U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Annapolis Field Office
      Annapolis Sciance Center
     Annapolis, Maryland  21401
       WORKING DOCUMENTS
           Volume  12

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                             Table of Contents


                                Volume 12
    1          Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and Its
               Tributaries between Danville, Pennsylvania and
               Conowingo, Maryland


Appendix       Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
  to 1         Stations During the Biological Survey between Danville,
               Pennsylvania and Conowingo, Maryland - November 1966


    2          Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and Its
               Tributaries between Cooperstown, New York and
               Northumberland, Pennsylvaaia - January 1967


Appendix       Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
  to 2         Stations during the Biological Survey between Cooperstown,
               New York and Northumberland, Pennsylvania - November 1966

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                            PUBLICATIONS

                U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                             REGION III
                       ANNAPOLIS FIELD OFFICE*


                              VOLUME 1
                          Technical  Reports


 5         A Technical  Assessment of Current Water Quality
           Conditions and Factors Affecting Water Quality in
           the Upper Potomac Estuary

 6         Sanitary Bacteriology of the Upper Potomac Estuary

 7         The Potomac Estuary Mathematical Model

 9         Nutrients in the Potomac River Basin

11         Optimal  Release Sequences for Water Quality Control
           in Multiple Reservoir Systems

                              VOLUME 2
                          Technical  Reports


13         Mine Drainage in the North Branch Potomac River Basin

15         Nutrients in the Upper Potomac River Basin

17         Upper Potomac River Basin Water Quality Assessment

                              VOLUME  3
                          Technical  Reports

19         Potomac-Piscataway Dye Release and Wastewater
           Assimilation Studies

21         LNEPLT

23         XYPLOT

25         PLOT3D

     * Formerly CB-SRBP, U.S. Department of Health, Education,
       and Welfare; CFS-FWPCA, and CTSL-FWQA,  Middle Atlantic
       Region, U.S. Department of the Interior

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                             VOLUME 3   (continued)
                         Technical  Reports

27         Water Quality and Wastewater Loadings - Upper Potomac
           Estuary during 1969

                             VOLUME 4
                         Technical Reports


29         Step Backward Regression

31         Relative Contributions of Nutrients to the Potomac
           River Basin from Various Sources

33         Mathematical Model Studies of Water Quality in the
           Potomac Estuary

35         Water Resource - Water Supply Study of the Potomac
           Estuary

                             VOLUME 5
                         Technical Reports

37         Nutrient Transport and Dissolved Oxygen Budget
           Studies in the Potomac Estuary

39         Preliminary Analyses of the Wastewater and Assimilation
           Capacities of the Anacostia Tidal River System

41         Current Water Quality Conditions and Investigations
           in the Upper Potomac River Tidal System

43         Physical Data of the Potomac River Tidal System
           Including Mathematical Model Segmentation

45         Nutrient Management in the Potomac Estuary


                             VOLUME 6

                         Technical Reports

47         Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Input Study

49         Heavy Metals Analyses of Bottom Sediment in the
           Potomac River Estuary

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                                  VOLUME  6  (continued)

                              Technical  Reports

     51          A System of Mathematical Models for Water Quality
                Management

     52         Numerical Method for Groundwater Hydraulics

     53         Upper Potomac Estuary Eutrophication Control
                Requirements

     54         AUT0-QUAL Modelling System

Supplement      AUT0-QUAL Modelling System:  Modification for
   to 54        Non-Point Source Loadings

                                  VOLUME  7
                              Technical Reports

     55         Water Quality Conditions in the Chesapeake Bay System

     56         Nutrient Enrichment and Control Requirements in the
                Upper Chesapeake Bay

     57         The Potomac River Estuary in the Washington
                Metropolitan Area - A History of its Water Quality
                Problems and their Solution

                                  VOLUME  8
                              Technical Reports

     58         Application of AUT0-QUAL Modelling System to the
                Patuxent River Basin

     59         Distribution of Metals in Baltimore Harbor Sediments

     60         Summary and Conclusions - Nutrient Transport and
                Accountability in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin

                                  VOLUME  9
                                 Data Reports

                Water Quality Survey, James River and Selected
                Tributaries - October 1969

                Water Quality Survey in the North Branch Potomac River
                between Cumberland and Luke, Maryland - August 1967

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                            VOLUME 9   (continued)
                           Data Reports


           Investigation of Water Quality in Chesapeake Bay and
           Tributaries at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Department
           of the Army, Aberdeen, Maryland - October-December 1967

           Biological Survey of the Upper Potomac River and
           Selected Tributaries - 1966-1968

           Water Quality Survey of the  Eastern Shore Chesapeake
           Bay, Wicomico River, Pocomoke River, Nanticoke River,
           Marshall Creek, Bunting Branch, and Chincoteague Bay -
           Summer 1967

           Head of Bay Study - Water Quality Survey of Northeast
           River, Elk River, C & D Canal, Bohemia River, Sassafras
           River and Upper Chesapeake Bay - Summer 1968 - Head ot
           Bay Tributaries

           Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1967

           Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1968

           Wastewater Treatment Plant Nutrient Survey - 1966-1967

           Cooperative Bacteriological  Study - Upper Chesapeake Bay
           Dredging Spoil  Disposal - Cruise Report No. 11

                            VOLUME 10
                           Data Reports

 9         Water  Quality  Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1965-1966

10         Water  Quality  Survey of the  Annapolis Metro Area - 1967

11         Nutrient  Data  on Sediment Samples of the Potomac. Estuary
           1966-1968

12         1969  Head  of  the Bay Tributaries

13         Water  Quality Survey of the  Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy  Point - 1968

14         Water  Quality Survey of the  Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy  Point - 1969

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                             VOLUME IQ(continued)

                           Data Reports

15         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1967

16         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1968

17         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1969

18         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transects,
           Intensive and Southeast Water Laboratory Cooperative
           Study - 1969

19         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Phosphate
           Tracer Study - 1969

                             VOLUME 11
                            Data Reports

20         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transport Study
           1969-1970

21         Water Quality Survey of the Piscataway Creek Watershed
           1968-1970

22         Water Quality Survey of the Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy Point - 1970

23         Water Quality Survey of the Head of the Chesapeake Bay
           Maryland Tributaries - 1970-1971

24         Water Quality Survey of the Upper Chesapeake Bay
           1969-1971

25         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Consolidated
           Survey - 1970

26         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Dissolved Oxygen
           Budget Studies - 1970

27         Potomac Estuary Wastewater Treatment Plants Survey
           1970

28         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Embayments
           and Transects - 1970

29         Water Quality of the Upper Potomac Estuary Enforcement
           Survey - 1970

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   30


   31


   32
   33
   34
Appendix
  to 1
Appendix
  to 2
    3


    4
                  VOLUME 11  (continued)

                 Data Reports

Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary - Gilbert Swamp
and Allen's Fresh and Gunston Cove - 1970

Survey Results of the Chesapeake Bay Input Study -
1969-1970

Upper Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Studies - Bush River,
Spesutie Narrows and Swan Creek, C & D Canal, Chester
River, Severn River, Gunpowder, Middle and Bird Rivers -
1968-1971

Special Water Quality Surveys of the Potomac River Basin
Anacostia Estuary, Wicomico .River, St. Clement and
Breton Bays, Occoquan Bay - 1970-1971

Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1970

                  VOLUME 12

               Working Documents

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Danville, Pennsylvania and
Conowingo, Maryland

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Danville,
Pennsylvania and Conowingo, Maryland - November 1966

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Cooperstown, New York and
Northumberland, Pennsylvnaia - January 1967

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Cooperstown,
New York and Northumberland, Pennsylvania - November 1966

                  VOLUME 13
               Working Documents

Water Quality and Pollution Control Study, Mine Drainage
Chesapeake Bay-Delaware River Basins - July 1967

Biological Survey of Rock Creek (from Rockville, Maryland
to the  Potomac River)  October 1966

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                             VOLUME   13   (continued)

                          Working  Documents

 5         Summary of Water Quality  and  Waste Outfalls,  Rock  Creek
           in Montgomery County, Maryland and the  District  of
           Columbia - December 1966

 6         Water Pollution Survey  -  Back River 1965 -  February  1967

 7         Efficiency Study of the District  of Columbia  Water
           Pollution Control  Plant - February 1967

                             VOLUME   14

                          Working  Documents

 8         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study - Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland to West Pittson
           (Including the Lackawanna River Basin)   March 1967

 9         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Juniata
           River Basin - March 1967

10         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Rappahannock
           River Basin - March 1967

11         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Lake Otsego, New York, to  Lake  Lackawanna
           River Confluence, Pennsylvania -  April  1967

                             VOLUME  15
                          Working  Documents

12         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  York  River
           Basin - April 1967

13         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  West  Branch,
           Susquehanna River Basin - April 1967

14         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  James River
           Basin - June 1967

15         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Patuxent  River
           Basin - May 1967

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                             VOLUME 16

                          Working Documents

16         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland, Pennsylvania,  to
           Havre de Grace, Maryland - July 1967

17         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Potomac
           River Basin - June 1967

18         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Central  Western
           Shore of Chesapeake Bay Area (Magothy, Severn,  South, and
           West River Drainage Areas)  July 1967

19         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Northwest
           Chesapeake Bay Area (Patapsco to Susquehanna Drainage
           Basins in Maryland) August 1967

20         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs - The Eastern
           Shore of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia -  September 1967

                             VOLUME 17
                           Working Documents

21         Biological Surveys of the Upper James River Basin
           Covington, Clifton Forge, Big Island, Lynchburg, and
           Piney River Areas - January 1968

22         Biological Survey of Antietam Creek and some of its
           Tributaries from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania to Antietam,
           Maryland - Potomac River Basin - February 1968

23         Biological Survey of the Monocacy River and Tributaries
           from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to Maryland Rt. 28. Bridge
           Potomac River Basin - January 1968

24         Water Quality Survey of Chesapeake Bay in the Vicinity of
           Annapolis, Maryland - Summer 1967

25         Mine Drainage Pollution of the North Branch of Potomac
           River - Interim Report - August 1968

26         Water Quality Survey in the Shenandoah River of the
           Potomac River Basin - June 1967

27         Water Quality Survey in the James and Maury Rivers
           Glasgow,  Virginia - September 1967

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                             VOLUME  17   (continued)
                           Working Documents

28         Selected Biological  Surveys in the James River Basin,
           Gillie Creek in the Richmond  Area, Appomattox River
           in the Petersburg Area, Bailey Creek from Fort Lee
           to Hopewell  - April  1968

                             VOLUME  18
                           Working Documents

29         Biological  Survey of the Upper and Middle Patuxent
           River and some of its Tributaries - from Maryland
           Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury Mills to the Maryland
           Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner, Maryland -
           Chesapeake Drainage Basin - June 1968

30         Rock Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study Report
           March 1969

31         The Patuxent River - Water Quality Management -
           Technical Evaluation - September 1969

                             VOLUME 19
                          Working Documents

           Tabulation, Community and Source Facility Water Data
           Maryland Portion, Chesapeake Drainage Area - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Patuxent River Basin - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Potomac River Basin below Washington, D.C.- November 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal  Installations
           Chesapeake Bay Area of Maryland Excluding Potomac
           and Patuxent River Basins - January 1965

           The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections -
           February 1968

           Patuxent River - Cross Sections and Mass Travel
           Velocities - July 1968

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                            VOLUME  19  (continued)
                         Working Documents

          Wastewater  Inventory - Potomac River Basin -
          December  1968

          Wastewater  Inventory - Upper  Potomac River Basin -
          October 1968

                            VOLUME 20
                         Technical  Papers_

 1          A  Digital Technique for Calculating and Plotting
           Dissolved Oxygen  Deficits

 2          A  River-Mile  Indexing System for Computer Application
           in Storing and Retrieving Data      (unavailable)

 3          Oxygen  Relationships in Streams, Methodology to be
           Applied when  Determining  the Capacity of a Stream to
           Assimilate Organic Wastes - October 1964

 4          Estimating Diffusion Characteristics of Tidal Waters -
           May 1965

 5          Use of  Rhodamine  B Dye as a Tracer in Streams of the
           Susquehanna  River Basin - April 1965

 6          An In-Situ Benthic Respirometer - December 1965

 7          A  Study of Tidal  Dispersion in the Potomac River
           February 1966

 8          A  Mathematical Model for  the Potomac River - what it
           has done and  what it can  do - December 1966

 9          A  Discussion  and  Tabulation of Diffusion Coefficients
           for Tidal  Waters  Computed as a  Function of Velocity
           February 1967

10          Evaluation of Coliform Contribution by Pleasure Boats
           July 1966

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                            VOLUME  21
                         Technical Papers

11         A Steady State Segmented Estuary Model

12        Simulation of Chloride Concentrations in the
          Potomac Estuary - March 1968

13        Optimal Release Sequences for Water Quality
          Control in Multiple-Reservoir Systems - 1968

                            VOLUME  22
                         Technical Papers

          Summary Report - Pollution of Back River - January 1964

          Summary of Water Quality - Potomac River Basin in
          Maryland - October 1965

          The Role of Mathematical Models in the Potomac River
          Basin Water Quality Management Program - December 1967

          Use of Mathematical Models as Aids to Decision Making
          in Water Quality Control - February 1968

          Piscataway Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study
          Report - August 1968


                            VOLUME  23
                        Ocean Dumping Surveys

          Environmental Survey of an Interim Ocean Dumpsite,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - September 1973

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim  Dumpsites,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - January 1974

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites
          Middle Atlantic Bight - Supplemental Report -
          October 1974

          Effects of Ocean Disposal Activities on Mid-
          continental Shelf Environment off Delaware
          and Maryland - January 1975

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                            VOLUME 24

                           1976 Annual
               Current Nutrient Assessment -  Upper Potomac  Estuary
               Current Assessment Paper No.  1

               Evaluation of Western Branch Wastewater Treatment
               Plant Expansion - Phases I  and II

               Situation Report - Potomac  River

               Sediment Studies in Back River Estuary, Baltimore,
               Maryland

Technical      Distribution of Metals in Elizabeth River Sediments
Report 61

Technical      A Water Quality Modelling Study of the Delaware
Report 62      Estuary

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                           P_age






INTRODUCTION 	   1





SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  	   3





DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION 	   5





     East Bank Susquehanna and Tributaries	,  .   5





     West Bank Susquehanna and Tributaries	Ik





          Juniata River Basin  	  16

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                         LIST OF TABLES

                                                           Page

       Bottom Organism Data - East Bank
         Susquehanna River and Tributaries 	  25

 II.   Bottom Organism Data - West Bank
         Susquehanna River and Tributaries 	  27
                        LIST OF FIGURES
                                                        Follows
Figure                                                    Page

   1   Map of Study Area	   28

   2   Profile of Biological Conditions - East Bank
         Susquehanna River and Tributaries 	   28

   3   Profile of Biological Conditions - West Bank
         Susquehanna River and Tributaries 	   28

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                          INTRODUCTION
        A biological survey of the Susquehanna River and its tribu-
taries in the reach between Danville, Pennsylvania, and Conowlngo,
Maryland, was conducted during August and September, 196^,  (See
Figure 1 following page 28,)  The biological activities were conducted
concurrently with stream quality investigations.

        For purposes of the study, the community of bottom (benthic)
organisms was selected as the inai r~ator of the biological condition
of the stream.  Bottom organisms serve as the preferred food source
for the higher aquatic forms and exhibit similar reactions to adverse
stream conditions.  The combination of limited locomotion and life
cycles of one year or more for most benthic species provide a long
term picture of the water quality of a stream,-  Fish and algal popu-
lations were given some consideration, but only to the extent that
obvious conclusions could be drawn based upon simple observations.

        In unpolluted streams, a wide variety of sensitive clean-
water associated bottom organisms are normally found,  Typical groups
are stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies.  These sensitive organisms
usually are not individually abundant because of natural predation
and competition for food and space; however, the total count or num-
ber of organisms at a given station may be high because of the number
of different varieties present.

        Sensitive genera tend to be eliminated by adverse environ-
mental conditions (e.g., chemical and/or physical) resulting from
wastes reaching the stream.  In waters enriched with organic wastes,
comparatively fewer kinds (genera) are normally found, but great num-
bers of these genera may be present.  Organic pollution-tolerant
forms such as sludgeworms, rattailed maggots, certain species <.
bloodworms (red midges), certain leeches, and some species of air-
breathing snails may multiply and become abundant because of a
favorable habitat and food supply.  These organic pollution-tolerant
bottom organisms may also exist in the natural environment but are
generally found in small numbers.  The abundance of these forms in
streams heavily polluted with organics is due to their physiological
and morphological abilities to survive environmental conditions more
adverse than other bottom organisms.  Under conditions where inert
silts or organic sludges blanket the stream bottom, the natural home
of bottom organisms is destroyed, causing a reduction in the number
of kinds of organisms present.

        In addition to sensitive and pollution-tolerant forms, some
bottom organisms may be termed intermediates, in that they are capa-
ble of living in fairly heavily polluted areas as well as in clean

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water situations.  These organisms occurring singly, therefore, can-
not serve as effective indicators of water quality.

        Streams grossly polluted with toxic wastes such as mine drain-
age will support little if any biological life, and will reduce the
population of both sensitive and pollution-tolerant organisms.

        Classification of organisms in this report is considered in
three categories (clean-water associated, intermediate, and pollution-
tolerant) which provide sufficient biological information to supplement
physical and chemical water quality data for a basin-wide analysis.
Detailed identification and counts of specific organisms have been
tabulated for use during intensive investigations of selected areas
and are available upon request.

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                    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
        1.  A biological survey of the Susquehanna River and its major
tributaries in the reach between Danville, Pennsylvania, and Conowingo,
Maryland, was conducted during August and September of 196k.  The West
Branch Susquehanna was sampled near its mouth to determine the quality
of water discharged to the Susquehanna River.  A separate study of the
West Branch will be carried out during 1965.

        2.  Bottom organisms were selected as the primary indicator
of biological water quality; however, fish and algae were given con-
sideration when observed.

        3.  In the Susquehanna River between Northumberland and
Columbia, Pennsylvania, lateral stream mixing is restricted because
of stream width and many longitudinal barriers in the channel, such
as islands and rock outcroppings.  This reduced mixing causes flow
and water quality stratification between the East and West Banks of
the River.

        k.  Analysis of the Susquehanna River was broken into two
parts:  East Bank and its tributaries, and West Bank and its tribu-
taries.  Sampling stations were located along both the East and West
Banks of the Susquehanna to better characterize over-all biological
water quality and give a biological profile of the River.

        5.  Shamokin, Mahanoy, Mahantango, and Wiconisco Creeks, which
enter from the East side, exert a deleterious effect on the aquatic
life of the Susquehanna River.  All of these streams were polluted to
various degrees with coal fines, mine drainage, and organic wastes.
Swatara and Conestoga Creeks, although biologically degraded in certain
reaches, were sufficiently recovered at their most downstream r-iach
that little more than a dilution effect on the Susquehanna River was
exerted.  East Conewago, Chickies, and Pequea Creeks contributed bottom
organisms and generally enhanced the water quality of the Susquehanna
River.

        6.  The West Branch Susquehanna River and Codorus Creek were
those tributaries entering from the West side which exerted a delete-
rious effect on the aquatic life of the Susquehanna River.  The West
Branch is occasionally acidic in quality near its mouth, a condition
which consequently extends downstream into the Susquehanna River it-
self, while Codorus Creek contributes various types of industrial
wastes as well as municipal wastes.  Penns Creek, the Juniata River,
Conodoquinet Creek, Yellow Breeches Creek, and West Conewago, each
contributed toward water quality improvement in the Susquehanna River.

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        7.  Downstream from Northumberland, the Susquehanna River on
both sides is physiographically well suited to support many kinds of
bottom dwelling organisms.  In the entire stream reach studied, North-
umberland to Columbia, the River did not exhibit any gross biological
degradation.  Localized impairment to biological quality was observed
in the Susquehanna River as a result of the deleterious effects of
mine drainage, coal fines, and organic wastes contributed by certain
tributaries.  Some tributaries, while contributing a waste load, do
not exert a noticeable effect because of the relative stream flow
magnitudes involved.  Other tributaries contributed high quality water
and aided biological recovery in the Susquehanna River.

        8.  Unpolluted biological conditions in the impoundments on
the Susquehanna River downstream from Columbia, Pennsylvania, were
indicated by known fishery studies; plankton data from above the dams
at Holtwood, Pennsylvania, and Conowingo, Maryland; and additional
data from the National Water Quality Network Station at Conowingo,
Maryland.

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               DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION
        In the reach of the Susquehanna River between Northumberland
and Columbia, Pennsylvania, lateral stream mixing is restricted be-
cause of stream vidth and many longitudinal barriers in the form of
islands and rock outcroppings.  Reduced lateral mixing causes flows
from tributaries to follow the bank of the main stem and have little
influence on the far side of the River.

        Evaluation of available water quality data for the Susque-
hanna indicated significant water quality variation between the East
Bank and the West Bank, especially below the confluences of the
Juniata River and West Branch Susquehanna.  Samples were obtained
from both East and West Bank stations to give a complete summary of
biological conditions in the Susquehanna River.

        Sampling stations were located after consideration of the
following conditions:

        1.  Major tributaries

        2.  Major waste discharges or sources

        3.  Physical capability for sampling

        In general, tributaries were sampled to determine water quality
contributed to the Susquehanna, while waste sources and major tribu-
taries in the study area were bracketed with stations to identify
effects of flow and/or waste contributions.

        For ease of presentation and to show a profile of biological
conditions, stations are discussed proceeding downstream.  East and
West sides of the Susquehanna River are shown as two separate profiles
(Figures 2 and 3, respectively), and tributary streams are discussed
in hydrologic order with main stem stations.  This allows a better
cause and effect evaluation of biological conditions.
             East Bank Susquehanna andTributaries

Main Stem - SUQ - 135 at Danville (E.B.) below Pennsylvania Route U5
                  Bridge, Montour County

        This station was upstream from the confluence of the West
Branch.  Stratification of flow was hot significant, and a single
sampling point characterized biological conditions for the entire
cross-section of the River.  At this point, only four kinds and a

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total of 15 bottom organisms per square foot were found.  (Table I
gives a tabulation of sampling results for the East Bank and tribu-
taries.)  Degraded conditions apparently stem from the toxic effects
of mine drainage and the presence of coal fines which blanketed the
stream bottom, destroying the habitat of many bottom organisms.

        Shamokin Creek Basin - k stations - enters main stem at mile
                                            120.8

             SHM - 022 at Pennsylvania Route 6l Bridge, Northumberland
                   County

        Thirteen kinds of bottom organisms were collected, with 170
organisms per square foot in the quantitative sample.  The reach of
stream above this station was of high quality, as indicated by the
presence of the following genera: caddisflies (the dominant form),
two kinds of mayflies, fishflies, and riffle beetles.

             SHM - 019 at Foot Bridge, Weigh Scales, Pennsylvania
                   (U.S.G.S. Gaging Station 1-55^5) Northumberland
                   County

        Degraded biological conditions existed downstream at stream
mile 19, where only one kind of midge was found.  The water was black
in color.  Abundant coal fines blanketed the bottom, and the rocks
were coated with iron compounds.

             BUD - 000 at LR^9033 Bridge, Northumberland County

        Buddy's Creek is a tributary of Shamokin Creek at stream mile
17.6.  Sludge beds were observed at the mouth of this tributary, indi-
cating organic pollution.  Most forms were pollution-tolerant or inter-
mediate kinds.  Eight genera were present, with a population of 500
per square foot.

             SHM - 000 at Pennsylvania 1^7 Bridge, South of Sunbury,
                   Northumberland County

        At the mouth of Shamokin Creek, only small numbers of a
pollution-tolerant midge were found.  Shamokin Creek contributes
heavy coal fines, sewage, and mine drainage to the Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - SUQ - 120 at Hummels Wharf (E.B.)

        Water quality in the Susquehanna between Danville and Hummels
Wharf showed some improvement, as two additional types of organisms
were present with a significant increase in total population to

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per square foot.  The pollution contributed by Shamokin Creek reduced
the amount of biological recovery.

        Mahanoy Creek Basin - 3 stations - enters main stem at mile
                                           112

             MAH - 009 at Dornsife Feed Dam, Pennsylvania Route 225
                   Bridge, Northumberland County

        At stream mile 8.9 on Mahanoy Creek, four kinds of bottom
organisms were collected, and total population was only four per
square foot.  Iron compounds were observed on the rocks, and coal
fines were in abundance, accounting for the degraded conditions.

             SCH - 000 at Pennsylvania Route 225 Bridge, Northumber-
                   land County

        Schwaben Creek, a tributary which enters Mahanoy Creek at
stream mile 6.2, exhibited unpolluted biological conditions, as evi-
denced by the 12 kinds of bottom organisms found.  These included
two kinds of clean-water associated caddisflies, three kinds of may-
flies, and fishflies.

             MAH - 001 at Pennsylvania Route 1^7 Bridge, North of
                   Herndon

        Only three kinds of bottom organisms were found at this sta-
tion.  The water was black from coal fines, and iron compounds were
deposited on the rocks.  Mahanoy Creek contributes high concentrations
of coal fines and mine drainage to the Susquehanna River; however, the
effects on the Susquehanna are limited because of dilution in the much
larger flow.
Main Stem - SUQ - 106 at McKee Half Falls (E.B.)

        Between Hummels Wharf and McKee Half Falls, the Susquehanna
continued to recover biologically.  Seven kinds of organisms were
present, with 353 organisms per square foot.

        Mahantango Creek Basin - 6 stations - enters main stem at
                                              mile 102.5

             MAN - 018 at LR53047 Bridge, Klingerstown, Pennsylvania

        This station is Q.h miles upstream from Pine Creek, the
principal tributary.  Unpolluted stream conditions were indicated by
the 13 kinds of bottom organisms found, which included three kinds of
clean-water associated caddisflies and two kinds of mayflies.

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             PNE - 019 at LR53030 Bridge, Fountain, Pennsylvania

        Pine Creek, which is actually the longest fork of Mahantango
Creek, vas sampled at stream mile 19, where only four kinds of bottom
organisms were collected.  All genera were clean-water associated,
including two kinds of mayflies, one kind of caddisfly, and one kind
of riffle beetle.  Unpolluted biological conditions were indicated.

             DCR - 009 at Pennsylvania Route 125 Bridge, North of
                   Hegins, Schuylkill County

        Deep Creek, a tributary to Pine Creek, was sampled nine miles
upstream from the confluence and found to support clean-water associat-
ed bottom organisms including stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies.

             PNE - 001 at T-3T9 Bridge, Klingerstown, Pennsylvania

        Pine Creek, at Klingerstown, Pennsylvania (stream mile l),
was sampled, and the number of kinds of bottom organisms was reduced
to one form (Sialis) which is tolerant of acid stream conditions.
The water was very clear, and iron compounds were noted on the rocks.
Both mine drainage and garbage were observed in the stream.

             MAN - 010 at LR22058 Bridge, East of Pillow (Uniontown),
                   Pennsylvania

        In Mahantango Creek, downstream from the Pine Creek confluence,
the number of kinds had been reduced from 13 to two, with one kind
present being the acid-tolerant Sialis genera.  The water was excep-
tionally clear, and iron compounds were on the rocks.  This degrada-
tion was attributed to the influence of Pine Creek, which joins the
Mahantango at stream mile 17. ^.

             MAN - 000 at Pennsylvania 1^7 Bridge, West of Malta,
                   Northumberland County

        The last station on Mahantango Creek was located just above
its confluence with the Susquehanna River, and again only two kinds
of bottom organisms, with a population of only two per square foot,
were found.  This stream contributed some mine drainage to the
Susquehanna.

        Wiconisco Creek Basin - 2 stations - enters main stem at
                                             mile 96.1

             WIS - 038 at LR53025 Bridge, South of Tower City,
                   Schuylkill County

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        At this station, no bottom organisms were found.  The bottom
was covered with coal fines, and iron compounds vere deposited on the
rocks.  Mine drainage was indicated.

             WIS - 000 below Mill Race at Millersburg, Pennsylvania,
                   Dauphin County

        Near the mouth of Wiconisco Creek, six genera were identified.
Considerable biological recovery had taken place to the point that
three kinds of clean-water associated caddisflies and one kind of may-
fly were present.  This stream contributes some coal fines to the
Susquehanna River.


Main Stem - SUQ - 089New Buffalo (E.B.), approximately 0.5 mile upstream

        This station yielded 12 kinds of bottom organisms, with a
population density of k22 per square foot.  Of this population, 1*01
were clean-water associated caddisflies.  Water quality in the Susque-
hanna River, as measured by biological life, showed a gradual improve-
ment from the first station at Danville to this station.

        This improvement can be measured by the increased organism
diversity (12 vs. four) and substantially increased bottom organism
population (1+22 vs. 15).
Main Stem - SUQ - 075 above Harrisburg (E.B.), approximately 0.5 mile
                  downstream from Rockville Bridge

        This station was above Harrisburg and below the confluence of
the Juniata River which enters on the West Bank.  A substantial reduc-
tion was observed in kinds and number of bottom organisms between the
New Buffalo and the Harrisburg stations.  Only nine organisms per
square foot were found, representing six genera.  The most probable
cause of degradation was a transfer of West Branch Susquehanna stream
flow, which had previously followed the West Bank of the Susquehanna,
toward the East Bank with the entrance of the Juniata River.  The
variable quality of flows from the West Branch Susquehanna, normally
mildly alkaline, but occasionally acidic, periodically results in
conditions toxic to bottom organisms.
Main Stem - SUQ - 06U at Pennsylvania Turnpike Bridge (E.B.), Highspire,
                  Pennsylvania

        In the stream reach between Harrisburg and the Turnpike Bridge,
biological conditions improved slightly.  A larger population was

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                                                                  10
observed (35 vs. nine), while the number of kinds increased from six
to eight.

        Swatara Creek Basin - 8 stations - enters main stem at mile
                                           60

             SWA - 066 at U. S. 209 Bridge, Newtown,  Pennsylvania,
                   Schuylkill County

        Swatara Creek was first sampled at stream mile 66.k, where
only single specimens of two kinds of bottom organisms were present,
including the acid-tolerant Sialis genera.  Iron compounds, mine drain-
age, and coal fines were present at this station.

             SWA - 055 at Pennsylvania kk3 Bridge, Pine Grove, Schuylkill
                   County

        At this station, Swatara Creek had recovered sufficiently to
support six genera of bottom organisms which included such clean-water
associated forms as mayflies and caddisflies.  Several kinds of fish
were also observed.

             SWA - 05^ at Pennsylvania 895 Bridge, near Pine Grove,
                   Schuylkill County

        At stream mile 5^, all bottom organisms were eliminated.
Organic pollution, mine drainage, and coal fines from the Pine Grove,
Pennsylvania, area were the cause of this biological degradation.

             SWA - 038 at U. S. 22 Bridge, above Jonestown, Pennsylvania,
                   Lebanon County

        This station is just above the confluence of Little Swatara
Creek.  Biological conditions showed some recovery, with three kinds
of organisms present.

             LSW - Oil at LR0600l* Bridge, below Frystown, Pennsylvania,
                   Berks County

        Little Swatara Creek, which joins Swatara Creek at  stream
mile 37-2, was sampled 11 miles upstream from the confluence and was
found to support an unpolluted bottom organism population of ten dif-
ferent kinds, but a population of only 62 per square foot at this
point.

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                                                                  11
             LSW - 001 at Tk22 Bridge, South of Jonestown, Pennsyl-
                   vania, Lebanon County

        One mile above the confluence with Swatara Creek, the number
of kinds had increased to 13 and the population to 103 organisms.
Clean-water associated forms present included mayflies, caddisflies,
gill-breathing snails, and "Unio" mussels.  Little Swatara contributes
good quality water to Swatara Creek.

             SWA - 01^4 above Pennsylvania Route 39 Bridge, west of
                   Hershey

        Biological conditions at this sampling station on Swatara
Creek were improved, reflecting the influences of Little Swatara
Creek, as well as natural biological recovery.  Bottom organisms in-
creased from three to eight genera, and the population rose from
three to l8l.

             SWA - 002 at U. S. 230 Bridge, near Middletown, Pennsyl-
                   vania

        This last station sampled on Swatara Creek, at mile 2, sup-
ported 11 different kinds of organisms, which included such clean-
water associated forms as mayflies, caddisflies, and two kinds of
gill-breathing snails.  The bottom organisms community was nearing
recovery at this point, and water quality from this stream would not
be expected to significantly affect the water quality in the Susque-
hanna River.

        East Conewago Creek - 1 station - enters main stem at mile
                                          56. h

             CWE - 006 at U. S. 230 Bridge, north of Elizabetht ,wn,
                   Pennsylvania, Lancaster County

        This stream was sampled at only one station six miles up-
stream from the mouth.  A total of 13 different kinds of bottom
organisms were present, including three kinds of mayflies, caddis-
flies, and fishflieso  Mayflies were the dominant form, representing
about 56% of the total population of 170.  This stream exhibited
unpolluted biological conditions.
Main Stem - SUQ - OU$ above Columbia (E.B.)  at US.G.S.  Gaging Sta-
                  tion, Lancaster County

        Biological conditions continued to improve in this reach of
the Susquehanna, as nine genera were found here with a population of

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                                                                  12
    per square foot.  Of these bottom organisms, 73 were clean-water
associated mayflies „  This was the last East Bank station on the main
stem of the Susquehanna River because of downstream impoundment depths
created by the hydro-electric dams at Safe Harbor and Holtwood, Pennsyl-
vania, and Conowingo, Maryland.  Studies by the Pennsylvania Fish
Commission and the Maryland Department of Research and Education in
connection with the Susquehanna Electric Company indicate that a well-
balanced game fish population exists in these impoundments.  Unpolluted
biological conditions were also indicated by the plankton samples which
were collected above Holtwood Dam and Conowingo Dam and additional data
from the National Water Quality Network at Conowingo.

        Chickies Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at mile
             CHI - 001 at Pennsylvania Route 3^0 Bridge, Lancaster
                   County

        Only one station was sampled on this creek, at stream mile
1.3.  Nine different kinds of bottom organisms, including clean-water
associated forms such as caddisflies, riffle beetles, and mayflies,
were abundant.  Biological conditions indicated good quality water is
contributed to the Susquehanna.

        Conestoga Creek Basin - 6 stations - enters main stem at mile
                                             31.7

             CON - 031 at Pennsylvania Route 772 Bridge, Brownstown,
                   Lancaster County

        The uppermost station on this creek was located at stream
mile 31 and was found to exhibit healthy biological conditions.
Fifteen different kinds of bottom organisms were found, including
two kinds of mayflies, caddisflies, and gill-breathing snails.  An
extensive amount of fishing activity was also observed.

             COL - 001 at T-797 Bridge, Lancaster County

        Cocalico Creek, a tributary which enters Conestoga Creek
immediately downstream from this sampling station, also exhibited
unpolluted biological conditions.

             CON - 02U at Pennsylvania 23 Bridge near Holland Heights,
                   Lancaster County

        This Conestoga Creek station was located at mile 2k.   Some
biological degradation was indicated by a reduction in the number of
kinds of bottom organisms (from 15 to 8); however, clean-water associat
ed forms were still present.

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                                                                  13
             CON - 013 at Pennsylvania Route 32k Bridge, Lancaster
                   County

        This station, at mile 13, is downstream from Lancaster,
Pennsylvania, and it exhibited considerable biological degradation.
Only three kinds of bottom organisms vere found, with an organic
pollution-tolerant type of midge (Chironomus riparius) constituting
8l of the 83 organisms obtained in the quantitative sample.

             CON - 012 at T-50U Bridge, below Lancaster, Pennsylvania

        Partial biological recovery was indicated at the next station,
located at stream mile 12.  Seventeen kinds of bottom organisms were
obtained.  Although sludgeworms were the most abundant organisms (113
of 279 per square foot), clean-water associated caddisflies were also
present in significant numbers.

             CON - 001 at Safe Harbor, Pennsylvania, Lancaster County

        The last station on Conestoga Creek was located one mile up-
stream from the mouth, where Ik kinds of bottom organisms were found.
Some pollution-tolerant forms, such as midges and sludgeworms, were
still present; however, unpolluted conditions were indicated at this
station by the abundance of such clean-water associated forms as may-
flies and caddisflies.  This stream is very near complete biological
recovery at this point.

        Pequea Creek Basin - 2 stations - enters main stem at mile
                                          29-5

             PEQ - 006 at Pennsylvania Route 32*1 Bridge, Lancaster
                   County

        The uppermost station was located at stream mile 6 and was
found to support eight kinds of bottom organisms, with the dominant
form being clean-water associated caddisflies and mayflies.

             PEQ - 001 one mile below Colemanville, Pennsylvania,
                   Lancaster County

        The last station located on Pequea Creek, at stream mile 1,
showed a slight reduction to six kinds of bottom organisms; however,
mayflies and caddisflies remained the dominant forms.  Unpolluted
biological conditions were indicated, and good quality water is con-
tributed to the Susquehanna.

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             West Bank Susquehanna and Tributaries

Main Stem - SUQ - 135 at Danville (W.B.) below Route 4$ Bridge,
                  Montour County

        This station was upstream from the confluence of the West
Branch.  Stratification of flow was not significant, and one sampling
point characterized biological conditions for both sides of the stream.
At this point, only four kinds of bottom and a total of 15 organisms
per square foot were found.  (Table II gives a tabulation of sampling
results for the West Bank.)  Degraded conditions apparently stem from
the toxic effects of mine drainage and the presence of coal fines
which blanketed the stream bottom, destroying the habitat of bottom
organisms.

        West Branch Susquehanna River - 1 station - enters main stem
                                                    at mile 123-8

        (The West Branch was sampled only once near the mouth during
        this sampling period.  A detailed study of the West Branch
        is now underway.)

             WBS - 008 at Pennsylvania Route ^5 Bridge, Lewisburg,
                   Union County

        The West Branch Susquehanna River was sampled at Lewisburg,
Pennsylvania, prior to its juncture with the main stem.  The River
at this point was subject to some organic waste loading and occasional
acidic conditions.  As an example, a pH as low as U.6 has been record-
ed at this station.  Twelve kinds of bottom organisms were found on
the West side, with a population density of ^9 per square foot; how-
ever, bottom organisms were not found on the East side.  The West
Branch Susquehanna River contributes very little toward the imp^ove-
ment of water quality in the Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - SUQ - 120 at Hummels Wharf (W.B.)

        This was the first West Bank station sampled, and it was
located downstream from Northumberland, Pennsylvania.  Five kinds of
bottom organisms were found, with a population of 1,232 per square
foot.  This was the most productive main stem station, with the
dominant genera being the clean-water associated caddisfly, Hydropsyche
sp. (1,120 per square foot).  This high population of Hydropsyche sp.
was attributed to an absence of clean-water predators.

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                                                                  15


        Penns Creek Basin - 3 stations - enters main stem at mile
                                         113.6

             PEN - 006 about one mile above U. S. 11 and 15, Snyder
                   County

        The uppermost station on Penns Creek was located at stream
mile 6 and was found to support IT different kinds of bottom organisms,
These included such clean-water associated forms as caddisflies (five
kinds), mayflies (three kinds), stoneflies, hellgrammites, and gill-
breathing snails (two kinds), making up a population of kQ organisms
per square foot.  High water quality was indicated at this station.

             MID - 001 about one mile above U. S. 11 and 15 Bridge,
                   Snyder County

        Middle Creek, which enters Penns Creek at stream mile 2, was
sampled near its mouth and found to contain 23 different kinds and
k2J organisms per square foot.  Because of organism diversity, this
station was the outstanding biological station encountered in this
study.  Clean-water associated forms included three kinds of caddis-
flies, mayflies, and hellgrammites.  Middle Creek contributes good
quality water to Penns Creek.

             PEN - 000 south of Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, Snyder
                   County

        The last station on Penns Creek was located immediately up-
stream from the mouth, and here the number of kinds had been reduced
to nine.  Although this stream still supported many clean-water as-
sociated forms, some biological degradation had occurred, primarily
as a result of organic pollution from the Selinsgrove area.  Good
quality water is being contributed to the Susquehanna.


Main Stem - SUQ - 106 at McKee Half Falls (W.B.)

        At McKee Half Falls, Pennsylvania, the number of kinds of
bottom organisms increased from five to ten, attributable to the
beneficial effects of Penns Creek and the presence of predacious
forms of bottom organisms which reduced the caddisfly population.
The bottom organism population was 520 per square foot.  The appear-
ance of clean-water associated groups, such as stoneflies, mayflies,
and hellgrammites, indicated an improvement in biological conditions
over the Hummels Wharf station.

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                                                                  16
Main Stem - SUQ - 089 New Buffalo (W.B.), about 0.5 mile upstream

        This station showed continued improvement, with an increase
in the variety of organisms from ten to 11 in the stream reach be-
tween McKee Half Falls and New Buffalo.  West Mahantango, an unpollut
ed stream, enters the Susquehanna in this reach and contributes to
the improved conditions.

        Juniata River Basin - 23 stations - enters main stem at mile
             LJU - 127 at Bellwood, Pennsylvania, Blair County

        Upstream from its junction with the Frankstown Branch, the
Juniata River is known as the Little Juniata River.  The uppermost
biological station was located at Bellwood, Pennsylvania.  Biological
degradation from organic pollution was indicated, as sludgeworms were
the only bottom organisms present.  Coal fines were also observed,
and the water was a cloudy blue-gray.

             LJU - 122 at U. S. 220 Bridge, Tipton, Pennsylvania, Blair
                   County

        This station was located downstream at Tipton, Pennsylvania.
Some biological improvement was indicated, as four kinds of bottom
organisms were found, including the crayfish Cambarus sp.  The other
organisms were sludgeworms, Physa snails, and another air-breathing
snail, Ancylus , which are pollution tolerant.

             LJU - 118 at Tyrone, Pennsylvania, Blair  County

        At stream mile 118, just above the confluence of South Bald
Eagle Creek, additional improvement had occurred.  Six kinds of bottom
organisms were collected, with the dominant form a clean-water as-
sociated mayfly.  Population at this station was 19 organisms per
square foot .

             SEE - 003 at Pennsylvania Route 350 Bridge

        In Tyrone, South Bald Eagle Creek enters the Little Juniata
River at stream mile 117. ^t.  This creek was first sampled three miles
upstream to its mouth and was found to support nine kinds of bottom
organisms, with a population of 263 per square foot.  These genera
included clean-water associated mayflies (three kinds), caddisflies
(two kinds), and stonef lies .

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                                                                  17
             SEE - 000 at Pennsylvania Route 350 Bridge, Tyrone,
                   Pennsylvania

        South Bald Eagle Creek was sampled again near its mouth,
where only two kinds of bottom organisms were obtained (a midge and
an organic pollution-tolerant air-breathing snail).  A temperature
rise of 10° Centigrade over the upstream station was noted.   This
tributary contributes thermal pollution (heat) and some organic load-
ing to the Little Juniata River.

             LJU - 108 at Pennsylvania Route ^5 Bridge, Spruce Creek
                   Village, Huntingdon County

        About ten miles downstream from the confluence of South Bald
Eagle Creek, the Little Juniata River was sampled again.  The number
of kinds had been reduced to two, compared to six at stream mile 118.
Both kinds of organisms were organic pollution-tolerant snails.  A
combined sanitary and paper waste discharge is located in this reach.

             SPR - 000 at LR31058 Bridge, Spruce Creek Village,
                   Huntingdon County

        Spruce Creek was sampled just above its confluence with the
Little Juniata River.  Excellent biological conditions were indicated
by the bottom organism population of 19 kinds and 127 per square foot.
Clean-water forms included mayflies (three kinds), stoneflies, and
caddisflies.

             FBJ - 039 at Pennsylvania Route l6k Bridge, McKee,
                   Pennsylvania

        The Frankstown Branch enters the Juniata River at stream mile
101.6.  The first station sampled was located 39 miles upstream from
its mouth.  Seven kinds of bottom organisms were found, including
clean-water associated forms (caddisflies and mayflies).  Bottom
organism population at this station was 118 per square foot.

             FBJ - 038 at Pennsylvania Route 36 Bridge, below Vicks-
                   burg, Pennsylvania

        The Frankstown Branch was sampled just below the mouth of
Halter Creek, a tributary.  Biological degradation was indicated by
a predominance of organic pollution-tolerant forms such as the midge
(Chironomus riparius)and a leech in the quantitative sample.  Although
the number of kinds increased to nine, and the population to 532 per
square foot, clean-water forms found at the upstream station were
absent.  Halter Creek conveys paper mill waste to the Frankstown Branch
in this reach.

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                                                                  18
             FBJ - 021 between Ganister, Pennsylvania and Junction of
                   U. S. 22 and Pennsylvania Route 866

        The next station on the Frankstown Branch was located at strew,
mile 21 and about 11 miles downstream from the confluence of the Beavc-r
dam Branch, a tributary which originates in the Altoona area.  Althour.-
nine kinds of bottom organisms were obtained, only pollution-tolerant
sludgeworms and leeches, plus fingernail clams were found in the quan-
titative sample.  Little biological change occurred from conditions at
stream mile 38, primarily because of the pollution contributed by the
Altoona area.

             FBJ - Ol6 near Williamsburg, Pennsylvania

        This station was located about 0.75 mile downstream from
Williamsburg, Pennsylvania.  The number of kinds of organisms remained
essentially the same (eight vs. nine at mile 21); however, organic
pollution-tolerant Physa snails and leeches predominated.

             FBJ - 00k at Pennsylvania Route 305 Bridge, Alexandria,
                   Pennsylvania

        The last station on Frankstown Branch was located four miles
above the confluence with the Juniata.  Considerable biological improve-
ment was indicated by the increase in kinds of organisms from eight to
12.  Although pollution-tolerant forms were still present, clean-water
associated forms such as mayflies, riffle beetles, and gill-breathing
snails were also collected.

             JUN - 09h at A-135 Bridge, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania

        The Juniata River was sampled eight miles downstream from the
confluence of the Frankstown Branch.  The number of kinds of bottom
organisms had increased from two to six in the stream reach between
mile 108 and mile 9^.  Biological improvement was also indicated by
the presence of Pleurocerca, a clean-water snail; however, organic
pollution-tolerant midges (U2), leeches (three), and an air-breathing
snail (ten) made up most of the bottom organisms in the quantitative
sample.

             RBJ - OU3 at Pennsylvania Route 913 Bridge, near Saxton,
                   Pennsylvania

        The Raystown Branch enters the main stem of the Juniata River
at stream mile 91.  This branch was first sampled 1+3 miles upstream
from its mouth.  Thirteen kinds of bottom organisms were obtained,
including many clean-water associated forms such as mayflies, caddis-
flies, riffle beetles, and "Unio" mussels.  Although the dominant
form of the population (kQ per square foot) was sludgeworms, relative-
ly unpolluted conditions were indicated.

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                                                                  19
             RBJ - 02^ about 0.75 mile above LR31059 Bridge,  Hunt-
                   ingdon County

        The next station downstream, at stream mile 2k, exhibited some
biological improvement, as indicated by a change of the dominant form
to a clean-water associated gill-breathing snail.  Population and num-
ber of genera were almost constant.  Stoneflies, mayflies, and caddis-
flies were also found.  The entrance of Trough Creek is primarily
responsible for the improvement .

             RBJ - 009 at Hauns Bridge , intersection of Township Roads
                   1*30 and
        The last station on Raystown Branch was located just below the
Hauns Bridge Dam and nine miles above the confluence with the Juniata
River.  At this station, the number of kinds of bottom organisms had
been reduced to nine; however, clean-water associated caddisflies were
the dominant form in the quantitative sample, which had a population
of 2kl per square foot.  Mayflies, fishflies, and gill-breathing snails
were also found.  Although a reduction in the number of kinds occurred
from the upstream station, an increased variety of clean-water associat-
ed forms indicates that unpolluted biological conditions still exist.

             JUN - 082 at U. S. 522 Bridge, Mt . Union, Pennsylvania

        The main stem of the Juniata River was sampled again at stream
mile 82, nine miles downstream from the confluence of the Raystown
Branch.  The number of kinds of bottom organisms increased to 13, as
compared to six at the upstream station (stream mile 9^)-  In addition,
the dominant form changed from an organic pollution-tolerant type
(midge) to a clean-water form (gill-breathing snail Pleurocerca) ,
Four other clean-water associated forms were found.  This substantial
biological improvement is due largely to the influence of the R ,/stown
Branch .

             AUG - 030 at Pennsylvania Route U75 Bridge, near Maddens-
                   ville, Pennsylvania

        Aughwick Creek enters the Juniata at mile 77.7.  The first
sampling station on this tributary was located 30 miles upstream from
its mouth.  Fourteen kinds of bottom organisms were obtained, includ-
ing many clean-water forms.  Unpolluted biological conditions existed
at this station.

             AUG - 005 at U. S. 522 Bridge, near Shirleysburg, Pennsyl-
                   vania

        Little change in biological conditions was indicated at this
station, as the number of kinds was 13 vs. Ik upstream, and the

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                                                                  20
population increased from 5^ to 75•  The variety of clean-water forms
also indicated this tributary contributes high quality vater to the
Juniata River.

             JUN - 052 near Granville, Pennsylvania,Mifflin County

        At stream mile 52, the number of genera was 12.  This compares
favorably to the 13 kinds found upstream at mile 82, while a sub-
stantial increase in the variety of clean-water associated forms shows
a definite improvement in water quality.  Mayflies were the dominant
form in the quantitative sample.

             KIS - 006 at U. S. 322 Bridge, above Yeagerstown, Pennsyl-
                   vania

        Kishacoquillas Creek enters the Juniata River at stream mile
U6.8.  The first biological station located on this tributary was at
stream mile 6, and this station exhibited unpolluted biological condi-
tions.  Ten kinds of bottom organisms were found, including caddis-
flies and three kinds of mayflies.  Extensive fishing activity was
observed.

             KIS - 000 at U. S. 322 Bridge, at Lewistown, Pennsylvania

        This station was just above the mouth of Kishacoquillas Creek.
Marked biological degradation was shown by the reduction of genera to
seven, with organic pollution-tolerant types such as sludgeworms,
midges, and Physa snails making up the entire population of Uyi.
Organic pollution from the Lewistown area contributed to the degrada-
tion.

             JUN - 012 at Pennsylvania Route 3^ Bridge, Newport,
                   Pennsylvania

        The last station on the Juniata River was located at Newport,
Pennsylvania, where unpolluted biological conditions were observed.
Twenty kinds of bottom organisms were found,with a population density
of 221 per square foot.  Clean-water forms included caddisflies, hell-
grammites, and two kinds of mayflies.  This represents a substantial
improvement over the upstream station.  The Juniata contributes high
quality water to the Susquehanna and, where mixing occurs, improves
Susquehanna River quality.

Main Stem - _SUQ - 075 above Harrisburg (W.B.)

        One half mile downstream from the Rockville Bridge, the num-
ber of kinds increased to 16, with a population density of 52 organisms

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                                                                  21
per square foot.  This increase in genera indicated a significant
improvement in biological conditions, largely as a result of alkaline
flows from the Juniata River.

        Conodoquinet Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at
                                               mile 71.1

             CDQ - 003 at LR21015 near Old Bridge, South of Enola,
                   Pennsylvania

        Only one station was sampled on this stream, and it was found
to support a diverse bottom organism population.  Twenty-two different
kinds of organisms were observed, including mayflies, stoneflies,
caddisflies, "Unio" mussels, and gill-breathing snails.  The presence
of luxuriant algal mats and growths of submerged aquatic weeks indi-
cates a high organic nutrient load; however, Conodoquinet Creek con-
tributes good water quality to the Susquehanna River .

        Yellow Breeches Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem
                                                  at mile 67.0

             YBE - 000 at New Cumberland Borough Park, below dam
        Sixteen different kinds of bottom organisms, with h^6 organisms
per square foot, indicate unpolluted conditions exist in this stream
near its mouth.  Clean-water associated forms such as stoneflies, may-
flies, caddisflies, and hellgrammites , plus numerous fish were further
evidence that this was good quality water.  This stream contributes
good quality water to the Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - SUQ - 06k atPennsylvania Turnpike Bridge (W.B.), High-
                  spire, Pennsylvania

        At the Pennsylvania Turnpike Bridge downstream from New Cumber-
land, Pennsylvania, the greatest diversification of bottom organisms
occurred along the Susquehanna River stations.  Seventeen kinds were
found, indicating some improvement over the l6 genera obtained at the
Rockville Bridge station.  The genera present included such clean-
water groups as mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), hell-
grammites, gill-breathing snails (two kinds), and a type of "Unio"
mussel.  Large schools of small-mouth bass were observed.  Two high
quality streams, Conodoquinet Creek and Yellow Breeches Creek enter
the Susquehanna River in this reach and help improve Susquehanna
River water quality.

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                                                                  22
        West Conewago Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at
                                                mile 5^-5

             WCN - 007 Ganoga Bridge at Pennsylvania Route 295 and
                   LR66002, York County

        This stream was sampled about seven miles from its mouth and
was found to support 12 genera of bottom organisms (53 per square
foot), including caddisflies, "Unio" mussels, and three kinds of may-
flies.  This stream contributes good quality water to the Susquehanna
River.

        Codorus Creek Basin - 8 stations - enters main stem at mile
                                           50.1

             WCO - 027 South of LR66008 above Spring Grove, Pennsylvania

        Codorus Creek is formed by the juncture of its South Branch
and West Branch at stream mile 1^.1.  The West Branch is considered
the main stem.  The first station on this tributary was located up-
stream from Spring Grove at mile 27 on the West Branch.  Good quality
water was indicated by the 18 kinds (genera) of bottom organisms
which included clean-water associated caddisflies and mayflies, with
a population of 275 per square foot.

             WCO - 02** at T-l*52 Bridge, York County

        This station was just below Spring Grove and reflected the
results of organic pollution from the Spring Grove area.  Only five
genera were found, and pollution-tolerant kinds (air-breathing snails
and sludgeworms) dominated the population of 6h6 organisms per square
foot.

             WCO - 018 at Pennsylvania Route 6l6 Bridge, North of
                   New Salem, Pennsylvania

        About eight miles below Spring Grove, at mile 18, further
biological degradation from organic pollution was observed, with a
reduction in the number of kinds to four.  Again sludgeworms (1
per square foot) and air-breathing snails (895 per square foot)
constituted the majority of the total bottom organism population of
2,8^ organisms per square foot.

             WCO - 015 at First Bridge on LR66210 above Indian Rock
                   Dam, York County

        This station was just above the confluence of the West Branch
with the South Branch Codorus Creek.  Only one genera was present;

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                                                                  23
however, the size of the boulders in the stream did not permit collec-
tion of a quantitative sample.  This genera was the pollution-tolerant
Physa snail, which was very abundant.  Organic pollution is still indi-
cated at this station.

             SCO - 000 near York, Pennsylvania Pumping Station below dam

        The South Branch was sampled near its mouth, and unpolluted
biological conditions were found to exist.  Thirteen genera of bottom
organisms were found in the population of 223.  These genera included
many clean-water associated forms.

             COR - 01^ at Pennsylvania Route 182 Bridge above York,
                   Pennsylvania

        Codorus Creek was sampled immediately below the confluence
of the West Branch and the South Branch, and upstream from the City
of York, Pennsylvania.  Seven kinds of bottom organisms were found in
the population of 35 organisms per square foot.  Among these were
three kinds of caddisflies.  Biological conditions at this station
showed an average of the high quality from the South Branch and the
low quality from the West Branch.

             COR - 006 about two miles below Bridge at intersection
                   of T-839 and LR66021

        Below the City of York, significant organic pollution was
indicated.  Only four kinds of bottom organisms were found, with
sludgeworms making up 1,191 of the 1,196 organisms in the quantita-
tive sample.

             COR - 001 about 0.5 mile below LR66152 Bridge, York
                   County

        At mile 1, Codorus Creek had recovered to the point where it
supported 13 kinds of bottom organisms.  However, pollution-tolerant
Physa sp. snails, sludgeworms, and leeches still predominated.  The
Susquehanna River receives an organic pollution loading from the in-
flow of Codorus Creek.
Main Stem - SUQ - 0^3 at Wrightsville (W.B.) above U. S, 30 Bridge

        The last station on the Susquehanna River West Bank was locat-
ed at Wrightsville, Pennsylvania, opposite the Columbia, Pennsylvania
station on the East Bank.  The number of kinds of bottom organisms here
was reduced to ten, with 2k5 per square foot.  Although clean-water
associated forms predominated, with caddisflies (the dominant form),

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scuds, mayflies, and gill-breathing snails present, the reduction in
number of kinds reflected the deleterious effects of Codorus Creek,
which enters in this reach.

        Unpolluted biological conditions in the impoundments down-
stream were indicated by the Fishery Studies, plankton samples,  and
the National Water Quality Network data at Conowingo, Maryland [See
SUQ - 0^5 (E.B.) on page 11].

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                                                                       25
                                 TABLE I

                           BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA

               EAST BANK SUSQUEHANNA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
                                                           Bottom Organisms
Station
Location
Susquehanna River
at Danville (E.B. )
Shamokin Creek
Shamokin Creek
Buddys Run
Shamokin Creek
Susquehanna River
at Hummels Wharf (E.B.)
Mahanoy Creek
Schwaben Creek
Mahanoy Creek
Susquehanna River
at McKee Half Falls
(E.B.)
Mahantango Creek
Pine Creek
Deep Creek

Pine Creek
Mahantango Creek
Mahantango Creek
Wiconisco Creek
Wiconisco Creek
Susquehanna River
at New Buffalo (E.B. )
Susquehanna River
Station
Code

SUQ-135
SHM-022
SHM-019
BUD-000
SHM-000

SUQ-120
MAH-009
SCH-000
MAH-001


SUQ-106
MAN-018
PNE-Olp
DCR-009

PNE-001
MAN-010
MAN-000
WIS-038
WIS-000

SUQ-089

River Number
Mile Of Kinds

135
120.8
120.8
120.8
120.8

120
112 -
112 -
112 -


106
102.5
102.5
102.5

102.5
102.5
102.5
96.1
96.1

89



- 22
- 19
- 17.6 - 0
- 0


9
6.2 - 0
1



- 18
- 11. k - 19
- 17. U - 8.U
- 9
- 11. k - 1.0
- 10
- 0
- 38
- 0




It
13
1
8
1

6
1*
12
3


7
13
k

5
1
2
2
0
6

12

Number Per
Square Foot

15
170
1+
500
h

2kl
k
121
3


353
213
U

5
1
2
2
0
6

U22

  above Harrisburg (E.B.) SUQ-075     75

Susquehanna River
  at Pennsylvania Turn-
  pike Bridge (E.B.)      SUQ-061;     6k
  Swatara Creek           SWA-066     60
  Swatara Creek           SWA-055     60
  Swatara Creek           SWA-05H     60
66
55
5k
2
6
0
35
 2
25
 0

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                                                                       26
                           TABLE I (Continued)
Station
Location
Svatara Creek
Little Svatara Creek
Little Svatara Creek
Svatara Creek
Svatara Creek
East Conevago Creek
Station
Code
SWA- 038
LSW-011
LSW-001
SWA-OlU
SWA-002
CNE-006

60
60
60
60
60
56.
River
Mile
- 38
- 37.2 - 11
- 37.2 - 1
- Ik
- 2
,k - 6
Bottom
Number
Of Kinds
3
10
13
8
11
13
Organisms
Number Per
Square Foot
3
62
103
181
722
170
Susquehanna River
  above Columbia (E.B.)
  Chickies Creek
  Conestoga Creek
    Cocalico Creek
  Conestoga Creek
  Conestoga Creek
  Conestoga Creek
  Conestoga Creek
  Pequea Creek
  Pequea Creek
SUQ-0^5
CHI-001
CON-031
COL-001
COK-02H
CON-013
CON-012
CON-001
PEQ-006
PEQ-001
1*5
kk.3 -
31.7 -
31.7 -
31.7 -
31.7 -
31.7 -
31.7 -
29-5 -
29-5 -

1
31
29.5
2k
13
12
1
6
1
- 1
15
11
 8
 3
17
ll*
 8
 6
ikS
kJ9
 15
138
132
 83
279
H60
13k
 92

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                                                                       27
                                 TABLE II
                           BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA

               WEST BANK SUSQUEHANNA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
     Station
     Location
Station
 Code
     River
     Mile
              Bottom Organisms
            Number    Number Per
           Of Kinds   Square Foot
Susquehanna River
  at Danville (W.B.)      SUQ-135
  West Branch Susquehanna
  River at Lewisburg
  (E.B.)                  WBS-008
  West Branch Susquehanna
  River at Lewisburg
  (W.B.)                  WBS-008

Susquehanna River
  at Hummels Wharf (W.B.) SUQ-120
  Penns Creek             PEN-006
    Middle Creek          MID-001
  Penns Creek             PEN-000
Susquehanna River
  at McKee Half Falls
  (W.B.)

Susquehanna River
  at New Buffalo (W.Bj
  Little Juniata River
  Little Juniata River
  Little Juniata River
    South Bald Eagle
    Creek
    South Bald Eagle
    Creek
  Little Juniata River
    Spruce Creek
    Frankstown Branch
    Frankstown Branch
    Frankstown Branch
    Frankstown Branch
    Frankstown Branch
  Juniata River
    Raystown Branch
    Raystown Branch
    Raystown Branch
SUQ-089
LJU-127
LJU-122
LJU-118

SBE-003
           135


           123.5 - 8


           123.5 - 8
           120
           113.6 - 6
           113.6 -2-0
           113.6 - 0
SUQ-106    106
89
84.5
84.5
84.5
127
122
118
84.5 - 117.4 -  3
                     12
                      5
                     17
                     23
                      9
                     10
11
 1
 4
 6
SBE-OOO
LJU-108
SPR-000
FBJ-039
FBJ-038
FBJ-021
FBJ-016
FBJ-004
JUN-094
RBJ-043
RBJ-024
RBJ-009
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
.5 -
117
108
107
101
101
101
101
101
94
91
91
91
.4

.8
.6
.6
.6
.6
.6

_
_
-
- 0

- 0
- 39
- 38
- 21
- 16
- 4

43
24
9
2
2
19
7
9
9
8
12
6
13
13
9
                                  15
                           49
                        1,232
                           40
                          427
                            6
                          520
485
  1
  4
 19

263

  2
  2
127
118
532
879
  8
 46
 58
 48
 54
24l

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                         TABLE II (Continued)
                                                                     28
Station
Location
Juniata River
Aughwick Creek
Aughwick Creek
Juniata River
Kishacoquillas Creek
Kishacoquillas Creek
Juniata River
Susquehanna River
above Harrisburg (W.B.)
Conodoquinet Creek
Yellow Breeches Creek
Susquehanna River
at Pennsylvania Turn-
pike Bridge (W.B. )
West Conewago Creek
West Branch Codorus
Creek
West Branch Codorus
Creek
West Branch Codorus
Creek
West Branch Codorus
Creek
South Branch Codorus
Creek
Codorus Creek
Codorus Creek
Codorus Creek
Susquehanna River
Station
Code
JUN-082
AUG-030
AUG-005
JUN-052
KIS-006
KIS-000
JUN-012

SUQ-075
CDQ-003
YBE-000


SUQ-064
WCN-007

WCO-027

WCO-024

WCO-018

WCO-015

SCO-000
COR-014
COR-006
COR-001

Bottom Organisms
River Number Number Per
Mile Of Kinds Square Foot
84.5 -
84.5 -
84.5 -
84.5 -
84.5 -
84.5 -
84.5 -

75
71.1 -
67 -


64
54.5 -

50.1 -

50.1 -

50.1 -

50.1 -

50.1 -
50.1 -
50.1 -
50.1 -

82
77-7 - 30
77.7 - 5
52
46.8 - 6
46.8 - 0
12


3
0



7

27

24

18

15

14.1 - 0
14
6
1

13
14
13
12
10
7
20

16
22
16


17
12

18

5

4

1

13
7
4
13

58
54
75
102
77
471
221

52
124
456


461
53

275

646

2,844

1

223
35
1,196
436

at Wrightsville (W.B.)  SUQ-043
43
10
245

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S 0 M E R S E
       u^'Xf
         F R A
   /'
               /
     _y_
PA
MD
           .Z_-

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o
C
;c
m

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BOTTOM   ORGANISMS







              I	  350





                   300

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ...... .................   1

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  ....  ......  .......   3

DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION ............   6

SUSQUEHANNA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES  ...  .......  .  .   7

CHEMUNG RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES   ........  ......  36

WEST BRANCH SUSQUEHANNA RIVER AND
  TRIBUTARIES  ........  ........  ......  1+9

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                         LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                      Page

  7     Bottom Organism Data - Susquehanna
          River and Tributaries	   66

 II     Bottom Organism Data - Chemung River
          and Tributaries	,	   70

 III    Bottom Organism Data - West Branch
          Susquehanna River and Tributaries 	   72
                        LIST OF FIGURES

                                                        Follows
Figure                                                    Page
  1     Map of Study Area
  2     Profile of Biological Conditions -
          Susquehanna River and Tributaries
  3     Profile of Biological Conditions -
          Chemung River and Tributaries	    7^

  it     Profile of Biological Conditions -
          West Branch Susquehanna River
          and Tributaries	    7^

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                          INTRODUCTION
        A biological survey of the Susquehanna River and its
tributaries in the reach between Cooperstown, New York, and
Northumberland, Pennsylvania, was conducted between July and
October 1965.  (See Figure 1.)  The survey was performed at
this particular time of year because of prevailing low flow
conditions and high temperatures, thus showing the biological
conditions during the time of greatest stress.  Each biological
station was sampled once for the purpose of evaluating water
quality.  The sampling was conducted concurrently with stream
quality investigations.

        For purposes of the study, the community of bottom
(benthic) organisms was selected as the indicator of the bio-
logical condition of the stream.  Bottom organisms serve as the
preferred food source for many of the higher aquatic forms (e.g.,
most freshwater game fish) and exhibit similar reactions to
adverse stream conditions.  The combination of limited locomotion
and life cycles of one year or more for most benthic species
provide a long-term picture of the water quality of a stream.
Fish and algal populations were given some consideration, but
only to the extent that obvious conclusions could be drawn based
upon casual observations.

        In unpolluted streams, a wide variety of sensitive clean-
water associated bottom organisms are normally found.  Typical
groups are stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies.  These sensi-
tive organisms usually are not individually abundant because of
natural predation and competition for food and space; however,
the total count or number of organisms at a given station may be
high because of the number of different varieties present.

        Sensitive organisms tend to be eliminated by adverse
environmental conditions (e.g., chemicals and/or physical) result-
ing from wastes reaching the stream.  In waters enriched with
organic wastes, comparatively fewer kinds (genera) are normally
found, but great numbers of these genera may be present.  Organic
pollution-tolerant forms such as sludgeworms, rattailed maggots,
certain species of bloodworms (red midges), certain leeches, and
some species of air-breathing snails may multiply and become
abundant because of a favorable habitat and food supply resulting
from heavy organic loadings.  These organic pollution-tolerant
bottom organisms may also exist in the natural environment, but
are generally found in small numbers.  The abundance of these
forms in streams heavily polluted with organics is due to their
physiological and morphological abilities to survive environmental

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conditions more adverse than conditions that may be tolerated
by other bottom organisms.   Under con.] scions where inert silts
cr organic sludges blanket the stream bottom, the natural home
of bottom organisms is destroyed, causing a reduction in the
number of kinds of organisms present.

        In addition to sensitive and pollution-tolerant forms,
some bottom organisms may be termed intermediates, since they
are capable of living in fairly heavily polluted waters as well
as in clean water.  These organisms occurring in limited numbers,
therefore, cannot serve as effective indicators of water quality.
Streams grossly polluted with toxic wastes such as mine drainage
will support little, if any, biological life and will reduce the
population of both sensitive and pollution-tolerant organisms.

        Classification of organisms in this report is considered
in three categories (clean-water, intermediate, and pollution-
tolerant) which provide sufficient biological information to
supplement physical and chemical water quality data for a basin-
wide analysis.  Detailed identification and counts of specific
organisms have been tabulated for use during intensive investi-
gations of selected areas and are available upon request.

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                    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
        1.  A biological survey nl the Susquehanna River and
tributaries in the reach between Cooperstown, New York, and
Northumberland, Pennsylvania, was conducted between July and
October 1965.  The West Branch Susqi.ehap.na River and the larger
tributaries were also included in this study,

        2.  Bottom organisms were selected as the primary indi-
cator of biological water quality,

        3.  Analysis of the Suoquehanna River was divided into
three parts:  the Susquehanna River and tributaries between
Cooperstown, New York, and Northumberland, Pennsylvania; the
Chemung River and tributaries; and the West Branch Susquehanna
River and tributaries.

        k.  Tne Susqaehanna River from Cooperstown, New York,
to Conklin, Hew York, was well-suited to support many kinds of
bottom-dwelling organisms.  In this entire reach, only a. local-
ized organic pollution condition at Oakland, Pennsylvania, and
Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, was found.  Biological and fish popu-
lations indicated good water quality in the balance of this
reach.

        5-  Heavy to mild organic pollution was found to exist
in the Susquehanna River between Binghamton, New York, and Owego,
New York.

        6.  High water quality was generally found in the Susque-
hanna River between Smithboro, New York, and tne Coxton Bridge
in Pennsylvania (immediately upstream from the confluence with
the Lackawanna River).  A mild degradation was found between
Sayre, Pennsylvania, and Towanda, Pennsylvania; however, the
over-all quality of this reach of stream was not seriously af-
fected.

        7.  In the Susquehanna River between Pittston, Pennsyl-
vania (immediately downstream from the Lackawanna River), and
Northumberland, Pennsylvania, mild to gross pollution was found
to exist except for a short reach of river immediately upstream
from Berwick, Pennsylvania.

        8.  The Unadilla River, Tioughnioga River, Chenango
River, Chemung River, Towanda Creek, Tunkhannock Creek, Fishing
Creek, and Wapwallopen Creek were all found to contribute toward
water quality improvement in the Susquehanna River.

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        9.  The Lackawanna River, Solomon's Creek, Warrior Run,
Nescopeck Creek, and Catavissa Creek v/ere found to contribute to
the degradation of aquatic life in the S us quell anna River.   The
Lackawanna River, Nescopeck Creek, and Catawissa Creek contributed
both mine drainage and organic wastes.  Solomon's Creek and the
Lackawanna River were also found to contribute coal fines; War-
rior Run contributed mine drainage but no observed coal fines.

       10.  The Chemung River, one of the principal tributaries
to the Susquehanna River, was sampled quite extensively through-
out its drainage basin.  The Tioga River, which is the longest
reach of stream, was affected by mine drainage from Morris Run
(Pennsylvania) downstream to the Canisteo River (New York).
Newton Creek was found to contribute organic pollution to  the
Chemung River at Elraira, New York.

       11.  Crooked Creek, Cowanesque River, Canisteo River, and
Cohocton Fiver contributed toward improvement of water quality
in the Tioga-Chemung Rivers.

       12.  The West Branch Susquehanna River, which enters at
Northumberland, is polluted by mine drainage from its headwaters
in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, downstream to Jersey Shore,
Pennsylvania.  Clearfield Creek, Moshannon Creek, Sinnemahoning
Creek, and Kettle Creek were found to contribute to the mine
drainage degradation of the West Branch Susquehanna River.

       13.  The West Branch Susquehanna River is occasionally
acidic near the mouth because of "acid slugs" originating  in
the coal field watershed upstream from Lock Haven, Pennsylvania.
Following a heavy rain on this watershed, "flush-out" of this
acidic water may result, with subsequent discharge into the West
Branch Susquehanna.  One or more times a year these acid water
conditions wi]l continue downstream beyond Jersey Shore and,
occasionally, reach the main stem of the Susquehanna at North-
umberland, Pennsylvania.

       1^.  Tributaries which contributed toward the improvement
of water quality in the West Branch Susquehanns River were Chest
Creek, Pine Creek, Lycoming Creek, Loyalsock Creek, ana Muncy
Creek.

       15-  North Bald PJaple Creek resulted in water quality
improvement in the West Branch Susquehanna River by contributing
high alkaline water; however, North Bald Eagle also contributed
a mild organic waste load.

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       l6.  Localized impairment to biological quality in the
Susquehanna River was usually the result of the degradative
effects of acid water, coal fines, and organic wastes.  Some
tributaries, while contributing a waste load, did not exert a
noticeable effect because of the relative stream flow magnitudes,
Other tributaries contributed high quality water and aided bio-
logical recovery in the Susquehanna River.

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               DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION
        In the reach of the Susquehanna River between Cooperstown,
New York, and Northumberland, Pennsylvania, lateral stream mixing
was generally good, and, in most cases, a single sampling point
sufficed to characterize the entire station.  However, in a few
cases, it was necessary to take a cross-section because of up-
stream islands, industrial concentrations on one bank, and/or
incoming tributaries.  Cross-sectional sampling was done down-
stream from Binghamton, New York; certain stations between
Pittston and Northumberland, Pennsylvania; and on the last three
stations downstream on the West Branch Susquehanna River.

        Sampling stations were located after consideration of
the following conditions:

        1.  Major tributaries

        2.  Major waste discharges or sources

        3.  Physical capability for sampling

        In general, tributaries were sampled to determine water
quality contributed to the Susquehanna, while waste sources and
major tributaries in the study area were bracketed with stations
to identify effects of flow and/or waste contributions.

        Quantitative bottom samples were collected primarily with
a Surber Square Foot Sampler where the substrate was predominately
rocks and gravel.  In other areas, where the substrate was pri-
marily sludge and gravel, a Petersen Dredge was used, and the
count was converted to a square foot basis.  In riffle areas,
the Surber Square Foot Sampler was used exclusively.  In most
cases the number of organisms per square foot was based on an
actual count; however, when large numbers of organisms were
present, it was sometimes necessary to divide the sample and
count only a section which was then multiplied by the appropriate
factor to give the total count.

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               SUSQUEHANNA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
Main Stem - SUQ - hh'J at Susqueharma Avenue Bridge, Cooperstown,
                  New York

        The most upstream biological station on the Susquehanna
River was located at the downstream edge of Cooperstown, New
York.  The water at this station was very clear, with numerous
fish being observed.  Although only ten kinds of bottom organisms
were collected, caddisflies (three kinds) and mayflies were pre-
dominant.  Other clean-water organisms included two kinds of
riffle beetles.  Caddisflies made up 555 out of the 606 bottom
organisms per square foot in the quantitative sample.  Good water
quality was indicated.
Main Stem - SUQ - H_21 at County Road 50 Bridge near Emmons, New
                  York

        The water at this station was very clear, with good quality
being indicated by the 21 different kinds of bottom organisms which
included caddisflies (four kinds), mayflies (two kinds), stoneflies
(two kinds), hellgrammites, riffle beetles (two kinds), and a gill-
breathing snail.  The quantitative sample contained 276 organisms
per square foot, consisting primarily of caddisflies and riffle
beetles.
Main Stem - SUQ - Ul8 at Lower River Street Bridge, Oneonta, New
                  York

        Good water quality was again indicated at this station
by the caddisflies (four kinds), stoneflies (two kinds), mayflies
(two kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).  These clean-water
organisms constituted 139 out of the 165 organisms per square
foot in the quantitative sample.  There was a reduction in kinds
from the upstream station, 21 versus 16.
Main Stem - SUQ - 399 at State Route J-B Bridge Upstreamfrom
                  Unadilla, New York

        Excellent water quality was indicated at this station by
the 22 kinds of bottom organisms which included stoneflies (two
kinds), mayflies (three kinds), caddisflies (three kinds), and
riffle beetles (two kinds).  A total of 90 organisms per square
foot was collected in the quantitative sample.  The water was
very clear and contained numerous smallmouth bass.

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        Unadilla River Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at
                                           mile 392.k

             UND - 001 one mile above mouth

        Clean water conditions were indicated at this station
by the Ik kinds of bottom organisms found.  They included such
clean-water forms as stoneflies, mayflies (two kinds), caddis-
flies (two kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).  A total of
2k organisms per square foot was observed in the quantitative
sample.  The Unadilla contributes good quality water to the
Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - SUQ - 388 at New York Route 206 Bridge, Bainbridge,
                  New York

        Good water quality was indicated at this station by the
18 kinds of bottom organisms which numbered J25 per square foot-
in the quantitative sample.  They included stoneflies (two kinds),
mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies (three kinds), and riffle
beetles (two kinds).  Smallmouth bass and minnows were abundant
in the area.
Main Stem - SUQ - 382 at New York Route kl Bridge, Afton, New York

        Improved water quality over the upstream station was
indicated at this station by the 2k kinds of bottom organisms
which included stoneflies (two kinds), mayflies (three kinds),
caddisflies, and a crayfish population.  The water was clear,
and numerous smallmouth bass were observed.
Main Stem - SUQ - 363 at Windsor, New York, approximately 200
                  yards above New York Route 17 Bridge

        Clean-water conditions continued at this station, as
indicated by the 18 kinds of bottom organisms.  Caddisflies
(three kinds) were the dominant form and made up ^02 out of the
536 organisms in the quantitative sample„  Also included in the
sample were other clean-water forms such as stoneflies, mayflies
(four kinds), hellgrammites, riffle beetles (two kinds), "Unio"
mussels, and crayfish.  Excellent water quality was indicated
at this location.

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Main Stem - SUQ - 352 at Pennsylvania Poute 92 Bridge Between
                  Oakland and Susqu? harna, Pennsylvania

        Because of the river depth  in this area, sampling was
confined to the banks.  Approximately 100 yards upstreajr. from
the bridge 13 kinds of bottom organisms were found^  Included
in the sample were sparse populations of clean-water forms such
as stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies,,  However, downstream
from the bridge, cloudy water and domestic waste pollution were
observed.  Sludge deposits were also observed, containir>g large
numbers of sludgeworms and bloodworms (chironomus riparius).
Garbage dumps and o\itfalls were observed on the Oakland side.
Main Stem - SUQ - jUU at U_; S. Route 11 Bridge,_Hallstead,
                  Penn s y Ivan i_a

        As evidenced by the J6 kinds of bottom organisms collected
at this location, the Susquehanna Paver appears to have recovered
from the pollution upstream.  Clean-water forms included stone-
flies, mayflies (three kinds), caddisflies  (three kinds), riffle
beetles (two kinds), and "Unio" mussels.  The water was clear,
and good water quality was indicated, particularly by the excellent
"Unio" mussel population,,
Main Stem - SUQ - 337 at Conklin, N_ew YorkT, near Site of Mew
                  Bridge Crossing

        Twelve kinds of bottom organisms were found at this sta-
tion, including stoneflies, mayflies (five kinds), and caddisflies
(two kinds),  Although the water was clear, only 60 organisms per
square foot were taken in the quantitative sample.  The small
diversification and low number of organisms per square foot can
be attributed to the disturbance of the stream bottom caused by
the bridge and road construction in the area.  Good water quality
was still indicated at this point.

        Chenango River Basin - 21 stations - enters main stem at
                                             mile 327.6

             PAY - 005 upstream from Hamilton, New York,
                   Immediately downstream from Lake Moraine  D/un

        Payne Brook and its tributaries form the Chenango River
at River Mile 82,9.  Payne Brook was first, sampled five miles
above the mouth where Ik kinds of bottom organisms were found in
the quantitative sample, including such clean-water forms as

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                                                             10
stoneflies, mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies, and riffle beetles.
Mayflies were the dominant form in the quantitative sample and
comprised 73 of the 176 organisms in the square foot sample.  The
sample also included 15 stoneflies, which is rather abundant for
this group.  The water was very clear and cold, and moss was abun-
dant on the rocks.  Good water quality was indicated at this station.

             UWP - 002 at County Road 85 near Hamilton, New York

        An unnamed tributary to Payne Brook which drains out of
Woodson Pond was sampled two miles upstream from the mouth.  Good
water quality was indicated by the nine kinds of bottom organisms
collected, including such clean-water forms as mayflies, caddis-
flies (three kinds), water pennies, and a gill-breathing snail.

             PAY - 001 at County Road 77 Bridge, near Randalls-
                   ville, New York

        The water at this station was fairly clear; however, a
sewage odor was noticeable.  Although ten kinds of bottom organ-
isms were collected, mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies could
not be found.  Most of the organisms were pollution-tolerant forms,
such as sludgeworms, air-breathing snails, and leeches, or inter-
mediate kinds.  The only clean-water forms were a riffle beetle
and a gill-breathing snail.  The flatworm (Dugesia) was the domi-
nant form in the quantitative' sample and made up 325 of the 351
bottom organisms sampled.  Mild organic pollution was indicated
by the bottom organism composition.

             CHA - 070 at Earlville, New York

        This sampling point was the first biological station on
the Chenango River.  The qualitative sample at this station indi-
cated the presence of only nine kinds of bottom organisms.  Slight
improvement from the upstream station was indicated by the two
kinds of riffle beetles and the gill-breathing snails.  Fish were
numerous; darters, dace, and smallmouth bass were observed.  Re-
covery appeared to be taking place from upstream conditions.

             CHA - 063 at New York Route 80 Bridge, Sherburne,
                   New York

        The number of kinds of bottom organisms increased from
nine upstream to 13 at this station; however, the bottom organ-
isms were intermediate to pollution-tolerant forms, except for
three kinds of riffle beetles and a gill-breathing snail.  The
water was clear, and minnows were abundant.  Conditions had

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                                                             .11
improved from the upstream station, but the stream had. not re-
covered from the degraded conditions downstream from Hamilton,
New York,

             CHA - 057 at New York Route 12 Bridge, North Norwich,
                   New York

        The water at this station war. clear and contained numer-
ous fish.  Although the number of kinds of bottom organisms at
this station had decreased to ten versus 23 upstream, the compo-
sition was very similar.  The only clean-water forms were a riffle
beetle and one kind of gill-breathing snail.  , Most of the forms
were intermediates with a few organic pollution-tolerant kir>ds.
Stream conditions had net recovered to the level observed upstream
from Hamilton, New York,

             CHA - 052 at New York Route 320 Bridge, Woods Corners,
                   near Norwich, New York

        Due to the sharp drop-off at this station, sampling had
to be confined to the banks, and a quantitative sample was not
taken.  Bottom organisms in the qualitative sample were sparse,
with only eight kinds of bottom organisms being observed; how-
ever, one mayfly was found at this station.  The majority of the
organisms consisted of intermediate forms, with several organic
pollution-tolerant kinds.  Recovery still does not appear to
have taken place at this station.

             CHA - 039 at New York Route 220 Bridge, Oxford, New
                   York

        The water was cloudy, and some foam was observed at this
station.  Bottom organisms were sparse, except for sow-bugs arid
scuds which were abundant,  Only six kinds of bottom organisms
were found; a reduction from the eight kinds found at the up-
stream station.  This station exhibited the least diversifica-
tion in bottom organisms and the most degraded stream conditions
of any of the upstream stations.

             CHA - 022 at Intersection of New York Routes kl and
                   206 Bridge, Greene, New York

        At this station the number of kinds of bottom organisms
had increased to 13.  'These organisms were primarily intermediate
and organic pollution-tolerant forms; however, a. few clean-water
mayflies were also collected.   Downstream from this station,
sewage outfalls were noted, arid domestic waste solids were observed
in the stream-  Mild organic pollution was indicated at this
station.

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                                                             12
             CHA - Oik at New York Route 79 Bridge, Chenango
                   Forks, New York

        Extremely good biological conditions were indicated at
this station by the 25 kinds of bottom organisms which included
caddisflies (three kinds),  mayflies, fishflies, "Unio" mussels
(two kinds), riffle beetles (two kinds), and a gill-breathing
snail.  Caddisflies made up 482 of the 6k6 organisms in the
square foot sample.  The water was clear, and numerous minnows
and smallmouth bass were observed.  Successful fishermen were
also noted at this station.  The high quality of water at this
station can be attributed partially to Genegantslet Creek, which
enters the Chenango River in this reach at mile 29-2.

             TOG - 036 at Loring Crossing Upstream from Cortland,
                   New York

        This was the most upstream station on the Tioughnioga
River, which enters the Chenango River at mile 13.1-  Excellent
biological conditions were indicated by the 21 kinds of bottom
organisms which included stoneflies, mayflies (three kinds),
caddisflies (three kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).
Although the quantitative sample was not too productive, riffle
beetles comprised 51 of the 58 organisms in the square foot
sample.  A high quality water was indicated at this station.

             WBT - 00k at U. S. Route 11 Bridge, Homer, New York

        The West Branch of the Tioughnioga River joins the
Tioughnioga at mile 3^.7-  High water quality was indicated at
this station by the 18 kinds of bottom organisms.  The sample
included such clean-water forms as mayflies (three kinds),
caddisflies (three kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).
Caddisflies were the dominant organism and made up 362 of the
^35 organisms per square foot in the quantitative sample.  Riffle
beetles (2l) and mayflies (l6) were the second and third most
abundant organisms in the square foot sample, respectively.

             TOG - 033 Downstream from Railroad Bridge near
                   Cortland, New York

        This station was located approximately one-half mile
downstream from the Cortland Sewage Treatment Plant,  The water
was clear; however, dead algae were observed on the rocks at the
west bank.  Fourteen kinds of bottom organisms were sampled at
this point versus 21 kinds at the upstream station.  Thirteen of
the Ik kinds of organisms were intermediates and organic pollution-
tolerant forms.  Except for sludgeworms and midge larvae, bottom

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                                                             13
organisms were sparse.  Sludgeworms were the dominant form and
comprised 3^ of the 66 organisms in the square foot sample.
Organic pollution was indicated upstream.

             TOG - 031 at Blodgett Mills, New York

        The sampling at this station showed a further reduction
in kinds to 12 versus Ik at the upstream station.  Midges (162),
blackflies (lltl), and sludgeworms (139) comprised h^2 of the 1+57
organisms in the square foot sample.  The murky appearance of
the water and bottom organisms sample indicated organic pollu-
tion continues.

             TOG - 025 Approximately One Mile Upstream from
                   Messengerville, New York

        The water was clear at this station, and minnows were
abundant.  The number of kinds of bottom organisms increased to
15 from the 12 observed upstream.  Included were such clean-
water forms as mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies (two kinds),
riffle beetles (two kinds), and a gill-breathing snail.  Midges
(with 6k organisms) and caddisflies (with 1+2) were the dominant
forms in the 13^ organisms comprising the quantitative sample.
Improved biological conditions were indicated, and the stream
appeared to be in recovery at this location.

             TOG - 020 Downstream from New York Route 221 Bridge,
                   Marathon, New York

        The water at this- location was cloudy; however, 17 kinds
of bottom organisms were found, which was an increase of two
kinds over the upstream station.  Clean-water forms included
stoneflies, mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), and
riffle beetles.  The stream was still in recovery at this point.

             TOG - 013 at New York Route 79 Bridge, Lisle, New
                   York

        The water was clear at this point, and fish were easily
observed.  While the number of kinds of organisms remained the
same at 17, improved biological conditions were indicated by
stoneflies, mayflies (three kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), and
riffle beetles (two kinds).  Caddisflies (70), mayflies (35),
and riffle beetles (23) were the dominant forms in the 155 organ-
isms collected in the square foot sample.  The fact that three
kinds of mayflies and one stonefly were collected in the quanti-
tative sample indicated greatly improved conditions over the up-
stream station.  Biologically, the stream appeared to have
recovered at this location.

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             OST - 006 at T.yuer's Corner Road, Upstream from
                   Upper Lisie and tl"1 Whitney Point Reservoir
        Otsel_c Rivfr is a trJbutary entering the Tioughnioga
River at mile 9-6,  Excellent biological conditions at this sta-
tion were indicatr-d by the 1" kinds of bottom organisms which
included such clean-water forms as caddisflies (four kinds),
mayflies (two kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).  Out of
502 organisms per square foot in the que^t i t,ative sample, there
were 3^7 caddis flies, 66 riffle beetles, arid 56 may flies o  The
unusually high number of clean-water forms was a good indication
of the water quality at this location,,  The Otselic River con-
tributes high qua] ity water to the Tloughnicga River,

             TOG ~ 000 Downstream from New York Poute 12 Bridge,
                   Chenango Porks, Hew York

        Although there was a reduction from IT upstream to 13
kinds of bottom organisms at this station, clean-water organisms
such as stoneflles (two kinds), mayflies (three kinds), and
caddisflies (three kinds) were abundant.  Two kinds of riffle
beetles were also collected.  Eight mayflies and five stoneflies
were included in the h2 organisms collected in the square foot
sample.  In addition, the water was clear, and numerous small-
mouth bass were observed.  The Tiouphniega River contributes
good quality water to the Chenango River at mile J3»7,

             CHA - 006 at New York Route 12-A Bridge, Chenango
                   Bridge, Hew York

        The water was clear, and numerous young smallmouth bass
were observed.  Fishermen were also noted.  Dae to the river
depth, a quantitative sample was not taken,   A total of 16 kinds
of bottom organisms were collected, including such clean-water
forms as stoneflies,,, mayflies (five kinds) ,  caddisflies (two
kinds), and riffle beetles   Althougn there was a substantial
reduction in the number of kinds from tne upstream station where
25 kinds were found, it Is difficult to attribute it to the
Tioughnioga River which v- good quality water.  About the only
explanation that can be offered is that there is a greater
variety of micro-habitants at the upstream station

             CHA - COO at I»PW iork Route 1'f-C Bridge, Binghamton,
                   New York

        At this station the water was partially cloudy, and fish
were not observed..  Only ten kjnrjo- of bottom organisms could be

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                                                             15
found, compared to l6 kinds upstream.  Sparse populations of
caddisflies, stoneflies, and riffle beetles were collected;
the more predominant forms "being an aquatic caterpillar and a
midge larva.  The sparse organism population could be due
partially to the bridge construction at the upstream edge of
Binghamton.  Degradation appears to have occurred between this
station and the upstream station; nevertheless, good quality
water was contributed to the Susquehanna River by the Chenango
River.

                             *<••«- 3 ' '?   *'     /6
Main Stem - SUQ - 32-5 (£. Bj at C. F. Johnson Bridge opposite
                  Johnson City, Mew York

        This station was located on the Susquehanna River approxi-
mately one-third of the way across the river from the east bank.
The water was cloudy, and the substrate was covered with a white
slime.  A strong sewage odor prevailed in the area.  The five
kinds of bottom organisms present were air-breathing snails,
leeches, midges, blackflies, and an aquatic earthworm (oligochaete)
The reduction in number of kinds (12 to five) from the upstream
station, and the predominance of pollution-tolerant and inter-
mediate forms at this station, indicated the presence of organic
pollution.
Main Stem - SUQ - 325 (W. B. )  at C. F. Johnson Bridge, Johnson
                        New York
        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the west bank.  The water was clear,
and 21 kinds of bottom organisms were collected at this location,
including such clean-water organisms as stoneflies, mayflies,
caddisflies (two kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).  Riffle
beetles were the dominant organisms in the quantitative sample,
comprising 27 of the 57 organisms collected.  Unpolluted water
quality was indicated at this location and exhibited a marked
contrast to the conditions observed at the station on the op-
posite bank.
Main Stem - SUQ - 319^ JW.. Ju )  at the new New York Route 26 Bridge,
                  Enaicott^ Mew York

        The water was turbid at this station, with oil slicks
observed on the surface,  Sampling was confined to the west bank
due to a sharp drop-off of the river bottom and deep water extend-
ing to the opposite bank; therefore, a quantitative sample was

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*•• r   , JL ,fceY«4-— ••  >:" . «.  .•;•' -e..' '. -fctei: a fitibsta/itia:  -e.;^ft
ot,;Vi*- . Jn •-'  Vo v"J  >..'. '.!'ie  r >•'• vio'uy  n-'S1' r
i R  -  ,;r ib oVcf--  ' •  UT~traax pollutl-
                     •r^anioT.i-  v- ;v spars--, &,;:ti  only two  kinds
                                              -sonne ,    These tvo
                                              '"rom the 21 kinds o'f
                                                    -,\HK station and
                      O  v v»
abvuv,
tier.
                      uri
           is sludge depot
                                              -•    ^/u, tund  the absence
                                                 \i'7, taKan.   The
                                              >.,»   ,. ;ieftvy  sewage
                                       sol i  1    -,•«; -.-oserved floating
                                              ':.'je only bottora organ-
                                        aae organisms were also
                                      ..j<* bank.   Heavy organic pollu-
1:
                                      £'WL f "og J»'^ s talji ffey ?£££.
                                      'eV vcrl RouY'^ 17
                               at   ', uc.'iv. .1  P*.  tru* station by the
                                    •ft  izicluaed  stonefiieSj oaddis-
                                      -. Ladp'1.  ai;a rlf:"e  beetles
                                    *  "::^ :;"r.ir\ant  f'ori'   comprising
                                  •-•- ,;3/ns Ui  ti.-• quantitative sample,
                            ;,,. fi   ;.  ibundant  organism.   Unpolluted
                                                    f;v, the  ir.C'Uth of
                                                    r-he p re sen -e of
                                      •>;;•, ail V^T'; .-.rganic pollution-
                                       L" nes an^  -3it-1 r?athinc snails
                                        : .. 'vf-lo ,     /::..;  SS live fish,
                                      •ondi,. 'inc,  . naioated  upstream
                                       /Lew of the low stream flows.
                                       JreeJf wf^.3  ary and  had no effect

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                                                             IT
Main Stem - SUQ - 303 at New York Route IT Bridge, Owego, New York

        The water at this station was clear, and minnows were
abundant.  Definite improvement from the upstream conditions
was noted, as the number of kinds of bottom organisms increased
to IT versus lU upstream.  Included in the sample were mayflies,
caddisflies, and riffle beetles.  The dominant organisms were
flatworms, with 369 out of the 1*92 organisms in the square foot
sample.  Other abundant forms were ca.ddisflies (6l) arid sludge-
worms (2h).  The river appeared to be recovering at this station,
Main Stem - SUQ - 295 at New York Route 283 JBridge, Smithboro,
                  New York

        The water was clear, and numerous minnows were observed.
Clean-water forms such as mayflies (three kinds), caddisflies
(two kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds) were collected.  The
number of kinds of bottom organisms increased from IT upstream
to 22 at this station.  Blackflies (208), riffle beetles (200),
caddisflies (115), fingernail clams (99), and flatworms (92)
were the dominant forms in the 8T2 organisms collected in the
square foot sample.  Twenty-two mayflies were also collected in
the quantitative sample.  High quality water was indicated at
this station.
Main Stem - SUQ - 286 Upstream from Sayre, Pennsylvania, at
                  U.S.G.S. Gaging Station

        The water at this station was fairly clear, and fish were
easily observed.  Fishermen were also observed in the area.  The
bottom organism population did not compare with the upstream sta-
tion.  Only nine kinds of bottom organisms were collected, com-
pared to 22 kinds upstream.  Clean-water forms such as mayflies,
caddisflies, and riffle beetles were collected.  Although clean-
water conditions still prevailed, the reduction in bottom
organism population from that upstream indicated the stream has
been degraded.
             Chemung River Basin - 53 stations - enters main stem
                                                 at mile 281.6

        Because of the large number of stations in the Chemung
River Basin and to maintain continuity in summarizing the water
quality in the Susquehanna River, only a general description of

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                                                             18
the water quality at the last station on the Chemung River -will
be given here.  Refer to the section on Chemung River and tribu-
taries for a more detailed description of water quality in these
streams.
             CHM
- 005 at LR08066 Bridge west of Sayre,  Pennsylvania
        Sampling at this station indicated the presence of such
clean-water forms as caddisflies (four kinds), mayflies (six
kinds), riffle beetles (two kinds), and stoneflies.  In all, 20
kinds of organisms were observed in the qualitative sample, and
5lU organisms were in the quantitative sample.  The biological
populations at this station are indicative of good water quality
being discharged from the Chemung River to the Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - SUQ - 2l6 at Ulster, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was clear, and fish were easily
observed; numerous fishermen were also sighted in the area.  Four-
teen kinds of bottom organisms were collected which included such
clean-water forms as stoneflies, mayflies, caddisflies (two kinds),
and riffle beetles.  The dominant forms were mayflies, scuds,
caddisflies, damselflies, and crayfish.  Unpolluted biological
conditions were indicated.  Improvement in water quality at this
station was apparently the result of the addition of good quality
water from the Chemung River at mile 281.6.
Main Stem - SUQ - 269 at U. S. Route 6 Bridge, Towanda, Pennsylvania

        At this station Ik kinds of bottom organisms were collect-
ed, including clean-water mayflies, caddisflies, and riffle
beetles (two kinds); however, the predominant forms were organic
pollution-tolerant air-breathing snails and leeches and inter-
mediates such as sow-bugs and scuds.  In addition, the water was
somewhat turbid.  Some degradation in relation to the upstream
station was apparent; basically, however, good quality water was
still indicated.

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                                                             19


       •Towanda Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at
                                          mile 267.5

             TOW - 001 at Airport Road Bridge south of Towanda,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear at this station, and fish such
as rock bass, darters, and shiners were observed.  Fishermen were
also noted at this station.  Twelve kinds of bottom organisms
were collected, with mayflies (two kinds) and caddisflies (two
kinds) being the predominant forms.  Towanda Creek contributed
high quality water to the Susquehanna River.


Main Stem - SUQ - 26l Upstream from the Bridge between DureljL
                  and Standing Stone, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this location, and numerous fish
including smallmouth bass were observed.  Twelve kinds of bottom
organisms were sampled, including such clean-water forms as may-
flies, caddisflies, and riffle beetles.  Mayflies and caddisflies
were the dominant forms.  A wide variety of submerged aquatic
plants were also found in the area.  The improved biological
conditions over the upstream station can be attributed partially
to the high quality water entering the Susquehanna from Towanda
Creek.
Main Stem - SUQ - 2^9 at LR lh Bridge Downstream from Wyalusing,
                  Pennsylvania

        A very significant improvement in water quality was
observed at this station, as the number of kinds of benthic
(bottom) organisms increased from 12 upstream to 21 at this
point.  The qualitative sample included such clean-water forms
as stoneflies, mayflies, caddisflies (three kinds), and riffle
beetles.  The dominant organisms were mayflies, caddisflies,
damselflies, and scuds.  The water was very clear, and numerous
fish, including rock bass, were observed.  Heavy fishing was
indicated by the presence of boat fishermen in the area.  High
quality water was indicated and can be attributed partially to
Wyalusing Creek which enters the Susquehanna River less than
one-half mile upstream.

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Main Stem - SUQ - 228 at Pennsylvania Route 87 Bridge, Mehoopany^
                  Pennsylvania

        Despite a drop in the number of kinds of bottom organisms
from ?1 upstream to l6 at this station, extremely high vater
quality was indicated by the stoueflies (two kinds), caddisflies
(three kinds), and mayflies,-  Mayflies and caddisflies were the
dominant forms.  In addition, the water was clear, and numerous
smallmouth bass were observed.  Heavy fishing was observed
throughout the area,,  Meshoppen Creek, a high quality stream,
enters upstream at mile 231.CK
        Turikhann o ck_ C re ek Bas 1 n - 1 station - enters main stem
                                              at mile 216,5

             TUK - 001 at U0 S. Route 6 Bridge Upstream from
                   Tunknannock, Pennsylvania

        Unpolluted biological conditions were indicated by the
13 kinds of bottom organisms which included stoneflies (three
kinds), mayflies (three kinds), and caddisflies (four kinds).
The vater was clear, and numerous fish were noted„   Fishermen
were also observed throughout the area.  Tunkhannock Creek con-
tributes high quality water to the Susquehanna Rivero
Main Stem - SUQ - 206 at Pennsylvania Route 9-2 Bridge, Falls,
                  Pennsylvania

        This station showed the greatest diversification of any
biological station in the Susquehanna River Basin with 28 kinds
of bottom organisms.  Clean-water forms included stoneflies
(three kinds), mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies (five kinds),
and riffle beetles (two kinds)«  Mayflies, caddisflies, and
water pennies predominated.  The water was slightly cloudy due
to a plankton bloom; however, four different species of sub-
merged aquatic plants were collected..  In addition, numerous
fishermen were observed in the area on the bank, wading, and in
boats.  Excellent biological conditions were indicated,,  Mehoopany
Creek, Tunkhannock Creek, and Bowman's Creek (three good quality
streams) enter the Susquehanna River in this reach.

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                                                             21
Main Stem - SUQ - 196 at Coxton Railroad Bridge, Upstream from
                  the_ Lackawanna Pi yer

        Due to a sharp drop-off in this area, sampling vas con-
fined to the banks, and a quantitative sample was not taken.
The bottom organism population exhibited a reduction from 28
kinds upstream to ten kinds at this location; however, clean-
water forms predominated.  Mayflies were abundant arid were found
on nearly every rock,  Water pennies, stone flies, and caddis-
flies were also easily collected,,  Unpolluted biological condi-
tions were indicated at this station.
        Lackawanna River Basin - 11 stations - enters main stem
                                               at mile 195 «^

             LAK - Ohk at Herrick Center, Pennsylvania

        The water at this upstream location was very clear, and
numerous minnows were observed.  Unpolluted biological conditions
were indicated by the 21 kinds of bottom organisms which included
such clean-water forms as stoneflies (four kinds), mayflies (five
kinds), caddisflies (four kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).
Of the 191 organisms in the square foot sample, 72 were caddis-
flies, 30 were mayflies, and five were riffle beetles.  Very high
water quality was indicated by the bottom organism population.

             LAK - Oi+1 Immediately Downstream from Stillwater Dam

        The water was clear, but a reduction occurred in the
number of kinds of bottom organisms from the 21 upstream to eight
kinds at this location.  However, unpolluted biological condi-
tions were indicated by the abundant mayfly population (two kinds)
and gill-breathing snails (two kinds).  Crayfish were also abun-
dant.  Clean water is also indicated by the presence of moss
animalcules (Bryozoan Peetinatella)„  Moss animalcules are as-
sociated with unpolluted and unsilted waters and are rarely found
where the quantity of dissolved oxygen falls below 30 per cent
saturation.  Moss animalcules are almost never present in strongly
acidic waters, but are usually found in fresh waters with a pH
range of 5=3 to 8.0,  The substantial drop in diversification of
organisms at this station can be attributed to change in environ-
ment caused by the Stillwater Dam.

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                                                             22
             LAK - 039 at Pennsylvania Route 171 Bridge down-
                   stream from Stillwater Dam

        Only seven kinds of bottom organisms were found at this
station, but caddisflies (three kinds) and mayflies predominated.
In addition, numerous colonies of moss animalcules were observed*
Unpolluted stream conditions were indicated.

             LAK - 031 at Pennsylvania Route 171 Bridge at
                   Simpson, Pennsylvania

        The number of kinds of bottom organisms increased from
seven upstream to ten at this station, including such clean-
water forms as stoneflies, mayflies (three kinds), and caddis-
flies (three kinds),  Caddisflies and mayflies were the dominant
forms.  The water was clear, and numerous minnows were observed.
A quantitative sample was not taken because of the large rocks
which appeared "cemented" together and prohibited a reliable
quantitative sample.  Unpolluted conditions were indicated at
this station.

             LAK - 027 at Tit77 Bridge, Childs, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was cloudy with a heavy floc-
culent substance.  A strong sewage odor prevailed, and raw
domestic waste solids were observed throughout the stream.
Garbage was observed along the banks.  The only bottom organisms
present were sludgeworms, bloodworms, and leeches—all organic
pollution-tolerant.  The sludgeworms comprised 32,666 of the
32,895 organisms in the square foot sample.  Even in the gravel
in the middle of the stream, sludgeworms were clustered in
"little balls."  Heavy organic pollution was indicated at this
station.

             LAK - 023 at LR350U8 Bridge, Archbald, Pennsylvania

        The water at this point was clear, and filamentous algae
were abundant on the rocks.  The substrate was coated with iron
compounds.  Garbage and refuse dumps along the banks were numer-
ous.  In one instance, an individual was observed throwing garbage
into the stream.  Only four kinds of bottom organisms were found,
including organic pollution-tolerant sludgeworms and bloodworms.
Only 35 bottom organisms were found in the square foot sample,
which consisted of 29 bloodworms and six sludgeworms.  The only
other organisms collected were the acid-tolerant smoky alderfly
(Sialis) larvae and a beetle larva.  The low productivity and
small diversification of bottom organisms may be attributed to
the low pH (h.Q to 5°56) and the high total iron concentrations

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                                                             23
(0.53 to 2,75 mg/l) recorded at this station by samplers during
1965=  Organic pollution and mine drainage were indicated.

             LAK - 018 Upstream from Pennsylvania Route 3^7 Bridge
                   between Olyphant and Blakely, Pennsylvania

        The water at this location had a heavy floe and a strong
sewage odor.  Coal fines were heavy, and sludge deposits covered
much of the bottom, even out in the middle of the stream.
Beneath the bridge raw sewage containing fecal material was
observed flowing from outfalls on each side of the river; the
waste concentration was particularly heavy on the west side.
The only bottom organisms collected were bloodworms, sludgeworms,
and rattail maggots—all of whicn are organic pollution-tolerant.
Of the 96 organisms in the square foot sample, 9^ were blood-
worms, and the other two were rattail maggots.  Gross organic
pollution was evident.

             LAK - 013 at Pennsylvania Route 307 Bridge, Scranton,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was very turbid with a strong
sewage odor.  Coal fines were abundant, and heavy sludge deposits
were noted along the banks.  The only bottom organisms found were
sludgeworms, an aquatic earthworm, and bloodworms.  Sludgeworms
comprised 95,51^ of the 95,61*2 organisms in the square foot
sample.  The only other organisms in the quantitative sample
were bloodworms.  In addition, what appeared to be blood from a
slaughter or packing operation upstream was noted.  Numerous
rats were observed running up and down the banks and swimming
in the stream.  This was, without equivocation, the most heavily
polluted biological station in the Siisquehanna River Basin.

             LAK - 005 Upstream from LR3506i+ Bridge, between
                   Moosic and Old Forge, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was quite turbid, and a sewage
odor prevailed.  A heavy floe, as well as raw domestic waste
solids, were observed in the stream.  The tnree kinds of bottom
organisms observed were sludgeworms, rattail maggots, and blood-
worms, all being organic pollution-tolerant.  Sludgeworms were
the dominant organism and composed 6,396 of the 6,398 organisms
collected in the square foot sample.  Gross organic pollution
was indicated.

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             LAK - 003 at LR35055 Bridge, Old Forge, Pennsylvania

        A heavy floe in the water and a strong sewage odor were
noticed at this station.  Sludge deposits covered much of the "bed-
rock in the slower moving sections of the stream.  Sludgeworms
were the only bottom organisms found and totaled 12,865 organ-
isms per square foot in the quantitative sample.  Gross organic
pollution was indicated at this point.

             LAK - 001 between LR35011 Bridge at Duryea, Pennsyl-
                   vania and the Duryea Gravity Outfall

        Coal fines and sludge deposits were present at this
station.  The main part of the river upstream was turbid, and
a sewage odor was noted.  Clear water followed the east bank
(the side on which the Duryea Gravity Outfall is located up-
stream) .  The only bottom organisms found were organic pollution-
tolerant bloodworms and Sludgeworms.  The sludgeworms were the
dominant form and comprised 5^-1 of the 562 organisms obtained
per square foot in the quantitative sample.  The low number of
bottom organisms per square foot, 562 versus 12,865 upstream,
is attributed to the Old Forge Bore Hole on the west bank and
the Duryea Gravity Outfall on the east bank which contribute
considerable flow between this station and the upstream stations.
Total iron concentrations up to 51.0 mg/1, conductivities of
^00 to 1,700, and pH as low as 3.2 were previously recorded at
this station.  Downstream from the LR35011 Bridge, a meat pack-
ing operation had its waste outfall.  Sludge deposits were heavy,
and sludgeworms were abundant from this area downstream.  Garbage
dumps along the banks were also noted downstream from the bridge.
The Lackawanna River contributes coal fines, mine drainage, sludge,
and organic pollution to the Susquehanna River where it enters at
mile 195.4.
Main Stem - SUQ - 194 (E. B. ) at U. S. Route 11 Bridge,_
                  Pittston, Pennsylvania

        This station was located about 1.4 miles downstream from
the confluence of the Lackawanna River and approximately one-
third of the way across the river from the east bank.  The water
was murky and contained noticeable quantities of domestic waste
solids among the rocks.  The bridge abutments and the rocks were
heavily coated with iron compounds.  Only ten kinds of bottom
organisms were found, but they included such clean-water forms
as stoneflies (two kinds), mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies
(two kinds), and a riffle beetle.  However, the dominant forms
were organic pollution-tolerant leeches and air-breathing snails.

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                                                              25
A quantitative sample was not token at.  this  station because  of
the large rocks and river deptn   Doad  .-.& well  as live  fish  were
observed. In the area,,  Clean-water eigarnsrns  at this station were
sparse in comparison to those found at  the station upstream  from
the confluence of the Lac.kawanna River.  The  river appeared  to
be in a zone of degradation, at I'rus station,  and mild pollution
was indicated.,
Main Stem - SUQ - Ig^JW? JB_,_)downstrgaji^^fj^iii \L S.. Route 11
                  Bridge, West Pit is ton.,_ Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately  one-third of the
way across the river from the west bank.  The water was cloudy,
and heavy filamentous green algal mats were observed along the
shore.  Fourteen kinds of bottom organisms were  collected, in-
cluding such clean-water forms as helLgrammites, mayflies (two
kinds), and riffle beetles.  The quantitative sample contained
235 organism:,, with the dominant forms being midge larvae (52),
aquatic earthworms (48), scuds (Hvale_iiii) (U8) ,  riffle beetles
(36), and sludgeworms (26).  The square  foot sample also con-
tained 14 leeches and seven mayflies.  Coal fines were also
abundant in the quantitative sample.  Clean-water forms did not
predominate at this station as they  did  at the  station upstream
from the Lackawanna River.  The river is in a zone of degrada-
tion at this location, and mild pollution was indicated,
Main Stem - SUQ - 192 (E,. Bo) at Eighth St.i_ee_tJ3rj.dge Across the
                  River from Wyoming, Pennsylvania

        The river was murky at this station,  and domestic waste
solids were observed along the shore.  Only a qualitative sample
was taken due to the drop-off along shore and the absence of a
riffle area.  Six kinds of bottom organisms were sampled versus
ten upstream.  These organisms were intermeaiat-? and organic
pollution-tolerant forms, with air-breathing  snails predominat-
ing.  A biological sample was not taken on the Wyoming side due
to the depth and poor access,.  Occasional Sow dissolved oxygen
readings (e.g., 2.73 to 3,3 mg/l) were recorded during the water
quality investigations at this station.  Organic pollution from
upstream was indicated-

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                                                             26
Main Stem - SUQ - 186 (E. B.) at U. S. Route 309 Bridge, Wilkes-
                  Barre, Pennsylvani r<

        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the east bank.  The water was somewhat
turbid and contained some domestic waste solids among the rocks.
Heavy coatings of iron compounds were observed on the rocks in
addition to the presence of noticeable quantities of coal fines
in the water.  Only seven kinds of" bottom organisms were found,
but these included such clean-water forms as stoneflies (two
kinds), mayflies, hellgrammites, caddisflies, and riffle beetles.
The only abundant organism was a midge larva which comprised 80
of the 88 organisms in the square foot sample   The other organ-
isms in the quantitative sample consisted of four riffle beetles,
three caddisflies, and one stonefly.  Occasional low dissolved
oxygen readings (e.g., 1.6k to 3*83 mg/l) and occasional high
total iron concentrations (e.g. 1.12 to 1=59 mg/l) were recorded
for this station.  Mild pollution was indicated at this station,
despite improvement in the bottom organism population over the
upstream station.
Main Stem - SUQ, - 186 (W. B. ) at U. S. Route 309 Bridge, Kings-
                  ton, Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the west bank,,  The rocks were coated
with heavy iron compounds, and coal fines were abundant„  Domes-
tic waste solids were also observed in the area.  Despite the
apparent degradation, 13 kinds of bottom organisms were found
which included stoneflies, caddisflies (two kinds), mayflies,
and riffle beetles.  Only lU organisms per square foot were ob-
tained in the quantitative sample, with midge larvae being the
dominant form with eight organisms.  The remainder of the quanti-
tative sample was made up of two caddisflies, two mayflies, one
riffle beetle, and one aquatic earthworm.  On a comparative basis
to the upstream station, the present station may be classified
as mildly polluted„
Main Stem - SUQ - 18H (E,_E.) at FAP Bridge, lona, Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately half-way between
the east bank and Richard's Island.  The water was murky, and
"sewage mold" (Sphaerotilus) was present on the rocks.  Domestic
waste solids were observed along the shore and on the rocks in
the river.  Only five kinds of bottom organisms were found; all
were organic pollution-tolerant and intermediate forms.   Blood-
worms were the dominant organism in the quantitative sample with

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                                                             27
52 organisms per square foot.  Other organisms in the quantita-
tive sample were leeches (27), sow-bugs (21), and one air-
breathing snail.  Organic pollution was indicated at this station.
Main Stem - SUQ - iQk (W. Bj at FAP Bridge, Plymouth, Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately one-half way be-
tween the west bank and Richard's Island.  Since the bottom
organisms at this station were sparse, a quantitative sample was
not taken.  Nine kinds of bottom organisms were collected in the
quantitative sample, including one stonefly, and a few mayflies,
caddisflies, and riffle beetles.  Air-breathing snails, bloodworms,
and sow-bugs were the dominant bottom organisms.  A reduction in
kinds of bottom organisms, from 13 upstream to nine at this sta-
tion, had occurred.  Mild organic pollution was indicated.
        Solomon's Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at
                                            mile 182.2

             SOL - 001 at LRH0033 Bridge northeast of Buttonwood,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was murky, and the bottom ap-
peared to consist of solid coal fines.  Bottom organisms could
not be found.  Solomon's Creek contributes coal fines and poor
quality water to the Susquehanna River.
        Warrior Run Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at mile
                                        180.8

             WAR - 001 near Dundee, Pennsylvania, 0.25 mile up-
                   stream from LRU0033 Bridge (Main Street)

        Extremely heavy iron compounds were on the rocks at this
location, and the water had a reddish-brown tint.  Bottom organ-
isms could not be found.  Warrior Run contributes mine drainage
to the Susquehanna River,
Main Stem - SUQ - 179 (E. B.) at FAP Bridge Upstream from
                  Nanticoke, Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the east bank.  Heavy iron compounds
were present on the rocks and bridge abutments.  Bottom organisms

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                                                             28
were sparse, and a quantitative sample was riot taken.  Only a
few sow-bugs and bloodworms were ^oLI^-tedc  The scant bottom
organism population can be attribute:,) to mine drainage and
organic pollution upstream,  A samp.ie was not taken on the West
Nanticoke side because of inaccessibility and deet) water a
Main Stem - SUQ - l]k (E. iJ_)_at	Kg'.re_g,t_J31ate^Hospital

        The water at this 3tat.j.or. was murky and deep; therefore,
sampling had to be confined cJ.ose to the east bank,  Gince  bot-
tom organisms were very sparse, a, quantitative sample was not
taken.  Only six kinds of bottom organisms were found, but  in-
cluded in the sample were a few mayflies and riffle beetles.
Bloodworms, sow-bugs, flatworms, and a beetle larva were the
only other forms found„  Dissolved oxygen at this station was
usually observed to be about '4 0 and 5.0 mg/1, with an occasional
low of 1.0 rag/1.  Mild organic pollution was still indicated at
this station.
Main Stem - SUQ - 169 JW_. B.) at Pennsylvania RouteJ?9_j_ri_dge,
                  Shickshinny, Pennsylvania

        The water was turbid at this west bank station, and only
five kinds of bottom organisms were found.  The only clean-water
forms were a few riffle beetles.  Sow-bugs were the predominant
organisms at this station„   Other observed organisms were a. few
leeches, bloodworms, and  flatworrns „  Carp were observed swimming
in the area.  Occasional  low dissolved oxygen readings of approxi-
mately 1.61+ mg/1 have been recorded at this station, although the
dissolved oxygen is usually higher than this.  Based on the bottom
organisms and known water chemistry, recovery appears to be start-
ing at this location.
        Wapwallopen Creek Basin - ?. stations - enters main stem
                                               at mile
             WAP - 019 at Pennsylvania Route it 37, south of
                   Mountain Top, Pennsylvania

        While only nine kinds of bottom organisms were found at
this station, seven were clean-water forms, including stoneflies
(two kinds), mayflies i. three kinds), and caddisflies (two kinds),
Unpolluted water was indj caled at this station.

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                                                             29
             WAP - 000 at Pennsylvania Route 29 Bridge, Wap-
                   wallopen, Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear, and numerous minnows were
observed at this station.  A total of 20 kinds of bottom organ-
isms were collected in the qualitative sample.  An unusually
large population of stoneflies (four kinds) was found.  Other
clean-water forms included mayflies (four kinds) and caddis-
flies (four kinds).  The predominant forms in the 210 organisms
comprising the square foot sample were caddisflies (121), midges
(63), and mayflies (15).  Wapwallopen Creek contributes high
quality water to the Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - SUQ - 159 (E. B.) Upstream from Pennsylvania Route
                  93 Bridge at Nescopeck, Pennsylvania

        At this station the quantitative sample was taken approxi-
mately one-third of the way across the river from the Nescopeck
(east) side.  The water was clear, and numerous fish were observed
throughout the area.  The qualitative sample indicated the pres-
ence of Ik kinds of bottom organisms which included stoneflies,
mayflies, caddisflies (four kinds), riffle beetles, and crayfish.
Caddisflies were the dominant form and comprised 353 of the 358
organisms collected in the square foot sample.  Other organisms
in the square foot sample were riffle beetles (three), mayflies
(one), and one beetle larva.  The excellent riffle area across
the river at this point enabled the sampling crew to work this
station thoroughly from bank to bank.  Based on the biological
data, the river appeared to be recovered at this station.  Re-
covery may be attributed to Wapwallopen Creek, which enters up-
stream, as well as natural purification processes of the river
itself.
Main Stem - SUQ - 159 (W. B.) Upstream from Pennsylvania Route
                  9.3. Bridge at Berwick, Pennsylvania

        The quantitative sample was taken one-third of the way
across the river from the Berwick (west) side.  The water was
clear, and numerous fish were again observed throughout the area.

        Only eight kinds of bottom organisms were sampled, but
these included such clean-water forms as mayflies (two kinds),
caddisflies (two kinds), and riffle beetles.  Caddisflies (176),
midge larvae (ikh), and blackflies (33) were the dominant forms
in the square foot sample of 355 organisms.  Although this sta-
tion did not have the diversification of the station on the

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                                                             30
opposite side of the river, the abundance of clean-water organisms
and the large fish population indicated unpolluted conditions.
The river appeared to have recovered at this point from the up-
stream pollution.
        Nescopeck Creek Basin - 5 stations - enters main stem
                                             at mile 158.9

             NES - 039 at Pennsylvania Route 1*37 Bridge south-
                   east of Mountain Top, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear and cold at this station, and minnows
were easily observed.  Although only seven kinds of bottom organ-
isms were collected, six were clean-water forms such as stoneflies,
mayflies (two kinds), and caddisflies (three kinds).  Unpolluted
biological conditions were indicated.

             NES - 023 at U. S. Route 309 Bridge north of
                   Hazleton, Pennsylvania

        At this station the water was clear, and fish were
easily observed.  Only eight kinds of bottom organisms were
found; these included clean-water forms such as stoneflies, may-
flies (four kinds), and caddisflies (two kinds).  Unpolluted
biological conditions were indicated at this station.

             NLN - 001 at County Road Bridge east of Suberts-
                   ville, Pennsylvania

        Little Nescopeck Creek enters Nescopeck Creek at mile
18.0.  Extremely heavy iron compounds were observed on the rocks
at this station.  Bottom organisms could not be found, and the
pH at this location was It. 3.  Little Nescopeck Creek contributes
mine drainage to Nescopeck Creek.

             NES - 018 at Pennsylvania Route 29 Bridge north of
                   Conyngham, Pennsylvania

        Heavy iron deposits were on all of the rocks, and bottom
organisms could not be found.  Mine drainage was indicated at
this station.

             NES - 001 at Pennsylvania Route 2h2 Bridge, Nescopeck,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear at this station, and iron com-
pounds were observed on the rocks.  Some filamentous green algae

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                                                             31
vere present.  Only three kinds of bottom organisms were present,
all of which were pollution-tolerant forms and consisted of blood-
worms, sludgeworms, and a smoky aiderfly larva.  Bloodworms,
comprising 115 of the 116 organisms in the square foot sample,
were found in the gravel or in sludge deposits„  Nescopeck Creek
contributes organic pollution and mine drainage to the Susque-
hanna River at mile 158.9-
Main Stem - SUQ - 155 (E. B.) Upstream frojnjthe_ Bridge at the
                  Town Park, Mifflinville, Pennsylvania

        At this station the water was clear, and some iron com-
pounds were observed on the rocks.  The bottom organism popula-
tion was very sparse at this station, and only five kinds could
be isolated in the qualitative sample.  In approximately 30
minutes of qualitative sampling, only one caddisfly, one damsel-
fly, two bloodworms, two smoky alderfly larva, and one beetle
larva could be found.  A quantitative sample was not taken be-
cause of the sparse organism population.  The pH at this station
has been reported to range from 5-5 to 7.2 ing/I.  Degradation
from the upstream station was indicated by the reduction in the
number of kinds of organisms from lU upstream to five at this
station.
Main Stem - SUQ - 1^7 (W. B.) at Pennsylvania Route 339 Bridge
                  Upstream from Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania

        This station was located about one-third of the way
across the river from the west bank.  The water was cloudy and
contained a heavy filamentous green algal mat along the bank.
Bottom organisms were sparse, and only two caddisflies and one
damselfly were found.  A quantitative sample was not taken because
of the sparse organism population.  The pH at this station ranged
from 5-6 to 8.8.  Degradation from upstream was indicated.
        Fishing Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at
                                          mile lU5.lt

             FIS - 000 at LR19079 Covered Bridge, Rupert,
                   Pennsylvania

        Some fish were observed at this station, although the
water was cloudy.  Eight kinds of bottom organisms were sampled,
including such clean-water forms as stoneflies, mayflies (three
kinds), caddisflies, a,nd water pennies; mayflies and caddisflies

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                                                             32
were the dominant forms in the sample.  Only eight organisms
were collected in the square foot sample.  This low number of
organisms may be attributed to the presence of very large rocks
which prevented a representative sample from being taken.  High
quality water was contributed to the Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - SUQ - ihk (E. B.) Upstream from Pennsylvania Route
                  h2 Bridge, Catawissa, Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the east bank.  The water was clear,
and filamentous green algae were present.  Only seven kinds of
bottom organisms were present, the dominant forms being caddis-
flies and midge larvae.  They comprised 152 of the 156 organisms
in the square foot sample.  Other bottom organisms sampled
included air-breathing snails, blackflies, sludgeworms, and a
riffle beetle.  While slight improvement was noted from the up-
stream station, this sampling point still exhibited mild
degradation.
Main Stem - SUQ - lUU (W. B. ) Upstream from Pennsylvania Route
                  U2 Bridge, Opposite Catawissa, Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the west bank.  The water was clear,
and filamentous green algae were present.  Only five kinds of
bottom organisms were found, and these included caddis flies
(two kinds), blackflies, a riffle beetle, and an air-breathing
snail.  Only 27 organisms were collected in the square foot
sample, consisting of 25 caddisflies and two riffle beetles.
Although an improvement had taken place in the number of kinds
of organisms over the upstream station (five versus two), the
low number of kinds plus the small number of organisms in the
quantitative sample indicated that degraded stream conditions
upstream were still affecting bottom fauna.

        Catawissa Creek Basin - k stations - enters main stem
                                             at mile
             CTW - 031 at Pennsylvania Route 92^ Bridge north-
                   east of Brandonville , Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear at this station, and the rocks
were a russet-red color.  The only bottom organisms found were
sparse numbers of smoky alderfly larvae which are tolerant of
acid water.  Mine drainage was indicated.

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                                                             33
             CTW - 02*+ at Pennsylvania Route 339 Bridge, Zions
                   Grove, Pennsylvania

        At this station the vater was very clear, and the rocks
were a russet-reddish color.  A very thick moss was noticed on
many of the rocks.  The only organisms present were sparse
numbers of smoky alderfly larvae.  Mine drainage was still
indicated.

             CTW - 007 at Pennsylvania Route 339 Bridge Upstream
                   from Mainville, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station remained very clear, and the
rocks still had a deep russet-red color.  The only bottom organ-
isms present were a few smoky alderfly larvae and some small
midge larvae.  A quantitative sample was not taken because of
the small number of bottom organisms.  Mine drainage was still
indicated.

             CTW - 000 between LR19011 Bridge and Railroad Bridge
                   at Catawissa, Pennsylvania

        The only bottom organisms found at this station were
smoky alderflies, midge larvae, and a beetle larva.  Smoky alder-
flies were easily found in the gravel.  Only lU bottom organisms
were collected in the square foot sample.  The quantitative
sample consisted of 12 beetle larvae, one midge larva, and one
smoky alderfly larva.  The stream about 200 feet downstream from
the station was being polluted by two outfalls from the east
bank (Catawissa).  Domestic sewage and solids were observed,
and sludge deposits had accumulated below the outfalls.  Mine
drainage and organic pollution from this stream were contributed
to the Susquehanna River at mile 1U3.5-
Main Stem - SUQ - 135 (E. B.) at Pennsylvania Route_Jt5 Bridge,
                  Riverside, Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the east bank at a good riffle area.
The water was clear, arid minnows were easily observed.  Only
four kinds of bottom organisms were found, consisting of caddis-
flies (two kinds), bloodworms, and an air-breathing snail.  The
quantitative sample consisted of U6 organisms per square foot.

        It is interesting to note that only four kinds of bottom
organisms were found at this station during the sampling of 196U,
and the quantitative sample consisted of only 15 organisms per

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square foot.  Coal fines were still abundant on the bottom.
Except for a slight change in generic composition and an increase
in the quantitative total, mild degradation from upstream was
still indicated.
Main Stem - SUQ - 135 (W. B.) Downstream from Pennsylvania Route
                  k5 Bridge, Danville, Pennsylvania

        The station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the west bank.  Again only four kinds
of bottom organisms were found, and these consisted of caddis-
flies, midge larvae, air-breathing snails, and flatworms.  Midge
larvae were the dominant organisms in the quantitative sample,
comprising 10^ of the 11U organisms.   Other organisms in the
square foot sample consisted of nine caddis flies and one flatworm.

        The water was clear, and minnows and tadpoles were
readily observed throughout the area.  Coal fines were easily
found over much of the bottom, and filamentous green algae were
abundant on the rocks in much of the area.  Mild degradation
was still indicated.
Main Stem - SUQ - 12k (E. B.) Upstream from Pennsylvania Route
                      Bridge, Northumberland, Pennsylvania
        This station was on the east side.  The water was clear,
with filamentous green algae being observed on the rocks.  Numer-
ous fish were observed throughout the area.  The qualitative
sample contained 12 kinds of bottom organisms; however, only one
riffle beetle and two kinds of caddisflies were present.  The
rest of the organisms were intermediate and organic pollution-
tolerant forms.  Productivity of bottom organisms was very low
on this side of the river, and only 6l organisms per square foot
were collected in the quantitative sample.  Sludgeworms (21),
midge larvae (19)» and caddisflies (19 ) were the dominant forms.
Heavy coal fines were also present in this sample.  The only other
organisms in the square foot sample were an air-breathing snail
and a riffle beetle.  While definite biological improvement had
taken place, mild degradation upstream was still indicated.
Main Stem - SUQ - 12k Downstream from Pennsylvania Route 1^7 Bridge.
                  Northumberland, Pennsylvania

        This station was located at the island in the middle of
the river below Route ikj Bridge.  The water here was clear, and

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                                                             35
numerous fish were observed.  A heavy filamentous algal growth
was observed on the rocks, and coal fines were noticed on the
bottom.  Again 12 kinds of bottom organisms were sampled, includ-
ing two kinds of caddisflies.  The rest of the organisms were
intermediate and organic pollution-tolerant forms.  Blackfly
larvae were the dominant forms, comprising 332 of the 398 organ-
isms in the quantitative sample.  Caddisflies (39)» midge larvae
(25), a beetle larva, and a sludgeworm completed the square foot
sample.  Mild degradation from upstream was still indicated.
Main Stem - SUQ - 124 (W. B.) Upstream from Pennsylvania Route
                      Bridge, Northumberland, Pennsylvania
        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the west bank.  The water was clear,
and numerous fish were observed, including smallmouth bass.  A
very heavy growth of filamentous green algae was observed, near
the west bank.  Only 10 kinds of bottom organisms were found at
this location, but the composition was quite similar to that
found on the east bank and in the middle of the river.  Midge
larvae were the dominant forms, comprising 360 of the 372 organ-
isms found in the square foot sample.  The balance of the
quantitative sample consisted of five sludgeworms , four caddis-
flies, two bloodworms, and one blackfly larva.  Heavy coal fines
were also present in the sample.  The Susquehanna River contributes
coal fines and some organic pollution to the lower main stem at
mile 12k.

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                                                             36
                 CHEMUNG RIVER AHD TRIBUTARIES

                           *
        Chemung River Basin  - 53 stations - enters main stem
                                             at mile 281.6
*
   The Tioga and Cohocton Rivers join to form the Chemung River.
   The Tioga River is considered the main stem and is, therefore,
   indexed as a continuation of the Chemung River.

             TIO - 088 Upstream from Confluence of Morris Run

        This was the most upstream biological station on the
Tioga River.  The water at this station was cold and clear.
The bottom organism population was sparse, and only five kinds
(genera) were found; however, all were clean-water forms con-
sisting of mayflies (three kinds), stoneflies, and caddisflies.
A quantitative sample was not taken because of the sparse benthic
(bottom) population.  Good water quality conditions were indi-
cated at this station.

             MOR - 001 Approximately 0.6 mile Upstream from the
                   Confluence with Tioga River

        Morris Run enters the Tioga River at mile 86.2.  The
stream bottom at this station was covered with heavy coal fines
and organic sludge; the rocks were coated with iron compounds.
The only bottom organism found was an organic pollution-tolerant
bloodworm, of which 9^6 per square foot were obtained in the
quantitative sample.  This stream was polluted with domestic
wastes from the town of Morris Run and with coal fines and mine
drainage from upstream sources.  This stream contributed mine
drainage, coal fines, and domestic organic pollution to the
Tioga River.

             TIO - 087 Between Morris Run and Coal Run, at
                   Blossburg, Pennsylvania

        At this station heavy iron compounds were observed on
the rocks, and sludge deposits were observed on the stream
bottom.  The bottom organism population was non-existent, ap-
parently the effect of mine drainage and organic pollution from
Morris Run.

             TIO - 085 at A?Ul2 Bridge, Blossburg, Pennsylvania

        This station was located downstream from Coal Run.  The
rocks were heavily coated with iron compounds, and sludge deposits

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                                                             37
had collected between the rocks.  The only organisms found were
organic pollution-tolerant bloodworms; these were present only
in the sludge deposits.  Domestic solids were observed in these
deposits and, when the sludge was disturbed, oil slicks oozed
upward.  A quantitative sample was not taken because of the
sparse number of bottom organisms.  Mine drainage and domestic
organic pollution were indicated,

             TIO - 080 at U. S. Route ILj Bridge, Upstream from
                   Covington, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station with heavy iron com-
pounds observed on the rocks.  Some algal growths were observed,
but bottom organisms could not be found.  Mine drainage was
indicated.

             TIO - 079 at Pennsylvania Route 660 Bridge, Down-
                   stream from Covington, Pennsylvania

        The absence of bottom organisms and the presence of iron
compounds on the rocks indicated mine drainage pollution continued.

             TIO - 072 at LR580U4 Bridge at Lambs Creek, Pennsyl-
                   vania Downstream from Mansfield, Pennsylvania

        At this station the water remained very clear, with
heavy iron compounds noticeable on the rocks.  The bottom organ-
isms were very sparse; only two kinds of midge larvae being
found.  A quantitative sample was not taken because of the sparse
population.  Mine drainage conditions were still indicated.

             TIO - 067 at U. S. Route 15 Bridge Upstream from
                   Tioga, Pennsylvania

        The water was still clear at this station, with heavy
iron compounds observed on the rocks.  Bottom organisms could
not be found.  The effects of mine drainage were still indicated.

             TIO - 066 at U.S.G.S. Gaging Station, Tioga,
                   Pennsylvania

        At this station the water was still clear, with iron
compounds visible on the rocks.  Some dead algae were observed
on the rocks, and bottom organisms were still absent.  Mine
drainage still appeared to exert a detrimental effect on the
biological environment.

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                                                             38
             CRK - 001 at Brookton, west of Tioga, Pennsylvania

        Crooked Creek enters the Tioga River at mile 65.2.  Only
four kinds of bottom organisms were found at this station, includ-
ing clean-water forms such as caddisflies (two kinds), which were
very abundant, and mayflies.  The water was clear and contained
a heavy growth of filamentous green algae.  Fair biological con-
ditions, with some enrichment from phosphorus and nitrogen, were
indicated.

             CRK - 000 at U. S. Route 15 Bridge, Tioga,
                   Pennsylvania

        Only two kinds of bottom organisms were present at this
station; these forms consisted of mayflies and caddisflies.
However, both were present in moderate numbers.  Filamentous
algae were also present at this station.  Crooked Creek con-
tributed good quality water to the Tioga River.

             TIO - 065 at U. S. Route 15 Bridge Downstream from
                   Crooked Creek and Tioga, Pennsylvania

        The water in this area had a marked bluish-green color,
possibly from the interaction of the alkaline water from Crooked
Creek with the acid water of the Tioga River.  The rocks were
covered with a grayish-gel deposit which appeared to be dead
algae.  Bottom organisms were absent, indicating the possible
effects of mine drainage continuing from upstream.

             TIO - 06l at TT73 Bridge Upstream from Lawrence-
                   ville, Pennsylvania

        The water continued to have a bluish-green tinge, and
the grayish-gelatinous material covered all of the rocks at this
station.  Bottom organisms still could not be found.

             TIO - 059 at U. S. Route 15 Bridge Upstream from
                   Lawrencevilie, Pennsylvania

        Stream and biological conditions at this station were
identical to the two previous stations, thus still exhibiting
the effects of mine drainage.

             COW - 027 at Pennsylvania Route h$ Bridge, West-
                   field, Pennsylvania

        This was the most upstream biological station on the
Cowanesque River.  The water was very clear and cold at this

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                                                             39
station, and an abundance of minnows was observed.  A total of
1^ kinds of bottom organisms was collected in the quantitative
sample, including such clean-water forms as caddisflies (three
kinds), mayflies (two kinds), stoneflies (two kinds), and riffle
beetles (two kinds).  Caddis flies were the dominant form and
comprised 1,20U of the 1,3^3 bottom organisms in the quantita-
tive sample.  Mayflies, the second most abundant form, comprised
83 organisms in the quantitative sample.  Based on the biological
data, extremely high water quality was indicated.

             COW - 023 at Pennsylvania Route 2^9 Bridge,
                   Phillips, Pennsylvania

        At this station the water was clear and cold, with
minnows in abundance.   Heavy growths of duckweed and green algae
(Hydrodictyon) were observed.  Although ten kinds of bottom
organisms were sampled, all were sparse except for the air-
breathing snails.  Clean-water forms consisted of caddisflies,
water pennies, and mayflies.  However, a substantial reduction
had occurred in kinds (ten versus ih upstream) and in organisms
per square foot (6l versus 1,3^3 at the upstream station).
Although a few clean-water organisms existed at this station,
degraded biological conditions were indicated in relation to
the upstream station.

             COW - 015 at LR58026 Bridge, Osceola, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear and cold with minnows in abundance
at this station.  Caddisflies (three kinds) were the dominant
bottom organism and comprised 75^ of the 882 organisms in the
quantitative sample.  Mayflies (four kinds) were the second most
abundant organism with 77 in the quantitative sample.  Sixteen
kinds of organisms were collected in the qualitative sample.
The biological conditions indicated substantial recovery had
occurred, and that good water quality prevailed at this station.

             COW - 013 at Pennsylvania Route k9 Bridge Downstream
                   from Elkland, Pennsylvania

        Although a few mayflies were found in the qualitative
sample at this station, most of the bottom organisms were inter-
mediate and pollution-tolerant forms.  The number of kinds was
reduced to 12 from 16 upstream, and the number of organisms per
square foot was reduced to 19 from 882 upstream.  Air-breathing
snails, sow-bugs, and leeches were the dominant bottom organisms.
Although a few clean-water forms were still present, biological
degradation was indicated in relation to the upstream station.

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                                                             1*0
             COW - 008 at LR58050 Bridge, Nelson, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was clear and cold.  Caddis-
flies were the predominant organisms in the qualitative sample,
other clean-water forms being stoneflies and mayflies.  Although
the number of kinds had been reduced to nine from 12 upstream,
the bottom organism population indicated some improvement in
water quality at this station.

             COW - 005 at LR58052 Bridge, Tomkins, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station, and filamentous
green algae, water weed (Elodea), and duckweed were observed.
The qualitative sample consisted of 13 kinds of bottom organisms,
caddisflies and mayflies being most abundant.  Other clean-water
forms included stoneflies, fishflies, and water pennies.  The
biological conditions indicated an improvement in water quality
at this station.

             COW - 002 at U.S.G.S. Gaging Station one mile west
                   of Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear and cold, arid minnows were
easily observed.  Heavy growths of filamentous green algae and
water weed were also noted.  Fourteen kinds of organisms were
collected in the qualitative sample, with mayflies being the
predominant forms.  Other clean-water forms consisted of caddis-
flies and water pennies.  Good water quality was indicated at
this station.

             COW - 001 Downstream from U. S. Route 15 Bridge
                   at Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania

        At this station the number of kinds increased to 20
versus Ik at the upstream station.  Caddisflies (three kinds)
comprised 202 of the 251 organisms per square foot in the
quantitative sample.  Mayflies (three kinds) and stoneflies
were also abundant.  Other clean-water forms included two kinds
of riffle beetles.  The Cowanesque River contributed good
quality water to the Tioga River at mile 57-6.

             TIO - 056 Downstream from the New York Route 118
                   Bridge at Lindley, New York

        The water at this location still had a bluish-green
tinge of color; however, there was considerably less of the
grayish-gelatinous material on the rocks than there was upstream.

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The rocks in the area were black on the underside.  Bottom organ-
isms still could not be found, apparently the continuing effects
of mine drainage.
             CAN - 0^5 at Steuben County Road 30 Bridge, Arkport,
                   New York

        The Canisteo River enters the Tioga River at mile 1*8.7.
The water at this location was very clear, and numerous minnows
were observed.  A yellow flocculant material covered most of the
rocks.  The qualitative sample indicated the presence of 16
kinds of bottom organisms and included such clean-water forms as
mayflies (four kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), and riffle beetles
(two kinds).  However, only 52 bottom organisms were obtained in
the quantitative sample.  The biological population indicated
unpolluted conditions at this station.

             CAN - 0^2 at Steuben County Road 3^ Bridge, Down-
                   stream from Arkport, New York

        The water at this station was slow moving and very turbid.
The bottom was mucky, making it impossible to reach the middle
of the stream to take a quantitative sample.  Although a few may-
flies were collected, only five kinds of bottom organisms could
be found versus l6 at the upstream station.  Biological degra-
dation had occurred between this station and the one upstream.

             CAN - 039 Downstream from River Street Bridge,
                   Hornell, New York

        Although 12 kinds of bottom organisms were found at
this station, the majority were organic pollution-tolerant forms.
Sludgeworms and leeches (three kinds) were abundant.  Other
organic pollution-tolerant organisms included bloodworms and
air-breathing snails.  The number of organisms in the quantita-
tive sample was quite high, 13,135 per square foot, of which
12,917 were organic pollution-tolerant sLudgeworms.  Bloodworms
and leeches were also abundant in the quantitative sample.
Heavy organic pollution was indicated at this station.

             CAN - 036 at County Road 53 Bridge, South Hornell,
                   New York

        Only two kinds of bottom organisms could be found at
this station.  Sludgeworms and air-breathing snails, both organ-
ic pollution-tolerant forms, were abundant.  The water was
extremely turbid, and the sludge deposits along the shore were

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                                                             1*2
literally "alive" with sludgeworms.  Heavy organic pollution
was indicated at this station.

             CAN - 035 one mile Upstream from Canisteo, New York

        At this station the water continued to be extremely
turbid with a strong sewage odor.  All of the rocks were coated
with a gray slime, and domestic waste solids were observed.
Sludgeworms were extremely abundant; the only other organism
found was a species of bloodworm.  Heavy organic pollution was
still indicated.

             CAN - 032 at County Road kO Bridge, Canisteo, New
                   York

        The water continued to be extremely turbid at this sta-
tion and emitted a sewage odor.  Bottom organisms could not be
found along the shore, and it was impossible to sample out in
the stream because of the undergrowth and mucky swamp conditions
along the stream banks.  Organic pollution still persisted.

             CAN - 031 at County Road U2 Bridge Downstream from
                   Canisteo, New York

        The water at this station was still turbid, and a sewage
odor was present.  Eight kinds of bottom organisms were found,
but practically all were organic pollution-tolerant forms.  The
pollution-tolerant bloodworm was the dominant form and comprised
228 of the 38U organisms per square foot in the quantitative
sample.  Sludgeworms were the second most abundant forms, com-
prising Ikk organisms in the quantitative sampJe.  Dead fish
from a recent fish kill were observed.  Polluted conditions
still existed.

             CAN - 027 at Bridge Crossing in Adrian, New York

        The water at this station was clear, and water weed and
duckweed were abundant.  Moss was also abundant on the rocks.
The number of kinds of bottom organisms had increased to l6 from
eight at the upstream station; clean-water forms such as caddis-
flies (two kinds) and mayflies predominated.  Caddisflies com-
prised U6 of the 102 organisms per square foot in the quantitative
sample.  Other clean-water forms included riffle beetles.  Fisher-
men in the area were observed catching black bullheads, bluegills,
and northern creek chubs.  Recovery from the upstream condition
appeared to be occurring at this point.

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             CAN - 02k at the New York Route k2 Bridge, Down-
                   stream from Adrian, New York

        The water at this station was clear with a profuse growth
of aquatic plants.  Numerous minnows and suckers were observed.
The number of kinds of organisms at this station had been re-
duced to nine from the 16 upstream; however, caddisflies and
mayflies were the predominant forms.  Good water quality was
still indicated.

             CAN - 021 at County Road h2 Bridge, Downstream from
                   West Cameron, New York

        The qualitative sample contained 11 kinds of organisms,
an increase compared to the nine upstream.  Mayflies (two kinds)
were extremely abundant and were found on every rock.  An improve-
ment in water quality was indicated at this station.

             CAN - 017 at County Road Qk Bridge, Cameron Mills,
                   New York

        Mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), and cray-
fish were abundant at this station.  The number of kinds of bot-
tom organisms increased to Ik over the 11 upstream.  Improved
biological conditions are indicated.  Some nutrient enrichment
was suggested by the extremely heavy growths of submerged aquatic
plants and filamentous green algae.

             CAN - 012 Upstream from County Road 86 Bridge at
                   Rathbone, New York

        Because of an impoundment at this station, sampling was
confined to the shoreline.  Only five kinds of bottom organisms
were observed.  Good water quality was indicated.

             CAN - 006 at New York Route 17 Bridge, Addison,
                   New York

        The number of kinds of bottom organisms had increased
to nine at this station versus five upstream.  Mayflies (two
kinds) and caddisflies were abundant.  Other clean-water forms
included water pennies and hellgrammites.  In addition, numerous
smallmouth bass were observed.,  Good water quality was indicated.

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             CAN - 000 at U. S. Route 15 Bridge, south of Erwins,
                   New York

        The number of kinds of bottom organisms increased to 21
at this station from nine upstream.  Clean-water forms such as
mayflies (three kinds), caddisflies (four kinds), stoneflies,
riffle beetles (two kinds), "Unio" mussels, and a species of
gill-breathing snails were found.  Mayflies and caddisflies were
very abundant„  Numerous fish including catfish, suckers, and
minnows were readily observed.  High quality water from the
Canisteo River enters the Tioga River at mile 48,7«

             TIO - OkQ at U.S.G.S. Gaging Station Downstream
                   from Erwins, New York

        The water at this station was deep, clear, and slow
moving.  Although bottom organisms were sparse, 13 kinds were
found, with mayflies (two kinds) being the most abundant.
Other clean-water forms included caddisflies and riffle beetles.
This station exhibited the best biological conditions of the
Tioga River, apparently the effect of high quality water enter-
ing upstream from the Canisteo River.

             COH - 038 at U. S. Route 15 Bridge, Cohocton, New
                   York

        The Cohocton River joins the Tioga River at mile 1+5.1 to
form the Chemung River.  A total of 16 kinds of bottom organisms
were collected at this station, including such clean-water forms
as mayflies (four kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), stoneflies,
and riffle beetles (two kinds).  A total of 176 organisms were
collected in the quantitative sample.  Mayflies and caddisflies
were the predominant forms.  The water at this station was clear,
and minnows and darters were extremely numerous.  A species of
madtom, a member of the catfish family, was also collected in
the qualitative sample.  Good water quality was indicated at
this station.

             COH - 025 Upstream from U. S. Route 15 Bridge,
                   Kanona, New York

        Although the number of kinds of bottom organisms at this
station had been reduced to 11 from 16 upstream, caddisflies,
mayflies, and stoneflies were abundant.  Caddisflies (two kinds)
were extremely abundant, comprising 575 of the 670 organisms in
the quantitative sample.  Mayflies (two kinds), stoneflies, and
riffle beetles (two kinds) were also collected in the quantita-
tive sample.  The water at this location was clear and cold, and

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many white suckers were observed.  Excellent "biological condi-
tions were indicated.

             COH - 018 at Comity Road 77 Bridge Downstream from
                   Bath, New York

        The number of kinds of bottom organisms increased from
11 upstream to 18 at this station.  Caddisflies were abundant
and comprised 2h8 of the 512 organisms in the quantitative
sample.  Other clean-water forms included a gill-breathing
snail, a "Unio" mussel, and riffle beetles (two kinds).  Good
water quality was still present .

             COH - 006 at County Road 98, Curtis, New York

        The number of kinds of organisms at this station remained
at 18, but the number of organisms per square foot increased to
707 from the 512 upstream.  Midges and caddis flies were the domi-
nant organisms in the quantitative sample, comprising 622 of the
total count.  Clean-water forms such as mayflies (two kinds) and
water pennies were also sampled.  The water was clear at this
location and contained heavy growths of aquatic vegetation, sug-
gesting nutrient enrichment.  During August 1965, a fish kill
occurred in this area.  However, at the time of sampling, unpol-
luted biological conditions were found to exist, and the cause
of the fish kill apparently did not affect the bottom organisms.

             COH - 001 Upstream from U. S. Route 15 and New York
                   Route 17 Bridge at Painted Post, New York

        The number of kinds of bottom organisms had increased to
2it at this station from 18 upstream and included such clean-water
forms as mayflies (three kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), stone-
flies, hellgrammites , riffle beetles (two kinds), and fishflies.
Caddisflies (187) and mayflies (86) were the most abundant forms
in the quantitative sample of 380 organisms per square foot.
Excellent biological conditions were indicated at this station.
The Cohocton River contributed high quality water to the Chemung
River at mile 1+5.1.
             CHM - (M at New York Route 17 Bridge, at the west
                   edge of Corning, New York

        This was the most upstream biological station on the
Chemung River.  The water at this station was very clear with a
profuse growth of submerged aquatic plants and filamentous green
algae.  Smallmouth bass were extremely abundant in the area.
Eleven kinds of bottom organisms were collected.  Caddisflies

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                                                             1*6
(three kinds), being the most abundant, comprised 83 of the 95
organisms per square foot in the quantitative sample.  Other
clean-water forms included mayflies (two kinds) and stoneflies.
Unpolluted biological conditions were indicated at this station.

             CHM - OU2 at New York Route 17 Bridge, at the east
                   edge of Corning, New York

        The number of kinds of bottom organisms at this station
increased to 13 from 11 upstream, and the number of organisms
per square foot increased to 1^7 from 95 upstream.  The predomi-
nant forms at this station were midge larvae.  Caddisflies were
still abundant, but mayflies were sparse, and stoneflies could
not be found.  Some smallmouth bass and rock bass were observed.
Unpolluted biological conditions were still indicated.

             CHM - 036 at County Road 32 Bridge Upstream from
                   Big Flats, New York

        The water at this station was very clear with a profuse
growth of filamentous green algae, indicating nutrient enrich-
ment from upstream.  A quantitative sample could not be taken
because of the absence of riffle areas and a sharp drop-off of
the river bottom near the bank.  Although one kind of mayfly
was found, most of the bottom organisms were intermediate and
pollution-tolerant.  The number of kinds had decreased from 13
upstream to seven at this station; all were sparse in numbers.
Degradation from the upstream station was indicated.

             CHM - 030 at County Road h2 Bridge Upstream from
                   West Elmira, New York

        The water was clear at this station, and numerous fish
were observed.  Sampling conditions were very poor due to the
lack of riffle areas and the mucky bottom.  Only two kinds of
bottom organisms could be found, one of which was a pollution-
tolerant air-breathing snail.  The reduction in number of kinds
at this station indicated degraded conditions exist in relation
to the upstream station.

             CHM - 026 Downstream from Madison Avenue Bridge,
                   Elmira, New York

        The number of kinds of organisms at this station in-
creased to 18 from the two at the upstream station.  Clean-water
forms included mayflies (five kinds) and a gill-breathing snail.
Mayflies and midges were abundant.  Young smallmouth bass were
extremely abundant, and fishermen were observed "reeling in"
their catch.  Good quality water was indicated at this station.

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             NEW - 005 at County Road 18 Bridge, Elmira Heights,
                   New York

        Newton, Creek enters the Chemung River at mile 2b.$,  The
water at this station was cloudy with heavy growths of duckweed
and filamentous green algae.  A few mayflies were sampled, but
the dominant forms were organic pollution-tolerant air-breathing
snails and the intermediate sow-bugs.  Only six kinds of bottom
organisms were found, with the majority being organic pollution-
tolerant and intermediate forms.  A quantitative sample could not
be taken because of steep banks and sharp drop-off of the river
bottom.  Poor water quality was indicated.

             NEW - 000 Downstream from New York Route 17-E Bridge

        The water was very cloudy at this station.  Only seven
kinds of bottom organisms were found in the qualitative sample.
Sludgeworms (218) and air-breathing snails (k3) were the pre-
dominant forms in the quantitative sample which consisted of
330 organisms.  Moderate organic pollution was indicated at this
station.  Newton Creek contributed poor quality water to the
Chemung River.

             CHM - 019 at New York Route 367 Bridge, Wellsburg,
                   New York

        Deep water, due to a sharp drop-off of the river bottom,
was experienced at this station.  The water was clear, and some
smallmouth bass were observed.  The number of kinds of bottom
organisms decreased from 18 upstream to lU at this station.
Mayflies were sparse, and only one kind could be found.  The
only other clean-water organisms found were a riffle beetle and
a gill-breathing snail; the majority of the organisms were
pollution-tolerant and intermediates.  Degraded conditions
existed in relation to the upstream station.

             CHM - 013 at County Road 30 Bridge, southwest of
                   Chemung, New York

        The water was very clear at this station and contained
heavy growths of submerged aquatic vegetation and filamentous
green algae.  Eleven kinds of bottom organisms were found at
this station versus the Ik upstream.  The only clean-water
organisms were gill-breathing snails (two kinds).  The dominant
organisms in the quantitative sample were sludgeworms, compris-
ing 56 of the 71 organisms in the square foot sample.  Degraded
conditions were indicated compared to the upstream station.

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                                                             1*8
             CHM - 005 at LR08066 Bridge, west of Sayre,
                   Pennsylvania

        Caddis flies (four kinds) and mayflies (six kinds) vere
abundant at this station.  Other clean-water forms included
stoneflies and riffle beetles (two kinds).  The number of kinds
of bottom organisms increased from 11 upstream to 20 at this
station.  Caddisf'lies (158), mayflies (115), and stoneflies
(nine) were the predominant forms in the square foot sample
which consisted of 51^ organisms.  Based on the bottom organisms,
a great improvement in water quality was indicated at this sta-
tion.  The Chemung River contributed good quality water to the
Susquehanna River.

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         WEST BRANCH SUSQUEHANNA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES


Main Stem - WBS_ - 237 at LR110^5 Bridge Upstream from Elmora,
                  Pennsylvania

        Considerable coal mining activities were occurring in
the area of this station.  Iron compounds were evident on all
of the rocks, and heavy coal fines were observed in the stream.
Garbage from homes in the vicinity was mixed with organic sludge
deposits on the stream bottom.  The stream is quite narrow and
shallow in this area.  Only a sparse population of organic
pollution-tolerant bloodworms could be found.  The West Branch
of the Susquehanna River was polluted at its headwaters with
mine drainage, coal fines, and organic wastes.
        Chest Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at mile
                                        205.3

             CHS - 001 at LR1T002 Bridge, Mahaffey, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station, and minnows and
darters were abundant.  Only nine kinds of bottom organisms were
found, but they included such clean-water forms as stoneflies,
mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies, and riffle beetles.  Only 17
organisms per square foot were obtained in the quantitative
sample, consisting of five mayflies, four caddisflies, three
Beetle larvae, three riffle beetles, one dragonfly, and one
stonefly.  The pH at this station ranged from 6.0 to 6.5.  The
acidic water of the West Branch Susquehanna River soon overcame
the slightly alkaline water entering from Chest Creek.
Main Stem - WBS - 201 at T^l8 Bridge Upstream from Curry Run,
                  Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear, and heavy iron compounds were
observed on the rocks.  A few caddisflies and one mayfly were
found in one small section of the stream; elsewhere, bottom or-
ganisms could not be found.  These organisms are believed to be
contributed by Chest Creek and were eliminated downstream by the
acidic water in the West Branch Susquehanna River.  The pH at
this station was IK 9 at the time of sampling.

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                                                             50
Main Stem - WBS - 185 at Irwln Park near Curwensville, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station, and heavy iron com-
pounds were observed on the rocks throughout the area.  Bottom
organisms could not be found, apparently the effect of mine drain-
age pollution.
Main Stem - WBS - IJk Downstream from Pennsylvania Route 153
                  Bridge, Clearfield, Pennsylvania

        The stream and biological characteristics at this station
were identical to the upstream station, still indicating the
presence of mine drainage.
        Clearfield Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem
                                             at mile 171-5

             CLR - 001 east of Clearfield, Pennsylvania, 0.5 mile
                   downstream from U. S. Route 322 Bridge

        The water was very clear at this station, and heavy iron
compounds were observed on the rocks.  The pH at time of sampling
was 3.8.  Only a few beetle larvae and a few midge larvae could
be found.  Clearfield Creek contributed mine drainage to the
West Branch Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - WBS - 163 Downstream from Pennsylvania Route 970
                  Bridge, Shawville, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station, and heavy iron com-
pounds were observed on the rocks.  Bottom organisms were absent.
Elevated water temperatures, as a result of a steam power plant
in the vicinity of Shawville, were observed at this station.
Stream data have indicated temperatures as high as 56° C.

        Moshannon Creek Basin - 3 stations - enters main stem
                                             at mile 135.5

             MOS - 03^ at Pine Street Bridge, Philipsburg,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear at this station, and heavy iron
compounds were observed on the rocks.  Sludge deposits and evi-
dence of domestic pollution were present.  The only bottom

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organism present was an organic pollution-tolerant bloodworm.
A specific conductivity of 1,250 (micromhos at 25° C) and a
pH as low as 3.2 have been recorded at this location.  Mine
drainage and organic pollution were indicated at this station.

             MOS - 005 Upstream from Pennsylvania Route 53 Bridge
                   and the confluence of Black Moshannon Creek

        The water was very clear, and heavy iron compounds were
observed on the rocks at this station.  Bottom organisms could
not be found.  Specific conductivities of 1,000 to 1,UOO (micromhos
at 25° C) and pH readings of 3.1 to 3-5 were recorded at this
location.  Moshannon Creek contributed mine drainage to the West
Branch Susquehanna River.

             BLK - 000 at Confluence with Moshannon Creek

        Only a few stoneflies could be found at this station on
Black Moshannon Creek.  The water was clear, and light iron com-
pounds were observed on the rocks.  The alkalinity contributed
by Black Moshannon Creek was soon overcome by the acidic water
of Moshannon Creek.
Main Stem - WBS - 132 at Pennsylvania Route 879 Bridge, Karthaus,
                  Pennsylvania

        Again at this station the water was clear with heavy iron
compounds noticeable on the rocks.  Specific conductivity readings
of 300 to 1,190 (micromhos at 25° C) and pH readings of 3.2 to
b.h were recorded at this location.  Bottom organisms could not
be found.  Mine drainage continued to exert adverse effects at
this station.

        Mosquito Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at
                                           mile 132.2

             MOQ - 000 Downstream from Pennsylvania Route 8J9
                   Bridge near Karthaus, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station, and light iron com-
pounds were noticed on the rocks.  Only a few stoneflies could
be found.  The alkalinity contributed by Mosquito Creek was soon
overcome by the acidic water of the West Branch Susquehanna River.

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                                                             52

                                 *
        Sinnemahoning Creek Basin  - 6 stations - enters main stem
                                                  at mile 110.2

*
   The Driftwood Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek and Bennett Branch
   join to form the main stem of the Sinnemahoning Creek.  The
   Driftwood Branch is considered the main stem and is, therefore,
   indexed as a continuation of Sinnemahoning Creek.

             DBS - 035 at Emporium, Pennsylvania

        The Driftwood Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek was sampled
immediately upstream from the Sinnemahoning-Portage Creek con-
fluence.  Only five kinds of organisms were found in the quali-
tative sample and consisted of a few water pennies, limpets,
crayfish, and air-breathing snails.  This station was sampled
on October 12, 1965.  On August 29, 1965, there was a fish kill
due to a fuel oil spill at Emporium and may be the reason for
the sparse bottom organism population.  Driftwood Branch has a
low alkalinity reserve and, consequently, rather unstable bio-
logical conditions prevail.

             SPC - 000 Upstream from the mouth at Emporium,
                   Pennsylvania

        Sinnemahoning-Portage Creek was sampled about 50 yards
upstream from its mouth.  The water was very clear at this sta-
tion, and numerous minnows were observed.  Only three kinds of
bottom organisms were found; these consisted of caddisflies,
air-breathing snails, and bloodworms.  A quantitative sample
was not taken because of the sparse organism population.  The
forms of organisms suggested that Sinnemahoning-Portage Creek
contributed slightly better quality water to the Driftwood
Branch than that found at the upstream station on Driftwood
Branch.

             DBS - Ol6 at Pennsylvania Route 555 Bridge, Drift-
                   wood, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station, and some suckers,
minnows, and a few sunfish were observed.  Bottom organisms were
sparse, and only six kinds were found, including such clean-water
forms as mayflies, caddisflies, and water pennies.  Air-breathing
snails were the dominant forms.  Driftwood Branch has a low alka-
linity reserve and is subject to occasional mine drainage pollu-
tion downstream from Sterling Run.  Unstable chemical conditions
in the stream are presumably responsible for the poor bottom
organism population at this station.

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                                                             53
             BBS - 000 Upstream from Driftwood Branch at Drift-
                   wood, Pennsylvania

        Bennett Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek was sampled about
200 yards upstream from the confluence with Driftwood Branch.
Very heavy iron compounds were found on all of the rocks at this
station.  Bottom organisms could not be foundo  Specific conduc-
tivity readings of 275 to 750 (micromhos at 25° C) and pH readings
of 3.U to H.O were recorded at this station,,  Bennett Branch con-
tributed mine drainage to Sinnemahoning Creek,

             PFS - 000 Near Pennsylvania Route 872, Upstream
                   from U. S, Route 120

        This station on the First Fork of Sinnemahoning Creek
was located about O.k mile upstream from the mouth.  The water
was clear, and deer were observed drinking from the stream.  The
specific conductivity readings ranged from 75 to 120 (micromhos
at 25° C) and pH readings ranged from 6.0 to 6.5 at this station.
Only seven kinds of bottom organisms were found; these included
such clean-water forms as water pennies and an abundance of may-
flies (three kinds) and caddisflies (two kinds).  The quantita-
tive sample consisted of 11 mayflies and two water pennies.  The
low number of organisms in the square foot sample was attributed
to the large rocks which reduced the effectiveness of the sampler.
The First Fork contributed high quality water to Sinnemahoning
Creek.

             SIN - 000 Downstream from the Bridge at Keating,
                   Pennsylvania

        This station was the most downstream sampling location
on Sinnemahoning Creek.  The water was very clear at this loca-
tion, and iron compounds were observed on all the rocks.  Specif-
ic conductivity readings ranged from 95 to UlO (micromhos at
25° C), and pH readings ranged from U.3 to 6.5-  Bottom organisms
could not be found.  Sinnemahoning Creek contributed mine drain-
age pollution to the West Branch.
Main Stem - WBS - 105 at Westport, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear, and iron compounds were noticed on
all of the rocks at this station.  A few midge larvae could be
found, but because of sparse populations, a quantitative sample
was not taken.  Mine drainage still exerted an adverse effect
on the biological habitat.

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        Kettle Creek Basin - 5 stations - enters main stem at
                                          mile IOU.1

             KET - 006 near LR180C3, Upstream from Westport,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water was quite clear at this station.  Thirteen
kinds of bottom organisms were collected, including clean-water
forms such, as stoneflies, mayflies (four kinds), and caddisflies
(two kinds) o   Sixty-two organisms were collected in the square
foot sample which consisted of mayflies (i+8), aquatic earthworms
(six), stoneflies (five), dragonflies (two), and a midgeo  Other
bottom organisms found at this station were crayfish and damsel-
flies.  Fishermen were observed in the area at the time of sam-
pling.  Unpolluted biological conditions are indicated at this
location.
             KET - OQi* at U.S.G..S. Gaging Station Upstreajn from
                   Westport, Pennsylvania

        A green gelatinous growth covered the rocks on the west
side, while on the east side the gel was brown and dead.  On the
east side, iron compounds were observed upstream on the rocks,
and some foaming was observed at the surface of the water.  Nine
kinds of bottom organisms were found and included clean-water
forms such as stoneflies, mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies (two
kinds), and riffle beetles.  Bottom organisms were very sparse;
therefore, a quantitative sample was not taken.  Acidic water
appeared to be leaching into the stream from the east bank.  The
acidic water apparent3.y was the reason for the reduction in bot-
tom organisms from 13 kinds upstream to nine kinds at this loca-
tion.  This station exhibited biological degradation in relation
to the upstream station.

             KET - 002 Upstream from Two Mile Run

        At this station the rocks were coated with iron compounds
arid dead moss,  Bottom organisms could not be found.

             TWO - 000 at LR18003 Bridge Upstream from Westport,
                   Pennsylvania

        Two Mile Run was sampled at its mouth immediately upstream
from the confluence with Kettle Creek at mile 1,75-.  Iron com-
pounds were heavy on the rocks at this station, and the pH was
U.2.  Bottom organisms could not be found „  Two Mile Run contrib-
uted mine drainage to Kettle Creek,

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                                                             55
             KET - 000 at U. S. Route 120 Bridge, Westport,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear with heavy iron compounds ob-
served on all of the rocks at this station.  Bottom organisms
could not be found.  Kettle Creek contributes mine drainage to
the West Branch Susquehanna River.
Main Stem - WBS - 10U Downstream from Kettle Creek

        The water was very clear at this station, and heavy iron
compounds were observed on the rocks.  Bottom organisms could
not be found.  Mine drainage was indicated.
Main Stem - WBS_ - 098 at Pennsylvania Route Ihk Bridge,Renovo,
                  Pennsylvania

        The water was clear, and heavy iron compounds were pres-
ent on all of the rocks at this station.  Numerous children were
observed swimming in the area.  Conductivity readings of 275 to
9^0 (micromhos at 25° C) and pH readings of 3.H to h.O were re-
corded at this location.  Only a few sludgeworms were found.
Mine drainage was still indicated at this station.
Main Stem - WBS -  070 at Pennsylvania Route 66k Bridge, Lock
                  Haven, Pennsylvania

        The water was quite deep at this station due to impounded
conditions created by the dam downstream.  Heavy swimming and
boating were observed at this location.  Outfalls from private
homes were noted, and domestic waste solids were observed through-
out the area.  Because of the river depth, sampling had to be
confined to the bank.  Only organic pollution-tolerant blood-
worms and sludgeworms, and sow-bugs were found at this station.
The quantitative sample contained sludgeworms (507), bloodworms
(256), and a sow-bug.  The pH at this station is usually IK 5 or
lower.  Organic pollution and mine drainage were indicated.

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                                                             56
        North Bald Eagle Creek Basin - 18 stations - enters main
                                                     stem at mile
                                                     67,7

             SPN - 015 at FAS-G71 Bridge, Oak Hall, Pennsylvania

        Spring Creek is a tributary which enters North Bald
Eagle Creek at mile 28.1.  The water was clear at this station.
Thirteen kinds of bottom organisms were found, including such
clean-water forms as stoneflies, mayflies (two kinds), and caddis-
flies (three kinds).  Tne sow-bug was the dominant organism in
the quantitative sample.  Unpolluted biological conditions were
indicated.

             SPN - 013 at LR11+039 Bridge Downstream from Lemont,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water was murky at this station.  Aquatic vegetation
such as water weed, pondweed, and filamentous green algae were
abundant.  Only three kinds of bottom organisms were found versus
13 at the upstream station.  An enormous sow-bug population was
found.  Scuds and flatworms were the other two organisms found.
Definite degradation was indicated in relation to the upstream
station.

             SLB - 002 at LRli+019 Bridge, Lemont, Pennsylvania

        Slab Cabin Run is a tributary entering Spring Creek at
mile 11.  Seven kinds of bottom organisms were collected at this
station and consisted of such clean-water forms as mayflies,
caddisflies, and riffle beetles.  Good water quality was indi-
cated at this station.

             THM - 001 Downstream from Pennsylvania Route 26
                   Bridge and State College, Pennsylvania

        Thompson Run, which enters Slab Cabin Run at mile 0.5,
receives the sewage treatment plant effluent from the Borough
of State College.  The water at this station was slightly murky.
Aquatic vegetation was abundant, indicating high nutrient enrich-
ment from upstream.  Only six kinds of bottom organisms were
sampled, and all were organic pollution-tolerant and intermediate
forms.  Sludgeworms (63^-0 and bloodworms (62) were the dominant
forms in the square foot sample totaling 703 organisms.  Other
forms collected included blackflies, an aquatic earthworm, and
air-breathing snails.  Degraded conditions were indicated at this
station.

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                                                             57
             SLB - 000 at LR1U039 Bridge, Downstream from Lemont,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was murky.  Curly-leaf porid-
weed (Potamogeton crispus) was very abundant.  The bottom was
also silty at this location.  Only five kinds of bottom organ-
isms were found, and all were organic pollution-tolerant and
intermediate forms.  Air-breathing snails were the dominant form.
Slab Cabin Run has experienced low dissolved oxygen readings for
samples taken at night.  Degraded conditions were still indicated.

             SPN - 010 at LRllt039 Bridge, Houserville, Pennsylvania

        The water was murky at this station, and the bottom was
soft with silt.  Water weed was present but was not as profuse
as upstream.  Only five kinds of bottom organisms were found,
and all were organic pollution-tolerant and intermediate forms,
Air-breathing snails were the dominant form.  Degraded conditions
were indicated.

             SPN - 00It at LRlUoitO Bridge between U.3.G.S. Gaging
                   Station and Fishermen's Paradise

        The water at this station was clear, and numerous min-
nows were observed.  Sow-bugs and crayfish were the dominant
forms in the sample.  The only other bottom organism found was
an air-breathing snail.  Mild degradation was still indicated
in relation to the upstream stations.

             SPN - 003 at Pennsylvania Route 550 Bridge Upstream
                   from Bellefonte, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station.  Aquatic plants
such as water weed, curly-leaf pondweed, and algae were present.
Sow-bugs were the dominant bottom organisms.  Other bottom organ-
isms found were crayfish, air-breathing snails, blackflies, and
flatworms.  Mild degradation from upstream was still indicated.

             LOG - 003 at Pennsylvania Route 52, Upstream from
                   Bellefonte, Pennsylvania

        Logan Creek, a tributary to Spring Creek, was sampled
upstream from the Cerro Copper and Brass Plant at Bellefonte.
The water at this station was very clear, and aquatic plants
were observed.  The plants included curly-leaf pondweed, water
cress, a moss, and some filamentous green algae.  Wine kinds of
bottom organisms were found, including such clean-water forms as

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                                                             58
mayflies (two kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), and riffle beetles.
A sculpin (Cottus) was collected in the qualitative sample.  An
enormous population of scuds was present, comprising 2jh of the
556 organisms in the quantitative sample.  Caddisflies (125),
riffle beetles (83), sow-bugs (3^0, mayflies (20), blackflies
(ll), and air-breathing snails were the other organisms in the
square foot sample.  Numerous fish were also observed.  High
water quality was indicated at this station.

             LOG - 001 between Cerro Copper and Brass Plant and
                   Pennsylvania Routes 26 and 550, Bellefonte,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station, and some moss was
observed on the rocks.  Bottom organisms were very sparse, and
only a few flatworms and a couple of midge larvae could be found.
A quantitative sample was not taken because of the sparse organ-
ism population.  Degraded conditions were indicated.  Logan Creek
contributed poor quality water to Spring Creek.

             SPN - 002 at Old Bridge Abutments on TU38 west of
                   Pennsylvania Route 53, Downstream from Belle-
                   fonte, Pennsylvania

        At this station the water was slightly murky, but pond-
weeds, moss, and filamentous green algae were present.  Only
seven kinds of bottom organisms were present, and all were organic
pollution-tolerant and intermediate forms.  Sludgeworms were
abundant; however, the dominant organism was a midge larva which
made up 128 of the 13^ organisms in the quantitative sample.
Leeches, air-breathing snails, fingernail clams, crayfish, and
flatworms were the other organisms collected.  Numerous minnows
were also observed throughout the area.  Mild degradation from
upstream was indicated.

             SPN - 000 west of Junction of Pennsylvania Route 53
                   and U. S. Route 220 Upstream from Milesburg,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water was clear at this station, and numerous minnows
were observed.  Bottom organisms were not abundant, and only
five kinds were found.  A few crayfish were also found in the
quantitative sample.  Bloodworms and midge larvae were the domi-
nant forms and comprised 6h of the 79 organisms in the square
foot sample.  Sludgeworms (13) and riffle beetles (two) were
the other organisms in the square foot sample.  Spring Creek
contributed mild pollution to North Bald Eagle Creek at mile
28.1.

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                                                             59
             NBE - 029 at Miiesburg, Pennsylvania

        North Bald Eagle Creek was first sampled approximately
0.25 mile upstream from the confluence of Spring Creek.  The
water was very clear at this station, and numerous minnows and
smalImouth bass were observed.  Children were observed bathing
downstream.  Seventeen kinds of bottom organisms were collected
in the qualitative sample and included such clean-water forms
as stoneflies, mayflies (five kinds), hellgrammites, caddisflies
(three kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).  A quantitative
sample exhibited an excellent diversification with 13 kinds rep-
resented in the square foot sample of hk5 organisms.  By groups,
the quantitative sample consisted of caddisflies (33'-0, mayflies
(92), riffle beetles (ll), flatworms (three), hellgrammites
(three), a stonefly, and a midge.  Excellent water quality was
indicated.

             NBE - 028 at Miiesburg, Pennsylvania, about 0.2
                   mile Downstream from Spring Creek

        The flow of North Bald Eagle Creek at this station is
substantially increased by the incoming flow of Spring Creek
about 0.1 mile upstream.  The water was clear, and numerous min-
nows were observed.  A sparse population of only five kinds of
bottom organisms was found at this location.  These organisms
consisted of sludgeworms, midge larvae, sow-bugs, fingernail
clams, and crayfish.  The mild pollutional load contributed up-
stream by Spring Creek apparently lowers the quality of water
in North Bald Eagle Creek.

             NBE - 018 Downstream from LRll*-012 Bridge near
                   Howard, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was slightly murky, and dead
algae were observed on the rocks.  The number of kinds of bottom
organisms increased to eight versus five upstream.  The only
clean-water forms were a stonefly, a riffle beetle, and a gill-
breathing snail.  Sow-bugs and crayfish were the dominant organ-
isms present.  Only 23 organisms per square foot were collected
in the quantitative sample, which consisted of midge larvae
(seven), riffle beetles (six), air-breathing snails (four), sow-
bugs (three), crayfish (two), and a gill-breathing snail.
Recovery appeared to be taking place at this station.

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                                                             6o
             BEE - 002 at Beech Creek, Pennsylvania, about 0.2k
                   mile Downstream from U. S. Route 220 Bridge

        The vater at this Beech Creek station was very clear,
and heavy iron compounds were observed on the rocks.  Bottom
organisms were very sparse, and only two hellgrammites and one
beetle larva were found in about one-half hour of sampling.  A
quantitative sample was not taken because of the sparse organism
population.  Mine drainage was indicated.  Beech Creek contributes
poor quality water to North Bald Eagle Creek.

             NBE - 002 at Castanea, Pennsylvania, about 0.25
                   mile Downstream from LR18013 Bridge

        Downstream from the bridge on the north side of the creek,
an outfall emptied raw sewage into the stream.  Sludge deposits
were heavy below this outfall and contained an abundant popula-
tion of sludgeworms.  The water in the vicinity of this outfall
has a heavy floe and contained blood in addition to domestic
wastes.  Gross organic pollution was indicated at this point.

        The station is located at a riffle area approximately
0.25 mile downstream from the outfall.  The water at this loca-
tion was considerably clearer, and 23 kinds of bottom organisms
were found.  These organisms consisted of such clean-water forms
as mayflies (three kinds), caddisflies (two kinds), riffle beetles,
and gill-breathing snails (three kinds).  However, the dominant
forms were organic pollution-tolerant and intermediates, consist-
ing of sludgeworms and sow-bugs.  Only 27 organisms were collected
in the square foot sample, 18 of which were sludgeworms.  North
Bald Eagle Creek contributed a mild organic pollution to the West
Branch Susquehanna River at mile 6T-T-

             PIN - 001 Upstream from U. S. Route 220 Bridge,
                   west of Jersey Shore, Pennsylvania

        The water at this Pine Creek station was very clear,
and numerous smallmouth bass were observed in the area.  Swimmers
were also noted downstream from the bridge.  There appeared to
have been a light fish kill less than a week prior to sampling.
Practically all of the dead fish observed were redhorse suckers.
Fourteen kinds of bottom organisms were collected, including such
clean-water forms as mayflies (three kinds) and caddisflies (four
kinds).  Although mayflies and caddisflies were abundant, only
three organisms were collected in the square foot sample.  The
low number of organisms in the quantitative sample can be attrib-
uted to the very large rocks which made sampling difficult.  This
stream contributed high quality water to the West Branch Susque-
hanna River at mile 57.6

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                                                             61
Main Stem - WBS - 056 Upstream from Pennsylvania Route hhBridge,
                  Jersey Shore, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was clear, and an abundant
growth of aquatic vegetation was observed.  Nine kinds of bottom
organisms were found versus three at the upstream station.  A
few mayflies were collected at this station; however, the domi-
nant organisms were sludgeworms, comprising 1*9 of the 67 organ-
isms collected in the quantitative sample.  The other organisms
collected at this station consisted of aquatic earthworms (nine),
smoky alderflies, midge larvae (four), a sow-bug, a dragonfly
nymph, air-breathing snails, and a beetle larva.  This station
exhibited definite biological improvement over the upstream sta-
tion at Lock Haven; however, moderate biological degradation was
still indicated.
        Lycoming Creek Basin - 2 stations - enters main stem at
                                            mile hi.3

             LYC - 007 at U. S. Route 15 Bridge, Hepburnville,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was very clear and cold.
Eighteen kinds of bottom organisms were collected, consisting
of such clean-water forms as stoneflies (two kinds), mayflies
(five kinds), caddisflies (four kinds), hellgrammites, fishflies,
and riffle beetles.  Only 1+5 organisms were collected in the
square foot sample; however, these were clean-water forms such
as mayflies (l6), caddisflies (ten), stoneflies (four), fish-
flies (three), and a riffle beetle.  Unpolluted biological condi-
tions were indicated at this station.

             LYC - 001 Upstream from U. S. Route 220 Bridge,
                   Williamsport, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was very clear, and numerous
minnows and darters were observed.  Fourteen kinds of bottom
organisms were collected, including such clean-water forms as
mayflies (four kinds), caddisflies (three kinds), and water
pennies.  Although there has been a slight drop in water quality
from the upstream station, unpolluted conditions are still indi-
cated.  Lycoming Creek contributed high quality water to the
West Branch Susquehanna River at mile hi,3,

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                                                             62
Main Stem - WBS - 0^0 Upstream from Maynard Street Bridge,
                  Williamsport, Pennsylvania

        The water was murky at this station, and sludge deposits
were observed near the bank.  Schools of carp and minnows were
observed in the area.  Sampling had to be confined to the shallow
water along the bank due to the sludge deposits and a sharp drop-
off of the river bottom further out in the stream.  Only nine
kinds of bottom organisms were found; all except one kind were
organic pollution-tolerant or intermediate forms.  Sludgeworms
were the dominant forms and comprised 17b of the 185 organisms
collected in the quantitative sample.  Organic pollution from
upstream was indicated.
        Loyalsock Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at
                                            mile 35-2

             LYO - 002 at U. S. Route 220 Bridge, Montoursville,
                   Pennsylvania

        The water at this Loyalsock Creek station was clear, and
numerous suckers and minnows were observed.  An aquatic plant
and light growths of filamentous green algae were present.  Twenty-
one kinds of bottom organisms were collected at this location,
including such clean-water forms as stoneflies (three kinds),
mayflies (five kinds), caddisflies (five kinds), hellgrammites,
and riffle beetles.  The 331 bottom organisms in the quantitative
sample consisted of caddisflies (8U), riffle beetles (8^), may-
flies (79)> stoneflies (15), and a hellgrammite.  This station
exhibited the most favorable biological population in the West
Branch Susquehanna River Basin.  Loyalsock Creek contributed
excellent water quality to the West Branch Susquehanna River at
mile 35.2.
        Muncy Creek Basin - 1 station - enters main stem at mile
                                        27.8

             MUW - 001 at Pennsylvania Route 1^7 Bridge north
                   of Muncy, Pennsylvania

        The water at this station was clear, and minnows and
sunfish were easily observed.  Only 11 kinds of bottom organisms
were collected; however, nine kinds were clean-water forms and
consisted of stoneflies, mayflies (four kinds), caddisflies (two
kinds), and riffle beetles (two kinds).  The quantitative sample
contained mayflies (179), caddisflies (25), blackflies (13), and

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                                                             63
riffle beetles (four).  Muncy Creek contributed high quality
water to the West Branch Susquehanna River at mile 27.8.
Main Stem - WBS - 023 at MontgomeryPark Downstream fromPennsyl
                  vania Routes 5k and ^0_5_Bri dge,_ Montgomery r
                  Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear at this station and was being
used for swimming at the Park.  Minnows were observed through-
out the water.  Sparse numbers of only two kinds of bottom organ
isms could be found; thus, a quantitative sample was not taken.
The organisms found consisted of sow-bugs and caddisflies.  The
station indicated degraded conditions from upstream.  This area
experienced two fish kills from "acid slugs" upstream during
Main Stem - WBS - Ol6 Downstream from Bridge Crossing at Watson-
                  town , Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear, and some pondweed was observed
at this station.  A few bullheads and numerous minnows were noted
in the water.  Sparse populations of only seven kinds of bottom
Organisms could be found; these consisted of caddisflies (three
kinds), midge larvae (two kinds), mayflies, and flatworms.   A
quantitative sample was not taken because of the sparse number
of organisms«  Mild degraded conditions from upstream were still
indicated.  The area experienced two fish kills in 196^, one of
which was a major kill.  These kills were caused by "acid slugs"
from upstream.
Main Stem - WBS - 012 (E. B.) Upstream from PennsylvaniaRoute
                  6U2 Bridge at Milton, Pennsylvania

        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the east bank.  The water was clear,
and minnows were abundant.  Only seven kinds of bottom organisms
were found which consisted of caddisflies (two kinds), mayflies,
water pennies, blackflies, scuds, and a midge larva.  The domi-
nant forms were blackflies which comprised 57 of the 62 organisms
in the square foot sample.  The sparse population of bottom organ-
isms, excluding the blackflies, was believed to be the result of
"acid slugs" from upstream which affect this area once or twice
a year.

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Main Stem - WBS - 012 (W. B. ) Upstream from Pennsylvania Route
                  642 Bridge on Wes t_J^i It/cm, Pennsylvania, sj.de
        This station was located about one-tnird of the way
across the river from the west bank*  The water was clear, and
some minnows were observed.  Numerous swimmers were observed at
the park on an island in the middle of the river*  Nine kinds of
bottom organisms were collected, including blackflies, caddis-
flies (three kinds), mayflies, riffle beetles, midge larvae (two
kinds), and sludgeworms.  Blackflies were the dominant organisms
and comprised 181 of the 3^^ organisms in the square foot sample.
Other organisms collected in the quantitative sample were caddis-
flies (99), riffle beetles (28), midge larvae (17), a mayfly, and
a sludgeworm.  Improved biological conditions over the upstream
station were indicated.  The improvement probably can be attrib-
uted to two small high quality streams. White Deer Creek and White
Deer Hole Creek, which enter from the west "bank upstream from this
station.  Mild degradation, however, was still indicated.
Main Stem - WBS - 008 (E. B.) Downstream from PennsylvaniaRoute
                  1*5 Bridge Opposite Lewisburg, Pennsylvania

        This station was located about one-third of the way
across the river from the east bank.  Some floe was observed in
the water, and blue-green algae were observed on the rocks at
this station.  Upstream, in the vicinity of the bridge, sludge
deposits were observed near the bank.  Numerous minnows were ob-
served in the riffle area at the sampling station.  Only six
kinds of bottom organisms could be found, and, except for a few
mayflies and caddisflies, were predominately pollution-tolerant
organisms.  Bloodworms comprised 160 of the 192 organisms in the
square foot sample.  Other organisms found were leeches, sludge-
worms, and blackflies.  Mild organic pollution was indicated at
this station.
Main Stem - WES - 008 (W. B.) Downstream from Pennsylvania Route
                  i+5 Bridge, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania

        This station was located about one-third of the way
across the river from the west bank.  The water was very clear,
and large numbers of minnows were observed.  Bullheads, green
sunfish, darters, and suckers were also observed.  This fish
population was the most abundant observed at any station on the
m&in stem of the West Branch Susquehanna River.  Some filamentous
green algae, primarily Hydrodictyon, and moss were observed on
the rocks.

-------

-------
                                                             65
        Fifteen kinds of bottom organisms were found at this
station and included such clean-water forms as mayflies (three
kinds) and caddisflies (two kinds).  Caddisflies (101), mayflies
(100), midge larvae (39), and blackflies (?.k) were the dominant
forms of the 278 organisms collected in the square foot sample.
Unpolluted biological conditions were indicated at this station.
The improvement over the upstream station can be attributed
partially to the high quality water from Buffalo Creek which
enters the West Branch Susquehanna River at mile 7.8.
Main Stem - WBS - OOP (E. B.) at U. S. Route 11 Bridge, North-
                  umberland , Pennsylvania.

        This station was located approximately one-third of the
way across the river from the east bank.  The water was very
clear at this station.  Aquatic plants (water weed and pondweed),
numerous minnows, and a few carp and sunfish were observed.  Only
four kinds of bottom organisms were collected, and these consisted
of mayflies, caddisflies, midge larvae, and sludgeworms.  Only
11 organisms were collected in the square foot sample.  The small
diversification in kinds of bottom organisms and low productivity
were believed to be due to the unstable water quality conditions
that were experienced at this station one or more times annually
in recent years.  This reach is subject to "acid slug" conditions
which originate in the upstream reaches arid affect the river as
far downstream as Northumberland or Selinsgrove on the main stem.
Main Stem - WBS - OOP (W. B.) at U. S. Route 11 Bridge, Opposite
                  Northumberland, Pennsylvania

        This station was located about one-third of the way across
the river from the west bank.  The water was very clear at this
station, and numerous minnows and smallmouth bass were observed.
Fishermen were also noticed in the area.  Eight kinds of bottom
organisms were collected, consisting of mayflies (four kinds),
caddisflies, bloodworms, midge larvae, and smoky alderfly larvae.
Only 66 bottom organisms per square foot were collected; these
were bloodworms (39), midge larvae (22), smoky alderflies (three),
and mayflies (two).  This station exhibited a substantial reduc-
tion in kinds (eight versus 15 upstream).  The bottom organism
Population at this station has been affected by the "acid slugs"
which originate in the upstream reaches and have reached this
area one or more times annually in recent years.  The West Branch
Susquehanna River contributed very little toward the improvement
of water quality in the Susquehanna River.

-------
                                              66
             TABLE I




       BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA




SUSQUEHANNA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
Station
Location
Susquehanna River
at Cooperstown, N. Y.
near Emmons, N. Y.
at Oneonta, N; Y.
upstream from Unadilla,
N. Y.
Unadilla River
Susquehanna River
at Bainbridge, N. Y.
at Afton, N. Y.
at Windsor, N. Y.
between Oakland and
Susquehanna, Pa.
at Hallstead, Pa.
at Conklin, N. Y.
Chenango River
Payne Brook
Unnamed Tributary
to Payne Brook

Payne Brook
Chenango River
Chenango River
Chenango River
Chenango River
Chenango River
Chenango River
Chenango River
Tioughnioga River
West Branch
Tioughnioga River

Tioughnioga River
Tioughnioga River
Tioughnioga River
Tioughnioga River
Station
Code

SUQ-1*1*7
SUQ-1*21
SUQ-1*18

SUQ-399
UND-001

SUQ-388
SUQ-382
SUQ-363

SUQ-352
SUQ-31*1*
SUQ-337

PAY-005

UWP-002

PAY-001
CHA-070
CHA-063
CHA-057
CHA-052
CHA-039
CHA-022
CHA-Oll*
TOG-036

WBT-OOl*

TOG-033
TOG-031
TOG-025
TOG-020
Bottom
River Number
Mile of Kinds

1*1*7
1*21.3
1*17.9

399
392.1* -

388.3
382.1
362.7

352
31*1*
337
327.6
327.6 -

327.6 -
-
327.6 -
327.6 -
327.6 -
327.6 -
327.6 -
327.6 -
327.6 -
327-6 -
327.6 -

327.6 -
_
327.6 -
327.6 -
327.6 -
327.6 -






1.0









82.9 - 5.0

82.9 - 3.0
2.0
82.9 - i.o
70.0
63.0
57-1
51.5
39.2
22.0
ll*.2
13.7 - 36.2

13.7 - 31*. 7
i*.o
13.7 - 33.8
13.7 - 31.0
13.7 - 25.3
13.7 - 20.1*

10
21
16

22
ll*

18
21*
18

13
16
12

ll*


9
10
9
13
10
8
6
12
25
21


18
ll*
12
15
17
Organisms
Number Per
Square Foot

606
276
165

90
21*

725
61*
536

___
231
60

176

*
—
351*
—
*

*
#

61*6
58


1*35
66
1*57
131**
—

-------
TABLE I (Continued)
                                       67
Station
Location
Tioughnioga River
Otselic River

Tioughnioga River
Chenango River
Chenango River
^ "I nit7 t-t — ^ S'C-'CY- ~.>J.(e (
Susquehanna River
at Johnson City, N. Y.
(E. B.)
at Johnson City, N. Y.
(W. B.)
at Endicott, N. Y.
(W. B.)
at Endicott, N. Y.
(W. B.)
•if- at Vestal, N. Y.
(E. B.)
at Apalachin, N. Y.
at Owego, N. Y.
at Smithboro, N. Y.
at Sayre, Pa.
Chemung River
Susquehanna River
at Ulster, Pa.
at Towanda, Pa.
Towanda Creek
Susquehanna River
at Durrell, Pa.
at Wyalusing, Pa.
at Men oop any, Pa.
Tunkhannock Creek
Susquehanna River
at Falls, Pa.
at Coxton Railroad
Bridge
Lackawanna River
Lackawanna River
Station
Code
TOG-013
OST-006

TOG-000
CHA-006
CHA-000
' -SV <: Si> t,y


SUQ-325

SUQ-325

SUQ-319

SUQ-318
3;i 6
SUQ-3if
SUQ-313
SUQ-305
SUQ-295
SUQ-286


SUQ-276
SUQ-269
TOW-001

SUQ-261
SUQ-2l*9
SUQ-228
TUK-001

SUQ-206

SUQ-196
LAK-OU
LAK-Ol*l
River
Mile
327.6 - 13.7 - 13-0
327.6 - 13.7 - 9.6
- 6.0
327.6 - 13.0 - 0
327.6 - 6.0
327.6 - Q.k
-.?,7)


321*. 5

32l*.5

319

318. U
.fife
3±t
313.1*
30l*.6
295
286
281.6

276.3
268.8
267.5 - i.o

261.2
21*8.7
228.1*
216.5 - i.o

205.8

196.2
195.1+ _ l+l+.o
195.1* - 1*1.0
Bottom
Number
of Kinds
17

17
13
16
10



5

21

2

1

18
li*
17
22
9
Organisms
Number Per
Square Foot
155

502
^2*

ll*l


#


57
$

4t


115
53
1*92
872*
	
(See Table II )

ll*
ll*
12

12
21
16
13

28

10
20
8
tt
~~™~4fr
~""~4fr

3f
— — — ^
""""""#
~"~™"~4t

#


%
191*


-------
                            TABLE I (Continued)
                                                                   68
Station
Location

Lackawanna
Lackavanna
Lackawanna
Lackawanna
Lackawanna
Lackawanna
Lackawanna
Lackawanna
Lackawanna

River
River
River
River
River
River
River
River
River
Station
Code

LAK-039
LAK-031
LAK-027
LAK-023
LAK-018
LAK-013
LAK-005
LAK-003
LAK-001
River
Mile

195.
195.
195.
195.
195.
195.
195-
195.
195.

k -
4 -
k -
h -
k -
k -
k -
k -
k -

39.
31.
27.
22.
17.
12.
1*.
3.
0.

k
0
1
7
9
8
5
3
9
Bottom Organisms
Number Number Per
Of Kinds Sguare Foot

7
10
3
4
3
3
3
1
2



32


95
6
12

#
#

,895
35
96
,61*2
,398
,865
562
Susquehanna River
  at Pittston, Pa.
    (E. B.j
  at West Pittston, Pa.
    (W. B.)
  at Wyoming, Pa.
    (E. B.)
  at Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
    (E. B.)
  at Kingston, Pa.
    (W. B.)
  at lona, Pa. (E. B.)
  at Plymouth, Pa.
    (W. B.)
  Solomon's Creek
  Warrior Run

Susquehanna River
  at Nanticoke, Pa.
    (E. B.)
  at Retreat State
    Hospital (E. B.)
  at Shickshinny, Pa.
    (W. B.)
  Wapwallopen Creek
  Wapwallopen Creek
                           SUQ-194  194

                           SUQ-194  194

                           SUQ-192  192

                           SUQ-186  186.2

                           SUQ-186  186.2
                           SUQ-184  184

                           SUQ-184  184
                           SOL-001  182.2 -
                           WAR-001  180.8 -



                           SUQ-179  178.9

                           SUQ-171*  173.7

                           SUQ-169  169
                           WAP-019  164.4
                           WAP-OOO  164.4
Susquehanna River
  at Nescopeck, Pa.
    (E. B.)                SUQ-159
  at Berwick, Pa. (W.  B.)  SUQ-159
         1.0
         1.0
        19.0
         0
159.1
159.1
10

14

 6

 7

13
 5

 9
 o
 o


 2

 6

 5
 9
20
14
 8
                                    235
                                     88

                                     14
                                    101
  0
  0
210
358
355

-------
TABLE I (Continued)
                                       69
Station
Location

Nescopeck Creek
Nescopeck Creek
Little Nescopeck
Creek
Nescopeck Creek
Nescopeck Creek
Susquehanna River
at Mifflinville, Pa.
(E. B.)
at Blooms burg, Pa.
(W. B.)
Fishing Creek
Susquehanna River
at Catawissa, Pa.
(E. B.)
at Catawissa, Pa.
(W. B.)
Catawissa Creek
Catawissa Creek
Catawissa Creek
Catawissa Creek
Susquehanna River
at Riverside, Pa.
(E. B.)
at Danville, Pa.
(W. B.)
at Northumberland, Pa.
(E. B.)
at Northumberland, Pa.
(Middle)
at Northumberland, Pa.
(W. B.)
Station
Code

NES-039
WES-023

NLN-001
NES-018
NES-001


SUQ-155

SUQ-1U7
FIS-000


SUQ-lUl*

SUQ-ll*l*
CTW-031
CTW-021*
CTW-007
CTW-000


SUQ-135

SUQ-135

SUQ-121*

SUQ-121*

SUQ-121*


158.9
158.9

158.9
158.9
158.9


15^.5

ll*7.2
11*5.1*


11*3.6

11*3.6
11*3.5
ll*3. 5
11*3.5
11*3.5


135

135

123.7

123.7

123.7
River
Mile

- 39.0
- 23.0

- 18.0 -
- 18.0
- 1.0





- 0





- 31.0
- 21+.0
- 7.0
- 0











Bottom
Number
Of Kinds

7
8

1.0 0
0
3


5

2
8


7

5
1
1
2
3


1*

1*

12

12

10
Organisms
Number Per
Square Foot
*

	

0
0
116


	
*

8


156

27*

	
*
ll*


1*6

ill*

61

398

372

-------
                                             TO
           TABLE II




     BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA




CHEMUNG RIVER AIv'B TRIBUTARIES
Station
Location
Tioga River
Morris Run
Tioga River
Tioga River
Tioga River
Tioga River
Tioga River
Tioga River
Tioga River
Crooked Creek
Crooked Creek
Tioga River
Tioga River
Tioga River
Cowanesque River
Cowanesque River
Cowanesque River
Cowanesque River
Cowanesque River
Cowanesque River
Cowanesque River
Cowanesque River
Tioga River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Canisteo River
Station
Code
TIO-088
MOR-001
TIO-087
TIO-085
TIO-080
TIO-079
TIO-072
TIO-067
TIO-066
CRK-001
CRK-000
TIO-065
110-061
TIO-059
COW-027
COW-023
COW-015
COW-013
COW-008
COW-005
COW-002
COW-001
TIO-056
CAN-045
CAN-042
CAN-039
CAN- 036
CAN-035
CAN-032
CAN-031
CM-027
CAN-024
CAN-021
CAN-017
CAN-012
CAN-006
CAN-000
River
Mile
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
281.6 -
88.0
86.2 -
86.5
85.0
80.0
79.0
72.1
66.8
66.0
65.2 -
65.2 -
65.0
60.9
58.8
57.6 -
57.6 -
57.6 -
57.6 -
57.6 -
57.6 -
57.6 -
57.6 -
55.6
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
48.7 -
Bottom Organisms
Number Number Per
Of Kinds Square Foot

0.6







1.0
0



26.5
23.0
14.0
13.0
7.6
4.9
2.2
0.5

44.5
42.4
38.5
36.3
34.6
32.1
31.3
27.4
24.0
21.4
16.6
11.6
5.6
0.4
5
1
0
1
0
0
/-*
c.
0
0
2
4
0
0
0
14
10
16
12
9
13
14
20
0
16
5
12
2
2
0
8
16
9
11
14
5
9
21
*
946
°*

0
°*

0
°*
""""""#

0
0
0
1,343
61
882
!9*
""""""#

27
251
0
52*

13,135*
*

0
384
102#
""""""#

22*
IF
""""""$£

122

-------
TABLE II (Continued)
                                       71
                                Bottom Organisms
Station
Location
Tioga River
Cohocton River
Cohocton River
Cohocton River
Cohocton River
Cohocton River
Chemung River
Chemung River
Chemung River
Chemung River
Chemung River
Newton Creek
Newton Creek
Chemung River
Chemung River
Chemung River
Station
Code
TIO-OkQ
COH-038
COH-025
COH-018
COH-006
COH-001
CHM-Olil*
CHM-Ol*2
CHM-036
CHM-030
CHM-026
NEW-005
NEW-000
CHM-019
CHM-013
CHM-005
River
Mile
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
281.
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
6 -
hd.
1*5.
1*5.
1*5.
1*5.
1*5.
1*1*.
1*1.
36.
29.
25.
21*.
21*.
18.
12.
1*.
0
1
1
1
1
1
3
9
1*
8
8
9
9
7
2
9

- 38.
- 25.
- 17.
- 6.
- 0.





— 5-
- 0.



Number
Of Kinds

0
0
6
0
5





3
2



13
16
11
18
18
21+
11
13
7
2
18
6
7
ll*
11
20
Number Per
Square Foot
39
176
670
512
707
380
95
11*7*
#

68*
	
330*
	
71
511*

-------
                                                    72
                  TABLE III




             BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA




WEST BRANCH SUSQUEHANNA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
Station
Location
West Branch Susquehanna
at Elmora, Pa.
Chest Creek
West Branch Susquehanna
upstream from Curry
Run, Pa.
at Curwensville (Irwin
Park), Pa.
at Clearfield, Pa.
Clearfield Creek
West Branch Susquehanna
at Shawville, Pa.
Moshannon Creek
Moshannon Creek
Station
Code
River
WBS-237
CHS-001
River

WBS-201

WBS-185
WBS-17U
CLR-001
River
WBS-163
MOS-03U
MOS-005
Black Moshannon Creek BLK-000
West Branch Susquehanna
at Karthaus , Pa.
Mosquito Creek
Driftwood Branch of
Sinnemahoning Creek
at Emporium, Pa.
Sinnemahoning Creek
-Portage Creek at
Emporium, Pa.
Driftwood Branch of
Sinnemahoning Creek
at Driftwood, Pa.
Bennett Branch of
River
WBS-132
MOQ-000


DBS-035


SPC-000


DBS- 01 6

Bottom Organisms
River Number Number Per
Mile Of Kinds Square Foot

237
205.3 - i.o


200.7

18U.6
17^
171-5 - 0.8

163.1
135.5 - 33.5
135-5 - 5.0
135.5 - U.9 - 0

132.3
132.2 - 0


110.2 - 35.0


110.2 - 3^.9 - 0.1


110.2 - 15.7


1 	 *
9 17

*
2 	

0 0
0 0^
2

0 0#
1 	
0 0#
1 —

0 0*
1 —


5 	


3


6 — *

Sinnemahoning Creek
at Driftwood, Pa.
First Fork of
BBS-000

110.2 - 15.6 - 0.3

0 0

Sinnemahoning Creek
near Sinnemahoning
Pa.
,
FFS-000

110.2 - 11.9 - O.U

7 13

-------
TABLE III (Continued)
                                        73
Station
Location
Sinnemahoning Creek
at Keating, Pa.
West Branch Susquehanna
at Westport, Pa.
Kettle Creek
Kettle Creek
Kettle Creek
Two Mile Run
Kettle Creek
West Branch Susquehanna
downstream from
Kettle Creek
at Renovo, Pa.
at Lock Haven, Pa.
North Bald Eagle Creek
Spring Creek
Spring Creek
Slab Cabin Run

Thompson Run

Slab Cabin Run

Spring Creek
Spring Creek
Spring Creek
Logan Creek

Logan Creek

Spring Creek
Spring Creek
North Bald Eagle Creek
North Bald Eagle Creek
North Bald Eagle Creek
Beech Creek
North Bald Eagle Creek
Pine Creek
Station
Code

SIN-000
River
WBS-105
KET-006
KET-001+
KET-002
TWO-000
KET-000
River

WBS-10U
WBS-098
WBS-070

SPN-015
SPN-013
SLB-002

THM-001

SLB-000

SPN-010
SPN-OOU
SPN-003
LOG-003

LOG-001

SPN-002
SPW-000
NBE-029
NBE-028
NBE-018
BEE-002
NBE-002
PIN-001
River
Mile

110.

105
101+ .
10U.
10l+.
10l+.
10U.


103.
97.
69.
67.
67.
67.
67.

67.

67.

67.
67.
67.
67.

67.

67.
67.
67.
67.
67.
67.
67.
57.

2 -


1 -
1 -
1 -
1 -
1 -


9
7
8
7
7 -
7 -
•7 _
-
7 -
-
7 -
-
7 -
7 -
7 -
7 -
-
7 -
-
7 -
7 -
7 -
7 -
7 -
7 -
7 -
6 -

0.


6.
k.
2.
1.
0.






28.
28.
28.
1.
28.
0.
28.
0
28.
28.
28.
28.
2.
28.
1.
28.
28.
28.
27.
18.
12.
1.
1.

1+


0
0
0
8 -
1






1 -
1 -
1 -
5
1 -
5 -
1 -

1 -
j _
1 -
1 -
5
1 -
0
1 -
1 -
6
9
0
2 -
6
0







0.







15.
12.
11.

11.
1.
11.

10.
k.
3.
3.

3.

2.
0



1.


Bottom
Number
Of Kinds







1







0
5
0

0
0
0

0
0
2
0

0

0




6



0

1
13
9
0
0
0


0
1
3

13
3

7

6

5
5
3
5

9

2
7
5
17
5
8
2
23
11+
Organisms
Number Per
Square Foot

0

__ —
62
___
0
0
0


o
	 	
761+


— — —
*


703
*

__ _
— — _
— — _

556

—— _
131+
79
1+1+5
	 	
23*
w
27
3

-------
                                                                7H
                        TABLE III (Continued)
Station
Location
West Branch Susquehanna
at Jersey Shore, Pa.
Lycoming Creek
Ly coming Creek
West Branch Susquehanna
at Williamsport, Pa.
Loyalsock Creek
Muncy Creek
West Branch Susquehanna
at Montgomery Park
at Watsonville, Pa.
at Milton, Pa. (E. B.
at West Milton (W. B.
at Lewisburg, Pa.
(E. B.)
at Lewisburg, Pa.
(W. B.)
at Northumberland, Pa
(E. B.)
at Northumberland, Pa
(W. B.)
Station
Code
River
WBS-056
LYC-007
LYC-001
River
WBS-OHO
LYO-002
MUN-001
River
WBS-023
WBS-016
) WBS-012
) WBS-012

WBS-008

WBS-008
.
WBS-000
.
WBS-000
River
Mile

56
Hi. 3 - 7.0
Hi. 3 - 1.0

HO.H
35.2 - 2.0
27.8 - 1.0

22.6
16.0
12.0
12.0

7.6

7.6

0.2

0.2
Bottom
Number
Of Kinds

9
18
1H

9
21
11

2
7
7
9

6

15

H

8
Organisms
Number Per
Square Foot

67
H5
37

185
331
221
*
#

62
327

192

278

11

66
Indicates a quantitative sample was not taken at this station.

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