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                            i'11
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                    ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           WATER  QUALITY OFFICE
                          WHEELING, WEST VIRGINIA

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i <<> "* o
                       WATER QUALITY CONTROL NEEDS
                        CONNOQUENESSIN6 CREEK AND
                           LOWER BEAVER RIVER
                           BEAVER  RIVER BASIN
                              PENNSYLVANIA
                                                        Regional C'cnterfor Hn\ironmental !nform
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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                Page  No.

   LIST OP TABLES	.	     i

   LIST OF FIGURES	    iii

   1.  INTRODUCTION

            Request and Authority.	     1*1
            Purpose and Scope	     1-1
            Acknowledgements	     1-3

  II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

            Stannary of Findings	     II-1
            Conclusions	     II-2
            Recommendations	     II -4

 in.  DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA

            Location and Geography	    III-l
            Climate	    Ill-2

  IV.  WATER RESOURCES OF THE STUDY AREA

            Streamf low	     IV-1
            Water Use	     IV-5
            Existing Water Quality	     IV-5

   V.  THE ECONOMY

            Population	     V-l
            Industry	     V-l
            Transportation	     V-2
            Agriculture	     V-2
            Future Growth	     V-4

  VI.  WATER QUALITY CONTROL

            Sources of Pollution	     VI-1
            Water Quality Criteria	     VI-8
            Pollution Abatement Alternatives	    VX-11

 VII.  COSTS AND BENEFITS

            Selection of A Pollution Abatement Plan	    VII-1
            Benefits	    VII-15

VIII.  BIBLIOGRAPHY	  VXH-1

   APPENDIX A - AQUATIC BIOLOGY INVESTIGATION LETTER REPORT

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                             LIST OF TABLES
Table No.                                                      Page No.

   1       Physical Data of Potential Reservoir Sites	   1-2

   2       Long Term Permanent Stream Flow Measuring
           Stations	  IV-3

   3       Plankton Counts-Connoquenessing Study, 1968	  IV-10

   4       Phosphorus Levels in Connoquenessing Creek
           Study Area	  IV-11

   5       Summary of Pertinent Water Quality Data
           Connoquenessing Creek.	.	  IV-15

   6       Summary of Pertinent Water Quality Data
           Glade Run and Little Connoquenessing Creek	  IV-16

   7       Summary of Pertinent Water Quality Data, Beaver River IV-18

   8       Number and Employment Size of Manufacturing Plants..   V-3

   9       Historical and Projected Population and Employment..   V-7

  10       Population Projections for Study Area..	   V-9

  11       Projected Industrial Gross Output for Study Area....   V-10

  12       Summary of Industrial Waste Permittees	  VI-2

  13       Existing Sewerage Facilities and Projected
           Untreated Loads	  VI-4

  14       Water Quality Criteria - Beaver River	  VT-lO

  15       Total Flow Requirements in cfs at Butler, Pennsylvania
           Needed to Maintain 5.0 mg/1 Dissolved Oxygen	 VI-13

  16       Summary of Minimum Waste Treatment Requirements
           Needed to Maintain 5.0 mg/1 Dissolved Oxygen
           Without Low Flow Augmentation	  VI-15

  17       Cost Comparison of Low Flow Augmentation and
           Waste Treatment Systems Required to Maintain 5.0 mg/1
           Dissolved Oxygen	 VII-4

  18       Cost Comparison of the Two Sources of Low Flow
           Augmentation Water	 VII-6

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                             LIST OF TABLES

Table No,                                                      Page No.

  19       Cost Comparison of Low Flow Augmentation
           and Effluent Pipeline	 VtI-7

  20       Estimated Residual Phosphorus Levels in
           Connoquenessing Creek	......	 VII-9

  21       Recommended Waste Treatment Requirements Needed
           to Meet Water Quality Objectives in Connoquenessing
           Creek With Low Plow Augmentation	 VII-12

  22       Recommended Flow Augmentation for Water Quality
           Control, Connoquenessing Creek below Butler,
           Pennsylvania (June through October)...	 VtI-13
                                   ii

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                             LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No,                                                     Page No.

   1        Duration Curves of Daily Flow	  IV-2

   2        Total Phosphorus Levels in
            Connoquenessing Creek (Aug. 27 -
            Aug. 30, 1968	  IV-9

   3        Municipal Waste Sources	  VT-5

   A        Reservoir Cost Estimates..	 VII-3
                                   iii

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         CONNOQUENESSING CREEK WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY




                         I.  INTRODUCTION






Request and Authority




     This study was requested by the District Engineer, U. S. Army




Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in a letter dated




April 22, 1968.  They reported that studies were being conducted




to determine the feasibility of providing flood protection to areas




on Connoquenessing Creek downstream from Butler, Pennsylvania.




Preliminary investigations by the Corps revealed that there are two




multiple-purpose reservoirs, one located on Little Connoquenessing




Creek just above the mouth of Yellow Creek and the other located




on Glade Run near its mouth, which have a potential of storing




water for low flow augmentation to enhance downstream water quality




conditions.  The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA)




was requested to investigate the feasibility of providing water




quality control storage in the two proposed reservoirs.




     Authority to conduct this study is provided in the Federal




Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 USC 466 et seq.).




Purpose and Scope




     The purpose of this study is to determine the need for and




value of storage for water quality control in Connoquenessing Creek




and the lower portion of the Beaver River downstream from




Connoquenessing Creek.




     In addition to the two reservoir sites originally proposed, the






                                 1-1

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Corps of Engineers is considering a site which  is  located  on  Thorn

Creek, a tributary to Connoquenessing Creek.  All  three sites have

the potential of providing  limited amounts of storage  for  water

quality control purposes.   Pertinent data related  to the three sites

is presented in Table 1.

                              TABLE 1

            PHYSICAL DATA OF POTENTIAL RESERVOIR SITES
                        (Corps of Engineers)

                            Mile     Drainage Area      Maximum Potential
Name	Point, 	 (Square Miles)	Storage (100(3 acre ft.)
Little Connoquenessing
Creek
Glade Run
Thorn Creek
3.3
0.2
9.6
44
41
11.2
140
95
11.5
     The Soil Conservation Service has under investigation, several

sites on tributary streams to Connoquenessing Creek above Zelienople,

Pennsylvania.  The study is being conducted under Public Law 566 and

preliminary data indicates that some of the sites could potentially

store additional water for low flow augmentation needs in Connoquenessing

Creek.  The local watershed sponsors$ however, have not yet been

approached with a concrete proposal of water resource development.

In this study, consideration has been given to the use of the

potential reservoirs as supplementary sources of storage to satisfy

water resource needs in Connoquenessing Creek.

     The area included in the study encompasses the watershed which

drains Connoquenessing Creek, with the exception of Slippery Rock
                                1-2

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Creek; the main stem of Connoquenessing Creek below the mouth  of

Slippery Rock Creek; and the Beaver River from  the  mouth of

Connoquenessing Creek  to the Ohio River.  This  area is located within

the Beaver River Basin and includes portions of Butler, Allegheny,

Lawrence, and Beaver Counties, Pennsylvania.

     Water quality control storage needs and associated benefits

have been evaluated under present and projected conditions to  the

year 2020.

Acknowledgement s

     Information and cooperation provided by the following agencies

and organizations are  gratefully recognized:

     U. S. Army Corps  of Engineers, Pittsburgh  District

     U. S. Geological  Survey, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

     U. S. Soil Conservation Service^ Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

     Pennsylvania Department of Health

     Pennsylvania State Fish Commission

     Butler Area Joint Sewer Authority, Butler, Pennsylvania

     Butler County Planning Commission, Butler, Pennsylvania

     Beaver County Planning and Zoning Commission,  Beaver, Pennsylvania

     Shenango Valley Regional Planning Commission,  Sharon, Pennsylvania

     Southwestern Pennsylvania Regional Planning Commission,
         Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

     Armco Steel Corporation, Butler, Pennsylvania

     Special recognition is given to the Pennsylvania Department of

Health, the Pennsylvania State Fish Commission, the Butler Area Joint
                                 1-3

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Sewer Authority and the Armco Steel Corporation for contributing




personnel and pertinent facilities during special field investiga-




tions conducted in the summer and fall of 1968.
                                1-4

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    II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS





Summary of Findings.




     1.  The Pittsburgh District, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers




is investigating the feasibility of constructing multiple-purpose




reservoirs in the Connoquenessing Creek Basin.  The three sites




under consideration are located on the following tributaries to




Connoquenessing Creek:  Little Connoquenessing Creek, Glade Run




and Thorn Creek.




     2,  Each of the three sites has potential storage available




for downstream water quality control.




     3.  Typical, seasonal low streamflows in Connoquenessing




Creek between Butler and Ellwood City consist primarily of municipal




and industrial waste waters.




     4.  The four-county economic study area (Beaver, Butler, Lawrence,




and Mercer Counties) had a total population of 562,071 in 1960,




an average density of 277 people per square mile.




     5.  Industrial establishments engaged in the manufacture of




primary metals, fabricated metal products, and stone, clay, and



glass dominate the types found in the economic study area,




     6.  Except for emergency use at Zelienople, Pennsylvania, the




main stern of Connoquenesaing Creek below Butler, Pennsylvania, is




not currently being utilized as a source for municipal or industrial




water supply.  The Beaver River serves as a source of water for




municipal and industrial use.




     7.  The water quality standards adopted by the Pennsylvania
                                II-l

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Sanitary Water Board for the Beaver River have been approved by




the Secretary of the Interior.  In the absence of state standards




for Connoquenessing Creek  (an intrastate stream), water quality




criteria commensurate with current national and state objectives




was utilized in the assessment of pollution abatement needs




in this study.




.Conclusions.




     1.  The total population of the economic study area is




projected to increase 3.6 percent annually from 562,071 in 1960




to 1,793,000 in 2020.  Total employment is expected to increase




from 191,079 in 1960 to 671,000 in 2020, an average increase of




4.2 percent per year.




     2.  The main stem of Connoquenessing Creek, downstream from




Butler, Pennsylvania, is degraded by residual municipal and




industrial wastes originating primarily in the Butler and Zelienople




areas.  The high concentration of oxygen consuming wastes and




nutrients cause undesirable dissolved oxygen depletions and excessive




growth of rooted and floating aquatic plants.  The water quality




problems will become more severe as industrial and municipal




growth continues.




     3  An evaluation of alternative pollution abatement plans




for Connoquenessing Creek included consideration of low flow




augmentation, through reservoir releases,, in combination with




various levels of advanced waste treatment at the sources;  the use







                                II-2

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of a pipeline to transport treated wastes from the Butler and




Zelienople areas to the Beaver River; and expansion of the




existing inter-basin water transfer system to facilitate low




flow augmentation needs.  Presently water is brought in from the




Allegheny River for water supply purposes




     4.  With regard to the alternatives involving low flow




augmentation, an evaluation of the total stream flow requirements




for maintenance of the 5.0 rag/1 dissolved oxygen standard through-




out Connoquenessing Creek indicated that solution of the problem




at Butler, Pennsylvania would provide protection to the entire




stream.  Stream flow augmentation is therefore limited to the




immediate vicinity of the Butler municipal and industrial complex.




     5.  A cost analysis of pollution abatement alternatives




indicates that the least costly method of attaining the water




quality objectives in Connoquenessing Creek is the use of reservoir




storage in the Thorn Creek site for water quality control, in




combination with advanced waste treatment facilities at all




organic waste sources which discharge to Connoquenessing Creek in




the Butler and Zelienople areas.




     6.  There are several significant municipal and industrial




waste discharges to the Connoquenessing Creek below the confluence




of Slippery Rock Creek and to the Beaver River portion of the




study area.  Hie implementation of existing pollution abatement




requirements is expected to insure achievement of the water quality
                               II ~3

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objectives in these streams.

Secommenda tions

Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that:

     1.  The least costly combination of pollution abatement

measures be implemented to achieve the water quality objectives in

Connoquenessing Creek.  The most favorable pollution abatement

plan includes the combination of reservoir storage in the Thorn

Creek, site and advanced waste treatment of all organic wastes

discharged to Connoquenessing Creek in the Butler and Zelienople

areas.

     2.  The advanced waste treatment facilities include removal

of phosphorus as well as the oxygen demanding wastes.  Effluent

waste concentrations should be limited to the following:

                 Allowable Effluent       Minimum Treatment
Area
Butler Complex-'
Zelienople and
BOD2Q
10.5
30
Total
Phosphorus -P
0.5
0.5
BOD2Q
95
90
Total
Phosphor us -P
95
95
Harmony


I/ Combined municipal and industrial wastes in Butler area.

     3.  Streamflow augmentation be provided to Connoquenessing

Creek from the proposed Thorn Creek reservoir*  The projected low

flow augmentation needs during the period June through October are as

follows:
                               11-4

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                                             1980   2000   2020
     Total Flow Required (cfs)                19     33     41
     Estimated Return Flow (cfs)              15     24     32
     Net Flow Required (cfs)                    499

     4.  The minimum average  annual benefits of reservoir storage

for low flow augmentation are $140,000, based on the least costly

alternative of a single purpose water quality control reservoir.

Since additional water quality control benefits are not readily identifiable,

a maximum average annual benefit of $610,000 could be credited to

water quality control storage in the proposed Thorn Greek Reservoir.

     5.  Multi-level outlets  be provided at sufficient locations

and of adequate size on all high-level reservoirs in order to

provide for flexibility of operation so that adequate water quality

control can be maintained.
                              11-5

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                  III.  DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA
Location and
     Cormoquenessing Creek Is the  lower-most major tributary  to




the Beaver River and drains 833 square miles or about  one-fourth




of the Beaver River basin.  Two streams, the main stem of




Conrioquenessing Creek and Slippery Rock Creek, join just before




Connoquenessing Greek enters the Beaver River.  Water  quality




investigations in this study excluded the Slippery Rock Creek




drainage (404 square miles) since all the potential reservoirs are




located in the main stem branch watershed a




     The main stem of Connoquenessing Creek originates in the




mountainous divide between the Beaver and Allegheny River Basins




in western Pennsylvania.  Several small tributaries enter the




main stem before the creek approaches the community of Butler,




Pennsylvania.  The remaining portion of the creek meanders through




a valley of moderate gradient as it flows westward through the




communities of Renfrew, Harmony and Zelienople before  it joins



Slippery Rock Creek near its mouth.  The stream contains a series




of pools, both natural and man-made, and riffles for most of  its




length between Butler and Ellxrood City, a distance of 43 stream




miles.  Just before joining with Slippery Rock Creek at Bllwood




City, the stream enters a gorge and becomes quite steep in gradient.




Major tributaries in the study portion of the watershed include




Brush Creek, Little Connoquenessing Creek,  Breakneck Creek, Glade Run,






                               III -I

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Thorn Creek, Bonnie Brooke, Thorn Run, and Stony Run.




     The southern portion of the study area lies within the




northern part of Allegheny County, a major metropolitan area which




includes the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.




     The twelve miles of the Beaver River included in the study




area consist of two pools, one created by a dam at Beaver Falls




and the other from backwater of the Ohio River.




Climate




     The area experiences moderate temperature extremes with a




recorded low of -19F and summer high of 101F at Butler, Pennsylvania




during the period 1942 to 1961.  Precipitation averages just under




40 inches a year with the amount increasing toward the eastern




portion of the study area.
                               Ill-2

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              IV.  WATER RESOURCES OF THE STUDY AREA






Streamflow




     There is only one  streamflow measuring  station located  in  the




study area which provides a  long record of continuous  data.   The




gage is operated by the U, S. Geological Survey and is  located  on




the main stem of Connoquenessing Creek between Zelienople and




Ellwood City.  Long term streamflow records  of other nearby  areas




are available on Slippery Rock Creek at Wurtemburg and  the Beaver




River at Wampum,  Pertinent  data relative to these stations  is




presented in Table 2.




     The main stem of Connoquenessing Creek  upstream from




Slippery Rock. Creek experiences unusually low strearaflows during




the summer months.  When compared to other areas adjacent to this




stream, the low flow characteristics of the  main stem are as much




as 50 percent less in magnitude.  The comparison of daily flow




duration curves for Connoquenessing Creek and Slippery  Rock  Creek




in Figure 1 reveals the  striking difference  in low flow conditions.




     Most of the streamflow  in the main stem of Connoquenessing




Creek originates from municipal and industrial waste water during




the summer and fall low  flow periods.  The municipal-industrial




complex at Butler, Pennsylvania, obtains most of its water supply




from reservoir releases  in the headwater areas.  Three  reservoirs




with a total combined storage capacity of 890 million gallons are




presently used to store  and regulate the natural runoff from the
                                IV-1

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                      IV-3

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watersheds above them plus water that i  Dumped at a maximum rate

of 5.5 million gallons per day (mgd) from the Allegheny River

to augment needs during relatively dry periods.  Although there

is some natural flow from uncontrolled streams above Butler, Pennsylvania,

the bulk of Butler's water needs is satisfied from regulated releases

during the summer-fall seasons,  The. stream below Butler normally

contains at least 50 percent wastewater with little additional

dilution water available from other tributary streams  It is

not until Slippery Rock Creek enters Connoquenessing Creek at

Ellwood City that base flows are increased significantly.

     Low flow frequency data for Connoquenessing Creek near Zelienople,

Pennsylvania, are presented below!

    Magnitudeand Frequency of Annual Low Flow (Period 1920-59)
Consecutive Discharge (cfs) for Indicated
Days
7
14
30
60
120
2 years
15
19
24
35
71
5 years
11
12
14
19
31
10 years
9.8
11
13
16
22
Recurrence
20 years
8.8
9.8
11
13
17
Interval-
40 years
8.0
8.8
10
12
14
Source:  Water Resources Bulletin No. 1, Pennsylvania Streamflow
         Characteristics} Low-Flow Frequency and Flow Duration,
         Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, and
         U. S. Geological Survey, April, 1966.

     The Beaver River atrearaflows are, of course, much greater in

volume than Connoquenessing Creek.  Since there are several existing
                                IV-4

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reservoirs which provide storage for low flow augmentation in the




Beaver River system, the dry-season flows are relatively high and




are expected to exceed 600 cfs at all times if scheduled releases




are maintained.




Water Use




     With the exception of the Butler area, Connoquenessing Creek




is not used as a source of municipal and industrial water supply.




The municipalities and industries located along Connoquenessing




Creek obtain water from wells or tributary streams of suitable




quality a




     The Butler Water Company withdraws water directly from




Connoquenessing Creek at a point upstream from Butler.  As previously




mentioned, the stream is augmented by reservoir releases and




interbasin transfer from the Allegheny River.




     Several large industrial establishments use the Beaver River




as the primary source of water supply.  Some of the municipalities




also withdraw water directly from the Beaver River.




Existing. Water Quality




     The Upper Ohio Basin Office, FWPCA, Wheeling, West Virginia,




collected water quality samples at a fevr locations in the




Connoquenessing Creek drainage during general surveys in the




Beaver River basin in 19&6.  Comprehensive water quality investigations




were conducted during 1968, along the entire length of Connoquenessing




Creek*  The study was done ,c-s a cooperative effort with the
                                TV-5

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Pennsylvania State Fish Commission and the Pennsylvania Department




of Health.  Municipal and industrial effluent samples were collected




in addition to water quality samples from various stream locations.




Examination of samples included chemical, bacteriological and




plankton analysis.  Benthic and fish studies were conducted by




State personnel at a few key locations on Connoquenessing Creek and




at the two potential reservoir locations on Little Connoquenessing




Creek and Glade Run.




     Analysis of the available data reveals that there are




pollution problems in many sections of Connoquenessing Creek and




some of its tributaries caused by excessive residual organic and




nutrient waste discharges from municipalities and industries in




the area.  The major contributor of such wastes is the Butler




municipal and industrial, complex.




     Connoquenessing Creek, upstream from Butler, is relatively free




of organic pollution but at times has been known to show effects




of mining activities during periods of low runoff and drainage.




However, the stream did not contain excessive amounts of acidity




at the time samples were colleeted




     Bonnie Brooke, which enters Connoquenessing Creek just upstream




of Butler, Pennsylvania, at times is polluted by organic wastes




introduced to the stream in its lower reaches*  Dissolved solids




concentrations were above normal during low flow conditions.  Specific




conductivity was observed in excess of 900 mieroinhos.
                                IV-6

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     Connoquenessing Creek, downstream from the Butler complex, is




degraded by residual municipal and industrial wastes.  The stream




contains high nutrient loads which are continuously contributed




from municipal sources and intermittently from industrial sources.




Dissolved solids are usually above normal levels and excessive




amounts of organic wastes are discharged to the stream as a residual




load from the Butler sewage treatment facilities, from lagoon




discharges of the Armco Steel Corporation and from the many untreated




sanitary waste discharges in the area,




     A most significant pollution problem in Connoquenessing




Creek below Butler, is the excessive growth of rooted and floating




aquatic plants.  The abundance of these plants causes fluctuations




in the dissolved oxygen levels of the stream,, impairs the




recreational value by congestion of the stream, and increases the




oxygen demanding load when die-off and decay occur.  It is believed




that carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus are the nutritional elements




most utilized by green plants*  Since phosphorus is recognized by




many researchers as the element which is easiest to control in




streams and lakes, an important objective of recent water quality




studies has been to determine the sources and amounts of phosphorus




being introduced to Connoquenessing Creek.




     The most recent water quality studies show that a major portion




of the total phosphorus load found in the stream is contributed




by the Butler Area Joint Sewage Authority system and at times the
                                IV-7

-------
Armco Steel Corporation.  Concentrations of total phosphorus ranged




between 0.04 and 7.3 mg/1 In the creek just downstream from the




Butler complex.  Most nutrients introduced into the stream at




Butler are available immediately for biological uptake, while some




are absorbed by the bottom deposits.  A substantial portion of this




load remains in the stream at Zelienople.  Additional nutrients




are added to the stream at Zelienople and produce algal problems




from this point to the mouth of Connoquenessing Greek,  Inspection




of Figure 2 reveals the relative magnitude of the phosphorus




contributions from the Butler area.  Although the phosphorus levels




decrease rapidly below Butler, sufficient quantities are available




to cause the nutrient-associated problems throughout the remainder




of Connoquenessing Greek.  This is evidenced by the high plankton




counts, at times reaching proportions considered as algae blooms,




in the stream below Butler (see Table 3).




     A summary of the total phosphorus levels found during the




recent surveys is presented in Table 4.




     The large residual organic load which enters Connoquenessing



Creek at Butler, Pennsylvania, cannot be adequately assimilated




under existing low flow conditions.  The limited field investigations




conducted by the Upper Ohio Basin Office, Wheeling, during the




summer of 1968 revealed that the average twenty-day Biochemical




Oxygen Demand (BOB20) load from the effluent of the Butler Area Joint




Sewage Authority treatment facilities plus the effluent of the
                                IV-8

-------

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                                                   IV-12

-------
Armco  Steel Corporations'  lagoons  is  1275 pounds per day  Stream-




flow and water temperatures encountered during  the most recent




surveys were representative of average late summer conditions which




normally reflect  the worst organic pollution problems.  Industrial




and municipal discharge volumes also  represented average summer




conditions*  High nutrient contributions stimulate an excessive




and undesirable growth of aquatic plants.  Dissolved oxygen depletions,




normally encountered as organic waste materials are assimilated




in the receiving  streams, are disguised, particularly during day-




light hours, because of the oxygen generated by the aquatic plants.




This is probably  why the dissolved oxygen levels in the stream




below Butler were found to be near saturation during regular




daytime sampling. If nutrient loads were minimized to a level




which would practically eliminate excessive aquatic plant growth,




dissolved oxygen  levels could approach 4.4 mg/1 during average




summer conditions.  Maximum oxygen depletion probably would occur




in Connoquenessing Creek near the mouth of Glade Run.  Oxygen




depletions of less than 4.4 mg/1 could be expected during periods




of extremely low  flows.




     Other types  of wastes are discharged to the stream in the




vicinity of Butler, Zelienople and Ellwood City.  Some waste




materials common  to the steel and metal fabricating industries are




found throughout  the entire length of Connoquenessing Creek below




Butler.  The effects of coal mining activities are also present.
                                IV-13

-------
An analysis of water quality data reveals that most locations




sampled on Connoquenessing Creek displayed concentrations of




dissolved solids, including aluminum, manganese, sulfate and




iron, and conductivity and hardness values above desirable levels.




(See Table 5).




     Toxic materials were found in Connoquenessing Creek in the




vicinity of the steel mills at Butler, Pennsylvania.  Hexavalent




chromium concentrations of as high as 1.29 rog/1 were detected




in the stream; but, the recent installation of process waste




treatment facilities at the steel mills is expected to eliminate




the discharge of these wastes to the stream.




     The water quality of Glade Run near the location of the




proposed reservoir is generally acceptable for intended reservoir




uses.  There are some organic wastes from individual homes and




farms in the area as evidenced by slightly high bacterial counts.




Key water quality characteristics found during 1966 and 1968




are shown in Table 6.




     Water quality data from two locations on Little Connoquenessing




Creek, near the mouth and at the dam site, indicates the water is



relatively free from pollutants.  Intermittent mine drainage




problems have occurred on some tributaries to the Creek, particularly




Yellow Creek.  However,  it appears that such problems  are insignifi-




cant at the proposed reservoir.  The limited amount of bacterio-




logical data reveals some problems which are caused by raw waste
                                IV-14

-------


























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IV-15

-------
                  TABLE 6

  SUMMARY OF PERTINENT WATER QUALITY DATA
GLADE RUN AND LITTLE CONNOQUENESSXNG CREEK
                                            Little Gonnoquenessing
            Number   Glade Run at Dam Site    Creek at Dam  Site
Constituent
pH
Specific
Conductivity
Hardness
Total
Coliform
Fecal
Coliform
Fecal
Streptococci
Dissolved
Oxygen
Total
Phosphorus
(as P)
Units
units
micromhos
mg/1
organisms/
100 ml
organisms/
100 ml
organisms/
100 ml
mg/1
ing/1
Samples
7-5
7-5
4-2
4-1
4-1
4-1
7-5
5-5
Maximum
7.7
405
114
25,000
1,500
4,000
9,8
0.19
Minimum
67
340
96
610
100
80
7.2
0.03
Maximum
7.4
875
190
26,000
630
730
8.5
0.12
Minimum
6.3
480
163
-
-
-
6.5
0.04
                    IV-16

-------
discharges from individual rural homes and farms located in the




watershed.  Pertinent water quality characteristics found at the




dam site during the summer of 1968 are shown in Table 6.




     Water quality studies were not conducted on Thorn Creek at




the proposed reservoi.r site.  A limited amount of water quality




data from samples collected near the mouth of Thorn Creek indicates




that there is slight organic pollution, at tiroes, which is probably




caused by inadequate}y treated sanitary wastes from individual




homes and the community of Saxonburg, Pennsylvania.




     The lower Beaver River is degraded by inadequately treated




municipal and industrial wastes, most of which originate from the




tributary areas and river reaches outside of the study area.




Inspection of a tabulation of pertinent water quality data (see




Table 7) reveals the fact that undesirable levels of specific




conductance, dissolved oxygen, hardness, sulfates, total iron,




fecal coliform, phenols and cyanide occurred occasionally during




the 1966 and 1968 surveys.




     The results of benthic biology studies conducted in the study




area during 1965 indicate that polluted conditions prevail in




Connoquenessing Greek downstream of Butler, and near the mouth




below Ellwood City.  Similar conditions were found in the Beaver




River between its mouth and the junction with Gonnoqtsenessing Creek.




Connoquenessing Creek upstream of Butler, supported a variety of




forms,  but of low densities-  The benthic fauna downstream of Butler
                                IV-17

-------

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was predominated by large numbers of pollution tolerant snails,




midge larva and very tolerant sludgeworma.  The stream did show




gradual recovery through to Ellwood City.  The substrate of the Beaver




River at the sampling stations appeared to be conducive to




benthic development; however, the benthos consisted of sludgeworms,




snails, midge larva, and fingernail clams.  No pollution sensitive




forms were collected in the Beaver River.




     Biological investigations conducted by the Pennsylvania




Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Fish Commission in 1968




also indicate that pollution problems exist in certain sections




of Connoquenessing Greek.  At each of nine stations in the




Connoquenessing Creek watershed, benthic organisms, fishes, and




periphyton scrapings were collected and the number and type




categorized by pollution tolerance classifications.  A report




of these investigations appears in Appendix A.  An adequate and




diverse community of aquatic life, indicative of clean to relatively




clean stream conditions, was found at stations located on




Connoquenessing Creek above Butler and upstream from Ellwood City




and on Glade Run and the Little Connoquenessing Creek in the




vicinity of the dam sites.  Stations located below Butler and above




and below Zelienople yielded benthic and aquatic life tolerant  to




polluted conditions.  The most severely degraded condition existed




at the station on Connoquenessing Creak below Butler, where a low




number of pollution tolerant benthic fauna was found.  Pollution




tolerant fish species dominated the total population and the periphyton
                                IV-

-------
community reflected organic and nutrient input to the stream.




Although slightly less pollution was indicated in the Zelienople




area, the predominant benthic fauna and fish population were




tolerant of polluted conditions.
                               IV-20

-------
                          V.  THE ECONOMY






Population




     The principal population centers of the study area are located




along the main stem of Connoquenessing Creek and the Beaver River.




They include the municipalities of Butler, Zelienople, Ellwood City,




Beaver Falls, and New Brighton which had a combined 1960 population




of over 60,000.  Butler is the largest city in the study area.




Other smaller communities are located along the network of highways




which connect the major municipalities with Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,




A sizable suburban population is encountered In a few areas close




to Pittsburgh.




     The total population of the four-county economic study area




(Beaver, Butler, Lawrence, and Mercer Counties) increased from




442,260 in 1940 to 562,071 in 1960, an average annual growth rate




of 1.35 percent.  Although this growth rate was substantially




larger than that experienced by the State of Pennsylvania (0.7%),




it fell slightly behind the national average of 1.78 percent.  The




average population density of the economic area was 277 people




per square mile in 1960.




Industry




     The majority of the manufacturing establishments are located




in or near the major communities along Connoquenessing Creek and




the Beaver River.  Several industries are also found on Breakneck




Creek,  a small tributary to Connoquenessing Creek.
                                V-l

-------
     Industrial establishments engaged in the manufacture of




primary metals,, fabricated metal products, stone} clay, and glass




dominate the types found in the study area.  Most of the large




factories which have an employment of more than 500 are engaged




in the steel-making and metal fabrication businesses.  Several




basic steel mills are located along the Beaver River and in the




City of Butler.  Table 8 presents a summary of the size and type




of manufacturing establishments found in the Counties of Beaver,




Butler and Lawrence,




Transportation




     The Connoquenessing Greek area is served by three interstate




highways: I-80S traverses Beaver and Lawrence Counties in a north-




west to south-east direction; 1-79 runs north-south through




Butler, Lawrence, and Mercer Counties; and 1-80 runs east-west




through Mercer County.




     Five railroads provide both freight and passenger service




in the economic study area*




     Three small airports provide limited air service, but no




commercial air lines serve the area*




Agriculture




     Agriculture has been an important enterprise in the study




area, but the impact of urban and suburban development has created




a steady decline in farming operations.  The area is an important




producer of dairy products, beef., hogs, field crops, poultry and
                                V-2

-------
                                 TABLE 8

                      NUMBER AND EMPLOYMENT SIZE OF
                          MANUFACTURING PIANTS
                 (BEAVER, BUTLER, AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES)
SIC  Manufacturing Industry
Number of Plants with Employment of
1-   20-  50-  100-  250-  500-
19   49   99   249   499   or more
20   Food and Kindred Products

22   Textile Mill Products

23   Apparel

24   Lumber and Wood Products

25   Furniture and Fixtures

26   Paper and Allied Products

27   Printing and Publishing

28   Chemicals

29   Petroleum Refining

30   Rubber and Misc. Plastics

31   Leather

32   Stone, Clay, and Glass

33   Primary Metal

34   Fabricated Metal Products

35   Machinery, except Electrical

36   Electrical Machinery

37   Transportation Equipment

38   Professional, Scientific
     Instruments
39   Miscellaneous
          Totals

     Source:   Location of Manufacturing Plants by County,
              Industry,  and Employment Size,  Census of
              Manufacturing, 1963,  U. S  Dept. of Commerce.
Total
62
0
1
27
6
3
31
14
8
5
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44
8
31
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                                   V-3

-------
nursery stock.  Most of these farming operations are now part-time,




with the operator holding full or part-time employment elsewhere.




     About one-third of the area is suitable for agriculture




production.  Although the southern half of the Cormoquenessing




Creek drainage cents ns the best farmland, scattered agricultural




developments are also found in the north central region.




     A few highly developed, irrigated farms are found in the




mid-section of the Connoquenessang Creek drainage*  These operations




usually obtain their water supply from surface sources for




supplemental irrigation during the occasional dry periods experienced




in the summer and early fall seasons*




     A few conifer plantations are being managed for Christmas




tree production.  Only five percent of the forested area is being




utilized for the commercial tree enterprises.  Approximately one-




third of the Connoquenessing Creek drainage is forest land.




Future Growth




     A major portion of the study area has experienced a steady




economic growth at a rate close to the rest of the nation.  Its




ideal locationin the center of western Pennsylvania between




the Pittsburgh-Youngstown-Cleveland metropolitan complex---is




partly responsible for the rapid growth.  Other factors which




have contributed to the favorable climate for growth include the




abundance of natural resources,  adequate transportation facilities




and a progressive populace*  Economic growth is expected to

-------
continue at an accelerated rats.

     Several  local and regional planning commissions have  studied

the economic  trends and they have formulated population and

industrial projections for the area*  This information, plus the

Appalachia Developmental Benchmark Projections developed by

the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh District, were

utilized in establishing the economic projections for the  study

area.  The "developmental benchmarks" were conceived by the

Office of Appalachian Studies, Corps of Engineers to describe the
                                                            *
population, employment, and income growth required to meet the

goals of the Appalachian Act, Public Law 89-4.  To achieve these

goals, it was assumed that the rate of economic growth in  the

Appalachian area would be accelerated over that of the national norm.

The economic projections for the Gonnoquenessing Greek study reflect

the accelerated growth concept of the Appalachian Study.

     The economic projections were formulated under the basic

assumption that water quantities would not limit potential economic

developments in the Connoquenessing Creek portion of the study area.

     The total population of the economic area is projected to

increase 3.6 percent annually from 562,071 in I960 to 1,793,000 in

2020.  Butler County is projected to have an annual increase of

5.1 percent for the period 1960 to 2020.


     County population projections were disaggregated to the


municipality level to reflect the anticipated growth at each source
                                V-5

-------
of waste.  Tables 9 and 10 summarize the predicted population




growth for the years i960, 2000, and 2020.




     Employment in the Connoquenessing Greek econoroic area is pro-




jected to increase at a faster rate than occurred between 1940




and I960*  Total employment is expected to increase from 191,079




in 1960 to 671,000 in 2020, an average increase of 4.2 percent




per year.  Projected employment for the major industrial groups is




presented in Table 9




     The manufacturing group will remain the largest employer in




the area, although its share of tots.}  employment is projected




to decline from 40 percent (1960) to 25 percent in 2020.  Employment




in manufacturing will increase from 85S218 in 1960 to 186,640 in




2020.




     Industrial gross output projections were determined for the




manufacturing industries which normally utilize significant




quantities of water.  These indices were applied to the existing




industrial waste loads to arrive at the industrial waste contribu-




tions under projected conditions.  Industrial gross output indices




are presented in Table 11.
                                V-6

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                      TABLE  11

  PROJECTED INDUSTRIAL GROSS OUTPUT FOR  STUDY AREA

                      (1960-100)
SIC
Code

20

22,23

24,25


27

28

33

34



35

37
              . Industry
Index of Gross Output
   1980   2000   2020
Food and Kindred Products

Textiles and Apparel

Lumber and Wood Products including
  Furniture

Printing and Publishing

Chemicals and Allied Products

Primary Metals

Fabricated Metal Products, except
  Ordnance j Machinery and
  Transportation Equipment

Machinery, except Electrical.

Transportation Equipment
    230

    150

    155


    200

    470

    190

    290
 525

 220

 315


 380

2655

 320

1040
1280

 360

 475


 750

7450

 550

2575
    255    885   1895

    170    230    250
                         V-10

-------
                    VI.  WATER QIK.LII1- CONTROL






Sources of. Pollution




     The major sources of pollution found in Connoquenessing Creek




are Inadequately treated municipal and Industrial wastes.




     Several industries located in the study area are not providing




a sufficient level of waste treatment to -meet the existing




regulations of the Pennsylvania Sanitary Water Board.  Table 12




summarizes the current status of individual waste treatment




facilities for the industrial waste permitees in the. study area.




     There are several municipalities which discharge significant




quantities of organic wastes to the streams in the study area (see




Figure 3).  The existing sewerage facilities and estimates of




their untreated load contributions under present and projected




conditions are summarized in Table 13.




     In the Butler, Pennsylvania area the most significant




contributors of wastes include the large Armco Steel Corporation




complex and the Butler Area Joint Sewage Authority*  Although many




of the individual homes located in the vicinity of Butler are




discharging untreated xtstes to the stream, the large residual




organic loads from the sewage treatment facilities and the lagoon




discharge of the steel manufacturing plant account for the bulk




of the oxygen demanding wastes found in Connoquenessing Creek below




Butler,




     The Armco complex is  curtently engaged in an expansion program
                               VI-1

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to modernize their overall steel-making capabilities and Increase




the productive capacity at the Sutler Works.  During the 1968




field surveys, the old open hearth melting furnaces and rolling




mills, with their many process waste discharges, were in operation.




Several new electric, furnaces and a large, continuous slab casting




unit are being installed^ and should be in operation in 1970.




Although some of the older rolling mills and stainless steel




production facilities will continue operations recently added waste




treatment facilities will eventually eliminate most of the process




waste outfalls that are discharging water with high concentrations




of various dissolved solids and toxic materials.  The lagoons,




which receive large quantities of neutralized pickle liquor and




wash water wastes, will continue to be operated as in the past.




     The lagoon discharge was found to contain significant quantities




of oxygen consuming wastes when sampled in 1963.  An average BODon




load of 657 Ibs/day wag measured during the three-day sampling period




in late August, 1968.  ^OD^n concentrations ranged from 44 to 67




mg/1 in the estimated 2.2 cfs lagoon discharge.  The source of




these oxygen consuming wastes is unknown




     Although the existing effluent BOD   load from the Butler




Sewage treatment plant was found to be slightly lower than that




from the Armco lagoon discharge, Butler's raw load was much greater




than the estimated Armco raw load*  For the purpose of evaluating




the pollution abatement requirements in this  study, it was assumed




that the existing Armco effluent load approximates their raw
                              VI ~6

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contribution.

     Most of the  large pnosphorus  load found in  the stream at  the

Butler complex is contributed by the Butler Sewage Authority system.

Analysis of several composite samples of Butler's effluent indicated

that the average contribution, was  10 Ibs/day total phosphorus  (as  P)

for every 100G population served.  During one of the field surveys,

the Armco process effluents contained large quantities of

phosphorus that were apparently being discharged in batches.   It

is believed that the use of phosphate addarives  for the control

of scaling in the water distribution system at Armco was responsible

for the intermittently high loads.  Since the: Armco phosphorus

contributions are quite irregular  in frequency and magnitude,  the

overall average contribution was quite small as  compared to the

municipal sources  The Armco phosphorus contribution to

Connoquenessing Creek is expected  to be, significantly reduced when

the current expansion program is completed.

     Using the predicted economic  growth patterns for the Butler

area, future untreated wastes generated in the Butler complex

would approach the following!

   Source           Haste.           IMS.,         2000.        2020

Butler Sanitary
Systems


Armco Lagoon




Totals

Butler Sanitary
Systems         Phosphorus as
                P (ibs/day)
                               VI -7
(Population
Equivalents)
BOD20
(Population
Equivalents)
Tota 1
69,000
4,000
73,000
690
125,000
5,000
130,000
13230
151,000
9,000
160,000
1,500

-------
     Breakneck Creek introduces  significant residual wastes  to




 Connoquenessing Creek.  Several  industries and  small municipalities




 located  on  this Greek do not have  sufficient waste  treatment to




 provide  the desired protection to  stream quality.   The residual




 wastes from Breakneck Creek plus the municipal  discharges of




 Zelienople  and Harmony  further degrade Connoquenessing Creek just




 as it is recovering from degradation caused by  wastes Introduced




 from the Butler complex, cwenty  stream miles upstream.




     Connoquenessing Greek begins  to recover only to be  subjected




 to a similar pattern of degradation in Che Ellwood  City  area.




 Residual municipal wastes entering via Brush Creek  and the




 industrial  and municipal contributions in the Eilwood City area




 combine  to  once more alter the water quality conditions  of




 Connoquenessing Creek before it  enters c'he Beaver River.  Dissolved




 oxygen deficiency and nutrient associated  problems are  not  as




 severe in this reach because of  che vast increase in the waste




 assimilative capacity of the Creek.  The extremely  high  natural




 reaeration  capacity along with the introduction of  additional




 dilution water from Slippery Rock Creek influence the stream's




 ability to  assimilate residual organic wastes.




Water Quality Criteria




     Pennsylvania's first  comprehensive Clean Streams Law was adopted




 in 1937.  The law provides for the establishment of water quality




criteria for all  streams in the State.  The Pennsylvania Sanitary
                               VI-8

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Water Board has adopted water quality criteria for interstate




streams in conformance with the Federal Water Quality Act of




1965 as amended.  The proposed standards for the Beaver River have




been approved by the Secretary of the Interior and are presented




in Table 14.




     The State of Pennsylvania has been actively engaged in the




process of establishing water quality criteria for intrastate




waters*  Gonnoquenessing Creek is one of the few intrastate streams




where specific criteria has not yet been developed  In the absence




of state standards, water quality criteria commensurate with




current national and state objectives will be utilized in the




assessment of pollution abatement needs.  The water quality




objectives proposed in this report for the Connoquenessing Creek




drainage will provide protection for all legitimate water uses to




meet both existing and anticipated needs.  The standard water




uses established by the Pennsylvania Water Board for most waters




of the Commonwealth include the following:




                        1.0 - Aquatic Life




                              1.2 Warm Water Pish




                        2.0 - Water Supply




                              2.1 Domestic




                              2.2 Industrial




                              2.3 Livestock




                              2.4 Wildlife




                              2.5 Irrigation
                               VI -9

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                             TABLE 14

                WATER QUALITY CRITESIA-BEAVER RIVER
Parameter

PH

Dissolved
Oxygen

Iron

Temperature
Dissolved Solids
Bacteria
(Coliforms/100 ml)
Threshold Odor
Number
Not less than 6,0; not to exceed 8.5.

Minimum daily average 5.0 mg/1; no
value less than 4.0 mg/1.

Total iron - not to exceed 1.5 tng/l

Not to exceed 5F rise above ambient
temperature or a maximum of 87F,
whichever Is less; not to be changed
by mere than 2^F during any one hour
prl oda

Not to exceed 500 mg/1 as a monthly
average value; not to exceed 750 mg/1
at any time*

For the period 5/15 - 9/15 of any year;
not tc exceed 1000/100 ml as an arithmetic
average value" not to exceed 1000/100 ml
in store than two consecutive samples;
not to exceed 2400/100 ml In more than
one sample

For the period 9/16 - 5/14 of any year;
not to exceed 5000/100 ml as a monthly
average value, nor to exceed this
number in more than 20% of the samples
collected during any month;  nor to exceed
20,000/100 ml in more than 5% of the
samples

Not to exceed 24 at 60* Ca
                              VI -10

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                        3.0  - Recreation




                              3.2 Fishing




                              3.3 Water Contact  Sports




                              3.4 Natural Area




                              3.5 Cons er va t i on Area




                        4.0  - Other




                              4.1 Power




                              4.3 Treated waste  assimilation




     The water quality criteria established for  the Beaver River




were designed for the protection of the above water uses, and




are also applicable to Connoquertessing Creek.




Pollution Abatement Alternatives




     Several pollution abatement alternatives were considered




in the evaluation conducted  to determine the most favorable plan




for meeting the water quality objectives in Connoquenessing Creek,




The principal alternatives included the use of low flow




augmentation, through reservoir releases, in combination with




various levels of advanced waste treatment at the municipal and




industrial sources; the use  of a pipeline to transport treated




wastes from the Butler and Zelienople areas to the Beaver River;




and expansion of the existing inter-basin water  transfer system




to facilitate low flow augmentation needs in lieu of reservoir




releases for water quality control.




     It was assumed that all x-?astes would receive at least the
                              Vl-ll

-------

-------
degree of treatment set forth below as the definition of secondary




waste treatment or its equivalent:




     Substantially complete removal of all floatable and settleable




     materials, a minimum removal of 85 percent of the 5-day BOD




     and suspended solids based on design flow, disinfection or




     other methods that result in substantial reduction of




     microorganisms and such additional treatment as may be




     necessary to meet applicable water quality standards, and




     to tneet recommendations of the Secretary of the Interior or




     orders of a court pursuant to Section 10 of the Federal




     Water Pollution Control Act.




     With regard to the alternatives involving low flow augmentation,




an evaluation of the total streamflow requirements needed to




maintain 5.0 mg/1 dissolved oxygen throughout Connoquenessing Creek




indicated that solution of the problem at Butler would provide




protection to the entire stream.  That is, if additional streamflow




were provided to Connoquenessing Creek in the immediate vicinity




of Butler, the 5.0 mg/1 dissolved oxygen level would be maintained



throughout the remainder of the Creek.  The hydraulic and




hydrologic characteristics of the receiving stream, the relative




spacing of significant, organic waste discharges and the fact that




the present and projected raw waste loads from the Butler area




are much greater in magnitude than other sources influenced the




selection of the primary area of streamflow augmentation need.
                               VI-

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      Utilizing  the  basic  Streeter-Phelps  equations  for  dissolved

 oxygen dynamics  in  streams,  the  total  streamflow requirements were

 computed  for Connoquenessing Creek under  varying degrees of

 twenty-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand  (BOD2g) removal efficiencies

 of wastes originating from the Butler  municipal and industrial

 complex.  The results of  this analysis are presented in Table 15.

                             TABLE 15

             TOTAL  FLOW REQUIREMENTS IN CFS AT BUTLER,
    PENNSYLVANIA, NEEDED  TO  MAINTAIN 5,0  MG/L DISSOLVED OXYGEN
                      (JUNE  THROUGH OCTOBER)

                               Ultimate Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Year
1968
1980
2000
2020
Waste Flow
cfs I/
9
15
24
32
(BOD20)
85%
36
56
100
124
Removal Efficiencies
90% 95%
24
37
68
84
12
19
33
41
I/ Estimated total waste flow discharged by municipal and industrial
   water users in the Butler area.

It was assumed that all communities and industries which discharge

organic wastes to tributary streams would provide sufficient

treatment to meet the water quality objectives for all streams in

the area.  Since many of these tributary streams are virtually dry

during the summer and fall seasons, the minimum waste treatment

requirements were assumed to be above the conventional secondary

level.  It is, however, not the purpose of this study to determine

the precise minimum treatment requirements for the small communities

whose residual wastes have little influence on the water quality
                               VI-13

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of Gonnoquenessing  Creek.




      In  order  to insure  that water  quality  enhancement  is  achieved




throughout  the entire  length of Connoquenessing  Creek,  it  is




essential that augmented flows be introduced  to  the  stream in




the  immediate  vicinity of the Butler municipal and industrial  complex.




This eliminates consideration of the proposed Little Connoquenessing




Creek Reservoir and certainly reduces  the desirability  of




utilizing the  proposed Glade Run Reservoir  for water quality control




storage.  The  most  favorable locations  for  such  storage appear




to be in the tributaries immediately above  and below Butler.   The




potential Thorn Creek  site is in an ideal location for meeting




the  flow augmentation  needs*  In analyzing  the pollution control




options involving reservoir storage, the Thorn Creek site  was




given prime consideration while the Glade Run site was considered




as a supplementary  source  of storage when quantities above Thorn




Creek's maximum available  potential were required.




      Estimates of reservoir storage  requirements to  meet the net




flow augmentation needs  were obtained through extrapolation of a




curve which relates storage amounts  to  streamflow demands  with a




failure frequency of one-in-ten years.  This  relationship  was




developed by the Hydrology Branch of the U. S. Army  Corps  of Engineers,




Pittsburgh District Office,  The storage-strearaflow  relationship




was developed under the assumption that the future water supply




needs of the Butler municipal and industrial complex could be
                               VI -14

-------

-------
supplied by potential developments in upstream areas.  This appears

to be the most rational approach since the Soil Conservation

Service has identified preliminary sites upstream from Butler with

potential water supply storage and there is the possibility that

the existing inter-basin water transfer system from the Allegheny

River could be expanded to satisfy projected needs.

     An assessment of the existing assimilative capacity of the

Beaver River indicates that a minimum of secondary treatment (as

previously defined) of all municipal and industrial wastes in

the study reach is required to meet the 5.0 mg/1 dissolved oxygen

level under present and projected to the year 2020 conditions.

In arriving at this conclusion, it was assumed that sufficient

treatment will be provided to the upstream waste sources in

order that the existing water quality objectives will be achieved.

     The 5.0 mg/1 dissolved oxygen objective may be obtained

throughout the study area without the use of additional streamflow

to increase the assimilative capacity of the streams.  Table 16

summarizes the minimum treatment requirements of significant organic

wastes for achievement of the water quality objectives.

                             TABLE 16

                SUMMARY OP MINIMUM WASTE TREATMENT
             REQUIREMENTS NEEDED TO MAINTAIN 5.0 mg/1
          DISSOLVED OXYGEN WITHOUT LOW FLOW AUGMENTATION

       Area                          Percent BOD20 Removal
.      	       1980     2000     2020	
Connoquenessing Creek
     Butler                          96%      96%      96%
     Zelienople & Harmony            92%      92%      92%
     Ellwood City & Vicinity         85%      85%      85%
Beaver River
     All communities }j              85%      85%      85%
I/ Those organic waste sources which discharge to the Beaver River
   within Beaver County, Pennsylvania.

                              VT-15

-------

-------
     Another alternative considered in this study is the use of




a pipeline to transport the residual wastes after secondary




treatment, from the Butler and Zelienople areas to the Beaver River.




The pipeline would be designed to carry the volume of wastes




expected by the year 2020.  Since there are existing nutrient-




associated problems in the Beaver River, it was assumed that a




high degree of nutrient removal would be required at the waste




sources prior to pipeline transportation,




     One of the prime pollution control objectives in Connoquenessing




Creek is to substantially reduce the nuisance growths of aquatic




plants*  A review of current literature on the subject indicates




that there is no phosphorus standard applicable to all situations.




It has been suggested by some scientists -id/ that inorganic




phosphorus levels be limited to 0.01 mg/1 (P) to prevent algae




blooms in lakes.  Others have concluded that phosphorus levels




below 0.5 mg/1 (PO^) or 0.16 mg/1 (P) would control nuisance




growths and that algae growth would almost stop at levels below




0.05 mg/1 (P04) or 0.016 mg/1 (P).




     The Report of the National Technical Advisory Committee on




Water Quality Control -'recommends, as a guideline, that the




concentration of total phosphorus should not be increased to levels




exceeding 0.1 mg/1 (P) in flowing streams for control of nuisance




algae growths.  The Report also recommends that the addition of all




organic wastes containing nutrients, vitamins,  trace elements, and
                               VI-16

-------
growth stimulants should be carefully controlled and that a




biological monitoring system should be utilized to determine the




effectiveness of the control measures put into operation.




     Since excessive nutrients are partly responsible for the




pollution problems in Connoquenessing Creek, an attempt was made




to analyze the effectiveness of each pollution abatement




alternative in terms of residual nutrient levels in the stream.




In addition to the principal plans, consideration was given to




the use of reservoir releases for low flow augmentation to provide




dilution of the residual phosphorus to a level which would meet the




Committee's criteria.  This abatement method was, however, found




to be highly unreliable since the potential dilution water was




found to contain, at times, quantities of nutrients significantly




above the desired phosphorus concentration in the stream.




     Another water quality characteristic which required attention




in this study was the high level of dissolved solids found in




Connoquenessing Creek in the vicinity of Butler, Pennsylvania.




The source of the pollutant appears to be a combination of several




industrial waste discharges in and above Butler.  It is speculated




that part of the problem stems from the discharges from abandoned




coal mines located on tributaries to Connoquenessing Creek upstream




from Butler.  Most of the problem, however,  appeared to be caused




by inadequately treated industrial waste discharges.  Although




reservoir releases designed to provide dilution of these dissolved
                               VI-17

-------
solids could be utilized in solving this particular problem, it




is believed that installation of the minimum required industrial




treatment facilities set forth by the Pennsylvania Sanitary




Water Board will provide adequate protection to the stream.
                               VI-18

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                  VEX.  COST AM) BENEFIT ANALYSIS






Selection of A Pollution Abatement,Plan



     The basis for selecting the most favorable alternative means



of maintaining the water quality objectives over the project design



life is that the plan should achieve these goals at a mininsum total



coat and be consistent with the minimum treatment requirements.  The



least costly alternative is independent of the distribution of cost



between the local, State and Federal Governments.



     Each of the pollution abatement alternatives was evaluated for



the 100-year study period.  All costs for waste treatment facilities,



reservoir storage, and pipelines include estimates of annual operation



and maintenance and are in July 1968 dollars.  The 4-7/8 percent inter-



est rate was utilized in estimating the average annual cost of each



facility.




     Treatment levels of 85, 90, 95, and 98 percent BOD20 removal



were selected as points to determine the conparative cost of combina-



tions of reservoir storage for low flow augmentation and waste treat-



ment.  The treatment methods used as a basis for the comparative costs



in this analysis are as follows:



     1.  85 percent treatment consists of a secondary plant utilizing



         the trickling filter process.



     2.  90 percent treatment consists of a secondary plant utilizing



         the activated-sludge process.
                               Vtl-l

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     3.  95 percent treatment consists of activated sludge plus




         coagulation and sedimentation with lime and rapid sand




         filtration.




     4.  98 percent treatment consists of activated sludge plus




         coagulation and sedimentation with lime, nitrogen removal




         rapid sand filtration and granular carbon adsorption.




It was assumed that each waste treatment facility would have a




fully effective life of 25 years.  Although the advanced waste




treatment processes may not necessarily be operated throughout




the entire year, for the purpose of this cost analysis, cost




estimates of operation and maintenance were based on continuous




operation.




     Estimates of the cost of providing the required reservoir




storage for low flow augmentation to meet the total stream flow




requirements were taken from preliminary cost data supplied




by the Planning Division of the Pittsburgh District, U. S. Army




Corps of Engineers.  Figure 4 presents a graphical representation




of the average annual cost per acre foot of storage for the




Thorn Creek and Glade Run sites.  These costs represent the



total annual cost of a single-purpose reservoir designed to




provide the flow schedule for downstream water quality control



needs *




     A comparison of the alternative total costs (see Table 17)




reveals that the least costly combination occurs at the 95 per-




cent BOD20 level.
                              VII -2

-------

-------
.K-i.-ij,]-:.,:!. 7
                                                          O





                                                          O


                                                          I



                                                          S>
-P
CQ
              VII-3
                         Q.COQ

-------
                             TABLE 17

                    COST COMPARISON OF LOW FLOW
             AUGMENTATION AND WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEMS
          REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN 5.0 mg/1 DISSOLVED OXYGEN

                           Degree of Treatment (% BOD2Q removal)

                          85          90          95          98
Annual Cost of
waste treatment
Butler area
Zelienople area
Totals
Estimated storage
requirements (acre
feet)
Annual cost of
storage
Total annual cost
of water quality
control
$480,000
$130,000
$610,000
(52,000)
$1,220,000

$1,830,000
$690,000
$170,000
$860,000
(13,000)
$740,000

$1,600,000
$950,000
$260,000
$X, 210,000
(1,500)
$140,000

$1,350,000
$1,700,000
$ 260,000^
$1,960,000
(0)
0

$1,960,000
I/ The maximum treatment needs at Zelienople are 92% BOD2Q removal;
   therefore, the cost for 95% SOD   was considered for this alternative,
     Since there are two potential sources of water which could

be used to satisfy the net streamflow requirements for water quality

control, the respective cost estimates were compared so that the

most favorable method could be identified.  In lieu of reservoir

storage, the low flow augmentation needs could be satisfied by

transporting additional flows from the Allegheny River to the headwaters
                              VII-4

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of Connoquenessing Creek.  Such a system would require a permit




from the State of Pennsylvania to increase the existing withdrawal




rate from the Allegheny River.  These types of permits are normally




granted if it can be shown that the withdrawal will have an




insignificant effect on downstream water users.  It is doubtful




that a permit would be granted for a. large increase in the




withdrawal rate because of the fact that existing low flows in




the Allegheny River are augmented by releases from the Allegheny




River Reservoir for water quality control in the Pittsburgh area.




Without knowing the probable limitation on potential withdrawal




increases, it was assumed, for the purpose of the alternative




cost analysis, that the required flows could be transferred to




Connoquenessing Creek.




     Estimates of the total annual cost for this alternative




included the initial construction cost of an eleven-mile pipeline




with appurtenant pumping facilities, and the annual operation




and maintenance.  The annual cost of existing augmentation in the



Allegheny River was not considered.  The pipeline was designed



to supply the low flow augmentation needs through to the year




2020.  Table 18 presents a. summary of the comparative costs for the



two sources of low flow augmentation water.
                              VII-5

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                             TABLE  18

                    COST COMPARISON OF THE TWO
              SOURCES OF LOW FLOW AUGMENTATION WATER

Net Flow                        Annual Cost  - Dollars
Required                    Reservoir        Inter-basin
 (c.fs)...._.                    .Relea3es_          Transfer

   9                         $140,OOQ~/       $300,000

  52                         $740,OOO^/      $1,200,000

  92                       $1,220,0002/      $2,100,000

I/ Thorn Creek site.      2/ Thorn  Creek and Glade Run sites.

Inspection of the comparative costs reveals  that reservoir storage

is the  least costly source of water for low  flow augmentation to

Connoquenessing Creek.

     Another pollution abatement method given consideration in

this study is the transportation of treated  wastes to the

Beaver  River.  Such a pipeline would convey  the waste effluent

from treatment facilities in the Butler and  Zelienople areas to

the Beaver River, a total distance of approximately 44 miles.

The pipeline was designed to carry the projected waste flows

to the year 2020.  Table 19 summarizes the comparative costs of

these alternatives.  The effluent pipeline alternative would be

more costly than the plan utilizing reservoir storage for low

flow augmentation.  In addition to being costlier, the effluent

pipeline is less favorable because it would  substantially reduce
                              VTI-6

-------

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                             TABLE 19

                    COST COMPARISON OF LOW FLOW
                AUGMENTATION AND EFFLUENT PIPELINE
Annual cost of treatment

     Butler Area

     Zelienople Area

         Totals

Annual cost of effluent pipe

Annual cost of reservoir
  storage

Total annual cost of
  water quality control
                                    Annual Cost - Dollars
                                                      Low Flow
                                  Pipeline          Augment at i on-=/
$690,000
$170,000
$860,000
$820,000
$950,000
$260,000
$1,210,000
$ 0
  $  o
$1,680,000
$  140,000
                                                    $1,350,000
I/ 1500 Acre Feet in Thorn Creek Site.
                              VII-7

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the dry season stream flows in Coimoquenessing Creek to the




point where other recreational type benefits would be minimized




in the 44 miles of stream.




     Since excessive nutrients are partly responsible for the




pollution problems in Connoquenessing Creek, an attempt was made




to analyze the effectiveness of each pollution abatement alternative




in terms of residual nutrient levels in the stream.




     One of the water quality objectives in Gonnoquenessing Greek




is to control the excessive algal growths through limitation




of phosphorus levels.  Of the three alternative abatement plans,




the effluent pipeline would proxrlde the most reduction in stream




phosphorus concentrations.  Since this plan is undesirable because




of cost considerations and its detrimental affect on dry weather




stream flowss the residual phosphorus levels were computed for




each of the waste treatment-low flow augmentation combinations




considered in the study*  In this analysis it was assumed that




all potential dilution water contained insignificant amounts of




phosphorus.  Table 20 summarizes the results of this analysis.




The least costly combination of water quality control measures




(1500 acre feet reservoir storage plus 95% BOE^Q treatment at Butler)




displayed the most efficient means of providing maximum reduction




of stream phosphorus levels.  The advanced waste treatment processes




of Coagulation and Sedimentation with Lime and Rapid Sand Filtration




were considered the most favorable combination for maximizing
                              VII-8

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                             TABLE 20

                 ESTIMATED RESIDUAL PHOSPHORUS IN
                       CONNOQUENESSING CREEK
Pollution Abatement Combinations
2020
Reservoir
Storage
(acre, ft ...)..

52,000

13,000

1,500
Waste Treatment Process




Trickling Filter

Activated Sludge

Activated Sludge,
Coagulation & Sedimentation
with Lime and Rapid Sand
Filtration.

Activated Sludge,
Coagulation and Sedimentation
with Lime, Nitrogen
Removal, Rapid Sand
Filtration and Granular
Carbon Adsorption.
Residual Stream
Phosphorus-P  I/
   (nvg/1)
     1.8

     2.8


     0.35
                                                         0.40
I/ Assuming all potential reservoir releases
   contained insignificant amounts of phosphorus.
                              VII-9

-------
phosphorus reductions of municipal wastes.  These processes,




plus the low flow augmentation constitute the most favorable




plan for maintaining the water quality objectives through the




year 2020.




     The analysis of the various pollution abatement alternatives




utilized specific advanced waste treatment processes without




consideration of the practicability of application to existing




facilities in the Butler and Sellenople areas.  One reason for




this rationale is the fact that these areas are expected to




experience such rapid growth that existing treatment facilities




would most likely become unable to manage the higher flow volumes




in the near future.  If existing facilities were replaced, the




processes used in the analysis are considered to be the most




practical available under current technology.  Also, it is not




the intent of this study to design the most desirable treatment




facilities at each individual source of organic type wastes.




The recommended pollution abatement plan should not necessarily




stipulate the application of specific waste treatment processes,




but rather it should provide limitations on the chemical and



biological characteristics of projected waste effluents to




Connoquenessing Creek.




     The formulation of a pollution abatement plan was influenced by




the fact that the combined municipal and industrial waste discharges




from the Butler complex constitute the bulk of the streamflow in
                              VXI-1Q

-------
Connoquenessirig Creek under low natural flow conditions.  Since the




streamflow will contain such a high proportion of waste water even




with the implementation of low flow augmentation, the pollution




abatement plan should contain limitations on the concentration of




waste effluents as well as minimum treatment requirements.  It




is therefore suggested that the recommended waste treatment




requirements and effluent limitations presented in Table 21 be




established for the study area.
                              VII-11

-------




























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                                        11-12

-------
     The recommended pollution abatement measures will require the



 installation of advanced waste treatment facilities in the Butler



 and Zelienople areas.  As previously discussed in this report,



 there are many unsewered areas in the vicinity of these communities.



 There are also a  few small sanitary waste treatment systems which



 cannot provide the high degree of treatment recommended.  In view



 of .these conditions, it is highly desirable that consideration be



 given to the use  of a regional waste collection system which would



 transport the wastes to a central treatment plant at Butler and



 Zelienople.  Such a system normally minimizes per capita treatment



 costs.



     Although the raw oxygen consuming waste load from the Armco



 lagoon is relatively small when compared to the other sources in



 the Butler complex, this load must be substantially reduced to



meet the recommended water quality objectives in Connoquenessing



Creek.  Isolation of the oxygen consuming wastes may simplify



their treatment at either an in-house treatment facility or a



regional sanitary-industrial waste treatment system.  Also, all



measures should be taken by Armco to insure that the intermittent



phosphate wastes are collected and treated.



     In summary, the most favorable pollution abatement plan in-



cludes the use of reservoir storage in the proposed Thorn Greek



site for water quality control in combination* with the specified



degree of advanced waste treatment for all organic wastes dis-



charged to Connoquenessing Creek in the  Butler  and Zelienople
                             VII-13

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areas.  Potential releases should be  scheduled  so  that  the minimum

flow requirements presented in Table  22 are met, during  the period

June through October.

                             TABLE 22

                   RECOMMENDED PLOW AUGMENTATION
         FOR MATER QUALITY CONTROL, CONNOQUSNESSING GREEK
                    BELOW BUTER, PENNSYLVANIA
                       (JUKE THROUGH OCTOBER)


                                          ..198_0_....	 2000    	2020

Total Flow Required (cfs)                    19      33       41

Estimated Return Flow  (cfs) I/               15      24       32

Net Flow Requirement (cfs)                    499

Estimated Storage Required                 1000    1500     1500
    (Acre Feet)


I/ Total waste flow discharged by municipal and industrial
   water users in the Butler area*

     Experience has shown that the physical and chemical character-

istics of water vary with depth in many of the  deeper reservoirs*

During periods of thermal stratification, which normally occur

during the summer months, the bottom layers of  the reservoir may

contain water low in dissolved oxygen, high in  iron and manganese

content, and of objectionable taste and odor.   In order to insure

that downstream water quality is  not adversely  affected by release

of poor quality water,  it is recommended that all deep reservoirs

constructed in the study area be  provided with multi-level outlet
                              VII-14

-------
structures capable of providing for adequate water quality control




and facilities for monitoring such releases.




Benefits.,



     Benefits associated with implementation of the recommended




water quality enhancement plan would accrue throughout the length




of Connoquenessing Greek below Butler, Pennsylvania*  The




achievement of the water quality objectives would enhance




recreational activities in and along the Creek and increase the




potential for sport fishing which is quite limited at the present




time.  Water quality enhancement would also increase the value




of property adjacent to the stream.




     The provision of low flow augmentation would enhance and




protect the water quality of Connoquenessing Creek in a 44 mile




reach thereby benefiting many communities and private property




owners along the Creek.  Since the recreation potential of the




stream will be substantially increased, other more distant communities




located outside of the immediate study area will benefit from the




enhancement of stream water quality.  The effects of the provision




of storage for water quality control are therefore considered




to be widespread in nature.




     Since these benefits are quite difficult to evaluate quantitatively,




the cost of providing the same effects of water quality improvement




by the most likely alternative will be utilized as an approximation




of benefits.  The least costly alternative means of achieving




water quality objectives is the use of a single-purpose reservoir,
                             VII-15

-------
located on Thorn Creek, designed to meet the flow requirements as



previously outlined.  From preliminary cost data supplied by the



Pittsburgh District, U, S. Army Corps of Ehgineers, it is estimated



that the average annual cost of providing the comparable storage is



$140,000.  This may be considered as the minimum benefit.



     Since additional water quality control benefits are not readily



identifiable, the maximum benefit attributable to water quality con-



trol storage is actually the difference of the total annual cost of



water quality control between the least costly alternative and the



cost- of the highest degree of waste treatment required to meet the



water quality objectives without additional storage.  From Table 17,



a maximum average annual benefit of $610,000 could be credited to



the proposed Thorn Creek Reservoir.



     Probably the recommended low flow augmentation levels will



not necessarily provide maximum recreation and fishing benefits



in Connoquenessing Creek.  Although water quality conditions are



expected to be favorable for such stream uses, guaranteed addi-



tional streamflows would certainly further enhance the recreation



potential of Connoquenessing Creek.  Consideration should be given to



the use of potential reservoir storage for this purpose.
                           VI1-16

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                        VIII,  BIBLIOGRAPHY






1.  Butler County Planning Commission,  "Butler  County  1980",




    Report 5 of The Comprehensive Plan  for Butlar  County,  Butler,




    Pennsylvania, November 5, 1965.




2.  Butler County Planning Commission,  "Strip Mines Butler County",




    Butler, Pennsylvania5 January 1968.




3.  Butler County Planning CoEsaission,  "Population and Housing",




    Report 1 of the Comprehensive Plan  for Butler  County,  Butler,




    Pennsylvania, December 1964,




4  Butler County Planning Commission,  "Land Use and Physical




    Features", Report 2 of the Comprehensive Plan  For Butler County,




    Butler, Pennsylvania, February 1965.




5.  Beaver County Planning and Zoning Commission,  "Twentieth Annual




    Report", Beaver, Pennsylvania, 1965.




6.  Beaver County Planning Coasaission,  "Industrial Directory,




    Beaver County, Pennsylvania", Beavers Pennsylvania, 1967.




7.  Beaver County Planning Commission, Economic Projections,




    Beaver County, Pennsylvanias June 1968.




8.  W. F. Busch and L. C. Shaw,  "Pennsylvania Strearoflow Characteristics




    Low-Flow Frequency and Flow Duration", Pennsylvania Department




    of Forests and Waters, Water Resources Bulletin No. 1, April 1966.




9.  U S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,




    "Connoquenessing Creek Watershed Investigation Report", Appalachian
                             VIII-1

-------
     Water Resource Survey, Butler and Allegheny Counties, Pennsylvania,




     August 1967.




10.  Smith, Robert, "Cost of Conventional and Advanced Treatment of




     Wastewater", Journal,Water Pollution Control Federati.an,, Vol. 40,




     September 1968, pp. 1546-1574.




11.  Smith, Robert and McMichael, Walter F.s "Cost of Performance




     Estimates for Tertiary Wastewater Treating Processes",




     U. S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control




     Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 1969.




12.  Keup, Lowell E., "Phosphorus in Flowing Waters", Wa t er Res earch.




     Pergamon Press, Vol. 2, 1968, pp. 373-386, Great Britain.




13.  Nesbitt, John B,, "Phosphorus Removal - The State of the Art",




     Journal Water Pollution_CQntrol Federation, Vol. 41, pp. 701-713,




     May 1969.




14.  National Technical Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the




     Interior, "Water Quality Criteria", Government Printing Office,




     Washington,  D. C., April 1, 1968.




15.  Pennsylvania Sanitary Water Board Rules and Regulations,




     Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania.
                              VIII-2

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  LEGEND




USG5  GAGING STATIC




FWPCA WATEF* QUALITY
                                                                                                                              CONNOQUNSSING CREEK  WATERSHED



                                                                                                                                     LOCATION  MAP

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 CONNOQUENESSING CREEK STUDY

         APPENDIX A
AQUATIC BIOLOGY INVESTIGATION


        LETTER REPORT
               Prepared by

               Pennsylvania Department of Health
               Division of Water Quality

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                                                     COMMONWEALTH Of PENNSYLVANIA

                                                     January 3,  1969


Aquatic Biology  Investigation
Connoquenessing  Creek Survey
Butler and Beaver Counties
July 29-30, 1968

Wayne C. Bellaman              Through:  Water Pollution Biologist fy
Regional Sanitary Engineer               Division of Water  Quality1)
Human Services Region VI
                  /_l. ^                   Director, Division
Edward R. Bresin&v*; )                   Water Quality
Aquatic Biologist
Division of Water Quality


An intensive eherrdcal and biological investigation of Connoquenessing
Creek was carried out on Ju3y 29-30, 1968, in cooperation with the FWPCA
(Ohio River Basin Project) of Wheeling, West Virginiaj Pennsylvania Fish
CoKimission; and. the Keadville Regional Health Department office.  The
Wheeling Field Station of the FWCA was requested by the U.S. Arniy Corps
of Engineers to  detenidne the need for, and value of, two potential
multiple-purpose reservoirs to be located on tributaries of Connoquenessing
Creek.  Analysis of existing water quality conditions revealed that pollution
problems (mainly high organic and nutrient loads and poor low flow character-
istics) existed  along sorce sections of Connoquenessing Creek.  In order to
better define the extent a.nd magnitude of the problems, the present field
investigations v;ere conducted.

This report sunrnariaes the results of the biological investigations.  The
biological investigation was conducted by E. R. Breaina and R. Bushick of
the Pennsylvania Department of Health end R. Hessor  of the  Pennsylvania Fish
Commission.  During a two day reconns.issa.nce on July 18 and 19,  1968, nine
biological sampling stations v;ere selected as representative of  existing
stream conditions (Table I arid Figure 1). .Benthic organisms were collected
quantitatively using a 1 sq. foot Surber stream bottom sampler.  Fishes were
collected with a portable stream electro-shocker apparatus.  Periphyton was
qualitatively sampled by scraping deposits from the  surface of several rocks
at each location.

       jmd Piscus^sion%  A sumn'ary of the biological data is presented in
Tables II, III, and TV,  From analysis and interpretation of the data, the
following conclusions were drawn:
Station 1:
            Clean strean conditions; relatively low standing crop of benthic
            fauna and fishes reflect physiographic, conditions and productivity
            of streaiaj benthic and fish populations dominated by pollution
            sensitive organises j some evidence of iron precipitates on
            strear. bottom resulting from litrdted acid mine drainage inflow.

-------
Wayne C.
                                                     January  8,  1969
Station 2:  Connoquenessing .Creek, below Butler.

            Moderate to severe stream degradation; benthic fauna represented
            by three taxa, all pollution tolerant; presence of tolerant
            species resulting from organic input from Butler sewage treat-
            ment plant; relatively low numbers of tolerant organisms
            indicates some toxic chemical or waste discharge, possibly
            pickling liquor or metal ions from ASICO Steel Company.
            Periphyton community reflects organic and nutrient input to
            stream.  Fish population poorly represented in numbers and
            species and dominated by pollution tolerant individuals.
Station 3:  Below Proposed
                               Site on Glade Run
            Clean stream conditions; good diversity of benthic and fish
            fauna; abundance of caddis fly, Kj^rogsy^ie, suggests nutrient
            and organic enrichment; complete absence of periphyton possibly
            related to abundance of needle-like crystalline structures
            (possibly calcium carbonate or some other mineral) and/or
            physical (habitat) conditions.
Station
            Connoquenes^sing; Creek
                                                 upstream, from Zelienople
            Ihtenaediate stream conditions j dominance of pollution tolerant
            organisms (benthic fauna) vdth moderate abundance of Simuliuja
            and Tendipedidae suggest organic and nutrient enrichment.  Fish
            populations represented by 15 species with more than 50$ (by
            species) tolerant of polluted conditions.

Station 5-  Boj^strearn from. Zglienpple

            Moderately polluted conditions; dominance (both species and
            numbers) of pollutional tolerant benthic invertebrates and
            fishes.  Attached alga, Cladojshora, very abundant; this alga
            responds to increased organics and nutrients.  Ideal habitat
            conditions for benthic populations somewhat lacking due to
            abundance of Gladophora occupying available suitable substrate.

Station 6:  At i Hag en and upstream, ,f .rorn. SllvrQod City

            Relatively clean stream conditions; large abundance of caddis
            fly, Hydr op  sy^cjie , suggest organic enrichment; broad diversity
            of fish life.
Station ?:  Direct Ij
                               ^                               Creek
            Clean stream conditions; adequate species diversity, yet low
            number of individuals possibly due to low flow, siltation, and
            a heavy diatom coating on rocks.  Excellent species diversity
            in relation to fish populations.  Low numbers of fishes possibly
            reflect on the low standing crop of benthic fauna.

-------

-------
Wayne C. Bellaman                 -3-                 January 8, 1969


Statical 8:  Above^gr ogosed dam ja it &  o.n,t.Glade. Run

            Relatively clean stream conditions; very large numbers of caddis
                              suggest organic input from surrounding farm-
            land.  Low number of species of bent hie fauna and fishes reflects
            on lack of suitable and diverse habitats associated with head-
            water areas.

Station 9?  Ugsl^em^fr^
            Relatively clean stream conditions^ some abundance of Spirogyra
            fc^d G Xadojphora .  Low numbers of individuals associated with a
            headwater habitat displaying characteristics of low productivity.

Summary;  From the preceding discussion three major areas can be distinguished
receiving moderate to severe pollution along the 41 miles of stream surveyed.
These three areas are:

   Station 2:  Downstream from Butler
   Station 4*  At Eidenauj upstream from Zelienople
   Station 5s  Directly downstream from Zelienople

At the above three stations, the major pollutional problems stem fron an
excessive amount of organics and nutrients.  There also appears to be sotae
toxic waste entering the stream directly below Butler.

At all other stations surveyed, there existed an adequate and diverse
community of aquatic life indicating relatively clean streaa conditions.

In relation to the proposed reservoir sites on little Connoquenessing Creek
and Glade Run, the data indicates that moderate organic and nutrient loads
enter Glade Run,  Construction of the mutiple-purpose reservoir on Glade Bun
will retard the nutrients and eutrophic conditions aiay proceed at
accelerated rates.  To inhibit or retard eutrophication, the following
conditions should be taken into consideration:

   1.  That the reservoir should not have large areas less than five feet
       deep.

   2  That complete retention time be relatively short so as not to allow
       for accumulation of nutrients.  Should the reservoir be shallow and
       clear with a relatively long detention time, eutrophication v/ould
       probably result with a change in species composition and a shifting
       of population density to an unbalanced state.  The result of
       accelerated eutrophication slight possibly be the development of
      -nuisance algae and, aquatic vegetation,

Little Connoquenessing Creek Appears to be &n excellent site for the con-
struction of a multiple-purpose reservoir from the standpoint of aquatic
life diversity.

One important factor to consider in relation to the proposed reservoir sites
is the very poor low flow characteristics of Connoquenessing Creek.  What
effect the construction of dams on tvo of the major tributaries to the

-------

-------
Wayne C. Bellaman                 -4-                  January 8, 1969


Connoguenessing Creek will have on the flow characteristics cannot be
established from available data.  However, it might be hypothesised that
reducing the inflow of water to Connoquenessing Creek, especially during
summer months when poor flow conditions normally, exist, might increase the
effect of high organic and nutrients loads on the aquatic life of the
stream, unless flow release is regulated to reduce the nutrient concentration
through dilution.

Recosmaendations;  It is recommended that:

   1.  A more intensive biological and chemical survey be conducted within
       each of the three problem areas listed above.

   2.  Detailed information on the location of waste treatment facilities,
       type of waste and discharge points for all facilities located in
       the drainage basin surrounding the three problem areas should be
       gathered and a copy forwarded to the Aquatic Biology Unit so that
       the proposed survey can be conducted next spring.

-------
           T
           _i, >
<3
       us
           *

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                              2AELB I

                       COHNOQUENESSB3& CREEK

                         7/29/68 - 7/30/68

                            Biological
                    Sailing Station Locations
Station No.

    1


    2
    U


    5


    6


    7


    8


    9
Butler


Butler


Butler



Butler


Beaver


Beaver


Butler


Butler


Butler
            Location

Bridge at 10119 - 3 miles N of
Butler off Highway 38.

Bridge at 10151 - West of Rt.
N.E. of Renfrew.
                                 0.6 miles below bridge at T
                                 and below proposed, dam site -
                                 I.E. of Evans City.
10042 at Eidenau - 1/8 mile N of
Rt. 68.

Bridge at 588 - 1/2 mile west of
junction of 288.

040?8 at bridge aad junction with
C&055.

Bridge at HX&l - on Little
Conaoqueaessing below data site.

Bridge at T-38k - Jet with T-382
on Glade Run.

Bridge at 10015 &ad T-410 - South
of Rt. k22 on Little Connoqutenessing.
All fishes, benthos, and algae were sampled at above locations.

Distance of stream worked with electro fishing gear.
                   Station
              Distance
1
2
3
if
5
6
7
8
9
35 feet
250 feet
kO feet
100 feet
100 feet
30 feet
100 feet
50 feet
100 feet

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                             TABLE II

                      COHNOqUEJESSHC- CRSEK

                        7/29/68 - 7/30/68

                              Algae
                 QualitativeScrapings off Rocks
Station 1 -
            1,
            2.
Station 2 -
            1  Pot omoggt on cripus
            2  Vorticella
            3.  iteylcula
            U.  Cladophora
            5.  TO^tSIx r
            6.  Rhizoclonitjja
            6.  Ueedle-lUce, crystalline structure - very abundant.

Station 3 -
            1.  Needle-like crystalline structure - very abundant.

Station k -
            1%  Cledoghora
            2.  jgavicula
            3.  Fragellaria
            k.  Bhizoclonium
            5.  Ulothrix

Station 5 -
            1*  Cladoghora
            2.  Haylcitla
            3*  Unknown diatm

Station 6 -
            1.  Fragellaria
            2.  BHi'zoclonium
            3.

Station 7 -
            1.

Station 9 -
            1.  Sgirogyra
            2.  Gladoghora
            3.  RhTzoclonTum
            5.  Kavicula

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