 1




                           INTRODUCTION






     The third cession of the Potomac River-Washington Metropolitan




Area Enforcement Conference, convened in April and May of 1969?




resulted in agreement by the conferees on a set of recommendations




as a basis for future corrective action.  To measure progress in the




implementation of the recommendations, meetings wjll be held every




six months.




     This report has been developed to provide the conferees and




others interested the current status of the water quality, waste-




water loading and control needs.   The scope of this report is limited




to current conditions (1969) in the Potomac Estuary.




     This is one of five technical reports prepared by the Chesapeake




Technical Support Laboratory (CTSL) of the Middle Atlantic Region,




Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) of the




Department of the Interior,  to define the water quality in the entire




Potomac River basin.  The other reports include inventories of muni-




cipal and industrial waste discharges, water quality and nutrient




studies, arid effects of mine drainage in the upper basin.

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                                                              II-l
                            CHAPTER Tl

                     SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


     Based upon 1969 estuary data collected by personnel of the U. 3.

Geological Survey; Dalecarlia Filtration Plant, U. S. Army Corps of

Engineers; Department of Sanitary Engineering,, District of Columbia;

Chesapeake Technical Support Laboratory (CT3L) and by the wastewater

treatment facilities in the Washington metropolitan area, an analysis

of current water quality conditions and wastewater loadings was made

and is summarized below:

     1.  The fresh water inflow from the upper Potomac basin for the

first eight months of 1969 was non-typical in that below average flows

occurred during the first six months and above normal flows during

the months of July and August.

     2.  For the first, eight months of 1969, about 55 percent or

129,000 Ibs/day of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) entering the

Potomac Estuary from all major sources was from wastewater discharges

in the Washington area.

     3-  Also for the first eight months,  wastewater discharges in the

Washington area contributed about 86 percent of the total phosphorus

(27,000 Ibs/day as P) and 66 percent of the total nitrogen (51,500

Iba/day as N).

     J+.  Of the more Than 851,000 Ibs/day of total carbon entering the

upper estuary from all sources during the first eight months in 1969,

about 089,000 Ibs/day were from the upp>er basin, mainly in the form

of inorganic carbon (carbonic acid and bicarbonates).

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                                                                II-2




     •?.   dissolved oxygen (JX\) nonce:.T rs Mo^s of less than 2.0  mg'1




were regularly  observed near  tr:e Wood-row  Wi.lso-i ?. idge from May through




September 1969 •




     '-'.   L'ven when tr*-,  1'rrr-"  wa^er  inflow i.rrear-^d to 9.000  cfs,  as




occurred  in  Augist,  D'1 levels of ?.0  :r4i' 1 were :\e.asi;red in the  upper




es vuary.




     7".  A fisn  iCill occurred In the  j|:er esiuar..  near Woodrow Wilson




Br'dge between  May j a:;d ft, 19''->9-   Dissolved oxyyen -:oncentrat-ions




were lesr:  i-hai  1.0 '-=  1 or May S 1:  • ne at ea of • r.e kill.




     H.  A.S  a cesiol'  of 1 :•'..ป i-ated chlor : na'io.n 01  *,hfj wa,stev,atr-r  treat-




nient facility effluen-.s.  coliforrr. densities  were significantly  lower




in the area  of  '.he Woodiow V/:lso" BrJdgi.  Lha-: in i9'j<3.  Foi examrie,




on September 29,.  19p"'9.  fecal  jolirorrr, densities exceeded 1,000  MPN/lOOml




at only one  of  22 sianions samfled.




     ^.  High coliform densities werc s'ill  prevalent at times  in  fhe




area 01 Roosevelt Island where Po.-lc ; ree '. enters • he estuary, jrobably




the result of storm and coir.clned sewer overflows.




    10.  High algal  populations, as raeaeareci by chlorophyll "a",  and




high total organic carbon o.:.irred  in early  March  near Possum Point.




    11.  During  the  summer months,  massive algal I looms occurred  in the




upper and middle- estuary as far downstream as thf  n.J. I'oate 301  Bridge,




    12.  Depressed DC concentrations  (t-low  2.0 r^u/l) at t,he lower




deptns occurred  durirg the s _jnrner months  in  the reach of the estuary




from U..-". Rou+-e  301  Bridge :o -.he Chesapeake Bay.

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                                                               II-3





    13-  During August 19^9> six samples taken from the estuary




between Chain Bridge and U.S. Route 301 Bridge contained no detect-




able pest/i cides .




    Ik.  To facilitate the determination of wastewater discharge




loadings, the estuary was zoned into fifteen mile reaches.  Maximum




waste discharge loadings for BOD (organic carbon), nitrogen, and




phosphorus have been determined for Zone I in the Washington area.




These loadings were adopted by the conferees at me May 8, 19^9ป




session of the Potomac River-Washington Metropolitan Enforcement




Conference.




    I'?.  Preliminary estimates of loadings have been established




for I'orie II downstream from r,he Washington area.




    16.  Field studies are currently being conducted by CTSL to




further define nutrient, transport and eutrophication characteristics




in the upper and middle estuaries.




    IT-  CTSL and the Joutheast Regional Laboratory, FWPCA, are




continuing studies to refine the nutrien'. requirements (carbon,




nitrogen, and pnosphorus) for algal growth especially in the area




of salt water Intrusion.




    18.  The effects on water quality in the lower estuary and the




Chesapeake Bay of tne highJy eutrophlc condition,'.;  in the upper and




rniddJe estuartts are ^ot fully d.nown.




    I1,).  The role of rooted aquatic j lant.s (submerged and emergent) in




nutrlfctit storage; and release has not been fully determined.  This role  is




esiecially important wliere wastewater discharges are made Into shallow




embayrnen'.s.

-------
                                                               TII-1
                           CHAPTER Til


                DESCRIPTION OF THE POTOMAC ESTUARY
     The Potomac River Basin i? the second largest watershed, in the


Middle Atlantic State-.  It? tidal portion begins at Little Falls in


the Washington metropolitan area and extends 106, miles southeastward


to the Chesapeake Bay.


     The estuary is several hundred feet in width at its head near


Washington and broadens to nearly six miles at its mouth.  A shipping


channel with a rrunimtur, del ti  of 2^ feet is rnairite i.'<-d upstream to


Washington.  Except 1'or the channel and a small reach just below Chain


Bridge where dei ths up to 80 feet are found, the estuary is relatively


shallow with an average depth of about ly feet.


     The upper portion of the estuary from Marshall Hall at River Mile


8^.0 to Little Falls above Washington is fresh water.  In the middle


portion of the estuary from Marshall Hall to Indian Head at River Mile


77-5, there is a transition zone from fresh to slightly tracxish water.


The upper boundary of the salt wedge varies with fresh water inflow


and tidal stage .


     Effluents from twelve wastewater treatment plants, serving a


population of about 2,^00,000 people, are discharged into the upper


estuary.  The locations of the discharge,-, from these wastewater facil-


ities are shown in Figure III-l.  Also shown are the wastewater


discharge zones in the upper estuary.

-------
                                                           ANDREWS  A.R B.
                                             RIVER  MILES FROM CHAIN BRIDGE ; 0
                   ALEXANDRIA


                      WESTGATE
                                             RIVER  MILES FROM  CHAIN BRIDGE - 15
                 HUNTING Ck.
          DOGUE  Ck.
FORT  BE^VOIR	
                            PlSCATAWAY Ck.
                                                              ZONE   II
                                             RIVER  MILES FROM  CHAIN  BRIDGE = 30
               WASTEWATER  DISCHARGE  ZONES

                    m UPPER POTOMAC ESTUARY
ZONE  III
                                             RIVER MILES  FROM  CHAIN BRIDGE - 45
                                                             FIGURE III - I

-------
                                                               17-1
                             CHAPTER IV


                    FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY
A.  GENERAL


     During the first eight months of 1969, the fresh water inflow


from the upper Potomac basin was non-typical.  River discharges were


below normal for the first six months and above normal in July and


August (Figure 17-1).  This non-typical flow pattern had an effect


on the water quality by variations in the relative contributions of


carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus.

-------
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-------
                                                               IV-3
E.  WASTEWATEF DISCHARGES




     Tables 77-1 and 1V-2 present the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),




total organic carbon (TOC), suspended solids,  nitrogen and phosphorus




loadings from the 13 rna.jor wastewater discharges in the upper Potomac




Estuary for the August 1969 intensive survey.   The loadings measured




were similar to those determined during the August 1968 intensive




survey [l  .




     Of tne 129,390 Ibs/day of BOD discharged to the upper estuary,




about 75 percent was from the District of Columbia waste treatment




facility.  While this is the major contributor, It should be noted




that hk percent of '.he population served by this treatment pjant is




in Maryland, ^ percent, in'Virginia,  and the remaining ^9 percent in




the District of Columbia.




     About 70 percent of the 5-day BOD is currently being removed by




the treatment plants.  Tn addition,  the wastewater treatment facilities




are currently removing about 23 percent of the total phosphorus and




20 percent, of the total nitrogen.

-------
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-------
                                                               IV-6





C.  FRESHWATER INFLOW




     As part of a nutrient transport study in the Potomac Estuary,




weekly water quality analyses of the Potomac River at Great Falls




are being made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Dalecarlia Water




Treatment Plant and CTSL personnel.  During high flow periods daily




analyses are conducted.




     Table 3TV-3 shows the average monthly BOD, carbon, nitrogen, and




phosphorus loadings from the upper Potomac basin as measured at Great




Falls for the first eight months of 1969.  It should be noted that




during August the flows were about twice the normal .average for this




month.  As a result of these high flows, the contributions of BOD,




carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus entering the estuary during the late




summer months were much higher than normal.  For example, from




August 11 to 22, 1968, when the fresh water inflow was about 2,700 efs,




the BOD contribution from the upper basin was about 52,000 Ibs/day




as compared to 157.,000 Ibs/day during August of 1969-

-------














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-------
                                                              IV-
D.  COMPARISON OF SOURCES

     For the first eight months of 1969, a comparison was made of the

wantewater and fresh water inflow contributions and is presented in

Table IV-4.  The relative percentages contributed by fresh water

inflow and wastewater discharge are given below:

Parameter                Fresh Water Inflow       Wastewater Discharge
                            (% of total)              (% of total)

BOD                              45                        55

Organic Carbon                   68                        32

Inorganic Carbon                 89                        11

Total Carbon                     80                        20

Total Phosphorus                 14                        86

Total Nitrogen                   34                        66

     From the above tabulation, it can readily be seen that the three

parameters most controllable by wastewater treatment are BOD, total

phosphorus, and total nitrogen.  Any attempt to control total carbon

appears to be impractical at present since the largest percentage comes

into the estuary in the uncontrollable inorganic form.

-------
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-------
                                                              •v-i
                            CHAPTER V
                      CURRENT WATER QUALITY

A,  BACTERIOLOGICAL
     During June 1969, chlorination of the final effluent from the
District of Columbia wastewater treatment facility vas instituted.
In September 1969, continuous chlorination of the final effluent was
initiated by tne City of Alexandria Sanitation Authority.  Thus all
effluents from all major wastewater treatment facilitites are currently
being chlorinated.
     Thio increase ir. chlorination has reduced bacterial densities in
the upper estuary near the Woodrow Wilson Bridge as shown in Figure V-l.
When the data for August 1968 and June 1969 were compared, the fecal
collform densities were found to be considerably lower for the 1969
survey.? .  However, high fecal coliform densities (over 60,000 to
80,000 MPN/lOOml) were detected above Memorial Bridge reflecting the
effects of storm water and combined sewer overflows.
     .Sampling data for the month of September by the Department of
Sanitary Engineering, District of Columbia, indicate that the fecal
coliform densities can be effectively controlled by chlorination (See
Table A-;>).  At only one station near the Blue Plains facility was the
fecal density greater than 1,000 MPN/lOOml.
     Intensive bacteriological surveys were conducted during two periods,
March 2k to April k and July 31 to August 5, 1969.  (Data tables in the
Appendix)  Salmonella bacteria were isolated in areas from Cabin John

-------
••.ooc-
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                                    FECAL  COLIFORM

                                UPPER POTOMAC  ESTUARY
~
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          +  DATA FROM O.C. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  DIVISION

          X  DATA FROM CTSL INTENSIVE SURVEY
                lOO
                            9S
                                       ~T
                                        90
85
            80
                        75
                                 RIVER MILES mOM CHESAPEAKE BAY
                                                                               FIGURE  V-

-------
                                                               V-3
Gree1-, to Dogue Cree.'i during the spring survey which  extended  downstream




to Piney Point in the lower etrtuary.  Daring the summer  survey, which




was restricted to a reach from Great Falls to Woodrow Wilson  Bridge,




positive salnon-ella identification was made at; three of  the five




stations sampled.

-------
                                                              V-'-f
E.  DISSOLVED OXYGEN, TOTAL  ORGANIC  CARBON,  AND CARBON DIOXIDE
    IN THE UPPER ESTUARY
     In early May 19'->9>  %•  large  fish  riill occurred in the upper

estuary near tne Woodrow Wilson  Bridge.   Three sampling cruises on

the estuary  indicated  dissolved  oxygen  (DC1)  concentrations,  espe-

cially or. Ma~ c, 1Q''9. whe^  tne  IX)  was  less  than 1 mg/'l in the area

of the Kill  (Tables V-l, 7-2. and V-3).

     Pig Lire  V-2 shows  DC1 profiles for the upper estuary for  sample

cru-ises J r>. Jire, July, and August IQ'^9 -   Dissolved oxygen cor.cen-

trations of  less tnar.  2.0  [%•'! were measured on August 17,  19^9?

whe;  the fresh water inflow  -vas  as  high  as 8,390 el's.  Increase in

fresh wat-er  inflow  caused  tne minimum DO point to move further down-

stream as Js evident by  comparing the Jane 30 and August I.k  i'rofiles .

     The increase in tot,al organic  carton (TOG) from the wastewater

discharges, shown in Figure  V-3, is fairly closely related to low DC1.  As

in the case of DO,  *he effect of increased fresh water inflow is  the

movement of  tne poi^t  of maximum TOC  concentration downstream.

     As a result of laborator,, studies  ty EWPCA's Southeast  Regional

Office, reported by Williams [1  and  a paper presented by Kneutzel [2],

inorganic carbon including carto; dioxide (C0p) measurements were

initiated by CTSL daring the summer of  19b9-   Preliminary data indicate

a consideracle increase  in CO,, near the  wastewater discharge points

followed by a decrease in  areas of  large algal growths.   (Tables  A-l

and A-2j   However, significant levels of bicarbonates were always

present in the areas of  high algal  densities.

-------
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         SOT TOM
                                                      DO  PROFILES
                                                UPPER  POTOMAC ESTUARY
                                                            1969
                                                                  JUNE II. 1969
                                                                   Q = 1800 cfj
                                                       JUNE 30.1969
                                                        Q =  940 cfj
0 >
Q 6  8
             BOTTOM
                                                                   JULY 29, 1969
                                                                   Q = 3200 cfs
    10
                  W. WILSON BRIDGE
AUGUST 14, 1969
  Q- 8890 cfs
                              10                      20
                               RIVER MILES FROM CHAIN  BRIDGE
         30

         FIGURE V - 2

-------
    10
                                      TOTAL  ORGANIC  CARBON  PROFILES
                                             UPPER  POTOMAC ESTUARY
                                                         1969
                                                     JUNE II. 1969
                                                     Q = 1800 cfป
    12
    10
u
U J 4
O
    10
                                                    JUNE 30,1969
                                                     Q = 940 cfป
                                                          JULY 29, 1969

                                                           Q = 3200 cfs
    10
                                            SURFACE - UNFILTERED
                                         -MID-DEPTH - FILTERED

                                     -W. WILSON BRIDGE
AUGUST 14. 1969

  Q = 8890 cfj
                             10                     20

                              RIVER MILES FROM CHAIN BRIDGE
         30


        FIGURE V - 3

-------
                                                              7-10






C.  NUTRIENTS (PHOSPHORUS AND NITROGEN)




     For the same dates as for the DO and TOO, data profiles for




three nutrient parameters--phosphate (PO, ), ammonia (NH ), and




nitrite + iltrate (NOp+NO^)--are shown in Figures 7-^. 7-S, and 7-6,




respectively.  The large increases in PO,  and NH  were caused by




the wastewater discharges in the Washington metropolitan area as




presented i:i the previous chapter.




     The increase in NO +WO  concentrations is a result of the




oxidation of NH  to the more Liable state,  figures 7-^- and 7->




illustrate these occurrences.  Previous studies have indicated that




thia oxidation j.rocess has a greater influence on DO than the oxi-




dation of organic carbon [3:-

-------
                                               NH3 as N  PROFILES
                                            UPPER  POTOMAC  ESTUARY
                                                         1969
                                                    JUNE (I, 1969
                                                     Q = 1800 cfป
?  I
                                                    JUNE 30,1969
                                                     Q = 940 cfป
                                                          JULY 29. 1969
                                                           Q = 3200 cfs
                                     - W. WILSON BRIDGE
                                                                AUGUST 14. 1969
                                                                  Q = 8890 cfs
                           10                     20
                             RIVER MILES FROM CHAIN  BRIDGE
 30

FIGURE V-4

-------
                                            NO2 + NO3 as  N  PROFILES
                                             UPPER  POTOMAC ESTUARY
                                                          !969
                                                     JUNE M, 1969
                                                      Q = 1800 cfซ
(M
O
JUNE 30,1969
 Q = 940 cfs
                                                           JULY  29, 1969
                                                           Q = 3200 ci,
                  W. WILSON BRIDGE -
                                                                AUGUST 14. 1969
                                                                  Q - 8890 cfซ
                             10                     20
                              RIVER  MILES FROM CHAIN  BRIDGE
                     30


                    FIGURE V-5

-------
                                        TOTAL  PHOSPHORUS  PROFILES
                                            UPPER  POTOMAC ESTUARY
                                                        1969
                                                    JUNE II, 1969
                                                    Q = 1800 cfป
I    2
3*
a.
            BOTTOM
                                  -SURFACE
                                                   JUNE 30,1969
                                                    Q = 940 eft
                                                             SURFACE
                                                         JULY 29. 1969
                                                          Q = 3200 efป
                                                              AUGUST 14. 1969
                                                                Q = 889Ocf*
                                     -W. WILSON BRIDGE
                            10                     20
                             RIVER  MILES FROM CHAIN BRIDGE
 30

FIGURE V-6

-------
D.  CHLOROPHYLL




     Chlorophyll  "a" was used  as  a  measure  of  als/al standing crops.




Phytoplanhlon levels on  '.he  foui  sampling  dates  previously mentionei




and for three stations in the  middle  part  ol  ~he estuary a,re shown




in Figures 7-7, 7-3,, 7-9, and  V-10.




     The chlororhyll levels  ir. Figure *-!  show sir:.if lean* increases




in phytoplanktoi,  from June 11  to  June 30,  19^9-   -">"  high flows of




late July and early August resulted in movement  of  hloom ^ondiMons




i'urther downstream in "he estuary.




     The temporal chlorophyll  "a" plots (Fig-ares T,-8, ฅ-9, and -7-10}




for the Potomac Estuary near Piscataway, Indian  Head, arid Possum




Point, respectively, demonstrate  the  seasonal  change  in phytoplankton




quantities.  In March 19^9? wi"h  water tempergtares nr-ar kr  <}., a




large "bloom of diatoms was verified in tn^  es+uary  re=3r Possum Poinr.,




     Ifear Piscataway, the chlorophyll Je^el?  inor e =3sect during Msy




and June (fฑgare 7-8).  However,  the  eff-.tt of the  rather laref fresh




water inflows during mid and late July in moving the  algal blooms




further downstream can also be seen ir Figures 7"8  ^nl 7-9-

-------
                                           CHLOROPHYLL  a.  PROFILES
                                             UPPER POTOMAC  ESTUARY
                                                         1969
    100
                                                    JUNE II. 1969
                                                     Q = 1800 eft
   200
    100
                                                    JUNE 30.1969
                                                     Q = 940 cfi
I
a.
o
200
   100
                                                          JULY 29. 1969
                                                          Q = 3200 cf.
   100
                                                               AUGUST  14, 1969
                                                                Q = 8690 eft
                            10                     20
                             RIVER MILES FROM CHAIN BRIDGE
                                                                    30

                                                                    FIGURE  V-7

-------
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                                                           FIGURE V -8

-------
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                                                                                  FIGURE  V - ปO

-------
                                                              7-19





E.  DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN THE MIDDLE AND LOWER ES'ItJARi




     In the middle and lower Potomac Estuary, DO concentrations at,




lower depths are usually depressed under summer conditions.  For the




period of June 26 to 30, 1969>  the DO in the bottom waters of the




main channel for about 40 miles of the lower estuary was less than




2.0 rng/1.  (Figure V-ll)  Similar observations were made by CT3L




in July and August 1969 and by the Chesapeake Bay Institute (3BI)




during a nutrient cruise in June of 1965 [M.




     It appears that the low dissolved oxygen levr-ls art asso':iat,ed




with the salinity intrusion from Chesapeake Bay which has low DO




at lower levels during the summer.  While this may explain some of




the dissolved oxygen depression, two major unanswered questions




remain:  (l) the effect of flows from the Potomac Estuary on water




quality in the Chesapeake Bay,  and (2) the contribution of the




eutrophic condition in the upper and middle Potomac Estuary to t,he




dissolved oxygen depression in the lower estuary and possibly in




the Chesapeake Bay.

-------
(/) O)
                                                                                                                            V-ll

-------
                                                            V-21
F.  CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON PESTICIDES




     During August 5 to 11, 1969* samples obtained from six stations




in the Potomac Estuary and a 2k-hour composite sample of the final




effluent from the D.C. facility at Blue Plains were analyzed for




pesticides.  The estuary stations sampled are as follows:
         Station




     Chain Bridge




     Arlington Memorial Bridge




     Woodrow Wilson Bridge




     Piscataway




     Indian Head




     U.S. Route 301 Bridge
Miles from Chesapeake Bay




          106.5




          100.7




           9^.4




           89.0




           77-5
     The compounds for which the samples were analyzed and the




minimum detectable concentrations are presented in Table V-k.




     No compounds were detected in any of the six estuary samples




or in the 2U-hour composite of the final effluent from the Blue




Plains facility.

-------
                                                                     V-22
                                 TABLE  Y-U

                           PESTICIDES ANALYZED AND
                          MINIMUM DETECTABLE.LIMITS
   Compound
 Minimum Detectable Concentration
	           ng/1
Dieldrin

Endrin

DOT

DDE

Heptachlor

Heptachlor Epoxide

Al drin

BHC
Chlordane (Tech. )

Toxaphene

Methoxychlor
               10
               2s

            1,000
* ng/1  =  nanograms/liter

-------
                                                            VI-1

                         CHAPTER VI

              WASTEWATER CONTROL REQUIREMENTS


A.  GENERAL

     Nutrient removal or control is a relatively new concept in

water quality management and consequently subject to various inter-

pretations.  During a technical workshop on Nutrient Removal Needs,

Methods,, and Costs at Fredericksburg, Virginia, May 13-14, 1969? a

summary statement on nutrient removal concepts was developed as part

of the panel* discussion and is presented below:

     "1.  Accelerated eutrophication is recognized as a significant
          form of pollution.

     "2.  In some waters this hypertrophy is so advanced that
          immediate action is needed.

     "3-  Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal together will
          normally alleviate this environmental stress because:

           (a)  These elements are known to be nutrients to which
                the plant life is responsive at concentrations
                that are practical to manage; the actual levels
                will probably vary in different environments.

           (b)  The removal of either P or N alone will still
                allow the blooming of undesirable species
                leaving the ecosystem imbalanced; the more
                nearly natural condition of the wastewater,
                the less disturbance of the ecosystem.

     "4.  Processes to remove these nutrients that are mutually
          compatible have been developed which are adequate for
          preliminary engineering cost analysis.''
  Panel members were:  Dr. Donald V/. Lear, Jr., Chief, Ecology Section,
  Chesapeake Technical Support Laboratory, FWPCA, Annapolis, Maryland;
  Dr. Kenneth Williams, Chief, Aquatic Ecology Activities, FWPCA,
  Athens, Georgia; Dr. Clair N. Sawyer, Senior Associate, Metcalf &
  Eddy, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts; Dr. Morris L. Brehmer, Virginia
  Institute of Marine Sciences, Gloucester Point, Virginia

-------
                                                             VI-2
     This summary statement emphasizes two important concepts:




(l) that eutrophication is a form of pollution, and (2) the nearer




the quality of the waste discharge to natural conditions of the




receiving waters the less it will disturb the ecosystem.  Using the




same basic concepts, maximum levels of BOD (organic carbon),




nitrogen, and phosphorus were developed for the upper estuary.




     To facilitate determination of water quality control require-




ments, the upper estuary was segmented into 15 mile zones beginning




at Chain Bridge (Table VI-1 and Figure III-l).  Establishment of




zones similar in physical characteristics allows flexibility in




developing control needs.

-------
VT-3

















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-------
                                                               VI-4





B,  ZONE I




     In the FWPCA report, "Potomac River Water Quality, Washington,




D. C. Metropolitan Area/' a maximum total discharge of 16,500 Ibs/day




of BOD and 96 percent removal of phosphorus was recommended for




waste Treatment facilities ir. the enforcement area.  The BOD loadings




were determined with a simultaneous 85 percent reduction in nitroge-




nous oxygen demand.




     The BOD and unoxidized nitrogen loadings were based upon main-




taining an average DO of 5-0 nig/1 for a fresh water inflow of 705 cfs




which is the sever.-day-low-flow with a recurrence interval of once-in-




ten-years.




     Total phosphorus loadings were determined, using a maximum




phosphorus  concentration in the upper estuary near the discharges at




or below 0.1 mg/1 as P.  The phosphorus level in the reach from




Piscataway to Possum Point would normally be below O.Oh mg/1 as a




result of maintaining the maximum level at 0.1 mg/1.  This reach is




currently most susceptible to algal growth.




     Adopting the zonal concept, the conferees of the Potomac River-




Washington Metropolitan Area Enforcement Conference agreed May 8, 1969?




upon a BOD loading of 16,500 Ibs/day and a phosphorus loading of 7^-0




Ibs/day (96 percent removal at current wastewater loadings).  To




further enhance the water quality in the upper estuary and to reduce




any stimulation by discharges of large quantities of nitrate-nitrogen,




the conferees recommended a total nitrogen loading be adopted equiv-




alent to that required to meet the 85 percent reduction in nitrogenous




oxygen demand or 6,000 Ibs/day of total nitrogen.

-------
(:.  /.ONE Tl                                                     VI-5

     Assuming that loadings for both carbonaceous and nitrogenous

oxygen demands have been satisfied in Zone I, preliminary estimates

of oxygen demand loading components for Zone II have been determined

as shown ir. Figure VT-1.  The loadings are based on a single dis-

charge point into the main channel in the center of Zone II.

     Since oxygen demanding loadings can be either carbonaceous or

nitrogenous, an inflnice combination of the two components exist

which will achieve an average dissolved oxygen concentration of

 ).0 mg/1 for a water temperature of 29ฐ C.  at a fresh water inflow

of 708 cfs.   For example, Figure VI-1 shows that the 5.0 mg/1 DO

criterion can be met if the carbonaceous and nitrogenous oxygen

demand;: arr below 30,000 and 10,000 Ibs/day, respectively.

     Nutrient loadings for algal control have been determined as

follows:
                                                         
-------
CARBONACEOUS AND NITROGENOUS OXYGEN DEMAND LOADINGS
                      FOR MAINTAINING  AN
          AVERAGE  OF 5.0ซซ/i OF DISSOLVED  OXYGEN
                             HM
                          ZONE IE
  / 0,000-
                              OF DO
                       IOOOO
                     UNOXIOIZED NITROGEN  AS N
                           flbi./doy)
2QPOO
                                                        FIGURE VI- I

-------
                                                        VI-7


"b.  Environmental Conditions

     (l)  Water temperature of 29ฐ C.

     (2)  Fresh water inflow of 70> cfs

c.  Residual Concentrations from Zone I in the Center of Zone II

     (l)  An average DO of 6.9 mg/1

     (2)  A phosphorus concentration of 0.03 mg/1 as P

     (3)  No residual carbonaceous or nitrogenous oxygen
          demanding material

     (4)  Inorganic nitrogen concentration of 0.1 mg/1

-------
                                                                 V1I-1




                           OHAFL'E?  ~T1




            CURRENT JNTESTTGATI^ia  AND RESEARCH HEEDS







     To  aid in further determination of r at riant,  i emoval require-




ments, especially in *he middle  and l^wer porticr  of  the estuary,




field activities  ire < ontir.uj 'v .   A:, ares of majoi  emphasis for CTSL




during the.  summer of 19"'9 war  O"- ^-c ecology of the middle estuary




in the area of ?^lir.:!~y i:i*,,'^i: or;,   S'yj'ii-v, a:^e cor ",inuintr to deter-




mine- t,he f. ff'e-,-fc  of ccLiir.l^y  o-.  ',he r=it- limlMng  • oa'.entrations of




nutrients  i .1 al)-al prow^n.




     Anothf ^ ai-ea of major eir.Lhacic is ';r.e transport  of nutrients




Ihroughou*  the f:^.r.ฑr>- ซct'.:ary.   A  -,oopf ra^.ivf. ctudv with the Steuart




Petroleum  Company, I'..'. A/ny  'Jc^ i ::  of Krifrineejs,  Aqjeduc", Di'/ision,




B.C. Depai tmen-t, of Sanitary t'ngineerirv-, and C'lSL  was initiated in




February 19^9-  "he major T^rioses  were */o determi",e  Vhe nutrient




movement on an g.inval basis throa^hou". t.hf. er,",ire  <=•;*,uary, and ",o




provide  S'jf i'i.,i-.V, ua:a ^pon  wti-.h  niaM-jeii.a^i'-.al models car. be




verified.   Data from '.r.is snudy  will also ce. used  to  further define




annual nutrient ,:ontrol rcq^iremen'.s .  In-jluicd will  be a detailed




analysis of nitrot/enoj^ ox/ge.. demand removal requirement under




winter conditions




     Coojer ari ve  la to:-1 "ory ?/d  field t-t^iies are  being made wiT,h




the Southeast Vซate: .,&,: orq^ory of  FWF JA "3 de~ermi.:e  the role of




carbon in  algal growth, stimulation.  V/hile preliminary dat.a for the




Potomac  indicate  that the control  ot i.arbon may not be feasible under

-------
                                                               VI-2





all conditions at, the present time, the possible need for CO  control




is also being considered especially in the design of advanced waste-




water treatment.




     Another important need is a eutrophication study involving




rooted and emergent aquatic plants.  The role of these plants in the




Potomac estuarir.e ecology should be examined, including the effects




of nutrient additions in relation to maximum utilization, retention,




and recycling in an ecological system.




     As indicated in Chapter V, depressed dissolved oxygen levels




jn the lower depths occur in "he lower reaches of the estuary and




in the Chesapeake Bay under summer conditions.  These depressions




are often considered "natural conditions."  A need also exists for




a further understanding of the effects of the highly eutrophic




conditions in the upper and middle estuary on water quality in the




lower estuary ar.d in the Chesapeake Bay.  For example, preliminary




laboratory studies by CTSL indicate tha.t remineralization of NH-,




nitrogen from algal cells can be a significant source of nitrogenous




oxygen demand.

-------
                         REFERENCES
1.  Williams, Kenneth, "Nutrient-Fhytoplankton Relationships,"
    A Water Pollution Control Technical Workshop on Nutrient
    Removal Needs, Methods, and Costs.  Fredericksburg, Virginia,
    May 13-14, 1969.

2.  Kuentzel, L. W., "Bacteria, Carbon Dioxide and Algal Blooms,"
    Presented at Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University,
    May 6-8, 1969.

3.  Jaworski, W. A., Lear, Donald W., Jr., and Aalto, Johan A.,
    "A Technical Assessment of Water Quality Conditions and
    Factors Affecting Water Quality in the Upper Potomac Estuary,"
    Technical Report No. 5, CTSL, MAR, FWPCA, U.S. Department
    of the Interior, May 1969.

4.  Whaley, R. C., Carpenter, J. H., and Baker, R. L., "Nutrient
    Data Summary 1964, 1965, 1966,"  Special Report No. 17,
    Chesapeake Bay Institute, The Johns Hopkins University,
    Reference 66-9, November  1966.

-------
   APPENDIX
DATA SUMMARIES




     AND




 3UTWEY DATA

-------













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-------
                                     TABLE A-j
                         POTOMAC RIVER BACTERIOLOGICAL SORVEY
                               July 31 - August 5>  1969
                       CHESAPEAKE TECHNICAL SUPPORT LABORATORY
Date
, Sample
Taken

11 7- 31
8-1
e~2
* 8-3
8-h
8-5
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8-1
( e-?
8-3
a. -k.
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7~il
3..1
3-2
3.5
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-5
Time
Sample
Taken
Water
Temp
ฐC
Cclifcra
MPN/100 ml
Grreat Fails (Water
09.35
1200
0950
1000
1000
0900

IG25
11,05
1.0.30
i LOO
1055
.055
iซ.)50
1C "30
j ;OC
1-30
• • i c.
J. i,..x
i * 1 C
^5
i i.r ^
1 20 5
; ..iic
'•oS1

1155
1300
1150
1230
ikCO
0350

1225
10^.5
i.2,,5
J255
I 300
1025
27
28.5
27
26
26
25.5
Little
2?
28
28
26 5
25
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L.nai*: B
26
28
26
26
25
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28
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26
26
26
Wcodrov
27
29
27
27
26-5
25-5
Il.COO
; ^'00
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"i5,000
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'4,900
Fal..- ('Water
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j ^ ,'"•>- <
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i . 130
^'9C
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1 Bridge
7 , 'XC
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92 ป -HX
28.:: :.c
l6c -Ooc
i.-,COC •
Fecal
Ccliform
MPW/10C ml
ป
Intake i
-1 T~>r>
j..t (m.
2,300
LA
7,900
1,000
1,300
Intake "'-
230
170
LA
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2,30C
3:r-
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1A
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Tec
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i<
1A
79C
1 , IOC
L, PC

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1 , -:OC
2^,000
1,300
Fecal
Strept cc'Oocu?
MPN/1CC ml

1^40,
y.o
2,900
12, CCO
1>X
890

^2C
^20
5fi:co
2 (x\
3 , 50-',
>3C-
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^70
J 9f'-0
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1, 6^.0
i>";-v
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22'J
1 '.C
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6,601.
7iO
FC/
'FS
Ratio

3.3
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-7
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7
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-3
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C
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1,2
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1,8
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Isolates

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170
16
280
2,OCO
9^."
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28,8
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6.5
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             TABLE A-5

        POTOMAC ESTUARY DATA
  WATER POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION
Department of Sanitary   Engineering
        District of Columbia

         September 29, 1969
Station
Ch. Bridge
FI. B.H.
Th. Sis.
Roose. I.
Mem. Br.
Hwy. Br.
Pot. Pk.
Ha ins Pt.
Gies. Pt.
Ab. WPCP
Op. WPCP
Be. WPCP
ซW. Bridge
?t. Ft.
?t. Wash.
4. Hall
fall. Pt.
!nd. Hd.
t. Neck
an. Pt .
m. Pt.
d. Pt.
Sampling
Time
AM
8:03
8:28
8:48
9:05 '
9:20
9:35
9:40
9:50
10:03
10:15
10:25
10:33
10:48
11:20
11:55
12:38
1:13
1:43
2:18
3:02
3:38
4:13
Water
Temp.
20.0
20. 0
20.5
20.9
20.6
20.0
20.0
20.4
20.9
21.0
21.5
21.0
21.3
21.6
21.5
21.7
21.5
21-5
21.4
21.4
21.4
21.1
D.O.
8.6
8.8
7-3
8.6
9.9
8.5
8.4
6-3
5.6
4.6
6.4
5.0
3-3
3-7
3.8
6.8
6.0
6.2
9-5
8.3
12.0
8.8
BOD
(mg/1)
4
5
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
9
4
4
5
7
7
3
5
5
5
3
5
3
Coliform
(MPN per
100 ml)
24,000
9,300
4,300
7,300
9,300
4,300
2,400
4,300
9,300
240,000
9,300
43,000
21,000
7,300
2,400
430
930
930
9,300
2,400
2,400
430
Fecal
Coliform
(MPN per
100 ml)
360
23
36
73
23
73
23
91
230
360
230
1,500
230
230
23
23
36
9
' 2
2
2
2
Chloride
fflg/1
15
15
15
15
16
18
17
18
25
21
25
30
29
26
24
20
13
11
38
100
120
3^7

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