U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Annapolis Field Office
      Annapolis Science Center
     Annapolis, Maryland  21401
       OCEAN DUMPING SURVEYS
             Volume 23

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              Table of Contents


                Volume  23
Environmental Survey of an Interim Ocean Dumpsite,
Middle Atlantic Bight - September 1973
Environmental Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites,
Middle Atlantic Bight - January 1974
Environmental Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites,
Middle Atlantic Bight - Supplemental Report -
October 1974
Effects of Ocean Disposal Activities on Mid-
continental Shelf Environment off Delaware
and Maryland - January 1975

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                            PUBLICATIONS

                U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                             REGION III
                       ANNAPOLIS FIELD OFFICE*


                              VOLUME 1
                          Technical  Reports


 5         A Technical  Assessment of Current Water Quality
           Conditions and Factors Affecting Water Quality in
           the Upper Potomac Estuary

 6         Sanitary Bacteriology of  the Upper Potomac Estuary

 7         The Potomac  Estuary Mathematical Model

 9         Nutrients in the Potomac  River Basin

11         Optimal  Release Sequences for Water Quality Control
           in Multiple Reservoir Systems

                              VOLUME 2
                          Technical  Reports


13         Mine Drainage in the North Branch Potomac River Basin

15         Nutrients in the Upper Potomac River Basin

17         Upper Potomac River Basin Water Quality Assessment

                              VOLUME  3
                          Technical  Reports

19         Potomac-Piscataway Dye Release and Wastewater
           Assimilation Studies

21         LNEPLT

23         XYPLOT

25         PLOT3D


     * Formerly CB-SRBP, U.S. Department of Health, Education,
       and Welfare; CFS-FWPCA, and CTSL-FWQA,  Middle Atlantic
       Region, U.S. Department of the Interior

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                             VOLUME 3   (continued)

                         Technical Reports


27         Water Quality and Wastewater Loadings - Upper Potomac
           Estuary during 1969


                             VOLUME 4
                         Technical Reports


29         Step Backward Regression

31         Relative Contributions of Nutrients to the Potomac
           River Basin from Various Sources

33         Mathematical Model Studies of Water Quality in the
           Potomac Estuary

35         Water Resource - Water Supply Study of the Potomac
           Estuary

                             VOLUME 5
                         Technical Reports


37         Nutrient Transport and Dissolved Oxygen Budget
           Studies in the Potomac Estuary

39         Preliminary Analyses of the Wastewater and Assimilation
           Capacities of the Anacostia Tidal River System

41         Current Water Quality Conditions and Investigations
           in the Upper Potomac River Tidal System

43         Physical Data of the Potomac River Tidal System
           Including Mathematical Model Segmentation

45         Nutrient Management in the Potomac Estuary


                             VOLUME 6

                         Technical Reports


47         Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Input Study

49         Heavy Metals Analyses of Bottom Sediment in the
           Potomac River Estuary

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                                  VOLUME  6  (continued)

                              Technical  Reports

     51          A System of Mathematical Models for Water Quality
                Management

     52         Numerical Method for Groundwater Hydraulics

     53         Upper Potomac Estuary Eutrophication Control
                Requirements

     54         AUT0-QUAL Modelling System

Supplement      AUT0-QUAL Modelling System:  Modification for
   to 54        Non-Point Source Loadings

                                  VOLUME  7
                              Technical Reports

     55         Water Quality Conditions in the Chesapeake Bay System

     56         Nutrient Enrichment and Control Requirements in the
                Upper Chesapeake Bay

     57         The Potomac River Estuary in the Washington
                Metropolitan Area - A History of its Water Quality
                Problems and their Solution

                                  VOLUME  8
                              Technical Reports

     58         Application of AUT0-QUAL Modelling System to the
                Patuxent River Basin

     59         Distribution of Metals in Baltimore Harbor Sediments

     60         Summary and Conclusions - Nutrient Transport and
                Accountability in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin

                                  VOLUME  9
                                 Data Reports

                Water Quality Survey, James River and Selected
                Tributaries - October 1969

                Water Quality Survey in the North Branch Potomac River
                between Cumberland and Luke, Maryland - August 1967

-------OCR error (C:\Conversion\JobRoot\00000AEY\tiff\2000VA97.tif): Unspecified error

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                             VOLUME 10(continued)

                           Data Reports

15         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1967

16         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1968

17         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1969

18         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transects,
           Intensive and Southeast Water Laboratory Cooperative
           Study - 1969

19         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Phosphate
           Tracer Study - 1969

                             VOLUME 11
                            Data Reports

20         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transport Study
           1969-1970

21         Water Quality Survey of the Piscataway Creek Watershed
           1968-1970

22         Water Quality Survey of the Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy Point - 1970

23         Water Quality Survey of the Head of the Chesapeake Bay
           Maryland Tributaries - 1970-1971

24         Water Quality Survey of the Upper Chesapeake Bay
           1969-1971

25         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Consolidated
           Survey - 1970

26         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Dissolved Oxygen
           Budget Studies - 1970

27         Potomac Estuary Wastewater Treatment Plants Survey
           1970

28         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Embayments
           and Transects - 1970

29         Water Quality of the Upper Potomac Estuary Enforcement
           Survey - 1970

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   30


   31


   32
   33
   34
Appendix
  to 1
Appendix
  to 2
    3


    4
                  VOLUME 11  (continued)
                 Data Reports

Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary - Gilbert Swamp
and Allen's Fresh and Gunston Cove - 1970

Survey Results of the Chesapeake Bay Input Study -
1969-1970

Upper Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Studies - Bush River,
Spesutie Narrows and Swan Creek, C & D Canal, Chester
River, Severn River, Gunpowder, Middle and Bird Rivers -
1968-1971

Special Water Quality Surveys of the Potomac River Basin
Anacostia Estuary, Wicomico.River, St. Clement and
Breton Bays, Occoquan Bay - 1970-1971

Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1970

                  VOLUME 12

               Working Documents

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Danville, Pennsylvania and
Conowingo, Maryland

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Danville,
Pennsylvania and Conowingo, Maryland - November 1966

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Cooperstown, New York and
Northumberland, Pennsylvnaia - January 1967

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Cooperstown,
New York and Northumberland, Pennsylvania - November 1966

                  VOLUME 13
               Working Documents

Water Quality and Pollution Control Study, Mine Drainage
Chesapeake Bay-Delaware River Basins - July 1967

Biological Survey of Rock Creek (from Rockville, Maryland
to the Potomac River)  October 1966

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                             VOLUME   13   (continued)

                          Working  Documents

 5         Summary of Water Quality  and  Waste  Outfalls,  Rock  Creek
           in Montgomery County, Maryland and  the  District of
           Columbia - December 1966

 6         Water Pollution Survey  -  Back River 1965  -  February  1967

 7         Efficiency Study of the District  of Columbia  Water
           Pollution Control  Plant - February  1967

                             VOLUME   14
                          Working Documents

 8         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study -  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland to  West Pittson
           (Including the Lackawanna River Basin)   March 1967

 9         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, Juniata
           River Basin - March 1967

10         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, Rappahannock
           River Basin - March 1967

11         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, Susquehanna
           River Basin from Lake Otsego,  New York, to Lake  Lackawanna
           River Confluence, Pennsylvania - April  1967

                             VOLUME 15
                          Working Documents

12         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, York  River
           Basin - April 1967

13         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, West  Branch,
           Susquehanna River Basin - April 1967

14         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, James River
           Basin - June 1967 .

15         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, Patuxent River
           Basin - May 1967

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                             VOLUME 16

                          Working Documents

16         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland, Pennsylvania,  to
           Havre de Grace, Maryland - July 1967

17         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Potomac
           River Basin - June 1967

18         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs,  Central  Western
           Shore of Chesapeake Bay Area (Magothy,  Severn,  South, and
           West River Drainage Areas)  July 1967

19         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs,  Northwest
           Chesapeake Bay Area (Patapsco to Susquehanna Drainage
           Basins in Maryland) August 1967

20         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs - The Eastern
           Shore of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia  -  September 1967

                             VOLUME 17
                           Working Documents

21         Biological Surveys of the Upper James River Basin
           Covington, Clifton Forge, Big Island, Lynchburg, and
           Piney River Areas - January 1968

22         Biological Survey of Antietam Creek and some of its
           Tributaries from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania to Antietam,
           Maryland - Potomac River Basin - February 1968

23         Biological Survey of the Monocacy River and Tributaries
           from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to Maryland Rt. 28 Bridge
           Potomac River Basin - January 1968

24         Water Quality Survey of Chesapeake Bay in the Vicinity of
           Annapolis, Maryland - Summer 1967

25         Mine Drainage Pollution of the North Branch of Potomac
           River - Interim Report - August 1968

26         Water Quality Survey in the Shenandoah River of the
           Potomac River Basin - June 1967

27         Water Quality Survey in the James and Maury Rivers
           Glasgow, Virginia - September 1967

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                             VOLUME  17  (continued)

                           Working Documents

28         Selected Biological  Surveys in the James River Basin,
           Gillie Creek in the Richmond Area, Appomattox River
           in the Petersburg Area, Bailey Creek from Fort Lee
           to Hopewell - April  1968

                             VOLUME  18
                           Working Documents

29         Biological Survey of the Upper and Middle Patuxent
           River and some of its Tributaries - from Maryland
           Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury Mills to the Maryland
           Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner, Maryland -
           Chesapeake Drainage Basin - June 1968

30         Rock Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study Report
           March 1969

31         The Patuxent River - Water Quality Management -
           Technical Evaluation - September 1969

                             VOLUME 19
                          Working Documents

           Tabulation, Community and Source Facil ity Water Data
           Maryland Portion, Chesapeake Drainage Area - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Patuxent River Basin - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Potomac River Basin below Washington, D.C.- November 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Chesapeake Bay Area of Maryland Excluding Potomac
           and Patuxent River Basins - January 1965

           The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections -
           February 1968

           Patuxent River - Cross Sections and Mass Travel
           Velocities - July 1968

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                            VOLUME  19  (continued)

                         Working Documents

           Wastewater  Inventory - Potomac River Basin -
           December  1968

           Wastewater  Inventory - Upper  Potomac River Basin -
           October 1968

                            VOLUME 20
                         Technical Papers -

 1          A  Digital Technique  for Calculating and Plotting
           Dissolved Oxygen  Deficits

 2          A  River-Mile  Indexing System for Computer Application
           in Storing and Retrieving Data      (unavailable)

 3          Oxygen  Relationships in Streams, Methodology to be
           Applied when  Determining the Capacity of a Stream to
           Assimilate Organic Wastes - October 1964

 4          Estimating Diffusion Characteristics of Tidal Waters -
           May 1965

 5          Use of  Rhodamine  B Dye as a Tracer in Streams of the
           Susquehanna  River Basin - April 1965

 6          An In-Situ Benthic Respirometer - December 1965

 7          A  Study of Tidal  Dispersion in the Potomac River
           February 1966

 8          A  Mathematical Model for the Potomac River - what it
           has done and  what it can do - December 1966

 9          A  Discussion  and  Tabulation of Diffusion Coefficients
           for Tidal Waters  Computed as a Function of Velocity
           February 1967

10          Evaluation of Coliform Contribution by Pleasure Boats
           July 1966

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                            VOLUME  21
                         Technical Papers

11         A Steady State Segmented Estuary Model

12        Simulation of Chloride Concentrations in the
          Potomac Estuary - March 1968

13        Optimal Release Sequences for Water Quality
          Control in Multiple-Reservoir Systems - 1968

                            VOLUME  22
                         Technical Papers

          Summary Report - Pollution of Back River - January 1964

          Summary of Water Quality - Potomac River Basin in
          Maryland - October 1965

          The Role of Mathematical Models in the Potomac River
          Basin Water Quality Management Program - December 1967

          Use of Mathematical Models as Aids to Decision Making
          in Water Quality Control - February 1968

          Piscataway Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study
          Report - August 1968

                            VOLUME  23
                        Ocean Dumping Surveys

          Environmental Survey of an Interim Ocean Dumpsite,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - September 1973

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim  Dumpsites,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - January 1974

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites
          Middle Atlantic Bight - Supplemental Report -
          October 1974

          Effects of Ocean Disposal Activities on Mid-
          continental Shelf Environment off Delaware
          and Maryland - January 1975

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                            VOLUME 24

                           1976 Annual
               Current Nutrient Assessment - Upper Potomac  Estuary
               Current Assessment Paper No.  1

               Evaluation of Western Branch  Wastewater Treatment
               Plant Expansion - Phases I  and  II

               Situation Report - Potomac  River

               Sediment Studies in Back River  Estuary, Baltimore,
               Maryland

Technical      Distribution of Metals in Elizabeth River Sediments
Report 61

Technical      A Water Quality Modelling Study of the Delaware
Report 62      Estuary

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                                       EPA 903/9-001-A
                                       September 1973
  ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY OF AN

     INTERIM OCEAN DUMPSITE

         Middle Atlantic Bight


    Cruise Report — 1-5 May 1973

       Compiled and Edited by

         Harold D. Palmer
Westinghouse Ocean Research Laboratory
       Annapolis, Maryland

                and

         Donald W. Lear
      Annapolis Field Office
 Environmental Protection Agency
            Region HI
   Annapolis, Maryland 21401


       Contract No. 68010481
          Project Officer
      Albert Montague,  P. E.
  Office of Research and Development
   Environmental Protection Agency
             Region III
   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  19106
             Prepared for
  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
             Region III
   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  19106

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                               ABSTRACT

       An oceanographic survey cruise was made to a proposed interim sludge
dumping site on the continental shelf in the Middle Atlantic Bight in spring 1973.
Observations were made of circulation patterns,  sediment composition,
bathymetry, water quality,  heavy metals in sediments and biota, bacteriology,
phytoplankton communities, zooplankton communities, vertebrates, and benthic
invertebrates.
       The site was found to be a normal mid-temperature shelf environment,
with no significant stresses.  There was some evidence that material from a
neighboring  acid waste dumpsite may affect the site.  Evidence of heavy metals
enhancement of iron and copper in bottom fauna at some stations warrants
further investigations.
                                     11

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                                CONTENTS
Abstract	ii
List of Figures	v
List of Tables	vii
Acknowledgements	ix
Conclusions	xi

I.  INTRODUCTION.	1

II.  BACKGROUND	3
    A.  Location	3
    B.  Previous Work	3
    C.  Survey Cruise	„	5

El. BATHYMETRY	8
    A.  Previous Work	 8
    B.  Survey Cruise	8
    C.  Microrelief.	14

IV. SEDIMENTS	18
    A.  Previous Work	18
    B.  This Survey	 19
    C.  Interpretation	19

V.  CURRENTS	24
    A.  Previous Work	24
    B.  Survey Cruise	25
        1. Shipboard Current Measurements	25
        2. Shipboard Current Observations	28
        3. Bottom Drift Studies	30
        4. Surface Drifter Studies	31
    C.  Interpretation	32

VI. CHEMISTRY	34
    A.  Hydrography	34
        1. Previous Work	34
         2. Survey Cruise	34
         3. Interpretation	.38
    B.  Water Quality Parameters	38
         1. Previous Work .	38
         2. Survey Cruise	 .38

                                  iii

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    C.  Heavy Metals in Sediments	40
        1. Previous Work	40
        2,  Survey Cruise	40
    D.  Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Analysis of Sediment Samples  ..... 42
        1.  Previous Work	42
         2.  Survey Cruise	44
         3.  Interpretation	46

VH.  BIOLOGY,  .o	47
     A.  Phytoplankton	47
         1.  Previous Work	47
         2.  Survey Cruise	47
         3.  Interpretation	47
     B.  Zooplankton	54
         1.  Previous Work	54
         2.  Survey Cruise	56
         3.  Interpretation	60
     C.  Vertebrates	64
         1.  Previous Work	64
         2.  Survey Cruise	64
         3.  Interpretation	66
     D.  Benthic Organisms	„	68
         1.  Previous Work	68
         2.  Survey Cruise	70
         3.  Interpretation	98
     E.  Heavy Metals in Organisms	100
         1.  Previous Work	100
         2.  Present Cruise	100
         3.  Interpretation	103
     F.  Bacteriology	105

Vni.  REFERENCES	108

Appendix A  Participants in Cruise aboard R/V Annandale	114
Appendix B  Ship's Log.	115
Appendix C  Scientific  Log	122
Appendix D  Supplemental Cruise Log	131
Appendix E  Bottom Drifter Response Sheet.	 132
                                     IV

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                            LIST OF FIGUEES







 1.  Index Map for the Upper Chesapeake Bight Area                             4




 2.  R/VANNANDALE                                                        6




 3.  Dumpsite Location Map                                                   7




 4.  Bathymetric Chart, Prepared by Sterns (1967) for ESSA                     9




 5.  Echo Sounder  Records from the Dumpsite Area                            11




 6.  Bathymetric Chart Prepared from 150 km of Soundings                     12




 7.  Statistical Review of Bathymetric Data                                    13




 8.  TV Monitor Photograph of Sea Floor at Station 2                            15




 9.  Rippled Bottom at Station 9                                               15




10.  Gently Undulating Bottom at Station 5                                     16




11.  Cumulative Frequency Curves for the Sand Fractions of Sediment Samples    21




12.  Photomicrograph of Sand Fraction from Station 2                           22




13.  Photomicrograph of Sand from Station 11                                  22




14.  Hydrographic  Profile at Station 1                                          35




15.  Hydrographic  Profile at Station 2                                          35




16.  Salinity-Temperature Profile of Water Column at Station 3                  36




17.  Salinity-Temperature Profile of Water Column at Station 17                 36




18.  Distribution of Dissolved Oxygen at Station 1                               37




19.  Ceratium longipes,  One of the Dominant Dinoflagellates at All Stations       55

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20. Ceratium fusus and Three Cells of Ceratium lineatum                    55

21- Ceratium lineatum and a Species of Dinophysis                           55

22. Two Species of Dinoflagellates, Dinophysis and Prorocentrum             55

23. Paired Plankton Nets with 202//and 1,000/u Mesh Used for Oblique Tows  57

24. 202 n Net Plankton Belative Percent Composition                         62

25. Size Frequency Distribution of Echinarachnius parma (Sand Dollar)        96

26. Size Frequency Distribution of Echinarachnius parma                     96

27. Diagram of Echinarachnius parma Showing Length and Width
    Measurements of an Individual                                          98
                                     VI

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                              LIST OF  TABLES







 1.  Sediment Sample Data                                                  20




 2.  Current Speed and Direction at Station 14                                27




 3.  Current Speed and Direction at Station 9                                 27




 4.  Currents by Vector Averaging                                          28




 5.  Seabed Drifter Releases                                                31




 6.  Surface Drifter Releases                                               32




 7,  Water Quality Parameters                                              41




 8.  Heavy Metals in Surface Waters                                         42




 9.  Chemical Parameters of Bottom Sediments                              43




10.  Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Sediment Samples                           45




11.  Occurrence of Phytoplankton at Station 1                                 48




12.  Occurrence of Phytoplankton at Station 2                                 49




13.  Occurrence of Phytoplankton at Station 5                                 50




14.  Occurrence of Phytoplankton at Station 9                                 51




15.  Occurrence of Phytoplankton at Station 14                                52




16.  Occurrence of Phytoplankton at Station 17                                53




17.  202 n Net Zooplankton Relative Percent Composition                      59




18.  202 n Net Zooplankton Biomass                                          60




19.  Plankton Taxonomy from 1,000 fj. Net Tows                               61






                                     vii

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20.  Biomass Ratios of Zooplankton According to Various
     Investigations                                                         63

21.  Vertebrates Collected                                                 67

22.  Species List of Benthic Invertebrates                                   71

23.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 1                         77

24.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 2                         79

25.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 5                         81

26.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 8                         83

27.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 9                         85

28.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 11                        87

29.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 13                        89

30.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 14                        91

31.  Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 17                        93

32.  Size Distribution of Epibenthic Fauna                                   95

33.  Macroinvertebrates from Anchor Dredge Samples                        97

34.  Metals in Marine Biota                                               101

35.  Heavy Metals Analysis of Sand Dollars,
     Echinarachnius  parma                                                102

36.  Data Summary of Heavy Metal Analysis of Sand Dollars                 104

37.  Coliforms,  Fecal Coliforms in Water Column and Sediments            107

38.  Water Quality Parameters - Supplemental Cruise                       132
                                     Vlll

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                         ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

       The Westinghouse Electric Corporation and Region HI of the U.S.  Environ-
mental Protection Agency wish to acknowledge and thank the personnel of EPA
Headquarters, Washington, D. C.; EPA National Environmental Research
Centers at Corvallis, Oregon and Narragansett, Rhode Island; the EPA
Annapolis Field Office, Annapolis, Maryland; the  City of Philadelphia Water
Department; the Marine Science Consortium, Millersville, Pennsylvania; and
the University of Delaware Bayside Laboratory, Lewes, Delaware for their
able participation in the many phases of this cruise.
       Special thanks are due S. K. Smith, and M. L. O' Malley for editorial
assistance and to Margaret Munro for manuscript  typing.
       The responsible authors of respective sections of this report were:
       INTRODUCTION - Albert Montague, EPA Region III
       BACKGROUND - H. D. Palmer, Westinghouse Ocean Research
                       Laboratory, Annapolis
       BATHYMETRY - H. D. Palmer
       SEDIMENTS - H. D. Palmer
       CURRENTS
           Shipboard Current Measurements - A. Teeter,  EPA, Corvallis
           Shipboard Current Observations - A.  Teeter
           Bottom Drifter Studies - H. D. Palmer
           Surface Drifter Studies - Allen Teeter
       CHEMISTRY
           Hydrography - D. W. Lear, EPA Annapolis
           Water Quality Parameters - D.  W. Lear
           Heavy Metals in Sediments - D. W. Lear
           Chlorinated Hydrocarbons  in Sediments - T. O. Munson, Westinghouse
                                    IX

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BIOLOGY
       Phytoplankton - S. K. Smith,  EPA Annapolis
       Zooplankton - J. M.  Forns, Westinghouse
       Nekton - B. L. Oostdam and S.  J. Ha - The Marine Science
               Consortium
       Benthic Organisms
          Phylogenetic List of Species - D.  Maurer, P. Kinner,
          W. Leatham,  L. Watling,  University of Delaware
          Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates - Infauna - D. Maurer
          Size Frequency - D. Maurer
       Heavy Metals in Sand Dollars  - Peter Rogerson
       EPA Narragansett
       Heavy Metals in Marine Biota -  D. W. Lear
       Bacteriology - M. L. Or Malley  and S. K. Smith,
       EPA Annapolis

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                               CONCLUSIONS

       Bottom configurations in the interim dumpsite were found to be in accor-
dance with published charts.  No unexpected holes, trenches,  or rises were
found with detailed bathymetry.
       Bottom substrate was primarily quartz sand, with a gradation from
coarse to fine as a function of depth and effective wave energy.  The sorting
values of sediment were evaluated to determine sites on the bottom where waste
deposition may accumulate.  Subsequent interpretation indicated that these
regions occupy topographic "lows"  within the dumpsite.
       Shipboard current measurements indicated a flow of the water column
at approximately 0. 25 knot in a direction between 192ฐ and 248ฐ true,  under the
regime of observation.  Seabed drifters released during the cruise indicate a
net southwestward movement of near-bottom waters to the coastline.
       Hydrographic conditions indicated the partial establishment of the thermo-
cline and halocline.  These conditions would be important in the settling and
distribution of dumped materials.
       Measured water quality parameters indicated no abnormal concentrations
of the compounds generally encountered in the  marine environment.  Ammonia
determinations were not amenable to preservation for later analysis.
       Phytoplankton and zooplankton populations were typical of a normal
temperate shelf environment.
       Vertebrates were observed  by underwater television and by capture with
an otter trawl.  The demersal community examined appeared  to be in sound
physiological condition.
       The benthic fauna was characteristic of a firm sand-shell-gravel com-
munity, dominated by sea stars, sand dollars and polychaetes.  Suspension
                                     XI

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feeders and carnivores were extremely well represented.  The sand bottom
community was surprisingly diverse and abundant.  Any significant changes —
or more specifically reductions in populations of sand dollars, principal
polychaetes and some of the more fleshy ectoprocts —  would be indicative of
degradation in bottom water quality.  However,  based on the benthic fauna,  the
site was unpolluted.
       Coliform and fecal coliform concentrations in waters and sediments were
negligible.  The data indicated an environment relatively free of terrestrial
influence.
       Heavy metals were not appreciable in water or sediments, but certain
chemical species were evident in some biological components of the ecosystem.
Copper and iron appeared to be accumulating in  sand dollars in and southwest of
this interim disposal site.  However, as a result of these findings, we feel  further
investigation is warranted.
       Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were found to be
negligible.
       "Dark flaky" material observed by underwater television may be ferric
hydroxide originating at an acid waste dumpsite  approximately 10 miles northwest,
suggesting interaction between the two sites.
       In addition to the characterization of the  physical, chemical, and biological
aspects of the dumpsite,  the objectives of this survey included (a) development of
a practical scheme for monitoring ocean dumping practices and (b) gaining
additional insight into the continental shelf environment.  Both the sampling
scheme and analytical techniques employed during this study have future appli-
cability to other sites on the continental shelf.  In conjunction with published
data of regional scope, this brief yet intensive study has provided a detailed
picture of the spring conditions at a  mid-shelf site.  The most troublesome
aspects of any shelf study continue to be the difficulty of determining accurate
position at sea (for re-occupation of stations) and the lack of current speed  and
direction data throughout the water column.
                                     Xll

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                            I.  INTBODUCTION

       World population is, and will continue to be,  highly concentrated in the
coastal zones of the continents.  Within the United States, approximately fifty-
five million people live within a fifty mile belt along our coastline.  This zone,
comprising some 8% of the total land area, supports about 30% of our population.
At present, population and industrial activity within the coastal zone is increasing
at a rate of about 2. 5% per year, and the trend is expected to continue.  Such
growth places a heavy burden on municipal services, especially waste disposal.
Many coastal cities have found the discharging  of municipal sludge into the ocean
and its environs as the most practical alternative to land disposal.
       Ocean disposal appears to be a more  attractive means of disposal for
several reasons. Wastes "disappear" from view, they are generally diluted
quickly by the sea, and the only cost is that of transporting waste to the site.
To further minimize transportation cost,  dumping is frequently done close to
shore.  This practice has generated extensive concern and subsequent protests
from  coastal communities.
       Public Law 92-532, the "Marine Protection,  Eesearch, and Sanctuaries
Act of 1972," was enacted in part to regulate ocean dumping practices by estab-
lishing a permit system which inventories quantity and quality of materials
transported to sea for disposal as well as by a  monitoring program to continuously
assess the effects of these practices at specified sites.
       Under this law, the designation of dumpsites  and the quantities deposited
thereon must be based on a scientific knowledge of the specific environments.
While generic information was available for continental shelf environments, the
background was sufficient only to design the preliminary steps in a monitoring
program.
                                    - 1 -

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       An oceanographic survey of a proposed interim dumpsite approximately
50 miles off the mouth of Delaware Bay,  dubbed "Operation QUICKSILVER,"  was
conceived and executed in spring 1973 with the objectives: (1) attempt to
establish ambient environmental parameter levels prior to active dumping at
the site, (2) assist in developing a practical monitoring scheme for monitoring
of ocean dumping practices, and (3) develop further insight into the continental
shelf environment, which seems to be the next province to be assailed by man' s
wastes, but which, with foresight and current information can be managed
intelligently.
       The conclusions contained herein are based on four days  of data collec-
tion within the area of concern.  Obviously, it would be irrational to adopt these
data as representing the range of conditions which prevail at this site.  Rather,
they can be considered characteristic of the oceanographic regime for the spring
season.  Final evaluation of the suitability of this site for waste  disposal must
await further study which will reveal seasonal changes in the biota and water-
mass.   The introduction of an unnatural perturbation (solids and fluid wastes)
will require reassessment  of its effect on the marine ecosystem.  The concepts
of accumulation and assimilation can then be considered.
       Unfortunately, man1 s activities can and have altered natural processes,
often with adverse results to himself (the user and ultimate beneficiary of the
results) and more immediately to the other occupants  of the environment which
he alters.  An appropriate  monitoring program at ocean disposal sites would
provide suggestions on how we might establish an acceptable balance between
our human needs and the finite capacity of the ocean to satisfy them.
                                   - 2 -

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                           H.  BACKGBOUND

A.  LOCATION
       The site selected as an interim dumpsite for the disposal of municipal
sewage sludge lies midway across the broad continental shelf off Maryland.  It
is thus centrally located in the region termed the Chesapeake Bight (Norcross
and Harrison, 1967) which occupies the southern half of the Middle Atlantic
Bight between Nantucket and Cape Hatteras. The western edge of the dump-
site is set by a line passing through 74ฐ20' W longitude,  a meridian which lies
67 km (36 nautical miles)  east of Ocean City, Maryland.  The northern and
southern boundaries lie on latitudes of 38ฐ25'N and 38ฐ20' N, respectively, and
the eastern edge of the area falls on the meridian along 74ฐ 10' W longitude.
Thus, the entire 172 km2 within the  designated boundaries of the dumpsite lie
within International Waters.  The location of this interim dumpsite is shown in
Figure 1.

B.  PBEVIOUS WOBK
       The paucity of information for relatively  small specific sites  on the
continental shelf has prompted studies  such as this survey cruise when localized
data are required. However, background information for the Chesapeake Bight
reveals regional trends in sedimentation, currents, biota and other environmental
factors which are valid generalizations for most sites.  The interested reader
is referred to the excellent summary volume on  oceanographic and biological
parameters of the entire Middle Atlantic  Bight recently published by the
University of Bhode Island (see references for Bumpus, Lynde and Shaw, 1972).
The most recent treatment of regional  sedimentation within the area  of interest
                                   — 3 —

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40'
                                                                           40'
                                                                             39"
                                                                           -37'
            77"
                               76'
                                                  75'
 Figure 1 — Index map for the upper Chesapeake Bight area showing the location
             of the sludge dumpsite as a rectangle east of the Delmarva peninsula.
                                    - 4 -

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is the thorough review of historical data and reporting of extensive new analyses
provided by Milliman (1972).

C.  SURVEY CRUISE
       The baseline study of the designated dumpsite was initiated in accordance
with EPA guidelines which required a survey of the area prior to the initial
release of digested sludge scheduled for 8 May 1973. Accordingly, the R/V
ANNANDALE (Figure 2) was chartered for a five-day period to commence
1 May 1973.  The ship departed Lewes,  Delaware at  1121 hours 1 May, and
returned to Lewes on 5 May at 1600 hours. Eleven stations were occupied, but
activities at one  (Station 3) were cancelled in order to evacuate a member of the
party who had become ill. Biological samples were obtained from Station 6, but
no bottom materials were recovered at this site.  The scientific log of events
during the cruise is included as an appendix to this report.  Ship' s track and
station locations are shown in Figure 3.
                                   - 5 -

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Figure 2 —R/V ANNANDALE.
           -6 -

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Figure 3 — Dumpsite location map,  showing both the acid waste dumpsite area
            (northern rectangle) and the sludge dumpsite investigated during
            this study.  Stations are marked by solid circles; the solid line
            shows the vessel track for the cruise.
                                  - 7 -

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                           HI.  BATHYMETRY

A.  PREVIOUS WORK
       A number of editions of bathymetric charts have been prepared for the
Middle Atlantic Bight area, but most have contour intervals which yield little
or no information regarding the degree of relief within the dumpsite area.  The
most detailed chart for this area is that prepared by Franklin Sterns for the
ESSA group of the Department of Commerce (see Sterns, 1967).   Chart 0807N-
56, the Baltimore and Wilmington Canyons sheet of the series, displays the
relief of the sea floor with a contour interval of one fathom (6 feet or 1.83 m).
The portion of that chart occupied by the designated dumpsite is reproduced in
Figure 4.  Soundings employed by Sterns for this portion of the chart were
taken from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey's Hydrographic Survey No.
H-5350 conducted in 1933.  Although forty years have elapsed since this survey
was completed, the accuracy is  considered quite good even by today' s standards.
Statistics for the survey yielding the chart appearing in Figure 4 are:
       Mean distance between track lines (nautical miles)    0. 5 to 1. 5
       Standard deviation of isobath position error          0.2 to 0. 3
                 (nautical miles)
       Standard deviation of isobath depth error            Good  (<1 fm)
                 (here termed "Crossing Error")                to
                 (fathoms)                               Fair (1 to 8 fm)
B.  SURVEY CRUISE
       Echo sounding traverses of the dump site area were performed during
evening hours of the cruise.  The echo sounding equipment aboard the R/V
                                   - 8 -

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                               /7
                                                                 25l
        20
Figure 4 — Bathymetric chart, prepared by Sterns (1967) for ESSA chart series
            in the northern Atlantic continental shelf.  Contours are in fathoms
            at a 1-fathom interval.  Based upon precise survey of 1933.
                                   - 9 -

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ANNANDALE consisted of a Kelvin-Hughes variable scale recording unit with
adjustable timing (paper speed) for scale.  Examples of the recordings for
selected lines appear in Figure 5.  Examination of these records was corre-
lated with positioning logs which recorded the depth at one-minute intervals
and the Loran A position at five-minute intervals.  Corrections were made for
keel depth (depth of the echo sounder transducer below the water line) and for
tide  (based upon time of day and predicted tide for coastal Maryland).
       The results  of a compilation of 150 km of sounding lines is presented in
Figure 6.  If we compare our statistics with those parameters cited by Sterns,
we note:
       Distance between track lines (nautical miles)      0.5 to 1.8
       Standard deviation of isobath position error       Not determined
       Standard deviation of isobath depth error         1.5 meter (0.8 fm)
             ("Crossing Error")                       (Good)
These data indicate that in spite of the difficulties encountered in employing
Loran A for positioning, the chart shown in Figure 6 can be considered "good"
on the basis of criteria set by the Department of Commerce.
       Our analysis of the bathymetric data included a statistical examination
of crossing errors compared with time of day and number of intersections
(Figure 7).  This analysis was performed to evaluate statements made by the
scientific party regarding the deterioration of Loran quality during early
morning hours,  and to assess the degree of crossing errors  (see caption,
Figure 7).  Examination of this figure reveals  that crossing errors increase
to a  maximum between about 0100 and 0400 hours,  a factor attributed here to
the deterioration of the Loran signal and/or reception during this period.  The
mean crossing error is at about 5 feet, or  1.5 meters, and almost two-thirds
of the crossings are less than 1 fathom (1.8 meters).
       It should be  noted that the bathymetric chart drawn from data collected
on this cruise (Figure 6) was prepared without reference to the existing detailed
                                   - 10 -

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                                                         38ฐ25'
                                                         38ฐ 20'
                                                     74ฐ 10'
Bathymetric chart prepared from 150 km of soundings such
as those appearing in Figure 5.  Contours in meters, cor-
rected for predicted tide and depth of transducer. Closed
depressions are hatchured.
                     -12-

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              22
                     Time  of day
0246
 No. crossings
Figure 7 — Statistical review of bathymetric data used in preparing Figure 6.
            Ordinate values (Aft.) are discrepancy (in feet) of crossing points
            of tracks  which,  after removing tide correction,  should be zero.
            Comparison with time of day (abscissa) was  made to evaluate
            Loran deterioration during early hours  (see text).  Crosses are
            averages  for each hour intervals, numerals at base of histogram
            bars are number of crossings.  Frequency distribution of crossing
            errors appears at right.
                                  -13-

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chart (Sterns, 1967).  Comparison of the two figures shows that quite a close
correlation in depth and general "fabric" or "bathymetric grain" exists between
the two surveys even though 40 years separates the collection of sounding data.
       The major features of relief, elongate depressions and ridges which are
characteristics of the central portions  of the continental shelf of the Middle
Atlantic Bight (Uchupi, 1968), are apparent in both charts.  The origin of these
features remains controversial (see, for example,  Swift,  et al., 1971 for a
review) but the interesting fact resulting from this survey is that very little
apparent change has occurred over a period of four decades.   This  suggests
some long-term stability to the larger  forms of relief which in turn bears upon
the fate of  materials deposited in the region.

C.  MICROREUEF
       As  used herein, the term "microrelief' will be employed to describe
features which can be resolved via television imagery.  It includes  ripple marks,
biological excavations, etc.,  and is thus at the lower end  of the  microtopographic
spectrum as defined by Laughton (1963) who includes features  from 50 m to 1 mm.
The echo sounder records, although capable of displaying features having relief
of 0. 3 m, in general appear to be relatively smooth once the wave effect is
removed (see  Figure 5).   One small feature (ridge) appears as a conical surface
at Station 6, but it would have probably been overlooked had the  ship not been
drifting (slower speed tends to improve resolution of small features).  The sharp
ridges appearing in traces reproduced in Figure 5 are due, in part, to the dis-
tortion of the curved scribe on the instrument, but also reflect the presence of
low linear  ridges throughout the area.
       On  a finer scale, the television pictures reveal the presence of ripple
marks and biological excavations at a number of stations (Figures 8, 9, and 10).
The general shape of the ripples is subdued,  and it is not  possible to determine
if they are symmetrical (oscillation ripples) or asymmetric (current-induced
                                   -14-

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Figure 8 — TV monitor photograph of sea floor at Station 2,
            center of dumpsite.  Dark bands are fine sedi-
            ments in troughs of ripples; dark dots are sand
            dollars.  Note white clam shells, concave-up in
            ripple troughs.  Largest clam shell is 8 cm long.
            Scale factors for television stills was provided
            by D. Maurer from statistical analyses of sand
            dollar diameters.
Figure 9 — Bippled bottom at Station 9.
            left is about 7 cm long.
Clam shell at lower
                          - 15 -

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Figure 10 — Gently undulating bottom at Station 5.  Ripples
             are subdued,  and little relief is present.  White
             clam shell at lower left is 10 cm wide, and con-
             tains fine sediment.  Note concave-up attitude
             of clam valves in this view,  a feature which was
             commonly noted at all stations where whole  shell
             debris was present.
                           - 16 -

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ripples).  In either event, their presence implies the existence of bottom currents
of a magnitude sufficient to initiate motion (see Section V on Currents).  Biologic
activity has generated small craters, "tracks and mounds which, at many stations,
are the dominant form of microrelief.
                                   -17-

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                             IV. SEDIMENTS

A.  PREVIOUS WOEK
       Regional studies of sediments of the Atlantic Continental Shelf have been
completed by various workers beginning with the work of Pourtales in 1870  (see
Milliman, 1972). Sampling grids for such studies are invariably large, and in
light of our present knowledge of sediment distribution on the shelves,  they can
only provide gross characteristics of a region.  One such study (Milliman,  1972)
is reported from the extensive survey of the Atlantic Continental Shelf conducted
by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and the U.S.  Geological Survey.   A
station from this survey lies within the dumpsite, and the various parameters
relating to sediment character can be cited as representative of the area.
       Regional sediments are considered coarse to medium fine sand  in the
modal size class (the most populus size fraction), that is, the sand fractions
have a general size of from 1 to V4 mm in diameter.  Gravel (particles with
diameters greater than 2 mm) can account for up to 25% in the western third
of the area, but  much of this may be due to shell fragments and not mineral or
lithic (rock) fragments.   More than 90% of the sample consisted of quartz or
feldspar, with more than half of the grains exhibiting iron staining which imparts
a characteristic orange-brown coloration to the coarser sands.  Glauconite
makes up from 1 to 5% of the sample,  and calcium carbonate accounts for a like
amount.  Of the  carbonate portion, most of the material consists of echinoid and
mollusk fragments of shells,  spines, etc.  with benthonic foraminifera accounting
for less than 5%.
                                   - 18 -

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B.  THIS SURVEY
       Examination of the 9 sediment samples from the survey stations revealed
properties  generally similar to those described by Milliman (op. cit.).  Textural
parameters are presented in Table 1, and cumulative curves for the sand frac-
tions, as determined by settling tube analyses (Cook, 1969;  Felix, 1969;  Gibbs,
1972), appear in Figure 11.
       Two examples of sediment samples are presented in Figures 12 and 13.
It is obvious from these photomicrographs that the coarser-grained components
are more angular, while the well-sorted finer materials contain more rounded
grains.  Coloration is also a function of size, the coarser grains stained a deep
orange to brown while the finer sediments display high  percentages of clear
unstained minerals.  Although diagnostic staining techniques were not employed
during the inspection of sand fractions, visual estimates of mineralogy indicate
at least 90% of all samples  consist of quartz.  Accessory minerals include a
glossy black variety of glauconite and pale white to pinkish feldspars.

C.  INTERPRETATION
       Examination of Table 1 will reveal a correlation between depth, mean
diameter and sorting.  The deeper stations (2, 13, and 14) yielded sediments
having a generally finer and better sorted nature than the samples from shallower
depths.  There can be several explanations for such a situation.
       Inasmuch  as wave energy which reaches the bottom is attenuated with
increasing  depth,  the reduced velocity of wave-induced surge could be reflected
in the nature of sediments as depth increases.  Finer sediments should be
expected where wave energy is reduced, since larger particles would remain
in place as the wave-induced current speed diminished  with increasing depth.
Similarly,  it should be noted that for some time sedimentologists have shown
that finer sands are commonly better sorted than coarser  fractions (Inman,
1949).  This situation reflects  the differences in threshold velocity (the current
required to initiate movement of a sand particle) for given sand sizes.
                                   - 19-

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                   Table  I.   SEDIMENT SAMPLE DATA
Station
01
02
05
08
09
11
13
14
17
Depth
(ft) (m)
156 47.5
177 53.9
150 45.7
130 39.6
110 33.5
170 51.8
170 51.8
173 52.7
125 38.1
M6'
(0 to 46)
1.28
2.40
1.03
1.25
1.30
1.38
2. 18
2.25
1.50
frf)2
(0 to 46)
0.68
0.30
0.58
0.50
0.60
0.58
0.28
0.20
0.45
Deviation3
(0 to 4 6)
Moderately well sorted
Very well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Moderately well sorted
Very well sorted
Very well sorted
Well sorted
% Coarser
than 36
(0. 125 mm)
99.8
95.7
99.7
98.9
98.3
99.1
99.7
99.4
99.4
% Coarser
than 0 6
(1 mm)
11.63
5.03
38.89
18.64
34.78
26.88
10.9
1.11
4.25
1.  M6,  or mean diameter, of a sediment sample is one-half the sum of the 16th percentile
    and 84th percentile.  It approximates the central tendency, or ''average1' size of a sample
    (after Inman, 1952).  Phi (6) units are used to indicate size according to the relation-
    ship (6) = -Iog2 (diameter in millimeters).  This convention  avoids awkward fractional
    notation and permits  simplified plotting of size data on arithmetic scales (see Figure 11).

2.   76. or "sorting'1,  measures the degree of scatter,  or "spread", of a cumulative fre-
    quency curve with regard to its central tendency (mean). It reflects the standard deviation
    based upon half the difference between the 84th and 16th percentiles (Inman,  1952).
    Sorting provides a measure of the range of conditions present at a site such as the range
    in velocity,  degree of turbulence,  etc.  The greater the a& value,  the broader the range
    of conditions which affect the overall sediment character at a site.  Low values  indicate
    fairly uniform conditions.

3.   Verbal modifiers of sorting have been established (Friedman, 1962)  to facilitate discussion
    of sediment statistics.  The following ranges apply to the sand fractions from this study,
    all of which display a relatively high degree of sorting for the marine environment:

                          (T6 0 - 0.35     = very well sorted

                          ff6 0.35-0.48  = well sorted

                          J6 0. 48 - 0.75  = moderately well sorted
                                           - 20 -

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                                                                 u
                                    2.5
3.0    3.5
4.0
                        DIAMETER  0

Figure 11 — Cumulative frequency curves for the sand fractions of sediment
samples.  Numbers indicate station.  Phi values are based on log diameter,
in mm,  of grain sizes (see text).  The more vertical the curve, the fewer
grain sizes are present (the better the sorting).  Fine grained components
(0.062 mm diameter,  or 40) were not present (see Table  1).  Fraction greater
than 1 mm  (0$) diameter not included.
                                   -21-

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                     METRIC
Figure 12 — Photomicrograph of sand fraction from Station 2.
          Note well sorted nature of the sands, and general
          roundness of many grains.  Most of the particles
          visible here are clear quartz (compare with
          Figure 13).
                     METRIC
Figure 13 — Photomicrograph of sand from Station 11. Note
          angularity of larger grains and variety of sizes
          present (poorer sorting than sample from Station
          2, Figure 12). Compare cumulative frequency
          curves for these two samples in Figure 11.
                     -22 -

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Fine sand (0.25 to 0.125 mm, or 2 to 3 $) is the sediment size class most easily
moved by water, and thus this size class is generally the first to move under
accelerating currents and the last to come to rest under waning currents.  In
this manner,  other size fractions are preferentially removed, that is,  simply
"left behind," The result is a reduction in the standard deviation,  or sorting,
of the total size range within the finer deposit.
       In summary, we might attach environmental relevance to the fact that
in some areas, regardless of depth,  sorting values are quite low (well  sorted).
This may be significant to dumping practices,  since these regions probably
reflect sites where net turbulent energy at the  sea  floor is at a minimum.  If
we assume that the bottom is periodically affected  by wave-induced surge, there
would be occasional intervals of stirring and resuspension of bottom materials
(see Section V on Currents).  Locations where finer, well-sorted materials are
found would be the sites least affected by such  disturbances, and would thus be
the regions where matter settling from the sludge plume to the sea floor would
be least likely to be resuspended.  In this context,  these regions could  be con-
sidered the "sinks" of the dump site area.  Further discussion of bottom currents
inferred from the properties of microrelief and sediment texture can best be
examined in the context of the next section which describes the currents of the
area.
       The discussion of sediments herein has been restricted to bottom materials.
Inasmuch as no samples were taken for analyses of suspended sediments, we
have not included a description of work in this  field.  In an attempt to determine
the distribution and nature of suspended sediments within the dumpsite  area,
seven sediment traps,  consisting of a cylindrical container suspended at various
depths on a buoyed line, were left at Stations 1, 2, 3,  5, 8,  11, and 14. The
surface marker consisted of a red sphere approximately 0.8 m diameter.  Tugboat
operators towing sludge barges to the site have been asked to look for these
markers since dumping began in early May.  The  markers have yet to be sighted,
and they may have broken free or have been vandalized by fishing vessels which
frequent this  area.
                                   - 23-

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                              V.  CUEEENTS

A.  PEEVIOUS WOBK
       Studies of currents on the continental shelf within the area defined by
Figure 1 are scarce, probably because nearshore problems have generally
taken priorities and because it becomes increasingly expensive, from the stand-
point  of ship-time, positioning and high probability of loss,  to install recording
current meters at sites tens of kilometers from shore. For these reasons,
most  workers have resorted to "expendable" devices such as surface and sea
bed drifters to resolve regional current patterns.
       An excellent summary of surface and bottom currents is provided by
Harrison and his co-workers (see Norcross and Stanley, 1967) and by Bumpus,
Lynde and Shaw (1972).  The most  recent regional review is that of Bumpus
(1973), while McClennen' s work (1973) cites observations from fixed current
meter installations positioned  1. 5 to 2 meters above the sea floor.   Both the
Lagrangian technique  (drifters) and the Eulerian method (fixed meters) yield
essentially the same conclusion: residual currents at  the sea floor move toward
the southwest at a rate of from 1 to 2 km  per day.  In the case of drifters, the
interpretation is necessarily subjective [  see an excellent discussion by Eiley and
Bamster (1972)], but McClennen's observations at a sea floor site some 75 km
north of the interim sludge dump site show that over a 213-hour period of summer
observation currents trended toward the  south-southwest with a mean speed of
12 cm/sec.  His data  represent, to our knowledge, the only documented long-
term Eulerian measurements of mid-shelf sea floor currents.
                                   - 24 -

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B.  SURVEY CRUISE
       Current measurements were taken from the vessel during the course of
the cruise.

1.  Shipboard Current Measurements
a.  Procedure—
       Current measurements were collected during the survey cruise by
freely suspending an instrument from the anchored research vessel.  The
instrument used was a Magsine current meter manufactured for the University
of Washington,  consisting of a Savonius rotor,  case attached vane, and deck
read-out module.  Generally, the characteristics of the rotor include a threshold
velocity of 2. 5 cm/sec,  a response time of about   5 seconds (acceleration
being faster than deceleration), and equal response from flow in any direction.
The vane has a length of 30 cm.
       The true current values were confused by vessel motions which, because
of wind and sea conditions during much of the cruise, were large compared to
the currents to be measured.  Unequal response of acceleration and deceleration
produced unnaturally high readings.  Adding  to the problems of vessel motion
were  limitations in the vessel' s mooring gear.  Only one anchor could be used
and only three shots (82 m, 270 ft)  of chain  were available.  The resulting
insufficient scope caused the periods of "horsing" about the anchor to be  shorter
than desirable and often let the vessel drag its  anchor.  The latter condition
would result in unnaturally high current readings as the vessel drifted with the
wind and sea rather than with the current.
       The intervals at  which measurements were taken during a cast were
2 meters for the surface,  10 meters, then 5  or 10 meters at greater depths.
The measuring depths were held approximately 60 seconds.  Visual averaging
was considered necessary during these periods as short term fluctuations were
at times ฑ30% of the speed reading and 60ฐ or more in direction.
                                  - 25 -

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b.  Results—
       Of four deployments of the current meter attempted, two were aborted
because of excessive wire angle.  The data obtained from the two successful
stations (14 and 9), corrected for local magnetic variations, appear in Tables
2 and 3; see Figure 1 for station locations.
       During the period over which these measurements were made the wind
was generally from the south to southwest at from 16 to 28  knots, about opposite
to reported currents for  this  area.
       A visual observation was made of the sediment trap buoy at Station 9
indicating a southwesterly surface drift, in spite of a breeze blowing in the
opposite direction. This observation is in conflict with  the current meter
reading taken at 3 meters,  which has the current almost north.
       Duplicate  readings were taken at two points  on the upcast to verify the
reading at that depth.  Poor repeatability was indicated. While current speed
for these comparisons was within ฑ0.03 knots, direction varied by 75ฐ and 38ฐ
for the two tests.

c.  Discussion  —
       Neither profile shows any uniform velocity or directional shear presumably
because of the disturbance  introduced by vessel motion.  One of the most notable
features of these  profiles is the fact that current speeds do not diminish  rapidly
with depth, but rather vary within the same  limits to the depth to which readings
were taken.
       The two profiles were made 10ฐ out of phase on the tidal cycle,  if the
35 nautical mile spatial difference between the  stations  is not considered. An
attempt was made to arrive at a mean motion value from these profiles.
Assuming that there is a uniform mean motion  unchanging with depth, the errors
introduced by vessel motion would tend to be equal in all directions provided
enough measurements were made.  In performing a vector averaging operation
on these readings, error components should tend to nullify  each other.

                                    - 26-

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Table 2.  CURRENT SPEED AND DIRECTION - STATION 14
        2017 HOURS - 2 MAY 1973
Depth, m Speed, cm/sec. Direction ฐ True
3
5
7.
10
15
20
30
40
50
Table 3.
Depth
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
20
25
30
18.0
19.5
5 23.2
24.2
15.4
13.9
7.2
9.3
19.0
CURRENT SPEED AND DIRECTION
1013 HOURS - 4 MAY 1973
200
170
180
222
200
140
101
282
215
- STATION 9 -
, m Speed, cm/sec. Direction ฐ True
14.9
27.3
21.6
25.7
19.5
19.5
26.8
20.6
28.3
26.8
355
347
342
339
235
210
198
179
228
230
                       - 27 -

-------
       The results of vector averaging the reading from the two profiles as
well as simple arithmetic means for these values appear in Table 4.

                Table 4.  CURRENTS BY VECTOR AVERAGING*
Station
14
9
V Averaging
Speed cm/sec. Direction ฐ True
13.4 192
10.8 248
M Averaging
Speed cm/sec. Direction ฐ True
16.6 190
23.1 261
*Components of semidiurnal rotary tidal currents were not determined.

d. Summary —
       Best estimates of currents  during the time period covering the survey
cruise are:
       1.  Speed about 13 cm/sec  (0.25 knots, 11 km/day) fairly uniform over
the bulk of the water column.
       2.  Direction between 192ฐ and 248ฐ true.
2. Shipboard Current Observations
       In addition to the actual measurement of currents during the cruise, two
other modes of qualitative current information were deduced from additional
sources: (a) videotapes of the television bottom traverse from each station and
(b) sediment texture (grain size statistics).

a. Videotapes —
       In all,  several hours of  videotape  were recorded at the stations occupied
during this cruise.  Scrutiny of these tapes and the logs  and the commentary of
scientists observing theon-deck monitor were  used in the interpretation of visual
data which might relate to local currents at the sea floor.  The following observa-
tions bear upon the  current regime:
                                  - 28 -

-------
       1.  Most of the shallow stations (depths less than about 50 m) displayed
ripples and other features which indicate disturbance (displacement) of the local
sediment.  Most stations also exhibited evidence of bioturbation (tracks, mounds,
craters,  etc.) suggesting that once the currents which form ripples abate,
biological activity should smooth and ultimately erase the ripples.  From the
videotapes it was impossible to tell if the ripples were symmetric (oscillatory
or wave-induced current ripples)  or asymmetric (current or  unidirectional
flow ripples).
       2.  During the latter portion  of the cruise, the weather deteriorated and
seas became uncomfortably high.  No records were taken of wave period,
height, and length but continued television monitoring of the sea floor revealed
no turbidity or other current effects which could be attributed to the surface
roughness.  We assume that the wave length must have been too short to have
induced suspension of bottom materials.
       3.  At many stations, single  valves of pelecypods were observed lying
on the bottom with a preferred concave-up attitude (Figures 8 and 10).  In
addition, many were noted to contain sediment  which had obviously  settled into
them after they assumed this orientation. Inasmuch as the shape of these shells
is hydrodynamically sensitive, some inference of current activity can be drawn
from the attitude  of single valves.  Emery (1968) has pointed out that the concave-
up attitude is characteristic of low energy environments (low current  speeds)  on
the continental shelf.  Strong currents tend to orient single valves in a "stream-
lined" attitude with the concave side down.

b.  Sediment Texture —
       From the  above observations, it would appear that currents  which are
capable of disturbing the sea floor at this site are infrequent.  Unfortunately,
other equally plausible data suggest the opposite.
       1.  McCIennen' s (op. cit.)  study included examination of box core samples
which consist  of a volume of sediment removed from the sea floor with little or
no disturbance.  Pelecypod shells  within the upper meter are  all concave down,

                                   - 29 -

-------
and bedding features within the cores show conclusive proof of the dominance
of physical processes over bioturbation.  Although this site is at a depth of
30 meters, the sediment is quite similar to that at the stations on this cruise.
       2.  Currents  measured 1.5 m above the bottom by McClennen reveal
that the critical erosion velocity (approximately equal to the threshold velocity)
for sands at this station nearest the dumpsite was exceeded about 4% of the time.
Because there were no storms during the period of measurement, these water
motions were semidiurnal rotary tidal currents which display a maximum
velocity toward the southwest. We may anticipate that under storm  conditions
(see Item 3, below) wave-induced surge  will dominate the bottom current  regime.
       3,  On the basis of simple wave equations, for a given average depth of
50 m, we can assume that waves having a period of  11. 3 sec or longer and a
height greater than 2.2 m  will generate  currents at the sea floor which exceed
the threshold velocity of most sands at the stations on this cruise.  Wave
statistics from Atlantic City, New Jersey (the closest point of record to the
dumpsite) indicate that waves having a period of 11 sec or longer occur 2.6% of
the time, while significant wave heights (the average height of the highest % of
the waves)  exceeding 2.2 m occur 3.3%  of the  time  (Harris, 1972).  These data
cannot be directly applied  to this region, but they are indicative of the general
wave climate of the  Middle Atlantic Bight.

3. Bottom Drift Studies
       During the course of the cruise,  680 seabed  drifters of the Woodhead
design (Woodhead and Lee, i960) were released within the interim dumpsite
area.  Table  5 shows the release scheme.
       The few recoveries to date  are disappointing, especially since the
beach population should be at a maximum during this period.  However, low
recovery ratios appear typical in June,  July, and August for previous releases
at this distance from shore (see  Norcross and Stanley, 1967).  For  17 releases,
                                    - 30 -

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                  Table 5.  SEABED  DRIFTER  RELEASES
Time and Date
1258 2 May
1446 3 May
2043 3 May
0645 4 May

Station
1 nm* NW
of 2
8
6
1 nm E
of 2

Numbers
001-160
100
161-320
321-480
100
Color
Red
Yellow
Red
Red
Yellow
Total
Quantity
160
100
160
160
100
Recovery (as
of 27 July)
1
0
2
3
0
*nm = nautical mile (1 nm = 1. 85 km)

the average recovery is 16. S^with a maximum of 34% (March) and a minimum
of 4.2% (June). Similarly, at the interpolated drift rate of from 0.3 to 0. 9
nautical miles per day, it may be premature to anticipate a low recovery for the
May dumpsite release.  Of the six recoveries reported,  five are from the
Wallops Island area in Virginia,  One returned from Martha' s Vineyard,
Massachusetts,is  believed to have been picked up, and later discarded,  by a
fishing vessel.  In general, drifter recoveries  support the concept of a  net
southwest bottom  drift.
       One additional factor bearing upon the return ratio is the monetary reward
for the return of information requested on the drifter card.  According  to Riley
and Ramster (1972) the reward is the determining factor in reporting the dis-
covery of drifters.

4.  Surface Drifter Studies
       During the course of the cruise, 269 surface drifters were released at
three stations within the dumpsite. Table 6 provides data on the location and
dates of these releases.
                                   - 31 -

-------
                Table 6.  SURFACE DRIFTER RELEASES
Date
2 May
3 May
4 May
Time
1220
1446
0845
Station
2
8
3
Drifter Numbers
9802-9900
0377-0447
9900-10,000
Quantity
98
70
101
       At this writing (September, 1973) no returns have been reported.  Cards
were to be forwarded to EPA,  at Corvallis, Oregon.

C.  INTERPRETATION
       Conflicting evidence regarding the current regime at the interim dump-
site does not permit definitive conclusions to be drawn regarding the activity
present at the  sea floor.  Factors suggesting both long-term quiescence and
periodic disturbances have been presented. If the nature of the  sediments is
interpreted in  light of hydrodynamic factors, we can suggest that areas of finer,
well-sorted sediments indicate regions where currents and turbulence are
minimal.  This tacitly assumes that the present distribution of sediments is a
reflection of the contemporary hydraulic regime, that is, currents are effective
in shaping the  sea floor and transporting sediments.  On the other hand, at this
distance from  shore it might be considered that the  sediments present at the
dumpsite do not necessarily reflect an equilibrium condition with respect to the
present hydraulic regime.  Under this concept, the  sediments are considered
"relict" in that they have been derived from a set of circumstances no longer
present at this site. Therefore, the  lack of fine materials  (silts and clays) and
the distribution of coarse sands may  not connote a vigorous bottom current, but
rather a lack of a source close enough to have provided different materials
during the period when sediments of the area were undergoing transport.
                                   - 32 -

-------
       This report is not the place to review the continuing controversy between
"active" and "relict" sedimentary concepts.  The interested reader is referred
to an excellent summary of this subject by Swift and others (1971).  Their con-
clusion is that present sediments atop the shelf experience brief periods (days)
of intensive movement during storms followed by long periods  (months or perhaps
years)  of quiescence.  In view of the visual and analytical data presented in this
section, most conflicting factors vanish if this concept of intermittent sediment
transport is adopted.  Obviously, confirmation of this interpretation must await
current measurements taken at the sea floor in the dumpsite area.
                                   - 33 -

-------
                              VI.  CHEMISTRY

A.  HYDROGRAPHY

1.  Previous Work
       Extensive hydrographic observations have been made in the continental
shelf waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight,  and have  recently been reviewed and
summarized by Bumpus (1973) and Fisher (1973). In addition, detailed studies
have recently been conducted on a nearby acid waste dumpsite, and some results
have been reported (du Pont et al.,  1972).
       Some data from the du Pont studies indicate waste materials may be
prevented from sinking to the bottom when the thermocline is established in
this area (du  Pont  et al., 1972).  Bowden (1964)  cites work by Folsom, Goldberg
and Kline and by Folsom and Vine, that similarly indicates introduced materials
may diffuse in horizontal planes to a great degree.  This propensity for horizontal
transport,  and lack of vertical forces, indicates  that hydrographic conditions,
especially density discontinuities, may be of prime importance in evaluation of
environmental conditions on ocean dumpsites.

2.  Survey Cruise
       Profiles of temperature,  salinity, dissolved oxygen,  and pH taken by
Hydro Products Water Quality Monitor or a Beckman RS-5 induction salinometer
are shown in Figures  14 through 18.
       Temperature distributions indicate that the vernal establishment of the
thermocline was developing, and the discontinuity was generally between 30 and
50 ft (9 to 15 m).  A rather severe southwest gale on 3 May apparently did
not affect the thermal structure.
                                    - 34 -

-------
             MIT  MITUS
                                   33    34     35     SปUNITป •
                                   6   7   8   9  10  II  TEMP, -c
               40-
           tt
           
-------
        HIT   MCTUS
      D, 60
      S
         100 -
         uo -
            • 30
32     33    34     35
       S   7   8   8   10
 i   t   i   .   i   ,   i
                                                 SALIN.TY
                                                 TEMP. 'C
Figure 16 — Salinity-temperature profile of water column at
              Station 3.
           HIT  MiTfis      "     "     3*    ซ
                              .UNITY /Q0
                30
                                 67   8   9   10  II  TEMP'C
                               I  1   '   I   •   I   •   I
                                                 STATION 17
                                                 5/3/73
                                                 07 IS
 Figure 17 — Salinity-temperature profile of water column at
               Station 17.
                            - 36 -

-------
                       HIT  MITIM oxrGEN  'PI-'
                                   9      10     II
                         JO-
                         60 -
                      XI
                      •(->
                      O
                        100 -
                         130 -
                        160 J
                                                      STATION 01
                                                      5/1/73
                                                      I BOO
                           • 40
                                       100    105     MO
                                        PERCENT  SATURATION
                   Figure i8 — Distribution of dissolved oxygen (O)
                                and calculated  saturation (S) in the
                                water column at Station 1.
       Salinity distributions reflect the coastal character of the water and tend
to indicate a halocline coincident with the thermocline, with minor perturbations
in surface waters.  The region generally is affected by runoff from terrestrial
sources in the surface layers, and incursion of slope waters at depths (Bumpus,
1973).
       Dissolved oxygen was measured with an International Biophysics Company
Model 501-001 probe and 490-051 field readout.  Percent saturation values were
also calculated and are shown for reference in Figure 18.  Generally,  oxygen
values showed no evidence of deficits,  and the  supersaturation in surface waters
is indicative of phytoplankton activity.
                                     - 37 -

-------
       The pH values indicated no deviations from values expected in coastal
seawater, and were measured primarily because of the proximity of a nearby
dumpsite with a history of additions of very low pH industrial wastes.

3. Interpretation
       Hydrographic conditions generally reflect the normal patterns expected
for these waters under spring conditions.

B.  WATER QUALITY  PARAMETERS

1. Previous Work
       Previous work in the area has recently been summarized by Kester and
Courant (1973).

2. Survey Cruise
       The data gathered on this  cruise were primarily intended to determine
background conditions before dumping activities  commenced, and as such are
not amenable to estimate  distributional patterns  such as discussed by Kester
and Courant.
       Water samples were retrieved from 6-liter PVC Van Dorn bottles,
placed in 16 oz.  polyethylene "Whirl-Paks" and quick frozen in dry ice.
Samples were subsequently stored frozen until analysis at the EPA laboratory
in Annapolis.
       Ammonia determinations  gave erratic and apparently unreliable values;
consequently they were not included in this report.  Recent studies on the preser-
vation of marine water samples for ammonia determinations have shown poor
keeping qualities for this  parameter (Degobbis,  1973), and ammonia should
probably be determined immediately upon sampling.
                                  - 38 -

-------
       Nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen was determined by using the Technicon
"Autoanalyzer."  This procedure utilizes cadmium reduction of nitrate to
nitrite and subsequent diazotization with sulfanilamide and N-(l-naphthyl)-
ethylenediamine dihydrochloride with the optical density measured at 540
The results were reported as nitrogen (Strickland and Parsons, 1968).
       There are too few data points to draw distributional patterns, but con-
centrations are generally those expected in this environment (Kester and Courant,
op. cit.).  Nitrate values vary seasonally with values between 0.07 ppm and
0.007 ppm reported.  Nitrite values range from 0.7 to 4.2 ppb.
       Total Kjeldahl nitrogen includes ammonia and organic nitrogen and was
determined by the standard micro-Kjeldahl procedure. The sample was digested
in the presence of strong acid to convert the organic nitrogen to ammonia.  The
ammonia was then distilled, collected in boric acid solution, nesslerized,  and
determined colorimetrically.  This procedure was automated on a Technicon
"Autoanalyzer."  The values found agree generally with those reported in other
coastal waters (Duursma, 1965).
       Total phosphorus was determined after persulfate oxidation of the sample
in an autoclave at 15 psi for 30 minutes.  The resultant orthophosphate was then
determined colorimetrically as the molybdenum-blue complex with optical
density measured at 882 mjz.  Orthophosphate was determined on a Technicon
"Autoanalyzer" (Menzel and Corwin,  1965;  Murphy and Riley,  1962).  Phosphate
concentrations vary from 0.015 ppm  to 0.03 ppm.
       The concentrations found are  in agreement with other observations
reported by Kester and Courant.
       Silicate was determined on a Technicon "Autoanalyzer" with an automated
procedure outlined in Standard Methods (Amer.  Pub. Health Assoc.,  1971).
       Again no distribution patterns are discernible, but agree with other
observations in the area (Kester and  Courant, op. cit.).
       Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry
at the EPA National Field Investigations Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.  No appreciable
                                   - 39 -

-------
levels of heavy metals were detected in surface waters at Station 2.  Results are
shown in Tables 7 and 8.
       A supplemental cruise to the dumpsite was made on 14 July 1973 to
secure additional water samples for metals analyses.  This supplemental
cruise was made after dumping activities had started on the dumpsite.  (See
cruise log in Appendix B.) Water quality parameters are shown in the appendix.
Heavy metal analyses were done by the EPA Water Sciences Branch, National
Field Investigation Center, Cincinnati,  Ohio.  No appreciable levels  of metals
were detected  in bottom waters.

C.  HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENTS

1.  Previous Work
       Metal contents of sediments were determined recently on a site approxi-
mately 35 miles from the survey site,  and near the mouth of the Delaware Bay
(Davey, 1972). The extraction techniques differed markedly from those in the
present study, and lower concentrations generally were reported than in the
results of this cruise.
       Studies by the National Marine  Fisheries Service in the New York Bight
area, but with stations as  far south as Delaware Bay (Nat.  Marine Fish. Serv.,
1972),  show metals contents  of uncontaminated sediments comparable to those
reported for this cruise.

2.  Survey Cruise
       Metals were determined from bottom sediments by leaching samples for
6 hrs at 48 to  50ฐC in concentrated nitric acid, then analysis  on a  Perkin-Elmer
303 atomic absorber.  Mercury was similarly prepared, but analyzed in a
Coleman MAS-50  flameless atomic absorber.
       The relative concentrations of the various elements are in general agree-
ment with published information, but the concentrations of chromium,  zinc, and

                                   -  40 -

-------
         Table 7.   WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
Sample Mo.
QK7357-0101-1
0102-1
0103-1
0204-1
0205-1
0206-1
0513-1
0514-1
0515-1
0916-1
0917-1
0518-1
1407-1
1408-1
1409-1
1710-1
1711-1
1712-1
Station
1
1
1
2
2
2
5
5
5
9
9
9
14
14
14
17
17
17
Date/Time
5/1/73
1800


5/2/73
0710


5/3/73
1112


5/4/73
0905


5/2/73
1925


5/3/73
0715


Sample
Depth
ft
20
75
145
25
85
145
25
75
145
25
50
IOC
25
100
175
25
75
120
mg/1
0.011
0.024
0.026
0.028
0.026
0.021
0.026
0.030
0.009
0.021
0.024
0.032
0.021
0.039
0.021
0.026
0.024
•iSQ
TKN
mq/1
NSQ*
0.107
0.011
0.338
0.349
0.558
0.163
0.192
:;sq
1.414
0.344
0.135
0.1 G3
0.146
0.073
0.310
0.270
riSQ
TP
mg/1
P04
NSQ
0.048
0.024
0.040
0.040
<0.01
<0.01
0.024
•;sq
<0.01
<0.01
C.024
0.024
0.:)64
ป
-------
             Table 8.  HEAVY  METALS  IN SURFACE WATER
                                 (mg/1)
Cd
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
Cr
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
Cu
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
Pb Ni
<0.1 <0.5
<0.1 <0.5
<0.1 <0.5
V Be
<0.1 <0.2
<0.1 <0.2
<0.1 <0.2
Hg
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
manganese are greater. This probably reflects the more rigorous acid extrac-
tion procedures employed by the EPA laboratory at Annapolis.  Ambient
chromium levels seem to be greater than expected, and further pursuit of this
phenomenon is indicated. Results are shown in Table 9.

D.  CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENT SAMPLES

1.  Previous Work
       Based upon current available information, there has been no detailed
assessment made of the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine
environment of the Atlantic  continental shelf.  The only data pertaining to the
interim ocean dumping area (other than that presented in this report) come
from a paper on PCB residues in the Atlantic zooplankton  (Risebrough et al. ,
1972).   Zooplankton taken from an area fairly close to the dumps ite contained
57 ppm PCB (Aroclor 1254) on a lipid weight basis (about 0.22 ppm on a wet
weight basis). The highest concentrations  occurred near Hudson Canyon and
northward to the latitude of New York City  where the zooplankton were  found
to contain about 250 ppm PCB on a lipid weight basis.
       While these data indicate fairly high levels of PCB' s in waters of the
northwest Atlantic shelf, the numbers must be examined with some caution
because of the high likelihood of sample contamination from the nets being used
(Harvey and Teal, 1973).  Previous  work examining the addition of chlorinated
                                    - 42 -

-------
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                                       - 43 -

-------
hydrocarbons to the nearshore waters of California through ocean disposal of
sewage and sewage sludge indicates that urban sewage and sewage sludge con-
tain relatively high levels of PCB' s  and, in some cases, DDT (Schmidt, et al.,
1971).

2.  Survey Cruise
       Immediately upon recovery, samples of sediments from dumpsite
stations were placed in airtight jars previously rinsed with hexane.  Upon
return to the laboratory,  eight sediment samples were analyzed for chlorinated
hydrocarbons by the following method:
       1.  Air dry,  grind in mortar and pass through a 1 mm seive.
       2.  Extract 100 g  Soxhlet  7 hr with 2:1 hexane-acetone.
       3.  Concentrate the extract  (Kuderna-Danish evaporator) and
          clean with a fuming sulfuric acid-celite column.
       4.  Concentrate eluant to  less than 1 ml (K-D followed by stream
          of dry nitrogen).
       5.  Screen with electron-capture gas chromatography.
       6.  Further clean by  passage through an activated aluminum
          column followed by concentration to less than 1  ml as above.
       7.  Determine quality and quantity by electron-capture gas
          chromatography.
       The samples gave poor traces when  only processed with the acid cleaning,
but the aluminum cleaning removed the problems and produced satisfactory
chromatographic traces.
       Although the PCB' s 1242  and 1254 were detected in all eight samples,
only in the two highest samples (0101 and 1701) could the numbers be considered
above the detection limit. In the case of the other six samples, the values  were
only one-half to three times  greater than values obtained from a reagent "blank"
put through the analytical procedures.  In all samples,  the 1254 peaks closely
matched those of standard Aroclor  1254 in number and peak-height ratio.  The
                                   -44-

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values for 1242, however,  should be considered as estimates (ฑ100%) because
of the poor match with the peak-height ratios of the standard material and the
presence of interfering peaks of unknown composition.
       The samples were unusually free of the DDT group (DDE,  ODD, and
DDT), DDE being observed in only one sample and then only at twice the detec-
tion limit.  Results are tabulated in Table 10.
     Table 10.  CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS IN OCEAN DUMPSITE
               SAMPLES (parts per billion)
Sample No.
QK7334-0101
QK7334-0201
-0501
-0801
-1101
-1301
-1401
-1701
PCB
1242
26
3
3
3
3
3
2
23
Group
1254
12
1
0.9
0.8
0.6
1
0.6
14
DDE
ND*
ND
ND
ND
0.4
ND
ND
ND
DDT Group
ODD
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
DDT
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Other

t


t



 *ND - Not detectable (probably less than 0.2 ppb)
 jThese two samples each had a larger unique electron-capture peak not found
  in the other samples.  The peaks did not match any of the commonly found
  chlorinated hydrocarbons.
                                 - 45 -

-------
3. Interpretation
       These samples reflect a very clean area, one most likely completely
free of local inputs of chlorinated hydrocarbons.  The low values for chlorinated
hydrocarbons in these sediments suggest fairly limited biological activity
because atmospheric fallout of DDT and PCB would be concentrated by biological
activity to yield numbers higher than a few PPB.  Chlorinated hydrocarbon
analysis of sediments after dumping begins should provide useful information
because sanitary and industrial sludges are usually quite high in chlorinated
hydrocarbons.
                                   - 46 -

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                           VII.  BIOLOGY

A.  PHYTOPLANKTON

1.  Previous Work
       Phytoplankton analyses of the water column in the vicinity of the survey
cruise were reported by the University of Delaware, College of Marine Studies
(1972).  This study indicates that the spring-summer regime (May-October) is
dominated by dinoflageHates.   This is in general agreement with work done by
Mulford in the coastal waters of Virginia (Mulford and Norcross, 1971).

2.  Survey Cruise
       Phytoplankton samples  were taken at surface, mid-depth and bottom for
each of six stations near the interim dumpsite.  (See Figure 3 for station loca-
tions.) Three stations were in the immediate dump area, two inshore of the
area, and one  15-miles offshore of the area.
       Phytoplankton samples  of approximately 250 cc were taken from Van
Dorn bottles, preserved in Lugol' s solution and stored in the dark.
       In the laboratory, 100  cc of sample were placed in an Utermohl
cylindrical chamber and were allowed to settle until quantitative sedimentation
had taken place (Utermohl, 1936).  Microscopic examination of the entire cell
was then completed on a Unitron inverted microscope. (See Tables 11 through 16.)

3.  Interpretation
       Phytoplankton samples  were composed almost entirely of dinoflagellates
and diatoms.  There  appears to be a very healthy diversity of genera  and this
area seems to be typical for this time of year.
                                   - 47 -

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Table 11. OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AT STATION 1
Phytoplankton
Dinoflagellates
Amphidinium sp.
Ceratium fusjs
Ceratium lineatum
Ceratium longipes
Dinophysis sp.
Gymnodinium sp.
Peridinium sp.
Prorocentrum sp.
Diatoms
Biddulphia sp.
Chaetoceros sp.
Coscinodiscus sp.
Diploneis sp.
Melosira sp.
Navicula sp.
Nitzschia longissima
Nitzschia sp.
Pleurosigma sp.
Thalassionema sp.
Total Dinoflagellates
Total Diatoms
Total count/100 ml
Surface
14
26
2786
834
146
14
50
98

4
14







3968
18
3986
Mid- depth
268


12
6
12
14
6

8
28


20
298
20


318
374
692
Bottom
41




11
12
1
7
5
39

16
32
61
22
3
10
66
196
262
                        - 48 -

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Table 12. OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON
        AT STATION 2
Phytoplankton Surface
Dlnoflagellates
Amphidinium sp. 27
Ceratium fusus
Cera ti urn lineatum 993
Ceratium longipes 482
Ceratium sp. 5
Dinophysis sp. 70
Gymnodinium sp.
Peridinium sp. 21
Prorocentrum sp. 29
Diatoms
Biddulphia sp. 6
Chaetoceros sp.
Coscinodiscus sp. 5
Cyclotella sp.
Diploneis sp.
Epithema sp.
Fragilaria sp.
Melosira sp.
Navicula sp.
fJitzschia longissima
Nitzschia sp.
Pleurosigma sp.
Rhizosolenia sp.
Skeletonema sp.
Thalassionema sp.
Total Dinoflagellates 727
Total Diatoms 11
Total count/100 ml 738
Mid-depth

17

9
2

8
4
2
4


2
36
6



6
28
124
11
2
3
3
31
46
416
462
Bottom

15

1



20

1


25
64

3
1
13
29
14
166
10
3


50
37
384
421
                  - 49 -

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Table 13. OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AT STATION 5
Phytoplankton
Dinoflagellates
Amphidinium sp.
Ceratium fusus
Ceratium lineatum
Ceratium longipes
Dinophysis sp.
Gymnodinium sp.
Peridinium sp.
Prorocentrum sp.
Diatoms
Biddulphia sp.
Chaetoceros sp.
Ooscinodiscus sp.
Diploneis sp.
Ditylum sp.
Melosira sp.
Navicula sp.
Nitzschia longissima
Nitzschia sp.
Pleurosigma sp.
Rhizosolenia sp.
Thalassionema sp.
Total Dinoflagellates
Total Diatoms
Total count/100 ml
Surface
72
25
1947
1007
98
12
72
52

1
19




1


5

3285
26
:!:] 1 1
Mid-depth
929

16
8
7
18
30
42
1
6
35
8

9
10
73
3
2
3
6
1054
156
1210
Bottom
4
5
6
5

6
27
18
4

38

3

5

1

53

71
104
175
                        - 50 -

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Table 14. OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AT STATION 9
Phytoplankton
Dinoflagellates
Amphidinium sp.
Ceratium fusus
Ceratium Tinea turn
Ceratium longipes
Dinophysis sp.
Gyrnnodinium sp.
Peridinium sp.
Prorocentrum sp.
Diatoms
Biddulphia sp.
Chaetoceros sp.
Coscinodiscus sp.
Melosira sp.
Navicula sp.
iJitzschia longissima
Nitzschia sp.
Pleurosigma sp.
Rhizosolenia sp.
Skeletonema sp.
Thalassionema sp.
Total Dinoflagellates
Total Diatoms
Total count/100 ml
Surface
109
38
2124
698
168
40
52
67
4
24
14
2

2


43
3
1
3296
93
3389
Mid-depth
1
84
2338
330
134
6
42
40
1
60
30

4


2
10
56

2975
163
3138
Bottom
26





8
4
2
6
28
12
30

14
6


50
338
316
354
                     - 51 -

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Table 15. OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AT STATION 14
Phytoplankton
Dinoflagellates
Amphidinium sp.
Ceratium fusus
Ceratium lineatum
Ceratium longipes
Dinophysis sp.
Gymnodinium sp.
Peridinium sp.
Prorocentrum sp.
Diatoms
Biddulphia sp.
Chaetoceros sp.
Coscinodiscus sp.
Melosira sp.
Navicula sp.
Nitzschia longissima
Nitzschia sp.
Rhizosolenia sp.
Thalassionema sp.
Total Dinoflagellates
Total Diatoms
Total count/100 ml
Surface
47
2
5
294
9
2
5
4
1
27
88
6
4
2



366
128
494
Mid- depth
40
1
23
112
2

7
7
2
27
86




45
2
194
162
356
Bottom
14


6


12

4
12
502
16
14
26
34

182
32
608
640
                         - 52 -

-------
Table 16. OCCUBEENCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AT STATION 17
Phytoplankton Surface
Dinoflagellates
Amphidinium sp.
Ceratium fusus 50
Ceratium lineatum 2854
Ceratium longipes 1792
Dinophysis sp. 206
Gymnodinium sp. 10
Peridinium sp. 108
Prorocentrum sp. 70
Diatoms
Chaetoceros sp.
Coscinodiscus sp.
Melosira sp.
Navicula sp.
Nitzschia longissima 4
Nitzschia sp.
Pleurosigma sp.
Rhizosolenia sp. 4
Thalassionema sp.
Total Dinoflagellates 5090
Total Diatoms 8
Total count/100 ml 5098
Mid- depth
136
54
3798
2632
244
66
666
42

12

2
2


14

7638
30
7668
Bottom
38

2
1

13
1
8
2
26
19
104
521
57
6

38
63
773
836
                      - 53 -

-------
       Surface sample at all stations were completely dominated by dinoflagellates.
Ceratium comprised the larger percent of the sample, with Ceratium lineatum
and Ceratium longipes being the dominant species (Figures  19 and 20).  Several
species of Dinophysis, Prorocentrum and Feridinium were  also found at each
station with great regularity but were of secondary importance to Ceratium
(Figures 21 and 22).
       There was a marked difference between the surface  samples, a dinoflagel-
late community, and the bottom samples which are made up, to a large extent,
by diatoms. Nitzschia longissima, Coscindiscus sp.,  Thalassionema sp., and
Navicula sp. were generally the most commonly found diatoms.
       Several small differences were noted between stations,  most of which
can be explained by the location.  Counts at Station 9 and Station 17, the two
most inshore stations, were higher than at most other stations.  This can be
understood because,  as a rule,  inshore areas are more heavily populated.
Counts on Station 14  and Station 2 were considerably lower than any other stations.
Station 14 is the most offshore station and offshore areas are typified by
decreasing numbers  of dinoflagellates and a sparser standing crop. Station 2,
however, was  in the  middle region in the center of the dumpsite area and would
not fall into the same offshore category as Station 14.  The  reasons for the
lower count at Station 2 are unknown.  Some differences in phytoplankton
populations can be attributed to natural patchiness found in transition areas.
       In summary,  the phytoplankton in this area, at this time of year, seemed
to be as expected from previous published works.   It was  a healthy dinoflagellate-
dominated community.

B.  ZOOPLANKTON

1.  Previous Work
       Plankton investigations were conducted by  Deevey (1960) for waters in
the Delaware Bay and outlying coastal provinces.   In general, maximal numbers
                                   -54-

-------
Figure 19 — Ceratium longipes, one of
             the dominant dinoflagellates
             at all stations.
  Figure 20 — Ceratium fusus (elongated
               cell at right) and three
               cells of Ceratium lineatum.
Figure 21 — Ceratium lineatum (below)
             and a species of Dinophysis
             (above).  Both are
             dinoflagellate species.
Figure 22 — Two species of dinoflagellates,
             Dinophysis (left) and
             Prorocentrum (right).
                                       -55 -

-------
and volumes were recorded in summer and late fall and minimal numbers in
late winter and spring.  However, despite differences in seasonal cycles, the
relative quantity of zooplankton varies similarly from year to year within the
Bay and in outlying waters.  Copepods are by far the most dominant group within
the plankton community while Acartia tons a dominates in the more offshore
waters and Paracalanus parvus and Pseudocalanus minutus are the next most
abundant species.  Due to the wide annual temperature range (0 to 25ฐC) in
these waters,  few organisms occur throughout  the year and  only four copepods
(Acartia tons a, Pseudododiaptomus coronatus,  Centropages typicus and
Paracalanus parvus) are considered year-round species.
       The University of Delaware (1972) in a zooplankton study for the
Environmental Protection Agency showed copepods to dominate numerically
and volumetrically.   Copepod dominance occurred in the late fall and  32  species
were recorded for the coastal waters slightly northwest of the present  dumpsite.
Also during the late fall, the greatest diversity of zooplankton was found which
was coincident with  the destruction of the thermocline.  However, unlike Deevey,
the Delaware report shows highest plankton volumes in spring and early summer.

2. Survey Cruise
       A preliminary baseline plankton investigation was  conducted at  four of
the stations (1, 2, 9 and 14;  see  Figure 3) within and near the site designated
for the ocean dumping of sludge wastes.  Four  paired net  hauls were taken;
two within the proposed dumpsite, one nearer to shore, and one on the outside
of the dumpsite offshore. The resultant information gathered during the investi-
gation is presented as taxonomic relative percent composition and biomass
measurements.
       Zooplankton samples were collected from the four stations in an oblique
fashion from the surface to near-bottom to surface for approximately 15 minutes
duration.  The paired samples consisted of two nets (Figure 23) of different mesh
                                   - 56 -

-------
         ***•
           ~l-*v^"*.-
             'W""S%V -
           -, **^f,- i-* *
Figure 23 —  Paired plankton nets with 202 /u and 1,000 n mesh
              used for oblique tows.
                            -57 -

-------
sizes,  each measuring % meter by % meter and about 4 meters in length.
Into the mouth opening of each net was placed a precalibrated T.S. K. type
mechanical flowmeter to record the volume of water passing through each net.
The mesh aperture for one of the nets was 1,000 n while the second net was
202 /u.  The collections from each of the nets during the four tows showed a
definite catch selectivity regarding size and composition.  One-third of the
202 JJL samples and each of the 1,000 ^ samples were preserved with  7% buffered
formalin.
       In the  laboratory, the 202 n net samples were fractioned in a Folsom
splitter to an aliquot not less than %2 ฐf the whole.  The taxonomic analysis
consisted of counting uniform percentages of these samples to the group level
and identifying the major taxa present.  These data are presented in Table  17.
       Four parameters of biomass from the 202 pi net samples were measured:
wet weight, displacement volume, dry weight, and total organic weight.  Wet
weights were determined by washing the sample matter into a  precalibrated
fritted glass Gooch crucible, applying slight air pressure to expel most of the
interstitial water, and weighing the residue on an analytical balance. The Gooch
crucible mercury immersion method described by Yentsch and Hebard (1957)
was used for measurement of displacement volumes.  Dry weights were deter-
mined according to procedures by Lovegrove (1966) by heating samples at 60ฐC
for 2 hr in a vacuum oven.  Organic weights were derived by igniting the dried
samples in furnace at 450ฐC for 2 hr, cooling to room temperature,  and weighing.
The ashed value was then subtracted from the dried weight to  reflect the combusti-
ble organic fraction.  The resultant data for the 202 /u net biomass analysis are
given in Table 18. The material collected from the 1, 000 ju net was of sufficiently
small quantity that total counts and average sizes could be measured (Table 19).
No biomass analysis was performed on these samples.
                                   - 58 -

-------
    Table 17. RELATIVE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF
            202 n NET ZOOPLANKTON
Zooplankton
Copepoda
Dinoflagellata
Cladocera
Pteropoda
Larvacea
Chaetognatha
Medusae
Fish Eggs
Polychaeta
Bivalva
Fish Larvae
Trochophore
Euphausidacea
Brachyura
Foraminifera
Decapod Larvae
Sipunculids
Ostracoda
Echinoid Larvae
Unknowns
Nearshore
Day
35.5
40.8
17.3
0.3
3.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0.2
—
—
*
Sampling Stations
Dumpsite
Night Day
38.8
30.6
23.8
3.2
0.7
0.5
1.0
0.2
0.7
0.3
0.1
0.1
*
0.2
—
—
—
*
0.1
*
60.5
13.8
19.6
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0.3
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
—
—
—
—
—
—
__, t
Offshore
Night
72.7
7.9
2.3
11.1
1.2
2.3
—
1.1
0.7
0.7
—
—
—
—
0.2
0.2
—
—
—
*
*Present
                        - 59 -

-------
          Table  18.  ZOOPLANKTON BIO MASS  OF 202   NET
Biomass
Displacement vol. fyd/m3)
Wet weight (mg/m3)
Dry weight (mg/m3)
Organic weight (mg/m3)
Sampling Stations
NearF^ore Dumpsite Offshore
201.44
177. 14
19.76
16.94
240.30
199.74
13.78
12.63
224. 18
108.84
27.08
24.37
3. Interpretation
       Besultant plankton data from the 202 n net tows do not show any clear
differences between taxa or biomass concentrations at any of the four stations
sampled.  Comparative community correlation coefficients of taxa present show
Stations 1 and 2  (within the proposed dumpsite) to have the greatest degree of
community correlation: 0.764 on a scale where 0.500 is average and 1.000 the
highest correlation possible.  These two stations were also within the closest
proximity with regard to all four stations.  All stations recorded higher than
0. 500 except Station  14 (0. 450), indicating the basic plankton community struc-
ture at all stations to be generally the same.  However, subtle differences can
be seen as one moves from the nearshore station (9) toward the offshore stations
(14).  Figure 24 shows a plot of the relative percent compositions of the four
most dominant planktonic groups present at all four stations with respect to
position.  Typically, the dinoflagellates and cladocera decrease and copepods
increase toward dominance in the more neritic waters.  Additionally, the  numbers
of copepod species increase as one moves from nearshore to offshore indicating
a greater diversity of copepod species  in the more neritic waters of the continental
shelf.
       Bioinass measurements do not indicate any obvious differences  among the
four stations sampled.  The highest plankton volume was recorded in the dumpsite
                                   - 60 -

-------
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bfi
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Other Crustacea
Chaetognatha - Sagitta
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Fish Larvae



































fn
CD
I "
re

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CD
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g

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0 r"
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*Number of organisms ti
tAvg. size of organisms
                               - 61 -

-------
       80.00 -
       70.00 -
jr     eo.oo
t/l
g     50.00
       40.00 -
       30.00 -
       20.00 -
       10.00 -
        0.00
                               COPEPODA
              (Station 9)       (Station 1)   (Station 2)

                  ฑ                I    ^    J
                  **•                     V
               NEARSHORE               DUMPSITE
(Station 14)
 OFFSHORE
Figure 24 — 202 \i net plankton relative percent composition plotted from
              nearshore station through the proposed dumpsite to the most
              offshore station.
                                    - 62 -

-------
(Station 2) while the highest wet weight was found at Station 14, farthest offshore.
Yet the dumpsite recorded the lowest total dry and organic weights of the stations
sampled.  However, the differences between any of the four stations measured
were quite negligible compared to the different biomass values expected from
nonrandom distributions, patchiness,  and seasonal fluctuations in standing stock.
None of the values recorded for any of the four parameters measured were more
or less than 33% of the mean value for the stations sampled.  Table 20 shows
the biomass ratios obtained by other investigators as well as the ratios from
the present investigation.
   Table 20.  BIOMASS RATIOS OF ZOOPLANKTON ACCORDING TO
              VARIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
Displacement Vol.
Ml/m3
12.4
15.9
10
—
26.5
18.0
Wet Wt. ,
mg/m3
9.0
13.0
10
—
—
—
Dry Wt. ,
mg/m3
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.25
1.0
1.4
Total Organic Wt. ,
mg/m3
1.0
1.0
—
1.0
—
1.0
Investigator
Present investigation
Be", et al. , 1971
Hopkins, in press
Beers, 1966
Bsharsh, 1957
Menzel and Ryther,
1961
       The information gathered from the 1,000 /n net tows indicates definite
catch selectivity of the samples.   No large decapods were taken from the 202 ju
nets while the 1,000 p, net easily  collected these shrimp-like forms. The results
shown in Table 19  indicate a reasonable correlation between the day and night
hauls. It seems apparent that the decapods and other large crustacea are absent
from the water column during the daytime and migrate to the surface waters at
night.  This would indicate that these forms are associated with the bottom waters
and may play an important role in epibenthonic trophic dynamics.
                                   - 63 -

-------
       The basic conclusions from such a limited effort seem to indicate that
the plankton populations within the proposed dumpsite are typical of temperate
coastal waters.  Differences in species composition from the nearshore station
to the most offshore station suggests that the proposed  dumpsite lies within the
transitional waters  of the coastal neritic province influenced by both nearshore
waters and oceanic  waters.

C.  VERTEBRATES

1.  Previous Work
       Vertebrate studies in the immediate area of the survey cruise were
reported by the University of Delaware, College of Marine Studies (1972).
This study and a paper by Clark et al. (1969) are in general agreement.

2.  Survey Cruise
       There are two major parts to this section —  the first deals with the
analysis  of the vertebrates collected at Station 2 in a 16 ft otter trawl and the
second with the videotape observations of the bottom at the proposed dumpsite.

a.  Collected Vertebrates —
       The otter trawl was deployed once,  at 11 am on 2 May 1973.  The
location fished was  38ฐ22. 3' N,  74ฐ14. 2' W, which had been designated Station
Number 2, at the middle of the projected dump area. A number of other types
of samples were collected and video recordings were made at this  station.
The trawl was fished for about 20 minutes at a depth of 44. 6 meters.  Evidence
that the trawl was in fact a bottom trawl was provided by a number of sand
dollars found in the net with the fishes.
       The entire catch (unsorted) was preserved in 10% formalin for later
analysis. Upon arrival at Millersville, fishes were identified to species,
                                   -64-

-------
measured (standard length), and dissected to determine sex, reproductive state,
and stomach contents.  In addition, fishes were examined for external parasites
and gut parasites.  Small sample size precludes statistical analysis;  however,
qualitative information can be provided.

b.  Video Recorded Observations —
       The bottom was of three types.
       The first type was irregularly grooved with pronounced "hills  and valleys,"
resembling a slope subject to erosion.  In the deeper portions of the valleys
there could be seen dark, flaky material which was stirred up when the camera
bumped the bottom (the sand forming the irregular substrate was not stirred up
by this bumping). A few sand dollars (probably Echinarachnius) could be seen
as well as shells of the pelecypod molluscs  Spisula solidissima and Tagelus
plebeius  (surf clam and stout razor clam), a hermit crab and a goosefish,
probably Lophius americanus (Cuvier).  Also seen was a skate, probably genus
Raja but  too indistinct to be more precise.  The television camera was moving
rapidly because of wave action during this sequence but it looked as though there
might be worm burrows or molusc siphon holes in the sandy areas of the bottom.
This bottom type appeared most normal of the three types and seemed to support
the greatest species diversity.
       The second type of bottom was more heavily  overlain by dark,  flaky
material so that only occasional patches of clear sand could be seen.   Here
were seen more empty bivalve shells and two sea  robins,  probably Prionotus
carolinus (Linnaeus) and one skate  (Raja).  Sand dollars and  starfish (probably
Asterias) were more abundant and in one  area numbers of sea urchins were
seen.
       The third type of bottom was completely covered by the dark material.
Empty and broken bivalve shells were scattered about and the greatest density
of sand dollars was  seen on the  surface.  Starfish were also  more abundant.
                                   - 65 -

-------
The dark material was again seen to be flaky when stirred by the bumping of
the camera rig on the bottom.  With the exception of one unidentifiable fish
which passed close to the camera,  well off the bottom,  no fishes were seen
over this type of bottom.
       The videotapes were most interesting and definitely should be a part
of any future visits to the site.  The samples (including cores) provide
instantaneous single location information about the bottom.  These should be
combined with horizontal visual sampling of the bottom (U. T. V,) which helps
place the bottom samples into perspective vis-a-vis the area of bottom such
a sample represents.

3. Interpretation
       The catch included 14 common sea robins, Prionotus  carolinus (Linnaeus)
which ranged in size from 160 to 230 mm,  standard length. Also collected were
three mud hake, Urophycis tenuis (Mitchill) (270 to 300 mm standard length),
one rusty dab, Limanda ferruginea (Storer) of 280 mm standard length, and two
ocean pout,  Macrozoarces americanus (Bloch and Schneider) of 330 mm and
145 mm standard length (Table 21).
       It is  reported by Bigelow and Schroeder (1953) that Prionatus  carolinus
reaches a length of 380 mm, so it seems likely that though most (8) appeared
to be sexually mature they probably had not yet achieved full adult size.  There
is no sexual dimorphism in this species.  The  same authors  report a maximum
size  of 120 cm for the Urophycis tenuis; however, they cite the most common
size  caught in trawls as 70 cm.   Thus it appears the three mud hake are less
than half the average adult size.  The average  size of male Limanda ferruginea
was reported as 394 mm,  so the individual here reported is approaching adult
size.
       Stomachs  of all sea robins contained recognizable remains of shrimps
(eyes and antennae,  appendages) in various stages of digestion but none of them
                                   - 66 -

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Table 21. VERTEBRATES COLLECTED

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Species
Prionotus carol inus (Linnaeus)
same
same
same
same
same
same
same
same
same
same
same
same
same
Limanda ferruginea (Storer)
Urophycis tenuis (Mite hill)
same
same
Macrozoarces americanus
same
Std. length,
mm
195
160
165
195
164
172
160
197
178
176
180
138
230
188
280
270
300
285
330
145
Gonad
mature male
mature female
mature female
mature female
immature male
immature female
immature female
mature female
mature female
mature female
mature female
immature male
f ema 1 e

mature male
mature male
mature male
mature male
f ema 1 e
juvenile
                - 67 -

-------
recent enough to indicate feeding while in the trawl net.  Stomachs of mud
hake contained, in addition to shrimp remains, numerous fragments of crab
carapace.  The rusty dab contained shrimp and crab remains and fragments
of mollusc shell,  apparently that of a pelecypod.  The stomach of the large
ocean pout contained remains of shrimp,  large sections of crab carapace and
appendages, and several small sand dollars.
       Parasites  were not seen on or  in any of the sea robins or the dab, but
were seen in the gut of two of the mud hake, fishes number 14 and 15. All
fishes appeared healthy and were relatively undamaged by the trawl net.
       Bigelow and Schroeder provide considerable information on the biology,
systematics, and  life history of the three species collected.  All are bottom
feeders which typically are found in the 20 to 40 fathom depths  although the
sea robin is also  found to 90 fathoms.
       All three species collected on this cruise were mentioned by Clark et al.
(1969), which provided full sampling information and also data  on salinity (sur-
face and depths to 40 meters) and temperature (surface and bottom isotherm and
horizontal profile to 100 meters).
       Although migration of sea robins is described by Bigelow and Schroeder,
the movements  are  onshore and offshore in response to the cooling of inshore
water, rather than alongshore.  All three species live near the bottom and are
carnivores feeding on invertebrates which live on or in the sediments. These
fish species might be utilized as indicator species in cases where benthic pollu-
tion or accumulation of heavy rnetals or radionuclides is of interest.

D.  BENTHIC ORGANISMS

1.  Previous Work
       Previous  research in benthic ecology encompassing the area from
southern New Jersey to the northern part of the Delmarva  Peninsula was sum-
marized in a report on the probable effects of a deepwater oil terminal
                                   - 68 -

-------
(Maurer and Wang, 1973).  This report included research conducted three miles
east of Great Bay, New Jersey (Raney et al., 1972), Cape Henlopen near the
mouth of Delaware Bay (Maurer et al., 1973), approximately 14 miles southeast
of the mouth of Delaware Bay (Maurer, unpublished data), and an acid dumpsite
approximately 38 nautical miles southeast of Cape Henlopen (du Pont et al.,  1972),
       Research at the New Jersey site is still in progress but a preliminary
checklist of invertebrates was presented by Raney et al. (1972).  In general,  the
fauna consisted mainly of suspension feeders (surf clam, bay scallop) and epi-
faunal (rock barnacle5  hydroids), and vagile (lady crab, blue crab) species
commonly associated with a clean sand bottom and/or a hard substrate.
       Near the mouth of Delaware Bay,  115 species were collected (Maurer
et al., 1973).  The bivalves, Nucula proxima and Tellina agilis were the
dominant species throughout the area and represented mud (<0.063 mm)  and
sand (>0.063 to 0. 50 mm) bottom communities respectively.  These communities
contained a greater number of deposit feeders than the New Jersey situation,
but this varied with the amount of fine sediment present.
       At the former sludge disposal site, approximately  14 miles southeast
of Delaware Bay, a preliminary survey revealed a diverse and interesting mix-
ture of epifaunal and infaunal species (Maurer,  unpublished data).  Depending
on sediment type,  and to some extent water depth, the fauna was dominated by
infaunal deposit feeders, Nucula proxima, Yoldia limatula, Tellina agilis;
infaunal suspension feeders, Ens is directus, Arctica islandica; and a variety
of epifaunal  species, Obelia longissima, Sertularia argentea,  Electra hastingsae,
etc. Huge numbers (12,000 to 15,000/0. 1 m2) of Nucula proxima were found in
organic muds.  Even though N\.  proxima is normally a deposit feeder associated
with fine sand and organic muds, the large numbers of bivalves are suggestive
of an enriched environment.
       At the acid waste site,  research is still  in progress, but a preliminary
description of benthos is contained in du Pont et al.   (1972).  The general
character of the  stations was considered similar. Stations were dominated by
                                   - 69 -

-------
the sand dollar,  Echinarachnius parma,  the sand shrimp, Crangon
septemspinosa, and by a small ascidean, Bostrichobranchus pilularis.  Other
common invertebrates were the sea stars, Asterias forbesi and A_. vulgaris,
bivalves, Cardita borealis and Arctica islandica, rock crab, Cancer irroratus,
and the hermit crab, Pagurus annulipes.

2.  Survey Cruise
        For the purpose of this survey, samples collected aboard the R/V
ANNANDALE and maintained in a cold room,  were transferred to 10% buffered
formalin.  Specimens from 49 samples distributed among nine stations were
carefully picked and sorted into jars labeled mollusca,  arthropoda, annelida,  and
miscellaneous.   These specimens were then identified under microscope using a
variety of literature sources summarized in Maurer and Watling (1973a,) Maurer
and Wang  (I973b),  and Watling and Maurer (1973)  and local reference collections
which have been confirmed by specialists for  some taxonomic groups (amphipods,
isopods, hydroids).  Specimens were identified to species wherever possible
and counts were made.  In addition to  the quantitative samples,  invertebrates
collected with an otter  trawl were also examined and identified.   Size measure-
ments  of starfish (central disc to tip of arm)  and sand dollars (greatest and least
diameter) were taken to provide supplementary information.  A  species list
was prepared (Table 22) and the species and counts were tabulated in prepara-
tion for future analysis (Tables 23 through 31).  Size distributions of echinoderm
measurements were also made (Table 32).  Size frequency distributions of
Echinarachnius parma are  shown in Figures 25, 26, and 27.
        Benthic macroinvertebrates  were also sampled with an anchor dredge
and separated from the sediments with a 2 mm mesh screen.  Subsequently,
the sand dollar Echinarachnius pjarma, being  the most numerous and present
in each sample,  was subjected to heavy metal and pesticide analyses (see
Section E).  Other macroinvertebrates collected by this means are shown in
Table  33.
                                   - 70 -

-------
     Table 22. SPECIES LIST OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES
Phylum Cnidaria
    Class Hydrozoa
        Order Hydroida
            Suborder Athecata
                Family Eudendridae
                    Eudendrium dispar(Agassiz,  1862)
            Suborder Thecata
                Family Campanularidae
                    Campanularia neglecta  (Alder,  1857)
                Family Sertulariidae
                    Sertularia argentea(Linne,  1758)

Phylum -Rhynchocoela
    Nemertean sp. 1
    Nemertean sp. 2

Phylum Annelida
    Class Polychaeta
        Family Cirratulidae
            Tharyx marioni  (Saint-Joseph,  1894)
            Chaetozone sp.
            Cirratulidae sp.

        Family Dorvilleidae
            Stauronereis rudolphi  (Delle Chiaje,  1828)
            SL caecus  (Webster and  Benedict,  1884)

        Family Eunicidae
            Marphysa bellii  (Audouin  and Milne-Edwards,  1833)
            Eunice pennata  (O.F. Muller, 1776)

        Family Glyceridae
            Glycera dibranchiata (Ehlers, 1868)

        Family Goniadidae
            Progoniada regularis(Hartman,  1965)

        Family Lumbrinereidae
            Lumbrinereis acuta  (Verrill, 1875)
            ILL. brevipes  (Mclntosh,  1903)
            L^_ paradoxa(Saint-Joseph,  1888)

        Family Maldanidae
            Clymenella torquata  (Leidy, 1855)
            Axiothella mucosa  ("Andrews, 1891)

        Family Nephtyidae
            Aglaophamus  circinata  (Verrill,  1874)
            Nephtys ^Tcta (EhlersT  1868)
            Nephtyidae sp.  1

                             - 71 -

-------
                     Table 22.  (Continued)
        Family Nereidae
            Ceratocephale loveni(Malmgren, 1867)

        Family Paraonidae
            Aricidea jeffreysi (Mclntosh, 1879)
            A. suecica(Eliason, 1920)
            A_._ wassi (Pettibone, 1965)
            Paraonidae sp.

        Family Phyllodocidae
            Eteone lactea(Claparede,  1868)
            E. trilineata(Webster and Benedict, 1887)
            E. longa (Fabricius,  1780)
            E. flava (Fabricius,  1780)
            Phyllodoce (Anaitides) maculatus  (Linne,  1767)

        Family Sabellidae
            Sabella microphthalma (Verrill, 1873
            Euchone sp.

        Family Sigalionidae
            Sigalion arenicola(Verril1,  1879)
            Sthenelais limicola (Ehlers,  1864)

        Family Spionidae
            Spiophanes bombyx  (Claparede, 1870)
            Scolecolepides yiridis (Verrill,  1873)

        Family Syllidae
            Syllis gracilis (Grube, 1840)
            S. cornuta (Rathke, 1843)
            Exogone verugera  (Claparede,  1868)
            Brania we 11 f lee tensis (Pe 11 ibone,  1956)
            Autolytus cornutus(Agassiz,  1863)

        Family Terebellidae
            Terebellidae sp.

        Incertae sedis
            Unknown sp. 1

Phylum Mollusca
    Class Gastropoda
        Subclass Prosobranchia
            Order Archaeogastropoda
                Family Trochidae
                    Margarites groenlandicus Gmelin

            Order Mesogastropoda
                Family Caecidae
                    Caecum cooperi S. Smith

                               - 72 -

-------
                   Table 22. (Continued)
            Family Calyptraeidae
                Crepidula plana (Say, 1822)
                C. fornlcata  (Linne, 1758)

            Family Naticidae
                Polinices duplicatus (Say,  1822)
                P. immaculatus Totten
                Natica canrena Linne
                Natica sp.

        Order Neogastropoda
            Family Buccinidae
                Col us pygmaea (Gould, 1841)

            Family Melongenidae
                Busycon canaliculatum  (Linne,  1758)

            Family Nassariidae
                Nassarius trivittatus  (Say,  1822)

            Family Turridae
                Mangelia cerina  (Kurtz and  Stimpson,  1851)

    Subclass Opisthobranchia
        Order Tectibranchia
            Family Acteonidae
                Acteon sp.

            Family Pyramidellidae
                Turbonilla interrupta (Totten,  1835)

Class Pelecypoda
        Order Protobranchia
            Family Nuculidae
                Nucula proxima (Say, 1820)

        Order Filibranchia
            Family Arcidae
                Anadara transversa  (Say,  1822)

            Family Mytilidae
                Crenella glandula Totten
                Mytilus edulis(Linne^,  1758)

            Family Pectinidae
                Placopecten magellanicus  Gmelin

            Family Anomiidae
                Anomia simplex (Orbigny, 1895)
                           - 73 -

-------
                       Table 22.  (Continued)
                Family Ostreidae
                    Grassestrea virginica (Gmelin, 1792)

            Order Eulamellibranchia
                Family Astartidae
                    Astarte undata(Gould/ 1841)
                    A. castanea Say
                    7TT subequiTatera Sowerby

                Family Carditidae
                    Venericardia borealis (Conrad, 1831)

                Family Arcticidae
                    Arc tic a islandica Linne

                Family Lucinidae
                    Phacoides filosus Stimpson
                         •v
                Family Cardiidae
                    Cerastoderma  p 1 nnu 1 atum Conrad
                    Trachycardium muricatum Linne

                Family Veneridae
                    Pitar morrhuana  (Linsley, 1845)
                    Transenella stimpsoni Dall
                    Dosinia discus Reeve

                Family Tellinidae
                    Tellina agilis(Stimpson, 1858)

                Family Semelidae
                    Abra lioica Dall

                Family Solenidae
                    Ens is directus (Conrad, 1843)

                Family Mactridae
                    Spisula solidissima  (Dillwyn,  1877)

                Family Corbulidae
                    Corbula contracta(Say, 1822)

                Family Pandoridae
                    Pandora gouldiana(Dall,  1866)
                    P^ trilineata Say

Phylum Arthropoda
    Class Crustacea
        Subclass Malacostraca

                             -  74 -

-------
                  Table 22.  (Continued)
Order Curaacea
        Family Leuconidae
            Eudorella sp. 1
        Family Diastylidae
            Diastylis sp. 1
        Family Unknown
            Unidentified sp. 1

Order Tanaidacea
        Family Paratanaidae
            Leptochelia sp. 1

Order Isopoda
    Suborder Flabellifera
        Family Cirolanidae
            Cirolana concharum  (Stimpson,  1853)
            C^ impressa(Harger, 1883)
            C. polita Tstimpson,  1853)
    Suborder Valvifera
        Family Idoteidae
            Chiridotea arenicola(Wigley,  1960)
            C. stenops {Menzies  and  Frankenberg,  1966)
            Edotea triloba  (Say,  1818)

Order Amphipoda
    Suborder Gamraaridea
        Family Ampeliscidae
            Ampelisca vadorurn(Mi1Is,  1963)
            Ai. declivitatus(Mills,  1967)
            Sybils serrata(Smith, 1874)
        Family Calliopiidae
            Ap her us a gracilis (Plolmes,  1905)
        Family Corophiidae
            Siphonoecetes smithianus(Rathbun,  1905)
            Unciola dissimi1is(Shoemaker,  1945)
            IL. inermis( Shoemaker, 1945)
            U. irrorata(Say, 1818)
        Family Haustoriidae
            Protohaustorius deichinannae(Bousfield,  1965)
            P. wigleyi(Bousfield, 1965)
        Family Lyssianassidae
            Hippomedon serratus (Holmes,  1905)
        Family Phoxocephalidae
            Trichophoxus epistomus (Shoemaker,  1938)
            Paraphoxus spinosus(Holmes,  1903)
            Plioxocephalus holbolli  (Kroyer,  1842)
        Family Stenothoidae
            Prqboloides holmesi(Bousfield,  1973)
    Suborder Caprellidea
        Family Cap^eellidae
            Aeginina 1ongicornis  (Kroyer,  1842)

                        - 75 -

-------
                   Table 22.  (Continued)
Phylum Ectoprocta
    Class Gymnolaeraata
        Order Ctenostomata
                Family Alcyonidiidae
                    Alcyonidium polyoum  (Hassall, 1841)
                Family Flustrellidae
                    Flustrellidra hispida (Fabricius,  1780)

        Order Cheilostomata
            Suborder Anasca
                Family Alderinidae
                    Callopora sp.
                Family Scrupariidae
                    Scruparia chelata  (Linne, 1758)
            Suborder Ascophora
                Family Microporellidae
                    Microporella ciliata (Pallas, 1766)
                Family Smittinidae
                    Par a sin it tin a sp.

Phylum Echinodermata
    Class Echinoidea
            Family Arbaciidae
                Arbacia punctulata  (Lamarck, 1816)
            Family Echinarachnidae
                Echinarachnius parma  (Lamarck,  1816)
    Class Ophiuroidea
        Ophiuroid sp. 1

Phylum Chordata
    Subphylum Urochordata
        Class Ascidiacea
            Ascidian sp. 1
                       - 76 -

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      Table 23. OCCURRENCE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT
               STATION 1
Species
Polychaeta
Lumbrinereis paradoxa
Progoniada regularis
Tharyx sp.
Ceratocephale loveni
Axiothella nucosa
Paraonidae sp.
Chaetozone sp.
Aricidea suecica
Cirratul idae sp.
Ampharef'dae sp.
Aalaophamus circinata
Nephtyl dap sp.
Mollusca '
Spisula sol idissima
Venen'cardia borealis
Placosecten nagellanicus
Cerastodema pinnulatum
Astarte undata
Creoidula plana
Margaritas groelandicus
Acteon sp.
Ensis directus
Nucula proxima
Anomia simplex
Crepidula fornicata
Transenella stirnpsoni
Astarte castanea
01 02

1 5
17
1
1
-
-
_
-
-
-
-
-

V V
V V
V V
V V
V V
D D
1
D
V
V
V
V
-
-
03

3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

V
V
V
V
-
-
V
-
D
V
V
-
V
-
04

2
16
-
-
1
1
2
-
-
-
-
-

-
V
V
D
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
V
D
Sample
05

6
25
-
-
6
-
2
1
-
-
-
-

V
V
V
D
-
D
-
-
V
V
V
D
-
V
06 07

3 1
22
-
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
-
-

V
V V
V V
V V
-
D
V
-
V
V
V
-
V
D V
08

13
12
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
2
1
-

-
V
V
D
-
-
-
-
V
V
V
-
-
V
09

3
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2

V
V
-
-
-
D
-
-
V
-
-
-
V
V
* D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
 V - Separate valve
 P - Present

                                 - 77 -

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                             Table 23.  (Continued)
       Species
                     Sample
01     02    03    04   05    06
                      07    08
09
Mollusca (cont.)
  Tellina sp.
  Nassarius trivittatus
  Busycon canaliculatum
  Anadara transversa
  Crassostrea virginica
  Mytilus edulis
  Trachycardium muricatum
  Polinices duplicatus
                        D
                        D
                        V
                                          V
                                          V
Crustacea
  Photohaustorius deichmannae
  Trichophoxus epistomus
  Giro!ana concharum
  Byblis serrata
  Siphonoecetes smithianus
  Chiridotea stenops
  Cirolana polita
  Hippomedon serratus
  Unciola inermis
  Phoxocephalus hclholli
  Ampelisca declivitatus
  Unciola irrorata
Others
  Echinarachnius parma
  Obelia sp.
  Microporella ciliata
  Eudendrium dispar
  Sertularia argentae
  Ophiuroid sp.
 6
 5
 2
 1
 1
2
9
             3
             P
             P
                        2
                        1
                                    1
                                    2
                                    - 78 -

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 Table 24.  OCCURRENCE OF  BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT STATION 2
Species 11
Po lye ha eta
Aglaophamus circinata 2
Axiothella mucosa
Progoniada regularis
Nephtyidae sp.
Lumbri nereis paradoxa
Unknown sp. #1
Unknown sp. #2
Mollusca*
Cerastoderma pinnulatum V
My til us eduli s
Venericardia boreal is
Phacoides filosus
Transenella stimpsoni
Astarte undata
Col us pygmaea
Arctica islandica
Polinices immaculatus
Margarites groenlandicus
Ensis directu s
Nucula proxima
Mangel ia cerina
Astarte subequilatera
Natica canrena
Crustacea
Cirolana concharum 4
Trichophoxus epistomus
Paraphoxus spinosus
Ampeliscidea sp.
Sample
12 13

-
2 2
1
-
_
-
-

V
V
V V
v
V
V V
1
V
1
V
-
-
-
-
-

-
2 2
1
•1
14

-
-
1
1
2
1
-

-
-
V
-
-
V
2
-
-
-
1
1
V
-
-

-
1
-
1
15

- •
1
-
1
-
-
1

-
-
V
-
\<
V
-
V
-
-
-
-
-
V
1

-
2
-
-
*D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
 V - Separate valve
 P - Present

                                - 79 -

-------
                           Table 24.  (Continued)
Species
Sample
11 12 13 14
15
Crustacea (cont.)
     Cumacea sp.                                             1
     Cirolana impressa                                                1
     Protohaustorius deichmannae                                      2
     Cirolana polita              -        -        -        -         1
Others
     Echinarachnius parma         -        4        6        3         2
     Callopora sp.                                           P
     Aiscidian sp.                                           P
     Nemertean sp.                                                    1
                                   - 80 -

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 Table 25. OCCURRENCE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT STATION  5
Species 38
Polychaeta
Progoniada regularis 1
Paraonidae sp. 1
Lutnbri nereis acuta
Aricidea suecica
Chaetozone sp.
Axiothella mucosa
Mollusca *
Ensis directus V
Spisula solidissima V
Venericardia boreal is V
Placopecten magellanicus V
Cerastoderma pinnalutuni 0
Arctica islandica 2
Tell ina agilis
Crepidula plana
Anomia simplex
Astarte undata
Astarte castanea
Crenella glandula
Trachycardium muricatum
Col us pygmaea
Crustacea
Cirolana polita
Edotea triloba
Unciola inermis
Unciola irrorata
Sample
39 40

2 10
-
1 2
-
-
-

-
V V
V
V V
-
-
V
D
V
V
1
-
-
-

3
1
1
3
41

9
-
6
-
1
7

-
V
V
V
V
-
-
-
V
-
1
-
D
D

-
-
1
-
42

5
-
-
2
-
-

-
V
V
V
D
-
-
-
-
-
V
V
-
-

-
-
-
-
      Phoxocephalus hoi bolli
*D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
 V - Separate valve
 P - Present
                                - 81 -

-------
                          Table 25.  (Continued)
                                                  Sample
     Species	39	39	40	41
Crustacea (cont.)
     Leptochelia sp.                                          1
Others
     Echinarachnius parma                           1
     Microporella ciliata                                             P
     Nemertean sp.  =1              -        -        -       11        4
                                   - 82 -

-------
 Table 26.  OCCURRENCE  OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT STATION  8
Species 43
Polychaeta
Progoniada regularis 3
Axiothella mucosa 1
Lumbri nereis acuta 1
Aglaophamus circinata
Unknown sp.
Stauronereis rudolphi
Brania wellfleetensis
Glycera dibranchiata
Aricidea suecica
Tharyx marioni
Stauronereis caeca
Nephtys pi eta
Mollusca *
Anomia simplex
Spisula solidissima
Venericardia boreal is V
Astarte castanea
Placopecten magellanicus V
Cerastoderma pinnulatum 1
Sample
44 45

7
2
8
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
V
V
V
V
V

7
3
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
2

V
V
V
0
V
D
46 47

4 22
11
3 4
-
-
1 2
1
1
4
1
-
-

V
V
V
V
V V
D D
      Nassarius  trivittatus        D        D
      Crenella glandula            V        V
      Crepidula  plana              -        D
      Tellina agilis               -        V
      Arctica islandica            -        V
      Natica sp.                   -        1
      Transenella  stimpsoni        -        V
      Dosinia discus               -        V
      Ensis directus
*D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
 V - Separate valve
 P - Present
                                  - 83 -

-------
                          Table 26.   (Continued)
Species 43
Mollusca (cont.)
Nucula proxima
Margarites greonlandicus
Sample
44 45 46
V
D
47
-
Crustacea
     Unciola inermis              --11-
     Phoxocephalus hoi bolli       2
     Leptochelia sp.                       1
     Diastylis sp.                1
     Unciola dissimilis           3
     Cirolana polita                       1        2
     Unciola irrorata             -212-
     Trichophoxus epistomus       -        1        -        1        1
     Ampelisca vadorum                                                1

Others_
     Nemertean sp. #1             -        4        -        7
     Echinarachnius parma                  3
     Sertularia argentea          P
     Flustrellidra hispida        P
     Oligochaete sp.  ^1           -        1
     Unidentified segmented object                           1
                                  - 84 -

-------
 Table 27.  OCCURRENCE OF  BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT STATION 9
Species
Polychaeta
Si gal ion arenicola
Progoniada regularis
Lumbrinereis acuta
Axiothella mucosa
Aricidea suecica
Nephtys picta
Sthenelais limicola
Autolytus cornutus
Mollusca*
Ensis directus
Anomia simplex
Pandora trilineata
Venericardia boreal is
Cerastoderma pinnulatum
Transenella stimpsoni
Astarte castanea
Tellina agilis
Turbom'lla interuppta
Phacoides filosus
Pitar morrhuana
Crenella glandula
Placopecten magellanicus
Margarites groenlandicus
Polnices immaculatus
Spisula solidissima
Crepidula plana

Nassarius trivittatus
Sample
48 49 50 51

1 1
4
1 - 8
1 - - 2
1
1
1
_

V V
V - V
v
V V V -
V V D
v
V V V -
v
0 - - -
v
v
v - -
v
D
1
V V
J
v
1
52

-
-
2
1
-
-
-
7

-
-
-
V
D
-
V
V
-
-
-
-
V
-
-
-
-
-
D
* D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
 V - Separate valve
 P - Present

                                - 85 -

-------
                           Table 27.  (Continued)
                                                  Sample
     Species                     48       49       50       51       52
Crustacea
     Chiridotea stenops           1        -        -        1
     Protohaustorius wigleyi      1        3
     Trichophoxus epistomus       322-2
     Cirolana concharum           2
     Cirolana polita                                         ]
     Cancer irroratus                      ...        2
     Chiridotea arenicola                                             1
     Aeginina longicornis         -___•)
     Ampelisca declivitatus                                           1
     Ampherusa gracilis                                               1
     Proboloides holmesi                                               1

Others^
     Echinarachnius parma         2
     Sertularia argentea                                               P
     Scruparia chelata                                                P
     Campanularia neglecta                                            P
     Eudendrium dispar                                                P
                                  - 86 -

-------
 Table 28.  OCCURKENCE OF  BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT STATION  11
Species
Polychaeta
Progoniada regularis
Lumbrinereis paradoxa
Syllis gracilis
Terebe]]idae sp.
Cirratulidae sp.
Glyceradi branch! a ta
Axiothella mucosa
Aricidea suecica
Syllis cornuta
Mollusca*
Astarte castanea
Venericardia boreal is
Ensis directus
Placopecten magellanicus
Crenelle glandula
Col us pygmaea
Spisula solidissima
Polinices immaculatus
Tellina agilis
Nucula proxima
Corbula contracta
Transenella stimpsoni
Cerastoderma pinnulatum
Nassarius trivittatus
Crustacea
Unciola inermis
Unciola irrorata
Siphonoecetes smithianus
Leptochelia sp.
16

17
7
2
1
-
-
-
-
-

V
V
V
V
V
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

1
2
-
-
Sample
17 18

33 103
8 37
-
-
1
1
6
4
2

V V
V
-
V
-
1
V
D
V
V
V
V
1
V

2
4
1
1
19

14
11
-
-
-
1
2
-
-

V
V
-
V
-
1
-
-
V
-
-
-
-
-

-
1
-
-
20

23
8
-
-
-
1
-
-
2

V
-
,
V
V
-
V
-
V
-
-
-
D
_

-
2
-
-
*D - Dead gastropoed or dead valves joined together
 V - Separate valve
 P - Present
                                - 87 -

-------
                           Table 28.  (Continued)
                                                 Sample
     Species                     16       17       18       19       20
Crustacea (cont.)
     Cirolana concharum                    1
     Cirolana polita               -        -        1        -        1
     Ampelisca nadorum                                                1
Others
     Nemertean sp.  #1              -       19
     Eudendrium dispar
                                   - 88 -

-------
 Table 29.  OCCURRENCE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT STATION 13
Species
Polychaeta
Axiothella mucosa
Lumbrinereis brevipes
Exogone verugera
Marphysa belli
Progoniada regularis
Sabella microphthalma
Glycera dibrachiata
Aricidea suecica
Lumbrinereis paradoxa
Aricidea wassi
Phyllodoce maculatus
Eunice pennata
Unknown sp. #1
Mollusca*
Astarte castanea
Venericardia boreal is
Ensis directus
Crenella glandula
Placopecten magellanicus
Cerastoderma pinnulatum
Natica sp.
Busycon canal iculatum
22

1
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

V
V
V
V
V
\"
i
1
D
Sample
23 24

3
-
-
-
1 6
-
1
1 2
6
_
-
-
-

V
V V
V
-
V
D
-
_ _
25

-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
3
1
1
1
-

V
V
-
-
V
V
-
_
26

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7

-
V
-
-
-
V
-
_
      Col us pygmaea
      Arctica islandica
      Margarites  groenlandicus
      Trachycardium muricatum
*D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
 V - Separate valve
 P - Present
D

D
                                 - 89 -

-------
                           Table 29.  (Continued)
Species
Crustacea
Unicola irrorata
Ampelisca sp.
Byblis serrata
Unciola inermis
Eudorella sp.
Ampelisca declivitatus
Tricophoxus epistomus
22

3
2
-
-
-
-
-
Sample
23 24 25

1 1
-
4 - 1
1
1
4
_
26

1
-
3
1
-
3
4
Others_
     Ophiuroidea sp.              1        -         1         -
     Echinarachnius parma         2        -         -         -
     Microporella ciliata         p        -         P         -
     Sertularia argentea          P        P         -         -
     Eudendrium dispar            P        P         -         -
     Callopora sp.                -        P         P         -
     Asterias vulgaris            -        -         -         1
     Arbacia punctulata           -        -         -         1
     Alcyonidium polyoum                                      P
     Parasmittinia sp.            -        -         -         P
                                  - 90 -

-------
 Table 30.  OCCURRENCE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT STATION 14
       Species
28
29
Sample
 20
21
32
  Polchaeta
       Axiothella mucosa
       Goniadidar sp.
       Progoniada regularis
       Eteone trilineata
       Sabellidae sp.
       Eteone Tonga
       Aricidea suecica
       Aricidea jeffreysi
       Eteone lactea
       Euchone sp.
       Nephtyidae sp.
       Clymenella torquata
       Eteone flava
       Ampharetidae  sp.
  Mollusca*
 2
 4
 1
 1
 1
 1
       Ens is directus              V        D
       Cerastoderma  pinnulatum      1        V
       Astarte castanea             V
       Placopecten magellanicus     -        V
       Astarte undata
       Venericardia  boreal is
      Arctica  islandica
       Trachycardium muricatum
       Polinices  immaculatus
	Spisula solidissima
*D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
 V - Separate valve
 P - Present
                   1
                   2
                  V
                  V
                  V
                  V
                  V

                  2
                                   - 91 -

-------
                          Table 30.  (Continued)
                                                  Sample
     Species	28	29	30	31	32_
Crustacea
     Tricophoxus epistomus        65261
     Siphonoecetes smithianus              1
     Ampelisca declivitatus                1
     Unciola irrorata                                        1
     Byblis serrata                                          1
     Phoxocephalus hobolli                                   1
     Protohaustorius wigleyi                                          1

Others_
     Callopora sp.                P
     Echinarachnius parma         -        5        -        1         2
     Ophiuroidea sp.                                                  1
                                  - 92 -

-------
Table 31. OCCURRENCE OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AT STATION 17
Species
Polychaeta
Axiothella mucosa
Lumbri nereis acuta
Chaetozone sp.
Aricidea suecica
Cirratulidae sp.
Nephtys picta
Aricidea wassi
Nephtys bucera
Sigalion arenicola
Spiophanes bombyx
Scolecolepides viridis
Mollusca *
Spisula solidissima
Tellina agilis
Venericardis boreal is
Crenella glandula
Astarte castanea
Cerastoderma pinnulatum
Busycon canal iculatum
Crepidula plana
Nassarius trivittatus
Anomia simplex
Pandora trilineata
Astarte undata
Caecum cooperi
Anadara transversa
Abra lioica
Corbula contracta
*D - Dead gastropod or dead valves
V - Separate valve
P - Present
33 34

4 2
4
1
1
1
-
-
-
_
-
-
V V
V V
V
V V
V V
D
D
D D
D D
V V
V
-
-
-
-
joined together
Sample
35

1
-
-
1
-
1
2
1
-
-
-
V
V
-
V
-
V
-
D
-
-
1
V
D
V
V

36

6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
V
V
D
V
V
-
-
-
V
-
-
-
-
-
V
37

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
V
V
-
V
-
V
-
D
-
V
-
-
-
-
-

                            - 93 -

-------
                        Table 31.   (Continued)
     Species
33
34
Sample
   35
36
37
Mollusca (cont.)
     Ensis directus
     Natica pusilla
     Pandora gouldiana
     Marginellidae sp.
     Placopecten magellanicus
     Margarites groenlandicus

Crustacea
     Trichophoxus epistomus
     Cirolana polita
     Protohaustorius wigleyi
     Cirolana impressa
     Ampelisca declivitatus
     Byblis serrata
Others
     Echinarachnius parma
     Nemeltean sp.#2
                            D
                            D
                            V
                            V
                             4
                             1
                                      V
                                      V
                                  - 94 -

-------
     Table 32. SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF EPIBENTHIC FAUNA
                  (Sample QK7354-0201)
Henricia sanguinolaria
5.0 cm
2.4 cm
3.6 cm
3.2 cm
    3.6 cm
S = 1.1 cm
                         Asterias vulgaris
3.6 cm
2.9 cm
3.0 cm
2.3 cm
3.0 cm
1.8 cm
2.2 cm
x = 2.7 cm
S = 0.6 cm
                                          Leg  missing
Asterias tanneri
3. 6 cm
3.8 cm
3.0 cm
3.6 cm
3. 5 cm
4.7 cm
Leg missing

x = 3.7 cm

S - 0.6 cm
Leptasterias tenera

3.2 cm
2.9 cm
2.4 cm  x = 2.8 cm
2.2 cm  S = 0.5 cm
2.5 cm  Leg missing
2.7 cm  Leg missing
2.5 cm
3.1 cm
2.9 cm
2.1 cm
2.6 cm
2.6 cm
4.0 cm
3.0 cm
                                          Leg missing
                       - 95 -

-------
           70 n
           60-
         8 ซo
         UJ
         m
         2
         |30
           20
           10 •
             13 U It  21 24 27  30 33 M 39 42  45 4*

                     QOO LENGTH (CM) ODD



Figure 25 — Size frequency distribution of Echinarachnius

parma (sand dollar) collected in a 16-ft otter trawl at Station 2.

Numbers of organisms are in relation to their length in

centimeters  (see Figure  27).
           70
           40
           50
         C/> 40
         tr
         UJ
         m


         I 30
           2O
           10
             11  14 17  20 29 26 29 32 35  3t 41  44  47

                     000 WIDTH (CM) 000


Figure 26 — Size frequency distribution of Echinarachnius

parma.  Size is width of organism in centimeters.  Organisms

were captured at Station 2 (see Figure 27).
                          - 86 -

-------
       Table 33.  MA GROIN VERTEBRATES FROM  ANCHOR
                 DREDGE SAMPLES

                                      Station
	Species	1   2   5   6   8   9   11 13 14   17
Echinodermata
   Echinarachnius parma    17   19   6   15   11  30   ~ 4 11   3
   Asterias sp.             —   4  —    1   —  —   — — —   1
Crustacea
   Paguras sp.              1   —  —   —   —  —   — — —   1
Mollusca
   Arctica sp.              --   2  --    1    1  —   — 2  2   2
   Placopecten sp.          —   1  —   —   —  —   — 1 —   —
   Nassaruis sp.           —   —  —    1    1   2   — 4 —   —
Polychaeta
   Nephtys sp.              —   	   —    1  —   	2?   1
   Aphrodita sp.           —   —  —   —   —  —    1 — —   —
   Unidentified sp.          —   —   1   —   —  —   — —  2   —
                             - 97 -

-------
                                                 Length (4. 5 cm)
                                                                   Width (4.3 cm)
    Figure 27 — Diagram of Echinarachnius parma showing length and width
                 measurements of an individual.  Length is the longest line
                 of the sand dollar while width is the distance across the
                 organism at 90ฐ angle from length line.
3.  Interpretation

       A cursory examination of the fauna reveals approximately 120 species
representing eight phyla. The annelids (polychaetes) comprise approximately
33%, the molluscs (pelecypods and gastropods) 33%, and the arthropods
(crustaceans) 26%.  The remaining five phyla comprise 8% of the fauna.  Among
the principal taxonomic groups the polychaetes were the most abundant, followed
by the crustaceans and then the molluscs.  Many of the molluscs were not alive
when they were collected.
                                   - 98 -

-------
       Among the polychaetes, Progoniada regular: s, Lumbrineris paradoxa,
and Axiothella mucosa were the most abundant species.  Another lumbrinerid,
Lumbrineris acuta and species of Paronidae (Aricidea spp.) were occasionally
dominant in abundance.  Based on mouth parts and general habits  of the families,
P_. regularis and L^ paradoxa are probably primarily carnivores, reverting
secondarily to detritus feeders in the absence of suitable prey.
       Among the crustaceans, amphipods (Trichophoxus  epistomus,
Protohaustorius wigleyi, Unciola spp.) and isopods (Cirolana spp.) were the
most abundant.  Trichophoxus epistomus was also found to be a characteristic
sand bottom dweller near the mouth of the bay (Maurer et  al., 1973).
       As noted earlier, few live molluscs were collected.  Valves of
Venericardia borealis, Spisula solidissima, Colus pygmaea,  Cerastoderma
pinnulatum, and Tellina agilis were most common.
       Among the remaining phyla, there were six species of ectoprocts and
three species of echinoderms. Although quantitative data  were unavailable for
the echinoderms, the  sea stars and sand dollars must be considered among the
most conspicuous and characteristic species collected.
       In summary, the benthic organisms are characteristic of a firm sand-
shell-gravel community. The community is dominated by sea stars, sand dollars,
and polychaetes.  In terms  of feeding types, it appears that suspension feeders
and carnivores are extremely well represented.  Deposit feeders and detritus
feeders are poorly represented.  Based on a preliminary examination,  this
sand bottom community is surprisingly diverse and abundant. Moreover,  it is
anticipated that greater attention to qualitative dredge hauls would have produced
additional  epifaunal species.  For purposes of future monitoring, significant
changes in populations of sand dollars, principal polychaetes, and some of the
more fleshy ectoprocts would be  indicative of changes in water quality.  Based
on the benthos, this site appears unpolluted.
                                   - 99 -

-------
E.  HEAVY METALS IN ORGANISMS

1.  Previous Work
       The propensity for marine organisms to selectively accumulate certain
chemical species has long been recognized (Merlini,  1971) and this natural
activity must be carefully observed with current ocean dumping practices.
Relatively few data exist on detrimental levels of metals in the various organisms
in the marine food chains, and accelerated introduction of these materials may
affect the relatively stable but sensitive metabolism of this biota.
       Buelow (1968) examined metals  contents from clam meats (Spisula
solidissima) at an ocean dumpsite near the mouth of Delaware Bay, and found
them to contain higher than expected concentrations of chromium and nickel.
This organism was not collected on this cruise, although shells were present.
       Davey (1972)  analyzed sea clams from the same site and found similar
levels as Buelow.

2.  Present Cruise
       Results of metals analyses for various  organisms on the present cruise
are shown in Table 34.  Levels of all metals in the biota seem to be generally
comparable with levels found in clam meats nearby except one zooplankton tow
(cf. Section A, Zooplankton) that had a  materially greater level than either the
replicate tow at Station 9 or a tow at Station 14.  This probably represents the
inherent variation to be  expected from the biological systems.  The nudibranch
from Station 2 was high  in zinc and nickel.  The gonad material from the  sea
robin, Prionotus carolinus (Linnaeus), was high in zinc also.
       Copper, zinc, iron, lead, nickel, and cadmium analyses were done on
24 samples of  sand dollars,  Echinarachnius parma, collected from nine stations
located within  the existing dumpsite,  an immediately adjacent area, and areas
distant from the site (Table 35).   Sample results were grouped on that basis.
                                  - 100 -

-------

























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-------
Table 35.  HEAVY METAL ANALYSES OF SAND DOLLARS,
         Enchinarachnius parrna

Station Latitude
1 38ฐ 23.8'N
1
1
2 38* 22.3'N
2
2
5 38" 18.7'N
6 38' 21.3'N
6
8 38* 20.7'N
8
8 "
9 38ฐ 11.9'N
9 "
9 "
13 38* 23.4'N
13
14 38ป 27.8'N
14
14
17 38" 12.1'N
17
17
2 38* 22.3'N
Longitude
74ฐ 15.3'W
11
"
74* 14.2'W
it
11
74* 19.4'W
74* 16.5'W
11
74" 19.0'W
it
"
74" 32.9'W
tt
11
74* 09.6'W
II
73ฐ 57.0'W
"
"
74ฐ 28.3'W
it
it
74* 14.2'W
Code
QK73420101
QK73420102
QK73420103
QK73420201
QK73420202
QK73420203
QK73420502
QK73420602
QK73420603
0X73420801
QK73420802
QK73420803
QK73420901
QK73420902
QK73420903
QK73421301
QK73421303
QK73421401
QK73421402
QK73421403
QK73421701
QK73421702
QK734217U3
QK73540202
Ug/g
Dry Wt
.9786
1.3153
1.8224
.4855
.7730
1.4818
3.2121
.4537
.5960
.6098
.5215
.9327
2.1527
1.8443
1.6039
1.3762
1.0895
2.2220
2.5713
2.0170
3.4574
2.1545
2.3845
1.6500
Cd
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Q
0
0
.3
.4
0
.3
.3
.2
1.8
Cu
2.3
0.4
0.4
2.1
1.6
1.2
1.0
2.8
2.1
2.0
4.8
1.9
11.4
1.0
1.0
1.1
3.0
1.2
.8
1.0
.7
1.4
.9
8.3
Zn
6
8.0
5.8
10.8
11.3
30
4.7
9.9
10
7.0
6.2
5.6
13.6
7.0
6.4
7.3
14.0
7.4
7.7
8.4
5.9
9.3
7.0
254
Pb
10
10
8
21
10
12
5
22
17
8.2
19
8
3.5
6.8
4.7
1.8
6.9
3.4
5.8
6.2
4.3
5.8
7.3
12
Ni
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Fe
130
44
60
420
580
260
134
560
360
250
280
310
184
330
330
240
380
90
80
70
120
120
220
100
                     - 102 -

-------
       Group I                      Dumpsite
       (Stations 1,  6, 8, 2)           12 samples from 4 stations
       Group II                     Adjacent Areas
       (Stations 5 and 13)            3 samples from 2 stations
       Group III                     Distant Areas
       (Stations 9,  14, and 17)       9 samples from 3 stations
       A data summary is given in Table 36.  The levels of Cu in Groups I and
II appear to be higher than those levels found in Group III.  This suggests a
trend for the concentration of Cu by those sand dollars found in the dumpsite
proper and the adjacent area. The significance of this trend can only be verified
through an expansion of the data base realized through more field collections and
metal analyses.   We feel that there is enough evidence of Cu enhancement in
sand dollars under the influence of the dumpsite to warrant further investigation.
       Levels of Zn do not reflect any trend or differences between those
animals analyzed between the various groups.
       Levels of Fe appear to reflect a slight trend for enhancement in those
sand dollars collected under  the influence of the dumpsite.  Our recommendation
is the same as that  made for Cu — more data to verify the apparent trend.

3.  Interpretation
       These data indicate selective uptake discussed above, as well as inherent
variation.
       The  effect of the nearby acid dumpsite may also have bearing on the
occasionally high levels of materials, but the data to date are too scarce to
draw sound  conclusions.
       The  variability of the data would indicate that sustained,  statistically
designed sampling efforts are required,  especially in the more mobile nektonic
organisms and because of the nearby acid waste dumpsite.
                                   - 103 -

-------
      Table 36.  DATA SUMMARY OF HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS


         Group I                      Range: 0. 4 to 4. 8
                                     Mean: 2

        Group II                     Range: 1.1 to 3.0
                                     Mean:  1.7

        Group III                     Range: 0.8 to 1.4
        (An extraordinarily high       Mean:  1
        Cu value has been elim-
        inated:  11.4, Station 9,
        replicate 1)
                              Zn (ppm)

        Group I                      Range: 5.6 to 30
                                     Mean:  10

        Group II                     Range: 4.7 to 14
                                     Mean:  8.7

        Group III                     Range: 5. 9 to 13. 6
                                     Mean:  8
                              Fe (ppm)

        Group I                      Range: 44 to 580
                                     Mean:  296

        Group II                     Range: 134 to 240
                                     Mean:  251

        Group III                     Range: 70 to 330
                                     Mean:  171

                              Cd, Pb, Ni

       For the few instances in which some Cd, Pb,  and Ni was detected in some
samples, the values obtained were so close to the limit of detection that no firm
conclusions could be drawn from them.  In all cases, these  metals were functionally
below the reliable level of detection.
                                  - 104 -

-------
F.  BACTERIOLOGY

1.  Previous Work
       Bacteriological analysis of the water column in the vicinity of this cruise
was reported by the U.S. Public Health Service (Buelow,  1968).  Thirty-two
stations were occupied in and out of the Delaware Bay offshore sewage sludge
disposal site 12 miles east of the mouth of Delaware Bay.  Only two of 85 water
samples at a 2-mile  distance from the center of dumpsite showed any positive
coliform MPN' s. No sediments were collected for bacteriological  analysis.,

2.  Survey Cruise
       Ten stations were occupied in the  area of the proposed interim dumpsite.
Stations 14 and  17 were control areas  outside the site while the remainder of
stations were located in the immediate dumpsite.  Water and sediment samples
were collected at each station, with the exception of Station 6 where there was
no sediment sample.
       Water samples  were taken 5 ft above the bottom using a sterile Z obeli
J-Z bulb sampler (Eodina,  1972).  The sample was immediately transferred
into a sterile French square to facilitate handling for analysis.
       Sediments were subsampled from  an undisturbed Shipek bottom grab
using a flame-sterilized 2.7 ml cylindrical spoon.  Samples were placed in  a
sterile French square and brought up to a 100 ml volume with sterile distilled
water.  This was treated as a normal bacteriological sample.
       Both water and sediment samples  were subjected to the standard total
coliform and fecal coliform MPN (most probable number/100 ml sample) analysis
as outlined in "Standard Methods for the  Examination of Water and Wastewater,"
13th edition, APHA,  1971.
       A 3-tube, 4-dilution scheme was followed using sample portions of
10, 1.0,  0. 1, and 0.01 ml.
                                   -105-

-------
       Water sampled from a sterile dilution blank was used as a laboratory
control.
       Results as MPN' s of coliforms and fecal coliforms are shown in Table
37. A negative result indicates an MPN index of <3 coliforms/100 ml sample
at the 95% confidence limit.  Positive  coliform counts were recorded only for
water samples from Stations 6 and 9.   Fecal coliforms were not detected for
any station sampled.  The controls were negative for both coliforms and fecal
coliforms.

3. Interpretation
       The data indicate an aqueous marine environment  relatively free of
terrestrial bacteriological influence.  The incidence of coliforms  in the marine
environment is generally negligible due to the reported bactericidal activity
of seawater (Orlob, 1956). The two positive samples  encountered on this cruise
may have been due to contamination in the laboratory aboard ship. Alternatively,
wastes from ocean-going commercial  vessels could account for sporadic  off-
shore contamination.
       No positive coliform or fecal coliform counts were recorded for sediments
sampled.  This indicates a clean bottom  substrate free from terrestrial  con-
tamination.
                                   - 106 -

-------
Table 37.  COLIFORM, FECAL COLIFORM IN WATER COLUMN
         AND SEDIMENTS (MPN/100 ml)
Sample
QK7310-0102
QK7310-0101

QK7310-0201

QK7310-0601
No sample
QK7310-0801

QK7310-0901

QK7310-1101

QK7310-1301

QK7310-1401

QK7310-1701

QK7310-0501

Station
1
1

2

6
6
8

9

11

13

14

17

5

Date
5-1-73
5-1-73

5-2-73

5-3-73

5-3-73

5-4-73

5-2-73

5-2-73

5-2-73

5-3-73

5-3-73

Time
1644
1644

0735

1725

1415

0910

1330

1630

1940

1725

1125

Depth,
ft
156
156

177

173

138

120

170

175

176

125

151

Sample Coliform
control —
water —
sediment —
water —
sediment —
water 7
sediment —
water —
sediment —
water 4
sediment —
water —
sediment —
water —
sediment —
water —
sediment —
water —
sediment —
water —
sediment —
Fecal
Coliform
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
                         - 107 -

-------
                          VIII. REFERENCES
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Beers, D.,  1966.  Studies on Chemical Composition of the Major Zooplankton
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Bigelow, H. B, and W. C. Schroeder, 1953.  Fishes of the Gulf of Maine
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Bumpus, D. F.,  1973. A Description of the Circulation on the Continental
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Clark, J., W. G. Smith, A.  W. Kendall, Jr., and M. P.  Fahay, 1969.  Studies
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                                  -  108-

-------
Cook,  D.  O.,  1969.  Calibration of the University of Southern California
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Davey, C. T., 1972.  Assessment of the Effects of Digested Sewage Sludge
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Deevy, G. B., 1960.  Plankton Studies,  Bull. Bingham Oceanographic Collec-
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Degobbis, D.,  1973.  On the Storage of Seawater Samples for Ammonia Deter-
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Duane, D. B., M. E. Field,  E. P.  Meisburger, D. J. P. Swift,  and S. J.
Williams, 1972.  Linear Shoals on the Atlantic Inner  Continental Shelf,  Florida
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D. B.  Duane, and O.  H. Pilkey, Stroudsburg, Pa., Dowden,  Hut chins on and
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du Pont deNemours,  E.I.,  1972.  Waste  Dispersion Characteristics in an
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Emery, K. O., 1968.  Position of Empty Pelecypod Valves on the Continental
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Fisher, Alvan, 1973.  Environmental Guide to the Virginia Capes Operating
Area,  Special  Publication,  U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office,  Washington, D0 C.

Felix,  D.  W.,  1969.  Design  of an Automatically Recording Settling Tube for
Analysis of Sands, J.  Sed.  Petrology, 39: 777-780.

Friedman, G.  M., 1962. On Sorting, Sorting Coefficients and the Log Normality
of the Grain Size Distribution of Sandstones, J. Geology, 70: 737-753.

Gibbs, R.  J.,  1972.  The Accuracy  of Particle-Size Analyses Utilizing  Settling
Tubes, J.  Sed. Petrology,  42; 141-145.

Harris, D. L., 1972.  Wave Estimates for  Coastal Regions,  in: Shelf Sediment
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Stroudsburg, Pa., Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross,  Inc., p. 447-498, 656 p.
                                   - 109  -

-------
Harvey, G. R. and J.  Teal,  1973.  PCB and Hydrocarbon Contamination of
Plankton by Nets, Bull. Environ. Contam.  and Toxicol.,  9:287-295.

Hopkins, T. L., 1973. Zooplankton Standing Crop in the Pacific Sector of the
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Inman, D. L., 1949.  Sorting of Sediment in Light of Fluid Mechanics, J. Sed.
Petrology,  19: 51-70.

Inman, D. L., 1952.  Measures for Describing the Size Distribution of
Sediments, J, Sed. Petrology, 22: 125-145.

Kester, D. R.,  and R. A.  Courant,  1973.  A Summary of Chemical Oceano-
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shore Environmental Inventory, Publication Series, University of Rhode
Island.

Laughton,  A. S.,  1963.  Microtopography, in-. The Sea, Ideas and Observations,
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Lovegrove, T., 1966. The Determination  of the Dry Weight of Plankton and
the Effect  of Various Factors on the Values Obtained, in: Some Contemporary
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Maurer, D.  and H. Wang,  1973.  Environmental Vulnerability of the Delaware
Bay Area to Supertanker Accommodation,  Vol. II, Biology,  352 p.  Report
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Maurer, D.  and L. Watling,  1973a.  Studies on the Oyster Community of
Delaware: The Influence of the Estuarine Environment on the Associated
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Maurer, D.  and H. Wang,  1973b. The Biology of the Oyster Community and
Its Associated Fauna in Delaware Bay, Delaware Bay Report Series 6: 1-97.

Maurer, D., R.  Biggs, W. Leathern, P. Kinner, W. Treasure,  M. Otley,
L. Watling,  and V.  Klemas,  1973.   Effect  of Spoil Disposal on Benthic Com-
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McClennen,  C.  E.,  1973.  New Jersey Continental Shelf Near Bottom Current
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Menzel, D.  W.,  and N. Corwin,  1965.  The Measurement of Total Phosphorus
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                                   - 110-

-------
Menzel, D. W., and J. H. Ryther,  1961.  Zooplankton in the Sargasso Sea off
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                                  -  Ill -

-------
Risebrough, R. W., V. Vreeland, G. R. Harvey, H.  P.  Miklas, and G. M.
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                                   - 112 -

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Woodhead, P.M.J., and A,  J. Lee, 1960. A New Instrument for Measuring
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                                 - 113 -

-------
                      Appendix A

   PARTICIPANTS IN CRUISE ABOARD B/V ANNANDALE


Westinghouse Ocean Research Laboratory

       Bill Clarke
       Dick Onstenk
       Joe Forns
       Jim Francis

Environmental Protection Agency,  Region III, Philadelphia

       Al Montague

Environmental Protection Agency,  Headquarters, Washington, D. C.

       Bill Muir

City of Philadelphia

       Bob Romaine

Environmental Protection Agency,  Annapolis Field  Office
       Don Lear
       Sue Smith
       Maria O' Malley
       Bill Thomas

Environmental Protection Agency,  Narragansett
       Bruce Reynolds
       Ross Johnson

Environmental Protection Agency,  Corvallis

       Allan Teter

Marine Science Consortium, Lewes, Delaware

       John Miller, Captain
       Bob Swift,  Scientific Coordinator
       Alex Kronsteiner,  Engineer
       Bill Flohr,  Mate
       Gordon Edwards, Cook

                           - 114-

-------
                                   Appendix B

                                   SHIP'S LOG
DATE:   5/1/73
Time
                POSITION
Depth       3 H4       3 H5
                                                           COMMENTS  Sheet 1
13:30
14:15
15:00
15:24
15:55
16:20
16:30
16:38
16:44
16:50
18:15
19:11
19:25
19:35
19:48
20:07
20:15
20:30
20:49



120


128

156
155
155
155
156
156
156


155
155

3322
3304
3324
3358
3383
3384
3375
3370
3365
3370
3367
3372
3371
3365
3366.
3368
3365
3367

3107
3080
3067
3046
3030
3024
3021
3016
3014
3019
3012
3011
3013
3014
3016
3016
3014
3015
Check of DB Whistle Buoy
>l/4 mile error - right on
Loran check off DA Whistle Buoy
3/3 mile off
Delaware Buoy Loran check
>l/4 mile right on
C=100ฐ S=10.5
C=100ฐ S=10.5
Correction to 145
C=145 S=10.5
C=165 S=10.5
C=165 5=10.5
Bacti's
Bottom grab Shipek
Back down for Sta. 1
Sled dredge
Sled dredge
Bottom grab Shipek
1 mi. off Sta. 1 heading 270 back
Bottom grab Shipek (2)
Bottom grab Shipek (1)
Back to Sta. 1
Set sed. trap
Sta. 1 Shipek (2)
Shipek
                                    - 115 -

-------
DATE:      5/1/73
Time
                  POSITION
Depth        3 H4       3 H5
                                                                              Sheet 2
COMMENTS
20:55
21:00
21:20
21:40
21:50
22:08
22:28
22:40
23:00
23:30









156
154

















3367
3318
3371
3370
3372
3371
3365
3365
3372
3371









3014
3018
3016
3016
3015
3011
3008
3008
3004
3014









TV
TV camera over
TV camera reaches bottom

TV up
Trawl set C=180 S=2k
Trawl up - no specimen
Plankton tow C=120 S=2k
Plankton tow up C=325 S=10.5
Check C=330 S=10.5









                                         -  116-

-------
DATE:     5/2/73
Time
                 POSITION
Depth        3  H4        3 H5
                                                                              Sheet 13
                                                                  COMMENTS
07:10
07:45
08:00
08:10
08:25
08:54
09:07
09:30
10:00
10:22
11:20
11:22
12:02
12:50
13:05
13:13
13:40
14:10
14:30
15:15
177
178
180
178
178

177


170


176

174
170




3356
3360
3357
3357
3357
3360
3357


3360
3350
3350
3357
3357
3363
3370
3370
3370
3374
3377
3009
3010
3008
3008
3008
3008
3008


3008
3017
3017
3008
3003
3003
3002
3002
3001
3001
3001
Bacti 5 Shipek grabs Sta. 2
C=l
Anchored Sta. 2
Anchor set Anchor dredge
Sed. trap put in
Anchor up, anchor dredge (2)
3 Van Dorn bottles
Anchor dredge
Anchor dredge
Back to Sta. 2 C=8 D=218
Anchor dredge set - drift
Trawl set
Anchor dredge in
Trawl in
Plankton cast
Arr. Sta. 2
Anchor for TV lifted
TV up head for 11 C=045 S=8
Bacti, Shipek
Station 11 anchor
Check on drift
Drift check
Sediment trap cast, anchor up
Anchor dredge up, head for Sta. 13
                                        - 117-

-------
DATE:      5/2/73
Time
                 POSITION
Depth        3  H4        3 H5
                                                                             Sheet 14
COMMENTS
15:30
16:00
16:10
1620
19:10
19:25
19:35
20:15
20:36
21:00
21 :40
22:00
22:35
22:50
23:55




178
170
175


173
176
173
173
173
173
173
175
172





3391
3395
3390

3471
3500
3505

3512
3512
3514
3518
3520
3523
3440




j
2995
2995
2995

2974
2968
2967

2967
2967
2967
2967
2961
2958
2980




Arrive Sta. 13 anchor dredge
Anchor dredge
Shipek, tiacti
Anchor Sta. 13
C=065 S=10.5k
Lv Sta. 13 for Sta. 17

Arrive Sta. 14 Set anchor
Shipek, Bacti, Van Dorn Anchor took hold
TV down
TV on bottom
Anchor dredge started
Anchor up Sed. trap dropped
End sed. anchor dredge
Anchor dredge start
Plankton tow out
Anchor dredge in
Plankton tow in C=250 S=8
Head for dump ground
C=265 S=8




                                        - 118-

-------
DATE:    5/3/73
                                                                            Sheet 19
POSITION
Time Depth 3 H4 3 H5
07:15
08:10
09:15
09:35
09:50
10:45
10:56
11:12
12:10
12:40
13:02
13:20
13:55
14:14
15:30
15:55
16:15
16:30
16:40
16:50
125
125

125
125

130
151



135
138
140




151

3181
3181
3181
3200
3180
3254
3276
3290
3294
3295
3305
3298
3318
3319
3321
3334
3313
3317
3313
3314
3030
3030
3032
3030
3030
3023
3023
3023
3022
3022
3020
3018
3020
3018
3018
3019
3019
3019
3019
3018
COMMENTS
Shipek, Van Dorn (anchored)
Sta. 17 Bac-T TV
TV Anchor dredge L=210
2nd Anchor dredge C=080

3rd anchor dredge

Enroute Station 5
Shipek - Bacti - TV - Van Dorn bottles
Drift check
Anchor dredge

Dropped sediment trap
Station #8
Anchored -Shipek .gacti - TV
Anchor dredge start Anchor up
Anchor dredge up C=215 Back to Sta. 8
Sed. trap in Anchor dredge
Anchor dredge up
Anchor dredge set
Anchor dredge up
                                        - 119  -

-------
DATE:     5/3/73
                                                                           Sheet 20
Time Depth
17:15
17:45
18:45
19:35

21:15













173
173



181













POSITION
3 H4 3 H5 COMMENTS
3013
3013
3014
3013

3008













3038
3042
3343
3333

3338













Bacti
Drifting check
Lift anchor
Arrive back at Sta. 6

135ฐ













                                        -  120 -

-------
DATE:    5/4/73
Time
Depth
     POSITION
3 H4        3  H5
                                                                             Sheet 32
                                                                   COMMENTS
07:45
09:05
14:40

















120

















3373
3217

















3043
3051

















Helicopter rendezvous
Bacti -Shipek -Van Dorns - TV
Sta. 9
Loran check with Del. light buoy
Right on
















                                         - 121-

-------
                          Appendix C
                       SCIENTIFIC  LOG
May 1, 1973
0930 - Prepare to get  underway  -  stow all gear
0945 - Scientific party meet  with  ship captain
            Ship Captain -  Miller
            Expedition Leader - Montague
            Expedition Log  -  Muir
       Berth assignments &  party assignments
       Lear changed  station locations - 9, 4, 14 will be changed
          from 5 mi.  to 20  mi.
1057 - Take in Brow
1121 - Away all  lines  - ship  underway - shift colors
1320 Loran fix-1.  dead on
               2.  1/4  mi. east
1500 - Loran fix - Del.  light buoy  - 1/4 mi. northeast
       Heading 108ฐ  from Del. light  buoy
1640 - On Station I  -  156 ft. Loran  3370  3016 - 38ฐ23.8  74ฐ15.3
1644 - Bacti  100101  Shipek over 1 rep. 310101 bent arm
              100102 cntl .              32101
1707 - STD 800101
       100 ft. DO 11.5 Temp.  7.5 Cond. 47 pH 8.9
               DO conversions:  calibrations  air - 7.47
                                            really - 8.95
       50 ft.   DO 11.3 Temp.  10.0  Cond. 47 pH 8.9
       Surface DO 11.4 Temp.  11.0  Cond. 52=56 oH 9.0
1715 - Check depth  155 ft. lead line
                    155 ft. fathometer
1815 - Anchor dredge  3 rep.
               410101-03
               420101-03
               430101-03

                             - 122 -

-------
May 1, 1973

1925 - Shipek repaired  continued sampling  350101-10   33-01-01

2030 - Over sediment trap #1

2049 - Finish Shipek 10 rep.

2100 - Prepare TV for drop

2105 - TV over

2120 - TV on bottom

2150 - TV up  results good  17 min.  video tape

2000 - Van Dorn   580101  - 20 ft.  340101
                  580102  - 75 ft.  340102
                  580103  -145 ft.

2208 - Otter trawl - No specimens

2240 - Plankton tow
2300 - Tow up  560101
Net #202
1000
STD 800102
Depth ft.
2
5
10
15
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
145
FM #2806
2804
Temp.
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.2
10.1
9.8
9.1
8.5
6.8
6.6
6.5
6.6
6.6
6.5
6.5
6-5
6.5
6.5
Cal .
02
11.8
11.3
11.6
11.7
11 .6
11.4
11.1
11.4
11.0
11.0
10.8
10.8
11.0
10.9
11.0
10.9
10.9
10.9
fact. 0.15 Rซ
0.15
Sal ฐ/oo
33.8
33.8
33.8
33.8
33.8
34.4
33.8
33.9
34.0
34.1
34.2
34.0
34.1
34.1
34.1
34.0
34.1
34.0
                                                 1910
                                                 5870
2400 - Bathymetry sheet 3-12 of ship log
                             - 123 -

-------
May 2, 1973
0710 - On station #2
       Depth 177 ft.  Loran 3356  3009    38ฐ23.8  74ฐ15.3
0735 - Bacti 100201
       Shipek  7 rep.   350211-15  330201-02
                       340201      210201
                       320201
0750 - Anchor dredge  3 rep.  -  problem with catching
       410101-03
       420201-03
       430201-03
0800 - STD  02 correction  8.54
Depth ft.
Surface
25
50
75
100
125
Temp.
10.0
10.0
8.2
7.0
7.0
7.0
02
11.4
11.5
11.8
11.4
11.5
11.8
PH
8.1
8.2
8.1
8.2
8.1
7.9
Cond.
50
54
54
49
49
51
0815 - 40 gal.  of H20 collected  for  AFO
0854 - Sediment trap II  put in water
0900 - Van Dorn cast
                       580204 25  ft.  340201
                       580205 85  ft.  340201-02
                       580205 145  ft.
1100 - Otter trawl   510201-06 sea robin,  flounder,  slugs
                              sand  dollars,  hermit  crabs
1130 - Plankton net 550202     560201
                    570204-06
                              - 124 -

-------
May 2, 1973
1130 - Plankton net tow  300 ft.  out 18 min.
       200 y net Cal. Fact. 0.15 Rev. 4250
      4000                  0.15      3110
1200 - TV drop
1215 - TV died video intermittent
1220 - Surface drifters out 9802-9900
1258 - Bottom drifters out 1  mi.  NW of station
       18 knot wind NNE
1305 - TV repaired and re-dropped 18 min.  video  tape
1313 - On station #11   Anchored 38ฐ22.6  74ฐ12.2
       170 ft. Loran 3370  3002
1318 - Shipek  6 rep.   311101,  321101-02,  341101, 351116-20
1330 - Bacti  101101
1345 - TV drop - problem with intermittent short
1430 - Anchor dredge  3 drop
            411101-03
            421101-03
            431101-03
1425 - Sediment trap #111
1530 - Arrive & anchor - Station  #13
1533 - Anchor dredge  411301-03
                      421301-03
                      431101-03
1600 - Sighted Sargassum weed
1630 - Bacti   101301
1645 - Shipek  8 rep.   311301,  321301-02,  331301-02, 341301, 351322-26
                             - 125 -

-------
May 2, 1973
1705 - TV drop
1735 - TV finish 25 min.
1925 - Arrive & set anchor Station  #14  -  176  ft.
       New coordinates 38ฐ27.7'  N   73ฐ57.3' W
1940 - Van Dorn - Bacti  -  Shipek 351428-32
2017 - Current meter
3 M
5
7.5
10
15
20
30
40
50
.35
.38
.45
.47
.30
.27
.14
.18
.37
210ฐ
180ฐ
190ฐ
232ฐ
210ฐ
150ฐ
110ฐ
292ฐ
225ฐ
2025 - TV down
2036 - TV on bottom
2045 - TV up 11  min.
2100 - Anchor dredge 3 rep.  sediment trap #IV
2235 - Plankton tow out
2250 - Plankton tow in
2400 - Bathymetry
                            - 126 -

-------
May 3, 1973
0715 - On station & anchored  @ 17   74ฐ28.3   38ฐ12.1
       125 ft.  Loran 3181,  3030
0725 - Bacti 101701 Van Dorn
0730 - 40 gal.  HaO AFO
0730 - Shipek - 6 rep.
       311701   321701   331701-02    341701   351733-37    371733-37
0810 - Anchor dredge - 3 rep.
0745 - TV down
0810 - TV up
1112 - On station & anchored  @ 5  74ฐ19.4   38ฐ18.7 -  151  ft.
1125 - Bacti 100501
1130 - Shipek - 6 rep. 310501,  320501,  330501-02, 350538-42
1130 - Van Dorn 580501-20     340501
                580502-75     350538-42
                580503-140
1150 - TV down
1120 - TV up
1240 - Anchor dredge
1320 - Dropped  sediment trap  V
1205 - STD
Depth
1 M
2
3
5
10
20
30
37
Sal ฐ/oo
32.55
32.76
31.92
32.52
32.46
33.34
33.08
33.02
Temp Cond.
10.2
10.15
10.12
10.05
9.96
7.12
6.75
6.83 140 ft.
                            - 127 -

-------
May 3, 1973
1355 - On station and  anchored  8    38ฐ20.7' 74ฐ19.0'
       138 ft.   Loran  3318   3020
1415 - Bacti   100801
1430 - Shipek  3 rep.   310801,  320801, 330801-02, 350843-47
1446 - Drifters (surface)   0377-0447
1445 - TV down
1510 - TV up
1530 - Anchor dredge   3 rep.
1615 - Sediment trap VI
1715 - On station & anchored  6  38ฐ21.3'  74ฐ16.5'
       173 ft.   Loran   3013   3038
1720 - Shipek - 7 tries - very  little - fine sand
1725 - Bacf
1835 - Deitz  1  Laford  sampler clean
1845 - TV down
1900 - TV up
1930 - Anchor dredge   3 rep.
2043 - Drifters out (bottom  161-320)
2115 - Bathymetry
                              - 128 -

-------
May 4, 1973

0600 - On station 3  38ฐ20.2'   74ฐ13.4'

0630 - Captain called CG about sick member of scientific  party
       (Ross Johnson)

0745 - Helicopter rendezvous,  CG picked  up Ross Johnson

0845 - Bottom & surface drifters out  38ฐ22.5'   74ฐ14.0'
       321-480 bottom
       9900-10,000 surface

0905 - On station 9 -120 ft.   74ฐ32.9' 38ฐ11.9'  Loran 3217   3051

0906 - Dropped sediment trap  VII

0910 - Bacti  100901

0910 - Shipek  7 rep. 350948-52

0915 - Van Dorn

0940 - TV over

1005 - TV up

1013 - STD  110 ft. or 33.5 m
Temp.
10.82
10.90
10.79
10.74
10.48
8.02
7.78
7.24
7.0
6.85
6.86
10.47
9.68
Sal.
31.88
32.12
32.13
32.00
32.38
32.59
32.65
32.52
32.62
32.82
32.95
32.12
32.49
CSP
.29
.53
.42
.50
.38
.38
.52
.40
.95
.52
.46
.40
.35
Direction
005ฐ
357
352
349
245
222
208
189
238
240
220
320
260
Depth
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
20
25
30
32
n
13
                             - 129 -

-------
May 4, 1973




1030 - Anchor dredge -  3  rep.



1200 - Plankton tow



1215 - Clam dredge down



1300 - Clam dredge up - shells  only  -  no  live clams



1440 - Loran check with Del. light  buoy -  right on
                             - 130 -

-------
                              Appendix D
           SUPPLEMENTAL CRUISE LOG, TUG "MARY ANN"

       Water sampling "Piggyback" cruise to the interim sludge dumpsite,
13-14 July 1973.
       Rigged portable boom and winch aboard 110 ft  tug "Mary Ann."
       Departed Spruce St. Terminal, Camden,  New Jersey,  1600 July 13.
Picked up barge "Forest" at NE plant, departed  1730.
       Weather got heavy approaching dumpsite, SW 25-30 knot winds, rough.
Made station (3H4, 3356;  3H5,  3023) Lat. 38ฐ24. 5 N, 74ฐ16. 5 W at 2210 on
14 July.  Lear and Thomas, with assistance from crew, made profile through
thermocline with induction salinometer.  Multiple hydro casts with two 6-liter
PVC bottles at surface, halfway to thermocline (10 meters), halfway between
thermocline and bottom (35 meters) and bottom (46 meters).   (See Table 38.)
       Extremely rough,  seas over fantail,  worked with lifejackets.  Took
seas over bridge. Radar,  depth finder and automatic pilot out.
       Secured sampling 0030.
       Crew reports never having seen red sediment trap buoys in dumpsite.
Normal dumping pattern is from NW corner to center and return.
                                  - 131 -

-------










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-------
                        Appendix E
              BOTTOM DRIFTER RESPONSE SHEET
                        in  zmttrt  appreciation
                        far cooperation in
                        oteanograptfit
                     Mrefltor, Westinghouse Ocean Research
                            Laboratory
                         Annapolis, Maryland
Example of card forwarded to persons returning drifters.  Reward of one
silver dollar accompanied this card, with a letter of thanks and explana-
tion of the purpose of the program.
                           - 133 -

-------
                    75ฐ00'W
74ฐ30 W
74 00 W
                                  RESEARCH AREA
                                       RESEARCH AREA
                                                           •a •*

                                                           • 5
                                                                                   38ฐ30'N
                                                                                   38ฐ00 N
                                   THANK YOU!
       We  sincerely  appreciate your  returning the card from  our  plastic  "sea-bed drifter." As
you may have noticed if you  found it in the water, the small weight on the stem is designed to
keep the drifter barely negatively buoyant -  that is, just barely floating above the bottom, but
not rising to the  surface. When submerged, the drifters are practically weightless, and therefore
are easily moved about even by weak currents, which may be present at the sea floor.
       The drifter which you found was released at.
             .hours on.
at the location  shown above  in  red. We  cannot tell its exact path, but the information you
provided is important  in understanding the  overall "drift" of bottom currents in this area. From
this study, we are  attempting  to  interpret the movements of coastal waters along our valuable
shorelines.  Your assistance in our oceanographic  research  will help all of  us in our efforts to
understand the complex marine environments.
                                                 Harold D. Palmer
                                                 Manager, Aquatic Physical Sciences
                                                 Westinghouse Ocean Research Lab.
                                         -  134-

-------
This report has been reviewed by Region III, EPA, and approved
for publication.  Approval does not signify that the contents
necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Environmental
Protection Agency, nor does the mention of trade names or
commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation
for use.

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY OF TWO INTERIM DUMPSITES

            MIDDLE ATLANTIC BIGHT



             OPERATION "FETCH"

     Cruise Report 5-10 November 1973



         Compiled and Edited by


             Donald W.  Lear

             Susan K. Smith

            Maria L. O'Malley
         Annapolis Field Office
    Environmental  Protection Agency
              Region III
      Annapolis,  Maryland  21401
            Project Officer
            Albert Montague
  Office of Research and  Development
   Environmental  Protection Agency
             Region III
   Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  19106

-------
                           ABSTRACT

     A second oceanographic survey cruise was made to an interim
municipal sludge dumpsite and initially to an interim dumpsite for
the disposal of industrial acid waste in the fall  of 1973.   Both
sites are located on the continental  shelf in the  Middle Atlantic
Bight.  Observations were made of hydrographic and bathymetric
conditions, major circulation patterns, water quality, sediment
composition, heavy metals in sediments and biota,  bacteriology,
phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, vertebrates and  benthic
invertebrates.

-------
                            CONTENTS
Abstract                                                      "
List of Figures                                               ,\r
List of Tables                                                vi
Acknowledgements                                              ix
Conclusions                                                   x1
Introduction                                                   1
     I.   WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS                         7
          A.   Hydrography                                     7
               1.   Local Hydrographic Structure                7
               2.   Major Circulation Patterns                 14
          B.   Water Quality Parameters                       18
          C.   Biology                                        21
               1.   Phytoplankton                              21
               2.   Metals in Zooplankton                      24
    II.   BENTHIC  INVESTIGATIONS                              26
          A.   Bathymetry                                     26
          B.   Sediments                                      27
               1.   Size Distribution                          27
               2.   Metals in the Sediments                    30
               3.   Chlorinated Hydrocarbons                   41
          C.   Biota                                          43
               1.   Infauna                                    43

-------
           2.   Macrobiota                                 107
           3.   Metals  in Macrobiota                       109
           4.   Bacteriology                              119
IV.    REFERENCES                                         122
      APPENDIX A - Participants  in Operation  "Fetch"      129
                   Aboard  R/V  Annandale
      APPENDIX B - Ship's  Log                             130
      APPENDIX C - Scientific  Log                         133
                            iv

-------
                          LIST OF FIGURES

 1         Index Map for the Upper Chesapeake Bight  Area         3
 2         Station Location Map                                 4
 3         R/V Annandale                                        5
 4         Bathythermograph at Station  9                       9
 5         Bathythermograph at Station 14                      10
 6         Bathythermograph at Station 17                      11
 7         Salinity-Temperature Profile at  Station 9           12
 8         Distribution of Iron in Sediments                    36
 9         Regression of Lead and Iron in Sediments             39
10         Regression of Chromium and  Iron  in Sediments         39
11         Regression of Manganese and Iron in Sediments        40
12         Regression of Zinc and Iron in Sediments             40

-------
                       LIST  OF  TABLES


 1         Station  Locations                                   6

 2         Bathythermograph  (BT) and Salinometer  Readings       18

 3a, 3b    Surface  and  Seabed Drifter  Releases-                 16

 4         Surface  Drifter Returns  - Operation  "Quicksilver"    17

 5         Water  Quality  Parameters                             20

 6         Phytoplankton                                        22

 7         Metals in  Zooplankton                                25

 8         Size Distribution of Sediments                       28

 9         Analyses of  Barged Waste Materials                   31

10         Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer;                 34
             Flame  Operating Parameters

11         Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer;                 34
             Furnace  Operation  Parameters

12         Qualitative  Texture  and Metals Contents of           38
             Sediments

13         Chlorinated  Hydrocarbons in Sediments                42

14         Species  List of Benthic  Invertebrates  from           49
             Operation  "Quicksilver" (QK) and
             Operation  "Fetch"  (FE)

15         Rank,  Number,  and Cumulative  Percent of              57
             Benthic  Invertebrates from  Operation
             "Quicksilver"

16         Rank,  Number,  and Cumulative  Percent of              60
             Benthic  Invertebrates from  Operation "Fetch"

17         Number of  Species (S), Individuals  (I), and          68
             Scaled Diversity (SD)  Indices for
             Operation  "Quicksilver"

18         Number of  Species (S), Individuals  (D), and         70
             Scaled Diversity (SD)  Indices for
             Operation  "Fetch"

                               vi

-------
                        LIST OF TABLES  (continued)


19       Sign Test for  Comparison of Fauna! Diversity          71
           for Comparable Stations of  Operation
           "Quicksilver" and Operation "Fetch"

20       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   78
           Station  1 - "Quicksilver"

21       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   80
           Station  2 - "Quicksilver"

22       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   81
           Station  5 - "Quicksilver"

23       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   82
           Station  8 - "Quicksilver"

24       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   84
           Station  9 - "Quicksilver"

25       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   86
           Station 11 - "Quicksilver"

26       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   87
           Station 13 - "Quicksilver"

27       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   89
           Station 14 - "Quicksilver"

28       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   90
           Station 17 - "Quicksilver"

29       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   92
           Station  1 - "Fetch"

30       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   93
           Station  2 - "Fetch"

31       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   95
           Station  5 - "Fetch"

32       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   97
           Station  8 - "Fetch"

33       Occurrence of  Benthic Invertebrates                   ^
           Station  9 - "Fetch"

                               vii

-------
                      LIST OF TABLES (continued)
34       Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates                  101
           Station 11 - "Fetch"
35       Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates                  103
           Station 14 - "Fetch"
36       Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates                  105
           Station 17 - "Fetch"
37       Macrobiota                                           108
38       Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and              113
           Mollusc Tissue
39       Heavy Metals in Benthic Macrofauna                   118
40       Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms in Water Column           121
           and Sediments (MPN/100 ml)

-------
                          ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


     The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, wishes to

acknowledge and thank the personnel of EPA Headquarters,  Washington,

D. C.; the EPA National Environmental Research Centers at Corvallis,

Oregon and Narragansett, Rhode Island; the EPA Annapolis  Field Office,

Annapolis, Maryland; the EPA Wheeling Field Office, Wheeeling, West

Virginia; the City of Philadelphia Water Department; the  Marine Science

Consortium, Lewes, Delaware, and American University, Washington,  D. C.

for their able participation in the many phases of this cruise.

     Special  thanks are due Dr. D. Maurer and his staff at the University

of Delaware Laboratory, Lewes, Delaware, for their excellent analyses

of benthic invertebrates; and to Dr. H. D. Palmer, Westinghouse Ocean

Research Laboratory, for sediment data.

     We thank Margaret Munro for typing of the manuscript.

     The responsible authors of respective sections of this report are:

               Introduction - D. W. Lear, EPA, Annapolis

           I.   Water Quality Investigations

               A.    Hydrography

                    1.  Local Hydrographic Structures - D. W. Lear and
                          R. J. Callaway, EPA, Corvallis

                    2.  Major Circulation Patterns - R. J. Callaway

               B.    Water Quality Parameters - D. W. Lear

-------
      C.    Biology

           1.   Phytoplankton  -  S.  K.  Smith,  EPA, Annapolis

           2.   Metals  in  Zooplankton  -  P. Johnson and
                 D.  W.  Lear,  EPA,  Annapolis

II.    Benthic  Investigations

      A.    Bathymetry  - D.  W. Lear

      B.    Sediments

           1.   Size  Distribution  - H. D.  Palmer, Westinghouse
                 Ocean  Research Laboratory,  and D. W. Lear

           2.   Metals  - P.  Johnson and  D. W.  Lear

           3.   Chlorinated  Hydrocarbons - R.  Kaiser and
                 D.  W.  Lear,  EPA,  Annapolis

      C.    Biota

           1.   Infauna-D.  Maurer, University of Delaware

           2.   Macrobiota - M.  O'Malley,  EPA, Annapolis

           3.   Heavy Metals in  Macrobiota -  Bruce Reynolds,
                 EPA,  Narragansett, D.  W. Lear, and P. Johnson

           4.   Bacteriology - M.  O'Malley

-------
                         CONCLUSIONS
     Temperature and salinity profiles of the area indicated the pre-
sence of a pycnocline but with relatively small  differences between
surface and bottom waters.
     Net bottom water movements, as indicated by neutral buoyancy
seabed drifters released on the spring "Quicksilver" cruise, indicated
a net movement towards the west and southwest to the Delaware, Maryland
and Virginia beaches.
     Nutrient concentrations in waters near the  bottom showed seasonal
variation in concentrations.  Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were
elevated in bottom waters at the municipal sludge site.
     Phytoplankton populations of these waters were characteristic of
mid-temperate coastal communities during the fall and winter regime.
Diatoms were dominant organisms generally, and the marine filamentous
blue-green alga Trichodesmium was found throughout the area.
     Mercury, nickel and manganese concentrations were greater in
zooplankton samples taken during this cruise as  compared with the spring
cruise in May 1973.  This suggests that certain  metals may be accumulating
in the zooplankton.
     There are indications that Fe, Mn, Cr, Hg,  Zn, Cu, and Pb are being
deposited in sediments as a result of acid waste disposal practices,  and
Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Ni are depositing as a result of municipal sludge
disposal operations.  These inferences were drawn on geographical dis-
tribution patterns.  An increase in mercury and  lead concentrations was
detected in the sediments at the municipal sludge disposal site when
compared between spring and fall conditions.
                                xi

-------
     A significant relationship was found between iron concentrations in
sediments and those of zinc, manganese and chromium.   These relationships
may be useful as management indicators for dumping practices.
     There was no evidence of accumulations of organohalogens, including
PCB and DDE.
     Intensive investigations of bottom dwelling faunal  communities
showed no major shifts of key species (Goniadella gracilis, Lumbrinereis
acuta, Trichophoxus epistomus) between the spring and fall  cruises.
Faunal diversity increased significantly between spring and fall  sampling
and was attributable primarily to seasonal recruitment and  secondarily to
artifacts of taxonomy.  No measurable effects of pollution  on  benthic
organism communities was detected.
     Macroinvertebrates and vertebrates taken by bottom trawl  and dredge
showed no visible signs of ecological stress.
     In a systematic survey of sand dollars (Echinarachnius parma)  iron
concentrations were found to be less during this fall cruise than found in
the spring cruise.  A mechanism is  postulated in which iron is not as
available to the bottom community because of accumulation at the pycnocline.
     The moon snail (Polinices), a  predator, showed copper  concentrations
a decimal order of magnitude greater than prey species, illustrative of the
fact that metals can concentrate in higher trophic levels.
                                   XII

-------
     Sponges, fish, crabs, and a clam were analyzed for metals and
showed greater concentrations of manganese, nickel, leas,  and  cadmium
at the municipal waste site in fall  compared with spring observations,
although there were too few data for firm conclusions.
     Bacteriological  analyses indicated no accumulations of coliform
or fecal coliform bacteria as a result of dumping activities.
     Some evidence (bacteria, metals, organohalogens)  suggested the
inshore "control" Stations 9 and 17  may be influenced  by additions
other than the specified ocean dumping activities.
                               xm

-------
                             INTRODUCTION
     The vastness of the seas is diminishing as man's technology,
population density and the cumulative effects of time progress.
An awareness of man's role in the total environment in the past
decade led to serious efforts to lessen the burdens on rivers and
harbors, and a consequence of this activity has increased use of
the seas for waste disposal.  These practices are, however, required
to be supervised by a vigilant program specified by Public Law
92-532, the "Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972."
     Results of several ocean survey cruises to the vicinity of the
acid waste dumpsite (du Pont, 1972; Meyers, 1973)  and to the municipal
sludge dumpsite (Palmer and Lear, 1973) indicated  measurable environ-
mental changes may have occurred as a result of ocean disposal practices,
     Some observations included:
     1.  Unexplained mortalities of sand dollars in the proximity of
the acid waste dumpsite.
     2.  Apparent accumulation of some metals in the sand dollar
population at the sludge dumpsite.
     3.  Possible deposition of materials from the acid waste dumpsite
on the sludge dumpsite.
     An oceanographic cruise was designed to resolve some of these
uncertain!ties and to further develop practical  field and laboratory
methods for continuing programs to  evaluate environmental conditions
under the impact of man's additions.

                                 1

-------
     Station locations (figures 1  and  2,  and  Table  1) were  selected
to replicate the stations from the previous spring  cruise  (Palmer
and Lear, 1972) and to assay conditions on the  acid waste dumpsite
as well as the sludge waste dumpsite.  A  major  portion  of daylight
cruise time was allocated to search for cylindrical sediment  traps
buoyed out on the spring cruise.
     Oceanographic operations were conducted  on eight hour  round-the-
clock watches, and one working day was lost due to  such wind  and wave
conditions as to make deck work impractical.  Details of routine are
given in the ship's log and scientific log, included as appendices.

-------
                AREA    OF   STUDY
         77'
                       76'
                                                   74"
40'
 39'
38'
                                                       39'
                       76'
                                    75'
                                                   74"
                                 SCALE IN MILES
                                   I   I
                                   20  30  40  50

-------

-------
STATION LOCATIONS
                SCALE M STATUTE MILES
              SOS

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-------
  Table  1
Station Locations
Operation "Fetch"
  11/5-10/73
STATION
9
17
1
8
2
14
11
D
F
E
5
C
B
A
G
H
DATE
11-7-73
11-7-73
11-8-73
11-8-73
11-8-73
11-8-73
11-8-73
11-9-73
11-5-73
11-5-73
11-8-73
11-9-73
11-9-73
11-9-73
11-9-73
11-9-73
TIME
1536
2000
2330
0115
0705
1605
2030
1355
2230
1645
0350
0239
0930
0620
1635
1900
LORAN
3222 -
3183 -
3371 -
3313 -
3356 -
3513 -
3371 -
3401 -
3310 -
3350 -
3334 -
3420 -
3416 -
3505 -
3360 -
3360 -
LOCATION
3051
3034
3000
3020
3019
2963
3000
3030
2985
3025
3013
3043
3048
3065
3053
3085
DEPTH
(meters)
36.6
37.2
45.7
39.6
47.9
51.8
48.2
39.6
63.7
45.7
48.2
48.8
45.7
40.2
39.6
36.6

-------
I.  WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS
    A.  HYDROGRAPHY
        1.  Local Hydrographic Structure
     Hydrographic conditions can materially affect the distribution of
dumped materials.  For the design purposes of this cruise, the presence
or absence of a pycnocline, due to thermal and/or salinity discontinuities,
was measured.  Previous studies (du Pont, 1972) indicated released indus-
trial acid wastes may be delayed in reaching bottom in the presence of a
well established density discontinuity, and possibly may be transported
from the loci of dumping by advective forces before eventually depositing.
     Bathythermographs (BT's) were taken at Stations 9, 14 and 17, and
temperature and salinity readings made with a Beckman RS-5 induction
salinometer at Station 9.
     Bathythermograph data were reduced at sea by aligning the surface
temperature in the viewing grid to match the surface bucket temperature.
Bathythermographs are shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6.
     Temperature and salinity profiles are shown in Table 2 and Figure 7.
The temperature data showed a relatively cool isothermal surface layer
increasing to 15ฐC at about 30 meters.  At Station 14 a maximum of 17.5ฐ
was reached at 38 meters decreasing to less than the surface temperature
below 45 meters.  The salinity-temperature profile shows that the stability
of this inversion layer is maintained by an increase in salinity of approxi-
mately 2"'/-.•  between 20 and 30 meters.

-------
     The difference between surface and bottom layer  temperatures
was approximately one-degree C ,  indicating the fall  overturn  was
nearly reached, for these waters  can become isothermal  in  winter
(Bumpus, et al, 1972; Meyers, 1973).
     The halocline was coincident with the theemocline,  augmenting
the stability of the upper layer.
     During the course of this cruise, winds of up  to 52 knots were
recorded, with seas greater than  3 meters, indicating that storm
conditions do not, in short periods of time, disrupt  even  relatively
small density discontinuities. The deposition of wastes into  this
environment would not, therefore, be materially accelerated by short
term turbulence factors.
     The discrepancies in temperature, approximately  1.5 ฐC, between
the BT and the induction  salinometer, are  probably  due to  the  more
recent calibration of the BT.  The relative differences  by both
instruments, however, are valid.

-------
     BATHYTHERMOGRAPH STATION  9
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TEMPERATURE  ฐC

    14        15
16
        NOV. 7, 1973   1545
                      - 9 —
                                                 FIGURE- 4

-------
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          14
                 TEMPERATURE  ฐC

                15        16
17
18
 i
   45-
   50-
   55-
60-
        NOV. 8, 1973   1610
                                            FIGURE- 5
                 — 10 —

-------
     BATHYTHERMOGRAPH STATION  17
               TEMPERATURE  ฐC

          13        14        15
                             16
    0-
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   25-
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  40-
NOV. 7, 1973  2055
                                               FIGURE- 6

-------
   SALINITY - TEMPERATURE  PROFILE  AT  STATION  9


            SALINITY
  33
              34
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5        16        17
        NOV. 7, 1973   1536
                                                      FIGURE- 7
                            -12-

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-------
2.   Major Circulation Patterns
     Seasonal circulatory patterns were estimated  by release of
surface drifter cards and by bottom drifers (Woodhead and  Lee,  1960).
Previous releases have also been made from this  area (du  Pont,  1972);
Palmer and Lear, 1973; Ketchum, 1953).   These techniques  demonstrate
semi-quantitatively the larger scale transport of  surface  and bottom
materials of neutral  density.
     a.  Surface drifter releases.
     During a previous cruise  (Palmer and Lear,  1973) 269  surface
drifters were released.  During this cruise one  hundred and  forty
surface drift cards were released as shown in Table 3a.   To  date
no returns have been made from either cruise.
     b.  Seabed drifter releases.
     A total of 199 yellow seabed drifters (Woodhead and  Lee, 1960)
were released in the survey area, as shown in Table 3b.   The distance
from the release point nearest to shore was 26 nautical miles.  Assuming
an average onshore drift rate  of 0.015 knots, the  first recoveries
should not be made before January 1974.
     c.  Seabed drifter returns from the spring  cruise.
     Two hundred yellow bottom drifters were released by  EPA and 480
red drifters by Westinghouse Ocean Research Laboratory during the  spring
cruise, Operation "Quicksilver".  Four EPA (yellow) drifters have  been
recovered from the spring cruise.  Statistics of recovery  data  are
shown in Table 4.  The drifters traveled for approximately 202  days
towards the southwest at an average rate of 0.014  knots.
                                 14

-------
     Of the 480 red drifters released by Westinghouse Ocean Research
Laboratory, only 12 drifters were returned in this period  of time.
Most of the recoveries were made on the Delaware,  Maryland and Virginia
beaches.  The low recovery may reflect a seaward transport of the
majority of drifters, and firmer conclusions will  be made  with more
return data.
     d.  Buoy search operations.
     Sediment traps were buoyed and anchored at eight stations during
the spring cruise, Operation "Quicksilver".   One of  the objectives  of
the fall cruise, Operation "Fetch", was retrieval  of this  apparatus.
     Watches were maintained during daylight hours while on stations,
and on two days an "expanding square" search plan  with all available
hands on watch was instituted.  No buoys were sighted, possibly due
to the wave heights encountered during most  of this cruise, and possibly
due to trawler activity known in this area.
                                15

-------
                               Table 3(a)
               Surf ace Drifter Releases,  Operation  "Fetch"
                                 1973
EST  - Date    Station    Numbers     Total     Latitude,  N.     Longitude,  W.
1545
2017
1605
2030
1355


EST
1545
2017
0115
0705
1605
2030
7 Nov.
7 Nov.
8 Nov.
8 Nov.
9 Nov.


- Date
7 Nov.
7 Nov.
8 Nov.
8 Nov.
8 Nov.
8 Nov.
9
2
14
11
D

Seabed
Station
9
17
8
2
14
11
3631-3640
3671-3680
3621-3630
3661-3670
3601-3620
3641-3660
3681-3690
3691-3700
3751-3760
3701-3710
3741-3750
3761-3770
Table
20
20
50
20
30
3(b)
38ฐ18.7'
38ฐ12.6'
38ฐ29.5'
38ฐ45.5'
38ฐ28.4'

74ฐ31.6'
74ฐ29.T
73ฐ58.0'
73ฐ58.0'
74ฐ17.4'

Drifter Releases, Operation "Fetch"
1973
Numbers
1400-1424
1375-1399
1525-1549
1374
1450-1473
1500-1524
1425-1449
1550-1573
1474-T499
Total
25
25
25
50
49
25
Latitude, N.
38ฐ18.7'
38ฐ12.6'
38ฐ20.4'
38ฐ21.8'
38ฐ29.5'
38ฐ45.5'
Longitude, W.
74ฐ31.6'
74ฐ29.1'
74ฐ19.2'
74ฐ13.T
73ฐ58.0'
73ฐ58.0'
                                   16

-------






















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17

-------
B.   WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
     Bottom water samples for analysis for nutrients were collected
with a 10-liter PVC Van Dorn bottle, placed in polyethylene containers,
frozen in dry ice and maintained in the frozen state until  analysis at
the Annapolis Field Office, EPA.
     Nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen was determined by using the Technicon
"Autoanalyzer".  This procedure utilizes cadmium reduction of nitrate
to nitrite and subsequent diazotization with sulfanilamide and N-(l-
naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride with the optical  density
measured at 540 my.  The results were reported as nitrogen (Strickland
and Parsons, 1968).
     Distribution  patterns indicate elevated concentrations of nitrate
plus nitrite in bottom waters at Stations 1, 2, 5, 11,  and F, indicating
deposition of materials from the municipal sludge activities southeast-
ward of the release zones.  This sustains the observations that metals
were similarly transported and deposited.  Concentrations were greater
at these stations, compared with other stations observed on the fall
cruise, and the concentrations at the specified stations were greater
than observed on the spring "Quicksilver" cruise at the same sites.
     Total Kjeldahl nitrogen includes ammonia and organic nitrogen and
was determined by the standard micro-Kjeldahl procedure.  The sample
was digested in the presence of strong acid to convert  the organic
nitrogen to ammonia.  The ammonia was then distilled, collected in boric
acid solution, nesslerized, and determined colorimetrically.  The values
found generally agree with those reported in other coastal  waters
                               18

-------
(Duursma, 1965), and with the previous cruise (Palmer  and  Lear,  1973),



but may be greater at Station 1,  8,  B, and E.



     Total phosphorus was determined after persulfate  oxidation  of



the sample in an autoclave at 15  psi for 30 minutes.   The  resultant



orthophosphate was then determined colorimetrically as the molydenum-



blue complex with optical density measured at 882 my.   Orthophosphate



was determined on a Technicon "Autoanalyzer" (Menzel and Corwin,  1965;



Murphy and Riley, 1962).



     The concentrations found are in agreement with other  observations



reported by Kester and Courant and in the spring cruise (Palmer  and



Lear, 1973), with the expected seasonal  variation.
                              19

-------
       Table  5




Water Quality Parameters
Station Date
F 11-5-73
E
E
9 11-7-73
1 11-8-73
8
5
2
14
11
D 11-9-73
C
C
B
A
Time
2230
1645

1536
2230
0115
0350
0705
1605
2030
1355
0239

0930
0620
Sample
Depth
(meters)
63.7
22.1
44.2
36.6
47.2
38.1
44.2
44.2
50.3
46.6
39.6
48.8
48.8
44.2
38.1
Total P
PO*
mg/T
.085
.028
.035
.050
.083
.025
.087
.081
.072
.086
.045
.056
.067
.022
.059
Inorganic
PC*
mg/T
.077
.023
.016
.040
.076
.008
.075
.081
.057
<.001
.035
.047
.049
.007
.039
TKN
mg/1
.011
.265
.197
.079
.248
.299
.192
<.01
.118
.152
.163
.011
.085
.462
,011
N02+N03
mg/1
• 205
.060
.025
.110
.230
.025
.240
.230
.190
.230
.075
.120
.120
.035
.095
             20

-------
C.   BIOLOGY
     1.   Phytoplankton
     There are two major phytoplankton regimes found in this typical
mid-temperate shelf area.  The spring-summer regime is primarily a
dinoflagellate community, developing during the presence of a well
defined thermocline and exhibiting lower diversity and larger standing
crop of phytoplankton.  This regime was typified by the May, 1973,
"Quicksilver" cruise.
     The phytoplankton samples taken on the "Fetch" cruise, November,
1973, was indicative of the fall-winter regime.  These samples were
composed primarily of diatoms.  There was a larger diversity of species
and appeared to be a reduced phytoplankton volume at many stations.
Several  dinoflagellate species were found in each sample, but at greatly
reduced standing crops.  At all stations the thermocline was relatively
poorly defined.
     The phytoplankton was dominated by several diatoms and one genus
of filamentous blue-green alga.  Diatoms, Rhizosolenia alata, Chaetoceros
spp., Skeletonema spp., Nitzschia spp., and Stephanopyxis sp. were  found
at all stations in abundance.   The filamentous marine blue-green alga,
Trichodesmium sp. was found at all stations and was the dominant phyto-
plankter at Stations E and 11.
     In summary, the phytoplankton in this area, at this time of year,
seemed to be as expected from previously published work by Mulford  (1971)
and University of Delaware, College of Marine Studies (1972).  It was
a healthy,diverse,diatom dominated community.
                                21

-------
                                 Table 6
                 Phytoplankton Observations, Operation "Fetch"
                                                       Stations
                                   1      E*    2     11      9*    17
Diatoms:
                  :! i n '] o^ter i urn
    Nitzschia lonqissima
    Nitzschia seriata
    Nitzschia spp.
    PI eurosi qma sp.
    Rhizosolenia  alata
    Rhizosolenia  sp.
    Skeletonema spp.
    Stephanopyxis spp.
    Thalassionema nitzschioides
    Thalassiosira spp.

         x   occurrence
       1-8   indicates most abundant species
         *   1 iqht sanple
                                          22
14
X
X
X
4
-
X
X
X
5
X
X
X
-
1
-
5
7
6
8
X
X
-
x 2
-
X X
X
~ Y
4 5
x x
x 3
X
-
5 1
x
x 7
"• Y
6
4
x
-
-
X
X
-
-
X
2
X
-
6
-
7
-
3
x
X
_
X
X
-
6
-
X
-
X
1
X
-
3
-
2
-
5
x
x
_
X
X
-
4
-
-
-
X
X
X
7
X
-
1
-
3
5
x
8
x
6
-
2
-
-
x
-
X
X
4
X
X
3
X
1
8
x
5
—
-
-
2
x
x
-
-
X
-
8
x
-
1
-
3
7
x
x

-------
                                Table  6    (continued)
Dinoflagellates:
    Ceratium be!one
    Ceratium fusus
    Ceratium 1ineatum
    Ceratium longipes
    Ceratium macroceros
    Peridinium spp.

Filamentous Blue-Green:
    Trichodesmium sp.
                                   1      E*
  Stations
11     9*    17
X
X
X
2
3
—
X
X
X
X
~
-
8
5
4
~ *• ~
- - x
6 x
4 - x
- - x
—
X
5
6
x
         x  occurrence
       1-8  indicates most abundant species
         *  light sample
                                       23

-------
2.  Metals in Zooplankton



    Zooplankton tows were made for 15 minutes with 0.5 x 0.5 meter nets



with 202n mesh aperature.  Collections from the net were placed in "whirl-



Pak" polyethylene bags, quick frozen on dry ice and maintained frozen until



laboratory analysis.  Analytical procedures were the same as for sediments.



Results are shown in Table 7.



     A comparison can be made between the spring and fall cruises to this



area.  The variability of results seemed to be the most striking feature;



however there is a suggestion that mercury, nickel and manganese concentra-



tions may be greater in the fall cruise.  No consistent ratios of either



elements or of geographical differences could be found.



     Vaccaro et al, (1972) found higher concentrations of metals in



Zooplankton at the acid waste dumpgrounds on the New York Bight, but such



differences were not evident with the amount of data available from this



cruise.
                                   24

-------
                       Table   7
Metals in Zooplankton


Station
1
2
14
17


Cd Cr
1.0 4.1
0.7 1.4
1.2 5.9
2.1 5.2
Operation "Fetch"
November 1973
mg/kg wet weight
Cu Pb Zn
6.5 14.6 60.4
4.2 4.3 27.0
17.8 41.6 111.8
12.0 11.6 84.9


Mn Ni Fe
14.6 9.4 105.6
7.7 4.4 66.3
13.9 4.5 256.2
11.0 10.8 178.6


Hg
0.40
0.30
0.16
0.18
                    Operation  "Quicksilver"
                           May 1973

         0.4    3.4   <1.0  <1.0     39.2    <1.0   <1.0    <1.0  <0.10
14       2.8    5.8   <1.0   <1.0    61.0    <1.0  <1.0    26.4  <0.10

 9       0.3   35.0    8.1   182.4   117.4     5.5  <1.0   807.9   0.10
                              25

-------
II.  BENTHIC INVESTIGATIONS



     A.  BATHYMETRY



     Bathymetric configurations of the municipal  sewage sludge dumpsite



were described by a previous cruise (Palmer and Lear, 1973), with an



account of previous surveys in the area.   The typical bottom terrain is



dominated by relatively small  basin-like depressions.  In the time allo-



cated for the present cruise,  bathymetric survey time was impracticable.



In addition, the sea state was generally rough, making resolution diffi-



cult, consequently no systematic observations were made.
                                 26

-------
     B.   SEDIMENTS



          1.    Size Distribution of Sediments



     Sediments in the areas of investigation were primarily sands,



with very little finer materials.  The properties have been described



previously from the spring cruise, Operation "Quicksilver"  (Palmer  and



Lear, 1973).



     Sediment size analyses, done by Dr.  H.  D.  Palmer, Westinghouse



Ocean Research Laboratory, are shown in Table 8.   Very similar proper-



ties were shown on both cruises, indicating  the sandy composition of



the substrate, and the variation in sorting  reflecting the  minor



ridges and basins characteristic of the bottom configuration.   No major



changes in substrate quality were noted,  by  visual  observation or



collection, nor by size categories, between  spring and fall.
                                27

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28

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                                          29

-------
     2.  Metals in Sediments



     The non-biodegradable metal contents of wastes offer a convenient,



and possibly sensitive, tag for the fate of ocean disposed materials.



     Typical analyses of materials transported to the ocean dumpsites



are shown in Table 9.



     Sediment samples were taken using a Shipek sampler.   The sediment



samples were well-mixed in their containers and a portion removed and



spread to air-dry at room temperature for 48 hours.  The  samples were



again mixed and pulverized to separate the sand grains and expose



surface areas.   At this time any large rocks and pebbles  were removed.



The samples were allowed to further air-dry for another 48 hours.



     A known weight (5.0000 gm) of dry sediment was put in a 125 ml



glass-stoppered flask.  Small amounts of de-ionized distilled water



were used to aid in the transfer.   The addition of 25 ml  cone.  HN03



provided a digestion solution of 50-75 ml.  This solution was heated



at 48-50ฐC (Carpenter, 1970) for 4-6 hours in a shaking hot water bath.



After digestion the samples were cooled and filtered through a  .45



micron millipore filter and the volume adjusted to 100 ml.  Blank



solutions were  run throughout the same disgestion procedure (APHA, 1971,



Fuller, 1969).



     The filtered  acid extracts were analyzed for Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cu,



and Fe using a  Varian Techtron AA-6 atomic absorption spectrophotometer



equipped with a standard pre-mix burner.  Air-acetylene was used for



all flame techniques.  Cd and Cr were analysed using a Perkin and



Elmer 303 atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite



                                30

-------
         Table 9
Analyses of Barged Waste Materials

pH
Acidity
Cl
N03
Total P
Total solids
Total volatile solids
Total suspended solids
Total dissolved solids
Total settleable solids
F
CN
Sulfide
Sulfate
Oil & Grease
Spec. Cond.
Turbidity
As
BOD - 5 day
COD
TOC
NH3
Kjeldahl N
Organic N
Phenols
Ag
Al
B
Ba
du Pont
Industrial
Acid Wastes
mg/1
<0.01
206,017
10,034
1.41
2.15
255,679
113,931
1,663
254,016
0.5 ml/1
<1.0
7.8
5.6
65,549
45.5
225,000 ymhos/cm
32
0.15
115
7,585
615
11.0
14.6
3.6
0.12
0.30
860
90
<0.5
City of
Philadelphia
Sludge
mg/l



0.16
3,600
139,000
510,000







193,400


26

209,600


5,600






                31

-------
                           Table 9 (Continued)

                       Analyses of Barged Waste Materials
Be
Ca
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Hg
K
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Ni
Pb
Sb
Se
Sn
Ti
V
Zn
Total hardness
Endrin
Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide
DDT, mixed isomers
Lindane
du Pont
Industrial
Acid Wastes
mg/1
-0.2
39
0.5
8.7
51
12
42 ,083
< 0.002
32
198
1,060
3
170
9.13
12
17
<- 0.013
47
2,222
137
26
912





City of
Philadelphia
Sludge
mg/1
24

30

1,730
1,630
22 ,400
87


1,730


106
2,330

170


37
5,810

13.7
3.6
32.50
44.80
1.14























ugm/1
u
n
it
ii
                                   32

-------
atomizer attachment which provided greater stability and  sensitivity



for these elements.  Standard operating parameters  are  shown  in



Tables 10 and 11.



     Mercury was analyzed using an automated  flame!ess  atomic absorption



technique (Goulden and Afghan, 1970;  Finger,  1970;  Southeast  Water



Laboratory, 1972).  All sediment results were expressed as  mg/kg  dry



weight.
                                33

-------
              Table 10
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
      Flame Operating Parameters
letal
Cu
Pb
Zn
Mn
Ni
Fe
Wavelength
324.7
217.0
213.9
279.5
232.0
248.3
Lamp Current
5
4
5
10
12.5
15
Spectral
Band Pass
.2
1.0
.2
.2
.2
.2
               Table 11
    Furnace Operating Parameters
letal
Cd
Cr
Wavelength
228.8
357.9
Lamp Current
8
25
Spectral
Band Pass
7A
2A
                    34

-------
     The high loadings of iron in the acid and municipal  sludge wastes
offer a potential tool in determining loci of deposition  in bottom
sediments.  While localized concentrations of iron floes  may occur in
the small depressions on the sites (Palmer and Lear, 1973;  Meyers, 1973)
possible larger scale distribution was the objective of the study design
of Operation "Fetch".  Table 12 shows the qualitative texture of the
sediments and concentrations of selected metals in the sediments.   The
trend for all of the detectable metals to be concurrently high or low
is suggested in this table.  Figure 8 shows distribution  of iron in the
sediments.  These distributions would suggest iron deposition is occurring
at all locations in the boundaries and north of the acid  waste site, with
greatest concentrations southeast of the release areas.  Similarly, on
the municipal sludge site, irons are found in the greatest  concentra-
tions southeast of the indicated release zones, which are in the northeast
quadrant of the site.
     Station C, as indicated by the data in Table 12, was highest in Fe,
Mn, Cr, Hg, Zn, Cu, and second highest in Pb.  Similarly, Station 5
was high in Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Ni.   These elevated concentrations
at these sites would augment the suspicion that materials are settling
a few kilometers to the southeast of the indicated release  zones.   More
data, and replicate sampling and analyses are needed to confirm this
supposition.
     Comparison of metals concentrations found from this  cruise with
those of the spring cruise (Palmer and Lear, 1973) indicate cadmium,
manganese, nickel, zinc,  copper, and chromium levels are  approximately
the same, while levels of mercury and lead may be slightly  elevated.
                                35

-------
DISTRIBUTION  OF   Fe (Mg/Kg)  IN  SEDIMENTS



               OPERATION  FETCH
                     -36 —
                                              FIGURE - 8

-------
     The relationships of metals in sediments are shown  in  Figures
 9,   10,   11,    and     12.    Zinc, manganese, chromium,and  lead
concentrations are shown plotted against iron concentrations.  These
relationships were tested with regression analysis,  and  relationships
statistically significant at P 0.01 were found for iron  and manganese,
iron and zinc, iron and chromium, while the iron and lead relationship
fell just short of significance.
     Since these relationships were derived from both "control"  areas
and presumably affected areas, it can be postulated  that occurrence
of these metals represents (1) natural  fluctuations  of these elements,
with little or no burden by dumping detectable; (2)  proportional
additions of these metals; (3) possible coprecipitation  of  these
materials with iron as the scavenger; (4) or possibly combinations
of these forces.  Concentrations of metals as a function of sediment
particle size were not examined, due to the paucity  of the  size
analysis data.
     The higher concentrations near active dumping areas indicate
dumping activities are detectable, and the other postulated factors
are also active.  If such relationships can be verified  by  further
examination of continental  shelf environments, deviations from such
regressions may be a useful tool in evaluating accumulations of  specific
metals.
                                 37

-------


























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-------
              REGRESSION  OF  Pb  & Fe  IN  SEDIMENTS
o>
   7000-


   6000-


   5000-


   4000-


   3000-


   2000-


   1000-
   7000-


   6000-


   5000-


*P  4000-

^

a>  3000-
u.


   2000-


   1000-
       0
                                             b= 361.78

                                             t = 2.00    lOd.f.
4567

    Pb  Mg/Kg
                                            8
                                                      10
             REGRESSION  OF  Cr  & Fe IN  SEDIMENTS
                                             b= 1140.77

                                             t=5. 19** lOd.f.
 \     i
 5    6

Cr  Mg/Kg

  —39 —
                                        \
                                        7
                   8
10
                                                          FIGURES-9, 10

-------
cr>
2
   7000-
   6000-
   5000-
   4000-
   3000-
   2000-
    1000-
      0-
        0
   7000-
   6000-
   5000-
   4000-
o>
2
o>  3000-
u_


   2000-



   I 000-
        0
               REGRESSION  OF  Mn  & Fe IN  SEDIMENTS
                                             b= 85.92
                                                       lOd.f.
                20   30
40   50    60

    Mn Mg/Kg
 i
70
80   90   100
     10
              REGRESSION OF  Zn & Fe IN SEDIMENTS
                                              b= 452.96
                                                       lOd.f.
                 \
                 2
      5    6

     Zn Mg/Kg


       — 40 —
 i
 7
 i
 8
i
10
                                                           FIGURES-II, 12

-------
3.  Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Sediments
     Sediment samples taken with a Shipek bottom sampler were placed
in specially washed bottles for delivery to the EPA laboratory at
Annapolis for analysis.  Samples were processed by:
     1.  Air drying, ground in mortar and passed through 1  mm seiving;
     2.  Approximately 80 gm dried sample were extracted for  7 hours
in Soxlet apparatus with 2:1 hexane acetone;
     3.  The extract was concentrated to approximately 2 ml  in a
Kuderna-Danish evaporator;
     4.  Condensed sample was passed through a Florisil  column (6%,
15%, 50% ethyl ether in hexane) followed by concentration to  less
than 1 ml; and
     5.  Quality and quantity were determined by electron capture
gas chromatography.
     Results are shown in Table  13.
     No geographical patterns were evident in the distribution of
organohalogens.  The levels are generally low, and approximately
similar at dumpsite stations as at control  stations removed  from
loci of dumping activity.  Comparison with levels of the spring
cruise (Palmer and Lear, 1973) indicate no appreciable accumulations
over the time interval.
                               41

-------
             Table 13




Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Sediments




                   Concentration (ppb)
Sample
Number
730811-2404
7305 E-2404
7309 A-2404
730609-2404
730702-2404
730708-2404
730814-2404
730705-2404
730801-2404
730617-2404
7309 C-2404
Station
11
E
A
9
2
8
14
5
1
17
C
Aroclor 1254
3.1
1.7
3.5
1.7
ND
0.4
ND
2.1
9.1
0.9
5.0
High S
Aroclor 1242 P.R'DDE Content
1.9
0.8
0.3 0.6 +
5.6 +
ND
0.5
2.5
1.4
5.8 0.5 +
5.2
6.1
              42

-------
    C.  BIOTA



    1.  Infauna





Purpose




     The purpose of  this report  is  several fold:   1) to



describe the benthic  invertebrates  of  an interim ocean



dump site, 2) to compare data  on the  benthic invertebrates




collected prior to dumping  and after  dumping,  3)  to offer




a preliminary assessment of the  effect of dumping on benthic



invertebrates.






Previous Work






     Previous research  in benthic ecology encompassing the



area from southern New  Jersey  to the  northern part of the



Delmarva Peninsula was  summarized in  a report, on the proba-




ble effects of a deep water oil  terminal (Maurer and Wang,



1973).  This report  included research conducted three miles



east of Great Bay, New  Jersey  (Raney.  et al.,  1972), Cape



Henlopen near the mouth of  Delaware Bay (Maurer,  et al.,



1974), the former Philadelphia dump site 14 miles south-



east OL the mouth of  Delaware  Bay (Maurer.  unpublished



data), and an acicl dump site approximately 38 nautical miles



s.juthc-ibt of Cape Han"! open  (DuPont, et r.l.,  1972).




     E-rseurch at tr.-%>  Me-v Jers3vr  site  is r. till in progress,



but a preliminary checklist oi invertebrates was presented



in Raney. et n 1 . 1,1972).   Lu general,  tn'1 ป. su'iia consisted



mr'inly of .-^u.-spension  feeders (surl  c i'n,  hay sea ) lop) nnd





                           43

-------
epifaunal  (rock barnacle,  hydroids) ,  and vagile (lady crab,


blue crab) species commonly  associated with a clean sand


bottom and/or a hard substrate.


     Near  the mouth of Delaware  Bay,  115 species were


collected  (Leathern, et al.,  1973;  Maurer,  et al.,  1974 a).


The bivalves, Nucula proxima and Tellina agilis, were the


dominant species throughout  the  area  and represented mud


(< 0.063 mm) and sand  (;? 0.063 - 0.50 mm)  bottom communities,


respectively.  These communities contained a greater number


of deposit feeders than  the  New  Jersey situation (Raney, et


al., 1972), but this varied  with the  amount of fine sedi-


ment present.


     Research was conducted  by Davey  (1972) and \Vatling,


et al. (1974 a) at the former Philadelphia dump site, ap-


proximately 14 miles southeast of Delaware Bay.  The latter


study revealed a diverse and interesting mixture of epifaunal


and infaunal species.  Depending on  sediment type,  and to


some extent water depth,  the fauna was dominated by infaunal


deposit feeders, Nucula  proxima,  Yoldia lima tula ,
agilis ;  infaunal suspension  feeders,  Ensis directus ,  Arctica


island ica ; and a variety  of  epifaunal species,  Obeiia lungis-


sJ-'i. S ji'tuj ar la  ir.2,en i"-n . v.lccfra has--, tin^-sae ,  ฐ i'* .  Ti.jc^e

                           2
nurrjer^ (o5, 750 -  I ';'Z , 380, ':n  )  of Nucula ;'rpxima v/ere .found


in organic mads.   1 V:'n  though  N.  proxima is jiornally a deposit


fcjccl&v  associated  \vith  silcy j.-aria rnd oi^anic ;;iuds, the  Iurg9


numbers of bivalves  ;',re su.';^ ?.T tivc-; oi .1:1 onr:ctic\] environment.
                             44

-------
     At an acid waste dump site, approximately 10 miles



north of the interim dump site, research is still in progress,



but a preliminary description of benthos is contained in



DuPont, et al. (1972).  The general character of the stations




was considered similar.  Stations were dominated by number




by the sand dollar, Echinarachnius parma, the sand shrimp,




Crangon septemspinosa, and by a small ascidean, Bostricho-




branchus pilularis.  Other common invertebrates were the




sea stars, Asterias forbesi and A. vulgaris; bivalves, Cardita



borealis and Arctica islandica; rock crab, Cancer irroratus;




and the hermit crab, Pagurus annulipes.




     A preliminary report of benthic invertebrates at the




interim dump site prior (Operation Quicksilver-QK) to dump-



ing was prepared by Maurer, et  al. (1973) in Palmer and Lear




(1973).  The most significant conclusion was that based on




the benthos, the site appeared  unpolluted.
                             45

-------
                          Methods



     Forty-one samples distributed  among 17 stations were


collected from the dump site  (N  74ฐ  20'  - 74ฐ  10'  and W 38ฐ


25' - 38ฐ 20') and the surrounding  area  during Operation


Fetch (FE).  The vesse] track for  the  cruise was outlined in


the cruise plan prepared by the  EPA Annapolis  office.  Col-

                                              2
lections were made with a shipek grab  (0.04 m ) from Novem-


ber 5-10, 1973, aboard the R.V.  Annandale.   Samples were


preserved in 10% buffered formalin.


     In the laboratory the entire  sample was picked and


sorted into four groups:  annelids,  arthropods, molluscs,


and miscellaneous phyla.  Specimens were then identified


under microscope to species whenever possible  and counted.


Identifications were based on local  reference  collections


confirmed by taxonomic specialists  (amphipods, isopods, hy-


droids) or on reference collections (polychaetes)  from the


U.S. National Museum.  Sources for  taxonomic literature can


be found in Watling; and Maurer (1972 a,  b),  Maurer and Watlin^


(1973 a,  b) ,  fading and Maurer  (197.?  a,  b) ,  Maurer, et al .


(1974 h)  . V/atling. et al. (197
-------
data from those stations sampled during both collecting




periods were compared.  These were stations 1, 2,  5, 8,



9, 11, 14, and 17.  New stations (A-H) and stations  (13),



not sampled after dumping, precluded comparison.   However,




these data will be included in a paper at a later  date.




Hereafter, the pre-dumping phase will be termed  Quicksilver-




QK (Palmer and Lear,  1973), and the post-dumping phase Fetch-



FE (EPA Cruise Plan).
                         47

-------
                          Results






Species List






     A list of species collected during Quicksilver and



Fetch is included in Table 14.  Approximately 118 species




were identified during Quicksilver.  Molluscs represented




33% (39) of the species.  Among the molluscs, gastropods




comprised 14 species (36%) and pelecypods 25 species  (64%).




Molluscs were followed closely by annelids with 32.1%  (38)



of the fauna.  Arthropods comprised 22.1% (26), ectoprocts



5.1% (6),  and the remaining phyla (Cnidaria, Rhynchocoela,



Echinodermata, Urochordata) contained 7.7%  (9) of the species



     Approximately 133 species were identified during Fetch.



Annelids,  including species of oligochaetes, archiannelids,



and polychaetes, contained 53.5% of the fauna.  In terms of




number of species, the polychaetes were highest with 68 of



71 species of anr.elids.  Molluscan species represented 22.5%



of the fauna wirh 11 (36.6%) species of gastropods and 19




(63.4%) species of pelecypods.  The majority of molluscan



species from Quicksilver and Fetch were identified from



valves (Table  14). Arthropods comprised 12.7%  (17) of all



species, ectoprocts 3%  (4), and miscellaneous  (Protozoa,




Cnidaria,  Rhynchocoela, Entoprocta, Echinodermata) contained




8.5% (10).
                            48

-------
                            Table  14

              Species List of Benthic  Invertebrates
    from Operation Quicksilver  (QK) and Operation  Fetch (FE)


     Phylum Protozoa
         Class Sarcodina
             Order Forarainifera
                 Family Astrorhizidae
(FE)                Astrorhiza sp.
                 Family Miliolidae
(FE)                Miliolidae sp.
         Class Ciliophora
             Order Heterotricha
                 Family Follicul inidae
(FE)                FgJLliculina sjlmplex Dons

     Phylum Cnidaria
         Class Hydrozoa
             Order Hydroida
                 Family Bougainvilliidae
(FE)                Bougainvillia superciliaris  Agassiz
                 Family Campanulariidae
(FE)                Campanularia  hincksi  (Alder)
(QK)                Campanularia  neglecta  (Alder)
                 Family Ser tulariidae
(QK,  FE)           Sertularia argentea  (Linne)

     Phylum Rhynchocoela
(QX.  FE)           re:nertean sp . 1
(QK)                Xemertean sp . 2

     Phylum Annelida
         Class Oligocnaela
(QK,  FE)           'Jligochaete  sp.
         Class Archiannelida
                 Family Polygordiidae
( FE )                Polygordius  s p .
         Class Polychaeta
                 Family Ajiphare Lidae
(FE)                Asabellides  sp.
                 Family Arabellidae
(FE)                Driionereis  sp. cf . D.  nagna Webster and Benedict
                 Family Cirrat'u 1 i d a e
( FE )                Caul ler Lei la  s p .
( FE ?                Caui leriulla  killarieasis ( S ou t ho r n )
( Q K )                Chae to z one s p .
(F.5)                Chaetozone setosa Malragren
( Q K .  FE )           CTrT-atuild ae"~sp .
(FE)                Tharyx  sp. c L' .  T^ 'I^^J1^. W3bi:ter f.nd Honedict
(QX.  FE)           'L'hj:u-_yx  iqar j oni  (Snint-.toseph)
                       _
( FE ;                Tiiar ;/ฃฃ s p .  c f 7 T_L ^Hio ii_i ( 3 a i n t - Jo s e p h )
(FE)                Tharyx set igera Hartman

                               49

-------
Table 14  (continued)


(FE)                Tharyx sp. cf. T_._ setigera Hartman
(FE)                Tharyx sp.
                  Family Dorvilleidae
(QK, FE)            Stauronereis rudolphi  (Delle Chiaje)
(QK)                Stauronereis sp.
                  Family Eunicidae
(QK)                Marphysa bellii  (Audouin  and Milne-Edwards)
(QK)                Eunice sp.
                  Family Flabelligeridae
(FE)                Pherusa affinis  (Leidy)
                  Family Glyceridae
(FE)                Glycera capitata Oersted
(QK, FE)            Glycera dibranchiata Ehlers
(FE)                Glyceridae ?
                  Family Goniadidae
(QK, FE)            Goniadella gracilis  (Verrill)
                  Family Lumbrinereidac
(FE)                Lumbrinereis latereilli  (Audouin and Milne-Edwards)
(QK, FE)            lumbrinereis acuta(Verrill)
(FE)                luabrinereis coccInea  (Renier)
(FE)                :	-nbrinereis iragilis  (O.F.  Muller)
(QK)                l..nibrinereis sp.
                  Fa.Tizly Magelonidae
(FE)                I-.; a.; el on a sp. cf . M ._ phyllisae Jones
                  Family Maldanidae
(QK, FE)            ~:-nenella sp.
(QK, FE)            -T./.-qenella torquata  (Leidy)
(FE)                .lymenella sp. cf. C.  torquata (Leidy)
(FE)                TLvinenella zonalis TVerrill)
(FE)                 aldanidae sp .
                  J-znz ly ]N3phtyidae
(OK)                : ephtyidae sp.
(QK, FE"i            ; era lys (Ag 1 aophamus)  ci rcinata Verrill
(FE)                .'-'e_ohtys sp. c:t. _N_._ incisa Malmgren
(QK, FZ)            :-ephLys picta Ehlers
(FE)                .'^ev)h tys sp. c f. N. picta  Ehlers

(QK)                Cera tocephale loveni  (Malmgren)
(FE)                Nereis ~sp .
(FE)                ,Ner3is grayi Pettibone
                  Fr.;,iily Opheliidae
(FE)                QijliliLi'1: dc:i tlcul at a Verriil
(FE)                T c ^ v J.'." i a car ri e a V> r i' i 11
                  Fa in i 1 y 0 <' b i. n i i d ae
(FE)                ^tlti^i'l P-''iLaLฃl: (Verrill )
(FE)                Scol-.p'Lo.-rtfasilis  (Verrill)
                  Fa,,' i 1 y Pr. i- aon i c! ae
(QK,  ffi)            A_^i ''ii:^ sr .
v()K,  F^)            Ar 'CL:. ?.i je f -'-'L'o
                               50

-------
Table 14 (continued)


(QK,  FE)           Aricidea  wassi Pettibone
(FE)                Paraonis  lyra Southern
(QK,  FE)           Paraonis  sp.
                 Family Phyllodocidae
(FE)                Eteone  ?
(QK)                Eteone  sp.
(QK)                Eteone  lactea (Claparede)
(QK)                Eteone  hetez'opoda (Hartman)
(QK)                Eteone  sp.  cf,  E^ heteropoda (Hartman)
(FE)                Phyllodocidae sp.
(FE)                PJiyllodoce  mucosa Oersted
(QK)                Phyllodoce  (Anaifides) maculatus (Linne)
                 Family Polynoidae
(FE)                Harmothoe imbricata (Linnaeus)
                 Family Sabellidae
(QK)                Euchcme sp.
(FE)                Potamilla neglecta (Say)
(QK)                Saaella microphthalma (Verrill)
(QK)                Sabellidae  sp.
                 Family Scalibregmidae
(FE)                Scalibregma inflatum Rathke
                 Family Sigaliondae
(FE)                Neoleanira  sp.  cf. N.  tetragona (Oersted)
(FE)                Neoleanira  tetragona (Oersted)
(QK,  FE)           Sigalion  arenicola Verrill
(QK)                Sthenelais  limicola (Ehlers)
                 Family Spionidae
(QK)                Spiophanes  bombyx (Claparede)
(QK)                Scolecolepides viridis (Verrill)
                 Fa.-ni ly Syllidae
(QK)                ''ucoly tus cor nut us (Agassiz)
(FE)                Lr-inia  ?
(QK,  FE)           Zxogone yerugera (Claparede)
(QK,  FE)           }-'• a r a p i o nos'yl l j s longicirrata (Webster and Benedict.)
(FE)                S ph. a e r o s y 11 i s erinaceus Claparede
(FE)                Sphaerosy j. 1 i s hystrix Claparede
(FE)                ^ t r a p ฃ os y 111 s arenae Vvebster- and Benedict
(FE)                S y 11 i'd_e s~ 1 o ngo c ฑ r r a t a  Oersted
(FE)                Syllls  sp".
(QK)                "Syllis  sp.  cf.  _S_._ cornuta (Rathke)
(FE)                Syllis  cornuta Rathke
(FE)                ^yJLLi^  gr_acilis (Grube)
                 Family Terebellidae
(OK)                Ttn-ebellidae  sp.

     Phylum Mollusca
         Class Scaphonuda
                   Sraii'iopud;!  ^P.
         Clasps Gastr-opoda
           Subclass Prosobranchia

                              51

-------
Table 14  (continued)
              Order Archaeogastropoda
                  Family Trochidae
(QK, FE)            Margarites groenlandicus  Gmelin
                  Family Vitrinellidae
(FE)                Vitrinella sp. cf. V^_  helicoidea C.B. Adams
              Order Mesogastropoda
                  Family Caecidae
(QK)                Co eg urn cooperjl S. Smith
                  Family Calyptraeidae
(QK, FE)            Crepidula iornicata  (Linne)
(QK, FE)            CrepiduTa plana  (Say)
                  Family Capulidae
(FE)                Capulus ?
                  Family Naticidae
(FE)                Luna^tia heros Say
(QK)                Natica sp.
(QK)                Natica canrena Linne
(QK, FE)            Polinices duplicatus  (Say)
(QK)                ?o Unices immacula tus^  Totten
              Order Neogastropoda
                  F3.iji.Iy Buccinidae
(QK, FE)            T 3lus pygmaea (Gould)
                  Fanily Melongenidae
(QK)                Susycon canaliculatum  (Linne)
                  Family Nassariidae
(QK)                 '-'-ssarius trivittatus  (Say)
                  Fa-iiy Turridae
(QK)                 '.mgelia cerina  (Kurtz and  Stimpson)
            Subclass -oisthobranchia
              Order "Tecribranchia
                  J;.~i-v Acteonidae
(QK)                i^iejlD: SP-
                  r-T_?y Pyraraidellidae
(QK. FE)            Tv-rbonilj^a interrupta  (Totten)
                  Family Retusiclae
(FE)                Re LUS a c_analiculata  (Say)
(FE)                ?v3t:usji obtusa Montagu
          Class  Pelecypoda
              Order Protobranchia
                  Family Nuculidae
     FE)            Ni'cula proxima  (Say)
              Oi'der Fill bra ru; hi a
                  r*'n"Ti]LlV A :1 C) .7] i i (i U.O
     FE)            Aiu^raia simplex Orbigny
                  F irniJ y Arridae
                            r ransvers a  (S ?„ y)

                               ii'diila j ••> l : (M,
                        - 
-------
Table 14  (continued)
                  Family Pectinidae
(QK, FE)            Placopecten magellanicus Gmelin
             Order  Eulamellibranchia
                  Family Arcticidae
(QK, FE)            Arc tic a ^slandica Linne
                  Family Astartidae
(FE)                Astarte^ borealis Schumacher
(QK)                Astarte castanea Say
(QK, FE)            Astarje subequila cera Sowerby
(QK)                Astarte undata (Gould)
                  Family Cardiidae
(QK, FE)            Ceras toderma pinnulatum Conrad
(QK, FE)            Trachycardium muricatum Linne
                  Family Carditidae
(QK, FE)            Venericardia borealig (Conrad)
                  Family Corbulidae
(QK, FE)            Corbula contracta (Say)
                  Family Luc in id ae
(QK)                ?:iaco Ides f ilosus St imps on
                  lankly Lyons iidae
(FE)                1-onsia hya.1 ina (Conrad)
                  raanly Mactridae
(QK, FE)            Spisula solidissima (Dillwyn)
                  Family Pandoridae
(QK)                Pandora gouldiana (Ball)
(QK, FE)            7andora trilineata Say
                  Fi^iLy Seme Iidae
(QK)                .-jrra. lioica Ball
(FE)
                  Fsnily Solenidae
(QK, FE)            "r.sis directus  (Conrad)
                  r?.-iLly Tellinidae
(QK, FE")            T? 11 ina af;i_l_i._s.  (St imps on)
                  F-nily Veneridae
(QK)                D '-i si nia discus Reeve
(OK)                Pi. tar riorrhuana  (Linsley)
(OK)                TraT-i"nella s timpsoa 1 Ball

     Phylum  Arthropoda
          Class  Crustacea
           Subc 1 ass :,!a 1 a cos t r aca
              Order Cumacea
                  F a :y> i 1 y D L a s t y 1 i d a e
(QK)                Diast ylis sp.
                  Family Leuconidae
(QK)                ^'^-''iLll? SP-
(FE)                Eiidore Llopsia dof ormis  (Kroyer)
              Order 'i 'a iraidacea
                  Fa,n L I y r'.irai, -j naidae
                    r,'-.;p cocho'i ia sp .
                                53

-------
Table T4   (continued)
                  Family  Tanaidae
(FE)                Tanaissus lilljeborgi (Stebbing)
             Order  Isopoda
               Suborder  Anthuridea
                  Family  Anthuridae
(FE)                Ptilanthura tricarina Menzies  and  Frankenberg
               Suborder  Flabellifera
                  Family  Cirolanidae
(QK)                Cirolana coneharurn (Stimpson)
(QK, FE)            Cirolana impressa (Harger)
(QK, FE)            Cirolana polita (Stimpson)
               Suborder  Valvifera
                  Family  Idoteidae
(QK)                Chiridotea arenicola (Wigley)
(QK)                Chiridotea stenops (Menzies and  Frankenberg)
(QK)                Edotea triloba (Say)
             Order  Amphipoda
               Suborder  Gammaridea
                  Family  Ampeliscidae
(QK)                --Ttoelisca vadorum (Mills)
(QK, FE)            .-T.pelisca aequicTornis Bruzelius
(QK, FE)            H---3lis serrata (Smith)
                  Family  Calliophiidae
(QK)                Agherusa gracilis (Holmes)
                  Fa-Tilly  Corophiidae
(FE)                Lee tocheirus pinguis (Stimpson)
(FE)                "-'3 eud ounc i o1a obliouua  (Shoemaker)
(QK)                Si ptionoece fces" smithianus  (Rathbun)
(QK)           .    'Jnc iola dissimilis (Shoemaker)
(OK)                L-ciola inermissTShoemaker)
(QK)                I'r.ciola irrorata (Say)
                  Fznily  riaustoriidae
(FE)                .- lantiiohaustorius millsi  Bo us lie Id
(QK.)                '-'ro tohaus tori us deichmannae  (Bous field)
CQK, FE)            ?r o t o aa us tor i us wigTeyi  (Bousfield)
                  Family  Lyssianassidae
(OK. FE)            "{ippomerlon serratus Ololmes) -
                  Family  Phoxocephalidae
(QK)                Paraphoxus spinosus (Holmes)
(OK. FE)            Pi\oxocepha 1 us holbol_li  (Kroyer)
(QK)                Ti' i c h o ^ !i ox u s ep is torn us  (Shoemaker)
                  family  S Lcnotiioidae
                    Proholo JLd_es Iiolmesx (Bo as I ield)
               Subordoi1  Cup re 11 idea
                  Fain LI y  Cnprell Ldae
                    Aj^ginina louqicoi'nia (Kroyer)
              OrTier Dt'C.apoJa
                  F <" r.i i 1}  C < u i c r i d a e
                    Cancc1;; irrora bus  Say
                    Ca_r'c^ej' _noฃฃ-1 ! i-s S1- ill• P^on

                                54

-------
Table 14 (continued)
     Phylum Ectoprocta
       Class Gymnolaemata
             Order Ctenostomata
                 Family Alcyonidiidae
(QK)               Alcyonidium polyoum  (Hassall)
                 Family Flustrellidae
(QK)               Flustrellidra hispida  (Fabricius)
                 Family Vesiculariidae
(FE)               Bowerbankia sp. cf.  B. gracilis Leidy
             Order Cheilostomata
               Suborder Anasca
                 Family Alderinidae
(QK, FE)           Callopora sp.
                 Family Scrupariidae
(QK)               Scruparia chelata  (Linne)
               Suborder Ascophora
                 Family Microporellidae
(QK, FE)           Microporella ciliata (Pallas)
                 Family Schizoporellidae
 (FE)              5 ^hizoporella errata (Watess)
                 Family Smittinidae
                   Parasmittina sp.

     Phylum Entoprocta
                 Family Pedicellinidae
(FE)               S.irentsia sp.

     Phylum Echinocermata
         Class Echinoidea
                 Family Arbaciidae
(QK, FE)           Arbacia punc tulata  (Lamarck)
                 Family Echinarachnidae
(QK, FE)           richinarachnius  parma (Lamarck)
         Class Ophiuroidea
(QX, FE)           Opuiuroid sp.

     Phylum Chordata
       Subphylum Urociiorduui
         Class Ascidiacea
(QK)               Ascidian sp.
                                55

-------
Comparison of Species Rank, Number, and Cumulative Percent
of Benthic Invertebrates from Quicksilver and Fetch


     Species from both sampling periods were ranked according

to number of individuals (Tables 15 and!6).  In addition,  the

percent of fauna by number, the cumulative percent of  fauna,

the number of occurrences per species, and the percent  of

occurrences were included in the same tables.  Comparison

of these tables revealed the following trends.

     The top ten species of Quicksilver comprised approxi-

mately 81% of the fauna whereas the top 17 species of  Fetch

represented about 81% of the fauna (Tables 15 andlG).    The

top two species of Quicksilver contained  about 47% of  the

fauna while a similar percent was represented by  the  top

five species of Fetch.  Dominance was more widely distributed

in species from Fetch than Quicksilver.   The total number

of individuals collected in Quicksilver and Fetch was  1, 121

and 1,664, respectively.  The addition of meiofauna,  to be

described later, would double the abundance for Fetch  (Table

     In Quicksilver,  two polychaetes, Goniadella  gracilis

and Lu/abrinereis acuta, and the amphipod, Trichophoxus epistomus,

were the dominant  (number) species (Table 15). These  poly-

chaetes were identified as Progoniada regularis and Lumbrinereis

paradoxa in an earlier report in Rlaurer,  et nl.  (1973)  (Palmer

and Lear, 1973).  Since then, these species were  reexanined

at our request by a polychaete specialist and  identified as

Gon lade 11 a gracij/Ls and L u nib r ing r e i s  a.ciu_a  (K. Fnucl.nid,  per-

sonal communication).

                             56

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    -------
         In Fetch, G. gracilis and L. acuta were ranked  1  and 8,
    
    
    
    respectively  (Table 16).  Three species of polychaetes,  the
    
    
    
    
    syllids, Exogone verugera, Parapionsyllis longicirrata.,  and
    
    
    
    the spionid, Spiophanes bombyx were also important as  they
    
    
    
    ranked 2, 3, and 5, respectively.  The amphipods, Trichophoxus
    
    
    
    epistomus and Byblis serrata, remained in the  top ten.   The
    
    
    
    
    polychaete, Aricidea jeffreysii, shifted from  8  to 11.   In
    
    
    
    terms of species composition, the presence  of  the syllids
    
    
    
    
    and the spionid represent the biggest changes  in the top
    
    
    
    ten or eleven species between Quicksilver and  Fetch.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Life Stage
    
    
    
    
    
    
         During the examination of species collected for Quick-
    
    
    
    
    silver  (March 1973), there was some evidence of  reproductive
    
    
    
    
    activity.  Specimens of the syllid, Autolytus  cornutus con-
    
    
    
    
    tained chains oi female sexual buds.  However, specimens
    
    
    
    from Fetch showed additional indications of reproductive
    
    
    
    aciivity or young if the year.   Among specimens  of the echino-
    
    
    
    derm  Arbacia nunc tulata  about  98% were less  than 5 mm in
    
    
    
    diameter.  This size would indicate setting within two to
    
    
    
    six weeks oi' sampling (Kovember  5-10, 1973).   Specimens oi'
    
    
    
    syllids were collected in various stages of reproduction.
    
    
    
    
    P-1 -'.>f iouc> •>y ] 1 is li-.n.gicir ."ata and Exc^rrne verrL-gej^a conmonly
    
    
    
    
    contained sexual enitokos with long swimming setae.   Another
    
    
    
    
    syllid identified as S crep tusyj-_l is ฃ^1521^ '-;ho\v^d the swollen
    
    
    
    eyes and long setae characteristic of sexual epitokes.   Ac:-
    
    
    
    
    
                               64
    

    -------
    cording to Pettibone  (1963) sexual epitokes  are  unknown
    
    
    
    
    for this species.  The nephtyid, Nephtys  picta and  the  gonia-
    
    
    
    
    did, Goniadella gracj-lis, were  collected  as  adults  during
    
    
    
    Quicksilver, but commonly as juveniles  in Fetch.  Finally,
    
    
    
    approximately 75% of  the ampeliscid  amphipod, Byblis  serrata,
    
    
    
    
    contained developing  young  in brood  pouches.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Meiof auna
    
    
    
    
    
    
         Although this emphasized macroscopic benthic organisms,
    
    
    
    specimens of the meiofauna  (normally less than 0.5  mm)  were
    
    
    
    also collected.  Because sampling  techniques were not de-
    
    
    
    signed to collect  ihe meiofauna and  their systematics are
    
    
    
    locally poorly Known, only  a few of  easily recognizable
    
    
    
    
    species were identified.  However, for  general information
    
    
    
    
    purposes, some C7ni2ients can be  made.
    
    
    
    
         Specimens -. ~ calcareous and arenaceous  Foraminifera
    
    
    
    
    were recognized  L~ Fetch samples.  In the former group, the
    
    
    
    
    Fa illy Miliolictae was represented  by species of  Quinqueloculina,
    
    
    
    Tr iloculina, and :.!iliola .   The  genus, j^ponides in  the Family
    
    
    
    Roraliidae was also  collected.   ^strorhiza was  the  principle
    
    
    
    representative ex arenaceous Foraminif era .   None of the above
    
    
    
    
    genera of Foraminifera were included in the  species list
    
    
    
    
    e JvC :> "> i ;''JlAl  jlifla  ( 1 ';' b I e 14)-
         Speciiiiens  of  o^tracods,  neinatodes ,  oligochaetes ,  and
    
    
    
    
    fragments OL nemprteans  were  also collected.   The oligochaetes
    
    
    
    
    did not occur  in high  numbers and were  not -widely distributed.
                                 65
    

    -------
    In contrast, nemerteans and fragments of nemerteans were
    
    
    
    abundant and occurred in a variety of samples  (Tables 15 and
    
    
    
    
    16).
    
    
    
         The archiannelid tentatively identified as Polygordius
    
    
    
    sp. deserves special mention.  This species, a member  of
    
    
    
    
    the meiofauna, was the most abundant benthic invertebrate
    
    
    
    collected for either sampling period.  The  total number was
    
    
    
    
    3,901 individuals.  When this meiofaunal organism was  com-
    
    
    
    
    pared with the macroscopic forms, it was ranked number  one
    
    
    
    
    and accounted for 70% of the fauna and occurred in 54% of
    
    
    
    
    the samples (Table ]6).  These figures were  presented  to
    
    
    
    illustrate the dramatically different results  which can be
    
    
    
    
    obtained using neiofaunal organisms compared to macrofauna.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Fauna1 Diversity
    
    
    
    
    
    
         The diverse™ of each sample  (Tables 17 and 18 was de-
    
    
    
    termined according to .Pager  (1962).  These  values were pooled
    
    
    
    and averaged  for  -\ single diversity value per  station  per
    
    
    
    sampi.'.ng period.  The station diversity  values per sampling-
    
    
    
    period were compared with the nonparametrie sign  test  (Table
    
    
    
    19).  Assumptions  lor  the sign test and  its  computation can
    
    
    
    
    'of; found in Conover  (1.971).  The null hypothesis  was  that
    
    
    
    
    for ^ rno-L-illed  ITS'- diversity values  of  t'olci"1 wore  sma ' I er
    
    
    
    tiv;n or cquT.1 to  diversity values  of Quicksilver.  Results
    
    
    
    
    of the sign test  indicate  that the null  hypothesis must be
    
    
    
    
    rejected a.t a probability love! of  .05  (Table  19). Thus,  the
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                 66
    

    -------
                                                             25
    diversity values  for Fetch  stations  were significantly greater
    
    
    
    than diversity values  for Quicksilver.   The occurrence of
    
    
    
    benthic invertebrates  for all  samples  examined during Quick-
    
    
    
    silver and Fetch  were  included in Tables 20-through 28 and
    
    
    
    29 throunh 36.
                                  67
    

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                                                                70
    

    -------
                         Table 19
    
               Sign Test for Comparison of
       Faunal Diversity for Comparable Stations of
        Operation Quicksilver and Operation Fetch
     Station     Quicksilver        Fetch        Sign
                 Diversity *     Diversity *
    1
    2
    5
    8
    9
    11
    14
    17
    .540
    .604
    .558
    .571
    .689
    .368
    .594
    .635
    . 563
    .763
    .561
    .632
    .668
    .592
    .699
    .648
       Null hypotnesis rejected at o<  = .05.
    *  Diversirr values were computed from pooled
       replicate samples.
                           71
    

    -------
                            Discussion
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Species List and Comparison of Abundance
    
    
    
    
    
    
         One parameter commonly used as an indicator of marine
    
    
    
    pollution is a shift in species composition  (Sindermann,
    
    
    
    
    1972).  This may involve deletion or introduction of a  key
    
    
    
    species or a decrease or increase in abundance.  In the
    
    
    
    
    present case, there has been very little shift in key
    
    
    
    
    species composition or change in abundance that cannot  be
    
    
    
    explained by natural processes.  Moreover, the difference
    
    
    
    
    in total species and total numbers between Quicksilver  (118,
    
    
    
    
    1121) and Fetch  (133, 1664), exclusive of meiofauna,  (Tables
    
    
    
    15 and 16 can be explained in several ways.   One is an arti-
    
    
    
    
    fact of taxonomic methodology, the second is based on season-
    
    
    
    
    ality.
    
    
    
         Examination of Tables 15 and 16 shows that  the number of
    
    
    
    polychaete species has almost doubled in Fetch.  In part,
    
    
    
    this is due  to the common practice of using  the taxonomic
    
    
    
    notation sp. and cf. (compares favorably) to indicate some
    
    
    
    doubt as to  the reliability of the identification.  Sometimes
    
    
    
    an organism  may have been damaged in collection, lost key
    
    
    
    
    morphological lectures in preservation, or  JLS  :i n a .juvenile
    
    
    
    
    stage with only general diagnostic features.   Under such
    
    
    
    circumstances identifications can be difficult and so quali-
    
    
    
    fications such as cf. or sp. are placed on  the identification.
    
    
    
    
    As ii result,  the apparent number oi species  can be  increased
    
    
    
    
    
    
                               72
    

    -------
    very rapidly, when in fact some of the organisms are really
    
    
    
    
    poorly preserved specimens of species already identified.
    
    
    
    
         The second reason for an increased number of species
    
    
    
    
    and greater number of individuals in Fetch is biological
    
    
    
    
    and is considerably more important than taxonomic reasons.
    
    
    
    
    Since there were only two collecting dates (March and early
    
    
    
    
    November),  seasonality cannot be invoked unequivocally to
    
    
    
    
    explain the differences.  However, the juvenile sizes, sexual
    
    
    
    
    stages,  and egg-bearing mode among adult-size invertebrates
    
    
    
    
    from Fetch strongly indicated recent and ongoing recruitment.
    
    
    
    
    This contrasted with the adult size and general lack of re-
    
    
    
    
    productive stages among Quicksilver adults.  Samples from
    
    
    
    
    Quicksilver primarily represented adult populations with a
    
    
    
    
    shift to smaller size classes corresponding to recruitment
    
    
    
    
    prior to and during Operation Fetch.
    
    
    
    
         Other data "anich supported this seasonal explanation
    
    
    
    
    was the presence of large numbers of the archiannelid, Poly-
    
    
    
    
    gordius.  The seasonal nature of members of the meiofauna
    
    
    
    
    has been discussed (Mclntyre, 1969)   The settlement of
    
    
    
    
    Poly2.ordius between sampling periods was consistent with
    
    
    
    
    annual recrui tiTien c by some members of the macrofnuna.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Fa una 1 Diversity
    
    
    
    
    
    
         Diversity is a complex biological concept which can be
    
    
    
    
    useful in pollution studies v/hen applied with otner data.
    
    
    
    
    Shift.-; in diversity ruive commonly .seen used to indicate  the
    
    
    
    
    
                               73
    

    -------
    response of communities to changing environments.  Increased
    
    
    
    diversity has been interpreted as an improved environment,
    
    
    
    decreased diversity as a reduction in environmental quality.
    
    
    
    However, diversity applied without supporting data to pol-
    
    
    
    
    lution studies can be misleading.  A discussion of diversity
    
    
    
    
    is beyond the scope of this report; however,  we urge caution
    
    
    
    in blindly following the direction of diversity indices.
    
    
    
    
         For example, in this study there was a statistically
    
    
    
    
    significant increase in diversity between sampling periods
    
    
    
    
    (Table 19).  Based on diversity alone one might conclude
    
    
    
    
    that dumping in the study area significantly improved the
    
    
    
    environment.  We do not subscribe to this point of view.
    
    
    
    
    Rather we submit that the increase in diversity was primarily
    
    
    
    
    caused by natural seasonal recruitment and, to a considerably
    
    
    
    
    lesser extent, taxonomic artifacts.  We would discourage  the
    
    
    
    use of the increased diversity values computed here as an
    
    
    
    indication of an improved environment.
    
    
    
    
    
    General Statement
    
    
    
    
    
    
         The benthic invertebrate fauna recorded for Quicksilver
    
    
    
    and Fetch was characteristic of many areas in the shallow
    
    
    
    
    continental she]f aria north of  the Delmarva Peninsula  through
    
    
    
    
    Nantucket  (Pratt, 1973).  In general, these faunas were con-
    
    
    
    sidered indicative of unpolluted oceanic waters.  The main
    
    
    
    
    exception would be the New York Bight (Pararas-Carayannis,
    
    
    
    
    197:;).
    
    
    
    
                                74
    

    -------
         In the area under study, it would be highly unlikely
    
    
    
    that the interim dumping to date would cause immediate lethal
    
    
    
    effects to the benthos.  The particulate nature of the dis-
    
    
    
    
    posal waste, the short duration of dumping time, the disper-
    
    
    
    sion of the waste, and relatively small volume of waste com-
    
    
    
    
    pared to annual rates in the New York Bight would support
    
    
    
    this opinion.  What may be more insidious are long range
    
    
    
    chronic effects related to other activities.  Palmer and
    
    
    
    Lear (1973) presented data which indicated accumulation of
    
    
    
    copper and iron in invertebrates from the study area.  They
    
    
    
    tentatively suggested there may be some leaching from the
    
    
    
    
    acid waste dump site 10 miles north of the interim dump site.
    
    
    
    
    Palmer and Lear were reluctant to make stronger statements
    
    
    
    
    pending further study.  In view of the fact that the general
    
    
    
    
    direction of the surface current moves south from the acid
    
    
    
    
    dump site,  the inrerim dump site would be down current.
    
    
    
    
    Whether this is part of a trace metal sink remains unknown
    
    
    
    for now.
    
    
    
         Regardless cf the source of the trace metals, many
    
    
    
    invertebrates are known to accumulate high concentrations
    
    
    
    without obvious adverse effects to themselves (Kopfler and
    
    
    
    Mayer.  1973).  However, this response primarily holds for
    
    
    
    adults because embryonic and larval development may be very
    
    
    
    sensitive and adversely affected by trace metals  (Calabrese,
    
    
    
    C51 a 1. ,  1973).   Indeed chronic effects on long term biologi-
    
    
    
    cal processes (reproduction, growth,  incidence of disease)
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                 75
    

    -------
    are poorly known even among adults.   It would seem that
    
    
    
    small scale,  detailed studies of chronic effects on larvae
    
    
    
    of benthic invertebrates,  holoplanktors, and long-term bio-
    
    
    
    logical processes on adults would be productive in resolving
    
    
    
    this problem.  Waste from both dump sites should be used.
                                 76
    

    -------
                               Summary
         1.  The number of macrobenthic species and individuals
    from "Quicksilver" were 118 and 1,121, respectively.
         2.  The same categories for "Fetch" were 133 species and
    1,664 individuals.
         3.  Inclusion of the meiobenthic archiannelid, Polygordius
    to the "Fetch" total yielded another 3,901  individuals.
         4.  There were no major shifts of key species (Goniadella
    gracilis, Lumbrinereis acuta, Trichophoxus epistomus) between
    collecting periods.
         5.  The presence of many juvenile stages, sexual stages,
    adults with eggs and brood pouches with developing young in
    "Fetch" invertebrates strongly indicated seasonal  recruitment
    here.
         6.  Fauna! diversity increased significantly between
    "Quicksilver" and "Fetch", but was attributable primarily to
    seasonal  recruitment and secondarily to artifacts of taxonomy.
         7.  Based on the benthic organisms alone no measurable
    effect of pollution was determined.
         8.  Long term studies of chronic effects of sewage  waste
    disposal  and acid waste disposal  on larvae of benthic inverte-
    brates, holoplankters and on biological processes (reproduction,
    growth, incidence of disease) of adults were urged.
                                   77
    

    -------
                                  Table  20
    
               Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 1
                                 (Quicksilver)
                                                   Sample
               Species
                           01  02  03  04  05  06  07  08  09
    Polychaeta
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Goniadella gracilis
    Tharyx sp .
    Ceratocephale loveni
    Clymenella sp.
    Paraonidae sp.
    Chaetozone sp.
    Aricidea jef freysii
    Cirratulidae sp.
    Asabellides sp.
    Nephtys (Aglaophamus) circinata
    Nephtyidae sp.
            *
    Mollusca
    
    Spisula solidissima
    Venericardia borealis
    Placopecten magellanicus
    Ceras toderma pinnuiatua
    Astarte undata
    Crepidula plana
    Margarites groenlandicus
    Acceon sp.
    Ensis directus
    Nucula proxima
    Anomia 3 1.10 lex
    Crepidula for:iicata
    Transenella s cimpsoni
    As tar te castanea
    Tellina s^.
    Nassarius trivittatus
    Busycon canicuiatum
    Anadara transversa
    Crassostrea
    virginica
    Mytilus edulls
    Trachycardiuiq rfiuricatum
    Polinices duplicatus
    
    C:rus tace i
                            1   5
                            -  17
                                1
                                1
        3263
        1  16  25  22
                                        1
                                        1
                                        2
                2
                1
                                            D
                                            D
                                            V
                    D
                        V
                       13   3
                       12   3
                                                        1
                                                        2
                                                        1
    V
    V
    V
    V
    V
    D
    1
    D
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    —
    V
    V
    V
    V
    V
    D
    -
    -
    V
    V
    V
    V
    -
    -
    —
    V
    V
    V
    V
    -
    -
    V
    -
    D
    V
    V
    -
    V
    -
    „
    -
    V
    V
    D
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    „
    V
    D
    V
    V
    V
    V
    D
    -
    D
    -
    -
    V
    V
    V
    D
    -
    V
    —
    V
    V
    V
    V
    -
    -
    V
    -
    V
    V
    V
    -
    V
    D
    --
    -
    V
    V
    V
    -
    D
    -
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    -
    -
    -
    _
    -
    V
    ~
    -
    V
    V
    D
    -
    -
    --
    -
    V
    V
    V
    -
    -
    V
    -
                                                        V
                                                        V
                                                            V
                                                            V
                                                            D
                                                            V
                                                            V
                                                            D
    1 ' r o t o h a u s t ( > r i u s de
    rrichophoxus epistomus
    Clrolaqa coucharum
    By b 1 is ser r a t a
                            6
                            5
                            2
                            1
    3
    1
    2
    9
    1
    1
    8
                                      78
    

    -------
    Table 20 (continued)
               Species
    
    Crustacea (continued)
    
    Siphonoecetes smithianus
    Chiridotea stenops
    Cirolana polita
    Hippomedon serratus
    Unciola inermis
    Phoxocephalus holbolli
    Ampelisca aequicornis
    Unciola irrorata
    
    Others*
    
    Echinarachnius parma
    Obelia sp.
    Microporella ciliata
    Eudendrium dispar
    Sertularia argentea
    Ophiuroid sp.
                Sample
    
    01  02  03  04  05  06  07  08  09
         1   3
             P
             P
                     2
                     1
    1   1
    
    1
        1
    1
    2
                                 P
                                 1
    *  D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
       P - Present
                                    79
    

    -------
                                   Table 21
    
              Occurrence  of  Benthic Invertebrates at Station  2
                                 (Quicksilver)
                                                     Sample
               Species
                                         11
                                                12
    13
    14
    15
    Polychaeta
    
    Nephtys  (Aglaophamus)  circinata
    Clymenella sp.
    Goniade_l_la gracilis
    Nephtyidae sp.
    Lumbrinereis  acuta
             ^
    Mollusca
    
    Cerastodernia  pinnulatum
    Mytilus  edulis
    Venericardia  borealis
    Phacoides filosus
    Transenella stimpsoni
    Astarte  undata
    Colus pygmaea
    Arctica  islandica
    Polinices iromaculatus
    Margaritas groenland-CMS
    Ensis directus
    iN'ucula proxiraa
             cerina
    Aszarte subequilater_
    Nat i c a~c a n r e n a
    
    Crustacea
    
    Cirolana conenarum
    Tri c ho p no xu5 epistones
    Paraphoxus spinosus
    .V;.ipelisci:!ae so.
    Cumacea sp.
    Cirolaua impi'es-sa
    Protoha-qstorius  deichinannae
    C i v o 1 :i n a r> o 1 i t a
                                          V
    2
    -
    -
    
    
    V
    V
    V
    V
    V
    1
    -
    _
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    2
    1
    -
    
    V
    -
    V
    -
    -
    V
    -
    V
    1
    V
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    1
    1
    2
    
    -
    V
    -
    -
    V
    2
    -
    -
    -
    1
    1
    V
    -
    -
    1
    -
    1
    "
    
    -
    V
    -
    V
    V
    -
    V
    —
    -
    —
    -
    -
    V
    1
                                                         2
                                                         1
                                                         1
                                                                1
                                                                1
                                                                       1
                                                                       2
                                                                       1
      ;t-iU-*'U-:v
                    panna
       	L sp.
      -v...vaian  sp.
      :vie r t--" ii'i so.
                                                         o
                                                                P
                                                                P
                    -vooud or cJeaJ valves .joined  !rog-:->ther
    

    -------
                                  Table 22
    
              Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 5
                                 (Quicksilver)
                                                    Sample
               Species
    Polychaeta
    Goniadella gracilis
    Paraonidae sp.
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Aricidea jeffreysii
    Chaetozone sp.
    Clymenella sp.
    
    Mollusca
    
    Ensis directus
    Spisula solidissima
    Venericardia borealis
    Placopecten magellanicus
    Cerastoderma pinnulatua
    Arctica islandica
    Tellina agiiis
    Crepidula plana
    Anomia simplex
    Astarte undata
    Astarte castanea
    Crenella glandula
    TrachycardiuTn muricarmn
    Colus pygmaea
    
    Crustacea
                                        38
                                         1
                                         1
    39
    
    
    
     2
    
     1
    40
    
    
    
    10
    
     2
    41
    
    
    
     9
    
     6
    
     1
     7
    42
    
    
    
     5
    
    
     2
    V
    V
    V
    V
    D
    2
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    V
    V
    V
    -
    -
    V
    D
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    V
    -
    V
    -
    -
    -
    -
    V
    V
    1
    -
    -
    -
    -
    V
    V
    V
    V
    -
    -
    -
    V
    -
    1
    -
    D
    D
    —
    V
    V
    V
    D
    —
    -
    -
    -
    -
    V
    V
    -
    —
    Cirolana polita
    Edotea criloba
    Unciola inermis
    Unciola irrorata
    Pnoxocephalus no'lbolli
    Leptochelia sp.
    Others
                                                       3
                                                       1
                                                       1
                                                       3
                                                              1
                                                              1
    Ecaiuaracianius par ma
    Microporella ciliata
    riemertean sp. #1
                                                             11
                          p
                          4
       D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
       P - Present
                                       81
    

    -------
                                  Table  23
    
              Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 8
                                 (Quicksilver)
                                                    Sample
               Species
    Polychaeta
    Goniadella gracilis
    Clymenella sp.
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Nephtys (Aglaophamus) circinata
    Stauronereis rudolphi
    Parapionosyllis longicirrata
    Glycera dibranchiata
    Aricidea jef freysii
    Tharyx marioni
    Stauronereis sp.
    Nephtys picta
    
    Mollusca
    
    Anomia simplex
    Spisula solidissima
    Venericardia borealis
    As tar te castanea
    Placppecten magellanicus
    Cerastoderma pinnulatum
    Nassarius trivittatus
    Crenella glandula
    Crepidula plana
    Tellina agilis
    Arctica islandica
    Natica a p .
    Transenella stimpsoni
    Dosinia discus
    Ens is direct us
    Nucula •proxi'na
    43
     3
     1
     1
     V
    
     V
     1
     D
     V
    44
     7
     2
     8
     1
     V
     V
     V
     V
     V
     D
     V
     D
     V
     V
     1
     V
     V
    45
     7
     3
     3
                   1
                   2
     V
     V
     V
     D
     V
     D
                   V
                   V
    46
    
    
    
     4
    
     3
    
     1
     1
     V
     V
     D
    Margaritas groenlandicus
                   D
    
                   D
    47
    22
    11
     4
                                 1
                                 4
                                 1
     V
     V
     V
    
     V
     D
                   V
    
                   V
    Crustacea
    Unciola inermis
    Paoxocephalus holbolli
    Leptoche.l la sp.
    Dlas_ty"Lis sp.
    IJnciola dissimilis
    Cirolana ooli ta
    Unciola ivroraba
    Trichopi;oxus opts bomus
    Aaoelisca vadoru^i
     1
     3
            1
            2
            1
            2
            1
            2
            1
                          1
                          1
                                      82
    

    -------
    Table 23  (continued)
    
    
               Species
    
    Others
    
    Nemertean sp. #1
    Echinarachnius parma
    Sertularia argentea
    Flustrellidra hispida
    Oligochaete sp. #1
                Sample
    
    43     44     45     46     47
     P
     P
            4
            3
    *  D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
       P - Present
                                     83
    

    -------
                                   Table  24
    
              Occurrence of Benthic  Invertebrates at Station 9
                                 (Quicksilver)
                                                     Sample
               Species
                                         48
          49
    50
    51
    52
    Polychaeta
    Sigalion arenicola
    Goniadella gracilis
    Lunbrinereis acuta
    Clynienelia sp.
    Aricidea ,jef freysii
    Nephtys picta
    Stfaenelais limicola
    Autolyt us corautus
    
    Mollusc a
    
    Ensis directus
    Anomia simplex
    Pandora
              •ilineata
    Venericardia borealis
    Cerastoderma pinnulatum
    Transenalia stimpsoni
    Astarte castaaea
    Tellina agilis
    Turbonil la interrupta
    phacoides filosus
    Pitar inorrhuana
    Crenella glandula
    Placopecten magellanicus
    Margarines groenlandicus
    Polinices inunaculatus
             ^
    Creoi-claLa
    Arc tic a
    Massarms
             Lslandica
              'ivit catus
                                          3
                                          4
                                          1
                                          1
    V
    V
    V
    V
    V
    V
    V
    V
    D
                                                 V
                                                 V
                                                 V
                                                 V
                                                 V
                                                 V
                                                 V
                  8
                                                               1
                                                               1
     V
    
     V
     D
    
     V
                                                        D
                                                        1
                                                        V
                         V
    
                         V
                         3
                   2
                   1
            V
            D
    
            V
            V
                                V
                   D
    Crustacea
    Chirido tea
                 ;enops
    Pro to nau3 tor ius wig; ley i
    Trichophoxus epis bomus
    Cirolana cone a arum
    C Lrolana poll ta
    Cane ex"
    A e ;j; i -^i^v-i
    A m :i e 1 L ~, < > i
    i] i < , ii o p 1 L- u
                  LCO mis
     robo Loideo lio L.Tiesi
    1
    1
    3
    9
                                      84
                                                        2
                                 2
                                 1
                                 1
                                 1
                                 1
                                 1
    

    -------
    Table 24  (continued)
    
                                                    Sample
    
               Species                  48     49     50     51     52
    
    Others*
    
    Echinarachnius parma                 2
    Sertularia argentea                                       -      P
    Scruparia chelata                                                P
    Campanularia neglecta                                            P
    Eudendrium dispar                                                P
    
    
    *  D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
       P - Present
                                   85
    

    -------
                                   Table 25
    
              Occurrence  of  Benthic  Invertebrates at Station 11
                                 (Quicksilver)
                                                     Sample
               Species
    
    Polychaeta
    
    Goniadella gracilis
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Syllis cฑ. cornuta
    Terebellidae sp.
    Cirratulidae sp.
    Glycera dibranchiata
    Clyraenella sp.
    Aricidea jeffreysii
    Syllis cornuta
    
    Mollusca
                                         16
                                         17
                                          7
                                          2
                                          1
          17
          33
           8
          18
         103
          37
                                                        1
                                                        6
                                                        4
                                                        2
    19
    14
    11
                         1
                         2
    20
    23
     8
    Astarte castanea
    Venericardia borealis
    Ensis directus
    Placopecten magellanicus
    Crenella glandula
    Colus pygmaea
    Spisula solidissiiaa
    PoUnices imraaculatus
    Tallina agi Lis
    Nucula proxitna
    Coroula contracta
    Transenella stimosoni
    Cerastocerna pinnularirj
    Nassarius trivittatus
    V
    V
    V
    V
    V
    1
    V
           V
           D
    V
    V
    V
    -
    1
    —
    V
    V
    V
    V
    1
    V
    V
    V
    V
    -
    1
    —
    V
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    V
    -
    V
    V
    -
    V
    V
    -
    -
    -
    D
    -
    Crustacea
       :xo La ir.errais
    jj'qciola irrorata
    o 1 p'nonoecetซs s.^n ithianus
    Leptoe 1x31 ia sp.
    Ui rolana concharum
    C Lrolana polita
    /•; 'V) e I i c> c: a 
    -------
                                  Table  26
    
              Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 13
                                (Quicksilver)
                                                    Sample
               Species
    Polychaeta
    Clymenella sp.
    Lumbrinereis sp.
    Exogone verugera
    Marpfaysa belli
    Goniadella gracilis
    Sabella microphthalma
    Glycera dibranchiata
    Aricidea jeffreysii
    Lumbrinereis paradoxa
    Aricidea wassi
    Phyllodoce maculatus
    Eunice sp.
    
    Mo11usea
    
    Astarte castanea
    Venericardia borealis
    Ens is directus
    Crenella glandula
    Placopecten magellanicus
    Cerastoderma pinnulatum
    Natica sp.
    Busycon canaliculatum
    Colus pygmaea
    Arctica islandica
    Margarites groenlandicus
    Trachycardium muricatum
    
    Crustacea
    
    Unciola irrorata
    Ampelisca sp.
    Byblis serrata
    Unciola inerrais
    Eudorella sp.
    Anpe1i 3ca aequicornis
    '!:ฅic hophoxus epis^tomas
    
    Others*
    
    Ophiuroidea sp.
    Echiaarachnius parma
    Microporella ciliata
    22
     1
     1
     1
     1
     1
     1
     V
     V
     V
     V
     V
     V
     1
     D
     3
     2
     1
     2
     P
    23
            1
            1
     V
            1
            V
            1
            4
            1
            1
    24
            2
            6
     V
     V
     V
    
     V
     D
                   V
            1
    
            p
    25
                          3
                          1
                          1
                          1
     V
     V
                   V
                   V
    26
                          D
    
                          D
                          3
                          1
    
                          3
                          4
                   2
                                         87
    

    -------
                               Table 26
    
    
    
                                                    Sample
    
               Species                  22     23     24     25     26
    
    Others (continued)
    
    Sertularia argentea                  p      P      -      -
    Eudendrium dispar                    P      P      -      -
    Callopora sp.                        -      P      P      -      -
    Asterias vulgaris                           -      -      1      -
    Arbacia punctulata                                        1
    Alcyonidium polyoum                                -      P      -
    Parasmittina sp.                                          P
    
    
    *  D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together          *
       V - Separate valve
       P - Present
                                      88
    

    -------
                                  Table
              Occurrence of Benthic  Invertebrates at Station  14
                                 (Quicksilver)
                                                    Sample
               Species
    Polychaeta
    Clymenella sp.
    Goniadidae sp.
    Gonjadella gracilis
    Eteone heteropoda
    Sabellidae sp.
    Ariel deaf suecica
    Aricidea jeffreysii
    Eteone sp.
    Euchone sp.
    Nephtyidae sp.
    Clymenella torquata
    Eteone cf. heteropoda
    Asabellides sp.
            *
    Mollusca
    
    Ensis directus
    Cerastoderma pinnulaf-zia.
    Astarte castanea
    Placopecten magellanie-as
    Astarte undata
    Venericardia borealis
    Arctica islandica
    Trachycardium nuricatua
    Polinices inuTiaculatus
    Spisula solidissima
    
    Crustacea
    Trichophoxus epistomus
    Siphonoecetes smith!anus
    Ampelisca aequicorTiis
    'iJnciola irrorata
    Byblis serrata
    Phoxocephalus holbolli
    Protohauotorius 'vig'leyi
    Others'
    Gallopora so.
    ฃ c h 1 n a r a c li n i us par ma
    Ophiuroidea sp.
                            28
                                         2
                                         4
                                         1
                                         2
                                         1
                                         V
                                         1
                                         V
                             6
    29
                                                      30
                                                1
                                                1
                                                       1
                                                       2
                                    D
                                    V
                                                       V
                                                       V
                                                       V
                                                       V
     5
     1
     1
       D - D^"
       V - Separate valve
    gastropod or dead valves joined together
    
    
                            89
    31
                                                  1
                                                  5
                                                              1
                                                              1
                   D
    
    
    
                   V
    
                   V
    
                   2
                                                              6
                                                  1
                                                  1
    32
                                                         1
                                                         1
                                                         2
                                                                     V
                                                         V
                                                         2
                                                         1
    

    -------
                                  Table 28
    
              Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 17
                                 (Quicksilver)
                                                    Sample
               Species
                             33
    34
    35
          37
    Polychaeta
    Clymenella sp.
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Chaetozone sp.
    Aricidea jeffreysii
    Cirratulidae sp.
    Nephtys picta
    Aricidea wassi
    Nephtys bucera
    Sigalion arenicola
    Spiophanes bombyx
    Scolecolepides viridis
    
    Mo11usea
    
    Spisula solidissima
    Tellina agilis
    Venericardia borealis
    Crenella glandula
    Astarte castanea
    Cerastoderma pinnulatum
    Busycon canaliculaturn
    Crepidula piana
    Nassarlus trivittatus
    Anomia simplex
    Pandora trilineata
    Astarre undata.
    Caecum cooperi
    Anadara oraasversa
    Abra lioica
    Corbula contracta
    Ensis airectus
    Natica pusilla
    Pandora ^o^.rJ diana
    MarginellLdae 3D.
    Placopec tsn -qagel? articus
    Mar^ari tes K'^oen
                              4
                              4
                              1
                             V
                             V
                             V
                             V
                             V
                             D
                             D
                             D
                             D
                             V
                             V
                                     1
                                     1
     V
     V
    
     V
     V
     D
     D
     V
                                            1
                                            2
                                            1
     V
     V
    
     V
    
     V
    
     D
            ,1
            V
            u
            V
            V
                                                   1
                                                   1
    1
    V
    V
    D
    V
    V
            V
                                                   V
                                                   D
                                                   D
                                                   V
                                                   V
    V
    V
    
    V
    
    V
    
    D
    
    V
                                                          V
                                                          V
    Crus tacea
    Trichophoxus epistomus
    GiroIana oQฃJta
    Pro tohaus tor Uis wigleyi
    Cirolana liaoressa
    Amoelisca
    Kiuicornis
    Bvbiis serrata
                              i
                              1
                                            3
                                            1
                   1
                   1
                          1
                          i
                                       90
    

    -------
    Table 28 (continued)
               Species
    Others
    Echinarachnius parma
    Nemertean sp. #2
                Sample
    
    33     34     35     36     37
            2343
            _      _      1       _
    *  D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
                                       91
    

    -------
                          Table 29
    
     Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 1
                          (Fetch)
                                             Sample
    
               Species                  01     02     03
    
    Polychaeta
    
    Spiophanes bombyx                    7     16       1
    Harmothoe imbricata                  -      1       1
    Nephtys picta                               1       1
    Glycera capitata                     -11
    Exogor^e verugera                     12-
    Spiophanes wigleyi                   111
    Nephtys cf. picta                    32-
    Goniadella gracilis                  -11
    Phyllodoce mucosa                    -      1       -
    Aricidea wassi                       -      -       3
    Caulleriella killariensis            1      -       -
    'vlagelona cฑ. phyliisae               -      -       1
    
    Mollusca
    jr'rotoaaus torius wigj.eyi               -       1
          *
    Ensis directus                       V      -      V
    Cerastoderma pinnulatum              V      -      V
    Spisula solidissima                  V      -      -
    Venericardia oorealis                1
    Margarites groenlandicus                    D      D
    
    Arthropoda
    
    Eadorellopsis deformis               11-
    Trichophoxus € pistomus               4      2      10
    Pti lanthura ti'icarj.na                -      1      -
    Bvblis serrata                              4
    
    
    Others"
    Echinarachnius parma                  1       -
    Pol;sordius su.                      H0     Lฃ3
    Nemercean sp,                          -       1
    Oligochaete sp. A.
    *  D - Dead icastroood cr dead valves  joined  together
       V - Separate valve
                              92
    

    -------
                          Table  30
    
     Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 2
                          (Fetch)
                                              Sample
               Species
     01
    02
    03
    Polychaeta
    Nephtys picta
    Spiophanes bombyx
    Glycera capitata
    Exogone verugera
    Nephtys cf .  picta
    Travisia carnea
    Aricidea wassi
    Aricidea jef freysii
    Tharyx sp .
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Aricidea suecica
    Tharyx cf.  acutus
    Cirratulidae sp.
    Streptosyllis arenae
    Parapionosyllis longocirrata
    Caulleriella killariensis
    Aglaophamus circinata
            >fc
    Mollusca
     1
     2
     4
     5
    
     2
     1
     2
     3
    4
    4
    1
    1
    1
    1
          10
           7
    1
    4
    1
    2
    1
    3
    1
    2
    Ens is directus
    Corastoderma pinnulatum
    Spisula solidi53ima
    Venericardia borealis
    Margaritas groenlandicus
    Retusa canaliculata
    Trachycardium muricatum
    Capulus ?
    Placopecten magellanicus
    •\nomia simplex
    Astarte subequilatera
     1
     D
     D
     1
     D
     V
    1
    V
    V
    V
    V
                   1
                   V
                   V
                   V
    Arthropoda
    
    Trichophoxus epistomus
    By b I is s errata
    Pro tohaus torius \vigleyi
    Cii'olana poiit^a
    A apelisca aegjiicornis
    Acan thohaustorius millsi
    11
     6
     8
     2
     1
     1
    8
    5
    4
    5
    5
    6
    1
                             93
    

    -------
    Table 30(continued)
    
                                              Sample
    
               Species                   01     02     03
    
    Arthropoda (continued)
    
    Unciola irrorata                     2      -      -
    Cirolana impressa                           1
    Tanaissus lilljeborgi                -      2      2
    Pseudounciola obliquua                      1
    
    Others
    
    Echinarachnius parma                 321
    Polygordius sp.141     83    149
    Nemertean sp.                         3      4     24
    Arbacia punctulata                   966
       D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
                             94
    

    -------
                          Table  31
    
     Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 5
                          (Fetch)
                                              Sample
               Species
    Polychaeta
    Nephtys picta
    Spiophanes bombyx
    Exogone verugera
    Goniadella gracilis
    Phyllodoce mucosa
    Glycera dibranchiata
    Nephtys incisa
    Clymenella torquata
    Eteone ?
    Glyceridae
    Nereis sp.
    Clymenella sp.
    Spionidae ?
    Aricidea sp.
    Phyllodocidae
    
    Mollusca
    01
    
    
    
    1
    9
    
    1
    
    1
    
    1
    3
    3
    02
    6
    1
    3
    1
    1
    1
    03
    1
    2
                  1
                  1
                  1
                  1
    Ensis directus
    Spisula solidissima
    Venericardia borealis
    Margarites groenlandicus
    Placopecten ir.agellanicus
    Anomia simplex
    Astarte subequilatera
    Corbula contracta
    Lyonsia hyalina
    C_ol_us pygmaea
    iMicula proxima
    Mytilus edulis
    Arctica islandica
    V
    D
    V
    1
    D
    V
    V
    V
    
    V
    
    V
    V
    
    V
    V
           D
    
           V
           V
    Arthropoda
    
    Trichophoxus epistomus
    Byblis serrata
    Atnpelisca aequicornis
          *
    Others
    
    Echinarachnius parma
           3
    
           1
           7
           1
                             95
    

    -------
    Table 31 (continued)
    
    
    
                                              Sample
    
    
                Species                  01     02     03
    
                      sk
    Others  (continued)
    
    
    Polygordius sp.                      11      -     30
    
    Microporella ciliata                 -      -      P
    
    Callopora sp.                        -      -      P
    *  D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
    
       V - Separate valve
    
       P - Present
                            96
    

    -------
                          Table 32
    
     Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 8
                          (Fetch)
                                              Sample
                Species
                                         01
     02
     03
    Polychaeta
    Nepntys picta
    Glycera capitata
    Exogone verugera
    Goniadella gracilis
    Travisia caraea
    Aricidea jeffreysii
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Tharyx cf.  acutus
    Parapionosyllis longocirrata
    Caulleriella killariensis
    Nephtys incisa
    Clymenella torquata
    Tharyx marioni
    Tharyx setieera
    Lumbrinereis rragilis
    Sigalion arenicola
                 zosa
    Chaetozone 	
    Clymenella ~cnalis
    Sphaerosyll-s hystrix
    
    Mollusca*
                                         1
                                         8
                                         1
                                         8
                                        29
                                         1
                                         3
                                         4
                                         1
                                         1
     2
     1
    
    18
    
     6
     6
    
    18
     1
     2
     3
     1
    32
     3
    14
    12
     2
     5
     1
                                                      10
    Ensis direc rus
    Cerastocierrsa c-innulatum
    Spisula sol-dr
    Venericardia oorealis
    Placopecten ~agellanicus
    Anomia simplex
    Crenel la %'landula
    Lyonsia hyaiina
    Arctica is ianaica
    Tellina agilis
    Crepiciula roraica ha
    Crepidula plana
    Pol inices duolicatus
                                         V
                                         V
    
                                         V
                                         V
                                         1
                                         V
                                         V
                                         D
     V
     V
     V
     V
     V
     V
    
     V
    
     V
    
     V
                                                D
                                                D
    Arthroooda
    By blis s
    Giro Ian a polita
    Amp e 1 i s c: a ae qu i o or n i s
                                                1
                                                1
                              97
    

    -------
    Table 8 (continued)
    
                                             Sample
    
                Species                 01     02     03
    
    Arthropoda (continued)
    
    Unciola irrorata                     491
    Tanaissus lilljeborgi                1      -      -
    Cancer irroratus                                   1
    
    Others
    
    Polygordius sp.                    139    351      3
    Arbacia punctulata                   21-
    Astrorhiza sp.                       4-3
    Scaphopoda                           2      -      -
    Oligochaete A.                       2
    *  D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
                             98
    

    -------
                          Table 33
    
     Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 9
                          (Fetch)
                                              Sample
                Species
    01
    02
                                                        03
    Polychaeta
    
    Spiophanes bombyx
    Glycera capitata
    Exogone verugera
    Goniadella gracilis
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Tharyx cf. marioni
    Glycera dibranchiata
    Clymenella torquata
    Paraonis sp.
    Aricidea sp.
    Paraonis lyra
    Polydora caulleryi
    Brania ?
    Phyllodocidae
    Caulleriella sp.
    Asabellides sp.
    Clymenella zonalis
    Syllis cornuta
    Lumbrinereis latereilli
            *
    Mollusca
    
    Ceras toderma y. innulatum
    Spisula soliaissima
    Margarites groenlandicus
    Placopecten magellanicus
    Tellina agilis
    Cuiuingia ?
    
    Avtiiropocla
    
    Trichopboxus epistomus
    Byblis se_rr a fca
    Protohaustorius wigleyi
    ^mpeliBca ai"quicornis
        '.ปla irrora ca
        -
    Tanaissus lilljeborgi
    Ps'-'Lulo'inciola obliquua
    Can_ce_r irroratus
    Cancer borealis
                                          1
                                          1
                                          1
                                          1
                                          2
                                          V
    
                                          V
                                          1
                                          2
                                          7
                                          2
     2
            3
            5
            2
            1
    
            8
                                                 2
                                                 1
                                                 2
                                                 1
                                                 2
            V
            D
           11
            1
            1
                                                        1
                                                        1
                                                        7
                                                        1
                                                        1
                                                         1
                                                         2
            2
           14
    
            1
            6
    Pnoxocephalus holbolli
                             99
    

    -------
    Table 33(continued)
    
                                              Sample
    
                Species                  01     02     03
          *
    Others
    
    Echinarachnius parma                  -33
    Polygordius sp.                     462    322    109
    Nemertean sp.                         2      -      -
    Arbacia punctulata                    3      -      -
    Microporella ciliata                  P
    Astrorhiza sp.                                      2
    *  D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
       P - Present
                             100
    

    -------
                          Table 34
    
     Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 11
                          (Fetch)
                                              Sample
                Species
    01
    02
    03
    Polychaeta
    Nephtys picta.
    Exogone verugera
    Goniadella gracilis
    Aricidea jeffreysii
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Tharyx cf.  acutus
    Cirratulidae sp.
    Parapionosyllis longocirrata
    Caulleriella killariensis
    Clymenella torquata
    Tharyx setigera
    Paraonis lyra
    Asabellides sp.
    Stauronereis rudolphi
    Clymenella zonalis
    Syllis cornuta
    Orbinia ornata
    Lumbrinereis latereilli
    17
     1
    12
     1
     1
     8
     7
    70
     2
    16
     1
    
     4
     2
    
     3
     1
    
     1
     7
     2
     4
     7
    31
     1
     7
     1
     3
    
     1
     1
    Mollusca
    Ensis directus
    Cerastoderma pinnulatum
    Venericardia borealis
    Placopecten ^iagellanicus
    Lyonsia hyalina
    Arctica islandica
    Crepidula fornicata
    Crepidula plana
    Pollnices duplicatus
    Lunatia heros
    
    Ar thropoda
    
    Byblis serrata
    Giro Lana poll t^a
    Aiapelisca I'equicornis
    TJncio'la irrcrata
    Tanalssus li il.jcborgi
    Phoxocephalus holbolli
     V
     1
    
     V
     D
     1
     D
     1
    11
     1
     1
     1
     2
    18
    10
     2
     V
     V
    
     V
                   D
            D
     2
                            101
    

    -------
    Table 34(continued)
    
                                              Sample
    
                Species                  01     02     03
    
    Others*
    
    Ecninarachnius parma                  -      1      -
    Polygordius sp.                      60    177    214
    Neraertean sp.                         -     19      5
    Arbacia punctulata                    -42
    Microporella ciliata                         V
    Callopora sp.                                V
    Astrorhiza sp.                                      2
    Schizoporella errata                         V
    Sertularia argentea                   V      -      -
    Oligochaete A.                               2      4
    Oligochaete B.                        -      7      -
       D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
                            102
    

    -------
                          Table 35
    
     Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 14
                          (Fetch)
                                              Sample
                Species
    01
    02
    03
    Polychaeta
    Nephtys picta
    Spiophanes bombyx
    Glycera capitata
    Exogone verugera
    Nephtys cf.  picta
    Goniadella gracilis
    Aricidea wassi
    Aricidea jeffreysii
    Lumbrinereis acuta
    Streptosyllis arenae
    Aglaophamus circinata
    Clymenella torquata
    Stauronereis rudolphi
    Potamilla neglecta
    Maldanidae sp.
    Nereis grayi
    Scalibregma inf la turn
    Neoleanira tetragona
    Pherusa affinis
    Scoloplos fragilis
            *
    Mollusca
     3
     1
    
     1
     1
     1
    13
     1
            2
    
            1
            1
            1
     2
    
     9
    
     2
    
     7
     1
            1
            2
            1
            1
    Ensis directus
    Corastoderma pinnulatum
    Venericardia borealis
    Margaritas groenlandicus
    Trachycardium muricatum
    Capulus ?
    PlTcopec ten nagqllanicus
    Crenelia glandula
    Colus pygmaea
    A r ctl c a~Ts 1 a n d i c a
    Lunatia her
    Ret us a o_btusa
    Turbonilla  ii7_tc-;rrup ta
    Astarfe  borealis
     V
    
     D
     V
     V
     D
     V
     V
     V
     D
     V
    
     V
     V
     D
     P
     D
     V
     V
     V
     D
     V
     V
                    V
    Arthropoda
     Trichoniioxus  eoistomus
      7
     12
                             103
    

    -------
    Table 35 (continued)
    
                                              Sample
    
                Species                  01     02     03
    
    Arthropoda (continued)
    
    Byblis serrata                        -      8      -
    Protohaustorius wigleyi                      2      8
    Leptocheirus pinguis                         4
    
    Others
    
    Echinarachnius parma                  -12
    Polygordius sp.                             50    104
    Neraertean sp.                         5      -      -
    Arbacia punctulata                    127
    Microporella ciliata                                v
    Callopora sp.                                V      -
    Ophiuroidea                           11-
       D - Dead gastropod or dead valves joined together
       V - Separate valve
                            104
    

    -------
                          Table 36
    
     Occurrence of Benthic Invertebrates at Station 17
                          (Fetch)
                                              Sample
    
                Species                  01     02     03
    
    Polychaeta
    
    Nephtys picta                        10-4
    Spiophanes bombyx  ,      .             7     21     13
    Exogone verugera                     21     57     42
    Spiophanes wigleyi                    -      I      -
    Nephtys cf.  picta                            4
    Goniadella gracilis                   -      1      3
    Aricidea wassi                        -      2      -
    Aricidea jeffreysii                   311
    Tharyx sp.                            1      -      -
    Lumbrinereis acuta                    113
    Cirratulidae sp.                      -      1      -
    Streptosyllis arenae                  37-
    Parapionosyllis longocirrata          9     45     43
    Caulleriella killariensis             34-
    Clymenella torquata                          4
    Clymenella sp.                        7      -      -
    Tharyx marioni                                      1
    Lumbrinereis fragilis                 23-
    Tharyx cf. setigera                          -      1
    Sigalion areuicola                    -      3      2
    Chaetozone setosa                     -      1      -
    Polydora caulleryi                    2      -      -
    Caulleriella sp.                      -      -      1
    Asabellides sp.                       -      1      -
    Stauronereis rudolphi                 2      -      -
    Ophelia denticulata                   -      1      -
    Syllides longocirrata                        4
    Syllis sp.                            -      1      -
    Clymenella zonalis                    -      1      7
    Sphaerosyllis hystrix                 -13
    Drilonereis magna                                   1
    Nereis grayi                                        1
    Lumbrinereis cocclnea                 -      -      1
    
    Mollusca
    
    Cor a o i: o derm a pin mil a turn               D      i      V
    Sp Lsula solidissima                   V      -      V
    Venericardia borealis                 -YD
    Retusa canaliculata                   D      -      -
    Placopec ten magellanicus                            V
                             105
    

    -------
    Table 36 (continued)
    
                                              Sample
    
                Species                  01     02     03
                        ;k
    Mollusca (continued)
    
    Anomia simplex                        V      -      V
    Crenella glandula                     V      -      V
    Arctica islandica                     -      -      V
    Tellina agilis                        -      V      V
    Crepidula fornicata                   D      -      -
    Crepidula plana                       -      -      D
    Pandora trilineata                    D      1      -
    Vitrinella cf. helicoidea                    D      D
    
    Arthropoda
    
    Trichophoxus epistomus                739
    Protohaustorius wigleyi               834
    Unciola irrorata"                      -II
    Edotea tri io'oa                        -      -      1
    
    Others
    
    Echinarachnius parma    .              2-1
    Polygordius sp.                      97    745    415
    Ne.nertean sp.                         6     32     18
    Arbacia punc:ulata                    3     18      8
    Astrorhiza sp.                        2-1
                            106
    

    -------
    2.  Macrobiota
         Macrobiota collected during Operation Fetch are listed in
    Table 37.  Collection was either by using a Fall River "rocking
    chair" dredge or a 16-foot otter trawl.  That the otter trawl  fished
    bottom was shown by the occurrence of benthic invertebrates.  A
    total of 19 species were collected. Of this number 7 were molluscans
    and 6 fishes.  The remaining species were distributed among the
    Porifera, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, and Echinodermata.  Collection of
    macrobiota was primarily for metals analyses but physical condition
    of organisms was noted.  Organisms showed no outward signs of  stress
    (e.g. fin rot)  Previous work in the dump site (Palmer and Lear, 1973)
    included deploying a trawl at Station 2.  Recovery of Echinodermata
    and 4 species of fishes was recorded.  Organisms were also regarded
    as healthy.
                                   107
    

    -------
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    -------
    3.  Metals in Macroblota
         The introduction of non-biodegradable materials,with a potential
    for toxicity, into the food web of the biota is of prime concern in
    the management of ocean disposal practices.  Other field observations
    have consistently shown detectable increases of metals in the benthic
    biota (Buelow, 1968; Davey, 1972; Palmer and Lear, 1973; Vaccaro,  et al,
    1972).
         Table 38  shows iron and copper concentrations in the tissue  of
    five species of benthic invertebrates, Echinarachnius parma, the sand
    dollar, Pecten (Placopecten) magellanicus. the sea scallop, Artica
    icelandica, the mahogany clam, Polinices heros, the moon snail, and
    Spisula solidissima, the surf clam.  In the case of Pecten and Spisula,
    large enough animals were occasionally collected to permit the separation
    of the adductor muscle (the part normally eaten in the scallop) from
    the viscera and foot so that each could be evaluated separately and the
    results combined for the total animal measurements.
         Metal determinations were made through atomic absorption spectro-
    photometry after HMO, digestion of the tissue and ashing at 425ฐC  for
    24 hours.  The results are reported as micrograms of metal per gram of
    tissue ash or in the case of the sand dollars per gram of dry tissue
    (parts per million).
         The following observations and conclusions may be derived from the
    results:
         1.  •In general, the iron concentration in sand dollars was found
    to be significantly less (7-10 times) than those reported for the  same
                                  109
    

    -------
    station for the QUICKSILVER Cruise in May 1973 (Palmer and Lear, 1973).
    This is consistent with the University of Delaware-Hydroscience study
    of the acid waste site (duPont, 1972) in which the conclusion is reached
    that the summer thermocline prevents dumped material  from reaching the
    bottom while the lack of a thermocline in winter permits such exposure.
    Thus, samples were taken after the summer protection  period.   This
    also suggests that the iron is subsequently lost seasonally rather than
    permanently accumulated indicating possibly surface adsorption rather
    than ingestion.  In any case, these values would be expected  to rise
    again by the time of the proposed sampling next May.
         2.  The copper concentration in sand dollars was found to have
    increased consistently since last May.  This suggests that copper is
    not lost seasonally but is permanently and continuously incorporated
    in the tissues from residual sediment accumulations.   Whether or not
    such accumulations are present has yet to be determined from  the sediment
    samples collected.  Both of the foregoing conclusions depend  heavily on
    the dynamics of sand dollar populations in the area.   Since the University
    of Delaware-Hydroscience study (du Pont, 1972) postulates a significant
    winter kill (November-March), observed accumulations  result from the
    complex interaction of animal age (hence length of exposure), dumping
    times which correspond to the presence or absence of  a thermocline,
    and the presence or absence of large viable populations to receive such
    material  such that there is definitely not a uniform  deposition and
    uptake pattern over the months.
                                    no
    

    -------
         3.  The separated samples of Pecten and Spi'sula show higher
    concentration of both metals in the gut portion than in the adductor
    muscle portion as might be expected since the former contains transient
     amounts contained in the food and gut linings while the latter contains
    only that incorporated into muscle tissue.   The whole-animal  measurement
    approach the viscera measurements because of the much higher concentra-
    tions and proportionate weights of the latter.  It is worth noting here
    that the copper levels in both shellfish are much lower than those
    found in coastal oysters.  The iron concentration in the viscera of
    both shellfish are the highest measured, further substantiating the
    idea that iron, while in high concentration in the environment, is
    largely passively taken up by the animals and only slightly  metabolized.
         4.  Other differences between samples  are not markedly demonstrated
    by the iron concentrations (sand dollar measurements cannot be compared
    thus because of the different weight bases); however, with respect to
    copper, it is clearly obvious that the levels in Polinices are up to 10
    times greater than those found in the other shellfish.  This is of partic-
     ular importance because Polinices feeds directly on other shellfish,
    hence the amounts observed are the result of the consumption and bio-
    accumulation of copper from that contained  in the tissue of other shellfish
    and not the passage of the dumped waste itself.  Further examples of this
    common phenomenon are expected when the analyses for other metals, now
    in progress, are completed.
                                   Ill
    

    -------
         5.  The minimal differences in the results observed between the
    stations in the two dump sites and those more remote locations is again
    perhaps due to the seasonal  variation in deposition as a result of the
    presence or absence of a thermocline.  In the summer, it would be
    expected that the material being dumped in both sites would be mixed
    and well distributed in the surface water before it eventually reaches
    the bottom in a much more uniform depositional  pattern than would be
    expected from the disposal of a more dense and compacted material.  All
    of the foregoing, it must be emphasized, overlooks any consideration
    of short dumping which would have a profound effect on the results and
    their interpretation.
                                   112
    

    -------
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
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    -------
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    -------
         Heavy metals in randomly selected benthic macrofauna samples
    are shown in Table  39 .   These samples were selected to phylogene-
    "tiTcafllliy  scan some of the available biota, in contrast to the
    systematic comparison of metal levels in sand dollars and mahogany
    clams from all stations  (vide supra).
         Samples of the viscera of fish show higher levels of Fe, Mn,
    Ni, Zn, Pb, and Cu than  in flesh or gonads, probably reflecting
    the ingestion of materials.  Chromium, cadmium and mercury do not
    seem to be similarly distributed.
         While most of the samples shown in Table  39  are from organisms
    from the acid waste dumpsite, a comparison with organisms from the
    sewage sludge dumpsite,  before dumping operations began, is instructive
    (Palmer and Lear, 1973).
         There are apparently greater concentrations of Mn, Ni, Pb, and Cd
    in the organisms generally at this later time at the acid waste site,
    although the paucity of  data precludes statistical comparison.
         The available evidence suggests accumulations of metals at these
    sites, and accumulation  of statistically significant bodies of data
    as a function of time, space and phylogeny is indicated.
                                 117
    

    -------
                                         Table  39
                                     Operation "Fetch"
                            Heavy Metals in Benthic Macrofauna
                                    (mg/kg wet weight)
    Sponge
     (Suberites sp)
    Starfish
     (Asterias sp)
    Crab fat
     (Cancer pagurus)
    Crab eggs
    Skate viscera
     (Raja sp)
    Skate viscera
    Sea robin viscera
     (Prionotus carolinus)
    Sea robin muscle
    Skate muscle
    Skate gonads
    Skate viscera
    Flounder viscera
     (Pseudopleuronectes
      americanus)
    Spisula solidissima   #17
    Station Fe
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    E
    E
    s)
    E
    A
    A
    A
    #1
    #1
    #17
    70
    52
    153
    19
    65
    45
    105
    
    4
    4
    15
    68
    101
    6
    47
    .8
    .1
    .6
    .8
    .7
    .2
    .2
    
    .5
    .9
    .4
    .9
    .4
    .9
    .8
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    1.5
    4.6
    4.3
    1.9
    3.1
    1.5
    5.5
    
    <0.1
    <0.1
    2.4
    2.0
    1.7
    0.2
    1.9
    Ni
    0.9
    5.9
    2.2
    9.2
    2.6
    12.5
    2.8
    
    1.0
    0.6
    <0.3
    15.9
    2.6
    0.3
    2.7
    Zn
    6.5
    51.3
    19.0
    37.9
    22.3
    9.9
    43.1
    
    2.1
    5.3
    16.4
    14.3
    18.5
    4.0
    9.6
    Pb
    1.7
    7.3
    2.2
    1.1
    2.1
    0.9
    2.0
    
    1.3
    <0.3
    0.4
    1.5
    1.7
    1.8
    <0.3
    Cu
    1.3
    3.2
    32.8
    17.3
    10.7
    9.7
    12.0
    
    1.0
    0.2
    1.7
    3.8
    4.2
    1.0
    1.6
    Cr
    0
    1
    1
    <0
    0
    1
    1
    
    0
    0
    1
    0
    <0
    1
    1
    .9
    .7
    .6
    ,2
    .8
    .2
    .2
    
    .4
    .2
    .0
    .2
    .2
    .0
    .4
    Cd
    0.4
    0.1
    3.3
    2.7
    1.4
    0.5
    0.5
    
    0.8
    1.4
    1.7
    1.1
    0.6
    1.2
    0.2
    Hq
    0.22
    0.23
    0.14
    0.19
    0.24
    7.79
    0.07
    
    0.14
    0.37
    0.05
    0.23
    0.47
    0.43
    0.41
                                             118
    

    -------
    4.   Bacteriology
         Baseline conditions for the area are described in a report by
    EPA, Region III, previously cited (Palmer and Lear, 1973).  Results
    from another study in relatively close proximity to this study area
    are reported by the U. S. Public Health Service (Buelow, 1968).
         Twelve bacteriological stations were occupied in the vicinity
    of two interim ocean dumpsites.  Stations 14, 17, 9, and A were control
    areas outside the sites while the remainder of the stations were located
    in the immediate sites.  Stations B and C were occupied in the interim
    site for disposal of industrial acid wastes.  Numerical stations and
    Station E were located in the interim area designated for the disposal
    of municipal sludge.
         Water samples were taken from varying depths 1.5 m  from the
    bottom with a Niskin sterile bag sampler (General Oceanics, Inc.).
    Sediments were subsampled, using a 2.7 ml flame-sterilized cylindrical
    spoon, from an undisturbed Shipek bottom grab.  Samples were introduced
    into a French square bottle containing 100 ml sterile distilled water.
    These were treated as normal bacteriological samples.
         Standard total  coliform and fecal coliform MPN's (most probable
    number/100 ml  sample) were estimated following analyses outlined in
    "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,"
    13th Ed., APHA,  1971.  A 3-tube, 4-dilution scheme was employed
    using sample aliquots of 10, 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01  ml.   Water from a
    sterile dilution blank was used as a laboratory control.
    
                                     119
    

    -------
         MPN results are shown in Table 40.   A negative result indicates
    an MPN index of <3 coliforms/100 mo sample at the 95% confidence
    limit.  Positive coliform counts were recorded for Stations 9 and A.
    Station 9 had 3.0 coliforms in sediment  sampled while Station A had
    a 23 MPN in the water column.  Fecal  coliforms were not found at any
    station.  The laboratory controls were negative for both coliforms and
    fecal coliforms.
         Discussion
         Previous data (Palmer and Lear,  1973) indicated a 4 MPN coliform
    count for Station 9 in the water column.   Data gathered from  this
    cruise show a MPN coliform count of 3.0  in sediment sampled for the
    same station.  Both counts could possibly be due to the proximity of
    the station to shore.  This might also apply to the 23 MPN count
    detected at Station A in the water column.  Wastes from ocean-going
    ships is another possible source of contamination.  However, results
    indicate an aqueous environment relatively free from terrestrial
    bacteriological influences.
                                  120
    

    -------
                                 Table 40
    Sample No.
    FE7309011101
    FE7309011201
    FE7309021101
    FE7309022101
    FE7307051101
    FE7307052101
    FE7309081101
    FE7309082101
    FE7307091101
    FE7307092101
    FE7308111101
    FE7308112101
    FE7308141101
    FE7308142101
    FE7307171101
    FE7307172101
    FE7309A 1101
    FE7309A 2101
    FE7309B 1101
    FE7309B 2101
    FE7309C 1101
    FE7309C 2101
    FE7305E 1101
    FE7305E 2101
    Col i forms,
    and
    Station Date
    1
    1
    2
    2
    5
    5
    8
    8
    9
    9
    11
    11
    14
    14
    17
    17
    A
    A
    B
    B
    C
    C
    E
    E
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-7-73
    11-7-73
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-7-73
    11-7-73
    11-8-73
    11-8-73
    11-8-73
    11-8-73
    11-7-73
    11-7-73
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-9-73
    11-5-73
    11-5-73
    Fecal Coliforms in Water Column
    Sediments (MPN/100 ml)
    Operation "Fetch
    Time Deoth(ft) M Sample
    0200
    0200
    0950
    0950
    0500
    0500
    0300
    0300
    1630
    1630
    0800
    0800
    1700
    1700
    2100
    2100
    0700
    0700
    1300
    1300
    0300
    0300
    1730
    1730
    155' 47.2
    155'
    145' 44.2
    145'
    145'
    145'
    125' 38.1
    125'
    115.' 35.1
    115'
    153' 46.6
    153'
    165' 50.3
    165'
    117' 35.7
    117'
    125' 38.1
    125'
    145' 44.2
    145'
    155' 47.2
    155'
    145' 44.2
    145'
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Fecal
    Col i form Col i form
    _
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    3.0
    -
    -
    -
    -
    No sample
    -
    23
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    LA* LA
    laboratory accident
                                     121
    

    -------
                           IV   REFERENCES
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    Carpenter, J., personal communication, Johns Hopkins University, 1970.
    
    
                                   122
    

    -------
    Clark, J., W. G. Smith, A.  W.  Kendall,  Jr.,  and  M.  P.  Fahay,  1969.
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                                 123
    

    -------
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                                  124
    

    -------
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    44:245-290.
                                  125
    

    -------
    Menzel, D. W., and N. Corwin, 1965.   The Measurement of Total  Phosphorus
    in Seawater Based on the Liberation  of Organically Bound Fractions by
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                                  126
    

    -------
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                                 127
    

    -------
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    evaluation of sewage sludge dumping on the benthos  off Delaware Bay.
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    Volume by the Mercury Immersion Method, J. Conseil, 22:184-190.
    
                                  128
    

    -------
                             APPENDIX A
    
    
                  PARTICIPANTS IN OPERATION "FETCH"
                        ABOARD R/V ANNANDALE
    
    
    Environmental Protection Agency, Annapolis Field Office
    
              Don Lear
              Sue Smith
              Maria O'Malley
              Bill Thomas
              Vic Guide
    
    Environmental Protection Agency, Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
    
              Bill Muir
    
    Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, Rhode Island
    
              Bruce Reynolds
              Jerry Pesch
    
    Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, Oregon
    
              Dick Call away
    
    Environmental Protection Agency, Wheeling, West Virginia
    
              Jim Bailey
              John Kafka
    
    City of Philadelphia
    
              Bob Romaine
    
    American University, Washington, D.C.
    
              Leo Buss
              Lee Markowitz
              Skip Goldy
    
    Marine Science Consortium, Lewes, Delaware
    
              John Miller, Captain
              Bill Flohr, Mate
              Sandy Hi.slop, Mate
              Gary Tasselman, Engineer
              Maggie Nugent, Cook
    
                                     129
    

    -------
                                APPENDIX B
                            Operation "Fetch"
                              R/V Annandale
                                SHIP'S LOG
    
    Date:   11/7/73
    
                            Position
    Time
    1340
    1343
    1430
    1535
    1700
    1900
    2000
    3115
    2200
    2325
    0015
    0045
    0200
    0315
    0355
    0625
    0630
    0730
    0930
    1000
    Depth 3 H4
    3227
    3224
    3231
    3222
    3226
    3222
    3183
    3196
    121' 3183
    3178
    3274
    130' 3312
    3330
    3292
    3334
    3346
    157' 3356
    3362
    3329
    3343
    3 H5
    3054
    3051
    3051
    3051
    3048
    3054
    3034
    3037
    3029
    3026
    3016
    3020
    3018
    3022
    3013
    3013
    3009
    3018
    3006
    3007
    Comments
    
    
    
    On Station 9
    
    One mile north of 9
    Station 17
    2 miles NW of 17 (tow) - clam
    Wind WNW - back on 17
    NW to 8 - 11.4 miles - ETA 0033
    
    On station 8
    
    To station 5 - 4 miles - course 62ฐ
    On station 5
    
    Station 2
    140
    
    Start of box search
                                    130
    

    -------
    Date:
    Time
    1216
    1307
    1408
    1650
    1800
    2000
    Date:
    2130
    2215
    2300
    2325
    Date:
    0012
    0145
    0220
    0243
    0800
    0915
    0930
    1035
    1105
    11/7/73
    Depth
    
    
    170'
    
    
    166'
    11/8/73
    156'
    
    
    150'
    11/9/73
    
    
    
    160'
    132'
    3
    149'
    142'
    
    (cont.)
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5 Comments
    3330
    3405
    3513
    3511
    3450
    3348
    3379
    3374
    3345
    3368
    3366
    3370
    3401
    3420
    3483
    3459
    3440
    3416
    3415
    3009 End search - cc to 58ฐ for sta. 14
    16.5 miles - 98 min. - ETA 1402
    2987 cc to 51ฐ - 9.2 miles
    2967 On station 14
    2963 cc to 238ฐ for sta. 11 - 13.2 miles
    2981
    3000
    3994 Trawl out
    2993 Trawl in
    3012
    3019 Station 1
    3020 Wind 320/20 G 28
    3021 cc to 340ฐ to sta. C - 7.2 miles
    3038
    3043 On sta. C
    3051 A
    3027
    3045 B - 2 trawls - small catch
    3048
    3029
    131
    

    -------
    Date:   11/9/73 (cont.)
    1145
    1215
    1312
    1347
    1515
    1538
    1615
    1625
    0024
    0142
    3411
    3422
    110' 3410
    130' 3401
    150' 3385
    3389
    130' 3364
    3360
    3370
    Abeam BW "DC11
    3053
    3432
    3045
    3030
    3035
    3038
    3052
    3053
    3153
    
                                             C
                                             On  C  end  cc  137ฐ  -  21  min.
                                             On  D
                                             Finished  dredge
                                             cc  267ฐ  - 4.1  miles
    
                                             Station  G
                                    132
    

    -------
                                APPENDIX c
                    Scientific Log - Operation  "Fetch"
    11-05-73 - 0900 - Engines needed new injectors
               1130 - Underway - cast off brow  line  - snowing
                      Delaware light - Loran fix  - right on
               1300 - Monster buoy - Loran fix  -  right on
               1645 - Station E - anchored
                      Wind  NE 18-20 - rough - 150' depth - thermocline BT 75'
               1720 - Hydrocast  35'   70'  110'   150'
               1735 - Hydrocast up
               1700 - Shipek  - 5 drops
               1730 - Shipek  up  (1)   4 biologicals  fixed - buffered formalin
                                 (2)   5 pesticides samples
                                 (3)   1  bacti - sed.
                                 (4)   1  particle  size
                                 (5)   1  metals
                                 (6)   3 TOC sediments
                      Probe readings  ConcL, Sal., Temp. DO
                      Hydrocast  Fe samples - 4
                                 C  samples - 4
                                 Bacti  sample - 1
                                 Metals in H20  -  1 gal.  110'
                                 Phyto.  -  2 tows  - 4 samples
               1915 - Station E - up anchor
                      Rocking chair dredge- many  sea clam, oyster,  Arctica
                      and  Pecten shells, Arctica  live and abundant
    
                                    133
    

    -------
               2030 - Trawl  - 15 min.
                      1 adult, 2 juvenile skates
                      Sea robins, small  fish (juveniles)
                      Many live sand dollars
                      Adult and juvenile squid,  Pagurus
               2100 - Departed for Sta.  F.  Sky cleared, wind  NW,  rough
               2230 - Anchored Station F
                      Loran 3310, 2985
                      Depth - 35 fathoms
                      Shipek - 10 tries  - none
                      Phyto - 2 tows - 4 samples
                      Rocking chair dredge - 1  try -  no samples
                      Shells - 1 Pecten  - 1  Arctica - 1 Spisula
               2230 - Hydrocast
                      Depth 30', 70',  200'
                      Very rough
               2235 - Secured station
               2330 - Underway - Bow into sea toward  beach &  Lewes
                      Wind NW 40+
                      Seas up to 18'
    11-06-73 - 1330 - Arrived Lewes
                      Secure MSC dock
                                      134
    

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    11/7/73 - 0700 - Weather advisory indicates  10-20 NW
              0853 - Cast off -  laying off dock  for pictures
              0928 - Underway
              1345 - Search for  buoys on  Station 9 - expanding square
                     pattern 1/2 mi.  legs - wind NW 10-15,chop
              1420 - Radio call  to  Al  Montague - RO
              1536 - Station #9
                     Loran 3051, 3222 - 120'
                     Drifting
              1545 - BT  taken
                     Seabed drifters  01400-01424
                     Seabed drifters  3631-3640,  3671-3680
                     Probe readings  RS-5
                                                        Temp.
                                                        15.56
                                                        15.44
                                                        15.50
                                                        16.80
                                                        16.86
                     Copper cable caught  in rocking chair dredge -
                     also many artica
              1845 - Trawling
                     Shipek - 4  drops
                     No  zooplankton tow
              1925 - Secured station
                     Final  Loran  fix   3224, 3054
              1925  -  Underway  to  Station #17
                                      135
    
    Surface
    10'
    20'
    30'
    40'
    Cond.
    42.00
    41.08
    41.14
    44.64
    45.01
    Sal.
    34.00
    33.24
    33.22
    35.33
    35.54
    

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    11/7/73 - 2000 - Station #17
                     Loran 3183, 3034 -  120'
                     Zooplankton & Phytoplankton  tows
              2017 - Seabed drifters - 01375-01399
                     Surface drifters -  3621-3630
                                        3661-3670
              2055 - BT
              2100 - Clam dredge - very  full-  many Arctica &  sand  dollars
                     No trawl   -  Steamed back to station
              2200 - Anchored - Hydrocast & Shipek
                     Wind NW 15 - small  sea running
                     Niskin did not trip
              2245 - Secured station
              2325 - Underway to Station #8
    11/8/73 - 0035 - Station #8
                     Loran 3313, 3020  -  130'
              0035 - Shipek down
              0055 - Shipek completed
              0055 - Hydrocast  20', 60', 110' sterile  bag 5'  from  bottom
              OT15 - Seabed drifters  01525-01549
              0135 - Rocking chair dredge down
              0155 - Rocking chair dredge up - no sand dollars  -
                     many  Arctica,skate  & flounder
              0210 - Rocking chair clam  dredge back down
              0240   Rocking chair clam  dredge back up  - no sand dollars,! Arctica
              0245 - Otter trawl - no catch
              0325 - Underway to Station #5
                                       136
    

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    0350 - Arrived Station #5
           Loran 3334, 3013  158'
    0355 - Shipek
    0410 - Finished Shipek
    0400-0415 - Hydrocast 30'  60'  150'
    0420-0450 - Clam dredge - no catch
    0455-0515 - Clam dredge reset - no sand dollars,  several Arctica
    0530 - Trawl deployed
    0600 - Trawl up - squid, scup, sea robin,  sea nettles
           3 sand dollars
    0610 - Underway to sta. #2
    0630 - Arrived Station #2
           Loran 3356, 3014   157'
    0640 - Shipek
           Hydrocast 30'   60'  150'
    0700 - Seabed drifters  01450-01473
                            01374
                            01500-01524
    0720-0745 - Clam dredge - Astarte , Arctica ,  scallops,
           Polidnes, hermit crabs, flounder
    0830 - Zooplankton &  phytoplankton tows -  Calm, winds  from  S
    0915 - Otter trawl -  jelly fish,  2 small pelagic  fish,
           did not fish bottom
    0945-1225 - Buoy watch
           Wind freshened  SW 25-30
    1225 - Underway to Sta. #14
                            137
    

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    1415 - Arrived Station #14
           Loran 3513,  2967   170'    wind  SW  20-25
    1420 - Trawl out -  few jellyfish -  trawled  in following  sea
           one engine - apparently  sailed
    1445 - Rocking chair clam dredge -  scallops
    1530 - Phytoplankton & zooplankton  tows
    1605 - BT, Shipek,  hydrocast
           Shipek caught best in trough
    1605 - Seabed drifters  01425-01449, 1550-1573
           Surface drifters  3611-3620
                             3651-3660, 3641-3650
                             3601-3610
                             3681-3690
    1650 - Secured Station #14,  underway to Station  #11
    2030 - Arrived Station #11
           Loran 3371,  3000   158'
    2030 - Seabed drifters 01474-01499
           Surface drifters 3751-3760
                            3691-3700
    2030-2110 - Shipek
    2040-4055 - Hydrocast  30'   60'   150'
    2120 - Clam dredge  - starfish,  Arctica, Astarte ,  scallops,
           drill  Polim'ces, sand dollars
    2125-2150 - Phytoplankton
    2200 - trawl - nothing - sailed
    2305 - Underway for Sta. #1
                        138
    

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              2330 - Arrived Station  #1
                     Loran 2368,  3319   160'
              2335   Rocking chair clam  dredge  -  good catch
                     Shipek
                     Phytoplankton &  zooplankton  tows
                     Winds NW 25  knots
    11-9-73 - 0239 - Arrived Station  C
                     Loran 3420,  3043   160'  raining
              0312 - Shipek - Hydrocast
                     Phytoplankton tow
                     Rocking chair dredge  -  small catch of Arctica, starfish
              0350 - Reset rocking chair - scallops, Polinices, Arctica,
                     starfish,  skate, sponge, Cancer
                     Tried Ponar  drop on BT  winch - empty
                     Underway to  Sta. A
              0620 - On Station A
                     Loran 3065,  3505 132'
              0625 - Shipek  -  Hydrocast
                     Rocking chair dredge  -  skate, sponge, skatecases,
                     sand  dollars, no clams
              0800 - Reset clam dredge - no  clams, many shells
              0855 - Underway to  Sta. B
              0930 - Station B
                     Loran 3416,  3048   150'
              0935-1000 -  Clam dredge -  horse mussels, Polinices,  skates
                                   139
    

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    1000-1025 - Reset rocking  chair  clam dredge  - no clams
           skates & flounder
           1  mi.  west of B  - returned  to station
    1035 - Shipek - looked  very rich in worms, worm cases,
           small  crabs present
    1035 - Hydrocast  25' 70'   140'
    1120 - Phytoplankton tow
           Underway for Sta. C
    1230  On  Station C (returned to  Sta. C)
    1235 - Otter  trawl  - sand  dollars, small  squid, small
           flounder, hermit crabs, some dead  sand dollars
    1330 - Underway for Sta. D
    1335 - Station D
           Loran  3401,  3030   130'
    1335   Surface drifters -  3701-3710
                              3741-3750
                              3761-3770
    1335 - Hydrocast  30'   60'   125'
    1335 - Shipek - 1  sample - broke Shipek
           Peterson too light,  wouldn't trip
    1445-1510 - Rocking chair  clam dredge  - live  Arctica
    1520 - Phytoplankton tow
    1540 - Underway to Sta. G
           Wind NW 25-28 -  getting rough
                        140
    

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               1625 - Station G
                      Loran  3360, 3053   130'
                      Anchor dredge - good catch
               1645 - Rocking chair dredge
               1900 - Station H
                      Loran 3085,  3360
                      Rocking chair dredge
               1930 - Winds 45+ -  Very rough -  secured  watch
                      Returning to Lewes
    11-10-73 - 0345 - Anchored behind breakwater
               0630 - Arrived Lewes
                                   141
    

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    ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY OF TWO INTERIM DUMPSITES
    
                MIDDLE ATLANTIC BIGHT
    
    
    
                 SUPPLEMENTAL  REPORT
                    OCTOBER 1974
        U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                     REGION III
        •  PHILADELPHIA,  PENNSYLVANIA 19106
    

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                 SUPPLEMENTAL  REPORT
    
    
    ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY OF TWO INTERIM DUMPSITES
    
                MIDDLE ATLANTIC BIGHT
    
    
    
                 OPERATION "FETCH"
    
         Cruise Report 5-10 November 1973
    
    
    
    
                   Edited by
    
                 Donald W. Lear
             Annapolis Field Office
        Environmental  Protection Agency
                  Region III
          Annapolis,  Maryland  21401
                Project Officer
                Albert Montague
      Office of Research and  Development
       Environmental  Protection Agency
                 Region III
       Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  19106
    

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    This report has been reviewed by Region III, EPA, and approved
    for publication.  Approval does not signify that the contents
    necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Environmental
    Protection Agency, nor does the mention of trade names or
    commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation
    for use.
    

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                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                  Page
    Abstract
    
    Preface
    
    List of Figures
    
    List of Tables
    
    Summary and Conclusions
                                                    n
    
                                                   iii
    
                                                     v
    
                                                   vii
    
                                                 v i i i
        Part   I.  DISSOLVED AND PARTICIPATE ORGANIC CARBON
                   IN WATERS
    
                   Lee Markowitz, Michael A. Champ and
                   Donald W. Lear
    
        Part  II.  IRON IN THE WATER
    
                   Leonard Izzo, Michael A. Champ and
                   Donald W. Lear
    
        Part III.  METALS RESIDUES IN TISSUES OF MAHOGANY CLAMS.
                   Arctica islandica. AND OTHER MOLLUSC AND
                   ECHINODERM TISSUES
                   Bruce Reynolds and Gerald Pesch
    
        Part  IV.  ZOOPLANKTON POPULATIONS
                   Suzanne Sosnowski
    References
    
    Appendix I
                                                   13
    METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN ECHINODERM AND
    MOLLUSC TISSUES
    
    Bruce Reynolds and Gerald Pesch
                                                   47
                                                   51
    

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                                 ABSTRACT
    
         Supplemental  data from an environmental  survey of two interim
    dumpsites in the Mid-Atlantic Bight are reported.   Carbon and  iron
    distribution in the water column, zooplankton populations, metals
    in echinoderm and mollusc tissues are reported,  and the significance
    of their distribution discussed.
    

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                                 PREFACE
    
         The issuance of permits for ocean disposal of wastes requires the
    Environmental Protection Agency to know the environmental consequences.
    Regularly scheduled cruises have been sponsored by EPA, Region III, to
    evaluate the effects of acid waste disposal and municipal sewage dis-
    posal on two adjacent ocean dumpsites off the Delaware-Maryland coast.
         Oceanographic cruises were initiated in May 1973 (Palmer and Lear,
    1973) followed by a fall cruise (Lear, Smith and O'Malley, 1974).  The
    report for the latter cruise, Operation "Fetch", was issued when most,
    but not all, of the analytical results were complete.  This supplemen-
    tary report presents the remaining results from that cruise.
         The EPA National Water Quality Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode
    Island, especially Dr.  Gerald Pesch and Bruce Reynolds, have materially
    aided Region III in design and execution of the program.   The interest
    and cooperation of the oceanographic fraternity outside EPA has been
    outstanding.  The Marine Science Consortium, Lewes, Delaware, has
    freely loaned gear and expertise.   The University of Delaware Marine
    Laboratory, Lewes, Del., especially Dr. Donald Maurer,  has been more
    than generous with special expertise.  Dr. Michael  Champ, American
    University, not only provided shipboard assistance, but performed the
    carbon and iron analyses reported  herein.  Dr. Harold Palmer and Joe Foriib
    Westinghouse Ocean Research Laboratory, Annapolis,  Maryland, have given
    freely of advice, assistance, and  the loan of gear.  In addition, many
                                    m
    

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    others, in and out of government,  have contributed  the  ability  and
    gear to the development of the ocean  dumping  monitoring program.  EPA
    is extremely gratified to have the invaluable assistance of  all  of
    these groups in our common concern for the  management of the oceanic
    environment.
    

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                             LIST OF FIGURES
                                                                  Page
      1        Index Map for the Upper Chesapeake Bight Area       ix
      2        Station Location Map                                x
    PART   I
      1        Participate Organic Carbon (mg/1)  Diagrammatic      6
               Distribution
      2        Dissolved Organic Carbon (mg/1)  Diagrammatic         7
               Distribution
    PART  II
      1        Particulate Biological  Iron (mg/1) Diagrammatic      11
               Distribution
    PART III
      1        Vanadium Isopleths, 11  Stations                      22
      2        Vanadium Isopleths, 14 Stations                      23
      3        Vanadium Homogeneous Subsets                        24
      4        Chromium Isopleths, 11  Stations                      25
      5        Chromium Isopleths, 14 Stations                      26
      6        Chromium Homogeneous Subsets                        27
      7        Cadmium Isopleths, 11  Stations                      28
      8        Cadmium Isopleths, 14 Stations                      29
      9        Cadmium Homogeneous Subsets                         30
     10        Aluminum Isopleths, 11  Stations                      31
     11        Aluminum Homogeneous Subsets                        32
     12        Manganese Isopleths, 11  Stations                    33
    

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                             LIST OF  FIGURES  (Continued)
    PART III
      13        Manganese Isopleths,  14 Stations                     34
      14        Manganese Homogeneous Subsets                        35
      15        Lead Isopleths,  11  Stations                          36
      16        Lead Homogeneous Subsets                            37
      17        Zinc Isopleths,  11  Stations                          38
      18        Nickel  Isopleths, 11  Stations                        39
      19        Copper Isopleths, 11  Stations                        40
      20        Cobalt Isopleths, 11  Stations                        41
      21        Iron Isopleths,  11  Stations                          42
      22        Silver Isopleths, 11  Stations                        43
      23        Titanium Isopleths, 11  Stations                     44
      24        Titanium Isopleths, 14 Stations                     45
      25        Titanium Homogeneous Subsets                        46
    

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                               LIST OF TABLES
                                                                  Page
    PART I
      1         Dissolved (DOC) and Particulate (POC)  Organic        4
               Carbon Concentrations for Indicated Depths
               (Meters) and Stations, Operation "Fetch"
    PART II
      1         Dissolved (DBFe) and Particulate (PBFe)  Biological   12
               Iron (mg/1) at Indicated Depths (Meters)  and
               Stations, Operation "Fetch"
    PART III
      1         Analysis of Variance of Metal  Concentrations        14
      2        Homogeneous Subsets of Stations by Metal             15
      3        Annual  Input Delaware Dumpsites                     16
    PART IV
      1         Percent Zooplankton Species Composition              50
                                   vn
    

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                         SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
    
         1.  Dissolved and participate organic carbon accumulations were
    not evident in the water column under the conditions studied.   Such
    materials are probably dependent upon time of latest release of
    materials, as well as a cumulative function of time.
         2.  Particulate and dissolved iron showed no patterns of distri-
    bution in the water column, in spite of the weak thermocline.
         3.  Conclusions drawn from a statistical treatment of the results
    show (1) that metals thus disposed of do accumulate in the tissue of
    benthic organisms and in quantities roughly proportional  to the amounts
    dumped; (2) that certain metals, particularly V and Cd, are dumped in
    such quantities in one of the two sites such that they may be used as
    tracers for that dumpsite; and (3) that, due to hydrographic conditions,
    the effects of these dumped materials is in no way limited to  the area
    bounded by the dumpsites proper but are spread over a large area, as
    yet undetermined, particularly in the direction of the prevailing
    currents.  A much larger sample grid is needed to establish the extent
    of this area.
         4.  Zooplankton populations at the two stations examined  showed
    no effects of stresses.
                                    vm
    

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           AREA   OF   STUDY
    77'
                                               4O"
                                             	3
    -------
                 STATION  LOCATIONS
                                 SCALE IN STATUTE MILES
     f
     /  : '- "o 'ป •  .
    /"  /  ' •  x /
    

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                                  PART I
                 DISSOLVED AND PARTICIPATE ORGANIC CARBON
                      Lee Markowitz, Michael A Champ
                          The American University
                                    and
                      Donald W. Lear, EPA Region III
                          Annapolis Field Office
         Ocean disposal  of sewage sludge should result in an increase of
    organic and inorganic nutrients in the dump area.  As this new input
    feeds into the naturally occurring marine organic carbon cycle, it
    may affect this dynamic process.  The impact of the introduction of
    organic matter in the form of sewage material in aquatic ecosystems
    has been well documented and usually correlates with species specific
    reactions (Beeton, 1961; Butcher, 1960; Hynes, 1960; Wilhm and Dorris,
    1968; Florida Ocean Sciences Institute Report, 1971).  The dispersion
    of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the water column as it
    is ocean-disposed by barge as sewage sludge (or created by the sludge)
    has only recently been investigated (Champ 1974).
         Dissolved (DOC) and Particulate (POC) organic carbon analyses were
    conducted during Operation "Fetch" to collect data during the fall
    (November) mixing period.  The broad base of biological, chemical, and
    physical parameters and indices investigated during Operation "Fetch"
    will allow greater insight into the impact of ocean disposal of sewage
    sludge on the dumpsite ecosystem.
    Materials and Methods
         Frozen water samples prior to filtering were allowed to thaw at
    room temperature.  Each water sample was filtered through a precombusted
    

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    Gelman Type-A glass fiber filter for the partitioning of POC and DOC.
    The DOC and POC were determined by modifications of the method developed
    by Menzel and Vaccaro (1964) and Fredericks and Sackett (1970).
         A step by step description of this method (Champ 1974) is listed:
         1.  Two 150 ml water samples were frozen in glass stoppered acid-
    cleaned bottles (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
    Wastewater).
         2.  Ten ml glass ampules (Owens-Illinois) were prepared for use
    by being tapped upsidedown on a clean surface (to remove any particles
    of foreign material) and the top of the neck of the ampule wrapped with
    a piece of lightweight (one-inch square) aluminum foil twisted to form
    a cover for the ampule.   Ampules were precombusted at 550ฐC for four
    hours.
         3.  Gelman Type-A (0.3 micron) glass fiber filters (25 mm diameter)
    were precombusted at 400ฐC for four hours.   Filters were handled only
    with clean forceps.
         4.  Frozen water samples were allowed  to thaw at room temperature
    prior to filtering and scaling.
         5.  Four precombusted glass ampules were required for each water
    sample, giving replicate analysis for DOC and POC.  To each ampule
    0.2 grams of potassium persulfate and 0.25  ml of 6% phosphoric acid
    solution were added prior to addition of the sample.
         6.  Before filtering, samples were briskly shaken.,
         7.  One hundred ml  aliquots of water sample were filtered by vacuum
    through millipore lock-on syringe filter holders containing precombusted
    Gelman glass fiber filters.
    

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         8.  The two filters (each containing 100 ml of POC) were air dried
    with a water aspirator and inserted in ampules.  Distilled water (5 ml)
    was then added to each POC ampule.
         9.  Five ml aliquots of filtrate were then added by syringe to
    the ampules for DOC analysis.
        10.  Filled ampules were purged of inorganic carbon constituents
    for four to six minutes with purified oxygen (400ฐC) flowing at a rate
    of 60 ml/min, and then sealed in a special apparatus to prevent C02
    contamination from the sealing flame.
        11.  Sealed ampules were heated at 125ฐC for four hours in an
    autoclave to oxidize organic carbon to carbon dioxide.
        12.  The carbon dioxide content of each ampule was then analyzed
    in a special ampule breaking apparatus which permits the carbon dioxide
    to be flushed through an infrared analyzer.
         The carbon dioxide content of each ampule was determined by flushing
    the gas content of the ampule with nitrogen into the gas stream of a
    non-dispersive infrared analyzer sensitized to carbon dioxide.  The
    detector output of the analyzer was recorded as a peak on a potentio-
    metric strip chart recorder equipped with an integrator standard carbon
    dioxide conversion.
         Graphs are made by plotting the integrated area versus carbon for
    standardized sodium carbonate solutions.   These values were made by
    injecting a known volume of the sodium carbonate standard through a
    rubber septum in a special  vial containing phosphoric acid solution.
    

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                               TABLE 1
    
    DISSOLVED (DOC) AND PARTICULATE (POC) ORGANIC CARBON CONCENTRATIONS(mg/1)
    FOR INDICATED DEPTHS (METERS) AND STATIONS, OPERATION FETCH, NOVEMBER, 1973
     Station E
    Depth
    11
    22
    34
    46
    Depth
    0
    J
    17
    34
    Depth
    8
    23
    46
    Depth
    7.6
    21.3
    DOC
    1.08
    1.35
    1.31
    0.10
    Station
    DOC
    
    1.44
    1.10
    Station
    DOC
    1.28
    2.50
    1.60
    Station
    DOC
    1.02
    1-13
    POC
    .185
    .231
    .290
    .530
    17
    POC
    
    .169
    .181
    2
    POC
    .097
    .300
    .260
    B
    POC
    .116
    .151
          Station F
    Depth    DOC
                                         POC
                            9
                           21
                           62
                            9
                           18
                           46
                            5
                           18
                           34
            1.76   .130
                               Station 8
                                  DOC
                    POC
    0.94   .240
    0.94   .240
    1.95   .067
                               Station 14
                                  DOC
                    POC
            1.37   .103
            2.50   .300
            0.60   .340
                               Station A
                         Depth    DOC
                         40.2
            1.80
            1.16
            POC
    
           .231
           .099
    :pth
    •}
    17
    29
    DOC
    7 on
    Z . /.y
    1.87
    0.94
    POC
    
    .144
    .370
                            Station 5
                               DOC
            POC
                                 8    4.75   .328
                                39    0.96   .071
                                53    1.02   .250
                            Station 11
                      Depth    DOC    POC
                         9    2.90   .220
                        18    1.08   .250
                        45    2.47   .067
                                    Station D
                                       DOC
            POC
    1.00   .260
    1.84   .160
    0.84   .137
    

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    The organic carbon concentration of each ampule was determined by
    comparing the integrated area to the standard carbon dioxide conversion
    graph.
         The deviation for duplicated DOC determination on the same water
    sample was generally 5% or lower, with POC usually 10% or lower.  A
    reagent blank value was determined with each set of water samples
    sealed.  The DOC reagent blank value usually varied from 0.003 mg C
    to 0.004 mg C.  The POC reagent blank usually varied from 0.003 mg C
    to 0.006 mg C.
    Results and Discussion
         Results of the analyses are shown in Table 1 and the diagramatic
    Figures 1 and 2.  Two way analysis of variance (Freund, 1970) with
    respect to depth and sampling site within the dumpsites and outside the
    dumpsite were conducted.  No significant variations for either dissolved
    or particulate organic carbon at the .95 level  could be determined.
         Means for particulate organic carbon concentrations at the thermo-
    cline have significant difference in variation (t-test) between those
    within the dumpsite (Stations E, 8, 5, 2, 11) and three stations outside
    the dumpsite (Stations 17, 14, D).  These differences would suggest an
    accumulation of particulate organic carbon along the thermocline.  Further
    studies are required to determine the fate of this material.  Additional
    t-tests with DOC and POC at various depths have no significant results
    at the .95 level.
         Values for POC are similar to values reported for the North Atlantic
    Ocean (Szekielda , 1968; Gordon, 1970).  DOC concentrations reflect a
                                    5
    

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    PARTICULATE  ORGANIC  CARBON  (mg/1)
                 FIGURE 1
    

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    DISSOLVED  ORGANIC   CARBON  (mg/l)
                   FIGURE 2
    

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    range of values found in many of the oceans, particularly off the coast
    of Peru and in the Gulf of Mexico (Hobson, et al,  1973).
         The lack of significant differences in variation of  DOC and  POC
    with depth and station location (space) on two-way analysis support
    the conclusions of Menzel and Goering (1966) and Menzel  (1967) concern-
    ing homogeneity in depth, space and time.   It should be noted, however,
    that other researchers have reported variations in these  dimensions
    (Wangersky and Gordon, 1965; Hobson, 1967; Gordon, 1970).  The addition
    of sewage sludge may be affecting this natural  homogeneity and maybe
    just one external process is affecting the distribution of organic
    carbon in the oceans, particularly along the thermocline.
         The time since last release of sludge would most probably be a
    factor in the detection of the materials,  but must be evaluated by
    studies designed for the measurement of short-term, rather than long-
    term effects.
    

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                                 PART II
                PARTICULATE AND DISSOLVED BIOLOGICAL IRON
                    Leonard A. Izzo, Michael A. Champ
                         The American University
                                   and
                     Donald W. Lear, EPA Region III
                         Annapolis Field Office
         Iron is one of the major contributed components of both the acid
    wastes and the municipal sludge disposed in this area.  For this reason
    it may be a tag for the dispersion and distribution of other components
    of the wastes.  The role of iron in the marine environment is considered
    to be associated with coastal sedimentation and primary productivity.
    Total iron can be partitioned into dissolved and particulate fractions
    which are arbitrarily designated by filtration.  Dissolved iron complexes
    as ferric hydroxide and phosphate particles.  These are soluble and/or
    pass through a 0.45y Millipore HA Filter (Strickland and Parsons, 1973).
    The uncomplexed ferric ion does not exist in measurable amounts in
    seawater due to the pH levels.  Ferrous forms can only occur under
    anaerobic conditions.
         Dissolved and particulate biological iron is iron that is avail-
    able to marine organisms.  This biologically reactive or available iron
    is determined by preliminary treatment with 0.48N hydrochloric acid.
    Such treatment will  liberate ferric iron and thus give less of an over-
    estimation of the immediately available biologically active iron than
    would a total iron figure.
         Samples were retrieved from 10-liter PVC Niskin bottles on the
    hydrocasts, taken as time and weather permitted.  Only the waters from
    

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    and near the sludge release zone were sampled; the northern region
    was not sampled due to the exigencies of priority on the schedule.
    Materials and Methods
         Dissolved and particulate biological iron analysis were cond cted
    on one-liter samples according to procedures of Strickland and Parsons,
    1972; and Izzo, 1974.  The one-liter sample was filtered through a 0.45y
    Millipore HA Filter to separate dissolved iron (the filtrate) from
    particulate iron (the non-filtrate).  The filters were allowed to par-
    tially air dry by the vacuum created by the pump, then each was stored
    in a Millipore plastic case for transport to the laboratory.  One hun-
    dred mis of the filtrate were immediately transferred to specially
    cleaned bottles and frozen for transport to the laboratory where colori-
    metric analysis was conducted after treatment with 0.48N HC1.
    Results and Discussion
         Results are shown in Table 1 for particulate biological iron (PBFe)
    and dissolved biological  iron (DBFe).  PBFe is also shown diagramatically
    in Figure 1.
         As can be noted in Table 1,  nearly all  the iron was retained on the
    filters, as could be expected from the solubility of iron salts in seawater,
         The diagramatic distribution of particulate iron in the waters show no
    definitive pattern in spite of the weak thermocline (Lear,  Smith, O'Malley,
    1974), but is useful for  establishing the relative ambient concentrations
    and spatial  variability.   These distributions, however,  can be extremely
    useful for following discrete dumping (Champ,  1974).
    
                                     10
    

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    60
              PARTICULATE   BIOLOGICAL  IRON  (mg/l)
    
    
    
    
                         O  STATION  NO.
                              FIGURE 1
    
    
    
    
                                11
    

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                                  Table 1
    DISSOLVED (DBFe) AND PARTICULATE (PBFe) BIOLOGICAL IRON (ug/l) AT
    
    INDICATED DEPTHS (METERS) AND STATIONS, OPERATION FETCH, NOV. 1974
    Station
    Depth DBFe
    11 x
    22 x
    34 x
    46 x
    Station
    Depth DBFe
    3 1.08
    17 0.00
    34
    Station
    Depth DBFe
    8 0.00
    23 1.09
    46
    E
    PBFe
    81.20
    89.90
    62.64
    95.70
    17
    PBFe
    52.20
    41.18
    23.20
    2
    PBFe
    48.14
    47.56
    63.80
                                 Station F
                                i   DBFe   PBFe
                               9      x    72.50
                              21      x    63.80
                              62      x    95.70
                                 Station 8
    
                             spth   DBFe   PBFe
    
                               9    0.16   16.24
                              18    0.00   55.10
                              46    0.31   71.34
                                 Station 14
    
                             ปpth   DBFe   PBFe
    
                               5    3.90   45.24
                              18    0.00   75.98
                              34     --    41.18
        Station 9
    
    spth   DBFe   PBFe
     j 	    	ji_._.i   ^^_^^^^_
      3    0.00   60.90
     17    0.63   59.16
     29     --     17.98
        Station 5
       i   DBFe   PBFe
      8
     39
     53
    2.19
    92.22
    53.36
    23.20
        Station 11
    
    ฐpth   DBFe   PBFe
    
      9  '  0.00   54.96
     18    1.11   41.76
     45    0.00   30.74
     x = Sample bottles broken in rough seas
    
    -- = Sample lost in freezing
                                     12
    

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                                 PART III
         METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE OCEAN QUAHOG, Arctica islandica
                        Bruce Reynolds and Gerald Pesch
                       National  Water Quality Laboratory
                               EPA Narragansett
    Abstract
         Tissue of the clam, Arctica islandica, were analyzed for accumulated
    concentrations of 12 metals  at 14 stations distributed about an industrial
    waste dumpsite and a sewage  waste dumpsite.  Conclusions drawn from a
    statistical treatment of the results show (1) that metals thus disposed
    of do acculuate in the tissue of benthic organisms and in quantities
    roughly proportional to the  amounts dumped; (2) that certain metals,
    particularly V and Cd, are dumped in such quantities in one of the two
    sites such that they may be  used as tracers for that dumpsite; and
    (3) that, due to hydrographic conditions, the effects of these dumped
    materials is in no way limited to the area bounded by the dumpsites
    proper but are spread over a large area, as yet undetermined, particularly
    in the direction of the prevailing currents.  A much larger sample grid
    is needed to establish the extent of this area.
    Results and Discussion
         Of the stations visited on the "Fetch" cruise, November 5-10, 1973,
    14 of these yielded the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica.  Three of these,
    Stations A, C, and H, yielded only one individual  with the other 11
    stations yielding from 3 to  13 individuals.  These were subsequently
    subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometric  analysis for tissue
    concentrations of 12 metals.  The metals, the means and ranges of their
    
                                      13
    

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    concentrations, and the sample sizes,  are  reported  in  Appendix  1  along
    with values for the other organisms  collected.
         An analysis of variance was  performed on  the replicates of Arctica
    samples for each of the 12 metals for  the  above  set of 11  stations.  The
    results of this test are reported in Table 1.
                                  Table  1
                Analysis of Variance  of  Metal  Concentrations
                                                        Significance
              Metal               F ratio                   level
         Vanadium                  5.77                     <.!%
         Chromium                  3.73                     <.!%
         Cadmium                   3.49                       .5%
         Aluminum                  2.95                       .5%
         Manganese                 2.25                        5%
         Lead                      2.20                        5%
         Zinc                      1.24                     >20%
         Nickel                    1.22                     >20%
         Copper                    1.05                     insig.
         Cobalt                    0.96                     insig.
         Iron                      0.48                     insig.
         Silver                    0.31                     insig.
         Thus, of the 12 metals examined,  6,  i.e., V, Cr,  Cd,  Al, Mn,
    and Pb, clearly demonstrate significant differences within the  set
    of 11 stations.  Of the remaining, zinc and nickel  approach significance
    
                                      14
    

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    while all of the metals show interesting distributions  when  the mean
    concentrations are plotted.
         Subsequently, Duncan's  New Multiple Range Test  was performed and
    homogeneous subsets determined for the set of 11  stations  and  for the
    metals shown to have significance.  Homogeneous subsets are  herein defined
    as subsets of elements, no pair of which differ by more than the shortest
    significant range for a subset of that size.   The subsets  thus determined
    are presented in Table 2.
    
                                Table 2
                   Homogeneous Subsets of Stations by Metal
    Metal
    Subset 1
    Subset 2
    Subset 3
    Vanadium
    Chromium
    p
    Cadmium
    Aluminum
    Manganese
    1 oaH
    14,8,5,E,D,11,2,1
    2,0,8,14,1,17,11,5
    G, 9,8,0,1, 2, E,ll
    all but Sta. G
    all but Sta. G
    91/LQQir:7R
    17, G, 9 2,1,17,6
    5,G,E,9 14,1,17,11,5,6
    11,17,5,14 1,2,E,11,5
    6 is significantly higher
    6 is significantly higher
    R 11 t; p 	
                11,5
           a fourth subset was established as follows:
             14, 17, 11, 5, 6, E
         p
           a fourth subset was established as follows:
             2, E, 11, 17, 5
                                     15
    

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         In the following section, these subsets as well  as the isopleths
    for the calculated means of metal  concentrations for  both the 11-station
    and 14-station sets are presented  as figures.  In the isopleth figures,
    the number beside each of the station numbers are the calculated  me
    in ppm dry weight for the indicated metal  extracted from Arctica  tissue.
    It should be emphasized that the subsets and isopleths plotted are
    limited in area! extent, not only by the existing data, but by the spatial
    distribution of the sample sites and do not imply a bounded system.  It
    would be expected that the homogeneous subsets would  be enlarged  if
    information on additional stations were available.   In Table 3, the annual
    input of waste materials into the  respective dumpsites are presented. The
    individual metal values for the DuPont waste are calculated using the
    analysis values contained in DuPont's permit application.  The Philadelphia
    values are calculated from an analysis of sewage sludge supplied  to our
    laboratory by  EPA  Region III, except as indicated.  The specific gravity
    and wet/dry weight ratios used in  these calculations  were also determined
    by our laboratory from the submitted samples.
                                   Table 3
                        Annual Input Delaware Dumpsites
         DuPont                 Total  Input               Philadelphia
       240,000,000                 gal/yr                 150,000,000
       908,500,000                 1/yr                   568,000,000
          1.18                     spec grav                 1.03
     1,072,000,000                 kg/yr                  584,500,000
    
                                    16
    

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                       Table 3 (cont.)
           Annual  Input Delaware Dumpsites
    DuPont       Specific Metal  Input       Philadelphia
    Fe
    Cu
    Cr
    Al
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    N1
    V
    Cd
    Zn
    Ti
    53,400,000 kg/yr
    3,634
    33,160
    745,000
    136
    1,017,500
    11,900
    9,630
    8,540
    155,400
    236
    33,400
    1,844,000
    946,000
    83,150
    75,670
    1,094,000
    2,314
    81,400
    145,000
    8,740
    41,655
    2,226
    6,200
    334,000
    5,851
                          17
    

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    Vanadium
         Of the metals examined, vanadium presents the greatest significance
    of variation between stations or groups of stations.   From Table 3,  it
    may be noted that the vanadium input to the dumpsite system is approxi-
    mately 75 times greater for DuPont than for Philadelphia.   From Figures
    1, 2 and 3 it may be similarly noted that the area of greatest impact
    of accumulated vanadium in the ocean quahog is in  and near the DuPont
    site and, quite strikingly, in the area to the southwest or downstream
    (according to prevailing currents discussed in the main body of this
    report) of the DuPont dumpsite.   On the other hand, the Philadelphia
    site uniformly and without exception shows levels  that are significantly
    lower.  It may also be noted that at the three stations, A, C, and H,
    which yielded only a  single sample each and consequently do not lend
    themselves to statistical  treatment, nevertheless  show values which seem
    to fit the general contouring trend.
    Chromium
         The apparent chromium distribution in Figures 4,5, and 6 is  some-
    what complicated by the fact that the metal is deposited in the two
    dumpsites at levels differing only by a factor of  2 (Philadelphia more
    than DuPont from Table 3)  and thus cannot reasonably  be used as a tracer
    for either dumpsite.   The dominant feature in these figures is the demon-
    stration, again, of the effects  of the general  oceanic circulation in the
    area to widely distribute the metal to downstream  or  to the southwest
    and hence substantially out of the established dumpsite area.
                                   18
    

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    Cadmium
         The results of the cadmium determination show identical  but
    reciprocal distribution patterns as compared to vanadium.   In  this
    case, cadmium is deposited at a rate approximately 30 times greater
    in the Philadelphia site than in the DuPont site,  (Table  3),  and is
    clearly accumulated in the ocean quahog to a greater degree in the
    Philadelphia site, (Figure 7, 8 and 9).  Again the metal  levels were
    found to be distributed in response to the direction of the prevailing
    bottom currents.  Thus we have two metals which differ significantly
    in the amounts annually deposited in the system at the two respective
    sites, and which evidently show promise as tracers in delineating the
    effects of these two closely related sites—effects, however, that are
    so widely dispersed beyond the actual dumpsite limits that they do not
    appear to be contained by the limits of the present sample grid.
    Aluminum
         At the time of  the writing of this report, the Philadelphia sewage
    sludge had not been analyzed for aluminum content  and thus does not
    appear in Table 3, however the value would not be  expected to approach
    the amount in the DuPont waste for to do so would  mean a  value approxi-
    mately that of the iron.  If this proves to be the case,  the  familiar
    trend of shellfish accumulation paralleling the differential  rate of
    deposition, as well as the extentions of the higher values to  the south-
    west, is again demonstrated.
                                    19
    

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    Manganese
         Manganese is deposited at the DuPont site in amounts 12 times
    that in the Philadelphia site and isopleths plotted in Figures 12,
    13 and 14 reflect this fact.  However, the plots of the homogeneous
    subsets show primarily that most of the statistical significance is
    attributable to the high values for Station 6, southwest of the
    DuPont site.
    Lead
         The Figures 15 and 16 for lead show trends similar to those
    established for the other metals with the possible exception that,
    statistically, the homogeneous subset of stations with high values
    is limited quite closely to the Philadelphia site, the area of primary
    deposition.  It is equally possible that this delimiting is an artifact
    of the sample grid.
    Titanium
         The variance between stations was found to be significant at the
    1% level with a F ratio of 2.70.  (These values may be compared to those
    for the other metals in Table 1.)  The homogeneous subsets, defined by
    the multiple range test, are the same as those defined for aluminum and
    manganese, such that Station G is significantly higher than the remaining
    stations with the latter falling into one homogeneous  subset.   These
    trends are illustrated in Figures 23 and 24.  Consequently, the comments
    made for manganese apply equally well for titanium, particularly since
    the annual amounts disposed of are more than 3000 times greater for the
    DuPont site than for the Philadelphia site.
                                   20
    

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    Other Metals
         The remaining metals, although not meeting the tests  for  signifi-
    cance of variance due in part to the sample sites  and  their  limited
    spatial distribution, nevertheless continue to demonstrate at  least
    portions of the comparative patterns of deposition,  lateral  trans-
    portation, and biological  accumulation as found in previous  metals.
    It is particularly noteworthy that in no case does the area  of highest
    accumulation fail to correspond to the dumpsite with the greater  load
    of the respective metal.
                                   21
    

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          STATION  LOCATIONS
    Vanadium
    ^or-lF, 11
    
    
    
    
    
         22
    

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                  STATION  LOCATIONS
    Figure ? Vanadium Inooleths,  1"- Stations
    
    
    
    
                          23
    

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                  STATION  LOCATIONS
    Figure 3  Vanadium Hono-P'oneour; Subsets
                          24
    

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          STATION LOCATIONS
    Chromium Isot>lPths, 11 St
                 25
    

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                 STATION  LOCATIONS
    Figure •;  Chromium Isopleths,  1^ Stations
                         26
    

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                    STATION  LOCATIONS
                                     SCALE  M STATUTE MILES
                                          0        5
    Figure ''  Ghroniurn Hoim
                           27
    

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                      STATION  LOCATIONS
                                        SCALE H STATUTE MILES
                                     505
    3.0
       FJfrure 7  Cadmium Isopl^thr,, 11
                              28
    

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           STATION  LOCATIONS
    3.02-5
                 29
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
           30
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
                          V.
          31
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
    

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    STATION LOCATIONS
          33
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
          34
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
         35
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
          36
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
                     SCALE  N STATUTE MILES
                  505
            38
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
    

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    STATION LOCATIONS
          40
    

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           STATION  LOCATIONS
    :0 Cob'5,T t 1 -—.I .--t-h-,  v S *-'• H
                  41
    

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    STATION  LOCATIONS
              600  500  400
           42
    

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                  STATION LOCATIONS
    1.5
           2? S-i
                        43
    

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                 STATION  LOCATIONS
    Figure 23 Titanium Isopleths, 11 Stations
    
    
    
    
                           44
    

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                 STATION  LOCATIONS
    Figure 24 Titanium Isopleths, 14 Stations
                           45
    

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                 STATION  LOCATIONS
    Figure 25 Titanium Homogeneous Subsets
    
    
    
    
                          46
    

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                                   PART IV
                          ZOOPLANKTON POPULATIONS
                             Suzanne Sosnowski
                   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                 National Marine Water Quality Laboratory
                         Narragansett, Rhode Island
         Zooplankton tows were made with paired net hauls, each net
    measuring 0.5 meter x 0.5 meter, and mesh size of 202y.  Fifteen
    minute surface tows were made.  Samples from tows were split, one
    for metals analysis (Lear, Smith and O'Malley, 1974) and the
    remainder for taxonomic characterizations.  The latter aliquot was
    preserved in 5% formalin.
         As the primary objective of the cruise was sampling for benthic
    conditions, plankton tows were given relatively low priority, and
    few samples taken.  Heavy weather forced the utilization of available
    time for higher priority work.
    Methodology
         The tows were not quantitatively taken and, as a result, many
    more animals were in the sample from Station 17 than that of Station 14.
    For this reason, the Station 17 sample was diluted more before exami-
    nation than Station 14.
         A Folsom Plankton Splitter was used to divide the raw tows.
    Station 17 sample was split into 1/32 aliquots.  One of these aliquots
    was diluted to 500 ml.  The 500 ml dilution was stirred and poured into
    a 50 ml sampling device which was shaken before a 2 ml sample was taken.
    This 2 ml sample was counted and keyed out according to genus and species,
                                    47
    

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    Two such 2 ml aliquots were counted.  A total  approximation of
    animals in the whole two sample  was arrived at by multiplying
    the number of animals in one 2 ml aliquot by a factor of 8000.
    The species percent composition was calculated by dividing the
    number of animals of that species by the total number of animals
    in the 2 ml aliquot.
         The sample from Station 14 was treated in a like manner,  except
    that it was divided into 1/16 aliquots in the  Folsom splitter.  A
    total  approximation of animals in the whole two sample was arrived
    at by multiplying the number of animals in one 2 ml  aliquot by a
    factor of 4000.  The percent species composition was calculated as
    above.
    Discussion
         Station 14:   Most frequently occurring species  ( 4%):
                      Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus -  39.7%
                     *Temora turbinata (species?)      -  32.3%
                      Centropages typicus             -  19.6%
                      Salps, indicative of warm and/or oceanic
                      waters were found in this sample (Sta.  14).
         Station 17:   Most frequently occurring species  ( 4%):
                      Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus -  37.3%
                     *Temora longicornis (species?)    -  19.0%
                     *Temora turbinata (species?)      -  20.1%
                      Oncaea venusta                  -   8.0%
                      Centropages typicus             -   4.5%
                                    48
    

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          It appears that Station 17 contained more diverse speciation
     than  Station 14.  Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus was dominant in
     these October surface tows at both stations.  The tows were not
     measured quantitatively when taken, so, although the aliquots were
     equal from both tows, more animals per aliquot were present in the
     Station 17 sample.  This should not have affected the percent species
     composition, however.
          Grice and Hart (1962), in September oblique tows of these neritic
     waters (lat 40ฐ 18' x long 71ฐ 28'), found 35 species of copepods of
     which the most important numerically was Centropages typicus which
     formed about 50%.  Calanus finmarchicus, Candacia armata, Metric!ia
     lucens, Oithona simulis, Paracalanus parvus, and Temora longicornis
     were  also found but none formed more than 6%.
          Bigelow and Sears (1939), in October oblique tows of these same
     shelf waters (out to the 200 meter contour, from lat 41ฐ to lat 36ฐ),
     found the most important species, numerically, to be Centropages
     typicus (14%), Paracalanus (12%), Calanus (7%), Pseudocalanus (4%),
     and Metrichia lucens (2%).  The following formed 1% or more or indi-
     vidual stations: 4% Acartia, 7% Candacia armata, 1% Centropages
     violaceous, 3% Corycaeus, 2% Mecynocera clausi, 11 % Oncaea, 1 % PJ jjurp_-
    mamrna gracilis, 6% Scolecithrix danae, 1% Temora longicornis, and 1%
    Temora sty!ifera.
          Fewer species may have been found in our October tows because
     they were surface tows, rather than oblique as in the data of Grice
    and Hart and Bigelow and Sears.
    *Reference books were vague on species differentiation for Temora.   Both
     species definitely occurred at Station 17, but the  percent may be
    inaccurate.  Some J_.  longicornis may have gone undetected in Station 14.
                                   49
    

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                                  TABLE 1
                  PERCENT  ZOOPLANKTON SPECIES COMPOSITION
         Two
                                  Species
    % of tow
    Station 14
    Oct. surface
    Station 17
    Oct. surface
    Grice & Hart
    Sept. oblique
                    Pseudocalanus minutus  elongatus
                    Temora turbinata
                    Centropages typicus
                   *Salps
    
                    Pseudocalanus minutus  elongatus
                    Temora turbinata
                    Temora jongicornis
                    Oncaea venusta
                    Centropages typicus
    
                    Centropages typicus
    Bigelow & Sears Centropages typicus
                    Paracalanus
    Oct. oblique
                    Calanus
                    Pseudocalanus
                    Metridia lucens
     39.7
     32.3
     19.6
     37.3
     20.1
     19.0
      8.0
      4.5
    
     50.0
     14.0
     12.0
      7.0
      4.0
      2.0
    * Salps are indicative of warm and/or oceanic  waters,
      in Station 17 sample.
                                                          There were none
                                  50
    

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                               REFERENCES
    
    
     American  Public  Health Association.  Standard Methods for the
     Examination of Water and Wastewater.  APHA  13th Ed. 864 pp.  1971.
    
     Beeton, A. M.  Environmental  changes in Lake Erie.   Transactions of
     the American Fisheries Society 90:153-159.  1961.
    
     Bigelow,  H. B. and M. Sears.   Studies of the waters of the Continental
     Shelf, Cape Cod to Chesapeake Bay.  Contrib. No. 194.  Woods Hole
     Oceanographic Institution.  Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative
     Zoology at Harvard College, Cambridge.  Vol. IV, No. 4:179-378.   1939.
    
     Butcher,  R. W.  The biological detection of pollution. Journal  of the
     Institute of Sewage Purification 2:92-97.   1946.
    
     Champ, Michael A.  Organic and inorganic carbon cycles in a pond
     ecosystem.  Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University.  1973.
    
     Champ, Michael A.  Operation  SAMS, Sludge Acid Monitoring Survey,
     American University, Ceres Program Publication No.  1.  1974.
    
     Florida Ocean Sciences Institute.  Limitations and  effects of waste
     disposal on an ocean shelf.  EPA-16070EFG12/71.   304 pp.   1971.
    
     Fredericks, A. D. and W.  M. Sackett.  Organic carbon in the Gulf of
     Mexico.  J. of Geophysical  Res. 75:2199-2206.
    
     Freund, John E.   Modern Elementary Statistics.   Prentice  Hall,  Inc.
     New Jersey.  1973.
    
     Gordon, D. C., Jr.  Some studies on the distribution and  composition
     of particulate organic carbon in the North Atlantic Ocean.   Deep-Sea
     Res. 17:233-243.   1967.
    
     Grice, G. D. and  A. Hart.  The abundance,  seasonal  occurrence and
     distribution of the epizooplankton between New York and Bermuda.
     Contrib. No. 1237, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,  pp 287-307.
     1962.
    
     Hobson, L. A.   The seasonal and vertical  distribution of  suspended
     particulate matter in an area of the northeast Pacific Ocean.
     Oceanography 11:510-519.   1967.
    
     Hobson, L. A., D. W. Menzel,  R. T. Barber.  Primary productivity and
     sizes of pools of organic carbon in the mixed layer of the ocean.
    Marine Biology 19:298-306.   1973.
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    Hynes, H. B. N.  The Biology of Polluted Waters.  Liverpool  University
    Press, Liverpool xiv + 202 pp.  1960.
    
    Izzo, Leonard A.  Dissolved and Participate Biological  Iron.  In
    Champ (Editor Operation SAMS: Sewage Acid Monitoring Survey.  The
    American University Ceres Publication No. 1.  169 pp.  1974.
    
    Lear, D. W., S. K. Smith and M. L. O'Malley (Eds.)  Environmental
    Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites, Middle Atlantic Bight - Operation
    "Fetch"  EPA 903/9-74-01Oa. 141 pp.  1974.
    
    Menzel, D. W. Particulate organic carbon in the deep sea.   Deep-Sea
    Res. 14:229-238.  1967.
    
    Menzel, D. W. and J. J. Goering.  The distribution of organic detritus
    in the ocean.  Limnology and Oceanography 11:333-337.  1966.
    
    Menzel, D. W. and R. F. Vaccaro.  The measurement of dissolved organic
    and particulate carbon in sea water.  Limn. Ocean. 9:138-142.  1964.
    
    Owre, H. B. and M. Foyo.  Copepods of the Florida current.   Fauna
    Caribaea, No. 1, Crustacea, Part i: Copepoda.   Institute of Marine
    Science, Miami, p 137.  1967.
    
    Palmer, H. D. and D. W. Lear (Eds.)  Environmental Survey of an Interim
    Ocean Dumpsite, Middle Atlantic Bight - Operation "Quicksilver"  EPA
    903/9-001-A. 132 pp.  1973.
    
    Rose, M. Faune de France.     Copepodes Pelagiques.   Kraus  Repring.
    Nendeln. 374 pp.  1970.
    
    Strickland, J. D. H. and T. R. Parsons.  A Practical Handbook of
    Seawater Analysis.  Bull. No.  167 Fisheries Research Board  of Canada,
    Ottawa.   1972.
    
    Szekielda, K. H.  Some remarks on the influence of hydrographic conditions
    on the concentration of particulate carbon in  seawater.   I_n_: Proceedings
    of an I.B.P. symposium, pp 314-322.  Ed. by H.  L. Golterman and R. S.  Clymo.
    Amsterdam: N.V. Noord-Hollandsche Vitgevers Maatschappiji.   1967.
    
    Wangersky, P. J. and D. C.  Gordon, Jr.   Particulate carbonate, organic
    carbon and Mn+  in the open ocean.  Limn. Ocean. 10:544-440.  1965.
    
    Williams, P. M.  The distribution and cycling  or organic matter in the
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    and Joseph V. Hunter, Eds.  7:145-163.  Mariel  Dekker, Inc.,  New York.
    1971.
                                 52
    

    -------
    Wilson, C.  The copepods of the Woods Hole region.   Smithsonian
    Institution, U. S. National Museum Bulletin No.  158.   635 pp.
    U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington.   1932.
    
    Wilhm, J. L. and T. C. Dorris.  Biological  parameters for water
    quality criteria.   Bioscience 18:477-481.
                                   53
    

    -------
    Arctica
                           APPENDIX  1
    Metals Concentrations in Echinoderrn and Mollusc Tissues
                                                       ugm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    fli '
    Cr
    
    A!
    
    
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    r- Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    /, Samples
    Mean
    Range
    % SanipJ_es
    Mean
    f Samples
    Mean
    Rr'nge
    # Samples
    Ran:;-::
    -,'' Sa.-nplos
    [(anno
    t ~>3 .,./ ! v. .>
    H0.i:i
    Range1
    /; Sarvlcs
    14
    20.31
    10.01-
    28.17
    3
    0.65
    0.44-
    0.94
    3
    11.56
    6.80-
    17.56
    3
    0.413
    0.284-
    0.616
    3
    0.24
    0.12-
    0.42
    3
    0.25
    0.03-
    0.39
    3
    0.54
    0.34-
    0.65
    3
    0.16
    0.09-
    0.23
    3
    2.00
    1.17-
    2.79
    3
    0.196-
    0-428
    o
    0
    1.13
    0.262-
    1.58
    3
    0.217
    0.167-
    0.261
    3
    9
    33.47
    20.15-
    49.20
    10
    0.75
    0.36-
    1.12
    10
    8.04
    5.54-
    10.93
    10
    0.263
    0.174-
    0.402
    9
    0.24
    0.10-
    0.39
    10
    1.03
    0.54-
    1.74
    10
    1.11
    0.36-
    5.17
    10
    0.14
    0.09-
    0.18
    10
    1.07
    0.599-
    1.85
    10
    0.533
    0.376-
    0.839
    i n
    1 U
    4.46
    1.79-
    10.83
    10
    0.487
    0.379-
    0.728
    10
    17
    44.67
    14.81-
    95.15
    8
    0.10
    0.48-
    0.95
    8
    9.13
    6.29-
    11.68
    8
    0.443
    0.220-
    0.731
    8
    32.23
    0.17-
    256.0
    8
    1.18
    0.91-
    1.90
    8
    0.76
    0.67-
    0.91
    8
    0.10
    0.08-
    0.13
    8
    T T?
    0.68-
    2.07
    8
    0.448
    0.277-
    0.595
    0
    o
    3.26
    2.06-
    6.86
    7
    0.442
    0.255-
    0.585
    8
    1
    59.00
    10.69-
    310.92
    12
    1.09
    0.42-
    3.37
    12
    IT. 03
    5.62-
    34.39
    12
    0.316
    0.141-
    0.726
    11
    0.24
    0.11-
    0.79
    12
    6.89
    0.34-
    72.83
    12
    1.18
    0.51-
    9.00
    12
    0.06-
    0.43
    12
    1.40
    0.08-
    1.77
    12
    0.347
    0.173-
    0.585
    1 9
    
    3.13
    1.75-
    5.76
    11
    0.339
    0.266-
    0.655
    12
    2
    29.31
    14.18-
    62.45
    4
    0.85
    0.39-
    1.38
    4
    11.20
    7.82-
    16.34
    4
    0.303 '
    0.229
    0.441
    4
    0.24
    0.14-
    0.39
    4
    0.75
    0.31-
    1.54
    4
    0.56
    0.37-
    0.74
    4
    0.11
    0.09-
    0.18
    4
    1.04
    0.63-
    1.51
    4
    0.286
    0.234-
    0.346
    A
    
    2.20
    1.71-
    2.56
    3
    0.329
    0.257-
    0.433
    4
    5
    24.73
    17.36-
    29.76
    3
    0.73
    0.57-
    0.90
    3
    8.56
    5.71-
    11.13
    3
    0.398"
    0.212-
    0.526
    3
    0.16
    0.10-
    0.23
    3
    0.82
    0.58-
    1.28
    3
    0.88
    0.59-
    1.18
    3
    1.2
    0.08-
    0.15
    3
    1.42
    0.584-
    1.99
    3
    0.392
    0.30
    0.474
    •3
    
    3.61
    2.35-
    5.27
    3
    0.274
    0.148-
    0.377
    3
    8
    43.73
    17.09-
    108.05
    5
    .073
    0.37-
    0.86
    5
    11.51
    5.96-
    16.80
    5
    0.254
    0.134-
    0.329
    5
    0.23
    0.09-
    0.65
    5
    "0778
    0.56-
    1.21
    5
    0.51
    0.03-
    0.87
    5
    0.13
    0.06-
    0.22
    5
    1.50
    0.674-
    2.725
    5
    " 0.304""
    0.16
    0.414
    c
    
    4.18
    1.33-
    9.99
    5
    0.247
    0.176-
    0.409
    5
    11
    32.95
    22.38-
    64.30
    6
    0.54
    0.38-
    0.72
    6
    3*.76-
    12.63
    6
    ~ "07258"
    0.166-
    0.414
    6
    0.16
    0.09-
    0.26
    6
    0.74
    0.16-
    1.71
    6
    0.40-
    0.85
    6
    0.12
    0.08-
    0.20
    6
    T74T"
    0.894-
    2.23
    6
    0.20
    0.43
    
    1.92
    1.25-
    2.45
    6
    0.247
    0.213-
    0.303
    6
    

    -------
    Arctica
    Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
                                                      ygm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Hi
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    -# Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Maan
    Range
    # Samples
    E
    39.60
    12 19-
    73.72
    10
    ~ 0.67
    0.45
    1.02
    10
    8.TC
    4.29
    12 22
    10'
    0-2789
    0.170-
    0.428
    10
    0.2Q
    0.08-
    0.41
    10
    1.03
    0.22-
    1.22
    10
    0.88
    0.50-
    1.63
    10
    0.21
    0.07-
    0.77
    10
    1.27
    0.81-
    1.847
    10
    ~~"074T(r
    0.25-
    0.661
    10
    3.03
    1.629-
    6.211
    10
    0.266
    0.200-
    0.373
    10
    C
    . 153.15
    1
    1.01
    1
    9.571
    1
    0.404
    1 __
    0.181
    1
    5.505
    1
    1.077
    1
    0.686
    1
    0
    0.852
    1
    "5
    0.722
    1
    0
    25.54
    5.11-
    45.18
    6
    0.72
    0.52
    1.14
    6
    9.44
    7.15
    12.99
    6
    0.250
    0.151-
    0.305
    	 6
    0.21
    0.11-
    0.56
    6
    0.80
    0.40-
    1.20
    6
    0.60
    0.46-
    0.82
    6
    0.09
    0.06-
    0.12
    6
    2.02
    0.528-
    4.711
    6
    0.293
    0.239-
    0.354
    6
    2.42
    1.71-
    3.85
    6
    0.281
    0.158-
    0.360
    6
    i^
    u
    113.55
    21.23-
    389.74
    8
    0.90
    0.58
    1.24
    8
    9.Td
    4.72
    13 21
    8
    0.340
    0.141-
    0.591
    	 8_
    0.24
    0.07-
    0.59
    8
    3.23
    0.50-
    9.78
    8
    1.12
    0.51
    2.52
    8
    0.47
    0.08-
    2.80
    8
    2.23
    0.77-
    5.10
    6
    0.711
    0.34-
    1.43
    8
    12.60
    1.98-
    25.85
    7
    0.684
    0.309-
    0.741
    8
    B A
    148.37
    1
    1.01
    1
    9.719
    1
    0.307
    1
    0.213
    1
    6.665
    1
    0.900
    1
    0.120
    1
    0
    0.553
    1
    "o
    1.110
    1
    H
    30.69
    1
    0.770
    1
    T4.781
    1
    137407
    1
    0.39
    1
    0.793
    1
    0.878
    1
    0.217
    1
    5.44
    1
    0.657
    1
    4.23
    1
    0.340
    1
    

    -------
    Arctica
    Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
                                                      ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    tr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Sampjes
    Mean
    Range
    # Sampjes
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    ffean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    [lean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Ran ^'3
    # Samples
    14
    192.74
    111 50-
    245.94
    3
    6.29
    4.96-
    8.25
    3
    111.44
    66.05-
    153.27
    3
    3.94
    3.167-
    5.337
    3
    2.273
    1.35-
    3.68
    3
    3.277
    3.14-
    3.43
    3
    5.163
    3.78-
    6.30
    3
    1.50
    0.89-
    2.03
    3
    19-. 50
    11.42-
    24.38
    3
    2.88
    2.18-
    3.73
    3
    11.63
    2.28-
    17.23
    3
    2.12
    1.86-
    2.53
    3
    9
    275.05
    182.36-
    422.02
    10
    6.11
    3.41-
    8.13
    10
    65.84
    50.34-
    84.51
    10
    2.134
    1.424-
    2.862
    9
    2.026
    0.759-
    3.220
    10
    8.532
    4.86-
    14.24
    10
    5.373
    3.22-
    7.52
    10
    1 .126
    0.720-
    1.520
    10
    8.80
    4.89-
    15.84
    10
    4.33
    3.54-
    6.08
    10
    36.79
    16.57-
    92.89
    10
    4.02
    2.59-
    5.77
    10
    17
    339.9
    108.08-
    616.61
    8
    5.28
    3.96-
    6.52
    6-
    70.496
    49.21-
    84.78
    8
    3.378
    1.604-
    5.00
    8
    2.087
    1.070-
    2.720
    8
    9.069
    6.100-
    12.30
    8
    5.98
    4.33-
    7.50
    8
    0.754
    0.540-
    1.040
    8
    8.80
    5.29-
    15.06
    8
    3.40
    2.03-
    4.07
    8
    26.51
    15.03-
    63.20
    7
    3.37
    2.30-
    4.01
    8
    1
    523.21
    87.98-
    3349.20
    12
    9.74
    4.11-
    36.30
    12
    104.48
    21.92-
    370.45
    12
    2.45
    1.29-
    3.22
    11
    2.30
    0.41-
    8.50
    12
    6.78
    2.89-
    13.93
    11
    5.68
    3.54-
    7.82
    11
    1.48
    0.45-
    4.52
    11
    10.82
    2.51-
    16.29
    9
    3.17
    1.87-
    3.99
    12
    30.18
    16.86-
    60.34
    11
    2.90
    2.55-
    3.60
    12
    2
    205.90
    73,05-
    372.60
    4
    7.23
    4.28-
    12.78
    4
    100.865
    61.75-
    150.32
    4
    2.588
    2.624
    2.822
    4
    2.220
    0.85-
    3.86
    4
    6.055
    2.81-
    9.18
    4
    4.883
    4.120-
    6.410
    4
    1.068
    0.54-
    1.94
    4
    9.73
    5.00-
    16.69
    4
    2.51
    2.07-
    2.80
    4
    22.05
    17.03-
    25.55
    3
    2.86
    2.58-
    3.34
    4
    5
    213.07
    147.16-
    250.85 1
    3
    6.29
    4.81-
    8.01
    3
    73.19
    51.00-
    94.33
    3
    3.461
    1.80-
    4.700
    3
    1.366
    0.82-
    2.05
    3
    7.040
    5.160-
    10.79
    3
    7.577
    4.99-
    9.90
    3
    1.073
    0.69-
    1.28
    3
    12.10
    5.20-
    16.85
    3
    3.38
    2,59-
    4.24
    3
    31.32
    19.92-
    47.01
    3
    2.36
    1.26-
    3.17
    3
    8
    397.50
    142.23-
    059.80
    5
    6.87
    3.21-
    9.97
    5
    100.69
    52.55-
    164.80
    5
    2.19
    1.17-
    2.74
    5
    1.97
    0.86-
    5.71
    5
    6.70
    4.89-
    10.05
    5
    6.24
    4.15-
    9.12
    5
    1.12
    0.81-
    1.95
    5
    12.60
    5.95-
    23.77
    4
    2.62
    1.39-
    3.34
    5
    34.89
    11.13-
    75.50
    5
    2.13
    1.49-
    3.61
    5
    11
    346.54
    233 72-
    737.75
    6
    5.51
    4.36-
    7.02
    6
    87.982
    43.180-
    143.23
    6
    2.77
    1.627-
    4.079
    6
    1.785
    1.250-
    2.580
    6
    8.353
    4.37-
    19.65
    6
    6.425
    4.50-
    9.70
    6
    1 .230
    0.87-
    1.94
    6
    14.47
    10.26-
    21.99
    6
    3.38
    2.03-
    4.89
    6
    19.91
    12.27-
    24.38
    6
    2.56
    1.90-
    3.25
    6
    

    -------
    Arctica
    Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
                                                      ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V~
    
    fiean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    "Mean
    Range
    V Samples
    Mean
    Range
    % Samples
    ilean
    Range
    $ ci;,iples
    i'lean
    Range
    7" Samples
    E
    377.80
    122.73-
    894.30
    10
    6.11
    3.91-
    8.14
    10
    74.98
    53.26-
    112.16
    10
    2.59
    1.71-
    3.89
    10
    l.8b
    0-78
    4.11
    10
    9.12
    5.43-
    23.39
    10
    7.84
    5.73-
    11.45
    10
    2.25
    0.61-
    9.59
    10
    11.47
    6.74-
    15.76
    8
    3./9
    2.156-
    5.15
    10
    ~78T95~
    18.16-
    53.47
    10
    2.47
    2.00-
    2.99
    10
    C
    624.00
    1
    4.2
    1
    39.0
    1
    1.6
    11
    1
    0.7
    1
    22.4
    1
    4.4
    1
    2.8
    1
    1
    3.47
    1
    1
    2.94
    1
    D
    226.90
    46.42-
    395.60
    6
    6.40
    4.57-
    11.12
    6
    83.76
    61.93-
    126.41
    6
    2.19
    1.47-
    2.65
    6
    1.89
    0.98-
    4.95
    6
    7.01
    3.53-
    9.74
    6
    5.31
    4.16-
    7.13
    6
    0.751
    0.536-
    1.087
    6
    17.62
    4.57-
    38.28
    6
    ~2759
    2.07-
    3.13
    6
    21.51
    15.37-
    33.33
    6
    2.49
    1.28-
    3.18
    6
    G B
    504.40
    181.57-
    1148.11
    8
    5.07
    3.18-
    6.54
    8
    52.28
    24.54-
    70.98
    8
    1.88
    1.107-
    2.890
    8
    1.406
    0.360-
    5.080
    8
    14.566
    4.30-
    28.80
    8
    5.673
    2.42-
    8.39
    8
    2.584
    0.480-
    8.230
    8
    24.27
    6.97-
    46.64
    6
    3.73
    2.98-
    5.46
    8
    "62.00
    17.01-
    123.44
    7
    3.69
    2.34-
    4.59
    8
    A
    630.95
    1
    4.334
    1
    41.334
    1
    .1.308
    1
    0.909
    1
    28.346
    1
    3.830
    1
    0.512
    1
    1
    2.35
    1
    1
    4.74
    • 1
    H
    292.8
    1
    7.350
    1
    140.99
    1
    3.891
    1
    0.378
    1
    7.568
    1
    8.378
    1
    2.074
    1
    51.9.
    1
    6.27
    1
    40.36
    1
    3.24
    1
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echihoderm and Mollusc  Tissues
    Arctica                                                      ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    CF~
    Ni
    Cr
    /rr
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    i1 Samples
    Mean
    Range
    -,•' Samples
    Mean
    Range
    T* Samples
    Mean
    Range
    
    -------
               Metals  Concentrations  in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Arctica
    umg/gm Ash Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    7.n
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    !ii
    Cr
    Al
    
    
    (lean
    Range
    # Samples
    ['lean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    /,- Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # SanigT_es_
    Mean
    Range
    // Singles
    Mean
    Range
    ft Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    i'lean
    Range
    # Samples
    flean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    it Soi.iples
    E
    1138.18
    329.50-
    2114.00
    10
    19.11
    13.39-
    32.33
    10
    233.00
    114.40-
    278.80
    10
    8.048
    4.59-
    13.03
    10
    5.64
    2.15-
    10.63
    10
    29.20
    14.63-
    78.76
    10
    ~rrm~
    15.39-
    51.70
    10
    5.94
    2.18-
    20.54
    10
    35.20
    23.26-
    43.19
    7
    11.89
    7.01-
    20.99
    10
    88.51
    44.03-
    162.73
    10
    776T
    5.68-
    10.80
    10
    C
    6092.0
    1
    40.52
    1
    381.00
    1
    16.09
    1
    7.19
    1
    219.00
    1
    42.80
    1
    27.30
    1
    1
    33.91
    1
    1
    " 28.74
    1
    D
    791.53
    496.2-
    1280.0
    _6 	 	
    20.09
    14.35-
    31.92
    6
    266.00
    199.6-
    362.7
    6
    7. 10
    4.23-
    8.93
    6
    6.04
    3.05-
    15.58
    __5______
    22.7
    11.13-
    33.83
    6
    T77TD
    12.82-
    24.05
    6
    2.43
    1.54-
    3.39
    6
    56.95
    15.428-
    133.037
    6
    8.30
    6.701-
    10.32
    6
    68.80
    50.04-
    112.49
    6
    ~ " 7.96
    4.45-
    10.32
    6
    G
    3383.5
    616.1-
    8987.0-
    8
    28.83
    17.49-
    47.94
    8
    303.00
    174.4-
    464.4
    8
    1 1 .29
    4.47-
    20.92
    8
    7.15
    1.18-
    17.25
    8
    99.7
    14.59-
    225.49
    8
    29.00
    15.53-
    58.17
    8
    15.5
    2.43-
    64.46
    8
    7T. 19
    29.77-
    161.56
    6
    21.98
    10.12-
    33.17
    8
    484.04
    57.72-
    1140.00
    7
    21.20
    9.32-
    35.95
    8
    B A
    8156.00
    r
    56.62
    1
    534.00
    1
    1 6 . y 1
    1
    11.76
    1
    366.00
    1
    49.50
    1
    6.62
    1
    25.25
    1
    30.392
    1
    1
    61.27
    ' 1
    H
    915.0
    1
    22.97
    1
    441.00
    1
    12.16
    1
    1.18
    1
    23.6
    1
    26.20
    1
    6.48
    1
    62.16
    1
    79.59
    1
    126.13
    1
    10.14
    1
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Echinarachnius                                               ygm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V™
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Sampjes
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    =t Samples
    14
    29.31
    1
    6.42
    1
    6.71
    1
    0.292
    1
    0.92
    1
    3.00
    1
    40.97
    1
    0.00
    1
    0.00
    1
    2.693
    1
    13.828
    1
    4.003
    1
    9
    44.90
    1
    7.501
    1
    5.41
    1
    0.086
    1
    0.52
    1
    1.61
    1
    22.41
    1
    0.14
    1
    11.909
    1
    3.394
    1
    17.835
    1
    4.315
    1
    17
    24.69
    22.41-
    28.12
    3
    7.08
    6.47-
    7.97
    3
    3.540
    3.06-
    3.87
    3
    0.08
    0.034-
    0.127
    3
    0.52
    0.48-
    0.57
    3
    1.873
    1.75-
    2.00
    3
    21.35
    21.10-
    22.19
    3
    0.06
    0.03-
    0.10
    3
    7.981
    4.64-
    13.34
    3
    3.099
    2.99-
    3.23
    3
    25.59
    11.266-
    53.88
    3
    4.356
    4.12-
    4.50
    3
    1 2
    53.99
    33.64-
    80.35
    3
    4.80
    4.13-
    5.48
    3
    6.023
    4.94-
    7.26
    3
    0.28
    0.217-
    0.313
    3
    0.663
    0.56-
    0.77
    3
    3.593
    3.27-
    3.80
    3
    65.60
    26.00-
    136.67
    3
    0.097
    0.05-
    0.17
    3
    0.113
    0.026-
    0.159
    3
    1.587
    1-.068-
    2.464
    3
    36.156
    20.217-
    55.80
    3
    3.559
    3.18-
    3.95
    3
    5
    53.82
    1
    7.003
    1
    3.68
    1
    0.107
    1
    0.34
    1
    1.33
    1
    17.91
    1
    0.14
    1
    3.069
    1
    2.744
    1
    19.497
    1
    4.333
    1 .
    8
    291.26
    1
    6.230
    1
    4.17
    1
    0.031
    1
    0.49
    1
    2.19
    1
    20.93
    1
    0.03
    1
    7.882
    1
    3.489
    1
    166.978
    1
    4.673
    1
    11
    273.44
    1
    6.583
    1
    4.30
    1
    0.000
    1
    0.22
    1
    1.93
    1
    19.37
    1
    0.22
    1
    1.449
    1
    2.646
    1
    178.886
    1
    3.779
    1
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderrn and Mollusc Tissues
    Echinarachnius '                                              ugm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    A'l
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    IT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    -// Samples
    Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    i! Samples
    Mean
    Range
    if Samples
    iiean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    u Samples
    E
    21.57 •
    18.33-
    25.91
    3
    5.80
    5.35-
    6.09
    3
    4.176
    3.59-
    4.76
    3
    0.11
    0.111-
    0.115
    3
    0.403
    0.39-
    0.41
    3
    1.433
    1.24-
    1.57
    3
    17.677
    17.18-
    18.14
    3
    0.037
    0.02-
    0.07
    3
    1 . 538
    0.204-
    3,93
    3
    2.64
    2.58-
    2.73
    3
    15.630
    11.19-
    21.56
    3
    3.845
    3.688-
    3.94
    3
    C D
    18.44
    13.04
    23.84
    2
    5.84
    5.78-
    5.89
    2
    18.440
    13.04-
    23.84
    2
    0.205
    0.199-
    0.211
    2
    0.785
    0.78-
    0.79
    2
    3.275
    3.18-
    3.37
    2
    33.76
    33.71-
    33.81
    2
    0.135
    0.09-
    0.18
    2
    0.056
    0.00-
    0.112
    2
    2.480
    2.452-
    2.507
    2
    17.89
    13.659-
    22.127
    2
    3.947
    3.857-
    4.037
    2
    G
    44.97
    1
    6.012
    1
    8.30
    1
    0.241
    1
    0.79
    1
    3.26
    1
    39,26
    1
    0.06
    1
    30.275
    1
    3.949
    1
    67.068
    1
    4.074
    1
    BAH
    29.89
    1
    5.91
    1
    6.34
    1
    •0.365
    1
    0.80
    1
    3.99
    1
    40.16
    1
    0.00
    1
    0.107
    1
    3.253
    1
    23.947
    1
    3.932
    • 1 •
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Echinarachnius
    ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Hi
    Cr
    Al
    M
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    •- Samples
    i'-ean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mee n
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    i-lean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    riean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14
    58.72
    1
    12.86
    1
    13.44
    1
    0.585
    1
    1 .84
    1
    6.01
    1
    82.08
    1
    0.00
    1
    0.00
    1
    Z.&93
    1
    13.828
    1
    4.003
    1
    9
    80.19
    1
    13.39
    1
    9.66
    1
    0.153
    1
    U.93
    1
    2.88
    1
    40.03
    1
    0.25
    1
    21.27
    1
    6.062
    1
    31.854
    1
    7.707
    1
    17
    42.74
    37.31-
    49.41
    3
    12.30
    10.92-
    14.01
    3
    5.77
    5.38-
    6.53
    3
    0.132
    0.059-
    0.214
    3
    U.90
    0.84-
    1.00
    3
    3.25
    3.08-
    3.37
    -3
    37.63
    37.10-
    38.34
    3
    .0.11
    0.05-
    0.18
    3
    13.715
    8.165-
    22.518
    3
    5.372
    5.258-
    5.456
    3
    43.729
    19.81-
    90.93
    3
    7.562
    6.95-
    7.929
    3
    1
    103.41
    74.12-
    150.06
    3
    9.46
    7.72-
    12.07
    3
    11.80
    8.86-
    16.00
    3
    0.50
    0.39-
    0.58
    3
    1.31
    1.05-
    1.70
    3
    7.04
    6.11-
    8.37
    3
    122.66
    48.56-
    245.14
    3
    0.19
    0.11-
    0.32
    3
    0.229
    0.049-
    0.35
    3
    3.058
    2.226-
    4.602
    3
    68.98
    49.54-
    104.21
    3
    6.907
    6.626-
    7.09
    3
    2 5
    117.29
    1
    15.26
    1
    8.02
    1
    0.233
    1
    0.74
    1
    2.90
    1
    39.03
    1
    0.31
    1
    6.689
    1
    5.980
    1
    42.49
    1
    9.443
    1 '
    8
    520.89
    1
    13.44
    1
    7.31
    1
    0.054
    1
    0.86
    1
    3.84
    1
    36.71
    1
    0.05
    1
    13.825
    1
    6.120
    1
    292.89
    1
    8.197
    1
    11
    533.11
    1
    12.83
    1
    8.38
    1
    0.00
    1
    0.43
    1
    3.77
    1
    38.06
    1
    0.43
    1
    3.328
    1
    6.076
    1
    410.88
    1
    8.681
    1
    

    -------
                Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Echinarachnius
    vigm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Hean
    Range
    # Samples
    Hean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Hean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    1 # SampTes
    Mean
    Range
    " ir Sampl es
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    ir Samples
    E
    39.54
    35.58-
    44.82
    3
    10.91
    10.01-
    11.50
    3
    7.86
    6.71-
    9.22
    3
    0.2113
    0.207-
    0.217
    3
    0.76
    0.73-
    0.79
    3
    2.71
    2.32-
    2.93
    3
    33.22
    32.11-
    34.33
    3
    0.07
    0.04-
    0.13
    3
    2.8/b
    0.396-
    7.35
    3
    4.955
    4.82-
    5.04
    3
    29.538
    20.914-
    41.793
    3
    7.228
    6.89-
    7.566
    3. '
    C
    34.90
    24.43-
    45.37
    2
    11.205
    11.20-
    11.21
    2
    13.80
    12. Ql-
    15. 59
    2
    0.39
    0.35-
    0.40
    2
    1.48
    1.46-
    1.50
    2
    6.18
    6.05-
    6.31
    2
    63.75
    63.34-
    64.15
    2
    0.26
    0.17-
    0.34
    2
    U.I 05
    0.00-
    0.211 •
    2
    4.679
    4.666-
    4.697
    2
    33.85
    25.59-
    42.11
    2
    7.453
    7.225-
    7.681
    2
    D G
    86.27
    1
    12.68
    1
    15.92
    1
    0.460
    1
    1.52
    00
    1
    6.25
    1
    75.32
    1
    0.12
    1
    bB.UB
    1
    7.576
    1
    128.67
    1
    7.816
    1 •
    BAH
    55.55
    1
    10.98
    1
    11.78
    1
    •0.680
    1
    1.49
    00
    1
    7.42
    1
    74.64
    1
    0.00
    1
    u.iyy
    r
    ป ~~
    ,1-
    6.045
    1
    44.51
    1
    7.307
    • 1
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - muscle only                                          ygm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    A'l
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Sarnpjes
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14 9
    17.41
    9.83-
    25.20
    5
    0.034
    0.29-
    0.43
    5
    16.11
    14.28-
    19.01
    5
    1.09
    0.68-
    1.43
    5
    0.06
    0.05-
    0.07
    5
    1.83
    0.80-
    4.80
    5
    0.44
    0.37-
    0.48
    5
    0.04
    0.02-
    0.07
    4
    3.470
    0.593-
    6.589
    4
    0.6014
    0.116-
    1.162
    4
    6.310
    2.857-
    11.074
    5
    0.182
    0.099-
    0.313
    4
    17 1
    11.74
    1
    0.272
    1
    13.620
    1
    0.302
    1
    0.052
    1
    0.479
    1
    0.332
    1
    8.708
    1
    0.086
    1
    0.112
    1
    5.094
    1
    0.129
    1
    258
    5.05
    1
    0.290
    1
    12.861
    1
    0.155
    1
    0.062
    1
    0.923
    1
    0.373
    1
    0.073
    1
    0.156
    1
    0.104
    1
    4.356
    1
    0.207
    1
    11
    31.66
    14.18-
    65.72
    3
    0.24
    0.23-
    0.26
    3
    17.78
    13.72-
    24.10
    3
    0.68
    0.47-
    0.85
    3
    0.05
    0.03-
    0.06
    3
    3.02
    1.09-
    6.03
    3
    0.48
    0.44
    0.51
    3
    0.04
    0.02-
    0.05
    3
    1.128
    , 0.153-
    2.638
    3
    0.437
    0.12-
    1.001
    3
    13.758
    5.519-
    25.599
    3
    0.228
    0.055-
    0.329
    3
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - muscle'only                                          Mg/gm Wet Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Fb~
    Co
    Iti
    Cr
    Al
    V—
    E
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Msan
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    ft Samples
    Mean
    Range
    if Samples
    Mean
    Range
    il Samples
    C D G B A H
    • 32.39
    1
    0.555
    1
    14.390
    1
    0.317
    1
    U.Ubl
    1
    0.816
    1
    0.334
    1
    0.215
    1
    1
    0.136
    1
    4.192
    1
    0.113
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - muscle only                                         ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    •# Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Sampjes
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14
    96.99
    58.87-
    127.65
    5
    1.94
    1.69-
    2.46
    5
    90.873
    81.091-
    113.807
    5
    6.10
    3.791-
    8.40
    5
    0.332
    0.281-
    0.411
    5
    10.609
    4.53-
    28.70
    5
    2.498
    2.125-
    2.894
    5
    0.206
    0.116-
    0.392
    4
    19.236
    3.549-
    37.416
    4
    3.386
    0.634-
    6.599
    ' 4
    34.919
    16.219-
    56.083
    5
    0.647
    0.559-
    1.584
    4
    9 17
    50.42
    1
    1.168
    1
    58.49
    1
    1.298
    1
    0.223
    1
    2.058
    1
    1.427
    1
    0.037
    1
    U.3/1
    1
    0.482
    1
    21.876
    1
    0.556
    1
    1258
    10.005
    1
    0.575
    1
    25.45
    1
    0.308
    0.123
    1
    1.826
    1
    0.739
    1
    0.144
    1
    U.3Ub
    1
    0.205
    1
    8.621
    1
    15.519
    1
    11
    161.46
    71.52-
    328.45
    3
    1.25
    1.16-
    1.31
    3
    93.92
    68.56-
    134.86
    3
    3.48
    2.63-
    4.29
    3
    0.234
    0.18-
    0.30
    3
    16.30
    5.49-
    33.73
    3
    2.50
    2.23-
    2.75
    3
    0.19
    0.124-
    0.275
    3
    b./lb
    0.856-
    13.307
    3
    2.224
    0.673-
    5.057
    3
    70.013
    30.887-
    127.92
    3
    1.153
    0.306-
    1.663
    3
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - muscle only                                      ygm/gm  Dry  Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    CF~
    7TT
    v—
    E
    flean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    (lean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    T/ Samples
    C D G B A H
    . 140.381
    1
    2.406
    1
    62.349
    1
    l.a/b
    1
    0.221
    1
    3.535
    1
    1.448
    1
    0.933
    1
    1
    0.589
    1
    18.164
    1
    0.491
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - muscle only
    ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    ฃ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    "Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14 9
    813.98
    545.4-
    1385.0
    5
    15.65
    12.71-
    22.28
    5
    742.0
    539.9-
    1056.8
    5
    51.0
    28.65-
    86.74
    5
    2.65
    2.27-
    3.41
    5
    80.97
    32.93-
    210.17
    5
    20.19
    15.45-
    27.27
    5
    1.35
    0.00-
    2.85
    5
    161.606
    25.989-
    271.951
    5
    26.52
    5.085-
    47.967
    5
    301.14
    117.886-
    670.455
    5
    8.899
    4.065-
    18.939
    4
    17 1
    552.8
    1
    12.81
    T
    641.3
    14.23
    1
    2.44
    1
    22.56
    1
    15.65
    1
    0.41
    1
    4.065
    1
    5.285
    1
    239.84
    1
    6.098
    1
    258
    270.0
    1
    15.56
    1
    688.9
    1
    a. 33
    1
    3.33
    1
    49.44
    1
    20.00
    1
    3.89
    1
    8.333
    1
    5.555
    1
    233.33
    1
    11.111
    1
    11
    1478.0
    676.1-
    3061.0
    3
    11.32
    10.86-
    12.04
    3
    831.0
    638.9-
    1113.6
    3 ,
    6\ ./
    21.72-
    40.57
    3
    2.15
    1.52-
    2.85
    3
    140.2
    51.89-
    278.54
    3
    22.5
    21.07-
    23.61
    3
    1.77
    1.16-
    2.27
    3
    53.54
    7.071-
    128.79
    3
    20.716
    5.555-
    47.799
    3
    643.81
    255.05-
    1192.13
    3
    10.712
    2.525-
    15.723
    3
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - muscle'only                                          ygm/gm Ash  Weight
    
    Fe
    E
    Mean
    Range
    i\ Samples
    Cu Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    
    Cr
    A!
    v —
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    i-;aan
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    7f Samples
    C D G B A H
    • 1869.0
    1
    32.03
    1
    830.1
    1
    18.30
    1
    2.94
    1
    47.06
    1
    19.28
    1
    12.42
    1
    • 1 i
    7.843
    1
    241.83
    1
    6.535
    1
    

    -------
               Metals  Concentrations in Echinoderm and  Mollusc  Tissues
    Pecten - viscera  & foot
    vgm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    T Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14 9
    111.66
    57.55-
    164.54
    5
    1.01
    0.87-
    1.19
    5
    10.37
    7.80-
    14.96
    5
    10.69
    8.28-
    14.95
    5
    0.15
    0.11-
    0.20
    5
    3.90
    2.94-
    5.36
    5
    0.40
    0.33-
    0.50
    5
    0.17
    0.07-
    0.43
    5
    0.499
    0.346-
    0.749
    4
    0.4103
    0.372-
    0.447
    5
    37.56
    7.216-
    58.534
    5
    1.828
    1.555-
    2.011
    5
    17 1 2 5
    1.23
    1
    2.52
    1
    16.119
    1
    8.993
    1
    0.097
    1
    2.549
    1
    0.534
    1
    0.136
    1
    0.484
    1
    0.738
    1
    50.522
    1
    4.454
    1
    8
    171.68
    1
    0.996
    1
    15.809
    1
    3.977
    1
    0.136
    1
    8.292
    1
    0.743
    1
    0.063
    1
    2.940
    1
    P. 471
    1
    62.83
    1
    2.039
    1
    11
    233.41
    205.47-
    274.15
    3
    1.27
    0.85-
    1.58
    3
    9.72
    9.25-
    10.14
    3
    16.01
    11.23-
    19.23
    3
    0.12
    0.08-
    0.16
    3
    7.87
    6.07-
    10.07
    3
    0.54
    0.50-
    0.57
    3
    0.17
    0.14-
    0.19
    3
    0.508
    0.488.
    0.542
    3
    0.782
    0.705-
    0.913
    3
    91.686
    15.54-
    135.69
    3
    2.683
    2.268-
    2.982
    3
    

    -------
               Metals  Concentrations  in  Echinoderm and  Mollusc  Tissues
    Pecten - viscera & foot                                      ygm/gm Wet Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Mi
    Cr~
    ฃT~
    V
    E
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    if Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    if Samples
    Mean
    Range
    T? Samples
    C D G B A H
    . 151.09
    1
    1.484
    1
    12.394
    1
    7.4*4
    1
    • 087
    1
    4.571
    1
    0.624
    1
    0.166
    1
    0.345
    1
    0.807
    1
    68.713
    1
    3.660
    1
    

    -------
                Metals  Concentrations in Echihoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - viscera  &  foot                                      ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14 9
    849.56
    575.13-
    1093.89
    5
    8.09 -
    6.67-
    9.84
    5
    86.526
    53.937-
    149.49
    5
    87.865
    55.05-
    137.48
    5
    1.211
    0.836
    1.69
    5
    6\ .bzl
    21.20-
    49.32
    5
    3.306
    2.190-
    4.94
    5
    1.471
    0.547-
    4.306
    5
    3.272
    2.324-
    6.884
    4
    3.304
    2.607-
    4.110
    5
    300.17
    47.976-
    467.46
    5
    I4.b33
    12.341-
    18.496
    5
    17
    5.416
    1
    11.041
    1
    70.602
    1
    39.390
    1
    0.427
    1
    1 1 . Ibb
    , ,1
    2.340
    1
    0.594
    1
    2.118
    1
    . 3-233
    1
    221.29
    1
    19.509
    1
    1 2 58
    906.22
    1
    5.260
    1
    83.44
    1
    20.996
    1
    0.718
    1
    43. /bซ
    1
    3.9P1
    1
    0.334
    1
    15.519
    1
    2.487
    1
    331.66
    1
    10.760
    1
    11
    1207.8
    1022.8-
    1321.9
    3
    6.77
    4.11-
    9.85
    3
    51.01
    42.87-
    63.09
    3
    84.23
    54.17-
    109.39
    3
    0.65
    0.358-
    0.968
    3
    4U.3Z
    34.67-
    48.54
    3
    2.80
    2.386-
    3.36
    3
    0.882
    0.68-
    1.10
    3
    2.671
    2.288-
    3.372
    3
    4.131
    3.771-
    4.389
    3
    497.55
    72.063-
    751.86
    3
    14.156
    10.938-
    18.554
    3
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - viscera  & foot                           '          'ygm/gra Dry Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    
    Al
    V
    E
    [lean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    C D G B A H
    . 872.38
    1
    • 8.574
    1
    71.563
    1
    42.87
    1
    U.b04
    1
    26.39
    1
    3.602
    1
    0.961
    1
    1.993
    1
    4.659 . _. ._ 	 . - 	
    1
    396.73
    1
    21.133
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - viscera  &  foot                                     ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    a Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    ฃ Samples
    14
    3119.
    1385.
    4764.
    5
    27.
    22.
    33.
    5
    279.
    227.
    360.
    5
    291.
    239.
    405.
    5
    4.
    3.
    5.
    5
    107.
    70.
    145.
    5
    10.
    9.
    12.
    5
    4.
    2.
    10.
    5
    14.
    9.
    20.
    4
    11.
    8.
    12.
    5
    1037.
    208.
    1710.
    5
    bO.
    37.
    54.
    5
    9
    0
    0-
    0
    77 •
    28-
    17
    6
    9-
    0
    8
    73-
    45
    10
    06-
    48
    6
    75
    45
    96
    54-
    00
    39
    00-
    37
    006
    903-
    303
    282
    957-
    121
    65
    937-
    03
    294
    415-
    75
    17
    3932.
    1
    81.
    l"
    519.
    1
    289.
    1
    3.
    1
    82.
    1
    17.
    1
    4.
    1
    15.
    1
    23.
    1
    1627.
    1
    143.
    1
    0
    18
    1
    6
    14
    10
    21
    37
    574
    77
    05
    443
    1 2 5.8
    5013.0
    1
    29.10
    1
    461.6
    1
    ' 116.14
    1
    3.97
    1
    242.06
    1
    21.69
    1
    1.85
    1
    85.85
    1
    13.766
    1
    1834 .66
    1
    59.524
    1
    11
    8798
    6443
    10292
    3
    47
    30
    64
    3
    364
    317
    431
    3
    614
    395
    896
    3
    4
    3
    4
    3
    297
    190
    354
    3
    20
    16
    26
    3
    6
    4
    8
    3
    19
    16
    23
    3
    30
    22
    42
    3
    3133
    725
    4885
    3
    lol
    79
    130
    3
    .0
    .0-
    .0
    .94
    .06-
    .09
    .4
    .9-
    .4
    .6
    .74-
    .91
    .35
    .61-
    .88
    .9
    .24
    .64
    .4
    .91-
    .80
    .41
    .95-
    .76
    .071
    .990
    .024
    .76
    711-4-
    .612
    .18
    .00-
    .85
    .33
    .91-
    .58
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - viscera  &  foot                                      ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    l-e
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    A!
    V
    E
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    C D G B A H
    5766.0
    1
    • 56.67
    1
    473.0
    1
    283.33
    1
    3.33
    1
    174.44
    1
    23.81
    1
    6.35
    1
    13.1/b
    1
    30.794
    1
    2622.22
    1
    139.68
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - total                                             wgm/gm Wet Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14
    84.75
    44.05-
    119.91
    5
    0.82
    0.74-
    0.93
    5
    11.97
    9.28-
    15.05
    5
    8.86
    7.41-
    11.46
    5
    0.12
    0.09-
    0.15
    5
    3.35
    2.36-
    5.22
    5
    0.41
    0.34-
    0.48
    5
    0.14
    0.07-
    0.31
    4
    1.22
    0.71-
    1.77
    3
    1.04
    0.31-
    2.91
    4
    86.16
    4.99-
    306.91
    5
    1.42
    1.34-
    1.53
    4
    9
    36.13
    1
    • 0.972
    1
    1
    3.497
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    2.441
    1
    0.302
    1
    19.38
    1
    1.59
    1
    17
    6.439
    1
    1.405
    1
    14.88
    1
    4.685
    1
    0.074
    1
    1.523
    1
    0.433
    1
    1
    0.29
    1
    0.43
    1
    28.00
    1
    2.35
    1
    1
    79.07
    75.44-
    82.69
    2
    0.90
    0.80-
    1.00
    2
    14.85
    12.84-
    16.86
    2
    2.88
    2.76-
    3.00
    2
    0.20
    0.17-
    9.22
    2
    5.19
    4.62-
    5.75
    2
    0.79
    0.62-
    0.96
    2
    0.07
    0.06-
    0.08
    2
    0.430
    0.365-
    0.494
    2
    0.325
    0.271-
    0.378
    2
    39.16
    30.369-
    47.951
    2
    2.030
    1.879-
    2.180
    2
    2
    40.11
    1
    0.721
    1
    18.04
    1
    2.578
    1
    0.154
    1
    2.653
    1
    0.567
    1
    0.052
    1
    0.423
    1
    0.248
    1
    17.43
    1
    1.341
    1
    5
    123.69
    17.12-
    230.25
    2
    1.32
    0.94-
    1.70
    2
    27.87
    20.99
    34.76
    2
    2.93
    2.77-
    3.08
    2
    0.16
    0.14-
    0.19
    2
    13.30
    2.90-
    23.68
    2
    0.97
    0.62-
    1.32
    2
    0.10
    0.08-
    0.17
    2
    1.861
    0.289-
    3.430
    2
    0.473
    0.289-
    0.657
    2
    36.805
    7.821-
    65.789
    2
    1.795
    1.709-
    1.880
    2 .
    8
    121.029
    1
    0.782
    1
    14.913
    1
    2.816
    1
    0.1134
    1
    6.050
    1
    0.618
    1
    0.0661
    1
    2.094
    1
    0.3593
    1
    45.053
    1
    1.482
    1
    11
    167.23
    143.36-
    200.75
    3
    0.92
    0.68-
    1.13
    3
    12.27
    11.37-
    12.83
    3
    10.77
    8.18-
    12.35
    3
    0.10
    0.07-
    0.12
    3
    6.22
    4.65-
    8.92
    3
    0.51
    0.49-
    0.53
    3
    0.12
    0.11-
    0.13
    3
    0.75
    0.39-
    1.30
    3
    0.69
    0.53-
    0.95
    3
    121.09
    88.19-
    174.13
    3
    1.86
    1.64-
    2.06
    3
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - total  *                                              vgm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    
    A!
    V
    E
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    [•lean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    7? Samples
    C D
    . 100.84
    1
    • 1.09
    1
    13.24
    1
    4.415
    1
    0.071
    1
    2.946
    1
    0.501
    1
    0.186
    1
    8.41
    1
    0.52
    1
    41.40
    1
    2.16
    1
    G B A H
    89.71
    1
    0.738
    1
    14. yb
    1
    2.95
    1
    0.179
    1
    4. 423
    1
    0.596
    1
    0.092
    1
    0.321
    1
    0.964
    1
    jy.6y
    1
    1.24
    1
    

    -------
             Metals  Concentrations  in  Echinoderm and Mollusc  Tissues
    Pecten - total                                               vgm/gm Dry Weight
    
    He
    Cu
    ^n
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Hi
    Cr
    A'l
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14
    588,60
    367.44-
    765.91
    5
    5.86
    5.13-
    7.03
    5
    86.91
    64.49-
    122.11
    5
    58.34
    38.10-
    92.62
    5
    0.84
    0.69-
    1.09
    5
    24.39
    15.07-
    42.63
    5
    2.43
    1.05-
    3.57
    5
    1.05
    0.50-
    2.54
    4
    11.91
    7.07-
    15.73
    3
    3.88
    1.87-
    4.88
    4
    207.62
    46.90-
    334.64
    5
    12.30
    10.01-
    13.86
    4
    9
    203.43
    1
    - 5.477
    1
    89.24
    1
    19.69
    1
    2.879
    1
    19.40
    1
    4.58
    1
    0.377
    1
    13.74
    1
    1.699
    1
    109.07
    1
    8.971
    1
    17
    27.94
    1
    6.098
    1
    64.54
    1
    20.32
    1
    0.329
    1
    6.606
    1
    1.882
    1
    0.315
    1
    1.24
    1
    1.86
    1
    121.47
    1
    10.02
    1
    1
    480.
    476.
    483.
    2
    5.
    5.
    5.
    2
    89.
    82.
    97.
    2
    I/.
    15.
    19.
    2
    1.
    1.
    1.
    2
    31.
    29.
    33.
    2
    4.
    3.
    5.
    2
    0.
    0.
    0.
    2
    2.
    2.
    2.
    2
    1.
    1.
    2.
    2
    
    3
    62-
    81
    46
    15-
    77
    74
    321-
    157
    56
    913-
    210
    21
    005-
    406
    41
    653-
    166
    74
    949-
    528
    43
    334-
    535
    60
    343-
    848
    96
    740-
    178
    235.58
    194.78-
    276.38
    2
    12.
    12.
    12.
    2
    31
    048-
    563
    2
    264.8
    1
    4.762
    1
    119.04
    1
    17.006
    1
    1.02
    1
    17.498
    1
    3.742
    1
    0.34
    1
    2.79
    1
    1.63
    1
    114.97
    1
    8.843
    1
    5
    537
    95
    979
    2
    6
    5
    7
    2
    
    .8
    .63-
    .96
    .25
    .24.
    .26
    141.75
    89.34-
    194.15
    2
    14
    11
    17
    2
    0
    0
    0
    2
    58
    16
    100
    2
    4
    3
    5
    2
    0
    0
    0
    2
    8
    1
    14
    2
    2
    1
    2
    2
    161
    43,
    280
    2
    8
    8
    9
    2
    .bi
    .80-
    .22
    .79
    .77-
    .80
    .55
    .30-
    .80
    .54
    .48-
    .60
    .46
    .18-
    .73
    .108
    .615-
    .60
    .207
    .615-
    .80
    .84
    .686-
    .00
    .773
    .00-
    .545
    8
    423.96
    1
    2.739
    1
    52.239
    1
    9.863
    1
    0.398
    1
    21.194
    1
    2.209
    00
    1
    0.232
    1
    7.334
    1
    1.259
    1
    157.831
    1
    5.191
    1
    11
    870.71
    700.17
    1007.51
    3
    4.83
    3.40
    6.48
    3
    54.84
    29.89
    69.39
    3
    56.38
    41.07
    67.70
    3
    0.51
    0.34.
    0.67
    3
    32.08
    24.77'
    44.78
    3
    2.68
    2.48-
    3.03
    3
    0.64
    0.58-
    0.71
    3
    4.90
    3.22-
    6.03
    3
    3.51
    2.98-
    4.51
    3
    359.28
    65.00-
    506.68
    3
    9.71
    8.16-
    11.83
    3
    

    -------
             Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - total                                  "          ' ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    
    AT
    V
    E
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # SaiTiples
    Mean
    Range
    -// Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    f- Samples
    C
    . 510.38
    1
    • 5.523
    1
    67.01
    1
    22.35
    1
    0.363
    1
    15.09
    1
    2.536
    1
    0.947
    1
    42.58
    1
    2.65
    1
    209.52
    1
    10.93
    1
    D G B A H
    548.56
    1
    4.517
    1
    91.47
    1
    18.04
    1
    1.095
    1
    27.04
    1
    3.647
    1
    0.561
    1
    1.964
    1
    5.89
    1
    242.70
    1
    7.576
    1
    

    -------
           Metals Concentrations  in  Echihoderm  and  Mollusc  Tissues
    Pecten - total
    ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    14
    Mean 2942.79
    Range 1266.85-
    4286.68
    # Samples 5
    Mean 26.47
    Range 21.06-
    32.10
    # Samples 5
    Mean 326.99
    Range 256.57-
    406.52
    # Samples 5
    Mean 265.95
    Range 214.72-
    367.91
    # Samples 5
    Mean 3.94
    Range 3.010-
    5.30
    # Samples 5
    Mean 107.06
    Range 66.98-
    152.51
    # Samples 5
    Mean 11.93
    Range 10.21-
    13.32
    # Samples 5
    Mean 4.00
    Range 2.07-
    9.12
    # Samples 5
    Mean 59.69
    Range 20.92-
    133.54
    # Samples 3
    Mean is. 08
    Range 10.80-
    32.87
    # Samples 4
    Mean 1016.84
    Range 454.81-
    1583.77
    # Samples 5
    Mean 49.53
    Range 47.29-
    51.65
    # Samples 4
    9
    1670.0
    1
    •44.96
    1
    732.6
    1
    161.63
    1
    23.64
    1
    159.30
    1
    37.60
    1
    3.10
    1
    112.78
    1
    13.953
    1
    895.35
    1
    73.64
    1
    17
    2604.0
    1
    53.70
    1
    546.32
    1
    228.27
    1
    3.838
    1
    88.56
    1
    21.693
    1
    3.487
    1
    13.01
    1
    19.65
    1
    1318.09
    1
    112.85
    1
    1
    2883.
    2802.
    2964.
    2
    32.
    29.
    35.
    2
    540.
    476.
    604.
    2
    105.
    98.
    111.
    2
    7.
    6.
    8.
    2
    188.
    171.
    206.
    2
    28.
    22.
    34.
    2
    2.
    2.
    3.
    2
    15.
    13.
    17.
    2
    11.
    10.
    13.
    2
    1423.
    1127.
    1718.
    2
    73.
    69.
    78.
    2
    
    0
    0-
    0
    89
    84-
    94
    45
    7-
    2
    10
    96-
    24
    195
    25-
    14
    98
    71-
    25
    625
    87-
    38
    59
    08-
    10
    637
    566-
    708
    81
    078~-
    542
    33
    91-
    75
    94fa
    767-
    125
    2
    1323.0
    1
    23.81
    1
    595.2
    1
    85.03
    1
    5.10
    1
    87.41
    1
    18.71
    1
    1.70
    1
    13.95
    1
    8.163
    1
    574.83
    1
    44.22
    1
    5
    4062
    700
    7424
    z
    46
    38
    55
    2
    1049
    676
    1421
    2
    107
    89
    126
    2
    5
    5
    6
    2
    441
    119
    763
    2
    33
    25
    42
    2
    3
    1
    5
    2
    61
    11
    no
    2
    16
    "Tl
    21
    2
    1220
    319
    2121
    2
    6b
    60
    69
    2
    
    .2
    .3-
    .0
    .75
    .44-
    .05
    .30
    .8-
    .7
    .74
    .39-
    .08
    .86
    .65-
    .06
    .50
    ,35-
    .64
    .98
    .54-
    .42
    45
    .34-
    .56
    .217
    .828-
    .606
    .520
    .827-
    .212
    .55
    .89-
    .21
    .249
    .606-
    .892
    8
    4690.
    1
    28.
    1
    477.
    1
    108.
    1
    3.
    1
    222.
    1
    21.
    1
    1.
    1
    80.
    1
    13.
    1
    1725.
    1
    56.
    1
    
    41
    179
    060
    807
    926
    96
    575
    989
    575
    199
    74
    231
    11
    8151.45
    5888.21
    9437.25
    3
    43.91
    28.87
    59.37
    3
    406.29
    370.56
    458.88
    3
    553.55
    373.66
    820.79
    3
    4.12
    3.54
    4.42
    3
    277.31
    159.37
    350.15
    3
    20.68
    17.74
    26.29
    3
    5.92
    4.81
    8.15
    3
    22.51
    16.60
    32.16
    3
    31.13
    ir.93
    43.07
    3
    1554.01
    595.66-
    3362.68
    3
    92.05
    75.34.
    120.37
    3
    

    -------
             Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Pecten - total                                  '           ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    he
    
    
    Cu
    
    Zn
    
    Cd
    
    Ag
    
    
    Mn
    
    Pb
    
    Co
    
    Ni
    
    0
    
    
    Al
    
    V
    
    E
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range-
    i Samples
    flean
    Range
    # Samples
    f'leah
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    C D
    . 4492.0
    —
    1
    48.61
    1
    526.23
    1
    243.83
    1
    3.271
    — _
    1
    55.45
    1
    23.134
    1
    7.254
    1
    1/8. 04
    i
    
    27.37
    —
    1
    2267.42
    1
    119.84
    1
    G ' B A H
    2785.0
    --
    1
    22.93
    1
    464.4
    1
    91.60
    1
    5.56
    --
    1
    137.32
    1
    18.52
    1
    Z.ab
    1
    9.972
    V - - -
    r - . . .
    29.915
    --
    1
    1232.2
    1
    38.462
    1
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Polinices
    wgm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    ? Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14 9
    85.115
    1
    6.253
    1
    54.869
    1
    0.340
    1
    0.244
    1
    3.024
    1
    1.407
    1
    0.078
    1
    1.358
    1
    0.474
    1
    14.879
    1
    0.518
    1
    17
    99.63
    77.22-
    121.50
    2
    6.58
    3.48-
    9.68
    2
    31.62
    26.59-
    36.66
    2
    0.77
    0.64-
    0.89
    2
    0.09
    0.05-
    0.13
    2
    4.83
    3.26-
    6.40
    2
    0.95
    0.75-
    1.15
    2
    0.18
    0.07-
    0.29
    2
    1.409
    0.955-
    1.862
    2
    0.335
    0.329-
    0.342
    2
    21.65
    19.90-
    23.40
    2
    0.923
    0.774-
    1.071
    2
    1
    64.014
    r
    8.969
    1
    46.086
    1
    0.53
    1
    0.144
    1
    4.827
    00
    1
    0.585
    1
    0.109
    1
    0.633
    1
    0.446
    1
    6.446
    1
    0.467
    1
    2
    85.53
    56.22-
    114.84
    2
    9.66
    6.71-
    12.60
    2
    34.94
    32.25-
    37.63
    2
    0.92
    0.53-
    1.31
    2
    0.42
    0.37-
    0.47
    2
    6.74
    6.25
    7.23
    2
    1.36
    1.04-
    1.68
    2
    0.02
    0.02-
    0.02
    2
    0.985
    0.64-
    1.33
    2
    0.35
    - 0.27-
    0.43
    2
    28.92
    13.71-
    44.129
    2
    0.498
    0.405-
    0.591
    2
    5
    93.29
    r
    5.582
    1
    45.396
    1
    0.286
    1
    0.277
    1
    1.017
    1
    0.764
    1
    0.091
    00
    1
    0.936
    1
    0.311
    1
    25.96
    1
    0.483
    1-
    8 11
    96.10
    r
    6.32
    1
    47.284
    1
    0.838
    1
    0.285
    1
    3.015
    1
    0.948
    1
    0.039
    00
    1
    0.421
    1
    0.290
    1
    24.53
    1
    0.483
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Polinices     •                                   '          •   ymg/gm Wet Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    AHT
    V
    E
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range-
    s' Samples
    [lean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    C D
    • 111.43
    1
    7.152
    1
    29.483
    1
    0.52
    1
    0.212
    1
    7.928
    1
    1.001
    1
    0.099
    1
    0.683
    1
    0.372
    1
    20.851
    1
    0.508
    1
    G B A H
    59.85
    1
    6.782
    1
    128.12
    1
    0.89
    0.103
    1
    0.645
    1
    0.807
    1
    U.Obb
    1
    I.Zb
    1
    0.327
    1
    B./36
    1
    1.679
    1
    

    -------
            Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Polinices                                                ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    He
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    AT~
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    ff Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Ylean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    lean
    Range
    # Samples
    14 9
    299.36
    1
    18.32 -
    1
    160.75
    1
    0.998
    1
    0.716
    1
    8.859
    1
    4.121
    1
    0.227
    1
    3.980
    1
    1.388
    1
    43.59
    1
    1.518
    1
    17
    330.36
    236.71-
    424.01
    2
    20.91
    12.15-
    29.67
    2
    102.6
    92.78-
    112.37
    2
    2.54
    1.97-
    3.10
    2
    0.30
    0.16-
    0.44
    2
    16.2
    10.00-
    22.35
    2
    3.07
    2.63-
    3.51
    2
    0.60
    0.20-
    1.01
    2
    4.52
    3.33-
    5.71
    2
    1.10
    1.01-
    1.19
    2
    70.59
    69.46-
    71.72
    2
    2.99
    2.70-
    3.28
    2
    1
    215.8
    1
    30.236
    1
    155.36
    1
    1.79
    1
    0.487
    1
    16.273
    1
    1.971
    1
    0.369
    1
    2.134
    1
    1.504
    1
    21.73
    1
    1.573
    1
    2
    240.05
    194.33-
    285.16
    2
    27.30
    23.22-
    31.37
    2
    102.5
    93.62-
    111.46
    2
    2.92
    1.32-
    4.51
    2
    1.22
    1.17-
    1.28
    2
    19.8
    17.99-
    21.59
    2
    3.88
    3.59-
    4.17
    2
    0.06
    0.05-
    0.07
    2
    3.08
    1.57-
    4.60
    2
    1.01
    0.93-
    1.08
    2
    78.60
    47.39-
    109.80
    2
    1.44
    1.40-
    1.47
    2
    5
    284.89
    1
    17.046
    1
    138.63
    1
    0.875
    1
    0.846
    1
    3.107
    1
    2.335
    1
    0.277
    1
    2.857
    00
    1
    0.949
    1
    79.274
    1
    1.476
    1.
    8 11
    281.42
    1
    18.52
    1
    138.46
    1
    2.454
    1
    0-835
    1
    8.828
    1
    2.775
    1
    0.115
    1
    1.234
    00
    1
    -.848
    1
    71.83
    1
    1.414
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Polinices     '                                           wgn/gm  Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    7TT
    r~
    E
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Rangr:
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range-
    # Samples
    I lean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    C D
    • 392.05
    1
    25.165
    1
    103.727
    1
    1.836
    1
    0.745
    1
    27.89
    1
    3.524
    1
    0.347
    1
    2.40
    1
    1.31
    1
    73.36'
    1
    1.787
    1
    G B A H
    182.68
    1
    20.701
    1
    391.04
    1
    2.717
    1
    0.313
    1
    1.970
    1
    2.465
    1
    U.ZVZ
    1
    3.850
    _ _.j- _ ....__
    0.998
    1
    26.665
    1
    5.124
    T"
    

    -------
             Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Polim'ces               	       ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    A'l
    V
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    14 9
    1926.0
    1
    141.5
    1
    1241.6
    1
    7.71
    1
    5.53
    1
    68.43
    1
    31.83
    1
    1.76
    1
    30.737
    1
    10.72
    1
    336.68
    1
    11.725
    1
    17
    . 3481.0
    2003.0-
    4960.0
    2
    196.60
    142.14-
    251.07
    2
    1018.1
    950.8-
    1085.4
    2
    26.48
    16.67-
    36.29
    2
    3.32
    1.40-
    5.24
    2
    173.0
    84.62-
    261.42
    2
    30.2
    29.70-
    30.71
    2.
    6.77
    1.71-
    11.83
    2
    43.64
    38.98-
    48.29
    2
    11.27
    8.55-
    13.98
    709.67
    606.84-
    812.5
    2
    29.69
    27.78-
    31.59
    2
    1
    2158.0
    1
    302.36
    1
    1553.6
    1
    17.90
    1
    4.87
    1
    162.73
    1
    19.71
    1
    3.69
    1
    21.34
    1
    15.04
    1
    217.31
    1
    15.73
    1
    2
    2071.0
    1713.0-
    2429.0
    2
    235.69
    204.7-
    266.67
    2
    889.1
    795.8-
    982.5
    2
    25.51
    11.25-
    39.78
    2
    10.64
    10.00-
    11.29
    2
    171.6
    152.92-
    190.32
    2
    33.56
    31.69-
    35.42
    2
    0.52
    0.42-
    0.62
    2
    26.93
    13.33-
    40.53
    2
    8.70
    8.23-
    9.17
    9
    675.51
    417.69-
    933.33
    2
    12.425
    12.35-
    12.5
    2
    5
    2681 . 0
    1
    160.417
    1
    1304.6
    1
    8.23
    1
    9.52
    1
    273.81
    1
    26.88
    1
    1.49
    1
    26.885
    1
    8.929
    1
    746.03
    1
    13.889
    1.
    8 11
    3174.0
    1
    208.9
    1
    1561.6
    1
    27.68
    1
    9.42
    1
    99.57
    1
    31.30
    1
    1.30
    1
    13.913
    1
    9.565
    1
    810.15
    1
    15.94
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Polinices     •                                  '         '  ygm/gm Ash Weight      ซ
    E
    Fe Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Cu Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Zn Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Cd Mean
    Range
    ง Samples
    Ag Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mn Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Pb Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Co Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    TJi Mean
    Range-
    f, Samples
    Cr Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Al "Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    V Mean
    Range
    u Samples
    C D
    3105.0
    1
    199.30
    1
    821.5
    1
    14.54
    1
    5.90
    1
    220.91
    —
    1
    27.91
    1
    2.75
    1
    I9.U25
    1
    ?13//
    1
    580.97
    1
    14.151
    --
    1
    G B A H
    1810.0
    -'
    205.10
    1
    3874.4
    1
    26.92
    1
    3.11
    1
    91.52
    --
    1
    24.42
    1
    2.00
    1
    38.14
    1
    9.886
    1
    264.19
    1
    50.768
    __
    1
    

    -------
               Metals  Concentrations  in  Echinoderm  and  Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - viscera  & foot                                    ygm/gm Wet Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    T? Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    •lean
    Range
    # Samples
    9 17 1 2 5 8 11
    130.44
    1
    1.343
    1
    12.605
    1
    0.075
    1
    0.484
    1
    5.590
    1
    0.474
    1
    0.414
    1
    0.529
    1
    0.484
    1
    48.89
    1
    0.688
    1
    

    -------
               Metals  Concentrations  in  Echinoderm and  Mollusc  Tissues
    Spisula - viscera & foot                          '           vgm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    A!
    V
    E C
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range-
    # SaiTiples
    Ilean
    Range
    7J/ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    v Samples
    Mean
    Range
    7^ Samples
    D G B A H
    189.01
    1
    0.653
    - ' 1
    12.855
    1
    0.132
    1
    0.704
    1
    10.507
    1
    0.673
    1
    0.464
    1
    0.483
    	 1
    0.881
    1
    144.02
    1
    1.259
    1
    

    -------
             Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - viscera & foot                                 ugm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    9 17 1 2 5 8 11
    586.77
    1
    6.042
    1
    56.701
    1
    0.337
    1
    2.176
    1
    25.14
    1
    Z.130
    1
    1 .861
    1
    Z.383
    1
    2.176
    1
    219.93
    1
    3.093
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations  in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula       •                                            'ygrn/gm  Dry Weight
    E C D
    Fe Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Cu Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Zn Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Cd Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Ag Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mn Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    'Pb Mean _- - , -
    Range
    # Samples
    Co Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Ni Mean
    Range-
    it Samples
    Cr Mean
    Range
    % Samples
    Al Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    V Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    G B A H
    720.97
    1
    2.491
    - - i
    49.04
    1
    U-505
    1
    2.687
    1
    40.078
    1
    2.567
    1
    1.771
    1
    1.841
    1
    3.362
    1
    549.38
    . 1
    4.803
    r
    

    -------
               Metals Concentrations in Echihoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - viscera &  foot                                     ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    A"T~~
    V
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Sajmples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    i-iean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    9 17 1 2 5 8 11
    46.91
    1
    48.30
    1
    4533.0
    1
    2.70
    1
    17.40
    1
    201.01
    1
    17.03
    1
    14.88
    1
    19.048
    1
    17.399
    1
    1758.2
    1
    24.725
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - viscera  &foot                           '          ' ygm/gm Ash  Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    CF
    fiT
    V~
    E C
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    ilean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    "Mean
    Range
    //' Samples
    Mean
    Pxange
    ง Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    flean
    Range
    # Samples
    D G B A .H
    7747.0
    1
    26.77
    1
    526.9
    1
    5.43
    1
    28.87
    1
    430.65
    1
    27.58
    1
    19.03
    1
    19.785
    1
    36.129
    1
    5903.2
    1
    51.613
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - muscle only                                      ygm/gm Wet Weight
    
    He
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    hi
    Cr
    Al
    y—
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    T? Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Meen
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    9 17 1 2 5 8 11
    27.56
    1
    0.331
    1
    10.565
    1
    0.018
    1
    0.033
    1
    0.267
    1
    0.380
    1
    0.0b9
    1
    2.102
    1
    0.067
    1
    2.567
    1
    0.037
    1
    

    -------
             Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - muscle only                                       ugm/gm Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    CT~
    Ai
    r
    E C D
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean ™"
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean ^ '
    Range
    7f Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    (lean
    Range
    # Samples
    i'lean
    Range
    # Samples
    G -B A . H
    39.77
    1
    0.264
    1
    9.964
    1
    0.023
    1
    u.uby
    1
    0.920
    1
    0.249
    1
    0.061
    1
    U.2b/
    1
    0.115
    1
    10.27
    1
    0.115
    1
    

    -------
             Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - muscle only                                       ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    he
    Cu
    in
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    7? Sampjes
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    % Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    9 17 1 25 8 11
    105.56
    1
    ' 1.268
    1
    40.455
    1
    0.071
    1
    0.128
    1
    1.022
    1
    1.453
    1
    0.227
    1
    8.048
    1
    0.256
    1
    9.829
    1
    0.142
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - muscTe only                                         gm/gm/ Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    CF~
    A'i
    V
    E C D
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    I-ban
    Range
    # Sainples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    i-l ean
    Range
    11 Sainples
    ilaan
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    G B A H
    156.12
    1
    1.038
    1
    39.11
    1
    0.090
    1
    0.271
    1
    3.610
    1
    U-977
    1
    0.240
    1
    1.008
    1
    0.451
    1
    40.31
    1
    0.451
    1
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - muscle only                                      ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    fr Samples
    Mean
    Range
    T Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    i'1ean
    Range
    # Samples
    i-1 ean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    9 17 1 25 8 11
    1604.0
    1
    '19.26
    1
    614.7
    1
    1.08
    1
    1.95
    1
    15.53
    1
    zz.ua
    1
    3.46
    1
    122.29
    1
    3.89
    1
    149.35
    1
    2.164
    1
    

    -------
            Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - muscle only                                     ygm/gm/ Ash Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Mi
    Cr
    AT
    V~
    E C D G
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean ~~
    Range,,
    # Samples
    Mean 1^4^
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    BAH
    2621.0
    1
    17.42
    1
    656.6
    1
    1.52
    1
    4.55
    1
    60.61
    1
    16.41
    1
    4.04
    1
    16.919
    1
    7.576
    1
    676.77
    1
    7.576
    1
    

    -------
            Metals  Concentrations  in  Echinoderm  and  Mollusc  Tissues
    Spisula -  total                                           vgm/gm/ Wet Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    A'l
    V
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    ง Samples
    Mean
    Range
    TT Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    viean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    ••lean
    Range
    # Samples
    9
    104.21
    1
    1.084
    1
    12.084
    1
    0.06
    l
    0.368
    1
    4.232
    1
    0.450
    1
    0.458
    1
    0.93
    1
    0.38
    1
    37.08
    1
    0.52
    1
    17 1 2 5 8 11
    49.50
    36.09-
    62.23
    4
    1.20
    0.87-
    1.57
    4
    14.30
    12.38-
    17.42
    4
    0.13
    0.05-
    0.28
    4
    0.20
    0.15-
    0.28
    4
    2.13
    1.53-
    3.67
    4
    0.85
    0.58-
    1.60
    4
    0.16
    0.06-
    0.38
    4
    1.44
    1.373-
    1.549
    3
    0.28
    0.248-
    0.301
    3
    19.06
    12.73-
    25.094
    3
    0.55
    0.334-
    0.838
    _ _3. 	 	
    

    -------
                Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc  Tissues
    Spisula - total  '                                             ygrn/gm Wet Weight
    E C
    Fe Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Cu Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Zn Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Cd Mean
    Range
    # Sr.mples
    Ag Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mn Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Pb Mean
    Range
    ir Samples
    Co Mean
    Range "
    # Samples
    111 Mean
    Range
    if Samples
    Cr ilean
    Range
    -// Samples
    Al Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    V Mean
    Range
    // Samples
    D 6 B
    102.43
    —
    1
    0.656
    --
    1
    12.388
    --
    1
    0.052
    --
    1
    0.250
    --
    1
    3.981
    --
    1
    0.473
    •• "•
    1
    0.171
    --
    1
    0.361
    --
    1
    0.271
    ___ ... .
    1
    38.577
    —
    1
    0.333
    --
    1
    A H
    150.95
    --
    1
    0.553
    
    1
    12.117
    "-
    1
    0.097
    —
    1
    0.542
    --
    1
    8.062
    --
    1
    0.564
    —
    1
    0.361
    --
    1
    0.31
    —
    1
    0.31
    - --
    1
    44.38
    --
    1
    11.21
    --
    1
    

    -------
              Metals  Concentrations  in Echinoderm and Mollusc  Tissues
    Spisula - total                                             ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    In
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    AI
    v —
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    T? Samples
    r'ean
    Runge
    P " -nples
    !v;c;ปl
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    P Samples
    i.-^cn
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    :'1ean -
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    ft Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Sairsples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    9
    448.776
    1
    • 4.673
    1
    430.11
    1
    0.260
    1
    1.588
    1
    18.223
    1
    1.935
    1
    1.392
    1
    4.UI
    1
    1.63
    1
    159.29
    1
    2.21
    1
    17 1 2 5 8 11
    209.39
    93.34-
    259.86
    4
    4.75
    0.68-
    7.33
    4
    68.05
    64.57-
    71.24
    4
    0.575
    0.24-
    1.14
    4
    0.933
    0.79-
    1.14
    4
    9.82
    8.05-
    14.17
    4
    3.91
    3 .03-
    6.44
    4
    0.728
    0.3T-
    1.52
    4
    7.33
    6.512-
    8.135
    3
    1.41
    1.324-
    1.583
    3
    95.59
    68.197-
    116.998
    3
    2.80
    1 .790-
    4:397
    3 -
    

    -------
            Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - total              v                  '           ygm/gm Dry Weight
    
    Fe
    
    
    Cu
    
    
    
    Zn
    
    
    Cd
    
    
    Ag
    
    
    F'in
    
    
    Pb
    
    
    Co
    
    
    Hi
    
    
    Cr
    
    
    Al
    
    
    T~~
    
    
    E C D
    (lean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Sampl es
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    lioan
    Range
    # Samples
    i'lean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Rang a
    # Samples
    G B
    434.24
    —
    1
    2.781
    --
    1
    
    52. bZ
    — -
    1
    V.dtt
    •" ~
    1
    1.058
    --
    1
    16.878
    --
    1
    2.00b
    ป M
    1
    0.726
    __
    1
    1.532
    —
    1
    1.149
    --
    1
    163.54
    --
    1
    1.411
    --
    1
    A H *
    579.98
    
    1
    541.27
    	 r
    1
    
    46.561
    ",
    1
    0.401
    —
    1
    2.083
    --
    1
    30.975
    _ m, f
    1
    1-572 ป
    — —
    1
    1.388
    ~ ~
    1
    1.22
    __
    1
    29.11
    --
    1
    167.38
    —
    i*
    1
    1.54
    —
    _ J_
    

    -------
              Metals Concentrations in Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
    Spisula - total                                            ygm/gm Ash Weight
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Zn
    Cd
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    Cr
    Al
    V
    14
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    9
    4152.0
    1
    26.50
    1
    469.50
    1
    2.537
    1
    15.849
    1
    182.39
    1
    17.537
    1
    13.734
    1
    29.41
    1
    16.04
    1
    1596.76
    1
    22.46
    1
    17 1 2 5 . 8 11
    1664.0
    1076.0-
    2754.0
    4
    38.81
    26.09-
    50.00
    4
    479.3
    369.1-
    770.8
    4
    4.79
    1.36-
    12.50
    4
    6.78
    4.35-
    12.50
    4
    133.32
    45.52-
    277.17
    4
    29.90
    13.68-
    70.83
    4
    6.43
    1.74-
    16.67
    4
    41.59
    37.82-
    46.19
    3
    8.02
    7.42-
    8.96
    3
    544.55
    379.53-
    679.49
    3
    15.89
    9.964-
    24.876
    3
    

    -------
    Metals Concentrations In Echinoderm and Mollusc Tissues
                        \                  * .
                                                       vigm/gm Ash Weight
    
    Fe
    
    
    Cu
    
    
    Zn
    
    
    Cd
    
    
    Ag
    
    
    Mn
    
    
    Pb
    
    
    Co
    
    
    Ni
    
    
    Cr
    
    
    A'i
    
    
    r
    
    
    E C
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    $ Sampl es
    
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Mean
    Range
    # Samples
    Moan
    Range
    // Samples
    Mean
    Range
    -;.' Samples
    i'.t'an
    Range
    # Samoles
    ilrv.n
    Range
    // Samples
    D G B
    4489.0
    --
    1
    28.75
    
    ^
    .---._ 	 |_
    542.9
    
    1
    2.29
    —
    1
    10.94
    --
    1
    174.48
    --
    1
    20.73
    —
    1
    7.50
    f_ป
    1
    15.833
    --
    1
    11.875
    --
    1
    1690.63
    --
    1
    14.583
    --
    1
    A H
    6847.2
    —
    1
    25.13
    ~~
    1
    b3b.//
    t ~ ~
    1
    5.16
    
    1
    27.207
    --
    1
    405.351
    —
    1
    21.816
    --
    1
    18.005
    —
    1
    17.11
    --
    1
    9.52
    --
    1
    1034.10
    --
    1
    10.59
    --
    1
    

    -------
    This report has been reviewed,by Region III, EPA, and approved
    for publication.  Approval  does not signify that the contents
    necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Environmental
    Protection Agency, nor does the mention of trade names or
    commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation
    for use.
    

    -------
                                CONTENTS
                                                                Page
    Conclusions                                                  iii
    List of Figures                                                v
    List of Tables                                                vi
    Acknowledgements                                             vii
    Introduction                                                   1
    Results
         I.  Distribution of Dumped Materials                      5
        II.  Effect of Dumped Materials                           15
    References                                                    29
    Appendix A - Data Report, Operation "Ides",  March 1974
    Appendix B - Data Report, Operation "Deep Six",  August 1974
    Appendix C - Cruise Report, Operation "Piggyback"
    

    -------
    

    -------
                               CONCLUSIONS
         Observations were made over a period of approximately one year
    on two mid-temperate mid-continental  shelf ocean dumpsites.
         The hydrographic regime was found to generally approximate the
    classic winter isothermal-summer stratified system, but incursions
    of fresher water from the Delaware estuary and intrusion of offshore
    slope water were found to influence this hydrographic regime.   Summer
    and winter density discontinuities may influence the distribution of
    conservative pollutants.
         The distribution of metals in bottom sediments and organisms
    indicate these potentially toxic materials persist in bottom materials,
    and are apparently translocated as a  result of hydrographic forces.
    This increases their potential  toxicity to a relatively great area,
    with its indigenous biota.  There is  evidence of accumulation in benthic
    organisms, notably the mahogany clam, Arctica islandica.and the scallop,
    Placopecten magellanicus.  There are  indications of mortalities of the
    mahogany clam.
         There is no evidence of accumulation of the nonconservative para-
    meters observed.
         The benthic substrate, medium to fine sands, does not apparently
    influence the distribution of the metals examined in this nondepositional
    environment.  The microtopographic ridges and swales, observed directly
    from the submersible, may influence the local distribtuion of pollutants
    as well as biota.
    

    -------
         Observations of the benthic infauna are  as  yet incomplete,  and
    may influence current conclusions when analyzed.
         Dumping operations of the acid waste source and of  the  sewage
    sludge materials are apparently separately distributed  in  the
    environment.
         An area of at least 1000 square nautical  miles, or  3600 square
    kilometers, was affected.   The limits of the  dispersion  are  not  yet
    known.
                                     IV
    

    -------
                         LIST OF FIGURES
                                                           Page
    1         Area of Study                                 ix
    2         Vanadium Concentrations in Arctica            19
    3         Vanadium Concentrations in Scallops           20
    4         Cadmium Concentrations in Arctica             21
    5         Cadmium Concentrations in Scallops            22
    6         Zinc Concentrations in Arctica                23
    7         Zinc Concentrations in Scallops               24
    8         Distribution of Dead Arctica Shells           27
    9         Distribution of Arctica Clappers              28
    

    -------
                         LIST OF TABLES
                                                             Page
    1         Annual  Input of Metals                           6
    2         Relationships of Metals in Sediments             12
    3         Mean Concentrations of Metals  in Sediments       13
    4         Analysis of Variance Results for Metal
                Levels in Arctica islandlea  Collected  in
                Spring 1974 in Vicinity  of Delaware
                Dumpsites                                     17
    5         Metals  in Scallops, "Operation  "Ides"             18
                                VI
    

    -------
                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
         The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, and the
    National Marine Water Quality Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island,
    gratefully acknowledge and thank the many persons and institutions
    that have participated directly and indirectly in the planning and
    execution of these multidisciplinary studies.
         Acknowledgements by name would be a major listing, but special
    thanks must go to Marria L. 0'Mai ley, Susan K. Smith and Margaret Munro,
    Annapolis Field Office, EPA, and the director and staff at AFO for many
    contributions to these efforts.  Patricia Johnson made the many metals
    determinations.  Bruce Reynolds, NMWQL, has played a continuous leading
    role in all of this program.
         Messrs. Albert Montague, Robert Davis, George Pence, and Ralph Rhodes,
    EPA Region III, Philadelphia, have been instrumental in the program and
    the field phases of these operations.  The Wheeling Field Office, EPA,
    assisted in the cruises, as noted in the appendices.  Mr. John Kafka
    was especially effective in his endeavors.
         Dr.  Robert Dill,  Asst.  Director of the MUST program, NOAA,  was
    instrumental  in providing the services of the submersible.   Dr.  David
    Folger, USGS,  served as chief scientist, and grateful  acknowledgement
    is made to him and the participating scientists and crew, mentioned in
    Appendix C.
         Many members of the professional  oceanographic fraternity have
    shared of their expertise but special  acknowledgement is due to
                                     vii
    

    -------
    Dr. Harold Palmer and Mr.  Joseph Forns,  Westinghouse  Ocean  Research
    Laboratory, Annapolis, Maryland; Dr.  Michael  Champ, American  University,
    Washington, D.C.; and Mr.  Bob Swift,  the Marine  Science  Consortium,
    Lewes, Delaware.
         With a small permanent staff,  the assistance  of  the abovementioned,
    as well  as many others, made the efforts to  date possible.
         The officers and men  of the R/V  Advance II, the  survey vessel  in
    the March 1974 cruise, were invaluable "in the extra effort  they provided.
    Many others gave freely of their time and talents  in  the scientific
    party and are gratefully acknowledged in the data  report, Appendix A.
         The officers and crew of the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Alert provided
    a hospitable and capable effort in the conduct of  the summer  1974 cruise,
    Operation "Deep Six".  We  are especially grateful  to  Cdr. O'Brien,
    Cdr. Dux and Ens. Gadzly for their extraordinary interest,  advice and
    support.
                                     VTM
    

    -------
                                 FIGURE  1
                       AREA    OF    STUDY
               77'
                                                                74'
                                                        74' 20'  74' Itf
    38'
    37' —
    f
    >/
    i
    
    
    
                                                                   38* 35'
    
                                                                   38' 3C/
                                                                     38'
                                                                    •3T
               77'
                               76'
                                               75'
                                           SCALE IN MILES
    
                                          10  20  30   40  50
                                                                74"
                                    1x
    

    -------
                              INTRODUCTION
         The inception of environmentally regulated dumping by PL-92-532,
    the "Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972," allows
    the issuance of permits for the disposal of materials at sea, but
    with the stipulation that the effects of such activities must be
    known.
         In compliance with this mandate, EPA Region III and the EPA
    National Marine Water Quality Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island,
    instituted a series of oceanographic cruises designed to evaluate
    the consequences of such activities off the coasts of Maryland and
    Delaware.  Many other institutions participated in the endeavors,
    directly and indirectly, as noted in the acknowledgements.
         The primary objectives of the field effort were to determine
    (1) the fate of the disposed materials in this marine environment, and
    (2) the effect of the materials on the ecological  entities in the area.
    It was opted initially to examine the broad scale longer term effects,
    as contrasted to immediate and near field effects at the time of dumping.
    A multidisciplinary approach was made initially, with as many pertinent
    observations as practicable in the fields of physical, chemical  bio-
    logical, geochemical, and geological oceanography.  As the fate and
    effects became known, consequent reduction of parameters could be made,
    with concomitant emphasis on parameters that indicated environmental
    change.
    

    -------
         The first cruise, Operation "Quicksilver",  was  made  in  May 1973,
    with the objectives of assessing the environment at  the muncipal  sludge
    dumpsite, previous to the disposal  of sludge.   The area of investigation
    was restricted to the sludge dumpsite, with three reference  stations
    presumably outside the effects of disposal  activities.
         Industrial acid wastes have been disposed at the acid waste site
    approximately 24 kilometers north-northwest of the sludge site since
    September 1968.  Consequently the second expedition, Operation "Fetch"
    in November 1973, was expanded to evaluate, and  possibly  discriminate,
    the effects of both dumpsites.  Some previous  stations were  occupied
    for continuity, and new stations added in the  acid waste  site.
         The results of these cruises have been reported (Palmer and Lear,
    1973; Lear, Smith and O'Malley, 1974; Lear, 1974).
         It became apparent from these cruises  that  the  affected area,  as
    indicated by metals in the benthic environment,  was  of greater extent
    than the area surveyed.  The third cruise,  Operation "Ides"  in March
    1974, was designed to further explore the extent of  the affected area,
    to develop a statistical basis for the evaluation of distributions,
    and to evaluate the forces responsible for  the known distribution.
    The results of the cruise, as known to date, are reported as Appendix A
    of this report.
         In August 1974, Operation "Deep Six" continued  the  investigation
    of the extent of materials dispersal, the causes thereof, and accumulation
    and/or amplification in the biota.   This cruise  was  run nearly concom-
    itantly with a joint NOAA-EPA cruise using  a two-man submarine to
                                    2
    

    -------
    determine first hand the conditions in the water column and benthos.
    The results to date of Operation "Deep Six" are reported as Appendix  B
    to this report, and the cruise report of the submarine operations
    reported by Dr. David Folger, Middlebury College, Middlebury,  Vermont,
    as Appendix C.
         The uses of a given body of water may to some extent indicate the
    types and degree of stresses applied.  In the area of consideration
    (see Figure 1), the waters are constantly traversed by major seagoing
    vessels, in coastwise and international trade, due to the location off -
    Delaware Bay and the proximity to the Chesapeake.
         This shelf environment is also extensively used by the ground
    fishery, as evidenced by the activity of domestic and foreign  trawlers
    in the area.  The sea clam fishery (Spisula solidissima) is inshore
    of the release zones.  In addition to the already exploited fishery,
    sea scallops, mahogany clams, squid,  rock crabs, Jonah crabs,  and
    lobster are found in the area, but are currently not exploited.
         In summer, sport fishermen are evident, after bluefish, bonita,
    dolphin, and, offshore of this area,  the billfishes.  Some winter sport
    codfishery is found in this region.
         Of ecological concern is the observation of these areas as  spawning
    and nursery areas for many species.
         Military operations have been observed in this area, and  the extent
    and usage of this environment for such purposes are generally  unknown.
         Recently this area has been considered as a major potential  for
    petroleum exploration and production.  The exploration and production
                                   3
    

    -------
    sites, while at present not specifically defined,  seem to overlap
    the areas affected by disposal  activities.
         From consideration of the  above known  uses of this area, possible
    multiple impacts must be considered in the  overall ecological evaluation.
    With respect to regulatory responsibilities,  it becomes important to
    discriminate the various sources of stress, as well  as the overall  effect.
         This report summarizes the conclusions from data and observations
    at an arbitrary point in time of a continuous study.  Many samples  and
    data, primarily biological in nature, remain  to be analyzed,  and may
    affect further conclusions.
    

    -------
                   THE DISTRIBUTION OF DUMPED MATERIALS
    
         One aspect of this program, the distribution of dumped materials,
    was to determine the distribution of the materials after release.   The
    short term effects, immediately after dumping in the water column,  were
    not attempted by this program.   These have,  however, been done by  the
    DuPont Company (DuPont, 1972) and by the Marine Science Consortium
    (Champ, 1974).  Generally it is indicated that in summer when the  thermo-
    dine is established, the materials penetrate to this thermocline and
    there reside, are further dispersed horizontally to an unknown extent
    and ultimately penetrate the thermocline and settle to the bottom.  This
    has been modeled by Hydroscience Company (DuPont, 1972) and has also
    been observed visually in dives of the submersible, as reported in
    Appendix C of this report.
         This program, however, is designed to look at the long term effects
    of the dumping of these materials.  For this purpose, the conservative
    materials, especially the metals, were used  as tags of the released
    materials.  This was done because they are dumped in significant quanti-
    ties and the relative amounts of metals from the acid waste source  and
    from the municipal sludge source may assist  in discriminating the
    relative effects of dumping from these two discrete sources only a  few
    kilometers apart.  The annual inputs of the  metals to this system are
    shown in Table 1.
         The March and August, 1974 cruises indicated intrusions of slope
    or other offshore water into this area from  the east.  This has also
    

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                                   Table 1
    
                         Annual  Input Delaware  Dumpsites
    
    
           DuPont*         Total  Input          Philadelphia
    
    Fe
    Cu
    Cr.
    Al
    Ag
    Mn
    Pb
    Co
    Ni
    V
    Cd
    Zn
    Ti
    118,000,000
    446,700,000
    1.19
    531,573,000
    21,360,000
    2,400
    39,600
    364,000
    270
    572,000
    5,630
    4,800
    4,752
    74,300
    338
    18,300
    733,000
    gal/yr
    1/yr
    spec grav
    kg/yr
    Specific Metal
    %
    95.8 kg/yr -
    2.8
    34.4
    25.0
    10.4
    87.5
    3.7
    35.5
    10.2
    97.1
    5.2
    5.2
    99.2
    150,000,000
    568,000,000
    1.03
    584,500,000
    Input
    946,000
    83,150
    75,670
    1,094,000
    2,314
    81 ,400
    145,000
    8,740
    41 ,655
    2,226
    6,200
    334,000
    5,851
    
    %
    4.2
    97.2
    65.6
    75.0
    89.6
    12.5
    96.3
    64.5
    89.8
    2.9
    94.8
    94.8
    0.8
    * Estimates based on DuPont reports submitted for period
      February 6 - July 11, 1974
    

    -------
    been noted by Myers (1974).  In addition to the impedance of distri-
    bution of dumped materials by the density discontinuities exhibited
    by thermoclines, these intrusions may act vertically, rather than
    horizontally, as density discontinuities in affecting the distribution
    of metals.  The coincidence of the warm water plug in the southeast
    sector of the study area in March 1974, reported in Appendix A,
    Operation "Ides", and the distribution of the metals on the bottom
    indicate a coincidental  pattern.  There are insufficient data currently
    to definitely ascribe these two distributions, but the indications
    are strong enough to establish a working hypothesis for experimental
    design purposes.  The paucity of data on tidal currents at the moment
    precludes conclusions on the shorter term benthic distribution of the
    metals by these causes.
         The benthic environment was characterized as a relatively monot-
    onous plain of medium to fine sands, as indicated by recording fathom-
    eters aboard ship.  The variability of results in metals concentrations
    from five replicate bottom grabs, made while the ship was drifting,
    indicated there may be a microtopography of smaller ridges and swales,
    that would not be detected by the usual bathymetric methods aboard ship,
    because the amplitude of the microtopography would be smaller than the
    resolution afforded on the rolling ship.  This hypothesis was confirmed
    by direct observation of using the submersible as reported in Appendix C.
    There appear to be small ridges and swales in the order of magnitude of
    a meter, crest to crest, and in the order of magnitude of centimeters
    from trough to crest.  This microtopography presumably could affect
                                    7
    

    -------
    the deposition of the metals.   The great prevalence of iron in these
    wastes with its tendencies to  create-a floe and  to scavenge other
    materials within the floe, would lead  to a hypothesis that this floe
    material would be more likely  to accumulate in these small  troughs
    and be relatively clear on the ridges.  The direct observations using
    the submersible have not yet clearly established whether  this  hypo-
    thetical distribtuion actually exists.
         Measurements have been made of such nonconservative  materials
    as phosphorus and nitrogen compounds,  pH, and dissolved oxygen.
    There appears to be no apparent accumulation of  these materials in
    the water column, even immediately above the bottom.   There does appear
    to be detectable accumulation  of the conservative metals, as indicated
    in Appendix A and Appendix B,  and the  earlier reports (Palmer  and  Lear,
    1973; Lear, Smith and O'Malley, 1974;  Lear, 1974).   Possibly organo-
    halogens, especially PCB, and  organic  carbon in  sediments may on further
    investigation be found to be increasing as a result of dumping activities.
    These conclusions are drawn from the results of  the March Operation  "Ides"
    cruise and the August Operation "Deep  Six" cruise, reported in Appendices
    A and B of this report.
         The contoured distribution of each of the various metals  appeared
    to be fairly coincidental on each cruise, but appeared to be in different
    locations on various cruises.   To determine whether this  was a statis-
    tically sound observation, the distribution of iron on Operation "Ides"
    was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-statistic  to discriminate between
    the areas of high concentration of iron and the  areas of  low concentration
                                     8
    

    -------
    of iron.  The high areas were Stations B, 8 and 2, and the low stations
    on that cruise were Stations A, C, 14, E, 9, and 17.  The Mann-Whitney
    test showed a significant difference between these two sets of stations
    (U=15; N]=16, N2=15; P >0.05).  These same stations were tested using
    the same statistical procedure with data from Operation "Fetch" reported
    earlier (Lear, Smith, O'Malley, 1974) and it was found the U~statistic
    between the same sets of stations was not significantly different.  The
    same stations were tested on Operation "Deep Six" and found not to be
    significantly different.  There were, however,  on Operation "Deep Six" -
    other statistically discrete areas of high and  low concentrations of
    iron as reported in Appendix B.  This would indicate that the materials
    were not firmly depositing on the bottom but rather were moved about
    from time to time, presumably as a function of  tidal current and storm
    activity.   The rates and directions of this translocation of bottom
    materials are not yet known in detail.  This mobility of these potenti-
    ally toxic materials on the bottom would indicate they are potentially
    capable of affecting extremely large areas, depending upon their
    residence time at any given location and the relative dispersion and
    dilution during translocation.
         The taking of beach-worn cobbles during Operation "Ides", reported
    in Appendix A, indicates this environment is not presently depositional
    and that these materials being deposited are probably not being buried.
         While the discrete distributions of the given metals varied from
    cruise to  cruise, some areas were consistently  more affected than others.
    The acid waste site and the stations immediately adjacent to it to the
                                     9
    

    -------
    northeast and west showed evidence of metal  deposition,  the greatest
    being in the acid site.  In the sludge site, evidence of increased
    metals was consistently found within the release area and to the
    southeast, south and southwest of this site.  There appeared to be a
    discontinuity between the two release sites, in which metals buildup
    was not found.
         In the areas so far examined, approximately 1000 nautical square
    miles or 3600 square kilometers have indicated accumulations of metals.
    The eastward, westward and southwestward extent of this  distribution
    is not yet known.
         Replicate samples of bottom sediments were taken during Operation
    "Ides" (Appendix A) to determine whether there were any  relationships
    between metals concentrations and particle size.  Plots  of the median
    Phi diameters from 55 samples, representing all stations, were plotted
    against manganese, lead and mercury concentrations for each sample.  No
    obvious relationship existed between median Phi and these three metal
    parameters.  It was hypothesized that smaller particles  would accumulate
    in the small troughs and larger particles be representative of the crests
    in the microtopography, and presumably the floe with its concomitant
    metals would be in the troughs.  This would have resulted in a relation-
    ship between sediment size and metals concentration, either a linear
    relationship or a bimodal distribution.   Such was apparently not the
    case, as indicated from data by current bottom grab sampling techniques.
    Possibly selective sampling using a submersible and direct visual
    observation of the sample acquisition may yield further  information.
                                    10
    

    -------
         In an earlier cruise (Lear, Smith, O'Malley, 1974) a relation-
    ship between iron and other metals was noted.  This could indicate
    common behavior of these materials by the time they reach the bottom
    and may discriminate sources of these materials.  These relationships
    were examined using data from all previous cruises, shown in Table 2.
    Iron and mangenese, iron and zinc, iron and lead, and iron and
    chromium showed statistically linear regressions.  Iron compared with
    mercury, copper and nickel did not- consistently show the statistically
    significant relationship.  It should be noted that mercury, copper
    and nickel were in low concentrations compared with the other materials.
    As iron is released through dumping activities in much greater concen-
    trations than these other metals, an increase in slope should result
    if there is an accumulation of these materials.  Over the period of
    these operations, approximately nine months of observations, no trends
    in increase of slope can be noted.
         Another approach to determining whether metals were increasing as
    a function of time was made by comparing (1) the mean of all the statis-
    tically significant high concentration stations and each metal as a
    function of time, (2) with the mean for the lower concentration stations
    (3) with the mean of all stations, each cruise, and (4) the maximum
    values observed on any given cruise.  These results are shown in Table 3.
    No apparent trends as a function of time are evident, with the possible
    exception of the increase of mercury in the bottom sediments.  This
    relatively short period of observation, nine months, would not be expected
    to show startling increases over such a large area of bottom^
                                   11
    

    -------
                                    Table  2
                       Relationships of Metals in Sediments
                               Regression Equations
    Iron/Manganese
       Operation "Fetch" (11/73)    Fe
       Operation "Ides" (3/74)     Fe
       Operation "Deep Six" (8/74)  Fe
    Iron/Zinc
    
       Operation "Fetch"
       Operation "Ides"
       Operation "Deep Six"
    
    Iron/Lead
    
       Operation "Fetch"
       Operation "Ides"
       Operation "Deep Six"
    
    Iron/Chromium
    
       Operation "Fetch"
       Operation "Deep Six"
    
    Iron/Mercury
    
       Operation "Ides"
       Operation "Deep Six"
    
    Iron/Copper
    
       Operation "Deep Six"
    
    Iron/Nickel
    
       Operation "Deep Six"
    8.
    11.
    16.
    1.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    63 +
    91 +
    95 +
    12 +
    003
    002-
    002
    0013
    0009
    84 +
    17 +
    018
    42
    0.
    0.
    0.
    0.
    Zn
    Zn
    Pb
    Pb
    Pb
    0.
    0.
    - 0
    + 0
    0095
    0132
    0051
    Mn
    Mn
    Mn
    00162 Zn
    - 0.194
    - 1.21
    - 1
    + 1
    + 0
    0006
    0067
    .55
    .55
    .87
    Cr
    Cr
    .00003 Hg
    .00014 Hg
    t =
    t =
    t =
    t ~
    t =
    t =
    t =
    t =
    t =
    t =
    t =
    t =
    t =
    6
    5
    2
    5
    29
    8
    5
    6
    4
    2
    11
    2
    1
    .63**
    .23**
    .59*
    .24**
    .46**
    .42**
    .08**
    .59**
    .60**
    .65*
    .95**
    .34*
    .42
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    d
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    .f.
    = 11
    = 57
    = 56
    = 11
    = 57
    = 56
    = 11
    = 57
    = 56
    = 11
    = 56
    = 31
    = 55
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe
    Fe =  0.0008  Cu - 1.76  t =  1.42   d.f. = 53
    Fe =  0.000006 Ni + 1.33 t =  1.23   d.f. = 56
                                        12
    

    -------
    Iron -
      Mn -
      Zn -
      Pb -
      Ni  -
      Cd  -
      Cr  -
      Cu  -
      Hg  -
                                 Table  3
                   Mean Concentrations of Metals in Sediments
    Operation 'Operation
    "Quicksilver" "Fetch"
    5/73 11/73
    Mean High Stations -
    Mean Low "
    Mean All
    Maximum
    Mean High Stations -
    Mean Low "
    Mean All " 28.78
    Maximum
    Mean High Stations -
    Mean Low "
    Mean All " 7.00
    Maximum
    Mean High Stations -
    Mean Low "
    Mean All " <1
    Maximum
    Mean High Stations -
    Mean Low "
    Mean All " <1
    Maximum
    Mean High Stations -
    Mean Low "
    Mean All " <1
    Maximum
    Mean High Stations -
    Mean Low "
    Mean All " 2.11
    Maximum
    Mean High Stations -
    Mean Low "
    Mean All " <1
    Maximum
    Mean All Stations <0.01
    Maximum
    _
    -
    2,600
    6,490
    _
    -
    33.33
    " 72
    _
    -
    5.33
    71
    _
    -
    3.59
    8
    _
    -
    = 1
    2
    _
    -
    <1
    <1
    _
    -
    2.50
    5
    _
    -
    <1
    1
    <0.01
    0.04
    Operation
    "Ides"
    3/74
    2,601
    1,324
    1,918
    10,750
    58.5263
    26.5128
    37.000
    188
    7.6896
    3.4827
    5.59
    11
    6.57
    2.89
    4.12
    14
    _
    -
    = 1.2
    16
    _
    -
    <1
    <1
    5.5500
    1.9711
    2.3362
    11
    _
    -
    <1
    12
    0.032
    0.228
    Operation
    "Deep Six"
    8/74
    4,157
    2,299
    2,886
    4,900
    41.9651
    20.8221
    31.5791
    95
    8.9758"
    3.501
    5.1338
    12.5
    5.2183
    2.4625
    3.3328
    8.8
    2.4431
    0.9165
    1.3450
    3.4
    0.1144
    0.0643
    0.0880
    0.27
    2.9863
    1.6644
    2.0150
    5
    1.5700
    0.3002
    0.6343
    2.8
    0.83
    1.1
                                       13
    

    -------
         It should be noted that the preceding discussion is of metals
    in sediments and does not include the fate, distribution or effect
    of metals in any of the biota.
         Summarizing the general trends from the data on the fate and dispersal
    of dumped materials into this mid-continental shelf environment indicates
    that in summer, with the thermocline acting as a density discontinuity,
    materials are released, presumably in the release zones, settle to the
    thermocline, are dispersed by tidal currents over the order of magnitude
    of several days before penetrating through the thermocline and being
    released to settle on the bottom.  In winter, with no thermocline develop-
    ment, presumably materials would settle relatively rapidly to the bottom,
    except when density discontinuities are induced into this area, either
    through intrusions of offshore, warmer Gulf Stream or slope water or
    by intrusions of less saline estuarine sources from the Delaware estuary,
    to form vertical pycnoclines.  These may affect the ultimate distri-
    bution of these materials on the bottom.
         There is strong indication, (1) by direct observation as a function
    of time, (2) by inference with the relatively large size of the sediment
    particles, and (3) by direct visual observations of the floe material,
    that the material at the bottom is not buried, but at or just above the
    sediment-water interface, and is translocated to other areas, the extent
    of which is not yet known, by tidal current action or by storm surge
    movement.  These metals, known to be conservative in their properties
    and potentially toxic to organisms, show the greatest potential hazard
    to the indigenous biota of all materials released at the present time.
                                    14
    

    -------
                         EFFECT OF DUMPED MATERIALS
    
         The effect of disposed materials on marine biota may be viewed in
    two time frames (1) short term, measured in minutes, hours and days,
    and (2) long term, measured in months and years.  Short-term effects
    are best studied by coordinating observations with disposal  operations.
    At the Delaware ocean disposal sites materials are dumped from moving
    barges.  Observations should be made before, during and after a dump
    with primary emphasis placed on studying water column organisms.  The
    main concern is estimating the toxic properties and extent of impact
    as the disposed materials mix and disperse into sea water.  Long-term
    effects are best studied by selecting conservative parameters, primarily
    properties of the benthic environment, at stations spaced within and
    around dumpsites.   These parameters should be sampled for a  time period
    sufficient to discriminate natural fluctuations from changes imposed by
    dumping activities.  The main concerns are accumulations of  nondegradable
    dumped materials and estimations of environmental  damage associated
    with these accumulations.
         Environmental Protection Agency efforts have focused on the long-
    term effects.  We want to know if contaminants are accumulating in the
    benthic environment.  If so, how large an area is affected?   We need to
    know present levels so as to follow future trends.  If trends exist,
    what is their environmental significance?
         Large quantities of various metals are dumped at these  sites
    annually (Table  1).   Animals and sediments within and around these
    sites have been analyzed for evidence of metal accumulation.  On the
                                   15
    

    -------
    spring '74 cruise, Operation "Ides", an area exceeding 1000 square
    miles was studied.  Of 13 metals examined,  11  clearly indicated
    accumulations in animals and/or sediments in the vicinity of one or
    both dumpsites.  Some of these metals are introduced predominantly
    by one or the other dumper, for example DuPont dumps 97% of the
    vanadium while Philadelphia dumps 95% of the cadmium (Table 1).
    These metals may serve as useful tracers for the dumped materials.
    Four such metals (Fe, Mn, V, and Ti) of DuPont waste, and five such
    metals (Cu, Ag, Ni, Cd, and Zn) of Philadelphia sludge showed statis-
    tically significant distribution patterns in the "Ides" study area
    (Tables 4 and 5).  Some of these tracers displayed  elevated concen-
    trations in shellfish in areas extending from the dumpsites to the
    limits of the area covered by the "Ides" cruise.   Vanadium levels in
    the tissues of the clam, Arctica islandica,  and the scallop, Placopecten
    magellanicus, clearly show this pattern (Figures 2  and 3).   Presumably
    these animals were exposed to DuPont wastes.  Prevailing currents
    should sweep these wastes southwest from the dumpsite.  Significantly,
    these tissue levels remain elevated at the  farthest station southwest
    of the DuPont site.  The "Ides" cruise was  not extensive enough  to
    permit delineation of the area influenced by DuPont's waste.
         Some of the metals characteristic of Philadelphia sludge, e.g.,
    Cd and Zn (Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) displayed elevated concentrations  in
    clams and scallops from the dumpsite area.   However, these patterns
    are not clearly associated with the dumpsite.   There are several  possible
    reasons why these trends are not as definitive as those associated with
    DuPont wastes.  Philadelphia had used the site for  less than one year
                                     16
    

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                     Table 4
    
    
    Analysis of Variance Results for Metal  Levels
    in Arctica islandica Collected  in Spring  1974
    in Vicinity of
    Metal
    Vanadium
    Zinc
    Cadmium
    Silver
    Copper
    Chromium
    Manganese
    Cobalt
    Nickel
    Titanium
    Aluminum
    Iron
    Lead
    Delaware Dumps ites
    F level Si
    33.54
    6.34
    5.12
    3.07
    3.02
    2.80
    2.74
    2.25
    1.95
    1.92
    1.62
    1.36
    1.29
    
    gnificance
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .05
    .05
    --
    --
    —
                        17
    

    -------
        Table 5
     OPERATION "IDES"
    Metals in Scallops
        ppm/dry wt.
    Metal
    V
    Cd
    Zn
    Ni
    Cu
    Cr
    Ag
    Ti
    Mn
    Al
    Fe
    Pb
    Co
    F ratio
    11.885
    6.896
    5.376
    5.300
    4.194
    3.130
    3.096
    2.832
    2.347
    2.088
    1.787
    1.434
    1.117
    Significance
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .01
    .05
    .05
    --
    --
           18
    

    -------
          FIGURE 2
    
      OPERATION "IDES"
           ARCTICA
    METAL CONCENTRATION
          VANADIUM
          ppm dry wt
           -38* 30
                R "D'/
    N
                                                                           •5.5.-
                                                                             K.O
           38*  00'
                                                            ,o
                                                                              .0
                                          19
    

    -------
           FIGURE  3
    
    
       OPERATION "IDES"
           SCALLOP
    METAL CONCENTRATION
           VANADIUM
           ppm dry w4
           -38* 30'-
                   " r\"
                 R "D
                             •50
    •14.7//
                    • 27.7
                                             .1?
                                         • 25.0
                                                              •31.2
                                   .'* ซ48.6
                                                                  •30.8-
    •44.1
    •52.2 /
    •43.6/
                                                        •40.-I
                   • 26.7
                                                    21.3 ..-'
                                                     • ••
    •17.5
                                      N
                                    •res
                                     • 27.h
                                      .30'
                                                                               o
                                                                               o
            38'  00'
                                             20
    

    -------
           FIGURE 4
    
     OPERATION "IDES"
          ARCTICA
    ETAL CONCENTRATION
          CADMIUM
         ppm  dry wt
         -38*  30'-
    R"D'/
          •38* 00'
                                   •2.1  /'/
    • 1.9
                                    1.8
                                        H.8
                                       M.6
                                              H.5
                                   • 2.0
                               •1.7
                                               •2.0
                                                       • 2.5
                                                      •2.4-
                                                   • 2.4
                                                 2.5ซ
                                                                     /v
                                                                                 V
                                                                               • 2.8
                                                                                .30
                                                                             o
                                                                             o
                                                                                  .o
                                          21
    

    -------
            FIGURE 5
    
    
    
    
       OPERATION "IDES"
    
            SCALLOP
    
    METAL  CONCENTRATION
    
            CADMIUM
    
           ppm  dry wt
           -38* 30'
                   " r\"
                 R "D
                  •10.1
                                  • 11.4
                                              .1?
                                          • 10.8
                                                                •14.2
                                      •14.7
    .-* ซI5.1
                                  •10.8
                                                                    • 19.5
    •11.1
    •10.9
    •12.0
                                                         •22.'.6
                                                             •
                                                             •
    
    
    
                                                            .•"24,9
    • 19.6
                                                    •59.3
    
    
                                                    .30'
                                                                                   '26.0.-
            •38' 00'
                                             22
    

    -------
           FIGURE 6
    
      OPERATION "IDES"
           ARCTICA
    dETAL  CONCENTRATION
            ZINC
          ppm dry wf
          -38* 30'
               R "D
          •38* 00'
                                                                              <3
                                          23
    

    -------
           FIGURE 7
    
       OPERATION "IDES"
           SCALLOP
    METAL CONCENTRATION
             ZINC
          ppm dry wt
    •107
           -38* 30
                R "D'
           •38* 00'
                                          24
    

    -------
    at the time of the "Ides" cruise.  DuPont had been dumping for five
    years.  The physical and chemical properties of the two wastes differ
    considerably.  It is unlikely that these wastes would react and behave
    in a similar manner when dumped.
         Analyses of sediments and shellfish show patterns of metal accumu-
    lation.  Some inferential evidence of impact on shellfish may be
    obtained by quantifying distribution patterns of dead shell.  Figures
    8 and 9 represent measures of total dead shell  and dead Arctica
    obtained in half-hour dredge hauls at each station during the "Ides"
    cruise.  Both patterns are associated with accumulated metals from
    DuPont waste.  The results of a DuPont sponsored study are in good
    agreement with these findings.  A survey revealed a "trend toward fewer
    live sand dollars and higher mortality in areas south of the disposal
    area than in areas immediately to the west and north ..." (Myers, 1973).
    The few selected species, studied in some detail, have been affected by
    dumping activities.  However, the benthic community, studied as a whole,
    has shown little effect.  Community structure indices calculated from
    results of early cruises, "Quicksilver" and "Fetch", reflect those of
    unpolluted oceanic waters (Lear, Smith, O'Malley, 1974).  Data from
    later cruises,"Ides" and "Deep Six", are not available.   If the benthic
    community is impacted, it will probably be a long term,  chronic effect.
    The accumulation of nondegradable waste materials may take years to
    effect noticeable changes in the benthic community structure.
         Short-term effects of dumping were the subject of a student cruise
    conducted by the Marine Science Consortium during August 1973.  This group
                                     25
    

    -------
    made observations before, during and after dumps of DuPont waste.
    A reduction in the number of phytoplankton species was the most
    obvious immediate impact.  The numbers were "reduced to 76% immedi-
    ately upon barge disposal of acid wastes and continued to decrease
    until it stabilized at approximately 84% of the original  assemblage
    for the duration of the sampling ."  (Champ, 1973).  Other parameters
    were considered during this student exercise.   This study remains
    the only published data on short-term effects at either the DuPont
    or Philadelphia dumpsites.
                                   26
    

    -------
          FIGURE 8
    
     OPERATION "IDES"
     DISTRIBUTION  OF
        DEAD  SHELL
    (un,t= (0 littr buckets)
         -38' 30
              R"D
    N
          38' 00
                                          27
                                                                               ,0
    

    -------
          FIGURE  9
    
    
     OPERATION "IDES"
    
      DISTRIBUTION  OF
    
    ARCTICA   CLAPPERS
          -38* 30
    R"D'
                    .-*   •'   ซ7
                                                   //
                                                   / •
    • 2
                                                             • 0
                                             •6
                                      •91
                                                            •0
                                    •0
                                                •0
                                                               •0
                                              • 12
                                                      •10
    
                                                      •II
                                   •15
                                                             • I
                                                                   K.O
                               •6
          •38' 00'
                                                                  •6
                     N
                                                                            •2
                                                                                \
                    •0
    
    
                     .30
                   .0  .--
    
                     K.O
                                                                            o
                                                                            o
                                          28
    

    -------
                                        REFERENCES
              Champ, Michael A.  Operation SAMS, Sludge Acid Monitoring Survey.
              American University, Ceres Publication Ho. 1.  1973.
    
              duPont de  Nemours, E.  I.  Waste Dispersion Characteristics "in an
              Oceanic Environment.   University of Delavare College of Marine
              Studies, Hydroscience,  Inc.  Draft of a Report to the Hater
              Quality Program, Environmental Protection Agency.  393 pp.  1972.
    
              Harrison,  W, Norcross,  J.J., Pore, N.A., and Stanley^ E.H.
              Circulation of Shelf Waters off the Chesapeake Bight.  ESSA
              Professional Paper #3.  U.S. Department of Commerce.  1967.
    
              Lear, D. W., Smith, S.  K. and O'Malley, M. L. (Eds.) Environmental
            -  Survey of  Tv;o Interim  Dumpsites, Middle Atlantic Bight - Operation
              "Fetch". EPA 903/9-74-01Oa.  141 pp.  1974.
    
              Learป D. W. (Ed.)  Environmental Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites,
              Middle Atlantic Bight  - Operation "Fetch" Supplemental Report.  1974.
    
     -  '       Myers, T.  D.s Bauereis, E. I., Davis, S., Johnson, T.,- Hang, D.
              Biotic Effects of Iron Acid Haste Disposal at Sea.  Progress Report
            .  Mo.  4.  University of  Delaware College of Marine Studies.  Dec. 1973,
    
              Palmer, H. D. and Lear, D. W. (Eds.)  Environmental Survey of an
              Interim Ocean Dumpsite - Middle Atlantic Bight.  EPA Region III.
            .  EPA  903/9-001-A.  132pp.'  1973.
    
              U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office.  Monthly Summary - The Gulf Stream.
              Vol. 9.  1974.       .           -         "•
    C
                                              29
    

    -------
    

    -------
                                APPENDIX A
                             Operation "Ides"
                      R/V Advance II - 11-15 March 1974
                                DATA REPORT
                                 CONTENTS
                                                              Page
    List of Tables                                            A- 3
    List of Figures                                           A- 4
    Station Data                                              A- 5
    Station Location Chart                                    A- 7
    Hydrography                                               A- 8
         Bathythermograph Data                                A-10
         Salinity Analyses                                    A-12
         Distribution of Temperature                          A-15
         Distribution of Temperature and Salinity             A-16
         Currents                                             A-22
    Water Quality Parameters                                  A-24
         Distribution of Total  Phosphorus                     A-27
         Distribution of Tota1  Kjeldahl  Nitrogen              A-28
         Bacteriological Results                              A-29
    Sediments                                                 A-32
         Size Analyses                                        A-33
         Organic Carbon in Sediments                          A-32
         Total  Kjeldahl  Nitrogen in  Sediments                 A-40
         Organohalogens in Sediments                          A-42
         Metals in Sediments                                  A-45
                                   A-l
    

    -------
                                  APPENDIX A
                                OPERATION "Ides"
                                   CONTENTS
    Biota
         Phytoplankton Populations*
         Zooplankton Populations*
         Occurrence of Organisms from Trawls*
         Metals in Organisms from Trawls*
         Metals in Organisms from Rocking Chair Dredge*
         Benthic Infauna Populations*
    Scientific Log                         ~                A-64
    Ship's Log                                             A-75
    Cruise Plan                                            A-85
                *Awaiting sample or data analysis
                                   A-2
    

    -------
                         OPERATION "IDES"
    
                          LIST OF TABLES
                                                               Page
     1           Station Data                                   A- 5
    
     2          BT Data                                        A-10
    
     3          Salinity                                       A-13
    
     4          Water Quality Parameters                       A-?5
    
     5          Bacteriological  Stations                       A-31
    
     6          Sediment Size Fractions                        A~33
    
     7          Total Organic Carbon and Total  Kjeldahl         A-40
                  Nitrogen in Sediments
    
     8          Organohalogens in Sediments                    A-43
    
     9          Metals in Sediments                            A-47
    
    10          Metal Concentrations in Arctica                A-60
    
    11           Metal Concentrations in Scallops               A-62
                                A-3
    

    -------
                          OPERATION  "IDES"
                          LIST  OF  FIGURES
                                                              Page
     1           Station Locations                              A- 7
     2           Temperature-Salinity Distribution             A-16
     3           Temperature- Salinity Profiles                A'17
     4           Shore Currents,  Direction                      A-22
     5           Shore Currents,  Speed                          A~23
     6           Distribution  of  Total  Kjeldahl  Nitrogen        A-27
     7           Distribution  of  Total  Phosphorus               A-28
     8           Distribution  of  Sediment Size                  A-35
     9           Cobbles                                       A-36
    10           Cobbles                                       A-37
    11           Cobbles                                       A'38
    12           Cobbles                                       A-39
    13           Total Organic Carbon in Sediments             A-41
    14           Distribution  of  Organohalogens  in Sediments    A-44
    15           Distribution  of  Cadmium  in  Sediments           A-51
    16           Distribution  of  Chromium  in Sediments          A-52
    17           Distribution  of  Copper in  Sediments            A-53
    18           Distribution  of  Lead in Sediments             A-54
    19           Distribution  of Zinc in Sediments             A-55
    20           Distribution  of Nickel in  Sediments            A-56
    21           Distribution  of Manganese  in Sediments        A-57
    22           Distribution  of Iron in  Sediments             A-58
    23           Distribution  of Mercury  in Sediments           A-59
                                A-4
    

    -------
    Station
    A
    C
    B
    D
    2
    8
    9
    17
    36
    27
    F
    24
    25
    14
    19
    30
    29
    28
    18
    21
    Date Time
    2/11/74 0800
    1145
    1535
    1745
    2039
    3/12/74 0045
    0418
    0735
    0936
    1417
    1700
    2055
    2345
    3/13/73 0515
    1028
    1755
    1950
    2237
    3/14/74 0420
    0545
    Table 1
    OPERATION "IDES"
    Station Data
    11-15-March 1974
    Loran A
    3H4 3H5 Lat.
    3512
    3420
    3395
    3401
    3356
    3361
    3217
    3181
    3110
    3182
    3300
    3305
    3345
    3500
    3610
    3680
    3630
    3580
    3550
    3490
    3065
    3043
    3053
    3030
    3009
    3008
    3057
    3030
    3017
    2974
    2974
    2998
    2937
    2968
    2997
    3010
    3047
    3078
    3032
    3009
    38f'42.0'
    38ฐ31.5'
    ?.8ฐS1 .0'
    380?cS.5'
    38ฐ21.9'
    38ฐ22.5'
    38ฐ18.3'
    38ฐ10.5'
    3fฐC5 0'
    38ฐ05.0'
    38ฐ13.7'
    38ฐ17.4'
    38ฐ12.7'
    38ฐ28.9'
    38ฐ40.5'
    3r.ฐ47.4'
    38ฐ48.0'
    38647.6'
    38ฐ40.5'
    38ฐ33.7'
    Long.
    7Aฐ20.0
    74C20.0'
    74ฐ23.9'
    74ฐ17.2'
    74ฐ12.7
    74ฐ12.5'
    74ฐ33.7'
    74ฐ29.5'
    74r28.2'
    74ฐ13.9'
    74ฐ 08.1 '
    74ฐ13.9'
    73ฐ58.4'
    73ฐ58.6'
    74ฐ00.1 '
    73ฐ59.8'
    74ฐ09.5'
    74ฐ19.2'
    74110.1 '
    74ฐ07.8'
    Meters
    35
    41
    35
    31
    54
    46
    42
    49
    42
    57
    68
    54
    75
    b3
    53
    46
    46
    40
    44
    46
    A-5
    

    -------
                                OPERATION "IDES"
                                 Station Data  (continued)
                                 Loran A
    Station   Date     Time    3H4     3H5	Lat.	Long.     Meters
    
       23    3/14/74   0815    3445    2998      38ฐ27.7'     74ฐ18.7'      58
       20       "      1930    3430    3060      38ฐ34.0'     74ฐ22.8'      42
       22       "      1115    3345    3053      38ฐ26.9'     74ฐ26.2'      48
        E    3/15/74   0037    3351     3025      38ฐ24.0'     74ฐ18.6'      42
                                        A-6
    

    -------
         FIGURE  1
    
    STATION LOCATIONS
     OPERATION  IDES
     11-15 MARCH 1974
          -38' 30'-
                " rV'
               R "D
                                         •28
                   •29
    /A
    • 18
                                   •20
                                  •B
                                H7
                            •26
          •38* 00'	—ซ=	
                                                    •21
      • D
                                                       •23
                                         • E
                                               • 8
                                               •2
                                             24 •
                 • F
                                           27* ..-'
                 •30
                             19
                                 \
                  • 14
                   .30
                 •25X*
                                                          ^o
                                                                  o
                                                                  o
                                                                      .o
                                     A-7
    

    -------
                             OPERATION "IDES"
                               HYDROGRAPHY
    
         The distribution of temperature and  salinity during  this  early
    spring cruise indicate that the onset of  the  annual  thermocline had
    not yet come about.  The surface layers down  to  15 meters were generally
    isothermal and characteristic of the shelf water at  that  season.
         There is, however, evidence of a warm water intrusion from the
    southeast.  The intrusions have been reported before (Harrison, Norcross,
    Pore, and Stanley, 1967; Myers, 1973). This  area is apparently a  region
    that is affected, not only by incursion of less  saline estuarine water
    in the surface from the westward but warm water  intrusions of  slope
    water origin are noted intruding from the  southeast  in this instance
    (Figure 2).
         Observations published by the U.S. Navy  (Gulf Stream Reports,
    Vol 9, 1974) indicate Gulf Stream eddies  were active just offshore of
    this area during this season.  It is difficult to determine, with  any
    degree of certainty, whether any of these eddies may have had  some
    affect on this distribution of temperature and salinity.
         Surface and bottom current meters were maintained for 96  hours on
    two stations during this cruise.  A malfunctioning meter  on the bottom
    at one station precluded good observations at that station; however,
    Station 2, at the surface and the bottom,  indicate during this period
    that the prevailing currents were headed  towards the southeast at  the
    surface at Station 2 and towards the northeast at the bottom at Sta. 2
    during this period (Figures 4 and 5).  These  observations would appear
                                     A-8
    

    -------
    to be in contradiction to the net movement observed by the seabed
    drifter releases reported in the earlier report (Palmer and Lear,  1973)
    The current observations, however, are of short term and apparently
    reflect the tidal currents under the particular climatic regime.
         The current velocities at the bottom at Station 2 indicate that
    velocities are attained in this region about 16.8 percent of the  time
    which are capable of transport of the bottom materials at this  station.
    This would indicate that the materials settling to the bottom are
    subjected to scouring action and translocation.
                                   A-9
    

    -------
    Station
    14
    19
              Table 2
    
          OPERATION "IDES"
              BT Data
       Temperature Degrees  Cc
    30      23      F      9
    22
    28
    Depth
    Ft M
    007
    10 3.0
    20 6.1
    30 9.1
    40 12.2
    50 15.2
    60 18.3
    70 21.3
    80 24.4
    85 25.9
    2 7.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    90 27.4 7.30
    95 29.0 7.35
    100 30.5 7.35
    105 32.0 7.35
    110 33.5 7
    0 7
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    10
    115 35.0 7.15
    120 36.6 7.20
    125 38.1 7.25
    35 8
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    •P
    130 39.6 7.30 8
    40 9,
    
    
    
    9
    
    
    
    
    
    9
    50 7.0 8
    7.20
    7.40
    7.60 8
    55 8
    
    
    60
    55 9.30 8.70
    9.30 8.80
    9
    
    
    
    60
    
    9.70
    35 8.75
    8
    
    
    
    
    9
    10
    10.40
    
    10
    
    40
    135 41.2 7.35
    140 42.7 7.50 8.55
    65
    
    
    
    
    65
    
    
    8
    
    70
    05 10
    
    
    
    
    mm
    20 7
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    ,25
    
    
    .0
    
    
    
    
    ••
    
    
    10 6
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    5
    
    
    
    ,
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                              A-10
    

    -------
    Station
    14
    19
    30
       OPERATION "IDES"
           BT Data (continued)
    Temperature Degrees Cฐ
    
        23      F      9      8
    22
    28
    Depth
    Ft M
    145 44.2 7.55
    150 45.7 7.60 8.65 10
    155 47.3 7.70
    160 48.8 8.80
    165 50.3
    170 51.8
    175 53.4
    180 54.9
    185 56.4 10
    
    
    
    70 10.10
    
    
    
    
    
    
    75
    190 57.9
    195 59.5
    200 61.0
                                              A-ll
    

    -------
                             OPERATION "IDES"
                            SALINITY ANALYSES
                             R.  0.  Callaway
                EPA Pacific Northwest Research Laboratory
                            Corvallis, Oregon
         The results of salinity analysis of "Ides"  samples  received
    from the Annapolis Field Office are reported to  0.01  part per thousand
    (ฐ/oo).  Many of the samples were not sufficiently large to  provide
    a sample cell rinse prior to analysis.   Over the range analyzed  31.00ฐ/0o
    to 35.00ฐ/oo,this could cause an error of as much as  0.04ฐ/00.   Most of
    the samples, however, varied by only 1.00ฐ/oo which would cause  an  error
    of 0.010/oo.
         Samples for which results were judged anomalous  were reanalyzed,
    size of sample permitting.   These values are reported in the summary.
    The greatest difference was 0.020/00 from the original analysis.
         Instrument drift over the period of analysis was less than  0.01ฐ/00
    The samples were analyzed on a Hytech 6220.
                                     A-12
    

    -------
        Table 3
    OPERATION "IDES"
       SALINITY
    Location
    Sta. 2
    
    
    
    Sta. 8
    
    
    
    Sta. 9
    
    
    
    Sta. 14
    
    
    Sta. 19
    
    
    
    Depth
    (meters)
    1
    18
    36
    50
    4
    23
    30.5
    46
    5
    15.5
    23
    31
    2
    19
    35
    51
    3
    23
    30.5
    55
    Salinity Remarks
    34.46
    34.45
    34.99
    34.84
    34.25
    34.28
    35.09
    
    33.28
    32.95 Reanalyzed value = 32.94
    33.91
    31.08 Reanalyzed value = 31.10
    34.51 Values rechecked; not enough
    sample for reana lysis
    33.26 " " "
    34.40 Reanalyzed value = 34.41
    34.35
    33.47 Reanalyzed value = 33.41
    33.40
    33.39
    33.58
            A-13
    

    -------
    SALINITY (continued)
    Location
    Sta. 22
    
    
    
    Sta. 26
    
    
    Sta. 28
    
    
    
    Sta. 30
    
    
    Sta. C
    
    
    
    Depth
    (meters)
    1
    10
    20
    35
    1
    16
    32
    40
    1
    21
    30.5
    42
    1
    15
    30
    45
    6.1
    22.9
    30.5
    42.7
    Salinity Remarks
    33.39
    33.48
    33.53
    34.20
    34.08 Value checked; insufficient
    sample for reanalysis
    33.96
    33.91
    33.91
    33.35
    33.15 Reanalyzed value = 33.14
    33.37
    33.44 Duplicate analysis value =
    33.45
    34.05 Value checked; insufficient
    sample for reanalysis
    33.96
    33.74
    33.82 " " "
    33.94
    33.99
    34.07
    34.20
          A-14
    

    -------
                                SALINITY (continued)
                   Depth
    Location	(meters)	Salinity	Remarks
    
    Sta.  E           2              33.71
    Sta.  F          12              34.25
    
                     22              34.25
    
                     37              34.26
    
                     67              34.60
                                     A-15
    

    -------
                      FIGURE 2
    TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
    197
                        A-16
    

    -------
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                 fO"
                                     I
                                    o
     CO
     LJ
     O
                                              I
                                             o
                                             CJ
    T
    o
    fO
     I
    o
     I
    o
    iO
     I
    o
    (O
     i
    o
    "Z.
     O
    m
    
    -------
    •r!
    IL.
    
    o
    V
    
    
    ac/>
    > LJ
    !/} P-
    
    
    ItJ QL
    c: ui
    -~> si
    r- o
                 (ฃ>
                                                                                                             o:
    0.
    
    
    ui
             o.
                 no"
                         CD
    
    
                         O
    
                         Z
             iD-
                 (M
              9:   >"
              ^   h-
    
              U   —
                                  1^
    
                                 O
                                                I
                                               o
                                                             o
                                                             to
     I
    o
     r
    o
                                o
                                u>
                                                             Sa313W-Hld3Q
    
                                                          A-22
    

    -------
                      FIGURE 4
            STATION 2
             SURFACE
               *j***~m
               -5M
    MO -
    0 —
                                        ttq
                 *O        1M       370
                    DIRECTION [DEGREES]
                                           3*0
    100 -
     0 -
              STATION 2
               BOTTOM
                -49M
                90        ISO       270
                    DIRECTION [DEGREES]
    
               SHORE  CURRENTS
              MARCH 1974 - DEPTH 54M
                   A-23
                                          3*0
    

    -------
                            FIGURE 5
       600 —
       500-
       400 —
    o
    u
       300 -
       200 —
       100 —
         0 —
            I
    
            0
                                       STATION  2
                                      •••••^•••••••••••••••••^B  MI^HM
    
    
    
                                        BOTTOM
                             16.8 1
            t
                              I
    I
    10       20      30      40      50    75
    
    
            SPEED  (CM/SEC)
                               A-24
    

    -------
                            OPERATION "IDES"
    
    
    
                        WATER QUALITY PARAMFTERS
    
    
    
    
    
         The distribution of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds in  the
    
    
    
    water column at this season indicate no obvious builduo of ^.i-rc
    
    
    
    materials in any area (Figures 6 and 7).
    
    
    
         The total carbon and total organic carbon would appear tn r<
    
    
    
    comparable in dumping areas and reference areas "n the watev" " i.r
    
    
    
    [lacteriological results indicate no builduo of colifor-ns oป-  "^cr.l
    
    
    
    coliforms in the water or sediments examined.
                                    A-?5
    

    -------
             Table 4
    
    
    
    
         OPERATION "IDES"
    
    
    
    Water Quality Parameters
                                      N02+N0-:
    Depth Total P
    Station Date Time (meters) PO^mg/l)
    2 3-11-74 2130 1
    18
    36
    50
    8 3-12-74 0045 4
    23
    30.5
    46
    9 3-12-74 0412 5
    15.5
    23
    31
    14 3-13-74 0515 2
    19
    35
    51
    19 3-13-74 1028 3
    23
    30.5
    55
    .056
    .038
    .057
    .047
    .065
    .060
    .058
    .065
    .075
    .077
    .064
    .061
    .053
    .060
    .062
    .061
    .064
    .061
    .056
    .058
    Inorg. P TKN (mg/1) TC TOC
    P04(mg/l) (mg/1) N03-N (mg/1) (mg/1
    .032
    .035
    .052
    .037
    .035
    .031
    .049
    .029
    .032
    .024
    .032
    .041
    .027
    .031
    .027
    .040
    .035
    .032
    .037
    .041
    .210 <0.10
    .207
    .187
    .207
    .207
    .175
    .226
    .220
    .175
    .220
    .207
    .149
    .162
    .194
    .200
    .168
    .155
    .155
    .168 >
    <
    
    37.75 7.70
    
    
    
    29.80 7.20
    
    
    
    31.65 7.20
    
    
    
    31.00 7.50
    
    
    f
    .168 <0.10 28.85 6.44
                 A-26
    

    -------
    Station   Date
              OPERATION "IDES"
    
         Water Quality Parameters
    
                                                N02+N03
           Depth    Total P   Inorg. P    TKN    (mg/1)    TC     TOC
    Time  (meters) PQd(mg/1)  P0a(mg/1)  (mg/1)  NOg-N   (mg/1)  (mg/1)
    22 3-14-74 1115 1
    10
    20
    35
    26 3-12-74 0936 1
    16
    32
    40
    28 3-12-74 2237 1
    21
    30.5
    42
    30 3-13-74 1540 1
    15
    30
    45
    .072
    .064
    .061
    .066
    .039
    .054
    .049
    .046
    .065
    .091
    .068
    .056
    .062
    .062
    .057
    .065
    .037
    .041
    .029
    .041
    .036
    .032
    .045
    .046
    .029
    .032
    .034
    .041
    .037
    .045
    .035
    .033
    .265 <0.10
    .246
    .175
    .226
    .226
    .246
    .246
    .252
    .220
    .239
    .230
    .317
    .323
    .213
    .233
    "w
    
    34.55 5.88
    
    
    
    31.10 7.55
    
    
    
    28.55 6.71
    
    
    
    .239 
    -------
                             FIGURE 6
           DISTRIBUTION  OF TOTAL  KJELDAHL NITROGEN >igm/l
                           OPERATION  IDES
    in
    cr
    LU
    n_
    L ]
    o
                                                                     10
                                A 28
    

    -------
                              FIGURE 7
               DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL  PHOSPHORUS
                           OPERATION  IDES
    CO
    LJ
    t-
    Q_
    UJ
    o
                               A-29
    

    -------
                             OPERATION "IDES"
                               BACTERIOLOGY
                       M. O'Malley and S.  K.  Smith
    
         Two studies are reported for the area of the two interim ocean
    dumpsites.  Baseline conditions are recorded in a report by EPA, Region
    III (Palmer and Lear, 1973) while conditions after municipal  sludge
    dumping began are described in a second report for EPA,  Region (Lear,
    et al, 1974).
         Nine stations for bacteriological  analyses of the bottom waters
    and sediments were occupied in the interim dumpsites areas.   Stations
    2, 8 and E were located in the site for municipal sludge disposal
    while Station C was in the center of the acid waste site.   The remaining
    five stations were control stations located outside of the two disposal
    sites.
         A Niskin sterile bag sample (General Oceanics, Inc.)  was used to
    take water samples from varying depths at 1.5 m above the  bottom.   A
    2.7 ml flame-sterilized cylindrical spoon was used to subsample sediments
    from an undisturbed Shipek bottom grab.  This aliquot was  introduced
    into a French square containing 100 ml  sterile distilled water and treated
    as a normal bacteriological sample.
    Water and sediment samples were subjected to the standard  total  coliform
    and fecal coliform MPN (most probable number/100 ml sample)  analyses
    as outlined in "Standard Methods for the Examination of  Water and  Waste-
    water," 13th Ed., SPHA, 1971.
                                 A-30
    

    -------
         Using sample aliquots of 10.0, 1.0,  0.1,  and 0.01  ml,  a  3-tube,
    4-dilution scheme was followed.
         Negative MPN results were recorded for both total  coliforms  and
    fecal coliforms at all stations.   A negative result indicates an  MPN
    index of less than three coliforms or fecal coliforms  per  100 ml  of
    sample at the 95% confidence limit.  Laboratory controls were also
    negative for both coliforms and  fecal coliforms.
                                  A-31
    

    -------
                                 Table 5
                             OPERATION "IDES"
                         Bacteriological  Stations
    
    Station        Date        Time        Depth (m)
       2         3-11-74       2039          53.9
      14
      19
      22
      26
                 3-12-74       0330
                 3-12-74       0550
    3-13-74       0515
    3-13-74       1028
    3-14-74       3053
    3-12-74       0936
                 3-11-74       1145
                 3-15-74       0230
                                45.7
                                42.0
    53.0
    53.0
    47.5
    42.0
                                43.9
                                42.0
    Sample
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water - LA*
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment - LA*
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
    Water
    Sediment
       All samples were negative for coliform and fecal coliforms
           *LA - Lab Accident, no analysis
                                   \-32
    

    -------
                             OPERATION "IDES"
                                SEDIMENTS
    
         Particle size analyses, using a sieve series, indicate these
    sediments in nearly all the areas are coarse to fine sands with no
    appreciable silt or clay fractions present.  Visual observations by
    use of the two-man submersible, as reported in Appendix C, indicate
    there is much broken shell, and in some areas gravel  on the bottom
    as wel 1.
         At Station C in the acid waste release site, the rocking chair
    dredge came up with a varied assemblage of apparently wave-worn
    cobbles.  These are illustrated in Figures 8, 9, 10,  and 11,  courtesy
    of Dr. Harold D. Palmer, Westinghouse Ocean Research Laboratory,
    Annapolis, Maryland.  These cobbles may indicate the locus of an
    interglacial still-stand (Swift, et al, 1972).  If these cobbles are
    available to the dredge, which would dig a maximum of 18 inches, would
    indicate that this area is not depositional in character,  and that
    relatively little sediment has accrued  here since glacial  epochs.
         Among the cobbles are some large oyster shells.   These character-
    istically estuarine  animals are not currently found  in this  area and
    are presumably fossil  shells from this  earlier geological  period.
    Shells have been submitted for radiocarbon dating.  This area is also
    overlying the buried Delaware River Valley and mav have a  relationship
    with the relict estuary.
         Organic carbon concentrations in these sediments indicate no
    obvious buildup of this material (Table 7, Figure 13).
                                    A-33
    

    -------
            Table 6
    
        OPERATION "IDES"
    
    Sediment Size Fractions
        Weight Percent
    Station
    2
    8
    9
    14
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    Dry wt.
    gm
    26.09
    16.87
    21.16
    35.52
    37.89
    26.65
    25.32
    41.67
    28.41
    54.34
    28.78
    32.00
    24.33
    22.30
    30.00
    24.27
    25.40
    27.07
    25.21
    30.33
    24.86
    41.65
    30.43
    9.32
    30.02
    25.05
    27.48
    32.20
    45.54
    36.20
    27.62
    Phi -1.0
    mm -2.0
    15.57
    3.91
    0.00
    0.87
    0.26
    2.66
    0.18
    1.65
    2.46
    3.25
    4.55
    0.25
    3.78
    1.79
    0.56
    1.97
    0.94
    0.44
    0.00
    0.03
    0.20
    40.76
    27.83
    0.00
    7.02
    1.84
    3.89
    2.36
    2.74
    1.02
    1.33
    0.0
    1.0
    1.43
    0.41
    0.18
    0.14
    0.07
    11.78
    0.79
    1.00
    15.06
    1.25
    7.22
    2.12
    4.27
    1.61
    0.36
    0.74
    0.15
    0.11
    0.00
    0.46
    0.28
    10.46
    9.86
    3.00
    11.55
    2.24
    1.56
    2.57
    2.02
    1.83
    1.33
    1.0
    0.5
    3.99
    0.88
    0.51
    0.87
    0.34
    19.10
    8.33
    6.64
    32.17
    7.74
    26.16
    19.62
    26.34
    11.30
    4.27
    1.94
    0.28
    0.48
    -
    1.88
    0.92
    14.06
    16.10
    7.08
    36.34
    10.78
    13.94
    14.34
    15.17
    17.34
    14.40
    2.0
    0.25
    10.48
    11.49
    9.73
    9.68
    8.57
    30.43
    10.07
    8.63
    40.80
    11.75
    46.14
    58.43
    52.24
    64.22
    67.50
    21.63
    10.20
    17.73
    1.62
    67.46
    12.39
    8.30
    27.08
    19.74
    38.64
    54.73
    57.75
    60.83
    62.56
    63.48
    62.03
    3.0
    0.125
    63.23
    78.54
    84.68
    82.74
    85.80
    32.87
    73.54
    75.59
    8.97
    70.15
    14.38
    18.65
    12.04
    20.00
    25.73
    69.72
    83.23
    80.12
    77.31
    25.16
    70.92
    20.04
    17.12
    45.39
    6.96
    33.09
    22.56
    19.03
    17.14
    15.93
    19.29
    4.0
    0.062
    3.32
    3.73
    4.01
    5.01
    4.59
    2.55
    5.88
    5.75
    0.63
    3.95
    0.69
    0.10
    0.69
    0.17
    1.26
    3.62
    1.85
    2.36
    13.53
    0.09
    14.16
    5.47
    1.18
    12.87
    0.13
    0.44
    0.43
    0.40
    0.24
    0.24
    0.39
    Median
    Phi
    2.26
    2.45
    2.45
    2.50
    2.50
    1.54
    2.65
    2.65
    1.05
    2.55
    1.28
    1.45
    1.30
    1.55
    2.39
    2.34
    2.46
    2.40
    2.64
    1.70
    2.51
    0.00
    0.76
    2.44
    0.86
    1.65
    1.51
    1.50
    1.50
    1.50
    1.50
               A-34
    

    -------
        OPERATION "IDES"
    
    Sediment Size Fractions (continued)
         Weight Percent
    Station
    27
    28
    29
    30
    A
    B
    
    
    
    
    C
    
    
    
    
    D
    
    
    
    
    E
    
    F
    
    Dry wt.
    gm
    25.01
    28.98
    30.77
    25.65
    27.41
    22.30
    30.00
    27.50
    35.72
    29.31
    27.02
    21.03
    34.07
    20.58
    49.57
    42.21
    27.56
    32.54
    32.81
    33.61
    30.99
    27.35
    30.49
    21.72
    Phi-1.0
    mm -2.0
    0.67
    0.20
    1.33
    0.54
    0.07
    0.49
    1.33
    0.72
    0.08
    1.80
    1.11
    0.04
    0.00
    0.00
    0.00
    1.94
    0.18
    2.58
    0.09
    1.84
    29.62
    20.69
    8.88
    1.15
    0.0
    1.0
    0.27
    4.86
    2.27
    0.23
    0.03
    0.31
    2.96
    0.21
    0.11
    0.20
    6.03
    0.19
    0.05
    0.24
    0.06
    3.36
    0.25
    3.90
    0.12
    2.85
    31.30
    37.07
    10.47
    1.33
    1.0
    0.5
    8.44
    40.48
    18.62
    0.23
    0.51
    1.97
    16.36
    1.05
    1.90
    0.44
    31 . 05
    0.51
    1.50
    1.31
    1.39
    9.14
    3.33
    19.36
    0.94
    19.48
    23.68
    27.75
    26.11
    9.85
    2.0
    0.25
    80.49
    48.20
    57.43
    10.84
    15.57
    46.64
    60.76
    33.16
    49.66
    27.49
    52.66
    18.73
    33.28
    16.22
    33.97
    47.55
    43.97
    58.23
    25.60
    58.43
    12.00
    12.35
    36.08
    33.19
    3.0
    0.125
    9.92
    6.21
    18.75
    83.27
    77.82
    43.87
    16.53
    58.40
    45.04
    62.84
    8.29
    73.98
    60.90
    74.53
    61.04
    36.79
    48.73
    15.48
    66.62
    16.30
    1.45
    1.53
    16.82
    52.16
    4.0
    0.062
    0.03
    C.24
    0.94
    4.67
    6.71
    0.73
    1.03
    6.07
    2.85
    6.58
    0.25
    5.99
    3.61
    6.51
    3.30
    0.94
    2.68
    0.27
    5.97
    0.23
    0.09
    0.10
    1.11
    1.56
    Median
    Phi
    1.52
    1.10
    1.30
    2.48
    2.42
    2.01
    1.50
    2.25
    1.97
    2.30
    1.22
    2.40
    2.25
    2.45
    2.25
    1.75
    2.05
    1.40
    2.35
    1.43
    -0.66
    -0.02
    1.10
    2.01
                 A-35
    

    -------
        FIGURE 8
    
    OPERATION "IDES"
     DISTRIBUTION  OF
      SEDIMENT  SIZE
       MEDIAN PHI
        -38' 30'
                      1S45   ..
    
                        *>
                                                    /?
                                          /   J.10/:           .1.30
                                              *
                                                  •'•
    2.42ซ/
        0
    2.34
                                         2.64
                                         230
                                         o a?
                                         ?'&•
                                         1-50
            1.22
            2'40
            2.25
            2.45
         1.70
                             *t
                             r-
         •38' 00'
                                         1.97
                                      o  M
                                      000
                                      ฐ-ฐฐ
                                               •   1.54
                                         -0.0!     2.65
                                   •••:•••
                                     2.39
                                   51
                                   50
                                 1.50
                                 1.50
                                 1.50
             1.75
             2.05
             1-W
             2.35
             1.43
                                                             0.76ซ
                                                         5 ~,
                                                   9  cc • 2.26
                                                   2.65   2 4g
                                                   1.05*  'l
                                                         2.00
                                                         2.50..'	•'
                                                           'b
                                                           • J
                                                            0
              2.44
              0.86
    
    2.46
    2.40
                                           ^.48
                                             N
    
                                                                          1.55
                           .30
                                       1.6
                                          t
                                          r-
                                            A-36
    

    -------
    t
    

    -------
    A-38
    

    -------
                                                      f'S;
                                                       *
    A-3S
    

    -------
    [ซ
    

    -------
                     Table 7
                 OPERATION "IDES"
    Total Organic Carbon and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
                     Sediments
    Station
    C
    2
    8
    9
    14
    19
    22
    22
    24
    24
    26
    28
    30
    Date
    3-11-74
    3-11-74
    3-12-74
    3-12-74
    3-13-74
    3-13-74
    3-14-74
    3-14-74
    3-12-74
    3-12-74
    3-12-74
    3-13-74
    3-13-74
    Time
    1145
    2039
    0100
    0412
    0515
    1028
    2318
    2318
    2055
    2055
    2936
    2237
    1540
    Wet wt.
    g/ml
    1.8439
    1.7945
    1.8275
    1 .8847
    1.8522'
    1.5784
    1.8622
    1.8357
    1.5171
    1.9462
    1.9055
    1.8918
    1.7189
    Dry wt.
    g/ml
    1.4625
    1.4080
    1.4219
    1.5477
    1.5149
    1.0904
    1.4310
    1.3712
    .8783
    1.6197
    1.5321
    1.5502
    1.2780
    TOC TKN
    % Dry wt. % Dry. wt
    .142
    .075
    .146
    .103
    .109
    .104
    .069
    .149
    1.427 .152
    .054 .011
    .024
    .060
    .072
                       A-41
    

    -------
             FIGURE 13
    
    
    
    TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON
    
          IN  SEDIMENTS
    
       OPERATION  "IDES"
    
    
         Percent  dry weight
    
         Depths  in fathoms
            -38* 30'-
    R "D'
             38' 00'
                             ,0
                            .f03
                                  .qeo  //
                                                                            .072
                                                               .104
                                                                      \
                                                 .142
                                        .069
    
                                        .149
                                    .021
                                                          .146
                                                    .075
                                                   1.427  •
    
                                                    .054
                                                                       •v.0
                                                                     .30
                                                                                o
                                                                                o
                                             A-42
    

    -------
         The distribution of the organohalogens indicates that there
    may be accrual of these materials in some areas (Table 8, Figure 14).
         The distribution of metals in the sediments indicate possible
    buildup of these materials due to dumping activities (Table 9).  For
    the analysis of the distribution of these metals, the higher concen-
    trations were contoured visually, then the hypothesis was tested
    statistically that the contoured areas were statistically significant
    from the remaining areas.  The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test was
    used for these purposes and the distributions shown are statistically
    discrete.  It would appear, from the distribution of these metals,
    that materials from each of the release zones are at this moment
    settling separately to the bottom (Figures 15-2).  The coincidence
    of the contours makes this hypothesis very tenable.  These distri-
    butions would indicate that the material  released at the acid waste
    site are distributed around the site and  to the northeast, and the
    materials from the municipal sludge site  are distributed in the
    eastern half of the site and to the southeast.  These observations
    are in accordance with the observed current structure at this time.
                                    A-43
    

    -------
    Location
                                 Table 8
    
                             OPERATION "IDES"
    
                       Organohalogens  in Sediments
    Gms. Extracted
    Dry Height
    6% Fraction off Florisil  Col
      Aroclor           Aroclor
       1254              1242
    (PPb)
    Sta.
    Sta.
    Sta.
    Sta.
    Sta.
    Sta.
    Sta.
    C
    2
    9
    19
    24
    24 (dup)
    26
    81.
    73.
    87.
    78.
    55.
    74.
    82.
    1808
    0716
    0783
    0302
    0505
    2666
    4842
    4
    28
    4
    4
    172
    56
    11
    .7
    .7
    .3
    .8
    .4
    .0
    .0
    (PPb)
    1.
    33.
    4.
    6.
    49.
    86.
    14.
    9
    0
    6
    5
    0
    0
    3
                                   A-44
    

    -------
             FIGURE 14
        OPERATION "IDES"
         DISTRIBUTION  OF
        ORGANOHALOGENS
           IN SEDIMENTS
    
    Arochlor 1242 /Arochlor 1254
          parts  per billion
            -33* 30-
                  R "D'
    "@
                              ,0
                                                    I.9/
                                                     '4.7
                                                             133.0,
                                                                 '28.7
                           49.0/
                                                     B6.0/
                              '172.4
                                                        '56.0
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                                         II.0
             •38' 00'-
                                                                      O
                                              A-45
                                                                    A/
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                                                                                    r--
                                                                                         ,0
    

    -------
                            OPERATION "IDES"
    
    
    
                           Metals in Sediments
    
    
    
                               P. G. Johnson
    
    
    
    
    
         Sediment samples were taken using a Shipek sampler.
    
    
    
         The sediment samples were transferred from whirl-paks to glass
    
    
    
    jars and well mixed.  A portion (approximately 10 grams)  was removed
    
    
    
    and spread to dry at room temperature for 48 hours.   The  samples were
    
    
    
    again mixed and pulverized to separate the sand grains and to expose
    
    
    
    surface areas.  At this time any large rocks, pebbles, or shells
    
    
    
    (>5mm) were removed.  The samples were allowed to air-dry at room
    
    
    
    temperature for an additional 48 hours.
    
    
    
         A known weight (5.0000 gms) of dry sediment was put  in a 125 ml
    
    
    
    glass-stoppered flask.   Small amounts of deionized-distilled water
    
    
    
    were used to aid in the transfer.   The addition of 21.5 ml of concen-
    
    
    
    trated nitric acid provided a digestion solution of  50-75 ml.  This
    
    
    
    solution was heated at 48-50ฐC (1) for 4-6 hours in  a  shaking hot water
    
    
    
    bath.   After digestion, the samples were cooled to room temperature and
    
    
    
    filtered through a .45 micron membrane filter and the  volume adjusted
    
    
    
    to 100 ml.   Blank solutions were run throughout the  same  digestion
    
    
    
    procedure (2,3).
    
    
    
         The filtered acid extracts were analyzed for Cd,  Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni,
    
    
    
    Zn, Mn, and Fe using a  Varian Techtron AA-6 atomic absorption spectro-
    
    
    
    photometer equipped with a standard pre-mix burner.   Air-acetylene
    
    
    
    was used for all the metals.  Standard operating parameters  follows.
                                 A-46
    

    -------
    Cd
    3
    A
    a
    0
    Cr
    5
    A
    a
    R
    Cu
    3
    A
    a
    0
    Pb
    6
    A
    a
    0
    Zn
    5
    A
    a
    0
    Ni
    5
    A
    a
    0
    Mn
    5
    A
    a
    0
    Fe
    5
    A
    a
    0
                                  OPERATION  "IDES"
                                 Metals Procedures
    
                                Operating Conditions
    
    Lamp Current (ma)
    Fuel
    Support
    Flame Condition
    Wavelength               228.8  357.9  324.7  217.0  213.9  232.0  279.5  386".0
    Spectral Band Pass (run)     .5     .2     .2    1.0     .2     .2     .2     .2
    Working Range (mg/1 )         .5-2  2-8    2-8    5-20 .4-1.6  3-12    1-4 50-200
    Typical Sensitivity (mg/1)  .011   .055    .04    .11     .099   .066   .024    .90
               A -  acetylene,  a -  air,  0 -oxidizing, R - reducing
    
               Mercury was analyzed using  an automated flame! ess atomic absorption
          technique.   All  sediment results were expressed as mg/kg dry weight.
               The  organisms were  dissected  for certain organs or digested  whole.
          The digestion procedure  used  was the  same as that used for  the sediments
          except that a known  wet  weight was used and the results were expressed
          as mg/kg  wet weight.
               The  calculations for the sediment and organisms are as follows:
    
          SEDIHENTS:
                                            x
                              100 ml              1  L
          ฐRGANISMS:     - final  answer >9/1)      .  - mg/gm x  1000 =  mg/kg  wet
                          wet weight  (gms)      1000 ml     b  y             3   3
                              100 ml            ~TT
                                        A-47
    

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    -------
         FIGURE 15
    
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
     OPERATION "IDES"
          CADMIUM
        mg/kg/dry wf
       Depths  in fathoms
    -38' 30-
    •38' 00'-
                                                                       N
    
                                                                     o
                                                                     o
                                    A-52
    

    -------
          FIGURE  16
    
    
    METAL  IN SEDIMENTS
     OPERATION "IDES"
          CHROMIUM
         mg/kg/dry wt
       Depths  in fathoms
    
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    are significantly
    greater than  others
    
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          P =  >0.01
      -38' 30'
    
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      •38* 00'-
                                       A-53
    

    -------
    
    FIGURE 17
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
    OPERATION "IDES"
    COPPER
    mg/ kg/dry wt
    Depths in fathoms
    
    • *
    	 38 3O 	 : r
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    -------
         FIGURE 13
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
     OPERATION  "IDES
            LEAD
        mg/kg/dry wt
       Depths in fathoms
      -38' 30'
           R "D'
    •4
      N
      •38'  00'
                                     A-55
    

    -------
         FIGURE 19
    
    
    METAL  IN SEDIMENTS
     OPERATION "IDES
            ZINC
         mg/kg/dry wt
       Depths  in fathoms
    
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    are significantly higher
    than others
    
          z  =   5.37
    
          P  =  >0.001
      -38* 30
           R "D
    N
     \
      •36' 00'
    

    -------
    FIGURE 20
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
    OPERATION "IDES"
    NICKEL
    mg/kg/dry wt
    Depths in fathoms
    
    
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    -------
         FIGURE 21
    
    METAL  IN  SEDIMENTS
     OPERATION "IDES"
         MANGANESE
         mg/kg/dry wt
       Depihs in fathoms
    
    Contoured concentrations
    are significantly
    greater  than others
        z =  4.36
        P =  >0.001
      -38* 30'-
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                                        A-58
    

    -------
          FIGURE 22
    
    METAL  IN SEDIMENTS
     OPERATION "IDES"
             IRON
         mg/kg/dry wt
       Depths in fathoms
    
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    are significantly
    greater  than others
    
        z =   5.90
    
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                                         A-59
    

    -------
    
    FIGURE 23
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
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    MERCURY
    mg/kg/dry wt
    Depths in fathoms
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    -------
                             SCIENTIFIC LOG
                            Operation "IDES"
    March 11, 1974
    0200 - Depart Lewes, Delaware
    
    0805 - On Station A - 19 fathoms - Loran 3512  3065 -  moderate  sea,
    
           wave height 5', 0% clouds,  winds N 8-10
    
    0830 - Water column profile, salinometer probe cut off by  prop
    
           BT - Shipek 6 replicates -  some dead  sand  dollars
    
           1  metal  sample - phytoplankton sample taken
    
    0944 - Dredge over & fishing
    
    1025 - Dredge on board - good catch Arctica,sand  dollars,  skate,
    
           flounder, starfish, Polinices, sponge cancer,
    
           old, large, thick oyster shells & cobbles  brought up  in  dredge
    
           NBS thermometer broken
    
    1100 - Underway to Station C
    
    1145 - On Station C - 24 fathoms - Loran 3420  3043 -  slight sea,
    
           wave height 3-4', 100% clouds, rain - winds N 7-10
    
           BT taken - no thermocline - surface temp.  8.2ฐC
    
    1230 - Hydrocast
    
                Depth
                 20'
                 75'
                100'
                140'
    
           Niskin bacti taken - Shipek  6 replicates  (some dead  sand dollars)
    
           5 metals, 1 pesticide, 1 sediment size
    
    1258 - Current meter array  3407  3041
                                  A-65
    

    -------
    March 11. 1974
    1330 - Clam dredge 30 minutes,  good  catch  - Arctica,  skates, eel
           starfish, sand dollars,  Cancer,  Polinices, Astarte,
           4 spotted flounder,  muscles,  goosefish, cobbles,
           iron covered module  -  zooplankton tow  - Secchi disc 7 m.
    1430 - Otter trawl  - 25 minutes,  good catch,  starfish, juvenile
           flounder, skate egg  cases,  blood stars, skates, 4 spotted
           flounder, goosefish, large hake, juvenile sculpin, sand dollars
    1509 - Underway to Station  B
    1537 - Arrive Station B - 20  fathoms -  Loran  3395  3053
           Slight sea,  wave height  1-2', 20% clouds, wind N 3-4
    1540 - Shipek - 6 replicates, 5 metals, phytoplankton sample taken,
           Secchi disc  7 meters
    1608 - Clam dredge 30 minutes,  zooplankton 15 minutes
           clam dredge,good catch,  many  live sand dollars, Pagurus in
           Polinices, Cancer erroratus,  Arctica live & boxes, scallops,
           starfish, Spisula shell, cobbles
    1710 - Underway to  Station  D
    1745 - Station D -  17 fathoms - Loran 3401  3030, slight sea,
           wave height 1-2', 20%  clouds,wind N 3-4
    1755 - Clam dredge over & fishing, flounder,  4 skates, starfish,
           Arctica, 1 goosefish,  1  sand dab, 2 Cancer, approx.
           bucket of shells
           Shipek - 6 replicates, 5 metals  taken, phytoplankton
           sample taken
                               A-66
    

    -------
    March 11, 1974
    
    1918 - Otter trawl over - trawl  rolled,  no  catch,  aborted
    
    2039 - Station 2 - 30 fathoms -  Loran  3356   3009,  calm  sea,
    
           wave height 1-2', 100% clouds,  wind  N 1-2,  snow
    
    2100 - Current meters over  3358  3009
    
    2130 - Hydrocast
    
                Depth       pH
    
                   1
                  18
                  36
                  50
    
           Shipek - 6 replicates, 5  metals,  1 sediment size, 1 pesticide
    
           Bacti, sediment & bottom  waters
    
    2115 - BT - surface temp.  8ฐC
    
    2200 - Clam dredge, small  catch,  Arctica, Pagurus, 1 scallop
    
    0005-0025 - Trawl  over & fishing,  good catch, scallops,  squid,
    
           summer flounder, sand  dollar, 4 spotted flounder, starfish
    
           sand dab,  Cancer , hake, goosefish,  pompano,  juvenile
    
           flounder,  sand  shrimp, juvenile skate, unknown  spotted fish
    
           Underway to Station 8
    
    March 12,  1974
    
    0045  - Station 8  - 25  fathoms - Loran 3361   3008,  calm sea
    
           100% clouds, heavy snow
    
           Hydrocast
    
                Depth
    
                  4
                  23
                  30
                  45
    
                                  A-67
    

    -------
    March 12. 1974
           0045 - Station B (cont.)   BT,  surface temp 6ฐC,  phytoplankton
           sample taken, Shipek  6 replicates,  5 metals,  bacti,  sediment
           sample, water sample
    0200 - Clam dredge 40 minutes, zooplankton  tow 15 minutes
    0255 - Underway to Station 9
    0418 - On Station 9 - 23 fathoms - Loran  3217  3051,  slight  sea
           wave height 2-3', wind NE 5, 100%  clouds
           Hydrocast
                Depth (m)
                   4
                  15
                  23
                  30
                  38
           BT, surface temp 5ฐC, phytoplankton,  bacti,  sediment  sample,
           water sample, Shipek 6 replicates, 5  metals, 1 pesticide,
           strange black line across top  of sample collected for metals
    0500 - Clam dredge out & fishing,  40  minutes duration for tow,
           zooplankton tow 15 minutes, lost #10  bucket  off  1 C-B net,
           duplicate tow made
    0605 - Trawl over & fishing, 40  minute tow
    0650 - Underway to Station 17
    0735 - On Station 17 - 27 fathoms, Loran  3181   3030, calm sea,
           wave height 2-3', winds NE  10, clearing, Shipek, 1 metals
           sample - clam dredge, good  catch C erroratus (young and
           mature), Arctica (live and  boxes), goosefish, flounder,
           Polinices, scallops, Busyeon shell, Spisula  shell,
                                 A-68
    

    -------
     March 12. 1974
     0735 - Station 17 (cont.) sand dollars, starfish, sulfur sponge
            Ensis shell, phytoplankton grab
            Underway to Station 26
     0935 - On Station 26 - 23 fathoms - Loran 3117  3017
            Shipek - 5 replicates - 5 metals - sand, silt,  clay
            Hydrocast surface - phytoplankton sample
                      16 m
                      32 m
                      40 m
    1005 - BT 40 m - 9ฐ surface temp. - no trace - not reduced
    1010 - Rocking chair overboard and fishing
    1040 - Rocking chair aboard - good catch, welk shell, Polinices,
           skates, flounders, Cardian, Arctica, scallops, Cancer, starfish
           and sand dollars
    1205 - Trawl over and fishing
    1236 - Trawl on board - good catch, Bryozoan,  sand dollars, starfish,
           skate, juvenile & adult flounders, scallops, crabs, juvenile
           sea spider (Libinia dubia), juvenile Cancer, Ensus, hermit crab
           in Polinices & welk shells, sea horse,  Crepidula shell
           Discolored water reported from bridge during trawl
           Many gulls astern when lying to
    1255 - Underway to Station 27
    1415 - On Station 27  - 31  fathoms - Loran  3182  2974
           Wind 25-30 N -  Seastate 4 - 100% clouds - Secchi  disc-6 meters
           Shipek 5 drops  - sea mouse in  Shipek drop - phytoplankton sample
                                   A-69
    

    -------
    1440 - Dredge over and fishing
    1517 - Haul  dredge - good catch,  Polinices,  scallops,  goosefishes,
           Crepidula, Arctica, hermit crabs,  Pagarues,  starfish,  eel
           Spisula shell, Ensis shell, Astarte shell
    1530 - Dredge in - underway to Station F
           17 Arctica, 2 Cancer, 100-150 juvenile  scallops,  6  adult
           scallops, 12 starfish, sponge, 8 bushels  of  shells
    1735 - Dredge on board
    1805 - On Station F - 37 fathoms  - Loran   3300  2974
    1820 - Shipek - 2 metals and 1 biological  -  Shipek  wouldn't catch
           Phytoplankton sample taken - Hydrocast  surface, 22  m,  37 m,  67  m
           Bt - surface temp. 10ฐ
    1914 - Zooplankton trawl
    1925 - Trawl on bottom - 1 starfish, 1 skate
    2030 - Underway to Station 24
    2052 - On Station 24 - 30 fathoms - Loran  3305   2998  NE  18  knots
    2100 - Shipek - 3 metals - sediment size - 5 biological
           Odd sample - black Vjscus layer about 2-1/2"  thick on top of
           clean sand - Phytoplankton sample taken
    2130 - Clam dredge
    2230 - Trawl - underway to Station 25
    2245 - On Station 25 - 41 fathoms - Loran  3345  2937 -
           NE 10 knots - seastate 4 - wave hts. 4
    2355 - Shipek - sediment size - 1 metal
                                   A-70
    

    -------
    March 13. 1974
    0008 - Clam dredge, Ihr. - Zooplankton, 15 min.
           Rocking chair, 1st haul 50 min. - winch stalled, dredge
           washed astern for 50 min. - Cancer, scallops, Arctica,
           Spisula shell, starfish
    0155 - Commenced 2nd clam dredge
    0240 - Rocking chair dredge, 2nd haul - starfish, Cancer, Arctica,
           scallop, 1 Rolling Rock bottle (good condition, no deposit-
           no return)  Underway to Station 14 - wind direction changed
           NW, clear, cold, windy
    0515 - Arrive Station 14 - 29 fathoms - Loran  3500  2968  WNW 40 knots
           hydrocast wire angle 35ฐ - no bacti, bag broken - sea  state
           very rough
    0640 - Chair dredge over
    0710 - Dredge onboard - little catch
    0725 - Dredge overboard - underway to Station 19
    1028 - Dredge over 1 mi. from Sta.  19 - small catch
    1153 - Reset dredge w/following sea
    1219 - Dredge onboard - regained station -
    1230 - On Station 19 - 29 fathoms - Loran  3610  2997 -
           sea state 4 - wave ht.  8
    1318 - Shipek - 3 biologicals, sediment size, pesticide, bacti
    1400 - Hydrocast - 4.6 m, 22.9 m, 30.5 m, 55 m
           BT - surface temp. 4ฐC - phytoplankton sample
    1426 - Underway to Sta.  30
                                  A-71
    

    -------
    1550 - Dredge over - 1  mile from Station  30
    1650 - Dredge up - catch poor
    1710 - Second dredge haul
    1740 - Dredge up - too  rough for CB  sampler  or  trawl
    1800 - On Station 30 -  25 fathoms -  Loran 3680  3010
           Shipek - 2 replicates -  1  metal  -  1 sediment  size
    1830 - Hydrocast - BT - surface temp. 8ฐC
    1843 - Underway Station 29
    1952 - Clam dredge over and fishing  - SE  of  Sta.  29
    2055 - On Station 29 -  25 fathoms -  Loran 3630  3047  - NW 28-32  -
           rough and cold - clam dredge  - 5 Arctica,  Russian  bottle
    2115 - Shipek drops - 1 metal - phytoplankton  sample taken
    2145 - Underway for Station 28
    2337 - Slow to tow dredge - 1 mile SE from Sta. 28
    2250 - Dredge towing
    2320 - Hauling dredge - small catch, Limulus,  flounder, skate,
           Arctica, Spisula, oyster shell  (fossilized),  sponge
    2345 - Second clam dredge - underway
    March 14, 1974 - towing dredge
    0015 - Hauling dredge - good catch,  4 horseshoe crabs, 4  Arctica,
           4 Polinices, sand dollars, skate,  sponge,  hermit crab,
           scallops, sand dab
    0055 - On Station 28 - 22 fathoms -  Loran  3580  3078 - WNW, 36  knots
    0100 - Shipek - 2 metals, 1 sediment size, 2 biologicals
           Phytoplankton sample taken -  BT taken
                                   A-72
    

    -------
     0140  -  Hydrocast  -  surface,  4.6 m,  21 m, 30.5 m,  42.7 m
     0204  -  Underway to  Station 18
     0257  -  Dredge  over
     0303  -  Dredge  over  and  set
     0405  -  Dredge  in  -  good catch, Arctica, hermit crab, skate, 4 spotted
            flounder,  goosefish,  scallops, mussels, starfish, limpet,
            Cancer, Polinices
     0420  -  On Station 18 - 24 fathoms - Loran  3555   3032
            high winds - very rough, cold
     0425  -  Shipek  - 2 metals, 1  biological - phytoplankton sample taken
     0447  -  Hydrocast
     0415  -  Underway to Station 21
     0527  -  Clam dredge over
     0544  -  Clam dredge set
     0654  -  Clam dredge up - good catch
     0705  -  On Station 21 - 25 fathoms - Loran  3490  3009
            cold, windy,  rough - Shipek - 2 biologicals, 1 metal
            Phytoplankton sample taken
     0733  -  Underway to Station 23
    0805  - Clam dredge over - 1  mile NW of Station 23
    0815 - Dredge set and fishing
    0905 - Dredge aboard - bag open, needed  repairs  -  made station while
           repairing  dredge
    0945 - On Station  23 - 32 fathoms  -  Loran   3445   2998 -   NW  20 knots
           rough,  windy, cold -  Shipek - 3 replicates, 3 biologicals,
           1 metal  -  phytoplankton  sample  -  BT  taken  - surface temp.  9ฐC
                                     A-73
    

    -------
    1010 - Rocking chair dredge - repairs completed, over and fishing
    1050 - Rocking chair hauled - good catch, scallops, Arctica, skate,
           flounder, Cancer
    1100 - Trawl over - following sea
    1200 - Trawl aboard - 2 sea robins, starfish, small scallops,
           juvenile fish, sand dollars
    1215 - Underway to Station 2 to retrieve current meters
    1910 - Underway to Station 20
    1940 - Dredge over and set - steaming toward Station 20
    2040 - Dredge aboard
    2045 - On Station 20 - 23 fathoms - Loran  3430  3060 - weather
           moderating  - Shipek - 5 replicates - 2 metals,  5 biologicals
           Phytoplankton sample taken
    2107 - Underway to Station 22
    2143 - Dredge over and set
    2230 - Dredge up - needed second run
    2300 - Hauling dredge
    2318 - Dredge aboard - huge catch - dredge full
    March 15, 1974
    0003 - On Station 22 - 26 fathoms - Loran  3345  3053
           Shipek - 6 biologicals,  3 metals, 1  sediment size (taken because
           there was very coarse gravel present - very different from other
           samples -- 1  very dark sample taken)
           Hydrocast - surface, 10m, 20 m,  35 m  bacti taken
           BT - surface temp. 6ฐC
                                   A-74
    

    -------
    0011 - Underway to Station E
    0037 - Dredge over
    0150 - Dredge aboard
    0207 - On Station E - 23 fathoms - Loran  3351   3025
           Shipek - 5 replicates 1 metal, 5 biologicals - bottom water
           sample taken - phytoplankton sample taken
    0230 - Dredge over for second haul
    0330 - Dredge in - Limulus, Polinices, flounder, goosefish, scallops,
           Arctica
    0335 - Trawl over and fishing
    0357 - Trawl aboard - Spisula, Arctica, scallop and Polinices shells
    0400 - Underway to Station 8 to resample with dredge
    0435 - Dredge out and fishing
    0543 - Dredge up - underway to retrieve current meters Station C
    0700 - Lifeboat lowered to retrieve current meter array
    0815 - Retrieved current meters - calm NW 2-4 - clear, cold
    0850 - Trawled thru discolored water, presumably acid dump -
           pH meter inoperative
    0945 - Trawl aboard - many live sand dollars, 1 squid, starfish,
           small skate - trawl  line parted in winch
    1000 - Secured oceanographic operations -
           Underway to Lewes, Delaware
                                   A-75
    

    -------
                             OPERATION "IDES"
                              R/V Advance II
                                SHIP'S LOG
    Date:  3-11-74
    Time
    0330
    0428
    0500
    0538
    0600
    0730
    0745
    0805
    0830
    0900
    0944
    1000
    1025
    1100
    1130
    1145
    1215
    1240
    1258
    1308
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5
    3411
    3451
    3472
    3500
    3502
    3468
    
    3512
    3507
    3504
    3523
    3508
    3512
    3491
    3438
    3420
    3414
    3410
    3407
    3407
    3150
    3114
    3094
    3074
    3066
    3066
    
    3065
    3066
    3065
    3064
    3064
    3065
    3057
    3043
    3043
    3042
    3041
    3041
    3040
    Comments
    
    Buoy R "F" @ 4.8
    
    
    R "F" 12.8
    
    
    Stop for Sta. A
    
    
    Towing dredge
    
    Stop to haul dredge
    Underway
    
    Stop for Sta. C
    Stop for Sta. C
    Stop for Sta. C
    Current meter over Del . buoy
    Del. buoy 256ฐT @ 12.6 mi.
                                  A-76
    

    -------
    Date  3-11-74
    Time
    1315
    1400
    1407
    1430
    1455
    1509
    1530
    1537
    1608
    1642
    1710
    1727
    1730
    1745
    1755
    1837
    1847
    1900
    1918
    1950
    2000
    2030
    2039
    3 H4
    3407
    3426
    3420
    3416
    3428
    3425
    3393
    3395
    3394
    3418
    3417
    3405
    3403
    3401
    
    3393
    3391
    3401
    3402
    3885
    3384
    3356
    3356
    3 H5
    3040
    3045
    3043
    3042
    3044
    3044
    3051
    3053
    3050
    3049
    3050
    3041
    3039
    3030
    
    3031
    3032
    3032
    3033
    3027
    3027
    3013
    3009
    Comments
    Recov. Sta. C tow scallop dredge
    Recov. plankton net
    Sta. C end of plankton tow & scallop dr
    Otter trawl over
    Haul otter trawl
    Underway Sta. B
    Underway Sta. B
    Sta. B
    Underway rocking chair dredge/plankton
    Tow completed
    Underway for Sta. D
    Current buoys to port 1/8 mile
    
    Sta. D 17 fathoms
    Dredge on bottom
    Dredge off bottom
    Regaining station
    Sta. D
    Trawl ing
    
    
    
    Stop for Sta. 2
                                   A-77
    

    -------
    Date  3-11-74
    Time
    2102
    2106
    2130
    2200
    2230
    2239
    2300
    2330
    0015
    0025
    0050
    0103
    Date
    0115
    0130
    0158
    0215
    0230
    0237
    0255
    0300
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5
    3358
    3358
    3358
    3364
    3361
    3353
    3349
    3361
    3359
    3364
    3365
    3361
    3-12-74
    3359
    3358
    3355
    3365
    3359
    3352
    3350
    3344
    3010
    3009
    3011
    3009
    3013
    3012
    3012
    3012
    3015
    3014
    3013
    3008
    3006
    3007
    3006
    3006
    3011
    3012
    3013
    3014
    Comments
    
    Current meter
    
    Towing dredge
    
    Stop to haul dredge
    
    
    Towing trawl
    Haul net
    Regaining Sta. 8
    Sta. 8 (Sta. not regained precisely
    due to current meter location)
    Sta. 8
    
    Underway for plankton tow &
    scallop dredge
    u/w for plankton tow & scallop dred
    u/w for plankton tow & scallop dred
    Stop - haul dredge
    Underway to Sta. 9 - course 250ฐ
    u/w to Sta. 9 - course 250ฐ
                                  A-78
    

    -------
    Date  3-12-74
    Time
    0330
    0403
    0418
    0500
    0540
    0605
    0650
    0735
    0800
    0830
    0900
    0930
    0935
    1010
    1030
    1200
    1230
    1236
    1255
    133C
    1400
    1415
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5
    3284
    3222
    3217
    3212
    3235
    3227
    3183
    3181
    3177
    3180
    3152
    3117
    3110
    3103
    3106
    3105
    3119
    3120
    3116
    3-4"
    3175
    3182
    3028
    3044
    3051
    3051
    3053
    3055
    3053
    3030
    3031
    3034
    3029
    3018
    3017
    3018
    3019
    3019
    3019
    3019
    3020
    2999
    2982
    2974
    Comments
    Underway to Sta. 9 - course 250ฐ
    II i| II 11 II
    Sta. 9
    Dredge on bottom
    Dredge off bottom
    Trawl on bottom
    Trawl off bottom - u/w to Sta. 17
    Sta. 17
    i> n
    H n
    n M
    n n
    Stop Sta. 26
    Underway towing dredge
    Dredge overboard
    Towing net
    n n
    Haul net
    Net aboard - proceed to Sta. 27
    course 090ฐ
    M II II II II II
    II II II II II II
    Sta. 27
                                 A-79
    

    -------
    Date  3-12-74
    Time
    1430
    1440
    1500
    1517
    1530
    1600
    1658
    1700
    1755
    1805
    1837
    1854
    1907
    1922
    2000
    2030
    2052
    2101
    2106
    2130
    2200
    2203
    2216
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5
    3175
    3173
    3180
    3187
    3187
    3236
    3300
    3300
    3304
    3300
    3287
    3305
    3301
    3309
    3333
    3319
    3305
    3304
    3301
    3303
    3306
    3304
    3288
    2975
    2975
    2975
    2974
    2974
    2974
    2974
    2974
    2974
    2974
    2970
    2974
    2974
    2974
    2976
    2985
    2998
    3036
    2998
    3000
    2997
    2997
    2998
    Comments
    Sta. 27
    Dredge over
    n M
    Haul dredge
    Dredge in - proceed to Sta. F
    n M n ii n
    Sta. F
    n n
    Dredge on board - regaining Sta. F
    Sta. F
    Underway to regain Sta. F
    Sta F regained (allowing for set)
    Setting trawl
    Trawl on bottom
    n M n
    M n n
    Stop for Sta. 24
    
    
    Towing dredge
    n n
    Hauling in dredge
    Dredge aboard
                                 A-80
    

    -------
    Date  3-12-74
    Time
    2230
    2300
    2330
    Date
    0000
    0008
    0030
    0100
    0107
    0148
    0200
    0225
    0240
    0300
    0330
    0400
    0430
    0445
    0512
    0555
    0637
    0708
    0724
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5 Comments
    3302
    3333
    3350
    3-13-74
    3245
    3341
    3349
    3345
    3344
    3345
    3346
    3349
    3349
    3371
    3409
    3443
    3472
    3480
    3500
    3493
    3/107
    3502
    3505
    2990
    2970
    2948
    2937 Sta. 25
    2937 Dredge & Plankton tow
    2938
    2944
    2941 Clam dredge
    2933 Commence 2nd dredge tow
    2934
    2939 Clam dredge
    2942 Dredge aboard - depart for Sta. 14
    2950
    2956
    2960
    2960
    2962
    2968 Sta. 14
    2966 Messenger
    2ฐ56 Dredge on bottom
    2967 Dredge off bottom
    2968 Dredge on bottom
                                 A-81
    

    -------
    Date  3-13-74
    Time
    0800
    0830
    0900
    0930
    1000
    1018
    1038
    1100
    1134
    1200
    1219
    1240
    1318
    1400
    1426
    1500
    530
    1539
    1544
    1655
    1708
    1743
    1755
    1810
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5
    3515
    3521
    3530
    3551
    3588
    3598
    3604
    3611
    3618
    3610
    3595
    3581
    3610
    3618
    3613
    3643
    3693
    3682
    3684
    3723
    371"
    3694
    3680
    3682
    2969
    2969
    2984
    2997
    2996
    2996
    2995
    2996
    2997
    2995
    2991
    2988
    2997
    2997
    2993
    2999
    3007
    3008
    3009
    3021
    3018
    3009
    3010
    3009
    Comments
    
    
    
    
    
    Dredge on bottom 1 mi. from Sta. 19
    
    On Sta. 19 towing dredge
    ii H n n ii
    ii M n n M
    Clam dredge
    Dredge aboard - regain sta.
    Regain Sta. 19
    Hydrocast
    Proceed to Sta 30
    
    
    Dredge over
    Dredge set - Sta. 30
    Dredge up - underway Sta. 30
    Dredge set
    Dredge up
    Sta. 30
    Comp. grabs - commence hydrocast
                                   A-82
    

    -------
    Date  3-13-74
    Time
    
    1900
    1930
    1952
    2005
    2030
    2055
    2100
    2115
    2142
    2200
    2230
    2237
    2250
    2300
    2311
    2320
    2342
    Date
    0000
    0020
    POST
    3 H4
    3690
    3676
    3652
    3625
    3630
    3639
    3642
    3641
    3630
    363ft
    3624
    3585
    3580
    3580
    3579
    3580
    3580
    3580
    3-14-74
    3583
    3582
    tier.
    3 H5 Comments
    3013 Underway for Sta. 29
    3022
    3038
    3044 D) edqinq Sta. SE Sta. 29
    3046 Towing dredge on Sta. 29
    3046
    3046 Dredge aboard
    3047
    3048 Grab down
    3048 Complete Sta. 29 - underway Sta. 28
    3053
    3066
    3069 Slow to tow dredge 1 mi . SE Sta. 28
    3069 Dredge set
    3072
    3075 Sta. 28 towing dredge - course 305ฐ
    3078 Hauling dredge
    3080 Turn for second dredge tow
    3074
    3070 Ham dredge
                                A-83
    

    -------
    Date  3-14-74
    Time
    0033
    005^
    0140
    02 CM
    0230
    0257
    0303
    0330
    0405
    04 2 F
    0447
    0451
    0514
    0527
    Oci4
    0654
    0703
    0733
    0805
    on . 5
    0900
    0905
    1^0
    1022
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5
    3578
    3580
    3582
    3582
    3583
    3563
    3558
    3554
    3555
    3555
    3559
    3561
    3536
    3500
    3<195
    3485
    3490
    3494
    3445
    3445
    3446
    3448
    3149
    3445
    3070
    3078
    3075
    3076
    3057
    303ฐ
    3035
    3029
    3034
    3032
    3031
    3031
    3021
    3012
    3011
    3009
    3009
    3011
    3003
    2999
    2991
    2998
    2997
    2998
    Comments
    Clam dredge up - regain Sta. 28
    Sta. 28 - Shipek
    Hydrocast
    Underway for Sta. 18
    Dredge over
    Dredge over
    Dredge set - towing across Sta. 18
    
    Dredge in
    Sta. 18 - grab
    Hydrocast
    Underway for Sta. 21
    
    Dredae Sta. - course 170ฐ true - 1/3 spd
    Dredge set
    Dredge up
    Sta. 21 - grab - hydro
    Underway for Sta. 23
    Dredne over 1 mi. NW Sta. 23
    Dredge set
    Towing dredge
    Dredgt aboard
    Dredae over
    Towing dredge on Sta. 23
                                  A-84
    

    -------
    Date  3-14-74
    Time
    1057
    1100
    1129
    1200
    1215
    1230
    1330
    1500
    1530
    1612
    1907
    1910
    1940
    2040
    2045
    2100
    2107
    2143
    2200
    2213
    2230
    2300
    2318
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5
    3444
    3445
    3445
    3447
    3445
    3426
    3358
    3364
    3379
    3407
    3407
    3407
    3412
    3430
    3430
    3427
    3421
    3373
    3359
    2245
    3331
    3336
    3345
    3009
    3009
    2998
    2987
    2986
    2989
    3008
    3004
    3018
    3039
    3040
    3040
    3047
    3057
    3060
    3060
    3054
    3053
    3053
    2053
    3054
    3053
    3053
    Comments
    Dredge aboard
    Trawl over 1 .5 mi . NW Sta. 23 - C 124 T
    Towing trawl on Sta. 23
    C/H trawl
    Trawl aboard - underway Sta. 2
    
    Retrieving current meter, Sta. 2
    Meter aboard - underway Sta. 2
    
    Second meter
    Buoy over marking current meter
    Underway for Sta. 20
    Dredge set
    Dredge aboard
    All stop Sta. 20
    
    Underway
    Dredge over & set
    
    Sta. 22
    
    Hauling dredge
    Dredge aboard - on Sta. 22
                                  A-85
    

    -------
    Date  3-15-74
    Time
    0003
    0011
    0037
    0100
    0128
    0130
    0144
    0150
    0207
    0230
    0240
    0335
    0347
    0400
    0415
    0435
    0437
    0500
    0543
    0700-0815
    0830-0945
    Position
    3 H4 3 H5
    3350
    3342
    3350
    3351
    3347
    3346
    3347
    3349
    3351
    3348
    3353
    3342
    3352
    3355
    3330
    3301
    3301
    3319
    3350
    3407
    3400
    3042
    3049
    3030
    3022
    3015
    3019
    3023
    3024
    3025
    3023
    3023
    3022
    3024
    3024
    3016
    3014
    3014
    3016
    3020
    3040
    3037
    Comments
    Hydrocast complete - BT cast
    Underway to Sta. E
    Rocking chair dredge over- C 125ฐ
    
    c/c to 305ฐ
    -
    c/h dredge
    Dredge aboard
    Sta. E - Shipek
    Finish hydro - dredge over
    Dredge set
    c/h trawl
    Trawl aboard
    Underway to Sta. 8
    
    Dredge out
    Dredge set
    Sta. P.
    Dredge up - underway for current meter
    station
    Retrieved current meter and anchor
    Trawl
                                  A-86
    

    -------
    Environmental  Protection Agency
              Region III
         Annapolis Field Office
        Annapolis  Science Center
       Annapolis,  Maryland  21401
           OPERATION "IDES"
    
             Cruise Plan
    
           March 11-15,  1974
                A-87
    

    -------
                               OPERATION "IDES"
                                  March 1974
         Ocean dumping operations on the continental  shelf off Delaware
    and Maryland show evidence of elevated concentrations of potentially
    toxic metals in the sediments and biota, as determined from survey
    cruises to the area.
         The spring 1974 cruise was designed with the objectives:
         1.  Extend monitoring observations of environmental  conditions
    at previously observed locations.
         2.  Expand observations to delineate affected depositional  areas.
         3.  Develop statistical comparisons of affected  and unaffected
    areas.
         4.  Expand circulation information with current  meter array.
         5.  Incidentally gather baseline data of environmental  conditions
    at potential oil drilling sites.  These are normal  reference stations
    for ocean dumping monitoring.
         6.  Collect indigenous organisms for bioassay development in  the
    laboratory.
         Rationale:
         The vagaries and uncertainties of early spring weather indicate
    the desirability of establishing priorities of stations and sampling.
         Accordingly, 10 stations have been assigned  priority over the
    remaining stations, and sediment retrieval and benthic animal  collection
    giver sampling priority.
                                   A-88
    

    -------
    Operation "IDES"
       Stations
    Station
    Sequence
    A
    19
    14
    C
    B
    D
    2
    8
    9
    17
    26
    27
    F
    25
    24
    E
    23
    21
    18
    20
    22
    Priority Latitude
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    2
    1
    2
    1
    2
    2
    2
    2
    2
    2
    2
    2
    38ฐ40.
    (approx)38ฐ40.
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    (approx)38ฐ
    (approx)38ฐ
    38ฐ
    (approx)38ฐ
    (approx)38ฐ
    38ฐ
    (approx)38ฐ
    (approx)38ฐ
    (approx)38ฐ
    (apporx)38ฐ
    (approx)38ฐ
    27.
    31.
    35.
    28.
    22.
    20.
    11.
    12.
    05.
    05.
    13.
    13.
    17.
    23.
    28.
    32.
    40.
    34.
    27.
    6'
    7'
    8'
    21
    T
    5'
    3'
    7'
    9'
    V
    21
    2'
    6'
    O1
    0'
    5'
    0'
    8'
    6'
    2'
    2'
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    W
    N
    Longitude
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    73ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    73ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    19
    0
    57
    19
    18
    17
    14
    19
    32
    28
    27
    13
    08
    57
    14
    18
    08
    08
    10
    22
    26
    .5'
    .0
    .0'
    .5'
    .T
    .0'
    .2'
    .0'
    .9'
    .3'
    .7'
    .4'
    .7'
    .8'
    .5'
    .2'
    .0'
    .5'
    S1
    .8'
    .0'
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    I'J
    W
    W
    W
    3H4
    3512
    3610
    3500
    3420
    3440
    3401
    3356
    3313
    3217
    3181
    3110
    3182
    3300
    3346
    3305
    3350
    3445
    3490
    3557
    3430
    3345
    3H5
    3065
    2996
    2968
    3043
    3048
    3030
    3009
    3018
    3051
    3030
    3017
    2974
    2985
    2936
    2998
    3025
    2998
    3009
    3032
    3060
    3053
        A-89
    

    -------
                              OPERATION "IDES"
                                 Watch List
    PORT WATCH
    1.  Smith
    2.  Thomas
    3.  Pesch
    4.  Downing
    5.  Davis
    6.  Yff
    7.  Bailey
    8.  Muir
    9.
    STARBOARD WATCH
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    8.
    9.
    O'Malley
    Lear
    Meyers
    Reynolds
    Crutchley
    Williams
    Kafka
    Steibolt
    McCleary
                                  A-90
    

    -------
                                      OPERATION "IDES"
    STANDARD STATION
    1.   Niskin sampler
        1.   Bacti
    2.   Shipek 6 replicates
        1.   Bacti
        2.   Metals
        3.   Particle size
        4.   PCB's, Pesticides
        5.   Organisms
        6.   TOC
    3.   Probe readings
        (Sal., Cond.,Temp., DO, pH)
    4.   Hydrocast
        1.   Metals (Sta. 2 only)
        2.   Fe & Nutrients
        3.   TOC (Bottom H20's only)
    5.   Phytoplankton grab (surface water
          PORT WATCH
          Smith
            n
          Bailey, Thomas
          Smith
         Davis, Downing
    
         Muir, Yff
        1.  I.D.
    6.  Zooplankton tow
        1.  I.D.
        2.  Metals
    7.  Trawl
        1.  Organisms
        2.  Metals
    8.  Rocking Chair Dredge
        1.  Organisms
        2.  Metals
    only)
         Davis, Muir
         Bailey, Thomas
         Pesch, Downing
    STARBOARD WATCH
    O'Malley
        II
    Crutch!ey, Lear
    O'Malley
    Meyers, Kafka
    Williams, McCleary
    Kafka, Meyers
    Crutch!ey, Lear
    Reynolds, Steibolt
                                         A-91
    

    -------
                                 Operation "IDES"
    
                                 Station Routine
    
    A.   ANCHORED
    
         1.  Shipek - 6 drops
    
             a.  Bacti - sediment - process @ station
    
             b.  Chemistry
    
                 (1) PCB - glass jar - store
    
                 (2) Metals - whirlpak
    
                 (3) Sediment size - whirlpak
    
                 (4) TOC - whirlpak
    
             c.  Biology (5 replicates) gal. jars with buffered formalin (5%)
    
         2.  Hydrocast
    
             a.  Niskin - bottom H20
    
                 (1) Bacti MPN
    
             b.  Van Dorn bottles or submersible pump (surf.)
    
                 (1) Metals (Sta. 2 bottom only) gal  cubi  - freeze
    
                 (2) Fe & nutrients (water col.  & bottom waters) qt.  cubi - freeze
    
                 (3) TOC - whirlpak - freeze
    
                 (4) Phytoplankton grab - fix -  Lugol's soln.
    
    B.  UNDERWAY
    
         a.  Rocking chair clam dredge
    
                 (1) I.D. and count organisms
    
                 (2) Freeze representative species for metals
    
         b.  Trawl
    
                 (1) I.D. and count organisms
    
                 (2) Freeze representative species for metals
    
         c.  Zooplankton tows (2)
                 (1) I.D. - preserve
                 (2) Metals - freeze      _
    

    -------
                                       Operation "IDES"
                                       March 11-15,1974
    SEDIMENTS
    Samf
    Parameter Sampler Per
    Bacti Shipek
    PCB's,
    Pesticides
    TOC
    Metals
    Sed. Size
    Biology "
    WATER
    Bottom Niskin
    Bacti
    Bottom Van Dorn
    Metals
    Bottom "
    TOC
    Bottom Fe "
    & Nut.*
    Water Col.
    & Nut.*
    BIOLOGY
    Organisms
    Metals Rocking
    Chair
    Metals Trawl
    PHYTOPLANKTON
    I.D. Grab
    ZOOPLANKTON
    I.D. Tow
    Metals Tow
    )le #
    Station
    1
    1
    1
    5
    1
    5
    1
    1
    1
    1
    4
    1/20
    
    1
    2
    2
    Max #
    Sampler
    8
    5
    7
    
    5
    105
    8
    1
    8
    8
    20
    
    
    20
    8
    8
    f
    Analyses
    8
    5
    7
    400
    5
    105
    8
    1
    *
    4'C
    100
    
    
    20
    8
    80
    Container
    Fr. Sq.
    Pt. Mason
    Glass
    Whirlpak
    Jar
    Gal .Mason
    Fr. Sq.
    Gal .cubi
    Whirlpak
    Qt. cubi
    Qt. cubi
    Plastic
    bags
    Plastic
    bags
    Fr. Sq.
    Glass
    Whirlpak
    Preservative
    Process
    Stow
    Freeze
    11
    Stow
    5% Formalin
    Process
    Freeze
    "
    M
    II
    Freeze
    Freeze
    Formalin
    Formalin +
    Hexo.
    Freeze
    Analyst
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    Corval
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    Narra.
    AFO
    APO
    AFO
    AFO
    uata
    Inter.
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    lis?
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    Narra
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
                Nutrients: Total POas PQ4, Inorganic P04, TKN, N02+N03
                                           A-93
    

    -------
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
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    -------
           TiฃfJ   A^'- "'/
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                           '•A
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                                                    X
                                                                X
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    Fe, Hg,  Cr,  Pb, and Zn - 5 replicates on 10 circled stations
    Other five metals determined once on circled stations
    All 10 metals determined once on remaining stations
    Pesticides - once at double circled stations
    

    -------
    

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    -------
                              APPENDIX B
                          OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
              USCG "Alert" MEC 630 - 12-15 August 1974
                              DATA REPORT
                               CONTENTS                          page
    
    List of Tables                                               B- 3
    List of Figures                                              B- 4
    Station Data                                                 B- 5
    Station Locations                                            B- 6
    Hydrographic Data                                            B- 7
    Distribution of Temperature and Salinity                     B-22
    Water Quality Parameters*
    Bacteriological Results                                      B-35
    Virological Results*
    Sediments
         Size Analysis*
         Total Organic Carbon in Sediments                       B-37
         Organohalogens in Sediments*
         Metals in Sediments                                     B"41
         Distribution of Metals in Sediments                     B"47
    Biota
         Phytoplankton populations*
         Occurrence of Organisms from Trawls*
                                   B-l
    

    -------
                          OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
                              DATA REPORT
                               CONTENTS (Continued)
                                                               Page
         Metals in Organisms from Trawls*
         Benthic Infauna Populations*
    Cruise Plan                                                B-58
    
    
              * Awaiting sample or data analysis
                                    B-2
    

    -------
                     OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
                        LIST OF TABLES
    
                                                        Page
    
    1          Station Data                             B-  5
    
    2          Hydrographic Data                        B-  8
    
    3          Bacteriological Results                  B-36
    
    4          Total Carbon and Total Organic Carbon    B-38
                 in Sediments
    
    5          Atomic Absorber Operating Conditions     B-42
    
    6          Metals in Sediments                      B-43
                             B-3
    

    -------
                        OPERATION "DEEP  SIX"
    
                          LIST OF FIGURES
                                                             Page
    
     1           Station Locations                            B- 6
    
     2           Temperature-Salinity Profiles                 B-22
    
     3           Distribution of Total  Organic  Carbon          B-40
                  in Sediments
    
     4           Distribution of Iron in  Sediments             B-49
    
     5           Distribution of Manganese in Sediments        B-50
    
     6           Distribution of Zinc in  Sediments             B-51
    
     7           Distribution of Nickel  in Sediments           B-52
    
     8           Distribution of Lead in  Sediments             B-53
    
     9           Distribution of Cadmium  in Sediments          B-54
    
    10           Distribution of Chromium in Sediments        B-55
    
    11           Distribution of Copper in Sediments           B-56
    
    12           Distribution of Mercury  in Sediments          B-57
                                B-4
    

    -------
                  Table 1
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX" -  STATION
       Loran A           Loran C
     3H4     3H5     SS/-Y     SS7-Z
                             Lat.
    Long.   Depth
    Sta. Date Time
    31 8-12-74 1243 3444 3104 	 	
    O9 " TOOQ 9 9 ฃ O 9r^QT
    22 8-13-74 0015 	 	 52257.0 70430.5
    E " 0550 	 	 52239.7 70465.4
    2 " 1225 	 	 52216.3 7047^.0
    8 "-. 1415 	 	 52273.3 70488.8
    24 " 1745 3290 2996 	 	
    25 " 2325 3339 2938 	 	
    F 8-14-74 0553 3264 2985 	 	
    27 " 0852 3167 2976 	 	
    26 " 1308 3115 3018 	 	
    17 '• 2023 3176 3028 	 	
    9 3-15-74 0055 3219 3047 	 	
    33 " 0235 3270 3064 	 	
    D " 0821 3396 3033 52188.2 70441.3
    B11 1 99 C ^^Q7 ^O^O _ 	 — 	 .
    20 " 2112 3432 3060 	 	
    C " 1735 3430 3044 	 	
    21 " 2252 3480 3012 	 	
    14 8-16 74 0331 3553 2960 	 - 	
    19 " 1055 3602 2997 	 	
    18 " 1235 3562 3034 	 	
    A " 1745 3517 3064 --.--,- ~ - -
    28 " 2150 3577 3080 — - 	 -
    29 8-17-74 0150 3641 3042 	 	
    __•_-] n nr*3n "3/iRn ^i^n
    . ... ^
    W N
    74ฐ32.4' 38ฐ40.5'
    "7 /I O o "l oi O O O o O 91
    / 4 J 1 . O OO OL. . c.
    7-; ":5.8' 38ฐ26.5'
    74ฐ19.0' 18023.3'
    74' 15. 3' 38ฐ23.0'
    74ฐ18.8' 38ฐ19.6'
    74ฐ14.3' 38ฐ15.7'
    73ฐ58.5' 38ฐ12.5'
    74r12.7'- 38ฐ13.7'
    74ฐK.8' 38ฐ04.3'
    74r?o.3' 38-05.7'
    yiTl.B1 3T'l'?.5I
    74ฐ30.7' 23ฐ17.1'
    74M2.5- 38-23.0'
    74ฐ18.3' 38ฐ28.2'
    74ฐ?2.6' 38ฐ30.5'
    74-ฐ?? fi ' ?Rฐ?d 4-1
    /T^ t-t-ปW \J\J *JT"ซT^
    74-19.21 38ฐ32.5'
    7''0i>. 1' 'JQ0'?^ 9'
    /'I u J . t •JO Jc. . C.
    73n5-. .7" 38ฐ32.2'
    74ฐC0.2' 38ฐ40.0'
    74-09.8' 38ฐ41.3'
    74ฐ19.8' 33ป41. 4'
    74ฐ20.3' 38M6.7'
    74ฐ03.3' 38ฐ48.3'
    7/1ฐ ?7 8' -5ซฐ/17 9'
    leter
    31
    31
    40
    38
    44
    44
    44
    69
    57
    53
    38
    :~6
    36
    31
    36
    40
    53
    44
    38
    57
    46
    40
    35
    35
    44
    
    B-5
    

    -------
          FIGURE 1
    
    
    
    STATION LOCATIONS
    
    OPERATION  DEEP SIX
    
        AUGUST  1974
    31
                        32*
           -38* 30-
                R "D';
                        33*
                         ,0
                                         •28 /
                                •29
               A*.-
    • 18
                                    •20
                                   •B
                                         •C
                              •21
                                 •22
                    • D
                                          •E
                                          •ft
                         •2
                                 ..-•/
                                                            J}
                             •26
                                            27*.-"'
                           o
                           p)
                                              N
                                          19
                                                                    V
                    \
                   H4.
    
                   .30
                                                                     •25.-
                                                                      r.O
                                            o
                                            o
           •38* 00'-
                                      B-6
    

    -------
                            OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
                                HYDROGRAPHY
    
    
    
    
    
         The hydrographic data indicate the thermocline was well  developed
    
    
    
    at all stations during this cruise and was found at approximately 16 to
    
    
    
    20 meters.   The weather was calm during this whole cruise,  consequently
    
    
    
    no perturbations due to wind stresses would be expected.
    
    
    
         The salinity distributions on this cruise show, at the surface,
    
    
    
    the influence of 33 parts per thousand coming in from the west,  presumably
    
    
    
    due to the  influence of the Delaware estuary.  From the east  side,  a very
    
    
    
    pronounced  tongue of 35 parts per thousand water at the surface, from the
    
    
    
    slope, intrudes and it would appear from the irregular distributions of
    
    
    
    salinity that this whole region is one of mixing of estuarine and outer
    
    
    
    shelf, possibly slope, waters (Figure 2).  The U.  S. Naval  Oceanographic
    
    
    
    Office publication, "The Gulf Stream", published monthly,  indicates  that
    
    
    
    in July 1974 there were well  defined anticyclonic  eddies  to the  east of
    
    
    
    this area.   The influence of these eddies, which were noted for  the past
    
    
    
    six or eight months, on the distribution of temperature and salinity in
    
    
    
    this area,  is as yet not known.
                                   5-7
    

    -------
         Table 2
    
    
    
    
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX1
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data
    Sample
    Station Date Time Depth
    2 8/13/74 1225 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    40
    8 8/13/74 1415 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    40
    43
    Temp.
    23.16
    23.10
    22.91
    22.40
    11.00
    9.36
    9.44
    9.24
    -
    22.90
    22.54
    22.58
    14.16
    9.67
    9.76
    9.51
    9.26
    9.19
    -
    Sal init.y
    34.8
    34.8
    34.8
    -
    40.1
    34.9
    35.1
    34.8
    -
    33.9
    34.0
    34.4
    34.5
    34.9
    35.3
    35.1
    35.0
    35.0
    -
    PH
    8.0
    -
    8.0
    -
    -
    -
    7.8
    -
    7.8
    8.0
    7.8
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.8
    -
    7.8
             B-8
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Sample
    Station Date Time Depth
    9 8/15/74 0055 Surface
    5
    7
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    31
    35
    39
    14 8/16/74 0331 Surface
    5
    10
    12
    15
    20
    30
    40
    48
    50
    Temp.
    22.9
    23.1
    -
    22.5
    19.5
    11.5
    10.5
    10.6
    -
    10.4
    -
    23.46
    23.51
    23.40
    -
    22.98
    21.92
    10.49
    7.
    -
    7.51
    Salinity
    33.5
    33.4
    -
    33.5
    33.7
    34.4
    34.6
    34.5
    -
    34.6
    -
    34.8
    35.2
    35.1
    -
    34.9
    36.2
    35.4
    35.3
    -
    35.0
    pH
    8.2
    -
    8.0
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.9
    -
    7.9
    8.2
    -
    -
    8.2
    -
    -
    -
    8.0
    8.0
    _
             B-9
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Sample
    Station Date Time Depth
    17 8/14/74 2023 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    36
    18 8/16/74 1235 Surface
    5
    10
    12
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    37
    40
    Temp.
    23.24
    23.08
    22.52
    13.80
    11.50
    10.74
    10.63
    10.02
    -
    23.9
    23.6
    23.0
    -
    22.5
    15.8
    13.2
    12.6
    9.4
    -
    9.2
    Salinity
    32.7
    32.7
    32.6
    33.7
    33.5
    33.5
    33.9
    34.0
    -
    35.1
    34.3
    34.3
    -
    34.4
    35.3
    34.9
    35.4
    35.9
    -
    35.3
    PH
    8.1
    8.2
    -
    -
    -
    -
    8.3
    -
    7.8
    7.5
    -
    -
    7.6
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.5
    7.6
          B-10
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Sample
    Station Date Time Depth
    19 8/16/74 1055 Surface
    5
    8
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    38
    40
    43
    20 8/18/74 2112 Surface
    5
    8
    10
    15
    20
    25
    27
    30
    35
    36
    Temp.
    23.8
    23.3
    -
    23.3
    22.3
    14.7
    10.7
    8.2
    8.0
    -
    8.2
    -
    23.1
    23.0
    -
    22.5
    21.3
    13.5
    11. b
    -
    10.8
    10.3
    „
    Salinity
    34.1
    34.1
    -
    34.1
    34.2
    35.0
    34.5
    34.6
    34.7
    -
    34.5
    -
    33.9
    34.1
    -
    33.9
    33.9
    34.0
    34.3
    -
    34.6
    34.5
    _
    PH
    7.8
    -
    8.0
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.85
    -
    7.8
    7.8
    -
    7.6
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.4
    -
    -
    7.4
              B-ll
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    
    
    
    
    
          Sample
    Station Date Time Depth
    21 8/15/74 2252 Surface
    5
    10
    11
    15
    20
    25
    30
    34
    35
    40
    46
    22 8/13/74 0425 Surface
    5
    8
    10
    15
    20
    25
    27
    30
    38
    B-12
    Temp.
    23.4
    23.4
    23.3
    -
    23.1
    23.6
    16.4
    14.8
    -
    11.4
    8.6
    -
    22.2
    21.9
    -
    22.1
    20.6
    11.7
    11.3
    -
    11.0
    -
    Salinity
    34.2
    34.3
    34.7
    -
    34.8
    35.6
    35.5
    35.3
    -
    34.8
    34.8
    -
    33.2
    33.4
    -
    33.4
    34.4
    34.4
    34.5
    -
    34.4
    -
    PH
    7.9
    
    
    7.9
    
    
    
    
    7.9
    
    
    7.9
    8.0
    -
    7.8
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.8
    -
    7.8
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Sample
    Station Date Time Depth
    24 8/13/74 2134 Surface
    5
    10
    11.5
    15
    20
    23
    25
    30
    35
    40
    45
    49
    25 8/14/74 0008 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    40
    83
    Temp.
    23.6
    23.7
    23.6
    -
    23.5
    23.1
    -
    20.3
    14.5
    10.4
    8.5
    8.3
    -
    24.12
    23.94
    23.90
    -
    23.94
    23.86
    23.88
    23.30
    20.90
    „
    Sa 1 i n i ty
    35.1
    34.9
    34.9
    -
    35.2
    35.1
    -
    32.7
    35.1
    33.6
    34.9
    35.0
    -
    36.7
    37.0
    37.1
    -
    37.0
    36.9
    37.0
    36.6
    37.1
    _
    PH
    8.1
    
    
    8.0
    
    
    7.7
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.7
    8.0
    -
    -
    8.0
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.9
    7.8
           B-13
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Sample
    Station Date Time Depth
    26 8/14/74 1612 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    27 8/14/74 0925 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    40
    44
    45
    53
    Temp.
    23.71
    23.11
    23.23
    23.38
    14.54
    10.02
    9.69
    9.78
    23.8
    23.7
    24.0
    23.8
    20.0
    18.8
    15.2
    15.0
    10.1
    -
    8.4
    ซ.
    Salinity
    32.8
    33.0
    33.6
    34.0
    33.9
    33.5
    34.0
    33.9
    34.4
    34.7
    35.0
    35.2
    35.5
    35.8
    35.0
    34.8
    34.1
    -
    34.1
    _
    PH
    8.0
    -
    7.9
    -
    -
    -
    7.6
    7.8
    7.9
    7.7
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.7
    -
    8.0
              B-14
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Station Date Time
    28 8/16/74 2150
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    29 8/17/74 0150
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Sample
    Depth
    Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    42
    Surface
    5
    9
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    32
    35
    42
    Temp.
    23.64
    22.88
    22.07
    22.12
    16.55
    12.84
    11.66
    -
    23.6
    23.2
    -
    23.0
    22.6
    13.3
    10.6
    10.3
    -
    10.1
    _
    Sal inity
    33.3
    33.4
    33.4
    33.9
    33.5
    34. 2
    34.2
    -
    33.5
    33.5
    -
    33.6
    34.1
    34.1
    34.3
    34.4
    -
    34.6
    _
    PH
    7.7
    -
    7.7
    -
    -
    -
    7.7
    7.7
    8.2
    -
    8,2
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.9
    -
    7.9
          B-15
    

    -------
                          OPERATION  "DEEP SIX"
    
                           Hydrographic Data  (continued)
    
    
                                  Sample
    Station     Date     Time	Depth	Temp.	Salinity	pH
    
      31       3-12-74     1800      Surface    22.5         33.8        8.2
    
                                      5       22.4         33.2
    
                                    10       22.0         33.4
    
                                    15     "  16.1         34.0
    
                                    20       14.4         34.2        8.0
    
                                    25       14.2         34.2
    
                                    30       14.0         34.2        8.0
    
                                    35       14.0         34.1        8.0
                                   B-16
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Sampl e
    Station Date Time Depth
    32 8/12/74 1938 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    22
    25
    30
    35
    33 8/15/74 0235 Surface
    5
    6
    10
    15
    20
    24
    25
    30
    Temp.
    22.70
    22.54
    21.92
    21.78
    14.77
    -
    13.81
    13.20
    13.11
    22.4
    22.5
    -
    20.5
    14.0
    12.2
    -
    11.6
    10.9
    Salinity
    33.9
    33.1
    33.5
    33.4
    33.8
    -
    34.2
    34.1
    34.2
    33.1
    33.6
    -
    34.1
    34.0
    34.2
    -
    34.3
    34.4
    PH
    8.2
    -
    8.2
    -
    -
    8.0
    -
    -
    8.0
    8.2
    -
    8.2
    -
    -
    -
    7.9
    -
    7.9
              B-17
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data  (continued)
    Sampl e
    Station Date Time Depth
    A 8/16/74 1745 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    34
    B 8/15/74 1225 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    Temp.
    23.92
    23.30
    22.26
    21.34
    15.06
    12.19
    11.25
    -
    22.85
    22.69
    22.33
    20.94
    14.43
    11.47
    9.99
    9.84
    Salinity pH
    33.5 7.8
    33.9
    33.5 7.8
    33.7
    34.5
    34.3
    34.4 7.7
    7.6
    33.8 8.1
    33.6 8.2
    33,8
    34.0
    34.5
    34.8
    34.5 8.0
    34.6 8.0
                   B-18
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Station H;.t: T—.P
    r " '- ' .
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    D - -. , .. 1
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Sample
    Depth
    Surface
    5
    8
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    40
    44
    Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    Temp.
    24.2
    23.4
    -
    22.8
    22.3
    17.2
    10.5
    10.1
    10.0
    9.9
    -
    23.45
    23.32
    23.20
    23.16
    14.20
    9.71
    9.76
    9.66
    Salinity
    34. 3
    34.3
    -
    34.2
    34.3
    3^.ฐ
    34.5
    34.9
    34 o
    34.3
    -
    34.5
    34.5
    34.5
    34.2
    34.5
    i-
    34.5
    3*1.6
    PH
    7.8
    -
    8.0
    -
    -
    -
    -
    7.5
    -
    -
    7.5
    8.4
    8.4
    -
    -
    -
    -
    8.1
    8.2
             B-19
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Station Date Time
    D 8/15/74
    
    
    
    E 8/13/74 0700
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Samp! e
    Depth Temp.
    Surface
    5m
    16m
    30m
    35m
    Surface 22.3
    5 22.3
    8
    10 22.4
    15 22.0
    20 13.6
    25 9.3
    27
    30 9.3
    38
    Salinity pH
    7.8 (In dis
    colored
    7.8 water)
    8.0
    8.0
    8.0
    33.8 7.9
    33.7
    8.0
    33.9
    33.7
    35.0
    34.9
    8.0
    35.0
    7.8
              B-20
    

    -------
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
     Hydrographic Data (continued)
    Sample
    Station Date Time Depth
    F 8/14/74 0653 Surface
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    40
    50
    56
    Temp.
    23.14
    23.68
    23.91
    23.68
    20.24
    15.33
    13.80
    8.83
    8.26
    8.45
    —
    Sal inity
    34.4
    34.8
    35.0
    35.5
    36.5
    35.0
    35.3
    35.2
    34.9
    34.9
    _
    PH
    8.0
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    8.1
    7.8
            B-21
    

    -------
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                                                   B-34
    

    -------
                           OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
    
    
                         BACTERIOLOGICAL RESULTS
    
    
    
    
    
         Coliform determinations only were made on this cruise because
    
    
    
    of a malfunctioning incubator that was to be used for determination
    
    
    
    of fecal coliforms.
    
    
    
         The bacteriological results again indicate no buildups of
    
    
    
    coliforms in the area (Table 3).  Generally, the levels were below
    
    
    
    the detectable limits, less than 3 coliforms per 100 ml.  And at
    
    
    
    Station 14, the bottom water indicated a 93 which may be anomalous
    
    
    
    due to the relatively primitive laboratory conditions aboard ship.
    
    
    
    Also, the sediments at Station E indicated 4 coliforms per 100 ml.
    
    
    
    The generally low counts of these organisms indicates no major
    
    
    
    buildup in bottom waters or sediments.
                                   R-35
    

    -------
          TABLE 3
     OPERATION"DEEP SIX"
    BACTERIOLOGICAL DATA
    Station
    2
    8
    9
    ll*
    19
    26
    C
    E
    Date
    8/13/71*
    8/13/71*
    8/15/7U
    8/16/71*
    8/16/71*
    8/1V71*
    8/15/71*
    8/13/71*
    Time
    11*15
    0850
    0130
    1810
    1055
    1730
    1800
    0730
    Bottom Water
    Coliform
    MPN/100 ml
    <3
    <3
    <3
    93
    <3
    <3
    <3
    <3
    Sediment
    Coliform
    MPN/100 ml
    <3
    <3
    <3
    <3
    <3
    <3
    <3
    li
            B-36
    

    -------
                          OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
                   TOTAL ORGANIC CARBONS IN SEDIMENTS
    
         The distribtuion of total organic carbon in sediments indicates
    higher values associated with the dump release zones and with Station F
    that also showed high concentrations of metals.   Generally,  there is a
    great deal of variation in the concentrations at stations that do not
    show accumulations of metals, which are used as  tags for the ultimate
    fate of materials in this program.
         These data indicate the possibility of increased total  organic
    carbon in the areas of release of dump materials ,  both of the acid
    wastes and of the sewage sludge.  This parameter should have more
    concentrated attention in future cruises.
                                   B-37
    

    -------
                TABLE 4
    
            OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
               Sediment Data
    Total Carbon and Total Organic Carbon
    Station
    2
    8
    8
    9
    14
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    24
    25
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    31
    32
    33
    TC (nig/ kg)
    300
    450
    510
    160
    300
    240
    220
    550
    570
    370
    710
    210
    290
    340
    350
    180
    240
    470
    340
    460
    170
    TOC (rng/kg)
    140
    270
    330
    060
    150
    100
    090
    360
    410
    170
    500
    070
    090
    180
    180
    040
    070
    250
    200
    310
    050
                    B-38
    

    -------
                 OPERATION "DEEP SIX '
    
                    Sediment Data
         Total Carbon and Total Oraanic Carbon
    Station
    A
    <3
    C
    C
    D
    r
    F
    TC (mg/kg)
    190
    LA*
    670
    750
    270
    800
    630
    TOC (mg/kg)
    090
    _3~
    530
    6K
    i -. -
    1 ^ <
    6^n
    430
    *Lab accident
                         B-39
    

    -------
           FIGURE  3
    
    
       TOC IN SEDIMENTS
      OPERATION  DEEP  SIX
    TOTAL ORGANIC  CARBON
          ppm — dry wt
         Depths in  fathoms
         -38* 30-
               R "D',
                        310
                         50'
                       .' 60ซ
    70 ..'/
    250
                    90
             360
                             200
                                   N
                                    \
                                         410
                                               530
                                               610
                • 170
                                     500
       130
                                                640
                                               270
             140
                                    100
                                                   70<
                                                  430 • :
                                 180
                                                                   ป0
                                                401
                            o
                            n
                  ป 150
    
                   .30'
                               90
                              180
                                 o
                                 o
          -38'  00'	•-
                                                                                ~o
                                          B-40
    

    -------
                               Organohalogens in Sedimsnts
    
                            Operation "Deep Six" -  August 1974
                Sample    Station    Cms.    A1232   A1252   A!254   PP'DDE   PP'DDD   Endrin
      Date	No.	No.    Extract,   ppb     ppb     ppb     ppb	ppb	ppb
    
    8/13/74    74090301      2     77.7910
               Frt   6%                     <0.2    <0.2    <0.2    <0.2     <0.2     <0.2
                    15%                       _-___-_
    
    8/13/74    74090306      8     73.2584
                     6%                     <0.2    <0.2    <0.5    <0.2     <0.2     <0.2
                    15%                       -               -•-_---
    
    8/16/74    74090312     14     77.7168
                     6%                       /     <0.2 .    1.1    <0.2     <0.2     <0.2
                    15%                •                                                -
    
    8/14/74    74090325     26     83.4212
                     6%                       /'    <0.2     1.0    <0.2     <0.2     <0.2
                    15%                       -
    
    8/16/74    74090327     28     82.3830                   '         .
                     6%                   :    /     <0.2     1.3    <0.2     <0.2     <0.2
                    15%                       ___.„_
    
    8/15/74    74090335     33     83.9043
                     6%                       /     <0.2     0.9    <0.2     <0.2     <0.2
    
    
    •8 .-'15/74    74090342      C     71.0385
                     6%                     <0.2    <0.2     1.4    <0.2     <0.2     <0.2
                    15%                       -
    
    8/13/74    7409348       E     83.9486
                     6%                     <0.2    <0.2     1.7     3.2      0.7
                    15%.                       -                                        8.0
               May be 1232 present
                                             B-40a
    

    -------
    

    -------
                             OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
                            Metals in Sediments
                               P. G. Johnson
         Sediment samples were taken using a Shipek sampler.
         The sediment samples were transferred from whirl-paks to glass
    jars and well mixed.  A portion (approximately 10 grams) was removed
    and spread to dry at room temperature for 48 hours.  The samples were
    again mixed and pulverized to separate the sand grains and to expose
    surface areas.  At this time any large rocks, pebbles, or shells
    (>5mm) were removed.  The samples were allowed to air-dry at room
    temperature for an additional 48 hours.
         A known weight (5.0000 gms) of dry sediment was put in a 125 ml
    glass-stoppered flask.  Small amounts of deionized distilled water
    were used to aid in the transfer.   The addition of 21.5 ml of concen-
    trated nitric acid provided a digestion solution of 50-75 ml.  This
    solution was heated at 48-50ฐC (1) for 4-6 hours in a shaking hot water
    bath.  After digestion, the samples were cooled to room temperature and
    filtered through a .45 micron membrane filter and the volume adjusted
    to 100 ml.   Blank solutions were run throughout the same digestion
    procedure (2, 3).
         The filtered acid extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni,
    Zn, Mn, and Fe using a Varian Techtron AA-6 atomic absorption spectro-
    photometer  equipped with a  standard pre-mix burner.  Air-acetylene was
    used for all  the metals.  Standard operating parameters are shown in
    Table 5.
                                  B-41
    

    -------
    tamp Current (ma)
    Fuel
    Support
    Flame Condition
    Wavelength
    Spectral Band Pass (nm)
    Working Range (mg/1)
    :d
    3
    A
    a
    0
    Cr
    5
    A
    a
    R
    Cu
    3
    A
    a
    0
    Pb
    6
    A
    a
    0
    Zn
    5
    A
    a
    0
    Ni
    5
    A
    a
    0
    MN
    5
    A
    a
    0
    Fe
    5
    A
    a
    0
                                OPFRATION "DEEP SIX"
                               Metals in Sediments
                                     TABLE 5
                               Operating Conditions
                                 Cd     Cr     Cu
                                  353
                                  A      A      A
                                  a      a      a
                                  0      R      0
                              228.8  357.9  324.7  217.0  213.9  232.0  279.5  386.0
                                 .5     .2     .2    1.0     .2     .2     .2     .2
                                 .5-2  2-8    2-8    5-20 .4-1.6  3-12    1-4 50-200
    Typical Sensitivity (mg/1 )   .011   .055   .04    .11    .099   .066   .024   .90
                A - acetylene, a - air,  0 -  oxidizing,  R - reducing
    
              Mercury was analyzed using an  automated flameless atomic absorption
         technique.  All  sediment results were xpressed as mg/kg dry weight.
              The organisms were dissected for certain  organs or digested  whole.
         The digestion procedure used was the  same as that used for  the sediments
         except that a known wet weight  was  used  and the results were expressed
         as mg/kg wet weight.
              The calculations for the sediment and organisms are as follows:
                            final  answer (mg/1)
         SEDIMENTS:
         ORGANISMS:
                                    (dry)
        TOOml
       final answer (mg/1)
    wet weight (gms)     ]_
        100 ml        x
                                               gOQ_njl_ = mg/gm  y  1QQQ  = mg/kg
                                                      =  mg/gm x  100Q  =  mg/kg
                                       B-42
    

    -------
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    B-45
    

    -------
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
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    B-46
    

    -------
                          OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
                  DISTRIBUTION OF METALS IN SEDIMENTS
    
         The distribution of metals in sediments was different than
    previous cruises.  For the analysis of the distribution of these
    metals, the higher concentrations were contoured visually.  Then the
    distribution hypothesis tested statistically showed that the contoured
    areas were statistically signifiant from the remaining area.  The
    nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test was used for these purposes and the
    distributions as shown are statistically discrete.  It would appear
    again, as noted in Operation "Ides", that the material from each of
    the release zones are settling separately to the bottom.  The coin-
    cidence of the contours of many of the metals make this hypothesis
    very tenable.
         During the summer season, with stratification well developed, the
    residual materials reaching the bottom would appear to be northwest of
    the acid release site and in the sewage sludge site and at one station,
    Station F, to the south of the sewage sludge site.
         The incidence of single stations showing relative high values,
    compared to surrounding stations, may indicate that (1) discrete patches
    of released materials are being moved about the bottomeither as large
    aggregations or as single dumps, or (2) the releases may not be made
    accurately within the dumpsites.
         The different distributions of metals in sediments found on
    different cruises indicate the metals released through ocean dumping
    
                                  B-47
    

    -------
    activities are probably mobile along  the  sediment-water  interface
    and not remaining in any discrete area.
                                                                                    '1
                                  B-48
    

    -------
          FIGURE  4
    
    METAL  IN  SEDIMENTS
    OPERATION  DEEP  SIX
             IRON
    
         mg/kg/dry wt
       Depths in fathoms
                            ซ
    
    Contoured concerrtiซ4tions
    are significantly
    different from others.'*'
          d =  5.99
          P = >0.001
        -38' 30-
              R "D'
                       2376  :
                       3371  •
                       2077.
                       2338
                       2500  •'
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      3570
      4453
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      3097     2275
      2985   <, 2524
              2798
     2151      2499
    ,2001
                                                 2038
                                                 1852
                                                 1920
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                                     2100
                               •1144
    1654
                             o
                             n
                                                                                   .30
                                                                             1816
        •30' 00'-
                                                                                      r\
                                         B-49
    

    -------
         FIGURE 5
    
    
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
    OPERATION  DEEP  SIX
         MANGANESE
    
         mg/kg/dry wt
       Depths  in  fat horns
    
    Contoured concentrations
    are significant
    different than oth"
    
         d =  5.91
    
         P = >0.001
        -38* 30'-
             R "D'
         38' 00'-
                                          B-50
    

    -------
          FIGURE 6
    
    METAL IN  SEDIMENTS
    OPERATION  DEEP SIX
             ZINC
    
         mg/kg/dry wt
       Depths in fathoms
                       8.41
    
    Contoured concentrations
    are significantly
    different from others>
    
          d =  4.99
    
          P  >0.001
       -38' 30'
             R "D1
                                                                                 .0
        •38* 00'
                  ^0
                                          B-51
                                                                                  ,0
    

    -------
    FIGURE 7
    
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
    OPERATION DEEP SIX
    NICKEL
    mg /kg/dry wt
    Depths in fathoms
    Contoured concentrations
    are significantly
    different than others.
    R 57
    
    P = >0.001
    
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    -------
          FIGURE  8
    
    
     METAL  IN SEDIMENTS
     OPERATION  DEEP  SIX
             LEAD
    
          mg/kg/dry wt
        Depths  in  fathoms
    
    Contoured concentrations
    are significantly
    different than others.
    
          d =   5.99
    
          P = >0.001
        -38* 30'-
              R "D1
                                                         2.69
                                                         2.83
                                                         2.56
                                                         3.37
                                                         3.10
                                                                                   .0
         -38*  00'-
                                                                                    ~o
                                          B-53
    

    -------
           FIGURE 9
    
      METAL  IN  SEDIMENTS
     OPERATION  DEEP SIX
            CADMIUM
    
          mg/kg/dry wt
        Depths in fathoms
    
    Contoured concentrations
    are significantly
    different than others
    .08
          d =  5.24
          P = >0.001
         -38* 30-
               R "D'
                         .04 :
                         .08
                         .02*
    • .11
    .10
    .21
    .19
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                                                                                   ,,0
                                                                      ,.o
                             o
                                                                               o
                                          B-54
    

    -------
          FIGURE  10
    
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
    OPERATION  DEEP SIX
          CHROMIUM
    
         mg/kg/dry wt
       Depths  in  fathoms
    
    Contoured  concentrations
    are significantly
    different  than others
    
          d ซ   4.47
          P = >0.001
        -38* 30-
             R"D';
                      V.52*
                                      • 1.74
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        •36' 00'	:-	
    
                  .o'
                                         B-55
    

    -------
    FIGURE 11
    
    METAL IN SEDIMENTS
    OPERATION DEEP SIX
    COPPER
    
    mg/kg/dry wl
    Depths in fathoms
    Contoured concentrations
    are significantly
    different than others
    d = 5.71
    P = >0.01
    .12*
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    -------
    OPERATION
           30'
    
    RE 12
    
    J SEDIMENTS
    N DEEP SIX
    ?CURY
    g/dry wt
    j / J
    in fathoms
    
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    . " *
    ,
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    -------
    Environmental  Protection Agency
         Annapolis Field Office
        Annapolis  Science Center
       Annapolis,  Maryland  21401
         OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
    
             Cruise Plan
    
          August 12-17,  1974
                B-58
    

    -------
    Cruise Plan - Operation "Deep Six", USCGC Alert, August 12-17, 1974
    
    
    
    
    
         Observations of the environmental effects of ocean disposal
    
    
    
    practices have been made by EPA since the spring of 1973 on two dump-
    
    
    
    sites off the coast of Delaware and Maryland.   T.'io cruise plans were
    
    
    
    designed primarily to look at the long-term effects of the dumping
    
    
    
    practices on the continental shelf environment..   The findings to date,
    
    
    
    although all the data are not completely analyzed, indicate that
    
    
    
    certain metals from the disposed materials are settling to the bottom -
    
    
    
    in a fairly wide area from the release zones.   Quite a bit of vari-
    
    
    
    ability in replicate sampling of this material has been noted.  The
    
    
    
    metals, which are potentially biocidal materials as well  as indicators
    
    
    
    of the fate of these pollutants, appear to settle geographically in
    
    
    
    response to hydrographic regimes, especially discontinuities such as
    
    
    
    the pycnocline.   The bottom materials are fairly coarse sands.  These
    
    
    
    observations might indicate that the metals floe or precipitate out
    
    
    
    of the water column and rest loosely upon the bottom.   The coarse nature
    
    
    
    of the bottom sediments would not be conducive to firm binding of these
    
    
    
    materials, consequently these materials may be moved from one area to
    
    
    
    another in response to bottom currents, especially thoce generated by
    
    
    
    storm action.
    
    
    
         The summer  rrui?e, Operation "Deep Six",  will have as objectives:
    
    
    
         1.  Extend  the monitoring observations of the ocean dumping
    
    
    
    activities at selected previously observed locations,  and at three
                                   B-59
    

    -------
    new stations west of previous areas covered.   The water column and the
    bottom will be examined.
         2.  Observed dispositional trends of metals and accumulation in
    the sediments and the biota under stratified   hydrographic  conditions
    pertained in summer.
         3.  Expand the hydrographic information  as related to  the distri-
    bution of pollutants.
         4.  Examine for evidence of discrete patches of disposed materials.
    A sample on the previous cruise indicated that there may be areas in
    which material is accumulating, either through too rapid a  dump or by
    environmental conditions causing accumulation.
         5.  Incidentally gather baseline data of environmental conditions
    at potential oil  drilling sites using the normal  reference  stations
    of the ocean dumping monitoring program.
         A complementary cruise in cooperation with NOAA and the USGS is
    planned on August 7, 8 and 9, in which the R/V Atlantic Twin and a
    two-man submersible, the Nekton boat, plan a  series of dives and obser-
    vations on these dumpsites.  The objectives of the submersible program
    include:
         1.  Examine for evidence of discrete falls of material as may
    happen from a rapid dump, especially when there is no thermocline
    established and has been suggested by the extreme variability of
    replicate bottom samples encountered on some  occasions.  The sewage
    sludge material may appear as dark black patches in the bottom and
    
                                   B-60
    

    -------
    the resultant materials from the acid wastes may appear as floes or
    
    
    
    slurries close to the bottom.
    
    
    
         2.  Examine for possible temporary entrapment of these materials
    
    
    
    in the microtopography.  Conversely, determine the stability of these
    
    
    
    materials, if they arc concentrating in swales, bv deliberate disturb-
    
    
    
    ance of this material ^nd watch visually for transport.  If possible,
    
    
    
    selective sampling should be accomplished.  Analyses will be done by
    
    
    
    EPA.  Make a systematic observation of the order of magnitude of the
    
    
    
    bottom relief on an approximately 100-meter square area.  This would
    
    
    
    greatly expand our concepts of the bottom topography and transport
    
    
    
    mechanisms of tho ar^a.
    
    
    
         3.  Obsorvp currents close to the sea floor by visual estimation
    
    
    
    of the move'ir-nt or Cither indigenous materials in th^ arr.v or by the
    
    
    
    release of some sort of neutrally buoyant marker such as a dye material.
    
    
    
    Currents very near to the sea floor, less than one meter, are difficult
    
    
    
    to observe or record hy meters, and these observations would be invaluable.
    
    
    
         4.  Thsre is evidence that the flocculent materials released from
    
    
    
    the acid waste dumpsitc accumulate in the thermocline under summer
    
    
    
    conditions.   Visual observations of the thic.i-noss an^l estimates of the
    
    
    
    length and brer.'1"!-! ••   these accumulated Tr,i
    -------
    Station No.
    2
    8
    9
    14
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    31
    32
    33
    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F
    Operation "Deep Six"
    Stations
    Latitude Longitude
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    38ฐ
    22
    20
    11
    27
    12
    40
    40
    34
    32
    27
    17
    13
    05
    05
    47
    47
    40
    32
    22
    40
    35
    31
    28
    23
    13
    .3'
    .7'
    .9'
    .8'
    .1'
    .6'
    .7'
    .2'
    .8'
    .2'
    .0'
    .0'
    .2'
    .2'
    .8'
    .8'
    .2'
    .1'
    .8'
    .6'
    .1'
    .2'
    .5'
    .5'
    .6'
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    W
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    73ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    73ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    74ฐ
    14
    19
    32
    57
    28
    10
    0
    22
    08
    26
    14
    57
    27
    13
    20
    10
    30
    31
    32
    19
    18
    19
    17
    18
    08
    .2'
    .0'
    .9'
    .0'
    .3'
    .5'
    .0'
    .8'
    .5'
    .0'
    .5'
    .8'
    .7'
    .4'
    .0'
    .0'
    .5'
    .2'
    .7'
    .5'
    .1'
    .5'
    .0'
    .2'
    .7'
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    w
    W
    VI
    W
    W
    l-J
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    W
    Loran A
    3H4 3H5
    3356
    3313
    3217
    3500
    3181
    3557
    3610
    3430
    3490
    3345
    3305
    3346
    3110
    3182
    3571
    3640
    3450
    3372
    3275
    3512
    3440
    3420
    3401
    3350
    3264
    3009
    3018
    3051
    2968
    3030
    3032
    2996
    3060
    3009
    3053
    2998
    2936
    3017
    2974
    3080
    3047
    3094
    3079
    3063
    3065
    3048
    3043
    3030
    3025
    2985
    B-62
    

    -------
    Port Watch
    Operation "DEEP SIX"
     August 12-17, 1974
      Scientific Party
               Starboard Watch
    W. Muir, Captain
    R. Davis
    E. Truesdell
    A. Montague, Project Officer
    W. Rosenberg
    A. Benosa
               D. Lear, Captain, Chief Scientist
               W. Thomas
               B. Reynolds
               J. Kafka
               T. Dignes
               F. Hamons
                              B-63
    

    -------
                                   Operation "DEEP SIX"
                                    August 12-17, 1974
                                    Sample Processing
    SEDIMENT SAMPLES
                                      Port
           HONCHO
               Starboard
    Big Winch
          A.  Shipek  (4  Replicates)
              1. 1st Replicate
                 a. Bacti                        Lear
                 b. Organo-
                     halogens         Davis      Kafka
                 c. TOC
                 d. Metals
                 e. Sediment size       "          "
              2. 3  Replicates
                 a. Infauna
          B.  Trawl
              1.  Macrofauna (I.D.)
              2.  Macrofauna (metals)   "          "
          C.  Rocking chair dredge
              1.  Macrofauna (Histo.) Truesdell   Reynolds
              2.  Macrofauna (Metals)
               Container
                          Fr. sq.
    
                          Pt. Mason
                          Glass
                          Plastic jar
                          Jar
    
                          Gal.  jar
                  Preservative
                             Process
    
                             Stow
                             Freeze
                             Freeze
                             Stow
    
                             5% Formal in
                          Process (I.D.)
                          Plastic bags  Freeze
                          Drums
                          Bags
                             Formal in
                             Freeze
    MATER SAMPLES
    Hydrowinch
          A.  Hinge Sampler
              1.   Bacti
          B.  Niskin  Bottles
              1.   Metals
              2.   TOC
              3.   Nutrients
              4.   Phytoplankton grab
          C.  Zooplankton Tow
              1.   I.D. sample
              2.   Metals
    Davis
    Lear
    
    Kafka
    Fr. Sq.
    
    Gal. cubi
    Whirlpak
    Qt. cubi
    Fr. Sq.
    
    Glass
    Whirlpak
    Process
    
    Freeze
    
    
    Lugol's soln.
    
    F orma1i n
    Freeze
                                         B-64
    

    -------
    Hydro Winch
    
    Operator
    
    
    BT
    
    
    Hydrocast
    
    
       PH
    
       D.O.
    
    
    Bacteriology
    
    Zooplankton
                            Operation "DEEP SIX"
    
                             August 12-17, 1974
    
    
                              STATION ROUTINE
    
                                   Watch
    Port
    Stbd.
    
    P
    S
    P
    S
    P
    S
    P
    S
    P
    S
    P
    S
                        Honcho
    Montague
    Thomas
    
    Rosenberg
    Dignes
    
    Rosenberg
    Dignes
    
    Rosenberg
    Dignes
    Rosenberg
    Dignes
    Benosa
    Lear
    Rosenbert
    Dignes
    Big Winch
    
    Operator
    
    Shipek
    
    Trawl
    
    Rocking Chair Dredge
    
    
    Bacteriology
    
    Samples  (all)
    Port
    Stbd.
    P
    S
    P
    S
    P
    S
    
    P
    S
    P
    S
    Special Stations
      1.  Current meter deploy and retrieve
    
      2.  Local  bathymetry
    Muir, Watch Captain
    Lear, Watch Captain
    Davis
    Kafka
    Benosa
    Hamons
    Truesdell
    Reynolds
    
    Benosa
    Lear
    Davis
    Kafka
                                    B-65
    

    -------
                        Number
    Parameter  Sampler  Stations
        Operation "DEEP SIX"
    
         August 12-17, 1974
    
    Samples/  No. of                                      Data
    Stations  Analyses  Container  Preservative  Analyst  Inter.
    SEDIMENTS
    Bacti Shipek
    Organo-
    halogens "
    TOC
    Metals
    
    Sediment
    Size
    Infauna "
    
    WATER
    Bottom Hinge
    Bacti sampler
    Bottom
    Metals Niskin
    Bottom TOC
    Nutrients - "
    TP, Pi,
    N03, TKN
    BIOLOGY
    Benthic Rocking
    Macrofauna chair
    Metals in
    Macrofauna "
    Benthic
    Macrofauna Trawl
    Metals in
    Macrofauna "
    Phyto-
    plankton Niskin
    Zooplankton
    ID Tow
    Metals
    
    8
    
    8
    25
    25
    
    
    25
    25
    
    
    
    8
    
    25
    25
    25
    
    
    
    
    25
    
    25
    
    25
    
    25
    
    25
    
    25
    25
    
    1
    
    1
    1
    5 at
    1 at
    
    1
    3
    
    
    
    1
    
    1
    1
    4
    
    
    
    
    1
    
    1
    
    1
    
    1
    
    1
    
    H
    1J
    
    8
    
    8
    25
    8 45
    17
    
    25
    75
    
    
    
    8
    
    11
    1
    4
    
    
    
    
    -
    
    11
    
    -
    
    -
    
    1
    
    ^split ^
    
    Fr. Sq.
    
    Pt. Mason
    Glass
    Plastic jar
    n n
    
    Jar
    Gallons
    
    
    Sterile
    Fr. Sq.
    
    Gal . cubi
    Whirlpak
    Qt. cubi
    
    
    
    
    Drums
    
    Bags
    
    
    
    Plastic bags
    
    Fr. Sq.
    
    Glass
    Whirlpak
    
    Process
    
    Stow
    Freeze
    1 "
    2 "
    
    Stow
    5%
    Formalin
    
    
    Process
    
    Freeze
    n
    n
    
    
    
    
    Formal in
    
    Freeze
    Process
    (ID)
    
    Freeze
    Lugo! 's
    soln.
    
    Formalin
    Freeze
    
    On board
    
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    Contract
    
    AFO
    Contract
    
    
    
    On board
    
    Contract
    AFO
    AFO
    
    
    
    Narra-
    gansett
    
    Narra.
    
    On board
    
    AFO
    
    Contract
    
    Contract
    AFO
    
    AFO
    
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    
    AFO
    AFO
    
    
    
    AFO
    
    AFO
    AFO
    AFO
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Narra
    
    AFO
    
    AFO
    
    AFO
    
    AFO
    AFO
                                                                               Contract
                                             B-66
    

    -------
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                                                                                                             CM       Cvjr—
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                                                                         B-67
    

    -------
    27
        STATION LOCATION^     39
                '- -34
                 DEEP
    

    -------
        CRUISE TRACK
    OPERATION "DEEP SIX"
            B-69
    

    -------
    Hydro Winch Routine
    
         1.   Log in position on station.
    
         2.   Take BT
    
         3.   Determine depth of thermocline
    
         4.   Make Hydrocast
    
                  Surface
                  1/2 way to thermocline
                  1/2 way thermocline to  bottom
                  Bottom (Hinge sampler also  on  bacti  stations)
    
         5.   Draw sample for D.O.  determination.   Log  in  D.O.
    
         6.   Draw sample for pH.   Log in.
    
         7.   Fill  quart cubitainer (label  with date, time,  station no.)
             Freeze in Blood box.
    
         8.   Fill  8 oz.  French square, add Lubol's iodine until  it looks
             like weak tea.   Label.   Store.   Surface  samples  only.
    
         9.   Fill  8 oz.  French square full  for salinity determination,
             label  with date,  time,  station,  depth.  Store.
    
        10.   Fill  gallon cubitainer  with  residual  bottom  water only.
             Label.  Freeze for metals analysis.
    
        11.   Give hinge sampler to bacteriologist  for  analysis.
    
        12.   Take Secchi disc  reading during  daylight  hours.
    
        13.   Take temp., salinity  and conductivity at  5-meter intervals
             with Beckman induction  salinometer.
    
        14.   Take zooplankton  tow  during  trawling  or dredging operations.
             Surface tour for  15 minutes.   Place in pint  Mason jar, fill
             3/4 full  with sea water from this station.   Place in plankton
             splitter, place 1/2 in  labeled 16 oz.  whirlpak,  freeze.
             Place  other half  back in Mason jar, add 60 ml  formalin, make up
             with sea  water.   Label  inside and outside jar, store.
                                  B-70
    

    -------
                              STATION LOG
                           HyJrographic Winch
    Sta. No.
    Position
    W^nd Dir.
    Bl time
      Depth
                      Time
                      Vel .
                      Date
                      Depth
                  Sea state
                Secchi disc
    Cond.      Sal. %
    Terno.
    D.O.
    Bacti sample
    Phytoplankton sample  /	/
    Time secured
                      Salinity sample   /    /
                      Zooplankton tow   /	/
                      Position
                                   B-71
    

    -------
    Big Winch Routine
    
        1.   Log in position on station.
    
        2.   1st Shipek drop.
    
             a.  Take bacti sediment with flame-sterilized  metal
                 mud scoop.  Put into 6  oz.  French square with
                 100 ml  distilled water.   Give to  bacteriologist.
    
             b.  Fill a  pt. Mason jar with teflon  liner  for organo-
                 halogens (Label  with date,  time,  sta. no.) Stow.
    
             c.  Fill a  white plastic metals jar.   Freeze in blood box.
    
             d.  Fill 6  oz. Fr.  sq.  for  TOC.  Freeze  in  blood box.
    
             e.  Fill 16 oz.  whirlpak with sediment for  size analysis.Stow.
    
             f.  Core 40 dram labeled vial,  add 20 ml formalin.   Stow.
    
        3.   3 Shipek replicates
    
             a.  Fill white plastic  metals jar at  indicated stations.
                 Freeze  in blood  box.
    
             b.  Empty bucket into plastic bag. Take to sample area,  put
                 into 1  gal.  polyethylene jar with 500 ml formalin.   Label
                 inside  and out  with date, time, sta. no.
    
        4.   Rocking chair dredge
    
        5.   Trawl
    
             a.  Identify and estimate number of macrofaunal  species.
    
             b.  Take representative species for metals  analyses.  Put in
                 plastic bags.   Label  and freeze in blood box.
    
            Keep trawl rigged for next station. Will laternate with
    
            rocking chair dredge  to  save onrigging time.
                                   B-72
    

    -------
                                STATION LOG
                                 Big Winch
    
    
    Sta. No.   	           Time  	           Date
    Position	                          Depth
    Wind dir.  	           Vel.   	       Sea state
    
    
    Shipek drops
         Bacti sample   /	/
         Size analysis sample   /	/
         Infauna samples   /	/
         Organohalogens   /7
         TOC  /   /
         Metals  /	/
    
    Rocking chair dredge
         Position out	  Time out
         Position in	  Time in
    Organisms:   	
                                     5-73
    

    -------
     Trawl
          Position out   	 	  Time out
          Position in    	 	  Time in
     Organisms:	
    Observations
                                  B-74
    

    -------
                               APPENDIX C
    
                   Philadelphia Sewage and DuPont Acid
    
                           Dump Site Survey
    
                           7-9 August 1974
    
                           Dr. David Folger
                        U.S.. Geological Survey
                       Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    
    
    Vessel:  T/V Atlantic Twin - Tom Anderson, Master
    
    Submersible:  NEKTON GAMMA - Terry Shi Her, Pilot
    
    Scientific Observers:  D. Folger, USGS, Sea Scientist
                           B. Reynolds & G. Morrison, EPA
                           H. Palmer & Jo. Forns, Westinghouse
                           F. Childress, MUS&T
                           B. Oostdam, Marine Science Consortium
    
    
         Fourteen dives were carried out in and around the two dumpsites
    
    located about 40 nautical miles southeast of the mouth of the Delaware
    
    Bay.  The study was part of a coordinated effort involving surface
    
    ships R/V ANNANDALE, R/V ADVANCE II, Erts Overpass,  and the sewage
    
    release by the City of Philadelphia.
    
         The eight dives carried out at five locations in the Philadelphia
    
    site lay along or close to the track of the barge which released sewage
    
    on 7 August.  Unfortunately, only one dive near the  area  preceding the
    
    dump  also was made on the 7th.  Winds of 30-40 knots precluded  addition-
    
    al dives.  The remaining seven dives took place on the 8th and 9th.   A
    
    summary of observations is as follows:
    
         Water Column - The f.hermocline lay between about 12 and 30  meters
    
         with a temperature decline of about 23ฐC to 12ฐC.  Highest  turbid-
    
         ity occurred in and below the thermocline although no significant
    
                                   B-75
    

    -------
          variations  with depth were often noted by observers.  Bottom
          currents were  sluggish  (2-5cm/sec) and moved mostly to the NW
          or  NE.  One observation showed flow to the east.
          Bottom  - In the northwest part of the site, the bottom topography
          is  relatively  flat with common small hummocks and depressions
          (about  15cm diameter, 5cm high or deep).  In the central and
          southeast parts of the area ripples are common.  Wavelengths
          measured were  about 30cm to 100cm and wave height 2-5cm.  Most
          are symmetrical with broad flat tops oriented northwest to south-
          east.   The  bottom is partially to almost completely covered by
          a thin  (2-3mm) veneer of brownish gray flocculated material below
          which light tan to gray, fine to coarse, sand is present.  The
          floe  material was often absent or thin on ripple and mound crests
          and was usually present and thickest in depressions.  Shell
          detritus on the bottom most often included sea flams, razor clams
          and sand dollars.  Empty shells generally lay concave side up.
          Bottom  depth was between 140-180 feet.
         Biology  - Among living  organisms on  the  bottom,  sand  dollars were
         most abundant  (20-180/meter2)  with  less  common  shrimp (<100/meter  )
                               n                                               J
         and  starfish (10/meter  ).   Sea scallops  were most abundant  (S-Vmeter'1)
         in the southeast  part  of the dumpsite.   Other less common organisms
         included crabs, nudibranchs, flounder, and  hake.
         In summary,  no  obvious  layer of settling sludge  was  apparent  in  the
    water column  nor  were  sludge  accumulations  on the  bottom  identified.
    The sludge, in part, may account for the  flocky  layer on  the  bottom but
                                   B-76
    

    -------
    it was a consensus of experienced observers  that the  layer  could  have
    been due to natural  processes.   In any event,  its distribution  on the
    bottom clearly indicates that fine organic detritus will  concentrate
    in swales, ripple trough, and depressions.   The  biologists  did  not
    note any obvious significant disruptions  of  the  fauna!  and  floral
    bottom community.
          In the acid dumpsite,  5 dives were  carried out  at 4 locations.
    One took place on the 7th of August while the  remainder took  place on
    the 9th.  The results are as follows:
          Water Column - Thermocline lay between 11-30 meters with  a  tempera-
          ture decline from 23ฐC -  12ฐC.   No  distinctive  differences  in
          water column turbidity during the dive carried  out on the 7th or
          on the dives on the 9th in the southeast corner of the  site were
          noted.   Near the center of the site, however, light green water
          was observed at the surface extending  east-west in about  1/2
          nautical  mile wide. Two  dives carried out in this green  water
          revealed  increased turbidity above  and in  the thermocline.   On one
          dive in this area, a layer of 0ฐ visibility extended  from  6-9
          meters and was overlain by a zone (12-15 meters)  containing abundant
          large (l-3cm diameter) reddish-yellow  floes.  Fine suspended
          material, similar to that observed  at  other locations,  was  present
          above and below the two zones.   The pH of  the water above about
          15 meters was  reduced  and the anomalous  water was probably  due to
          the most  recent acid dump.   Bottom  current flow measured  at two
          locations was  northward and 4-5cm/second.
                                   B-77
    

    -------
         Bottom - The bottom was either humocky (10cm diameter;  l-5cm/high)
         or had ripples (wavelengths 15-75cm;  l-5cm  high)  oriented  mostly
         northeast to southwest or north-south.   At one  location,  ridges
         and swales were present with a 3-5 meter wavelength.  The surfacial
         layer on the bottom was comprised  of patchy deposits  of flaky  to
         granular yellow brownish material  usually  left  thin  (2mm  thick).
         The loose flocky material common in  the sewage  site was rare.   The
         underlying gray fine sand was commonly exposed  on  ripple  and mound
         crests.  Shell fragments included  mostly sea clams, razor clams,
         and sand dollars.  Bottom depth was  between 140-180 feet.
         Biology - Sand dollars were often  the most common  organisms
         (180-270/meter2);crab and blood stars were the  next most  common.
         Juvenile flounder, skates, scallops, and hake were present but not
         as abundant.
         In summary, the low visible layer  and the  underlying  zone contain-
    ing large red yellowish floes above and in the  thermocline were the
    major anomalies observed in the site.  The lack of a  flocculated  layer
    on the bottom may be related to acid additions  but this possiblity
    cannot be proven without further observations.
                                   B-78
    

    -------