U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Annapolis Field Office
      Annapolis Science Center
     Annapolis, Maryland  21401
        WORKING DOCUMENTS
           Volume  18

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                         Table of Contents


                            Volume  18
29         Biological  Survey of the Upper and Middle Patuxent
           River and Some of its Tributaries - From Maryland
           Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury Mills to the Maryland
           Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner, Maryland -
           Chesapeake Drainage Basin - June 1968
30         Rock Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study Report
           March 1969
31         The Patuxent River - Water Quality Management -
           Technical Evaluation - September 1969

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                            PUBLICATIONS

                U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                             REGION III
                       ANNAPOLIS FIELD OFFICE*


                              VOLUME 1
                          Technical  Reports

 5         A Technical  Assessment of Current Water Quality
           Conditions and Factors Affecting Water Quality in
           the Upper Potomac Estuary

 6         Sanitary Bacteriology of  the Upper Potomac Estuary

 7         The Potomac Estuary Mathematical Model

 9         Nutrients in the Potomac  River Basin

11         Optimal  Release Sequences for Water Quality Control
           in Multiple Reservoir Systems

                              VOLUME 2
                          Technical  Reports


13         Mine Drainage in the North Branch Potomac River Basin

15         Nutrients in the Upper Potomac River Basin

17         Upper Potomac River Basin Water Quality Assessment


                              VOLUME  3
                          Technical  Reports


19         Potomac-Piscataway Dye Release and Wastewater
           Assimilation Studies

21         LNEPLT

23         XYPLOT

25         PLOT3D


     * Formerly CB-SRBP, U.S. Department of Health, Education,
       and Welfare; CFS-FWPCA, and CTSL-FWQA,  Middle Atlantic
       Region, U.S. Department of the Interior

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                             VOLUME 3   (continued)

                         Technical Reports


27         Water Quality and Wastewater Loadings - Upper Potomac
           Estuary during 1969


                             VOLUME 4
                         Technical Reports


29         Step Backward Regression

31         Relative Contributions of Nutrients to the Potomac
           River Basin from Various Sources

33         Mathematical Model Studies of Water Quality in the
           Potomac Estuary

35         Water Resource - Water Supply Study of the Potomac
           Estuary

                             VOLUME 5
                         Technical Reports


37         Nutrient Transport and Dissolved Oxygen Budget
           Studies in the Potomac Estuary

39         Preliminary Analyses of the Wastewater and Assimilation
           Capacities of the Anacostia Tidal River System

41         Current Water Quality Conditions and Investigations
           in the Upper Potomac River Tidal System

43         Physical Data of the Potomac River Tidal System
           Including Mathematical Model Segmentation

45         Nutrient Management in the Potomac Estuary


                             VOLUME 6
                         Technical Reports

47         Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Input Study

49         Heavy Metals Analyses of  Bottom Sediment in the
           Potomac River Estuary

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                                  VOLUME  6  (continued)

                              Technical  Reports

     51          A System of Mathematical Models for Water Quality
                Management

     52         Numerical Method for Groundwater Hydraulics

     53         Upper Potomac Estuary Eutrophication Control
                Requirements

     54         AUT0-QUAL Modelling System

Supplement      AUT0-QUAL Modelling System:  Modification for
   to 54        Non-Point Source Loadings

                                  VOLUME  7
                              Technical Reports

     55         Water Quality Conditions in the Chesapeake Bay System

     56         Nutrient Enrichment and Control Requirements in the
                Upper Chesapeake Bay

     57         The Potomac River Estuary in the Washington
                Metropolitan Area - A History of its Water Quality
                Problems and their Solution

                                  VOLUME  8
                              Technical Reports

     58         Application of AUT0-QUAL Modelling System to the
                Patuxent River Basin

     59         Distribution of Metals in Baltimore Harbor Sediments

     60         Summary and Conclusions - Nutrient Transport and
                Accountability in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin

                                  VOLUME  9
                                 Data Reports

                Water Quality Survey, James River and Selected
                Tributaries - October 1969

                Water Quality Survey in the North Branch Potomac River
                between Cumberland and Luke, Maryland - August 1967

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                            VOLUME 9   (continued)
                           Data Reports


           Investigation of Water Quality in Chesapeake Bay and
           Tributaries at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Department
           of  the Army, Aberdeen, Maryland - October-December 1967

           Biological Survey of the Upper Potomac River and
           Selected Tributaries - 1966-1968

           Water Quality Survey of the  Eastern Shore Chesapeake
           Bay, Wicomico River, Pocomoke River, Nanticoke River,
           Marshall Creek, Bunting Branch, and Chincoteague Bay -
           Summer 1967

           Head of Bay Study - Water Quality Survey of Northeast
           River, Elk River, C & D Canal, Bohemia River, Sassafras
           River and Upper Chesapeake Bay - Summer 1968 - Head ot
           Bay Tributaries

           Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1967

           Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1968

           Wastewater Treatment Plant Nutrient Survey - 1966-1967

           Cooperative Bacteriological  Study - Upper Chesapeake Bay
           Dredging Spoil  Disposal - Cruise Report No. 11

                            VOLUME 10
                           Data Reports

 9         Water  Quality  Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1965-1966

10         Water  Quality  Survey of the  Annapolis  Metro Area - 1967

11         Nutrient  Data  on Sediment Samples of the Potomac Estuary
           1966-1968

12         1969 Head  of  the Bay Tributaries

13         Water Quality Survey of  the  Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy  Point  - 1968

14         Water Quality Survey  of  the  Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy  Point  - 1969

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                             VOLUME 10(continued)

                           Data Reports

15         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River -  1967

16         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River -  1968

17         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River -  1969

18         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transects,
           Intensive and Southeast Water Laboratory Cooperative
           Study - 1969

19         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac  Estuary Phosphate
           Tracer Study - 1969

                             VOLUME 11
                            Data Reports

20         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transport Study
           1969-1970

21         Water Quality Survey of the Piscataway Creek Watershed
           1968-1970

22         Water Quality Survey of the Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy Point - 1970

23         Water Quality Survey of the Head of the Chesapeake Bay
           Maryland Tributaries - 1970-1971

24         Water Quality Survey of the Upper Chesapeake Bay
           1969-1971

25         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Consolidated
           Survey - 1970

26         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Dissolved Oxygen
           Budget Studies - 1970

27         Potomac Estuary Wastewater Treatment Plants Survey
           1970

28         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Embayments
           and Transects - 1970

29         Water Quality of the Upper Potomac Estuary Enforcement
           Survey - 1970

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   30


   31


   32
   33
   34
Appendix
  to 1
Appendix
  to 2
    3


    4
                  VOLUME 11  (continued)
                 Data Reports

Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary - Gilbert Swamp
and Allen's Fresh and Gunston Cove - 1970

Survey Results of the Chesapeake Bay Input Study -
1969-1970

Upper Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Studies - Bush River,
Spesutie Narrows and Swan Creek, C & D Canal, Chester
River, Severn River, Gunpowder, Middle and Bird Rivers -
1968-1971

Special Water Quality Surveys of the Potomac River Basin
Anacostia Estuary, Wicomico .River, St. Clement and
Breton Bays, Occoquan Bay - 1970-1971

Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1970

                  VOLUME 12

               Working Documents

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Danville, Pennsylvania and
Conowingo, Maryland

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Danville,
Pennsylvania and Conowingo, Maryland - November 1966

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Cooperstown, New York and
Northumberland, Pennsylvnaia - January 1967

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Cooperstown,
New  York and Northumberland, Pennsylvania - November 1966

                  VOLUME 13
               Working Documents

Water  Quality and Pollution Control Study, Mine Drainage
Chesapeake  Bay-Delaware River Basins - July 1967

Biological  Survey of  Rock Creek  (from Rockville, Maryland
to  the Potomac River)  October 1966

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                             VOLUME   13   (continued)

                          Working  Documents

 5         Summary of Water Quality  and  Waste  Outfalls,  Rock  Creek
           in Montgomery County, Maryland and  the  District  of
           Columbia - December 1966

 6         Water Pollution Survey  -  Back River 1965  -  February  1967

 7         Efficiency Study of the District  of Columbia  Water
           Pollution Control  Plant - February  1967

                             VOLUME   14
                          Working  Documents

 8         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study  -  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland to  West  Pittson
           (Including the Lackawanna  River Basin)   March  1967

 9         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Juniata
           River Basin - March 1967

10         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Rappahannock
           River Basin - March 1967

11         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Susquehanna
           River Basin from Lake Otsego,  New York,  to Lake  Lackawanna
           River Confluence, Pennsylvania - April 1967

                             VOLUME 15
                          Working  Documents

12         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, York  River
           Basin - April 1967

13         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, West  Branch,
           Susquehanna River Basin -  April 1967

14         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, James River
           Basin - June 1967 ,

15         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Patuxent  River
           Basin - May 1967

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                             VOLUME 16

                          Working Documents

16         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland, Pennsylvania,  to
           Havre de Grace, Maryland - July 1967

17         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Potomac
           River Basin - June 1967

18         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs,  Central  Western
           Shore of Chesapeake Bay Area (Magothy,  Severn,  South, and
           West River Drainage Areas)  July 1967

19         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Meeds,  Northwest
           Chesapeake Bay Area (Patapsco to Susquehanna Drainage
           Basins in Maryland) August 1967

20         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs - The Eastern
           Shore of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia  - September 1967

                             VOLUME 17
                           Working Documents

21         Biological Surveys of the Upper James River Basin
           Covington, Clifton Forge, Big Island, Lynchburg,  and
           Piney River Areas - January 1968

22         Biological Survey of Antietam Creek and some of its
           Tributaries from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania to Antietam,
           Maryland - Potomac River Basin - February 1968

23         Biological Survey of the Monocacy River and Tributaries
           from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to Maryland Rt. 28 Bridge
           Potomac River Basin - January 1968

24         Water Quality Survey of Chesapeake Bay in the Vicinity of
           Annapolis, Maryland - Summer 1967

25         Mine Drainage Pollution of the North Branch of Potomac
           River - Interim Report - August 1968

26         Water Quality Survey in the Shenandoah River of the
           Potomac River Basin - June 1967

27         Water Quality Survey in the James and Maury Rivers
           Glasgow, Virginia - September 1967

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                             VOLUME  17   (continued)

                           Working Documents

28         Selected Biological  Surveys in the James River Basin,
           Gillie Creek in the  Richmond  Area, Appomattox River
           in the Petersburg Area, Bailey Creek from Fort Lee
           to Hopewell - April  1968

                             VOLUME  18
                           Working Documents

29         Biological  Survey of the Upper and Middle Patuxent
           River and some of its Tributaries - from Maryland
           Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury Mills to the Maryland
           Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner, Maryland -
           Chesapeake Drainage Basin - June 1968

30         Rock Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study Report
           March 1969

31         The Patuxent River - Water Quality Management -
           Technical Evaluation - September 1969

                             VOLUME 19
                          Working Documents

           Tabulation, Community and Source Facility Water Data
           Maryland Portion, Chesapeake Drainage Area - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Patuxent River Basin - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Potomac River Basin below Washington, D.C.- November 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Chesapeake Bay Area of Maryland Excluding Potomac
           and Patuxent River Basins - January 1965

           The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections -
           February 1968

           Patuxent River - Cross Sections and Mass Travel
           Velocities - July 1968

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                            VOLUME  19 (continued)

                         Working Documents

          Wastewater Inventory - Potomac River Basin -
          December 1968

          Wastewater Inventory - Upper Potomac River Basin -
          October 1968

                            VOLUME 20
                         Technical Papers.

 1         A Digital Technique for Calculating and Plotting
          Dissolved Oxygen Deficits

 2         A River-Mile  Indexing System for Computer Application
          in Storing and Retrieving Data      (unavailable)

 3         Oxygen  Relationships in Streams, Methodology to be
          Applied when  Determining the Capacity of a Stream to
          Assimilate Organic Wastes - October 1964

 4         Estimating Diffusion Characteristics of Tidal Waters -
          May  1965

 5         Use  of  Rhodamine B Dye as a Tracer in Streams of the
          Susquehanna River Basin - April 1965

 6         An  In-Situ Benthic Respirometer - December 1965

 7         A Study of Tidal Dispersion in the Potomac River
          February  1966

 8         A Mathematical Model for the Potomac River - what it
          has  done  and  what it can do - December 1966

 9         A Discussion  and Tabulation of Diffusion Coefficients
          for  Tidal Waters Computed as a Function of Velocity
          February  1967

10         Evaluation of Coliform  Contribution by Pleasure Boats
          July 1966

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                            VOLUME  21

                         Technical Papers

11         A Steady State Segmented Estuary Model

12        Simulation of Chloride Concentrations in the
          Potomac Estuary - March 1968

13        Optimal Release Sequences for Water Quality
          Control in Multiple-Reservoir Systems - 1968

                            VOLUME  22
                         Technical Papers

          Summary Report - Pollution of Back River - January 1964

          Summary of Water Quality - Potomac River Basin in
          Maryland - October 1965

          The Role of Mathematical Models in the Potomac River
          Basin Water Quality Management Program - December 1967

          Use of Mathematical Models as Aids to Decision Making
          in Water Quality Control - February 1968

          Piscataway Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study
          Report - August 1968

                            VOLUME  23
                        Ocean Dumping Surveys

          Environmental Survey of an Interim Ocean Dumpsite,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - September 1973

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim  Dumpsites,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - January 1974

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites
          Middle Atlantic Bight - Supplemental Report -
          October 1974

          Effects of Ocean Disposal Activities on Mid-
          continental Shelf Environment off Delaware
          and Maryland - January 1975

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                            VOLUME 24

                           1976 Annual
               Current Nutrient Assessment - Upper Potomac  Estuary
               Current Assessment Paper No.  1

               Evaluation of Western Branch Wastewater Treatment
               Plant Expansion - Phases I and  II

               Situation Report - Potomac River

               Sediment Studies in Back River Estuary, Baltimore,
               Maryland

Technical      Distribution of Metals in Elizabeth River Sediments
Report 61

Technical      A Water Quality Modelling Study of the Delaware
Report 62      Estuary

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section                                                    Page

   I.      INTRODUCTION 	      1

  II.      SIBMIRY AND CONCLUSIONS  .	      4

 III.      DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION 	      7

              A,  General ...... 	      7

              B.  Biological Samples - Patuxent River
                  and Tributaries	      8



                           LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                      Page

   I       Bottom Organism Data of the Upper and
           Middle Patuxent River and Some of Its
           Tributaries ..... 	 .....      22

  II       Tabulation of Bottom Organisms, Upper
           and Middle Reaches of the Patuxent River
           and Tributaries  .............       26


                           LIST OF FIGURES
                                                          Follows
Figure                                                     Page

   1       Map of Study Area and Profile of Biological
           Conditions  ........... 	      46

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                             Io  INTRODUCTION

        A biological survey of the Patuxent River and certain key
tributaries between the Maryland Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury Mills
and the Maryland Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner was made between
September and November 1967.  The purpose of this survey was to sup-
plement chemical and bacteriological data in evaluating water quality
in the basin.  The survey was performed at this particular time of
year because of prevailing low flow conditions and high temperatures,
thus showing the conditions during the time of greatest biological
stress   Each biological station was sampled once for the purpose of
evaluating water quality.
        For the purpose of the survey, the community of bottom (benthic)
organisms was selected as the indicator of the biological condition of
the stream0  Bottom organisms serve as the preferred food source for
the higher aquatic forms and exhibit similar reactions to adverse
stream conditions.  The combination of limited locomotion and life cycles
of one year or more for most benthic species provides more representa-
tive water quality of a stream.  Fish and algal populations were given
some consideration, but only to the extent that obvious conclusions
could be drawn based upon casual observations.
        In unpolluted streams, a wide variety of sensitive clean-
water associated bottom organisms are normally found.  Typical groups
are stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies0  These sensitive organisms
usually are not individually abundant because of natural predation and
competition for food and space; however, the total count or number of
organisms at a given station may be high because of the number of
different varieties present.

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        Sensitive geaera  (kinds)  tend, to be slim!rated, by adverse environ-



mental conditions (e.g.,  chemical and/or physical) resulting from wastes



reaching the stream.   In  waters enriched with organic wastes, comparatively



fewer kinds are normally  found, but  great numbers  of these genera may be



present.  Organic pollution-tolerant forms such as? sludgeworms, rattailed



maggots, certain fpeciee  cf bloodworm-  (red midges/;, certain leeches, and



some species of air-breathing  snaiL? may multiply and become abundant



because of a favorable habitat and, food 4? apply 0  These organic pollution-



tolerant bottom organisms may  also ^sil't IB the natural environment but



are generally found  in small numbers  The abundance of these forms in



streams heavily polluted  with  organise  is due t3 their physiological and



morphological abilities to  survive environmental conditions more adverse



than conditions, thai may  be froler-atei by ether o.rganiem-3   Fnder ?ondit.ions



where inert slits or organic sludges blanket the ,^tram bet-torn, the natural



hom& of bottom organisms  if  <1e.3^royr1?  csius'lng a ^ij.etior. in the number



of kinds of organ VEIF p,r&.?erit0



        In addition tr sensitive  &na p^-IIutI'>n-.tolerant i'oratT, soras



bottom crganisms smy be temsec interffie-flat&e,,  in Lfiai they *re capable



of living in fairly heavily pollute'?- v*eas as  well as Ln clean-water -sit-



uations o  ihese orgarism? oncuj";:.irg  ir*  limif^d roimberB, therefore,



cannot serve as affective indicators? of water quality^



        Streams gro?Fly polluted  with ^ox.le wastes su?h ^2 mine, drainage,



will support little, If any, biological life and will reduc-ft tie popu-



lation of both sensitive  and pollut-icn-tolerant ox-gmnis3Ba0

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                                                                     3





        Classification of organisms in this report is considered in



three categories:  clean-water associated, intermediate and pollution-



tolerant.  This provides sufficient biological information to supplement



physical and chemical water quality data for the study area0  Tentative



identification and counts of specific organisms, which were tabulated



for use during intensive investigations of selected areas, are



attached0

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                         II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS





        1.  A biological survey of the upper Patuxent River and certain



key tributaries between the Maryland Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury



Mills and the Maryland, Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner was made



between September 5 and November 27, 1967  Samples were collected from



18 stations on the main stem of the Patuxent River and from 17 stations



on six tributaries



        20  Bottom organisms were selected as the primary indicators



of biological water quality



        3c  Excellent water quality was found in the Patuxent River at



the Maryland Route 97 Bridge as evidenced by the 15 genera (kinds) of



bottom organisms| however, water quality was only fair at the Maryland



Route 108 Bridge downstream near Highland where the number of genera



had been reduced to fi,ve0



        4o  Poor biological conditions were found to exist downstream



from the Rocky Gorge Dam (Station 3) to Station 4, which was located



approximately 20 yards upstream from Walker Branch,



        ?o  Fair biological conditions were found upstream from the



old Maryland Route 216 Bridge at the Laurel Swimming Pool (Station 6).



The number of genera had increased to 10 at this station.



        6.  Walker Branch contributed poor quality water to the



Patuxent River between Station 4 arid Station 60



        70  Poor biological conditions existed in the Patuxent River



at the new Maryland Route 216 Bridge (Station 7).

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        80  The Patuxent River was found to be mildly polluted between



the Maryland Route 198 Bridge (Station 8) and Lemmon's Bridge Road at



Fort Meade (Station 11).



        9,  Fair biological conditions were evident at the railroad



bridge downstream from Lemmon's Road where 1/4 genera of bottom organisms



were found.



       10.  Mild pollution was found between the bridge behind the Bowie



Race Track (Station 13) and the foot bridge at the Belair landfill



(Station 14), which is located upstream from the confluence with the



Little Patuxent River,



       11.  The Little Patuxent River contributed mildly polluted water



to the Patuxent River



       12  The Middle Patuxent River contributed good quality water



to the Little Patuxent River in the upper reach.



       13o  Good water quality was found in the Little Patuxent River



at the U. S. Route 1 Bridge (Station 17) downstream from Savage.



       140  Downstreamf Hammond Branch contributed only fair quality



water to the Little Patuxent River, while Dorsey Run contributed gross



organic pollution,,



       15,  The water quality in the Little Patuxent River was reduced



to only fair conditions at the Washington-Baltimore Parkway (Station 22),



This is undoubtedly due to flow from Doreey Run.



       l60  The Little Patuxent River had recovered to the point of



good water quality at the Simond's Bridge at Fort Meade (Station 23).

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        17   Downstream at the Old Forge Bridge at Fort Meade, water



quality was reduced to only fair conditions due to the effluent from a



sewage treatment plant upstream.



        18.  Good water quality had been restored at Station 25, which



was located approximately 100 yards downstream from the Woodwardville



Bridge at Fort Meade,,



        19  Downstream, mild pollution was contributed to the Little




Patuxent by Towser's Branch



        20   The Little Patuxent River was found to be mildly polluted



from the Maryland Route 424 Bridge to its mouth near the Maryland



Route 3 Bridge,



        21,  The Patuxent River was found to be mildly polluted from



the Maryland Route 3 Bridge (Station 31) to the Maryland Route 214



Bridge west of Davidsonville, Maryland.



        22,  Pair water quality conditions were found downstream at



the Queen Anne's Bridge near Hardesty, Maryland, as evidenced by the



13 genera of bottom organisms



        23o  However, at the last station (No0 35) at the Maryland



Route 4 Bridge mild pollution was again indicated.

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                                                                     7






                  III.  DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION






A.  General



        The Patuxent River was sampled between the Maryland Route 97



Bridge near Roxbury Mills and the Maryland Route 4 Bridge west of



Wayson's Corner, in order to evaluate the biological conditions of



the stream and to supplement chemical and bacteriological data.



Walker Branch, a small tributary which flows into the Patuxent down-



stream from the Rocky Gorge Dam, was sampled at its mouth.



        The principal tributary, the Little Patuxent River, was sampled



quite extensively.  The tributaries to the Little Patuxent which were



sampled were the Middle Patuxent River, Hammond Branch, Dorsey Run



and Towser's Branch,



        A total of 35 stations were sampled in this study of the Upper



and Middle Patuxent River Basin,,



        Sampling stations were located after consideration of the



following conditions:



        10  Effects of tributaries



        20  Areas having a Imown waste problem



        3 =  Physical- capability for sampling



        Bottom organisms are animals that live directly in association



with the bottom of a water course0  They may crawl on, burrow in, or



attach themselves to the bottom,,  Macrorganisms are usually defined as



those organisms that will be retained by a No 30 sieve.  In essence, the



organisms retained by the sieve are those that are visible to the



unaided eye.

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        Each station was sampled once and the kinds of macro bottom

organisms were identified and tabulated for the purpose of evaluating

water quality.

        Quantitative bottom samples were also taken using a Surber

square foot sampler,, an Ekman dredge (0.5 sq. ft.), or a Petersen

dredge (0,6 sq0 ft0), and the numbers of organisms per square foot

were counted or calculated,

        Quantitative samples were not taken at some stations because

physical sampling conditions were poor or organisms were very sparse.


B.  Biological Samples - Patuxent River and Tributaries

Station__#! - Patuxent River at the Maryland Route 97 Bridge near
             Roxbury Mills

        There is an excellent riffle area and a low-level dam im-

mediately downstream from the bridge.  The water was extremely cold

and clear and moss was present on some of the rocks  Excellent bio-

logical conditions were indicated by the 15 genera of bottom

organisms which included good mayfly (3 genera) and caddisfly (4 gen-

era) populations.  Other clean-water associated organisms included

stoneflies and riffle beetles.  Although the square foot sample was

not very productive and only 18 bottom organisms were collected, 13

of them were clean-water forms.  Excellent water quality was indicated

at this station,

Station $2 - Patuxent River at the Snell Bridge on Maryland Route 108
             nea.r Highland 

        The water was slightly turbid but minnows were observed.

Bottom organisms were very sparse and a quantitative sample was not

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taken for this reason,,  Only five genera of bottom organisms were

found, which consisted of mayflies (2 genera), crayfish, a leech and

blackfly larvae,  The only explanation that can be offered for the

poor bottom organism population is a low water discharge from the

Tridelphia Reservoir located upstream since the known chemical and

bacteriological data on this rural location offer no explanation

Only fair biological conditions were indicated at this location,

Station #3 - Fatuxent River approximately 50 yards downstream
             frcai the Rocky Gorge Reservoir0

        The water w&s clear but the rocks were all coated a reddish

orange  However, the pH was 701, conductivity was 96 mho and iron

was only 0,8 mg/1, indicating that there was no mine drainage problem.

The only bottom organisms present were folaekflies and three genera of

intermediate midges.  The blackflies were extremely abundant=  A

quantitative sample was not taken because of the large bedrock sub-

strate which would not permit a meaningful sample.  The poor bottom

organism population is attributed to the low water discharge from the

Rocky Gorge Reservoir located upstream.  This drastic change in the

ecology of the receiving stream by low 'water discharges has been sub-

stantiated by studies in the TYA system,

Station #4 - Batiacent River approximately 20 yards upstream from
             Walker Branch

        The water was slightly turbid and the bottom was soft,

Bottom organisms were sparse and only two genera of air-breathing

snails plus a genus of an intermediate midge were present,  A quanti-

tative sample was not taken because of the sparse population.  Poor

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                                                                      10
biological conditions  continue  from upstream0  This  is still believed

to be a result of a low level discharge  from the Rocky Gorge Reservoir,

Station #5 - Walker Branch  (tributary to the Patuxent River) at
             its mouth west of  Laurel

        The water was  very  turbid and bottom organisms were very sparse.

Only a few midge larvae of  an Intermediate genus could be  found.  Sedi-

ment was very heavy at the  mouth and, this could be the result  of the

backwash from the filters of the Washington  Suburban Sanitary  Commis-

sion pumping station on Rocky Gorge Reservoir,  This backwash  is  stored

in a lagoon off Walker Branch but it is  released to  the  stream when the

lagoon is filled, although  usually during periods of high  flow.   Chlorine

is used on the filters  Poor water quality  was contributed to the

Patuxent River by Walker Brar.cn 

Station #6 - Patuxent  River at  the laurel Swimming Pool  immediately
             upstream  from  the  old Maryland  Route 216 Bridge.

        An excellent, riffle area exi-^ei and the. water was clear.

Fair biological conditions  were indicated, by the 10  genera of  bottom

organisms,  ;"hey Ir-.'1'uded such  clean-water associated forms as may-

flies (2 genera) and eaidl'-1 flies   Only  13 bottom organisms were  found

in the square foot s-airvp'^e which coriti^'ted of six intermediate  midge

larvae, a blackfly larva_9 five  pollution-tolerant bristleworms and  a

roundworm0  Based on the known  water chemistry and "bacteriological

data, it would appear  that-  the  inhibiting factor i  probably still  the

low water discharge from the reservoir upstream,

Station #1 - The Patuxent River at the new Maryland  Route  216  Bridge
             near laurel,

        The water wa&  fairly clear but- bottom organisms  were sparse

and only two genera were found, which consisted of clean-water

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                                                                     11


 associated caddisflies  and intermediate blackflies,  Only four caddis-

 flies  and one blackfly  were present  in the square  foot sample  Poor

 biological conditions may be attributed to a shifting sand bottom and

 storm  drains  emptying into the  Patuxent upstream,

 Station #8 -  Patuxent River at  the Route  198 Bridge downstream
              from Laurel

        The stream was  clear but bottom organisms  were sparse and only

 sludgeworms could be found.   Only four sludgeworms were taken in the

 square foot sample  Mild pollution  was indicated  based on the bottom

 organisms and known chemical and bacteriological data,,

 Station #9 -  Patuxent River at  the Brock  Bridge Road,  This  is located
              a short distance upstream from the Baltimore-Washington
              Parkwayo

        The water was slightly  turbid and bottom organisms were sparse.

 The only  bottom organisms  found were sludgeworms and only 29 were col-

 lected in the square foot  sample  The low productivity may  be due in

 part to the shift-ing eand  bottom, but based on the bottom organisms and

 the known chemical and  bacteriological data, mild  pollution  was indi-

 cated  at  this station

 Station #10 -Patuxent River at  the Duvall Bridge in the Patuxent
              Wildlife Refuge.

        The current was very slow in this area.  Only two genera of

 bottom organisms  were found and they were very sparse.  The  square

 foot sample consisted of  14. sludgeworms and two true fly larvae.  The

 shifting  sand bottom may be partially responsible  for the poor benthic

 population; however, poor chemical and bacteriological data  have also

"been recorded at  this location.  The Maryland Department of  Water

 Resources has recorded  DO as low as  2,8 mg/1 and BOD as high as 22 mg/1

 at  this station.   Based on the  benthie samples and the chemical

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                                                                     12
and bacteriological data, this station was classified as mildly

polluted

Station #11 - Patuxent River at the Letnmon's Bridge Road at Fort
              Meade

        The water was extremely turbid and the bottom was very mucky.

Only two genera of bottom organisms were present.  They consisted

of pollution-tolerant sludgeworms and intermediate sow-bugs.  There

were 18 sludge-worms and one sow-bug in the square foot sample

Mild pollution was stall Indicated at this station,

Station #12 - Patuxent River at the railroad, bridge downstream
              from Lesraon's Road

        The water was fairly clear and an eel was observed at this

station,  Vegetation and riffles were absent, with the bottom being

composed primarily of large rocks  For this reason a quantitative

sample was not taken.  However, 14 genera of bottom organisms were

sampled which included aueh nlear;-ira.tar forms as caddisflies (2 gen-

era), a fish fly and q gin-breathing t-nall   Intermediate forms con-

sisted of scud,?, sow-bugs, dams
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                                                                     13


Based on known DO as low as 3 = 6 mg/1, BOB as high as 11,1 mg/1 and the

above benthic data, mild pollution was suggested at this station.

Station #14 - Patuxent River at the foot bridge at the Belair landfill
              upstream from the confluence with the Little Patuxent
              River,

        The water was somewhat turbid and a strong sewage odor was

present.  Part of this may be due to drainage from the landfill, al-

though the Bowie -Belair Sewage Treatment Plant is just upstream.  Only

four genera of bottom organisms were present   The square foot sample

consisted of 38 sludgeworms, 10 flat-worms, four sow-bugs and two

scuds.  The bottom was soft and there was a great deal of brush in the

stream.  Based on the above benthic data, known DO as low as 3.0 mg/1,

BOD as high as 10 mg/1 and bacteriological data, this station was

classed as mildly polluted,
Station #15 - Middle Patuxent River at the Maryland Route 108 Bridge
              ne^r Claries vi lie 0

        The water was extremely clear and such clean-water associated

forms as caddis flies (5 genera ), mayflies (6 genera), stoneflies

(2 genera ); bellgrsjimites and riffle beetles (2 genera) were present.

Twenty-two ger.ers of bottom organisms were sampled, with the clean-

water forms making' up 76 percent of the 1,104 organisms collected in

the square foot sample.  The above benthic data plus known chemical and

bacteriological data indicated ertreinely high water quality at this

station.  This location undoubtedly had the bst water quality of all the

stations sampled during this biological study and could be recommended

as a control station,

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                                                                     14


Station #16 - Middle Patuxent River at the Maryland Route 32 Bridge
              at S impsonvilie.

        The water remained clear at this station and a hog-nose

sucker was observed  Good water quality was still indicated, based

on the benthic population plus the known water chemistry and bac-

teriological data0  However, there had been a drastic change from

the upstream station although habitat and sampling conditions were

very similar.  The number of genera, had dropped to 12 from 22 up-

stream and the number of organisms per square foot had been reduced

to 47 as compared with 1,104 upstream.  The dominance had changed from

clean-water to intermediate forms  Clean-water associated stoneflies,

riffle beetles and hellgrammites found upstream were absent,  May-

flies were sparse and only one genus was found as contrasted with

six upstream  None was found in the quantitative sample compared

to 43 upstream.  It is recommended that an investigation be made of

possible discharges of heavy metals or pesticides between this and

the upstream station,,  However, good quality water is still con-

tributed to the little Patuxent River.

Station #17 - The Little Patux&nt River at the U, S. Route 1
              Bridge downstream from Savage.

        Numerous minnows and darters (small members of the perch

family) were readily observed in the clear water  Although only two

bristlewcrms were collected in the square feet sample, good popu-

lations of mayflies (2 genera) and eaddisflies (2 genera) were also

present based on qualitative sampling.  Other organisms consisted of

the intermediate dragonflies, crayfish, the pollution-tolerant

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                                                                     15


bristleworms (2 genera) and air-breathing snails.  Based on known water

chemistry and the benthic population, good water quality was indicated.

Station #18 - Hammond Branch at the U. S. Route 1 Bridge northeast of
              Laurel.

        The water was clear with some dead filamentous algae on the

rocks  Organisms were generally sparse and for this reason a quantitative

sample was not taken.  Only five genera of bottom organisms were present

which included such clean-water associated forms as caddisflies (3 genera)

and mayflies,  A pollution-tolerant air-breathing snail was also found.

Only fair quality water was contributed to the Little Patuxent River.

Station 1.9 - Dorsey Run at the Dorsey Run Road upstream from the
              Maryland House of Correction near Jessup,

        The water was clear and numerous minnows were observed through-

out the area.  Good water quality was indicated by the 16 genera of

bottom organisms which included such clean-water forms as stoneflies,

mayflies (2 genera) and caddisflies (3 geriers,).  Although only 22 bottom

organisms were collected in the square foot sample, 14 of them were

the above clean-water forms.  The balance was made up of intermediate

midges (3 genera), damselflies, dragonflies, beetle larvae, crayfish,

pollution-tolerant air-breathing snails (2 genera) and smoky

alderflies

Station #20 - Dorsey Run at the bridge on the road to the Maryland
              State Reformatory for Women near Jessup,

        The water was extremely dark and a strong sewage odor was

present.  Only three genera of pollution-tolerant bottom organisms

were found,,  The square foot sample consisted of 753 sludgeworms, 701

bloodworms and 64 mosquito larvae.  The source of this pollution was

traced to the Maryland House of Correction's farm operations.  The

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                                                                     16


waste load flowed into a small tributary on the property of the Mary-

land House of Correction which entered Dorsey Run a short distance

upstream from the effluent of their sewage treatment plant.  Gross

organic pollution was present at this station.

Station #.21 - Dorsey Run at the bridge on Maryland Route 32.

        The water was still slightly turbid and a faint sewage odor

prevailed.  A tremendous sludgeworm population was present in the gravel

and 3,760 were present in the square foot sample.  The balance of the

quantitative sample consisted of 321 intermediate midge larvae, eight

bloodworms and three fly larvae.  These four genera were the only

organisms found.  Gross pollution was still indicated and polluted

water was contributed to the Little Patuxent River.

Station #22 - Little Patuxent River at the Washington-Baltimore
              Parkway.

        This station was located approximately 100 yards downstream

from Dorsey Run.  The Little Patuxent River was very turbid where

Dorsey Run entered, but the load was soon diluted by the greater

flow in the Little Patuxent River.  Only four genera of bottom orga-

nisms were present but they included clean-water caddisflies

(2 genera) and mayflies.  The other form present was the dragonfly.

Fair biological conditions were indicated by the known chemical and

bacteriological data and the benthic population.  It appears that

the water quality would be higher if Dorsey Run were cleaned up.

Station #23_ - Little Patuxent River at the Simond's Bridge at
              Fort Meade.

        The water was clear and minnows and fishermen were observed.

There is an excellent riffle below the bridge.  Good water quality

was indicated by the 11 genera of bottom organisms, which included

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                                                                     17


such clean-water forms as stoneflies, mayflies (4 genera) and caddis-

flies (3 genera).  Only 17 organisms per square foot were collected but

qualitative sampling indicated an excellent mayfly population and a

fair caddisfly population.  Chemical data appear to substantiate the

water quality evaluation of this station.  The poor quality water from

Dorsey Run appears to be overcome at this point,

Station #24. - Little Patuxent River at the Old Forge Bridge at
              Fort Meade0

        The water was clear but there was a faint sewage odor.  This

was evidently the result of a poor effluent coming from the Fort Meade

Sewage Treatment Plant No, 2, which enters upstream approximately

50 yards downstream from the Simond's Bridge,  The bottom of the stream

where this effluent enters was black and there was a strong sewage odor,

By the time it reached the Old Forge Bridge it had been diluted con-

siderably   The number of genera of bottom organisms at this station

was seven compared to 11 upstream.  While mayflies (3 genera) and caddis-

flies were present, the dominant bottom organisms were sludgeworms,

which made up 28 of the 36 organisms in the square foot sample  Based

on occasional high BOD and this benthic population, only fair bio-

logical conditions were indicated,

Station #25 - Little Patuxent River approximately 100 yards down-
              stream from the Woodwardville Bridge at Fort Meade,

        The water wae clear and there was an excellent riffle.  The

genera of bottom organisms had increased to 10 from the seven upstream.

Clean-water associated forms included mayflies (3 genera), caddisflies

and hellgrammites  Only 21 organisms were collected in the square

foot sample which was dominated by 13 intermediate midge larvae.

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                                                                     18


However, the qualitative sample indicated a fair mayfly population and

four were collected in the quantitative sample.  Good water quality was

suggested at this location

Station #26 - Towser's Branch upstream from the U. S. Naval Academy
              Dairy Farm Creek

        The water was clear and a few minnows were observed.  Fair

biological conditions were indicated by the five genera of bottom

organisms which included mayflies and caddisflies.

Station #27 - Towser's Branch downstream from the U. S. Naval Academy
              Dairy Farm Greek,

        The water was clear, but there was a slight drop in water

quality from the upstream station,,  Only four genera of bottom orga-

nisms were found but these did include a few mayflies.  The other

organisms consisted of intermediate damselflies and organic pollution-

tolerant smoky alderfly larvae and an air-breathing snail.  Mild

pollution was suggested at this station,

Station #28 - Towser's Branch at Waugh Chapel Road downstream from
              the U0 S. Naval Academy Dairy Farm Creek.

        The water was somewhat cloudy and a definite odor was present

from cow manure and urine.  Only six genera of bottom organisms were

present which included two genera of caddisflies.  However, the

dominant bottom organisms present were organic pollution-tolerant

bloodworms (Tendipes sp0), which made up 278 of the 308 organisms in

the square foot sample  Considering that the quantitative sample was

taken in gravel, this amount was quite substantial.  Towser's Branch

contributed a mild pollutional load to the Little Patuxent River.

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                                                                     19


Station #29 - The Little Patuxent River at the Route 424 Bridge.

        In spite of clear water the bottom organisms were extremely

sparse  Only an intermediate midge larva was found and only two

were in the square foot sample.  Part of this may be due to the

shifting sand bottom.  However, occasional low DO and high BOD have

been recorded at this station  Based on this and the low benthic

population, mild pollution was indicated at this location,

Station #30 - Little Patuxent River approximately 100 yards
              upstream from the mouth near the Maryland Route 3
              Bridge

        The river was turbid and deep and a faint sewage odor was

present.  Only five genera of bottom organisms were found, consisting

of organic pollution-tolerant sludgeworms and another bristleworm,

plus the intermediate sow-bugs, scuds and damselflies  This station

is downstream from the Patuxent Sewage Treatment Plant.  Based on

occasional low DO and high BOD, plus the low benthic population, a

mild pollutional load was contributed to the Patuxent River.

Station #31 - Patuxent River at the Maryland Route 3 Bridge.

        The water was turbid and only two genera of bottom organisms

consisting of sludgeworms and an intermediate midge larva were found.

Twenty sludgeworms and six midge larvae were collected in the square

foot sample.  This poor benthic population, plus occasional low DO

and high BOD, indicated mild pollution at this station,

Station #32 - Patuxent River at the U. S. Routes 301 and 50 bridge
              west of Annapolis

        The river was deep and channeled and there were no riffle

areas  Based on dredge sampling, only four genera of bottom organisms

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                                                                     20


could be found,  They consisted of fly larvae (2 genera), an intermed-

iate midge and sludgeworms.  The square foot sample consisted of six
                 A
intermediate midge larvae, four fly larvae and two sludgeworms.  Occa-

sional low DO and high BOD also indicated mild pollution,

Station #33 - Patuxent River at the Maryland Route 214 Bridge west
              of Davidsonville,,

        The only bottom organisms found were sludgeworms and these

were sparse.  The square foot sample consisted of four sludgeworms

Occasional high BOD's are recorded here.  Mild pollution was still

indicated 0

Station #34 - Patuxent River approximately 100 yards downstream
              from the Queen Anne's Bridge near Hardesty,

        The river was clear and fishermen were observed upstream

catching yellow perch (Perca. flavescens).  Thirteen genera of bottom

organisms were found, which consisted c.f such clean-water forms as

caddisflies and mayflies.  Intermediate midges, flatworms, fingernail

clamsj, scuds, damselflies and dragonflies were also present  Pollution-

tolerant forms consisted of sludgeworms, bristleworms (2 genera) and

two genera of air-breathing snails  Fingernail clams were the

dominant form and made up 36 of the 76 organisms in the square foot

sample.  The balance was made up of 23 brietleworms, 14 caddisflies,

one flatworm, one scud and onft air-breathing snail  Fair water

quality was indicated at this station.

Station #35 - Patuxent River at the Maryland Route 4 Bridge,

        The water was deep and qualitative sampling had to be con-

fined along the banks.  Fishermen were also observed at this location.

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                                                                    21






Seven genera of bottom organisms were collected, which consisted of



intermediate midge^ scuds, sow-bugs (2 genera) and beetles.  Organic



pollution-tolerant kinds consisted of sludgewonns and leeches.   Sludge-



worms were dominant, comprising 172 of the 184 organisms in the square



foot sample  This area is also subject to occasional low DO, high BOD,



and high bacteriological counts.  Based on this information, mild



pollution was suggested.

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                                                           22
                         TABLE I

BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA OF THE UPPER AND MIDDLE PATUXENT  RIVER
                AND SOME OF ITS TRIBUTARIES
Sta.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Bottom
No. of
Location Kinds
Patuxent River at Md. 15
Rt. 9V Bridge near
Roxbury Mills
Patuxent River at Snell 5
Bridge on Md0 Rt. 108
near Highland
Patuxent River approxi- 4
mately 50 yards down-
stream from Rocky Gorge
Reservoir
Patuxent River approxi- 3
mately 20 yards upstream
from Walker Branch
Walker Branch (trib, to 1
Patuxent River) at its
mouth west of Laurel
Patuxent River at the 10
Laurel Swimming Pool im-
mediately upstream from
old Md0 Rt. 216 Bridge
Patuxent River at the new 2
Md. Rt. 216 Bridge near
Laurel
Patuxent River at Md0 Rt. 1
198 Bridge downstream
from Laurel
Patuxent River at Brock 1
Bridge Road
Patuxent River at Duvall 2
Bridge in the Patuxent
Wildlife Refuge
Patuxent River at Lem- 2
man's Road at Ft. Meade
Organisms
No. Per
Sq. Ft.
18
Not
taken
Not
taken
Not
taken
Not
taken
13
5
4
29
16
19
Dominant
Forms
Mayflies
Caddis flies
Riffle Beetles
Mayflies
Blackflies
Air -breathing
Snails
Intermediate
Midge
Caddis flies
Intermediate
Midges
Blackflies
Caddis flies
Sludgeworms
Sludgeworms
Sludgeworms
Sludgeworms
Indicated
Water
Quality
Excellent
Fair bio-
logical
conditions
Poor bio-
logical
conditions
Poor bio-
logical
conditions
Poor
Fair
Poor
Mild pollu-
tion
Mild pollu-
tion
Mild pollu-
tion
Mild pollu-
tion

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                               TABLE I (Continued)
                                                                        23
Sta.
No.
       Location
Bottom Organisms
No. of    No. Per
Kinds     SQ. Ft.
Dominant
 Forms
Indicated
  Water
 Quality
 12
 13
Patuxent River at
railroad bridge down-
       stream
       Road
       from Lemmon's
Patuxent River at
bridge behind the
Bowie Race Track
          Not       Damselflies
          taken     Sow-bugs
                    Leeches
                    Air-breathing
                     Snails

            132     Sludgeworms
             Fair
             Mild
             pollution
 14    Patuxent River at         4
       foot bridge at the
       Belair landfill up-
       stream from the con-
       fluence with the
       Little Patuxent
       River

 15    Middle Patuxent River    22
       at Md. fit. 108 Bridge
       near Clarksville (trib,
       to the Little Patuxent
       River)
 16    Middle Patuxent River    12
       at Md0 Rt. 32 Bridge
 17    Little Patuxent River     9
       at U.S. Rt. 1 Bridge
       downstream from Savage

 18    Hammond Branch at U.S.    5
       Rt. 1 Bridge (trib. to
       the Little Patuxent
       River)

 19    Dorsey Run at Dorsey     16
       Run Road upstream from
       Jessup (trib. to Little
       Patuxent River)
                                            Sludgeworms
                                            Flatworms
                                   Mild
                                   pollution
                                  Not
                                  taken
                                    22
                    Caddisflies
                    Intermediate
                     Midges
                    Blackflies
                    Riffle Beetles
                    Mayflies

                    Intermedia1^
                     Midges
                    True flies
                    Mayflies

                    Mayflies
                    Air-breathing
                     Snails

                    Caddisflies
                    Air-breathing
                     Snails
                                                           Excellent
                                                           Good
                                                           Good
             Fair/
                 '*
                    Caddisflies
                    Mayflies
                    Intermediate
                     Midges
             Good

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                              TABLE I (Continued)
Sta.
No.
20
21
22
23
24
Location
Dorsey Run at bridge
on the road to Md,
State Reformatory
for Women near
Jessup
Dorsey Run at the
bridge at Md. Rt. 32
Little Patuxent River
at the Washington-
Baltimore Parkway
Little Patuxent River
at Simcnd's Bridge
at Ft. Meade (trib. to
Patuxent River)
Little Patuxent River
at Old Forge Bridge at
Ft. Meade
Bottom Organisms
No. of No. Per
Kinds Sq. Ft.
3 1,518
4 4,092
4 Not
taken
11 17
7 36
Dominant
Forms
Sludgeworms
Bloodworms
Sludgeworms
Caddis flies
Mayflies
Mayflies
Caddis flies
Sludgeworms
Mayflies
Caddis flies
Indicated
Water
Quality
Gross
organic
pollution
Gross
organic
pollution
Fair
Good
Fair
25    Little Patuxent River    10
      approximately 100 yards
      downstream from the
      Woodwardville Bridge at
      Ft. Meade (trib, to the
      Patuxent River)

26    Towser's Branch upstream  5
      from the U.S. Naval
      Academy Dairy Farm Creek

27    Towser's Branch down-      4
      stream from the U.S.Naval
      Academy Dairy Farm Creek

28    Towser's Branch at Waugh  6
      Chapel Road downstream
      from the U.S. Naval
      Academy Farm Creek (trib.
      to the Little Patuxent
      River)
   21     Mayflies       Good
          Intermediate
           Midges
Not       Mayflies       Fair
taken     Caddisflies
          Damselflies

Not       Damselflies    Mild
taken     Smoky alder-   pollution
           flies

  308     Bloodworms     Mild
          Intermediate   pollution
           Midges

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                             TABLE I (Continued)
Sta.
No.
29
30
31
Location
Little Patuxent River
at Mds Rt. 424 Bridge
Little Patuxent River
approximately 100
yards upstream from
the mouth near Md0
Rt, 3 Bridge (trib.
to the Patuxent River)
Patuxent River at Mdc
Rt, 3 Bridge
Bottom
No. of
Kinds
1
5
2
Organisms
No. Per
Sq. Ft.
2
Not
taken
26
Dominant
Forms
Intermediate
Midges
Sow-bugs
Damselflies
Sludgeworms
Sludgeworms
Intermediate
Indicated
Water
Quality
Mild
pollution
Mild
pollution
Mild
pollution
32    Patuxent River at the     4
      U.S. Rts0 301 and 50
      Bridge west of Annapolis
33    Patuxent River at Md0     1
      Rt, 214 Bridge west of
      Davidsonville

34    Patuxent River approxi-  13
      mately 100 yards down-
      stream from the Queen
      Anne's Bridge near
      Hardesty

35    Patuxent River at Md,,     7
      Rt0 4 Bridge west of
      Waysonfs Corner
 12
 Midges

Sludgewonns    Mild pollu-
True fly larvae tion
Intermediate
 Midges
  4
 76
184
Sludgeworms
Fingernail
 Clams
Caddisflies
Sludgeworms
Sludgeworms
Mild
pollution


Fair
Mild
pollution

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                                                                                                                26
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            A WATER QUALITY STUDY

                   OF THE

            ROCK CREEK WATERSHED


                 March 1969
               Johan A. Aalto,

            Norbert A. Jaworski,

                     and

             William H. Schremp
            Middle Atlantic Region
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
       U.  S. Department of the Interior

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                     TABLE OF CONTENTS






                                                              Page




  I.  PREFACE	     1-1




 II.  INTRODUCTION	    II - 1




      A. Purpose and Scope	    II - 2




      B.  Authority	 .    II - 3




      C. Acknowledgments	    II - 3




III.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION	Ill - 1




 IV.  WATER AND LAND RESOURCES	    IV - 1




      A.  General Description	    IV - 1




      B.  Hydrology	    IV - 2




      C.  Impoundments	    IV - 2




      D.  Recreational Areas and Parks	    IV - 3




          1.  District of Columbia	    IV - 3




          2.  Montgomery County	    IV - 6




      E.  Fishing	    IV - 6



  V.  WATER QUALITY STANDARDS  	    V - 1




      A.  State of Maryland	    V - 1




      B.  District of Columbia	    V-3



 VI.  WASTEWATER CONVEYANCE AND DISPOSAL	   VI - 1




      A.  Sewer Systems in the District  of Columbia  ....   VI - 1




      B.  Sewer Systems in Montgomery County,  Maryland ...   VI - 3




VII.  WATER QUALITY	VII - 1




      A.  Biochemical Oxygen Demand and  DO	VII - 1

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                TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)




                                                             Page



           1.  Historical Trends	    VII - 1




           2.  Spatial Distribution	    VII - 2




       B.  Bacteriological	    VII - 1*




       C.  Nutrients	    VII - 8




       D.  Suspended Solids (Sediments)  	    VII -13




       E.  Surfactants	    VII -15




       F.  Biological Life	    VII -17




VIII.  POLLUTION ABATEMENT ACTIVITIES  AND  PROGRAMS ....   yill - 1




       A.  Wastewater Conveyance and Disposal	   VIII - 1




           1.  District of Columbia	   VIII - 1




           2.  National Zoological Park	   VIII - 3




           3-  Montgomery County	   VIII - k




       B.  Debris Removal and General  Sanitation	   VIII - 5




       C.  Sediment Control Program	   VIII _ 5




       D.  Research and Development Programs	   VIII - 8



  IX.  BIBLIOGRAPHY	     IX - 1

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                               LIST OF TABLES


 Table                                                             Page

  IV - 1   Rock Creek Impoundments	       IV  -  2

  IV - 2   Cost Allocation and Cost Sharing Summary.  ....       IV  -  k

  IV - 3   Annual Population Use of Rock Creek Park  ....       IV  -  5

  VI - 1   Sanitary Sewerage Systems of the
           District of Columbia	       VI  -  2

  VI - 2   District of Columbia Sewered Areas	       VI  -  3

 VII - 1   Summary of Average Monthly DO Concentrations.  .  .      VII  -  3

 VII - 2   Water Quality Reconnaissance	      VII  -  5

 VII - 3   Rock Creek Water Quality Survey, September 1968  .      VII  -  6

 VII - 1*   Water Quality Data, April 1968	      VII  -  7

 VII - 5   Rock Creek Survey, August 196?	      VII  -  9

 VII - 6   Summary of Bacteriological Data	      VII  -11

 VII - 7   Summary of Nutrient Data	      VII  -12

 VII - 8   Average Monthly Suspended Solids Loadings  ....      VII  ~lh

 VII - 9   Surfactant Analyses of Rock Creek	      VII  -l6

VIII - 1   District of Columbia Sewered Areas	      VII  -  2

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                     LIST OF  FIGURES

                                                         Following
Figure                                                      Page

 IV - 1   Rock Creek Watershed	      IV-1

 IV - 2   Rock Creek Park - Washington, D. C	      IV - 5

 IV - 3   Rock Creek Park, Montgomery County	      IV - 7

VII - 1   Sampling Station Locations	     VII - 1

VII - 2   Trends of BOD	     VII - 1

VII - 3   Coliform Trends	     VII - k

VII - U   Fecal Coliform Densities	     VII - 8

VII - 5   Suspended Solids	     VII -15

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                                                             I - 1





                          CHAPTER I



                           PREFACE






         Urban streams and their valleys are major landscape features



in many populated areas.  These urban streams are aesthetically



pleasing natural environments and often are incorporated into the



environmental design as recreation areas and parks  With the



every increasing development of our urban areas, water resources



management problems, such as flashy streams, high sediment loadings,



and high coliform densities9 also increase



         The preservation and improvement of urban streams are,



predicated on sound planning and cooperation between the various



land users.  This is especially so in Rock Creek, an urban stream



which empties into the Potomac River within the City of Washington,



D0 C.  Flowing within two miles of our Nation's Capitol9 the waters



and valleys of Rock Creek are an integral part of the country's



heritage.



         The approaches to water quality management used in waters



degraded by readily identified discharges, as from wastewater



treatment plants, are not adequate for urban streams such as Rock



Creek.

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                                                            II - 1



                         CHAPTER II


                        INTRODUCTION



         At the request of Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall on


July 3, 1966, the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA)


initiated an investigation of the water quality problems in the Rock


Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the Potomac River, to develop a program


of corrective measures to permit recreational use of the waters of


Rock Creek.  It was the expressed desire of the Secretary that recre-


ational use of Rock Creak would be possible by October 1967.  A


preliminary report, "Summary of Water Quality and Waste Outfalls,"'


was prepared by the Middle Atlantic Region (MAR) of FWPCA in


December of 1966 delineating the water quality problem areas and


possible sources of pollution


         In February of 1967} the Department of the Interior published


a special report to the Nation on tLe problems and suggested cor-

                                                                2/
rective action for Rock Creek entitled "The Creek and the City."


The two specific steps recommended to clean up, restore, and preserve


Rock Creek were first, immediate measures to eliminate sources of


pollution and deterioration susceptible to quick and decisive action


and second, vigorous research and planning towards the complete


understanding and eradication of the deep-rooted problems related


to urban runoff.


         As part of the winter meeting of the Interstate Commission


on the Potomac River (INCOPOT), a public meeting co-sponsored by the


Rock Creek Watershed Association was held in Gaithersburg, Maryland,,

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                                                             II - 2






on February 16, 196?.  At the meeting, excerpts from the Department




of the Interior report, statements of agencies with $&:- responsibilities,




and statements of agencies with other responsibilities were presented.






A.  Purpose and Scope




         As part of the Chesapeake Bay-Susquehanna River Basin Project,




the Chesapeake Field Station (CFS) of the Middle Atlantic Region of




FWPCA has undertaken a water quality management study of the entire




Potomac River Basin,,  An important part of this overall study related




to the July 3 1966 request of the Secretary of the Interior.




         Since 1966, investigations of the water quality and related




problems in the Rock Creek watershed have been continued by CFS and




other Federal and State agencies.  Also since 1966, corrective actions




have been carried out by various agencies in the watershed.




         The purposes of this report are;




         1.  To provide information ons




             a.  The existing water quality in Rock Creak




             b.  The status of corrective programs for water quality



         management and




             c.  The general conditions within the watershed.




         2.  To determine if any significant changes have occurred in




         water quality as a result of the corrective action programs.




         3=  To publish all water quality field survey data collected




         by CFS and others since 1966.

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                                                             II - 3






B.  Authority



         This survey was conducted and the report prepared under



the provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as  amended



(33 U.S.C. k66 et seq.) which directs the Secretary of the Interior



to prepare or develop programs for eliminating or reducing the pol-



lution of interstate waters and tributaries thereof and improving



the sanitary condition of surface and underground waters, in  cooperation



with State water pollution control agencies and with the municipalities



and industries involved.






C.  Acknowledgments



         The cooperation of the following agencies in providing



information assisted appreciably in the preparation of this reports



         Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission



         Maryland State Department of Health



         Maryland State Department of Water Resources



         D. C. Department of Sanitary Engineering



         D. C. Department of Public Health



         U. S. Geological Survey



         Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission



         National Park Service



         Montgomery County Department of Health



         U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service

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                                                             Ill - 1



                         CHAPTER III


                   SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS



         Since 1966, when considerable public interest was focused


on the conditions in Rock Creek, continuing investigations have


supplemented the original findings in further defining the problems


of the watershed, implementing the corrective programs, and investi-


gating alternative methods for pollution control as described in the


report, "The Creek and the City."  Existing environmental conditions


including water quality and recent pollution abatement efforts are


presented below:


     1.  The principal water uses of Rock Creek are to provide


for an aesthetically pleasing natural environment, water contact


recreation and fish propagation.


     2.  It is anticipated that annual use of the recreational


facilities in Rock Creek watershed will increase from 3,300,000

                                         k/
people in 1960 to over 9,600,000 by I960.-7


     3.  As part of an Upper Rock Creek Watershed Development Plan,


two multipurpose impoundments have been constructed, initially for


flood and sediment control.  Recently, recreational developments


have been incorporated into the plan.


     U.  Water quality standards and implementation plans for the


inter- and intrastate waters of Rock Creek were adopted and approved


by the U. S. Department of the Interior for the State of Maryland in


196? and for the District of Columbia in 1968.

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                                                           Ill - 2






     5.  The sanitary wastewater of the watershed is conveyed to




the District of Columbia Water Pollution Control Plant at Blue Plains




by interconnected sewerage systems in Montgomery County, Maryland, and




the District of Columbia.  In Montgomery County, the conveyance is




via a separate sewerage system while in the District of Columbia,




by both separate and combined systems.




     6.  Water quality survey data indicated thats




         a.  Generally throughout the waters of the basins dissolved




     oxygen levels are above the minimum standard of 5-0 mg/1 with a




     corresponding biochemical oxygen demand concentration of 1 to 3




     mg/1.




         b.  There is no significant increase or decrease in bio-




     chemical oxygen demand (BOD) or dissolved oxygen (DC| between




     the District line and the confluence with the Potomac River




     There appears to be no significant change from 1960 to 196?.




         c.  Extremely high coliform densities with monthly means




     ranging between 10,000 to 100,000 MPN/100 ml, have been routinely



     observed in Rock Creek at the District Line.




         d.  While the coliform densities within the District of




     Columbia are slightly higher than in Maryland due to the




     periodic overflowing of the combined sewerage system, high




     coliform densities have also been observed in the upper portions




     of the basin in Montgomery County where the sewers are separated.

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                                                              Ill - 3






               e,  In general, the maximum fecal coliform standards of




          200 MPN/100 ml in the District of Columbia and 2kO MPN/100 ml




          in Maryland are being exceeded




               f,  High concentrations of suspended matter, often over




          100 mg/1, have also been routinely observed in Rock Creek at




          the District Line,  These high concentrations are a result of




          erosion in the upper portions of the watershed during the periods




          of high runoff.




               g,  Biological investigation of bottom organisms in Rock




          Creek indicates a better aquatic environment in the upper portion




          of the basin than in the lower.




      7.  Sewer inspection and maintenance programs have been intensified




by both the Department of Sanitary Engineering in the District of Columbia




and the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Montgomery County




Vandalism appears to be one of the major causes of failures in the sewerage




systems .




      8.  Pollution control projects at the National Zoological Park are




now about 80 percent completed and wastewater fron the Zoo is no longer




a major source of pollution to Rock Creek.




      9.  Within 25 months, the construction of the remaining portion of




the Potomac River force mains is expected to be completed.  These new sewers




will considerably reduce overflowing of the combined sewers in the lower




portion of Rock Creek.




     10o  Since 1957 s the acreage served by separated sewers in the District




of Columbia has been increased Ik percent, from 3757 to UjS^O acres.

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                                                            Ill
    11.  Debris removal by the U0 S. Park Service during the summer




of 1968 enhances the appearance of the creek area within the District




of Columbia.  A general sanitation program was also maintained in the




park area of Montgomery County by the Maryland National Capital Park




and Planning Commission.




    12.  Sediment control in the watershed is being instituted by




three distinct methodss




          a,  A compulsory program for soil erosion control in




    Montgomery County, particularly in the developing areas of the




    county,




          b,  operation of the two recently completed headwater




    impoundments as sediment traps, and




          c   the use of polymers to settle out sediment above one




    of the impoundments




         Included is a ten-year study currently being conducted by the




Soil Conservation Service to evaluate various aspects of sediment control



    13.  Research and development efforts are currently being supported



by the FWPCAs




          a   to continue studies using polymers for sediment control




    and




          b.  to evaluate methods of abating pollution from combined




    sewer discharges.




         From an analysis of the water quality data, it appears that




the two principal problems are high coliform densities and high




suspended solids concentrations resulting mainly from urban and agri-

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                                                            Ill - 5






cultural runoff  While it appears possible to control over 50 percent




of sediment by the various methods being demonstrated, the reduction




of coliform densities by these methods is difficult to predict.




         With the ever increasing development of the upper portion of




the watershed and the projected increase in park development, an as-




sociated increase in coliform densities is anticipated.  Moreovers




it appears that it will be difficult to maintain a fecal coliform




density at or below the adopted standards if there is no improvement




in current sanitation practices 




         There are two principal problems in maintaining low fecal




coliform densitiess  (l) the treatment or transport of controlled




storm water runoff from urban areas and (2) the treatment of un-




controlled runoff from both urban and rural areas.  Since the




maintenance of good water quality in urban streams has only recently




been of concern, very little attention has been given to the problem




historically.




         The studies currently being sponsored by the FWPCA and the




Soil Conservation Service should provide a much needed insight as to




feasible methods and costs of maintaining good water quality in urban




streams.

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                                                            IV - 1






                        CHAPTER IV




                 WATER AND LAND RESOURCES






A.  General Description




         The Rock Creek watershed is located within the Washington,




D. C.  metropolitan area and has a population of about 1<-30,000.




Of the 77 square miles of drainage area, approximately 16 square




miles lie  within the highly urban District of Columbia with the




remainder in Montgomery County, Maryland.  (See Figure IV - 1.)




         The Creek's channel follows a markedly meandering course




and drops some 600 feet in elevation between its source in




Maryland and its confluence with the Potomac River,  There are




frequent riffles, particularly in the District of Columbia between




Military Road and Broad Branch.




         In the upper portion of the basin in Maryland, which is




in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, the watershed is predominantly




rural in character, consisting of moderately well-drained rolling



country.  However, this rural dominance is rapidly diminishing




as the suburban area pushes northward.




         As the creek flows southerly into the District of Columbia,




it traverses the Rock Creek National Park.  Passing over numerous fords




and flowing past the National Zoological Park, the waters of Rock Creek




discharge into the Potomac Estuary just upstream from the Lincoln Memorial.

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      ROCK  CREEK  WATERSHED
DISTRICT  OF COLUMBIA  8 MARYLAND
                                                                          FIGURE  IE- I

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                                                            IV . 2






B.  Hydrology




         Of the approximately 4l inches of precipitation falling




annually on the watershed, about 11.5 inches run off as surface




water.  At the stream flow gauging station established in October




1929 near Sherrill Drive, the maximum, mean, and minimum discharges




are 5>o60, 55-3? and 1.5 cubic feet per second (cfs), respectively.




         There are no consumptive surface water uses within the




watershed.  That is, all domestic and industrial water supply needs




are supplied from the Potomac River, Patuxent River, and ground




water sources.






C.  Impoundments




         As can be seen in Figure IV - 1, there are two stream impound-




ments in the Rock Creek watershed developed since 1966.  The information




on the two impoundments is presented in Table IV - 1.



                            TABLE IV - 1




                     ROCK CREEK IMPOUNDMENTS
Item
Drainage area
Sediment storage
Flood water storage
Recreation storage
Total storage
Recreation pool
Unit
Square Miles
Acre Feet
rt it
II ii
II II
Acres
Lake Needwood
(Site 5)
12.23
294
3>4oo
534
4,228
74
Lake Frank
(Site l)
12.77
342
3,690
297
4,329
54
Total
25.00
636
7,096
831
8,557
128

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                                                             IV - 3



         The two impoundments, Lake Needwood and Lake Frank, were


built initially for flood and sediment control as part of an

                           U/
overall watershed work plan  under the authority of the Watershed


Protection and Flood Prevention Act (Public Law 566, 83rd Congress,


68 Stato 666),,  During the development of the plan, Public Law 566


was amended to provide for recreational developments0  The cost


allocation and cost sharing of the upper Rock Creek watershed


development in Maryland is presented in Table I? - 20  This will


be discussed in greater detail in Chapter VII.



D.  Recreational Areas_and Parks


         Aside from providing a suburban environment, the water and


land resources of Rock Creak offer an aesthetic pleasure to be


derived from viewing the quietly flowing stream.  As described in

                                         27
the publication "The Creek and the City,"   Rock Creek is a unique


and well-beloved resource; moreover, "Picknickers gourmandize,


painters paint, lovers love, and equestrians equitate even as


Andrew Jackson did."


     1.  District of Columbia


         In 1890s the Federal Government purchased most of the valley


land of Rock Creek within the District for use as a park.  The lower


end of the watershed valley was purchased in 1913 connecting the


park in Rock Creek with the system of parks along the Potomac River,


now known as the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway.

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                                                                IV
                           TABLE IV - 2

                COST ALLOCATION AND COST SHARING SUMMARY
                  UPPER ROCK CREEK WATERSHED  MARYLAND*

                              Dollars**
Item
Multiple Purpose
Structure Sites 1 & 5
Trout Stream
Improvements
Basic Recreation
Facilities
Total
Public Law 566
Other
Total

Flood
Prevention

1,221,648
-
-
1,221,648

722,571
499,077
1,221,648
Purpose
Recreation
COST ALLOCATION
132,729
-
2,303,026
2,435,755
COST SHARING
660,301
1,775,454
2,435,755

Fish &
Wildlife


15 ,420
-
15,420

200
15,220
15,420
Total
1,354,377
15,420
2,303,026
3,672,823
1,383,072
2,289,751
3,672,823
 *Taken from Reference 4.

**Actual cost incurred used for facilities installed
  Price base 1966 for estimated costs.

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                                                            IV - 5


         Rock Creek Park, which encompasses some 1,75^ acres in the

District of Columbia, is managed by the National Park Service, U. S,

Department of the Interior.(See Figure IV - 2. )  During 1967, the

following use was made of the park's facilities?

                Area                          Number of Visitors

        Amphitheatre                                l80,000

        Nature Study Area                           120,000

       Golf                                          80,000

       Tennis                                        42,000

       Stables                                       33,000

       Pierce Mills                                  13,000

As presented in Table IV - 3, the use of the park facilities in the

District of Columbia is projected to remain essentially constant,

while use in Maryland is expected to increase "by a factor of five

by 1980T

                           TABLE IV - 3

            ANNUAL POPULATION USE OF ROCK CREEK PARK*
Item
Use by permit (1960)
Total estimated use (1960)
Estimated use by permit
(i960)**
Total estimated use (1980)**
District of
Columbia
730,515
1,812,000
730,515
1,812,000
Maryland
603,700
1,500,000
3,150,500
7,815,000
Total
1,33^,215
3,312,000
3,881,015
9,627,000
         *Taken from Appendix B of Reference k.

        **Estimate based on 1960 use rate with the proposed park
          facilities installed.

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ROCK  CREEK  PARK - WASHINGTON, D.C.
              SCALE IN FEET
   5000   3000
                                                       A
                                                       A
                                                     FIGURE   re: - 2

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                                                            iv - 6






     2,  Montgomery County




         Extending from the District of Columbia to the Rock Creek




Regional Park at Lake Needwood and Lake Frank, there are a series




of recreational areas (See Figure IV - 3)   Development and maintenance




of these areas, including the Rock Creek Regional Park, are the




responsibility of the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning




Commission (MNCPPC)




         Numerous expansions of the park facilities have been proposed




by the MNCPPC  The expansions of the Rock Creek Regional Park are




an integral part of the upper Rock Creek watershed work plan developed




in 1962-' by MNCPPC and Montgomery Soil Conservation District (MSCD) 




         In 1960, the use of these recreational faeilities was slightly




less than in the District of Columbia.  However by 1980, this use is




projected to increase more than fivefold, while the use in the District




is projected to remain constant.  During the summer season of 1968,




there were more than 222,000 visitors to the recently opened Lake




Needwood facilities alone  There are no facilities currently open




to the public at Lake Frank.






E.  Fishing




         Sport fishing in Rock Creek is generally restricted to the




waters of the two impoundments and in the two-mile reach below each




of the two impoundments.  These reaches are maintained for trout

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                                                            IV - 7






fishing only.  The MHCPPC maintains a program of fish management




jointly with the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish.




         Fishing in these areas is on a "put and take" basis.




Species such as bass, sunfish, catfish, and crappies are stocked




each year in the impoundments, while trout are planted in the  reaches




below the dams.

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       ROCK  CREEK  PARK
MONTGOMERY  COUNTY,  MARYLAND
                                                                                           FIGURE   H- 3

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                                                            V - 1
                         CHAPTER V

      WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND IMPLEMENTATION PLANS


A.  State of Maryland

         In 1967, the State of Maryland*

            ". . .in order to provide for the enhancement of
            the water quality where such quality has deterio-
            rated or is deteriorating, for the conservation
            of water quality where such quality is good or
            satisfactory, and for protection of lawful
            and reasonable uses ..."

established both general and specific water quality standards for

both inter- and intrastate waters.  A plan for implementation and

enforcement of the water quality standards for all of Maryland's

waters was also established.  The standards and the implementation

plan for the interstate waters were approved and adopted by the

Secretary of the Interior in August 196?.

         The uses of waters were grouped into six categories as

followsi

           I - Shellfish harvesting

          II - Public or Municipal water supply

         III - Water contact recreation

          IV - Propagation of fish and other aquatic life and wildlife

           V - Agricultural water supply

          VI - Industrial water supply
         *Water Resources Regulation H.8, General Water Quality Criteria
and Specific Water Quality Standard for all Maryland Waters, Water
Resources Commission and Department of Water Resources, Maryland State
Office Building, Annapolis, Maryland  21^01.

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                                                             V - 2


         For each of the water use categories, maximum allowable

values were established for dissolved oxygen, temperature, bacteria

counts, and an allowable pH range was specified.  The designated uses

for applicable water zones of the Rock Creek watershed are presented

below;
        Water Zone
Water Use to be Protected
Headwaters, downstream to
  Lake Needwood (Site 5)

From Norbeck Road (Rt. 28)
  upstream to Lake Needwood
  (Site 5) at dam

Upstream of Lake Frank
  (Site l) Dam

Downstream from Norbeek Road
  (Rt. 28 to D. C. Line)
   III, IV, V
   III, IV (trout), V
   III, IV (trout), V
   III, IV
         For the reaches of Rock Creek within Maryland, the

following criteria have been approved:

                                                  Criteria
Parameter
DO - mg/1, minimum
DO - mg/1, average
pH, range
o
Temp. F, maximum
Fecal Coliform - MPN/100 ml, maximum
Trout Waters
5.0
6.0
6.0 - 8.5
72
2^0
Others
U.O
5.0
6.0 - 8.5
93
2^0

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                                                             V - 3


B.  District of Columbia

         The standards for interstate waters for the District of

Columbia's Water Quality Criteria Implementation and Enforcement

Plan were approved and adopted by the District of Columbia Commission

sitting as a Board on June 29, 19&7, amended September 28, 19&7, and

approved by the Secretary of the Interior on April 17, 1968.

         The water uses of Rock Creek from the District Line  to the

Potomac River to be protected are:

         1.  Fish and wildlife propagation

         2.  Wading

         For the reaches of Rock Creek within the District of Columbia

the following criteria have been approved:

          Parameter                         Criteria

         DO                     Not less than ^.0 mg/1

         pH                     6.0 - 8.5

         Temperature            Not to exceed natural conditions

         Fecal coliform         Not to exceed 200 MPN/100  ml

         Turbidity              Creek bottom to be visible in wading
                                areas during wading season

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                                                            VI - 1






                         CHAPTER VI




             WASTEWATER CONVEYANCE AND DISPOSAL






         Sanitary waste-water conveyance for the H30,000 inhabitants of




the watershed is provided by the interconnecting sewerage systems of




the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC) in Montgomery County




and the Department of Sanitary Engineering of the District of Columbia.




The wastewater is conveyed to the District of Columbia Water Pollution




Control Plant at Blue Plains where it is treated (BOD removal about 70




percent) prior to discharge to the Potomac River.






A.  Sewer System in the District of Columbia




         The Rock Creek watershed in the District is served by two




distinct types of sewerage systems;  separate and combined.  The separate




systems consist of two entirely independent networks of sewers; one col-




lects and conveys all domestic and industrial wastes to the treatment




plant.   The other network carries storm runoff to the nearest water-




course.  The combined sewerage system receives domestic sewage and



industrial wastes plus runoff from rainfall.  The combined sewer




interceptors along Rock Creek are designed for storm water flows between



30 and 200 times dry weather flow only; when rainfall exceeds this




capacity, overflow occurs to Rock Creek.




         Sanitary sewage from the separately sewered area of D. C plus




that from Maryland is conveyed to the Potomac interceptors in an "express"

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                                                             VI - 2


sewer (paralleling the combined sewer interceptors along Rock Creek)

in order to avoid mixing with combined sewage.  Overflow of sewage

originating in separately sewered areas is thus minimized along Rock

Creek and at the treatment plant  and pumping station.  A complete

inventory of all discharges into Rock Creek, including combined and

storm sewers was made by CFS in 1966.  In the entire watershed there

are about 211 outfalls as reported by the CFS0'

          In the District of Columbia portion of the Rock Creek water-

shed there are three parallel sanitary sewerage systems as presented

in Table VI - 1.  The wastewater flow for these systems is currently

conveyed to the treatment facility via a common interceptor.

          A study of sewer needs for the District of Columbia was
                  7/
completed in 1957.    In this study the drainage area of combined and

separate sewers was determined as reported in Table VI - 2.  Of the

8,137 sewerable acres in the watershed, about k6 percent of the area

was served by separate sewer systems.

                              TABLE VI - 1

         SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
                      IN THE ROCK CREEK WATERSHED
Service Areas of
Rock Creek
Lower Western
Lower Eastern
Sewer System
West Rock Creek Diversion
East Rock Creek Diversion
Type of
Sewer
Combined
Combined
Upper Western and Eastern        Rock Creek Main
(Including WSSC's area              Interceptor                Sanitary
in Montgomery County)

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                                                               VI - 3
                           TABLE VI - 2

                DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEWERED AREAS
                       Rock Creek Watershed
                              1956
Sewer System
West Rock
East Rock
Main Rock
Creek
Creek
Creek
Diversion
Diversion
Interceptor
Separate
(Acres)
20
62
3,675
Combined
(Acres)
351
3,^38
601
Sewer able
(Acres)
371
3,^90
U,2?6
Total
(Acres)
U8o
3,855
6,511
            Total               3,757      U,390      8,137     10,8H6



          As recommended by the 1957 study, the District of Columbia

has adopted "Project C" with a few modifications.   Project C calls

for the early construction of relief interceptors and pumping stations

to relieve overflow and surcharge of sewers, including an extensive

program of sewer separation.  Progress in this program is discussed

in Chapter VIII.


B.  Sewer Systems in Montgomery County, Maryland

          Of the approximately 6l square miles or 39jOOO acres of the

Rock Creek watershed in Maryland, all are served by the WSSC.   Waste-

water is also conveyed into the Rock Creek watershed sewer system by

force mains from portions of the upper Patuxent and Muddy Branch

sub-basins.

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                                                             VI - h






        The sewers of WSSC in Maryland are separated.  All domestic



wastewater flow is by gravity, hence there are no pumping stations



in the WSSC portion of systems.



        Since there are no combined sewers in the Maryland portion



of Rock Creek, all storrawater systems discharge directly into the



surface waters of the watershed.   Recently the Montgomery County



Department of Public Works has assumed the responsibility for



construction and maintenance of the stormwater drainage systems.



        In 1967, the average wastewater flow from the entire system



was about 20 mgd.  On the basis of 120 gallons per capita per day,



the current population served by the WSSC system is about l67>000.

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                                                             VII
                          CHAPTER VII




                         WATER QUALITY








         The water quality in Rock Greek has been routinely monitored




by the Department of Public Health of the District of Columbia since




the 1950's.  In recent years stream surveys have been also conducted




by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)9 the Chesapeake Field Station




(CFS) of Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, and Maryland




Department of Water Resources (MDWR).  Data on water quality are also




currently being collected by MNCFPC and Montgomery County Department of




Health in the Lake Needwood area.   Data on sediments and the rate of




sedimentation in the upper watershed are also currently being taken fey




USGS and the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of the U0 S, Department of




Agriculture.  Location of some of the sampling stations is shown in




Figure VII - 1.






A.  Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen



    lo  Historical Trends




        As indicated in Chapter VI there are no discharges to the surface



waters from wastewater treatment facilities in Rock Creek watershed other




than temporary facilities at the Zoo  The major source of organic pol-




lution appears to be from a combination of urban runoffs agricultural




drainage and, to a lesser extent9  overflowing and defective sewers




        Figure VII - 2 shows the yearly average BOB concentrations for




the reach of Rock Creek within the District of Columbia from 1960 through




1967.  The average annual BOD at the District Line ranged from 2ak to

-------

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                                                                  FIG. "211 -2

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-------
                                                             VII - 2






3.8 mg/1.  At the station 0.9 miles from the Potomac Estuary, the range




was slightly higher,, 2.2 to k*6 mg/1.




         A summary of the monthly average DO for the sampling stations




in the District of Columbia from 1960 through 1967 is exhibited in




Table VII - 1.  The monthly averages for July, August, and September for




this period were all above 5.0 mg/1.  In fact, most of the monthly




averages were above 7.0 mg/1 or mere than 90 percent of saturation,




         There appears to be no significant increase or decrease in




or DO between the District Line and the confluence with the Potomac




River.  Furthermore, there appears to be no significant change from




I960 to 1968,




     20  Spatial Distribution




         Based on the surveys in 1966 by the USGS and fey the CFS and




MDWE in 1968, as presented in Tables VII - 2S VII - 33 and VII - ks




respectively, the spatial distribution of BOD appears to be fairly




uniform throughout the watershed except in the upper portions.  This




distribution indicates that there is no siagle principal source of



in the watershed.




         Preliminary analysis of the water quality data being collected




by MNCPPC below Lake Needwood indicates that DO in the trout area ranged




generally from kaO to 5.0 mg/1 during the summer months of 1968.  la Lake




Needwood the data indicate that there ia significant stratification with




little or no DO in the deeper areas of the impoundment,,  Outflow from




Lake Needwood is usually at a depth of 10 feet, but multiple outlets




permit varying of depth to supply water of optimum DO and temperature for




downstream needs

-------

-------
                                                                                                   VII  -  3
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-------

-------
                                                            VII -
Bo  Bacteriological



    1.  Trends



        Historically, in the waters of Rock Creek very high coliform



counts have been observed, as can be seen in Figure VII - 3, for the



station at the District Line (mile 9-l) and the one at Park Road (mile



3.9).  The mean monthly coliform counts for the years 1963 through 196?



were principally in the range of 10,000 to 100,000 MPN/100 ml.  Since



1966, fecal coliform densities have also been determined.  Historically,



there appears to be no significant trend in coliform densities at these



stations, but there appears to be a slight increase since 1966.



    2.  Spatial Distribution



        As can be seen in Figure VII - 3, there was a slight increase



in coliform densities from Station 1 at the District Line to Station k



(Park Street), for 1963-6? period.  During a four-day study in August



of 1967 by the Chesapeake Field Station, there was about a three- to



fivefold increase in both coliform and fecal coliform densities within



the District (See Table VII - U) .



        The highest increases in both densities were observed in the



creek above the National Zoological Park.  These high counts were probably



a result of sewage overflows into Piney Branch, a tributary to Rock Creek.



The densities below the Zoo were considerably lower, indicating that no



significant pollution was entering the creek from the Zoo.



        During 1968, fecal coliform densities ranged from 360 MPN/100 ml

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-------
1.000.000
COLIFORM  TRENDS
   MONTHLY  MEANS
     ROCK CREEK
       1963-1967
  100.000
 o.
 2
   10.000
    1,000
                                                 LEGEND
                                                	Rock Creek at  District  Lin* (River Mile = 9.1)
                                                	Rock Creek at  Park Rd. (River Mile = 3.9)
              1963
 1964
1965
1966
     1967

FIG.  3ZIE-3

-------

-------
VII - 5








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                                                             VII - 8






to over 10,000 MEN/100 ml at the D. C.-Maryland Line (See Figure VII - U)



These densities are considerably higher than the fecal coliform standard



for both the District of Columbia and the State of Maryland.



         For the April survey of MDWR, the higher fecal coliform



densities were observed in the upper portion of the watershed (See



Table VII - k).  These high densities and higher BOD's indicate that



a significant amount of organic pollution is coming from both urban



and agricultural runoff



         During the September 9> 19&8 survey, high coliform densities



were observed at all stations within the watershed, including those



in Montgomery County, Maryland.  Except for stations on the North



Branch, all had fecal coliform counts greater than the adopted standard



of 2^0 MPN/100 ml.  The largest increase in fecal coliform was observed



between Jones Mill Road and the D. C. Line in Montgomery County and



between Sherrill Road and Military Road within the District of Columbia



(See Table VII - 3).  Fecal coliform counts in the 1966 survey (Table



VII - 6}  were somewhat lower than those of 196? and 1968.



         During periods of high runoff, high suspended solids and BOD's



are frequently observed.  These observations indicate that there is a



"flushing" of the watershed during periods of heavy precipitation



resulting in increased concentrations of suspended solids, BOD, and



coliform counts.






C.  Nutrients



          In 1966, the CFS conducted a study of the nutrient loadings



in the entire Potomac River system, including a station in Rock

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-------
    100.000
FECAL  COLIFORM   DENSITIES
   Rock Creek  at   District Line
               1968
     10.000
8
Q.
                  MARYLAND'S  WATER QUALITY  STANDARD   240
                  DISTRICT. S
     t.000
           OCT.   NOV. '  DEC. ' JAN. ' FEB.   MAR.   APR. '  MAY  JUNE  JULY ' AUG.  SEPT.
                                     1968 WATER YEAR
                                                                        FIG 2TI-4

-------

-------
                                                                                               VII -  9
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-------

-------
                                                     VII -  11

















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-------

-------
                                                            11 - 12
                             TABLE 11 - 7

                       SUMMARY OF MJTEIENT DATA
                   Rock Creek and "M" Street Bridge
                       Chesapeake Field Station
                                 1966
                       Total
                                                           as N

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
(mg/1)
0.26
o.U?
0.23
0.28
0.3^
0.62
0.55
0.21
O.IK)
Ool6
0.17
0.20
fe/day)
21
290
ko
180
iko
120
51
5
145
30
20
ko
(aig/1)
0.95
1.22
0.99
0.65
0.85
1.32
0.87
0.56
0.80
0.71
0.57
1,10
fo/dayF
80
7TO
200
3^0
290
80
25
15
290
165
75
255
Average
90
0.88
212

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                                                             VII - 13






Creek at "M" Street  The results of weekly sampling program, as pre-



sented in Table 11 - 79 show that the average phosphorus and



inorganic nitrogen concentrations were 0=32 and 0.88 mg/1 of B\



and N, respectively.



         The highest monthly loadings of nutrients were observed



in February of 1966S at which time about 290 lb/day of phosphorus



and 7^0 Ib/day of inorganic nitrogen were measured in Rock Creek



at the "M" Street station while in Augusts the loading was 5 and 15



Ib/day, respectively.  February was the highest flow month of 19665,



August the driest,



         The data from the 1968 survey of the CFS and MBWR, as pre-



sented in Table VII - 3 and VII - ky indicate that the nutrient



concentrations are fairly uniform throughout the watershed.  The



Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations for the GFS survey appear to



increase in the downstream stations $ however the increase is not



too significant.



         As with BOBS the nutrient loadings appear to originate from



urban and agricultural runoff  The annual average yield to the



watershed is about 1.2 and 2.8 lb/day/sq mile of phosphorus and



inorganic nitrogen,, respectively, in contrast to the upper Potomac



River Basin, which has yields of 1.48 and ka2$ Ib/day/sq, mile,



respectively.






D.  Suspended Solids (Sediments)



         As indicated in the section of this chapter on BOD and DOj



the amount of suspended solids in Rock Creek at the D C 0 Line is

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                                                            VII - 14
                            TABLE VII - 8

              AVERAGE MONTHLY SUSPENDED SOLIDS LOADINGS
                      Rock Creek at District Line
                            1966 Water Year
Month
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
Average
Monthly*
Flow
(cfs)
49
11
14
2k
104
49
65
59
29
17
9
128
SUST
iSB/lj
10
3
14
64
29
10
14
30
20
21
19
62
tended Solids
 (Lb/day)
2,610
1,610
1,050
8,200
16,300
2,620
4,850
9,400
3,100
1*920
910
53,500
Monthly Average
24
8,84o
      *Flow for Rock Creek at Sherrill Drive

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                                                             11 - 15






a function of the rainfall intensity and resulting runoff.  In 1966 8




the highest suspended solids loadings were observed during the




months of February and September.  These were also the two high flow




months of the 1966 water year (See Table VII - 8).




         The average suspended solids in 1966, a low flow year, was




2k mg/1 as compared to k6 mg/1 for 19&7S which was an average stream




flow year.  At times Rock Greek is best described as "chocolate" in




appearance.  In 196? s about 15 pel-sent of the time the suspended




solids concentration was greater than 100 mg/1.




         From 1964 to mid 1968S there appears to be no significant




increase or decrease in suspended solids observed at the District




Line (See Figure 11 - 5)  Since Lake Frank was just recently com-




pleted , the effect of the two impoundments on the sediment control




program cannot be made at this time*






E.  Surfactants




         A limited number of surfactant determinations were made toy




the CFS and the FWPCA Research Laboratory at the Blue Plains facil-




ities in Washingtons D. C0? for two creek surveys in June and one




in October of 1966.  The October survey followed a report of



extensive foaming.




         The average surfactant concentrations for June 21 and 22




and individual values for the two other surveys are presented in




Table VII - 9  With one exception, the surfactant concentrations

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1.000
                   SUSPENDED   SOLIDS
                      MONTHLY  MEANS
                 Rock  Crk  at  District Lin*
                         1964- 1968
 500
 100
 50
  10
 1.0
          1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
                                                                    FIG. -SOT-5

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vii - i6


















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-------

-------
                                                             11 - 17






were significantly less than 1 mg/1* of ABS.  Tine limited data



indicate that foaming resulting from surfactants is not a continuous



water quality problem  Moreover9 if foaming does occur, it is



apparently caused by intermittent discharges



         In 196? and 1968, there were no reported incidents of



foaming.  This was probably due to the replacement of ABS by bio-



degradable ingredients in household detergents






F.  Biological Life



         Biological surveys of Bock Creek and its tributaries were



conducted in August 1966?-' and in February 1967   Investigations were



made at 16 stations on Rock Creek and at four stations on the tribu-



taries.



         Using bottom organisms as a primary indicator of biological



water qualitys the following were observed?



     1.  From Avery, Maryland9 to the small tributary east of



Rockville, Maryland, numerous minnows and clean-water bottom organisms



were observed indicating good water quality  From the tributary to



Viers Mill Village9 some degradation of water quality was noted,



but indicated water quality was generally good,,



     2.  Intermediate aquatic life was observed at Viers Mill



Village, indicating fair water quality
*The criterion for foaming is 1 mg/1.

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                                                             VII . 18






     3.  Clean water aquatic life, indicating good water quality,



was found from Garret Park, Maryland, to North Chevy Chase, Maryland.



     k.  Evidence of pollution increased in the lower portion of



the watershed.  Sparse clean-water genera at Rock Creek Recreation



Center indicated fair water quality, while intermediate and pollution-



tolerant genera in the reach from Beach Drive to "P" Street indicated



mild pollution.



     5.  Slash Run and "P" Street outfall sewers were contributing



organic pollution to Rock Creek.  Moderate to heavy pollution was



indicated from "P" Street to the Potomac River  Dominant bottom organ-



isms consisted of intermediate and pollution-tolerant genera.  Only



one bottom organism was found at the mouth of Rock Creek.



         In general, the bottom organisms indicate better aquatic



environment in Rock Creek above the Interstate ^95 Beltway than in



the lower portion of the basin.



         The biological survey in February of 196? indicated that the



pollutional status of Pock Creek remained essentially unchanged from



that of August 1966.

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                                                            VIII - 1






                             CHAPTER VIII




              POLLUTION ABATEMENT ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMS






A.  Wastewater Conveyance and Disposal




    1.  District of Columbia




        The sewerage systems of the Rock Creek watershed consist of




two independent systems as described in Chapter VI,  Above Piney




Branch (four miles above the mouth), the sanitary sewage and the




storm sewage are separated.  The sanitary system which serves the




District of Columbia above Piney Branch plus portions of Montgomery




County is carried to the Potomac Pumping Station in the main Rock Creek




interceptor, an "express" sewer which is kept independent of the com-




bined system.  This sewer will handle twice the average annual flow.




        Older sections of the city including the Piney Branch tribu-




tary area and areas to the South are on a combined sewer system.  The




combined sewer systems connect to their own interceptors along Rock




Creek.  These interceptors are designed to handle from 30 to 200 times




normal dry weather flow.  When rainfall exceeds these limits, overflow



to Rock Creek occurs.




        Separation of the old system is underway, but progress is




slow due to the magnitude of expenditures required.  Separation may




not be the best solution as untreated urban stormwater also contributes




to pollution.  In the past two years, separation has been carried out




in the Klingle Creek (277 acres) and Normanstone (2^1 acres) areas.




Separation is also carried out in urban renewal areas   Table VIII - 1




shows present status of acreage connected to each system.

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                                   TABLE VIII - 1

                         DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEWERED AREAS

                                ROCK CREEK WATERSHED

                                        1968
                                                                   VIII - 2
Sewer System
West Rock Creek
Diversion
East Rock Creek
Diversion
Main Rock Creek
Interceptor
Total
Separate
(Acres)
20
62
U,763
4,8*5
Combined
(Acres)
351
2,920
31
3,302
Sewerable
(Acres)
371
2,982*
u>79u*
8,1^7*
*Some of the acreage in the East Rock Creek Diversion as presented in
 Table VI - 1 is now connected to the Main Rock Creek Interceptor.
     The principal problem at the present time is the overflow of the

Rock Creek Sewers below "P" Street (one mile above mouth).   The two force

mains along the Potomac, which are to carry the flows from the two sewer

systems previously described, are not yet completed around the Lincoln Memorial

due to delays in final location of freeways.  Design of the mains is now

complete and ready for bids; construction should be completed in 24 months.

The force mains are to be installed deep enough to avoid conflict with

future freeway construction.

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                                                            VIII - 3






         Meanwhile sewage from Hock Creek is conveyed to the treatment



plant by an overloaded interceptor in Constitution Avenue.   This



sewer is surcharged to such an extent that dry weather flows often



overflow to Kock Creek below "P" Street.  Discharge from water cooled



air conditioners contribute to this problem  Upon completion of the



Potomac force mains and addition of two pumps to the station at



Roosevelt Bridges only flows above 30 times dry weather will over-



flow to Rock Creek; howevers the pumping station will handle only



five times dry weather with the remainder going to the Potomac River.



         Coliform counts below "P" Street should improve following this



construction.  Above "P" Street little improvement can be expected



until methods of handling of urban runoff have been developed.



         In September 1968, the D. C.  Department of Sanitary Engineering



conducted a field inspection of outlets along the Greek.  This resulted



in correction of several sewer leaks,  and recommendations for cleaning



storm drain outlets and repair of end walls.



     2.  National Zo@logical Park



         The sewers serving the National Zoological Park are divided



into four separate systems  Sanitary sewage from toilet facilities



and drainage from animal cages are discharged to the main Rock Creak



interceptor sewer.



         The runoff from animal pens and outdoor exhibit areas, which



formerly discharged to Rock Creak, is now conveyed to holding tanks



which discharge gradually (maximum rate 10 cfs) to the D0 C, combined

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                                                            111 - k






interceptor system.  The initial runoff from rain falling in the



exhibit areas will toe conveyed to the holding tanks; however, any



rainfall in excess of a storm to "be expected once in six months will



bypass to the storm sewers,



         The overflows from the wet moats and waterfowl ponds is



eventually to "be filtered and recirculatecL  Pending completion of



the rebuilding programs at the Zoo, some of this water is now dis-



charged either to the sanitaxy sewers or t Rock Creek following



temporary treatment.



         The storm sewers are used for the relatively uneontaminated



runoff from the park and picnic areass roof drains, and roads,,



         The program for improvements in the Zoo sewer system is



now about 80 percent completed,9 and no major wastes are now discharged



untreated to Rock Crek9 except wastes from outdoor animal pens fol-



lowing a heavy rainfall.
         The WSE'G has a five-year program for sanitary sewer expansion



including the facilities in Rock Greek -watershed.  The program calls




for expansion of the system in Crabbs Branch, BockvillBj, Olney., and



Brookville areas.  The storm sewer system is now the responsibility




of the Montgomery Department of Public Works.




         A program of sewer maintenance and inspection is also an




integral part of WSSC'g program,,  Immediately preceding the joint




inspection of all outfalls in 1966 by WSSC and FWPCA personnel, WSSC




conducted a two-month intensive program of sewer inspection and




repair, especially in the Coquelin Creek area.

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                                                            VIII - 5






         As a routine part of the maintenance and inspection program,




all trunk sewers are inspected and cleaned monthly.  In generals it




appears that the frequency of sewer overflow from structural failure




is very small when compared to failures caused "by vandalism.  This




is especially pronounced in park and recreational areas.






B.  Debris Removal and General Sanitation




         Trash and debris in the Creek and along its banks detract




from the scenic beauty of the Creek.  During the summer of 1968, the




Park Service together with FWPCAS the Army Corps of Engineers, and




D0 C. Government embarked on a major cleanup effort using young




workers hired for the summer.  Results were good, but each new minor




flood brought a new supply of debris downstream.  According to the




Park Service, the cleanup will continue on a more limited basis




using regular employees.




         The Park Service has considered the installation of chlorina-




tion facilities to make Lower Rock Creek safer for wading.  Studies



showed, however, that chlorine demand would be high during the




periods of high turbidity following each rain, so the project has




been deferred,






C.  Sediment Control Program




    1.  Sediment Control




        As indicated in Chapter IV, a comprehensive sediment control




program in Montgomery County is currently in effect.  Administered




by the Montgomery County Department of Public Works, with assistance

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                                                            111 - 6
by the WSSC, the Soil Conservation Service, Forest Service,




and Montgomery Soil Conservation District, the compulsory program




is to provide for the control of soil erosion, particularly in the




developing areas of the county.




         The program includes practical combinations of the following




technical principles which will provide effective sediment control




when skillfully planned and applied^




         a.   The smallest practicable area of land should be exposed




             at any one time during development.




         b.   When the land is disturbed,, the exposure of soil should




             be kept to the shortest practicable  period of time.




         c.   Temporary vegetation and/or mulching should be used to




             protect critical areas exposed during development.




         d.   Sediment basins (debris basins, desiIting basins9 or




             silt traps) should be installed and  maintained to remove




             sediment from runoff waters from land undergoing development,




         e.   Provisions should be made to accommodate effectively the



             increased runoff caused by changed soil amid surface




             conditions during and after development.




         f.   The permanent final vegetation and structures should be




             installed as soon as practicable in  the development




         g.   The development plan should be fitted to the topography




             and soils so as to create the least  erosion potential.

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                                                            VIII - 7





     2.  Sediment Removal



         In addition to the preventive program as outlined in the



previous paragraph,, one of the main functions of the two impoundments



is that of sediment trapping.  Preliminary analyses indicate that



the two impoundments are capable of removing about 80 percent of



the incoming sediment load.



         The impoundments and land treatment are designed to reduce



the flood water damage by 62 percent and reduce by 51 percent the



sediments delivered to the Potomac River by Rock Creek.  The struc-



tures are capable of handling all storms which have a frequency equal



to less than once-in-10-years.



     3.  Lake Needwood Project



         A research project by Bow Chemical'  is currently being



sponsored by MNCPPC to determine if it is possible to increase the



efficiency of Lake Needwood in removing sediment by the addition of



flocculents and determine if it has any beneficial effect on the



water and aesthetics in the impoundment.  Based on studies made in



1967 s the cost of the silt control by floccialents is $5.^3 pez acre



foot of water treated.  The FWPCA and Soil Conservation Service are



assisting in this project.



     k.  Hydrologic and Sedimentation Studies



         A ten-year study is currently being conducted by the SCS and



USGS "to develop, adapt, and evaluate conservation practices and



engineering design procedures to alleviate and to minimize the impact

-------

-------
                                                          VIII - 8






of urbanization on sediment and runoff production and transport,




and to improve and to modify sedimentation and hydrologic prediction




procedures on watershed areas being converted from rural to urban




areas."




         "The scope of study will include making detailed measurements




of sediment load and runoff ani interpretation of the data at several




locations in Rock Greek and Anacostia River Basins In Montgomery




County, and developing and evaluating conservation measures and




engineering procedures which will effectively reduce sediment and




runoff production."




         Information from this study will be extremely valuable in




evaluating the sediment control program in the Rock Creek watershed




Progress reports will be prepared periodically by the SCS.






D.  Besearch and Development Programs




         Rock Creek has been selected by the FWPOA as the location for




two research projects  A contract was recently negotiated with the




Dow Chemical Company for a pilot program of sediment control  A site




was selected on Rock Creek in late 1968s and a pilot plant will be




constructed.  Tentative location is near the D0 C0-Maryland Line,




Chlorination equipment will also be included in addition to the




coagulation and sedimentation facility,




         On June 29, 1968, the FWPCA entered into a contract with




Roy F  Westons Inc.s to evaluate methods for abating pollution from




combined sewer discharges,  Overflows from sewers in the vicinity of




26th and "0" Streets, Nc W., will be monitored and their effect of




water quality determined

-------

-------
                                                            VIII - 9






         Alternate methods for handling these overflows are to be



evaluated.  Some of the methods include underground storage, high



rate filtration, floceulation, separation of combined sewers, and



modifications to convey and treat entire flows at the present treat-



ment plant site.  Preliminary plans and specifications are to be



drawn up and cost estimates given.  Completion date for tMs project



is July 1969.

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                                                           IX - 1

                  DC.   BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Middle Atlantic
    Region, "Summary of Water Quality and Waste Outfalls, Rock Creek,"
    Charlottesville, Va., 1966.

2.  Department of the Interior,  "The Creek  and the Citys" Government
    Printing Office, Washington, D. C.,  196?.

3.  LaBuy, James L., "Biological Survey  of  Rock Creek," Federal Water
    Pollution Control Administration, Charlottesville, Va0,  1966.

U.  Montgomery Soil Conservation District,  "Work Plan for the Upper
    Rock Creek Watershed," Montgomery County, Md., August 1962.

5.  Katzer, M. F., and Pollack,  J.  W., "Lake Needwood Sedimentation
    Program," Dow Chemical Company, September 1967.

6.  District of Columbia Department of Sanitary Engineering, "Sewer
    Separation Program," Washington, D.  C., 1966.

7.  Greeley, Samuel A., Marston, Frank A.,  Requardt, Gustav  J0,
    "Report to D. C. Department  of  Sanitary Engineering on Improvements
    to Sewerage System," Washington, D.  C., February 28, 1957.

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                             FOREWORD






    The Patuxent River Basin, located between the burgeoning metro-



politan centers of Washington, D_C. and Baltimore, Maryland, is




anomalous with respect to other east coast basinsthere has



been little or no historical urban development within the basin.



In the past twenty years, this trend has been reversed.  The




Baltimore-Washington metropolitan complex is the fastest growing



metropolitan area in the nation and this rapid growth is having its



impact on the Patuxent Basin.  The rural character of the basin



is rapidly being replaced by urban, suburban, and industrial



development.  This transition has brought with it associated



environmental stresses.  Today, the Patuxent and its tributaries



face demands for more intensive uses.  Although water quality



degradation is currently restricted to local areas, rampant pop-



ulation and industrial growth will cause widespread water quality



degradation unless technically sound management practices are



implemented.



    The Patuxent is the largest river entirely within the State of



Maryland.  Its location between Baltimore and Washington makes it



readily accessible for extensive recreational use.  Also, the Patuxent



Ectuary is a valuable resource for the commercial harvesting of fin



and shellfish and is used extensively for sport fishing and boating.



The recognition of the considerable economic, social, and aesthetic



values of the Patuxent River has prompted Federal, State, and local



agencies to take an active role in the preservation of the water quality



of the basin.  In 1967, the Governor of Maryland established the

-------
Patuxent River Watershed Advisory Committee.  This committee, in



turn, formed the Patuxent River Technical Task Force to review



the current conditions and to develop proposals for preventing



the deterioration of the basin's values.



    Prior to the formation of the Task Force, the Federal Water



Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) had been analyzing water



quality problems in the basin and had developed a mathematical



model capable of predicting the river's response to various waste



loadings.  Because of this activity in the basin, FWPCA was invited



to participate in the study as a Task Force member.  Authority for



FWPCA participation is contained in Section 3(a) of the Federal



Water Pollution Control Act (PL 84-660) as amended.



    FWPCA agreed to cooperate by applying pertinent data to the



mathematical model to develop water quality management alternatives



for the Patuxent River Basin.  Since the Patuxent River is entirely



within the State of Maryland, the implementation of any waste water



management program (except for the estuary) is the responsibility



of the State, and Maryland intrastate standards would be the guiding



criteria in development of the alternatives.  However, the estuarine



portion of the river ie subject to interstate standards, and FWPCA



ie interested in insuring that any management plan proposed for the



free flowing portion of the river would also protect the water quality



of the estuary,



    FWPCA agreed to prepare a report which would evaluate the tech-



nical, aspects of water quality management and investigate various

-------

-------
alternatives, with associated costs, for achieving water quality



objectives in the basin.  Concurrently, the Patuxent River Tech-



nical Task Force was to prepare a companion report which would



evaluate related land use problems and propose ways and means for



implementing an overall water quality management program.  The



Task Force's report, "Patuxent River, Maryland's Asset-Maryland's



Responsibility" was published in July 1968,  Coordination and



cooperation between FWPCA and the Task Force was maintained through-



out the preparation of the Task Force's report.



    This report identifies current waste discharges and projects



future waste discharges in the basin; evaluates the effect these



waste loads have on the receiving waters; and proposes alternative



wastewater management programs for achieving and maintaining water



quality objectives in the basin.  If the present uses and the in-



evitable changes of the future are to be endured without the burden



of growing problems of water pollution, the people and their



representatives in government must institute prudent action



programsprograms supported by a public fully informed and aware



of the Patuxent's problems and alternative, solutions.  It is the



intent of this report to provide the State of Maryland with a



technical analysis of the current and projected water quality



problems in the Patuxent Basin and to make available to the State



a range of feasible alternatives for wastewater management.

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           MEMBERS OF PATUXENT BASIN TECHICAL TASK FORCE
       Maryland  State PlajflBAng PQp^lM^flli ** Chairman, Agency
                              Robert M. August
                                Leon Etzler

Chesapeake  Biological Laboratory           Maryland Geological
   Dr. Joseph A. Mihursky                    Harry Hansen

Maryland Deparlyaent of Forests             Marylan,d~Na1^ilQna]1 Capital Park
and Paries                                   a.id
   Edward  I.  Heath                           Robert Arciprete
                                              Jorge Valladares
Maryland Dep^rtffl^nt of Gaffle and            g^-^jjpore Regional
Inlapd Fj.sh                                 Cotinpi,!
   James Goldsberry                          Allen Leary
         State  Department of               jyfe^ryland State Roaflg
Health                                        John Lentz
   Thomas D. McKewen
   Alt.:  Charles  E. Gross

Maryland Department  of Watep               Tri-CouQty Couqc^l for Southern
Resources                                   Maryland
   James T. Allison                           William Anders
   Alt.:  Robert Pierce                       John Mills
          Charles  Hall
Maryland Deparlyaei^t of  Chesapeake          Washington Suburbaft
Bay Affairs                                 Ccamnl p s ion
   Frederick W. Gieling                      Dr. Alfred Machis
   Alt.:  Edgar H. Hollis                     Alt.;  Stephen Profilet

U.S. Anrrv                                   Washington Metropolitan Council
Fort George G. Meade                        of Governments
   George E. Cunningham                      Frank Price
   Alt.:  Gordon Remsburg                     Alt.s  Dr. John J. Lentz

                     Chesapeake F;Leld Station. FWPCA
                     U.S. Department of the Interior

Johan A. Aalto              Dr.  Leo J. Hetling         Dr. Norbert A. Jaworski

            Consul tftnt  to Maryland State PlanniTipr Dgpartment
                            Melvin E. Scheldt

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                         TABLE OF CONTENTS




FOREWORD                                                      Page




    A.  SUMMARY & RECOM/ENDATIONS                             1-5




Chapter




    I.  BASIN CHARACTERISTICS




        A.  DESCRIPTION                                        I~l




        B.  HYDROLOGY AND CLB/IATOLOGY                          1-3




   II.  WATER RESOURCES AND USE




        A.  WATER SUPPLY                                      II-l




        B.  FISHERIES                                         II-2




        C.  RECREATION                                        II-4




  III.  POPULATION AND WASTEWATER PROJECTIONS




        A.  POPULATION STATISTICS AND GROWTH                 III-l




        B.  WASTEWATER PROJECTIONS                           III-4




   IV.  FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY




        A.  STUDY AREA                                        IV-1



        B.  SOURCES OF POLLUTION                              IV-3



        C.  CURRENT WATER QUALITY AND TRENDS



            1.  Non-Tidal Waters                              IV-7




            2.  Tidal Waters                                  IV-22




    V.  FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS




        A.  WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND IMPLEMENTATION PLANS   V-l




        B.  INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS                         V-4

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                  TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Chapter                                                         Page

        C.  FLOW REGULATION POTENTIAL                             V-6

        D.  WASTEWATER TREATMENT POLICIES                         V-6

        E.  ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT METHODS                      V-8

   VI.  WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

        A.  WASTEWATER TREATMENT REQUIREMENTS                    VI-1

        B.  WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND
            SELECTION FACTORS                                    VI-18

        C.  ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT WITH DISCHARGE
            WITHIN THE BASIN                                     VI-21

        D.  ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT WITH DISCHARGE
            TO CHESAPEAKE BAY                                    VI-33

        E.  SELECTION OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM                     VI-35

  VII.  ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT PROGRAM

        A.  PLANNING ALTERNATIVES                               VII-1

        B.  REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE PLANS                         VII-9

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                   VIII-1

APPENDICES

    A.  FIGURES                                                  A-l

    B.  TABLES                                                   B-l

    C.  COST ANALYSIS                                            C-l
                                li

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                         LIST OF TABLES
                          Description                             Page

  1-1     Mean Monthly Precipitation and Air
          Temperatures                                               1-4

  1-2     Mean Annual Air Temperatures, Precipitation,
          and Snowfall for Selected Weather Stations                 1-5

  1-3     Surface Water Runoff Summary for Selected
          Stations                                                   1-6

 II-l     Major Surface Water Withdrawals                          II-l

 IIr-2     Resident Fishing and Hunting Licenses                    II-5

 It-3     Current Monetary Assessment of Water and
          Land Related Resources                                   II-7

III-l     Population Projections for Baltimore,
          Maryland and Washington, D0C0                           III-l

III-2     Population Trends and Projections Patuxent
          River Basin                                             IH-2

III-3     Projected Wastewater Volumes and Loadings               III-5

 IV-1     Zone Description                                         IV-1

 IV-2     1967 Operating Data for the Major Wastewater
          Treatment Plants                                         IV-4

  V-l     Designated Water Uses for Various Water Zones
          in the Patuxent River Basin                               V-3

 VI-1     Phosphorus Removal Requirements                          VI-4

 VL-2     Nitrogen Removal Requirements                            VI-5

 VI-3     Projected BOD Loadings                                   VI-7

 VI-4     Projected BOD Loadings by Zone                           VI-9

 VI-5     Projected BOD and Nitrogen Removal Requirements
          by Zones                                                 VI-14

 VI-6     Oxygen Demanding Material Requirements                   VI-15
                              iii

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                    LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Number               Description                                  Page

   VI-7    Population Projections for Lower Patuxent Basin          VI-16

   VX-8    Wastewater Treatment Plants, Existing, Proposed,
           and under Oonstruction in Lower Patuxent River Basin     VI-17

   VI-9    Cost Disposal to Chesapeake Bay                          VT-20

   VI-10   Current Design Capacity and Summary of Projected
           Wastewater Volumes for the Years 1980, 2000, and
           2020 Upper Patuxent River Basin                          VI-22

   VI-11   Alternate Wastewater Treatment Systems                   VI-27

   VI-12   Cost Summary of Modular Units for Plan A for
           Wastewater Treatment                                     VI-29

   VI-13   Cost Summary of Modular Units for Plan B for
           Wastewater Treatment                                     VI-30

   VI-14   Cost Summary of Modular Units for Plan C for
           Wastewater Treatment                                     VI-31

   VI-15   Cost Summary of Modular Units for Plan D for
           Wastewater Treatment                                     VI-32

   VL-16   Plan E, Cost of Disposal to Chesapeake Bay               VI-33

  VII-l    Cost Comparisons of Various Modular Sequences
           with Disposal within the Baein                          VII-3

  VII-2    Cost Summary of Alternative Plans                       VII-4

  VII-3    Subjective Evaluation of Water Quality
           Management Alternatives                                 VII-7

  VII-4    Compendium of Various Alternatives                      VII-9

  VII-5    Plan B-l                                                VII-11
                               iv

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                    LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Number               Descrilp-|4pn                                   Page


               APPENDIX TABLES

 B-l       Patuxent River - Survey Station Locations               B-2

 B-2       Patuxent Estuary - Survey Station Locations             B-4

 B-3       Mean Monthly and Design River Flows, USGS
           Gage                                                    B-5

 B-4       Mean Monthly and Design River Flows, Selected
           Stations                                                B-6

 B-5       Oysters, SoftsheQ.1 Clams, and Crabs Harvested
           by County                                               B-7

 B-6       Wastewater Service Area Projections                     B-8

 B-7       Waste Loading Projections for Service Areas             B-10

 B-8       County Population Projections                           B-14

 B-9       Inventory of Wastewater Discharges                      B-15

 B-10      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Patuxent River,
           July-August, 1955                                       B-20

 B-ll      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Patuxent River,
           March, 1967                                             B-21

 B-12      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Little Patuxent
           River, March, 1967                                      B-24

 B-13      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Patuxent
           River, July-August, 1967                                B-25

 B-14      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Little Patuxent
           River, July-August, 1967                                B-27

 B-15      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Patuxent River,
           September, 1967                                         B-29

 B-16      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Little Patuxent
           River, September, 1%7                                  B-31

 B-17      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Patuxent River,
           October, 1967                                           B-33
                                 v

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                   LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


                    Description                                   Page


          APPENDIX TABLES (Cont)

B-18      Summary of Stream Survey Data, Little Patuxent
          River, October, 1967                                     B-35

B-19      Recent and/or Current Water Quality  Surveys              B-37

B-20      Means and Extremes, Surface Water Temperatures,
          Patuxent Estuary                                         B-39

B-21      Potential Storage Locations, Middle  Patuxent  Basin      B-40

B-22      Low Flow Augmentation Potential Patuxent Basin          B-41

C-l       Plans A, B, C, and D, Secondary System Modular
          Cost for the Years 1970-2000                             C-2

C-2       Plan A - Coagulation  and Sedimentation Modular
          Cost for the Years 1970-2000                             C-4

C-3       Plan A - Ammonia Stripping Modular Cost for the
          Years 1970-2000                                          C-6

C-4       Plan A - Rapid Sand Filtration Modular Cost for the
          Years 1970-2000                                          C-8

C-5       Plan A - Grandular Carbon Adsorption Modular  Cost
          for the Years 1970-2000                                 C-10

C-6       Plan B - Coagulation  and Sedimentation Modular
          Cost for the Years 1970-2000                             C-12

C-7       Plan B - Ammonia Stripping Modular Cost for the
          Years 1970-2000                                          C-14

C-8       Plan B - Rapid Sand Filtration Modular Cost for
          the Years 1970-2000                                      C-16

C-9       Plan B - Grandular Carbon Adsorption Modular  Cost
          for the Years 1970-2000                                  C-18

C-10      Plan C - Coagulation  and Sedimentation, Ammonia
          Stripping,  Rapid Sand Filtration, and Grandular
          Carbon Adsorption Modular Cost for the Years  1970-2000   C-20
                               vi

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                   LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


                    Description                                  Page


          APPENDIX TABLES (CON'T)

C-ll      Plan D - Coagulation and Sedimentation, Ammonia
          Stripping, Rapid Sand Filtration, and Grandular
          Carbon Adsorption Modular Cost for the Years
          1970-2000                                               C-22

C-12      Cost of Connecting Interceptors for Plans               C-23

C-13      Bay Outfall Interceptor and Pumping Costs               C-24
                              vii

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            Treatment
                         LIST OF FIGURES


Somber                    Description

   1-1     Map - Patuxent River Basin                                I-2

 III-l     Population Projections, Cities and Counties             III-3

  IV-1     Map - Survey Station Locations                           ^-2

  IV-2     Water Quality Comparison, 1955, 1961, 1966               IV-9

  IV-3     Observed DO Profiles 1967                                IV-11

  IV-4     Observed Temperature, DO and BOD Data,  1967              IV-12

  IV-5     DO Distribution for Station 8                            IV-14

  IV-6     Observed Temperature, DO, BOD Data,  Little
           Patuxent River                                           I7~15

  IV-7     Observed TKN, PO^  and BOD Profiles,  1967                IV-16

  IV-8     Computed Phosphate Profiles and Stream Survey
           Data, 1967                                               I7-18

  IV-9     Observed TKN  and NO^NO^ Profiles, 1967                 IV-2Q

  IV-10   Nitrification Study                                      Iv-21

  IV-11   Observed Water Quality  Data, Patuxent Estuary
           at Lower Marlboro                                        IV-24

  IV-12   Observed Water Quality  Data, Patuxent Estuary
           at Lower Marlboro, 1962, 1964,  1966, 1967               IV-25

  IV-13   Observed Water Quality  Data, Patuxent Estuary,
           1964,  1966,  1967                                         ^-^

   IV-14   Patuxent River Estuary, Chlorophyll and Turbidity,
           NRI                                                      IV-28

   IV-15   Patuxent Estuary Nutrient  Survey,  CFS                   IV-29

    V-l    Proposed Modular Sequences for Advanced Waste
                                                                     V-10
   VI-1     Projected PO, Concentration Entering the Patuxent
            Estuary                                                 VI-3
                               viii

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                 LIST OF FIGURES  (Continued)


                  Description

VI-2     Projected  Inorganic Nitrogen Concentration
         Entering the Patuxent Estuary                        VI-6

VI-3     Wastewater Treatment Removal Zones                    VI-8

VI-4     BOD5 - Nitrogen Loadings in  Zone  I                    VI-10

VI-5     BOD5 - Nitrogen Loadings in  Zone  II                   VI-11

VI-6     BOD5 - Nitrogen Loadings in  Zone  III                 VI-12

VI-7     Plan A                                                VI-23

VI-8     Plan B                                                VI-24

VL-9     Plan C                                                VI-25

VI-10    Plan D                                                VI-26

VI-11    Plan E                                                VI-34



         APPENDIX A - FIGURES

A-i      Unregulated Mean Monthly and Design Flows

A-2      Annual Flow Duration Curves

A-3      Wastewater Service Areas

A-4      Schematic  of Mathematical Model

A-5      Monthly Uniform Use Rate WCCS Reservoirs
                             ix

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                    SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    The Patuxent River Basin, with its 930 square mile drainage



area, is the largest river basin entirely within the State of Mary-



land.  Except for a twenty mile reach of the Patuxent River down-



stream from Laurel, the water quality standards established for



the basin are being met.  However, the rapidly increasing pop-



ulation within the basin and the encroaching urban sprawl from the



Baltimore-Washington metropolitan complex is placing increasing



environmental stress on the river, and threatens to destroy the



utility of the entire river, including the estuary.



    Water quality standards have been established for both the



intrastate and interstate waters within the basin.  The adopted



standards are designed to protect the present, as well as the future



uses of the Patuxent River system.  Although the Patuxent is entirely



within the State of Maryland, the lower half of the river downstream



of Hardesty is classified as an estuary and, therefore, subject to



interstate standards .  The standards set by the state for the



estuary have been approved by the Secretary of the Department of



the Interior.



    The estuary is a valuable commercial fishing ground.  Annually,



the dockside value of the landings, including clams, oysters, and



crabs, is approximately $500,000.  There is a great recreational



potential.  It is estimated that current expenditures on recreational



pursuits in the basin exceed $6 million annually, and the proximity

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of the large recreational market area of Washington and Baltimore



indicates that this expenditure will increase significantly in



the future.  The upper basin is an important source of water supply



for Maryland suburban area of Washington, D.C.  Approximately 50



million gallons per day (mgd) are transported out of the basin



from the T. H. Duckett and Tridelphia Reservoirs by the Washington



Suburban Sanitary Commission.  Domestic use of surface water



within the basin amounts to 15 mgd.  An average of 720 mgd from



the estuary is used by the Chalk Point Power Plant for cooling



purposes.



    Eight municipal waste treatment facilities along a thirty mile



reach of the middle portion of the river serve a population of 110,



000 people and contribute over 97 percent of the total treated



wastewater discharged within the basin.  Even though all of the



major treatment facilities achieve 85 percent or better removal of



the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), water quality standards are



not being met in the Middle portion of the basin.  In the twenty



mile reach downstream of Laurel, high coliform densities and



dissolved oxygen concentrations of less than 4- mg/1 have been



observed.  Increased treated waste discharges in the middle basin



have been accompanied by an increased concentration of nutrients



(phosphorus and nitrogen) in the upper estuary resulting in excessive



algal blooms.



    Growths in population and volume of wastewater produced within



the basin are projected to increase rapidly through the year 2020.

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Population is expected to grow from the 1967 level of 230,000 to



1,131,000 by 2020.  The corresponding volume of wastewater produced



within the basin is expected to increase from 11 mgd to 117 mgd.



    Treated waste discharges are increasing the concentration of



nutrients, particularly phosphates and nitrates, in the middle



reaches of the basin and in the upper estuary.  The continued



discharge of wastes receiving secondary treatment only will result



in accelerated eutrophication, low dissolved oxygen levels, and



increased phytoplankton productivity.



    In order to meet the water quality objectives in the Patuxent



River basin, it will be necessary for all waste to receive a high



degree of nutrient removal.  By 1980, 96 percent of the phosphorus



and 95 percent of the nitrogen should be removed from the wastes



before discharge into the receiving waters.  By 2020, the required



removals of phosphorus and nitrogen will increase to 98 and 97



percent, respectively.  Similarly, the requirements for BOD removal



will increase from 95 percent in 1980 to 98 percent in 2020.



    The changing character of the basin, increasing population with



associated increasing waste loads coupled with the present over-



loading of some portions of the stream, dictate that a technically



sound management program be implemented in order to protect the



Patuxent River from further water quality degradation.  Waste loads



of the magnitude indicated above will not only degrade the water



quality of the free flowing portions of the river but threaten the



viability of the estuary.

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    In order to determine the roost feasible pollution abatement



alternative for achieving water quality objectives in the basin,



FWPCA investigated a number of wastewater management schemes,



including:



        1.  Flow augmentation



        2.  Waste treatment with effluent discharge within the basin.



        3.  Waste treatment with effluent discharge outside the basin.



        4.  Combinations of the above.



Based on costs, basin physical limitations, ability to utilize



technological advances, feasibility in financing, and legal and



social constraints; it was concluded that the water quality object-



ives of the basin could best be met by a high degree of wastewater



treatment with effluent discharge within the basin.  The most



advantageous way to achieve the degree of treatment required would



be by a modular design concept of a physical-biological-chemical



treatment sequence.  This approach allows for application of new



concepts and provides flexibility in adopting existing facilities



to advances in technology.  The system investigated consists of



secondary treatment followed by coagulation and sedimentation,



ammonia stripping, rapid sand filtration, and granular activated



carbon adsorption.



    Four basic plans for achieving advanced waste  treatment in



the basin were investigated.  In all the plans, it was assumed



that the capacity of the existing secondary treatment plants would



be utilized and that the advanced waste treatment (AWT) modules (or



components) would be added as needed.

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    The plans investigated were:



    Plan A - 9 secondary systems and 9 AWT systems



    Plan B - 9 secondary systems and 4 AWT systems



    Plan C - 9 secondary systems and 2 AWT systems



    Plan D - 9 secondary systems and 1 AWT system



    In Plans B, C, and D it would be necessary to pipe secondary



treated wastes to concentration points where advanced waste treat-



ment would be provided before discharge to the receiving waters.
    Based on cost considerations, flexibility to take advantage



of possible technological developments, and tangible and intangible



benefits; it is recommended that Plan B be adopted and implemented



in the Patuxent River Basin.  This plan would require that the



capacity of the nine existing secondary treatment plants be



expanded and that advanced waste treatment facilities be installed



at Laurel Parkway, Savage, Bowie-Belair and Western Barnch.  The



secondary treated effluents from the existing facilities would be



piped via intercepters to these four plants with AWT capacity.  The



estimated annual cost of Plan B would be $4.6 million and the



projected benefit/cost ratio could be as high as 3.2 to 1.

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                                                                 1-1
                            CHAPTER I








                       BASIN CHARACTERISTICS






A.  DESCRIPTION




    The Patuxent River Basin with a drainage area of 930 square miles,




is the largest river basin located entirely in the State of Maryland




(Figure I-l).  The headwaters of the Patuxent River are located in the




Piedmont area of Howard and Montgomery Counties, from which the river




flows in a southeasterly direction 110 miles before entering Chesapeake




Bay,  The river basin lies between the metropolitan areas of Washington,




D.Co and Baltimore8 Maryland, and forms a boundary for Howard, Montgomery,




Prince Georges, Anne Arundel, Calvert, St0 Mary's and Charles Counties.




    The narrow swift streams in the Piedmont physiographic province




widen and become sluggish as they cross the Fall Line and enter the




Coastal Plain province in the area of the communities of Laurel and




Savage.  Below the Fall Line, the river becomes progressively wider




and more sluggish until it enters the Patuxent Estuary,



    The Patuxent River Estuary is characterized by tidal influence and




salinity where the river blends with the bay,   The estuary extends upstream



from Chesapeake Bay to near Hardesty, a distance of about 56 miles.




During low flow periods increased salinity has been detected ^3 miles




upstream at Lyons Creek




    The Little Patuxent and Western Branch which have drainage areas




of 160 and 110 square miles are the two major tributaries of the




Patuxent River  The Little Patuxent has a major tributary, the Middle




Patuxent, which has a drainage area of 57 square miles

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                                                                                                1-2
PATUXENT  BASIN
                                                                                            FIGURE  I-l

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                                                                   1-3
B0  HYDROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY




    The hydrology and climatology of the basin are both under a combin-




ation of continental and maritime influences,  Climatologic and




hydrologic parameters are monitored at 20 UoS, Weather Bureau stations




and at 10 U,S,> Geological Survey stations (Appendices A-l, A-2),




    The mean annual air temperature within the basin ranges from




57.5F at Solomons to 5^6 F at Laurel,,  The mean monthly air




temperature at Laurel varies from a low of 33*7F in January to a



high of 75o9F in July.  The effect of Chesapeake Bay on air temperature




is indicated by the two or three degree increase in temperature at




Solomonso  Mean annual air temperatures for selected area stations




in the basin are presented in Table I-l,




    The total annual precipitation in the basin and surrounding area




varies from about 39 to hk inches per year with the maximum precipitation




occurring in July and Augusta  The mean annual snowfall ranges from




25 inches in the northern counties of the basin to about 15 inches in



the southern counties demonstrating the effect of Chesapeake Bay on



the hydrology of the baslnu  Additional snowfall data are contained



in Table 1-2




    The mean surface-water yield in the basin varies from a minimum of




0=8l2 cfs/square mile in the main stem of the Patuxent River at Laurel




to a maximum of 0,89^ cfs/square mile in the Little Patuaeent at Savage,




Data on seven days ten year low flows is presented in Table 1-3.




    Data on the monthly variation in flow throughout the river system




were compared with the seven day, ten year low flow design criteria of

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                                                                   1-4
                            Table 1-1






          MEAN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AND AIR TEMPERATURES




                                FOR




                   LAUREL AND SOLOMONS, MARYLAND
Precipitation
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Laurel
(inches)
3.17
2.83
3.63
3.6?
3.58
3.86
4.31
4.55
3.36
3.07
2.73
3.14
Solomons
(inches)
3.09
2.85
3.36
3.22
3.29
3.31
4.76
4.34
2.99
2.76
2.5^
2.78
Temperature
Laurel
(Deg.F)
33.7
34.5
U3.0
53.3
63.3
71.5
75.9
74.0
68.1
56.5
45.6
35.6
Solomons
(Deg.F)
36.9
37.2
45.0
54.7
65.4
73.8
78.4
77.2
71.7
60.7
49.4
39.4
Annual
41.90
?9.29
54.6
58.3

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                                                                  1-7






the State of Maryland in order to compute the design discharge data



and flow augmentation requirements for treatment facilities.  It was



determined that the seven-day low-flow design criteria used by the



State of Maryland was interchangeable with the thirty-day, twenty-



year low-flow design criteria used in the mathematical model for



predicting the effect of different waste loads on watercourses.  This



determination was based on data from the Patuxent River and by analogy



to other rivers with similar characteristics in the Middle Atlantic



States.



     Approximately 109 c^8 or twenty-five percent of the ^36 cfs



mean annual flow to the Patuxent Estua.ry (Figure I-l) originates in



the upper Patuxent River watershed controlled by two reservoirs owned



by Washington Surburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC)  The combined



storage capacity of the Tridelphia and T0 Howard Duckett Reservoirs



is 12.5 billion gallons of water.  From 1960 to the present, the



average annual water use by WSSC from the Tridelphia and T0 Howard



Duckett Reservoirs has varied from 65 to 75 cfs  About 93 percent



of the water withdrawn from the reservoirs is transported outside



the basin.

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                                                                  II-l
                             CHAPTER II
                      WATER RESOURCES AND USE




A.  WATER SUPPLY




    Of the approximately 15 mgd of water used for non-industrial-




cooling purposes in the Patuxent River Basin approximately two-




thirds is used for domestic use and the remainder for industrial




use.  In addition, about Uo to 50 mgd of water is transported for




domestic purposes to the Washington, B0C<, metropolitan area outside




of the basin by WSSC.




    An average of 500,000 gpm* of taline water is used for cooling at  the




Potomac Electric Power  Company Chalk Point thermal electric genera-




ting station  The Chalk Point facility is the largest single water




used in the basin




    Most of the water used for industrial and municipal purposes




within the basin is derived from four surface sources.  The following




table lists the agency responsible for withdrawing surface water, the



quantity of water withdrawn, and the surface water source



                             Table II-l



                  MAJOR SURFACE WATER WITHDRAWALS
Utility
Washington Suburban
Sanitary Commission
Fort George G0 Meade
Maryland House of
Correction
PEPCO Chalk Point Plant
Quantity (mgd)
UO-50
3.1
0,8
720
Source
T.H, Duckett and Tridel
phia Reservoirs
Little Patuxent River
Little Patuxent River
and Dorsey Run
Patuxent Estuary
*Gallons per minute

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                                                                 II-2
    The remaining water requirements are obtained from ground water

sources and are estimated to be about 5 mgd (3)   An insignificant

amount of water is used for agricultural purposes,

B.  FISHERIES

    1.  Finfish

    The Patuxent River Basin supports a substantial commercial

fishing industry.  There are approximately 160 species of fish in the

Patuxent River Basin exosystem of which the anadromous* and semi-

anadronous** species such as striped bass,, shad, white and yellow perch,

hickory shad, winter flounder, and herring are the most economically

significant,,

    Another group of commercially important species spawns and winters

outside of Chesapeake Bay and utilizes the Patuxent Estuary for a

nursery area and feeding ground  Included in this group of fish are

the croaker, spot,  silver perch, seatrout, and drum.



The annual commercial harvest from the Patuxent Estuary has varied

from 100,000 pounds in 19&5 to 800^,000 pounds in 1951,-  The dockside

value of the average annual harvest has been estimated to be $120,000
*  Anadromous - fish which spend most of their lives in the ocean and
   ascend fresh water streams and rivers to spawn,

** Semi-anadromous - fish which spend most of their lives in a brackish
   water and ascend fresh water streams to spawn,

-------
                                                                  H-3
    2.  Oysters



    Oysters are indigenous to the lower half of the Patuxent Estuary.



Approximately lU,800 acres out of a total of 27,000 acres in the lower



half of the estuary are capable of oyster production (l).



    The Patuxent Estuary is considered prime shellfish water, yielding



oysters "fat" and outstanding in quality.  In only one section, about



5 acres near Solomons Island Harbor, is harvesting restricted due to



high bacteriological counts in the estuary.



    Table B-5 presents the annual production and volume of the oysters



harvested in the Patuxent Estuary since the 1963-196^ period.



    Assuming the yield is to be about 300 bushels per acre (only one-



tenth that of some areas of record) for the 1U,800 acres currently



being utilized in the Patuxent Estuary, the yield could conceivably



be U,UOO,000 bushels with a dockside value of $17,000,000 (l).



    3.  Clams



    Soft clams, like oysters, have been idigenous to Chesapeake Bay



and occur in the same general areas.  Only in recent years, however,



have they been harvested commercially and the resource far exceeds the



demand.  The Maryland Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs (MDCBA) is



making an effort to promote a market for the potential yield of U6,000



bushels annually at an estimated value of $1+0,000 (l).



    k.  Crabs



    The lower Patuxent Estuary is a favorable habitat for the growth



of blue crabs.  As juveniles, the young crabs feed and grow in the



estuary before completing their life cycle at the mouth of the bay.

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                                                                 II. k
    The annual harvest of crabs; hardshells softshell and peelers,




was about 700,000 pounds in 1966 with a dockside value of around $U8,000




(Appendix B-5)  Recreational fishermen in the Patuxent Estuary in 1963




caught an estimated U3,000 pounds of crabs,




C.  RECREATION




    Recreational activities in the Patuxent River Basin includes frdsh




and tidal sport fishing, boating, hunting, swimming and picnicking




    1.  Tidal Sport Fishing




    Studies of sport fishing in the Patuxent Estuary have been made by




Elser and by Sheare, et0aj.o (U,5)o  Based on their findings, it has




been estimated that over 71,000 fishing trips were made to the estuary




in 1963 from which fisherman obtained about 180,000 pounds of fisho




Excluding the cost of the boats and permanent tackle, the annual




expenditure for sport fishing in the estuary was estimated to be about




$500,000 in 1963 (!)<,



    Recreational fishing studies as reported by Hollis (l) have indicated



a 5 to 7 percent annual    increase in the recreational activities




in this area.  It has been projected that by 1980 over 200,000 fishing




trips will be made to the estuary annually with expenditures well




over $1,000,000o




    2   Fresh Water Fishing and Hunting




    An estimated 35,000 fresh water fishermen In the vicinity of the




Patuxent River Basin spend over $3,000,000 annually on equipment




and supplies related to fishing.  Table II-2 gives the statistics on




fishing and hunting licenses.

-------
                                                                  H-5
                            Table II-2

              RESIDENT FISHING AND HUNTING LICENSES*
                           1966 - 1967

                                                 County Resident
                         Fishing License         Hunting License
County                   	Sales	         	Sales	

Howard                      1,0^9                      ?8l

Montgomery**               15,253                    3,139

Anne Arundel                6,1+39                    U,09^

Charles**                     718                    2,989

St. Marys**                   829                    2,636

Calvert                       10U                    1,^91

Prince Georges**           12,101                    3,930
                           36,493                   19,060
*  Source:  Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish

** Note:    Fishing probably divided between Patuxent and Potomac
            River watersheds

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                                                                 II-6
    The 19,060 resident hunters in the Patuxent River Basin spend



approximately $1.5 million each year on their sport.  The above spending



does not include those who are not required to purchase a license nor



those who purchased a statewide hunting permit,,



    3.  Boating



    At the present time there are about 22 marine facilities in the



Patuxent Estuary primarily between Solomons Island and Benedict.



These marinas offer slips and moorings to accommodate about 900 boats,



launching areas for snail boats, and boat rentals.  Of the 29,000



pleasure boats in  the State of Maryland, approximately 2,700 are



harbored in the Patuxent Estuary,  An annual expenditure for pleasure



boating in the Patuxent Estuary has been estimated to be $1,000,000 (l)o



    k.  Swimming Picnicking, etc,



    While there are limited public recreational areas in the estuary,



there are numerous small private areas which are used for such



recreational pursuits as swimming and picnicking.  Scuba diving has



attracted a large number of participants interested in sport fishing,



oystering and clamming.  The lower Patuxent areas are becoming in-



creasingly attractive for permanent and summer homes for many



Washington, D.Co area workers (l)0




    Current monetary assessment of water and land related resources



in the Patuxent River Basin is presented in Table II-30

-------
                                                                 II-7
                            Table II-3

  CURRENT MONETARY ASSESSMENT OF WATER AND LAND RELATED RESOURCES
                       PATUXENT RIVER BASIN
          Uses

Water Supply

  Municipal
  Industrial
  Agricultural

Commercial Fishing

  Fin Fish
  Oysters
  Softshe11 Clams
  Crabs

Recreation

  Sport Fishing - Tidal
  Sport Fishing - Non-tidal
  Hunting
  Pleasure Boating
  Swimming, Picnicking

  Total
Annual Dollar Value
    Undetermined
    Undetermined
    None
$   120,000*
    300,000*
      6,000*
     IfS.OOO*
$   l7lt,000
 1,000,000**
 3,000,000**
 1,500,000**
 1,000,000
 Undetermined

 6,500,000
     * Dockside value from Table V-2

    ** Annual expenditures

       Source - Appendices, Ref. (l)

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                                                                III-l
                           CHAPTER III


               POPULATION AND WASTE WATER PROJECTIONS


A.  POPULATION STATISTICS AND GROWTH

    The population of the Patuxent River Basin increased from

35,000 in 19lK) to over 13^000 in 1960   The rapid growth of

population in the basin resulted primarily from the rapid outward

expansion of suburban development between the Baltimore and

Washington areas.  For example, in the period from 19^0 to 1956

Prince Georges, Montgomery and Anne Arundel Counties were ranked

third, fourth and thirteenth among the fastest growing SMSA counties

in the United States 

    The growth of the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA)

of Baltimore and Washington are presented below in Table III-l 


                            Table III-l

          POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR BALTIMORE, MARYLAND
                       AND WASHINGTON, D.C,
                      1960       1262      12SQ      2QQ&       2020

Baltimore, Md.     1,727,023  1,829,700  2^00,000  3,000,000  3,700,000

Washington, D.C,,   1,989,377  2,h2k>6&^  3,300,000  U,000,000  5,200,000

Total              3,716,400  !*, 25^385  5,700,000  7,000,000  8,900,000

-------
                                                              III-2
    The National Planning Association (NPA) developed the county and

SMSA population projections for the Patuxent River Basin area as

part of an overall economic base study for the Chesapeake Bay drainage

area.  Population projections developed by the Maryland State Planning

Department (MSPD) are almost identical to NPA's projections for

the Baltimore SMSA,

    The county is the basic geographic unit used in this study for

wastflwater load projections.  Population projections from both the

NPA and MSPD were used in developing the wastewater load projections.

    Each county within the basin was divided into wastewater service

areas (Appendix Figure A-3) .  Service area designations were based on

the following?  the Patuxent Regional Sewerage Report of 1961 (26),

water and sewerage master plans for Howard and Anne Arundel Counties

(27), (28) and current waste discharge points.

    A summary of the basin population trends and projections is given

below in Table III-2 and in Figure III-10


                           Table 113^2

               POPULATION TRENDS AND' PROJECTIONS,,*
                       PATUXENT RIVER BASIN

         Year                             Population
                                              35,000
         1950                                 52,000
         1960                                13^,000
         1967                                230,000
         1980                                1*00,000
         2000                                670,000
         2020                              1,131,000

   The part of Montgomery County served by the Washington, D.C
   facility is excluded.

-------

-------
                              POPULATION  PROJECTIONS
   6.000

   5,000

   4.000

   3.000



   2.000
Q
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1,000
 900
 800
 700
 600

 500

 400


 300
    200
    100
     90
     80
     70
     60

     50

     40


     30
     20
     10
                                                                                         III-3
                               MNT MARY'S
                                                  PRINCE (iEORGES COUNT
                                         :OUNTY
                                            -"CALVE
                                               LVERT COU ITY
                                                                           COUN
                                                                    CARROLL C'
50RTT
                   I960
                                          1960
                                                                  2000
                                                                                         2020
                                               YEAR
                                                                                  FIGURE  IE -\

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-------
    The projections for the individual wastewater service areas are




presented in Table B-6.



B.  WASTEWATER PROJECTIONS



    Wastewater service areas were divided to reflect current and



future discharge points.  The waste loads from Maryland City were



distributed between the existing Maryland City and Maryland House



of Correction plants;  and the Fort Meade loads, between existing



plants Nos. 1 and 2,  The waste loads from Bowie-Horsepen and U.S.



Government land were combined into one discharge near the confluence



of Horsepen Branch.



    Current flow rates and BOD loadings (Table B-7) from each waste



treatment facility were used in projecting future waste volumes an*



loads.  It was assumed for the purpose of projecting waste loads



that the population served by public sewers would be the same population



residing in water service areas.  The populations of the Patuxent



River Basin to be served by municipal waste treatment facilities,



waste volumes, and BOD Loadings for the year 196? and the design



years are presented in Table III-3.

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                            Table III-3

             PROJECTED WASTEWATER VOLUMES AND LOADINGS
                                                                 III-5

Year
1967
1980
2000
2020

Population
Served
118,000
Uoo,ooo
670,000
1,131,000

Waste
Volumes
(mgd)
11
Ul
68
117

BOD
Loadings
(iba/day)
17,^00
6^,300
101, Uoo
178,700
Total*
Phosphorus
as POU
(its/day)
2,500
8,700
lU,300
2k,kOO
Total**
Kjeldahl
Nitrogen as N
(ibs/day)
1,200
5,^00
9,UOO
15,300
*  Based on 1967 waste treatment effluent sampling data, the phosphorus
   data presented above are projected as a linear function of population,

** Based on a 1966-1967 sampling survey of 20 wastewater plants in the
   Potomac and Patuxent Basins (31*).  Average effluent of TKN as N
   concentration of 17.0 mg/1.

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                                                               IV-1
                           CHAPTER IV

                 FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY


A.  STUDY AREA

    For purposes of analysis, the Patuxent River Basin has been

divided into three regions?  upper, the area above the Fall

Line|  middle, the area below the Fall Line to Wayson's Corner;

and lower, the estuary or tidal portion of the basin.  The middle

and lower regions have been further sub-divided into four zones,

as follows:

                           Table IV-1

                        ZONE DESCRIPTION

Zone                                       Description

  I                          Main stem of Patuxent River from T.H.
                             Duckett Reservoir to confluence with
                             Little Patuxent River

 II                          Little Patuxent River from Savage to
                             confluence with main Patuxent River

III                          Main stem of the Patuxent River from
                             the confluence with the Little Patux-
                             ent River to River Mile UU.O*  below
                             the confluence with Western Branch

 IV                          Patuxent Estuary from River Mile kh.O*
                             to Chesapeake Bay

    A schematic diagram of the middle basin, consisting of Zones I,

II, and III and for which a mathematical water quality simulation

model was developed, is exhibited in Figure A-U.


* River miles are numbered upstream from the mouth.

-------

-------
                                                                            IV-2
                         (15)
                        C 19 40
PATUXENT   RIVER   BASIN
       MARYLAND
                                                                   FIGURE   IV- I

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-------
                                                                 IV-3
    All  of Zone  IV and the lower part of Zone III up to river mile

 56.0*  at New Queens Bridge is considered tidal by the State of

 Maryland (lU) and is thus designated as interftate water.  The

 remaining portion of Zone III and all I and II are non-tidal lying

 within the State of Maryland and as such are designated as intrastate

 waters.

 B  SOURCES OF POLLUTION

    lo   Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    There are currently about 60 wastewater discharges in the Basin

 (Table B-9)0  Excluding the cooling water discharge of about 720 mgd

 from the PEPCO*plant, the remaining facilities which discharge wastes

 serve  approximately 110,000 people and discharge about 10 mgd with a

 BOD before treatment of approximately 17>kOO pounds per day.  The

 196? operating data for the 15 major facilities, as presented in Table

 IV-2,  show that  most of the plants currently have 85 per cent or

 greater  removal  of 5-day BOD,,

    As can also  be seen in this table, eight plants, the largest

 being  the Laurel Parkway facility, contribute over 97 per cent of the

 total  sewage load..  The remaining loads come from numerous small

 discharges such  as trailer parks  The nutrient loading from all of

 the waste treatment plants in the Basin was determined to be about

 2,500  pounds per day of total Kjeldahl nitrogen as nitrogen.

    There are no significant organic industrial waste water discharges

 in the Basin  The Naval Academy Dairy and the Maryland - Virginia

 Milk Producers Association, with effluents of less than 0.02 mgd,


* River miles are numbered upstream from the mouth.
 **PEPCO  - Potomac Electric Power Company located at Chalk Point, Maryland

-------

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-------
                                                                 IV-6
discharge into tributaries of the Little Patuxent River and have no

noticeable effects on the main stem of the Patuxent River.  The

eight sand and gravel operations located in the basin add to silt

loading, especially in the reaches near and below the confluence

of the Middle Patuxent and Little Patuxent Rivers.  The effects of

the  silt loading and the cooling water discharges are discussed

later in this chapter.

     2.  Land and Urban Runoff

     The study of land runoff was mainly limited to the middle and

lower areas, since most of the wastewater discharges occur in these

areas.  Data reports on the remaining areas have been prepared by

Allison (6), (7), (8), (9).

     The land runoff or no-point-source pollution in the upper reaches

of the main stem have some effect on the water quality in Zone I

at Laurel.  This effect is minimized by two water supply impoundments

on the upper reaches of the Patuxent River.  The discharge from T.H.

Duckett Reservoir, the lower impoundments, contains about 2.0 mg/1*

of BOD and has coliform counts usually less than 1,000 MPN** per 100

milliliters.

    Urban runoff from the Laurel area adds about 1.0 mg/1 of BOD

making the total about 3.0 mg/1,  A significant increase in bacteriologi-

cal  pollution with MPN/100 ml counts from ^,000 to 2^0,000 is the primary

effect of urban runoff.  Urban runoff at Laurel, as measured at station


*   mg/1 = milligrams per liter
**  MPN/100 ml = most probable number per 100 milliliters

-------
                                                                 IV-7
15  (Table B-l), including storm drains, WSSC backwash water, and street




washings also  contains small concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen




(Appendix Tables B-ll, B-13, and B-15).




    Very low organic pollution loadings are detected in the Patuxejit




River at Savage as a result of land runoff to the Middle and Little




Patuxent Rivers,  The quality of water in the Patuxent at Savage is




good with BOD's about 20 to 30 mg/l9 BO'a near saturation, and low




concentrations of nutrients




    During the summer surveys of 196?, conducted by Chesapeake Field




Station, it was fairly well established that swampy areas between




Laurel and the confluence with the Little Patuxent River were not




adding any significant BOD, phosphorus, or nitrogen loading to the




system.




    Runoff from urban and agricultural areas during the summer




months contributed 28 per cent of the BOD loading to the system



with a relatively significant amount of nutrients  The BOD loading




is typical for an urban-agricultural area,,



C.  CURREHT WATER QUALITY AHD TREHDS



    1.  Non-tidal Waters




    Since 1955, the sewered population of the basin has increased




fourfold from 25,000 to the current population of 110,000.  The




wastewater from the Laurel,, Eclair, Maryland City, and Patuxent




wastewater treatment plants increased twofold from 1963 to 1966,




This rapid increase in population has had an adverse affect on water




quality in the Patuxent Basin, especially in the middle region of the




basin which receives the major portion of the waste discharges.

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                                                               IV-8
    The effect of an increasing wastewater loading on water quality in



the main portion of the Patuxent River Basin is illustrated in Figure



IV-2.  The years 1955, 196l, and 1966 were chosen for illustrative



purposes because the flows and temperatures, the major factors effecting



the assimilative capacity of the stream, were very similar in these



years.  The two large increases in BOD in 1966 were from the Laurel



and Belair waste treatment plants and possibly including drainage



from the sanitary landfill at Belair.  Similar comparisons were made



by Allison (l8) for the summer surveys of 1964, 1965, and 1966.



Although the stream flows varied considerably for each survey, the



data indicated two distinct dissolved oxygen depressions in the system;



one below the waste treatment plant at Laurel and one below the waste



treatment plant at Belair.



    Four intensive stream surveys were conducted in 196? by the Chesa-



peake Field Station of the FWPCA in conjunction with the MDWR and MDH.



A sunmary of the data from each survey is given in Appendix Tables



B-ll through B-l8.  A detailed discussion and comparison of the 196?



sampling data is given belows



    a.  Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen



        The primary source of carbonaceous BOD in the system, as



indicated in the previous chapter, is from wgstewater discharges.



Urban and land runoff is of secondary importance.  The BOD loading



in Zone I and II is about 1,700 pounds per day.  In the main stem of



the Patuxent River the loading from the Laurel and Belair plants in



1967 was 330 and 320 pounds per day, respectively.  The major loadings



in the Little Patuxent were from Fort Meade No. 2, Fort Meade No. 1,

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                                                                                                      IV-9
o
(O
QC
5 f 2
8 is
o

o:
UJ

I
                                        (|/6ui)oa
                                                               ui) aoa
                                                                                             FIGURE  IV-2

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                                                              IV-10
and the Maryland House of Correction plants with loadings of 370,



270, and 250 pounds per day.



    Assuming a BOD of 3.0 mg/1 and an average summer monthly flov



of 10 cubic feet per second, the combined BOD loading from the



T.H. Duckett Reservoir and the Laurel area is about 160 pounds per



day.  Also assuming a summer flow of 30 cfs* and a BOD of 2.0 mg/1



at Savage, the BOD loading from runoff in the Little Patuxent is



320 pounds per day.  Runoff from the downstream areas adds an



additional 200 pounds per day.  The ratio of the BOD contribution



from land and urban runoff to BOD in the wastewater is about 1 to




2.5.



    The effect of the additional wastewater loadings on the DO in the



main Patuxent can be seen in Figure IV-3.  The two DO depressions



were more prominent during the July-August survey than during the



September or October surveys.  During the September survey the flow from



the T.H. Duckett Reservoir was 39 cfa, a threefold increase from the



July-August survey;  and in the October survey, corrective actions



on the sanitary land fill has been initiated.



    The second DO depression below Belair, which is reduced somewhat



by the flow of the Little Patuxent, has a much slower recovery due



to the sluggish condition of the river in this reach.  As can be



seen in Figure IV-U, the DO levels for the summer months in the



Patuxent at the John Hanson Highway Bridge are already below 5.0



(15) mg per 1.  The monthly distribution for May, June, July, August,





*  cfs = cubic feet per second

-------
                                                                                                                                      IV-11
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                               (|/6ul)OQ
                     (l/6vu) oa
                                                                                                                             F I G U R i."

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                                                                                               IV-12
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-------

-------
                                                                IV-13
and October of 196? indicated mean monthly DO values of 7.^, ^.6,

*K5, 5.0, and 5.8 mg/1 (Figure IV-5).

    The DO in the Little Patuxent above the wastewater discharges

of Fort Meade was, on the average, greater than 6.5 mg/1 in the

summer months of 1967 (Figure IV-6).  In the sections below the

discharges, the average DO in the summer months was about 5.5

mg/1.  Similar DO concentrations were observed during the 19&7

summer survey of the Chesapeake Field Station (CFS) as summarized

in Tables B-ll through B-l80

    To determine the amount of BOD being contributed from the swampy

area below the confluence of the Patuxent and Little Patuxent

Rivera an intensive survey was conducted in September of 1967.  The

survey showed no significant amount of BOD being contributed from the

swampy area.  However, as shown in Figure IV-7, data from the survey

indicated;  (l)  that most of the total phosphorus and total Kjeldahl

nitrogen was coming from the wastewater effluent;  (2)  that the

sanitary landfill below Belair was contributing about 600 pounds of

BOD per day;  (3)  that very little BOD was coming from the land

runoff between Laurel and Belair;  and (k)  that the highly chlorinated

effluents were causing a growth lag in the BOD analysis.

    At stations immediately below the effluents, the BOD* values, which

were not corrected for chlorination effects, were less than at stations

above the discharges.
*  As shown in Figure IV-7, the interpreted BOD values were used in model
   verification since the phosphorus and TKN parameters and subsequent
   sampling indicated that BOD determinations of grab samples were
   greatly affected by chlorination

-------

-------
                                              IV-U
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                                              FIGURE  IV -5

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                                                                                                           IV-15
r~j.     >*j

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                                                                                                   FIGURE   i v

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                                                            IV-16
, _  -_^  -(
1

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                   I   	
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                                                    FIGURE  IV- 7

-------

-------
                                                               IV-17
Similar effects of chlorinated wastewater effluent samples, not



corrected for chlorination, were observed during this survey.



    b.  Nutrients and nitrogenous oxygen demand



        About 2,500 pounds per day of phosphorus is discharged into



the middle reaches of the Patuxent Basin as a component of the



wastewater effluents.  The contribution from urban and land runoff



during the summer months at Laurel, Savage, and downstream areas



is about 6, 15, and 10 pounds per day respectively



    The total nitrogen loading in the wastewater effluents is' about



1,350 pounds per day.  The load contribution at Laurel, Savage, and



downstream areas during the summer months is about 110, 120, and 80



pounds per day.



    It appears from nutrient data obtained in 196? that over 99 per



cent of the phosphorus and 85 per cent of the total nitrogen



contributions are from the wastewater effluents with the remainder



from land and urban runoff.



    The large increase of TKN and N02+ NO^ observed during the August



196? survey was also attributed to treated wastewater effluents.  The



concentration of phosphorus decreases (Figure IV-7 and IV-8) downstream



from the points of discharge as a result of the utilization of phosphorus



or its absorption by sediments in the stream bed.  The loss of phosphorus



to aquatic vegetation or sediments has been expressed mathematically



and a model capable of predicting phosphorus concentration has been



developed, (ll).



    TKN concentrations in the portion of the river between Laurel



Parkway and Bowie-Belair waste treatment plants decreased considerably

-------

-------
                                                                                                      IV-18
<
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a
o
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o
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                                       J.N3Xni*d 1 HilM  JNOD
         8
         -*
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                                                       SV   SnyOHdSOHd   IVJ-Oi
                                                                                          FIGURE   IV-8

-------

-------
                                                               IV-19
followed by a simultaneous increase in NC^+NOg nitrogen (Figure IV-9).

The natural oxidative process of converting TKN nitrogen to NO^NO?

nitrogen results in a nitrogenous oxygen demand.

    In 1968, MDWR (20) in a cooperative study with FWPCA demonstrated

that the oxidation of NHj to NOj is a major factor in the DO balance

in this reach.  This can be readily seen in Figure IV-10 in that the

DO depression below River mile 72 results mainly from the nitrogenous

and not from the carbonaceous demand as measured by the total carbon

(TOC).  Similar observations have been made in studies on the highly

nutrient loaded Potomac (12) and Thames Estuaries (l3)

    c.  Bacterial indicators

        The four reaches with high bacterial pollution are  (l)

the main stem of the Patuxent River below Laurel, (2)  Dorsey Run

below the Maryland House of Correction, (3)  Towser Run below the

Naval Academy Dairy and (U)  the main stem of the Patuxent River

near Wayson's Corner.  In these areas coliform counts of over 10,000

and IS. coli* counts of over 300 MPN/100 ml were observed during July

and August.  Extremely high counts of E. coli  (over 9,000) were

detected below Laurel and counts of over 80,000 E. coli in the Little

Patuxent below Dorsey Run.  High E. coli counts (over 60,000) were

also observed in Tonrser Branch below the Harm! Academy Dairy in

the October surrey of 1967.

    d.  Biological indicators

        A biological survey of the upper and middle Patuxent River

Basin was made by the FWPCA in 196? (lU),  The purpose of the survey

* Maryland state standards for the Patuxent River and tributaries
  limit the fecal coliform (E. coli) counts to a maximum of 2UO MPN/100 ml.

-------

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                                                                                                           IV-20
                                                                                                  FIGURE   IV - 9

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     5-
     3-
   v
   ?
     2-
      NITRIFICATION    STUDIES
           PATUXENT   RIVER
             OBSERVED  DATA
                           AUGUST  1967
                                                                          IV-21
                                I     I     I
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     5-1
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                                                              IV-22
was to supplement existing chemical and bacteriological data on the



upper and middle basin.  Benthic organisms were sampled at 35 stations



in the study area,



    2.  Tidal Waters



    The estuarine portion of the Patuxent River Tories in width from



less than 200 feet near Wayson's Corner to over 2 miles at its confluence



with the Chesapeake Bay.  The average water depth varies from 10 feet



at Wayson's Corner and 37 feet at Benedict Bridge to 120 feet at



Solomons.  The average tidal ranges for Nottingham, Benedict Bridge,,



and Solomons are 2.5, l9j and 1-2 feet respectively.,



    The water quality and ecology of the Patuxent Estuary have been



extensively studied by the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory (CBL)



of the Natural Resources Institute of the University of Maryland



since the late 1930's.  During the past decade various cooperative



studies by the USGS, CBL, MDWR, FWPCA, and other agencies have been



conducted in the Patuxent Estuary.  Recent activities in the estuary



were initiated primarily to determine the effect of thermal discharges



from the PEPCO plant on the water quality and ecology of the estuaries,



    Appendix Tables B-U through B-9, B-ll, B-12, and B-1^ through B-19



summarize all surveys, studies.} and research activities related to



water quality in the Patuxent River Basin,,



    a.  BOD and DO concentrations



        There was only a small difference in dissolved oxygen



concentrations for a given sanrpLing course at the various mile points



throughout the middle and lower parts of the estuary.  No significant



trends toward increased or decreased dissolved oxygen levels are



evident for the period from 1962 to 1967,  The dissolved oxygen

-------

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                                                               IV-23
concentrations in the estuary at Lower Marlboro vary from about



6.0 mg/1 in the summer to about 12 mg/1 in the winter (Figures



3V-11 and IV-12).



    The annual distribution of BOD in the estuary at Lower Marlboro



varies from 1.0 to U.O mg/1 with the higher concentrations occurring



during winter and spring flows.  The BOD of the upper estuary near



Wayson's Corner varies from about 2.0 to 6.0 mg/1.



    In the upper part of the estuary below Wayson's Corner dissolved



oxygen levels below U.O mg/1 have been observed during the summer



months of 1968 and 1969.  Water quality in this area is often below



the DO standard of 5.0 mg/1.  The Western Branch Sewage Treatment



Plant of WSSC which is under construction will be discharging into



this reach.



    b.  Nutrients and Chlorophyll



        In the past four years the amount of nutrients (phosphorus



and nitrogen) being discharged into the Patuxent River system has



increased more than twofold in the non-tidal portion of the Basin,,



This increased loading to the system has been reflected in increased



concentrations of nitrates in the estuary (Figure IV-13).   The



concentrations of phosphate as POj^ at the various sampling stations



in the estuary Indicates a twofold increase in phosphorus  as P for



the month of August from 1964 to 1967.  The 196? levels of phosphorus



in the estuary varied from about 0.5 mg/1 in the upper portions of



the estuary to about 0.25 mg/1 in the lower portions.



    A similar trend of increasing nitrates can be seen for August in



the same figure.  The organic nitrogen, while exhibiting a base

-------

-------
                                                                                               IV-24
_

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-------

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                                                                                                           IV-26
I
b   S 
<   5 
3   ft I
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                                                                                  X  +
                                                                                                                     i
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                                                                                          -   a/H    o
                                                                                        N390M1IN OINVSdO
                                                                                                   FIGURE   IV- 13

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                                                               IV-27
concentration in the lower portion of the estuary, does not follow




the trend increasing nitrate and phosphorus concentrations.



    Mihursky et.al. (15, 19 and 20) has studied various biochemical,



physical, and ecological aspects of the lover estuary.  Although



no known nuisance algae problems presently exist in the lower estuary



the standing crop of algae, as measured by chlorophyll extraction,



is greater in the upper portion of the lower estuary where the



nutrient levels are the highest (Figure IV-lU).  Although the



chlorophyll data from 1966 to 196? have not been completely analyzed,



they indicate that the standing crop is larger than in the period



from 1963 to 1966, reflecting an increase in nutrient loading to



the estuary.



    The nutrient-algae relationships in the upper and middle portions



of the Patuxent Estuary are currently being studied by the Chesapeake



Technical Support Laboratory of the FWPCA.  The algal population in



the reach from River Mile 31 to kk had chlorophyll concentrations of



over 50 ug/1 in May 1968 (Figure IV-15).  A peak of the bloom, with



a concentration in May 1968 of 180 ug/1, occurred near River Mile



U2, a shallow and fairly wide portion of the Estuary commonly



referred to as Jug Bay.  In July 1968, chlorophyll levels of 300



ug/1 were observed near Truman Point in the middle estuary.  These



levels are approaching conditions in the Potomac Estuary which



usually occur in mid and late summer.



    The nutrient level below Western Branch at River Mile 45.2 begins



to decrease rapidly in the shallow water of Jug Bay.  When the Western

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     120
                               WTUXENT RIVER  ESTUARY
                                  CHLOROPHYLL and  TURBIDITY
                                 NATURAL RESOURCES INSTITUTE-U. Of MO.
                                          IMS TO I95
                                                                                   IV-28
        i
 o>
a.
0.
o
S
i_i
u
      25
      20
      IS
O
     110
     100
      O
     O
     70
     eo
      so
      40
     90
     20
      10
                                                        LEGEND
                                                          MAXIUM
                                                          AVERAGE
                                                          MINIMi/M
                10.
                            ST.T      24.6  IS. 3       SO.S
                                   MILES from MOUTH of RIVER
                                                               I7.t
                                                                       I6J
                                                                            FIGURE  W-14

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                     PATUXENT ESTUARY NUTRIENT SURVEY

                 PQ4                 MAY 5.1968


                                CKiapak<  Field Station
i-a
        200
        150
   a
   o
   o
        100
        50
         0
         70
00         50          40



         MILES obov. MOUTH of RIVER
30
                                                              FIGURE  IV-15

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                                                               IV-30
Branch wastewater treatment plants are put into operation, the




nutrient level in the area of Jug Bay will be increased significantly




and may result in excessive algal growths as far down the Estuary




as Benedict-




    c  Salinity




        The lower portion of the Egtunary is a two-layer sy&iem with




a net upstream movement of subsurfaces, high salinity, and high




density water <>  The less dense fresh water has net downstream movement




per tidal cycle  The salinity (Figure XV-12) for August of 1962,




196U, and 1966 was much higher than for August of 196?  The August




1967 flow was fivefold greater than the August flow of 1966.  In




comparing the salinity profiles prepared by Nash (23)9 before Uo




to 50 mgd were diverted from upstream reservoirs to Washington, D.COC.




with the current profiles prepared by Mihursky (2k), it appears that




the salt wedge has moved upstream about 10 to 15 miles




    du  Suspended materials



        Approximately l83,,000 ions of sediment- are deposited in the




estuary each year (l7)  Turbidity measurements by Mihursky (2k),




(Figure IV-l1*) show relatively high values in the upper portion of




the river with gradually decreasing levels in lower portions  Data




obtained by Allison (7) support that developed by Mihursky.  Allison




obtained turbidity values of from 30 to 50 mg/1 during the month




of August at Lower Marlboro and less than 5 mg/1 in the Lower estuary 




Nash (23) reports that the lower estuary below Benedict is relatively




free of suspended matter and turbidity,,

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                                                                IV-31
    e.  Bacterial indicators



        The coliform counts at Lower Marlboro range from about 1,000



to 4,000 MFW/100 ml in the lower 20 miles of the estuary.  The E. coli



level follows the same pattern as the coliform count with levels



usually less than 100 in the upper stuary to levels less than 5 in



the lower 20 miles of the estuary,



    f.  Temperature



        Water temperature in the estuary varies principally with the



tidal cycle, time of day, season of the year, and annually.  Nash (23)



postulated that the seasonal temperature changes are initiated sooner



upstream as a result of increasing surface-volume ratios.



    The reverse pattern was observed during 196? in the non-tidal



portion of the Basin.  Water temperature increased downstream



during the summer months and decreased during the winter months near



Wayson's Corner.  It appears that the upstream waters are affected



more than downstream waters by air temperature, which is 3 degrees



Fahrenheit warmer at Solomons than at Laurel, and by ground water



flow.



    Temperatures during the month of August in the upper portion of



the estuary are about 1 to 2 degrees F. higher than in the lower



estuary (Figure IV-12).  The mean water temperatures at Lower



Marlboro during the months of July and August of 1966 were 83.0



and 80.0 degrees F., with a standard deviation of 6.0 degrees F,



The mean July and August 1966 air temperatures for Prince Frederick,



about 8 miles away, were 77.0  and 76.0, with a standard deviation



of 5.0 degrees F.

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                                                                IV-32
    The monthly averages and extremes of surface water temperatures



at Solomons as determined by Beavin (25) for a 20-year period



are given in Table B-20.

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                                                                   V-l
                            CHAPTER V




                      FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS






    As indicated in the previous chapter, the wastewater loading to




the Patuxent River is projected to increase fourfold by the year




1980.  Furthermore, as established in Chapter VIIs the water quality




in the main stem of the Patuxent as measured by the DO has in some




reaches fallen below the standards adopted by the State of Maryland




Associated with the low DO problem in the non-tidal portion of the




basin is the increasing nutrient loading to the estuary,




    A pollution abatement program for the Patuxent River Basin must




take into consideration the physical, institutional and legal




arrangements that exist in the Basin  The effect of these factors




on the planning process is discussed in the following paragraphs.



A.  WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN




    In 1967, the State of Maryland (29)



       " . . . in order to provide for the enhancement of the water



       quality where such quality has deteriorated or is deteriorating,




       for the conservation of water quality where such quality is



       good or satisfactory, and for the protection of lawful and



       reasonable uses   




established water quality standards for both inter- and intrastate




waters.  A plan for implementation and enforcement of the water quality




standards for all of Maryland's waters was also established0  The




standards and the implementation plan were approved and adopted by the




U.S. Department of  the Interior in August 1967  Any pollution

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                                                                 V-2
abatement plan developed for the Basin must consider the existing



approved standards or suggest modifications to the standards where



the modification vould result in improved water quality



    !  Water Uses



    The uses of waters of the Patuxent River, including the estuary,



were grouped into six categories as follows (29)s



       I.  Shellfish harvesting



      IIo  Public or municipal water supply



     III.  Water contact recreation



      IV.  Propagation of fish and other aquatic life and wildlife



       V.  Agricultural water supply



      VI.  Industrial water supply



    For each of the water use categories'.;  bacteriological, dissolved



oxygen, pH, and temperature standards, were specified..  The designated



water uses of applicable water zones of the Patuxent River are presented



in Table V-l.



    2  Water Quality Standards



    The parameter most indicative of water quality in a free flowing



stream or estuary is dissolved oxygen (DO)  Hence, wastewater treatment



requirements and/or flow regulation needs were determined using a mean



monthly dissolved oxygen level of 5-0 mg/1 with a minimum level of



U.O mg/l0  This is the approved standard for the waters of the Patuxent



River in the study area0



    3=  State Implementation Plan



    The primary responsibility for water quality control and pollution



abatement is shared by two Maryland state agencies, the Maryland Depart-

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                                                                     V-3
                             Table V-l

           DESIGNATED WATER USES FOR VARIOUS WATER ZONES
                 IN THE PATUXENT RIVER BASIN (29)
Waters or Water Zones


Mainstem and Tributaries

  Headwaters to Brighton Dam

  Brighton Dam to T.H. Duckett Reservoir

  T.H. Duckett Reservoir and Tribs

  T.H. Duckett Dam to B & 0 Railroad

  B & 0 Bridge to Queen Annes Bridge

  Queen Annes Bridge to Mouth of
    Western Branch

  Western Branch to Deep Landing

  Deep Landing to Swanson Creek

  Swanson Creek to Mouth

Middle Patuxent and Tributaries

Little Patuxent and Tributaries

  Headwaters to Anne Arundel County Line

  Anne Arundel County Line to Mouth

Western Branch and Tributaries
 Water Use To Be
    Protected
II, III,"17 (Trout)s V

II, III, IV (Trout)

II, III, IV (Trout.)

Ill, IV

III, 17, 7, VI
III, IV, V

III, IV

I, III, IV, VI

I, III, IV, VI

II, III, 17, V, VI



II, III, IV, V

II, III, IV, VI

III, IV, V

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                                                                   V-U
ment of Water Resources (MDWR) and the Maryland State Department of




Health (MSDH)  The MDWR has the authority to control pollution as




an integral part of a total program for the development and management




of the water resources of the State,  The MSDH has "general supervison




and control over the waters of the State, insofar as their sanitary




and physical conditions affect public health"  (2l)




    In 1966 the General Assembly amended the Annotated Code of the




State of Maryland relating to water supply and sewerage planning.




According to the amendment, the counties of the State are required




to develop by 1970 county  master plans to provide for adequate water




supply and sewerage systems.




    The coordinated county plans will be used as bases for preparing




a statewide plan for the enforcement and implementation of the water




quality standards.  Since each county is required to revise its plan




at least annually, continuity in planning on a statewide basis is



also provided,



B.  INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS




    An investigation of various institutional arrangements which could



be used to initiate and coordinate programs for water and related land




resources management was conducted by Mr, Melvin E0 Scheldt (l),




consultant to the Maryland State Planning Department  Mr, Scheidt was




assisted by the Patuxent Basin Technical Task Force of which FWPCA was




a member.




    The two basic forms of institutional arrangements investigated by




this group weres

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                                                                  V-5
    1.  A Patuxent Basin Commission (PBC), and



    2.  A Patuxent Basin Sanitary Advisory Committee (PBSAC)



    An informal advisory committee was recommended as the best and most



practical means of coordinating the water quality effort in planning



and for providing adequate waste treatment facilities in the basin



on a continuing basis.



    The advisory committee would include officials of each of the



seven counties of the basin plus a representative from the Washington



Suburban Sanitary Commission, Washington Metropolitan Council of



Governments, Baltimore Regional  Planning Council, Maryland State



Health Department, and the Maryland Department of Water Resources,



    This proposed committee, cooperating with the MSDH and the MDWR,



offers a feasible institutional arrangement for preparation of a



comprehensive water quality control plan for the Patuxent Basin,



    Another proposed arrangement for implementing any adopted water



quality management plan in the Patuxent Basin is the Waste Acceptance



Service Program (WASP) by the State of Maryland (32).  The first



phase of a feasibility study on WASP has been completed by Trident



Engineering Associates, consultants.  The second phase, institutional



and legal arrangements, is currently under study.  Legislative action



by the State of Maryland will be required before the WASP can be



implemented.  Pending legislative action on WASP, formation of PBSAC



should be  the  first step in a framework for action in the Patuxent



Basin.  If at a later date the WASP becomes operational, the PBSAC



can be readily incorporated into the program.

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                                                                 v-6
C0  FLOW REGULATION POTENTIAL



    There are two existing reservoirs in the Patuxent Basin with an



available capacity of about 12,5 billion gallons.  These reservoirs



were constructed by WSSC for water supply purposes with a dependable



monthly uniform total use rate yield of approximately 80 cfs.  At



a one per cent monthly failure rate, the yield is about 85 cfs



(Figure A-5).



    The permit issued to the WSSC by the State of Maryland provides for



a minimum release of 16,5 cfs or the equivalent of the natural flow



of the stream from T.H. Duckett Reservoir.



    The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of the U0S. Department of Agri-



culture has proposed numerous impoundments and lakes in the Patuxent



Basin for water supply, flood prevention, and sediment control (30).



Three of these impoundments in the Middle and Little Patuxent Basins



could be used for flow regulations for water quality control as well.



A description of the three sites with their flow regulation potential



and costs are in Tables B-21 and B-22,



D.  WASTEWATER TREATMENT POLICIES



    In order to obtain the maximum use of the assimilative capacity



of the Patuxent River and also meet Maryland water quality standards,



a policy of uniform treatment on a noncontinuous basis was utilized



for planning purposes in this report.  Utilizing this system, the



wastes at all plants would receive the same degree of treatment;



but the degree of treatment would vary seasonally, depending upon the



temperature and volume of flow of the receiving stream.  This

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                                                                   V-7
operating procedure is considered reasonable for this basin since



the waste discharge points are concentrated in a relatively short



reach of the river where it cannot fully assimilate the effects of



one waste discharge before another is introduced.



    The criteria used in determining the uniform policy can be either



maximum use of assimilative capacity, least-cost wastewater treatment,



or by other methods, such as a zonal approach.



    In order to be consistent with the adopted Maryland standards and



the State implementation plan, the degree of treatment should never



be less than 85 per cent removal of carbonaceous BOD.



    Preliminary water quality studies in the basin by FWPCA in 196?



indicated the need for a high degree of BOD removal ($& per cent)



and possible nutrient removal,,  This level of treatment would require



advanced waste treatment (AWT) and could be accomplished by one of



the following alternative methods:



    1.  Expand existing secondary facilities including provision, for



        AWT;



    2.  Expand existing secondary facilities and providing AWT at



        various optimum locations by use of a system of Interceptors



        (this plan calls for piping the secondary effluents); or



    3.  Abandon some of the existing secondary facilities and provide



        secondary and AWT at optimum locations via a system of inter-



        ceptors. (This plan call for piping of the untreated wastewater)

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                                                                     v-8
E.  ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS

    To provide for further development of the Patuxent River Basin,

complete renovation of municipal wastewater for reuse was taken as

the long-range goal in developing the water quality comprehensive

program.

    In November 1967, the Research Division, FWPCA, was requested

to design a treatment sequence or sequences which could produce

an  effluent with the following chemical characteristicsi

        Parameter                           Concentration

BOD                                    <   2        mg/1
DO                                     >   5        mg/1
Total dissolved solids                 <1000        mg/1
Chlorides                              < 250        mg/1
Total phosphorus as P                  <   0.1      Jng/1
Total nitrogen as N                    <   2.0      mg/1
Chlorine residual                          0.0      mg/1
Coliform count                             0        mg/1

The sequence proposed consisted of coagulation and sedimentation,

ammonia stripping, rapid sand filtration, and granular activated

carbon adsorption.  The sequence which is strictly physico-chemical

in nature, presents some  obvious advantages over biological AWT

methods such as the modified activated sludge or biological

nitrification-denitrification.  The advantages of the physico-

chemical system are as follows:

    1.  Highly fail-safe.

    2.  More adaptable to complete automation.

    3.  Adapts readily to modular design and changes.

    k.  Pilot and plant studies are more advanced at present time than

        other methods.

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                                                                  V-9
    5.  The processes are not pollutant specific; i.e., in the phosphorus



        removal module about 60 per cent of the remaining BOD and COD



        will also be removed.  Thus, the unit can be used not only to



        remove phosphorus but also for obtaining a higher BOD treatment



        level and the removal of other possible stimulants to algal



        growth such as vitamins.



The physico-chemical sequence is similar to the 2.5 ngd plant which



is in operation at Lake Tahoe (3l) and the 0<,3 mgd pilot plant at



Washington, D.C. (3U)0



    The sequence as proposed is one of many possible arrangements



which could be used in obtaining the prescribed water quality



standards.  Alternative methods which could be used are the Phosphorus



Extraction Process (PEP) for the removal of phosphorus (35), (36)



and mixed media filtration instead of rapid sand filtration (37).



    The modular design concept of the proposed physico-chemical treatment



sequence for the Patuxent River Basin is presented in Figure V-l.  Also



included in this figure are the anticipated removal levels of the



various wastewater pollutants including the anticipated quality of



the final effluents from individual units.

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                                                                                            FIGURE   V-l

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                                                        VI-1
                            CHAPTER VI




               WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS




A.  WASTEWATER TREATMENT REQUIREMENTS




    I,  Requirements With No Additional Flow Regulation




    a.  Nutrient Removal Requirements for Algal Control




    In many respects, the chemical, physical, and biological factors




which influence the water quality of the Potomac River Estuary are




similar to those affecting the Patuxent Estuary  Although,, it is




recognized that the algal growth relationships for the Patuxent and




Potomac may not be similar in all respectss the nutrient studies con-




ducted in the Potomac River Estuary offer the best base available for




establishing nutrient objectives for the Patuxent Estuary   The Sub-




Task Force on Water Quality on "Project Potomac" investigated various




aspects of maintaining good water quality in the Potomac River, including




nutrient removal (38)0  In order to keep the water essentially free




from nuisance growths of rooted aquatic plants, slimes, algae, and



other plankton,, the Sub-Task Force has suggested a maximum level of




0.1 mg/1 of total phosphorus as P for the Potomac Estuary,,   Various



studies (39) C*0) C+l) also suggest an upper limit on inorganic nitrogen




which may limit algal blooms vary from about Oo05 mg/1 to 003 mg/1.,




    While no definite upper maximums can be statistically supported for




all waters at the present time, it appears that if the maximum phosphorus




level is kept below 01 mg/1 of total phosphorus as P (about 0.33 mg/1




as PO^) (33) and inorganic nitrogen level below 005 mg/1, the water

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                                                                 VI-2
of an estuary will be of such quality as not to stimulate excessive

algal growths.*  At these levels algal blooms may occur, but not to

such an extent as to cause nuisance conditions or increase the

organic carbon content as occurs in the environment of the Upper

Potomac Estuary.  Upper limits of phosphorus as P and inorganic

nitrogen as N for waters entering the estuary of 0.1 mg/1 and 0.5

mg/1, respectively, were employed in determining nutrient removal

requirements.

    The water quality standards of the State of Maryland do not at

this time set limits on phosphorus and nitrogen levels.  However,

the intent of the standards as expressed in Section 1.3. (29) is

clearly to prohibit the discharge of substances that will contravene

adopted standards in waters under the jurisdiction of the State of

Maryland.  Increased phosphorus and nitrogen levels attributable to

sewage which result in excessive algal blooms clearly constitute a

nuisance.  It is therefore a recommendation of this report that some

consideration be given to establishment of maximum nutrient levels as

part of the water quality standards of the State of Maryland.

    (l)  Phosphorus Removal Requirements

    As can be seen in Figure VI-l, the total phosphorus as PO^ entering

the estuary is projected to increase from about 2.0 to 13.0 mg/1 by

the year 2020 for the unregulated design flows.  Using a quality


* Excessive algal growth is defined as that exceeding 50 mg/1
  chlorophyll extraction.

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                        PROJECTED   Pty  CONCENTRATION
                                       ENTERING
                                fWUXENT  ESTUARY
                                         FOR
                                 SUMMER  CONDITIONS 
     14-
     12-
     10-
i
     8-
     6-
     4-
                                  FRESHWATER   MFLOW = 70 eh PLUS  PROJECTED  WASTEWTER
                                  VOLUMES  WITH  NO PHOSPHORUS  REMOVAL
                              10
                                          IS
                                                     20
                           PO4  FROM  WASTEWATER   DISCHARGES
                                    (1.000
                                                                                FIGURE  VI - I

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objective of 0.33 sag/1 of PO. for water entering the estuary, the removal



rate of phosphorus for the waste treatment facilities should be as



given in Table VI-1.






                             Table VI-1



                  PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS
Year
1980
2000
2020
Projected Concentration
Entering Estuary
POi, as P0j.
(mg/1)
9.0
11.0
13.0
Percent
Phosphorus
Removal
96
97
98
    The cost of phosphorus removal is presented later in the chapter



in the section on selection of alternative systems for water quality



management.



    (2)  Nitrogen Removal Requirements



    The anticipated total KJeldahl nitrogen (TKN) loading to the



Patuxent System for the three benchmark years of 1980, 2000, 2020,



and for 196? is presented in Table III-3.  The amount of nitrogen



removal required to meet the suggested nitrogen level of 0.5 mg/1



depends on three factors:



(l)  the forms of nitrogen in the effluents of the waste treatment



plants, (2)  the rate of oxidation of the various forms in the stream



to nitrates, and (3)  the amount of nitrogen fixation occurring in the



river system by bacteria and algae.

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                                                              Vl-5
    In the Potomac study (42) (in process), the average TKN and

nitrates in the influents were 22,0 and 0.13 Bg/l> respectively,

with effluent concentrations of 17.0 and Oc6? mg/1, respectively

This represents an average removal of TKN of about 23 percent  While

the 196? data for the Patuxent showed somewhat lower TKN's in the

effluent, the nitrates were about two to three-fold higher.  The

higher nitrates are from those plants which are currently operating

below design capacity.,

    Based on 1967 sampling data as presented in Tables B-ll through

B-18 and as exhibited in Figure XV-9, the average nitrite-nitrate

concentration of water entering the estuary for summer flows was

about 2oO mg/1.  Using a water quality objective of 0.5 nig/1 of

nitrates and the projected concentration and loadings as presented

in Figure VI-2, the removal rates of total nitrogen should be

provided as given in Table VI-2.


                            Table VI-2

                   NITROGEN REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS
Year
1980
2000
2020
Projected Concentration
Entering Estuary
NO, as N
(fia/l)
11.0
16 ,o
18,0
Percent*
Nitrogen
Removal
95
96
97
* The removal values were determined by assuming that all the nitrogen
  discharged from the wastewater treatment plants is in the NH^ or
  inorganic form and a large portion is converted to the N2 + NO^ form
  in the middle portion of the Basin,

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                                                                                      VI-6
           PROJECTED   INORGANIC   NITROGEN  CONCENTRATION
                                    ENTERING
                             FWTUXENT   ESTUARY
                                       FOR
                               SUMMER  CONDITIONS  *
                               *   FRESHWATER  INFLOW =  70 eft PLUS  PROJECTED  WASTEWATER
                                   VOLUME  WITH   NO NITROGEN  REMOVED
      20-
                                                                               o
                                                                               g
                                                                               (V
      16-
      12-
|
       8-
      4-
                         0.5 t/l  INORGANIC  NITROGEN OBJECTIVE
                               5                       10
                         TKN  FROM  WASTEWATER  DISCHARGES
                                  (1.000  Ib../A>y)
                                                                              15
                                                                              FIGURE  VI

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                                                          VI-7
    b.  Oxygen Demanding Constituents



    As presented in Chapter IV, the two components of the oxygen



demand are the residual 5-day BOD (carbonaceous BOD) and the



unoxidized nitrogen (nitrogenous BOD) of the discharges from



secondary wastewater treatment plants in the basin.  The theoretical



ultimate oxygen demand (UOD) was determined based on the conversion



for carbonaceous and nitrogenous BOD as follows?  UOD = 1.1*5 BOD^ +



4.57 N (unoxidized nitrogen)  The total UOD for the design years



are presented in Table VI-3.






                            Table VI-3



                      PROJECTED BOD LOADINGS
Year
I960
2000
2020
BOD5
(ibs/day)
6U,300
101, Uoo
178,700
UOD
Carbonaceous
( Ibs/day)
93,200
lU7,000
258,100
Unoxidized
Nitrogen
(ibs/day)
5,^00 
9,UOO
15,300
UOD
Nitrogenous
(ibs/day)
2U,700
U3,000
70,000
Total
UOD
(ibs/day)
117,900
190,000
328,100
    To simplify the determination and presentation of UOD removal



requirements, the Patuxent River Basin has been divided into four



zones as shown in Figure VI-3.



    The project carbonaceous and nitrogenous BOD loadings for Zones



I, II, and III, are presented in Table VI-1*.

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              W^STEWVTER    TREATMENT    REMOVAL
                              RATUXENT  RIVER   BASIN
ZONES
T. HOWARD  DUCKETT
  RESERVOR
                                                                 RIVER MLES= 63.7
                                                                    SMOGE. KM.
                                                                    RIVER  HUES = VZA
                                                                 RIVER  MILES = 5OO
                                                                RIVER  MILES =  0.0
                                 (CHESAPEAKE  BAY)
                                                                             FIGURE  VI-3

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                                                           Vl-9
                            Table VI-4

                 PROJECTED BOD LOADINGS BT ZONES
                           (Ibs /day)*
                                              Design Year

                            1980            2000            2020
                         BODg   TKN      BODq   TKN     BODc;    TKN

Zone I                 11,000   1^100   16,000  1,600  21,000   2,100

Zone II                19,000   2,000   30,000  2,800  57,000   3,300

Zone III               15,000   1,UOO   21,000  2S100  31,000   3,100

    These loadings were determined based on the following premisess

       (l)  All wastewater being discharged at a single point at

    the beginning of the zone,,

       (2)  Each zone's response was considered independently,

       (3)  Deaeration rate of 0.2 and 0.6 (base 10) were employed

    for the carbonaceous and nitrogenous BODS respectively.

       (h)  The reaeration rate was determined using the 0'Conner-

    Dobbins formulationo

    Figure IV~k3 VI-5 and VI-6 shows the relationship of the amount

of unoxidized nitrogen and carbonaceous BODc that could fee discharged

into zones I, II, and III, and still maintain an average dissolved

oxygen level of 5 mg/1,,  This relationship was determined for two

flow conditions in each zones  the lower flow is the flow under

natural conditions; the higher flow is what is expected with low flow

augmentation. As can be seen in these figures, a dissolved oxygen level

of 5 mg/1 can be maintained under    an almost infinite combination of

carbonaceous and nitrogenous loadings,

*  The loadings are  presented in  Ibs/day  of  carbonaceous BOD^  and
   unoxidized  nitrogen,,

-------
         BOD5 - NITROGEN   LOADINGS  IN  ZONE   I


                       FOR  MAINTAINING  AN



        AVERAGE  of  5.Q mg/l  of   DISSOLVED  OXYGEN


                       SUMMER  CONDITIONS
                                                                            VI-10
     2.000-
      1,500-
$  
-------
                                                                                       VI-11
     3,500-
     3.000-
     2.500-
     2.000-
               15 ch.
.  I


o1   1.500-
o
oo
     1.000-
                                  BOD5 - NITROGEN   LOADINGS   IN  ZONE   II



                                                 FOR  MAINTAINING  AN



                                 AVERAGE  of  5.0 mg/l  of   DISSOLVED  OXYGEN



                                                  SUMMER  CONDITIONS
      500-
                    100
                                200         300         400



                                    UNOXIDIZED   NITROGEN



                                         (IU./doy)
                                                                    500
600
                                                                               FIGURE  VI-5-

-------
     2.500-
                    8OD5  - NITROGEN  LOADINGS IN  ZONE  III


                                  FOR   MAINTAINING  AN


                   AVERAGE  of   5.0 mg/l  of  DISSOLVED  OXYGEN


                                   SUMMER  CONDITIONS
                                                                                      VI-12
    2.000-

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                                                             VI-13
    Also shown on these figures are the lines of equal contributions



of carbonaceous and nitrogenous UOD.  This line is the graphical



representative of the relationship that states that the BODU exerted



by .317 pounds of unoxidized nitrogen is equal to one pound of



carbonaceous BODc,



    Assuming natural summer flow conditions and also assuming equal



residual of both oxygen demand components, i.e., carbonaceous BODc



and unoxidized nitrogen, the allowable load of each demand component



can be read for each zone at the intersection of the line of equal



carbonaceous and nitrogenous UOD and the curve showing the allowable



loading.  Comparing the allowable loadings at this point on the



curve with the projected total waste loadings, the percentage removal



of the demand components needed to maintain a dissolved oxygen level



of 5 mg/1 can be determined for each design year., This information



is shown in Table VT-5,,



    Since there is some pollution carryover from Zones I, and II to



Zone III, it was assumed that a uniform treatment practice would be



employed in all three zones,,  This would mean that for any design



year, the zone with the most critical treatment requirements would



establish the treatment efficiencies in the other two zones.  For



planning purposes the treatment efficiencies shown in Table VI-6



should be achieved in all three zones.



    2o  Wastewater Treatment Requirements With Additional Floy Regulation



    As indicated earlier in Chapter V the flow regulation capability



of the To Howard Duckett and  Tridelphia  Reservoirs on the main Patuxent



is about 85 cfs and for the proposed SCS reservoir in the Little

-------

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-------
                                                                  VI-15
                            Table VI-6

          OXYGEN DEMANDING MATERIAL REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS

                          Carbonaceous                Nitrogenous
Year	    BOD	BOD

I960                          95                           86

2000                          96                           90

2020                          98                           9^
Patuxent about ^5 cfs.  The 7-day low flows with recurrence interval

of once in ten years for the main Patuxent and Little Patuxent

unregulated areas are 12.0 and 9*2 cfs respectively.

    It the existing reservoirs on the main Patuxent and the proposed

SCS impoundments are used solely for water quality control, the 7-day

low flow entering the estuary can be increased from about 70 cfs to

l8o cfs.  With the maximum flow capacity utilized for water quality

control, the concentrations of phosphorus and nitrites are projected

to be about 35 and 55 rog/1 respectively during low flow conditions

for the 1980 design year.  Even with the increased flow rates into

the estuary, about 91 percent removal of both phosphorus and nitrogen

should be provided by 1980 in order to meet water quality objectives.

    As can be seen in Figures VI_U, and VI-5, and VI-6, the effect of

increased flows on the amount of wastewater that can be assimulated

is relatively small, especially in Zone III, and that this alternative

approach is also ineffective in maintaining adopted water quality

standards

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                                                               VI-16
    3.  Wastevater Requirements for Tidal Water




    a.  Municipal Discharges



    The lower portion of the Patuxent Estuary has been divided into



four wastewater areas (Figure A-6)  The projected populations for



these four areas are given belows






                            Table VI-7



          POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR LOWER PATUXENT BASIN
Area
                                      Projected Population
 1980
2000
2020
Rural Prince Georges County



Rural Calvert County



Rural Charles County



St. Marys County
 7,700      10,000    13,000



10,500      18,500    32,600



 2,800       3,300     U,000



35,000      U2,000    50,000
To meet the wastewater treatment and water supply needs of these counties,



master plans are currently being developed.  A listing of treatment



plants, proposed, existing, and under construction, is given in Table



VI-8.  Since the wastewater discharge points are either to the estuary



itself or to tributaries which flow into the Chesapeake Bay, no estimates



were made of treatment requirements or costs.   A more comprehensive



approach can be made once a mathematical model of the estuary is



developed as indicated earlier in this report.

-------
VI-17















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-------
                                                                VI-18
    b.  Industrial Discharges



    The only significant industrial waste discharge into the lower



estuary is from the PEPCO Chalk Point thermal electric generating



station.  At the present time, the water quality standards in regard



to temperature are being met.  As in the case.of municipal treatment



requirements, the effects of wastewater discharges from any industrial



development cannot be fully evaluated until a mathematical model of the



estuary is developed,





B,  WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AM) SELECTION FACTORS



    Systems considered for wastewater management in the Patuxent River



Basin were as follows:



    Effluent discharge within the basin with no additional flow



regulation,



    Effluent discharge within the basin including additional flow



regulation,



    Effluent transport to the Chesapeake Bay, and



    Waste transport to the Atlantic Gulf Stream,



    Although the fourth,waste transport to the Atlantic Gulf Stream,



was considered, a detailed evaluation of this management system was



beyond the scope of this report



    1.  Effluent Discharge Within the Basin With Mo Additional Flow



Regulation



    As presented in the first part of this chapter, the removal of about



95 percent of the BOD, nitrogen,  and phosphorus will be required by 1980.



Conventional wastewater treatment would not meet the water quality objective

-------
                                                                 vi-19
for the basin.  Thuss to provide these removal requirements, advanced




wastewater treatment facilities such as described in Chapter V will be



required.



    2.  Effluent Discharge Within the Basin Including Additional Flow



Regulation



    To meet the DO objective of 5,0 ing/1, a high degree of both carbona-



ceous and nitrogenous removal will be required by 1980 even with



increased flow regulation as shown in Figures VI-U, VI-5, and VI-6,,



Coupled within the need for nutrient removal, even with flow regulations



it appears that any benefit derived from the increased flow will be



insignificant.  Since the existing reservoirs are mainly used for



water supply and advanced wastewater will be required in any case,



Low flow augmentation does not appear to have merit at the present



time,,



    3-  Wastewater Treatment With Effluent Transport To Chesapeake Bay



    In developing the Regional Sewerage Plan for the Patuxent River Basin,



Wolman, Geyer, and Beavin (26) investigated the possibility of disposing



of all the basin's treated effluent to the Chesapeake Bay.  The bay



outfall, which was Jointly planned with the District of Columbia



Government, was feasible from the engineering standpoint and would



be reasonable in costo   However, the project was not recommended for



adoption in the near future3 nor probably before the year 2000, for



the following reasons as given by Wolman, Geyer, and Beavin:



    1.  "The single system costing the basin about $53,000,000 would not



         lend itself readily to stage construction, and the necessary



         financing would be difficult."



    2.  "The bay outfall projected from the Washington, D0C0  area is



         not certain to materialize   The cost of the system for the

-------

-------
                                                             VI-20


         Patuxent Basin alone would add about $7,000,000 to the

         project. *

    3.  "Disposal to the bay would not utilize the natural asset of

         the Patuxent River's assimilative capacity,"

    A more recent study of the wastevater treatment problem in the

Patuxent Basin has been made by Trident Engineering Associates, Inc.

(32).  Using the Wolman, Geyer, and Beavin Report as a basis of

design, the consulting firm also investigated disposal to Chesapeake

Bay.  Costs for four alternative methods of disposal into  the bay

as developed by Trident Engineering Associates as given in Table VI-9.


                             Table VT-9

                COST OF DISPOSAL TO CHESAPEAKE BAY
               Trident Engineering Associates, Inc.
Bay
With D
X
X


Interceptor
.C, Without D.C.


X
X
BOD Removal Requirements
65% 90%
X
X
X
X
Total
Cost
$32,260,000
Uo, 666, 000
1*6,560,000
51,560,000
The costs of the four alternatives in this table include an interceptor

upstream and outfall capable of transporting all wastewater in the basin

up to the year 2000,

    Since the report of Wolman, Geyer, and Beavin was written, infor-

mation on water quality in the Bay itself reveals that it is already

-------

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                                                               VI-21






nutrient rich  (33)  Futhermore, it appears that in the near future



all wastcwater discharged into the bay may require a high degree



of nutrient removal.  The cost of disposal to the bay, including



advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) for nutrient and high degree



of BOD removal, is presented in the latter part of this chapter.






C.  ADVANCED WASTE TREA^S-SHT WITH DISCHARGE WITHIR THE BASHT



    There are  eight major operating municipal waste treatment facilities



in the basin.  In addition, one facility is under construction, and



one proposed.  Industrial wastewater volumes are small and were not



included in the cost analysis.  Nine sites for treatment  of the



wastewater from the eleven services presented in Table VI-10 were



considered for this study.  The combining of systems and a summary of



the projected wastewater volumes of the nine areas are given in Table



VI-11.



    Four alternative plans for providing advanced waste treatment



facilities were investigated and are presented in Figures VI-7 thru



VI-10.  The four plans, which are based on providing advanced waste



treatment at a given number of sites with secondary treatment at each



of the existing or proposed sites, are also given in Table VI-11.



    Summaries of modular unit costs for Plan As B, Ca and D are presented



in Tables VI-12 through VI-15,  The present worth cost data include



capital expenditures based on 1970 and I960 construction staging, and



expenditures for operation and maintenance.  The present worth cost for



operations and maintenance was divided into two operating periods, 1970-



1980 and 1080-2000.  The detailed cost data for individual modular units



of each plan are presented in Appendix Tables C-l through C-10.

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                                                               VI-22
                             Table VI-10

   CURRENT DESIGN CAPACITY AND SUMMARY OF PROJECTED WASTEWATER
          VOLUMES FOR THE YEARS 1980, 2000, and 2020
                    UPPER PATUXENT RIVER BASIN
Current Desig
Facility Capacity (agd
Maryland City
(Md. House of Correction)
Laurel Parkway
Bowie-Horsepen*
Bowie -Be lair
Savage
Ft. G.G. Meade #2
Ft. G. a. Meade #1
Patuxent
0.75
2.1*0
0.00
2.UO
1.00
2.50
1.50
2.00
Projected Wastewater
p Volumes (mgd)
.) 1980
1.9
6.k
2.1
3.*
7.3
1.8
l.U
U.5
2000
2.U
9-7
k.-L
5.0
15.0
2.2
1.8
6.0
2020
3.1
13.0
6.7
6.6
31.6
2.6
2.2
8.1
Western Branch**
  (Marlboro Meadows)
  (Rural Anne Arundel)
                  Total
 0.00        7.1      15-5     33.3


12.55       35.9      61.7    107.2
*   Includes U.S. Government projections.
**  The Western Branch treatment facility with a capacity'of 5.0 mgd
    is currently under construction.  The cost analysis includes both
    the capital and operating and maintenance costs for the Western
    Branch plant.

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                                                                                 VI-23
                                                               BALTIMORE

                                                                     CITY
                                                              .ANAGE
                                                                   FORT MEADE  2
                                                                      FORT MEADE   I
                                                                          CTUXENT
            TRIADELPHIA
               RESERVOIR
                                  WESTERN
O  SECONDARY TREATMENT

03  SECONDARY TREATMENT with ADVANCED
    WASTE TREATMENT
                                     PL AN-A

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-------
                                                          BALTIMORE

                                                                CITY
O  SECONDARY TREATMENT

n  SECONDARY TREATMENT with ADVANCED
   WASTE TREATMENT
                               WESTERN  BRANCH	.,,>' c*
                                               rfAB2!
                                   PLAN-B

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                                                                         VI-25
                                                           BALTIMORE

                                                                 CITY
           TRIADELPHIA
              RESERVOIR
                                WESTERN  BRANCH
O  SECONDARY TREATMENT

n  SECONDARY TREATMENT with ADVANCED
   WASTE TREATMENT
                                    PLAN-C
0 \Z   4

  MILES

       FIGURE  VI-9

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                                                                          VI-26
                                                          BALTIMORE

                                                                CITY
O  SECONDARY TREATMENT

O  SECONDARY TREATMENT with ADVANCED
   WASTE TREATMENT
                                WESTERN BRANCH	' N(
                                                 ^PSLx*
                                   PLAN-D
                                                              MILES


                                                                  FIGURE   VI-10

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                                                         VI-27
                             Table VI-11

             ALTERKATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS
AWT Systems
 Design Volumes (mgd)
1970-1980   1980-200Q
                                                      Secondary Systems
PLAN A  (Figures VI-7)

Maryland City
                           2.5
               3.0       Maryland City
                         (Md.  House of Correction)
Laurel Parkway
Bowie -Hor sepen
Bowie -Belair
Savage
Ft. G.G. Meade #2
Ft. G.G. Meade #1
Patuxent
Western Branch
6.U
2.0
U.O
8.0
2.5
1.5
U.5
8.0
9.9
k.Q
5.5
15.0
2.5
3.0
6.0
16.0
Laurel Parkway
Bowie -Hor sepen
Bowie-Be lair
Savage
Ft. G.G. Meade #2
Ft. G.G. Meade #1
Patuxent
Western Branch
(Marlboro Meadows)
(Rural Anne Arundel)
PLAN B  (Figures VI-8)

Laurel Parkway



Savage

Bowie-Belair
Western Branch
                           9.0



                           8.0

                          lU.O




                           8.0
              13.0       Laurel Parkway
                         Maryland City
                         (Md. House  of Correction)

              15.0       Savage

              20.0       Patuxent, Ft. G.G. Meade #2
                         Ft, G.G. Meade #1
                         Bowie-Horsepen
                         Bowie-Belair

              l6.0       Western Branch
                         (Marlboro Meadows)
                         (Rural Anne Arundel)

-------

-------
                       Table VI-11 (Continued)
                                                             VI-28
AWT Systems
Design Volumes (mgd)
1970-1960    1960-2000
                Secondary Systems
FLAM C  (Figures VI-9)

Bowie-Belair
Western Branch
  30.0
   8.0
l7.0       Savage
           Ft. G.G. Meade #2
           Ft. G.G. Meade #1
           Patuxent
           Maryland City
           (Md. House of Correction)
           Laurel Parkway
           Bowie-Horsepen
           Bowie-Belair

16.0       Western Branch
           (Marlboro Meadows)
           (Rural Anne Arundel)
PLAH D  (Figures VI-10)

Western Branch            38.0
              63.0       Savage
                         Ft.  G.G.  Meade #2
                         Ft.  G.G.  Meade #1
                         Patuxent
                         Maryland  City
                         (Md. House of Correction)
                         Laurel Parkway
                         Bowie-Horsepen
                         Bowie-Belair
                         Western Branch
                         (Marlboro Meadows)
                         (Rural Anne Arundel)

-------

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                                                                           VI-29

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                                                                        VI-32

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                                                            vi-33


The interceptor and pumping costs are given in Table C-ll.  The merits

and cost of each alternative are discussed separately in the next

chapter.  Present worth cost calculations were made using a U ^ percent

interest rate over a 30-year amortization period.


D.  ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT WITH DISCHARGE TO CHESAPEAKE BAY

    Presented in Table VT-16 is Plan E which is the cost of disposal

to the bay including advanced wasteweter treatment (AWT) for nutrient

and high degree of BOD removal.  (See Figure VI-11 for Plan E)




Secondary
Treatment*
and Plant
Interceptors
X
X
X
X
X
X

COST OF
Including

Bay
Inter-
ceptor

X
X
X
X
X
Table VI-16
PLAN E
DISPOSAL TO CHESAPEAKE BAY
Advanced Wastewater Treatment

Rapid
Phos- Ammonia Sand Acti-
phorus Strip- Fil- vated
Removal ping tration Carbon


X
X X
XXX
XX X



Total
Present
Worth
Cost
($1000)
^7,575
57,795
67,5^5
72,l8o
77,930
93,630
*  Cost of providing secondary treatment and interceptors for the period
   1970-2000 as developed for Plan D0

 In the above table,  it is  assumed that  secondary treatment  is provided

 at the existing water  service  areas.

-------
                                                                        VI-34
                                                         BALTIMORE

                                                               CITY
                                                        SAMfcGE
                                                             FORT  MEADE 2
                                                                FORT MEADE  I
         TRIADELPH1A
           RESEWOR
                              WESTERN BRANCH
O  SECONDARY TREATMENT
   SECONDARY TREATMENT with ADVANCED
   WASTE TREATMENT
                                 PLAN-E
                                                            MILES
                                                                   FIGURE  VI- II

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                                                             VI-35
E-  SELECTION OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM



    From an analysis of the treatment requirements and effects of flow



regulation, it appears that a very high degree of wastewater renovation



including nutrient removal will be necessary by 1980.  While better



analytical techniques may refine the treatment requirement calculations,



it has been well established that both the nitrogenous and carbonaceous



demand must be removed,  Moreover, nutrient and chlorophyll data indicate



that the upper estuary is becoming eutrophic.



    Advanced waste treatment with discharge within the basin, appears to



be the most feasible program for water quality management in the basin



While the total cost is high, the construction of the treatment facilities



can be done in stages, facilitating the financing of the projects.  Also



in utilizing a staging system, the design of the facilities can be



readily adapted to new technologies and waste treatment requirements.



For example; if a low phosphorus content detergent is developed a re-



valuation of the phosphorus removal requirements can be readily made.

-------

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                                                               VII-1
                         CHAPTER VII



        SELECTION OF AH ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT PROGRAM






A.  PLANKING ALTERNATIVES



    Advanced waste treatment (AWT) of wastes, for the reasons discussed



in Chapter VI, appears to be the most feasible alternative for



maintaining acceptable water quality in the Patuxent River Basin.



Four basic plans for achieving AWT in the basin are discussed in this



chapter,



    In developing the four plans, it was assumed that the capacity



of the existing secondary treatment plants would be expanded.  AWT



could then be provided at existing secondary plants or the secondary



effluent conveyed via interceptors to regional waste treatment facilities



in strategic locations.  The elements involved in the four basic plans



are as follows:



    Plan A- 9 secondary systems and 9 AWT systems



    Plan B- 9 secondary systems and k AWT systems



    Plan C- 9 secondary systems and 2 AWT systems



    Plan D- 9 secondary systems and 1 AWT system



    A modification of Plan D, Plan D*, was also investigated.



This plan considers the abandonment of all existing secondary systems



and the construction of a single secondary plant and AWT units near



Western Branch to treat all wastewater from the Upper Basin.



    The specific treatment plants included in each of the plans are



identified in Table VI-ll and Figures VI-7 thru 10.   In this chapter

-------

-------
                                                                VII-2
 each  of the plans  is evaluated in relation to the following criteria;



    lo  Costs,  including capital and operation-maintenance cost;



    2.  Tangible and intangible factors;



    3.  Institutional arrangement considerations;



    k.  Engineering and technical feasibility;



 and discussed in detail under the appropriate headings.



    1.  Cost Comparisons



    Summaries of the modular unit costs for Plans A-,-B-,--C-, and D are



 given in Tables VI-12 through VI-15.  Table Vll-i presents a cost ranking



 of the four plans based on financial considerations.



    As can be seen in Table VII-l, for the first and second modular



 waste treatment units, Plan A is the least cost solution.  When the



 third and fourth units are added, Plan C is the most economical.



    Two other factors which should be considered in selecting a given



 treatment sequence are;  (l) the effect of combining effluents on the



 overall water quality in the river, and (2) the staging of the treatment



 levels needed to maintain the prescribed objectives of the comprehensive



 program.  The BOD removal requirements will bes to some extent, a function



 of the number and location of discharge points within the Basin.  The



more  evenly the wastewater is distributed within  the system, the more



 use is made of the natural assimilative capacity of the receiving



 stream.  Nevertheless, a high degree of removal of both phosphorus and



 nitrogen will be required to protect the estuary regardless of the



wastewater effluent distribution.

-------

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VII-3

-------

-------
                                                           VII- U
    One advantage of the physico-chemical AWT method is its adaptability

to stage construction of the various modular components (see Figure V-l)0

Based on removal requirements as established for BOD, phosphorus and

nitrogen (Tables VI-1, VI-25 and VI-6), the coagulation-sedimentation

and ammonia stripping modular units will be needed for Plans A and B for

the 1970-1980 design period.  In these plans, for the period 1980 to 2000,

rapid sand filtration and grandular carbon adsorption will be required

to meet water quality objectives  For Plans C and D, the first three

modular units will be needed for the design period 1970-1980,  with the

fourth unit, grandular carbon adsorptlve, required for the years 1980

to 2000.  Table VII-2 is a cost comparison of all alternatives indicating

the modular unit staging required for the various design periods.
                             Table  VII-2

                   COST SUMIARY OF  ALTERNATIVE PLANS
Plan
A
B
C
D
D*
Secondary
System and
Interceptor
Cost
($1,000)
36
38
Ul
49
37
,985
,595
,975
,^75
,990
Design Period
1970-1980
Required AWT
Modular Units
1,-
1,
1,
1,
1,
2
2
2, 3
2, 3
2, 3
Cost
1 ($1000)
7
7
Hf
9
9
,870
,180
,333
,160
,160
1980-2000
Present
Worth
Required AWT Cost Cost
Modular Units1 ($1000) ($1000^
1, 2,
1, 2,
1, 2,
1, 2,
1, 2,
33 U
3, U
3, U
3, f
3, k
3U,
28,
18,
20,
20,
U95
760
990
385
385
79,350
7^,535
75,298
79,020
67,53'.
1 AWT Modular Units
    1.  Coagulation-sedimentation
    2,  Ammonia stripping
    3.  Rapid sand filtration
    k,  Grandular carbon adsorption

    Although Plan D* appears to be the most economic alternative for meeting

long-range water quality objectives in the Basin, there are certain inherent

-------

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                                                               Vli-5
disadvantages to adopting this system.  These disadvantages are discussed




later in this chapter.  Plan B is the second least costly alternative.




    2.  Tangible and Intangible Considerations




    The long-range goal of the water quality management program for the




Patuxent Basin is to provide water of a quality and quantity consistent




with proposed uses.  Many of the proposed uses have both tangible and




intangible benefits.




    The modular treatment sequence provides a series of steps toward




complete renovation of wastewater for reuse.  While the renovation of




wastewater for deliberate municipal re-cycling may not be essential




in the near future in the Patuxent Basin, the renovation for recreational




use and fish propagation is imminent.




    Greater use of the waters of the Basin for municipal and industrial




needs could be realized if the organic and inorganic impurities were




removed.  Water of potable quality could be obtained by application of




advanced wastewater treatment methods and aided utilization of the



assimilative capacity of the river.




    The financial benefits of providing optimal water quality for all



projected uses of the Basin waters have not been determined.  Many of the




potential recreational and commercial uses have not been fully developed




or explored.  The current uses and financial values of the water and land




related uses of resources of the Basin are given in Table II-3-




    The estuary and upper reaches of the river are a very valuable resource




in terms of both commercial and sport fishing and recreation (Table II-3).

-------

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                                                            vii-6
 It  has been  estimated that the Patuxent Estuary is capable of producing




 oysters having an annual dockside value of over $17 million.  Assuming



 that  in the  next decade during which the population will increase



 twofold, the recreational uses double, and the oyster production reaches



 one-fourth of its potential, the value of water and land related



 resources could be over $15 million per year.



    If Plan  B or C were selected and using a 30-year amortization



 period, the  annual cost of providing wastewater treatment in the Basin



 would be $^,600,000 per year*  Using the above assumptions and excluding



 benefits for water supply, the maintenance of good water quality in



 the Patuxent Basin could have a benefit/cost ratio of about 3.2.



 Plan  A would have a benefit/cost ratio of less than 3-0.



    Many aspects of maintaining good water quality provide intangible



 benefits.  In Table VII-3 is a subjective evaluation of these intangible



 benefits for the  five alternative plans for water quality management



 in  the Basin.  Based on this evaluation, it appears that Plans A,



B, and  C,    will have similar total secondary intangible benefits.



 Plan  B ,   which has the highest ranking, appears to be the most desirable



 in  terms of  intangible benefits.



    Based on both tangible and intangible water quality and quantity



 aspects and  benefits, Plan B   appears to be most advantageous.  The



 plan  also allows for engineering and technical flexibility which will



 be  discussed later in this Chapter.



    3-  Institutional Arrangement Considerations



    The need and complexity of institutional arrangements depend princi-



pally on which plan is adopted for water quality management in the Basin,

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VII-7

-------

-------
                                                                VII-8
For example, if Plan A is selected., the existing authority invested in




MSDH, MDWR, and the counties would be adequate.  If Plan Bs C, or D is




selected, a considerable cost saving ca:a be realized.  However, the




selection would require cooperative efforts and actions.




    Either the State of Maryland working through the Patuxent Basin




Sanitary Advisory Committee or the Waste Acceptance Service Program as




discussed in Chapter V could be utilized in the planning and implementa-




tion phase of the comprehensive program.




    k.  Engineering and Technical Feasibility




    The major advantage of the modular sequence of advanced waste




treatment is in the adaptability of the system.  Units can be readily




added or deleted according to the response of the river and estuarine




systems to wastewater effluents,,  If less costly or more efficient methods




are developed,, they also can be readily incorporated,




    The ability to maintain this adaptability in a given system is an




important factor in selecting a plan for secondary and advanced waste-




water treatment.  While Plan D* would be the least costly according to




current estimates of treatment cost and technology, the large initial




investments in interceptors may not be economically justified if the cost



of AWT is subsequently reduced drastically  This plan would not utilize




the natural assimilative capacity of the Patuxent River and because of




the waste transport via interceptors there would be a significant loss




of flow from the upper portion of the Basin-  Also, since the entire




waste load of the basin would be treated at one point, any malfunction




in the treatment procedures would have a extreme effect on the lower




estuary.

-------

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                                                             VII-9
B. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE FLANS

    A compendium of the various alternatives was made using the follow-

ing:

    1.  Cost of wastewater treatment and interceptors,

    2.  Tangible and intangible benefits,

    3.  Institutional arrangements and cooperative action,

    k.  AWT adaptability, and

    5.  Flexibility of consolidating secondary treatment systems (Table

VII-5).


                             Table VII-4

                  COMPENDIUM OF VARIOUS ALTERNATIVES
Plan
Advantages
                                               Disadvantages
A       1.  Low initial cost

        2.  No interceptors required


        3.  Little need for coopera-
            tive action

        k.  Fair subjective evaluation

        5.  Very good AWT adaptability

B       1,,  Low initial cost
          2.  Fairly low long-range
              cost                        2,

          3.  Highest subjective evaluation

          U.  Good AWT adaptability

          5.  Very good flexibility in con-
              solidating secondary systems
                      1.  High long-range cost

                      2
                                              No flexibility in con-
                                              solidating secondary systems
                                              Some need for coopera-
                                              tive action
                          Short length interceptors

-------

-------
                                                      VII-10
                        Table VII-4 (Continued)
Plan
          Advantages
        Disadvantages
 D*
          1.  Fairly low initial cost
                                1,  Fairly high long-range cosl
          2.  High subjective evaluation  2.  Requires considerable co-
                                              operative action
          3.  Good AWT adaptability
                                3.  Long length interceptors
                                    needed
          U.  Good flexilility in con-
              solidating secondary systems

          1.  Fair AWT adaptability

          2.  Some flexibility in con-
              solidating secondary
              systems
                                1.  High initial cost
1.  Low initial cost

2.  Low long-range cost

3.  Fair AWT adaptability
2.  High long-range cost

3-  Very long length inter-
    ceptors needed

U.  Low subjective evaluation

5.  Requires considerable co-
    operative action

1,  Very long interceptors needed

2,  Low subjective evaluation
                                          3.  Requires considerable co-
                                              operative action

                                          U.  Large initial investment

                                          5-  Loss of stream flow in the
                                              Uppei Basin

* Denotes consolidation of secondary treatment systems to a single
  plant near Western Branch.

-------

-------
                                                         VII-11



    From the preceding compendium, it appears that Plan B is the roost

advantageous.  A summary of the plan is given below;


                              Table VII-5

                                PLAN B
AWT Systems
Design Volumes and AWT Units
1970 -  1980   1980 -  2000
Units*   mgd   Units*   mgd
    Secondary Systems
Laurel Parkway



Savage

Bowie-Belair
 1, 2    9-0  1,2,3,U,  13.0



 1, 2    8.0  1,2,3,V   15-0

 1, 2   lU.O  1,2,3,^   20.0
Western Branch     1, 2    8.0  1,2,3,4   l6.0
Laurel Parkway
Maryland City
    . House of Correction)
Savage

Patuxent
Ft. G.G. Meade #2
Ft. G.G. Meade #1
Bowie-Belair
Bowie -Horsepen

Western Branch
(Marlboro Meadows)
(Rural Anne Arundel)
* Notation for AWT Units;

    1.  Coagulation-sedimentation

    2.  Ammonia stripping

    3.  Rapid sand filtration

    h.  Granular carbon adsorption

-------

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                                                              VIII-1
                      BIBLIOGRAPHY






 1.  Governor's Patuxent River Advisory Committee, "The Patuxent River,



     Maryland's Asset-Maryland's Responsibility," July 1968.



 2.  Public Law 84-660, (33 U.S.C. 1&6 et.seqt.), Federal Water Pollution



     Act.



 3.  Crooks, J.W. and O'Bryan, D0, "Water Resources of the Patuxent



     River Basin, Maryland," U.So Geological Survey, Atlas #A-2*i4,



     Washington, D.C., 1967.



 k.  Elser, HJ., "Patuxent River Creek Census - 1963," National Resources



     Institute, University of Maryland, Ref. No. 63-65.



 5.  Sheare, L.W,, Ritcher, D.E., Jr., and Frisbir, C.M., "Sport Fishing



     Survey in 1960, Lower Patuxent Estuary," Chesapeake Science Vol. 3,



     No. 1.



 6.  Allison, James T0, "The Patuxent River - Physical, Chemical and



     Bacteriological Water Quality Report," Maryland Department of



     Water Resources, January 1967.



 7-  Allison, James T, (as above)      No. 2, unpublished



 8.  Allison, James T, (as above)      No 3, unpublished



 9.  Allison, James T0 (as above)      No, 4, Maryland Department of Water



     Resources



10.,  Jaworski, N^A,,, "Optimal Release Sequence for Water Quality Control



     in Multiple Reservoir Systems," CB-SRBP Technical Paper No. 13,



     FWPCA, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1968.



11.  Hall, C., "Patuxent Estuary Survey," MDWR 1968,  unpublished.



12.  Jaworski, N.A., "Potomac Estuary Nutrient Study," CTSL, MAR, FWPCA,



     1969, unpublished.

-------

-------
(Bibliography - Continued)                             VIII-2






13.  Torpey, W.N., "Effects of Reducing Pollution of Thames Estuary,"




     Water and Sewage Works, July 1968.




Ik.  LaBuy, J.L., "Biological Survey of the Upper and Middle Patuxent




     River and Some of Its Tributaries," CB-SRBP Working Document No.




     29, MAR, FWPCA, Charlottesville, Virginia,  June 1968.




15.  Mihursky, J.A,, "Patuxent Thermal Studies," Natural Resources




     Institute Special Report No. 1, University  of Maryland, January 19&9




16.  Cory, R.L., "Epifauna of the Patuxent River Estuary for 1963 and




     1964 Chesapeake Science," Vol. 8, No. 2,  June 1967.




17.  Heidel, S.G. and Fremer, W.W., "Chemical  Quality of Water and Trace




     Elements in the Patuxent River Basin," Maryland Geological Survey




     Report of Investigations No, 1, 1965.




18.  Cory, R.L. and Nauman, J.W., "Temperature and Water Quality Conditions




     of the Patuxent River Estuary, 1966 through 1967," U.S. Geological



     Survey, Open File.




19.  Mihursky, J.A., "Patuxent River Estuary Study," NRI Ref.  No.  63-66,




     University of Maryland, 1963



20.  Mihureky, J.A., "Summary Report on Tidal  Conditions  of the Tidal




     Patuxent River," NRI Ref. No. 68-7, University of Maryland,  1968.



21.  Annotated Code of the Laws of Maryland.




22.  Mihursky, J.A. 5 Stress, R.G.; Kennedy, V.S.;  Heink,  D.R.;  Morgan, R.P.,




     "Effects of Thermal Pollution on Productibity and Stability of




     Estuarine Communities," Third annual report,  Water Resources  Research




     Center, University of Maryland, 1967.



23.  Nash, C.B., "Environmental Characteristics  of a River  Estuary,"




     Maryland Department Resources and Ed. (6k);  ikf-Ijk, 19*17.

-------

-------
(Bibliography - Continued)                                    VIII-3








2h.  Mihursky, JoA0, "Patuxent Thermal Study - Progress Report,"  NRI Ref.




     No. 66-U7, University of Maryland, September 19660




25.  Beavin, G.F., "Temperature and Salinity of Surface Water at  Solomons,




     Maryland," Chesapeake Science l(l);2-ll, I960,,




26.  Wolman, A.; Geyer, JoC,,; and Beavin,  B.E,,, "Patuxent Regional  Sewerage




     Report," Board of Consultants, Baltimore, Maryland, 1961.




27.  Whitman,, Requardt and Aceociates, "Howard County Sewerage Report,"




     Howard County Metropolitan Commission,,  June 1958.




28.  Whitman, Requardt and Associates, "Water and Sewerage Master Plan Report,




     Anne Arundel County," Office of Planning and Zoning, 1967.




29.  State of Maryland Water Resources Regulation U.8, Maryland Water




     Resources Commission, May 22, 1967-



30,  Soil Conservation Service, USDA, "Little and Middle Patuxent




     Preliminary Investigation" under PL 566, College Park,  Maryland,




     September 1968.



31.  Smith, C.E0 and Chapman, RL, "Recovery of Coagulant,  Nitrogen




     Removal and Carbon Regeneration in Wastewater Reclamation,"  South



     Tahoe Public Utility District, South  Lake Tahoe, Cal.,  June  1967.




32.  Trident Engineering Associates, "Feasibility Stady on a Waste



     Acceptance Service Program for the State of Maryland,"  Vol.  II,




     Contract No. 095-338, Maryland State  Department  of Health, January  1968.




33-  Pritchard, DW,,, "Fisheries vs. the Exploitation of the Nonextractive




     Resources in Estuaries," supplement to  Transactions,  Marine




     Technology Society Conference, June 27-29, 1966.,

-------

-------
(Bibliography - Continued)                                  VIII-k








3^.  Bishop, D.L., "Status and Outlook for Phosphorus  Removal  from




     Wastewaters," FWPCA, Cincinnati,  Ohio, September  196?.




35.  Barth, E.F. and Ettinger, M.B., "Mineral Controlled Phosphorus




     Removal in the Activated Sludge Process," Journal Water Pollution




     Control Federation, Vol. 39, August 1967.




36.  Eberhardt, W.A. and Nesbitt, J.B., "Chemical Precipitation  of




     Phosphorus in a High Rate Activated Sludge System," Journal




     Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. Uo, July 1968.




37.  Culp, R.L., "Wastewater Reclamation by Tertiary Treatment," Journal




     Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol, 35, June 1963.




38.  Inter-Departmental Task Force on  Project Potomac, "Sub-Task Force




     on Water Quality, Final Report,"  in publication.




39.  Machkenthun, K.M., "A Review of Algae, Lake Weeds and Nutrients,"




     Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, October 1962.




UO.  Sawyer, C.N., "Some New Aspects of Phosphates in  Addition to  Lake




     Fertilization," Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 2U, No.  6, 1952.



hi,  Chu, S.P., "The Influence of Mineral Composition  of the Medium  on




     the Growth of Planktonic Algae,"  Journal of Ecology, Vol, 31, No.




     2, 19^3.



1*2.  Jaworski, N.A.; Donovan, G.  and Villa, 0., "Nutrients in the  Upper




     Potomac River Basin, 1966" (in preparation by CTSL).

-------

-------
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                                                                                  FIGURE   A-

-------

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8
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                                          FIGURE  A-2

-------

-------
                    ANNEX ARUNDEL ?/|
PATUXENT   RIVER   BASIN
                                FIGURE A-3

-------

-------
  <
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-------

-------
                                                     o

P 31V 320  WHQdlNO A1H1NOW
                                              FIGURE  A-5

-------

-------
APPENDIX  B




   TABLES

-------

-------
                                                              B-2
                           Table B-l

                        PATUXENT RIVER
                   SURVEY STATION LOCATIONS
                   Chesapeake Field Station
Station
Number
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Location
Maryland Rt, 1* Bridge
Queen Anne ' s Bridge
Maryland Rt, 2lU Bridge
John Hanson Highway Bridge-lLS0 50 & 301
Defense Highway Bridge on Maryland Rt. 3
Patuxent River just upstream from Little
Patuxent-Priest Bridge
Bridge behind Bowie Race Track
Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge crossing
River
Mile
U7A5
54o88
56,00
60,7^
63.6?
6U.OO
66,37

                Patuxent off of Lemon Bridge Road            68,65

12A             Road off of Jericho Road by Mark F0 Arban
                & Co, through gravel pit area to river
                approximately 003 miles upstream from
                Lemons Bridge (Marked)                       69,35

12B             Kluckhuhn Loop Road approaches close to
                river  mile downstream from Duvall
                Bridge                                       70,95

13              Duvall Bridge on Patuxent Wildlife
                Refuge                                       71o50

13A             Off of River Road on Refuge just upstream
                from Beach Island (Marked)                   72.65

13B             Off of River Road on Refuge 0.8k miles
                upstream from Station 13* (Marked)           73^0

Ik              Baltimore-Washington Expressway Bridge
                on Patuxent                                  75,00

llfA             Brock Bridge on Patus/tent on Brock Bridge
                Road                                         75,60

15              Maryland Route 198 Bridge on Patuxent River  78,02

-------

-------
                                          B-3
Table B-l (Continued)
Station
Number
LI
L2
L2A
L3
IA
L5
L6
L6A
L7A
L7
LTB
L?A
Location
Little Patuxent River just upstream from
confluence with Patuxent River
Maryland Rt. k2k Bridge
Towser Run at Evergreen Road
Bridge immediately upstream from
Woodwardville
Old Forge Bridge
Simmon's Bridge on Rt. 198
Baltimore -Washington Expressway Bridge
Dorsey Run at Maryland Rt. 32
Brock Bridge Road crossing the Little
Patuxent River
Bridge on U.S. Rt. 1 downstream from
Savage
Hammond Branch at Coolesville School Road
Hammond Branch at U.S. Rt. 1
RiVer
Mile
63.80
66.80
-
70.70
7^.05
75.50
77.25
-
79-84
81.48
-


-------

-------
                                            B-U
       Table B-2

 PATUXENT ESTUARY SURVEY
    STATION LOCATIONS
Chesapeake Field Station
Station
Number
El
E2
E3
EU
E5
E6
E?
E8
9
E10
Ell
E12
E13
ElU
E15
Location
Rt. 50 Bridge
Queen Anne's Bridge
Bell's Junk Yard
Trailer Court
Wayson's Corner, Rt. U Bridge
Mouth of Western Branch
Mouth of Lyon's Creek
Nottingham
Lower Marlboro, opposite wharf
High power lines
One-half way between Trueman Pt. and
Deep Landing
500 yds. east of PEPCO Canal
Chalk Point
Benedict Bridge Channel
Buoy 21 - Sheridan Pt.
River
Mile
60. 7^
5U.88
52.50
U8.60
VT.45
1*5.20
Ul.75
38. Uo
32.20
31.90
28.50
27.30
25.00
22.90
19.UO

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                                                                     B-7
                                  Table B-5

                  OYSTERS,  SOFTSHELL CLAMS, AND CRABS HARVESTED
                                  BY COUNTY
BUSHELS OF
Year
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
BUSHELS OF
Year
1964-65
1965-66
1966.67
OYSTERS HARVESTED
St, Marys Co,
14,500
17,700
Ul,200
4o,500
Calvert Co,
27,700
22,500
18,800
33,300
SOFTSHELL CLAMS HARVESTED
Calvert Co. StoMarys Co,
9,600
7,000
2,300
POUNDS OF CRABS HARVESTED
Year St. Marys Co,
1963
1964
1965
Hard Soft &
Peeler
155,000 6,000
180,000 8S400
420,000 13,000
600


Calvert Co,
Hard Soft &
Peeler
13,500 2,200
131,600 3,200
115,200 20,000
Charles Co. Total
900 43,100
1,900 42,100
5,900 65,900
2,300 76,100
Total
10,200
7,000
2,300
Charles Co. Total
Hard Soft &
Peeler
7,500 600 252,300
65,000 1,200 389,400
130,000 1,300 699,500
Docks ide
Dollar
Value I/
$172,400
168,400
263,600
304 ,400
Docks ide
Dollar
Value 2/
$25,500
17,500
5,750
Docks ide
Dollar
Value 3/
$18,400
31,100
48,000
ij Based on $4/bushel

2/ Based on $2,,50/bushel

_2/ Baaed on 8^/pound

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-------

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                                                               B-lU
County
          Table B-8




COUNTY POPULATION PROJECTIONS






        I960
2000
2020
Anne Arundel
NPA
MSPD
Calvert
NPA
MSPD
Charles
NPA
MSPD
Howard
NPA
MSPD
Montgomery
NPA
MSPD
Prince Georges
NPA
MSPD
St. Marys
NPA
MSPD
^HV^BB
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206,600

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15,800

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32 , 600

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36,200

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3^0,900

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357,400

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38,900
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415,700

26,000
269 200

52,000
58,200

100 ,000
112,800

551,000
630,200

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770 s 300

52 .,000
60,600

556^200
600,000

42^000
46 s 200

80 ,000
75,300

240,400
215,000

913,000
870,000

1, 188 ,000
1?002S600

83,000
72,000

700,700
866,000

669ooo
81,500

112 , 000
97,^00

450,700
413,000

1,652,000
1,300,000

1,568,000
1,305,000

132,000
85,500

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                                                                B-39
                            Table B-20

      MEANS AND EXTREMES OF SURFACE WATER TEMPERATURES*IN
           THE PATUXENT ESTUARY AT SOLOMONS, MARYLAND
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Minimum.
-0.6
-0.8
0.8
5.6
11.2
18.8
21.9
22.9
17.8
12.9
6.3
1.5
Temperature C
Average
3.5
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11.5
18.0
23.5
26.5
26.7
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12. k
6.1

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18.3
24.3
29.6
31.0
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25.7
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                                                                C-2k
                           TABLE C-13

             BAY OUTFALL IMTERCEPTOR AM) PUMPING COSTS

Interceptor Cost;

    Flow                                    65 mgd @ 2,000

    Length                                  63,500 feet

    Design velocity                         2-3 fps

    Diameter                                36 inches

    Pipe cost                               $36 ($l/ft)

    Total cost                              $2,300,000
Pumping Cost;

    Static pumping head

    Friction head

    Total pumping head

    Cost of electricity

    Pump and motor efficiency

    Cost of pumping



    Operation and maintenance

    Pumps, etc.

    Structures

    Accessory Equipment
60 feet

110 feet

170 feet

2$ kilowatt hour

65 percent

$20/million gallons @ an
   average flow of kO mgd
   or $290,000/year

$1^,700,000

   500,000

   600,000

   200,000
Total Cost of Interceptors and Pumping;  $8,300,000

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