U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Annapolis Field Office
      Annapolis Science Center
     Annapolis, Maryland  21401
        WORKING DOCUMENTS
           Volume 17

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                         Table of Contents

                             Volume  17
21          Biological  Surveys of the Upper James River Basin -
           Covington,  Clifton Forge, Big Island, Lynchburg,  and
           Piney River Areas - January 1968
22         Biological  Survey of Antietam Creek and Some of Its
           Tributaries from Uaynesboro, Pennsylvania to Antietam,
           Maryland -  Potomac River Basin - February 1968
23         Biological Survey of the Monocacy River and Tributaries
           from Gettysburg, Pa. to Maryland Rt.  28 Bridge -
           Potomac River Basin - January 1968
24         Water Quality Survey of Chesapeake Bay in the Vicinity
           of Annapolis, Maryland - Summer 1967
25         Mine Drainage Pollution of the North Branch of Potomac
           River - Interim Report - August 1968
26         Water Quality Survey in the Shenandoah River of the
           Potomac River Basin - June 1967
27         Water Quality Survey in the James and Maury Rivers -
           Glasgow, Virginia - September 1967
28         Selected Biological Surveys in the James River Basin,
           Gillie Creek in the Richmond Area, Appomattox River in
           the Petersburg Area, Bailey Creek from Fort Lee to
           Hopewell - April 1968

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                            PUBLICATIONS

                U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                             REGION III
                       ANNAPOLIS FIELD OFFICE*


                              VOLUME 1
                          Technical  Reports


 5         A Technical  Assessment of Current Water Quality
           Conditions and Factors Affecting Water Quality in
           the Upper Potomac Estuary

 6         Sanitary Bacteriology of the Upper Potomac Estuary

 7         The Potomac Estuary Mathematical Model

 9         Nutrients in the Potomac River Basin

11         Optimal  Release Sequences for Water Quality Control
           in Multiple Reservoir Systems

                              VOLUME 2
                          Technical  Reports


13         Mine Drainage in the North Branch Potomac River Basin

15         Nutrients in the Upper Potomac River Basin

17         Upper Potomac River Basin Water Quality Assessment

                              VOLUME  3
                          Technical  Reports


19         Potomac-Piscataway Dye Release and Wastewater
           Assimilation Studies

21         LNEPLT

23         XYPLOT

25         PLOT3D

     * Formerly CB-SRBP, U.S. Department of Health, Education,
       and Welfare; CFS-FWPCA, and CTSL-FWQA,  Middle Atlantic
       Region, U.S. Department of the Interior

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                             VOLUME  3   (continued)

                         Technical Reports


27         Water Quality and Wastewater Loadings - Upper Potomac
           Estuary during 1969


                             VOLUME  4
                         Technical Reports


29         Step Backward Regression

31         Relative Contributions of Nutrients to the Potomac
           River Basin from Various Sources

33         Mathematical Model Studies of Water Quality in the
           Potomac Estuary

35         Water Resource - Water Supply Study of the Potomac
           Estuary

                             VOLUME 5
                         Technical Reports


37         Nutrient Transport and Dissolved Oxygen Budget
           Studies in the Potomac Estuary

39         Preliminary Analyses of the Wastewater and Assimilation
           Capacities of the Anacostia Tidal River System

41         Current Water Quality Conditions and Investigations
           in the Upper Potomac River Tidal System

43         Physical Data of the Potomac River Tidal System
           Including Mathematical Model Segmentation

45         Nutrient Management in the Potomac Estuary

                             VOLUME 6
                         Technical Reports

47         Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Input Study

49         Heavy Metals Analyses of Bottom Sediment in the
           Potomac River Estuary

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                                  VOLUME  6  (continued)

                              Technical  Reports

     51          A System of Mathematical Models for Water Quality
                Management

     52         Numerical Method for Groundwater Hydraulics

     53         Upper Potomac Estuary Eutrophication Control
                Requirements

     54         AUT0-QUAL Modelling System

Supplement      AUT0-QUAL Modelling System:  Modification for
   to 54        Non-Point Source Loadings

                                  VOLUME  7
                              Technical Reports

     55         Water Quality Conditions in the Chesapeake Bay System

     56         Nutrient Enrichment and Control Requirements in the
                Upper Chesapeake Bay

     57         The Potomac River Estuary in the Washington
                Metropolitan Area - A History of its Water Quality
                Problems and their Solution

                                  VOLUME  8
                              Technical Reports

     58         Application of AUT0-QUAL Modelling System to the
                Patuxent River Basin

     59         Distribution of Metals in Baltimore Harbor Sediments

     60         Summary and Conclusions - Nutrient Transport and
                Accountability in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin

                                  VOLUME  9
                                 Data Reports

                Water Quality Survey, James River and Selected
                Tributaries - October 1969

                Water Quality Survey in the North Branch Potomac River
                between Cumberland and Luke, Maryland - August 1967

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                            VOLUME 9   (continued)
                           Data Reports


           Investigation of Water Quality in Chesapeake Bay and
           Tributaries at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Department
           of  the Army, Aberdeen, Maryland - October-December 1967

           Biological Survey of the Upper Potomac River and
           Selected Tributaries - 1966-1968

           Water Quality Survey of the  Eastern Shore Chesapeake
           Bay, Wicomico River, Pocomoke River, Nanticoke River,
           Marshall Creek, Bunting Branch, and Chincoteague Bay -
           Summer 1967

           Head of Bay Study - Water Quality Survey of Northeast
           River, Elk River, C & D Canal, Bohemia River, Sassafras
           River and Upper Chesapeake Bay - Summer 1968 - Head ot
           Bay Tributaries

           Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1967

           Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1968

           Wastewater Treatment Plant Nutrient Survey - 1966-1967

           Cooperative Bacteriological  Study - Upper Chesapeake Bay
           Dredging Spoil Disposal - Cruise Report No. 11

                            VOLUME 10
                           Data Reports

 9         Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1965-1966

10         Water Quality Survey of the  Annapolis Metro Area - 1967

11         Nutrient Data on Sediment Samples of the Potomac Estuary
           1966-1968

12         1969  Head of the Bay Tributaries

13         Water Quality Survey of the  Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy Point - 1968

14         Water Quality Survey of the  Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity  of Sandy Point - 1969

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                             VOUJMEJO (continued)

                           Data Reports

15         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1967

16         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1968

17         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1969

18         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transects,
           Intensive and Southeast Water Laboratory Cooperative
           Study - 1969

19         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Phosphate
           Tracer Study - 1969

                             VOLUME 11
                            Data Reports

20         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transport Study
           1969-1970

21         Water Quality Survey of the Piscataway Creek Watershed
           1968-1970

22         Water Quality Survey of the Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy Point - 1970

23         Water Quality Survey of the Head of the Chesapeake Bay
           Maryland Tributaries - 1970-1971

24         Water Quality Survey of the Upper Chesapeake Bay
           1969-1971

25         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Consolidated
           Survey - 1970

26         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Dissolved Oxygen
           Budget Studies - 1970

27         Potomac  Estuary Wastewater Treatment Plants Survey
           1970

28         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Embayments
           and Transects - 1970

29         Water Quality of the Upper Potomac Estuary Enforcement
           Survey - 1970

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   30


   31


   32
   33
   34
Appendix
  to 1
Appendix
  to 2
    3


    4
                  VOLUME I]  (continued)
                 Data Reports

Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary - Gilbert Swamp
and Allen's Fresh and Gunston Cove - 1970

Survey Results of the Chesapeake Bay Input Study -
1969-1970

Upper Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Studies - Bush River,
Spesutie Narrows and Swan Creek, C & D Canal, Chester
River, Severn River, Gunpowder, Middle and Bird Rivers -
1968-1971

Special Water Quality Surveys of the Potomac River Basin
Anacostia Estuary, Wicomico.River, St. Clement and
Breton Bays, Occoquan Bay - 1970-1971

Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1970

                  VOLUME 12
               Working Documents

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Danville, Pennsylvania and
Conowingo, Maryland

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Danville,
Pennsylvania and Conowingo, Maryland - November 1966

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Cooperstown, New York and
Northumberland, Pennsylvnaia - January 1967

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Cooperstown,
New  York and Northumberland, Pennsylvania - November 1966

                  VOLUME 13
               Working Documents

Water Quality and Pollution Control Study, Mine Drainage
Chesapeake Bay-Delaware River Basins - July 1967

Biological Survey of Rock Creek (from Rockville, Maryland
to  the  Potomac River)  October 1966

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                             VOLUME   13   (continued)

                          Working  Documents

 5         Summary of Water Quality  and  Waste  Outfalls,  Rock  Creek
           in Montgomery County, Maryland and  the  District of
           Columbia - December 1966

 6         Water Pollution Survey  -  Back River 1965 -  February  1967

 7         Efficiency Study of the District  of Columbia  Water
           Pollution Control  Plant - February  1967

                             VOLUME   14

                          Working  Documents

 8         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study - Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland to  West Pittson
           (Including the Lackawanna River Basin)  March 1967

 9         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Juniata
           River Basin - March 1967

10         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Rappahannock
           River Basin - March 1967

11         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Lake Otsego, New York, to  Lake Lackawanna
           River Confluence, Pennsylvania -  April  1967

                             VOLUME  15
                          Working  Documents

12         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  York River
           Basin - April 1967

13         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  West Branch,
           Susquehanna River Basin - April 1967

14         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study,  James River
           Basin - June 1967 .

15         Water Quality and Pollution  Control Study,  Patuxent  River
           Basin - May 1967

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                             VOLUME 16

                          Working Documents

16         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland, Pennsylvania,  to
           Havre de Grace, Maryland - July 1967

17         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, Potomac
           River Basin - June 1967

18         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Central  Western
           Shore of Chesapeake Bay Area (Magothy, Severn,  South, and
           West River Drainage Areas)  July 1967

19         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Northwest
           Chesapeake Bay Area (Patapsco to Susquehanna Drainage
           Basins in Maryland) August 1967

20         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs - The Eastern
           Shore of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia - September 1967

                             VOLUME 17
                           Working Documents

21         Biological Surveys of the Upper James River Basin
           Covington, Clifton Forge, Big Island, Lynchburg, and
           Piney River Areas - January 1968

22         Biological Survey of Antietam Creek and some of its
           Tributaries from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania to Antietam,
           Maryland - Potomac River Basin - February 1968

23         Biological Survey of the Monocacy River and Tributaries
           from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to Maryland Rt. 28 Bridge
           Potomac River Basin - January 1968

24         Water Quality Survey of Chesapeake Bay in the Vicinity of
           Annapolis, Maryland - Summer 1967

25         Mine Drainage Pollution of the North Branch of Potomac
           River - Interim Report - August 1968

26         Water Quality Survey in the Shenandoah River of the
           Potomac River Basin - June 1967

27         Water Quality Survey in the James and Maury Rivers
           Glasgow, Virginia - September 1967

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                             VOLUME  17  (continued)

                           Working Documents

28         Selected Biological Surveys in the James River Basin,
           Gillie Creek in the Richmond Area, Appomattox River
           in the Petersburg Area, Bailey Creek from Fort Lee
           to Hopewell - April 1968

                             VOLUME  18
                           Working Documents

29         Biological Survey of the Upper and Middle Patuxent
           River and some of its Tributaries - from Maryland
           Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury Mills to the Maryland
           Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner, Maryland -
           Chesapeake Drainage Basin - June 1968

30         Rock Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study Report
           March 1969

31         The Patuxent River - Water Quality Management -
           Technical Evaluation - September 1969

                             VOLUME 19
                          Working Documents

           Tabulation, Community and Source Facility Water Data
           Maryland Portion, Chesapeake Drainage Area - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Patuxent River Basin - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Potomac River Basin below Washington, D.C.- November 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Chesapeake Bay Area of Maryland Excluding Potomac
           and Patuxent River Basins - January 1965

           The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections -
           February 1968

           Patuxent River - Cross Sections and Mass Travel
           Velocities - July 1968

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                            VOLUME  19  (continued)

                         Working Documents

          Wastewater  Inventory - Potomac River Basin -
          December  1968

          Wastewater  Inventory - Upper  Potomac River Basin -
          October 1968

                            VOLUME 20
                         Technical Papers.

 1          A  Digital Technique for Calculating and Plotting
           Dissolved Oxygen Deficits

 2          A  River-Mile  Indexing System for Computer Application
           in Storing and Retrieving Data      (unavailable)

 3          Oxygen  Relationships in Streams, Methodology to be
           Applied when  Determining the Capacity of a Stream to
           Assimilate Organic Wastes - October 1964

 4          Estimating Diffusion Characteristics of Tidal Waters -
           May 1965

 5          Use of  Rhodamine B Dye as a Tracer in Streams of the
           Susquehanna River Basin - April 1965

 6          An In-Situ Benthic Respirometer - December 1965

 7          A  Study of Tidal Dispersion in the Potomac River
           February  1966

 8          A  Mathematical Model for the Potomac River - what it
           has done  and  what it can do - December 1966

 9          A  Discussion  and Tabulation of Diffusion Coefficients
           for Tidal Waters Computed as a Function of Velocity
           February  1967

10          Evaluation of Coliform  Contribution by Pleasure Boats
           July 1966

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                            VOLUME  21

                         Technical Papers

11         A Steady State Segmented Estuary Model

12        Simulation of Chloride Concentrations in the
          Potomac Estuary - March 1968

13        Optimal Release Sequences for Water Quality
          Control in Multiple-Reservoir Systems - 1968

                            VOLUME  22
                         Technical Papers

          Summary Report - Pollution of Back River - January 1964

          Summary of Water Quality - Potomac River Basin in
          Maryland - October 1965

          The Role of Mathematical Models in the Potomac River
          Basin Water Quality Management Program - December 1967

          Use of Mathematical Models as Aids to Decision Making
          in Water Quality Control - February 1968

          Piscataway Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study
          Report - August 1968

                            VOLUME  23
                        Ocean Dumping Surveys

          Environmental Survey of an Interim Ocean Dumpsite,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - September 1973

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim  Dumpsites,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - January 1974

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites
          Middle Atlantic Bight - Supplemental Report -
          October 1974

          Effects of Ocean Disposal Activities on Mid-
          continental Shelf Environment off Delaware
          and Maryland - January 1975

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                            VOLUME 24

                           1976 Annual
               Current Nutrient Assessment - Upper Potomac Estuary
               Current Assessment Paper No.  1

               Evaluation of Western Branch Wastewater Treatment
               Plant Expansion - Phases I and II

               Situation Report - Potomac River

               Sediment Studies in Back River Estuary, Baltimore,
               Maryland

Technical      Distribution of Metals in Elizabeth River Sediments
Report 61

Technical      A Water Quality Modelling Study of the Delaware
Report 62      Estuary

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                         TABLE OF CONTENTS


Section                                                      Page

  I.  INTRODUCTION	      1

 II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS	      k

III.  DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION	      6

      A.  General	      6

      B.  Biological Samples 	      7

          1.  Jackson River	      7

          2.  James River	     11

          3.  Tye River and Tributaries	     18
                         LIST OF FIGURES
Figure                                                     Follows
                                                             Page

  1   Map of Study Area and Profile of Biological
       Conditions	     20

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                        I.  INTRODUCTION


        A water quality pollution control study of the James River

Basin conducted by the Chesapeake Bay-Susquehanna River Basins

Project in 1966-67 included an evaluation of pollution control

action needed to enhance and protect water quality in the Basin.

To supplement chemical and biochemical water quality data used in

the evaluations, the Chesapeake Field Station conducted biological

surveys of the Jackson River in the Covington and Clifton Forge
                                                                 •4
areas, the James River in the Big Island and Lynchburg areas, and

areas in the Tye River Watershed affected by acid wastes.

        For the purpose of the surveys, the community of bottom

(benthic) organisms was selected as the indicator of the biological

condition of the stream.  Bottom organisms serve as the preferred

food source for the higher aquatic forms and exhibit similar reactions

to adverse stream conditions.  The combination of limited locomotion

and life cycles of one year or more, for most benthic species, provide

a long term picture of the water quality of a stream.  Fish and algal

populations were given some consideration, but only to the extent

that obvious conclusions could be drawn based upon casual observations.

        In unpolluted streams, a wide variety of sensitive clean-

water associated bottom organisms are normally found.  Typical groups

are stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies.  These sensitive organisms

usually are not individually abundant because of natural predation

and competition for food and space; however, the total count or number

of organisms at a given station may be high because of the number of

different varieties present.

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        Sensitive genera tend to be eliminated by adverse environ-




mental conditions (e.g., chemical and/or physical) resulting from




wastes reaching the stream.  In waters enriched with organic wastes,




comparatively fewer kinds (genera) are normally found,  but great




numbers of these genera may be present„   Organic pollution tolerant




forms such as sludgeworms, rattailed maggots, certain species of




bloodworms (red midges), certain leeches., and some species of air




breathing snails may multiply and become abundant because of a




favorable habitat and food supply.  These organic pollution-tolerant




bottom organisms may also exist in the natural environment but are




generally found in small numbers.  The abundance of these forms, in




streams heavily polluted with organics,  is due to their physiological




and morphological abilities to survive environmental conditions more




adverse than conditions that may be tolerated by other organisms,




Under conditions where inert silts or organic sludges blanket the




stream bottom, the natural home of bottom organisms is destroyed,




causing a reduction in the number of kinds of organisms present.




        In addition to sensitive and pollution-tolerant forms, some




bottom organisms may be termed intermediates, in that they are capable




of living in fairly heavily polluted areas as well as in clean-water




situationso  These organisms occurring in limited numbers, therefore,




cannot serve as effective indicators of water quality,




        Streams grossly polluted with toxic wastes such as mine




drainage will support little, if any, biological life and will reduce




the population of both sensitive and pollution-tolerant organisms.

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        Classification of organisms in this report is considered in




three categories (clean-water associated, intermediate, and pollution-




tolerant) which provide sufficient biological information to supplement




physical and chemical water quality data for the study area.  Tentative




identification and counts of specific organisms have been tabulated




for use during intensive investigations of selected areas and are




available upon request.

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                 II.  SUMMARY Am) CONCLUSIONS






        1.  Three biological surveys were made in the Upper James




River Basin in conjunction with a water quality and pollution control




study of the entire Basin.




            Samples were taken July 13 - lH, 1966, at eight bio-




logical sampling stations located on the Jackson River between




Clearwater Park and Iron Gate, Virginia, and at one station on




the Cowpasture River,




            The James River was sampled September 7-8, 1966, at




13 stations located, between Maury River and Bent Creek.




            The Piney, Tye and Buffalo Rivers were sampled in




August 1967.




        2.  Bottom organisms were selected as the primary indicators




of biological water quality.




        3.  Results of the Jackson River survey indicated exceptionally




high water quality between Clearwater Park and the Covington Water




Filtration Plant.




            Biological samplings indicated that degraded conditions



exist downstream from the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company




plant at Covington to Iron Gate, Virginia.  The absence of clean-water




organisms and the presence of pollution-tolerant forms, coloration,




foaming, and slime-coated rocks were all indicative of poor water



quality.




        k.  The Cowpasture River contributes water of high quality




to the Jackson River.

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                                          *
        Based on known biological sampling , the River has recovered


by the time it reaches Salisbury, Virginia, which is a short distance


do-wnstream from Eagle Rock, Virginia.


        5-  James River survey results indicated mild degradation


downstream from Big Island with recovery conditions existing from


the low level dam at Coleman Falls to Holcomb Rock which is upstream


from Lynchburg, Virginia.


        6.  Downstream from Lynchburg the water quality becomes


increasingly more degraded to Six Mile where severely polluted con-


ditions exist.  Heavy sludge deposits, sludgeworms,  turbid water,


and clumps of dead algae were all indicative of poor water quality


in this reach.


        7.  The River begins to recover at Gaits Mill but mild


pollution was still indicated.  Recovery conditions proceed over


the next nine miles with good water quality finally indicated at


Riverville, Virginia.


        8.  Upstream from Piney River the Tye River was found to


possess high water quality based on the bottom organisms.  Down-


stream from the confluence with the Piney River to its mouth at


Norwood, Virginia, the Tye River is apparently degraded by the


operation of the American Cyanamid Company on the Piney River at


the Town of Piney River, Virginia,,

        9.  Severely degraded biological conditions exist in the


Piney and Tye Rivers, and the Tye River contributes poor quality


water to the James River.
*  Biological data, Virginia State Water Control Board.

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                                                               6
               III.  DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION
A.  General
        The Jackson River, which joins the Cowpasture River down-
stream from Iron Gate, Virginia, to form the James River, was
sampled between Clearwater Park (upstream from Covington, Virginia)
and Iron Gate in order to evaluate the biological conditions of
the stream.
        The James River was sampled between the Maury River and
Bent Creek, Virginia.  Two paper operations and the industrial
community of Lynchburg, Virginia, are located in this reach.
The mean flow at Bent Creek is k,lhk cfs.
        Streams in the Tye River Watershed were sampled in areas
upstream and downstream from the American Cyanamid Company's waste
discharge location.
        Sampling stations were located after consideration of the
following conditions:
        1.  Tributaries
        2.  Areas having a known waste problem
        3.  Physical capability for sampling
        Bottom organisms are animals that live directly in assoc-
iation with the bottom of a waterway.  They may crawl on, burrow in,
or attach themselves to the bottom.  Macroorganisms are usually de-
fined as those organisms that will be retained by a No. 30 sieve.
In essence, the organisms retained by the sieve are those that are
visible to the unaided eye.
        Each station was sampled once, and the kinds of macro bottom
organisms were observed for the purpose of evaluating water quality.

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Quantitative bottom samples were also taken, using a Surber Square

Foot Sampler or a Petersen Dredge (0.6 square foot), and the number

of organisms per square foot were counted or calculated.

        Quantitative samples were not taken at some stations because

physical sampling conditions were poor or organisms were very sparse.


B.  Biological Samples

        1.  Jackson River

Station #1 - Jackson River at the riffle immediately upstream from
             the Virginia Route 687 Bridge at Clearwater, Virginia.

        The water at this station was clear and numerous smallmouth

bass were observed throughout the area.  High water quality was

indicated by the k8 kinds (genera) of bottom organisms„   They in-

cluded such clean-water forms as stoneflies (3 genera),  mayflies

(h genera), caddisflies (ll genera), fishfly, hellgrammites, two

kinds of riffle beetles, and three kinds of gill-breathing snails.

A total of 288 bottom organisms were collected in the square foot

sample which included 86 mayflies, 2k caddisflies, three stoneflies,

83 gill-breathing snails, ten riffle beetles, and one fishfly.  The

clean-water organisms made up 78 per cent of the quantitative sample.

Based on the bottom organisms, excellent water quality was indicated

at this station.

Station #2 - Jackson River at the riffle approximately 100 yards
             upstream from the Covington, Virginia, Water Filtration
             Plant.

        Numerous smallmouth bass and darters were observed in the

clear water at this station.  A small group of children was seen

swimming downstream from the water filtration plant.  High water

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                                                                8






quality was again indicated by the 38 kinds (genera) of bottom




organisms which included such clean-water forms as mayflies (8 genera),




caddisflies (8 genera), stoneflies (l genera), riffle beetles (2 genera),




and hellgrammites.  A total of 426 bottom organisms were collected




in the square foot sample which included 95 mayflies, 51 caddisflies,




and 9^ riffle beetle larvae.  Clean-water organisms made up 56 per




cent of the total in the quantitative sample.  High diversification




and numerous clean-water forms indicated excellent water quality.




Station #3 - Jackson River at the Covington, Virginia Playground Park.



      This station was located approximately 0.7 miles downstream




from the pulp and paper company and adjacent to the Covington Municipal




Playground.  Virtually all of the rocks were coated with a heavy




black slime believed to be Sphaerotilus sp.  The water was a dark




coffee color.




      The water temperature was elevated and foam was observed.  In




addition, a strong odor characteristic of a mill operation was noted,




The air-breathing snail Physa was present in fair numbers, but these




snails were all at the waterline and on the rocks.  For this reason




a quantitative sample was not taken.  Only a few sludgeworms and




another bristleworm (Nais sp.) were found in addition to the Physa




snails.  Severe biological degradation is indicated at this station




when compared with the upstream station.  The enormous drop in genera




from 38 (upstream station) to three at this  a cation plus the ocir;plete




absence of clean-water forms, indicated heavy industrial pollution.

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All three kinds (genera) of bottom organisms found at this station

were pollution-tolerant forms.  The low dissolved oxygen and high

water temperatures found by VMI  sampling during this period further

substantiate the poor biological conditions.

Station #U - Jackson River at the riffle immediately downstream
              from the Durant Road Bridge due south of Covington,
              Virginia.

      The coffee color, foaming, and elevated temperature noted

upstream persisted at this station.  The black slime coated t./

rocks and the strong odor also prevailed.  The only bottom organisms

present in fair numbers were the air-breathing Physa snails which

were exposed at the water-line and on the rocks.  The only other

bottom organism found was the bristleworm Nais sp.  Degraded bio-

logical conditions are still indicated by the presence of these two

pollution-tolerant forms and the absence of clean-water bottom

organisms.

Station #5 - Jackson River at the Drive-in Theatre east of Covington
              on Routes 60 and 220.

      The water remained coffee colored, the foam persisted and

rocks were still covered with the slime-like growth (already iden-

tified) .  The only bottom organisms found were pollution-tolerant

sludgeworms, the air-breathing snail Physa, and an intermediate

midge larva.  The quantitative samples consisted of ^-88 sludgeworms.

Heavy biological degradation was still indicated.

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                                                               10


Station #6 - Jackson River off U. S. 60 and 220, approximately 0.5
              miles upstream from the Low-Moor, Virginia,  intersection.

      The coffee color and foaming prevailed at this station also.

Most of the rocks were still black and covered with the grayish-black

slime.  There were good populations of the air-breathing snail Physa

in certain sections of the stream, but their distribution  was erratic.

A quantitative sample was not taken because of the spotty  distribution

of bottom organisms.  Also collected were such pollution-tolerant

forms as leeches, horsefly larvae, and another air-breathing snail.

In addition, a beetle larva was also sampled.  Degraded biological

conditions were still indicated.  This conclusion was supported by

the low dissolved oxygen readings found in the VMI  survey.

Station #7 - Jackson River at the mouth of Smith's Creek in Clifton
              Forge, Virginia,

      The water continued to appear coffee color and foaming was

present.  Smith's Creek was very cloudy and appeared to be contri-

buting a pollutional load from Clifton Forge.  The rocks in the area

were still black and coated with slime.  Approximately 50  dead fish

were observed in the area and appeared to be mostly suckers and

minnows.  Bottom organisms could not be found.  Degraded biological

conditions still exist at this point.

Station #8 - Jackson River at the last bridge, crossing downstream
              from Iron Gate, Virginia,

      The water was tea colored and still showed signs of  foam,

Approximately ten dead fish, primarily suckers and minnows were

noted in the area.  The rocks were still black and slime was still

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                                                               11


present.  The bottom organisms consisted of ten kinds (genera),

including pollution-tolerant and intermediate forms.  The square

good sample contained k6k bottom organisms which consisted of 1?6

sludgeworms, 208 air-breathing snails (2 genera), 8 leeches, and

72 intermediate midge larvae (3 genera).  Degraded biological

conditions are still indicated at this station although there is

some improvement.  The VMI  survey also indicated some improvement.

Station #9 - The Cowpasture River at the Virginia Route 633 Bridge.

      This stream was extremely clear, and numerous smallmouth bass

were observed through the area.  The surrounding area is farming

country and appears to be primarily pasture land.  Twenty-two kindvS

(genera) of bottom organisms were found which included such clean

water forms as stoneflies (2 genera), mayflies (3 genera), caddis-

flies (3 genera) and riffle beetles (2 genera).  There was a total

of hkO bottom organisms in the square foot sample.  It included

26 stoneflies, 32 mayflies, 230 caddisflies, and 80 riffle beetles.

Based on the great diversification of bottom organisms and the high

percentage of clean-water forms, the Cowpasture River contributes

high quality water to the Jackson River to form the James River

downstream from this station.


      2.  James River

Station #1 - James River approximately 100 yards downstream from the
              first dam downstream from the Maury River near Glasgow,
              Virginia.

      The water at this station was very clear and numerous fish

were observed throughout the area.  Most of these fish were minnows.

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                                                               12


Good water quality was indicated by the l6 kinds (genera)  of bottom

organisms collected which included such clean-water forms  as caddis-

flies (h genera), gill-breathing snails (3 genera)  and riffle beetles.

Out of a total of 2,025 bottom organisms in the square foot sample,

there were 536 caddisflies and 64 riffle beetles.  Good water quality

was indicated at this location.

Station #2 - James River approximately 50 yards upstream from
              Battery Creek (West Bank) which is upstream from Big
              Island, Virginia.

      Numerous minnows were observed at this station.   The water

appreared to be a light tea color but was clear in the bottle.

Sampling had to be confined to about four to five feet off the bank

because of the sharp drop-off, and a quantitative sample was not

taken for this reason.  Nine kinds (genera) of bottom organisms

were found which included one kind of gill-breathing snail, two

kinds of air-breathing snails, flatworms, leeches,  and four kinds

of intermediate midge larvae.  Fair to good water quality was

indicated; however, it is believed that a much greater diversification

could have been found if a riffle area had been present.  Based on

this limited biological sampling, unpolluted biological conditions

were indicated at this station.

Station #3 - James River immediately upstream from Skimmer Creek
              and downstream from Big Island, Virginia,

      The water was a dark, tea color and fish could not be observed.

Due to a very sharp drop-off, bottom sampling had to be confined to

the immediate bank.  Bottom organisms could not be found in this

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                                                               13


area.  While there appears to be mild degradation,  it was difficult

to make a judgement based on bottom organisms because of poor

sampling conditions and the lack of a riffle area.

Station $k - James River upstream from the low level dam at Coleman
              Falls, Virginia.

      The water continued to be tea color but was clear in the

bottle,  The bottom in this area appeared to be coated with a

black, gelatinous material and bottom organisms were sparse.  Only

a few bloodworms and bristleworm (Nais sp.) could be found.  Again,

sampling had to be confined to the bank area due to the sharp

drop-off.  Because of the drop-off and the sparse bottom organism

population, a quantitative sample was not taken.  A few minnows

were observed in the sample area.  Based on the bottom organisms

and known dissolved oxygen readings, mild degradation is still

indicated at this station.

Station $5 - James River approximately 150 yards downstream from
              the low level dam at Coleman Falls, Virginia.

      The water still appeared tea color but was clear in the

bottle.  Only six kinds (genera) of bottom organisms were present

and they were sparse.  They consisted, of a gill-breathing snail,

an air-breathing snail, flatworms, a bristleworm, a dragonfly

nymph, and a few intermediate midge larvae.  Sampling still had

to be confined to the banks because of the sharp drop-off.  A

quantitative sample was not taken because of the poor sampling

conditions and sparse population.  Based on the known water

chemistry at this station, "•"  '.'every  appears to have occurred

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                                                               lit


despite the low number of bottom organisms.   It is believed the low

number of bottom organisms sampled can be attributed to the poor

sampling conditions created by the impoundments in this area,

Station $6 - James River at Holcomb Rock upstream from Lynchburg,
              Virginia„

      The water continued tea color but again was clear in the

bottle.  Bottom organisms were sparse and only a few sludgeworms

and gill-breathing snails could be found.  Due to a sharp drop-off

and impoundment conditionss sampling had to be confined to the

banks.  The water chemistry at this station indicates that recovery

has occurred at this station.  The poor bottom organism population

is attributed to poor sampling conditions and poor habitat created

by impounded conditions„

Station #7 - James River downstream from a low level dam downstream
              from Daniel Island, opposite Lynchburg, Virginia (East
              Bank).

      The water was dark, tea color but was clear in the bottle.

Foam had built up in sections below the dam similar to detergent

suds,  A fisherman was observed in the area and a dead channel

catfish approximately 8 inches long was found.  Only a qualitative

sample was taken due to  the drop-off and large rocks.  Eight kinds

of bottom organisms were sampled which included two kinds of gill

breathing snails, two kinds of air-breathing snails, fingernail

clamsj flatworms, the scud Gammarus sp.s and an intermediate midge

larvae.  Mild degradation would appear to be present at this station.

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,Statiqn_#8 - James River at Six Mile, downstream from Lynchburg,
              Virginia „

      The water at this location was very turbid, and clumps of

dead algae were observed floating.  Sludge deposits were heavy

along the shore and prevented wading out very far from the bank.

The only bottom organisms found were sludgeworms and mosquito

larvae, both of which are pollution-tolerant,  Sludgeworms were

abundant.  Moderate to heavy degradation was indicated at this

location based on the bottom organisms and known dissolved oxygen

readings,

Station ffiff - James River at Gaits Mills

      The water at this location was tea color but was clear in

the bottle,  A total of 15 &sie.ra (kinds) of bottom organisms

were found at this station which included one kind of mayfly and

one kind of gill-breathing snail.  Other kinds (genera) sampled

included such intermediate forms as fingernail clams, the scud

Gamma_rus_ sp», tvo kinds of damselflies, and one Kind of dragonfly.

Pollution-tolerant organisms included sludgeworms,, mosquitoes,

two kinds of air-breathing snails, and two kinds of leeches.  A

qualtitative sample was not taken because the bottom was pre-

dominately bedrock,  The river appears to be recovering at this

station, but recovery had not yet occurred.  Mild pollution was

still indicated.

Station #10 - James River at Stapleton, Virginia.

      The tea color was still present, but the water was clear

in the bottle.  There was a recent moderate to heavy fish-kill

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                                                               16


of white suckers in the area with the majority of them averaging

one pound in weight.  A large school of white suckers had sought

refuge in Partridge Creek and refused to leave the creek and

venture out into the James River despite our disturbing them in

the mouth of the creek.  A total of ten kinds (genera) of bottom

organisms were sampled at this station which consisted of two

kinds of gill-breathing snails, two kinds of air-breathing snails,

fingernail clams, two kinds of leeches, flatworms, and two kinds

of intermediate midge larvae.  A quantitative sample was not

taken because the riffle area was made up of large bedrock.  Mild

pollution was still indicated.

Station #11 - James River immediately upstream from Christian Mill
               Creek.

      The water at this location still had a tea color but was

clear in the bottle, indicating the color was caused by the

substrate.  Aquatic vegetation was heavy and included duckweed,

filamentous algae, moss, and submerged aquatic vegetation.  Twelve

kinds of bottom organisms were found versus ten upstream,  They

included such clean-water forms as two kinds of caddisfly larvae

and two kinds of gill-breathing snails.  It also included one kind

of air-breathing snail, fingernail clams, flatworms, sludgeworms,

damselflies, another bristleworm and two kinds of intermediate

midge larvae.  Out of 1,128 bottom organisms in the square foot

sample, there were 776 flatworms, l8U caddisflies, 128 intermediate

midge larvae, 2k sludgeworms, eight br*-'"""rrxs, and elgh4 01A1-

breathing  snails.  Fair water quality was indicated at  this station.

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                                                               17


Station $12 - James River at Riverville, Virginia.

      The water still appeared tea color but was clear in the

bottle.  The bottom organism population at this station took a

great upsurge in diversification.  Twenty-three kinds (genera)

were found versus twelve at the upstream station.  It included

such clean-water bottom organisms as eaddisf'lies (U kinds), mayflies,

riffle beetles (2 kinds), and two kinds of gill-breathing snails.

Out of 706 bottom organisms in the square foot sample, there were

280 caddisflies, 232 flatworms, 152 intermediate larvae, 2k riffle

beetles, niiii ol^-biea thing ^.'.:ils, and one ^aldenti. i^J: . i. 1 title worm.

The river appears to have recovered at this point and good  water

quality was indicated,

Station $13 - James River at Allen Creek upstream from Bent Creek,
               Virginia,

      The water was still tea color but clear in the bottle.  The

surrounding land is in farmland and siltation appears heavy,  Yhe

drop-off was sharp beyond the silted area, and sampling conditions

for bottom organisms were extremely poor.  Only three kinds (genera)

of bottom organisms were found.  A quantitative sample was  not

taken because sampling had to be confined close to the banKs because

of the soft banks and drop-off.  The only clean-water form found

was a gill-breathing snail.  In addition, an air-breathing snail

and one kind of damselfly were found.  The poor bottom organism

population was attributed to the heavy siltation, absence of a

riffle area, and generally poor sampling habitat.  Based on the

known dissolved oxygen readings and other water chemistry at this

station, good water quality still exists at this location.

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                                                               18
        3.  Tye River and Tributaries

Station #1 - Tye River at the Virginia County Road 665 Bridge near
             Tye River, Virginia.

        This station was located upstream from the confluence with

the Piney River.  The water was clear and a large minnow population

was observed.  Darters, a member of the perch family, were sampled

in the qualitative and quantitative sample.  These fish are generally

associated with high quality water.

        High water quality was indicated both by the number of kinds

(genera) and the high percentage of clean-water bottom organisms

which were found at this station.  The 15 kinds found included such

clean-water forms as mayflies (5 genera)? caddisflies (2 genera),

stoneflies, a gill-breathing snail, and hellgrammites.  A total of

121 bottom organisms was  taken in the square foot sample which

included 72 caddisflies, 35 mayflies, and one hellgrammite<,

Station $2 - Piney River approximately 80 yards upstream from
             Virginia Route 151 Bridge at Piney River, Virginia,

        The water at this station was extremely clear and minnows

were abundant throughout the area.  A hognose sucker about 12 inches

long was observed and captured while sampling.  The riffle area was

extremely large and moss was abundant on the rocks.  A total of nine

different kinds (genera) of bottom organisms was  found which included

such clean-water forms as mayflies (k genera) and caddisflies

(2 genera),   Two intermediate forms and an organic pollution-tolerant

form were also sampled.  However, the bottom organism populations

were low and only four bottom organisms were collected in the square

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                                                               19


foot sample.  Based on the qualitative sampling,  fair populations

of mayflies and caddisflies were present.   Good water quality was

indicated at this station.

Station jfe - Piney River at Virginia County Eoad  6jh downstream
             from the American Cyanamid Company at Piney River,
             Virginia.

        The water color at this station had changed to a bluish-

green, and the underside of the rocks was  covered with an orange

precipitate about one-fourth inch thick.  Bottom  organisms could

not be found at this location.  It appears that this water degradation

is the result of the American Cyanamid Company's  operation upstream

at Piney River, Virginia.

Station #k - Tye River at U. S. Route 29 Bridge downstream from the
             confluence with the Piney River.

        The water was clear and all of the rocks  were covered with

an orange precipitate.  Bottom organisms could not be found.   Degraded

biological conditions are the result of polluted  water from the

Piney River.

Station #5 - Tye River at Virginia County Road 739 downstream from
             Tye River, Virginia.

        The water was clear and all of the rocks  were covered with

an orange precipitate.  Bottom organisms were absent.  Poor water

quality is attributed to the Piney River.

Station #6 - Tye River at the Virginia County Road 6^k upstream
             from the Buffalo River confluence.

        The water was clear and rocks were covered with an orange

precipitate.  Bottom organisms were still absent.  Degraded water

quality was still indicated.

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                                                               20


Station #7 - Buffalo River at the Virginia County Road 65? Bridge
             upstream from its confluence with the Tye River.

        The water was slightly cloudy from recent rains in the

watershed; however, excellent water quality was indicated by the

11 kinds (genera) of bottom organisms which included such clean-

water forms as stoneflies (2 genera), mayflies (3 genera) and

caddisflies (2 genera).  Only 32 bottom organisms were collected

in the square foot sample; however, it included two stoneflies,

16 caddisflies, and seven mayflies.  The qualitative sample in-

dicated an excellent stonefly population and good mayfly and caddis-

fly population.  If lower water conditions had prevailed, it is

believed the quantitative sample would have been much more productive.

High water quality was indicated.

Station #8 - Tye River near the mouth at the Virginia County Road
             626 at Norwood, Virginia.

        The water remained clear and the orange precipitate still

was present on the rocks.  Bottom organisms could not be found.

Degraded biological conditions which were produced by the water

from the Piney River are still evident.  Poor water quality was

contributed to the James River by the Tye River, and apparently

James River water quality is adversely affected.  How far down-

stream this affected the James River is difficult to say since

water conditions were too high for biological sampling in the

James River.  However, the rocks were still covered with the orange

precipitate at the first bridge crossing on the James River down-

stream from the confluence with the Tye River.

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                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section                                                      Page

   I.     INTRODUCTION 	 ....... 	      1

  II.     SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  ...... 	      k

 III.     DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION 	      5






                           LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                        Page

   I      Bottom Organism Data of Antietam Creek and
            Tributaries  .................     13

  II      Tabulation of Bottom Organisms by Station on
            Antietam Creek and Tributaries—July 1966  .  .     15
Figure

   1
                          LIST OF FIGURES
Map of Study Area and Profile of Biological
  Conditions on Antietam Creek .......
                                                  Follows
                                                   Page
                                                              27

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                        I.  INTRODUCTION






        A biological survey of Antietam Creek and some of its tribu-




taries in the reach between Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, and Antietam,




Maryland, was conducted between July 19 and July 21, 1966.  The bio-




logical activities were conducted concurrently with stream quality




investigations.




        For purposes of the study, the community of bottom (benthic)




organisms was selected as the indicator of the biological condition




of the stream.  Bottom organisms serve as the preferred food source




for the higher aquatic forms and exhibit similar reactions to adverse




stream conditions.  The combination of limited locomotion and life




cycles of one year or more, for most benthic species, provides a




long-term picture of the water quality of a stream.  Fish and algal




populations were given some consideration, but only to the extent




that obvious conclusions could be drawn based upon casual observations,




        In unpolluted streams, a wide variety of sensitive clean-




water associated bottom organisms is normally found.  Typical groups




are stoneflies,  mayflies, and caddisflies„  These sensitive organisms




usually are not  individually abundant because of natural predation




and competition  for food and space; however, the total count or




number of organisms at a given station may be high because of the




number of different varieties present.




        Sensitive genera (kinds) tend to be eliminated by adverse




environmental conditions (chemical, physical, and biological)

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resulting from wastes reaching the stream.  In waters enriched with




organic wastes, comparatively fewer kinds are normally found, but




great numbers of these genera may be present.  Organic pollution-




tolerant forms such as sludgeworms, rattailed maggots, certain




species of bloodworms such as red midges, certain leeches, and




some species of air-breathing snails may multiply and become abun-




dant because of a favorable habitat and food supply.  These organic




pollution-tolerant bottom organisms may also exist in the natural




environment but are generally found in small numbers.  The abun-




dance of these forms in streams heavily polluted with organics is




due to their physiological and morphological abilities to survive




environmental conditions more adverse than that tolerated by other




bottom organisms.  When inert silts or organic sludges blanket the




stream bottom, the natural home of bottom organisms is destroyed,




causing a reduction in the number of kinds of organisms present.




        In addition to sensitive and pollution-tolerant forms,




some bottom organisms may be termed intermediates, in that they are




capable of living in fairly heavily polluted areas as well as in




clean-water situations.  These organisms occurring in limited num-




bers, therefore, cannot serve as effective indicators of water




quality.




        Streams grossly polluted with toxic wastes such as mine




drainage will support little, if any, biological life and will




reduce the population of both sensitive and pollution-tolerant




organisms.

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        Classification of organisms in this report is considered




in three categories (clean-water associated, intermediate, and




pollution-tolerant) which provide sufficient biological information




to supplement physical and chemical water quality data for a "basin-




wide analysis.  Detailed identification and counts of specific




organisms have been tabulated and attached.

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                  II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS






        1.  A biological survey of Antietam Creek and some of the




tributaries in the reach between Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, and




Antietam, Maryland, was conducted between July 19 and July 21, 1966.




The biological activities were conducted concurrently with stream




quality investigations.




        2.  Bottom organisms were selected as the primary indicator




of biological water quality.




        3.  Fair biological conditions were indicated on the West




Branch of Antietam Creek upstream from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.




        k.  Mild pollution on Antietam Creek was indicated between




Millers Church Road near Rocky Forge, Maryland, and Antietam Drive




east of Hagerstown, Maryland.




        5.  Moderately heavy organic pollution on Antietam Creek




was found at the west edge of Funkstown, Maryland (Station 7).




        6.  Mild organic pollution was indicated in Antietam Creek




from the Poffenberger Road Bridge (Station 8) downstream to Burn-




side Bridge near Sharpsburg, Maryland (Station 12).




        7.  Good water quality was indicated at Antietam, Maryland,




and unpolluted water was contributed to the Potomac River by




Antietam Creek.




        8.  Marsh Run, Beaver Creek, and Little Antietam Creek




(Station 11) were found to contribute good water quality to




Antietam Creek.

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            III.  DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION







        Antietam Creek is a small, shallow creek, with the West




Branch of the Creek originating in south-central Pennsylvania north




of Waynesboro.  The principal Cities in the drainage area are Waynes-




boro, Pennsylvania, and Haterstown, Maryland.




        The main points of degradation were also found downstream




from Waynesboro and Hagerstown.




        Control stations were sampled on the tributaries of Marsh




Run, Beaver Creek and Little Antietam Creek at Keedysville, Maryland.




        Sampling stations were located after consideration of the




following conditions:




        1.  Effects of tributaries




        2.  Areas having a known water quality problem




        3o  Physical capability for sampling




        Bottom organisms are animals that live directly in associa-




tion with the bottom of a waterway.  They may crawl on, burrow in,




or attach themselves to the bottom.  Macroorganisms are usually de-




fined as those organisms tnat will be retained by a Wo. 30 sieve.




In essence, the organisms retained by the sieve are those that are




visible to the unaided eye.




        Each station was sampled once, and the kinds of macro bottom




organisms were observed for the purpose of evaluating water quality.




Quantitative bottom samples were also taken, using a Surber Square




Foot Sampler, and the number of organisms per square foot was counted.

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        Quantitative samples were not taken at stations in non-

critical areas or where organisms were sparsely distributed.

        Discussions of stations proceed downstream unless other-

wise noted.


Station #1 - West Branch Antietam Creek off Pennsylvania Route 3l6
             upstream from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania

        The water was very clear, and minnows were extremely abundant,

Darters, a small fish related to yellow perch and walleyes, were also

observed.  A total of only eight genera of bottom organisms was

found, including such clean-water forms as caddisflies and riffle

beetles.  Intermediate organisms included flatworms, sow-bugs, and

midge larvae.  Pollution-tolerant forms included leeches and two

genera of air-breathing snails.  Soil erosion is heavy to moderate,

and the surrounding land is in intensive agriculture.  This limits

the number of kinds of bottom organisms present„  Fair biological

conditions are indicated at this location.


Station #2 - Antietam Creek at Millers Church Road near Rocky Forge,
             Maryland

        The water was very clear, and submerged aquatic vegetation

was fairly abundant.  Silt deposits were heavy in some areas, and a

hydrogen sulfide odor was noted when the bottom was disturbed.  Only

11 genera of bottom organisms were found.  Clean-water forms con-

sisted of one gill-breathing snail.  Pollution-tolerant forms in-

cluded sludgeworms, leeches (3 genera), and air-breathing snails

(2 genera).  Intermediate forms such as flatworms, scuds, blackflies,

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                                                              7


and midges made up the balance.  Out of 1,501 bottom organisms in

the square-foot sample, there were 1,368 blackflies, 96 intermediate

midge larvae, 36 air-breathing snails, and one leech.  Mild pollu-

tion is suggested at this station.


Station #3 - Antietam Creek at the Old Forge Road Bridge upstream
             from Hagerstown, Maryland

        Only 1^ genera of bottom organisms were found, but some

biological improvement was indicated by the presence of such clean-

water representatives as caddis flies (2 genera) and riffle beetles.

Intermediate forms such as scuds, sow-bugs, flatworms, blackflies,

and intermediate midge larvae were sampled.  Pollution-tolerant

forms such as sludgeworms, bristleworms, air-breathing snails (2

genera), and leeches were also found.  The quantitative sample con-

tained 1,102 bottom organisms which consisted of 523 caddisflies,

356 intermediate midge larvae, 86 air-breathing snails, 63 scuds,

21 sludgeworms, 13 riffle beetles, 11 blackflies, ten flatworms,

ten bristleworms, and nine sow-bugs.  The water was clear, and heavy

growths of submerged aquatic vegetation and duckweed were present.

Mild biological degradation was indicated at this station.


Station #H - Antietam Creek at Trovinger Road due north of
             Bridgeport, Maryland

        The water was clear, and there was a heavy growth of sub-

merged aquatic vegetation and duckweed, suggesting an abundance of

nitrogen and phosphorus„  Silt deposits are moderately heavy in

some areas.  Only four genera of bottom organisms were found versus

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                                                              8


1^ at the upstream station.  They consisted of the intermediate scuds

(2 genera) and flatworms and a pollution-tolerant air-breathing snail.

Mild pollution was indicated at this station.  Something appears to

be restricting the diversification and productivity of the bottom

organisms„


Station #5 - Mouth of Marsh Run (a tributary to Antietam Creek) at
             the east edge of Plagerstown at Security, Maryland

        The water was clear; and fourteen genera of bottom organisms

were found, including such clean-water representatives as mayflies

(2 genera), caddisflies (2 genera), and riffle beetles.  The square-

foot sample consisted of 312 intermediate midge larvae, 2l6 caddis-

fly larvae, 10U riffle beetles, 80 sow-bugs, l6 sludgeworms, seven

crayfish, and eight mayflies„   Clean-water forms made up kk per cent

of the quantitative sample.  Good water quality was contributed to

Antietam Creek.


Station #6 - Antietam Creek at Antietam Drive east of Hagerstown,
             Maryland

        The water was clear; and numerous minnows, goldfish, and

tadpoles were observed,  Eleven genera of bottom organisms were

found which included such clean-water organisms as mayflies, caddis-

flies, and riffle beetles.  Intermediate organisms consisted of

fingernail clams, scuds, and intermediate midge larvae.  Pollution-

tolerant organisms included sludgeworms, air-breathing snails (3

genera), and a fly larvae.  Productivity at this station was sur-

prisingly low, and only 36 bottom organisms were found in the

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                                                              9


square-foot sample.  The quantitative sample consisted of 15 inter-

mediate midge larvae, 11 air-breathing snails, seven sludgeworms,

two caddisflies, and one fly larva.  Mild pollution was indicated

at this station.


Station #7 - Antietam Creek at the bridge on East Oak Ridge Road
             at the west edge of Funkstown, Maryland

        The water was slightly cloudy and very foamy, believed to

be caused by discharge of detergents.  This station is located down-

stream from the Hagerstown Sewage Treatment Plant.   Sewage mold was

present on the rocks.  This is believed to be Sphaerotilus sp.  Only

six genera of bottom organisms were found at this location.  They

consisted of pollution-tolerant sludgeworms, air-breathing snails,

and cranefly larvae.  Intermediate organisms were damselflies and

intermediate midge larvae (2 genera).  The square-foot sample con-

sisted of 1,82^ sludgeworms, ±,22h intermediate midge larvae, 256

cranefly larvae, and 112 air-breathing snails.  Moderately heavy

organic pollution was indicated.


Station #8 - Antietam Creek at Poffenberger Road Bridge downstream
             from Funkstown, Maryland

        Foam was still present, and the water was slightly cloudy.

A mild sewage odor was evident.  A very large goldfish and tadpole

population was observed, and goldfish and tadpoles  were easily col-

lected in the qualitative sample.  Only seven genera of bottom

organisms were found, consisting of the following pollution-tolerant

forms:  leeches, air-breathing snails (2 genera), and a bristleworm;

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                                                             10


and the "balance was made up of intermediate forms:  damselflies,

flatworms, and midge larvae.  The 39^* bottom organisms in the

square-foot sample consisted of 2hQ intermediate midge larvae, 88

air-breathing snails, kO leeches, ten bristleworms, and eight flat-

worms.  Mild organic pollution was indicated at this station.


Station #9 - Antietam Creek at the Devils Backbone County Park
             adjacent to Maryland Route 68

        The water was clear, and small black bullheads, minnows,

and a large goldfish population were observed„  A total of 16 genera

of bottom organisms was found versus only seven at the upstream sta-

tion; however, only 56 organisms per square foot were sampled in the

quantitative sample.  Clean-water forms consisted of caddisflies and

gill-breathing snails.  Intermediate forms consisted of flatworms,

blackflies, midge larvae (3 genera), damselflies, arid fingernail

clams.  Pollution-tolerant forms were leeches (2 genera), air-

breathing snails (h genera), and sludgeworms.  The quantitative

sample consisted of 30 gill-breathing snails, 19 air-breathing snails,

four caddisflies, one sludgeworm, one leech, arid one intermediate

midge larvae.  Recovery was starting to take place but had not yet

occurred.


Station #10 - Beaver Creek (tributary to Antietam Creek) near its
              mouth off Maryland Route 68 near Breathedsville,
              Maryland

        The water was very cloudy due to soil erosion from upstream.

This is believed to be from road construction.  However, an excellent

-------
                                                             11


bottom organism population consisting of 2k genera was found.  It

consisted of such clean-water forms as stoneflies, mayflies (6

genera), caddisflies (k genera), riffle "beetles (2 genera), fish

flies, and gill-breathing snails.  There were 32h organisms in the

square-foot sample consisting of 13^ gill-breathing snails, 6j

riffle beetles, 57 intermediate midge larvae, 29 caddisflies, 22

sludgeworms, nine mayflies, four scuds, and two smoky alderfly

larvae.  Excellent water quality was contributed to Antietam Creek.


Station #11 - Little Antietam Creek (tributary to Antietam Creek)
              at the bridge downstream from Keedysville, Maryland,
              and west of Route 3^

        Submerged aquatic weeds were very abundant, and the water

was extremely clear.  Numerous minnows were observed at this loca-

tion.  High water quality was indicated by the 27 genera of bottom

organisms which included such clean-water forms as stoneflies, may-

flies (k genera), caddisflies (3 genera), fishflies, gill-breathing

snails, and riffle beetles (2 genera).  A total of 1,^58 bottom

organisms was found in the square-foot sample.  It consisted of 968

caddisflies, 26k riffle beetles, 102 intermediate midges, Uo crane-

fly larvae, 32 sow-bugs, 19 small crayfish, 11 mayflies, eight flat-

worms, six scuds, and five fishflies.  Excellent water quality was

contributed to Antietam Creek.

-------
                                                             12


Station #12 - Antletam Creek at Burnside Bridge near Sharpsburg,
              Maryland

        The water was slightly cloudy, and there appeared to be

quite a bit of silt coming down from upstream.  This was believed

to be from road construction„   Fourteen genera of bottom organisms

were found which included clean-water forms such as caddisflies,

riffle beetles, and gill-breathing snails.  Intermediate forms con-

sisted of flatworms, fingernail clams, damselflies, scuds, and

midges.  Pollution-tolerant forms included air-breathing snails

(2 genera), sludgeworms, and leeches.  However, bottom organisms

were not very abundant and only 15 per square foot were taken in

the quantitative sample.  It consisted of 12 midge larvae, one rif-

fle beetle, one scud, and one sludgeworm.  Mildly degraded biologi-

cal conditions were still indicated at this station.


Station #13 - Antietam Creek at the bridge at the Village of
              Antietam, Maryland

        The stream was clear,  and numerous bullheads and darters

were observed.  Submerged aquatic vegetation and filamentous algae

were heavy.  Good biological conditions were indicated by the 22

genera of bottom organisms which included such clean-water forms as

mayflies (3 genera), caddisflies (2 genera), riffle beetles (2 genera),

and gill-breathing snails (2 genera).  A total of 713 bottom organ-

isms was collected in the square-foot sample which consisted of hkO

intermediate midge larvae, 200 caddisflies, hO mayflies, 19 gill-

breathing snails, eight riffle beetles, three leeches, one air-

breathing snail, one flatworm, and one bristleworm«  High water quality

was contributed to the Potomac River by Antietam Creek.

-------
                           TABLE I

                   BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA OF
                ANTIETAM CREEK AND TRIBUTARIES
                                                            13

Station
Number
1





Location
West Branch of Antietam
Creek off Pennsylvania
Route 3l6 upstream from
Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
Bottom
No. of
Kinds
8



Organisms
No. Per
Sq. Ft.
Not
Taken



Dominant
Forms
Flatworms
Sow-bugs
Mi dge Larvae

Indicated
Water
Quality
Fair



Antietam Creek at Millers    11
Church Road near Rocky
Forge, Maryland

Antietam Creek at the        1^
Old Forge Road Bridge
upstream from Hagerstovri,
Maryland

Antietam Creek at Trov-       k
inger Road due north of
Bridgeport, Maryland
Mouth of Marsh Run (a        Ik
tributary to Antietam
Creek) at the east edge
of Hagerstown at
Security, Maryland

Antietam Creek at            11
Antietam Drive east of
Hagerstown, Maryland
Antietam Creek at the
bridge on East Oak Ridge
Road at the west edge of
Funkstown, Maryland

Antietam Creek at Poffen-
berger Road Bridge down-
stream from Funkstown,
Maryland
1,501   Blackflies
1,102   Caddisflies
        Midge Larvae
Not     Scuds
Taken   Flatworms
        Air-breathing
        Snail
        Midge Larvae
        Caddisflies
        Riffle Beetles
        Sow-bugs
   36   Midge Larvae
        Air-breathing
        Snails
        Sludgeworms
        Sludgeworms
        Mi dge Larvae
  39^   Midge Larvae
        Air-breathing
        Snails
        Leeches
                        Mild
                        Pollution
                        Mild
                        Pollution
                        Mild
                        Pollution
                        Good
                        Mild
                        Pollution
                        Moderately
                        Heavy
                        Pollution
                        Mild
                        Pollution

-------
                             TABLE I (Continued)
Station
Number
Location
Bottom
No. of
Kinds
Organisms
No.
Sq,.
Per
Ft.
Dominant
Forms
Indicated
Water
Quality
 9     Antietam Creek at the        16
       Devils Backbone County
       Park adjacent to
       Maryland Route 68

10     Beaver Creek (Tribu-         2U
       tary to Antietam Creek)
       near its mouth off
       Maryland Route 68 near
       Breathedsville, Maryland

11     Little Antietam Creek        27
       (Tributary to Antietam
       Creek) at the bridge
       downstream from Keedys-
       ville, Maryland, and
       west of Route 3^

12     Antietam Creek at            ih
       Burnside Bridge near
       Sharpsburg, Maryland

13     Antietam Creek at the        22
       bridge at the Village
       of Antietam, Maryland
   56
  32 !|
1,1*58
Gill-breathing  Mild
Snails, Air-    Pollution
breathing
Snails
Gill-breathing
Snails, Riffle
Beetles, Midge
Larvae
Caddisflies

Caddisflies
Riffle Beetles
Midge Larvae
Excellent
Excellent
   15   Midge Larvae    Mildly
                        Degraded
  713   Midge Larvae    Excellent
        Caddisflies
        Mayflies

-------
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     MARYLAND
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                           QUANTITATIVE SAMPLE TA KE N AND NO '
                      _J	1_  OF ORGAM'SMG FOJWD PFW S Q (- r   '
                      BOTTOM ORGANISMS


                          e, c, a o



                          SO FT SAMPL £
       ANTIETAM CREEK SUB-BASIN
     POTOMAC RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN     :

         BIOLOGICAL  SURVEY         |

    ANTIETAM  CR. a TRIBUTARIES    |

      (WAYNESBORO, PA. - ANTIETAM, MD.)      \

       U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR        |
FEDERAL WATER  POLLUTION  CONTROL ADMINISTRATION \
REGIONAL OFFICE             CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA !

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section                                                      Page
   I.  INTRODUCTION 	       1

  II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS	       3

 III.  DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION	       5
                         LIST OF TABLES

Table

  I    Bottom Organism Data of the Monocacy River
         and Tributaries	     1?

 II    Tabulation of Bottom Organisms - Monocacy River
         and Tributaries	     21
                        LIST OF FIGURES

                                                            Follows
Figure                                                       Page

  1    Map of Study Area and Profile of Biological
         Conditions - Monocacy River and Tributaries ...     v^-

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                          I.  INTRODUCTION





        A biological survey of the Monocacy River and certain tribu-



taries between Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and the Maryland Route 28 Bridge



was conducted in July 1966 „  The survey was made to determine the bio-



logical condition of the stream from its headwaters in Pennsylvania to



its mouth downstream from the Maryland Route 28 Bridge near Tuscarora,



Maryland.



        For purposes of the study, the community of bottom (benthic)



organisms was selected as the indicator of the biological condition of



the stream.  Bottom organisms serve as the preferred food source for



the higher aquatic forms and exhibit similar reactions to adverse stream



conditions.  The combination of limited locomotion and life cycles of



one year or more, for most benthic species, provide a long term picture



of the water quality of a stream.  Fish and algal populations were given



some consideration, but only to the extent that obvious conclusions



could be drawn based upon casual observations„



        In unpolluted streams a wide variety of sensitive clean-water



associated bottom organisms is normally found.  Typical groups are stone-



flies, mayflies, and caddisflies.  These sensitive organisms usually are



not individually abundant because of natural predation and competition



for food and space; however, the total count or number of organisms at



a given station may be high because of the number of different var-



ieties present.



        Sensitive genera (kinds) tend to be eliminated by adverse environ-



mental conditions, chemical, physical, and biological, resulting from



wastes reaching the stream.  In waters enriched with organic wastes,

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comparatively fewer kinds are normally found, but great numbers of these
genera may be present.  Organic pollution-tolerant forms such as sludge-
worms, rattailed maggots, certain species of bloodworms such as red
midges, certain leeches, and sane species of air-breathing snails
may multiply and become abundant because of a favorable habitat and
food supply.  These organic pollution-tolerant bottom organisms may
also exist in the natural environment but are generally found in small
numbers„  The abundance of these forms in streams heavily polluted with
organics is due to their physiological and sacrpfeologi&al abilities to
survive environmental conditions more adverse than conditions that may
be tolerated by other organisms,,  When inert- silts or organic sludges
blanket the stream bottom, the natural home of bottom organisms is de-
stroyed^ causing a reduction in the number of kinds of organisms present,
        In addition to sensitive and pelletion-tolerant forms, some
bottom organisms m&y be termed iaternedi&tesf in that they are capable
of living in fairly heavily polluted areas as well as in clean-water
situations.  These organisms oecurririg in limited numbers therefore
cannot serve as effective indicators of water quality„
        Streams grossly polluted -with toxic wastes such as mine drain-
age will support little if any biological life, and will reduce the
population of both sensitive and pollution-tolerant organisms.
        Classification of organisms in this report is considered in
three categories (clean-water associated, intermediate, and pollution-
tolerant) which provide sufficient biological information to supple-
ment physical and chemical water quality lata for a basin-wide analysis,,
Detailed identification and counts of specific organisms have been
tabulated and are attached0

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                    II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS





        1.  A biological survey of the Monocacy River and key tribu-



taries from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to the Maryland Route 28 Bridge



was conducted in July 1966.  Investigations were made at twelve



stations on the Monocacy and at fourteen stations on the tributaries,



        2.  Bottom organisms were selected as the primary indicator of



biological water quality.



        3.  Rock Creek which joins Marsh Creek to form the Monocacy



River was found to be polluted downstream from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania,



but quickly recovered.



        4.  The Monocacy River was found to furnish unpolluted water



quality from Harney, Maryland, to the Gas House Pike Road upstream



from Frederick, Maryland.



        5.  Organic pollution was found to exist from the Frederick



Sewage Treatment Plant outfall to the Route 40 West Bridge.



        6.  Good water quality was contributed to the Monocacy River



by Tom's Creek, Double Pipe Creek, and Hunting Greek.  These streams



are listed in descending order.



        7.  Poor quality water was contributed to Tom's Creek by



Flat Run«



        8.  Poor quality water was contributed to the Monocacy River



by Glade Creek and Carroll Creek.



        9.  Good quality water was found in the Monocacy River from



the Maryland Route 355 Bridge to the Maryland Route 28 Bridge.

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       10.  Bennett Creek contributed good quality water to the



Monocacy River in this reach.



       11.  The Monocacy River contributed good quality water to the



Potomac River at River Mile 153.5.

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              III.  DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION





        Rock Creek and Marsh Creek join at River Mile 52.5 at the



Pennsylvania^faryland State Line to form the Monocacy River.  Rock



Creek originates in agricultural land north of Gettysburg, Pennsyl-



vania, and flows around Gettysburg, where it picks up a pollutional



load "but quickly recovers.



        Numerous tributaries enter the Monocacy River on its journey



to join the Potomac River at River Mile 153.5,  Some contribute high



quality water while others contribute a pollutional load.  The point



of greatest degradation was found downstream from Frederick, Maryland.



Recovery, however, occurred long before the Monocacy reached the



Potomac River*



        Sampling stations were located after consideration of the



following conditions:



        1.  Effects of tributaries



        2.  Areas having a known water quality problem



        3.  Physical capability for sampling



        Bottom organisms are animals that lj£f® directly in association



with the bottom of a waterway.  They may crawl, or burrow in, or attach



themselves to the bottom.  Macroorganisms are usually defined as those



organisms that will be retained by a No. 30 sieve.  In essence, the



organisms retained by the sieve are those that are visible to the



unaided eye.



        Each station was sampled once, and the kinds of macro bottom



organisms were observed for the purpose of evaluating water quality.

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Quantitative bottom samples were also taken, using a Surber Square

Foot Sampler or a Petersen Dredge (0.6 sq. ft.) and the number of organ-

isms per square foot was counted or calculated.

        Quantitative samples were not taken at stations in noncritical

areas or where organisms were sparsely distributed.

        Discussions of stations proceed downstream unless otherwise

noted,


Station #1 - Rock Creek (joins Marsh Greek to form the Monocaey River)
             at the U0 S, 15 Business Route Bridge upstream from
             Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

        The water was clear and minnows were observed,  A total of

fourteen genera of bottom organisms was found which included such clean-

water forms as mayflies (4) and mussels of the family ffnionidae (pearl

button clams) referred to herein as Sndo mussels.  Good water quality

was indicated based on the bottom organisms.  However, high nitrogen

and phosphorus was indicated by the heavy growth of filamentous algae,

This station was located in an intensive agricultural area.


Station #2 - This station was located on Rock Creek downstream from
             Gettysburg^ Pennsylvania, at the lh S. 15 Bypass Bridge

        This station was located approximately one and one-half to

two miles downstream from the Gettysburg Sewage- Treatment Plant,  The

water was clear and some minnows were observed.  However, only nine

kinda of bottom organisms were found versus fourteen at the upstream

station*  Six kinds -w^re organic pollution fozms and the other three

were intermediate genera.  Out of 2,651 bottom organisms in the square

foot sample 1,  602 were sludge-worms and 762 were bloodworms

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(Chironomus sp0), a pollution-tolerant midge larva„  In addition, there

were 42 air-breathing snails (2 genera) and ten leeches (2 genera).  All

were organic pollution forms.  The balance was made up of 235 scuds,

an intermediate form.  Organic pollution was indicated at this station.


Station #3 - The Monocacy River at the Barney Bridge near Harney,
             Maryland

        Rock Creek joins Marsh Creek in the vicinity of the Maryland

border to form the Monocacy River„  The first station sampled on the

Monocacy was at the Harney Bridge immediately south of the Pennsylvania

State Line,  The stream was very clear and minnows and green sunfish

were abundant at this station.  Improved biological conditions can

probably be attributed to Marsh Greek.  Sixteen genera cf bottom organ-

isms were found which included such clean-water forms as mayflies

(2 kinds), a Unio. mussel,, caddis flies (2 kinds), and riffle beetles,

Out of 392 organisms in the square foot sample there were 101 caddisfly

larvae, 65 riffle beetles (2 genera), and 18 mayflies (2 genera)„

While recovery from the upstream conditions was indicated, heavy

nitrogen and phosphorus was 8'oggested by the heavy growths of fila-

mentous algae and submerged aquatic weeds„


Station #4 - Monocaey River at the Maryland Rout© 97 Bridge at
             Bridgeport,, Maryland

        Although the water was slightly turbid, a go&d bottom organism

population was present which consisted of thirteen genera„  They in-

cluded such clean-water forms as mayflies,, caddlsflies, riffle beetles,

and Unio mussels (3 genera).  Minnows were numerals throughout the

area.  Good water quality was indicated at this location.

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                                                                 8

Station #5 - Tom's Creek (tributary to Monocacy River) at the bridge
             on Creamery Road one mile south of Emmitsburg, Maryland

        The water was very clear and minnows were very numerous.

Eight genera of bottom organisms were found which included such clean-

water organisms as mayflies (2 kinds), caddisflies, and riffle beetles.

Mayflies and caddisflies were abundant.  Good quality was indicated

at this location.

Station #6 - Flat Run (tributary to Tom's Creek which is a tributary
             to the Mcnocacy River) was sampled at Route 806 north
             of Emmitsburgj Maryland

        The water was clear and numerous minnows were observed.

Only three genera of bottom organisms were found; however, mayflies

were very numerous»  Good water quality was indicated.


Station #7 - Flat Run at U. S, Route 15 Bridge near Emmitsburg,
             Maryland

        The water had a greenish cast and bottom organisms were very

sparse.  Only three genera (kinds) of bottom organisms were found

which consisted of a midge larva, beetle larvae,, and the larva of

the smoky alderfly.  Two of these are intermediate forms and the

third is tolerant of pollution»  Degraded biological conditions are

indicated at this station.

Station #8 - Tom's CreeK. at the bridge at the junction of Four Points
             Road and Keysville Road near Emmitsburg,, Maryland

        The stream remained clear and minnows were still numerous.

There were nine different genera of bottom organisms at this station;

however, mayflies and caddisflies jxguld not be jjgund,.  The only

clean-water forms found were two kinds of riffle beetles and a gill-

breathing snail.  Leeches (2 kinds)s a pollution-tolerant form, were

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the dominant bottom organisms present.  An air-breathing snail, another

pollution-tolerant form, was present.  The balance was made up of three

intermediate forms.  A mild organic pollution is suggested at this

station.  The sewage treatment plant upstream is the suspected source.


Station #9 - Tom's Creek (tributary to the Monocacy River) at Sixes
             Road Bridge near Keysville, Maryland

        The bottom was mostly bedrock and the water was extremely

clear.  Minnows were numerous throughout the area,  A total of twelve

different genera of bottom organisms were found.  Clean-water repre-

sentatives included mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, a Unio

mussel, and a gill-breathing snail.  Mayflies and fingernail clams

were abundant.  Other forms included smoky alderfly larvae, scuds,

flatworms, mosquito larvae, and two genera of air-breathing snails.

In addition, darters, a snail fish related to yellow perch and wall-

eyes, were sampled.  Good quality water was contributed by Tom's Creek

to the Monocaey River,


Station #10 - Monocacy River at the Mumma Ford Bridge

        The stream was clear and minnows and smallmouth bass were

numerous.  A total of fourteen different kinds of bottom organisms

were found which included such clean-water representatives as mayflies,

caddisflies (2 genera) riffle beetles (2 genera), Unjo mussels

(3 genera), and a gill-breathing snail.  Good water quality was

indicated.

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                                                                       10


Station #11 - Big Pipe Creek (joins Little Pipe Creek to form Double
              Pipe Creek) sampled at Maryland Route 194 Bridge at
              Bruceville, Maryland

        The water was slightly turbid.  Eight different genera of bottom

organisms were found including such clean-water forms as mayflies

(2 genera), caddisflies (3 genera), riffle beetles, and a gill-breathing

snail.  The other organism was an air-breathing snail,  Mayflies,

caddisflies, and the gill-breathing snail were abundant.  Good water

quality was contributed to Double Pipe Creek.


Station #12 - Little Pipe Creek (joins Big Pipe Creek to form Double
              Pipe Creek) was sampled at Maryland 194 Bridge near
              Keymar, Maryland

        The water was somewhat turbid, but minnows and black bullheads

were observed.  A total of twelve genera of bottom organisms were

found including such clean-water forms as mayflies (2 genera), caddis-

flies (2 genera), riffle beetles, and a gill-breathing snail.  Good

water quality was contributed to Double Pipe Creek„


Station #13 - Monocacy River at the LeGore Bridge Road near Rocky
              Eidge, Maryland

        The stream was slightly turbid, but minnows were observed

throughout the area0  Twenty-seven genera of bottom organisms were

found.  Excellent water quality was indicated by such clean-water

organisms as stoneflies, mayflies (4 genera), caddisflies (3 genera),

riffle beetles (2 genera), hellgrammites, gill-breathing snails

(3 genera), and a Unio mussel.  Out of 458 bottom organisms in the

square foot sample there were 145 caddisflies, 63 riffle beetles,

52 mayflies, and 98 gill-breathing snails„  Seventy-eight percent of

the organisms in the square foot sample were clean-water forms.

-------
                                                                      11
Station #14 - Hunting Creek (tributary to the Monocacy River) at
              Hessong Bridge near Jimtown, Maryland

        The water was somewhat turbid and a light fish-kill had

occurred in the area about twenty-four hours earlier.  A dead rainbow

trout, a smallmouth bass, a rock bass, and a white sucker were found.

In addition, a large white sucker was found which was still alive.

It would appear that a light pollutant slug had passed through the

area recently.  This station was downstream from the Thunnont Sewage

Treatment Plant,  Ten genera of bottom organisms were found which

included such clean-water forms as mayflies (2 genera), caddisflies

(2 genera), and riffle beetles.  Basically good water quality was

present.


Station #15 - Hunting Creek (tributary to the Monocacy River) was
              sampled at the Old Frederick Road south of Creagers-
              town, Maryland

        The water was clear and numerous minnows were observed.  Im-

proved biological conditions were indicated by the thirteen genera

of bottom organisms versus ten upstream.  They included such clean-

water forms as mayflies (2 genera), caddisflies (2 genera), riffle

beetles, and gill-breathing snails (2 genera).  Good water quality was

contributed to the Monocacy River.


Station #16 - Monocacy River at Devilbiss Bridge near Hansonville,
              Maryland

        The water was extremely clear and minnows were observed through-

out the area.  A total of twenty-four genera of bottom organisms were

found indicating excellent water quality.  They included such clean-

water representatives as stoneflies, mayflies (5 genera), caddisflies

-------
                                                                       12
(4 genera), and gill-breathing snails (2 genera).  Out of 2,426 bottom

organisms in the square foot sample there were 464. mayflies, 384 riffle

beetles, 176 caddisflies, 8 gill-breathing snails, I hellgrammite, and

1 Uflio mussel.  Clean-water organisms made up approximately 43 percent

of the quantitative sample,


Station #17 - Glade Creek (tributary to the Monoeacy River) at Retreat
              Road

        The water was clear, but silt was heavy in some sections.  Sub-

merged aquatic plants were very profuse„  Only two kinds of bottom

organisms were present.  They consisted of flatworms and bristleworms.

The former is an intermediate and the latter is a pollution-tolerant

form,,  Flatworms were extremely abundant,  Poor water quality was

indicated at this location,


Station #18 - Monoeacy River at Ceresville Bridge at Jferyland Route 26

        Minnows were abundant and the stream was clear.  Excellent

water quality was indicated by twenty-two genera of bottom organisms

which included clean-water mayflies (4 genera), caddisflies (3 genera),

riffle beetles (2 genera), helXgrammites, gill-breathing snails

(2 genera), and Unlo mussels.  Of 409 bottom organisms in the square

foot sample, there were 258 caddisflies? 59 mayflies,, 15 riffle beetles,

and 48 gill-breathing snails.  Excellent water quality was shown by

the fact that 93 percent of the quantitative sample were clean-water

forms.

-------
Station #19 - Monocacy River at the Gas House Pike Road upstream
              from Frederick, Maryland

        The water was turbid and deep due to a coffer dam constructed

for a new bridge downstream.  Only eleven genera of bottom organisms

were found versus twenty-two upstream.  However, they included such

clean-water forms as stoneflies, mayflies (2 genera), riffle beetles,

and gill-breathing snails (2 genera),,  The drop in number of kinds

could  partially be attributed to impounded conditions and poor

sampling habitat.  Good water quality was still indicated although

some degradation from the upstream station would be indicated.


Station #20 - Carroll Creek (tributary to Monocacy Creek) was sampled
              at the bridge upstream from the Frederick Sewage
              Treatment Plant

        The water was clear, but vegetation was sparse.  Only five

genera of bottom organisms were found which consisted of bristleworms

(2 genera), bloodworms, and intermediate midge larvae, and an air-

breathing snail.  Out of 1,017 bottom organisms in the square foot

sample there were 778 sludgeworms, 1 other bristleworm, 140 bloodworms,

and 98 intermediate midge larvae.  Moderately heavy organic pollution

was indicated at this station.


Station #21 - Monocacy River immediately upstream from Linganore
              Creek near Hughes Ford

        The water was extremely black and the sewage odor was pro-

nounced.  Only eleven kinds of bottom organisms were found.  They con-

sisted of seven pollution-tolerant and four intermediate forms.  There

were 2,109 bottom organisms in the square foot sample which was made

up of 960 sludgeworms, 805 intermediate midges, 123 bloodworms,

-------
                                                                       14
109 leeches, and 112 bristleworms.  All except the intermediate midge

sire very tolerant of organic pollution.  In addition, a few carp were

observed in the area.  Heavy organic pollution was indicated at

this station.


Station #22 - Monocacy River at the Route 40 West Bridge downstream
              from Frederick, Maryland

        Aquatic vegetation was heavy and the water was much clearer.

Numerous sunfish and minnows were present.  Improved biological condi-

tions were present as indicated by the fifteen different genera of

bottom organisms present versus eleven at the upstream station.  The

dominant bottom organisms were leeches, air-breathing snails, sludge-

worms, and bloodworms.  However, a few clean-water organisms such as

mayflies (2 genera) were found.  These were present in limited numbers.

The stream showed signs of recovery at this station, however recovery

had not yet occurred.


Station #23 - Monocacy River at the Maryland Route 355 Bridge near
              Monocaey Park, Jfaryland

        The water was very clear and the aquatic vegetation was quite

heavy.  Minnows were observed throughout the area.  Fifteen genera of

bottom organisms were present including such clean-water forms as

mayflies (2 genera), caddisflies (2 genera), and gill-breathing snails.

Out of 1,552 bottom organisms in the square foot sample, 848 were inter-

mediate midge larvae.  The balance was made up of 248 blackfly larvae,

216 caddisfly larvae, 168 leeches, 40 flatworms, 24 mayflies, and 8 air-

breathing snails.  Several fishermen and fish were also observed in the

area.  Recovery was indicated at this station.

-------
                                                                  15


Station #2^ - Monocacy River at the Maryland Route 80 Bridge near
              Buckeystown, Maryland

        The water was very clear and fish and fishermen were observed

at this station.  Seventeen genera of bottom organisms were found at

this station.  Excellent water quality was indicated by such clean-

water organisms as mayflies (k genera), caddisflies (5 genera), and

riffle beetles.  Mayflies and caddisflies were abundant.  Other bottom

organisms sampled consisted of damselflies (2 genera), flatworms,

midge larvae, scuds, fingernail clams, and an air-breathing snail.

High water quality was indicated by the dominance of clean-water forms

and the large diversification of bottom organisms.

Station #25 - Bennett Creek (tributary to the Monocacy River) at the
              Mt. Ephraim Road Bridge near Park Mills, Maryland

        The water was clear but vegetation was relatively sparse at

this station.  Fourteen genera of bottom organisms were found here.

Excellent water quality was indicated by such clean-water organisms

as mayflies (2 genera), caddisflies, fishflies, and gill-breathing

snails.  Mayflies and caddisflies were abundant.  Good quality water

was contributed to the Monocacy River by Bennett Creek.

Station #26 - Monocacy River at the Maryland Route 28 Bridge near
              Furnace Ford, Maryland

        The water was very clear and aquatic vegetation was sparse.

Excellent water quality was indicated by the twenty genera of bottom

organisms which were found at this station.  Clean-water represen-

tatives included stoneflies (2 genera), mayflies (5 genera), caddis-

flies (2 genera), riffle beetles and hellgrammites.  Out of 605 bottom

-------
                                                                  16
organisms in the square foot sample, there were 153 riffle beetles,




1^9 mayflies, ikQ intermediate midge larvae, 9^ caddisfly larvae,




60 flatworms (intermediate), eight fly larvae (pollution-tolerant),




and one bristleworm (pollution-tolerant).  Excellent water quality




was contributed to the Potomac River.

-------
                                   TABLE I
                                                                            17
                       BOTTOM ORGANISMS DATA OF THE
                      MDNOCACY RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
Station
Number
Location
Bottom Organisms
No. of  No, Per
Kinds   Sq. Ft.
    Dominant
      Forms
Indicated
  Water
 Quality
         Rock Creek (joins Marsh
          Creek to form the Mon-
          ©eaey River)sampled at
          the U.S. 15 Business
          Route Bridge -upstream
          from Gettysburg, Pa.

         Rock Creek downstream
          from Gettysburg, Pa.
          at the U.S. 15 Bypass
          Bridge

         Monocacy River at the
          Barney Bridge near
          Barney, Md0

         Monocacy River at the
          Md0 Rt. 97 Bridge at
          Bridgeport, Md0

         Tom's Creek (tributary
          to the Monocaey River)
          at the bridge on
          Creamery Road one mile
          south of Emmitsburg, MdD

         Flat Run (tributary to
          Tom's Creek which is a
          tributary to the Monoe-
          aey River) was sampled
          at Route 806 north of
          Emmitsburg, Md0

         Flat Run at the U.S.
          Route 15 Bridge near
          Emmitsburg, Md,

         Tom's Creek at the
          bridge at the junction
          of Four Points Road and
          Keysville Road near
          Emmitsburg, Md.
                           Not
                           taken
                 Mayflies
                 Unio mussels
                 Good
                           2,651
                     16
                     13
          392
        Not
        taken
                           Not
                           taken
                           Not
                           taken
                 Sludgeworms
                 Bloodworms
Caddisflies
Riffle beetles
Mayflies

Mayflies
Caddis flies
Riffle beetles

Mayflies
Caddisflies
Riffle beetles
                 Mayflies
                 Polluted
Good
Good
                                  Good
                 Good
                           Not
                           taken
                           Not
                           taken
                 Midge larvae
                 Beetle larvae
                 Smoky alderfly

                 Leeches
                 Mild
                 pollution
                 Mild
                 pollution

-------
                                                                    18
                         TABLE I (Continued)
Station
Number
9
10
11
Bottom
No. of
Location Kinds
Tom's Creek at Sixes 12
Road Bridge near
Keysville, Md,
Monocacy River at the ih
Mumsia Ford Bridge
Big Pipe Creek (joins 8
Little Pipe Creek to
form Double Pipe Creek)
sampled at Md. Eoute 19^
Bridge at Bruce ville, Md.
Organisms
No . Per
Sq. Ft.
Not
taken
Not
taken
Not
taken
Dominant
Forms
Mayflies
Caddisf'lies
Riffle beetles
Mayflies
Caddisflies
Riffle beetles
Mayflies
Caddisflies
Gill-breathing
snails
Indicated
Water
Quality
Good
Good
Good
12     Little Pipe Creek (joins   12    Not
        Big Pipe Creek to form          taken
        Double Pipe Creek) was
        sampled at Md. Route
        194 Bridge near Keymar, Mda
13     Monoeacy River at the      27
        LeGore Bridge Road
        near Rocky Kidge, Md.
14     Hunting Creek (tribxtrary   10    Not
        to the Monocacy River)          taken
        at the Hessong Bridge
        near Jimtown, Md»

15     Hunting Creek (tributary   13    Not
        to the Monocacy River)          taken
        was sampled at the Old
        Frederick Poad south of
        Creagerstown, Md,

16     Monocacy River at Devil-   2k    2,426
        biss Bridge near Hanson-
        ville, Md.

17     Glade Creek (tributary to   2    Not
        the Monocacy River) at          taken
        Retreat Road
Mayflies        Good
Caddisflies
Kiffle beetles
Gill-breathing
 snails

Caddisflies     Excellent
Riffle beetles
Mayflies
Gill-breathing
 snails
Mayflies
•'ail-iisflies
Piffle beetles
Mayflies
Cadaisflies
Biffie beetles
Gill-"breathing
 snails

Mayflies
Riffle beetles
Caddisflies

Flatworms
Bristleworms
Good
Good
Excellent
Mild
pollution

-------
                                                                           19
                             TABLE I (Continued)
Station
Number
                                   Bottom
Location
No. of
Kinds
No.
Sq.
Per
Ft.
Dominant
 Forms
Indicated
  Water
 Quality
  18     Monocacy River at           22      409
          Ceresville Bridge
          at Maryland Route 26
  19     Monocacy River at the       11    Not
          Gas House Pike Road              taken
          upstream from Fred-
          erick, Md.
  20     Carroll Creek (tribu-        5    1,017
          tary to Monocacy Creek)
          was sampled at the
          bridge upstream from
          the Frederick Sewage
          Treatment Plant
  21     Monocacy River immedi-
          ately upstream from
          Linganore Creek near
          Hughes Ford
                                    Caddisflies
                                    Mayflies
                                    Gill-breathing
                                     snails

                                    Mayflies
                                    Riffle beetles
                                    Gill-breathing
                                     snails
                                    Stoneflies

                                    Sludgeworms
                                    Bloodworms
                                    Midge larvae
                      Excellent
                      Good
                     11    2,109
  22     Monocacy River at the       15    Not
          Route 40 West Bridge             taken
          downstream from
          Frederick, Md.
     Sludgeworms
     Midge larvae
     Bloodworms
     Leeches
     Bristleworms

     Leeches
     Air-breathing
      snails
     Sludgeworms
                      Moderately
                      heavy
                      pollution
                          Heavy
                          organic
                          pollution
                                                     Mild
                                                     pollution
  23     Monocacy River at the       15    1,552
          Md. Route 355 Bridge
          near Monocacy Park, Md.
  24     Monocacy River at the       17    Not
          Md. Route 80 Bridge              taken
          near Buckeystown, Md.
                                    Midge larvae     Good
                                    Blackfly larvae
                                    Caddisfly larvae
                                    Leeches

                                    Mayflies         Good
                                    Caddisflies

-------
                                      20
Station
Number
25
TABLE I (Continued)
vBofc'tQiB QnsT&niSTO^
Location
Bennett Creek (tribu-
tary to the Monocaey
No. of
Kinds
14
No. Per
So. Ft.
Not
taken
Dominant
Forms
Mayflies
Caddis flies
Indicated
Water
Quality
Good
26
 River) at the Mt.
 Ephraim Road Bridge
 near Park Mills, Md.

Monocaey River at the
 Md. Route 28 Bridge
 near Furnace Ford, M
20
        Fishflies
        Gill-breathing
         snails

605     Riffle beetles
        Mayflies
        Midge larvae
        Caddis flies
Excellent

-------
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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS






                                                             Page





  I.  INTRODUCTION	      1




 II.  PROCEDURES ..............  	      2




III.  RESULTS  	 .................      k




 IV.  DISCUSSION .....................      7




  V.  BIBLIOGRAPHY	     11
                        LIST OF TABLES




Table                                                        Page




  1     Station Locations                                     12




  2     Water Quality Parameters                              13

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                        I.  INTRODUCTION






        In the summer of 1967 water quality reconnaissance surveys



were conducted in the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Annapolis,



Maryland.



        Objectives of the surveys were 2



        1.  Observe oxygen depletion trends during the summer months,



        2.  Determine horizontal and vertical stratification through



            thermoclines and haloclineSo



        3.  Measure existing water quality in terms of D00., BOD,



            temperature, salinity, nutrients, turbidity and phyto-




            plankton.




        During the surveys three cruises were made, covering five




transects from a north section above Gibson Island to the southern-




most section at Hacketts Point near Annapolis.  Locations are shown



on the map, Figure 1; positions are indicated in Table !„  Depth



profiles are presented as Figures 2 through 6»

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                        II.  PROCEDURES






        Temperature was determined initially by a glass thermometer



wired inside a transparent water sampler.  When an electronic




thermometer (integral with the induction salinometer) became avail-




able, in situ measurements were made.  Salinity was determined




12 situ by the induction salinometer.



        Secchi disc readings were made with a 12-inch (30 cm)




white Secchi disc.



        Dissolved oxygen samples were drawn from a Van Dorn water



sampler and fixed aboard the boat prior to being returned to the




laboratory at Annapolis.  These samples were analyzed on an (Fisher



"Titralyzer") automatic titrator, employing the azide modification




of the Winkler Method described in Standard Methods (APHA, 1965).



        Standard 20°C five-day BOD determinations were made with



single initial DO and duplicate final DO analyses.  No dilutions



or seeding were used.



        Turbidity was determined in the laboratory with an electr-c



nephelometric turbidimeter, calibrated against a permanent formazin-



acrylic standard.



        Total phosphorus (expressed as mg/1 PO ) was determined by



the Menzel and Corwin (1965) persulfate procedure, with phosphate



determination,by the Murphy and Riley (1962) procedure.



        Oxidized nitrogen (nitrite-plus-nitrate) expressed as NO -N,



was determined by the cadmium reduction procedure described by



Morris and Riley (1963).

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        Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was determined by the procedure



outlined in Standard Methods for the Analysis of Waters and Waste-




waters (APHA, 1965 <£   This method included HH_-N in the results.




        Chlorophyll was determined by the 90 Per cent acetone




extraction scheme outlined by Strickland and Parsons (1965).

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                          Ill„   RESULTS






        The data, as given In Table 2, are summarized as follows;




Temperaturei  Horizontal and vertical stratification of temperature




were indicated in the study area portion of the Bay.  Temperatures




were observed to be a degree or so wanner on the western side of




the Bay than on the eastern.  A greater degree of vertical strati-




fication of temperature was evident, with a 6 C difference between




surface and bottom recorded.  A rather sharp thermoeline between




15 and 30 feet was suggested, more pronounced in June than in July»





Salinity;  Salinity distributions showed horizontal and vertical




stratification, with higher salinities on the western side0  The




rather sharp halocline seemed to be at similar levels as the




thermoeline„





Turbidity;  Water in the eastern side of the Bay was substantially




clearer than on the western side as indicated by turbidity readings




(JTU) from the nephelometer as well as by field measurements of




extinction with the Secchi disc,,  During the study no excessive




rainfalls or windstorms occurred to provide excessive silts„





Nutrient distributions;  Total phosphorus concentrations were




greatest in the northwestern portion of the study area? with a




tendency for greater concentrations above the halocline.  Generally,




concentrations were higher on the western side than the eastern




side of the Bay,,

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        Nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogens were generally low, with




slightly greater concentrations in the upper layers of the northerly




transects.




        Total Kjeldahl nitrogen was similar in horizontal distri-




bution to total phosphorus, with greatest concentrations in the




northwestern portion.  The vertical distribution differed, however,




with a tendency for similar concentrations of organic nitrogen




throughout the water column, or in some cases, greater concentrations




of nitrogen at increasing depths.




        Chlorophyll, reflecting the phytoplankton standing crop, was




greatest in concentration in surface waters (to 15 feet depth) in




the same areas where phosphorus and nitrogen were high.  There was




a marked decrease in concentration with depth, as would be expected.




        The trend toward oxygen depletion below concentrations




suitable for aerobic biological forms can be seen in waters from




25 feet to the bottom.  In the area of the study, the depth below




25 feet constitutes a considerable portion of the Bay volume.   This




oxygen depletion of the bottom waters was obvious even in the  channel




(Stations A2, B2 and C2).  Tidal currents in the area are relatively




rapid, two to three knots (Pritchard and Carpenter, 196^).




        Dissolved oxygen concentrations in surface waters showed




definite discrete patterns which, considered with the chlorophyll




£ data, indicated the influence of phytoplankton distributions,

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possibly in bloom proportions.  Oxygen production by phytoplankton




was suggested in the northwestern portions of the study area where




chlorophyll was highest.




        The distribution of Biochemical Oxygen Demand was similar




to the distribution of chlorophyll and nutrients, i.e., concentrations




were greatest in the northwestern portion of the study area.  Surface




waters contained more oxygen-demanding material (BOD) than bottom




waters.

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                        IV.  DISCUSSION






        Temperature and salinity distributions, showing the laterally




unequal patterns suggested by Pritehard (1952), are due to the




effect of Coriolis forces on Chesapeake Baya  Vertically, the




thermocline and halocline that develop in the warmer months were




already present, and because of time and personnel limitations,




the study was too short to determine maximum extent during the




late summer or to detect the fall overturn.




        The distribution of nutrients seemed to follow the western




side of the Bay above Sandy Point, probably because of the proximity




to sources as well as the location of the channel on the western




side.  Phosphorus and nitrate-nitrite nitrogen seemed to be greatest




in the mixed layer (i.e., above the tl;,ermocline and halocline),




but the distribution of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) throughout




the water column needs further elucidation.  The distribution of




TOT would be expected to parallel total phosphorus., but this was



apparently not the ease., judging from limited data available.




        The standing crop of phytoplankton^ as reflected in chloro-




phyll measurements, paralleled the nutrient distribution in surface




waters, with a fairly large bloom indicated just above the study




area on the two days of sampling of ttiis parameter.  This distri-




bution suggests that urban pressures on the western shore, from




Annapolis to Baltimore, may be causing accelerated eutrophication




of Bay waters in this area, but more observations are needed to




confirm this possibility„

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                                                                8






        Light extinction, as measured by Secchi disc, did not



reflect the distribution of chlorophyll, and is apparently at



best a gross index with more value over annual cycles than synoptic



differentiation in this area.



        Of interest is the relationship developed between Secchi



disc readings and nephelometric turbidity measurements in the




study area (Figure ?)•  Analyzed by linear regression, the following



equation was developedi



                  Turbidity = -0.312 Secchi disc + 18.00



This regression fits at the one per cent level of significance.




Extrapolation of this relationship to conditions other than this



study would not necessarily be valid; seasonal changes and varied



runoff patterns would probably affect the slope of the regression



line, if not the validity of the relationship itself.  The regression



fit suggests that a properly related turbidity-extinction relation-



ship could possibly be used in other studies under relatively constant



conditions, and that possibly solids could also be considered from



known relationships of turbidity and solids.



        The study period, June-July 19&7, can be considered early



summer of a "typical" year, with no extremes of flow or temperature.



Unfortunately, the more critical late summer (August-September)



period was not evaluated because of other committments of time




and personnel.  The dissolved oxygen depletion below approximately




25 feet is evident; however, greater depletion can be expected



later in the summer than this study period.

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        In this study, BOD of the water only is considered, and




the oxygen demands exerted by bottom deposits are not included.




The greatest concentration of BOD in the waters was found in the




upper layers, and a regression analysis of BOD and chlorophyll




showed a very close relationship, in the range from 1 to 10 mg/1




BOD, viz.,




                  Chlorophyll a  =  10.36 BOD  -  IK80




This relationship suggests that most of the BOD in the waters




was due to the phytoplankton standing crop, and a lesser contri-




bution from organic loadings, i.e., sewage or other water-borne




effluents.  This relationship would not necessarily imply that




all of the oxygen depletion found was due to decomposition of




the phyto-biota because benthic uptake, discharge of oxygen-poor




water into the area, reaeration, and chemical oxidation, among




other factors, must be considered in a total oxygen budget„




        The exceptionally good BOD-chlorophyll regression fit




developed above, for an area where organic loadings are small




relative to chlorophyll, suggested a possible method for assessing




relative demands in an area where both organic loading and




accelerated eutrophication are important factors.  If a fairly




constant relationship between BOD and chlorophyll could be




established in areas with little or no organic loading from sewage




or other waste effluents, then analysis of variance might be used




to evaluate relative demands in an area with both chlorophyll and




significant organic loadings.

-------
                                                               10






        It appears that, at the time of this study,  the BOD in the




water column was primarily due to phytoplankton.   Also, it  appears




that, with present oxygen deficits and a relatively large phyto-




plankton standing crop, the Chesapeake Bay in this region should




be carefully evaluated to determine the allowable organic loadings




(from sewage treatment plants) and secondary eutrophication effects




without creating serious oxygen depletions in the mid-Bay region.

-------
                                                               11
                       V.  BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Public Health Association, 19&5} Standard Methods for the
Analysis of Water and Waste-water, APHA, New York, 769 pages.
Menzel, D. W. and Corwin, N., 1965, "The Measurement of Total
Phosphorus in Sea Water Based on the Liberation of Organically
Bound Fractions by Persulfate Oxidation," Limnology and Oceanography,
Volume 10, pages 280-282.
Morris, A. W. and Riley, J. P., 1963, "The Determination of Mtrate
in Sea Water," Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 29, pages 272-279.
Murphy, J. and Riley, J. P., 1962, "A Modified Single Solution Method
For the Determination of Phosphate in Natural Waters," Analytica
Chimica Acta, Volume 27, pages 31-36.
Pritchard, D. W., 1952, "Salinity Distribution and Circulation in
the Chesapeake Bay Estuarine System," Journal of Marine Research,
Volume 11, pages 106-123.
Pritchard, D. W. and Carpenter, J. H., 196^, "A Comparison of the
Physical Processes of Movement and Dispersion of An Introduced
Contaminant in the Severn River, the Magothy River and the Chesa-
peake Bay Off Sandy Point," Chesapeake Bay Institute, Johns Hopkins
University, Special Report #7, 31 pages.


Strickland, J. D. H. and Parsons, T. R., 1965, A Manual of Sea Water
Analysis, Second Edition, Revised, Fisheries Research Board of Canada,
Bulletin 125, Ottawa.

-------
                                                   12
             TABLE 1
Station Locations in Chesapeake Bay
           Summer  1967
Transect
A


B


C


D


E


Station Location
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
l
2
3
1
2
3
39° 05' 30" N 76° 24' 55" W
Off tower at Windmill Point
390 05' 37" N 76° 23' 38" W
Red flasher "loc"
39° 05 ( 43" N 76° 20' 57" W
Black and white buoy "13B"
39° 03' 18" N 76° 25' 43" W
Bed flasher "2" Magothy River
39° 03' 35" N 760 23' 25" W
Red nun "4C"
39° o4' 3U" N 76° 19' 43" W
Black flasher, bell "l"
39° 02' 18" N 76° 2V 03" W
Off house at Tydings-on-the-Bay
39° 02' 55" N 76° 23' 06" ¥
Red flasher, bell "2C"
39° 02' 40" W 76° 20' 38" W
Edge of dumping grounds
39° 00' 32" N 76° 23' 20" W
Off Sandy Point
38° 59' 57" N 76° 22' 42" H
Red flasher, gong "8"
38° 55' 30" W 76° 21' 12" N
South edge of dumping ground
38° 58' 58" N 76° 24' 47" N
Off Hacketts Point
38° 58' 33" N 76° 23' 12" N
Red flasher, gong "4"
38° 57' 30" w 76° 21' 42" N
Off Matapeake ferry slip
Water USC & GS
Depth Chart No.
17 Feet
40 Feet
23 Feet
15 Feet
40 Feet
36 Feet
17 Feet
50 Feet
50 Feet
16 Feet
60 Feet
25 Feet
17 Feet
55 Feet
16 Feet
549
549
549
549
549
549
549
549
549
550
550
550
550
550
550

-------
                                                                       TABLE 2

                                                    Water (Jualitjr Parameters in Mid-Chesapeake, Bay
                                                                     Sunnier 1967
                                                                                                                                                13.
Secchi Water Sample
Disc Depth Depth
Transect Station Date Time Inches Feet Feet
DST
* 1 6/20/67 1300 18 17 Surface
15'
2 1240 24 40 Surface
(Channel) 15'
25'
3 30 23 Surface
15'
A 1 6/26/67 1300 24 17 Surface
15'
2 1330 28 4o Surface
15'
25'
3 1345 42 ?3 Surface
15'
* 1 7/18/67 1245 28 17 Surface
15'
2 1220 2f< 50 Surface
(ChJnnel) 15'
30'
45'
3 1205 5" 23 Surface
15'
B 1 6/20/67 1015 17 10 Surface
\r: '
2 104;, 34 4C Surface
(Chnnjwl) 15'
30'
3 1145 28 3c -urf-ve
\"
B 1 6/26/67 11?5 26 13 lurfice
13'
2 3230 28 40 Surface
15'
30'
45'
3 1330 42 3b Surface
15'
30'
B 1 7/18/67 1014 42 1? 'Surface
12'
2 1030 42 40 'Surface
15'
")C '
^'
3 1110 4? *t Surl-oe
lk '
'"'
Water
Temp.
°C
22
21
22
21
18
21
20
23
22
23
21
18
22
21
25.6
24.9
26.3
23.8
21.4
20.6
25.7
22.7
21
oo
?l
-<•
-'
•>;.

,,
''''.
;,
^2
1
u
22
22
16
25.4
23 c
2; o
24.?
21 3
T i
>-, i
2 ( ;

10
Salinity mg/1
9.13
8.34
8.65
6.91
3.41
8.34
6.75
10.10
8.46
11.38
5.27
2.59
7.57
5.23
7.1 8 58
7.9 5.H
6.6 11.18
8.9 4.82
13.3 1.45
14.5 0.77
>.; 7 61
11.3 2.41
7.23
6.99
7.62
7.07
I 11
-i.!'
? l{
7.2'
o.L'l
5 4o
t.68
IJ\
0.92
3.37
6.70
1 o?
7 5 7.81
76 3 v<
7 3 ' . 2
9.9 .-I:
13.3 1.9?
34.8 n 53
c.' ."i.2Q
c.l '- 21
14 1 ' 1
BOD Turbidity Total P
mg/1 JTU mg/1 PO^
2.87
3.87

3.97
2.38
8.48
4.22
1.56
1.79
2.90
2.29
2.39
1.25














4. Hi
3 JS'
4. "7
''.25
1 ' 1
1 .00
2.01
2 05
1 ?7
16
11
17
8
12
13
5

0.21
0.35
0.36
0.31
0.22
0.12
0.14
0.14
18
18
8


0

12

7 5



^ _ 5


0 ?7
0.37
0.20
0.15
l.la
0.39
0.20
0.15
0 18
150 +HO -K TUB Chlorophyll Sea
Sg/'i3 «*A »Wl Wind State


0.13
0.10
0.15
0.13
0.06
0.04
0.04
0.09
















0.07
0.06
0.18
0.05
o 06
0.06
0.10
0 nc
0.11


0.70
0.82
1.12
0.70
0.78
0.63
0.36
0 59
















0.86
0.86
0.52
0.46
0.79
0.80
0 07
0.50
0 67


34.5
31.5
108.0
26.25
11.25
7.50
27-75
11.25
















94.00
45 00
50.25
21.00
15.00
21.00
28.50
15-75
12.00
BE 10 Moderate
XW Moderate
5 - 10

Variable Calx







re 5 Moderate






NW 10 Moderate





NW 2-3 Calm


Variable calm








          1     6,16/67


          2
                                   .7


                                   r-0
                                                                                                                                             SW 5-10 Moderate
1     6, 26-6?   HSU     2d        lr,


2               1205     32        50





1     7/19/67   1025     34        17


2               1O40     52        50





3               1107     46        50
                                                     uiface

                                                       1.5'
                                                      TO1
3urlace
  15'

Suiface
  15'
  30'


Surface
  15'

Surface
  15'
  30'
  45'

Surface
  15'
  30'
                                                    2'
                                                    19
22
22
16
16

25.8
24.0

25.4
24.6
21.6
21.1

25.3

22.0
19.9
                                                                       7.1
                                                                       9.2

                                                                       8.3
                                                                       8.9
                                                                      12.9
                                                                      13.7

                                                                       7.6

                                                                      12 '.6
                                                                      15.1
9.63
7.34

8.26
7.39
1.53
0.78

8.97
4.77
9.01
7.81
1.83
0.63
5 3o
2.71

2.69
2.76
1.6li
1.92
                                                                           2.5U
                                                                    6.75   2.67
                                                                    2.27   1.62
                                                                    0 96   2.37
0.31
0.20

0 18
0.21
0.13
0.20

0.15
0.15
O.U
0.46
0.10
0.09
0.09
0.03
o 06
0.06

o 15
0.07
o.o7
0.07
1.15
0.88

0.83
0.64
0.75
0.77

0.61
0.74
0.70
1.04
27.75
24.00

25.50
 9-75
 9-75
18.75

17.25
 9.75
36.25
28.5
                                                                                                                                             NW 10   Moderate
                                                                                                                                             SV 3
                                                                                                                                                     Calm
' Mid-channel

-------
TABLE Z (Continued)
Secci WateY Sample Water
T Time Disc Depth Depth Temp.
Transect Station Sale SSI Inches Feet Feet °C
D 1 6/1U/67 1435 29 16 Surface 22
15' 21
2 ll(05 18 57 Surface 21
15' 20
30' 19
k6; ' i L
4? m
60- m
3 1340 44 23 Surface 21
15 ' 20
D 1 6/2S/67 IS'lS 30 17 Surface 21
15 ' 20
2 1310 30 60 Surface 22
-1C' 01
L~) £.}.
-}Q 1 20
45 ' l8
60 ' 17
3 12l(5 38 25 Surface 22
15' 22
D 1 7/19/67 1230 3l( 16 Surface 25 1
1 c i -)), 7
J-7 iff. f
2 1210 43 60 ^Surface 25-7

i oi
30 ?1 k
45' 20.5
bO ' 30 . 3
3 1135 54 25 Surface 25.6
I1"1 24.0
E 1 6/14/6? 1100 32 17 Surface 22,5
35' 2J
2 1125 36 55 Gvrface '-1!
15' i-'O
3C' IQ
i*5 ' i5
3 1140 4'j ^urf^ce r-i

15 ' ol
E 1 6/22/6? 1015 40 3 7 ?urf 8 ce ?2
15' 51
? 1045 4o 4o Surface ?2
15' 2?

45 ' 15
3 1115 34 16 Surface 22
15' 22
E 1 7/W67 1300 . 17 Surface 26
15' 25
2 -50 Surface ?•>
15' 24
^0' 21
4C ' 20
E 1 7/19/67 1255 38 17 Surface 26.0
15 ' 2? H
2 1315 48 50 Surface 2f - q
lx 24.^
3C>' 21. 6
45 ' PC ^
3 1335 U8 16 Surface ?6.7
15' 2l( 7
DO
Salinity mg/1
10 '(O
9.52
12.96
8.88
6.1(8
0.72
0.72
7.68
7.76
6 08
5.72
10.18
7.52
'(.97
3.02
1.67
3.37
f'.33
8 k
P. 5 6.22
7.9 U
f.i 7 62
13.2 3.£LJ
1U.6 r:.67
ll>. 9 0.67
8 7 7.9"
10.1 H.92
o no
o'n'
10 3:
'~J 9€
7 2Q


6 ">.
7 ^2
p . 1^5

7 9^ 3
7 04
2 Qi.
' t'.i( a
7 f^2
7 71
8 92
b.Ol
9.23
6.1(7
2.35
1 31
6 2 n 15 3.
10 1 )i r<3 L.
8 . ;; ^ . k?' U .
go ^ Q^ 2
12.9 1.93 l-i
15.0 i^\ i.:
3 . a ft ay r . ]
9.<" LA 1.'
BOB
rag/1








6.27


1 33



2.36
2.22
2.61
2.7^
1 17
l.UO
1 29
2.00
3.1-1










31

.03







o3
1 ^4

D^
-jl
"^

^
->2
                                                                          lit.
 r

 6




 3

7

6

                                    0-18
                                    0-16

                                    °-13
                                    °-1-3

                                  9-25
                                  0.19
                                  0.19
                    0.07
                    0.06
                    o.<*
                    0.05
                    0-07
                  0.05
                  0.06
                  0.05
                  0.05

                <0.02
                                                          B«/l     ugm/1   Wind  State


                                                                          SW 3  Calm
   0.60
   0.66
   0.58
   O.V8
   0.67
0 61
0.65
0.8b
0 81

0.79
0.58
                                                                         SE   Rough
                                                                       15 - 20
    6.75
    6.75

  17 25
  13.50
                                                                       SW    Moderate
                                                                            Moderate
                                                                      S    Choppy
                                                                   10 - 15
TO 75
18 '66
 6 75
 6^75

18.75
13.75

-------
      STATION  LOCATIONS
CHESAPEAKE  FIELD STATION SURVEY  OF
         CHESAPEAKE  BAY
           SUMMER, 1967
                                        FIGURE  i

-------
   -
   00

   Q
   LU
   >
   or
  LU
  V)
  CD
  o
  u
  LU
  C/>
  2
  <
  o:
  h-

 u.
 o

 LU
 o
 or
 QL
      h-
      o
      LU
O
CD
                 CO
                 Q
                 «  O
                 5  °
                 v  O
                 O ^

                 <" S
                I-
                2T
                O
                N

                a:
                o
                x
                               o
                                             o
                                             CM
 I

O
IO
 I
o
 I
o
in
                                           133J Nl  Hld3Q
                                                                       FIGURE   2

-------
     N-
     (0
     QC
     LU
    en

    u_'

    o

    >-
    CD


    Q
    LJ
    >
    tr
   UJ
      m
  o
  o:
 Lu
 O


 UJ
 -J
 LL
 O
 o:
 CL
O
I-
h-
o
CD
                                     -1.33d Nl Hld3Q
                                                                    FIGURE  3

-------
       N-

       (£>
      cc
      LU

      S

      5
      z>
      CO

       •t

     CO

     Lc

     
     CD


    Q
    LU
    >
    o:
    LU
    CO
   co
   O
  u.
  o


  LU
  _J

 u.
 o
 Q:
 Q.
h-
o
OD
       LU
   CO   <

   2
                         ,1
                         o
 I

IT)
 I
o

-------
    N-
    <£>
    CC
    UJ

    5
   u:

   o

   >-
   CD


   Q
   UJ
   >
   cc
  UJ
  cn
  i-
  o
  Uj


  <
  CC
 u.
 o


 UJ
 _J

 LL
 O
 QC
 0.
h-
O
CD
o  i
             IO
             (M
             o
             (D
                      io
        I
        o
 I
o
CM
                                             O
                                             ro
 I
O
    in  O
    *  m
                                              o
                                              10
 I    I
in   o
K   00
                                            133J  Nl  Hld3Q
                                                                                FIGURE  5

-------
CD
CC
UJ
in


CO

u.'

O


OD


O
UJ

cc
UJ
en
CO
O


to

O
UJ
•
^x*2
i >
o in


!
O
(V

1
O
fO

1
0
t

1
in
<»

I
0
«i

I
O
(0

1
O
N-

1
in
N

1
O
oo
                                             133d Nl  HldSQ
                                                                                    FIGURE  6

-------
   18

REGRESSION  of  SECCHI  DISC READINGS  and  TURBIDITIES

              MID-CHESAPEAKE, SUMMER 1967

            TURBIDITY = -0.312 SECCHI DISC + 1800

                    t =  4.56**. d.f. = 26
   16!
  141
  121
\n
+-

c
   10
o
o
>"  8
|-

5

5
a:
D
h-
   6i
   2
                                                          b = -0.312
              10
           20         30         40         50

             SECCril DISC  READINGS in  INCHES
 60


FIGURE  7

-------
                          TABLE OP CONTENTS

                                                              Page

   I.  PREFACE	     1-1

  II.  INTRODUCTION	    II - 1

       A.  Purpose and Scope	    II - 1

       B.  Authority	    II - h

 III.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS	Ill - 1

  IV.  BASIN DESCRIPTION	    IV - 1

       A.  Geography .	    IV - 1

       B.  Hydrology	    IV - 2

       C.  Geology	    IV - 3

       D.  Coal Mining Industry	    IV - 6

   V.  SURVEY ACTIVITIES 	     V-l

       A.  CFS Surveys	     V-l

       B.  State Surveys	     V-2

       C.  Industrial Surveys	     V - 3

       D.  1956 U. S. Public Health Service Survey ....     V - 5

  VI.  WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND MINE DRAINAGE
       CONTROL OBJECTIVES  	    VI - 1

       A.  State of Maryland	    VI - 1

       B.  State of West Virginia	    VI - 1

       C.  Mine Drainage Control Objectives	    VI - 1

 VII.  RELATIONSHIP OF ACIDITY TO STREAMFLOW	VII - 1

VIII.  ACIDITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE NORTH BRANCH BASIN  .  .  VIII - 1

       A.  Headwaters to Beryl, West Virginia	VIII - 1

-------
                  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (Continued)

                                                           Page

     B.   Beryl, West Virginia,  to Pinto,  Maryland .  .  .  .VIII  - 9

         1.   Effects of Savage  River	VIII  - 9

         2.   Effects of the Luke Mill	VIII  - 12

         3.   Effects of Georges Creek	VIII  - 13

         4.   Effects of Upper Potomac River Basin
             Waste Treatment Facilities	VIII  - 15

         5.   Effects Below the  Luke  Area	VIII  - 15

     C.   Pinto, Maryland, to Wiley Ford,  West
         Virginia	VIII  - 15

IX.  EFFECTS OF THE PROPOSED BLOOMINGTON
     RESERVOIR PROJECT  	   IX  - 1

     A.   Introduction	IX  - 1

     B.   Acidity-Alkalinity Balance  	   IX  - 3

         1.   General	IX  - 3

         2.   Assumptions Regarding Acid Routine  	   IX  - h

         3.   Assumptions Regarding Sources of
             Acidity and Alkalinity  Below
             Bloomington	IX  - 7

         h.   Discussion of Results	IX  - 9

     C.   Acidity Production in  the Mines  at the
         Proposed Bloomington Reservoir  	   IX  - 15

     D.   Acidity Regeneration in Waters of the
         Proposed Bloomington Reservoir  	   IX  - 16

 X.  BIBLIOGRAPHY	    X  - 1

-------
                 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


                           APPENDICES

                                                           Page

A.  SURVEY PROCEDURES AND ANALYTICAL METHODS  	 A - 1

    1.  Objectives of the Survey	A - 1

    2.  Sampling Procedures	A - 3

    3.  Analytical Procedures	A - 3

B.  MINE DRAINAGE STATION DESCRIPTIONS AND BASIN
    SCHEMATICS	B-l

C.  DATA TABLES	C-l

-------
                           LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                        Page

  1     Streamflow of North Branch Potomac River
        and Tributaries above Cumberland, Maryland ....   IV - k

  2     North Branch at Beryl - Probability Distri-
        bution of Net Acidity Loadings	VIII - 2

  3     Net Acidity Balance Above Steyer	VIII - 7

  k     Net Acidity Contributions of Georges Creek ....   IX - 10

 B-l    North Branch Potomac River, Mine Drainage
        Station Descriptions 	    B-2

 C-l    Hardness and Metals Concentrations, Water
        Temperature, and Stream Discharge  	    C - 2

 C-2    Acidity, Alkalinity, Sulfate, and Solids
        Concentrations, pH and Conductivity	    C - 10

-------
                          LIST OF FIGURES
Figure

  II-l

  IV-1
   V-l


  VI-1

 VII-1



 VII-2


 VII -3


 VII -h
North Branch Basin Map
  Pa

 II
    - 3
North Branch at Kitzmiller, Maryland,
Geometric Mean Discharge of All Months of
Record and 1965 Calendar Year Mean Monthly
Discharges 	

North Branch at Luke, Maryland, pH versus
Time, 1962 - 196?  	
                                                            IV - 5
pH versus Net Alkalinity
  V

 VI
      k

      3
North Branch at Beryl, West Virginia,
Acidity Concentration versus River
Discharge  	 ,
North Branch at Beryl, West Virginia,
Acidity Loading versus River Discharge

North Branch at Kitzmiller, Maryland,
Acidity Loading versus River Discharge

North Branch at Steyer, Maryland,
Acidity Loading versus River Discharge
VII - 2
VII -
VII
                                                           vii -
      5


      6
VIII-1    North Branch Net Alkalinity Loading,
          P (Corresponding Q equalled or exceeded)
          = 80 Percent	VIII - 3

VIII-2    North Branch Net Alkalinity Loading,
          P (Corresponding Q equalled or exceeded)
          = 50 Percent	VIII - h

VIII-3    North Branch Net Alkalinity Loading,
          P (Corresponding Q equalled or exceeded)
          = 20 Percent	VIII - 5

VIII-l*    Savage River, Net Alkalinity by Season  ....  VIII - 11

VIII-5    North Branch Below Luke, Maryland,
          Net Alkalinity Balance, August 1967	VIII - ih

  IX-1    Net Alaklinity Loadings by Month Below
          Bloomington Reservoir, Calendar Year
          1965 Streamflow Conditions	    IX - 11

-------
                    LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)

Figure                                                       Page

  IX-2    Net Alkalinity Loadings by Month Belov
          Bloomington Reservoir, Synthetic Average
          Year Streamflow Conditions	     IX - 12
                             APPENDICES

 B-l      Legend for Basin Schematics	      B - 8

 B-2      Schematic Diagram, North Branch, Above
          Steyer, Maryland	      B - 9

 B-3      Schematic Diagram, North Branch, Below
          Steyer, Maryland, Above Kitzmiller,
          Maryland	      B - 10

 B-U      Schematic Diagram, North Branch, Below
          Kitzmiller, Maryland, Above Beryl,  West
          Virginia	      B - 11

 B-5      Schematic Diagram, North Branch, Below
          Beryl, Above Wiley Forci, West Virginia
          (Cumberland, Maryland)	      B - 12

-------
                                                              I - 1






I.   PREFACE




            The basin of the Potomac River North Branch is a region of




    steep, narrow, forested valleys and turbulent mountain streams




    draining parts of Maryland and West Virginia on the eastern edge




    of the Appalachian Plateau.  The watershed's few people are scat-




    tered about in hamlets and isolated houses connected by a system




    of narrow roads, as often as not unpaved.  The upper basin of the




    North Branch is, in fact, a part of rural Appalachia.




            As in many other parts of the eastern mountains, coal mining




    activity which in the past has gone uncontrolled has caused exten-




    sive damage to the land and water resources.  Although the total




    extent of the damage may be apparent to only the careful investiga-




    tor, the open surface mines and refuse banks are readily visible to




    any visitor, as is the discolored water polluted by mine drainage.




            This report describes the present extent of mine drainage




    pollution in the North Branch Basin.  In the reach upstream from




    Luke, Maryland, in which acid conditions are most severe, mine




    drainage is the sole significant cause of pollution.  Over U5 miles




    of the North Branch and over 100 miles of tributaries harbor




    virtually no aquatic fauna.




            It has been observed, in the course of repeated visits to




    the Basin, that areas formerly unmined have now been opened; and




    existing surface mines have been expanded.  New miles alter the




    terrain and will cause additional mine drainage pollution unless




    controlled.  Mine drainage pollution and the total damage to the

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                                                          1-2






land and water resources will change over the course of a few years




as mining activity continues.  It is recognized, therefore, that




this report is a transitory document whose immediate value is to




serve as a guide in the present situation, and whose longer-term




worth is simply to mark a point on the historical trend.

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                                                              II - 1






II.   INTRODUCTION




     A.  Purpose and Scope




             The mine drainage control program under development by the




     Chesapeake Field Station has been divided into the following phases:




         1.  Determining the extent and severity of mine drainage




             pollution.




         2.  Isolating source tributaries of acidic and alkaline waters




             and determining the quantities and temporal distribution of




             acid and alkali from tributaries and within segments of the




             main river.




         3.  Determining the degree of control necessary to meet the




             applicable water quality standards.




         k.  Locating specific sources of mine drainage pollution and




             determining quantities of the individual contributions.




         5.  Developing recommendations for control measures at specific




             locations.






             These activities are being carried out in cooperation with




     the appropriate State agencies, the Maryland Department of Water




     Resources and the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources,




     Division of Water Resources.




             The Chesapeake Field Station program is now well into the




     second phase which is being carried out to the extent necessary to




     obtain precise estimates of acid quantities contributed by the




     various sub-basins in order to establish priorities for corrective

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                                                         II - 2






action.  This phase is being partially funded by the Baltimore




District, Corps of Engineers.




        The ultimate objective of the mine drainage control program




under development by the Chesapeake Field Station (CFS), Middle




Atlantic Region, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, is




to eliminate the adverse effects of mine drainage to attain a water




quality commensurate with the designated water uses,  rfater quality




standards of the States of Maryland and West Virginia are considered




quantitative objectives of the CFS program.  These standards are




described in Chapter IV.




        The Maryland standards are applicable to the Maryland tribu-




taries and virtually all of the North Branch proper, since the




Potomac River lies entirely within the State of Maryland, except




for a two-mile reach below its source.  The right bank of the river




forms the boundary between Maryland and West Virginia.  West Virginia




standards are applicable to the right bank tributaries.




        Mine drainage pollution in the CFS study area is limited to




the North Branch Basin of the Potomac River.  The geographical




setting of this report is the Potomac Basin upstream from the Cumber-




land, Maryland, area.  CFS data from Wills Creek Basin also appear




in the data tables, although mine drainage in that Basin is a local




problem and outside the scope of this report.  A Basin map is shown




as Figure II-l.  Basin schematics are shown in Appendix B as Figures




B-l through B-5.

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                                                         II  -
        This report contains the findings  of the  work  to  date.




The purposes of the report are:




        1.   To provide the following information:




            a.  A tabulation of data obtained from field  surveys.




            b.  A description of the temporal and spatial distri-




                bution of the acidity loading in  the North Branch




                main river.




            c.  An estimate of the effects on water quality of the




                proposed Bloomington Reservoir Project based on




                currently available data and under present loading




                conditions.




        2.   To serve as a framework for the remainder  of  the study,




            leading to a control program in support of the ultimate




            objective.






B.  Authority




        This report was prepared under the provision of the Federal




Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. k66 et seqj,




which directed the Secretary of the Interior to develop programs




for eliminating pollution of interstate waters and improving the




condition of surface and underground waters .

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                                                              Ill - 1






III.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS




              1.  Pollution of the North Branch and its tributaries by




      acid mine drainage is more severe and probably more widespread than




      at any time in history.  The River now carries an acid loading




      larger than any previously reported value.




              2.  The acid loading has increased almost five-fold since




      1956, from an average loading of 26,000 Ib/day in 1956 to 120,000




      Ib/day in 196?.  The concentrations resulting from these loadings




      are sufficient to depress the pH belov k.5 at all seasons and below




      2.5 at times of maximum concentration.  The observed pH values at




      Luke, Maryland, have been decreasing steadily over the last five




      years.




              3.  Examination in 1966 of benthic fauna of the North Branch




      and many tributaries revealed only specialized, acid-tolerant forms




      in the streams carrying mine drainage and a complete absence of




      organisms at many locations.  The biological productivity, as




      measured by the density of organisms, has been reduced greatly in




      reaches of streams mildly or intermittently affected.




              k.  There are indications that active mines are a signifi-




      cant, and perhaps the largest, source of acid mine drainage.




              5.  Because there are no strong, natural alkalinity sources




      in the North Branch above Savage River, an extensive mine drainage




      control program will be necessary to attain the approved State




      water quality standards.

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                                                        Ill  - 2






        6.  Operation of the proposed Bloomington Reservoir  on the




North Branch would have the following affects,  assuming a continua-




tion of present loading conditions and subject  to the qualifications




expressed in Chapter IX:




            a.  Acid concentrations reaching the Luke area would be




                significantly lower than concentrations under




                natural conditions.  There would be relatively little




                effect on the pH because of the low response of pH




                to acidity changes at concentrations of interest.




            b.  The distribution of the acid loadings reaching the




                Luke area would be similar to the distribution




                expected to occur under natural conditions.   How-




                ever, for the two flow conditions analyzed,  the




                acid loadings during the summer months would be




                in excess of those occurring under natural




                conditions.




            c.  The full potential of the proposed Bloomington




                Reservoir for local water supply and recreation




                will not be realized until water of adequate qual-




                ity for these uses can be impounded.




        7.  Additional stability and partial neutralization  of




Bloomington releases could be obtained by operating Savage River




Reservoir in conjunction with Bloomington Reservoir.

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                                                        Ill - 3






        8.  Present analyses are limited by the amount of data




available.  Action is being or has been initiated to obtain addi-




tional information for the purposes listed below:




            a.  To provide adequate resolution of sub-basin load-




                ings and streamflov distribution from ungaged




                tributaries.




            b.  To add precision to the main river acidity-discharge




                relationships indicated by existing data and to




                establish seasonal trends within the general




                discharge-acidity relationship.




            c.  To evaluate the effects of industrial operations




                on the acidity-alkalinity balance below Luke.




            d.  To estimate the effects of Bloomington Reservoir




                based on data currently being collected.




            e.  To establish or refute the possibility of signifi-




                cant acid production in the waters of the proposed




                Bloomington Reservoir or in the coal seams adjacent




                to the Reservoir.




            f.  To determine applicable abatement measures for the




                elimination of mine drainage pollution in the North




                Branch Basin.

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                                                              IV - 1






IV.   BASIN DESCRIPTION




     A.  Geography




             The North Branch of the Potomac River rises in Tucker County,




     West Virginia, and flows alternately northeast and southeast in a




     zigzag pattern for about 9$ miles until it joins the South Branch




     to form the Potomac River.  Two miles downstream from its source,




     below Kempton, Maryland, the right bank forms the boundary between




     Maryland and West Virginia; on the Maryland side the river is




     bounded by Garrett and Allegany Counties, and on the West Virginia




     side by Grant, Mineral, and Hampshire Counties.




             The Basin's coal-bearing area lies mainly in a trough-shaped




     valley about 80 miles long, oriented with its axis in a northeast-




     southwest direction.  The North Branch flows northeastward along




     the valley axis for almost 50 miles, then bends to the southeast




     at the three-town area of Luke, Westernport, and Piedmont, and




     leaves the coal-bearing area of the valley.  The area above Luke




     is commonly called the Upper Potomac Coal Field.  The northeast




     part of the valley is drained by Georges Creek which flows south-




     westward to join the North Branch at Westernport.




             The coal region of the North Branch Basin actually extends




     to the northeast past the upper topographic divide of Georges Creek




     Basin into the Wills Creek Basin of Maryland and Pennsylvania.




     Local pollution exists in the Maryland tributaries, Braddock Run




     and Jennings Run, but the extent and severity is limited.  Wills

-------
                                                         IV - 2






Creek, which joins the North Branch at Cumberland, exerts no adverse




affect on it.




        The farthest upstream industry which exerts a significant




affect on water quality, except for the mining and coal-processing




activities, is the Luke Mill of the West Virginia Pulp and Paper




Company.  The discharge from the mill, located downstream from the




confluence of Savage River and the North Branch, exerts the great-




est neutralizing affect in the Basin.  The next industry is Alleg-




heny Ballistics Laboratory, West Virginia, which is located 20




miles downstream near Pinto, Maryland, at the upstream boundary of




the Cumberland industrial area.




        Both the North Branch and Georges Creek valleys are steep




and narrow.  Most of the tributaries are short hillside runs with




less than ten square miles of drainage area draining directly into




the main stem.  Exceptions are Stony River and Abram Creek, which




drain much of the North Branch Basin above Luke on the West




Virginia side.  These tributaries, both of which lie in the coal-




bearing region, each approach 50 square miles in drainage area at




their mouth.






B.  Hydrology




        Flow of Stony River is regulated by West Virginia Pulp and




Paper Company's Stony River Reservoir, about 19 miles above the




North Branch and, to a minor extent, by a Virginia Electric and




Power Company dam about nine miles above the North Branch.  A

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-------
                                                         IV - 3






reservoir near the U. S. Route 50 crossing at Mt. Storm, West




Virginia, has been proposed by the Corps of Engineers.




        Savage River, which lies for the most part outside the coal




region, joins the North Branch just upstream from Luke, Maryland.




It is regulated by the Corps of Engineers' Savage River Reservoir




about five miles above the North Branch.  A reservoir (Savage II)




upstream from the existing reservoir has been proposed by the Corps




of Engineers.  The Corps of Engineers has also proposed a large




reservoir, the Bloomington Project, on the Nortn Branch about eight




miles upstream from Luke and Bloomington, Maryland.




        Because of the steep and generally impervious terrain,




streams in this region exhibit rapid flow changes in response to




changes in precipitation or snowmelt.  The streams tend also to




have a low dry weather flow.  Gaging stations in the area of inter-




est, their mean and median discharges, and their drainage areas




are listed in Table 1.  Figure IV-1 shows the medians of mean




monthly discharges for all montns of record at the Kitzmiller gage.




The mean monthly discharges exceeded on the average of 95 per cent




of the time and the 1965 monthly discharges are also shown on




Figure IV-1.






C.  Geology1 »2,3,»t




        The predominant geological formations in the Upper Potomac




coal field of the North Branch Basin are, from top to bottom, the




Conemaugh, Allegheny, and Pottsville formations of the Pennsylvanian

-------
                                                                 IV - It
                                    TABLE 1

                  STREAMFLOW OF NORTH BRANCH POTOMAC RIVER AND

                     TRIBUTARIES ABOVE CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND
   Stream
USGS Gaging
  Station
Drainage
  Area
(sq.mi.)
  Streamflow
Mean   Median
(cfs)  (cfs)
                     Remarks
North Branch   Steyer, Md.



Stony River    Mt. Storm, W. Va.


Abram Creek    Oakmont, W. Va.



North Branch   Kitzmiller, Md.



North Branch   Bloomington, Md.


Savage River   Bloomington, Md.



North Branch   Luke, Md.




Georges Creek  Franklin, Md.

North Branch   Pinto, Md.
                  73.0    160
                  1*8.8


                  ^7.3



                 225



                 287


                 106



                 UOl*
  72.1

 596
          1*98


          162



          681
                   89
82.1


6l.5   238



       238



       281*


        76



       356
 77-9    36

859     ^58
               Median estimated from
               relation with Kitz-
               miller gage.

               Below dam, records
               unadjusted

               Median from USGS pro-
               visional records,
               subject to revision.

               Adjusted for storage
               in Stony River Reser-
               voir.

               Beryl, W. Va., dis-
               continued 1950.

               Below Savage River
               dam records adjusted
               for storage.

               Records adjusted for
               storage in Stony and
               Savage River Reser-
               voirs .
                                         Unadjusted.

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                                                         iv - 6






Age.  Of the beds which outcrop in the Basin, the most central is




the Upper Freeport which forms the uppermost stratum of the Allegheny




formation.  The topmost stratum which outcrops regularly is the




Barton coal, which forms the upper stratum of the lower member of




the Conemaugh formation, about 500 fee above the Upper Freeport.




The lowest coals outcropping in the Basin are the Middle and Lower




Kittanning coal groups which lie in the Allegheny formation about




250 feet below the Upper Freeport.  Coal beds are interspersed with




marine shales, red beds (shales), and clays.  In Georges Creek and




in a few isolated locations in the Upper Potomac field, the Mononga-




hela formation and Pittsburgh coal overlie the Conemaugh formation.




        Calcareous rocks, which would provide background alkalinity,




are not characteristic of the Basin.  Calcareous shales, called




limestone in early geological investigations, are present in several




locations only as thin, lime-poor strata.  A large outcrop of Green-




brier limestone, however, does occur in the Savage River Basin.




This rock unit and the seasonal nature of the drainage (surface




runoff or dry-weather flow) are believed to have the dominant effect




on the alkalinity of Savage Reservoir.






D.  Coal Mining Industry in the Potomac River North Branch Basin5'6




        Coal has been mined in the North Branch Basin for about




150 years.  A mine was operating before I8l6 at Eckhart, Maryland,




in the Georges Creek Coal Field.  Good transportation facilities




were probably instrumental in stimulating the early development




of the Georges Creek Field.

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-------
                                                         IV - 7






        Maryland's peak production of coal occurred in 1907, earlier




than any other major coal-producing State.  Coal production for both




the Maryland and West Virginia portions of the Worth Branch Basin




for the 1961-1965 period was.




               1961             1.0 million tons




               1962             1.0 million tons




               1963             1.3 million tons




               196U             2.2 million tons




               1965             3.3 million tons




The 1965 North Branch production amounted to 0.65 per cent of




national production.  About 2.2 million tons vere mined in West




Virginia (Upper Potomac Field) and 1.1 million tons in Maryland.




Of the 1965 Maryland production, 62k,000 tons were mined from the




Upper Potomac Field.  The Upper Potomac Field accounted for 85 per




cent of the 1965 Worth Branch Basin coal production, and the West




Virginia part of the Upper Potomac Field made up the bulk of the




recent increases.  In 196l and 1962, Maryland accounted for about




75 per cent of the coal produced in the North Branch Basin; in 1965




Maryland accounted for only 33 per cent.  While production for the




entire North Branch Basin increased 330 per cent from 196l to 1965,




Maryland production increased only 60 per cent.  These increases




are probably a result of the general national economic upturn dur-




ing these years, and are not indications of the long-term trend.




However, they are significant in terms of present water quality.

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                                                         IV - 8






        Output per man increased three times as fast in Maryland




during 1961-1965 as in the United States and the adjacent States;




and in 1965 the output per man was much greater in the Maryland




Upper Potomac Field than in the Georges Creek Field.  The increased




output, probably a result of new explorations and investment in new




equipment, was also experienced in the West Virginia Upper Potomac




Field.




        Because of the increased output per man, mining employment




in the North Branch Basin did not increase in proportion to produc-




tion during 1961-1965-  Employment for these years was:




                        1961 .... 617




                        1962 .... 567




                        1963 .... 631




                        I96h . ... 781*




                        1965 .... 851



Of the 1965 employment, 373 were employed in Maryland and ^78 in




West Virginia.  The figures include not only miners, but all mine-




associated employees.




        The average value of Maryland coal sold on the open market




in 1965 was $3.63 per tone at the mine—below the average U. S.




price of $k.kk and the Pennsylvania (including anthracite) and West




Virginia values of $5-07 and $^.87, respectively.  Coal values have




been stable since 1950.  The average U. S. value at the mine fluc-




tuated within a range of $0.69 per ton from 1950 to 1965.  West

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                                                         IV - 9






Virginia Upper Potomac Field values were probably comparable to the




Maryland coal values.  This makes the North Branch Basin 1965 pro-




duction worth about $12 million, or 0.53 per cent of the value of




all U. S. coal mined in 1965.




        The West Virginia Upper Potomac 1965 production would have




been worth $8 million, about one per cent of the total value of the




West Virginia coal production.  The Maryland 19^5 production of $it




million was about three ten-thousandths of one per cent of the gross




Maryland State product, and about six per cent of the total value of




the mineral industry in Maryland.

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                                                              V - 1






V.  SURVEY ACTIVITIES




    A.  CFS Surveys




            The Chesapeake Field Station (CFS)  of the Middle Atlantic




    Region, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,  maintains




    a mine drainage surveillance program in the North Branch of the




    Potomac River and tributaries between Cumberland and the headwaters




    near Kempton, Maryland.  The purpose of the program is to ascertain




    the effects of mine drainage pollution in terms of (l) extent of




    area affected; (2) severity of water quality degradation; and (3)




    quantity of mine drainage pollution to be abated.




            The field surveys were carried out in cooperation with the




    Maryland Department of Water Resources and the West Virginia Depart-




    ment of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources.   Sampling




    was started in August 1966 and has continued at intervals since.




    This report contains a summary of survey procedures and analytical




    methods, descriptions of sampling stations, and data collected




    through March 1968 (Appendices A through C).  Sampling stations are




    indicated on Basin Map (Figure II-l) and on Basin Schematics




    (Figures B-l through B-5).




            In August 196?» CFS conducted an intensive water quality




    survey of the North Branch from Luke to Cumberland, Maryland.  One




    objective of this survey was to determine the acidity reduction




    afforded by the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company's Luke Mill,




    and the extent of downstream movement of acidity due to a reduc-




    tion of the mill's caustic discharges during 1966.  Data are

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                                                          V - 2



published as a separate report.7  An investigation of benthic life


in streams affected by mine drainage was conducted by CFS personnel


in late summer of 1966.  Results are to be published as a separate


report.8


        In July 196T, a study of mine drainage in the North Branch


Potomac was published as a part of the report on mine drainage in


the Chesapeake Bay-Delaware River Basins.^  Measurements of acidity


and metal concentrations were limited to low flow samples; conse-


quently, the interpretation is of limited applicability.



B.  State Surveys


        The Maryland Department of Water Resources has an active


surveillance program for the streams in Maryland subjected to mine


drainage pollution.  Results of sampling through the end of 1966

                   * 10
have been published.      Like the CFS survey, this is a continuing


project.  In addition, the Maryland Department of Water Resources


(MDWR) has a complete survey of Maryland mine locations and areas


and many effluent analyses.11  The MDWR also earlier conducted a


pH survey of Maryland streams and many West Virginia tributaries


to the North Branch.12  A monitoring program is currently being


maintained by the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources,


Division of Water Resources.
*
   The use of unpublished data of Maryland Department of Water

   Resources is gratefully acknowledged.

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                                                          V - 3



C.  Industrial Surveys


        Three industrial organizations maintain stream sampling


programs in the Basin at Cumberland and above.  The West Virginia


Pulp and Paper Company's Luke Mill samples the North Branch at Luke


above and below the mill, at McCoole, Maryland (opposite Keyser,


West Virginia); at Dawson, Maryland; and on Georges Creek.  West


Virginia Pulp and Paper Company's pH data were used to determine


the trend in water quality.  Monthly median pH values from the


sampling point located above the Luke Mill and below Savage River


indicate a steady decline over at least the last five years.

            13
(Figure V-l)


        The Celanese Corporation plant near Cresaptown, Maryland,


samples the North Branch at points above and below the plant.  The


Kelly-Springfield Company samples the North Branch at two locations


in the City of Cumberland.


        Analyses performed by these organizations include pH and


alkalinity or acidity, as appropriate.  At the more downstream loca-


tions, data have only recently become of interest, because lime dis-


charges at Luke formerly prevented significant downstream acid


movement.  West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company acidity and alkalinity


data differ in certain respects from other survey data.


        These industrial data are summarized annually by the Inter-


state Commission on the Potomac River Basin.14

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D.  1956 U. S. Public Health Service Survey




        The Public Health Service conducted a survey of the North




Branch during September and October of 1956.  The survey data indi-




cated that the mean daily loading of acidity in the North Branch




at Bloomington was about 26,000 Ib/day.  For 50 per cent of the




year, the loading varied between 15,000 and 1*7»000 Ib/day, with  a




yearly range of 3,000 to 200,000 Ib/day.




        It was estimated that the pH was between k.l and 5-0 for




50 per cent of the year; the mean annual pH was U.5.  The annual




pH range of the North Branch was 3.0 to 6.9-  The data indicate




that the pH could fall as low as 2.8 for one week every ten years




at times of extreme low flow.




        The Public Health Service report15 contained a summary of




studies conducted through 1956.  Comparison of this summary to the




more recent data indicate that the locations of principal sources




of mine drainage have changed considerably.  In 1938 it was reported




that (l) 5^ per cent of the mine drainage entering the North Branch




Basin originated in the Georges Creek and Wills Creek Basins, and that




(2) hQ per cent of the drainage was carried by the Hoffman Drainage




Tunnel, which drains mines in Georges Creek Basin, to a tributary




of Wills Creek.




        Recent sampling by the MDWR and the CFS indicated that mine




drainage in Wills Creek Basin exerts no adverse effect on the North




Branch, and the mine drainage problem is extremely small when compared




to the problems in other mining areas.

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                                                              VI - 1


VI.  WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND MINE DRAINAGE CONTROL OBJECTIVES

     A.  State of Maryland16

             The vater quality standards of the State of Maryland, as

     approved by the U. S. Department of the Interior on August 7, 1967,

     state:

             "Normal pH values for the water of the zone must
             not be less than 6.0 nor greater than 8.5, except
             where ... and to the extent that ...  pH values
             outside this range occur naturally."

     Maryland standards apply to the North Branch  proper, since the

     entire River lies within Maryland.


     B.  State of West Virginia

             At the present time, water quality standards of the State

     of West Virginia have not been approved or adopted.  When the West

     Virginia standards become effective, they will apply to the West

     Virginia tributaries„


     C.  Mine Drainage Control Objectives

             In developing any pollution abatement program commensurate

     with the water quality standards, it is necessary to relate the

     water quality standards to mine drainage control objectives.  The

     standard most applicable to mine drainage is  pH.  To maintain the

     pH at the standard value of 6.0, a reduction  in acidity will be

     required.

             To aid in simulating the response of  pH to a reduction in

     acidity as a result of an abatement effort, the net alkalinity-pH

-------
                                                         VI - 2


                                                                *
relationship was established from existing stream sampling data.


(Figure VI-l)  The graph indicates that an acidity reduction to


attain a net alkalinity of zero or greater will be required in the


North Branch to meet the water quality standard of pH 6.0.  Attain-


ing this water quality standard is considered the objective of the


mine drainage control program.


        It has been observed that there are active mining operations


in every sub-basin in which significant contributions of acid to the


North Branch have been detected.  The significance of active mines


as compared to abandoned mines as acid sources has not been estab-


lished by individual mine effluent sampling; however, stream survey


data provide a strong implication that active mines are responsible


for much of the pollution.
*
   This relationship is analogous to an acidity titration curve.

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                                                              VII - 1


VII.  RELATIONSHIP OF ACIDITY TO STREAMFLOW

              Inspection of data developed by the CFS and the MDWR showed

      an inverse relation of acidity concentration to river discharge

      which can be expressed mathematically as:


                                  C = aQb

      where

              C = acid concentration in mg/1

              Q = river discharge (cfs)

              a = a constant

              b = an exponent

      In the range above median discharge, concentration exhibits an

      inverse linear response of about one to one to changes in dis-

      charge and can be expressed mathematically as:


                                  C = aQb
             /•>
      where |b|  > |b|


              Plots of the logarithm of the concentration versus the loga-

      rithm of the discharge for main river stations (Steyer, Kitzmiller,

      and Beryl) revealed that in the range below median discharge the

      concentration response to changes in discharge is insensitive almost

      to the point of independence.   The C versus Q, graph for the Beryl

      station is shown in Figure VTI-1.  These concentrations result in

      pH values from i*-5 to less than 3 over virtually the entire range

      of flow.

-------
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-------
                                                        VII - 3






        The basic relationship used in this report is a plot of




the logarithm of the acidity loading versus the logarithm of the




river discharge—a graph whose shape is the reverse of the C




versus Q.  In the below-median flow range, the loading is highly




dependent on discharge, since the loading is a product of the dis-




charge and concentrations which vary on the average within narrow




limits.  The loading in this flow region is expressed in terms of




flow as given below:





                            L= cQd




where




        L = acid loading (lb/day)




        Q = river discharge (cfs)




        c = a constant




        d = an exponent





In the above-median flow range, the loading becomes constant and




can be mathematically formulated as:





                             L = K




where




        K = a constant





        The L versus Q graph, basically a derivation of the C versus




Q relationship, is a better working relationship in that it facili-




tates the comparison of tributary and in-stream loadings.  L versus




Q graphs for main river stations are shown in Figures VII-2




through VH-h.

-------
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                                                                                                       VII  -  5
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-------
VII - 6,

-------
                                                       VII  - 7






        The net alkalinity, which is defined as total alkalinity




minus total acidity, has been used in this report to describe the




acidic or alkaline character of waters.  The net alkalinity is used




as a continuous function which can assume either a positive or a




negative sign, depending on whether alkalinity (positive) or acidity




(negative) is in excess of the other.  It is zero at the boundary




between acidic and alkaline conditions; that is, at neutrality.  A




logarithmic scale, which has no zero, normally cannot be used to




describe such a variable; however, the prevailing pH in the llorth




Branch is less than 4.5 at virtually all flow conditions.  At such




conditions the total alkalinity is zero, and the total acidity is




equal to the (minus) net alkalinity.




        In the range below median flow, the C versus Q curves indi-




cate (on a basin-wide scale) the oxygen and acidic material are




reacting nearly to the extent possible with the water available.




The small changes in acidity concentration over this flow range




indicate that additional water does not dilute the reaction product




(acid) in proportion to the amount of water added to the system.




In the range above median discharge, the addition of water to the




system causes a corresponding decrease in the concentration, indi-




cating that the effect of additional water in this flow range is




to dilute the acid.  Acid loading reaches a maximum near the median




discharge and then remains constant throughout the higher flow range.




At these conditions, reactions are probably proceeding at their




maximum rates in an excess of water.

-------
                                                        VII - 8






        The acid loading at a given time and location in the North




Branch is the result of a set of tributary sub-basin discharges.




At low-flow conditions, when tributaries and river are discharging




at relatively steady rates, the river loadings would be expected to




equal the sum of the upstream tributary loadings.  Also, at low-flow




conditions, the drainage area above the given river location would




have a more uniform probability of discharge among its tributary




sub-basins than at higher flow conditions when the sub-basin dis-




charges would tend to be partially independent.  At higher flows,




which are generally unsteady, the river loading depends on the




tributary loadings, their times of origin and time of travel.




        At low-flow conditions, loadings derived from load-discharge




relationships at a uniform probability of occurrence for all tribu-




tary sub-basins should add up to the loading indicated for a main




river station at the same probability.  At higher flows, this rela-




tive uniformity would be absent, and sub-basins would discharge at




probabilities varying greatly from the overall basin probability




of occurrence.  The additive properties of loadings indicated by




L versus Q curves would therefore also be absent.  The preceding




discussion, although somewhat speculative, illustrates the nature




of the problem in defining the relationship between tributary and




main river loadings.




        The reaction conditions which determine the rate and extent




of the acid-forming reaction among oxygen, water, and acidic mate-




rials are largely functions of climatological factors.  This suggests

-------

-------
                                                        VII - 9






that loadings may also vary with season.   Among the more important




reaction conditions are temperature, extent and time of water con-




tact with acidic material, and the occurrence and intensity of




bacterial action.




        Because of the general lack of natural alkalinity in the




Basin, the computational analyses have been made using acidity as




a conservative parameter.  It was also assumed that the turbulent




character of the River keeps it well saturated with oxygen.  Under




oxidizing conditions, and in the absence of carbonate, iron is




expected to go to the ferric state to release the bulk of the po-




tential acidity, which is then exerted within the sulfuric acid




equilibrium.  For this reason, the mobility of ferrous iron as an




acid precursor is believed to be quite limited.17  Channel storage




of reduced iron forms, and subsequent exertion as acidity by resus-




pension of bottom material has been assumed to be zero.  The ana-




lytical procedure used measures the entire active and potential




acidity (see Appendix A); therefore, differences in the oxidation




state of acid precursors at different locations do not affect the




use of acidities in a mass balance.

-------
                                                              VIII - 1


VIII.  ACIDITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE NORTH BRANCH BASIN

       A.  Headwaters to Beryl, West Virginia

               The Basin drained by the reach of river from its headwaters

       (River Mile 98) to the sampling station at Beryl (Bloomington, Mary-

       land, River Mile 53.6) accounts for the major portion of the acid

       loading carried by the North Branch.  Mean annual acid loading at

       Beryl is roughly six times that of the mean combined contributions

       of Savage River (near zero) and Georges Creek, although the ratio

       varies widely depending on streamflow conditions.  Upstream from

       Beryl there are no significant sources of alkalinity; hence, the

       acidity loading is cumulative throughout the reach.  The probability

       distribution of acidity loadings shown in Table 2 indicates that

       about two-thirds of the total annual loading at Beryl occurs at

       above-median flow conditions.

               Net alkalinity profiles at three equivalent flow conditions

       were constructed from the logarithmic graphs of loading versus dis-
                                                          $fr
       charge (L versus Q graphs) and flow-duration curves  18 for the main

       river stations (Figures VIII-1 through VIII-3).  River discharges
          Reference 18 contains duration curves for Kitzmiller and Beryl
          (Bloomington, now abandoned).  The duration curve for Steyer
          was obtained from the Kitzmiller curve on a discharge per square
          mile basis after determining the similarity of runoff character-
          istics.  The high-flow end of the Steyer curve was then adjusted
          upward on the basis of regional flood discharge variations with
          drainage area published in Bulletin 25.  The mean annual discharge
          obtained from the duration curve agrees closely with the mean of
          record.

-------
                                                      viii  -  •-:
                           TABLE 2

                    WORTH BRANCH AT BERYL

        PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF NET ACIDITY LOADS
P(Q)   ATimc
                cfs    11/day
                                   Load      % c*" Total
                                  Ib/yr        Annual
98 3-5
95 k.O
90 7.5
80 10
70 10
60 10
50 10
1*0 10
30 10
20 10
j. 0 7 ;;
5 !KO
2 3,5
Total Annual
32
1*3
57
»9
139
200
261
380
510
710
1,150
I ,6(30
2,590
Loac;
23,000
29,000
37,000
52,000
73,000
97,000
130,000
160,000
172,000
172,000
172,000
17°, 000
172,000

2914
*23
1,013
2 ,398
2,661*
3,5J(0
^,71*5
5, 8140
6,270
6,27^
1.70F-
2,511
2,197
1*2, '(00
,000 C.v
,000 L.I
,000 2,k
, 000 -, , ?
,000 6.3
,000 C.3
, 000 11 . 2
,000 13. C.
,000 1^.3
,000 lit 8
,00''> i'l,,:
,000 5.9
,roo 5.2
,000
'•-7
~ t v
4,1
6 6
] lj . 9
23,2
3, , ^
3 o /%
HO £;
63.0
7V "
c,'. 9
•;/t ^
120.0

Mean Daily Load
                       116,000

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-------
                                                       VIII - 6






of 80, 50, and 20 percent probability of being equalled or exceeded




were selected as representative of low, median, and high flows,




respectively.




        The 80 percent profile represents acid loadings at low flow




discharges which could occur more or less simultaneously at the




three sampling points,  The acidity loadings for this condition




are considered to be from a relatively steady flow system.  Simul-




taneous occurrence of median (50 percent) and 20 percent discharges,




however, would be relatively rare, since unsteady flow is the rule




at these conditions.  The median and high flow profiles, therefore,




indicate loadings which have the same probability of occurrence but




which would not occur simultaneously.




        In general, the proportion of acidity loadings from the more




upstream reaches is slightly smaller at the higher river discharges,




although, as indicated by the L versus Q curves, all instream load-




ings are much higher at the greater discharges„




        At low-flow conditions (for discharges equalled or exceeded




80 percent of the time) the reach above Steyer receives almost 80




percent of the loading at Beryl<,  At average flow conditions, the




loading at Steyer is about ^0 percent of the instream loading at




Beryl, and the loading at Kitzmiller is more than 90 percent of the




Beryl loading,,  At discharges equalled or exceeded 20 percent of




the time, the acidity loading at Steyer is about 60 percent and the




loading at Kitzmiller still about 80 percent of the Beryl loading«,




However, the increase from Steyer to Beryl under these high-flow

-------

-------
                                                              viii  - 7


       conditions represents a 70,000 Ib/day influx of acidity in a reach

       which receives a relatively minor quantity at low to median  flow.

       The location of tributaries known to be significant contributors to

       the acidity loadings are indicated at the top of the profiles, as

       well as the location of Stony River, where overall effect is unknown.

       Where influent loadings have been estimated, they are shown  by bars

       at the tributary locations.

               Only in the reach above Steyer has a reasonably satisfactory

       balance been obtained between acid inflows and the instream  loadings

       indicated by L versus Q graphs.

               This balance is shown below,


                                   TABLE 3

                       NET ACIDITY BALANCE ABOVE STEYER

Elk Run
Laurel Run
Buffalo Creek.
P(Q)
(low
Loading
Ib /day
20,000
h,000
1,500
= 80%
flow)
Percent of
Steyer's L
50
10
h
P(Q) = 505?
(median flow)
Loading Percent of
Ib/day Steyer's L
62,000 81+
12,000 16
7,000 9
P(Q)
(high
Load i ng
Ib/day
? 62, 000
25,000
19,000
= 20%
flow )
Percent
Steyer1
>56
23
17

of
s L



Total          25,500       6k      81,000      109      >106,000     >9b
Comparison to
  Steyer's
  Loading     (U0,000)             (7^,000)              (110,000,'

-------
                                                       VIII - 8






        The partial balance was obtained by summing the influent




loadings of the tributaries above Steyer at a uniform yield (cfs




per square mile).  This procedure should produce the most satis-




factory balance at low-flow conditions , assuming that low flows




represent the steadiest flows and most uniform sub-basin yields.




The inability to obtain a balance between the estimated tributary




loadings and the Steyer loading at the low-flow condition is at-




tributed to inadequate definition of tributary acidity loading and




discharge characteristics.  It is unlikely that an undiscovered




acid source of the magnitude indicated exists, since this area has




been surveyed extensively,.




        The percentages shown for the three tributaries in Table 3,




when multiplied by the fraction of Steyer's loading to Beryl's,




indicate that Elk Run contributes about 35 percent of the loading




at Beryl; Laurel Run contributes about six to ih percent, and




Buffalo Creek between three and ten percent of the Beryl loading„




        In the reaches below Steyer, a balance could not be ap-




proached at higher flows when the differences between Steyer, Kitz-




miller, and Beryl stations were significant„  The influent loadings




which produced these differences are attributed to known tributary




sources still undefined as to quantity, to the possibility that many




tributaries become acidic at high flows, and, possibly, to undetected




acid discharges which enter directly into the River,,  Deep mine work-




ings are fairly extensive throughout this reach, and it is possible




that sub-surface discharges occur under hydrostatic pressure„

-------
                                                       VIII - 9






B.  Beryl, West Virginia, to Pinto, Maryland




        In this reach the alkalinity-acidity balance is influenced




significantly by four discharges which occur predominantly in the




Luke area.  Savage River, vhich alternates between alkaline and




acidic conditions, joins the North Branch at River Mile 53.5.  A




major influence in the reach is the neutralizing effect created by




water withdrawals and waste discharges of the West Virginia Pulp




and Paper Company's Luke Mill, which is located on the North Branch




about one-half mile below the Savage River confluence.  Georges




Creek, which joins the North Branch at River Mile 51.1|, is continu-




ously acidic.  The Upper Potomac River Commission Waste Treatment




Facility at Westernport (River Mile 50.0) is a large alkaline




influence.  The discharges between Luke and Pinto are discussed in




detail below.




        The tributaries downstream from Westernport, except for New




Creek, are minor hillside runs.  In fact, during periods of low to




moderate flow, water losses in the Luke Mill frequently cause the




river discharge at Pinto, 21 miles downstream at River Mile 32.2,




to be less than the discharge upstream from the mill.






    1.  Effects of Savage River




        Savage River is regulated to maintain a discharge of 93 cfs




at Luke in conjunction with the unregulated flow of North Branch.




The only source of mine drainage in the Basin is Aaron Run, a small




creek between the dam and the confluence with the North Branch.  The

-------
                                                      VIII - 10






quality of Savage River where it enters North Branch is extremely




variable, depending on both the acidity being discharged by Aaron




Run and the alkalinity of water released from the reservoir.




Because of these conditions, there is no fixed relation of load to




discharge in Savage River.




        In 1966 an intensive water quality survey by the Chesapeake




Field Station personnel indicated an average alkalinity at the mouth




of Savage River of 43 mg/1, the highest on record.  Year-round




sampling by the Maryland Department of Water Resources indicates




net alkalinities varying from -6k to +38 mg/1.  The U, S. Public




Health Service 1956 survey revealed an average alkalinity of 19 mg/1




above the reservoir.  These data are presented graphically in




Figure VIII-4.




        The higher values have been measured during dry periods; in




particular, the August 1966 survey was conducted at the end of the




drought conditions of that year.  A much lower concentration was




observed in October, after the dry conditions were relieved by




rainfall.  It appears that the alkalinity content of Savage River




is greater during a period of sustained dry weather than during




wet weather.  This is attributed to two influences:  (a) Aaron Run




is more likely to contribute a significant acid loading during wet




weather; and (b) Savage River drains a limestone region above the




reservoir, and the proportionately larger groundwater inflow during




sustained dry weather probably carries greater alkalinity concen-




trations into the reservoir and thence into the release flow.

-------
                                                                                      VIII  -  11
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                                                                             to
                                                                             
-------
                                                      VIII - 12






    2.  Effects of the Luke Mill




        The West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company's mill at Luke




normally withdraws about 108 cfs of water, of which 66 cfs is for




cooling and U2 cfs is for process water.  Cooling water is used on




a once-through "basis, without treatment except during low flow




periods when as much as 25 cfs may be recirculated by returning it




to the pond above the mill through spray nozzles.




        About 29 cfs of process water is pumped downstream to the




Upper Potomac River Commission Plant where it receives secondary




biological treatment.  A volume of approximately 9 cfs of evapora-




tor condensate of a pH ranging from h to 7 is discharged without




treatment.  A daily volume of about 2.h cfs of smelter boiler house




waste of pH 7 to 11 is discharged without treatment.15  In addition,




an unknown volume of supernatant from a flyash settling lagoon is




released to the River.




        The effect of the process water withdrawal is to reduce the




acidity loading in direct proportion to the acidity concentration




of the water withdrawn:




        Wet Acidity Reduction (ib/day) = k2 (process water withdrawn)




            x (5.^» a conversion factor) x (acidity concentration of




            the river water, mg/l)




This reduction is, in effect, an increase in the net alkalinity,




although the water of the North Branch remains unchanged in quality




until neutralized by the wastewater returned to the River.  During




the Chesapeake Field Station's North Branch survey of August 1967,7

-------
                                                      VIII - 13






the effect of the mill was to change the net alkalinity loading




from -H,000 to +1,000 Ib/day (see Figure VIII-5).  Process water




withdrawal accounted for an acidity reduction of 17,000 Ib/day.




The neutralizing capacity of wastewater returned to the River was




about 28,000 Ib/day net alkalinity, exclusive of wastewater treated




at the Upper Potomac River Commission Waste Treatment Facility.




Mass balances approximated from West Virginia Pulp and Paper Com-




pany data for several other flow conditions support the 28,000




Ib/day estimate for low-flow conditions.




        In 1966, the mill eliminated spent lime discharges by




installing a lime recovery process,  The effects of this change




have been observed as far downstream as Pinto.  It is evident that




because of the size of the mill operation, future changes in waste




treatment policy may exert the deciding effect on the alkalinity-




acidity balance.






    3.  Effects of Georges Creek




        The instream loading for Georges Creek varies from 2,500




Ib/day acidity at 6.8 cfs (which has a 90 percent chance of being




exceeded) to 37,000 Ib/day acidity at a discharge of 188 cfs (which




has a ten percent chance of being exceeded).  At median flow, 36




cfs, the instream loading is 20,000 Ib/day net acidity.




        Stream loadings for the same probabilities at Beryl are




37,000, 190,000, and 130,000 Ib/day net acidity, respectively.




Although the contribution of Georges Creek is much smaller than

-------
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 SJO  08 = 0 —

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                                                                      FIGURE SHE-5

-------
                                                      VIII - 15


that of the North Branch above Beryl, it is a significant source

of acid.


    h.  Effects of Upper Potomac River Basin Waste Treatment
        Facilities

        The mass balance obtained from the water quality survey of

August 1967 indicates that the Upper Potomac River Basin Commission

(UPRC) facility contributes about 15,000 Ib/day net alkalinity to

North Branch.  This loading is believed to be relatively steady.


    5.  Effects Below the Luke Area

        The UPRC facility is the most downstream of the major influ-

ences.  As indicated by the profile obtained from the 1967 survey,

there is no substantial change in alkalinity loading between the

Poland sampling station (River Mile Up) and Pinto, Maryland (River

Mile 32).  No estimate is currently available of the neutralizing

capacity available downstream from Luke at higher flows.  Recent

data taken at Pinto indicate that the pH falls between U.5 and 6

during high-flow periods, but that the acid is largely neutralized.

Acidic conditions would not be expected at Pinto during low-flow

periods.  The occurrence of acidic conditions at Pinto is attributed

to the cessation of spent lime discharges in 1966 at the Luke Mill.


C.  Pinto, Maryland, to Wiley Ford, West Virginia

        The reach of river between Pinto and Wiley Ford flows

through the Cumberland, Maryland, industrial area.  The U. S.

Geological Survey Cumberland gage is located at the bridge between

-------
                                                      viii - 16






Cumberland and Wiley Ford, near the downstream edge of the indus-




trial area.  The Maryland Department of Water Resources samples




regularly at this point.




        The principal tributaries in this reach are Wills Creek,




which joins the Worth Branch at River Mile 21.7, and Evitts Creek.




Jennings Run and Braddock Run, tributaries of Wills Creek, receive




mine drainage in their upper reaches.  Braddock Run, in particular,




receives drainage from mines in the Georges Creek Basin via the




discharge of the Hoffman Tunnel near Clarysville.  Wills Creek,




however, is no longer acidic at its mouth and does not exert a




significant influence on the quality of the North Branch.




        As noted in the previous section, acidic conditions have




been observed at Pinto.  There is no evidence that they have




extended below Cumberland at any time.

-------
                                                              IX -  1






IX.  EFFECTS OF THE PROPOSED BLOOMINGTON RESERVOIR PROJECT




     A.  Introduction




             The Bloomington Reservoir Project,  located on the North




     Branch eight miles upstream from Bloomington, Maryland,  is in  the




     final stages of pre-construction planning,   This project, when con-




     structed, will be a multi-purpose project with storage provided  for




     water supply, water quality control, flood  control, and  recreation.




     At the conservation pool level, the dam will impound 9^,700 acre-




     feet of water.




             Since the proposed reservoir will impound waters which are




     currently degraded by mine drainage pollution, it becomes important




     to evaluate the effect this pollution will  have on the intended  uses




     of the reservoir.  An analysis designed to  evaluate the  impact this




     project will have on the quantity and quality of water in the  North




     Branch Basin should determine:




             lo  The effects of stratification within the reservoir.




             2.  The possibility of acid regeneration in the  waters




                 of the proposed project,,




             3.  The effect the project will have on downstream water




                 quality and water supply.




             k.  The possibility of operating the proposed project  in




                 conjunction with the existing Savage River Project to




                 achieve the most beneficial use of the water resources




                 of the area.

-------
                                                         IX - 2






        Data is not currently available on which an analysis could




be based which would supply a complete answer to all the problems




posed above.  In fact, such problems as the effect of stratification




and the possibility of acid regeneration within the reservoir pool




may never be resolved completely until the reservoir project is




actually constructed.




        Field and laboratory studies, sponsored in part by the




Baltimore District, Corps of Engineers, are being conducted by the




personnel of the Chesapeake Field Station.  These studies will




supply some of the basic data needed to evaluate the effects of




the proposed project.




        In order to gain some insight on the possible effect of the




Bloomington Project on downstream water quality, a preliminary anal-




ysis was made based on currently available data.  The reliability




and usefulness of this analysis are limited by a scarcity of data




regarding effects in the Luke area; by lack of experience regarding




flow and circulation in deep reservoirs; and by an inadequate




expression of the variability of acid loadings under given flow




conditions.




        The lack of data in the Luke Area is a result of recent




changes in industrial waste discharge practices at the West Virginia




Pulp and Paper Company.  It is expected that further changes will




occur in the direction of attenuating the quantity of alkalinity




which now reaches the North Branch concurrently with the control




of untreated waste discharges.

-------
                                                         IX - 3



        It is apparent that the exact analysis of the effect of


the Bloomington Project on the downstream alkaline-acid balance is


dependent on information which is still in the process of being


collected.  However, the analysis that follows was based on avail-


able data, and the assumptions that were made seem to be reasonable


in the light of current knowledge of alkaline-acid interactions.


        Although the following analysis should provide some insight


into the possible effects of the proposed Bloomington Project, final


conclusions relating to a project of this size should not be made


until all the data from current field and laboratory studies are


available„



B,  Acidity-Alkalinity Balance


    1.  General


        The effects of Bloomington Dam on the reasonal distribution

                                                                *
of loads and concentrations downstream were estimated by routing


acidity loadings through the reservoir under (,l) low-flow and (2)


average-flow conditions „  Discharges at the tL Su Geological Survey


Kitzmiller gage were used as a basis for the streamflow pattern.


Mean monthly river discharges for the calendar year 1,965 were used


to represent low-flow conditions.


        Average flow conditions were represented by the mean monthly


flow exceeded 50 percent of the time.  The mean monthly flow values
   Routing was done using the River Basin Simulation Program with
   the assistance of Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
   Division of Technical Control,

-------
                                                         IX - k






comprising the average flow conditions were determined for each




month by plotting mean monthly flows on log-probability paper and




reading the 50 percentile value.  Since the logarithmic-probability




plots reduce the influence of the months containing high flows, the




mean annual discharges derived from these plots are somewhat less




than the mean of record.  The annual hydrographs used in this




analysis are shown in Figure IV-1.




        Acidic and alkaline effects below the Bloomington Dam,




principally in the vicinity of Luke, were added to the release




loadings to estimate the loadings and concentration downstream from




the Luke area.






    2.  Assumptions Regarding Acid Routine




        a.  Bloomington Reservoir would be operated to maintain a




minimum discharge of 305 cfs at Luke, in conjunction with Savage




River Reservoir releases.  It was assumed for analysis that 210 cfs




would be provided by Bloomington and 95 cfs by Savage; in fact, the




anticipated typical releases are about 270 and 35 cfs for Blooming-




ton and Savage, respectively.  The anticipated releases were formu-




lated to reserve the excellent quality Savage River water for




municipal and industrial use.  The releases assumed for this anal-




ysis, however, were formulated with the object of using Savage River




water to the maximum extent for dilution and neutralization of the




acidic Bloomington releases.

-------
                                                         IX - 5


        b.  Storage deficiencies "below the conservation (normal

full) pool level would be maintained to provide flood storage

capacity in the conservation pool until mid-April, in accordance

with the proposed operating plan of the Corps of Engineers.  The

following equations were used as a generalization of this rule:

        Months of the Year              Release Rule

        May through November            D = 210
        December through March          D = 210 + 0.5Q
        April                           D = 210 + 0.25Q

where

        D = minimum release from reservoir in cfs

        Q = flow into the reservoir in cfs


        c.  The flow into the reservoir would be 1.09 times stream-

flow at the Kitzmiller gage.  The factor 1.09 was derived from the

ratio of median discharge of the Bloomington (Beryl) gage to the

median discharge of the Kitzmiller gage (Ratio = 1.19) and the dam's

location halfway between the gages.

        d.  Flood storage would not be used for low flow augmenta-

tion.  The operating plan indicates that a flood of more than five-

year recurrence interval is required to occupy a significant portion

of the flood storage capacity.

        e.  There would be neither neutralization nor generation of

acid in the reservoir.  It is conceivable that acid could be pro-

duced within the reservoir; this possibility is discussed subse-

quantly in this chapter.

-------
                                                         ix - 6






        f.   Incoming flows would mix instantly and uniformly with the




reservoir contents.  This assumption represents a large departure




from the real physical conditions encountered in deep reservoirs,




The effects of the departure cannot be evaluated quantitatively;  how-




ever, the conditions implied in the assumption are discussed below:




            (l)  Summer stratification would result in summer river




inflows of highly acidic water (concentration about 100 mg/l) float-




ing above colder bottom water of considerably lower acidity (about




kO mg/l), the bottom water concentration being a residual condition




of spring inflows and the spring overturn.   The effects of strati-




fication, it was assumed, could be eliminated by simultaneous multi-




level withdrawal or other techniques to obtain a mixture of top and




bottom water which would result in an acidity concentration in the




release water equal to that which would exist in a completely mixed




reservoir.   Release of only the less acidic bottom water at the rate




of 210 cfs would result in exhaustion of bottom water during late




summer or fall, after which the reservoir contents could consist of




the more acidic top water until winter flows became available for




dilution.  Releasing a large volume of this water would result in




a slug loading well in excess of loadings which would otherwise




occur.  It is believed that current knowledge of the operating




characteristics of such systems is not adequate to allow a conclu-




sive statement on the degree of mixing to be expected.




            (2)  A second implied condition is that winter strati-




fication would not inhibit mixing significantly.  If the Bloomington

-------
                                                         IX - 7


reservoir is operated as proposed, the fall overturn will occur

near the time when reservoir contents are at a minimum; and the

reservoir would be refilled gradually over the winter, with the

target date for a full reservoir being April 15.  Formal winter

stratification, in which a. bottom layer of dense water near k° C

is overlain by a less dense mixture of water and ice, will be modi-

fied by the proposed type of operation.  It is to be expected that

the winter inflows will have a greater mixing effect upon a reser-

voir which is, on the average, only partly full than upon one which

is filled as soon as possible.  Current predictive capabilities are

not adequate to describe these effects.

            (3)  The third implied condition is that complete over-

turn of reservoir contents would occur each spring and fall.  In

deep reservoirs complete overturns do not always take place, and

some strata or pockets may be trapped and released subsequently.


    3.  Assumptions regarding Sources of Acidity and Alkalinity
        Below Bloomington

        a.  Acid loadings from the drainage area between Kitzmiller

and Beryl would be divided equally so that half the loading would

enter the reservoir and half would enter the river between the dam

and Beryl.  This assumption should be supported by additional data,

although it will exert little effect on the results of the analysis.

        b.  Savage River would contribute 95 cfs at an alkalinity

of 30 mg/1, which was the case during the summer months of 1965.

Since the contribution is of less importance under winter conditions,

-------
                                                         IX - 8



the net alkalinity loading of 15,000 Ib/day was assumed to be


constant for the entire year.


        c.  Savage River, under synthetic average year flow condi-


tions, would contribute 95 cfs at 10 rag/1 alkalinity, or a loading


of 5,100 Ib/day net alkalinity.  Data are not available at this time


to confirm the validity of the 10 mg/1 alkalinity concentration.


        d.  The Luke Mill discharges 28,000 Ib/day of net alkalinity.


This alkalinity is contained in untreated waste discharges which, it


is assumed, will eventually be diverted to the Upper Potomac River


Basin Commission plant with some attenuation of alkalinity.


        e.  The ^2 cfs process water withdrawal by the Luke Mill


would reduce the net acidity by 5,500 Ib/day under 19^5 streamflow


conditions and by 6,900 Ib/day under streamflow conditions of the


synthetic average year.  The difference in the process water with-


drawal effects for the two years is due to its dependence on the


concentration of net alkalinity at the point of withdrawal in the


North Branch below Savage River.  Withdrawal effects were computed


at times of typical summer concentrations, thus near the time of


maximum effect.  Since the withdrawal effect is small in comparison


to the high-flow loadings, and since the winter alkalinity decline


in Savage River water causes a change of the opposite sign in the


withdrawal effect, the withdrawal effect has been considered constant,
     i

        The withdrawal effect was computed as follows:

-------
                                                         IX - 9
                         n  (5.10 (L.  + L )
                    L  = Q        _ b _ s
                     w    x
where :




        L   = loading of net acidity, Ib/day




        Q   = flow in cfs




        5.^ = conversion factor




and subscripts indicate:




        w = process water withdrawal




        b = quantities in North Branch at Beryl




        s = quantities in Savage River above confluence with

            North Branch




Therefore, in 1965:



               L  = h2 ($5,000 - 15,000) =   50Q

                w    d      210 + 95       >^




And under Synthetic Average Year flow conditions :







                  • >*
        f.  The Upper Potomac River Basin Commission plant would




add 15,000 Ib/day of net alkalinity to the North Branch.




        g.  Georges Creek would contribute acidity loadings vary-




ing from 1,900 to 1*0,000 Ib/day in 1965, and in a median year from




^,500 to 36,000 Ib/day.  Contributions by month are shown in




Table k.






    k.  Discussion of Results




        The results of the routine analysis under low-flow and




average flow  conditions are shown in Figures IX-1 and IX-2,

-------
                                             IX - 10
                 TABLE it




NET ACIDITY CONTRIBUTIONS OF GEORGES CREEK






                  Contribution (ib/day)
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Synthetic Average Year
35,000
30,000
19,000
7,200
7,200
4,500
6,500
14,000
25,000
31,000
32,000
36,000
1965
38,000
28,000
8,500
3,600
3,400
1,900
4,000
6,000
14,000
35,000
37,000
40,000

-------
                                                                       IX - 11
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-------
                                                                     IX  - 12
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-------
                                                        IX - 13






respectively.  For the low-flow year (1965) the reservoir releases




in the summer months would contain acidity loadings in the range




of minus 45,000 to minus 60,000 lb/day of net alkalinity, consider-




ably in excess of the natural-flow loadings.  For the average-flow




year, the summer release loadings would be in the range of minus




65,000 to minus 80,000 Ib/day net alkalinity; but the difference




between loadings at natural conditions and the release loadings




would be less pronounced than in a low-flow year.  The reason for




the greater release loadings under expected (synthetic average




year) summer conditions is found in the loading versus discharge




curves discussed in Chapter VII.  The summer water which mixes with




reservoir contents is of a relatively constant concentration; thus




greater flows serve to strengthen the acidity of the mixture.




        Winter release loadings would differ as shown from the




natural-condition winter loading, which is constant on the average.




Natural and released winter loadings are all in excess of the




neutralizing capacity downstream.




        The acidity concentrations associated with the synthetic




average year summer and fall release loadings (at 210 cfs) vary




from roughly 50 to 75 mg/1.  Concentrations associated with 1965




summer and fall releases (210 cfs) vary from roughly 30 to 60 mg/1.




Concentrations under natural flow conditions would be on the order




of 100 mg/1 and at times much greater.  The expected concentrations




with the reservoir in operation, however, could still cause pH




values below h in the reach between Bloomington Dam and Beryl

-------
                                                        IX - lU


(see Figure VI-l); thus, no significant improvement in the "bio-

logical condition would be expected.  Use of reservoir release

water for municipal and industrial water supply in this reach
                                    *
would require that it be neutralized  or that other measures be

taken to obviate its acidic effects.  For example, at the Luke Mill

stainless steel piping is used so that cooling water can be circu-

lated without treatment.

        Acidity concentrations of the release waters under winter

conditions would be on the order of 25 to hO mg/1 which, as with

the summer concentrations, would cause pH values below k.

        Figures IX-1 and IX-2 indicate that under low-flow condi-

tions (summer, 1965) the River would be alkaline below the Luke-

Westernport area as a result of neutralization in that area.  Under

the expected summer conditions (synthetic average year) the acid

loadings would not be completely neutralized.  Acid loadings on the

order of 15,000 to 25,000 Ib/day would pass the area with a flow of

305 cfs, resulting in concentrations of 9 to l6 mg/1 acidity and pH

values of 5 to 6.  These conditions do not meet Maryland standards,

although they are not comparable in severity to those above Luke.

        Winter release loadings, as noted earlier, are expected to

be in excess of the neutralizing capacity in the Luke area.  Based

on recent experience with winter flows, it is believed that discharges
   Softening and iron and manganese removal would probably be
   necessary for most purposes.  Depending on the unit process
   chosen for treatment, these may be a part of the same process
   as neutralization.

-------
                                                        IX - 15


of the magnitude indicated would cause acidic conditions at Pinto

or below.  It is probable that the Maryland water quality standards

would not be met consistently for several months of each year in

the reach between Luke and Pinto.


C.  Acid Production in the Mines at the Proposed Bloomington
    Reservoir

        Drawdown for water supply and quality control in the pro-

posed Bloomington Reservoir will cause extreme fluctuations in pool

elevations.  Normal drawdown will be about 56 feet.  Beyond the

normal drawdown, the elevation will fall much more rapidly with the

release of additional water; thus, the drawdown will be considerably

greater than 56 feet in low-flow years.  During the drought years of

1930-1931, the maximum drawdown would have been about 170 feet.

        Abandoned mines in the drawdown range will be subject to

recurrent filling and emptying.  This condition may be conducive

to the production of acid; since air, water, and acidic material

of the mine will be brought together.  At the normal operating pool

level, the reservoir surface will intersect the Upper Freeport,

Upper Kittanning, and the Middle and Lower Kittanning coal seams.

It may also intersect the Bakerstown coal seam.  The Upper Freeport

and the Bakerstown coal seams are believed to be associated with

severely acidic conditions in Laurel Run (Kempton), Maryland, and

Elk Eun and Abram Creek in West Virginia.

        The generation of any additional acidity in North Branch

above the impoundment would aggravate the adverse effect of acid

-------
                                                        IX - 16


mine drainage on water quality and detract from the usefulness of

the reservoir.


D.  Acidity Regeneration in Waters of the Proposed Bloomington
    Reservoir

        Depletion of oxygen in the lower layers of the reservoir

during summer stratification, a usual tendency in deep reservoirs,

would be a major environmental change from the turbulent, well-

oxygenated conditions now characteristic of the North Branch.

Ferric iron present in the reservoir would then tend to be reduced

to the ferrous state.  Strongly reducing conditions are not required

for this action to take place.  Upon re-exposure to oxidizing condi-

tions, the ferrous iron will be reoxidized to the ferric state, thus

releasing two moles of acidity per mole of iron.  The effect of this

regeneration of acidity may become significant as iron sediments

are deposited behind the dam.  After a certain amount of mine drain-

age abatement work has been accomplished, the pH of the river may

be expected to rise.  As the pH rises, the tendency for iron pre-

cipitation is increased; moreover, the biological action which

causes oxygen depletion may be expected to be more vigorous at

higher pH values.  As abatement work proceeds, therefore, the pro-

portion of iron which takes part in the oxidation-reduction cycle

will tend to increase.

-------
                                                              X -  1


X.  BIBLIOGRAPHY

    1.  Maryland Geological Survey, Geologic Map of Garrett  County,  1953.

    2.  Maryland Geological Survey, Geologic Map of Allegany County,  1953-

    3.  West Virginia Geological Survey, Map II, Mineral County showing
        General and Economic Geology, 1923.

    h.  West Virginia Geological Survey, Map IV, Grant County showing
        General and Economic Geology, 1923.

    5.  National Coal Association, "Bituminous Coal Data, 1966."

    6.  Maryland Geological Survey, Bureau of Mines, "Forty-Third  Annual
        Report, 1965."

    7.  Chesapeake Field Station, Middle Atlantic Region, FWPCA, "Investi-
        gation of Water Quality in the North Branch Potomac  River  Between
        Cumberland and Luke, Maryland, August 1967."

    8.  LaBuy, James L., "Investigation of the Benthic Fauna in the  North
        Branch Potomac River Basin, Chesapeake Field Station, Middle
        Atlantic Region, FWPCA, Report in Preparation.

    9.  Middle Atlantic Region, FWPCA, "Water Quality and Pollution  Control
        Study, Mine Drainage, Chesapeake Bay-Delaware River  Basins," Working
        Document No. 3, July 1967-

   10.  Hopkins, Thomas C., Jr., Maryland Department of Water Resources,
        "Physical and Chemical Quality from the Effects of Mine Drainage
        in Western Maryland," August 1967-

   11.  Hopkins, Thomas C., Jr., Maryland Department of Water Resources,
        "Western Maryland Mine Drainage Survey, 1962-65," 3  Volumes.

   12.  Rubelmann, R. J., Maryland Department of Water Resources (then
        Water Pollution Control Commission), "Interim Report No. 1 on
        the Western Maryland pH Survey," June 10, 1963.

   13.  West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company, Luke Mill, "Waste Control
        Report" (monthly), data obtained through cooperation of Maryland
        Department of Water Resources and Interstate Commission on the
        Potomac River Basin.

   lk.  Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, "Potomac River
        Water Quality Network, Compilation of Data" (annual).

-------
                                                           X - 2
15.  Public Health Service, U.  S.  Department of Health,  Education,
     and. Welfare, "Investigation of North Branch Potomac River,  Report
     on Benefits to Pollution Abatement from Low Flow Augmentation on
     the North Branch Potomac River," Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineer-
     ing Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1957-

l6.  Maryland, State of, Water Resources  Commission and  Department of
     Water Resources, "Water Resources Regulation U.Q General Water
     Quality Criteria and Specific Water  Quality Standards."

17-  Morris, J. Carrell, and Stumm, Werner, "Redox Equilibria and
     Measurements of Potentials in the Aquatic Environment," Chapter
     13 of Equilibrium Concepts in Natural Water Systems, American
     Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., 1967-

18.  Darling, John M., Maryland Streamflow Characteristics,  Maryland
     Geological Survey, Bulletin 25, Baltimore, Maryland, 1962.

-------
                                                          A - 1






                           APPENDIX A




            SURVEY PROCEDURES AND ANALYTICAL METHODS






1-  Objectives of the Survey




    a.  To measure the severity or intensity of the effects of




mine drainage on the surrounding environment.




        These effects are primarily on the biota, on the useful-




ness of the water for municipal, industrial, or recreational pur-




poses, and on structures because of the corrosive effects of acidic




vater.  The pH and acidity concentrations are basic parameters for




this purpose.




    b.  To measure the net requirement or capacity of vaters for




neutralization.




        In order to predict the effects of different loading condi-




tions, it is necessary to determine the mass flow rates of both the




acidic and alkaline components around a region in which changes are




occurring.  The use of net alkalinity, a single continuous parameter




encompassing both components, has been adopted by the Middle Atlantic




Region, FWPCA.  Net alkalinity is defined as the total alkalinity




minus the total acidity.  It can assume either a positive or a nega-




tive value, although the term net acidity is sometimes used to




avoid dealing exclusively in negative numbers.  Experiments by




personnel of the Susquehanna Field Station, Middle Atlantic Region,




FWPCA, and by Wilkes College under contract by FWPCA have demonstrated




the applicability of the additive properties of net alkalinity to




acidic-alkaline stream interactions.

-------
                                                          A - 2






        In the CFG work to date, the effect  of sources  of neutra-




lization was determined by the difference in net alkalinity mass




flow rates above and below the source.   It was, therefore, not nec-




essary to predict the effect of mixing but simply to state the




quantity of net alkalinity available in terms of the effect.  For




these purposes, alkalinity (where present), acidity, and stream




discharge are basic parameters.




    c.  To measure the background acidity or alkalinity of areas




which are not major contributors to the pollution.




    d.  To measure the concentrations of iron and other metals and




hardness.




        These components also affect the biota and water use, both




by the physical effects of bottom-blanketing precipitates and by




altering the mineral balance of the water and, therefore, changing




the toxic action of acidity or toxic metals.  These components were




measured during reconnaissance work but are considered of secondary




importance because (l) the qualitative effects are generally well




known but quantitative effects are extremely difficult to estimate,




and (2) they have a common source with acidity, i.e., sulfuritic




material.




    e.  To measure a mass tracer parameter.




        Sulfate is the best parameter for this purpose because it




originates as an acidic component and is less subject to change by




neutralization than acidity.  The reaction product, hydrated calcium




sulfate, is soluble to over 2,000 mg/1 and more so in acidic solution,

-------
                                                          A - 3






2.  Sampling Procedures




        Samples were obtained by dipping and transferring the water




to a sample container.  Plastic containers were generally used




except for samples to be analyzed for iron, for which glass bottles




were used.




        On samples collected from the start of the survey through




November 1967, analyses were performed at or near the sampling point




in a mobile camper-laboratory equipped with an AC generator and the




necessary electronic analytical equipment.  Analysis was completed




before moving to the next site, with only an occasional exception.




Samples collected during 1968 were returned to the CFS laboratory




at Annapolis for analysis.






3-  Analytical Procedures




    a.  Acidity




        (l)  General




        The "hot" acidity has been used as a basic parameter.  In




the hot procedure, heat and peroxide are used to drive off carbonate




buffer salts and to oxidize acidic precursors.  Carbonates will be




present either as free CC>2 or as carbonic acid at the pll values




prevalent at most locations in the North Branch Basin.  Within a




low-pH system, these components will be either lost to the atmos-




phere or converted to a part of bicarbonate buffer system as the




stream recovers normal pH values during neutralization.  In such a




system, carbon dioxide and carbonic acid are not permanent components

-------

-------
                                                          A - U






of the acidity and are not measured as such.  They are subsequently




measured as alkalinity, provided the initial pH is greater than it. 5.




        The total effects of acidic precursors (unhydrolyzed mettalic




salts—principally iron—and the unoxidized ferrous iron) are measured




by the hot procedure, because the entire acidity potential is released




during oxidation.




        Results have been reported to conventional pH U.5 and 8.3




end points.  During analysis, however, several end points are read




over the titration range and a curve drawn.




        The "cold" acidity procedure measures the carbon dioxide-




carbonic acid component as a part of the acidity, provided adequate




precautions are taken in sampling, handling, and titrating.  The




cold acidity is not considered to provide adequate assurance that




precursor components have been measured.  The cold acidity procedure




has been discarded for routine work by the Chesapeake Field Station.




        (2)  Acidity, Hot




        A water sample of 50 or 100 ml is boiled for two minutes




after adding 0.3 ml of 30 percent II202-  The sample is then cooled




to room temperature and titrated with 0.02 N sodium hydroxide to




end points of pH *t. 5 (methyl orange or mineral acidity) if approp-




riate, and pH 8.3 (phenolphthalein or total acidity).  Electrometric




titration is preferable to colorimetric because sample color and




colored precipitates frequently obscure color changes.  Time series




analysis of acidity indicated that hot acidity is stable for at




least several days.

-------
                                                          A - 5






        (3)  Acidity, Cold




        A water sample of 50 or 100 ml is titrated with 0.02 N




sodium hydroxide to pH U.5 and pH 8.3 end points.   In mine drainage




work, when it is suspected that free CC>2 or other volatile compo-




nents of the acidity may be present; sampling, sample preservation,




and analysis must be done in a way to avoid losing volatiles to the




atmosphere by temperature change and agitation.






    b.  Total Alkalinity




        Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater, 12 Edition, 1965.




        The total alkalinity was determined by titrating 100 ml,




or suitable aliquot, to pH ^.5 with standardized 0.02 N sulfuric




acid.  A Leeds and Northrup laboratory pH meter was used to indicate




pH changes.






    c.  Sulfate
        Reference:  Fisher Scientific Company, Technical Data,




TD-178.




        The sulfate content of the sample was determined by the




barium chloranilate method.  The sample was first passed through




an ion exchange column to remove interfering cations.   The efflu-




ent was then allowed to react with the reagent, filtered, and the




color intensity determined on a spectrophotometer.

-------
                                                          A - 6
    d.  Total Iron




        Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater, 12 Edition, 1965.




        The total iron was determined spectophotometrically.  All




ferric iron was reduced to the ferrous state with hydroxylamine-




hydrochloride as the reducing agent.  Orthophenanthroline was added




to form an orange-red complex.  The color intensity was determined




using a Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 20.






    e.  Ferrous Iron




        Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater, 12 Edition, 1965.




        The ferrous iron was determined spectrophotometrically.




All ferric iron was maintained in the oxidized state.  Orthophenan-




throline was added to form an orange-red complex.  The color inten-




sity was determined using a Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 20.






    f.  Aluminum




        Reference:  Methods for Collection and Analysis of Water




Samples, Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1^5^, United States




Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., I960.




        The aluminum content was determined spectrophotometrically.




Ferronorthophenanthroline was used to give a color complex.  The




color intensity was determined using a Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 20.

-------
                                                          A - 7






    &•  Total Hardness




        Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Waste-water, 12 Edition, 1965.




        The total hardness was determined by titrating the sample




with standard EDTA using Eriochrome Black T as an indicator.
        The pH measurements were made at the sampling point with




a Beckman Model N Field pH Meter.






    i.  Specific Conductance




        Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater, 12 Edition, 1965.




        The specific conductance was measured directly in micromhos/




cm using an Industrial Instruments, Inc., RB3 Solu Bridge.






    j .  Filterable Residue




        Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater, 12 Edition, 1965-




        The filterable residue was determined by evaporating to




dryness a known volume of sample that has been millipore filtered.




The evaporation was done by using a tared evaporating dish as a




carrier.  The drying oven was maintained at 105° C.  When the




evaporation of the sample was complete, the dishes were cooled and




weighed.  The gain in weight represents filterable residue.

-------
                                                          A - 8






    k.  Nonfilterable Residue




        Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater, 12 Edition, 1965-




        The nonfilterable residue was determined by filtering a




known volume of sample.  A predried and weighed Gelman Type A glass




fiber filter was used.  The filter and its contents were then dried




in an oven at 105° C, cooled, and reweighed.  The gain in weight




represents nonfilterable residue.






    1.  Total Residue




        Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater, 12 Edition, 1965.




        The total residue was determined by evaporating to dryness




a known volume of the sample as received.  The evaporation was done




by using a tared evaporating dish as a carrier.  The drying oven




was maintained at 105° C.  When the evaporation of the sample was




complete, the dishes were cooled and weighed.  The gain in weight




represents total residue.






    m-  Aluminum, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese




        These metals were analyzed by atomic absorption techniques




using a Perkin-Elmer model 303 atomic absorption spectrophotometer,

-------
                                           B - 1
            APPENDIX B






MINE DRAINAGE STATION DESCRIPTIONS




       AND BASIN SCHEMATICS

-------
























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                                                          B -
Symbol
LEGEND FOR BASIN SCHEMATICS

 (Figures B-2 through B-5)


                    Item
  ^P              CFS Regular Sampling Station

  (^J)              CFS Reconnaissance Station
 \  /
                  MDWR Sampling Station

1, 1A, 2, ...   CFS Stations numbered from most upstream

M-l, M-2, . .   .   (not sequential)  CFS stations numbered from
                  most downstream.  These stations were estab-
                  lished by MDWR during the Western Maryland pH
                  survey.  The numbers, less the "M," coincide
                  with the station numbers in the MDWR report
                  of June 10, 1963.12

(^.5)             Drainage area square miles
Example:
         Dobbin Road
            Laurel Run
            7-5)
Trib.
              Station No. k, DA = 7-5 sq. mi,

              CFS Reconaissance Station

              MDWR Station located at Dobbin

              Road crossing of Laurel Run
                                                     Figure B-l

-------
96.1
91.7
89.9
86.4

 LU
81.3
                                                                  B - 9
     DOBBIN ROAD


     LAUREL  RUN
                                                                  KEMPTON ROAD
                                                                  3 \(4J9)
                                                     SAND RUN
                                                  NYDEGGER RUN
                                             M-9K4.5)
STEYER C73)
 USGS GAGE
                               SCHEMATIC  DIAGRAM
                               NORTH  BRANCH
                                 ABOVE  STEYER Md.

-------
                                                                  B - 10
81.8
78.3
 t
 U)
(X
UJ

E
70.4
                                            6  STEYER (73)
            DIFFICULT CREEK
              STONY RUN
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             ABRAM CREEK
                         16 OAKMONT
                         USGS GAGE (47.3)
                                        1
                                             8A
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                                                       LOSTLAND RUN
                                               M-66 (9.2)
                                             e-
                                                     SHORT RUN
                                             M-63  (3.1)
                                             -e-
                                                    WOLFDEN RUN
                                             17 (5.1)
68.9
                                            18  KITZMILLER (225)
                                               USGS GAGE
                               SCHEMATIC   DIAGRAM
                                NORTH BRANCH
                         BELOW STEYER.Md. ABOVE KITZMILLER, Md.

-------
                                                                B - 11
3.9
 .6
18  KITZMLLER  (225)
DEEP RUN ^
o
22 (a4)
UNNAMED _
O
M-47KX5)
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25 (4.8)
1
^
<*>
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^^ ELKLICK RUN
O
23 A Q.7}
23 B BARNUM (ca.256)
^ FOLLY RUN
O
23 C (4.7)
                                            26  BERYL  (287)
                               SCHEMATIC   DIAGRAM
                                NORTH  BRANCH
                         BELOW KITZMILLtR, Md. ABOVE BERYL, W.Va.

-------
                                                                B - 12
53.6
26  BERYL (287)
52.4
51.4
 CO
 UJ
 ST.
 lit
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 10
                 NEW CREEK
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       1
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UPRC  WASTE TREATMENT
          FACILITY
                                           50 PINTO -USGS GAGE

                                                        WILLS CREEK
                                           WILEY FORD -USGS GAGE
                              SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
                              NORTH  BRANCH
                   BELOW BERYL ABOVE WILF.Y FORO.Md. (C'IMBERLANDfM-U

-------
                                  c - i
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DATA TABLES

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS






                                                            Page






  I.  INTRODUCTION 	     1




 II.  PROCEDURE	     2




      A.  Sampling	     2




      B.  Chemical Analysis	     2




      C.  Bacteriological Analysis 	     3




III.  STATION DESCRIPTIONS   	     5




 IV.  SURVEY RESULTS 	     7

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                       I.  INTRODUCTION






        The Chesapeake Field Station of the Middle Atlantic Region,



Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, conducted an inten-



sive survey of the Shenandoah River Basin during June 196?.  Separate



surveys were made on (l) the Main Stem of the Shenandoah River,



(2) the South Fork of the Shenandoah River, including the South



River and the Middle River, and (3) the North Fork of the Shenan-



doah River (see Figure l).  The report is a summary of the data



collected on these surveys.



        The purposes of these surveys were to aid in verifying the



DO and BOD model parameters and to determine general water quality.



The survey should also show the extent of any diurnal quality




fluctuations.

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                        II.  PROCEDURE






    A.  Sampling




        1.  All samples for chemical analysis were obtained by



dipping a plastic container full of the shallow stream water.   A



quart cubitainer was then filled from the dipped sample and iced.



A portion of the dipped sample was siphoned into a DO bottle until




overflowing and fixed.  A portion of the dipped sample was also



used to measure the pH and temperature at the time of sampling.



The iced samples were returned to the camper laboratory within




two hours where the analyses were started immediately.




        2.  All bacteriological samples were obtained by dipping



a sterile sample bottle directly into the stream.  The full



bacteriological sample bottle was then capped and iced.






    B.  Chemical Analysis



        1.  Dissolved Oxygen



            Reference?  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed., 1965.



            Dissolved oxygen was determined by the azide modification



of the basic Winkler method with the titration done potentiometrically



with an automatic TITRALYZER.



        2.  Biochemical Oxygen Demand



            Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed., 19650

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            The biochemical oxygen demand was determined by the




azide modification of the basic Winkler method with the titration



done potentiometrically with an automatic TITRALYZER.   The samples,



as received, were diluted if necessary and transferred to standard



300 ml BOD bottles in triplicate.  One initial DO and two final




DO determinations were used throughout.  Incubation was started



immediately at 20 C and continued for five days after which they



were titrated.




        3.  PH



            The pH measurements were made with a field pH meter.






    **•  Bacteriological Analysis



        1.  Coliform




            Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed., 1965.



            The water samples were inoculated into fermentation



tubes containing 10 ml of lauryl sulfate tryptose using decimal



dilutions of one ml.  Five fermentation tubes were used for each



dilution and four dilutions were made.  The production of gas in



any amount in the inner fermentation tubes after 2k and h8 hours



of incubation at 25  - 0.5 C constituted a positive presumptive



MPN test.




            All positive presumptive tubes were submitted to the



confirmatory test using tubes containing 10 ml of brilliant green



lactose bile broth.  Incubation was done for a period of 48 hours

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at 35° - 0.5°C.  The production of gas in any amount in the inner



fermentation tubes constituted a positive confirmed MEW test.



        2.  Fecal Coliform




            Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed., 1965.



            All positive presumptive tubes from the coliform



test were submitted to the confirmatory test for fecal coliform



using tubes containing 10 ml of EC media.  Incubation was done



for a period of 2k hours at if5.5° - 0.5°C.   The production of



gas in any amount in the inner fermentation tubes constituted



a positive confirmed MPH test.

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                      III.,  STATION DESCRIPTIONS
Number

M - 0

M - 1

M - 1 A

M - 2

M - 3

M - k


S - 1

S - 3

s - 3 A

S - It

S - k A

s - 6

s - 6 A

s - 8

s - 9


s - 9 B


S - 10

S - 11

S - 12

s - 13
Station

Main Stem

Main Stem

Main Stem

Main Stem

Main Stem

Main Stem
Shenandoah

Shenandoah

Shenandoah

Shenandoah

Shenandoah

Shenandoah
South River

South River

South River

South River

Middle River

Middle River

Middle River

Grassy Creek (Black Run)

North River


North River


South Fork Shenandoah

South Fork Shenandoah

South Fork Shenandoah

South Fork Shenandoah
Location

PEPCO Dam (before spillway)

Rt. 62k Bridge north of Front Royal

Rt. U. S, 50 Bridge

Rt. 7 Bridge east of Berryville

Rt, 9 Bridge east of Bloomery

Rt. U. S. 2^-0 Bridge south of
  Harpers Ferry

Chesnut Ave. Bridge in Waynesboro

Etc 6ll Bridge near Coiners Mill

Bridge in Harriston off U. S. 340

Rt. 629 Bridge in Port Republic

Rt. 629 Bridge in Port Republic

Rt. 256 Bridge west of Grottoes

Rt. 668 Bridge west of Grottoes

Rt. 86? Bridge east of Mt. Crawford

Rt. U. S. 11 Bridge south of
  Mto Crawford

Rt. U. S. 276 Bridge in Rockland
  Mill

Rt. 659 Bridge north of Grottoes

Rt0 649 Bridge east of McGaheysville

Rt. U. S. 33 Bridge west of Elkton

Kt, 602 Bridge west of Shenandoah

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Number
Station
Location
S - 19      South Fork Shenandoah

S - 20      South Fork Shenandoah

N - 1       North Fork Shenandoah

N - 1 A     North Fork Shenandoah

N - 2       North Fork Shenandoah

N - 2 A     Worth Fork Shenandoah

N - 2 B     Smith Creek


N - 3       North Fork Shenandoah

N - 3 A     Stony River

N - 3 B     North Fork Shenandoah


N - k       North Fork Shenandoah

N - 5       North Fork Shenandoah

N - 6       North Fork Shenandoah

N - 7       Passage Creek
                         Luray Ave.  Bridge in Front Royal

                         Rt.  U. S, 3kO Bridge in Front Royal

                         Rt,  259 Bridge near Cootes Store

                         Bridge off  Rt. 259 in Broadway

                         Rt.  k2 Bridge in Timberville

                         Bridge off  Rt. 260 near New Market

                         Bridge off  U0 S, 11 about 0,5 mile
                           north of  R'ades Hill

                         Rt0  ?6y Bridge east of Quicksburg

                         Bridge off  U. S. 11 in Edinburg

                         Bridge off  U. S. 11 two miles
                           below Edinburg

                         Rt.  663 Bridge northeast of Woodstock

                         Rt0  55 Bridge east of Strasburg

                         Rt.  U. S. 3kO Bridge in Front Royal

                         Rt.  55 Bridge west of Front Royal

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS






                                                             Page






  I.  INTRODUCTION 	      1




 II.  PROCEDURE	      2




      A.  Sampling	      2




      B.  Chemical Analysis  	      2




III.  STATION DESCRIPTIONS . ,	      5




 IV.  SURVEY RESULTS	      6

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                       I.  INTRODUCTION






        The Chesapeake Field Station of the Middle Atlantic Region,




Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,  conducted an




intensive survey of the James and Maury Rivers in the vicinity




of Glasgow, Virginia during September 1967 (see Figure l).   The




purpose of this survey was to measure the effects of reported high




organic loadings on these two rivers in the vicinity of their




confluence and to determine pesticide levels in an area with a




reported massive fish kill.

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                        II.  PROCEDURE






    A.  Sampling



        Top samples for all stations were obtained by dipping a



plastic container full of the stream water.  Bottom water samples




for Stations 3 and k were obtained at a depth of five feet above



the bottom of the river using a Van Dorn sampler.  For all stations



a gallon cubitainer was filled from the sampling container,  .A




portion of the sample was siphoned into a DO bottle until over-



flowing and fixed.  A portion of the sample was also used to



measure the pH and temperature at the time of sampling.  All



samples were returned to the camper laboratory within two hours



where the analyses were started immediately.  A total of six



sampling runs was  made.  On two of the sampling runs, on different



days, special samples were taken for pesticide analysis„   These



samples were obtained at Stations 1, 2, 3> ^? and 6 by dipping



a one quart glass bottle full.  The samples for pesticide were



sealed and sent to the Robert A, Taft Sanitary Engineering Center



for analysis,






    B.  Chemical Analysis



        1.  Dissolved Oxygen




            Reference;  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed., 1965.

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            Dissolved oxygen was determined by the azide modification



of the basic Winkler method with the titration done potentiometrically



with an automatic TITRALYZER.



        2.  Biochemical Oxygen Demand



            Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed.? 1965.




            The biochemical oxygen demand was determined by the



azide modification of the basic Winkler method with the titration



done potentiometrically with an automatic TITRALYZER.  The samples



as received were diluted if necessary and transferred to standard



300 ml BOD bottles in triplicate.  One initial DO and two final



DO determinations were used throughout.  Incubation was started



immediately at 20°C and continued for five days after which they




were titrated.




        3.  pH



            The pH measurements were made at the sampling point



with a field pH meter.



        4,  Color



            Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed., 1965.



            The color of the samples was determined by visual



comparison with solutions of known concentrations of potassium



chloroplatinate.  The samples as received were centrifuged to



remove all turbidity present.  The visual comparison was then made




using equal volumes of sample and standards in nessler tube.

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        5.  Filtrable Residue



            Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed., 1965.



            The filtrable residue was determined by evaporating



to dryness a known volume of sample that has been millipore



filtered.  The evaporation was done by using a tared evaporating



dish as a carrier.  The drying oven was maintained at 105°C.




When the evaporation of the sample was complete, the dishes were



cooled and weighed.  The gain in weight represented filtrable



residue.





        6.  Turbidity



            Reference:  Standard Methods for the Examination of



Water and Wastewater, 12 ed., 1965.




            The turbidity of the sample was determined by using



a turbidimeter.  A portion of the sample was transferred to a



curette and inserted in place in the turbidimeter and read



directly in Jackson Turbidity Units.

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                      III.  STATION DESCRIPTIONS
Number
Station
Location
1
2
3
k
5
6
7
8
Maury River
Maury River
James River
James River
James River
James River
Maury River
Maury River
One hundred yards upstream from
James Lee outfall
Near public ramp below Va. Rt. 2^9
Bridge
Approximately one-half mile upstream
from Maury River confluence
One hundred yards upstream from
Balcony Falls Dam
Below spillway of Balcony Falls Dam
U. S. Rt. 501 Bridge
South Buena Vista Bridge below STP
Goose Neck Dam

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                             Page

  I,  INTRODUCTION .....................    1

 II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  ...............    k

III.  DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION ..........    6
                         LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                        Page

  I   Bottom Organism Data of Gillie Creek .........   Ik

 II   Bottom Organism Data of Appomattox River .......   15

III   Bottom Organism Data of Bailey Creek .........   16

 IV   Tabulation of Bottom Organisms by Station
        on Gillie Creek - August 1967  ...........   17

  V   Tabulation of Bottom Organisms by Station
        on the Appomattox River - August 1967  .......   19

 VI   Tabulation of Bottom Organisms by Station
        on Bailey Creek - August 1967  . .  .  .	21
                        LIST OF FIGURES
                                                           Follows
Figure                                                       Page

  1   Map of Study Area and Profile of Biological
        Conditions on Gillie Creek^ Appomattox
        River, and Bailey Creek in the James River
        Basin  ».»*.. .«£.,,..,>.».  .„..,><,   21

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                       I.  INTRODUCTION






        Biological surveys of Gillie Creek in the Richmond area, the



Appomattox River in the Petersburg area, and Bailey Creek between



Fort Lee and Hopewell (all tributaries of the James River in Virginia)



were conducted in August 1967.  The surveys were centered on these



areas, as each of them was known to have serious pollution problems,



and additional data were needed.



        Gillie Creek was surveyed from Oakley Lane north of Virginia



Heights to its mouth at Dock Street in Richmond.  The Appomattox



River was surveyed upstream from Petersburg at the Virginia Route 36



Bridge and downstream from Petersburg at the Virginia Route 10 Bridge.



Bailey Creek was surveyed from its headwaters on the Fort Lee Military




Reservation to its mouth near the Virginia Route 10 Bridge.



        For purposes of the study, the community of bottom (benthic)




organisms was selected as indicator of the biological condition of



the stream.  Bottom organisms serve as the preferred food source



for higher aquatic forms and exhibit similar reactions to adverse



stream conditions.  The combination of limited locomotion and life



cycles of one year or more, for most benthic species, provide a long-



term picture of the water quality of a stream.  Fish and algal popu-



lations were given some consideration, but only to the extent that



obrious conclusions could be drawn based upon incidental observations.



        In unpolluted streams a wide variety of sensitive clean-water



associated bottom organisms is normally found.  Typical groups are



stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies.  These sensitive organisms

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usually are not individually abundant because of natural predation
and competition for food and space; however, the total count of
organisms at a given station may be high because of the number of
different varieties present.
        Sensitive genera (kinds) tend to be eliminated by adverse
environmental conditions (chemical,, physical, and biological)
resulting from wastes reaching the stream.  In waters enriched with
organic wastes, comparatively fewer kinds are normally found, but
great numbers of these genera may be present.  Organic pollution-
tolerant forms such as sludgeworms, rattailed maggots, certain species
of bloodworms such as red midges, certain leeches, and some species
of air-breathing snails may multiply and become abundant because of
a favorable habitat and food supply.  These organic pollution-tolerant
bottom organisms may also exist in the natural environment but are
generally found in small numbers.  The abundance of these forms in
streams heavily polluted with organics is due to their physiological
and morphological abilities to survive environmental conditions more
adverse than conditions that may be tolerated by other organisms.
When inert silts or organic sludges blanket the stream bottom, the
natural home of bottom organisms is destroyed, causing a reduction
in the number of kinds of organisms present.
        In addition to sensitive and pollution-tolerant forms, some
bottom organisms may be termed intermediates, in that they are capable
of living in fairly heavily polluted areas as well as in clean-water
situations.  These organisms occurring in limited numbers, therefore,
cannot serve as effective indicators of water quality.

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        Streams grossly polluted with toxic wastes such as mine drain-



age will support little, if any, biological life and will reduce the



population of both sensitive and pollution-tolerant organisms.



        Classification of organisms in this report is considered in



three categories (clean-water associated, intermediate, and pollution-



tolerant) which provide sufficient biological information to supplement



physical and chemical water quality data for a basin-wide analysis.



Detailed identification and counts of specific organisms have been



tabulated and are available upon request.

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                 II.  SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIONS






        1.  Biological surveys of Gillie Creek in the Richmond area,



the Appomattox River in the Petersburg area, and Bailey Creek between



Fort Lee and Hopewell were conducted in August 1967.   All three of



these streams are tributaries to the James River.



        2.  Bottom organisms were selected as the primary indicator



of biological water quality,




        3-  Gillie Creek was found to be mildly polluted from its



headwaters near Virginia Heights, which is located east of Richmond,



to Laburnum Road (Virginia Route 672).  Fair biological conditions



were found at Jennie Scher Road, indicating some recovery from the



upstream station.  Downstream at the Fulton Street Bridge in Richmond,



however, heavy organic pollution was found, and this  continued to



the mouth at Dock Street in Richmond.  Gillie Creek contributes poor



quality water to the James River.



        h.  The Appomattox River was sampled upstream from Petersburg



at the Virginia Route 36 Bridge, and high water quality was found.



            Downstream from Petersburg at the Virginia Route 10



Bridge, degraded biological conditions were found.  The Appomattox



River contributes poor quality water to the James River.



        5.  Bailey Creek was found to exhibit fair biological conditions



in its headwaters near the Fort Lee Hospital.  Downstream from Fort




Lee it becomes polluted, and, as it enters the Hopewell industrial



complex, it is grossly polluted by industrial wastes.  Bailey Creek



contributes a high pollutional load to the James River.

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        6.  The James River was inspected off Bailey Creek and the



HopeweU industrial complex.  Gravelly Run,  which drains part of the



industrial complex, was found to be contributing thermal pollution



to the James River.  The River on the Hopewell side appears to be



grossly polluted throughout this reach.

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                                                                   6





           III.  DATA EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION






        As part of selected biological surveys, Gillie Creek,  the



Appomattox River, and Bailey Creek were found to be contributing poor



quality water to the James River.



        In addition, Gravelly Run, which drains part of the Hopewell



industrial complex, was found to be contributing thermal pollution



to the James River.  Because of the magnitude of the industrial develop-



ment and the tidal action, it was impossible to pinpoint the sources;



but the Hopewell area is without doubt one of the more seriously



polluted areas in the entire James River Basin.  A more detailed



study is definitely needed in this area.



        Sampling stations were located after consideration of the



following conditions:



        1.  Effects of tributaries



        2.  Areas having a known water quality problem



        3.  Physical capability for sampling




        Bottom organisms are animals that live directly in association



with the bottom of a waterway.  They may crawl on, or burrow in, or



attach themselves to the bottom.  Macro-organisms are usually defined



as those organisms that will be retained by a No. 30 sieve.  In



essence, the organisms retained by the sieve are those that are



visible to the unaided eye.



        Each station was sampled once, and the kinds of macro bottom



organisms were observed for the purpose of evaluating water quality.

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Quantitative bottom samples were also taken, using a Surber Square



Foot Sampler, a Petersen Dredge (0.6 sq. ft.) or an Ekman Dredge



(0.5 sq. ft.), and the number of organisms per square foot was



counted or calculated.



        Quantitative samples were not taken at stations in non-



critical areas or where organisms were very sparse.



        Discussions of stations proceed downstream unless otherwise



noted.

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                                                                8


Gillie Creek in the Richmond Area


Station #1 - Gillie Creek at the Oakley Lane Bridge north of the
             drive-in theatre at Virginia Heights

        The water was clear, and filamentous algae were abundant,

suggesting excessive nitrogen and phosphorus.  This station was

located in the headwaters, and the stream was quite small at this

location.  Bottom organisms were not abundant, and only seven

genera (kinds) were found.  They consisted of pollution-tolerant

bloodworms, sludgeworms, another bristleworm, the intermediate

flatworms, and intermediate midge larvae (three genera).  Only

k3 organisms were found in the square foot sample, consisting of

32 sludgeworms, two bristleworms, six bloodworms, and three inter-

mediate midge larvae.  Mild organic pollution was indicated and

is probably the result of septic tank failures and seepage from

the surrounding surburban developments.


Station #2 - Gillie Creek at Laburnum Road (Virginia Route 672)
             Bridge east of Richmond

        Although the stream banks were littered with trash along

Laburnum Road, the water remained clear; however, bottom organisms

were sparse, and a quantitative sample was not taken for this reason.

Six genera of bottom organisms were found, consisting of one clean-

water associated mayfly, two intermediate midge larvae, and three

pollution-tolerant air-breathing snails.  Mild organic pollution

was still indicated„

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idtation #3 - Giilie Creek at t'*e F< rd at  Jennie Sober Head in
             Richmond
        The stream was clear in spite of the road construction in

the area? and nine genera of bottom organisms were found which

consisted of clean-water associated mayflies (two genera), caddis-

flies,, intermediate midge larva? 'two generaj^, and pcllution-

tolerant sludgewormsc, bloodworms,, and air-breathing snails (two

genera).  Out of a total ff ?ij bottom organisms la the square

foot sample,, there were 205 intermediate midge larvae. 11 sludge-

worms, and one bloodworm <,  Only fair biological conditions were

indicated at t'ai* location.


Statios #t - Gillie Creek at the F'ulton Street Bridge in Eichmond

        The water was turbid., a ad a?» extremely strong raw sewage

odor was present „  The bottoms uf the rocks were blacK, and all

of the rooks were cr.versd wits a sewage mold.  Large quantities

of trash and garbage littered th<=» barjt-s-i and drrnestic waste was

observed in the stream,  Cutso'-jses were present an the area,  A

large sewer pipe was observed under tr-e bridge but «?as not dis-

charging at the time of the inspection..  As preparations were

underway for inspection of the stream, a pickup trwi loaded with,

garbage approached the bridge„  The trackcs occupants were about

to dump the garbage when they became aware of the inspection partye

presence and hastily drove away,,

        The only bottom organisms sampled were sludgeworms and

bloodwormso  In spite of the large sludgeworm and bloodworm

populations in the sludge banks9 the quantitative sample taken in

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                                                                 10


the gravel in midstream produced only two large bloodworms.  Gross

organic pollution was indicated at this station,


Station #5 - Gillie Creek at the Dock Street Bridge at the mouth
             in Richmond

        The water was turbid, and the quantitative sample had the

odor of oil and decomposing organic matter.,  Gas storage tanks are

in the vicinity.  Outfalls with evidence of previous flow were

observed but were not discharging at the time of inspection*  The

only bottom organisms found were sludgeworms., but only 46 were

collected in the square foot sample,,  Toxic wastes may be keeping

down the sludgewora population.  Gross pollution was indicateds

and poor water quality was contributed to the James River.


The Appomattox River in the Petersburg Area

Station #1 - Appomattox Kiver at the Virginia Route 36 Bridge
             upstream from Petersburg

        This station was selected after aa abortive attempt to

sample the River at Matoaca,, which is the first bridge crossing

upstream from Petersburg,  Due to a dangerously shifting sand

bottom created by the construction work on the new bridge and

poor access on the side opposite Matoaca^ the next bridge crossing

upstream was substituted,,

        The water was slightly turbids but a moss was present on

the rockso  High water quality was indicated by 19 genera of

bottom organisms? including such clean-water associated forms as

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                                                               11


stoneflies (two genera), mayflies (four genera), caddisflies (four

genera), hellgrammites, and a gill-breathing snail.  Only 14 bottom

organisms were collected in the square foot sample, but this was

due to the extremely large rocks in the stream bottom which prevented

efficient quantitative sampling even with the square foot sampler.

The quantitative sample consisted of 12 mayflies, one caddisfly

larva, and one fingernail clam.  The qualitative sample indicated

good populations of stoneflies, mayflies, caddisflies, and gill-

breathing snails.  In addition^ good biological conditions were

suggested by the fishermen with pickerel, channel catfish, bluegill,

and a large shiner in their creels„


Station #2 - Appomattox River near its mouth at the Virginia Route
             10 Bridge

        This station was located downstream from Petersburg and

north of Hopewell.  The water was turbid, but a few fish (primarily

shad) were observed in the area.  This station was sampled by boat

using an Ekman Dredge due to the river depth.  The only bottom

organisms sampled were sludgeworms and midge larvae.  The quanti-

tative sample on a square foot basis consisted of 55 sludgeworms

and seven intermediate midge larvae.  Mild pollution appears to

be indicated at this station.  Poor quality water is contributed

to the James River by the Appomattox River.

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                                                               12
Bailey Creek between Fort Lee and Hopewell


Station #1 - Bailey Creek in its headwaters at the "A" road crossing
             southeast of the Fort Lee Hospital

        The water was clear, and minnows were abundant at this

station.  Bottom organisms were not too abundant, and only five

genera of bottom organisms were sampled.  They consisted of clean-

water associated mayflies, intermediate midge larvae (three genera),

and a pollution-tolerant sludgeworm.

        Only fair biological conditions were indicated.  Bottom

organism diversification could be limited by the habitat and possible

spraying for mosquitoes.  This station is upstream from any known

discharge.


Station #2 - Bailey Creek at the Virginia County Road 630 Bridge
             downstream from Fort Lee

        The water was turbid and had a whitish-gray color.  A

strong sewage odor was present.  The underside of the gravel in

the stream bed was black, and sewage mold was present on the rocks.

In spite of an intensive search, bottom organisms could not be

found.  Degraded biological conditions are indicated at this location.


Station #3 - Bailey Creek at the Virginia Eoute 156 Bridge at the
             south edge of Hopewell

        The water remained a very turbid whitish-gray color even

in the sampling bucket.  The only bottom organisms which could be

found were sludgeworas, and they were not very abundant.  Only 36

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                                                               13


sludgeworms were collected in the square foot sample.  Polluted

conditions are suggested at this location.


Station #4 - Bailey Creek at Virginia Route 10 Bridge at the east
             edge of Hopewell

        The water was a black color with a great amount of white

floe floating on it.  Strong chemical odors were noted.  Since

this station is within the range of tidal excursion, part of this

pollution evidence may be carried up from the James Biver in addition

to the pollution coining downstream,,  Bottom organisms could not be

found at this location.

        Extremely heavy industrial pollution was indicated at this

station.


Station #5 - Mouth of Bailey Creek and the James River off Hopewell

        The James River was investigated off Hopewell and the mouth

of Bailey Creek.  The water off the industrial complex was dark

and flocculent? with a great deal of dead filamentous algae»  The

area along the bank was heavily silted and remained shallow a

considerable distance out from the bank.  Gravelly Run,, which drains

part of the industrial complex,, was observed to be contributing a

large volume of thermal pollution,,  The mouth of Bailey Creek was

very similar to its upstream station.  Bottom organisms could not

be found in either section,,  Heavy industrial pollution was indicated.

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                     TABLE  I
       BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA OF GILLIE CREEK
Station
Number
1
Location
Gillie Creek at the
Oakley Lane Bridge
north of the drive-in
theatre at Virginia
Heights
Bottom
No. of
Kinds
7
Organisms
No.
S
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                                                                    15
                               TABLE II

               BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA OF APPOMATTOX RIVER
Station
Number
Location
 Bottom Organisms                 Indicated
No. of     No. Per     Dominant     Water
Kinds	So. Ft.  	Forms	Quality
           Appomattox River at     19
           the Virginia Route 36
           Bridge upstream from
           Petersburg

           Appomattox River near    2
           its mouth at the
           Virginia Route 10 Bridge
                             ik     Mayflies     Excellent
                                    Caddisflies
                                    Stoneflies
                             62     Sludgeworms  Mild
                                        and      pollution
                                    Intermediate
                                    Midge Larvae

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                                                        16
                   TABLE  III

      BOTTOM ORGANISM DATA OP BAILEY CREEK
Bottom Organisms
Station
Number
Location
No. of
Kinds
No. Per
Sq. Ft.
Dominant
Forms
Indicated
Water
Quality
Bailey Creek in its      5
headwaters at the "A"
road crossing southeast
of the Fort Lee Hospital

Bailey Creek at the Va.  0
County Rd. 630 Bridge
downstream from Fort Lee

Bailey Creek at the Va.  1
Rt. 156 Bridge at the
south edge of Hopewell

Bailey Creek at Va. Rt.  0
10 Bridge at the east
edge of Hopewell

Mouth of Bailey Creek    0
and the James River
off Hopewell
      Mayflies     Fair
      Intermediate
      Midge Larvae
      Sludgeworms
0
0
0
Polluted
      Sludgeworms  Polluted
Heavy
pollution
Heavy
pollution

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         AL-
                         J. 2. 2. j.
                         ™ — — ~
                                              LOCATION MAP
                  A B C D
A B C  D
            H 0 P £ W E L
                 A B C D
                               O 0 0 0
                               A B C D
                LEGEND
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                  A
                                       _A^L_  KINDS (GENERA)


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                     IN SO FT SAMPL
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  A B C  D
                 A B C  0
                          JAMES   RIVER  BASIN
                      CHESAPEAKE DRAINAGE  AREA
      BIOLOGICAL  SURVEY
 JAMES & APPOMATTOX RIVERS
(RICHMOND-PETERSBURG-HOPEWELL  AREA)
                         U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                   FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  ADMINISTRATION
                   REGIONAL OFFICE           CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA.

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