ID
                                                                   903R80002
5V*
                                              U.S. EPA Region III
                                              Regional Center for Environmental
                                               Information
                                              1650 Arch Street (3PM52)
                                              Philadelphia, PA 19103
                                  THE  WEST VIRGINIA SURFACE

                                IMPOUNDMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

                                         FINAL  REPORT



                                         prepared  for



                        UNITED STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                     WATER SUPPLY BRANCH



                                          prepared by



                               THE  WEST VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT  OF

                                       NATURAL RESOURCES

                                  DIVISION OF WATER RESOURCES

                             GROUND WATER/HAZARDOUS  WASTE SECTION
                                    m
                              Regional ( writer for Einironinmt.il Information
                                    rsHPARegioniii                          Marrh
                                     1650 Arch st                            uarcn,
                                   Philadelphia p\ 1DI01

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I
_                                          TABLE OF CONTENTS


•                     Tables	iii
•                     Illustrations  	   iv
                      Maps	v
•                     Acknowledgements 	   vi
                      Program Personnel  	  vii
•                     Chapter 1	1
                      Executive  Summary
                      Chapter 2	5
                      Conclusions  and Recommendations
•                     Chapter 3	8
                      Program Methodology
•                     Chapter 4	18
I
I
I
                      Presentation and Analysis of the Data
                      Chapter 5	41
                      Water Table Aquifers
                      Chapter 6	43
                      Ground Water Contamination from Surface
                      Impoundments and Potential Impact
I                      Chapter 7	55
                      Evaluation of Existing State Program
•                      Chapter 8	59
                      Evaluation of Existing Federal Programs
•                      Chapter 9	62
                      Ground Water Use in West Virginia

I

I

I

I

I
                                                   ii

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                           TABLES
Table 1-1	4
Site and Impoundment Statistics, by Category
Table 3-1	16
Published Information Unsed for S.I.A. Assessments
Table 4-1	19
Location and Count and Assessment Statistics
Table 4-2	31
Impoundment Statistics, Grouped by Industrial Activity
Table 4-3	37
Summary of Impoundment Types
Table 4-4	38
Characteristics of Liner Materials
Table 4-5	39
Characteristics of Flexible, Synthetic, Membrane Liners
Table 4-6	40
Liner/Industrial Waste Compatibilities
                             iii

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                        ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 4-1	23
Graph of Site Statistics
Figure 4-2	24
Graph of Impoundment Statistics
Figure 4-3	26
Graph of Average Number of Impoundments
per Site in Each Category
Figure 4-4	29
Graph of Distribution of Industrial Impoundments
and Industrial Impoundment Sites According to
Geological Situation
Figure 4-5	31
Map of Availability of Ground Water from
Industrial and Public Water Supply Wells
Figure 4-6	33
Graph of Average Number of Impoundments
per Industrial Site, Grouped by Industrial Activity
Figure 4-7	-.34
Graph of Number of Industrial Impoundments and
Impoundment Sites, Grouped by Industrial Activity
                              iv

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                            MAPS



Map 1      Waste Water Impoundment Sites


Map 2      Industrial Impoundment Sites
Map 3      Geologic Map Indicating Hydrogeologically
           Sensitive Units
Map 4      Public Ground Water Supplies
All maps are located in the pocket in the back of the report.
                              v

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                                ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS









     We wish to thank the following persons for their contributions to the




West Virginia Surface Impoundment Assessment Program:






     Pat McClure for her help and patience in putting the report together.




     Ward Foeller for his fine graphics work on the report.




     Teena Turner for her help in sending out the questionnaires.




     All Division of Water Resources field personnel for their invaluable




assistance with our field investigations.
                                       VI

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                                PROGRAM PERSONNEL




     The West Virginia Surface Impoundment Assessment Program was executed by




three geologists, a hydrogeologist, three temporary workers and various clerical




personnel.  The responsibilities and technical backgrounds of each of the




participants are as follows:




     John Northeimer — Geologist and Program Coordinator




     John received a B.S. in geology from West Virginia University in 1971, and




worked in the Industrial Waste Section of the West Virginia Water Resources




Division from 1971 to 1979.  He initiated the S.I.A. program and is responsible




for development of the Underground Injection Control Program under the Safe




Drinking Water Act and the Hazardous Waste Management Program under the Resource




Conservation and Recovery Act.  He is currently acting as section leader for




the Ground Water/Hazardous Waste Section.




     Richard Shaver — Geologist




     Rick received a B.S. in geology from West Virginia University in 1978, his




work experience includes three summers as temporary geologist with Columbia Gas




Transmission Corporation.  He worked on the S.I.A. from October, 1978 to March,




1980.  He performed the location and count, set up the file system, performed




assessments, collected field data and assisted in writing the state report.




     Scott MacMillin — Geologist




     Scott received a B.S. in geology from Juniata College in 1977.  He undertook




graduate work at West Virginia University from 1977-78.  He worked on S.I.A. from




November, 1978 to March, 1980 and performed the same functions as Richard Shaver.




     Fred S. Moore — Hydrogeologist




     Fred received a B.S. in geology from Ohio University in 1973 and an M.S.




in geology from West Virginia University in 1976.  He worked as a geologist with




the West Virginia Department of Highways in 1973-74 as a soil fill inspector.




He worked on the S.I.A. from February, 1979 to August, 1979, performing assessments
                                       vii

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field work.




     Tom Ryan — Temporary Engineer




     Tom is a student in civil engineering at West Virginia University.  He




worked on the S.I.A. from May to August, 1979.  He worked on the location




and count of MUN and MNG impoundments, performed field work, ran grain size




analyses of soil samples and located public ground water supplies.




     Hoss Jones — Temporary Engineer




     Boss is a student in mining engineering at West Virginia Institute of




Technology.  He worked on the S.I.A. from June to August, 1979, performing




the same functions as Tom Ryan.




     Joe Hughart — Temporary Geologist




     Joe received a B.S. in geology from West Virginia University in 1979.  He




is currently a graduate student in geology at Ohio University.  He worked on




the S.I.A. from July to August and from November to December, 1979, performing




all of the MNG assessments and field work.




     It should be noted that the temporary S.I.A. workers provided high quality




work that was invaluable to the program.
                                      viii

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INDUSTRIAL WASTE
I     SECTION
     Engineer
 Randy Sovic, Leader
     Secretary
    Teena Turner
      Engineer
   Dwight McQure
      Engineer
                                              PERMITS BRANCH
                                                  Engineer
                                               Jerry L. Ray, Head
                                                   Clerk
                                                Sandy ThorhhiJ]
MUNICIPAL WASTE
     SECTION
     Engineer
Pravin Sangani, Leader
       Steno
    Mavis Adams
     Engineer
     Jack Strode
     Engineer
     Fred High
                                 Eng. in Training
                                  Joe Marakovits
                                 Eng. in Training
                                   Lee Spencer
    .COAL
   SECTION
   Engineer
Paul Ware, Leader
    Clerk
    Pat Neal
    Geologist
   Pam Hayes
  Inspector
 Harold Dunbar
                                 Eng. in Training
                                   Ken Fields
                                   Engineer
                                Arden Cunningham
                                                               Enง. in Training
                                                                  Don Wass
                                                                 Inspector  .
                                                                Bill Richardson
 HAZARDOUS WASTE
      SECTION
 Nat. Resources Adm.
John Northeimer, Leader
       Clerk.
      Pat McClure
       Planner *
      Rob Jelacic
                                  Geologist
                                 Fred Moore
                                  Engineer
                                 Dick Alford
                                                                                                 Planner
                                                                                                Rick Shaver
                                                                                                 Planner .
                                                                                              Scott MacMillin
                                                                                                 Engineer
                                                                                                 Chemist
                                                                                              Neilima Senjalia
                                                                                                 Planner
                                                                                                Pat Hissom
                                                                                                 Secretary
                                                             IX

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                                     CHAPTER 1




                                 EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY






      The major objective of the Surface Impoundment Assessment Program was




to provide an inventory of surface waste impoundments in West Virginia and




to determine their potential impact on ground water quality.  Surface




impoundments were grouped into four  (4) major categories; industrial, municipal,




mining, and agricultural.  Although each category was addressed, the major




emphasis of the program was directed towards industrial impoundments.




      Surface impoundments are commonly used in waste water treatment and dis-




posal systems.  While most of these facilities are under state permit, the




major concern is usually directed only toward surface discharge quality.  The




West Virginia Surface Impoundment Assessment Program was the first systematic




program in the state to evaluate the potential ground water problems posed by




surface impoundments, with the exception of recent permit reviews of new




industrial facilities.




      The program was performed in two basic steps; the Location and Count and




the Assessment.  The Location and Count provided basic information on all




impoundment sites, including ownership, addresses,  latitude and longitude, and




the number of impoundments per site.




      The Assessment was considered to be the most important phase of the program.




In this procedure a numerical rating was assigned to four (4) physical parameters




related to each impoundment.  These included a rating of the unsaturated zone,




the saturated zone, the background ground water quality and the waste




potential.  These four (4) ratings were then summed to give an overall site




rating.




      The unsaturated zone is that volume of earth material, above the water




table, whose pore spaces are not completely saturated with water.  This zone

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was rated according to its thickness and permeability.  The saturated zone is




that volume of earth material whose pore spaces are completely saturated with




water.  This zone was also rated according to its thickness and permeability.




This rating system was designed around a simplified hydrogeologic system.  In




most cases, the actual hydrogeologic situation was far more complex and




necessitated a certain amount of judgement on the part of the personnel making




the evaluations.  The third rating was based on the natural quality of ground




water at the site.  High quality ground water received a high rating.  The




rating for waste hazard was assigned in relation to the degree of hazard the




particular waste represented.




      The geologic conditions under lying the majority of impoundment sites in




West Virginia can be divided into three (3) groups.  These include unconsoli-




dated alluvial valleys consisting of clay, silt, sand and gravel; consolidated




rock consisting of interbedded sandstone, siltstone, shale and coal; and




carbonate rock consisting of limestone and dolomite.




      The topography of a large portion of West Virginia consists of steep,




deeply dissected valleys.  Therefore, many of the suitable industrial develop-




ment sites lie along alluvial river bottoms.  A large proportion of industrial




impoundments are located on these alluvial systems, some of which are quite




prone to ground water contamination.  This is due to the relatively high




permeability of the deposited materials.




      Impoundments located in carbonate rock areas also have a high geologic




potential for ground water contamination due to solution channels, conduits




and fractures.   Impoundments located in most other consolidated rock areas




have generally been considered to have a lower ground water contamination




potential due to lower associated permeabilities.  This situation is highly




variable, however and site suitability must be determined on a site-specific




basis.

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     There are some problems with the rating procedure which casts some doubt




upon the validity of the ratings.  These include inadequate waste hazard rating




guidance, the relative weight carried by each rating step and evaluator bias.




It is recognized that no. attempt should be made to compare the average rating




of one category to the average rating of another category.  The ratings might




be better used to compare individual impoundments at a particular site or in




a particular region within one category.  It is stressed, however, that the




main value of this program is indicated by the data obtained for each impound-




ment. - No conclusion should be made about a particular impoundment without




analyzing the source and value of the data utilized in the rating.




     In most cases, there were not adequate resources available to document




the actual existence of ground water contamination problems.  However, some




actual contamination cases were determined in addition to cases where contam-




ination was highly suspected.  Under current statutes there are approaches that




are being pursued to require that remedial work be conducted at these facilities.




This is usually done through the use of permit modifications.  In these cases,




companies or individuals have been required to upgrade certain activities and




to install ground water monitoring facilities.




     The data gathered in all phases of the S.I.A. program was entered into a




data processing system operated and maintained by the United States Environmental




Protection Agency.  Statistical information regarding the program was listed,




tabulated, and plotted at the completion of the program.




     The number of impoundments located and counted and assessed are listed in




Table 1-1.  It will be noted that an original estimate of the number of impound-




ments is also listed.  The final determination of the number of impoundments




varied considerably from the original estimate.




     The program is considered to have been successful and useful in delineating




the potential for ground water contamination from surface impoundments in West

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Virginia.   This program will  have many useful  applications in  the area of




ground water  protection programs at the state  and federal levels.
                  SITE AND IMPOUNDMENT STATISTICS, BY CATEGORY

Number
Located
& Counted
	 ones 	
W V.S.I.A.
Estimate
of Total
Number
I
Number
Assessed
i
Original
Estimate
of Total
Number
	 llllj;UUIlUJlltJlli 	
XT . W.V.S.I.A.
Number ฃ -^ ••!•ซ••
Located fT t 1
& Counted ฐumฐbear

Number
Assessed
Average
Ground-Water
Contamination
Potential Rating
Industrial (IND)
Municipal (MUN)
Mining (MNG)
Agricultural (AGR)
Abandoned
Industrial (AIN)
Abandoned
Municipal (AMU)
Abandoned
Mining (AMG)
Abandoned
Agricultural (AAG)
Total
99
331
250
17
9
14
41
2
763
•(&
473
313
57
18
35
103
4
CM!?}
99
319
37
15
9
0
0
0
479
10001
SO1
18002
351
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
2885
2863
404
1095
22
19
14
142
3
1985
^E>
577
1369
73
38
35
35
6
'""2450"^
^r 	 ^
278
394
272
19
19
0
0
0
982
19.8
18.4
20.0
19.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
  1 Geraughty and Miller Estimate
2 Water Resources Division Estimate
3 See Text
                                    TABLE 1

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                                   CHAPTER 2




                         CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS






     The West Virginia Surface Impoundment Assessment Program is considered




to have been a successful program, serving as an initial step towards the




development of a ground water protection program in the state.   A number of




conclusions based on program results  are listed below.




     1) The program established the fact that there is a significant potential




        for ground water contamination in West Virginia from surface waste




        impoundments.  Actual cases of ground water contamination emanating




        from surface impoundments were documented,  and highly suspected cases




        of ground water contamination were identified.




     2) The heavy industrial development along the major alluvial valleys,




        represents a particular potential for ground water contamination




        due to hydrogeologic factors  and associated waste characteristics.




     3) State permitting programs have not addressed ground water contamination




        from surface impoundments. While most surface impoundments are under




        state permit, the requirements of the permit usually relate only to




        hydraulic design and treatment efficiency.




     4) The lack of a regulatory program governing water well placement,




        construction and abandonment  has limited the available data base




        utilized for assessments.




     5) The validity of the numerical  rating system is questionable.  The




        guidance provided for the assignment of waste hazard ratings was not




        specific and the geologic potential was weighted more heavily than the




        waste hazard potential, which tended to produce overall ratings that




        fell within a rather narrow range.




     6) The data that was compiled for impoundment assessments can be applied

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        to the evaluation of other activities occurring on site (landfills,




        land application, etc.).




     7) The program provided excellent training for the participants.  This




        will be advantageous for the implementation of other programs




        pertaining to ground water protection at the state level.




     As a result of the conclusions, derived from the Surface Impoundment




Assessment Program, a number of recommendations have been made regarding the




effectiveness of current programs for the protection of ground water in West




Virginia.  These recommendations are listed below.




     1) State programs permitting impoundments should be reviewed and revised




        to provide for ground water protection.  Impoundment liner standards




        should be established and ground water monitoring programs should be




        initiated.




     2) Sites at which evidence of ground water contamination is presumed




        should be further investigated in order to delineate the exact extent




        and nature of the problem.  Remedial work should then be required in




        order to resolve any problems.




     3) The full effectiveness of the Surface Impoundment Assessment Program




        can be most fully utilized if more than just the final rating is




        considered when evaluating the potential for ground water contamination




        at a particular site.  Each of the individual rating steps should be




        considered separately in order to best determine what degree of impact




        a particular impoundment might have on ground water.




     4) The data compiled for the impoundment assessments should be utilized




        for assessments of other activities at the same site,




     5) A state regulatory program should be established to control the




        development and utilization of ground water.




     Some of the above recommendations have already been implemented.  The data

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collected from the site assessments has been used to develop a priority list




to be used for designation of sites for further investigations and/or remedial




work.  Participation in available federal programs and development of state




level comprehensive management plans should assure the maintenance of ground




water quality.

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                                    CHAPTER 3




                               PROGRAM METHODOLOGY




                               S.I.A. FILE SYSTEM






     The S.I.A. program files were arranged by category:  Industrial,




Municipal, Mining and Agricultural.  Within each category, each site was




assigned a consecutive number starting with 00001,  as they were identified.




All information and correspondence associated with the particular site was




filed under the assigned number with a cross index by company name.




     Each site was denoted with a red 4mm hexagon and located on a 7.5'




topographic map.  In the case of multiple pond sites, the hexagon was placed




at the center of the site.  The latitude and longitude at the center of each




site was recorded.  The site category and number was marked beside each




hexagon.




     The individual methods for locating and describing facilities within




each category are listed below.




     Municipal  (MUN)




     These are sites with waste ponds containing municipal (sanitary) waste.




There was some confusion with this definition in the case of mining and




industrial sites that had separate sanitary waste treatment ponds.  In the




case of duplication of categories for one site, only one file was prepared




with the MUN category preempted by the industrial or mining category.




     Municipal Waste Section permit files provided basic information for the




location of municipal sites.  The files provided some construction details




about the ponds, but did not provide any geologic information.




     Questionnaires were mailed to municipal permit holders in an effort to




obtain better information related to location and geologic information.  The




response rate was poor and yielded little useful information.

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I
                Week long field trips were completed in each of the six (6) Water Resources
           Division field districts.  Field inspectors, who had actual contact with the




•          sites were able to locate permitted sites and previously unknown unpermitted




           sites and to identify abandoned sites.  The field trips were also used to




I          generate site specific geologic information.  Some MUN sites were impossible




           to locate.




                Industrial (IND)




                The Industrial Waste Section has a permit file mailing list that was




           utilized for distributing questionnaires.  Information that was requested




           referred to location, details of ponds, and subsurface geologic and hyrologic




           information.  The number of responses for the industrial category was quite




           good and the information provided was often excellent.  A typical response




           might include a site map showing all ponds, a page listing technical informa-




           tion on the ponds, and foundation borings giving USCS soil classifications.




                Field inspections with district personnel yielded few new sites due to




           the completeness of the Industrial Waste permit files.




                Additional subsurface information was obtained from on-site investigations




           during field trips.  Field work often confirmed previous locations and added




           additional technical information regarding the impoundments.




                Mining (MNG)




                The Coal Preparation Section has a permit file mailing list that was used




           for the distribution of questionnaires.  The questionnaires were identical to




           those sent to the industrial facilities, although the response rate was not as




           good as that of the Industrial facilities.  Information returned with the




           questionnaires provided accurate locations but did not provide subsurface




           information.  There was also some confusion among coal companies as to which




           ponds should be included and which should be excluded.  With these problems




           and also the fact that there was some confusion as to ownership of some sites,

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it was decided to abandon the use of the questionnaire and to use only coal




preparation files for the purpose of pond location.




     The Mine Drainage Permit Section issues permits for acid mine drainage




discharges.  These files were used to locate additional ponds.  Unfortunately




the files were less than adequate for this purpose.  The description of this




particular treatment facility was often vague and frequently did not specify




the exact method of treatment.  While many ponds are employed for acid mine




drainage treatment, they are not specified in the permit.  Therefore, many




existing pond sites could not be located.  The location descriptions were




not adequate in that they located the outfall rather than the actual treat-




ment plant.  In practice, these may be separated by as much as a mile.




     The field inspectors were able to clear up many problems that we




encountered.  One problem is that coal mining facilities change ownership




frequently.  Often the permit files were not up to date with the record of




ownership changes.  Facilities that were temporarily shut down, due to poor




coal market conditions, were assessed as being active sites.




     Field work at some coal facilities served to confirm previous locations




and supply additional subsurface geologic information.




     Agricultural (AGR)




     Very little effort was expended to specifically locate agricultural sites.




We gave agricultural sites lowest priority because it was felt that their




impact on ground water quality would be low in West Virginia due to the relative-




ly low waste hazard and the limited development of agriculture in the state.




     Most agricultural ponds were located with the use of the municipal waste




files.  A few others were located with the aid of the field inspectors.  Most




of the agricultural ponds that were located and counted were liquid manure




ponds, either from cattle, hog or poultry raising.  None of the agricultural




ponds that were located were related to irrigation.
                                         10

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     Abandoned Municipal (AMU)




     No effort was made to specifically locate this category.  Some question-




naire responses from municipal permit holders indicated that some ponds were




abandoned in favor of other types of treatment.  Also, field inspectors




provided this information in some cases.




     Abandoned Industrial (AIN)




     A moderate degree of effort was made to locate these facilities.  Only




a few sites were actually located.  Most of the sites that were located were




found  in the industrial permit files.  Additional sites could be located




with an extensive review of industrial "dead" files.




     Abandoned Mining (AMG)




     A moderate degree of effort was made to locate these facilities.  Both




questionnaire responses and field inspectors indicated abandonment of mining




facilities.  Many more sites could have been located if all the "dead" mining




files had been utilized.




     There was some question as to the definition of an abandoned mining pond.




One definition could be simply abandonment.  The other could mean abandonment




and subsequent backfilling and reclamation.  It was thought, for the purposes




of assessment, that each situation would pose different degrees of risk.




However, both groups were classified as "Abandoned", in part because it was




impossible to determine if a site had been reclaimed or not.




     Abandoned Agricultural (AAG)




     No effort was made to locate ponds in this category.






                               ASSESSMENT METHODS




     Each category required a somewhat different method of assessment due to




different sources and availability of information.  Assessment methods for




each category are discussed below.
                                        11

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     Industrial (IND)




     The industrial category was designated the priority category with the




intent of deriving high confidence assessments.  This approach was selected




based on the belief that industrial facilities pose the greatest threat to




ground water quality due to the waste hazards and the geographic distribution




of the sites.  One hundred percent (100%) of all of the IND sites located




were assessed.




     The information provided through questionnaire responses from industrial




sites .was often good enough to perform a high confidence assessment.  In other




cases published ground water reports were detailed enough, in regions where




there were concentrations of industry, to perform high quality assessments.




In cases where little or no information was available from the previously




mentioned sources, every effort was made to generate site specific information




through field investigations.




     Municipal (MUN)




     This category was assigned a lower priority than that of the industrial




category.  However, ninety-six percent (96%) of all sites that had been located




were assessed.




     Information used for assessment was usually much less detailed than that




used for industrial assessments.  Rarely was on-site information available so




many assessments were based on general, published information.  Some on-site




field investigations were made to generate specific information but assessments




for this category were, for the most part, of only poor to fair confidence.




     Mining  (MNG)




     Mining facilities were assigned a lower priority than MUN facilities.  It




is felt that the waste type from site to site is much more homogeneous than for




most other categories.  Coal fines and clay are thought to make the ponds some-




what self-sealing.  For these reasons a fifteen percent (15%) random sample was
                                       12

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taken for assessment.




     Because a small sample was selected for assessment, a high confidence




assessment was desired.  Lack of published information and the very cylic,




non-uniform nature of the Pennsylvanian rocks involved, made high quality




assessments very difficult.  Therefore, on-site investigations were performed.




About two-thirds (2/3) of the sampled mining sites were investigated.




     The waste hazard ratings used for the assessment of the mining impound-




ments were based on several factors.  The S.I.A. rating table indicated a




hazard rating value of seven (7) for bituminous coal mining wastes and a




rating value of six (6) for sulfide bearing mine tailings.  In West Virginia




there is a fairly definite geographic division between coals containing low




levels of pyrite.  Impoundments located in coal regions containing high levels




of pyrite were assigned the higher rating of seven (7) due to the higher




potential for the production of sulfuric acid and ferric hydroxide.  Impound-




ments in coal regions containing low levels of pyrite were assigned a rating




of five (5).  The particular type of impoundment system further defined the




waste hazard rating that was applied.  In the case of Acid Mine Drainage




treatment ponds the degree of treatment employed in the system determined this




rating.  An iron precipitation pond with no pH adjustment received a higher




rating than a pond that did receive pH adjustment.




     Mining impoundments in a system arranged in series were all assigned the




same waste hazard potential.  This is different from industrial impoundments




arranged in series where each impoundment in the series was assigned a




decreasing value.  The mining impoundment system differs from the industrial




system in that it removes primarily only solids, leaving most soluble contam-




inants present in the treated water and thus the waste hazard rating would not




be likely to decrease progressively.
                                        13

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     Agricultural (AGR)




     The assessment procedure was virtually the same as for MUN sites.




     Abandoned Industrial (AIN)




     One hundred percent (100%) of all sites that had been located and counted




were assessed.  Old permit files and published information were used to a




great degree for these assessments.  On-site investigations were used in some




instances.




     None of the following categories were assessed:




     Abandoned Municipal (AMU)




     Abandoned Mining (AMG)




     Abandoned Agricultural (AAG)




                               INFORMATION SOURCES




     Permit Files




     The industrial files  are contained in the Industrial Waste Permit Section.




Permit applications contained detailed information, covering both site location




and pond descriptions.  Foundation borings and other subsurface information were




sometimes available from these files.




     The municipal files are contained in the Municipal Waste Permit Section.




Sites were often difficult to locate from these files although pond construction




details were usually sufficient.  Subsurface data was absent.




     Mining site information was available from files in two locations:  the




Coal Preparation Section permit files contain excellent location and site




description information, however, they provide no subsurface information.  Mine




Drainage files contain less specific information regarding both location and




description, than the Coal Preparation files.  In both cases, the mining site




ownership and physical layout changes so frequently that the information




contained in the files often goes out of date quickly.
                                        14

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     Field Offices




     The West Virginia Department of Natural Resources maintains six (6)




district offices statewide.  Each district has a district office in which the




field inspectors are stationed.  The field inspectors assigned to each individ-




ual district have extensive knowledge of many of the impoundment sites.




Inspectors were able to give the greatest assistance on mining facilities.  They




were able to provide information on plant layout and operation and acted as a




liason between the field group and the coal companies.




     Questionnaires




     Questionnaires were distributed to industrial, mining and municipal sites.




These questionnaires requested latitude and longitude of the site, subsurface




information such as foundation borings, a site map, liner type and any other




information related to site conditions.




     Field Investigations




     Field trips were made to each of the district field offices in order to




work with the field inspectors and to make on-site investigations of impoundment




sites.   These investigations were made in cases where the confidence of existing




information was poor.  Soil samples were obtained using a hand auger.  Depth to




ground water was measured and water samples were obtained when possible.  Soil




samples were analyzed for grain size and other physical properties.  Water




samples were analyzed for the particular chemical constituents related to the




site in question.  In cases where borings were impossible or impractical, out-




crops were observed.




     Published Information




     Published reports and maps were used to a great extent where site-specific




information was unavailable.
                                        15

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                       VARIATIONS FROM THE GRANT PROPOSAL




     The number of full time personnel working on the S.I.A. program was lower




than projected.  Three people were employed for the whole grant period and one




was employed for about half of the period.  The grant allowed for five full




time people to be hired.  However, this was supplemented with temporary help.




     Only the program coordinator was able to attend the EPA training session.




Training for the rest of the participants was performed in-house.  This was




not judged to be a significant problem.




     The Location and Count was conducted as outlined in the grant proposal,




except that orthophotoquads and aerial photos were not used and the files were




not cross indexed by SIC codes.  Also the Location and Count was not conducted




as a discrete step, but rather was done as a continual process, along with the




assessment.




     The random sample was conducted on only the mining category.  In addition,




far less than seventy percent  (70%) of allocated resources were spent on the




industrial category, due to the high quality and availability of information




for assessing sites in this category.




                      DEVIATIONS  FROM THE  S.I.A.  GUIDELINES




     Very few deviations were made from the guidance documents.  Influent and




effluent data was not collected due to the fact that we were unable to identify




any facilities that maintained this information.  In addition, the S.I.A. team




added a few additional miscellaneous identifiers.  These are in reference to




various geologic regions.  See Figure 4-5.
                                        17

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                                    CHAPTER 4




                      PRESENTATION  AND ANALYSIS  OF THE DATA






     The data collected in the S.I.A. program is too voluminous to present




in whole in this report.  Therefore, the information presented will be an




overview of all the data compiled.   As industrial sites were designated a




higher priority for the purpose of assessment, a more detailed description




of these sites will be presented.  Industrial sites with documented or




highly suspected ground water pollution problems are discussed in Chapter 6.




     An estimate of the percentage of impoundments that were located and




counted is presented in Table 1-1.   The percentage of the impoundments




located and counted that were actually assessed is also presented in Table




4-1.  A discussion of the findings for each category follows below.






     Industrial (IND)




     It is thought that about ninety percent  (90%) of all existing industrial




waste impoundments were located.  This statement can be made with a high




degree of confidence.  Due to the priority nature of the IND category, a




large effort was made to locate sites and to verify these locations by the




use of field office files and personnel visits.




     Several factors made IND sites much easier to locate than most other sites.




Most of the IND sites are very permanent facilities that do not change much




with time.  This makes them much easier to identify than some of the other




categories.  It is also believed that a large percentage of IND sites are




under permit.  Where a site was identified, determining the number of impound-




ments was usually not difficult.






     Municipal (MUN)




     It is believed that about seventy percent  (70%) of the MUN sites were
                                        18

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                           % Located and Counted        % Assessed of
                          of No. of Impoundments    Impoundments Located
                          Estimated by W.V.S.I.A.        and Counted
Industrial (IND)
Municipal (MUN)
Mining (MNG)
Agricultural (AGR)
Abandoned Industrial (AIN)
Abandoned Municipal (AMU)
Abandoned Mining (AMG)
Abandoned Agricultural (AAG)
90%
70%
80%
30%
50%
40%
40%
50%
97%
98%
25%*
86%
100%
0%
0%
0%
*Number of Mining sites assessed based on a random sample of 15% of Mining sites.
                            TABLE 4-1
                                  19

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located and counted.  This figure can be justified with only fair confidence.




This is due to the fact that many MUN sites are not under permit.  Where they




are under permit, some sites were difficult or impossible to locate.




     Field inspectors were consulted in depth in order to identify sites in




the Teays Valley and in Wood County, both areas thought to have large numbers




of ponds.  Many unpermitted ponds, known to the inspectors, were located in




both of these regions.  This is probably due to the fact that both areas are




growing rapidly and the fact that there has been a moratorium on septic systems




in the. Teays Valley.  It is also believed that the Beckley area would have a




fairly large number of umpermitted ponds, but this was not definitely determined.




     Inspectors, consulted in some other areas of the state, had less knowledge




of MUN type sites in general.  The inspectors in coal regions had a very high




workload related to coal mining and didn't have enough time to adequately cover




other activities such as inspection of MUN impoundments.  Other inspectors were




unable to identify additional unpermitted sites because few unpermitted sites




were present in that particular area.




     Based on these factors, we feel that about ninety percent (90%) of all




MUN ponds were located in Wood County and the Teays Valley.  In addition, about




half of all ponds in the Beckley area were probably located and most all of the




ponds in the remaining parts of the state are believed to be located and counted.




With these figures we arrived at an estimate of seventy percent (70%) of actual




ponds located and counted.




     Mining (MNG)




     Mining facilities can be divided into three (3) categories.  These include




coal preparation plants, acid mine drainage ponds and ponds associated with deep




mines not included in the above groups.  Excluding deep mine ponds, it is believed




that approximately eighty percent (80%) of all MNG ponds were located.  This




statement can be made with fair to good confidence.
                                        20

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     Almost all of the operating coal preparation impoundments were located.




These were located using permit files which are well organized and very complete.




These locations were checked with the inspectors and found to be complete.  One




problem associated with the coal prep plants is that they change frequently,




in their ownership and their physical layout.  This makes the location and count




somewhat difficult in some cases.




     Acid Mine Drainage Treatment (AMD) ponds were located from the Mine Drainage




permit files.  These files were inadequate for confidently locating and counting




many AMD pond sites due to their vague description of the treatment methods.




By consulting with field inspectors and conducting field investigations it was




determined that a very rough estimate of AMD ponds located would be fifty




percent (50%).




     No effort was made to locate impoundments associated solely with deep mine,




non-acid drainage.  It has been suggested that these types of impoundments are




very common in some areas.  This type of impoundment is thought to receive




pumpage from drainage sumps in these deep mines.  They would contain coal fines,




lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids as well as some acid.




     Agricultural (AGR)




     Due to the fact that little effort was made to locate this category it is




thought that only about thirty percent (30%) of all AGR ponds were located and




counted.  Most of the sites that were located and counted were so identified




from Municipal Permit files.  In no way are the permitted AGR ponds representa-




tive of all AGR ponds.  Consultation with the field inspectors revealed that




AGR ponds are probably not very widespread in West Virginia.  However, it is




believed that the eastern panhandle, with its greater density of agriculture,




probably has a correspondingly higher density of AGR sites.




     Abandoned Industrial (AIN)




     It is estimated that about half of the AIN sites were located.  Most
                                        21

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abandonments of major industrial sites within the past ten years are probably




known.  Older abandonments are not as well known.  Fortunately for location




purposes, older plants probably had fewer impoundments due to the fact that




there was less of an emphasis on industrial effluent treatment.




     Abandoned Municipal  (AMU)




     It is estimated that roughly forty percent  (40%) of all AMU site were




located.  This is an extremely rough estimate.  Most known AMU abandonments




are due to changeover from stabilization ponds to package plants or public




sewerage systems.  It is believed that there is a significant number of




unknown AMU sites.




     Abandoned Mining (AMG)




     A large number of more recent abandoned prep plant sites were located.




Far more could have been located with more effort, however.  Therefore, it is




believed that somewhat less than half of the abandoned prep plant sites were




located.  Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Ponds are a new development, so it is




believed that very few of these ponds have been abandoned.  For these reasons,




an estimate of the number of AMG sites is given at forty percent (40%),




     Abandoned Agricultural (AAG)




     There is almost no information available on AAG sites and only two were




located.  It is believed, however, that because liquid manure ponds are a




newer development that there probably have not been too many abandonments.




An extremely rough estimate is made at fifty percent (50%).
                                          22

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I
                                                   SITE STATISTICS
                                                                       Number Located & Counted

                                                                       W.V.S.I.A. Estimate of Total Number

                                                                       Number Assessed
          Industrial
            (IND)
Municipal
 (MUN)
Minin[
(MNG
Agricultural   Abandoned   Abandoned   Abandoned   Abandoned
  (AGR)      Industrial    Municipal     Mining    Agricultural
              (AIM)       (AMU)      (AMG)      (AAG)
                                                FIGURE 4-1
                                                              23

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                                      IMPOUNDMENT STATISTICS
2000-
1800-
1600H
1400 -I
1200-
lOOO-i
 800-
 600 -\
 400n
 200 H
                                               Original Estimate of Total Number

                                               Number Located & Counted
                                                                  1 W.V.S.I.A. Estimate of Total Number
                                                                  J

                                                                  I Number Assessed

        Industrial
         (IND)
Municipal
 (MUM)
Mining
(MNG)
Agricultural
  (AGR)
Abandoned
 Industrial
  (AIM)
Abandoned
 Municipal
  (AMU)
Abandoned
  Mining
  (AMG)
Abandoned
Agricultural
  (AAG)
                                            FIGURE  4-2
                                                      24

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I

                The total number of sites and impoundments that were located and counted

*          and also those that were assessed are presented in Table 1-1 and Figures 4-1

I          and 4-2.  This data can provide an insight into the relative abundance of

           industrial, mining, agricultural and real estate development in West Virginia.

I               The original estimate of the total number of impoundments is quite close

_          to the final estimate made by the S.I. A. group.  However, the original estimates

"          of the IND and MUN categories made by Geraughty and Miller  have been found to

I          be substantially in error.  The estimate of the number of IND impoundments was

           far top high and the estimate of the number of MUN impoundments was far too low.

I               Municipal (MUN)

_               The MUN category contained the largest number of impoundment sites.  The

           average number of impoundments per site was only 1.22 so the total number of

I          MUN impoundments was not high.  There appear to be several geographic concen-

           trations of MUN sites in the state (Map 1).  These are located in Wood County

•          around Parkersburg, in Raleigh County around Beckley, and in the Teays Valley

_   .       area of Cabell and Putnam Counties.  These three areas are thought to corres-

           pond with the areas of the state with the greatest rate of population growth.

I          There are also many other areas of the state with minor concentrations of MUN

           sites.

f               The siting of MUN facilities does not correspond to any particular topo-

_          graphic or geologic situation.  This is probably due to the fact that the

           housing that these facilities serve is located in many different parts of the

•          state.

                The MUN impoundments are used either for primary treatment of domestic

|          waste or for secondary treatment in conjunction with another impoundment, a


                 United States Environmental Protection Agency, Surface Impoundments and
                 Their Effects on Ground Water Quality in the United States, 1978.


-------
1

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AVERAGE NUMBER OF IMPOUNDMENTS PER SITE
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FIGURE 4-3







26

-------
package plant or both.  These ponds are either aerated or unaerated.  Most




treatment systems utilizing MUN impoundments were small systems serving




trailer courts or subdivisions.




     Most of the MUN impoundments were unlined.  Some impoundments were said




to have "natural clay liners" but this was usually considered as no liner.




     Some ponds are considered to be "evaporation" ponds.  Since the net




annual balance of precipitation vs. evaporation is positive, it becomes




apparent that evaporation ponds are not possible in West Virginia.  This




type of pond is almost certainly discharging to the ground.




     Nearly all of the MUN impoundments were assessed.  However, the




confidence of most of the assessments was low due to the difficulty of




obtaining high quality geologic information.  The average Ground Water




Contamination Pollution Potential Rating was found to be 18.4.  This is the




lowest average rating of any category.




     Mining (MNG)




     The MNG category contained by far the largest number of impoundments.




The MNG sites also had the largest average number of impoundments per site,




at 4.38.  These sites are evenly distributed over several regions of the state;




in the southern portion of the state, in the northern panhandle, and in a band




extending south from Monongalia County.  These areas correspond with the coal




mining regions of the state.  All MNG sites are located either on alluvium




along small streams or on coal bearing consolidated rocks of Pennsylvanian age.




     The MNG impoundments that were assessed can be placed in two groups:




Coal Preparation Plant treatment ponds and Acid Mine Drainage treatment ponds.




There are several types of impoundments associated with coal preparation facil-




ities.   The major example is one that is exclusively referred to as an "impound-




ment" by coal companies.  This consists of a very large impoundment created by




damming the head of an entire stream drainage.  This is utilized for the permanent
                                        27

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disposal of slurry consisting of clay and coal fines.  Other small coal prep




plant ponds are also used for collection of similar coal wastes.  These ponds




are often constructed in series and are periodically dredged out.  Acid mine




drainage ponds are used for flocculation of iron from pH adjusted mine drain-




age.  The resulting iron sludge is periodically removed.  Very few MNG impound-




ments have been lined.




     Fifteen percent  (15%) of the MNG sites were selected for assessment through




a random sample.  The selected sites included twenty-five percent (25%) of the




total number of MNG impoundments.  Therefore, the sites that were selected and




assessed had a greater average number of impoundments per site than those not




assessed.  This may be due to more careful scrutiny of a site on Assessment




than on Location and Count.




     No geologic information was submitted by coal companies.  Published geo-




logic information for MNG facilities was not specific enough.  Due to these




facts the S.I.A. group made field investigations to more than half of the MNG




sites that were assessed.  These field investigations were made in an effort




to upgrade the confidence of these assessments.  The average Step 5 rating of




the MNG impoundments is 20.0.




     Agriculture (AGR)




     The AGR was by far the smallest category.  The average number of impound-




ments per site is calculated at 1.29.  Most of the AGR impoundments are located




in the eastern portion of the state.




     Most AGR impoundments are used as liquid manure ponds.  These ponds are




used for the collection and treatment of animal waste, the effluent of which is




then spray irrigated.  The construction and operation of AGR impoundments is




essentially the same as that of MUN impoundments.  Therefore, these impoundments




were assessed in the same manner as MUN impoundments.
                                        28

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 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
I
 175
150
125
100-

                            DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRIAL IMPOUNDMENTS AND
                                    INDUSTRIAL IMPOUNDMENT SITES
                                  ACCORDING TO GEOLOGIC SITUATION
        LI Industrial Impoundment Sites

           Industrial Impoundments
            Shale & Sandstone of
             Pre-Pennsylvanian,
                           Sandstone &
                          Conglomerate of
     upper Pennsylvanian,   Lower Pennsylvanian
& Permian Ages
                               Age
Limestone & Dolomite
 o f Pre-Pennsylvanian
       Age
Ohio & Kanawha
Valley Alluvium
                                                • Delineated Sensitive Aquifers
                                                                            Other Alluvium
                                            FIGURE 4-4
           Wilford S.^Stewart,  State of  the Art  Study of Land Improvement Techn-u
           (Cincinnati,  United  States Environmental Protection Agency,  1978).	
                                                 29

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     Industrial (IND)




     The IND category is considered to be the most important category  due to




the nature of the wastes involved, the proximity to important aquifers and the




proximity to population centers.  A large number of IND impoundments are




located in the designated aquifers (see Chapter 5).  These areas include the




Ohio and Kanawha River valleys alluvium and the carbonate formations of the




Eastern Panhandle around Martinsburg.  Most of the remaining IND sites are




located in a band between Morgantown and Clarksburg and in non-carbonate




regions around Martinsburg (see maps).




     The geologic setting of the IND sites was further subdivided.  These




include the shales and sandstones of pre-Pennsylvanian, upper Pennsylvanian




and Permian age rocks and the sandstones and conglomerates of lower Pennsyl-




vanian age rocks.   These have been subdivided on the basis of average well




yields after Wilmoth.




     Most IND impoundments are utilized as part of a waste treatment facility.




However, a number of IND impoundments are used for the final disposal of




industrial waste,  usually flyash.  The average number of impoundments per IND




site is 2.89.  The average number of impoundments per industrial group is




broken down further in Figure 4-6.




     The largest number of IND impoundments are located at plants manufacturing




organic chemicals.  Most of these impoundments are related to waste treatment




with some for flyash disposal.  The second largest group of impoundments are




located at coal-fired electric power plants.  Most of these are flyash or bottom




ash ponds.  Other important groups include inorganic chemical manufacturing,




primary metal industries including steel production and in heavy machinery




cleaning and repair (see Figure 4-7).




     All of the IND impoundments were assessed.  Most sites were assessed with




high confidence data.  However, no clear trends were observed in the average
                                        30

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  SCALE
                                                         LEGEND
                                             	Alluvium of Quaternary age.
                                               Yields 50 to 900 gpm, avg. 200 gpm.

                                                Shale and sandstone of pre- Perm.,
                                                upper Penn., and Permian ages. Yields
                                                less than  20 to ISOgpm., avg.SOgpm.
                                             — Sandstone and conglomerate of lower
                                                Penn. age. Yields less than 50 to I.OOOgpm.
                                                avg. 200gpm.
                                             — Limestone and dolomite of pre-Penn. age.
                                                 Yields  25 to more than 500gpm. avg. ISOgpm.
   Availability of ground water from industrial and public water-supply wells in West Virginia.
                                FIGURE  4-5
B.M.  Wilmoth, "Development of Fresh Ground Water Near Salt Water  in
West  Virginia", Groundwater, January-February,  1975,  pg  27.
                                    31

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IMPOUNDMENT STATISTICS,  GROUPED BY INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY

Oil & Gas Extraction
Food Product Manufacture
Textile and Apparel Product
Manufacture
Lumber & Wood Product Manufacture
Paper & Paper Product Manufacture
Inorganic Chemical Manufacture
Organic Chemical Manufacture
Petroleum Refining
Rubber & Miscellaneous Plastics
Products Manufacture
Leather & Leather Products
Manufacture
Glass & Concrete Manufacture
Primary Metal Industries
Fabricated Metal Products Manufacture
incl. Machinery & Electrical Products
Heavy Machinery & Railroad; Cleaning
& Repair, including Metal Plating
Electrical Power Production & Gas
Distribution
Car Washes
Bulk Oil Storage & Distribution
Automobile Service Stations
Other

No. of Sites
2
3
2
4
1
6
21
5
1
1
5
8
11
7
13
2
2
4
1
100
No. of
Impoundments
4
9
5
11
3
25
86*
8
1
5
8
23
23
9
41
2
2
4
1
278*
Aver. No.
of Ponds
per Site
2.0
3.0
2.5
2.8
3.0
4.2
4.1*
1.6
1.0
5.0
1.6
2.9
2.2
1.3
3.2
2.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.8
% of Total
IND Sites
2.0
3.0
2.0
4.0
1.0
6.0
21.0
5.0
1.0
1.0
5.0
8.0
11.0
7.0
13.0
2.0
2.0
4.0
1.0

% of Total IND
Impoundments
1.3
3.3
1.8
4.0
1.1
9.2
31.3
2.9
0.4
1.8
2.9
8.5
8.5
3.3
15.0
1.8
0.7
1.5
0.4

Average Step
5 Rating
19.0
18.9
12.6
19.8
20.0
20.4
20.5
19.1
13.0
19.8
18.8
22.1
23.0
19.7
18.2
17.0
25.0
20.5
20.0
19.8
  *See Text.
                     TABLE 4-2
                         32

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Overall Average





























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FIGURE 4-6
33

-------

Car Washes
Bulk Oil Storage & Distribution
Automobile Service Stations
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FIGURE 4-7
34

-------
I
           Step 5 ratings for each industrial group.  This is probably due to diverse
•          geologic settings and the general nature of the waste hazard ratings.
•               An organic chemical manufacturing facility that produced explosives has
           a series of sixty-eight (68) very small pits.  Each of these pits was assessed
•          separately, but received the same score.  It has become evident that this
           number of pits would severely and incorrectly weight this sub-category.  These
•          pits are part of three disposal areas so this site, for tabular purposes, has
•          been reconsidered to have only three impoundments.  This is reflected in the
           figures marked with an asterisk (*).
I

I

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-------
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I
                              OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPOUNDMENTS



                 Most impoundments are utilized for waste treatment.   Other impoundments
            are used for waste storage or for the ultimate disposal of wastes.   A summary


            of most major types of impoundments is given in Table 4-3.  There may be


            other types of waste impoundments but most are variations on the described


•          impoundments types.


                 There are several typical methods of impoundment construction.   These


•          include diking, excavation, the combination of diking and excavation, and the


•          damming of natural surface drainages.  The latter could range from a 0.25 acre


            stabilization pond to a 50 acre coal slurry impoundment.  However,  most


•          impoundments are of the excavated and diked type.


                 Although most impoundments are not lined, impoundments that are lined


I          are constructed using many different types of liner materials.  These liners


•          are summarized in Table 4-4.   Ponds said to be lined with "natural" in-place


            clay were usually considered  to be unlined for the purpose of this study.


•               Data concerning physical characteristics of industrial impoundments was


            unavailable at most sites, with the exception of some of the larger industrial


I          sites.   In all cases, with one exception, no data was available to determine


•j          if an impoundment was losing  material due to seepage.  The influent and effluent


            were shut off and water level in the impoundment was measured allowing for


•          precipitation and evaporation.  From this data, a seepage rate was calculated.


                 Ground water is monitored at a few sites.  Where it is monitored, reports


•          are submitted on a quarterly  basis to the West Virginia Water Resources Division.


•          Parameters reported are water level, temperature, total dissolved solids, and


            other chemical characteristics associated  with the particular site.  Ground


•          water is not monitored at the majority of impoundment sites.  Almost all


            ground  water monitoring that  is performed is for industrial impoundments or
I
                                                   36

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       landfill  sites.  Ground  water monitoring  is being required,  at all IND


       impoundment sites applying for new or  revised state permits.
Category
Impoundment
   Type
 Purpose of
Impoundment
SUMMARY OF IMPOUNDMENT TYPES


                        Impoundment Description
IND
MUN
. MNG
AGR
Settling
Biologic
Equalization
Holding or Surge
Emergency*
Stabilization
Polishing
Settling
Runoff
Disposal
liquid Manure
Treatment
Treatment
Treatment
Storage
Storage
Treatment
Treatment
Treatment
Treatment
Disposal
Treatment
Settling out solids in various types of treatment systems.
Biologic degradation of certain biologic wastes.
pH adjustment and precipitation.
Primarily for storage pending treatment or disposal.
To contain waste in case of spill or treatment facility failure.
Primary biologic treatment of sanitary waste.
Secondary or tertiary treatment after a stabilization pond or package plant.
Small coal slurry pond associated with a coal preparation plant, system
usually incorporates several staged settling ponds.
To collect coal fines from runoff at coal preparation plants and spoil piles.
Very large pond, usually created by damming an entire valley for disposal
of preparation plant slurry, Contains coal fines and clay. The only pond
referred to by coal companies as an "Impoundment".
Collection and primary treatment of livestock waste before being sprayed
on land.
                       *Emergency ponds not assessed where frequency of use is not regular.
                                              TABLE 4-3
                                                   37

-------
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moistened and com-
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— i 53
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-------
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                      LINER / INDUSTRIAL WASTE COMPATIBILITIES '
Liner Material
PeuoSum   sJSSding  ^troplating    Toxic
 Sludge      Waste        SludSe    Pesticides   Sludg
                                                                         Waste
Compacted Qay Soil
Bentonite Modified Soil
Asphalt Concrete
Asphalt Membranes
P
P
F
F
P
P
F
F
P
P
F
F
G
G
F
F
G
G
P
P
G
G
F
F
G
G
G
G
Flexible Synthetic Membranes
Polyethylene
Polyvinylchloride
Butyl Rubber
Hypalonฎ
Ethylene Propylene Rubber
Chlorinated Polyethylene
Polypropylene
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
F
F
G
G
G
F
G
F
F
G
G
G
F
G
G
G
F
F
F
F
G
F
G
P
P
P
P
G
G
G
F
F
F
F
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
                                      TABLE 4-5
                   Wilford  S.  Stewart, State of the Art  Study of Land  Impoundment Techniques,
                   (Cincinnati,  United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1978).
                                                       39

-------
                  CHARACTERISTICS OF FLEXIBLE SYNTHETIC MEMBRANE LINERS



Liner Material   Weatherability
(p.)
"SST
  Light
                                                      <ฐbaMS
                                                                Solvents
Polyethylene
low density
Polyethylene
high density
Polyvinylchloride
Butyl Rubber
Hypalon@
Ethylene
Propylene Rubber
Chlorinated
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
P
w/o carbon
black
P
w/o carbon
black
P-F
G
E
E
E
P
w/o carbon
black
1 ,300 -
2,500
2,400 -
4,800
2,500 -
3,500
1,000-
4,000
1,000-
2,000
1,300-
1,500
1,800
4,000-
32,000
P
w/o carbon
black
P
w/o carbon
black
P-F
G
E
E
G
P
w/o carbon
black
P-G
G
G-E
G
G
G-E
G-E
G-E
G-E
G-E
G-E
G
G-E
G-E
G-E
G-E
P-G
P-G
G
G-E
G
G-E
P
P
F-G
F-G
G
P
F
P
P
G
F-G
F-G
G
P
G
P
G
G
                                       TABLE 4-6
            Wilford S.  Stewart,  State of the Art Study of  Land Impoundment Techniques,

            (Cincinnati, United  States Environmental Protection Agency, 1978).
                                               40

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I
                                                CHAPTER 5

•                                         WATER TABLE AQUIFERS


|                The mapping of water  table aquifers was not an element of  the West Virginia

ซ            Surface Impoundment Assessment Program.  The task is presently  being  performed

             by  the Underground Injection Control Program.
            a water  table aquifer map  (Map  3).   The purpose of  this map is  to  indicate
I                A map delineating hydrologically sensitive units was developed in lieu of


I

I
             certain geologic units that, as aquifers, have a high potential risk  for

             contamination from surface contaminant sources.  These have been  selected on

             the basis of areal extent, continuity, and permeability.  These units include

•           alluvial systems and carbonate units.

                 The alluvial valleys of the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers were chosen  because

|           of their relatively high permeability, homogeneity and thickness.  There are

M           many other alluvial valleys in the state but they are either much less homo-

             geneous or have a significantly lower permeability.  None are utilized

•           substantially as aquifers.  The Ohio River valley has been differentiated

             from the Kanawha River valley because of its significantly higher permeability,

|           due to larger mean grain sizes.

                 Carbonate units have been included because of their high relative potential

             for ground water contamination through solution channels, conduits, and fractures.

             The carbonate units have been divided into three (3) groups:  Mississippian

             limestones, Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian limestones, and the Cambro-

             Ordovician limestones and dolomites.  This grouping has been made strictly by

             age and does not reflect relative permeabilities.

                 Other geologic units have been omitted from this map either  because they
                  Cardwell, D.H. and others, Geologic Map of West Virginia,  1:250,000.
                  (Morgantown, West Virginia Economic and Geologic Survey,  1968).


-------
lack sufficient permeability to cause as great a risk to ground water quality




or are not of large areal extent.  Also omitted are the cyclic sequences of




sandstones, siltstones, shales, coals and limestones such as the Pottsville




group.  While utilized as aquifers in many areas, these units would be




impossible to characterize at this scale due to the high degree of lateral




variability in lithologies.




     A large percentage of industrial impoundment sites in West Virginia are




located on alluvial plains along major rivers.  These areas are some of the




only flat lying sites in many parts of the state and usually have a relatively




abundant water supply.  Many of these sites are located on the Ohio River




alluvial aquifer, which is delineated as a hydrologically sensitive unit (Map 3)




This aquifer is heavily used as a ground water supply for both domestic and




industrial use.  These facts would indicate a special need for proper site




construction and monitoring to protect the quality of ground water in this area




and other similar areas as well.
                                        42

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I

                                               CHAPTER 6


I                        GROUND  WATER CONTAMINATION FROM SURFACE  IMPOUNDMENTS
                                          AND  POTENTIAL  IMPACT


I
                 Sources  of  ground  water  contamination from surface  impoundments  have


•          been  divided  into  two groups:   confirmed sources, and  strongly  suspected


            sources.


•               Confirmed sources  are those in which ground water contamination  has


•          been  documented  and sufficient data exists to reasonably conclude that  a


            surface  impoundment or  impoundments are  the  main source  of  the  contamination.


•          Field investigations  for  the  Surface  Impoundment Assessment Program often


            revealed information  leading  to confirmation of a problem.


ป               Strongly suspected sources are those in which  either:   1)  investigations


•          have  been made which  indicate a high  potential for  ground water contamination,


            or  2) ground water contamination  has already been  documented but sufficient


I          data  has not  been  generated to identify  the  impoundment(s)  as a contributing


            source.


•               The actual  or potential  sources  of  ground water pollution  from surface


•          impoundments  to  be discussed  in this  chapter will be limited to industrial


            sites.   The industrial  sites  generally had a higher hazard  rating due to


•          higher waste  hazard potential and  proximity  to populated areas.  Therefore,


            the industrial impoundments generally pose a greater threat to  ground water


•          than  do  those in other  categories.  A paucity of data  for mining and  munici-


•          pal sites also contributed to the  lack of confirmed or strongly suspected


            sources  of ground  water contamination.


•               Excess S.I.A. funds  will be utilized for contractual work  related  to


            further  study at several  sites.  Approximately ten  (10)  sites have  been chosen


'          for this work which will  include a standard  earth resistivity survey  and may


•          include  construction  and  testing of monitoring wells,  sludge leachate tests,





I

-------
pond liquid analyses, soil contaminant analyses, and raw material analyses




for confirmation of survey results.




     The results of the contractual studies will be included as a supplemental




report.






    CONFIRMED  SOURCES  OF GROUND  WATER  CONTAMINATION  FROM SURFACE  IMPOUNDMENTS




                            Organic Chemicals  Company




     The plant site is on an alluvial flood plain of the Kanawha River with




sediment consisting of silty clay overlying forty (40) to fifty  (50) feet of




sand and gravel.  This company makes small batch amounts of many organic and




inorganic chemicals which are uneconomical for the larger chemical firms to




produce.




     This facility has three clay lined basins used in the plant treatment




system for industrial wastes.  Two excavated diked lagoons are also employed,




one for storage of waste chemicals and one for storage of sludge from the




waste treatment plant.  The waste in these impoundments contains several




priority pollutants which have been documented in both the lagoons themselves




and in ground water withdrawn from monitoring wells installed at the site.




     Depth to the water table at this site is approximately 5.4 meters with




the nearest water supply being the Kanawha River at a distance of six hundred




(600) meters.   A preliminary resistivity study indicated possible waste plume




movement in the ground water in a northwest direction towards the River.




     This facility is currently under a court order to complete remedial work




on the lagoons.




                             Wood  Preserving Company




     The plant is located in an alluvial flood plain of the Elk River.  The




alluvial deposits consist mainly of a clayey silt and overlie flat lying




sandstones, shales, and coals of the Pennsylvanian age Allegheny Formation.
                                        44

-------
This facility preserves timbers by pressure treatment with creosote and




chromated copper arsenate.




     This company utilizes two impoundments to collect runoff from a treated




timber storage area.  The first impoundment is an excavated pond and the




second is a diked storage pond to contain overflow from the first pond.  These




impoundments apparently contain only runoff from the treated timber area and




no process wastewater.




     The plant is approximately ninety (90) meters from the Elk River.  The




water table is at a depth of four (4) meters below the ground surface adjacent




to the excavated pond.  A test boring at the site showed high phenol levels




in the saturated zone.




     This facility exhibits poor housekeeping as evidenced by ponded water




(poor grading) in many places, and continual overflow of the excavated pond




into the working area.




     Additional evidence is being generated by the Division of Water Resources




to pursue enforcement action at this site.




                               Gas Supply Company




     This brine treatment facility has three impoundments in soil consisting




of weathered upper Pennsylvania shale, sandstone, and coal.  This facility uses




its impoundments for treatment of wastes from natural gas processing.




     There are three diked impoundments at the facility:  a settling pit, an




aeration pit, and a holding pit.   Brines, condensates, and other material




from natural gas processing are contained and treated in these pits.




     The closest water supply to the impoundments is the West Fork River,




approximately one hundred (100) meters away.  Depth to the water table is




approximately 1.5 to 3.5 meters with a hydraulic gradient sloping towards




the river.




     The company is one of the few in West Virginia having a monitoring well
                                        45

-------
program under terms of their Water Pollution Control Permit.  The three monitor-

ing wells have indicated high levels of IDS and chlorides in the ground water.

                            Oil Distribution Company

     This company is located on alluvium consisting of sand, silt and clay

overlying upper Devonian shale and sandstone.  The company is a bulk oil storage,

wholesale, and retail sales company.

     One small unlined pond is excavated into cinder fill which is approximately

two (2) meters thick.  This pond is used as an oil-water separation unit.

     A.test boring at this site showed a perched water table which was highly

contaminated with oil and gasoline.

     This company is probably typical of many other bulk oil storage and whole-

sale distributors in this state.  The ground water contamination problem here

is thought to be a combination of spillage from loading operations and seepage

from the pond.


                      STRONGLY SUSPECTED SOURCES OF GROUND
                 WATER  CONTAMINATION  FROM SURFACE  IMPOUNDMENTS

                                   Coke Works

     This plant made coke for use in steel production using coal as the raw

material.  This coke works is situated on a deposit of Quaternary alluvium

overlying upper Pennsylvanian shales and sandstones.  The Quaternary "alluvium"

probably consists of both alluvial and lacustrine sediments.

     There are two unlined excavated settling ponds on the plant site for

treatment of process water from the coking operation.  Contaminants in the

process water include cyanide and other heavy metals.

     A test boring was placed at the coke works.  The depth to ground water

was not conclusively determined but the soil was found to consist of a sandy

silt and clay with sand lenses.  Tests of a monitoring well on the plant site

indicate elevated levels of cyanide and other contaminants.  Both of the ponds
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are within ten (10) meters of a stream which drains into the Monongahela




River.




     The coke works is now closed, and the company has secured a consultant




to investigate existing conditions and outline necessary remedial action for




proper closure of this facility.






                                Steel  Corporation




     The facility occupies an abandoned channel of the Ohio River.  The




alluvial fill consists of sand and gravel, twenty-one (21) to twenty-seven (27)




meters in thickness.  The company manufacturers steel and tin plate.




     Two of this company's impoundments are located in the abandoned river




channel, two others are located along the Ohio River.  All four lagoons are




at or slightly below water table and are unlined.  These lagoons receive




treated  waste from many different processes including boiler blowdown and




pickling operations.  All four lagoons were assigned a Ground Vlater Pollution




Potential rating of 28 (on a scale of 1 to 29),




     Ground water contamination at the steel corporation is documented in




Groundwater Resources of the Ohio River Valley in West Virginia by Carlston




and Graeff, published by the West Virginia Geological Survey in 1955.




Several instances of well contamination were documented before the lagoons




were installed, so the ponds cannot be confirmed as a source of ground water




contamination based on this data source.






                              Welding Wire Company




     The company is located on an alluvial floodplain of the Ohio River.  The




alluvium here consists of a silty sand overlying coarse sand and gravel.  This




company uses plating and rinsing baths in the manufacture of welding rod and




wire.




     There are two excavated unlined lagoons at the wire plant.  These lagoons






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contain water from rinsing of plated wire and other treatments.  Copper,




chlorides, and sulfates are the main contaminants present in significant amounts.




The lagoons cannot maintain a water level due to percolation into the alluvium.




Several options are being explored to correct this problem, including precip-




itating the copper from the waste stream before discharge as an effluent.




     Depth to the water table under these lagoons is approximately fifteen (15)




meters and they are sixty (60) meters from Dry Run.  There are two water supply




wells on the plant site.




     This welding wire company is now looking into the feasibility of other




methods of waste disposal to enable them to reclaim their lagoons.




                             Paint Chemicals  Company




     A paint chemicals company is located on an alluvial plain of the Kanawha




River.  The alluvium consists of clays and silts overlying fine to medium sand.




This facility manufacturers water-based paints, coatings and adhesives.




     Three (3) excavated diked ponds are used at this site.  These ponds are




lined with a polyethylene sheet but the integrity of these liners is in doubt.




A recent sludge analysis from the largest pond shows the presence of both lead




and mercury.   The permeability of this sludge decreases with time due to




settling and consolidation, and curing of the latex material may further reduce




its permeability.




     The ground water elevation in this area usually occurs at 4.7 meters to




6.3 meters below land surface.  There is no present ground water use in the




area.  The direction of flow is assumed to be west towards the Kanawha River.




     A field investigation was conducted recently at the company to generate




more information on subsurface conditions and pond leakage potential.  This




study concluded that the ponds represent a moderate threat to ground water;




but that the threat could be eliminated if the latex material is allowed to




cure and solidify.  A recent permit requires that the ponds be drained and only
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            solidified latex disposed of  in the lagoons.
'                                           Chemical Company
•           A chemical company is located on a floodplain of the Ohio River.   The alluvium
            consists  of between twenty-two (22) and fifty-two (52)  meters of  sand and
•           gravel.   This company manufacturers many industrial organic and inorganic
            chemicals, including liquid  chlorine,  caustic soda, chlorinated  benzenes,
•           hydrochloric acid, mercuric and other sulfides,  and ammonia.
•                There are three (3)  settling ponds used  in the waste treatment processes
            at this plant.   The inorganics waste pond,  a  diked unlined pond,  contains
•           various sulfides and other solids which are settled out of plant  waste streams.
            A second  diked unlined pond is used to contain fly ash  from plant boilers.
•           Another diked pond, the temporary mercury settling pond,  receives waste streams
•           which are high in salinity and alkalinity and is specifically for settling  of
            mercuric  sulfide.   This pond  has a Hypalon liner.
•                Depth to ground water is approximately ten (10) meters below ground surface
            under the three (3) ponds and the closest water supply  is a plant well approxi-
*           mately one hundred-fifty (150) meters from the ponds.
•                These impoundments received extremely high ground  water pollution potential
            ratings  (Inorganics Waste Pond = 25, Temporary Mercury  Settling Pond = 27)  due
•           to very permeable unsaturated zone material and high waste hazard ratings.   No
            investigative field work has  been conducted here as of  yet.
~                                        Printing Plate Company
•                This company is situated on a residual clay soil overlying a highly folded
            and fractured Ordovician limestone formation.  Photographic printing plates are
I           manufactured at this plant.
                 The  company employs six  (6) impoundments in the waste treatment system,
*           three (3) as wastewater treatment ponds, and  three (3)  to hold sludge from
I           different plant processes.  These ponds are all diked and clay lined.  Because


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_           the plant  processes were considered  proprietary specific waste types could
            not be divulged.   Heavy metals,  though,  are believed to be possible consti-
•           tuents.
                 Estimates of depth to ground water  under these ponds vary from less than
•           one (1)  to approximately seven (7) meters.   The nearest water supply is a
_           surface stream which is between  ten  (10)  and one hundred-eighty (180)  meters
            from the ponds.   Four (4)  of  these ponds received high ground water pollution
I           potential  ratings due to high waste  type hazard and fractured limestone
_
            bedrock. i
                 The  company is  in an area of  domestic ground water use,  making it a site
            to be considered for further study.
                                              Glass Works
I               This company manufacturers household  glassware and other ceramic products.
            The site  is located  on steeply dipping Ordovician limestone beds overlain by
f          approximately one (1)  to six (6) meters of clay.
_               Three (3) ponds in series receive cooling water,  polishing and settling
            compounds,  small glass fragments,  and treated domestic waste.  Low levels of
•          arsenic have been documented in the  wastewater.   These ponds  are excavated and
            diked but not lined.  A fourth impoundment approximately one  mile east of the
|          plant site receives  final discharge  from the on-site ponds.  This impoundment
            is excavated into fractured, steeply dipping shale.
                 Depth to ground water under this site is generally less  than ten (10)
            meters.   Flow direction of ground  water is uncertain in this  highly folded and
            fractured limestone  and shale area.   There are private ground water supplies
            within a  mile of the site.
                 This site is a  good example of  the problems  which may be encountered in
            using ponds for waste containment  in karst terrain.  One of the three ponds in
            series has had a partial collapse  of its floor into a sinkhole and correction of


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this problem has been difficult.




                               Ferroalloys  Company




     A ferroalloys company operates a facility on a floodplain of the Kanawha




River.  The alluvial sediment here consists mainly of clayey sand, with some




gravel and slag fill.




     There are four  (4) excavated ponds on the plant site and the nearest of




these to the river, a flyash pond, has slag fill diked walls and is unlined.




Two (2) unlined settling ponds receive blowdown from scrubbers above a




ferrichrome silicate furnace.  These ponds are currently being enlarged to




approximately twice their present area.  A fourth pond receives backwash from




a drinking water filtration plant.  This pond has gravel dikes with a Hypalon




liner.




     Depth to the water table grades from approximately ten (10) meters beneath




the two unlined settling ponds to three (3) meters under the flyash pond near




the river.  The closest water supply is the Kanawha River, which is approximately




one hundred-ninety (190) meters from the two unlined settling ponds.




     The unlined settling ponds which are being expanded present the greatest




potential hazard to ground water at this site.  A waste hazard rating of eight




(8) combined with the permeable nature of the soil in this area result in a




high contamination potential (overall ground water pollution potential rating




of twenty-seven (27)).




                            Organic Chemical Company




     This company is located on a floodplain of the Ohio River.  The alluvium




consists of a thin layer of sandy clay overlying approximately eighteen (18)




meters of sand and gravel.  The company's plant produces various organic




chemicals used in many industrial processes.




     There are four  (4) impoundments in use at this plant:  a spill basin, an




ash basin, an equalization basin and an organic residue disposal area.  These
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           are all diked ponds only one of which,  the equalization basin, has  a  liner
•          (Hypalon).  The equalization basin and  the residue disposal area have the
•          greatest  ground water pollution potential because of  their high waste hazard
           ratings.
I               Depth  to ground water at  this site is approximately  six  (6) meters and
           flow direction is west  towards the Ohio River.  There is  a public water supply
•          well approximately nine hundred  (900) meters  from the ponds site.
•               This chemical company has taken  the initiative to hire an engineering firm
           for a ground water monitoring  and hydrologic  study of their plant site with a
•          view towards future R.C.R.A. regulations.  This has involved  cooperation with
           the Division of Water Resources and is  a good example of  government/industry
™          cooperation.
•                                        Metal Plating Company
                This plant is on the bank of a tributary of the  Monongahela River.  The
•          alluvium  here is relatively thin  (less  than four  (4)  meters)  and consists of
           sand and  silt overlying upper  Pennsylvanian sandstone and shale.
™               Two  (2) wastewater settling ponds  are employed by the company.   These are
•          small unlined excavated ponds  and contain several heavy metals from the
           plating processes.
I               Depth  to ground water under the    ponds  is 1.5 meters and flow direction
           is towards  the creek.   The closest surface water supply is at a distance of
™          approximately ten  (10)  meters.
I               The  high waste type hazard rating  and thin layer of  permeable  alluvium
           combine to  give the two settling ponds  on this site a pollution potential rating
Jf          of twenty-five (25).  As requirements of their most recent Water Pollution
—          Control Permit, this plating company  has completed a  test boring and  will be
           required  to line the ponds.

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                           Ferro-Manganese  Alloy Plant




     This company operates a manganese reduction plant on the Cheat River.




The alluvium under the site consists mainly of silty sand overlying sand and




gravel.




     There are three (3) excavated diked ponds, all of which are unlined, on




the plant site.  Two of these are ponds containing cooling water from plant




processes, and the third pond contains metal oxide and hydroxide waste sludge.




     Depth to ground water in this floodplain is generally less than three (3)




meters and flow direction is towards the Cheat River.  The river is approximately




forty  (40) meters from the sludge settling pond.




     This company is one of the few smaller firms in West Virginia who were able




to furnish us with both soil boring and water level information.  This made




possible a high confidence assessment of the saturated and unsaturated zones




without a field investigation.  The thin (3.15 m.) permeable alluvium combined




with a high waste hazard rating give the sludge settling pond a high ground




water pollution potential (23).




                      Electrical Cable and Conduit Company




     This company is located on a floodplain of the Ohio River.  The floodplain




sediment consists of a thin layer of silty sand overlying at least thirty (30)




meters of sand and gravel.  This firm manufacturers different types of electrical




cable and conduit using steel, zinc, and sulfuric acid as principle raw materials.




     Two sludge settling ponds are currently in use on the site.  These are both




diked, unlined ponds receiving wastes from electroplating and other operations




in the cable and conduit manufacturing process.  The predominant constituents in




this waste sludge are acidity, iron, and zinc, with lower levels of chromium,




phosphate, and cyanide.




     Depth to ground water under this site is approximately fifteen (15) meters




and flow direction is west towards the Ohio River.  A local water department has
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a well field within three hundred (300) meters of the ponds in the probable




downgradient direction.




     This site is in sediment which is probably extremely permeable.  Whether




enough clay material is present in the upper soil zone to absorb metal compounds




out of any leachate from the pond is questionable.  Leachate tests run however,




have shown the sludge to be relatively insoluble.




     The ponds at this site are to be reclaimed during 1980 and a filter press




system will be installed.  The filter press will produce dewatered sludge cakes




which, together with the reclaimed pond material, will be disposed of on-site




in a Division of Water Resources approved landfill.




                             Wood  Preserving  Company




     This facility uses two  (2) preserving methods:  normal creosoting and salt




preserving.  This site is on Quaternary alluvium overlying upper Pennsylvanian




siltstones, shales and sandstones.




     There are two (2) diked settling ponds on the plant site which receive




runoff from the treated wood area.  Although the ponds are clay lined, they are




located in an area of disturbed soil.  This was confirmed by a Division of




Water Resources test boring which revealed fresh wood fragments to a depth of




twelve (12) feet.  The main waste constituents in the runoff are arsenic,




chromium, copper, and phenol; all of which are priority pollutants.




     The water table is at a depth of approximately eleven (11) meters at this




site and flow direction is towards a creek.  There is a water supply well within




four hundred-fifty (450) meters of the ponds in the anticipated flow direction;




however, it is probably cased below the alluvium.
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                                    CHAPTER 7

                      EVALUATION OF EXISTING STATE PROGRAM


     There are three regulatory agencies within the State of West Virginia

which have some control over surface waste impoundments.  These agencies

are the Division of Water Resources and the Division of Reclamation, both

under the Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Health

Division of the Department of Health.  The Division of Reclamation's regula-

tory power is generally limited to the structural integrity of dams and coal

refuse impoundments (over a specified impounded surface area or height) and

therefore the regulatory emphasis is not directed towards the prevention of

ground water contamination.

     The Division of Water Resources is the state agency charged with the

protection and maintenance of both surface and ground water quality.  This

regulatory power is derived from Chapter 20, Article 5A of the Code of West

Virginia.  The Division of Water Resources is divided into six branches:

administration, monitoring, enforcement, laboratory, field operations, and

permits.  The Permits Branch is further subdivided into four sections:  coal,

municipal, industrial, and ground water/hazardous wastes.

     The Ground Water/Hazardous Wastes Section was established specifically to

develop the various federal programs concerning ground water related activities,

These include the Surface Impoundment Assessment Program and the Underground

Injection Control Program under the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Hazardous

Waste Management Program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

     Prior to the establishment of this section, there was no structured

approach to the maintenance or protection of ground water within the Division.
                                        *
Less than two man-years annually were devoted to the regulation of facilities

with the potential to affect ground water quality, prior to implementation of
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            the Surface Impoundment Assessment Program in October, 1978.
•                The resources committed to ground water protection were necessarily
•           restricted to the review of new permit applications.  Existing facilities,
            including industrial waste landfills, disposal wells and impoundments were
•           addressed as resources allowed.  Existing surface waste impoundments (all
            categories) probably represent the greatest threat, relative to other facil-
•           ities, because of their greater numbers and the fact that the majority are
•           an integral part of a waste water treatment system, where consideration was
            given to hydraulic design (treatment efficiency) rather than isolation of
I           wastes from underlying ground water resources.  Also ground water monitoring
            facilities were not a required condition of most permits.
'                The Environmental Health Division of the Department of Health has
•           regulated two activities utilizing surface waste impoundments.  These include
            stabilization and polishing ponds related to sewage treatment and leachate
•           collection and treatment facilities serving municipal waste landfills.  Again
            the main emphasis was placed on treatment efficiency rather than isolation of
™           waste from ground water resources.  The Department of Health derives its
•          authority from Chapter 16 of the Code of West Virginia.
                 The situations outlined above are symptomatic of the increased emphasis
I           on abatement of surface water pollution with no regulatory momentum directed
            towards the protection of ground water.  This unbalanced regulatory approach
'           has only recently been addressed at both the state and federal level.
•                The problems associated with surface waste impoundments are not related
            to the lack of statutory authority, but rather to the absence of a well
I          developed regulatory and enforcement program.  The inventories and assessments
            completed under the S.I.A. program have no force or effect, if remedial measures
™          are not  pursued.  However,  now that the relative magnitude of each problem has
•          been identified, priorities can be established.  This will allow for a systematic


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            abatement program.
™                The Division of Water Resources has been designated the lead agency for
•           the development of programs under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and
            Recovery Act.   Legislation has been introduced (joint resolution, S.B.  330 and
J           H.B.  1295) that will allow the State of West Virginia to assume primacy
            (authorization) for the Hazardous Waste Management Program.   A provision of the
*           proposed legislation is that the Division complete and publish a study of
•           existing and abandoned hazardous waste treatment,  storage and disposal activities,
            The S.I.A. program will provide much of the information required by the study
I           relative to surface waste impoundments utilized for the treatment, storage, or
_           disposal of hazardous wastes.
*                The proposed regulations  (Section 3004, Subtitle C) relating to surface
•           impoundments outline specific  design criteria for  the protection of ground and
            surface water.   The interim status standards to be promulgated in April, 1980
J           (effective October, 1980) will require ground water monitoring along with other
^           activities such as record keeping, security, etc.   This will be the initial
            regulatory step, followed by the promulgation of permanent standards in October,
I           1980 (effective April, 1981).   At this time surface impoundments will have to
            meet design criteria or demonstrate equivalent protection of the environment
|           and public health.
                 The results of the S.I.A. program will also be utilized for purposes of
            the "open dump" inventory under Subtitle D of R.C.R.A.  Section 4005, Subtitle
            D,  requires that after publication of the inventory of "open dumps", which
            cannot comply with required standards within a maximum five year period.  The
            term "open dump" means a site  for the disposal of  solid waste which is not a
            sanitary landfill.   The definition of "solid waste" is broad and the inventory
            will include most improperly operated impoundments utilized for disposal,
            which do not fall under the requirements of Subtitle C.  The required standards
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            for sanitary landfills  (as opposed to  "open  dumps")  will be outlined in the
•           regulations to  be promulgated pursuant to  Section 4004,  Subtitle D.
•                The Clean  Water Act  requires,  under Section 208,  the development and
            implementation  of areawide waste treatment management  plans.   These  plans
•           must include a  process  to control the  disposal  of pollutants on land or in
            subsurface excavations  in order to protect ground and  surface water  quality
•           (Section 208 (b)(2)(k)).   The inventory and  assessments  derived from the
•           S.I.A.  program  will be  utilized in meeting the  objectives of Section 208.
            The Division of Water Resources has applied  for funding  under Section 208 for
I           the development of use  criteria and ground water quality standards.   This will
            obviously enhance the State's management program.
•                Although the State's ground water protection program is still in the
•           development stage, participation in the various federal  programs, addressing
            ground  water, is providing the necessary resources for an effective  regulatory
•           framework.   As  the state  assumes primacy for these programs the proper manage-
            ment of ground  water will become a reality.   The only  foreseen deficiency, is
*           related to control over the utilization and  development  (consumptive and non-
•           consumptive use) of ground water.  Currently there is  not a state agency that
            regulates the placement and/or abandonment of water supply wells.  This is
I           considered a critical problem.   The lack of  standards  for well construction
_           and abandonment creates the potential  for ground water quality degradation.
            Also, since records (drillers'  logs) are not required, the State's ground water
I           data base is severly limited.

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                                    CHAPTER 8




                     EVALUATION  OF  EXISTING FEDERAL  PROGRAMS






     The State of West Virginia is currently involved in several programs




under Federal Acts addressing specific activities related to ground water




protection.  These Acts include:  the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean




Water Act, the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Surface




Mining Control and Reclamation Act.




     The relationship of the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation




and Recovery Act to surface waste impoundments was discussed in Chapter 7,




and therefore further discussion will be restricted to the relationship of




federal programs to ground water management in general.




                             Safe Drinking  Water  Act




     The Underground Injection Control Program under the Safe Drinking Water




Act provides for the protection of underground drinking water sources through




the regulation of the subsurface disposal of fluids by well injection.  The




Act also requires that all aquifers serving as drinking water sources be




protected and further that all aquifers which can supply ground water with less




than ten thousand (10,000) mg/1 total dissolved solids be designated as potential




underground drinking water sources.




     Five  (5) classes of wells are included under the program.  Class I wells




are used for the disposal of industrial, municipal, or nuclear wastes below




designated drinking water sources.   Class II wells are used for the disposal




of fluids related to oil and gas production, the injection of fluids for




enhanced recovery of oil or gas, and the storage of hydrocarbons.  Class III




wells are used for solution mining, in-situ gasification of oil shale and coal,




and to recover geothermal energy.   Class IV wells (which will be prohibited)




are used for the disposal of hazardous wastes above or into an underground
                                        59

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drinking water source.  Class V wells are all wells not included in Classes




I through IV.




     All classes of wells are regulated by either permit or rule.  Requirements




for each well vary, but generally provide for the demonstration of mechanical




integrity and periodic monitoring and reporting.




                     Resource Conservation and Recovery Act




     The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provides for the regulation of




hazardous wastes from the point of generation to the point of ultimate disposi-




tion. . It includes specific requirements for generators and transporters of




hazardous wastes and regulates the storage, treatment, and disposal of hazard-




ous wastes by permit.




     The Hazardous Waste Management Program not only provides for the proper




design,  operation, and maintenance of surface waste impoundments but also




landfills, land application systems and storage facilities.  Operators must




also demonstrate financial responsibility during the life of the facility and




provide for post-closure monitoring and maintenance.




     Although the Act provides for the management of existing and new facilities




it does not provide for the cost of remedial actions associated with orphaned




or abandoned facilities.




                   Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act




     The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act was enacted to minimize the




impact of coal mining activities on the environment, land use and the public




welfare.




     The Act specifically provides for mining programs that will minimize the




effects on the hydrologic balance at the mine-site and in associated offsite




areas, and maintain the quality and quantity of water in surface and ground




water systems both during and after surface mining operations.




     This is accomplished through controlled blasting programs, the casing and
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            seating of boreholes, shafts and wells, and the isolation of toxic mining
•           wastes from ground and surface waters.
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I
                                             CHAPTER 9

                                GROUND WATER USE  IN  WEST VIRGINIA
              public ground water supplies  and thirty-one percent  (31%)  from individual

                                    7
•                 Ground  water  is  an important  source  of water  in West Virginia.

              Fifty-three  percent  (53%)  of  the population is  supplied  from  ground water

I            sources.   Of this  population,  twenty- two  percent  (22%) is derived  from


I
              ground water supplies.

I                 Public  community water  supplies,  from both ground and  surface sources
                                                                            O
              serve about  fifty-one percent (51%)  of the state's population.   The  following

•            trends in public water supply sources  have been observed in West Virginia.


|              Most municipalities,  of  all sizes, along the  Ohio River utilize  ground
                water as a supply  source.

                Most municipalities,  of  all sizes, in the Eastern Panhandle (underlain by
                limestone) utilize  ground  water  as a supply source.

                Most municipalities,  of  all sizes, underlain  by  upper  and lower  Pennsylvanian
                units utilize surface water with the exception of small municipalities in
                southern counties which  utilize  ground  water  almost exclusively.


                   These observed  trends reflect geologic,  geographic, and  demographic

              distribution patterns.

                   The exact locations of  the public community ground  water supplies in the

              state, were  determined by  the S.I. A. group.   This  has been  done in an effort  to

              supplement S.I. A.  assessments as well  as  for  future use  in  ground  water planning

              activities.
              '  United States Environmental Protection Agency,  Waste Disposal Practices  and
                Their Effects on Ground Water,  pg.  19.
              o
                Ronald A.  Landers,  A Practical  Handbook for Individual Water Supply Systems
                in West Virginia, (Morgantown.   West Virginia Geologic and Economic Survey,
                1976), pg. 13.
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                   The West Virginia  State Department of Health regulates all public

I             water  supplies  in  the state and was able to supply a listing of all public

              water  supplies  indicating their source of supply and the address of the

•             owner.  However, this list did not include supply locations.

•                  Questionnaires were used to locate ground water supplies.  The questionnaire

              included a  topo map of  the area of the water supply and had an enclosed,

I             stamped, addressed envelope.  The individual was asked to mark the location of

              the  supply  on the  map.  The rate of response to the questionnaires was very

™             good,  especially when follow up phone calls were used.

•                  Ground water  supplies were located on 7.5' topographic maps and on

              Map  4.  A file  system is maintained using the Department of Health's numbering

|            system.  Well locations and other well data will be stored in a computer

              inventory system now managed by the Department of Health.

*                 Presently  in  West  Virginia there is no regulation of private individual

•            water  wells.  This make management of ground water a difficult task due to

              the  fact that no well records are available except for those maintained by

|            drillers.   This lack of well records eliminates a potentially valuable source

              of geologic information for the state.  Due to the relatively high percentage

              of ground water use in  the state, especially by individual systems, it is

              believed that more work to inventory new and existing systems  is required.
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         REFERENCES  CONTAINING  SPECIFIC  DATA APPLIED  TO  SITE  ASSESSMENTS
Bader, J.S. and others. Water Resources of the Coal River Basin, W. Va.,
     Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1976.

Bader, J.S. and others. Water Resources of the Guyandotte River Basin, W. Va.,
     Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1977.

Bain, G.C. and others.  Water Resources of the Little Kanawha River Basin, W. Va.,
     Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1972.

Bieber, P.O. Groundwater Features of Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, W. Va.,
     Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1961.

Cardwell, D.H. and others. Geologic Map of West Virginia, 1:250,000, Morgantown:
     West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1968.

Carlston, C.W. Groundwater Resources of Monongalia County, W. Va., Morgantown:
     West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1958.

Carlston, C.W. and others. Geologic and Economic Resources of the Ohio River
     Valley, Part III, "Ground Water Resources", Morgantown:  West Virginia
     Geologic & Economic Survey, 1955-56.

Chisholm, J.L. and others. Records of Wells, Springs, Chemical Analyses of Water
     and Streamflow Summaries from the Upper New River Basin in W. Va.,
     Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1975.

Department of the Army, Huntington District Corps of Engineers, Flood Plain
     Information:
     Big Sandy River, Wayne County, W. Va., 1972
     Little Coal River, Madison, W. Va., 1970
     Little Kanawha River, Glenville, W. Va., 1970
     Little Kanawha River, Grantsville, W. Va., 1970
     Mill Creek, Ripley, W. Va., 1971
     Mud River, Milton, W. Va., 1968
     Ohio River, Cabell and Wayne Counties, W. Va., 1973
     Ohio River, Jackson County, W. Va., 1975
     Ohio River, Mason County, W, Va., 1975

Department of the Army, Pittsburgh District Corps of Engineers, Flood Plain
     Information:
     Little Wheeling Creek, Ohio County, W. Va., 1970
     Monongahela River, Monongalia County, W. Va., 1975
     Monongahela, West Fork and Tygart Rivers, Marion County, W. Va., 1975
     Ohio River, Brooke County, W. Va., 1971
     Ohio River, Hancock County, W. Va., 1971
     Ohio River, Marshall County, W. Va., 1971
     Ohio River, Ohio County, W. Va., 1971
     Ohio River, Wetzel County, W. Va., 1971
     West Fork River, Harrison County, W. Va., 1976
     West Fork River and Elk Creek, Clarksburg and vicinity, Marion County,
         W. Va., 1973

-------
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
I
I
I
I
Department of the Army, Pittsburgh District Corps of Engineers, Special Flood
     Hazard Information Report, Tygart River, Taylor County, W. Va., 1978.

Dennison, J.M. Geology of the Keyser, W. Va. 7V Quadrangle, Morgantown:
     West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1963.

Doll, W.C. and others. Water Resources of Kanawha County, W. Va., Morgantown:
     West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1960.

Hobba, W.A. Ground Water Hydrology of Berkeley County, W. Va., Morgantown:
     West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1976.

Holland, S.M. and others. A Hydrologic Study of Well Yields and Ground Water
     Quality related to stratigraphic and structural settings in North Central
     Tyler County, W. Va., Morgantown:  West Virginia University, 1977.

Jeffords, R.M. Groundwater Conditions Along the Ohio Valley at Parkersburg,
     W. Va., Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1945.

Jeffords, R.M. and others. Groundwater Conditions at Charleston, W. Va.,
     Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1947.

Jones, D.S. A Hydrologic Study of Water Well Yields and Ground Water Quality
     Related to Stratigraphic and Structural Settings in Western Jackson
     County, W. Va., Morgantown:  West Virginia University, 1978.

Morris, L.M. Coal in Monongalia County, Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic
     & Economic Survey, 1932.

Moore, F.S. A Study of Ground Water Quality, Eastern Monongalia County, W. Va.,
     Morgantown:  West Virginia University, 1976.

Nace, R.L. and others. Geology of the Martinsburg, W. Va. 7^' Quad, Morgantown:
     West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1964.

Robinson, T.M. Occurence and Availability of Ground Water in Ohio County, W. Va.,
     Morgantown:  West Virginia Geologic & Economic Survey, 1964.

Sole, T.L. Hydrogeology and Ground Water Chemistry of Pricetown, Wetzel County,
     W. Va., Morgantown:  West Virginia University, 1975.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Soil Surveys;
     Barbour County, W. Va., 1968
     Berkeley County, W. Va., 1966
     Brooke, Hancock and Ohio Counties, W. Va., 1974
     Fayette and Randolph Counties, W. Va., 1975
     Greenbrier County, W. Va., 1972
     Hampshire, Mineral and Morgan Counties, W. Va., 1978
     Jackson and Mason Counties, W. Va., 1961
     Jefferson County, W. Va.,  1973
     Marshall County, W. Va., 1960
     Monroe County, W. Va., 1965
     Preston County, W. Va., 1959
     Tucker and Northern Randolph Counties, W. Va., 1967
     Wood and Wirt Counties, W. Va., 1970

-------
U.S. Geological Survey, 100 Year Flood Elevation Quadrangle Maps,  1:24,000,
     1972-76.

U.S. Geological Survey, Topographic Maps, 1:24,000,  1948-79.

Ward, P.E. and others. Ground Water Hydrology of the Monongahela River Basin
     in W. Va., Morgantown:  West Virginia Geological & Economic Survey,  1968.
     Grimsley, G.P.
     Grimsley, G.P.
     Hennen, R.V.
     Hennen,
     Hennen,
     Hennen,
     Hennen,
     Hennen, R.V.
     Hennen, R.V.
     Hennen,
     Hennen,
        R.V.
        R.V.
        R.V.
        R.V.
West Virginia Geological Survey, County Reports:
     Grimsley, G.P., Jefferson, Berkeley and Morgan Counties, W. Va.,  1916
                    , Pleasants, Wood and Ritchie Counties, W. Va.,  1910
                    , Ohio, Brooke and Hancock Counties, W. Va.,  1907
                 ,  Braxton and Clay Counties, W. Va.,  1917
                 ,  Doddridge and Harrison Counties, W. Va. ,  1912
                 ,  Fayette County, W. Va., 1919
                 ,  Logan and Mingo Counties, W. Va.,  1915
                 ,  Marshall, Wetzel and Tyler Counties, W. Va.,  1909
                 ,  Monongalia, Marion and Taylor Counties, W. Va.,  1913
                  and others, Preston County, W. Va.,  1914
                 ,  Wirt, Roane and Calhoun Counties,  W. Va.,  1911
                 ,  Wyoming and McDowell Counties, W.  Va.,  1915
                , Boone County, W. Va., 1915
                , Cabell, Wayne and Lincoln Counties,  W. Va., 1913
                , Jackson, Mason and Putnam Counties,  W. Va., 1911
                , Kanawha County, W. Va., 1914
                 and others, Raleigh and Summers Counties, West  of  New
         River and  the Coal Area of Mercer County, W.  Va., 1916
     Price, P.H. and others, Greenbrier County, W. Va., 1937
     Price, P.H., Pocahontas County, W. Va., 1929
     Reger, D.B., Barbour, Upshur and West Randolph Counties, W. Va.,  1918
     Reger, D.B., Lewis and Gilmer Counties, W. Va.,  1916
                , Mercer, Monroe and Summers Counties, W. Va.,  1925
                 and others, Mineral and Grant Counties, W.  Va.,  1924
                , Nicholas County, W. Va.
              ,B., Randolph County, W. Va.
              ,B., Tucker County, W. Va.,
     Reger, D.B., Webster County, W. Va.,
     Tilton, J.L. and others, Hampshire and Hardy Counties,  W. Va., 1927
     Tilton, J.L. and others, Pendleton County, W. Va., 1927
        R.V.
        R.V.
Krebs, C.E.,
Krebs, C.E.
Krebs, C.E.
Krebs, C.E.
Krebs, C.E.
     Reger, D.B.
     Reger, D.B.
     Reger, D.B.
     Reger, D.
     Reger, D.
                                    ,,  1921
                                     ,  1931
                                     1923
                                      1920
 Wilmoth,  B.M.  Development  of  Fresh  Ground Water near Salt Water in West Virginia,
      G-roundwater,  Vol.  13,  Ne.  1,- January ซ• 'February,  -1975,  25-31.

 Wilmoth,  B.M.  Ground  Water in Mason and Putnam Counties,  West Virginia,
      Morgantown:   West  Virginia Geological & Economic Survey, 1966.

-------
                                OTHER REFERENCES
Ahnell, G. The effect of Pittsburgh Coal Mining on Groundwater levels in
     Monongalia County, W. Va., Morgantown:  West Virginia University, 1977.

American Society for Testing and Materials Annual Book of ASTM Standards,
     Part 19, 1978.

Blatt, H. and others. Origin of Sedimentary Rocks, Englewood Cliffs:
     Prentice-Hall, 1972.

Butzer, K.W. Geomorphology From the Earth, New York:  Harper and Row, 1976.

Compton, R.R. Manual of Field Geology, New York:  John Wiley & Sons, 1962.

Davis,.S.N. and others. Hydrogeology, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1966.

Governor's Office of Economic and Community Development, West Virginia
     Manufacturing Directory, 1978.

Green, W. and others. Procedures for Evaluation of Potential Groundwater
     Contamination by Hazardous Chemicals, Ft. Collins:  Colorado State
     University, 1979.

Jones, W.K. Hydrology of Limestone Karst, Morgantown:  West Virginia
     Geological & Economic Survey, 1973.

Landers, R.A. A Practical Handbook for Individual Water Supply Systems in
     West Virginia, Morgantown:  West Virginia Geological & Economic Survey,
     1976.

Mendenhall, W. Introduction to Probability and Statistics, North Scltuate:
     Duxbury Press, 1975.

Office Management and Budget. Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972.

Patchen, D.G. and others.  Catalog of Subsurface Information for West Virginia,
     West Virginia Geological & Economic Survey, 1977.

Quagliotti, J.A. Variables Affections Water Well Yields in Eastern Monongalia
     County, W. Va., Morgantown:  West Virginia University, 1974.

Selley, R.C. An Introduction to Sedimentology, London:  Academic Press,  1976.

Stewart, W.S. State-of-the-Art Study of Land Impoundment Techniques, Cincinnati:
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1978.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Surface Impoundments and Their Effects on
     Ground Water Quality in the United State - A Preliminary Survey, 1978.

U.S. Geological Survey, Drainage Map of West Virginia, 1:500,000, 1966.

West Virginia Department of Highways General County Highway Maps - W. Va.,
     1:62,500, 1978.

-------
West Virginia State Department of Health. Community Public Water Supplies, 1977.

West Virginia State Department of Health. Public Water System Inventory Subsystem,
     1979.

West Virginia State Department of Health. Solid Waste Disposal in W. Va., 1979.

Wilmoth, B.M. Hydraulic Properties and History of Development of Lower
     Pennsylvanian Aquifers, Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science,
     v. 37, 167-173.

Wilmoth, B.M. Occurence of Shallow Salty Ground Water in Selected Areas of
     West Virginia, Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science, v.  42,
     202-208.

Wilmoth, B.M. Salty Groundwater and Meteoric Flushing of Contaminated Aquifers
     in W. Va., Groundwater, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan.-Feb., 1972, 99-106.

-------
          APPENDIX A
STEP 1 ASSESSMENT RATING MATRIX
      -UNSATURATED ZONE-

-------
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-------
          APPENDIX B
STEP 2 ASSESSMENT RATING MATRIX
  -GROUND WATER AVAILABILITY-

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-------
              APPENDIX C
TABULATION OF STEP 5 ASSESSMENT RATING
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—                       (GROUND  WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL)  BY SITE ACTIVITY
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           1C r j     iปVM .fi. it u,
CODE      VALUE     IMPOUNDMENTS
1
1

1
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1

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1

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0211 BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOTS
12 1
15
TOTAL FOR SIC...
0213 HOG PRODUCTION
24
TOTAL FOR SIC...
0241 DAIRY FARMS
16
17
16
19
20
21
22
TOTAL FOR SIC...

?
3
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8

0751 LIVESTOCK SERVICES
14
TOTAL FOR SIC...

0921 FISH HATCHERIES
20
25
TOTAL FOR SIC...

1011 IRON ORE
ie
20
TOTAL FOR SIC.. .

1211 BITUMINOUS COAL
13
15
16
17
IE
19
20
21
22
23
1
1


1
1
2


1
1
2

MINING
5
5
11
9
22
37
16
14
49
57
52
  TOTAL  FOR SIC...   277

-------
I      SIC       STEP5      NUMBER  OF
      CODE      VALUE     IMPOUNDMENTS



       1311   NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

•                 20            1

                 22            1

I       TOTAL  FOR SIC...     3


I     1382   OIL AND GAS FIELD EXPLORATION SERVICES
                 17            1

        TOTAL  FOR SIC...     1
I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

      12033   CANNED FRUITS, VEGETABLES, PRESERVES, JAMS AND JELLIES
                 it*           -a

I

I

I

I
      1700  CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS
                 13           2
                 15           I

        TOTAL  FOR SIC...     3
      2011  MEAT PACKAGING PLANTS
                 16           1
                 22           1

        TOTAL  FOR SIC...     2
      2013  SAUSAGE AND OTHER PREPARED MEAT PRODUCTS
                 21           1
                 22           1

        TOTAL  FOR SIC...     2
      2017  POULTRY AND EGG PROCESSING
                 20           1

        TOTAL  FOR SIC...     1
                 16           3
                 19           3
                 22           1

        TOTAL  FOR SIC...     7
      2253  KNIT OUTERWEAR MILLS
                 17           1

        TOTAL FOR SIC...     1

-------
I
I
SIC       S7FP5     NUMBER OF
CODE      VALUE    IMPOUNDMENTS
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
      2491    WOOD PRESERVING
                 17           2
I
        TOTAL FOR SIC...     4

      2499    WOOD PRODUCTS,  MISCELLANEOUS
                 119           2
                 20           3
        TOTAL FOR SIC...     5

      2631    PAPERBQARD MILLS
I               20           3
        TOTAL FOR SIC...     3

      28      CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, GENERAL
                 121            1
                 23            1
            26            1
  TOTAL FOR SIC...         4
2812    ALKALIES AND CHLORINE
           22           2
           25           1
           27           3
  TOTAL FOR SIC...     6

-------
I       SIC       STEP5      NUMBER  OF
       CODE      VALUE     IMPOUNDMENTS
|     -2813    INDUSTRIAL GASES
                  15           2
                  117           1
                  ie           i
                  19           7
                  20           1
I
I      2819    INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC CHEMICALS,  MISCELLANEOUS

I
I
         TOTAL- FOR SIC...   12
                  17           3

         TOTAL  FOR SIC...
       2821    PLASTIC MATERIALS,  SYNTHETIC RESINS, AND NON-VULCANIZABLE ELASTOMERS
                  15           I
                  16           2
                  117           3
                  ie           5
                  19           1
_                20           3
I                21           3
•                22           2
                  23           4
                  25           3
                  26           8
I

|       TOTAL  FOP SIC...    39

I     2623    CELLULOSIC MAN-MADE FIBERS
•                21           1

•       TOTAL  FOR SIC'...     1


I
       2851    PAINTS, VARNISHES,  LACQUERS, ENAMELS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS
                  20           1
                  21           1

 I
       2861    GUM AND WOOD CHEMICALS
                  18           1
         TOTAL  FOR SIC...

I

I       TOTAL  FOR SIC...

I

I

-------
I       SIC        STEP5     NUMBER OF
       CODE      VALUE     IMPOUNDMENTS


I
I
•


I
I
      2865    COAL TAR CRUDES AND INTERMEDIATES, DYES AND ORGANIC PIGMENTS
                 17            1
                 19            1
                 20            3
                 22            1
                 26            1
I

.       TOTAL FOR  SIC...     7

      2869    INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS, MISCELLANEOUS
I                 16            1
                 17            1
                 18            2
                 19            1
                 20            1
                 21            3
                 123            1
                 24            2
                 26            <ป
I       TOTAL FOR SIC...   16


      2892    EXPLOSIVES
                 17            3

        TOTAL FOR SIC...     3
      2899    CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS, MISCELLANEOUS

•                22           1

|       TOTAL FOR SIC...    2
      2911    PETROLEUM REFINING
                 26           1
                 27           1

        TOTAL  FOR SIC...     2
      12951    PAVING MIXTURES AND BLOCKS
                 16           ฃ
                 20           1

I       TOTAL  FOR SIC...     6


I


I

-------
1
1

1

1
SIC STFP5
CODE VALUE

2992 LUBRICATING
26
TOTAL FOR SIC

NUMBER OF
IMPOUNDMENTS

OILS AND GREASES
2
2

3079 MISCELLANEOUS PLASTICS PRODUCTS
1

13
TOTAL FOR SIC
1
1
I sin LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING

1
1




1
|

|
•
1
1




1

1
1


19
20
24
TOTAL FOR SIC
3229 PRESSED AND
15
17
21
TOTAL FOR SIC
3273 READY-MIXED
13
16
19
TOTAL FOR SIC
2
2
3
7
BLOWN GLASSWARE
1
3
3
7
CONCRETE
1
1
1
• * • H
33 PRIMARY METAL INDUSTRIES, GENERAL
22 1
23
27

TOTAL FOR SIC. . .
l
l

3
3312 BLAST FURNACES (INCLUDING COKE OVEN
21
22
28
TOTAL FOR SIC
1
1
. . . o
3313 ELECTROMETALLURGICAL PRODUCTS
20
77
1
1
23           1

-------
1
1



1

1




1

1

1
1

1


1
1
1


1

1
1
1
SIC STEP5
CODE VALUE
26
TOTAL FOR SIC

NUMBER OF
IMPOUNDMENTS
1
* • • *t

3316 COLD ROLLED STEEL
25
TOTAL FOR SIC

3334 PRIMARY
22
2
-------
I
I
I
      SIC       STEP5     NUMBER OF
      CODE      VALUE    IMPOUNDMENTS
        TOTAL FOR  SIC...     2


      3624  CARBON AND GRAPHITE PRODUCTS
                  16            3

        TOTAL FOR SIC...     3
I     3623  WELDING APARATUS, ELECTRIC
                  27            2

I

I

I
      3629  ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIAL APARATUS,  MISCELLANEOUS
I                 13            2
        TOTAL FOR SIC...     2

      3713  RAILROAD EQUIPMENT
                  116            3
                  21            2
                  22            1

I
•       TOTAL FOR SIC...     7

I


        TOTAL FOR SIC...   10

•     4911  ELECTRIC GENERATION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
                  14            2
I
      3899  MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
                 18           4
                 20           6
I

I

I       TOTAL  FOR SIC...    37
16           6
17           7
18           2
19           3
20           1
21           6
22           5
23           2
      14924   NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION
                 13           2
        TOTAL  FOR SIC...

-------
1
1


1
1

1
•

1

1

1


1
1
1

1



1

1
^M



1
SIC STEP5
CODE VALUE

NUMBER OF
IMPOUNDMENTS

4941 WATER SUPPLY
19
TOTAL FOR SIC.
1
1
4952 SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
C9
10
11
12
13
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
25
TOTAL FOR SIC.
5541 GASOLINE
13
15
19
23
TOTAL FDR SIC

5983 FUEL OIL
21
TOTAL FOR SIC

2
6
12
29
22
43
54
28
48
27
36
22
20
9
8
11
3
•• 380
SERVICE STATIONS
1
1
2
1
5

DEALERS
1
1

6552 SUBDIVIDERS AND DEVELOPERS
16
22
TOTAL FOR SIC

3
1
4

7215 COIN OPERATED LAUNDERIES
1

1
20
TOTAL FOR SIC

1
1


-------
I
       SIC       STEP5      NUMBER OF
       CODE      VALUE     IMPOUNDMENTS
I     7542     CAR WASHES
                 20           2

I
•
      7692     WELDING REPAIR
                 16           1

        TOTAL FOR SIC...    1
        TOTAL FOR SIC ...
      9999     OTHER
                 20

        TOTAL FOR SIC...
        TOTAL FDR SIC...

I

I
I     7699     REPAIR SHOPS ANT) RELATED SERVICES, MISCELLANEOUS
•                22           1
•

1

_


I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

-------
                APPENDIX D
TABULATION OF LINER TYPES BY SITE ACTIVITY
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
                                          (ASSESSED  SITES  ONLY)

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

-------
1
1

1
1
^B
1
1



1

1

1
-
"

1

1
•
*

1
1
1

1
1
SIC LINFR TYPE
CODE
0211 BEEF CATTLE FEEDLCTS
NCNE
TOTAL FOR SIC... 3
0213 HOG PRODUCTION
N^'E
TOTAL FOR SIC... 1
0241 DAIRY FARMS
NCNE
TOTAL FDR SIC... 8

0751 LIVESTOCK SERVICES
NONE
TOTAL FOR SIC... 1

092 1 FISH HATCHERIES
NONE
CLAY
TOTAL FOR SIC... 2
1011 IRON ORES
NCNE
TOTAL FDR SIC... 2
1211 BITUMINOUS COAL MINING
NONE
CLAY
PLASTICIZET PVC
HYPALCN SHEETIKG
TOTAL FOR SIC... 277
1311 NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION
CLAY
TOTAL FOR SIC... 3


NUMBE'
IHPOUN

3


1

8



1



1
1


2


269
5
3
2

3




-------
1
1
SIC
CODE

L1NEP TYPE NUMBER OF
IMPOUNDMENTS

13E2 OIL AND GAS FIELD EXPLORATION SERVICES
I

1

1

1


1

1

TOTAL
NOPE 1
FOR SIC... 1
1700 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS


TOTAL

NONE 1
NONE 2
FDR SIC... 3

2011 MEAT PACKAGING PLANTS


TOTAL

NOME 1
OTHER 1
FOR SIC... 2

2013 SAUSAGE AND OTHER PREPARED MEAT PRODUCTS



1

1
1

1
1
1



1


TOTAL
NONE 2

FOR SIC... 2
2017 POULTRY AND EGG PROCESSING

TOTAL
NONE 1
FCR SIC... 1
2033 CANNED FRUITS, VEGETABLES, PRESERVES, JAMS AND JELLIES

TOTAL
NCNE 7
FOR SIC... 7
2253 KNIT OUTERWEAR MILLS
NONE 1
TOTAL
FOR SIC... 1
2491 WOOD PRESERVING

TOTAL

CLAY 4
FOR SIC... 4

2499 WOOD PRODUCTS, MISCELLANEOUS
1

1

TOTAL

NCNE 5
FOR SIC... 5


-------
1
1

1

1
••

1
•
1





1
•
1




1

1

1


1
•

1



1

1
1
SIC LINER TYPE
CODE
2631 PAPERBOARD MILLS
NCNE
-
TOTAL FOR SIC... 3

28 CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS,
NONE

TOTAL FOR SIC... 3
2812 ALKALIES AND CHLORINE
NCNE
NONE
CLAY
BENTONITE MODIFIED
HYPALON SHEETING

TOTAL FOR SIC... 6
2813 INDUSTRIAL GASES
NONE
CLAY
BUTYL RUBBER SHEETING
TOTAL FOR SIC... 12

2819 INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC CHEMICALS,
NCNE
TOTAL FOR SIC... 3

2821 PLASTIC MATERIALS, SYNTHETIC RE!
NONE
NONE
CLAY
BENTONITE MODIFIED
ASPHALT
HYPALON SHEETING
TOTAL FOR SIC... 39

2623 CELLULOSIC MAN-MADE FIBERS
NONE
TOTAL FOR SIC... I


NUMBER OF
IMPOUNDMENTS

3



GENERAL
3
\


1
2
1
1
1



1
10
1


MISCELLANEOUS
3


SINS, AND NON-VULCANIZABLE ELASTOMERS
1
16
12
4
5
1



1




-------
I       SIC       LINER TYPE                   NUMBER  OF
       CODE                                  IMPOUNDMENTS
I

I
I
I

I

I
       2P51  PAINTS, VARNISHES, LACQUERS, ENAMELS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS
                 PCLYETHYLENE                    3
I        TOTAL  FDR SIC...

I

I
       2861  GUM AND WOOD CHEMICALS
                NONE

         TOTAL  FOR SIC...     1
u      2865  COAL TAR CRUDES AND INTERMEDIATES,  DYES, AND ORGANIC PIGMENTS
I               NONE                             5
"               BENTONITE MODIFIED              1
                PLASTICIZED  FVC                 1

I        TOTAL FOR SIC...     7


I      2869  INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICUS, MISCELLANEOUS
                NCKE                            1C
-               CLAY                             6

™        TOTAL FOR SIC...    16


I
       2892  EXPLOSIVES
                NCNE                              I
                POLYETHYLENE                     2

         TOTAL FOR  SIC...     3
      2899  CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS, MISCELLANEOUS
                PLASTICIZED PVC                 2
         TOTAL FOR  SIC...
      2911   PETROLEUM REFINING
                NONE

         TOTAL FOR  SIC...
      12951   PAVING MIXTURES AND BLOCKS
                NCNE
        TOTAL FOR  SIC...

-------
1
IV
1

1

1
M

1
1




1

1
SIC
CODE

2992

TOTA

3079

LINER TYPE NUMBER OF
IMPOUNDMENT

LUBRICATING OILS AND GREASES
NONE 2
L FOR SIC... 2

MISCELLANEOUS PLASTICS PRODUCTS
NONE 1
TOTAL FOR SIC... 1
3111



LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING
NONE 6
POLYETHYLENE I

TOTAL FOR SIC... 7
3229


PRESSED AND BLOWN GLASSWARE
NONE 5
OTHER MEMBRANE TYPE 2
TOTAL FDR SIC... 7
1

1
1








1
1



1
3273

READY-MIXED CONCRETE
. NONE 4
TOTAL FOR SIC... 4
33



TOTAL

3312


PRIMARY METAL INDUSTRIES, GENERAL
NONE 2
HYPALON
SHEETING 1
FOR SIC... 3

BLAST FURNACES (INCLUDING COKE' OVENS) , STEEL W01
NONE 2
NONE 4
TOTAL FOR SIC... 6
3313
ELECTROMETALLURGICAL PRODUCTS
NONE 4
TOTAL FOR SIC... 4

3316


COLD ROLLED STEEL
NCNE 2
TOTAL FOR SIC...

-------
1
1
i^p



1

1

1

1
1

1
1
1



1

1

1
•

1
1
1
1
SIC
CDDE

3334


TOTAL

3356

TOTAL
3471

TOTAL
3531

TOTAL
3555
TOTAL
3623

TOTAL

3624

TOTAL

3629

TOTAL
3743


LINER TYPE NUMBER OF
IMPOUNDMENTS

PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF ALUMINUM
BENTDNITE MODIFIED 5
POLYETHYLENE }
FDR SIC... 6

ROLLING, DRAWING AND EXTRUDING OF NONFERRDUS METALS, EXCEPT COPPER AND ALUMINUM
NONE 3
FOR SIC... 3
ELECTROPLATING, PLATING, POLISHING, ANODIZING AND COLORING
N CNE 6
FOR SIC... 6
CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
NONE 2
FDR SIC... 2
PRINTING TRADES MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
CLAY 6
FOR SIC... 6
WELDING APARATUS, ELECTRIC
NONE 2
FOR SIC... 2

CARBON AND GRAPHITE PRODUCTS
CLAY 3
FOR SIC... 3

ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIAL APARATUS, MISCELLANEOUS
NONE 2
FOR SIC... 2
*
RAILROAD EQUIPMENT



-------
1
1
1


SIC LINEP TYPE
CODE I
NONE
TOTAL FOR SIC ... 7

NUMBER OF
MPOUNPMENTS
7


3899 MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
1

1
I


1
1
1

1

1

I

1

1

1
1
1
1
1
NONE
PLASTICIZED PVC
ETHYLENE PF.OPYLENE
TOTAL FOR SIC... 10
4911 ELECTRIC GENERATION, TRANSMISSION
NONE
CLAY
POLYETHYLENE
PLASTICIZED PVC
TOTAL FOR SIC... 37
4 92 A NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION
NONE
TOTAL FOR SIC... 2

4941 WATER SUPPLY
NDNE
TOTAL FOR SIC... 1
4952 SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
NCNE
NONE
CLAY
BENTONITE MODIFIED
CHEMICALLY MODIFIED CLAY
POLYETHYLENE
OTHER
TOTAL FOR SIC... 390




2
3
5

AND DISTRIBUTION
31
3
1
2

2



1


9
334
35
5
I
2
4






-------
SIC       LINER TYPE                   NUMBER  OF
CODE                                  IMPOUNDMENTS
5541   GASOLINE SERVICE STATIONS
          NCNE

  TOTAL  FOR SIC...     5
59E3   FUEL OIL DEALERS
          NONE

  TOTAL  FOR SIC...     1
6552   SUBDIVIDERS AND DEVELOPERS
          NCNE

  TOTAL  FOR SIC...     4
7215   COIN OPERATED LAUNDERIES
          OTHER

  TOTAL  FOR SIC...     1
754 2   CAR WASHES
          NCNE                             2
          OTHER                            1

  TOTAL  FOR SIC.. .     3
7692   WELDING REPAIR
          NON'E

  TOTAL  FOR SIC...
7699   REPAIR SHOPS AND RELATED SERVICES, MISCELLANEOUS
          KOKE                              1

  TOTAL FOR  SIC...     1
9999   OTHER
          NONE

  TOTAL  FOR SIC...

-------