WATER POLLUTION CONTROL PRACTICES
   AT SEVEN MAJOR INDUSTRIAL PLANTS
      IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY
            OF WEST VIRGINIA

NATIONAL FIELD INVESTIGATIONS CENTER - CINCINNATI
                  AND
           REGION III - PHILADELPHIA
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                 JUNE 1974

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-••}  ,'i 5
. ) -i.
                       WATER POLLUTION CONTROL PRACTICES

                       AT  SEVEN MAJOR INDUSTRIAL PLANTS

                           IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY

                                OF WEST VIRGINIA
                                                                    I*
                                Principal Authors                   \.
                                George J. Morgan             Regional Center for Kmironmetuallntormatu
                                      and                            IjS EPA Region III

                                Thomas J. Powers
                                                    ^'•v^sgionlll

                                                   bSSf°r ^ Environment«!

                                               3^0 Aieh Street (3PM52)
                                               S ^^ ; J d-, >n'TT.T~ * _  *»-^ i —      *
                                                              19103
               National Field Investigations  Center - Cincinnati
                                       and
                            Region III - Philadelphia
                 United States Environmental  Protection Agency

                                    June 1974

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                              FOREWORD
    Because the water quality of the Kanawha River in West Virginia
drops dramatically during the course of its 97-mile flow, the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency conducted a series of investigations
during the period January-March 1972 to identify the causative
factors.

    The major area of the investigations extended from the Kanawha's
point of origin, the New and Gauley Rivers, to the Winfield Dam,
about 32 miles from the Kanawha's juncture with the Ohio River
(Figure 1).  The Ohio was also sampled a few miles upstream and
downstream from the mouth of the Kanawha to determine whether the
water quality of the Ohio was being degraded by the Kanawha.

    Since evidence indicated that the poor water quality of the
Kanawha was attributable more to industrial waste discharges into it
than to domestic wastes and surface water runoff, the investigators
visited 40 plants that were discharging directly into the Kanawha.
Their objective was threefold:  (1) to find out if the plants were
treating their wastewater before releasing it into the river; (2) if
treatment was being provided, to determine the degree of pollutional
reduction each industry achieved; (3) to establish what each plant
needed to do so that their collective efforts would allow the
dissolved oxygen in the Kanawha to meet the 4.0 mg/1 level at the
river's low flow of 1,930 cubic feet per second.

    The Director of NFIC-Cincinnati wrote the plant managers before
the survey started and asked that they help carry it out.  He also
requested that they provide information about the pollution abatement
programs they had in effect and advised them that the data collected
could be used in a Federal enforcement conference.  During the
investigations, NFIC-C personnel employed a "split" wastewater
sampling procedure at each plant to provide a check on Federal,
State, and company data.  Each manager was subsequently given a draft
copy of the investigators' report on his plant and was asked to
comment on it.

    The original objective of the survey was to produce a report that
could be used as a basic document in an enforcement conference
proceedings.  However, with the passage of time and the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500) October 18, 1972, the focus of
EPA's water pollution control activities shifted from calling
                                 iii

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iv

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enforcement conferences to establishing effluent guidelines and
issuing individual discharge permit limitations.  The report on these
plants has not, therefore, been used in any enforcement conferences,
but because of the basic information it contains, it has definite
value in the permit program to help establish specific effluent
limitations.

    This volume presents data on and recommendations about the
following seven major plants out of the total of 40 facilities
visited:

    E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company at Belle
    Union Carbide Corporation at South Charleston
    Union Carbide Corporation at Institute
    FMC Corporation, Inorganic Chemicals Division, at
         South Charleston
    FMC Corporation, American Viscose Division, at Nitro
    FMC Corporation, Organic Chemicals Division, at Nitro
    Monsanto Company at Nitro

    It should be noted that these field surveys represented only one
phase of an information-gathering program that continued after the
surveys had been completed.   As a result, these reports contain
information that updates certain situations that existed in early
1972.   In these instances, the newer information appears in
parentheses to separate it from the observations made or data
recorded during the surveys.

    The recommendations presented regarding effluent limitations for
each plant are based on the information available at the time of each
survey.  Should Federal, State, or local regulations require a higher
level of pollutional reduction, the recommendations presented shall
not be used to avoid compliance with such requirements.

    The State of West Virginia's Division of Water Resources
participated in the investigations to the fullest extent possible,
and its assistance is gratefully acknowledged.
                                  v

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                      INDEX
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Belle
   Principal Author:   Thomas J. Powers
Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston
   Principal Author:   George  J. Morgan  (Deceased)


Union Carbide Corporation, Institute
   Principal Author:   Thomas  J. Powers
FMC Corporation, Inorganic Chemicals Division,
South Charleston
   Principal Author:  Thomas J. Powers
FMC Corporation, American Viscose Division, Nitro
   Principal Author:  Thomas  J. Powers
FMC Corporation, Organic Chemicals Division, Nitro
   Principal Author:  George J. Morgan
Monsanto Company, Nitro
  Principal Author:  George J. Morgan
                      vii

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          E. I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY, INCORPORATED
                       BIOCHEMICALS DEPARTMENT
                             BELLE PLANT
                        BELLE, WEST VIRGINIA
                      General Plant Description

    The plant is located on the right bank of the Kanawha River
(facing downstream) about 10 miles southeast of Charleston at river
mile point 68.5.  The property stretches along the shore for Just
under one mile and covers approximately 104 acres (Figure A-l).

    The plant went operational in 1926 and made one product -
ammonia.  In 1933, employment stood at 600 and at about 5,000 in the
late 1940's.  At the time of the survey, employees numbered
approximately 1,700, and more than 30 chemicals were being
manufactured, including ammonia, urea, ethylene glycol, methylamines,
formaldehyde, and methacrylates.  The plant was being operated 24
hours a day, seven days a week, and plant officials said that
production varied little from season to season.  The principal raw
materials being used were natural gas, coal, air and water.

                             Water Usage

    The plant was withdrawing about 175 million gallons a day (mgd)
of water from the Kanawha and returning 98% of it untreated after
using most of it as "non-contact" cooling water (Table A-l).
Approximately 2.41 mgd were returned to the river after being
processed in the wastewater treatment plant.  Water usage had
declined steadily from 95.4 billion gallons in 1967 to 61.1 in 1971.

               Wastewater Discharges and Waste Sources

    Wastewater was discharged into the Kanawha through 62 outfalls.
Plant officials said that 49 handled cooling water, condensate, pump
backflushes, and surface runoff, 10 discharged combined process
wastes and cooling water, one was connected to the wastewater
treatment plant, and two were inactive.  Information on the 11 major
outfalls is shown in Figure A-2, and the sources of process wastes
sent to the wastewater treatment plant are listed in Figure A-3.
                               A-l

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A-2

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                    Wastewater Treatment Program

Historical Development

    DuPont began a waste-reduction program at the plant in 1945.
Between then and 1972, the summertime five-day biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD(5)) load discharged into the river was reduced from
350,000 pounds per day to less than 21,000.  The wintertime load
throughout the period was always higher than the summer load;  at  the
time of the survey, it was about 40,000 pounds per day.

    The waste-reduction program has covered four periods:  1945-1958;
1959-1964 (Phase I of the State's program); 1965-1972 (Phase II); and
1972 to present.

    During the period 1945-1958, no waste treatment was provided, but
the following pollution-control measures were implemented:

    1.  Calandrias were installed on open-bottom steam stills.

    2.  Refrigerated condensers were employed ahead of some
vacuum jets.

    3.  Intermediate process steps were redesigned.

    4.  An ammonium sulphate recovery plant was built, and waste
oil was incinerated.

    5.  Condensed organic vapors were oxidized catalytically.

    6.  Fly ash was collected and flushed to a pond.

    7.  Fly ash was removed by barges, and the fly ash pond
was converted into a facility where organic wastes were digested
anaerobically.

    8.  Liquid waste was incinerated.

    9.  Continuously operating automatic samplers were provided.

   10.  Wastes were impounded during summer and discharged into
the river during high winter flows.

   11.  Natural gas rather than coal was used to process process
gases.
                                A-6

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   12.  A unit was installed in which volatile materials were
decomposed thermally.

    DuPont claims that by 1958 the summer BOD(5) load to the river
had been reduced to 50,000 pounds per day as a monthly average.

    The period 1959-1964 was dominated by the implementation of a
pollution-control project to meet the State's Phase I program.  In
this phase, DuPont was directed to reduce the monthly BOD(5) average
to 35,000 pounds per day.  Company officials say that this
requirement was met after the aerobic waste treatment plant went
operational in 1961 and stricter process controls were initiated.

    Early in the period 1964-1972, the discharge permit issued under
the State's Phase II program stipulated that summer BOD(5) loads and
total oxidizable nitrogen (TKN) could not exceed 21,000 and 28,000
pounds per day, respectively.  The impounding of wastes for winter
release to the river was to be discontinued.

    DuPont says it complied with these conditions by:

    1.  Expanding the aerobic wastewater treatment plant.

    2.  Building a new ammonia production plant.

    3.  Replacing the ammonium sulphate facility with a spent-acid
regeneration system that incorporates recovery and recycling.

    4.  Modifying powerhouse boilers so that they could burn
liquid organic wastes.

    5.  Shipping salt brines to the Gulf of Mexico in barges.

    6.  Using deep wells, making process changes, and shutting
down certain production facilities to eliminate impounding activities,

    7.  Phasing out nylon intermediate production and shutting
down the thermal decomposition unit.

    8.  Discontinuing use of the catalytic oxidation unit after
some production facilities were closed down.

    9.  Incorporating waste-control devices and procedures when
new units were designed.
                                A-7

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    The company's loading data presented in Table A-2 indicate that
the plant was generally meeting its Phase II permit conditions.   The
company attributed the higher BOD(5) and TKN values recorded during
the winter to several factors:

    1.  The anaerobic and aerobic biological treatment facilities
operate less efficiently at lower temperatures.

    2.  Maintenance of waste treatment equipment, hydrostatic
testing of pressure vessels, and cleaning of equipment were per-
formed during this period.

    3.  At times, some liquid had to be pumped out of the anae-
robic pond because infiltrating ground water had raised the level
too high.

    In the fourth period, the company was to meet the requirements of
the State's Phase III program, which was scheduled to be completed on
December 31, 1972.  The State advised the company of the general
requirements in December 1969.  One called for "85 percent and 65
percent reduction of the first and second-stage BOD(20),
respectively," presumably of loads existing at that time.  (In May
1972, the State advised DuPont that the daily BOD(5) and TKN loads
could not exceed 15,000 and 18,000 pounds as monthly averages.  An
adjustment was being negotiated to allow higher values during cold
weather.  A compliance schedule was to be submitted to the State
after all requirements were specified.  The company expected that the
aerobic waste treatment plant would have to be expanded to achieve
compliance.)

Wastewater Handling System

    (The wastewater handling devices and practices in use as of July
1972 were:  (1) an aerobic wastewater treatment plant; (2)  an
anaerobic pond; (3) incineration; (4) powerhouse burning of liquid
organic wastes; (5) fly ash barged to local landfill; (6) salt brine
barged to the Gulf of Mexico; (7) deep-well disposal; (8) process
modifications and operational controls; (9) daily monitoring.)

    Deep-Well Disposal and Barging to Sej*

    Two deep wells were being operated under State permits.  The
first was issued in 1966 and authorized the drilling of a well to a.
depth of 1,500 feet.  The second permit was obtained in 1967 for a
well drilled to 5,400 feet; most of the liquid injected did not flow
below 4,300 feet.  Organics and brines incompatible with other
                                A-8

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                              Table A-2




                         TOTAL COMBINED




           DU PONT BELLE PLANT EFFLUENT LOADINGS - 1971
(COMPANY DATA)
MONTHLY AVERAGE DISCHARGE - NET POUNDS/DAY
MONTH
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
BOD
27,200
20,900
29,500
1+0,000
30,800
20,1+00
17,300
11,700
19,900
13,!+00
17,500
20,1+00
COD
90,300
90,1+00
7l+, 100
66,200
52,000
^5,300
66,500
61,100
37,200
1+0, 800
58,1+00
1+9,800
NH_N (as N)
23,000
21,800
19,200
21,500
15,700
15,200
ll+,100
9,100
11,600
7,150
11,700
9,750
TKN-N (as N)
32,000
33,000
3l+, 600
27,300
23,200
15,600
22,900
13,000
21,000
13,1+00
ii+,6oo
ii+,6oo
Average
22,1+00     61,000     15,000
22,100
                              A-9

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treatment systems were being discharged into the wells at a rate of
about 220,000 gallons per day, according to the company (Table A-l).
This would represent a BOD(5) load of 12,000 pounds.

    Approximately 30,000 gallons of salt brine were collected each
day, and the accumulations were periodically taken by barge to the
Gulf of Mexico and discharged into at least 100 fathoms of water
about 100 miles off the coast.

    Wastewater Treatment System

    The activated-sludge waste treatment plant had an efficiency of
approximately 85% in summer and 75% in winter.  A flow diagram
appears as Figure A-4.  The plant was designed to accept 30,000
pounds of BOD(5) per day but during peak loads handled up to 40,000.

    About 6,000 pounds (dry weight) of sludge were pumped each day
from the waste treatment plant to a seven-acre anaerobic digestion
pond to be stabilized (Figure A-5).  A 300,000-gallon reservoir was
used to store and blend the wastes and adjust the pH.  The desired
quantities of phosphorous compounds were added as nutrients, and the
wastes were fed to the pond at a controlled, continuous rate.  The
BOD(5) removal efficiency of this facility was approximately 80% in
summer and 40% in winter.  (The effluent was to be routed to the
aerobic treatment plant beginning in 1972.)

    Cooling Water

    Non-contact cooling water (which could have contained pollutants)
was discharged directly into the Kanawha at a rate of about 167 mgd.
Approximately 550,000 gallons of contact cooling water were directed
to the aerobic treatment plant each day.

    Monitoring

    The analyses conducted at the plant are listed in Figure A-6.  An
asterisk indicates characteristics reported to the State monthly or
annually; abnormal discharges were also reported.

    Efficiency

    The total raw waste loads generated were not determined
precisely, therefore the efficiencies presented in Table A-3 are
estimates based on company data and values determined during the
survey.
                                A-10

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H2S04
 NaOH
PHOSPHORIC
ACID
 AIR
                         COLLECTION SYSTEM
                         (INDUSTRIAL & SANITARY)
                         2.3 MM GAL/DAY
                         30,000 LBS BOD5/DAY
NEUTRALIZE
                   STORAGE
                (1.5 MILLION GAL.)
                    BLEND
               (750 THOUS. GAL.)
               COOLING TOWER
   MIX
 AERATE
                   CLARIFY
                     E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
                          BELLE PLANT
                BELLE,  KANAWHA COUNTY, W. VA.
                     FEBRUARY 24, 1972
                  TO  RIVER
             4,500 LBS BOD5/DAY
                             SLUDGE  SPLITTER
                                              SLUDGE  STORAGE
                                           TO ANAEROBIC POND
                   FIGURE A-4
            ACTIVATED SLUDGE
        WASTE TREATMENT PLANT
                        A-ll

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w
SLUDGE
FROM W.T.P.

PLANT
ASTES — J
RETENTION
(300,000 GAL.)

POND
(40,000,000 GAL.)
1
PLANT
F WASTES
-« 	 LEACHING


GAS EFFLUENT TO AEROBIC TREATMENT
        E.I. du  Pont  de Nemours  & Co.
                 BELLE PLANT
        BELLE, KANAWHA COUNTY, W. VA.
               FEBRUARY 24, 1972
     FIGURE  A-5
ANAEROBIC POND
      A-12

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                              TABLE A-3
       ESTIMATED BOD(5) REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES ACHIEVED IN 1971
               AT DUPONT'S BELLE, WEST VIRGINIA PLANT
                              (Ib/day)
Receiving facility
Aerobic treatment
plant
Anaerobic pond
Deep wells
Cooling water outfalls

Raw load

36,500
12,900*
12,000
10,800
72,200
Effluent load

4,000
7,700**
0
10,800
22,500
Removal
efficiency

89
40
—
0
69
*Derived by multiplying value in next column by 1.67 to reflect
a 40% winter removal efficiency.
** Value determined during survey.

Spill Potential

    Between 1960 and 1972, oil had spilled into the river on three
occasions; the total consisted of 200 gallons of lubricating oil and
550 of coconut oil.  Refractory organics had leaked out of barges in
three instances, and seven spills of ammonia or ammonia-urea
solutions had taken place, but the quantities involved are unknown.
On two occasions, spills are known to have killed fish in the river.
                       NFIC-Cincinnati Survey

Sampling

    To confirm the effluent loadings reported by DuPont and to gather
more data on other discharged constituents and the treatment plant's
efficiency, the EPA conducted a 24-hour survey on February 23 and 24,
1972.  Samples collected were split with DuPont and the State's
Division of Water Resources.

Analytical Results

    The analytical results (converted to pounds per day) are listed
in Table A-4.  In most cases, the company's results are higher than
NFIC's.
                               A-15

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                                      A-16

-------
    The data in Tables A-2 and A-4 indicate that the plant discharged
large quantities of BOD, both carbonaceous and nitrogenous, COD,
organic carbon (TOC), total solids, and oil and grease.  The aerobic
treatment plant was removing about 80% of the influent BOD, 80% of
the COD, and essentially none of the nitrogen at the time of the
survey.

    The company appeared to be meeting the State's Phase II
requirement for BOD (15,000 pounds per day) and TKN (18,000 pounds
per day) during the summer months.

Major Sources and Loads

    The data in Table A-4 show that there were three outfalls of
significance:  the general plant outfall (No. 017), Simmons Creek
(No. 043 containing effluent from the anaerobic pond), and the
aerobic waste treatment plant (No. 062).

About 25% of the BOD load entered the river from the general plant
outfall, which was also discharging about 25% of the total solids and
75% of the nitrogen loads during the survey.

Toxicity of Effluents

    Static bioassay tests, using fathead minnows, were made on the
effluent from the aerobic waste treatment plant in March 1972.
During the tests, the dissolved oxygen in the effluent ranged from
6.9 to 8.0 mg/1, the pH was 6.5, and temperature was between 23 and
27 degrees C.  The median tolerance limit (TL50) of the wastewater
was 24% at the end of 24, 48, and 96 hours.  (The TL50 is the
percentage of a wastewater by volume which will kill 50% of the test
organisms in a specified time; the lower the TL50, the the higher the
toxicity of the effluent.) Other effluents from the plant were not
tested for toxicity.

                       Summary and Conclusions

    The major pollutional loads were:

    1.   The anaerobic pond, which had a biological efficiency
removal that ranged from 40% in winter to 80% in summer.

    2.   The main plant outfall; in 1971, it had discharged an
average of approximately 8,000 pounds of ammonia-N and 5,000 pounds
of organic nitrogen per day.
                                A-17

-------
    3.   The aerobic wastewater treatment plant;  in 1971,  its
efficiency had ranged from 69.5% in winter to 92.3% in summer.
BOD(5) removal efficiency during the survey was  80.7%.

    4.   Contaminated cooling water.

                           Recommendations

    It is recommended that:

    1.   The company take further precautions against the  possibility
of spills entering the river, particularly with  respect to ammonia,
since large quantities are manufactured and stored on site.

    2.   Cooling water be segregated from process wastes so that it
does not become contaminated.

    3.   The maximum amount of nitrogen be removed from waste  streams
using the best technology currently available.

    4.   The toxicity of effluents be reduced at least to  the  point
that no discharge exceeds 1/20 of the 96-hour TL50.

    5.   BOD(5) discharge loads be reduced to at least 2,600 pounds
per day based on water quality standards.

    6.   Monitoring be increased at the major outfalls (003, 013,
014, 017, 021, 043, 044, 046, 056, and 062).
                               A-18

-------
                      UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION
                   CHEMICALS AND PLASTICS DIVISION
                       SOUTH CHARLESTON PLANT
                   SOUTH CHARLESTON, WEST VIRGINIA
                      General Plant Description

    The plant occupied all of Elaine Island, which is about 1.25
miles long, and 1.1 miles of the south bank of the Kanawha River
(left shore facing downstream).  In addition, two storage facilities
were located on 0.5 mile of the north shore (Figure B-l).

    The wastewater treatment facility used was a joint venture
between Union Carbide and the City of South Charleston; it occupied
about 0.14 mile of the south shore, just upstream from the main
plant.

    The plant, which is acknowledged to be the nation's first
petrochemical facility, began operations in 1925.  Peak employment
has been 4,200, but in March 1972 it had approximately 2,100.  The
principal buildings included numerous chemical production facilities,
two power plants, a large automated warehouse, a laboratory, and a
10-story office building.

    Representative organic chemical products were acids, alcohols,
aldehydes, esters, ethers, plasticizers, glycols, monomers, polyols,
and surfactants.  Discontinued products included ethylene oxide,
propylene oxide, polyethylene, and crotonaldehyde.

    Principal raw materials used were natural and refinery gases were
cracked to produce ethylene, propylene, acetylene, and hydrogen.
Subsequent processing involved mixing with other raw materials, such
as air, water, and chlorine.

    More than 400 chemicals were being manufactured around the clock,
365 days per year; some of them are listed in Table B-l.  No figures
were available on total quantity and value of specific products
shipped out.

                             Water Usage

    Of the average 222 millions of gallons a day (mgd) of water
withdrawn from the river in 1971, 208 mgd were used for cooling
purposes and were returned to the Kanawha without being treated.
                                B-l

-------
                       SOUTH CHARLESTON
                          VICINITY  MAP


                           1 . •  I .  I Ll , ,
                                   5


                                MILES
  10
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B-2

-------
                            Table B-l
                   SOME PRODUCTS HANDLED BY
            THE UNION  CARBIDE SOUTH  CHARLESTON PLANT
Products
    Examples
        Uses
   UCC
Brand Names
Acids
Acetic, valeric, iso-
pentanoic
Alcohols
Butanol, isobutanol,
methyl amyl alcohol
Aldehydes
Intermediates for
esters, anhydrides,
amides, peroxides,
metallic  salts, and
as a solvent.

Solvents, intermed-
iates for aldehydes,
ketones,  acids,
esters, plasticizers,
lubricants, surfac-
tants, and oil
additives.
2-ethylhexaldehyde,     Intermediates for
hexaldehyde, pentaide-  acids, alcohols,
hyde, isobutyraldehyde  amines, Pharmaceu-
                        ticals, rubber
                        accelerators, resins,
                        and dyes.
NIACET
SYNASOL,
ANHYDROL
Esters
Butyl acetate, ethyl
acetate
Ethers
Plasticizers
Lacquer solvents,
emulsion paints,
intermediates for dyes,
Pharmaceuticals, insec-
ticides, plasticizers,
and as synthetic lubri-
cants .
Butyl ether, isopropyl  Extractants, solvents,
ether, vinyl ethyl ether  & couplers.

FLEXOL Plasticizer TOP, Used with resins,      FLEXOL
FLEXOL Plasticizer 3 GH  lacquers, rubbers,
                         to impart special
                         properties.
Glycol ethers
Butyl CELLSOLVE, Butyl
CARBITOL, CELLOSOLVE
Solvents for lacquers,  CELLO-
varnishes, dyes,        SOLVE
paints, oils, insec-
ticides, and soaps.
                             B-3

-------
                           Table B-l  (Cont.)
               SOME  PRODUCTS HANDLED BY
       THE UNION  CARBIDE SOUTH CHARLESTON PLANT
Products
    Examples
       Uses
                           UCC
                       Brand Names
Glycols
Ketones
Monomers
Nitrogen
Compounds
Polyols
Ethylene glycol,
diethylene glycol,
propylene glycol
Methyl ethyl, methyl
isoamyl
Vinyl acetate, vinyl
chloride
Solvents, antifreeze,  PRESTONE
deicing fluids, gas    SENTRY
dehydration, humec-    KROMFAX
tants, air purifica-
tion, and intermediates

Solvents for resins,
lacquers, pharmaceu-
ticals, dewaxing
compounds, and flo-
tation agents

To form polymers and   BAKELITE
copolymers for fibers, NIACET
plastics, rubbers,
paints, textile fin-
ishes, floor and shoe
polishes, paper coat-
ings, adhesives
Monoethanolamine, di-   Intermediates for soaps
ethanolamine, iso-      and dyes, emulsifying
propylamine, morpholine agents, corrosion in-
                        hibitors, insecticides,
                        Pharmaceuticals, fungi-
                        cides, petroleum addi-
                        tives, wash and wear
                        textile finishing resins,
                        catalysts, detergents,
                        cosmetics, shampoos,
Polymer polyols NIAX
LHT 3h, Straight
polyol LG-56
soluble oils, and fibers.

Production of flexible,  NIAX
semirigid and rigid
urethane foams, elas-
tomers, coatings, and
adhesives.
Surfactants
Mixtures
TERGITOLS Aerosol MA
Brake fluids, hydro-
lubes, antileak
compounds
                             B-4
Emulsifiers, deter-
gents, and wetting
agents
                       TERGITOL
Solvents, curing agents,  CARBOSEAL,
compounds, hydrolubes,    UCON, UGAR,
brake fluids,  corrosion  MORLEX
inhibitors,  de-icing      STABILENE,
fluids,  insecticides,     MYLONE

-------
About 8.4 mgd were processed in the wastewater treatment works
(Figure B-2).  The balance consisted of water used in the boilers and
at the Technical Center, contained in products, and lost to
evaporation.  An estimated 150-160 mgd were being used in March 1972.

               Wastewater Discharges and Waste Sources

    Process wastewaters were routed through a redwood flume to the
treatment plant, and the effluent was discharged into the Kanawha at
Mile Point 56.2.  In 1971, the City's portion had averaged 2.3 mgd
and the plant's 8.4 mgd.  Over a period of years, the municipal flow
had increased while the industrial and total flows had decreased.

    Untreated cooling water discharges described in Union Carbide's
Refuse Act permit applications are listed in Table B-2.  Most of the
discharges were classified as cooling water by the company, but they
also contained process wastewaters to some degree.  The outfalls were
located on the Kanawha's Back Channel between Mile Points 55.0 and
56.0 and at Mile Point 53.3 (Ward Hollow).

    The principal waste sources were the production units listed
below (with building numbers) and their support activities, such as
the steam plants:

    Amines, glycol esters, miscellaneous distillation, glycol (077);
chlorhydrin (124); oxide adducts (167); polyols (106); hydrogenation
(066); specialty chemicals (115); plasticizers (122, 125); esters,
CELLOSOLVE (121) (070);  aldehyde, butanol, ketene (061) (063) (108);
ethanol (045); latex (087); vinyl specialty resins (082); vinyl
solvent resins (083); vinyl dispersion resins (085); DYNEL resins,
fiber, staple (078) (098) (152-252); bulk handling (585).

                    Wastewater Treatment Program

Historical Development

    Pollution abatement and waste treatment efforts at the plant
began in 1952-1953 when cooling waters were separated from sanitary
and process wastes.

    The West Virginia Department of Natural Resources and the Kanawha
River Industrial Advisory Committee initiated Phase I of the Kanawha
cleanup program in 1958 when they required that all industrial and
domestic wastes be given primary treatment and that industrial wastes
undergo partial secondary treatment.  The 1958 base BOD(5) (5-day
biochemical oxygen demand) load for the South Charleston plant was
established at 167,000 pounds per day.  Phase I required that Union
Carbide reduce the load to 100,000 pounds per day.
                                B-5

-------
B-6

-------
                                   TABLE  B-2


                          DISCHARGES, SOURCES AND FLOWS

               Union  Carbide Corporation  - South Charleston Plant

          (South Charleston Waste Treatment Plant Discharge Not Included)
Refuse Act Permit
Application No.
   Source Area
                                  Flow - MGD
                               Permit      During
                             Application   Survey
001 thru 008, 012, 018,
020 thru 022, 026, 029,
030, 03U, Ola, Oh3 thru 0*t6,
Ok9, 052, 055 thru 058,
066 thru 070, 073, 082
thru 090 (total hh outfalls)

019 and 077

009

Oil
013
015

016

017

023

02U

025

027

028

031

032

033
Surface runoff
                               normally dry
Waste collection stations

Water treatment backwash

Pumphouse-flushing traveling
screen
                                   Misc. distillation - polyol
                                   processing
                               no discharge

                               O.U
                               0.05
                               6.5

      II               11        p p


                               0.6

Liquid phase hydrogenation     ?•!

Fine chemicals and vinylite   25.5

No. 2 CELLOSOLVE unit          it.?

Vinyl resins and plasticizers 2?.it

                               0.7

                               O.Olt

Acetic esters                  8.1

Aldehyde and powerhouse        2.3

No. 1 Pumphouse screen
flushing
                                            8.62

                                            1.98



                                            2. U?

                                           13. U

                                            3-55

                                           17-83
                                            it.58

                                            2.77
                                B-7

-------
                       TABLE B-2 (Cont.)

                DISCHARGES, SOURCES AMD FLOWS
     Union Carbide Corporation - South Charleston Plant
(South  Charleston Waste Treatment Plant Discharge Not Included)
Refuse Act Permit
Application No.
035
036-
037(1)
038
039
oko
Ok2
Ok7
OkQ
050
051
053
054
059
060
061
06s
063
06k
065

CM
rH
I
g
i
w
01
I
g
P(
1
H
&

071
072
07k
075
076
Source Area
Aldehyde
Merrill furnaces - aldehyde
Crotonaldehyde
Aldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Butanol
Butanol


Gas separation

Gas separation

Polyethylene




Dynel
Miscellaneous Chemicals
Oxide Adducts and Powerhouse
,,
Flow - MGD
Permit During
Application Survey
2.7
k.O
1.8
2.7
7-5
lk.0
k.l
0.10
l.k
22.3
1.14
k.l
6.5
0.5
1.6
2-3
0.1
0.7
0.07
0.5
0.1
0.7
18.6
6.1
8.5
2.65
0-93

2.U9
6.1k
10.55
5.^2


0.52

0.52







17-15
1.3k
6.51
                          B-8

-------
                          TABLE B-2  (Cont.)

                      DISCHARGES,  SOURCES AMD FLOWS
           Union Carbide  Corporation - South Charleston Plant
     (South Charleston Waste  Treatment Plant Discharge Not Included)
Refuse Act Permit
Application No.
078
079
080 ^
081
091
Flow - MGD
Source Area Permit During
Application Survey
0.1
Oxide adducts & powerhouse 7.5 U.13
Composite drains 3-5 2.73
0.6
Ward Hollow (includes
                             fly  ash disposal)                14-.0
Closed down by mid-1972.
                            B-9

-------
    The South Charleston Sanitary Board and Union Carbide formed the
South Charleston Waste Treatment Company in 1959.  The design of the
combined domestic and industrial waste treatment works for Phase I
was completed that year, and construction was completed in 1963.

    When Phase I ended in June 1963, the Kanawha River still did not
meet the minimum criteria and Phase II was launched; the final
implementation date was June 30, 1966, but the State later extended
it to June 30, 1968.  The plant's new BOD(5) load limitation was
50,000 pounds per day.

    Expansion of the South Charleston Waste Treatment Plant was
completed, after many delays, in mid-1968.  The plant, affected by
start-up difficulties, generally met the BOD(5) load limitation by
mid-1969.

    Phase II still did not achieve the water quality standards DO
criteria and a Phase III program was initiated by the State in 1969
with an implementation date of December 31, 1972.  The Phase III
BOD(5) limit for the South Charleston plant was established as 85
percent reduction of the 1958 BOD(5) load (a limit of 24,900 pounds
per day total discharge) and a maximum practicable reduction of
nitrogen loadings.  The BOD(5) limitation was met in 1971 by a higher
treatment plant efficiency, tighter process control and the shutdown
of certain production units.  (Additional pollution control
improvements were under construction and will result in a lower BOD
discharge level as facilities are completed in 1973-74.)

    The total waste load disposition for the year 1971 is shown in
Table B-3.  (The Phase III limit of 24,900 pounds per day BOD(5)
discharge to the Kanawha River was achieved well ahead of the
December 31, 1972, compliance date.)
                                B-10

-------
                              TABLE B-3

                 DISPOSITION OF THE TOTAL WASTE LOAD
           UNION CARBIDE'S SOUTH CHARLESTON PLANT IN 1971
Lb BOD(5)/Day                                   Lb BOD(5)/Day
  Raw Load            Disposal/Treatment      Discharged to the River
149,400
15,000
53,000
7,500
10,700
235,600 Total
Plant's steam boilers
Chemical landfill
Sewage treatment plant
Cooling water (untreated)
Ward Hollow (untreated)
Total
0
0
6,700
7,500
10,700
24,900
Waste Disposal Facilities

    About 150,000 pounds per day BOD(5) were burned in the plant
steam boilers.  Solid chemical wastes with a BOD(5) of 15,000 pounds
per day were transported to the Goff Mountain Landfill, operated by
the Union Carbide Institute plant.  Inert solid wastes were
landfilled in the "Fillmont" area north of the Union Carbide
Technical Center and south of FMC Inorganic Chemicals Division's
"Beaver Pond."

    Fly ash and wastewater treatment plant industrial sludge were
pumped to the Ward Hollow disposal pond south of the Technical
Center.  The overflow from the pond, which included other
wastewaters, was discharged to Davis Creek.  (Beginning in late 1972
it was routed to the South Charleston Waste Treatment Plant.)

Wastewater Treatment System

    Certain process wastewaters from the plant were routed to the
treatment plant, which also handled the wastes from the City of South
Charleston.

    The general layout and a flow diagram of the treatment plant are
shown in Figure B-3.  The municipal wastes and industrial wastes
                                B-ll

-------
D   D  D   D   D   D
D   D  D   D   D   D
D   D  D   D   D   D
               B-12

-------
received primary treatment in the plant before being combined for
further treatment.

    The domestic system was designed to handle an ultimate city
population of 42,500 and an average domestic flow of 5.8 million
gallons per day.  When the sewage entered the plant, it was first
pumped through mechanical cutters to a flow-measuring flume and then
into a 12,000-gallon grit basin where coarse material was removed.

    Settleable solids were then removed in the two 61-foot diameter
municipal primary clarifiers.  The solids were further concentrated
in a 45-foot diameter sludge thickener.  The thickened sludge was
filtered on two eight-foot diameter by 12-foot long rotary vacuum
filters.  The filter cake was buried in a landfill.  The overflow
from the primary clarifiers was chlorinated before being sent to the
secondary treatment system.

    The industrial process wastewater was collected in redwood flumes
on Elaine Island and along the river-bank on the mainland section of
the plant (Figure B-l).  Wastewater from the Blaine Island flume
entered a sump, was pumped to the mainland flume, and flowed to the
treatment plant.  As it entered the plant, it was pumped to a grit
basin for removal of coarse solids.

    The industrial system was designed to handle 11.5 million gallons
per day of flow.  The two industrial primary clarifiers were the same
size as the domestic clarifiers.  The industrial sludge was pumped
unthickened to a disposal pond where it was mixed with fly ash.

    Clarified wastewater from the industrial stream flowed to a
three-basin pH control system.  A computer controlled the flow of
additives so that the emerging pH was maintained close to 8.0.

    Approximately one-third of the combined industrial and municipal
wastewater flowed to the original secondary treatment system which
consisted of two Aero-Accelators.  Each Aero-Accelator was 90 feet in
diameter and over 24 feet deep and could hold about 1,130,000 gallons
of liquid.  A 150-horsepower motor-driven agitator in each Accelator
stirred the mixture of wastewater and biological growth.  Three
compressors provided oxygen for biological growth.  The air was
pumped into the bottom of the Aero-Accelators through sparger pipes
mounted under the agitators.  The flow was proportioned so that the
wastewater would remain for an average of 7 1/2 hours in the aeration
zone and an average of 2 1/2 hours in the recirculation and
sedimentation zones.

    The remaining two-thirds of primary clarified wastewater was
pumped to the aeration basin which has been added to the secondary
treatment system in 1968.  The basin measured 202 feet wide by 347
                                B-13

-------
feet long at the top and had sloping sides to a depth of 18 feet.
Total volume was 6,450,000 gallons,  sufficient to provide an average
of about 10 hours of aeration time for biodegradation of the waste.
The sides and bottom were lined with a layer of cement-fly ash
mixture to keep the circulating liquid from eroding them.  Agitation
and aeration were provided by 18 pier-mounted units.  Each unit was
driven by a 100-horsepower motor.  The treated flow from the new
basin passed to two final clarifiers where the sludge was collected
by a revolving tubular mechanism.  Both secondary clarifiers were 95
feet in diameter, 12 feet deep; their size allowed approximately two
hours for separation of the sludge.   The majority of the sludge was
returned to the basin to maintain biological activity, but part was
withdrawn and pumped to the Ward Hollow fly-ash lagoon.  The treated
effluent from the secondary clarifiers was combined with the Aero-
Accelator effluent and discharged to the river through the outfall
structure.

    Cooling Water

    At the time of the survey there were 45 active outfalls.  (In
early 1973, the number had been reduced to 29 as a result of closing
down certain production units and routing additional wastewater
streams to the treatment plant.) There were 45 "dry outfalls" at the
time of the survey, mainly surface water drains.  (This number has
been increased by unit shutdowns since the survey.)

    All of the discharges, except that from the wastewater treatment
plant, were classified by the company as cooling water outfalls.
Most of them received either intermittent or continuous wastes from
spills, leaks, upsets, etc., of the chemical processes.  The
untreated cooling water discharges represented 32 percent of the
total BOD(5) load imposed on the Kanawha River in 1971.

    Monitoring and Control Practices

    All waste treatment plant influent streams and the plant effluent
stream were being sampled regularly, as were various intermediate
points (Table B-4).  Analyses were performed in the laboratory at the
treatment works.  Data reported to the State included analyses of raw
wastewaters from domestic and industrial sources, primary treated
domestic and industrial wastes, combined influent wastes to the Aero-
Accelators, influent to the surface aeration basin, combined effluent
from the Aero-Accelators, combined effluent from the secondary
clarifiers and total plant outfall.  Threshold odor was measured
routinely on certain treatment works streams at the plant's
laboratory.

    Untreated wastewater  (cooling water) streams flowed  continuously
and each was equipped with a composite sampler which collected a
                                B-14

-------
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                                               - f*.   -fe
                                          K K
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                                                       ?r4  £-:  S-4  £•

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                                           B-15

-------
representative sample of the discharge over a 24-hour period.   The
waste treatment works discharge monitoring system was also provided
with a 24-hour composite sampler.  The Ward Hollow discharge was
sampled in a similar manner.

    The cooling water samples were analyzed daily for total carbon.
BOD(5), suspended solids, total solids, and chloride were determined
on the basis of weekly composites.  If the quality of sewered cooling
water was below the standards established by the company's
Environmental Protection Department, the responsible production unit
was directed to take corrective action.  Gas chromatograph analyses
were made of any samples above the standard total carbon values in an
effort to pinpoint the source of the leak, spill, etc.  Three
outfalls were monitored by foam detection instruments.  Continuously
operating total carbon analyzer monitoring sampling stations were
located at the waste treatment works discharge point and at the
industrial wastewater flume.

    Union Carbide's monthly Waste Load Report to the State included
data on average daily loads of BOD(5), suspended solids, and total
solids.  The loads were reported in pounds per day for total cooling
water outfalls (not for individual outfalls), treatment plant, and
overall plant total.

    Control practices at the treatment works were as follows: The
Aero-Accelator mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was ordinarily
maintained in the range of 5,500 to 7,500 mg/1, and averaged 6,000
mg/1.  The Aero-Accelator mixed liquor volatile suspended solids
(MLVSS) was usually 85 to 90 percent of the MLSS.

    The surface aeration basin MLSS was generally maintained in the
range of 5,000 to 7,000 mg/1, and the percent volatile in the range
of 82 to 88 percent.

    Since the Aero-Accelators were internally clarified, activated-
sludge basins, the sludge recycle rate was not measured.  It normally
varies with the aeration zone port openings and the aeration rate.
The ports were operated about three-fourths open.

    The recycle rate in the surface aeration basin was usually in  the
range of 3,500 to 4,200 gpm and was generally maintained at 80 to  100
percent.

    The MLSS concentration of samples of circulating sludge taken
from the bottom of the Aero-Accelator peripheral zone was slightly
higher than in the aeration zone, but seldom by more than ten
percent.  The solids concentration of the return sludge from the
final clarifiers to the surface aeration basin was ordinarily 9,000
to 12,000 mg/1.
                                B-16

-------
    The air supplied to each Aerd-Accelator varied with the organic
loading, but averaged 3,700 standard cubic feet per minute  (scfm) .
The mixed liquor dissolved oxygen near the top of the aeration zone
was maintained in the range of 1.0 to 2.5 mg/1.  Each Aero-Accelator
could provide 4,500 scfm if the organic loading required it.

    The dissolved oxygen (DO) level in the surface aeration basin was
controlled by starting and stopping the 100-horsepower surface
aerators.  At the prevailing loadings, 12 to 16 aerators were usually
in use.  The five 75-horsepower bottom mixers helped keep the solids
suspended, so the number of aerators on line was governed primarily
by the DO level in the basin.  The DO in the upper three feet of
mixed liquor was generally held in the 3.0 to 5.0 mg/1 range.  Tests
have shown this provides at least 0.5 mg/1 at the lower depths.

    The Sludge Volume Index (SVI) of the Aero-Accelator and surface
aeration basin mixed liquors generally fell in the range of 50 to
120.  The laboratory data on mixed liquors for the month of December,
1971, indicated an average of 95.

    Depth of the sludge blanket in the surface aeration basin final
clarifiers was not regularly measured.  Occasional measurements with
a photocell device showed the blanket was generally seven to 10 feet
below the surface.  The depth of the blanket in the peripheral zone
of the Aero-Accelators was regularly measured and was generally five
to seven feet below the surface.

Removal Efficiency

    The overall raw and discharged BOD(5) loads for the plant and the
city are shown in Figure B-4.  The total load discharged into the
river included the municipal load, which was very small compared with
the industrial load; it had generally ranged between 200 and 1,000
pounds per day during the previous three years.  During 1971, the
monthly averages ranged between 170 and 620 pounds per day, less than
five percent of the total wastewater treatment plant load to the
river.

    A summary of raw and discharged BOD(5) loads for 1969, 1970, and
1971 is shown in Table B-5.
                                B-17

-------
              oooi
B-18

-------
                              TABLE B-5
            SUMMARY OF BOD(5) DATA AT UNION CARBIDE PLANT
                 AT SOUTH CHARLESTON, WEST VIRGINIA
                              1969-1971
                             (1000 Ib/day)
Stream                            1969         1970        1971
Waste treatment
 facility
    Influent                    108           78          53
    Effluent                        31           19          7
Cooling water
    Influent                     23           13           8
    Effluent                        23           13          8
Ward Hollow
    Influent                     13           12          10
    Effluent                        13           12         10
Total
    Influent                    144          103          71
    Effluent                        67           44         25
BOD(5) removed
(percent)
    Waste treat-                 71           76          85
    ment facility
    Total system	53	57	65	

    The total raw waterborne BOD(5) load generated at the plant
decreased by more than 50 percent during the period, and BOD(5)
removal efficiency increased.  In 1971, the total plant waterborne
BOD(5) removal was 65 percent while the efficiency of the treatment
plant was 87 percent.  Treatment plant efficiencies were lower in
winter and higher in summer.  During 1971, they ranged from 74
percent in January to 93 percent in June.

    (With the routing of the Ward Hollow discharge to the treatment
plant in 1972, an additional reduction in the Union Carbide-South
Charleston BOD(5) load to the river 8700 pounds per day was
expected.)
                                B-19

-------
    Future Plans

      Problem

Flooding of industrial raw
wastewater flume.
Shutdown requirements for
maintenance at industrial
wastewater neutralization
system.

Marked fluctuation in
industrial influent load-
ing and lack of storage
facilities for industrial
waste.
          Solution

Replacement of the island wastewater
flume at a five-foot higher elevation
was scheduled for completion by the
end of 1973.  It was estimated that
the revised collection system would
reduce flooding occurrences to an
average of 26 hours per year.

A by-pass around the neutralization
system was scheduled for completion
by June, 1973.
Three 1,000,000 gallon surge tanks
had been installed adjacent to the
waste treatment plant to reduce the
peak fluctuations in influent BOD.
These tanks will also be of value in
avoiding discharges to the river if
a power outage occurs or critical
equipment breaks down. ( The tanks
were being used in a startup phase
in May 1973. ) An experimental bio-
monitor device was to be installed
to provide information on the need
for total or partial diversion of
industrial wastewater to storage
tanks because of its toxicity to
activated sludge.
                                B-20

-------
High suspended solids in
the final clarifier efflu-
ent and foaming in the
secondary system's aera-
tion tanks.
Excessive stormwater flows
which had periodically
resulted in by-passing of
the chlorinated domestic
primary effluent to the
Kanawha.
(Installation of the following faci-
ities was completed in early 1973:
(1) clarifier spray system; (2)
clarifier scum baffles; (3)
submerged outlet for surface aeration
basin; (4) improved flow divider
to distribute surface aeration basin
effluent between the two final
clarifiers; and (5) bulk antifoam
storage and feed system for better
foam control in the surface aeration
basin.  An intensive investigation
was being made of sources of foam
producers within the chemical plant.
An on-line foam detector had been
developed and was being used in this
investigation.)

The South Charleston Sanitary Board
had been advised that considerable
stormwater was entering the sanitary
sewer system and the infiltration was
being investigated.
Equipment outages caused by  An improved electrical distribution
electrical problems.         system was scheduled for completion
                             by June 1973.

Spill Potential

    The waste inlet system utilized an open top flume which was
flooded periodically by high river waters.  Flooding of the flume had
occurred frequently at the waste treatment works and the industrial
waste inlet under certain high water conditions.

                    Occurrence of Flume Flooding

1961  12/19, 12/20, 2/26, 2/27, 2/28, 3/1

1962  1/8, 2/27, 2/28, 3/1, 3/22, 3/23

1963  3/12, 3/13, 3/16, 3/17, 3/18, 3/19, 3/20, 3/21, 3/26

1964  3/4, 3/5, 3/6, 3/7, 3/8, 3/9, 3/10, 3/16
                                B-21

-------
1965  4/12, 3/26, 3/27, 3/28, 2/9

1966  5/1, 5/2, 5/3, 5/4

1967  3/7, 3/8, 3/14, 3/15,  3/16, 5/15,  5/16

1968  3/13

1969  12/30, 12/31, 8/21

1970  1/1, 1/3, 1/4, 2/16

1971  None

1972  2/24, 2/25, 2/26, 2/27, 2/28, 2/29, 3/1, 3/2, 3/3, 3/4

The average number of days per year during which the flooding had
occurred was approximately five.  Ten consecutive days of flooding
occurred in 1972.  During these periods, the raw waste load was, in
effect, discharged directly into the river.  (Installation of a new
covered flume at a five-foot higher elevation was completed in late
1973, and this was expected to reduce the flooding occurrence to an
average of 26 hours per year.)

    The potential for pollution through spills in the manufacturing
areas had been reduced by:

    1.   Installing 24-hour composite samplers at all continuously
flowing outfalls.

    2.   Making weekly checks that dike valves were closed.

    3.   Having the Utilities Foreman on each shift visually inspect
all outfalls.

    4.   Diverting certain pollution sources in the cooling water
system to the wastewater treatment system.

Data on spill frequencies, quantities, etc., were not compiled under
this study, but it is known that in 1971 one incident which occurred
resulted in the company being cited and fined $500.  The U. S. Coast
Guard had detected a 40-gallon spill of Estanol during barge
operations.  Some of the surface water drains were connected to
controlled dike areas from which contaminated water could be directed
to the wastewater treatment plant.

    The potential for the receiving water to be polluted by actual
spills in the manufacturing and storage areas was judged to be
                                B-22

-------
              moderate on the basis of the record and the presence of dikes around
              the tanks holding toxic materials.

                                  NFIC-CINCINNATI FIELD SURVEY

              Sampling

»                  In order to confirm and/or ascertain the magnitude of loadings to
              the river, source areas, and effectiveness of the treatment system,
              the EPA conducted a 24-hour sampling survey of the plant's intake
              water, the waste treatment plant's  influent and effluent, the
"              principal cooling water outfalls, and the effluent from Ward Hollow
              on March 13, 14, and 15, 1972.  Two-hour grab samples were composited
              over a period of 24-hours for each outfall and were split with the
              company and the State's Division of Water Resources.

                  Selection of the outfall sample points listed in Table B-6 was
              generally on the basis of high flow rates, those listed in Refuse Act
              Permit Applications as being greater than 1 mgd.  Approximately 90
»              percent of the total flow from all outfalls was monitored by sampling
              at the points selected.

,                  Toxicity checks were performed on the effluent from the waste
              treatment plant and two untreated discharges to the river, those
              from the vinylite area and the acetylene and miscellaneous chemicals
              area .
\
[              Analytical Results
t
                  The results of the NFIC-Cincinnati survey, converted to pounds
              per day, are listed in Table B-6.  Results by concentrations are
f              listed in Table B-7.  State and Union Carbide results are also
              included if analyses were performed.
i
                  Figure B-4 is based on the data Union Carbide had reported
r   ,           monthly to the State.  The survey results (Table B-6) show a total of
              13,843 pounds per day BOD(5) was discharged into the river, as
              compared with an average of about 21,000 pounds per day for the last
              half of 1971 and an average of 26,000 pounds per day for all of 1971.
              As mentioned earlier, the load to the river had been decreasing due
              to improved waste treatment efficiency, other abatement efforts by
              the company, and the shutdown of production facilities in several
              areas.  Additional reductions were expected for 1972 and the
              indicated trend was supported by the data collected during the
              survey.
t
                  Toxicity of Effluents

                  The static bioassays conducted used fathead minnows.


                                              B-23

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    The effluent from the waste treatment plant had a dissolved
oxygen range of 4.8 to 7.2 mg/1, a pH of 6.7 to 6.9, and a
temperature of 23 to 27 degrees C.  The median tolerance limit (TL
50) was 34 percent at 24 hours, 30 percent at 48 hours, and 26
percent at 96 hours.  (The TL50 is the concentration of effluent that
would be lethal to 50 percent of the fish held in it for the
specified time period, i.e., 24, 48, or 96 hours.  Thus, the lower
the TL50, the higher the toxicity of the effluent.) The indicated
toxicity of this nominal 10 mgd discharge was higher than would be
expected of a treated effluent.

    The 17.83 mgd flow from outfall No. 025 (the vinyl resins and
plasticizers area) and the 17.15 mgd discharge from outfall No. 074
(the miscellaenous chemicals area) were also tested for toxicity by
means of static bioassays.  Test conditions were: dissolved oxygen
4.9 to 6.8 mg/1, pH 3.3 to 6.0, and temperature 23 to 27 degrees C.
The TL50 for outfall No. 025 was 14 percent at 24 hours, 10 percent
at 48 hours, and 9.2 percent at 96 hours.  The test fish died
immediately in a 100 percent discharge solution.  There was less than
50 percent mortality in 100 percent wastewater shown in the 24-hour
exploratory bioassay of the wastewater stream from outfall No. 074.
Further bioassays are undertaken only when the mortality rate in
undiluted effluent exceeds 50 percent.

    It should be noted that these two outfalls represented only 29
percent of the total untreated wastewater flow from the plant.

                       Summary and Conclusions

    1.   Pollution abatement programs which have been undertaken have
markedly reduced the plant's pollutional loads to the Kanawha River.

    2.   To meet established future use criteria for the Kanawha
River, additional improvements will be required in waste treatment
and other abatement efforts.

    3.   The wastewater treatment facilities had been operated with
good efficiency but the need for a higher level of sustained
efficiency is evident.  Better biological treatment suspended solids
removal, and minimizing the effects of peaks in organic loadings are
areas for improvement.

    4.   The largest sources of pollutional loads to the Kanawha at
the time of the survey were the Ward Hollow stream — 6,400 pounds
per day of BOD (5), the waste treatment plant — 4,000 pounds per day,
and the so-called cooling waters — 3,200 pounds per day.  (Since  the
Ward Hollow stream was routed to the waste treatment plant beginning
in late 1972, future abatement efforts must be directed at the waste
treatment plant and the untreated cooling water sources.)
                                B-32

-------
    5.   A number of the plant's outfalls had been properly
classified as cooling water streams on the basis of the analytical
results of this study.

    6.   The time lag for the detection and correction of spills or
similar upsets in cooling waters was excessive.  Daily analyses of
composite samples from each cooling water discharge provided the only
routine checks.

    7.   The flume replacement scheduled for completion by late 1973
will bring a needed reduction in discharge of untreated industrial
wastewater caused by river flooding, but discharges will still occur
during certain extreme conditions.

    8.   Toxicity levels were high in two of the three outfalls
selected for bioassay checks.  The possibility exists that the other
untested discharges were also toxic.

                           Recommendations

General

    It is recommended that:

    1.   The combined total Union Carbide-South Charleston Waste
Treatment Plant BOD(5) load to the river be reduced to no more than
3,500 pounds per day and the total nitrogen load to no more than
1,400 pounds per day.  These numbers are based on the maintenance of
4 mg/1 DO at the Kanawha River sag point at a seven-day, once-in-10-
year low flow of 1930 cfs at Charleston.

    2.   The toxicity of effluents be reduced at least to the point
that no discharge exceeds 1/20 of the 96-hour TL50.

Waste Treatment Works

    It is recommended that:

    1.   Coagulants be added to the wastewater or that other
physical-chemical treatment methods be developed and applied to
maintain the primary industrial effluent suspended solids
concentration below 30 mg/1.

    2.   Tests of advanced methods be undertaken to reduce and smooth
out organic loadings in the primary system and to improve organic
removal in the secondary system.
                                B-33

-------
Union Carbide Plant

    It is recommended that:

    1.   Separation of process wastes from cooling waters be
effected, priority efforts being directed toward identification of
the pollutants, determination of the sources,  and abatement of
pollution in the following untreated wastewater discharges:
Outfall
074
039
025
023
032
Process Area
Miscellaneous chemicals
Acetaldehyde
Vinyl resins and plasticizers
Fine chemicals and vinylite
Aldehyde and power house
Flow
17.15
6.14
17.83
13.40
2.77
The above are listed in the recommended order of priority based on
the calculated pollutional loads discharged to the Kanawha River.
The sum of the BOD(5) loads from these sources is approximately 2,600
pounds per day, over three-fourths of the total load from the 21
cooling water discharges sampled.

    2.   The untreated wastewater discharge be routed from the Dynel
Tow area to the industrial wastewater flume, then to the waste
treatment plant.

    3.   Engineering studies be undertaken to determine the best
method for improving the monitoring of untreated wastewater streams
and that an improved monitoring system be implemented.  The possible
use of on-line total carbon analyzers programmed to selectively
sample wastewaters from various sources on a timed cycle is
suggested.

    4.   Plant personnel be required to keep an accurate and detailed
log of raw wastewater discharged from the flume into the river and to
report same to regulatory authorities.
                                B-34

-------
                      UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION
                   CHEMICALS AND PLASTICS DIVISION
                           INSTITUTE PLANT
                      INSTITUTE, WEST VIRGINIA
                      General Plant Description

    Union Carbide's plant at Institute, West Virginia is located at
Mile Point 48.9 on the Kanawha River, about six miles downstream from
Charleston on the right side of the river (facing downstream) .   It
occupies just over one mile of shoreline in two stretches,  one  of
which fronts the chemical plant and the other the wastewater
treatment plant (Figure C-l) .

    The plant is bounded on the southeast by West Virginia  State
College and on the northwest and northeast by largely undeveloped
land.  The company owns 775 acres, of which 550 had been developed.

    The plant was originally built for the United States Government
during World War II to produce butadiene and styrene, materials
needed to manufacture Buna-S rubber.  In April, 1943 styrene
production began, and the entire plant was practically complete and
in full production.

    In 1947, Union Carbide purchased the plant from the Government,
not to produce butadiene but other chemicals, such as acetone and
butanol.  Gas-producing operation began in December 1950, and other
additions followed — the SEVIN complex, the fluorocarbons  and
CELLOSIZE units, another steam and power plant, and an expanded
laboratory.

    In early 1970, Union Carbide acquired the West Virginia
properties of Ameripol, Inc., a subsidiary of the B. F. Goodrich
Company.  The principal property consisted of a 36.2-acre parcel of
land, including buildings and storage facilities, surrounded on three
sides by the Union Carbide plant.

    From an initial staff of 147 employees, employment rose to almost
3,000.  In February 1972, it stood at about 1,900.  The plant was
operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.

    Annual production was about 1.5 million tons of basic and
intermediate materials.  The products included chemical additives for
gasoline, jet fuels, waterbased paints, cheese, baked goods, and
other foods.  Over 100 chemicals were made for the textile  finish
industry and over 90 for pharmaceutical companies.  The insecticide
SEVIN was one of several agricultural chemicals being produced.
Products being manufactured in February 1972 and their general  uses
                                C-l

-------
31V1S VINIOHIA 1S3M
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-------
are listed in Table C-l.  Production units and associated products
are listed in Table C-2.

    The principal raw material used by the Institute Plant was
natural gas.  (With the closing of the olefins units in mid-1972, the
plant was to import ethylene and propylene.) Other major raw
materials included chlorine and caustic, napthalene, isopropanol,
ethanol, ammonia, and air.

                             Water Usage

    The plant purchased an average of 1.7 million gallons a day (mgd)
of water from the Nitro municipal system and withdrew an average of
300 mgd from the Kanawha River.  The latter figure ranged from 240
mgd in winter to 350 mgd in summer.

    The average amounts of water used within the plant were:

    Cooling water            288.0 mgd

    Process water              5.6 mgd

    Sanitary system            1.7 mgd

    Other                      0.7 mgd

    Fly ash disposal           2.9 mgd

    Evaporation                0.4 mgd

    The plant processed about 6.0 mgd through its two in-house raw
water treatment plants complete with Zeolite exchange.  Water
purchased from the City of Nitro was used for in-plant domestic
purposes and in some process applications.

    The volume of cooling water used had been reduced about 47
percent during the period 1962-1972; (it dropped further when the
olefins complex was shut down in mid-1972.) Other water uses had not
changed materially in recent years.  An average of 5.6 mgd of
wastewater, including process and sanitary wastes, was treated at the
company's wastewater treatment plant.  It was discharged into the
Kanawha River.

               Wastewater Discharges and Waste Sources

    The plant had five major outfalls on the Kanawha River; one was
connected to the waste treatment plant, and four discharged cooling
water.  The plant also discharsed wastes to Goff Branch, a small
stream to the southeast, which drained into the Kanawha.  Figure C-2
                                C-3

-------
                                   TABLE C-l
            PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED AT THE UNION CARBIDE INSTITUTE PLANT
    Products

Aldehydes


Ketones


Alcohols


Glycols


Phthalate esters

Alkylbenzene

Ethylene oxide adducts

Anhydride

Fluorocarbons


Polyethylene glycol

Esters

Acrylates

Polyols


Ethylene oxide polymers


Isocyanates

Polymers

Fibers

Hydroxyethyl cellulose

Glutaraldehyde


Mixed oxide adducts

Aryls

Ethers

Pyridines

Oxides

Carbamates
         Uses

Intermediates for acids,
alcohols, amines

Solvents for lacquers, Pharma-
ceuticals

Solvents; intermediates for
aldehydes, ketones

Solvents; automobile anti-
freeze

Plasticizers

Soft detergents

Detergents, surfactants

Intermediates

Propellants for aerosols,
refrigerants

Pharmaceuticals, cosmetics

Solvents

Plastics

Urethane foams for upholstery
mattresses

Water thickener, water  soluble
extruded and molded shapes

Rigid foams

Oil additives

Synthetic yarn

Paint thickener

Tanning agent for leather,
makes leather washable
UCC Brand Name
   PRESTONE

   FLEXOL

   UCANE

   TERGITOL



   UCON


   CAEBOWAX
    NIAX


    POLYOX


    NIAX

    UCAR



    CELLOS IZE

    UCAR


    UCON
Brake fluids, lubricants

Intermediates, dye carriers

Extractants

Pharmaceutical intermediates

Sterilizers, fumigents, intermediates

Insecticides, pesticides              SEVIN

    C-4

-------
                                 TABLE C-2
       Units
                 PRODUCTION UNITS AND ASSOCIATED PRODUCTS

                     Union Carbide - Institute Plant




                                                Product or Use
Olefins
High pressure hydrogenation


Alkylbenzene


Ketones


Misc. recovery


Butanol


UCAR improvers


CELLOS IZE


Catalyst


Plasticizers


Ethylene oxidation

               2
Ethylene glycol


Air separation


Acrolein derivatives


Fluorocarbons


SEVTN


SPANDEX3


POLYOX


Oxide derivatives


Rigid polyols


Isocyanates


DNT


Phthalic anhydride
Ethylene, propylene, acetylene, butadiene,

dripolene - from natural gas


Intermediate for weather resistant rubber


Intermediate for biodegradable detergents


Isopropanol, miscellaneous ketones


Miscellaneous chemicals processing


Butanol and intermediates for other alcohols


Oil additives


Hydroxyethyl cellulose


Miscellaneous catalysts


Phthalate esters - plasticizers


Pyridines pharmaceutical intermediates


Ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol


Nitrogen, oxygen


Acrolein derivatives, glutaraldehyde


Fluorocarbons


SEVIN insecticide


SPANDEX - yarn for elastic wearing apparel


POLYOX


IERGITOL, TEMIK, CARBOWAX, acrylates


Polyalcohols for urethane foams


TDI- foam insulation ingredient


DNT - an intermediate


Phthalic anhydride, FLEXOL DOP
1 - The operation of the Olefins Unit discontinued in 1972.


2 - The production of ethylene oxide discontinued in 1972.


3 - The production of SPANDEX was discontinued in 1972.


k - The POLYOX Unit is operated a maximum of six months per year.


5 - The production of TEMIK discontinued in 1972.
                                   C-5

-------
is a flow diagram of the sources of cooling water, and Figure C-3
shows the wastewaters directed to the wastewater treatment plant.

    The wastewater treatment outfall (001) was submerged and usually
created a surface roil in the river.  Three cooling water outfalls
(002, 003, 004) were above water, while the fourth (005) was
submerged and also created a surface roil.

    Even though the discharges from outfalls 002, 003, 004, and 005
were primarily cooling waters, they contained significant quantities
of pollutants.  Company officials stated that they separated as much
as possible all direct, continuous, and intermittent process
discharges to the cooling water sewers.

    Direct discharges into the river occurred from traveling screen
backwashes at the three raw water intake pumphouses.  Some accidental
discharges into Goff Branch had occurred in the past from production
areas and a hydrochloric acid neutralization process.

                       Waste Treatment Program

Historical Development

    Information on waste control efforts prior to the initiation in
1958 of the State's phased program was not obtained from the company.
At the beginning of the phased cleanup program, the plant was
apportioned about 130,000 pounds per day of BOD(5) as its average
contribution to the Kanawha.  Figure C-4 is a company graph of raw
BOD(5) loads, permit limits, and loads discharged from 1958 through
1971.  Thirty to 40 percent of the BOD(5) load imposed on the river
had been discharged into it via cooling waters, which had been
Increasing while the total load had been increasing.

    The State's Phase I program required that the 1958 BOD(5) load be
reduced by 40 percent to 78,000 pounds per day by mid-1963.  As the
final step in meeting the Phase I requirements, the company
constructed an aerated stabilization facility capable of removing
50,000 pounds per day.  The facility came on line in 1963.
Preliminary work to reduce the wasteload to the waste treatment plant
included source eliminations, tighter housekeeping practices, and
incineration in the powerhouse.

    When Phase I ended in mid-1972 and the State's water quality
objectives for the river had not been met, it launched Phase II.  The
plant was required to achieve a 70 percent reduction of the 1958
BOD(5) load by mid-1966.  This limit of 39,000 pounds per day was
attained by converting an aerated lagoon into an activated sludge
system, improving source controls, and installing an elaborate in-
                                C-6

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plant monitoring and control system.   These improvements were
completed in 1966.

    The dissolved oxygen (DO) level in the Kanawha was still below
3.0 mg/1 at the sag point when Phase II ended, therefore the State
initiated Phase III in 1969.  The plant was then required to achieve
an 85 percent reduction in the 1958 BOD(5) load and as large a
reduction of its nitrogenous load as practical by the end of 1972.
The allowable BOD(5) discharge was reduced to 19,500 pounds per day.

    To attain these reductions, six additional 100-horsepower
aerators were installed.  This increased the BOD(5) reduction
capacity of the biological system to about 97,000 pounds per day.
Source control measures included stripping, decanting, and
incineration.  Additional low-flow waste streams were diverted from
the cooling water sewer system to the wastewater treatment plant.
Production unit shutdowns also lowered waste discharge loadings.   The
retirement of the acrylic esters unit resulted in 65 percent
reduction in the oxidizable nitrogen load and a drop of 15,000 pounds
per day in the BOD(5) load sent to the biological system.

    The company indicated the improved operation of the final
clarifiers and the removal of TERGITOL detergents had resulted in a
75 percent reduction of suspended solids and a decrease of 6,000
pounds per day BOD(5) discharge to the river from the wastewater
treatment plant.  Expansion of the cooling water monitoring system
and installation of carbon analyzers on the major outfalls had
minimized the duration of accidental spills, condenser leaks, etc.
The company;s records indicated that the Phase III BOD(5) goal was
attained during only eight months on 1971.  The Phase III program was
scheduled to end in December 1972.

Waste Disposal Facilities

    One of two powerhouses had been modified to burn liquid organic
wastes, and in 1971, the average amount incinerated was the
equivalent of 600,000 pounds of BOD(5) per day.  An average of 2.9
mgd of fly ash slurry was handled by a private contractor and pumped
to its landfill about 1.5 miles east of the plant.  The overflow from
the site discharged into Finney Creek, which in turn empties into the
Kanawha.

    The plant's Environmental Department operated a State-licensed
chemical landfill (Goff Mountain Landfill) in a 40-acre mountain
valley site just north of the plant.  About seven acres were being
utilized.  Solid organic chemical wastes consisting of filter cakes,
rejected products, etc,, were handled in a managed disposal pattern.
The solid materials were retained by a leaky earth dam.  Liquid run-
                                C-10

-------
off was directed through the dam, collected, and sent through the
wastewater treatment plant.

    A 15-acre site west of the wastewater treatment plant was used to
dispose of inert (non-chemical) materials.

Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Process and sanitary waterborne wastes, drainage from tank truck
loading racks and runoff from the Goff Mountain landfill were sent to
the wastewater treatment plant.  The BOD(5) loading to the plant
averaged about 110,000 pounds per day.  The figure varied by 30 to 40
percent, principally because wastes from the CELLOSIZE unit were
either burned or routed to the treatment plant.

    The wastewater treatment plant was located on a 15-acre site 0.8
mile downstream from the production site; there was room for
expansion.

    The wastewater treatment plant included:

    1.   A collection and pumping system

         Process wastes from the plant were collected in two sump
areas (Figure C-3).  One sump collected wastewater from the eastern
and nearby western plant areas, and the other did so from the far
western plant area wastes.  An operator in the control room at the
treatment plant mormally monitored the pH of the intake and requested
that acid or base from various production units be added.

    The wastes were transferred approximately one mile to the
wastewater treatment plant via a 20-inch diameter fiberglass-
reinforced polyester pipe.

    2.   Primary System - Equalization Basin (Figure C-5)

         Wastewater from the transfer line entered a 1 million-gallon
equalization basin which had a 4-hour retention time at the normal
waste flow of 5.6 mgd.  The resulting sludge was transferred to the
adjacent sludge storage basin, and floating organic chemicals and
solids were removed by mechanical means.  Automated measurements of
flow, pH, temperature, total carbon, and specific organic chemicals
were recorded for the effluent (the influent to the aeration basins.)

    3.   Secondary System - Biological Aeration Basins (Figure C-5)

    This system consisted of three 5 million-gallon, one-acre
aeration basins which contained a total of fifteen 75-horsepower and
                                C-ll

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                      C-12

-------
fifteen 100 horsepower aerators and two 316,000-gallon final
clarifiers.

    During non-recycling periods, the aeration basins and the final
clarifiers had retention times of 62 and 2.5 hours, respectively, at
the average plant wastewater flow of 5.6 mgd.  When return sludge
flow was underway, retention time was reduced to 40 hours.  The three
aeration basins had been designed so they could be operated in
parallel or in series.

    The effluent from the aeration basins was transported to the two
final clarifiers where the liquid overflow was discharged into the
river through the submerged outfall No. 001.  Two sludge pumps moved
the settled materials from the bottom of the clarifiers to be
recycled to the aeration basin or wasted to the 12 million-gallon
sludge-holding basin.  Sludge was pumped from the holding basin to
nearby sludge-drying beds.   The dried sludge was landfilled at the
adjacent site.

    Cooling Water

    On an average, 275 mgd of water were needed for cooling purposes
in summer and 238 mgd in winter.  The summer average discharge
quantity (in mgd) for each outfall was:

002, 90; 003, 105; 004, 15; and 005, 65.

    Monitoring

    An extensive monitoring program was followed at the plant,
including in-plant process waters, cooling waters, river water,
outfalls, and wastewater treatment unit evaluations.  The sewer
sampling schedule for the plant is illustrated in Table c-3,  and  the
on-stream analyzers or monitors are listed in Table  C-4.   In  all,  26
in-plant process wastewater samplers and 43 cooling water samplers
were utilized daily.

Efficiency of Waste Treatment

    Prior to 1963, few waterborne waste loads were treated, and any
load reductions achieved resulted primarily from increased process
control.  Figure C-6, however, Illustrates how progress in treatment
after 1963 reduced the BOD(5) loads imposed on the river;  the table
is based on data provided by plant officials.  In the table', the
difference between the total raw load and the amount discharged into
the river represents the quantity removed in the wastewater treatment
plant.
                                C-13

-------
                                                         TABLE  C-3

                                                 SEWER SAMPLING SCHEDULE
                                       Union Carbide Corporation -  Institute  Plant
                                   Chemicals and Plastics Environmental Protection  Dept.
Dissolved Oxygen
Biobasin Oxygen Uptake
Temperature
Carbonate Carbon
Organic Carbon

BQD20
Gas Chromatography
Acidity
Alkalinity
COD
Chlorides
Color
PH
Ortho Phosphate
Total phosphorus
Phenolics
Ammonia Nitrogen
Kjeloahl Nitrogen
Nitrate nitrogen
Total Volatile Solids
Suspended Solids
Soluble Solids
Fecal Coliform
Total Coliform
Fecal Strep
Oil & Grease
Specific Conductivity
Sulfide
Sulfite
Surfactants
Turbidity
Sulfates
Total Hardness
Metals

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                              C-15

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                    C-16

-------
    During Phase I, the initial wastewater treatment plant's BOD(5)
remjval efficiency ranged between 50 and 60 percent.  After it was
expanded in 1966, efficiency increased to 70 percent until tha end of
1967.  Since then, the level has varied widely — from 40 percent in
December 1969 to more than 90 percent in mid-1971.  The average for
the entire year of 1969 was about 60 percent.

    The BOD(5) loading data for cooling water and the wastewater
treatment unit discharges from the plant since 1963 are summarized in
Table C-5.  There was a continuous reduction in cooling water BOD(5)
loads until 1966; they then leveled off until 1970 and dropped again
in 1971.  In 1971, the cooling water BOD(5) load averaged 39.2
percent of the 1963 load.  Treatment plant influent BOD(5) loadings
were erratic until 1970 when an 18.6 percent reduction occurred.  In
1971, the influent load was 72.2 percent of that for 1963.

    The waste treatment plant's ability to remove BOD(5) increased
steadily from 1963 through 1966, then rose sharply after it was
expanded in 1966.  The average annual efficiency level dropped,
however, in 1969 and 1970.  In 1971, the annual efficiency reached 80
percent, the highest level observed.  Efficiency fell off badly in
the winter of 1971-72.  Company officials said that an imbalance in
pH control killed organisms in the aeration basins.  (Sludge from the
south Charleston treatment plant was used to reseed the activated
sludge but recovery took several months.)

    Kjeldahl nitrogen loads from the wastewater treatment plant
varied widely from 1968 through 1970, but the average load dropped
from 30,000 pounds per day in 1968 to 25,000 pounds per day in 1970.
The average decreased to about 5,000 pounds per day in early 1971
(and has remained there), primarily as a result of source control;
the treatment plant itself does not remove nitrogen effectively.  The
large decrease in early 1971 resulted from the closedown of the
acrylic esters unit.

Future Plans

         Project                       Purposes

1.  Tie east field storage tanks  Divert surface drainage wastes
    to process sewer.             from cooling water.

2.  Install specific organic      Rapid identification and cor-
    chemical analyzer on outfall  rection at source of spills.
    005.

3.  Install new pump and modify   Increased reliability; elimi-
    two others at center sumps;   nate overflow to cooling water.
    modify control instrumen-
    tation.

                                 C-17

-------
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                               C-18

-------
4.  Install a parallel transfer   Insurance against break.
    line from plant to wastewater
    treatment facility.

5.  Add two new sludge recycle    Provide reliability and increase
    pumps at treatment facility,  sludge recycling capacity.

6.  Lay a second line to trans-   Prevent backup of flow in bio-
    fer effluent from biobasins   basins.
    to the secondary clarifiers.

7.  Reduce BOD load to cooling    Collect and recover or burn
    water by 2,200 pounds per     wastes.
    day.

8.  Install interceptor process   Serve plant river bank-dock
    sewer.                        area.

9.  Install sludge drying basin   The mix will be used as the
    and mix dried sludge with     blending agent at the Goff
    soil.                         chemical landfill.

Spill Potential

    The plant had an inherent design weakness in that the old cooling
water drainage system was so positioned that spillages drained into
it unless they were pumped directly to the process waste line.  This
situation resulted in the direct discharge of most production unit
upsets, pond drainage, leaky glands, and spills resulting from
negligence and mechanical failure.

    Recent notable spills included one that occurred when a barge was
overfilled and 46,000 gallons of methyl iosbutyl ketone (MIBK) were
lost on January 20, 1972.  Thirty six hundred gallons of
dicyclopentadiene were discharged through a spill into a cooling
water sewer on February 15, 1972.

    Based on experience, the potential for significant chemical
spills is relatively high.  Plant personnel recognized this problem
and had installed a monitoring system to detect spills to cooling
water.

                    NFIC-Cincinnati Field Survey

Sampling

    To confirm and/or ascertain the magnitude of wastewater discharge
loadings and sources, NFIC-C conducted a 24-hour sampling survey of
the plant's intake water, waste treatment plant influent and
                                 C-19

-------
effluent, the four main cooling water outfalls,  and Goff Branch on
February 23 and 24, 1972.  Two-hour grab samples were composited for
each outfall and were split with the company and West Virginia's
Division of Water Resources.  The analytical results, converted to
pounds per day net loadings, are listed in Table C-6.

Analytical Results

    Based on the company's data, the treatment plant's BOD(5)  removal
efficiency was only 55 percent during the survey, but an upset
condition existed in the facility at the time of sampling.

    About half the BOD(5) discharged into the river entered it from
the wastewater treatment plant outfall (001).  The remainder was
present in cooling water discharges, mainly those from outfalls 002
and 003.  The company's COD and TOG values were correlatable with
those for BOD(5) during the survey.  Over one million pounds per day
of dissolved solids (related to chlorides) were discharged,
particularly from the treatment plant.

    Over 100 pounds per day of phenols entered the river from the
wastewater treatment plant and 40 pounds were present in cooling
water discharges.  The high load from the treatment facility reflects
the upset condition prevailing in its biological system.  Under
favorable biological growth conditions, the activated sludge system
is capable of removing over 99 percent of phenols.  Oil and grease
concentrations from the treatment plant were measured at 38 mg/1 by
EPA and at 19 mg/1 by the company.

    Metals analyses by the State indicated that cadmium, aluminum,
magnesium, calcium, and sodium were contained in the effluent from
the wastewater treatment plant.  Cadmium was measured at 330 pounds
per day  (over 6 mg/1).

Toxicity of Effluents

    Static bioassay tests, using fathead minnows, were made in March
1972 on  the effluent from outfalls 001, 003, and 005.  The effluent
had a dissolved oxygen range of 4.0 to 5.8 mg/1, a pH of 6.6 to 6.9,
and a temperature of 23 to 27 degree C.  Toxicity was shown only in
the effluent from the waste treatment plant outfall  (001).  The
median tolerance limit (TL50) wastewater percentage at 24 hours was
24 percent, at 48 hours 9 percent, and at 96 hours 9 percent.  All of
the fish that died did so within 48 hours.   (The TL50 is the
percentage of wastewater by volume which will kill 50 percent of the
test organisms in the specified time.) The toxic agent was suspected
to be cadmium.
                                 C-20

-------
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                          C-21

-------
                       Summary and Conclusions

    1.   The plant was in compliance with the State's pollution
control program.

    2.   In-plant, wastewater treatment,  unit, and effluent monitor-
ing programs were extensive.

    3.   Toxicity was a definite problem in the wastewater treatment
system.

    4.   The diversion of contaminated streams from cooling water
systems which served the plant was critical to the effectiveness of
future abatement programs.

    5.   Additional removal of contaminants from cooling waters was
required so that the company could meet any reasonably imposed dis-
charge criteria in the future.

    6.   Landfill leachate containing toxic elements could cause
problems in the wastewater treatment system.

                           Recommendations

    It is recommended that:

    1.   The toxicity of the effluent be reduced so that no discharge
exceed 1/20 of the 96-hour TL50.                                                   \

    2.   An effluent pH range of 6.0 to 8.5 be maintained.

    3.   Waste streams which add BOD, COD, TOG, phenols, oil and
grease, and suspended solids to cooling waters be separated and                   ^
treated.                                                                          ^
                                                                                    4
    4.   Total phenol discharges be reduced to the State-imposed
limit of four pounds per day.

    5.   The total BOD(5) and TO discharges to the river be lowered
to on or more than 2,800 and 1,300 pounds per day, respectively, in
order for the Kanawha to meet the DO criterion of 4.0 mg/1 at the
proposed flow of 1,930 cfs.

    6.   By using process control and recycling, reduce to an                      ,
absolute minimum the load of dissolved solids discharged into the
river.

    7.   The spill potential of organic chemicals into cooling waters
be decreased by complete separation and containment wherever possible


                                 C-22

-------
so that the wastes can be diverted to the process sewer system or the
recovery system.

    8.   The cadmium source be isolated and that wastewaters be
treated at the source to reduce the pollutional effects on the
treatment plant and the river.
                                C-23

-------
                           FMC CORPORATION
                    INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL DIVISION
                       SOUTH CHARLESTON PLANT
                   SOUTH CHARLESTON, WEST VIRGINIA
                      General Plant Description

    The plant is located on the left bank of the Kanawha River
(facing downstream) and occupies 3,150 feet of the river shoreline in
three separate sections (Figure D-l) between Mile Points 54 and 55.
At the time of the survey, it was called the Inorganic Chemicals
Division.  The plant areas along shore were: (1) the original plant
site that housed the chlorine and related production units; (2) the
process development and quality control laboratory; (3) the
downstream site where chlorinated dry bleach production units were
located.  A fourth area was inland and housed administrative offices,
hydrogen peroxide production units, and a fly ash lagoon.

    The plant had changed a great deal since it became operational in
1915.  Three production units had been shut down for economic
reasons, the hydrogen peroxide and dry bleach production units had
been added, and most other units had been altered to increase their
efficiency and capabilities.  Employment had been stable at about
1,000 persons.  The plant was being operated 24 hours per day, 365
days a year.

    The plant manufactured the following products: hydrogen peroxide,
liquid anhydrous ammonia, caustic sodas, chlorine gas, chlorine
liquid, and chlorinated dry bleach.  The amount of production was not
ascertained.  Raw materials used included salt brine, coal, urea,
sulfur, and methane (natural gas).  The brine was brought in by barge
from a concentrated supply at Ben's Run, West Virginia.

                             Water Usage

    Plant officials had reported in their Refuse Act permit
application that it used 3.15 million gallons a day (mgd) of city
water and 180.9 mgd of river water.  The total amount was used as
follows: 176.4 mgd for cooling purposes, 1.54 mgd for boiler feed,
6.05 mgd for process water, and 0.06 mgd for the plant's sanitary
system.  The usage contained in the application is not compatible
with the Company's reported total discharge, 91 mgd.  The amount used
as cooling water probably represented the potential available rather
than that actually used.  The company stated that its water use had
been stable, both seasonally and historically.
                                D-l

-------
D-2

-------
               Wastewater Discharges and Waste Sources

    Sanitary wastes were sent to the South Charleston municipal
wastewater treatment system.  Approximately 0.75 mgd was lost to
evaporation and 0.01 mgd was consumed in chemical processes.  The
remainder (91.1 mgd) was discharged to surface waters.

    In its permit application, the company listed 29 outfalls, 28 of
which discharged directly into the Kanawha and one into Davis Creek,
a tributary of the Kanawha (Figure D-2) .  The outfalls are listed in
Table D-l by the numbers shown on the permit application.

    Except for the fly ash pond (outfall 029) , there was no formal
treatment facility at the plant.  Outfalls 003 through 015 lay within
a stretch of 200 feet.  Outfall 003 (from the turbine condensers,
rectifiers, steam processing, brine treatment, and boiler water
treatment) had a discharge of 26.2 mgd.  Outfall 018 (from the
chlorine and caustic diaphragm cells and sulfur recovery system) had
a 38.9 mgd discharge.  These two outfalls accounted for over 71.5
percent of the average daily effluent flow.

                    Wastewater Treatment Program

Historical Development

    According to the company, several waste control projects were
under way before the State began its phased pollution control program
in 1958.  These projects had been designed to reduce production
losses.

    To meet the State's Phase I requirements by 1963, the company:

    1.   Purchased land for a fly ash lagoon, and a 29-acre settling
basin was constructed to hold boiler fly ash.

    2.   Built a collection system in Area 3 and a mile-long waste
transfer pipeline.

    3.   Segregated and pumped all sanitary wastes to the South
Charleston municipal treatment plant.

    4.   Established a spill alert system.

    To meet the Phase II requirements by 1969, the company:

    1.   Submerged the largest outfall to eliminate foaming.

    2.   Eliminated high magnesium and chloride wastes by obtaining a
new brine source at Ben's Run.
                                D-3

-------
_J!l illl
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         D-4

-------
Outfall
   No.
   001
   002
   003*

   OOl*
   005
   006
   007
   008
   009
   010
   on
   012
   013
   OlU
   015
   016*
   017*
   018*

   019*
   020
   021
   022*
   023*
   02U
   025
   026
   027*
   028*
   029*
                     TABLE D-l

    WASTEWATER DISCHARGES SOURCES ADD VOLUME
        HMC Inorganic Chemicals Division

          Source Area

Raw water intake
Steam condensate drain
Turbine condensers, rectifiers,
steam processing, trine treatment,
boiler water treatment
Barometric condenser
Inactive
Barometric condenser
Vacuum seal for vacuum filters
Inactive

Barometric condenser
Caustic and chlorine coolers
Chlorine and caustic diaphragm
cells, sulfur recovery
Carbon tetrachloride unit
Inactive
Inactive
Ammonia production unit
Carbon bisulfide unit
Ammonia production unit-vent scrubber
Air conditioning units
Laboratories
Chlorinated cyanurate unit
     it       it          ii
Fly ash lagoon, hydrogen peroxide unit

                   Total average effluent flow
  Discharge
Volume (mgd)
  0.091
  0.22
  26.2

  1.01
  1.6k
  0.50
  0.0
  3-85
  2.09
  0.61
  O.U3
  0.0
  0.0
  l.Ht
  U.I
 38.9

  3.3
  0.0
  0.0
  0.5
  3-6
  0.11

  0.01
  0.50
  0.60
  0.9
 91.181
* Effluents sampled by EPA March 1-2, 1972
                               D-5

-------
    3.   Installed a sulfate purge system to reduce chloride wastes.

    4.   Made process changes to recover waste salt and caustic soda.

    5.   Installed an oil and solvent recovery system.

    To meet the Phase III requirements by 1972, the company had to:

    1.   Eliminate all visual pollution, including foams and scum.

    2.   Reduce the BOD(5) load to a maximum of 1,000 pounds per day.

    3.   Decrease the oxidizable nitrogen load by 65 percent.

    4.   Neutralize all wastes to comply with water quality criteria
for the Kanawha River.

    5.   Reduce all taste-and odor-producing materials to meet water
quality criteria for the Kanawha.

Waste Disposal Facilities

    The company operated a landfill and used a 29-acre pond as waste
disposal facilities.  Bottom ash, waste asbestos, and other plant
solid wastes were placed in the landfill.  Boiler fly ash, insoluble
wastes from water and brine treatment, oil separator effluent, and
the effluent from the hydrogen peroxide plant were sent to the pond.
Although not confirmed by EPA or State analyses, the company claimed
this procedure was effective in removing organics.  On an average,
the effluent discharged into Davis Creek from this facility amounted
to 0.9 mgd; this represented less than one percent of the plant's
total discharge.

    Cooling Water

    The cooling water discharges totaled over 90 mgd from the 28 out-
falls on the Kanawha.  The exact portion contributed by leaks and
miscellaneous process wastewaters was not ascertained.

    The non-contact cooling water volume was estimated at 70 mgd, and
an additional 20 mgd were contaminated by spills, leaks, contact
cooling, and process wastes.

    Monitoring

    The monitoring program consisted of compositing 2-hour grab
samples over a 24-hour period once a month at each outfall.  Special
samples were also collected periodically at major outfalls.
                                D-6

-------
    Efficiency of Waste Treatment

    The one wastewater stream that was treated before being
discharged from one of the 29 outfalls was the one that entered
Beaver Pond.  The influent to the pond contained an average of 25,000
mg/1 of suspended solids and the effluent contained an average of 5
mg/1.  The removal efficiency for other constitutents was not known.

    Future Plans

    The most significant waterborne waste problem of the FMC
Inorganic Chemicals plant was ammonia-bearing wastes.  In the
manufacture of dry bleach, much off gas was produced in the calcining
of urea.  This was the source of two-thirds of the water-borne
ammonia waste, and presently a pilot operation was under way to burn
the gas and, destroy the ammonia.  (If successful, this method will
satisfy the 65 percent reduction requirement of the Phase III
program.)

Spill Potential

    The spill potential of the three areas of the South Charleston
Plant was great.  If a spill occurred at any of the three plant
production areas, there was no provision to capture and retain any
liquid lost.  According to plant personnel, the plant had had six
spills to the river, but the character and amount were unspecified.
They claimed, however, that the spills had been given immediate
attention and treated as emergencies.  The effects on the Kanawha
were not ascertained.  A formal spill alert system was established in
1963.

                    NFIC-Cincinnati Field Survey

Sampling

    To ascertain the magnitude of waste constitutent discharge
loadings, the EPA conducted a 24-hour sampling survey of selected
effluents (Table D-l) on March 1-2, 1972.  Two-hour grab samples
were composited and split with the company.

Analytical Results

    The analytical results, converted to pounds per day, are listed
in Table D-2.  The analytical results indicate that the samples from
outfalls 027 and 028 could have been interchanged.  The discharge
volumes for these outfalls were 0.54 mgd and 0.67 mgd, respectively.
Since these volumes are nearly equal and less than 1.0 mgd, the total
difference in net loadings should be considered negligible when
compared to the total plant discharge of over 90 mgd.
                                D-7

-------







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*

-------
    Total plant loadings are in line with data submitted to the State
in 1971 (Table D-3).

    Major Sources and Loads

    The plant discharged large quantities of dissolved solids, COD,
total organic carbon, ammonia, Kjeldahl nitrogen, and chlorides.  The
largest sources of solids and COD were the caustic and chlorine units
(outfalls 017 and 018), the dry bleach units (027 and 028), and
"Beaver Pond " (029).

    The largest source of COD and chloride was the chlorine and
caustic plant (No. 018).  Chloride was also high from the chlorinated
dry bleach (No. 027) plant and "Beaver Pond".  Large quantities of
total organic carbon and nitrogen originated in the dry bleach unit
(027 and 028).

    Oil and grease discharges appeared to be well under control at
the plant.

    Plant data reported to the State in 1971 indicated that an
average of 1,900 pounds of BOD(5) was discharged into the river per
day.  The Refuse Act permit application indicated that 1,400 pounds
were discharged from the chlorine caustic plant via outfall No. 018,
which is reflected by the high COD.

    Metals analyses of the effluent from the pond showed that it
contained 16 pounds per day of chromium and 0.5 pounds per day of
arsenic which were assumed to be associated with the fly ash.

    Toxicity of Effluents

    The only static bioassay tests conducted were made on the
effluent from outfall No. 018 from the chlorine and caustic plant.
The tests which used fathead minnows, were made of effluent which had
a dissolved oxygen range of 5.1 to 5.9 mg/1, a pH 2.9 to 6.4, and a
temperature between 23 and 27 degrees C.  The median tolerance limit,
TL50 of the wastewater at 24 hours was 78 percent, at 48 hours, 60
percent, and at 96 hours, 56 percent.  (The TL50 is the percentage of
wastewater by volume which will kill 50 percent of the test organisms
in the specified time.)

                             Conclusions

    Six discharges contained high levels of dissolved solids  (003,
017, 018, 027, 028, 029).  The discharge from 028 contained the major
portion of the nitrogen load.  The plant appeared to be meeting the
State's Phase III requirements.  The spill prevention program did not
seem to be adequate to retain or to recover any liquids lost.
                                D-9

-------
                              TABLE D-3

               PLANT EFFLUENT - NET LOADS (POUNDS/DAY)

           FMC CORPORATION - INORGANIC CHEMICALS DIVISION
                   South Charleston, West Virginia
Parameter
Total Solids
Susp . Solids
Chlorides
COD
TOC
TKN
NH(3)
Oil & Grease
Chlorine
Sulfide
Mercury
Chromium
BOD (5)
NFIC-C
449,830
12,660
176,250
18,670
12,775
16,560
7,260
460
NA
76.
•
16.

March 1972
FMC
458,100
10,100
163,400
12,770
13,565
19,440
8,590
ND

0
017
5

State
478,800
1,000
209,000
NA
NA
21,840
5,420
NA
7,940




FMC
Report to State
1971 (9 Months)
366,100
8,514
163,270





5,575


21.4
1,877
NOTE:  NA « not analyzed
       ND » not detected.
                              D-10

-------
                           Recommendations

    It is recommended that:

    1.   The plant take immediate steps to separate and dispose of
suspended solids, COD, and TOC wastes from the wastewater streams,
particularly those discharged via outfalls 003, 018, 023, and 027.

    2.   Nitrogenous loads be reduced to 3,600 pounds per day and the
BOD(5) discharge loads not to exceed 150 pounds per day in order to
meet the DO criterion of 4 mg/1 at the existing 7-day, once-in-ten-
year low flow.

    3.   The toxicity of effluents be reduced at least to the point
that no discharge exceeds 1/20 of the 96-hour TL50.

    4.   The company use less cooling water and reduce the
contaminants introduced into it.

    5.   The spill program be up-dated so that all hazardous and
toxic materials which have spill potential can be contained or
recovered.

    6.   Monitoring be increased at the major outfalls which contain
the largest sources of pollutants.  Flow measurements must be more
precise and continuously recorded for outfalls 003, 018, 019, 022,
023, 027, 028 and 029.

    7.   The dissolved solids load discharged into the river be
decreased by in-plant recovery of salt, caustic sludge reduction, and
acid reuse.

    8.   Wastes from raw water treatment be removed from the
discharge of outfall 003, chromate be removed from outfalls 022, 023,
028, and 029, and lead be reduced in the discharge from outfall 018.
                                D-ll

-------
                           FMC CORPORATION
                   AMERICAN VISCOSE DIVISION PLANT
                        NITRO, WEST VIRGINIA
                      General Plant Description

    This plant was located on the Kanawha River at Nitro,  12 miles
downstream from Charleston at Mile Point 42.7.   The plant  was on the
right side of the river (facing downstream) and occupied 120 acres
which included about 2,200 feet of shoreline (Figure E-l).  Adjacent
installations were the Allied Chemical Company (upstream)  and FMC's
Industrial Chemical Division.

    The plant, which became operational in 1938, had been  modified
and expanded over the years, but there had been no change  in the
basic manufacturing process of the principal product, rayon staple.

    Employment had fluctuated between 850 and 1,150 and totaled 1,100
in March 1972.  The plant operated 24 hours a day, 365 days per year
at an average of about 80 percent of its rated capacity of rayon
staple.  A significant by-product was sodium sulfate.

    Basic raw materials used included highly refined cellulose sheet
pulp, caustic soda, carbon bisulfide, sulfuric acid and zinc sulfate.
Sulfuric acid was supplied through a pipeline by the Allied Chemical
Company.

                             Water Usage

    The plant purchased an average of 20,000 gallons per day of water
from the City of Nitro for domestic and process purposes.   The plant
pumped an average of 35 million gallons of water a day (mgd) from the
Kanawha.  Approximately 25 to 30 percent of this water was treated by
standard precipitation, settling, filtration, and chlorination for
use as process water.  Ten to 15 percent was softened for  process and
boiler feed purposes.

    The Company's Refuse Act permit application indicated  that the
plant used 26 mgd as cooling water, 1 mgd for boiler feed, 6.5 mgd as
process water, 0.06 mgd in its sanitary system, and 1.46 mgd for
other purposes.  The application also indicated that 0.4 mgd was lost
to evaporation and the rest was discharged into the river.

               Wastewater Discharges and Waste Sources

    The plant discharged all of its wastewaters, both industrial and
sanitary, into the Kanawha through one sewer.  The sewer led to a
sump on the river bank which had two outfalls, one above water called
                                E-l

-------
          STATE    ROUTE     25
           PENN  CENTRAL
                   RAILROAD
                                        -M.
                                             WINFIELD LOCK   A
                                                  &  DAM     j
                                            +   VM|LE POINT 31.1
   •NITRO PLANT
   ^CHARLESTON-

          =<
         RIVER
VICINITY MAP
                                               0    5     10
                                                  MILES
                     STORAGE FACILITIES
                   FMC CORPORATION
                   AMERICAN VISCOSE
                                PARKING
                                  AREA
PRODUCTION

   FACILITIES
                     \-WASTE
                       WATER
                    TREATMENT
                    FACILITIES
                         UNIMPROVED

                            AREA
                     	I
48" OUTFALL
36" OUTFALL
(MILE POINT
      42.7)
                           FIGURE E-l
                      FMC CORPORATION
                 AMERICAN VISCOSE DIVISION
               GENERAL PLAN -  PLANT FACILITIES
                          JULY 1972
                              E-2

-------
the "secondary outfall" and a submerged 36-inch pipe extending 100
feet into the river called the "primary outfall".  Under normal
operating conditions, all wastewaters were discharged via the
submerged outfall; a surface roil usually existed over its outlet.
At the time of the investigation, none of the discharge (26 mgd of
cooling water and 9 mgd of process water) was treated.

    Information regarding specific unit sources of wastes was not
provided by the company.

                    Wastewater Treatment Program

Historical Development

    Company officials said that a program had existed for several
years whereby process and cooling water wastes were separated.  An
aeration lagoon was constructed in which about one mgd of selected
process and sanitary wastes were provided partial secondary
treatment.  The lagoon had been abandoned prior to NFIC-C's field
survey and all waterborne production and sanitary wastes were being
discharged untreated.

    The history of waste treatment at the plant had been one of non-
compliance with requirements of the State's phased program^

    Under the principal requirements of Phase I and Phase II, the
plant was to reduce the BOD(5) loading to the Kanawha from 9,300
pounds per day to 2,800 pounds per day by June 30, 1966.  This date
was later extended by the State for all Kanawha industries to June
30, 1967.  The American Viscose plant did not meet the loading
limitations.  West Virginia Pollution Control Permit No. 4384 was
issued to the plant on February 7, 1972, and included Phase III
requirements.  The BOD(5) limitation was set at 2,000 pounds per day
and acidity was not to exceed 80,000 pounds per day by December 31,
1972.

    The company agreed in a letter to the State in July 1971 to meet
the Phase III requirements by December 1972 by constructing a
secondary biological treatment facility.  (In 1973 the company had
completed and was operating a wastewater treatment facility that
incorporated the following components:

    1.   Two primary clarifiers (each at two-thirds of total design
requirement) for zinc removal.

    2.   Two rotary vacuum filters for dewatering zinc hydroxide
sludge, which is disposed of in the landfill.
                                E-3

-------
    3.   Pumping equipment to direct blowdown from acid reclaim
cooling tower to waste treatment from No.  2 lift station.

    4.   A thickener installed ahead of the aerobic digestion
chamber.
    5.    Three lift stations.

    6.    A final clarifier.)

    The company's projected removal efficiencies are listed in Table

                              TABLE E-l
E-l.
                PROJECTED QUALITY OF TREATED EFFLUENT
                  (based on design flow of 9.3 mgd)
Constituent
BOD (5)
COD
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Zinc
PH
mg/1
30
243
30
10,000
5
6.0 - 8.5
Ib/day
2,340
18,954
2,340
780,000
390
units
Removal Efficiency
Percent
80
60
84
0
95
—
Solid Waste Disposal

    The company reported that a portion of its property was used for
solid waste disposal.  The area had a small pond, which presumably
received leachate from the disposed material and overflowed into an
outfall of the Fike Chemical Company.  The pH of the effluent was 13.

Spill Potential

    The FMC American Viscose Division stated that spills had been
insignificant due to good housekeeping and the nature of the process
and chemicals used.  Any rejected batches of alkali cellulose crumbs
or viscose solution were placed on the company landfill.  Tanks
                                E-4

-------
holding caustic and sulfuric acid were not diked, but were a long
distance from the river.  Materials such as carbon disulfide (CS2)
and the amine-phenol mixture were handled in well-designed equipment
with good safeguards to minimize spill dangers.

                   NFIC-C Cincinnati Field Survey

Sampling

    In order to ascertain and/or confirm the magnitude of waste
constitutent discharge loadings, the EPA conducted a 24-hour sampling
survey of the single discharge and the plant's raw water intake on
March 21 - 22, 1972.  Two-hour grab samples were composited and split
with the company and the State Division of Water Resources.

    It was anticipated that, as in all other plants visited, the
facilities could be toured to become familiar with the plant layout.
Due to a problem in the production area, this request was not allowed
at the time of this visit.  It was agreed, however, that sampling
could be performed on a day to be mutually selected and this would
encompass the discharge and the raw water intake.

Analytical Results

    The analytical results, converted to pounds per day net loadings,
are listed in Table E-2.  For comparison average loadings of
constituents reported to the State for the first 10 months of 1971
are included.

    Major Waste Sources and Loads

    Since the loadings shown in Table E-2 were untreated, they
represented raw discharges into the river.  The company was
discharging loads of BOD, dissolved solids, zinc, COD, total organic
carbon that were in excess of Phase I, II and III limit requirements
for BOD and acidity.

    Toxicity of Effluent

    Static bioassay tests, using fathead minnows, were made on the
plant's effluent in March 1972.  The tests were made in a dissolved
oxygen range of 5.3 to 6.2 mg/1, pH 2.6 to 5.8, and a temperature
between 23 and 27 degrees C.  The median tolerance limit (TL50) of
the wastewater at 24, 48, and 96 hours was 7.6 percent for each time
period.  All of the fish that died did so within the first 24 hours.
The TL50 is the percentage of wastewater by volume which will kill 50
percent of the test organisms in the specified time.  In the case of
this effluent, the toxic influence could have been the low pH of the
initial sample.
                                E-5

-------
         TABLE E-2
TOTAL WATERBORNE WASTES

AMERICAN VISCOSE PLANT
 Nitro, West Virginia

 Net Loads - Pounds/Day
Parameter
BOD
BOD20
Total Solids
Susp . Solids
Chloride
Zinc
COD
TOC
TKN
NH3
Acidity
Phosphate
Oil & Grease
Phenol
Cyanide
pH
EPA
7,570
18,915
35^, 100
NA
NA
8,710
31,200
9,610
360
0
121,000
30
270
3.0
0
2.2
NFIC Survey
March 1972
STATE VISCOSE
7,920 13,
16,920 25,
501, 000 U29,
13,500 3,
36,300 26,
9,890 8,
NA 31,
NA 11,
609
lf05
NA 1Q3>
63
-
3.U
NA
2.2
1+50
900
100
950
800
120
300
000
550
NA
210
51
282
0
0
2.5
Viscose
Report to State
1971 (10 Months)
11, 287
NA
1+19,500
1^,300
13,^50
7,9^0










NA « Not analyzed.
         E-6

-------
                             Conclusions

    1.   The history of wastewater treatment at the plant had been
one of non-compliance with the requirements of the State's phased
program.

    2.   The wastewater discharged into the Kanawha was toxic.

    3.   The pH of the wastewater discharge was 2.2, and it contained
over 400,000 pounds per day of dissolved solids and more than 8,000
pounds of zinc.

    4.   The spill prevention program was adequate in the carbon
disulfide facilities but not in the caustic and acid areas.

    5.   Contaminates were not kept completely segregated from
cooling waters.

                           Recommendat ions

    1.   All waste stream that contain BOD, COD, organic carbon, oil
and grease, nitrogenous materials, and suspended solids should be
segregated from cooling waters and routed to a treatment system.

    2.   The toxicity of the effluent should be reduced at least to
the point that no discharge exceeds 1/20 of the 96-hour TL50.

    3.   The acid load to the river should be neutralized or
otherwise treated so that the pH of the discharge is maintained
within the range of 6.0 to 8.5.

    4.   The oxygen demand should be reduced to not more than 300
pounds of BOD(5) per day and 100 pounds of TKN  per day.  The zinc
concentration in process wastewater should be limited to 1.0 mg/1.

    5.   The spill prevention program should be expanded to include
the caustic and acid areas.

    6.   Monitoring should be carried out more frequently and the
number of pollutants analyzed should be increased.  Consideration
should be given to performing bioassays and BOD(20), TKN, COD, and
TOG analyses.
                                E-7

-------
                           FMC CORPORATION
                     ORGANIC CHEMICALS DIVISION
                        NITRO, WEST VIRGINIA
                      General Plant Description

    The plant is located on the right bank facing downstream of the
Kanawha River in the Nitro, West Virginia area (Figure F-l).
Detailed information on the plant area, buildings, etc., was  not made
available by the company for this survey.  Since 1960, employment had
ranged from approximately 475 to 150; at the time of the survey, it
was about 170.  The plant was operated 24 hours a day, 365 days a
year.

    Production quantities and sales are confidential.  In 1970, the
major products were plasticizers and phosphorus chemicals, and the
principal raw materials were phosphorus, chlorine, caustic, phenol,
cresylic acids, glycol ethers, organic alcohols, and propylene.
Production had varied and many product has been added and deleted.
Tributyl phosphate and tributoxyethyl phosphate were added in 1960,
phosphorus tri and oxychlorides in 1962, methyldiphenyl phosphate in
1964, and isopropylphenol phosphates in 1969.  Aluminum chloride and
allyic esters production have been eliminated.

    The eight main production areas and sources of wastewater as
shown in the company's Refuse Act Permit Application were: (1)
Isopropyl phenol; (2)  Kronitex reaction - distillation; (3)
Kronitex refining;  (4)  Tributoxyethyl phosphate - tributyl
phosphate; (5)  Methyl diphenyl phosphate;  (6)  Butyl cellosolve
adipate;  (7)  Phosphorus trichloride; (8)  Phosphorus Oxychloride.

    Raw materials, intermediates, and products manufactured are shown
in Figure F-2.

                             Water Usage

    The following water use data (in millions of gallons a day, mgd)
are taken from the company's Refuse Act Permit Discharge Application:

    1.   Source:  Municipal system, 0.33; Kanawha River, 3.98.

    2.   Use:  Cooling water, 4.01; boiler feed water, 0.09;  process
water, 0.21; sanitary system, 0.003.

The sanitary system discharged to the municipal treatment plant, and
all other wastewaters were discharged into the Kanawha.
                                F-l

-------
                    STATE ROUTE 25
         -H*-
INDUSTRIAL
 DRIVEWAY .
-Hf-
                 PENN CENTRAL RAILROAD
-Ht-
                          ^T1!
    NFIELD LOCK&DAM
      (Mile Point 31.1)
     \
KANAWHA
RIVERx/N|TRQ pLANT

        CHARLESTON
                                Flow
                              VICINITY MAP
                              I i i i i I i i i i I
                                                5
                                               MILES
                                       10
          J
            \
   MONSANTO
 84" OUTFALL,
 MILE POINT
 42.6
         AMERICAN VISCOSE DIVISION
         WASTE WATER
         TREATMENT
         FACILITIES
         kl
                   .Flow
        KANAWHA RIVER

  FIGURE F-1         FMC CORPORATION
  ORGANIC CHEMICALS DIVISION NITRO, WEST VIRGINIA
              GENERAL PLAN-PLANT FACILITIES
                       F-2

-------
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    The discharge flows on which this EPA study was based were:

                                       mgd

    Waste treatment plant              0.060

    Cooling water                      3.615

    Total                              3.675

(Flows were estimated from water intake values.)

                       Waste Treatment Program

Historical Development

    West Virginia's phased program requirements for the Nitro Plant
are shown in Table F-l.  The base load to the Kanawha was established
at 7,000 pounds BOD(5) per day in 1958.

                              TABLE F-l
                 WEST VIRGINIA'S PHASED PROGRAM FOR
                    FMC'S ORGANIC PLANT AT NITRO
% Reduction
from Base
Phase I 40
Phase II 70
Phase III 86
BOD (5) Phenol Acidity
Limit Limit Limit (1) Compliance
Ib/day Ib/day Ib/day Date
4,200 900 35,000 6/30/63
2,100 16 10,300 6/30/66
1,700 16 (2) 12/31/72
(1)  As CaC03
(2)  Neutralized sufficiently to comply with applicable water
     quality criteria for the Kanawha.

    Under Phase I, the following projects were completed:

    1.   Sanitary wastes were segregated from plant wastes and piped
to the municipal treatment plant.

    2.   An alcohol recovery-distillation recovery unit was installed
to remove organics from the "drown" water.
                                F-4

-------
Under Phase II, the following equipment was installed:

    1.   A collection, neutralization, extended-aeration, and
clarifier system;

    2.   Another alcohol recovery-distillation system;

    3.   A hydrochloric acid adsorption and purification system;

    4.   Condensers to remove organics from reactor vent streams.

Plans for Phase III compliance are discussed later.

Waste Disposal Facilities

    The company, in response to an NFIC-Cincinnati inquiry, reported
that some waste materials were incinerated off-site.  Incineration
was the original method planned for meeting Phase II requirements but
the system was not satisfactory.  No information was provided on any
landfill disposal activity.

Wastewater Treatment

    The wastewater treatment plant consisted of a neutralization
tank, an aeration lagoon, and a settling basin.  The aeration basin,
which was installed in 1968, had a capacity of about 500,000 gallons.

    During 1969 and the first half of 1970, mechanical and other
operational problems were experienced with the new lagoon.  At that
time the characterization and segregation of all waste streams were
incomplete.  (This was completed by mid-1972).

    Company officials stated that their abatement efforts had
resulted in a large reduction in the plant waste load in spite of
rising production rates.  The monthly averages of BOD(5) and phenol
loads, as reported to the State by FMC are shown in Figures F-3 and
F-4.  The upset periods and overall decrease in loads imposed on the
river are evident.  The phenol problem had not been abated as Figure
F-4 shows.

    As to reducing inorganic loadings, officials reported that
chlorides had been lowered by 30 percent and acidity by approximately
40 percent.

    They said that the following work was undertaken to meet the
Phase III requirements:

    1.   An experimental, high-rate trickling filter was being tested
in the plant to provide greater BOD and phenolic reductions.
                                F-5

-------
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                              F-6

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                    F-7

-------
    2.   Installation of in-plant improvements to concentrate
phenolic and BOD-bearing wastes for treatment.

    3.   Installation of a floating boom at the outfall to retain
scum or oils which might accidentally enter the sewer system.

    4.   Investigation of chemical and biological treatment of
wastewater streams in combination with sludge-handling studies
necessary to meet future requirements.

(Final design on planned improvements was not completed in mid-1972
and it was evident that the construction schedule for Phase III would
extend to 1973.) Costs of the new treatment works were estimated at
$250,000 for 1972 and $150,000 for 1973.

    Cooling Water

    Cooling water was pumped from the Kanawha at a flow rate which
had ranged from approximately 3.1 to 4.9 during a 10-year period
ending in 1972.  Recent measurements had indicated a temperature
increase of about 6°C.  General plant cooling water contained no
inhibitors other than chlorine.  Cooling water was screened and
intermittently treated with chlorine to prevent slime growths; this
method had not changed in recent years.  There were two small cooling
towers which operated as closed systems with very little loss or
blowdown.

    A significant portion of the total BOD(5) load discharged into
the river was carried by the cooling water stream during the survey.
Available records did not indicate what portion of the total load was
typically carried by the cooling water.

    Monitoring

    The company reported that 24-hour composites of the lagoon and
main sewer streams were analyzed and that any corrective action
needed was taken accordingly.  Details on the analytical parameters
monitored were not provided.

    Efficiency

    Data on removal efficiencies were not available, but company
officials stated that they ranged from 50 percent to 90 percent.
Efficiency dropped sharply in cold weather.

Future Plans

    As they did with regard to sales and production information,
company officials treated any plans for expansion or reduction in
                                F-8

-------
operations as confidential.  Judging from the general knowledge that
production had been increasing, the production future of the plant
appeared to be good.

    Spill Potential

    Spills of materials were treated as a plant emergency, and formal
notification procedure had been established with the State.  There
had been no recent spills in which it was necessary to notify the
State under the notification procedure.  No spills into the river of
oil, refractory organics, ammonia, or high dissolved solids materials
had been recorded.

    From observations during the limited study period, NFIC-
Cincinnati personnel judged that the potential for spills was
moderate and that pollution from spills generally would be evident in
the cooling water stream.  The results of the plant survey indicated
that the bulk of the BOD(5) load to the river was in the untreated
cooling water stream; high total load values might, therefore,
reflect a spill or leakage in plant equipment during the sampling
period.

                    NFIC-Cincinnati Field Survey

Sampling

    A composite was made of samples collected every two hours during
a 24-hour period on February 16 and 17, 1972.  NFIC-Cincinnati also
took samples for the State, but corporation personnel took their own
samples on the same schedule.  Sample points were:

    1.   Wastewater treatment plant inlet;

    2.   Wastewater treatment plant outlet;

    3.   Outfall (combined flow from treatment plant and cooling
water).

    4.   Raw river water.

The outfall was the only active discharge point into the river.  The
plant's sanitary waste was not sampled because it was discharged into
the municipal sewer system.  Sampling for bioassay tests was limited
to the discharge at the outfall.

Analytical Results

    The analytical results in concentrations are shown in Table F-2
which gives the values determined by EPA, State, and company
                                F-9

-------
                                                             Table  F-2

                                             FMC ORGANIC -  HITRO, WEST VIRGINIA, PLANT
                                        Analytical Results  -  2/16/72 - 2lt-hr. Composite Sauries
SamDle Point
Flow M3D
BODj ng/1
BOD20
COD "
IOC "
pH
Tot. Solids mg/1
Sus. Solids "
1KB
NH3-N
Nitrite & Nitrate "
Tot. Phosphorus "
Chloride "
Sulfate "
Oil & Grease "
Phenols "
Cyanide "
Arsenic ^ ug/1
Lead'3' mg/1
ZincW
Aluminum(3) "
Cadmium (3) "
Chromium (3) "
Copper <3)
Iron (3)
Magnesium'3) "
Manganese' 3) "
Nickel ^3)
Bioassay TLj, 2l*-hr
l*8-hr
96-hr.

EPA

2790
5U80
llltO
-
10600
113
88
2.1
0.6
7"*
-
-
980
660
0.01
-
-
-
-
-
0.18
0.13
^
-
-
-
-


1
WTP Inlet
W.Va.

1890
6072
2000
6.9
10988
287
6.7
1.1


6000

758
5309
< 0.26
< 0.02
OJ.O
0.31
1.8
1.1*
0.2
0.12
0.15
2.9
0.16
0.1



Co.

698
1575
7000

6.8
10757
210


0.1*6

5319

386
780
0.0066

< 0.02
0.31*
i*.o
< 0.005
0.153
0.032
0.25
2.U6
0.18
0.055



2
WTP Discharge
EPA

2930
5360
1290
-
9670
22i*
62
100
0.7
63
-
-
560
630
< 0.01
-
-
-
-
-
0.19
0.13
-
-
-
-
-


W.Va.

1650
5565

7.7
920U
673
99
79


5600

1323
5563
< 0.26
0.03
0.18
0.39
5.1
2.1*
0.1
0.12
1.6
3.6
0.33
0.1



Co.
0.06
975
1325
1.6140
1775
6.8
9126
680


0.17

1*219

1*10
750
< 0.001

0.02
0.39
6.88
< O.O05
0.190
0.063
1.81*
3-03
0.35
O.lOl*



3
Total Waste Outfall
SPA

161*
221*
277
29
-
761*
66
-
<0.5
0.1*
2.6
31*0
-
21
11*
< .01
-
-
-
-
-
0.06
-
-
-
-
-
13
13
13
W.Va.

113
275

2.1*
1*57
31*
1.8
1.2


1*00

1*5
98-9
< 0.26
< 0.02
0.010
0.20
1.8
1*.2
< 0.1
< 0.1
1.1
l*.9
0.12
< O.I



Co.
3.6
93
123
301*
1*5
2.2
1*18
68


0.36

1.25

2.0
11.
< 0.001

< 0.02
0.21
1.1*0
0.007
0.061*
0.013
2.07
l*.68
0.11
0.025



5
Raw River Water
fct>A

16.5
13
8
-
1*08
32
-
< 0.5
0.3
< 0.1
315
-
< 1
0.05
< 0.01
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-


w.va.

3-1
< 1*

7.2
156
36
0.33
< 0.06


19

3.2
612
: 0.26
C 0.02
0.025
0.15
0.1*
l.i*
: 0.1
0.1
0.9
1*.3
0.10
: o.i



CO.

1.
16
9
7.1
-
30


0.1*6

30

19.2
0.008
0.006

< 0.02
O.lU
1.28
< 0.005
0.009
0.01
1-91
1+.68
0.10
0.012
































Sample point Ho. 1*,  Nitro City Water, was  cancelled because it was sampled under the Monsanto investigation in Sitro.
Arsenic analysis not run by NFIC-Cinti.
NFIC metals analyses results are below detectable or normal reporting limits except as shown.
                                                        F-10

-------
laboratories.  The data for selected parameters are converted to net
pollutant loads in pounds per day in Table F-3.

    The results of the survey did not generally confirm the data the
company had reported to the State by FMC-Organic,  as a comparison of
the values presented in Table F-3 and Figure F-3 for BOD(5) will
show.  The reason for the significantly higher BOD(5) during the
survey has not been determined.   The 419-pound-per-day value for
phenol is higher than that usually reported monthly; the company
reported 420 pounds per day average for February 1973.

    Toxicity of Effluents

    Fish bioassays on the plant's combined wastewater were performed
at pH range of 2.6 - 5.8, the DO was 4.5 - 9.3 mg/1, and the
temperature was 23 °- 2rc,   The results indicated a TL50 of 13
percent at 24, 48, and 96 hours.  The flow of 0.060 from the
treatment plant was mixed with 3.6 of cooling water, a 60 to 1
dilution.  The 13 percent TL50 was measured in the combined effluent
stream and indicates that the plant's liquid wastes were a strongly
toxic source.

                       Summary and Conclusions

    1.   High phenol discharges continued to be a problem at this
plant.  The State's Phase II and III requirements were a maximum of
16 pounds per day, but recent levels had averaged more than 10 times
that amount.

    2.   The pH of the discharged wastewater was too low, reflecting
inadequate acid recovery efforts by the company.  The pH ranged from
2.0 to 2.4 in 1972, which was not a significant improvement over the
few previous years.

    3.   Performance of waste treatment could not be appraised on the
basis of the 24-hour sample because  of the extended time wastewater
was retained in the lagoon.

    4.   Pollution abatement efforts over the previous five years had
significantly reduced overall BOD(5) loads to the river.  Other than
the required reduction of phenols and the low pH of the discharge,
the company appeared to be meeting State requirements on an average
basis.

    5.   Phase II use criteria for the Kanawha River would require
reductions in pollutants.

    6.   The high toxicity of the outfall was of considerable
concern.  The impact of this toxicity on the receiving water and the
                                F-ll

-------
           TABLE F-3
               NET
       POLLUTANT LOADINGS
FMC Organic Chemicals Division
                LOAD IN POUNDS PER DAY
Outfall/ Flow
Location MOD
WWTP Inlet 0.06
WWTP Disch. 0.06
Total Waste
Outfall 3.6
WWTP Inlet
WWTP Disch.
Total Waste
Outfall
WWTP Inlet
WWTP Disch.
Total Waste
Outfall
WWTP Inlet
WWTP Disch.
Total Waste
Outfall
WWTP Inlet
WWTP Disch.
Total Waste
Outfall
EPA

1389
11+59
to

2737
2677
7931

5103
1*538
1069!+

1+1+
31
-

330
315
1+18
WVA
BOD-
9^5
825
3301
COD
301+0
2786
8261
TS
51+2^
^5 30
901+2
TKN
3.2
U9
1+1+
PHENOL
2352
21+79

CO

3^9
1+88
2761).

3^79
2315
8652

5182
^570
12557

-
-
-
EPA WVA
BOD2Q
-
-
6729
TOC
567 977
6U2
631
SS
1+1 126
96 319
1021 60
NEL-N
1.1 0.55
50 1+0
36
CO

789
663
3695

-
881+
1081

90
325
111+2

-
-
-
OIL & GREASE
391
376
1+20
1+91 378
280 661
631 1256
181+
196

            F-12

-------
possible effect on waste treatment performance were definitely
problems that needed to be solved.

                           Recommendations

    It is recommended that:

    1.   A BOD(5) discharge limit of 240 pounds per day be achieved
by December 31, 1975.  This is based on the approved future use
criteria requiring a dissolved oxygen level for the Kanawha River of
4.0 mg/1 DO at 25°C and a seven-day once-in-10-year low flow of 1930
cfs.

    2.   The toxicity of the effluent be reduced at least to the
point that it does not exceed 1/20 of the 96-hour TL50 for standard
test organisms.

    3.   Extended and higher priority efforts be made to meet the 16
pound-per-day State limit for phenol; additional reductions will be
required in the future.

    4.   Facilities and processes be provided to adequately
neutralize the acid wastewaters and the pH of the discharge should be
in the 6.0 to 8.5 range to meet anticipated effluent criteria.

    5.   FMC should determine what portion of its loads to the river
is from untreated wastewaters, and report the findings to regulatory
authorities.  Further efforts to segregate wastes and route them to
the treatment plant are desirable.

    6.   Monitoring frequency should be increased at the outfall and
wastewater treatment plant.  Flow measurement must be more precise
and be continuously recorded for all wastewater discharged into the
main sewer system.
                                F-13

-------
                          MONSANTO COMPANY
                     ORGANIC CHEMICALS DIVISION
                        NITRO, WEST VIRGINIA
                      General Plant Description

    The plant is located on the right side (facing downstream) of the
Kanawha River at Mile Point 42.3 about a mile downstream from Nitro
and about 15 miles northwest of Charleston.  The property fronts on
the river for about a mile, of which approximately 1,700 feet are
occupied by the plant.  The total plant area is 224 acres.  Some 70
acres were used for production facilities, 35 for the waste treatment
plant, and another 35 for a landfill (Figure G-l).  The remaining
land may be used for expansion.

    Operation of the plant was initiated by its first owner, Rubber
Services Laboratories, in 1922.  Monsanto purchased the plant in 1929
and employed 240 persons during the first year of operations.  About
650 persons were employed in February 1972.

    The plant produced approximately 318 million pounds of organic
chemicals in 1971, the highest in its history.  The proprietary names
of the chemicals produced are listed in Table G-l.  Represented are
rubber chemicals (accelerators, antitoxidants, intermediates, and
vulcanizing agents), agricultural chemicals, oil additives,
plasticizers, and paper chemicals.  These organic chemicals were
manufactured in 25 production units, many of which manufactured more
than one product.  With one exception, the process units were of the
batch type.  Twenty of the units were likely to be operating at any
given time.

    Production operations included distillation, drying, mixing,
extracting, absorption, crystallization, adsorption, sizing,
filtration, evaporation, and many others.  The plant operated
continuously and operations were not significantly affected by
seasonal changes.  There were, however, variations in product demand
and raw material supply.  The more than 100 raw materials used at the
plant are listed in Table G-2.

                             Water Usage

    Data on water usage in 1971 are presented in Table G-3.  The
company indicated there had not been any definite trend for the
previous 10 years.
                                G-l

-------
                                                    ROCK  BRANCH
                                                     GOLF CLUB
                                z
                                z
    Ewe -
    ORGANIC  |
    IEMKALJ>iy.
FMC CORP. AMERICAN VISCOSE DIV.
<
t—

                                                  LEGEND

                                          I PRODUCTION FACILITIES.

                                          I UNIMPROVED PROPERTY.
                                          WASTEWATER TREATMENT
                                          FACILITIES.
                                          ICITY OF NITRO'S WASTE-
                                          WATER TREATMENT
                                          FACILITIES.
                                          ! LANDFILL.
                            FIGURE G-l
                   MONSANTO  -  NITRO  PLANT
           GENERAL PLAN -  FACILITIES AND OUTFALLS
                           JULY,  1972
                                G-2

-------
                             TABLE G-l
       PRODUCTS OF THE MONSANTO NITRO, WEST VIRGINIA, PLANT
A- 32
A-100
Avadex BW Tech
Avadex BW-UK
Avadex BW-US & Fargo
Avadex Tech
Avadex UK
Avadex US
Calcium MHA
DTO HV
DTO SHV
EL- Sixty
EM- Tall 906
EM- Tall 926
Flectol H
M-530
MET
Mersize 70 TFL
Mersize 77T
Mersize 77 TFL
Mersize 80 TFL
Mersize 100
MHA Acid
NS-PVI
PA-1260
            TFL
PC-13UU
Rosin
RD-18-500
Mersize 603
Mersize-603-A
RT-28-A
RT-52-A
RT-53-A
FT-6U-A
RT-252
Santocure 26
Santocure MOR
Santocure MOR-90
Santocure NS-Pellets
Santocure US-Powder
Santocure Pellets
Santocure Powder
Santoflex 503A
Santoflex A-85
Santoflex AW
Santoflex DD
Santoflex DDS
Santogard
Santolene
Santolene C
Santolene CM
Santolene CP
Santolene CX
Santolube 70
Santolube 70-A
Santonox R
Santopoid 22 RI
Santopoid 22 RIA
Santopoid RI
Santopoid 23 RIA
Santopoid 33
Santopoid 35
Santopoid 39 MI
Santopoid S
Santopoid SJ
Santopoid SL
Santoquin
Santosize 70
Santosize 70T
Santovar A
Santovar AX
Santowhite Crystals
Santowhite Powder
Santowhite MK
SFA
Sodium MET-22$
Sodium MBT-50fc
Stabilized Vegadex Tech

Sulfasan R
Tetra
Thimore
Thiofide
Thitax AP
TORA
UFA Bleached
Vegadex
Vegadex Tech
                             G-3

-------
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-------
                              TABLE G-3
                   WATER USAGE BY MONSANTO IN 1971
Source and Use
Amount
  mgd
Kanawha River Water

    Tall oil barometric condenser water
    Cooling water

    Total river water

Nitro City Water

    Boiler feed
    Cooling (make up)
    Sanitary
    Process

    Total purchased water
  6.55
  2.9
  9.45
  0.690
  0.147
  0.060
  1.250

  2.147
               Wastewater Discharges and Waste Sources

    The Company had two active outfalls on the Kanawha.  One was from
the treatment plant and the other was the combined tall oil process
wastewater and cooling water.  All other wastewater from the plant,
including storm sewer water, flowed to a lift station and was pumped
to the wastewater treatment plant which was located approximately 0.5
mile downstream from the plant.  A tabulation of discharges and waste
sources is shown in Table G-4.
                                G-5

-------
                              TABLE G-4


                MONSANTO WASTEWATER DISCHARGES - 1971
Number
001
002
Description of Outfall
Treatment plant
Tall oil process and cooling
water
Milepoint
41.8
42.5
Flow
2.15
9.45
                    Wastewater Treatment Program

Historical Development

    According to Monsanto, the plant began extensive pollution abate-
ment work in 1958 when Phase I of the State's Department of Natural
Resources started its phased program for cleaning up the Kanawha.
The pollution control requirements for Monsanto, starting with a base
load of 16,420 pounds of BOD(5) per day to the river, are shown in
Table G-5.

                              TABLE G-5
     WEST VIRGINIA PHASED PROGRAM FOR MONTSANTO PLANT AT NITHO
% Reduction
from Base BOD (5) Discharge Limit
Phase I
Phase II
Phase III
40
70
86
9,850 pounds per day
5,000 pounds per day
2,500 pounds per day
Compliance Date
6/30/62
6/30/66
12/31/72
    The Phase II limits applied for the period of this study.
Pollution control improvement was evident from a check of Monsanto's
self-reporting data to the State and calculations from monthly
averages.  There had been difficulty, however, in meeting the BOD(5)
limit:
                                G-6

-------
    1968:  5,900 pounds per day average
           Averages exceeded 5,000 pounds per day limit for 8 months

    1969:  5,600 pounds per day average
           Averages exceeded 5,000 pounds per day limit for 6 months

    1970:  5,900 pounds per day average
           Averages exceeded 5,000 pounds per day limit for 7 months

    1971:  3,600 pounds per day average
           Averages exceeded 5,000 pounds per day limit for 2 months

    1972:  4,088 pounds per day average
           Averages exceeded 5,000 pounds per day limit for 1 month
           (5 months)

    Development of the wastewater treatment system started in the
early 1960's, when flow meters and samplers were installed on all
outfalls.  Large-scale pilot plants were constructed to check out
standard biological treatment processes and certain variations of
them.  Activated sludge did not perform well because of settling
problems.  The aerated lagoon system showed promise, was checked
further, and selected for the full-scale plant.  An outline of the
construction schedule follows:

    Primary lagoon and interceptor completed          June 1963

    Neutralization pit and first aerated
       lagoon completed                               October 1963

    Second aerated lagoon completed                   May 1966

    Aeration capacity doubled                         April 1970

Process wasteloads were also reduced by in-plant methods.  The
BOD(5), BOD(20), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) loads per day for
recent years are shown in Figures G-2, G-3, and G-4.  The decline in
BOD loadings was broken for a period of several months starting in
October of 1971.  According to the Company, an upset in the
wastewater treatment plant was caused by a minor change made to
improve efficiency in a manufacturing process.  This change had an
unexpected side reaction which produced a member of the sulfa drug
family in trace quantities, but sufficient for the antibiotic to
cause a major upset in the biological treatment system.  The problem
had been corrected and low loadings were being achieved even during
times of marked increases in production.  This contrast in production
levels and effluent loads and the declining effluent loading per unit
of production are shown in Figures G-5 and G-6, provided by the
company.
                                G-7

-------
G-8

-------
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-------
  100-r
   90- -
   80--
   70- -
-S  60+
§  30 +
O
   40- -
   30- -
   20- -
   10--
      1958
                                     PRODUCTION
               EFFLUENT LOAD - 5 DAY BOD
            I   I    I   I    I   I   I—K-hH—h-r
60
62
66
68
70
                        64
                     FIGURE G-5
EFFLUENT LOAD REDUCTION AND PRODUCTION INCREASE

        MONSANTO NITRO,  WEST VIRGINIA PLANT
                          G-ll

-------
        POUNDS  OF BOD5 PER 100  POUNDS
        OF CHEMICAL PRODUCTION
                                1	1	1	1	1
 1958
66
68
70
                         FIGURE G-6
DISCHARGED BOD5 AS A FUNCTION OF  PRODUCTION RATES
            MONSANTO NITRO, WEST VIRGINIA PLANT
                            G-12

-------
Waste Disposal Facilities

    Monsanto reported that in 1971 it had disposed of 8,782 pounds
per day of TOG by landfill and 18,940 pounds per day by incineration.
On the basis of all waste loads reported as TOG, landfill and
incineration represented approximately 57 percent of the total.
Table G-6 contains data reported by the company except that its
numbers for by-product sale, waste load reductions through
monitoring, etc., and material recycled to process have been deleted
as inappropriate in a reckoning of the actual total plant waste load.
                              TABLE G-6
                 DISPOSITION OF THE TOTAL WASTE LOAD
                        MONSANTO PLANT - 1971
                                              Total Organic Carbon
     Disposal Method	(lb/day)	

Material landfilled                                8,782

Material burned                                   18,940

Material to disposal pond                          9,372

Material to treatment plant (value low because
  sampling missed solids and oils)                 8,102

Tall oil barometric condenser uncontrolled
  load (1962 level)                                3,207

	48.403	

Wastewater Disposal

    For the tall oil process barometric condenser wastewater, which
was discharged along with a cooling water stream, all wastes entered
sewers and were processed through the treatment plant (Figure G-7).

    Primary treatment was provided in three large lagoons.  The first
served as a pump sump after the gravity interceptor from the
production area.  The second and third (four- to five- and two-day
retention times, respectively) removed settleable solids and floating
material and provided equalization and storage capacity.  A spill or
upset could be segregated in the largest lagoon and slowly blended
into the main flow.  pH adjustment was provided by passing the flow
                                G-13

-------


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-------
through a 5,000-ton crushed limestone bed.  This provided, the
company said, reliable control without the problems of instrumenta-
tion and metering pumps.

    Secondary treatment was provided by two aerated lagoons, each
having a capacity of 1.2 million gallons.  Aeration was provided by
one fixed Infilco 50-hoursepower turbine aerator (rated capacity
5,000 pounds per day oxygen transfer) and three Lightnin floating
aerators (rated capacity of each was 3,900 pounds per day oxygen
transfer).  The aerated lagoons were originally designed to be
operated in parallel, but had been operated experimentally in series-
parallel (all flow from one lagoon discharging into the second, both
lagoons receiving equal amounts of primary effluent) to obtain
increased efficiency.

    The capacity of the treatment plant was:

    1.   Primary treatment-visual pollution removal: above 5.8 mgd.

    2.   Primary treatment-solids and oil removal plus full
equalization: 4.5 mgd.

    3.   Limestone bed and biological treatment: 2.6 mgd maximum.

    Cooling Water

    All plant cooling water was discharged through outfall No. 002.
This stream also contained the tall oil process barometric condenser
wastewater.  The discharge from outfall No. 002 represented a
significant portion of the total BOD(5) load discharged into the
river.  The stream was untreated at the time of the survey.  (A new
skimming pond to remove fatty acids was completed in August 1972.)
Appraisal of thermal loadings was not a part of this study and
cooling water temperatures were not measured.

    Monitoring

    In-plant monitoring was provided by means of continuous sampling
at the manufacturing plant, the wastewater lift stations, and the
tall oil intake and discharge points.  TOG analyses, supplemented by
gas chromatographic analyses, were performed daily.  In addition,
continuous hot-wire instrument coupled with an alarm and recorder was
used to detect volatile solvents in the sewer line to the lift
station.

    At the treatment plant, flow was measured and recorded by
magnetic flow meters.  Effluent TOC and pH were analyzed daily, and
other parameters weekly — BOD(5), BOD(20), total solids, suspended
solids, Kjeldahl nitrogen, acidity, and chloride.
                                G-15

-------
    Removal Efficiency

    Company officials reported that only a limited amount of data had
been collected on overall treatment plant efficiency.   Their emphasis
had been on monitoring soluble organics, because they believed that
suspended solids and oils were almost completely removed in the
primary lagoons.  They had, however, recently established the BOD(5)
and TOO ratio on current wastewaters and applied it to estimated raw
BOD loads for 1971 (Table G-7).

    The samples taken and analyses made do not provide good data for
evaluating removal efficiencies.  It was necessary, because of a
concurrent sampling load at nearby plants on the Kanawha, to do all
the Monsanto sampling (as at the other plants) during one 24-hour
period.

Future Plans

   (Monsanto recently expanded the wastewater treatment plant, as
indicated in Figure G-8, to comply with the State's Phase III
requirements.  Construction started in July and was completed in
December 1972.  The salient features are a five-fold increase in
retention time, additional aeration capacity, and improved
flexibility in operation.  Construction of a new skimmer pond for
removal of fatty acids by flotation from the tall oil stream was
completed in August 1972.  These improvements will provide capacity
for increased loads.

    New facilities for removal of ammonia nitrogen from the major
source began operation in January 1973.  The ammonia is stripped
under alkaline conditions and is incinerated.

    Research work toward a major improvement in the largest single
process source  (25 to 30 percent of the treatment plant load)
recently passed a critical point and is reported as highly encour-
aging.  It is anticipated by the company that this reduction will be
achieved by late 1974.

    A continuing program is being carried out by Monsanto to review
the contribution from each individual process and institute new
control methods.)

Spill Potential

    Monsanto had an exemplary system for minimizing the effects of
process spills on the river.  All wastes, except tall oil and cooling
water, flowed to the treatment plant.  The primary lagoons provided
equalization to reduce the shock of any spill on the biological
                                G-16

-------
                      TABLE G-7








MONSANTO NITRO, WEST VIRGINIA, PLANT, 1971 TREATMENT




                  Plant Efficiency
                          Five-Day BOD Load
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Est . Input
Pounds Per day
12,592
16,301
15,613
14,933
22,858
12,477
9,689
9,923
12,221
11,705
12,131
11,947
Discharge
Pounds per Day
3,363
4,324
4,257
2,189
2,543
2,458
2,076
1,832
2,117
1,544
3,377
4,094
% Removal
73.5
76.1
79.6
83.2
86.1
81.7
76.1
81.4
82.8
83.6
71.0
65.7
 Average   13,533
2,765
78.45
                             G-17

-------




















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-------
treatment system.  The potential pollution of the river from in-plant
spills was, therefore, considered to be minimal.

                    NFIC-Cincinnati Field Survey

Sampling

    The two outfalls were sampled for a 24-hour period on February 16
and March 12, 1972.  Water purchased from the city and raw river
water were also sampled.  Samples were taken at two-hour intervals
for 24-hour composites.  NFIC-Cincinnati collected split samples for
the State and Monsanto collected its own.

    The second date for sampling was scheduled because the tall oil
process was unexpectedly not operating on February 16.  The March 21
effort was expanded at the company's request to include the waste
treatment plant.  The request was made because officials did not
consider that the treatment plant had not completely recovered from
the reported sulfa drug upset at the time of the February 16
sampling.

Analytical Results

    Analytical results are presented in Tables G-8 and G-9.  A
portion of the March 21 data, converted to loads in pounds per day,
is shown in Table G-10.

    For the purposes of this survey, reasonable agreement of the data
from EPA, State, and Monsanto sources was obtained, but certain
significant exceptions have been noted.

    The Company has stated that the BOD(5) loads for the tall oil
discharge on March 21 are too high.
                                                           f
    The NFIC-Cincinnati tall oil discharge analytical results for
phenol and oil and grease have also been questioned by the company.
The EPA analysis for oil and grease was 36 mg/1, the company's was
zero.  The skimmer pond was not yet in operation, therefore, the zero
value is certainly questionable.  The NFIC-Cincinnati phenol analysis
of the March 21 tall oil wastewater sample is much higher than those
of the State and company.  It should be noted, however, that the
State's analysis would indicate a phenol load of 28 pounds per day as
compared with its limit of 4 pounds per day under minimum flow
conditions, and that the company's phenol analyses shows the same
value of 0.30 mg/1 for city water, river water, and the tall oil
discharge.
                                G-19

-------
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-------
                            TABLE G-9
MONSANTO NIVRO W. VA. PLANT - ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR 3/21/72 SAMPLING
Sample Point
Flow MOD
BODj mg/1
BOD20
COD
TOC "
pH
Tot. Solids mg/1
Sus . Solids "
Vol. Solids "
TKN "
NHj-N "
Nitrite & Nitrate "
Tot .Phosphorus "
Chloride "
Sulfate "
Oil & Grease "
Phenols "
Cyanide "
Mercury Mg/1
Arsenic Mg/1
Lead mg/1
Zinc "
Aluminum "
Cadmium "
Chromium "
Copper "
Iron "
Manganese "
Magnesium "
Nickel
Bioassay TI^ 2l*-hr.
l*8-hr.
96-hr.
1
WWTP Inlet
EPA

330
1670
1*80
2.5
1*700
1*8
818
37
36
0.8
5-5


350
1.3
<0.01















W.Va.

801
1021

2.8
1*853


174
157

i*.o
3600
1000

0.01*5
















Co.
2.005
1*11
837
1550
595
2.85
l*5l*0


262
230

7-
251*0
1075
3U.2
1-3
















2
WWTP Discharge
EPA

230
5l+l*
1300
290
6.6
8660
ll*2
1100
220
190
0.1*
18

2620
22
0.33
•C0.01












10
7.6
7.6
W.Va.

217
!*93

6.6
8771*


21*0
215

17



0.07!*
















CO. (
1.712
271
1*26
109!*
1176
335
6.1*
861*8
80
9
267
215

16
3180
2510
l*
0.6
















3
Tall Oil Discharge
EPA

39
133
29
5-7
210
20
26
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.1
1*0
68
36
2.6
<0.01












39
39
39
W.Va.

52
75

5-8
230


1.3
0.1+9

0.5
100
80

0.51*
















Co.
7-92
28
35-7
11+.8
1*0
6.2
202
202
1*0
28
20

0
35
111
0
0.30
















1*
River Water
EPA

3-2
13
6
6.1
251*
21
100
0.8
0.5
0.9
1.0
1*0
87
1
0.1
<0.01















W.Va.

3-5
l*.l*

6.2
236


1.2
0.1*9

0.27
!*9
80

0.110
















Co.

11.5
13.5
15
25
6.2
236
16

3.9
1.2

0
35
102
0
0.30
















5
City Water
EPA


< 5
5
7-3
1*8
6
30
0.2
<0.5
1.1




<0.01
















W.Va,
































Co.

2.76
l*.7l*
57-1*
35
7.1*
150


2.60
0.87

0
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78.
0
0.30
















                          G-21

-------
                                   TABLE G-10
WWTP Inlet

WWTP Disch.
001

Tall Oil
002
WWTP Inlet

WWTP Disch.
001

Tall Oil
002
WWTP Inlet

WWTP Disch.
001

Tall Oil
002
WWTP Inlet

WWTP Disch.
001

Toll Oil
002
                    RESULTS  OF 3/21/72 SAMPLING AND ANALYSES
                    MONSANTO NITRO, WEST VIRGINIA, PLANT

                                              LOAD IN POUNDS PER DAY
Outfall/
RAPP No.
WWTP Inlet
WWTP Disch.
001
Tall Oil
002
Flow
MGD
2.005
1.712
7-92
EPA WVA CO
BOD
5500 13000 6800
3300 3100 3800
2 toO 3200 1100
COD
EPA WVA
BOD20
17000
7800 7000
14700
TOC
CO

itooo
6100
1500

 27900
 18600
  7930
 77800
      16000
                                   TS
      73000
12300   125000  121000
                                    TKN
   600    2900    14.300
  3100    3UOO    3800
  13.      6.6    1600
  17.
                                   PHENOL
0.7    17.
   k.7     1.0     IK 3
                   79^0
lj-070
                    1520
 700
                                      SS
                9360
1+280
                 990
   160
 28    20.
                          NH -N


                     600    2600   3800
2700    3100    3coo


  33     -      12^0

    OIL & GREASE

5900     -       570


 3A     -        57


2 too               o
                                    G-22

-------
    Toxicity of Effluents

    Static bioassays were conducted with fathead minnows using waste-
water taken from the two outfalls.  At least a portion of the
toxicity measured may have been from a neighboring plant, FMC Organics.
The toxicity measured at the treatment plant was significantly higher
than the discharge from FMC Organic and test animals died immediately
in a 56 percent test solution.

    Bioassay test conditions for the treatment plant discharge were:
DO range of 4.7 - 7.2 mg/1; pH range of 6.3 - 6.5; and temperature
range of 23 - 27°C.  The TL50 (median tolerance limit) was 10 percent
at 24 hours and 7.6 percent at 48 and 96 hours.  (TL50 is the
concentration of effluent that would be lethal to 50 percent of the
fish held in it for a specified time period, i.e., 24, 48, or 96
hours.  Thus, the lower the TL50, the higher the toxicity of the
effluent.)

    For the tall oil discharge, the bioassay test conditions were: DO
range of 4.7 - 6.7; pH range of 5.7 - 6.5; and temperature range of
23 -27 °C.  The TL50 at the FMC Organic plant discharge, about 200
yards upstream from the Monsanto intake, was 13 percent at 24, 48, 96
hours.

    The high discharge BOD(5) load on February 16 was caused by an
upset from which the treatment plant had not recovered, as mentioned
earlier.  The low input BOD(5) load to the treatment plant on March
21 is attributed to the fact that a production unit which ordinarily
is a large source of the load was down on that date.

                       Summary and Conclusions

    1.   Pollution abatement programs carried out since the
establishment of the 1958 baseload had reduced the load to the river
despite large increases in production.

    2.   As shown by the records, BOD(5) loads discharged into the
river had fluctuated widely.

    3.   Additional monitoring should be conducted at the treatment
plant.

    4.   There is a need to establish the precision and accuracy of
the company's analytical techniques, particularly in instances where
its determinations vary widely from those of the State and NFIC-C.

    5.   Achievement of water quality improvement goals for the
Kanawha will require significant additional abatement efforts over
those existing at the time of the survey.  (Although the recent
                                G-23

-------
expansion of the treatment plant is expected to meet the State's
Phase III requirements, its ability to meet future use criteria has
not been appraised.)

    6.   Specific corrective action must be taken with regard to the
toxic discharge problem.

    7.   The combined cooling water and tall oil barometeric
condenser discharge contained significant amounts of process wastes
measured as BOD(5), COD,  oil and grease, and phenol.

    8.   The spill prevention and control system at the plant was
very good.

                           Recommendations

    It is recommended that:

    1.   The company reduce its BOD(5) load to the river to a total
of no more than 320 pounds per day and its total nitrogen load to
1,400 pounds per day.  These numbers are based on the maintenance of
4 mg/1 DO at the Kanawha River's sag point at a seven-day once-in-10
year low flow of 1,930 cfs at Charleston.

    2.   The toxicity of the effluent be reduced at least to the
point that no discharge exceeds 1/20 of the 96-hour TL50.

    3.   The company maintain the pH of all discharges in the 6.0 -
8.5 range.

    4.   The company meets the State's phenol discharge limit of 4
pounds per day.

    5.   The company establish a monitoring system at the treatment
plant which will include determination of inlet values for BOD(5),
TOG, and TKN.  This will provide for a way to improve the pollution
abatement effort.

    6.   Improved monitoring, including continuous pH and temperature
measurements, be effected for better characterization of the cooling
water and tall oil process water streams.

    7.   Consideration be given to using the primary lagoon
facilities as an anaerobic lagoon to meet future wastewater treatment
requirements.  This has been successfully demonstrated elsewhere in
the treatment of organic chemical wastewaters.  Neutralization of
wastewaters before the primary lagoon would be required.
                                G-24

-------
    8.   The Monsanto Company make every possible effort to further
separate process wastes from cooling water and tall oil process
water.
                                G-25

-------

-------

-------