TABLE OF CONTENTS








ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



INTRODUCTION



DATA PRESENTATION



NOTES REGARDING THE TABULATION



DATA TABULATION



     Maryland - Portion within Chesapeake Bay Basin

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                      ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


        The Chesapeake Bay-Susquehanna River Basins Project

acknowledges the cooperation and assistance extended by the

following:
                Department of Health
                State of Maryland

                Basic Data Branch
                Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control
                Washington, D. C.

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                          INTRODUCTION





        This data tabulation is one of a series to be prepared



by the Project.  While basically internal working documents,



they will be made available to other agencies having a need



for such information in carrying out their activities.  These



data were compiled primarily from State health department files,



including regional and local offices, some individual visits



to communities, and the Public Health Service Inventories of



Municipal Water Facilities.  These data will be reviewed from



time to time so that revisions can be made to reflect new



information and changed conditions.

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DATA PRESENTATION



        This report covers the Maryland portion of the



Chesapeake Bay Drainage Basin.  The data are arranged



alphabetically by county  and alphabetically by community



within each county.



        Figure 1 shows the Chesapeake Bay Drainage Basin



and delineates the area covered by this report.

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\

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NOTES REGARDING THE TABULATION



        The following information is presented to facilitate



use and interpretation of the Community Water Supply Tabula-



tions:



        "E" preceding a numeric value indicates that the value



has been estimated.  An "x" in the listing indicates that the



data called for are not available.  A dash "-" signifies that



the data called for are not applicable to the entry.





       (l) Community Name
        The name of the community for which the data applies.



                       (l) Abbreviation List
       QJ yford Abbreviated         Abbreviat ion



        East                          E



        South                         S



        West                          W



        Borough                       BORO



        Township                      TWP



        Town                          TWN



        Lower                         L



        Upper                         U



Column (2) 1960 Census Population



        The entry shows the I960 population, as reported in



PC(l)A, U.S. Census Population I960,  U.S. Department of Commerce.

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       ( "jO Population Served



        The entry expresses the number of people in the com-



munity being served by a public water supply.





Column (A) Tota^ Water ; Used, - MSD



        The entry expresses the total water use for the com-



munity, or the total water use for that portion of the com-



munity served by a public supply.





Column (3) Ownership



        1 .  Municipal



        2 .  Private



        3 .  Authority



        4 .  County



        5.  State



        6 .  Federal





Column (6) Communities Served by This Facility



        Lists communities served by the facility in addition



to the one tabulated.





           Community Home
        Same as Column (l) - For convenience in reading the



data.





Column (8)  Facility Name



        The name of the facility supplying water to the community.

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(9)  Source (Type and
 Type - 1  Surface



        2  Ground



        3  Both



 Name - Name of source from which water is taken





(10) Treatment Symbols
 A - Aeration



     Ac - contact beds or trays,  coke or other material



     Am - patented aerator



     As - spray aerator



     At - overflow trays cascade  or other splash aerator



     Ao - other type aerator



 C - Chemical dosage for coagulation or softening



     Ca - alum



     Ci - iron salts



     Cl - lime



     Cs - soda ash



     Ct - activated silica



     Co - other coagulant



 D - Disinfection



     DC - chlorine gas



     Dd - dechlorination



     Dh - hypochlorites



     Ds - free residual  chlorine



     Dx - chlorine dioxide

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    Dz - ozone



    Do - other means



F - Filters



    Fa - anthrafilt



    Fc - roughing or contact



    Fd - diatomaceous earth



    Fg - gravity (slow)



    Fp - pressure



    FT - gravity (rapid)



    Fs - sand



    Fz - zeolite



K - Chemical dosage for corrosion correction or water



    stabilization



    Kc - phosphate compounds



    Kg - chlorine gas



    Kh - hypochlorite



    Ko - sodium silicate



    Kp - aliali feed for pH adjustment



M - Mixing device or tank



    Ma - air agitation



    Mb - "baffle mix



    Mh - hydraulic (standing wave flume)



    Mi - injection or pump suction



    Mp - slow mechanical mix



    Ms - patented sludge blanket

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    Mt - rapid mechanical mix



    (MtpsSv) - "Liquon Reactor"; "Accelator"; or



               "Precipitator"



N - Ammoniation



    Nc - ammonium compound



    Ng - ammonia gas



R - Recarbonation



S - Sedimentation



    Sb - basins, baffled (other than inlet or outlet)



    So - covered basins (other than housed)



    Sm - mechanical sludge removal



    So - open basin (may be in plant building)



    (MtpsSv) - "Liquon Reactor"; "Accelator"; or



               "Precipitator"



T - Chemical taste and odor control



    Tc - activated carbon



    Td - chlorine dioxide



    Ts - sulfur dioxide



    Tz - ozone



    To - other



V - Fluoride adjustment



    Va - hydrofluosilic acid



    Vs - sodium fluoride



    Vt - ammonium silicofluoride



    Ve - ammonium silicofluoride

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            Vo - other fluorides



            V  - fluoride reduction



            Vn g - 1.2 ppra natural fluoride






        An Asterisk at the end of Treatment Symbols signifies



two or more sources with a common treatment plant (excluding



disinfection).






Column (11) Raw Water Storage - MG



        Amount of water impounded or run-off held in storage



to spillway of dams.






Column (12) Max Safe Withdrawal - MGD




        Surface - the maximum safe daily yield which can be



secured from the source, based on the driest period of record.



        Ground - the maximum dependable 2^-hour draft of a well



field or fields, or other ground source, which can be sustained



through a five day period.  (Number of wells now in use may



have no bearing on the figure.)






Column (13) Avg Daily Use - MOD



        Average daily water use or demand on each source.



Total water use by a community is shown in column (h),

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DATA TABULATION

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(1) (2) (3)
COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
MP*"E
IHft 1 W
USED-MGD 1
16)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
BARTON
BUHLING GREEN
CRESAPTOWN
CUMBERLAND
  731

  450
 1680
33415
 1400
  450
 2000
50000
 0.090
     X
     X
13.200
                                                           BOWLING GREEN&CRESAPTOHNtLA VALE
FROSTBURG
                      6722
                                 11000
                                            0.450
LA VALE
LUNACONING
 4031
 2077
 4035
 4000
LUKE
WESTERNPORT
  587
 3559
  585
 3900
     X
 0.475
(I) (2) (3)
COMMUNI TY
NAME
I960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
ANNE ARUNDEL
TOTAL
MATER
JSED-MGD
OWNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
ANNAPOLIS
BARBERSVILLE
BfcLVEDERE HGTS
CEDARHURST
CROWNSVILLE
EPPING FOREST
GIBSON ISLAND
3LEM BURNIE
                     23385
26000
84
1700
200
2800
490
650
55000
3.000
0.004
0.078
0.190
0.350
0.005
0.075
4.030
1
2
3
2
5
2
3
3
HAMMERLEE BEACH
HOLYWD ON SEVRN
JSSSUP
KINGS HEIGHTS
MARYLAND CITY
PASADENA
PINEHURST
PIJES ON SEVERN
ROSE HAVEN
ROYAL BEACH
SANDY PT ST  PK
SEVE^NA PARK
SHERWOOD FOREST
SOUTHDOWN SHORE
SYLVAN SHJRES
 3728
50
 50
4500
2000
1130
700
100
800
700
100
X
5560
1900
200
850
0.004
0.005
0.822
0.150
X
0.030
0.005
0.052
0.050
0.01D
X
X
* 0.100
0.020
0.069
2
2
5
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
5
3
2
2
2
                                      JESSUP.WOMENS  REFORMATORY,STATE HOSPt
                                      STATE POLICE BARRACKS, PATUXEIT IHSTITUTE
       HPUUIIOI AID WATER OSB.  WOTIS POPUiATIW - 300, KDREB WATER USE - 0.016 MOD.

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(7) (8) (9)
COMMUNITY
NAME
FACILITY
NAME
COUNTY NAHE
ALLEGANY
SOURCE
TYPE I NAME
(10) (II) (12) (13)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
RAM
'"ill"
no
Stti
WITHDRAWAL
HGO
oSje?
M6D
BARTON BARTON 1 BUTCHER RUN DC ~ 5 $
BARTON 2 HELLS DC -XX
CUMBERLAND
FROSTBURG
LGN4CONING
WESTtRNPORT
COMMUNITY
NAME
ANNAPOLIS
BARBERSVILLE
BELVEDERE HGTS
CEDARHURST
CROWNSVILLE
EPPING FOREST
GIBSON ISLAND
GLEN BURNIE
HAMMERLEE BEACH
MOLYWD ON SEVRN
JESSUP
KIHOS HEIGHTS
MARYLAND CITY
PASADENA
PINEHURST
PINES ON SEVERN
ROSE HAVEN
RUYAL BEACH
SANDY PT ST PK
SEVERNA PARK
SHERWOOD FOREST
SOUTH.DOWN SHORE
SYLVAN SHORES
CUMBERLAND
CUMBERLAND
CUMBERLAND
FROSTBURG
FROSTBURG
FROSTBURG
FROSTBURG
LONACONING WCO
LONACONING WCO
LONACONING WCO
LONACONING WCO
WESTERNPORf
FACILITY
NAME
ANNAPOLIS

A A CO SAN COMM
CEDARHURST WCO
CRWNVIL ST HOSP

1 EVITTS CR
1 GORDON LAKE
1 KOON LAKE
1 SAVAGE RUN
1 PINEY RUN
2 WELLS
2 SPRINGS
1 ELKLICK RUN
1 JACKSON RUN
1 KOONTZ RUN
2 WELLS
1 SAVAGE R
(9) AN
SOURCE
TYPE I NAME
2 WELLS
2 WELL
2 WELLS
2 WELL
2 WELLS
2 WELL
A A CO SAN COMM 2 WELLS
OORSEY RD PLANT 2 WELLS
HARUNOALE PLANT 2 WELLS
GLEN BURNIE PLT 2 WELLS
HAMMERLEE BEACH 2 WELL
HOLYWD ON SEVRN 2 WELL
8N C M S
N C M S
0 N C M S
F K T V
F K T V
F K T V
CA SO FR DC KP
CA SO FR DC KP
CA SO FR OC KP
CA SO FR DC KP
DCH
DCH
DCH
DCH

CAL MST SMO FRS KP OC

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(1) (2) (9)
COMMUNITY
NAME
I960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
BALTIMORE CI
T3TAL
HATER
USED-IGO
OWNER-
SHIP
fY ?>
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
BALTIMORE
                     93902*
                                 1405000
                                             207.610
(1) (2) (3)
COMMUNITY
N4ME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COlWY NAME
BALTIMORE
TOTAL
HATER
USED- * 60
OWNER-
SHIP
1C)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY T>IIS FACILITY
ILCHESTER
SPliUJWS POINT
STEVENSON
rfJOOEMSSURG
340
 31000
55
250
0.015
5.500
0.005
0.030
2
2
2
5
(1) (2) 13)
COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
8BWME
TOTAL
MATER
USED-MOD
OWNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
8Y THIS FACILITY
CALVERT  BEACH
CHESAPEAK BEACH
DARES  BEACH
HUNTING  HILLS
KcNWOOD  BEACH
LJNS BEACH
P^l.NCE FREDRICK
ST LEONARD
SCIENTIST CLIFF
731
60
600
600
32
250
720
125
60
540
0.006
0.060
0.060
0.003
3.025
0.072
D. 020
0.006
 0.054
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
(1) (2) (3)
COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
C3USTY NA1E
CAROLINE
TOTAL
HATER
USEO-MGD
OWNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
FcHERALSBURG
1933
2050
1150
459
835
2500
3000
1200
467
886
0.270
0.313
0.100
0.047
0.089
1
1
1
1
1
P^STJN

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(7) ('$) (9)
COMMUNITY
NAME
F\CILITY
NAME
sni
TYPE
COUNTY NAME
BALTIMORE CITY
JRCE
NAME
(10) ('H ) H Z ) ( 1-3')
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
BALTIMORE ASHBURTON PLANT 1 PATAPSCO R CA DC HBP
MONTI-BELL:) i GUNPOWDER FALLS DC CA HPB
RAW
HATER
STORAGE
MG
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGD
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
SON FRS KP VA - 95.000 9/.320
SO FRS KP VA - 148.000 109.290
(7) (8) (9)
COMMUNITY
N*Mfc
FACILITY
NAME
SOI
TYPE
COUNTY NAME
BALTIMORE
JRCE
NAME
(10) (II) (12) (13)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
RAW
HATER
STORAGE
MG
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGD
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
ILCHE-TER
SPARROWS POINT
^Tev:..JSJN
N H BGARD&CARTN 1 PATAPSCO R
TOWN WATER STA
WIRE MILL STA
STEVENSON
2 11 WELLS
2 6 WELLS
2 SPRING
DC CAS M SO FRS DC FPS
A -C K- M S D F
A -C K- M S 0 F
DH
WUOi),.iaURG MCNTRS SCH-GIRL 1 TRIB N BR PATAP CAL MT MB SO FRS DC
<7
COMMUNITY
NAME
CALVERT BEACH
CHESA^EAK BEACH
DARES KEACH
HUNTING HILLS
KENWOOD BEACH
LONG BEACH
PRINCE FREDRICK
ST LEONARD
SCIENTIST CLIFF
(71
COMMUNITY
NAME
I
CENTO'i
Fi.-nEK4LSBURG
G^tzKiBORD
PRFSTUN
MDGFLY
(8)
FACILITY
NAME
LONG BEACH WCO
(9) C-A
SOURCE
TYPE NAME
2 1 WELL
CHESAPEAK BEACH 2 2 WELLS
DARES BEACH
HUNTING HILLS
KtNWOOD BEACH
LONG BEACH WCO
2 2 WELLS
2 1 WELL
2 1 WELL
2 4 WELLS
PRINCE FREDRICK 2 1 WELL
ST LEONARD
2 1 WELL
S CLIFFS SEK CO 2 2 WELLS
(8)
FACILITY
NAME
OENTON
FEOERALSBURG
GREENS fORC
PRESTUM
IUDGELY
CO
(9) CA
SOURCE
TYPE NAME
2 2 WhLLS
2 4 WELLS
2 2 WELLS
2 "1 WELLS
2 2 WELLS
UNTY NAME
LVERT (10)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
DH
DH
DH
NONE
DH

DH
NONt
OH
UNTY NAME
ROLINE (10)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
NONE
DC
NOME
NONE
NONE
X
3.400
4.036
X
X
(II) (12)
RAW MAX
WATER SAFE
STORAGE WITHDRAWAL
MG MGD
0.022
0.072
0.065
0.003
0.072
0.290
0.005
X
0.160
(II) (12)
RAW MAX
WATER SAFE
STORAGE WITHDRAWAL
MG MGD
0.830
1.9bO
0.580
0.830
0.700
0.015
1.440
1.150
0.005
0.030
(13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
0.006
0.060
0.060
0.003
0.025
0.072
0.020
0.006
0.025
13)
AVG.
DAILY
SIB
0.270
0.313
0.100
0.047
0.089

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(1) (?) <31
COMMUNITY
NAME
19S3
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
CARR3LL
T3TAL
MATER
USED-SGD
OWNER-
SHIP
>
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY T-IIS FACILITY
-lAIPSTEAO 695 850 0.040 1
lAUCHESTt^ 1138 1200 0.090 1
MOUNT AIRY
McH WINOS3R
PLEASANT VALLEY
Sr>RINGFLD HOSP
TANtYTCMN
JMON BRIDGE
dcSTMlNSTER
1352
738
-
-
1519
833
6123
2058
790
170
4781
1760
900
10000
0.140
0.075
0.010
1.300
0.325
0.200
0.900
1
1
2
5
1
2
2
                                                                HEMRYT3N H3SPITAL6STATE PRISON
(1) (2) (3)
COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NA*E
TOTAL
WATER
USED-MGD
3UNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
CARPENTER POINT
CSESAfEAKE CITY
COOL  SPRIMGS  PK
CRYSTAL BCH MNR
-L,.
 ELKVIEW COTTAfflE COLOMI . SUMER PQPULATIO* ABD  HATER USE.  WDTTER POPULATION $0;  WOTEH HATER USE 0.005 MS).
 ELKVIEW SHORES - HAS SUMMER POFOUTIOX OXUT.
 HABCES ponrr . SUMMER POPULATIOI AID HATER USE.  WIHTER POPULATIOM is 20; WIKTEH HATER USE 0.002 MOD.
 WH CRYSTAL BEACH - HAS SUMMER POPULATIOJI CLY.

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(7) (t$)! ()
COMMUNITY
NAME
FACILITY
NAME
SMLNAME
SOURCE
TYPE
NAME
00) III) (If) (IS)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS

RAM
NG
MAX
HITHDRAHAL
AVG.
'
HAMPSTEAD HAMPSTEAD
MANCHESTER MANCHESTER
MANCHESTER
MANCHESTER
MOUNT AIRY MOUNT AIRY
NEW WINDSOR NEW WINDSOR
2 WELLS
2 HELLS
2 SPRINGS
2 SPRINGS
2 HELLS
2 SPRINGS
PLEASANT VALLEY PLEASANT VALLEY 2 HELLS
SPRINGFLD HOSP SPRINGFLD HOSP
SPRINGFLD HOSP
TANEYTOWN TANEYTOWN
KP OH
OH
DH
DH
DC
DH
DH
0.230
- 0.115
X
0.300
0.144
0.048
1 PINEY RUN CAL MT MP SO FRS KP DC* - X
1 S BR PATAPSCO R CAL MT MP SO FRS KP DC X
2 HELLS
UNION BRIDGE UNION 6RIDG WOO 2 HELL
WESTMINSTER MD HATER WORKS
MD WATER WORKS
<7 <*>
II COMMUNITY ' FACILITY
NAME | NAME
DH K
DC
X
0.720
1 CRANBERRY RUN TCHSOTFKNVD* - 1.250
1 NW BR PATAPSCO TCMSOTFKNVD* - 0
<> 8i
SOURCE
TYPE I NAME
CARPENTER POINT CARPENT^ PT HCO 2 1 WELL
CARPENTR PT HCO 2 SPRINGS
CHESAPEAKE CITY CHESAPEAKE CITY 2 2 WELLS
COOL SPRINGS PK COOL SPR CIVIC
2 1 HELL
CRYSTAL BCH MNR CRYSTAL BCH MNR 2 2 WELLS
ELKTON ELKTON
1 BIG ELK CR
ELKVW CTTG CLNY ELKVW CTTG CLNY 2 1 WELL
ELKVIEH SHORES ELKVH SHORE INC 2 1 HELL
HANCES POINT "HANCES POINT
HOLLY HALL TERR GENERAL WW INC
2 1 WELL
2 2 HELLS
MtADOHVIEW MEADOWVIEW UTIL 2 2 HELLS
NORTH EAST NORTH EAST
1 NORTHEAST R
THOMSON ESTATES HOLLY HALL UTIL 2 1 WELL
WH CRYSTL BEACH WH CRYSTL BEACH 2 1 WELL
1UNTY NAME
:CIL riO)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS j
ni) (i,2)
M^R M
STORAGE WITHDRAWAL
MG NGD
CLS SC OH * - 0.045
CLS SC DH  0.070
FP KP FPZ KOP
DH
NONE
CALO-MTPS SV-SO FRS DC
DH
NONE
DH FZ
KP DH
KP DC
0.270
0.010
0.144
2.100
X
0.018
0.043
0.350
0.790
CAS DC VA MTB SO FRS DC X 3.000
KP DH
NONE
1.440
0.072
0.040
X
X
X
0.140
0.075
0.010
X
X
0.325
0.200
X
X
15)
i
X
X
0.075
0.006
0.005
1.100
0.010
0.002
0.030
0.020
0.110
0.110
0.005
0.100

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(1) > C3)
COMMUNITY
NAME
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
CQUMTY XANE
CHARLES
TOTAL
WATER
USED-H6D
^NCR-
SHIP
<>
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
BANKS OOEE
F3REST PARK
IMDIAN HEAD
JtMKIMS LANE
LA PLATA
MORSANTOHH
NEAR INDIAN HED
N INDIAN HED ES
POTOMAC HEIGHTS
S MD CORR CAMP
SOUTH VIEW
WALDORF
WOODLAND ACRES
WOODLANDS VILL
-
-
780
-
1214
-
-
-
-
-
-
1048
-
_
112
120
1600
160
1500
45
80
168
?700
133
64
1200
80
140
X
X
0.120
X
0.150
X
0.005
0.017
0.150
X
X



2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
7
5
2
1
2
2
0) ) (3)
COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
DORCHESTER
TOTAL
WATER
USED-MGD
OWNER-
SHIP
<$)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
CAMBRIDGE
EAST NEW MARKET
HURLOCK
SECRETARY
VIENC4A
12239
225
1035
351
420
15000
250
700
400
300
2.200
0.025
0.070
0.040
0.030
1
1
1
1
1
(I) (2) (3
(COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
FREDERICK
TOTAL
WATER
USED-MGD
OWNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED 1
BY THIS FACILITY
3KAODOCK HEIGHT

BRUNSWICK            3555

EMMITSBURG           1369
1400

3570

2500
0.042    2

0.200    1

0.350    1
FREDERICK
                    21744
                                 22500
                                            2.500
MIDDLETOWN
MYERSVILLE
PINECLIFF
THURMONT
WALKERSVILLE
WOODSBORO
1036
355
-
1998
1020
430
1200
600
19
2200
1200
430
0.140
0.040
0.005
0.225
0.130
0.045
1
1
2
1
1
1

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(7<
COMHUNITY
NAME
BANKS ODEK
FOREST PARK
INDIA.: HE40
JCNKINS LANE
LA PLATA
MORGANTOWN
NEAR INDIAN HED
N INDIAN HED ES
POTOMAC HEIGHTS
S MO CDRR CAMP
SUUTH VI Ew
WALDORF
WOODLAND ACRES
WOODLANDS VI LL
(7)
1 COMMUNITY
NAME
CAMBRIDGE
EAST NEW MARKET
HURLOCK
SECRETARY
VIENNA
(7)
COMMUNITY
NAME
BKADDOCK HEIGHT
3RUMSWICK
E.MMITSBURG
FREDERICK
HI DOLL TOWN
MYtRSVILLE
PINECLIFF
THURMONT
WALKERSVILLt
WCODSHQRO
l>
FACILITY
NAME
BANKS ODEE
COUNTY NAME
(9) | CHARLES (10
SOURCE
TYPEI NAME
2 WELL
TRilAR WATER CO 2 HELLS
INDIAN HEAD
2 WELLS
JENKIN LAN COOP 2 WELL
LA PLATA
MORGANTOWN WCO
2 HELLS
2 WELL
NEAR INDIAN HED 2 WELL
N INDIAN HFO cS 2 WELL
HOME OWNER ASSC 2 WELL
S MD CORR CAMP
SOUTH VIEW
2 WELL
? WELL
CHAS CO SA.N COM 2 2 WELLS
WOODLAND ACRES
2 WE LI
VA INVSTMENT CO 2 WELL
<8)
FACILITY
NAME
CAMBRIDGE
ecu
(9) DO!
SOURCE
TYPEI NAME
2 WELLS
EAST NEW MARKET 2 WELL
HURLOCK
SECRETARY
VIENNA
(8)
FACILITY
NAME
BRADDOCK WCO
BRADDOCK WCO
BRUNSWICK
BRUNSWICK
CMMITS6URG
EMMITSBURG
EMMITSBURG
FREDERICK
FREDERICK
FREDERICK
MIDDLETOWN
MIDDLETOWN
MYERSVILL6
LAKESPRING WCO
THURMONT
THURMONT
WALKERSVILLE
WALKERSVILLE
WOODSEORO
2 WELLS
2 WELL
2 WELLS
COl
(9) FRI
SOURCE
TYPE NAME
2 WELLS
2 SPRINGS
'2 WELLS
2 SPRINGS
2 SPRING
1 TURKEY CR
2 WELLS
TREATMENT SYMI
NONE
DH
OH
NONE
CS DH
NONE
DH
DH
DG
NONE
DH
DH
DH
DH
JNTY NAME
^CHESTER (|0
TREATMENT SYMt
A 0 KP
DH
NONE
DH
DH
JNTY NAME
EDERICK (10
TREATMENT SYME
DC
OC
DC
DH
OC
DC
OC
> (II)
10LS RAW
HATER
STORAGE
MG
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
) (ID
IOLS RAW
HATER
STORAGE
MG
-
-
-
-
) (II)
IOLS RAH
HATER
STORAGE
MG
 
 
_
 
* . 
1 LINGAflORE CR CA SO FRS DC VST
1 MONOCACY R CA CL SO FRS TC DC VT
1 FISHINGtTUSCORA DC
2 WELL
2 SPRINGS
2 SPRINGS
2 WELL
2 WELLS
1 HIGH RUN
2 WbLLS
2 SPRINGS
2 WELLS
DC
DC
DC
DH
DH
DH
DH
OH
' DH
_
-
-
 
* 
* 
 
-
(12)
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGO
X
X
0.720
0.036
0.475
X
0.017
0.144
0.504
0.036
0.012
1.440
0.036
X
(12)
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGD
4.500
X
X
X
X
(12)
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5.000
20,000
1.500
0.086
X
X
0.017
0.145
0.100
X
X
0.115
(13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGO
X
X
0.120
X
C.150
X
0.006
0.017
0.150
X
X
0.120
X
X
(13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGO
2.200
0.025
0.070
0.040
0.030
(13)
AVG.~|
DAILY
Kas 1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1.100
0.800
0.600
X
X
0.040
0.005
X
X
X
X
0.045

-------
(1)
COMMUNITY
NAME
ABERDEEN
Ri-L SIR ,
BKLCAHP
GREEN RIDGE
JOPPATOWNE
WILLOUGHBY 8CH
(2!
1960
POPULATION
9679
4ijO
-
-
-
-
(3!
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
HARFORO
TOTAL
WATfcR
USED-MGD
10000 0.400
7000 0.500
3400 0,144
150 0,(jl5
1500 0,150
600 0.060
OWNER-
SHIP
()
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
1
Z
T
i
Z
2
(1) fi
COMMUNITY 196
NAME POPUL
ALLVIEW ESTATES
APPLIED PHY LAB
DANIELS
!) (JJ
0 POPULATION
ATION SERVED
COUNTY NAME
HOWARD
TOTAL OHNbR-
WATER SHIP
USED-MGD
(6)
COMMUNITIES SER
BY THIS FACILI
VED 1
1
800 0.030 2
X X 2
450 0.009 2
(I) 12) O)
[COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
KENT
TOTAL
WATER
USED-MGO
OWNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
CHESTERTQHN
GALENA
ROCK HALL
3602
 299
1073
3800
 700
1100
0.550
0.036
0.110
(1) 12) <3>
j COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
SOUNTY NAME
ONTGOMERY
TOTAL
WATER
USED-MOD
OWNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
CARDEROCK  ANCHR
CARLTON MILLS
DAMASCUS
ROCKVILLE
                     26090
               45
               75
              550
            32000
               X
               X
           0.033
           2.200

-------
(7)
COMMUNITY
NAME
ABERDEEN
BEL -' I 
BtLCANP
GAEE-i RIDGE
JOPPATOWNE
HILLOUGHBY BCH
'7>
COMMUNITY
NAME
ALLVIfiW ESTATES
APPLliB PHY LAB
DANIELS
(7)
COMMUNITY
NAME
CHESTLRTOHN
GALENA
;U;CK HALL
(7>
COMMUNITY
NAME
CARDEROCK ANCHR
CARLTON MILLS
DAMASCUS
R3CKVILLE
(6)
FACILITY SO
NAME TYPE
ABL-KDE-tM 2 5
COUNTY NAME
9) HARFORO (|0
URCE
NAME
HELLS
"C HUTtR WORKS 1 WINTERS RUN
BATA SHOE Cn 2 7
WtLLS
GREEN RIDGE 2 WELL
JGPPATOWNE UTIL 2 3
WILLOUGHBY BCH 2 X
(ft
FACILITY SO
NAME TYPE
WELLS
ELLS
TREATMENT SYM
AM KP DC
VCDM^FDK
OH
DH K.P
AT KP DC
DH AT KP SO
COUNTY NAME
9) HOWARD >
MAX
SAFE
HITHDRAHAL
MGD
1.000
3.800
0.330
0.036
1.300
0.360
(12)
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGD
0.120
X
X
(12)
MAX
SAFE
HITHDRAHAL
MGD
1.730
0.230
0.650
HZ)
MAX
SAFE
HITHDRAHAL
MGD
1.224
0.016
0.078
8.600
(13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
0.400
0.500
0.144
0.015
0.150
0.060
15)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
0.030
X
0.009
(13)
AVG. 1
DAILY
USE
MGD |
0.550
0.036
0.110
(13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
X
X
0.033
2.200
17' (8) (9)
COMMUNITY
NAME
FACILITY
NAME
SOI
TYPE
COUNTY NAME
PRINCE GEORGES
IRCE
NAME
OO) (II) (12) (13)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
RAH
HATER
STORAGE
MG
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGD
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
"EL AIR-BOHIE   BEL AIR-BOWIE   2 HELLS
                                                  AT CAL DC MT MP S FRS D
                                                                                       4.000   0.600

-------
       (1)
   (2)
  (3)
                                               COUNTY
                                               PRINCE
                                                           G -S
                                    (6)
   COMMUNITY
    NAME
POPULATION
                                           use
                                                 GO
                     OMNER
                      SHIP
8LLEFONTfi
CALVtRT  M/>NUR
CfcOARVIL ST FOR
CHELTENHAM
GUYNN  PARK
N! MASLBORO
UPPER  MARLBORO
     SUB SAN CO
     673
    120
 15000
    220
    250

    600
    145
    120
   5000
 675000
 0.012
 0.125
 0.012
 0.004

 0.060
 0.015
 0.009
 0.150
60.262
HHITt  HALL
                                      36
                                              0.004
(1) (Z) (3)
COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
QUEEN ANNES
TOTAL
HATER
USED-HGD
OWNtR-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
CtNTRtVILLE
UUEENSTOHN
    1663
     355
   1330
    360
 0.290
 0.026
(1) (Z) (3)
COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
COUNTY NAME
ST MARYS
TOTAL
MATER
USED-MGD
OWNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
BRETONS  BAY
CHARLOTTE HALL
GREENVIEH KNOLL
HOLLYWOOD
LtONARDTOHN
LEXINGTON PARK
PINEY  POINT
POINT  LOOKOUT
ST CLEMENT SHOR
ST MARYS CITY
TOWN CR  MANOR
    1281
75
275
50
80
4000
7500
500
X
650
308
860
E 0.003
E 0.020
0.005
X
0.400
0.302
 0.050
X
 0.065
E 0.008
 0.034
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
4
2
BOWIE . WEEKEND POFULAXIOI DURIBG RACIHO SEASOI.
LEOHARDTOW . INCLUDES 2,500 DAYTIME USERS.
*PINEY POUT . SUMER POPULATIOB aa> WATER USE. WUTTER FOFUUTIOH 250, WDOER WATER USE 0.02? MOD.
*ST CLEMEST SHORE . SUMER PQFUIATIQH AKD WATER USE.  WHITER POPULATIOK 260, WHITER WATER USE 0.026 MOP.
ST MARYS CITY . IHCLUDES 178 PART TIME USERS.
TOW CR MAJOR . UKUnOS 500 SCHOOL CHILDREH HI COH30LIDATED SCHOOi.

-------
<6) (9) 1 HVUEittlttS
I CCWITV
FACILITV
NAME
SO!
TYPE
MCE
NAME
(10) (II) (12) (13)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
MATER
STORAGE
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGD
oS?e?

BELLEFONTt-
BtLLFHJNTE
2 SPRINGS
a.JXIE 3U<
COMMUNITY
NAME
UNTREVILLE
QUEE'-iSTOHM
COMMUNITY
NAME
BRETONS BAY
CHARLOTTE HALL
GREENVIEW KNOLL
HOLLYWOOD
LEONARDTOHN
LEXINGTON PARK
PINEY POINT
POINT LOOKOUT
ST CLEMENT SHOR
ST MARYS CITY
TOWN CR MANOR
CALVER7 MANOR
2 WfcLL
CEOARVIL ST FOR 2 WELLS
CtDARVIL ST FOR 2 SPRINGS
MD BOYS VILLAGE 2 WF.LLS
GWYNM PARK
NE KARLP.ORQ
UPPER MARLBORO
2 WELL
2 WELL
2 WELLS
WASH SUB SAN CO 1 PATUXeNT R
WASH SUB SAN CG 1 POTOMAC R
WASH SUB SAN CO 2 WELLS
WHITE HALL
(81
(FACILITY
NAME
CENTREVILLE
QUEENSTOWN
(8)
FACILITY
NAME
2 WfcLL
If) Ql
SOURCE
TYPEI NAME
2 WELLS
2 WELLS
CC
SOURCE
TYPEI NAME
CHERRY COVE MCO 2 WELL
CHARLOT HAL SCH 2 SPRINGS
GREENVIEH KNOLL 2 WELL
TOMN CREEK MCO
LEONARDTOMN
PATUXENT WCO
2 WELLS
2 WELLS
2 WELLS
PINEY POINT MCO 2 WELLS
J A STEVENSON
2 WELL
ST CLEMENT SHQR 2 WELL
ST MARY JR COLL 2 WELLS
TOWN CR MNR WCO 2 WELLS
DH
CAL MB SO OH F<"S
OH
NONL
MONt
OH
OH
NONfc
DH
DCMSFKOV
DCHSFKVO
DC
DH
UNTY NAME
EEN ANNES (10)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
DC
DH
UNTY NAME
MARYS (10)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
OH
DH
DH
NONE
DH
DH
DH
DH
NONE
DH
NONE
X
0.360
X
0.03C
X
0.238
O.U5
0.072
0.430
X 45.000
X
0.962
0.108
(II) (12)
RAM MAX
MATER SAFE
STORAGE MITHDRAHAL
MG MGD
1.590
0.306
(II) (It)
RAM MAX
MATER SAFE
STORAGE WITHDRAWAL
MG MGD
0.1TO
0.012
X
0.012
X
X
X.
O.01S
O.U09
0.150
53.800
5.500
0.962
0.004
13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
0.290
0.026
(13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
0.003
0.380 E 0.020
0.144
0.144
0.504
0.950
0.324
0.048
X
0.024
0.043
O.OO5
X
0.400
0.302
3.050
X
0.065
0.008
0.034

-------
(i) a\ (3i
COMMUNITY
NAME
1960
POPULATION
POPULATION
SERVED
wear*
TOTAL
HATER
USED-HGO
OHNER-
SHTP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY 'THIS FACILITY
CRISFIELO 3540 5300 0.053 1
PRINCESS ANNE 1351 1400 0.250 1
(1)
COMMUNITY
NAME
CLAIdORNE
EASTON
OXFORD
ST MICHAELS
TRAPPt
COMMUNITY
NAME
HOONSBORO
HAGERSTOWN
HANCOCK
WILLIAMSPORT
(1)
COMMUNITY
DELMAR
HEBRON VOL FD
QUANT ICO
SALISBURY
SHARPTOHN
it)
1960
POPULATION

6337
852
1484
358
1960
POPULATION
1644
36660
2004
1853
(2)
POPULATION
1291
754
_
16302
620
13)
"OPTION
90
7500
1000
1875
325
POPULATION
SERVED
2000
85500
2000
1855
CS>
"KWH*
2500
700
164
17197
620
95S8S?1**"
TOTAL OMMG
HATER SHI
USED-MGD
0.005 2
0.750 1
0.100 1
0.190 1
0.030 1
HisHlNGTON
TOTAL OHNE
HATER SHI
USED-MGD
X 1
X 1
X 1
X 1
HSiSSlcB*"
USED-MGD $HI
0.450 1
0.075 2
0.023 5
2.307 1
E 0.060 1
E
16)
R- COMMUNITIES SERVED
P BVTHIS FACILITY





(6)
R- COMMUNITIES SERVED
P BY THIS FACILITY

SECURITY, WILLIAMSPORT


E 
r 'BTvaiS'Ptci-Em0
DELMAR, DELAWARE





-------
(7)
COMMUNITY
.NAME
CUSFIH.D
P^lTiCI-SS M.Utr
(7)
COMMUNITY
NAME
CLAITORNE
l-4STG,\
OXFORD
ST MICHAELS
HAPP:;
17'
COMMUNITY
NAME
BOOfJSBORO
HAGtKSTOW^i
HANC'ICi"
(6)
FACILITY
.AME 1
CRISFULO
-;lNCt^>S ANNE
<)
FACILITY
NAME 1

tTON
GXfURD
ST MICHAELS
TrtAPPt
(6)
FACILITY
NAME 1
BOOMSBORO
BOONS 30RO
HAGERSFOWN
HA&ERSTOWx
HANCOCK
HANCOCK
(9) &
SOURCE
FYPF NAME
2 WELLS
2 WhLLS
cc
(9) ft
SOURCE
FYPEj NAME
i HELL
2 WcLLS
2 WhLLS
2 HELLS
2 WELL
CC
(9) W<
SOURCE
rYPEj NAME
1 GILARDI RUN
2 SPRINGS
I PUTOXAC R
2 SPRINGS
U^TY NAMF
MERSET (10)
TREATMENT SYMBC
NONE
A! FPS KP UC
UNTY NAME !
LBOT | >
TREATMENT SYMBC
NONE
DC
DC
OH
OH
UNTY NAME
ISHINGTON (10)
TREATMENT SYMBC
DC
DC
CA F SO FRS DS KP
OC KP VS
1 POTO",AC i. CA SO FP.S DC
1 LIT TGNQLOWAY C CA S3 F*S DC
(ID (IZ)
LS RAH MAX
WATER SAFE
STORAGE WITHDRAWAL
MG MGO
1.800
0.970
(II) 2)
)LS RAH MAX
WATER SAFE
STORAGE WITHDRAWAL
MG MGD
	 V
1.500
X
0.290
X
(II) (12)
)LS RAW MAX
WATER SAFE
STORAGE WITHDRAWAL
MG MGD
X X
0.030
VS - X
	 y
* X X
 XX
!I3)
AVG,
DAILY
USE
MGO
0.530
0.250
(13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
0.005
0,750
0.100
0.1 'Hi
0.030
(13)
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
X
X
6.730
X
X
X
(7) (8) (9)
COMMUNITY
NAME
FACILITY
NAME
COUNTY NAMF
WICJMICO
SOURCE
TYPM NAME
(10) (II) (12) (13)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
RAW
WATER
STORAGE
MG
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGD
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGD
DEX MA",
He"RON VOL  FD
QUANTICfi
SALIS' URY
SMRPfOWi\I
OELMAR           2 >;ELLS
HEBRON           2 WtlLS
POPLAR HL  PRISN 2 WLLL
SALISBURY        2 W-1LLS
SHARPTOWN        2 Wt-LLS
OH
i>H
Ai] FP KP  FZ  DH
AC SC KP  DC  MG VA
DH
1.095   0.^50
0.720   O.O75
    X   0.023
    X   2.307
0.250 t 0.060

-------
(I)
COMMUNITY
NAME
BERLIN
OCEAN CITY
POCOMOKE CITY
SNOW HILL
<*>
1960
POPULATION
2046
983
3329
2311
(3)
POPULATION
SERVED

HFifc
USED-MGO
2500 0.345
100000  2.000
3250 0.300
2300 0.290
IT"E
OWNER-
SHIP
(6)
COMMUNITIES SERVED
BY THIS FACILITY
1
1
1
1
OCZA> CITY . SOMR POPUUnOB AMD WfflEB WS.   KOin raPUJJOiat 992, VXRB WOOL VSS O.*00 MOD.

-------
1 COUNTY NAME
WORCESTER
COMMUNITY
NAME
FACILITY
NAME
SOURCE
TYPEl NAME
<( (ID (1.2) .13)
TREATMENT SYMBOLS
RAH
WATER
STORAGE
MG
MAX
SAFE
WITHDRAWAL
MGO
AVG.
DAILY
USE
MGO
BERLIN
OCEAN CITY
POCOMOKE CITY
SNOW HILL
BERLIN          2 WELLS
OCEAN CITY      2 WELLS
POCOMOKE CITY   2 WELLS
SNOW HILL       2 WELLS
DH
KP FZ FZ DC
DC
DC VT
2.000   0.3*5
3.800   2.000
    X   0.300
1.200   0.250

-------

-------
                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION  ........o..............     1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION	     2

WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES	     4

    Fort George G0 Meade .................     4

    Patuxent Wildlife Refuge	     6

    Naval Academy Dairy	     7

    Governor Bridge Transmitter Site	     8

    Davidsonville Nike Site   .	     8

    Andrews Air Force Base	     9

    Mount Calvert Housing Area	    10

    Brandywine Housing Area	    10

    Patuxent Naval Air Station	    11

MARYLAND'S CLASSIFICATION PROGRAM FOR SHELLFISH GROWING
  AREAS	 .    15

COIGIflSIOUS	    18

R1CQBMENDATIONS		    20

APPENDICES ........................    22

    !  Bacteriological Survey of Cedar Point Area of
          Chesapeake Bay by the Maryland State Department
          of Health  .	    22

   II.  Part I of the Manual of Operations of the
          Cooperative Program for the Certification of
          Interstate Shellfish Shippers  .........    24

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                           INTRODUCTION





         The Maryland State Department of Health has recently



 prohibited the harvesting of shellfish from waters of the Chesapeake



,,Bay near the month of the Patuxent River and in several small



 tributary estuaries of the Patuxent liver.  This report has been



 prepared as a result of inquiries concerning the relationship of



 Federal installations to the closing of these areas.  It contains



 a summary of the waste disposal practices at Federal installations



 in the Patuxent River Basin and adjacent shoreline areas of the



 Chesapeake Bay, a discussion of the effects of the waste effluents



 on water quality, and recommendations for necessary action.

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                      GENERAL DESCRIPTION





        The Patoxent River originates in Howard and Montgomery



Counties,, Maa'ylaad, and flows approximately 110 miles southeast-



erly to Chesapeake Bay,  Two topographic and geologic areas make



up the Patuxent .River Basin;  the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic



Coastal Plain.  Streams within the Plateau area of the Basin are



confined to narrow valleys with steep banks; while Coastal Plain



streams are generally "broad and meandering,, traversing several



swamps and marshy areas  Drainage area of the Patuxent Basin



encompasses about 932 square miles, with the primary tributaries



being the Little Patuxent, Middle Patuxent, and Western Branch.



        Surface runoff in the Basin has been calculated to average



0,62 mgd (million gallons per day) per square mile, amounting to



some 578 mgd contribution from the entire Basin,  The lower portion



of the River is an estuary with tidal influence extending to



Hardesty., Maryland, almost 56 miles upstream from Chesapeake Bay.



Saline waters have been observed up to Lyons Creek, some 43 miles



from the mouth of the Patuxent.



        The Patuxent Basin lies between the metropolitan areas



of Washington,, D C., and Baltimore, Maryland  Population within



the Basin amounts to about 138,000 persons, primarily comprised



of military personnel and residents of areas on the fringes of



the Washington and Baltimore urban areas.

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        Water uses in the Patuxent River Basin include water



supply, recreation, commercial fishing and shellfish harvesting



in the estuary ^ limited irrigation, and waste disposal.  About 5



per cent of all clams and about 10 per cent of the oysters



harvested within the State of Maryland presently come from beds



in or adjacent to the Patuxent River Basin.

-------
                    WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES





        Nine Federal installations discharge sanitary wastes to



the Patuxent River Basin and adjoining shoreline areas of the



Chesapeake Bay through 14 major waste treatment facilities and



several supplemental treatment systems.  Following are brief



summaries of the installations and their waste disposal practices,



listed from upstream to downstream.  The locations of these



installations are shown in Figure 1, inside back cover.





Fort George G. Meade



        Fort Meade, located about 70 miles above the mouth of the



Patuxent River on the north bank, is a large Army Reservation



involving varied military activities and containing the Second



Army Headquarters.  Domestic wastes from the Fort are treated in



two secondary sewage treatment plants which discharge to the



Little Patuxent River, a tributary of the Patuxent River,



        Sewage treatment Plant No. 1 has a design capacity of



2.5 mgd and receives an average flow of 135 mgd from an estimated



population served of 18,000 persons.  Treatment consists of com-



minution, screening, grit removal, sedimentation, secondary treat-



ment by high rate trickling filters, final sedimentation, ehlorination



with contact tank, and sludge digestion and drying.  Removal of



BOD (bio-chemical oxygen demand) averages 85 per cent.  The outfall

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discharges to the Little Patuxent at a point 70 miles upstream



from its confluence with Patuxent River, which is 63 miles from



the rfoesapeake Bay.



        Sewage Treatment Plant No. 2 has a design capacity of 15



mgd and receives an average flow of 0.90 mgd, comprised of wastes



from the National Security Agency^ the Children's Center and



Cedar Khoil? operated by the District of Columbia; and Argome



Hills| in addition to that portion of the Port's personnel not



served "by Plant No. 1.  Treatment consists of grit removal,, com-



minution, preehlorination, sedimentations, secondary treatment by



high rate trickling filters, final sedimentation, post ehlorina-



tion, and sludge digestion and drying  Removal of BOP averages



about 90 per cent.  Plant No. 2 is about 4,0 miles upstream from



Rant Mo0 1 on the Little Patuxent.



        The high BOD removals attained at these sewage treatment



plants (85 and 90 per cent) indicate good,, efficient operation.



Semi-monthly bacteriological analyses of the Little Pataxent



River at several points within the military reservation indicate



that the MPN (most probable number per 100 milliliters) of



coliform bacteria above the sewage treatment plants ranged from



1,,300 to over 240,000,  The median coliform MPN was 7(,90Q for



the six-month period January-July, 1964.  The high bacterial



counts above the plants apparently resulted from non-federal

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waste-water discharges from communities, institutions and industry.



The  counts below the outfalls of the plants were seldom greater



than the counts  above,, and at times were lessj in general the



counts were not  changed appreciably by the effluents from the



plants.  The only defect in treatment  observed was the  discharging



from the final settling tank of some floating humus and fly larvae



from the trickling filters.



        Vehicle  wash waters are discharged untreated either to



the  Patoxent Eiver or the Little Patuxent River.  These -wash waters,



totaling aboat 1(30,000 gpd (gallons per day), have not  generally



caused pollution problems.  The l&ryland Department of  Water



Resoiarees, however., has observed some  oil on one occasion la a



tributary of Little Patuxent River near one of the wash racks.



Also,, that Department has observed diatomaceous earth in another



tributary from the back-washing of filters at a swlamitjg pool.





Patuxent Wildlife Refuge



        The Pattucent Wildlife Refuge of the Fish and Wildlife



Service, Department of the Interior, is located opposite Fort



Ifeade in Prince George's and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland,



largely on the south bank of the Patuxent River.  The Refuge is



a scientific research center with population ranging from 15



residents to a workday staff of approximately 170 persons



Sanitary wastes from the Refuge are treated by septic tank,

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 intermittant sand filters, and a waste stabilization lagoon before



 discharging through. Island Marsh to the  Patuxent River at  a point



 70 miles above  its  mouth.  Quality of the  effluent  is excellent,



 as indicated by the fact that the lagoon,  which is  the fins,!  stage



 of treatment, supports a fish population of bluegill, bass, and



 grass pike,





 N&val Academy Dairy



        The Naval Academy Dairy, located at Gambrills,, Sfe.rylan.dj,



 in Anne Arundel County, supplies 1,250 gallons  of milk daily  from



 290 cows to the Naval Academy in Annapolis during the academic



 year.  (The production of 650 gallons per  day from  2,30 cows during



 the summer is largely converted to powdered milke)   Out of a  staff



 of 51 employees, 26 are residents along  with their  70 dependents,,



 The domestic wastes  from 13 of the families, totaling 47 persons,



 are treated in  nine  individual septic tanks and discharged to



 leaching pits about  30 feet deep.  Wastes  from  the  remainitig  74



 persons and from the milking parlor and milk processing rooms are



 treated in a large septic tank.  The waste flow entering the  main



 septic tank is  estimated to total about  75,000  gpd.   This  tank



 discharges through a 4000-foot outfall pipe to  an open ditch  over



 a mile in length in  which it flows to Towsers Branch, at a  point



 3,3 miles above its  confluence with the  Little  Pattacent .River0



Active decomposition of the final waste  effluent from this septic

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                                                              8





tank was observed in the open ditch.  That confluence is 3.3



miles above the confluence of the Little Patuxent River with the



Patoxent River, which,, in turn, is 63.3 miles above Chesapeake



Bay.  Manure, washed down from cattle walk-ways and stalls (other



than inside the milking parlor), is collected in a tank and is



utilized for fertilizer.,  Wastes draining from the silos are



collected in a tank and are applied to land.






Governor Bridge Transmitter Site



        The Air Force transmitting station near Governor Bridge,



Maryland, in Anne Arundel County, has a component of 40 persons,



20 of whom are residents.  An estimated 2,500 gpd are treated in



a package aeration plant designed to treat up to 15,000 gpd.  The



effluent is chlorinated, passed through a chlorine contact tank



and discharged to the antenna field where it seeps into the ground



or evaporates.





Davidsonville Nike Site



        Nike Site No. 25 is located at Davidsonville,, Maryland,



and provides treatment for about 10,000 gpd of sanitary wastes,



Approximately 5,000 gpd of the wastes receive treatment by septic



tank, intermittant sand filter, and chlorination before discharge



to a tributary 8 miles above its confluence with the Patuxent



River, which is 57 miles upstream from Chesapeake Bay0  The remaining

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5,000 gpd are treated by septic tanks, followed "by seepage pits.



Occasionally tlie ground becomes saturated during periods of rainy



weather, and the overflow is collected and chlorinated before



being discharged to tributaries of the Patuxent River.





Andrews Air Force Base



        The sanitary wastes from Andrews Air Force Base are treated



in three treatment plants, only one of which (Plant No 3} discharges



approximately 300,000 gpd to the Patuxent River Basin,, by way of



Cabin Branch, about 60 miles above the Chesapeake Bay,  The Base is



located between the Patuxent and the Potomac River Basins,, with



the remaining sanitary wastes (720,000 gpd) treated by two other



plants discharging to the Potomac River Basin.  Treatment at Plant



No. 3 consists of comminution, settling and sludge digestion in



Imhoff tanks, secondary treatment by trickling filters,, final



settling, post chlorination, and sludge drying.  The 300.,000 gpd



average flow is well within the 4&0,000 gpd design capacity of



the plant.  BOD removal in the plant averages about 90 per cent,



indicating good operation.  In view of this, the bacteriological



quality of the Patuxent River is not expected to be appreciably



affected by discharges from this plant.



        Industrial wastes, consisting mainly of aircraft wash



waters, are discharged to Cabin Branch of the Patuxent River.



While these wastes have not met the State's standards for oil

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                                                             10





and solids in the past, a comprehensive survey of all waste dis-



charges has been completed by a private consultant and an active



program is underway to provide modifications of procedures and/or



treatment of wastes.
Mount Calve^t" Hp^ging Area



        Mount Calvert Housing Area, located at the former Nike



Site No. W-35 near Groom, Maryland, is operated by the Army and



provides housing for approximately 45 persons, including depend-



ents.  The estimated 3,000 gpd of sanitary waste is treated by



septic tank, sand filtration, and chlorination.  Treatment facilities



at this installation are well maintained and operated.  This small



quantity of wastes, effectively treated, discharging to a small



tributary at a point 6 miles above its confluence with the Patuxent



River, which, n turn, is about 44 miles above the mouth of the



Patuxent Hiver, should have little effect upon the bacteriological



quality of the water.





Brandywine Housing Area



        Brandywine Housing Area, located at former Nike Site No.



W-36 near Brandywine, Maryland, is operated by the Air Force and



provides housing for approximately 45 persons, including dependents,



The estimated 3,000 gpd of sanitary waste are treated by septic



tank, sand filtration, and chlorination.  This small quantity of

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                                                             11

efficiently treated waste, discharging to & small tributary at a
point 8 miles above its confluence with the Patuxent River., which,,
in "tarn!,, is about 44 miles above the mouth of the Patuxeat Biver,
should have little effect upon the bacteriological qoality of the
water.

Pa.tux en fc Naval Air Station
        The Patuxent Maval Air Station, located at the mouth of
the Patuxent Biver in St. Mary's County, Maryland, carries out
the normal functions of a Navy air station and also contains the
Patuxent Maval Mr Test Center.  An Annex of the Station, located
across the River in Calvert County, houses a component of the
Naval Ordnance Laboratory.  Personnel and residents at the main
station total about 14,000 and at the Annex, about 900
        Sanitary wastes at the main station are treated in two
plants:  a primary sewage treatment plant, a secondary sewage
treatment plant at the Officers' Clubj and individual septic tanks
In. areas a great distance from the main treatment plant.  Sanitary
wastes at the Annex are treated in a secondary sewage treatment
plant.
        The primary sewage treatment plant serves an estimated
population of 17,500, including Patuxent Park, Lexington Park,
Carver Heights, Center Gardens, and the Great Mills Road area,
which are all located outside the Mr Station.  The plant receives

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                                                                12





an average flow of 1.37 ngd with treatment consisting of grit removal,



comminution, pre-aeration, pre-ehlorination, vacuation, sedimentation,



post ehlorination, and sludge digestion and drying.  Reduction of



bio-chemical oxygen demand averages about 50 per cent0  While no



chlorine contact unit is provided, it has been calculated that a



chlorine contact time in excess of 15 minutes is provided by the



2,500-foot outfall pipe.



           The plant is designed for 1.5 mgd with present flow



approaching and, at times, exceeding this design capacity.  Effluent



from the plant is discharged to Pine Hill Run at a point about a



mile above Chesapeake Bay.



           The secondary sewage treatment plant at the Officers'



Club serves an estimated 150 persons who are present only a part of



each day; and the average flow is estimated to be about 2,500 gpd



six days a week and almost zero on Mondays.  Treatment consists of



screening, sedimentation and digestion of sludge in an open septic



tank, trickling filter, final sedimentation, ehlorination with



contact chamber, and sludge drying.  Because of limited and inter-



mi ttant flows, difficulties are being experienced in obtaining proper



biological reduction by the trickling filters.  Discharge from the



plant is directly to the Patuxent River near its confluence with



Chesapeake Bay.  Due to a previous oversight, a shellfish harvesting



area adjacent to this discharge was not declared prohibited  There-



fore, even if this plant were operating satisfactorily, it would be

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                                                                13





necessary to establish a prohibited area adjacent to the outfall.



           Twenty septic tanks with tile fields serve houses or



buildings a great distance from the main sewage treatment plant.



Only one of these tile fields was observed to have any seepage to



the ground surfacej that one serving the hydraulic catapult area.



Four additional septic tanks discharge directly to the Patxucent



River.  One septic tank discharges through gravel-filled drums



before discharge to the Patuxent River.  The wastes from one boat-



house, which serves as the operating base for water transportation



of personnel and emergency crash boats, discharge directly to the



Patuxent River with no treatment.  It is estimated that approximately



300 gpd of untreated wastes are generated at this facility,.



           The secondary treatment plant at the Annex receives an



average of 24,000 gpd.  Treatment consists of screening sedimentation,



secondary treatment by high rate trickling filter, final sedimenta-



tion, sludge digestion and drying,, and chlorination with contact tank.



Discharge is to the Patuxent River at a point about 2<,5 miles from



the Chesapeake Bay and where the depth of the River descends rapidly



to about 90 feet (the great depth precluding any shellfish harvesting,,)



Good treatment is to be expected, since average flows to the plant



are much below capacity. Recirculation of treated waste to the trickling



filter maintains adequate biological treatment.



           Industrial wastes at the main station consist of wash



waters from the washing of about 50 aircraft and 50 vehicles per

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                                                                14





month.  Aircraft washing wastes from three locations discharge to



the Patuxent River, from four locations to the Chesapeake Bay, and



from two loaations to a pond with no discharge.  The principal vehicle



washing area drains to the Patuxent River.  No detailed survey has



been made to determine whether these wastes meet the State regulations.

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                                                                16

  -,..ffit ^ ,.-.
been assigned to the sections.  Sections I and II in their entirety

are classified as "approved,"  The main portion of Section III is

classified as "approved," while the Cuckhold-Nat-Mill Creeks portion

is classified as "prohibited"  In Section IV the Town-Lewis Creeks

area and the Back-Mill-St  John Creeks area out to a line between

Sandy Point and Drum Point are classified as "prohibitedOu  The main

portion of Section IV is classified as "approved;" however, because

of several high bacteriological counts obtained during the summer of

1964, sampling is being continued.  Section V is classified as

"approvedj" however, the shellfish bed area in the immediate vicinity

of the Patuxent Naval Air Station Officers' Club previously unknown

to State authorities, is now under consideration for reclassification

based upon bacteriological data now being obtained

           Effective September 1, 1964, the Jferyland State Department

of Health classified as "prohibited" a shellfish producing area of

approximately 15 square miles in the Chesapeake Bay south of the

above mentioned Section V, near the mouth of the Patuxent River,

The area was classified "prohibited" because of the lack of sufficient

bacteriological data to assure absence of sewage pollution and

because of potential pollution from the sewage treatment plant in

the event of plant failure necessitating the discharge of raw sewage.

These beds are adjacent to Pine Hill Run (shown on Figure 2) which

receives the effluent from the main sewage treatment plant of the

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                MAINLAND'S CLASSIFICATION PROGRAM FOR
                        SHELLFISH GROWING AREAS
           Part I of the ftfeTO^il of Operations of the Cooperativj&

Program for the Certification^ of Interstate Shellfish Shippers

(Appendix II) stipulates that shellfish growing areas are categorized

according to four classifications?  "approved," "conditionally

approved," "restricted," and "prohibited."

           The Maryland State Department of Health, as a participant

in the cooperative State-Public Health Service-industry program for

the certification of interstate shellfish shippers, currently uses

two classifications for all shellfish production waters.  All shell-

fish areas are designated as either "approved" or "prohibited."

           This method of classification meets the requirements of

the cooperative program as Maryland's classifications are more

stringent than required by the cooperative program.  While "approved"

areas must comply at all times with the standards established, the

size of "prohibited" areas is established on the basis of a possi-

bility of dangerous numbers of pathogenic micro-organisms reaching

the area.

           The Maryland State Department of Health has divided the

Patuxent River estuary into five sections for classification purposes,

as shown in Figure 2 following page 17.  Based on bacteriological

sampling and sanitary surveys, the following classifications have

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                                                                17





Patuxent Naval Air Station.  The Maryland State Department of Health



contracted with the Chesapeake Bay Institute to perform dye studies



of the dispersion of the main sewage treatment plant effluent at the



Air Station.  The latter study was necessary to determine the time



required for the treatment plant effluent to penetrate the shellfish



bed area.  As a result of the above study and recent bacteriological



sampling, effective October 26, 1%4, the area was reduced in size



to less than a quarter of a square mile.  The present "prohibited"



area extends 200 yards off-shore and along the shoreline from about



one mile north to about one mile south of Pine Hill Run.  The



bacteriological data collected at the sampling points shown on



Figure 2 are presented in Appendix I.



           Under Maryland's system of classification, the extent of



the "prohibited" area is not related to the quality of the treated



effluent, but is related to the quality of the receiving water as a



result of the discharge of raw sewage following plant failure.



Criteria for a "conditionally approved" classification were used



in establishing the present extent of the "prohibited" area, making



possible a reduction in size of the area reflecting the degree and



effectiveness of sewage treatment processes and the surveillance



measures taken to prevent shellfish harvesting in waters affected



in case of a possible plant failure.

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PATUXENT      NAVA
       AIR  \S T A  T I 0
                                      FIGURE

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                                                             18





                          CONCLUSIONS





        1.  Seven of the nine Federal installations in the



Patuxent Biver Basin provide a satisfactory degree of treatment



for sanitary wastes,  These installations are;  Fort George G.



Meade, Patuxent Wildlife Refuge, Governor Bridge Transmitter Site,



Davidsonville Nike Site, Andrews Air Force Base, Mount Galvert



Housing Area, and Brandywine Housing Area.  All of these provide



shlorination of effluents, except for the Patuxent Wildlife Refuge



where this treatment step is impractical and is not considered



essential because of the extensive treatment provided.



        2.  The septic tank serving 74 persons, the milking parlor,



and milk processing rooms at the Naval Academy Dairy does not



provide adequate treatment for these wastes



        3.  At the Patuxent Naval Air Station, the primary sewage



treatment plant serving the main base and privately owned housing



developments {Patuxent Park, Lexington Park, Carver Heights, Center



Gardenss and Great Mills Road area) is at or beyond its design capacity,



        4  Because of low and intermittant flows, the secondary



sewage treatment plant serving the Patuxent Naval Air Station



Offisers5  Club is experiencing difficulties in obtaining maximum



efficiency,



        5.  At Fort George G. Meade, humus and fly larvae from



the trickling filters have been observed diseharging from the final



settling tanks.

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                                                                19

           6.  At Fort George G. Meade, oil from a vehicle wash.
rack and diatomaeeous earth from a swimming pool have been observed
in tributaries of Little Patuxent River.
           7.  At the Patuxent Naval Air Station, five septic tanks
serving individual buildings discharge to the PatuXent River without
adequate additional treatment, and the wastes from one building
discharge with no treatment.
           8.  The shellfish producing area in the vicinity of the
mouth of the Patuxent River was classified as "prohibited" on
September 1, 1964, by the Maryland State Department of Health because
of the lack of sufficient bacteriological data to assure absence of
sewage pollution and because of potential pollution from the sewage
treatment plant in the event of plant failure necessitating discharge
of raw sewage.  The classification of these beds was reviewed when
results of recent studies of the bacteriological conditions and
flow-dispersion pattern of waste effluents became available.  The
Maryland State Department of Health made a significant reduction in
the size of the "prohibited" area on October 26, 1%4, based upon
criteria for a "conditionally approved" classification which reflects
the degree and effectiveness of sewage treatment processes and
surveillance measures taken to prevent shellfish harvesting in water
affected in case of a possible plant failure.

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                                                                20





                           EECCaMENDATIONS





           1.  Units of the primary sewage treatment plant at the



Patuxent Naval Air Station should be supplemented to increase the



present plant capacity.



           20  The Patuxent Naval Air Station should initiate as



soon as possible an action program leading to the design and con-



struction of an adequate secondary sewage treatment plant.  This



recommendation is made not because of the prohibiting of shellfish



harvesting, but from a point of view that an installation of this



size located in an area with such a high recreational potential



should provide the highest degree of treatment required to preserve



and protect all beneficial water uses,



           3,  Operation of the secondary sewage treatment plant at



the Patuxent Naval Air Station Officers8 Club should be improved



and recirculation provided to maintain adequate biological reduction



by the trickling filter, or, if economically feasible, the Club



should "be connected to the main sewerage system,,



           4,  An engineering study, leading to an action program



designed to provide adequate treatment of domestic and industrial



wastes generated by the major portion of the operations at the



Naval Academy Dairy, should be initiated as soon as possible



           5.  The final settling tanks at Fort George G. Meade



should be provided with skimmers to collect floating solids.

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                                                                21






           6.  Wastes generated "by aircraft and vehicle washing



operations at both the Patuxent Naval Mr Station and Fort George



G. Meade should receive adequate treatment for oil and grease removal,



           7.  Where not presently provided, subsurface tile fields



should he constructed to receive the effluents from septic tanks



serving individual buildings at the Patuxent Naval Air Station^ if



connection of these facilities to the Station's main sewerage system



is not feasible.



           8.  Wastes generated by operations of the boathouse at



the Patuxent Naval Air Station should receive adequate treatment,



           9,  Chlorination of all effluents discharged to surface



waters from sanitary waste treatment facilities should be continued.

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                                                                    22
                                  APPENDIX I

                BACTERIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CEDAR POINT ABEA OF
                     CHESAPEAKE BAT BI THE MARYLAND STATE
                             DEPAHTMENT OF HEALTH
            Flood Tide

             Coliform
             Bacteria
Station*
  Ebb Tide

  Coliform
  Bacteria
(MPN/100 ml)
 Flood Tide

  Coliform
  Bacteria
(MPN/10Q ml)
  Ebb Tide

  Coliform
  Bacteria
(MPN/100 ml)
        September 2. 1964 Seirt ember 3. 1964

                                 -3

                                  9.1

                                 -3

                                 -3

                                 -3

                                 -3

                                 -3

                                 -3

                                 -3

                                 -3

                                 -3

             -3                  -3
1-B
1-S
1A-B
1A-S
1B-B
IB^S
1C-B
1C-S
13 -B
13 -S
13A-B
3.6
3.6
3.6
-3**
-3
-3
-3
-3
9.1
7.3
_3
i^^TTtfflfltf ^1*  * l9o^L
15
93
15
3.6
75
9.1
15
3.6
150
9.1
14
9.1
3.6
43
9.1
93
23
23
23
36
9.1
3.6
43
9,1
 *  S * Surface; B * Bottomj Station locations shown on Figure 2,

**  Minos sign (-) denotes "less than."

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                                                                    23
                              APPENDIX I (Con't)

                BACTERIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CEDAR POINT AREA OF
                     CHESAPEAKE BAY BY THE MARYLAND STATE
                             DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
Station*
 Flood Tide

  Goliorm
  Bacteria
(MPN/100 ml)
  Ebb Tide

  Coliform
  Bacteria
(MPN/100 ml)
 Flood Tide

  Coliform
  Bacteria
(MPN/100 ml)
  Ebb Tide

  Coliform
  Bacteria
(MPN/100 ml)

1-B
1-S
1A-B
1A-S
1B-B
1B-S
1C-B
1C-S
13 -B
13 -S
13A-B
13A-S
September 15.
9.1
3.6
23
-3**
23
-3
-3
-3
15
-3
-3
-3
1964.
-3
15
3.6
3.6
-3
9.1
3.6
3.6
93
9.1
-3
-3
Sent ember 2/+.
3.6
3.6
3.6
-3
-3
-3
-3
-3
-3
93
3.6
-3
196A
3
-3
-3
-3
3.6
-3
-3
-3
-3
-3
3
-3
 *  S = Surface; B e Bottomj Station locations  shown on Figure 2.

**  Minus sign (-) denotes "less than."

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APPENDIX II

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Cooperative Program for the Certification of Interstate Shellfish Shippers

                             Parti

                     Sanitation  of
                         Shellfish
                   Growing  Areas
                          1962 Revision
                       Compiled and edited by
                Eugene T. Jensen, Sanitary Engineer Director
      U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
                        Public Health Service
             Division of Environmental Engineering and Food Protection
                       Shellfish Sanitation Branch
                         Washington 25, D.C

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           This is Part I of two companion volumes published by the Public
         Health Service with titles and publication numbers as follows:
           Cooperative Program for the Certification of Interstate Shellfish
                                     Shippers

                   Public Health Service Publication No. 33
                    (Revised 1962) Part ISanitation of
                   Shellfish Growing Areas
                   Public Health Service Publication No. 33
                    (Revised 1962)  Part  IISanitation  of the
                   Harvesting and Processing of Shellfish
           This is a revised edition published previously under the title: Sani-
         tary Control of the Shellfish Industry.  1959 Manual of Recommended
         Practice.
                  PUBLIC  HEALTH SERVICE PUBLICATION NO. 33
                                Part I  Revised 1962
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 45 cents

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LIST OF PREVIOUS EDITIONS OF MANUAL OF RECOMMENDED
    PRACTICE  FOR  COOPERATIVE  PROGRAM  FOR   CERTI-
    FICATION OF  INTERSTATE  SHELLFISH SHIPPERSNOW
    SUPERSEDED
1925.  Supplement No. 53 to Public Health Reports November 6, 1925 "Re-
        port of Committee on Sanitary Control of the Shellfish Industry
        in the United States".

1937.  U.S. Public Health Service Minimum Requirements for Approval of
        State Shellfish Control Measures and Certification for Shippers in
        Interstate Commerce  (Revised October 1937).
1946.  Manual of Recommended Practice for Sanitary Control of the Shell-
        fish  Industry Recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service
        (Public Health Bulletin No. 295).
1957.  Manual of Recommended Practice for Sanitary Control of the Shell-
        fish Industry (Part II: Sanitation of the Harvesting and Process-
        ing of Shellfish).  Printed as Part of Public Health Service Publi-
        cation No. 33.
1959.  Manual of Recommended Practice for Sanitary Control of the Shell-
        fish  Industry  (Part  I:  Sanitation  of  Shellfish Growing  Area).
        Printed as Part  I of Public Health Service Publication No. 33.
                                                                         HI

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                            Contents
                                                                Page
INTRODUCTION	     1
DEFINITIONS	     3
    SECTION AGeneral Administrative Procedures	     4
         1. State Laws and Regulations	     4
         2. Administrative Procedures To Be Used by States	     5
         3. Intrastate Sale of Shellfish	     7
    SECTION BLaboratory Procedures	     8
         1. Bacteriological	     8
         2. Toxicological	     8
         3. Chemical and  Physical	     8
    SECTION CGrowing Area Survey and Classification	     9
         1. Sanitary Survey of Growing Areas	     9
         2. Classification of Growing Areas	    11
         3. Approved Areas	    13
         4. Conditionally Approved Areas	    14
         5. Restricted Areas	    17
         6. Prohibited Areas	    18
         7. Closure of Areas Due to Paralytic Shellfish Poison	    18
    SECTION DPreparation of Shellfish for Marketing	    20
         1. Relaying	    20
         2. Controlled Purification	    21
    SECTION EControl of Harvesting From Closed Areas	    24
         1. Identification of Closed Areas	    24
         2. Prevention of Illegal Harvesting From Closed Areas __    24
         3. Depletion of Closed Areas	    25
APPENDIX A.  Bacteriological Criteria of  Shellfish and  Shellfish
    Waters	   	    26
REFERENCES	    30
INDEX	    33

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                                    Introduction
  In 1925 State and local health authorities
and representatives of the shellfish industry
requested the Public Health Service to exer-
cise supervision over the sanitary  quality of
shellfish shipped in interstate commerce.  In
accordance with this request, a cooperative
control procedure was  developed.  In carry-
ing out this cooperative control, the States,
the shellfish industry, and the Public Health
Service, each accept responsibility for certain
procedures as follows :
  1. Procedures To Be  Followed by  the
State.Each shellfish-shipping State adopts
adequate laws  and regulations for sanitary
control of the shellfish industry, makes san-
itary and bacteriological surveys of growing
areas, delineates and patrols restricted areas,
inspects  shellfish plants, and  conducts  such
additional inspections,  laboratory  investiga-
tions, and control measures as may be neces-
sary to insure that the shellfish reaching the
consumer have been grown, harvested, and
processed in a  sanitary manner.   The State
annually  issues  numbered  certificates  to
shellfish dealers who comply with the agreed-
upon sanitary standards, and forwards copies
of the interstate  certificates  to the  Public
Health Service.
  2. Procedures To Be Followed by the Pub-
lic Health Service.The Public Health Serv-
ice makes an annual review of each State's
control program including the inspection of
a representative number of shellfish-process-
ing plants.  On the basis of the information
thus obtained,  the  Public Health  Service
either endorses or withholds endorsement of
the respective State control programs.  For
the information  of health authorities and
others concerned,  the Public Health Service
publishes a semimonthly list of all valid in-
terstate shellfish-shipper certificates issued by
the State shellfish-control authorities.
  3. Procedures To Be Followed by the In-
dustry.The shellfish industry cooperates by
obtaining shellfish from safe sources, by pro-
viding plants  which meet the agreed-upon
sanitary standards, by maintaining sanitary
plant conditions, by placing the proper cer-
tificate number on each package of shellfish,
and by keeping and making available to the
control  authorities  records which show the
origin and disposition of all shellfish.
  The fundamental components  of this co-
operative State-Industry-PHS shellfish certi-
fication program were first  described  in  a
Supplement to Public  Health Reports,  "Re-
port of Committee on Sanitary Control of the
Shellfish Industry  in the  United  States"
(1925).  This guide for sanitary control of
the shellfish industry was revised and reissued
in 1937 and again in 1946.  It was separated
into two parts  by publication  of Part II,
Sanitation of the Harvesting and Processing
of Shellfish in 1957 and by publication in 1959,
of Part  I,  Sanitation  of  Shellfish Growing
Areas.  The need for a specialized program of
this  nature was  reaffirmed  at the National
Conference on Shellfish Sanitation held in
Washington,  D.C.,  in  1954  (1)  and at the
Shellfish Sanitation Workshops held in  1956
(2), 1958 (3), and 1961 (67).
  This edition of the shellfish sanitation man-
ual has been prepared in cooperation with the
State shellfish control authorities in all coastal
States, food control authorities in the inland
States, interested Federal agencies, Canadian
Federal departments, the Oyster Institute of
North America,  the  Pacific  Coast  Oyster
Growers Association, and the Oyster Growers
and Dealers Association of North America.
  Since the growing and processing of shell-
fish are two distinct phases of operation in
the shellfish industry,  the manual  has  been
prepared in two parts: I: Sanitation of Shell-
June 1962

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fish-Growing Areas; and II: Sanitation of the
Harvesting and Processing of Shellfish.  This,
Part I of the manual, is intended as a guide
for the preparation of State shellfish sanita-
tion laws  and regulations, and for sanitary
control of the growing, relaying, and purifica-
tion of shellfish.   It is intended that States
participating in the  cooperative State-PHS-
Industry program for the certification of in-
terstate shellfish  shippers will be guided by
this manual in exercising sanitary supervi-
sion over shellfish growing, relaying, and pu-
rification, and in the issuing of certificates to
shellfish shippers.
  The manual will also be used by the Public
Health Service in evaluating  State shellfish
sanitation programs to determine if the pro-
grams qualify for endorsement.
  The provisions  of this manual were ac-
cepted at the Shellfish Sanitation Workshop
held in Washington, November 28-30, 1961,
and unless otherwise stated become effective
60 days after publication (67).

                  EUGENE T. JENSEN,

  Chief,  Shellfish Sanitation Branch, Divi-
  sion of Environmental Engineering and
  Food Protection, Public Health Service.
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                                     Definitions
  And/or.Where  this  term  is  used, and
shall apply where possible; otherwise, or shall
apply.
  Area, growing.An area in which market
shellfish are grown.
  Coliform group.The coliform group in-
cludes all of the aerobic and facultative an-
aerobic,  Gram-negative,  non-spore-forming
bacilli which ferment lactose with gas for-
mation within 48 hours at 35 C.   Bacteria of
this group which will produce gas from E.  C.
medium within 48 hours at 44.5 C. in a water
bath will be referred to as fecal coliforms.
  Controlled purification.The  process  of
removing contamination  from  whole live
shellfish acquired while growing  in polluted
areas.
  Cooperative  program.The   cooperative
State-PHS-Industry program for the certifi-
cation of interstate shellfish shippers as de-
scribed in Public Health Service Publication
Number 33, Sanitary Control of the Shellfish
Industry, Parts I and II.
  Depletion.The removal of all market-size
shellfish from an area.
  Most   probable  number  (abbreviated
MPN).The MPN is a statistical estimate of
the number of bacteria per unit volume, and
is  determined from  the number  of  positive
results in a series of fermentation tubes.   A
complete discussion of MPN determinations
and computations, including  MPN tables, can
be found in the American Public Health
Association  publication "Standard Methods
for the Examination of Water, Sewage and
Industrial Wastes" (4) (5).
  Population equivalent (coliform).A
quantity of sewage containing approximately
160 xiO9 coliform group bacteria.   This  is
approximately equal to the per capita per day
contribution of coliforms as determined in a
metropolitan  sewerage system (6)  (7) (8).
  Sanitary survey.The sanitary survey is
the evaluation of all factors having a bearing
on the sanitary quality of a shellfish growing
area including sources of pollution, the effects
of wind, tides, and currents in the distribu-
tion and dilution  of the polluting materials,
and the bacteriological quality of the water.
  Shellfish.All  edible  species  of  oysters,
clams, or mussels.  Shellfish products which
contain any material other than the meats
and/or shell liquor of oysters, clams, or mus-
sels will be regarded as a  "processed food"
and will not be  included in the cooperative
program (1).
  Shellfish,  market.Shellfish  which  are,
may be, or have been harvested and/or pre-
pared for sale for human consumption as a
fresh or frozen product.
  State shellfish control agency.The State
agency or agencies having legal  authority to
classify shellfish growing- areas and/or to  is-
sue permits for the interstate shipment  of
shellfish in accord with the provisions of this
manual.
  State shellfish  patrol agency.The State
agency having responsibility for the patrol of
shellfish growing areas.
  Transplanting.The  moving  of  shellfish
from one area to another area.
June 1962

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                                      Section A
            GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES
  1. State  Laws  and  Regulations.State
laws or regulations shall provide an adequate
legal basis  for sanitary control of all inter-
state phases of the shellfish industry.  This
legal authority shall enable one or more de-
partments or agencies of the State to classify
all coastal waters for shellfish harvesting on
the basis of sanitary quality; effectively reg-
ulate the harvesting of shellfish; effectively
prosecute persons  apprehended harvesting
shellfish from restricted, prohibited, or non-
approved areas; regulate and supervise the
shipment and storage of  shell stock, and the
shucking, packing, and repacking of shellfish;
make laboratory examinations of shellfish;
seize, condemn, or embargo shellfish; and re-
strict the harvesting of shellfish from particu-
lar areas and suspend interstate shipper cer-
tificates in  public-health emergencies.
  Satisfactory compliance.This item will be
satisfied when the State  has  legal authority
to
  a.  Classify all coastal waters as to their
suitability for shellfish harvesting on the basis
of sanitary quality as defined in Section C of
this manual.   (It is strongly recommended
that a State permit be required for the grow-
ing or  harvesting of shellfish, and that such
permits be revocable or subject to suspension
for just cause.   It is also recommended that
the State have authority to regulate the dis-
charge of sewage, radioactive, and other toxic
wastes from boats in the vicinity of approved
shellfish growing areas.)
  b.  Control the harvesting of shellfish from
areas which are  contaminated or which con-
tain  paralytic shellfish poison.  To  be effec-
tive this authority must allow the State to
     (1)  Patrol growing areas.
     (2)  Apprehend persons violating the re-
  strictions.
     (3)  Effectively prosecute persons appre-
  hended harvesting shellfish from restricted
  or prohibited areas.  (Penalties for such
  violations should be sufficient to discourage
  illegal  harvesting.)
  c.  Regulate and supervise relaying, deple-
tion, wet storage, and controlled purification
as described in this manual if these techniques
are used.
  d.  Require that shell stock in storage or in
transit from the growing area to the certified
shipper be protected against contamination;
i.e., every person, firm, or corporation that
handles shellfish  up to the certified shipper
will be subject to sanitary control by an offi-
cial agency but  will not necessarily be  re-
quired to have a State shellfish permit.
  e.  Prohibit Cooperative Program shippers
from possessing or selling shellfish from out-
of-State  sources  unless such  shellfish have
been produced in accord with  Cooperative
Program requirements.
  f.  Regulate the operations of shucker-pack-
ers,  repackers, shell stock shippers and  re-
shippers  in accord with the applicable provi-
sions of part II of this manual.
  g.  Restrict the  harvesting of shellfish from
specific areas, and suspend interstate shipper
certificates in  a public-health  emergency.
Administrative procedures  required in con-
nection with  such emergency actions should
not require more than one day to complete.
  h.  Prevent the sale, shipment, or possession
of shellfish which cannot be identified as hav-
ing been  produced in accord with Cooperative
Program requirements or which are  other-
wise unfit for human consumption, and to con-
demn, seize, or embargo such shellfish.  This
authority need not be specific for shellfish and
may be included in other State food laws.
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  Public-health explanation.The Coopera-
tive Program was developed by the 1925 Con-
ference on Shellfish Pollution to meet the spe-
cific public-health need  resulting from the
1924-25 typhoid epidemic (9).
  However, the  Cooperative Program  has
gone beyond the original objective of insur-
ing that shellfish shipped interstate would not
be the cause of communicable disease.  Thus,
in the 1940's, paralytic  shellfish poison be-
came a matter of public-health  concern and
steps were taken to protect the public against
this hazard.  In 1957 it  was recognized that
shellfish might concentrate  certain radionu-
clides and that a radiation surveillance activ-
ity  might become a necessary adjunct to the
established procedures.
  To accomplish these  public-health objec-
tives the State must supervise all phases of
the  growing,  harvesting,   transportation,
shucking-packing and repacking of shellfish to
be shipped interstate.   It is also important
that shellfish  be properly refrigerated and
protected  against contamination during  in-
terstate shipment.  This is not easily accom-
plished by the State of origin although certi-
fied shippers are required to pack shellfish in
containers which will  protect them against
contamination.
  If State supervision is to be effective  all
phases of the activity must be supported by
legal  authority.   This   authority may  be
either a specific law or regulation.  The suc-
cess with  which the State is  able to regulate
the several  components  of  the  shellfish  in-
dustry provides a measure  of the adequacy
of the statutory authority.
  The unique nature of shellfish as a food also
makes it  necessary that the State shellfish
control agency have authority to take immedi-
ate emergency action to halt harvesting or
processing of shellfish  without recourse to
lengthy administrative  procedures.  As ex-
amples, a  State may find it necessary to  close
a shellfish growing area within hours  of a
breakdown in a sewage treatment plant or the
unexpected  finding of  paralytic shellfish
poison.
  Periodic revisions of  State shellfish  laws
or regulations may be necessary to cope with
new public-health hazards and to reflect new
knowledge.   Examples  of changes or devel-
opments which  have called  for  revision of
State laws include the wide-scale use of pleas-
ure boats with  the resulting probability of
contamination of shellfish growing areas with
fresh fecal material, the  conditionally ap-
proved area concept resulting from the con-
struction of sewage treatment works, and the
apparent ability of  shellfish to concentrate
certain radionuclides.
  Experience has  demonstrated  that  all
coastal waters of the State must be classified
as to their sanitary suitability for shellfish
harvesting.   Harvesting should be permitted
only from those areas which have been found
by sanitary survey to meet the sanitary cri-
teria of this manual.  Harvesting should ac-
cordingly be specifically  prohibited from
areas which do not meet the criteria, or which
have not been surveyed.
  2.  General  Administrative Procedures  To
Be Used by States.States shall keep records
which will facilitate  Public  Health Service
review of their shellfish sanitation programs
and shall assist the Service in making such
reviews.  Effective September 1,1959, States
shall not certify shippers for interstate ship-
ment unless  the shipper complies substan-
tially with the construction requirements of
part II of this manual and maintains  a sani-
tation rating of at least 80  percent  during
periods  of operation.  Shippers  not meet-
ing these requirements will not be eligible for
inclusion on the  Public Health Service list of
State certified shellfish shippers.   Coopera-
tive  Program standards shall be applied to
all growing areas, all shellfish harvesters, and
all persons handling shell  stock prior to  its
delivery to the Cooperative Program certified
shipper.  When two or more State agencies
are involved  in  the  sanitary control of the
shellfish industry, a clear statement of respon-
sibility of each agency  should be developed.
  Satisfactory compliance.This item will be
satisfied when
  a.  Cooperative Program requirements are
applied to all  market-shellfish growing areas.
  b.  Cooperative Program requirements are
applied  to  all commercial market shellfish
harvesters.
June 1902
                                         5

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  c.  Cooperative Program requirements are
applied to all  persons  handling- the  shellfish
prior to its delivery to  the interstate shipper.
  d.  Interstate shellfish shipper certificates
are issued only to those establishments sub-
tantially meeting the  construction  require-
ments  of Part II of this manual and  which
maintain a plant sanitation rating of at least
80 percent  during  periods  of  operations.
(The State shellfish control agency shall sus-
pend or revoke certificates if a plant sanita-
tion  rating drops below 80 percent or if any
individual sanitation item is violated repeat-
edly.)   Ratings  will  be determined on the
basis of  compliance with the applicable pro-
visions of Part II of this manual as measured
by an  inspection report comparable to that
contained in appendix A of Part II.
  e.  The following records are kept of shell-
fish  sanitation activities as required in sec-
tions C, D, and E, Part I, of this manual and
when monthly summaries of State patrol and
inspection  activities  are forwarded to the
Public Health Service regional office:
     (1) Individual    growing   area   files.
   (Areas  may  be defined  by  either geo-
  graphic or political boundaries.)
     (2) Patrol activities, including arrests,
  prosecutions, and the results of  prosecu-
  tions.
     (3) Plant inspections. Shucker-packers
  and  repackers shall ordinarily be inspected
  at least monthly.  Shell stock shippers and
  reshippers shall be inspected at a frequency
  which will afford  adequate  public-health
  supervision of their  operations.   A central
  inspection-report file should be maintained
  by the State.
  f. The following guidelines are observed by
the State in issuing interstate shellfish certifi-
cates.
     (1) Certificate content.   Each  certifi-
  cate should give the following information:
     Name.   (The usual business name and
  alternative names that should appear on the
  interstate shellfish shippers list, hereafter
  called "list.")
     Address.   (A business and/or mailing
  address in the State issuing the certificate.
  This address indicates where records are
kept and where inspection may  be ar-
ranged.)
  Certificate Number.   (A number  shall
be assigned for each business unit.   Suffix
or prefix letters may not be used to differ-
entiate  between two or more plants of a
given shipper.)
  Classification.   (The shipper classifica-
tion should be indicated by a symbol: i.e.,
shucker-packer, SP; repacker,  RP;  shell
stock,  SS;  or  reshipper,  RS.  Only one
classification should be used.   The single
classification will cover all proposed  oper-
ations which the shipper is qualified to
perform.)
  Expiration Date.   (All certificates in a
State should expire on the same date, pref-
erably the last day of a month.  This date
will be shown on the "list".   All certificates
will be  automatically withdrawn from the
"list" on the date of expiration unless new
certificates have been  received by Public
Health  Service headquarters office.   If the
date of expiration coincides with the date
of issue for the "list" the certificates expir-
ing on the date of issue will be deleted.)
   Certifying Officer.   (Each certificate is
signed by a responsible State official.)
   (2)  Certificate changes.  A change in an
existing,  unexpired certificate  should be
made by issuing a corrected certificate.
   (3)  Interstate shipment before listing.
The shipper should be informed of the prob-
able date his name will appear on the "list"
and should be  advised against making in-
terstate shipment prior to that date.  (If
shipments must be made before the appear-
ance of the shipper's name on the "list",
the Public Health Service will notify  the
applicable receiving States if  the names
and addresses of the expected receivers are
indicated in advance by the State when the
certificate is forwarded to the Public Health
Service.)
   (4)  State  cancellation,  revocation  or
suspension  of  interstate  shipper certifi-
cates.   If a State revokes, cancels, or sus-
pends  an   interstate  shellfish   shipper
certificate,  the  Public  Health   Service
regional office should be immediately noti-
                                                                                  June 1962

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   fied, preferably by telephone or telegram;
   with a following confirmatory letter.
     (5)  Mailing list for interstate shellfish
   shipper list.  Names of persons, business
   units, organizations, or agencies, desiring
   copies of the "list", and requests for infor-
   mation concerning the "list" should be sent
   to the  appropriate Public Health Service
   regional office. Recipients will be circular-
   ized periodically  to determine if they still
   have use for the "list".
   g. The appropriate  Public Health Service
regional office is notified by the State of any
revision in growing area classification.   The
notification shall so describe the area that it
may be readily located on Coast and Geodetic
Survey charts.
   h. State  shellfish  plant  inspectors  are
provided with the following inspection equip-
ment:  standardized inspection forms,  ther-
mometer, chlorine test kit, and light meter.
   i.  Interdepartmental memoranda of under-
standing have been developed which will de-
fine the responsibilities of each State agency
in maintaining adequate sanitary control of
the shellfish industry in the State.
   Public-health explanation.The annual re-
view of  each participating State's shellfish
sanitation activities is a fundamental Public
Health Service responsibility in the Coopera-
tive Program.  The purpose of this review is
to evaluate the  adequacy and  reliability of
each individual State program in accord with
the agreed-upon standards.  The Service will
endorse those State programs meeting the Co-
operative Program standards and  will pub-
lish and distribute a list of the names of the
State  certified  shippers.  However,   if  a
State program does not meet the standards
the program will not be endorsed.  Names of
nonparticipating States will be omitted from
the Public Health Service list of State certi-
fied shellfish shippers.
   Minimum  plant  sanitation standards for
interstate shellfish  shippers are described  in
Part II of  this manual.  Experience has
shown that absolute compliance with  these
minimum standards is not always attainable,
particularly those items which relate to oper-
ating procedures.   The establishment of the
80 percent plant sanitation score as a prereq-
uisite for listing on the Public Health Service
list  of State certified  shellfish shippers rec-
ognizes the fact that perfection is not always
obtainable and, at the same time, provides a
mechanism for excluding any plant which is
not operated in a reasonably sanitary manner.
   Cooperative  Program  sanitary  require-
ments should be applied to all growing  areas
and all shellfish harvesters to insure that all
shellfish available  to  certified dealers have
been produced and harvested under accept-
able sanitary conditions.   It is also important
that the shell stock be  protected against con-
tamination during  the period between har-
vesting and delivery to the certified shipper.
   3. Intrastate Sale of Market Shellfish.
Sanitary standards for   intrastate  shellfish
shippers should be substantially equivalent  to
those of the Cooperative Program.
   Public-health explanation.States may ac-
cept lower sanitary standards  for  shellfish
sold intrastate than are required by the Co-
operative Program.  However,  it  has been
found  that small  intrastate shippers  may  at
times sell their product to interstate shippers
if demand exceeds the  supply of  shellfish
available to the latter.  Because of the possi-
bility that such substandard shellfish might
be shipped interstate, the  1954 National Con-
ference on Shellfish Sanitation recommended
that Cooperative  Program standards be ap-
plied to all shellfish production and processing
(1).  The  1958 Shellfish Sanitation Work-
shop also strongly  recommended the use of
substantially equivalent standards for intra-
and inter-state shellfish shippers (3).
June 1962

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                                     Section B
                       LABORATORY  PROCEDURES
  1. Bacteriological.  American  Public
Health Association Recommended Procedures
for the Examination of Sea Water and Shell-
fish shall be followed in the collection and
transportation  of  samples of shellfish and
shellfish  waters for bacteriological examina-
tion  and in the laboratory examination of
such samples.1
  Satisfactory  compliance.This  item will
be satisfied when  current  American Public
Health Association Recommended Procedures
for the Examination of Sea Water and Shell-
fish are followed in the bacteriological exami-
nation of shellfish and shellfish waters.
  Public-health explanation.  Experience
with the  bacteriological examination of shell-
fish and  shellfish growing  waters  has indi-
cated that minor  differences in laboratory
procedures or techniques will cause wide var-
iations in the results.  Variations  in results
may  also be caused by improper handling of
the sample during collection or transportation
to the laboratory (10).  The American Pub-
lic Health Association Recommended Proce-
dures for the Examination of Sea Water and
Shellfish, which are revised periodically, offer
a reliable way of minimizing these variations.
(Cooperative Program required  use  of a
standard procedure for the bacteriological ex-
amination  of shellfish  and shellfish waters
should not discourage  laboratories  from
working  on new methods of sample handling
or analysis.)
  2. Toxicological.A  recognized  procedure
shall be used in the assay for paralytic shell-
fish poison.
  Satisfactory  compliance.This  item will
be satisfied when current Association of Of-
 1 Material which may be useful in interpretation of results of
bacteriological examination of shellfish is contained in appen-
dix A.
ficial Agricultural Chemists official methods
are followed in the bioassay for paralytic
shellfish poison.
  Public-health  explanation.It  has been
demonstrated that  significant variations  in
bioassay results  will  be caused  by minor
changes in procedures.  If reliable results are
to be obtained it is essential that the test pro-
cedures be  standardized and that variations
due to use  of strains of mice be minimized
(11).  The official procedure for the bioassay
for paralytic shellfish poison adopted by the
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists
minimizes these variations (66). A chemical
test for  paralytic shellfish  poison has also
been developed  (12).
  3. Chemical and Physical.Standard lab-
oratory methods shall be used for all salinity,
radionuclide, and other chemical and physical
determinations made on shellfish or shellfish
waters in conjunction with Cooperative Pro-
gram activities.  Results shall be reported in
standard units.
  Satisfactory  compliance.This  item will
be satisfied  when
  a. Chemical  and physical measurements
on shellfish and shellfish waters are made in
accord with accepted laboratory techniques.
  b. Results of all chemical and physical de-
terminations are expressed in standard units.
(For example,  salinity should be  expressed
in parts per thousand rather than hydrometer
readings.)
  Public-health  explanation.Standardized
laboratory  procedures  are  most apt to pro-
duce results in which the State shellfish con-
trol agency can have confidence, and facilitate
comparative evaluation of data.  The need for
adherence to standardized procedures should
not discourage laboratories from experimen-
tal use of nonstandard methods.
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                                       Section C
        GROWING  AREA  SURVEY  AND  CLASSIFICATION
  1. Sanitary Surveys of Growing Areas.
A sanitary  survey shall be made  of  each
growing area  prior  to  its approval by the
State as a source  of market shellfish or of
shellfish to be  used in a controlled purifica-
tion or relaying  operation.  The sanitary
quality of each area shall be reappraised at
least biennially and, if necessary, a resurvey
made.   Ordinarily, resurveys will be much
less  comprehensive than the original survey
since it will  only be necessary to bring the
original information up to date.  Records of
all original surveys and resurveys of grow-
ing areas shall be maintained  by the State
shellfish control agency, and shall be made
available  to  Public  Health Service  review
officers upon request.
  Satisfactory  compliance.This item will
be satisfied when
  a. A sanitary survey has been made of
each growing area in the State prior to ini-
tial approval of interstate shipments of shell-
fish  from that area.   A  comprehensive san-
itary survey  shall include an evaluation of all
sources of actual or potential pollution on the
estuary and  its tributaries, and the distance
of such sources from the growing areas;  ef-
fectiveness and reliability of  sewage treat-
ment  works;  the  presence  of  industrial
wastes or radionuclides  which would cause a
public-health hazard to  the consumer of the
shellfish; and the effect of wind, stream flow,
and  tidal currents in distributing polluting
materials over the  growing area.2  The thor-
oughness with which each element must be
investigated  varies greatly  and will be de-
termined by  the specific conditions in  each
growing area.
  b. The  factors  influencing  the sanitary
quality of  each approved shellfish growing
area are reappraised at least biennially.3  A
complete  resurvey should be  made of each
growing area in an approved category at least
once every ten years; however, data from
original surveys can be used when it is clear
that such information is still valid.
  c. A file which contains all pertinent sani-
tary survey information, including the dates
and results of  preceding sanitary surveys is
maintained  by the  State shellfish control
agency for each classified shellfish area.
  Public-health  explanation.The  positive
relationship  between  sewage pollution  of
shellfish growing areas and enteric disease
has been demonstrated many times (13) (14)
(15)   (16)  (17)  (18).   However, epidemi-
ological investigations of shellfish-caused dis-
ease outbreaks have never established  a di-
rect  numerical  correlation   between  the
bacteriological quality of  water and the de-
gree of hazard to health.  Investigations made
from 1914 to 1925 by the States and the Pub-
lic  Health Servicea period  when disease
outbreaks attributable to shellfish were more
prevalentindicated that typhoid fever or
other enteric disease would not ordinarily be
attributed to shellfish harvested from  water
in which not more than 50 percent of the one
cc.  portions of  water examined were positive
for coliforms,4 provided the areas were not
subject to direct contamination  with small
amounts  of fresh sewage which  would not
ordinarily be revealed by  the  bacteriological
examination.
  Following the oyster-borne typhoid out-
break  during the winter of 1924-25 in the
United States  (19)  the  cooperative shellfish
certification  program was initiated by the
States, the Public Health  Service, and the
shellfish  industry (9).  Water quality  cri-
teria were then stated as:
 2 In making the sanitary survey consideration should be given
to the hydrographic and geographic characteristics of the estuary,
the bacteriological quality of the growing area water and bot-
tom sediments, and the presence and location of small sources of
pollution, including boats, which might contribute  fresh  sewage
to the area.
 3 The purpose of this reappraisal is to determine if there have
been changes in  stream flow, sewage treatment, populations, or
other similar factors which might result in a change in the sani-
tary quality of the growing area.  The amount of field work asso-
ciated with such a reappraisal will depend  upon the area under
consideration and the magnitude of the changes which have
taken place.
 *An MPN of approximately 70 per 100 ml.
January 1959

-------
  a. The area is sufficiently  removed from
major sources of pollution so that the shell-
fish would not be subjected to fecal contam-
ination in quantities which might be danger-
ous to the public health.
  b. The area is free from pollution by even
small quantities of  fresh  sewage.   The re-
port emphasized  that bacteriological exam-
ination does  not, in itself, offer conclusive
proof of the sanitary quality of an area.
  c. Bacteriological examination  does  not
ordinarily show the presence  of the coli-aer-
ogenes group of bacteria in 1  cc. dilutions of
growing area water.
  The reliability of this three-part standard
for evaluating the safety of shellfish produc-
ing areas  is  evidenced by the fact  that no
major outbreaks  of typhoid  fever  or other
enteric disease have been attributed to shell-
fish harvested from waters meeting the cri-
teria  since they were adopted in  the United
States in 1925.   Similar water  quality cri-
teria  have been in  use in  Canada with like
results.  The available epidemiological  and
laboratory evidence gives little idea as to the
margin of safety, but it is probably consider-
able as indicated by the virtual absence of re-
ported shellfish caused enteric disease over a
comparatively long period of time (18)  (20)
(21).
  The purpose of the sanitary survey  is to
identify and evaluate those factors influenc-
ing the  sanitary  quality of a growing area
and which may include sources of pollution,
potential or actual; the volume  of  dilution
water; the effects  of  currents,  winds  and
tides  in  disseminating pollution over the
growing areas; the bacterial quality of water
and bottom  sediments;  die-out of polluting
bacteria in the tributaries and the estuary;
bottom configuration; and salinity  and  tur-
bidity of the water.  Sources  of pollution in-
clude municipal sewage discharged into the
estuary  or inflowing rivers; sewage brought
into the estuary by tides or currents; surface
run-off  from  polluted  areas;  industrial
wastes; and discharges from pleasure craft,
fishing boats, naval vessels,  and merchant
shipping.
  Bacteriological examination of the grow-
ing waters is an important component of the
sanitary survey.  In many instances the bac-
teriological and related salinity data will also
provide valuable  information  on the hydro-
graphic  characteristics of  an area.50
  Ideally,  a large number of water samples
for  bacteriological  examination should  be
collected at each  station.   However, in most
instances this is not practical because of time
and budget limitations, and accordingly only
a   limited   number   of   samples   can  be
collected.    Therefore,  sampling   stations
should be  chosen which will provide a max-
imum of data, and which will be representa-
tive of the bacteriological  quality  of  water
in as wide an area as possible.  Sample col-
lection should be timed to represent the most
unfavorable  hydrographic  and   pollution
conditions since shellfish  respond rapidly to
an  increase in the number of bacteria in their
environment (25) (26).
  There is no specified minimum number of
sampling stations, frequency of  sampling, or
total number of samples.   Sampling results
obtained over a period of several years can
be used as a block of data provided at least 15
samples  have been collected from each of a
representative number of  stations along the
line  separating  approved from  restricted
growing areas  and  there  have  been no ad-
verse changes  in  hydrographic or sanitary
conditions.  Only occasional bacteriological
samples  are necessary from areas which are
shown to be free from pollution.
  Experience with the shellfish certification
program indicates a tendency to omit  or de-
emphasize some components of  the  sanitary
survey unless a central State file of all shell-
  5 Bacteria in an unfavorable environment die out in such a
way that following an initial lag period there is a large per-
centage decline during the first few days.  Descriptions of studies
on bacterial die-out have been published by Greenberg (22) and
Pearson (23). Die-off has also been investigated by the Public
Health Service Shellfish  Sanitation  Laboratory at Woods Hole,
Mass., and Pensacola, Fla. Application of this principle may be
helpful  in predicting the quantity of pollution which will reach
an area,  and in establishing objective effluent  quality cri-
teria (2}K
  " In connection  with the evaluation of sampling results,  it
should be noted that the MPN determination is not a precise
measure of the concentration of bacteria (4).  Thus, in repeated
sampling from waters having a uniform density of bacteria vary-
ing MPN estimates will be obtained. The use of the tolerance
factor 3.3  (applicable only to 5 tube decimal dilution MPN's)  is
one method of recognizing this variation. For example,  in a
body of water in  which the median concentration of coliform
bacteria is 70 per 100 ml., 95% of  observed MPN's will be be-
tween 20 and 230 per 100 ml.; i. e., 70/3.3=^21 and 70X3.3 = 230.
10
                                 January 1959

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fish sanitary  surveys, reappraisals, and  re-
surveys is maintained.   This is particularly
true where responsibility for shellfish sanita-
tion is  divided between two  or  more State
agencies.  Maintenance of a central State file
for all shellfish sanitary survey information
will also simplify the endorsement appraisal
of State programs by the Public Health Serv-
ice and will help prevent loss of old data
which may be useful in evaluating the sani-
tary quality of an area.
   Periodic  reappraisals  of   the  sanitary
quality of shellfish producing areas are neces-
sary to  determine that environmental condi-
tions are  such that  the original  conclusions
are still valid.  A resurvey should be made if
the reappraisal shows a significant change.
  2. Classification of  Growing Areas.All
coastal waters shall be classified as to their
public health suitability for the harvesting of
market  shellfish.   Classification criteria are
described in sections  C-3,  C-4,  C-5,  C-6,
and C-7 of this  manual.  Except in emer-
gency any upward revision of an  area classi-
fication  shall be  preceded  by  a sanitary
survey,  resurvey, or reappraisal.   A written
analysis of the data  justifying the reclassifi-
cation shall be made a part of the area file.
   Satisfactory compliance.This item will
be satisfied when
   a. All costal waters in the State are cor-
rectly designated with one of the following
classifications on the basis of sanitary survey
information:  Approved; conditionally  ap-
proved; restricted; or prohibited.''
   b. Area  classifications are  revised when-
ever warranted by survey data.
   c. Classifications are not revised  upward
without at least a file review, and there is a
written  record of such review in the area file
maintained  by the  State shellfish  control
agency.
   d. All coastal areas which  have not been
subjected to sanitary surveys shall be auto-
matically classified as prohibited.
  Public-health explanation.The probable
presence or absence of pathogenic organisms
in shellfish waters is of the greatest  impor-
tance in deciding how shellfish obtained from
 7 Closures may also be based on presence of paralytic shellfish
poison.


June 1962
an  area may be used.  All coastal waters
should thus be classified according to the in-
formation developed in the sanitary survey.
Classification should not be revised upward
without careful  consideration  of available
data.  Areas should be reclassified whenever
warranted by existing  data. A written justi-
fication  for  the  reclassification simplifies
Public  Health Service  appraisal of State
programs.
  A hypothetical use of the four recognized
area classifications is shown in figure 1.  This
idealized situation depicts an estuary receiv-
ing sewage from two cities,  "A" and "B."
City "A" has complete sewage treatment in-
cluding chlorination of effluent.  City "B" has
no sewage treatment.  The estuary has been
divided into five areas, designated by roman
numerals,  on the basis  of sanitary survey
information :

                 Approved

  Area  I.  The  sanitary  survey indicates
that sewage from cities  "A" an4 'B" (even
with the "A" sewage plant not functioning)
would  not reach this area in such concentra-
tion as to constitute a public-health hazard.
The median coliform  MPN of the water is
less than 70/100 ml. The sanitary quality of
the area is independent of sewage treatment
at city "A."

         Conditionally Approved

  Area II.  This area is of the same sanitary
quality as area I; however, the quality varies
with the effectiveness of sewage treatment at
city "A." This area would probably be clas-
sified prohibited if city "A" had not provided
sewage treatment.

                Restricted

  Area III.  Sewage from  "B" reaches this
area, and the median coliform MPN of water
is between 70 and 700  per 100 ml.  Shellfish
may be used only  under specified conditions.

                Prohibited

  Area IV.   Direct harvesting  from this
area is prohibited  because of  raw sewage
                                        11
    647036 O - 62 - 2

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12
January 1959

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from "B."  The median coliform MPN  of
water may exceed 700/100 ml.
  Area V.   Direct harvesting from this area
is prohibited  because of possible failure  of
the sewage treatment plant.  Closure is based
on need for a safety factor rather than coli-
form content of water or amount of dilution
water.
  3. Approved Areas.Growing  areas may
be designated as approved when: (a) the san-
itary survey indicates that pathogenic micro-
organisms, radionuclides, and/or harmful in-
dustrial wastes do not reach the area in dan-
gerous concentration, and (6) this is verified
by  laboratory findings insofar as possible.
Shellfish may be taken from such areas for
direct marketing.
  Satisfactory compliance.This item will
be satisfied when the three following criteria
are met:
  a. The area is  not so  contaminated with
fecal material that consumption of the shell-
fish might be hazardous, and
  b. The area is  not so  contaminated with
radionuclides  or industrial wastes that con-
sumption of the shellfish might be hazardous
(see  section C, item 7, regarding paralytic
shellfish poison in shellfish growing areas),
and
  c. The coliform median MPN of the water
  vs not exceed 70 per 100 ml., and not more
     "* 0 per cent of the samples ordinarily ex-
         TPN of 230 per 100 ml. for a 5-tube
          ''ition test (or 330 per 100 ml.,
              tube decimal  dilution  test  is
            ^. ^ortions of the area most prob-
           -^ rSL fecal contamination during
      , ^v '~' ^able hydrographic and pollu-
   ,  ^-jSJ1   ]s   (Note:  This  concentration
  * ^ 
-------
exceeding 70 per 100 ml.8 and ivhich is also
protected against chance contamination with
fecal  material, will not be involved in  the
spread of disease which can be attributed to
initial contamination of the shellfish.  This is
not surprising since a water MPN of 70/100
ml. is equivalent to a dilution ratio of about
8 million cubic feet of coliform-free water per
day for the fecal material from each person
contributing  sewage to the area.  This tre-
mendous volume of water is available in shell-
fish growing areas through tidal action which
is constantly bringing unpolluted water into
the area.8
  Areas which are approved for direct mar-
ket harvesting of shellfish which  will be eaten
raw must necessarily meet one general test;
i.e., sewage reaching the growing area must
be so  treated, diluted, or aged that it will be
of negligible public-health significance. This
implies an element of time and distance to
permit the mixing of the sewage or fecal ma-
terial with the  very large volume of diluting
water and  for a major portion of the micro-
organisms  to die out.   Studies of the natural
die-off of microorganisms in an unfavorable
marine environment have  been  summarized
by Greenberg (22).
  The  effectiveness  of sewage  treatment
processes must be  considered in evaluating
the sanitary  quality of a growing area since
the bacterial content of the  effluent  will be
determined by the degree of treatment which
is obtained (2).  The results of bacteriolog-
ical sampling must also be correlated with
sewage treatment plant operation, and eval-
uated in terms of  the minimum  treatment
which can  be expected with a realization of
the possibility  of malfunctioning, overload-
ing, or poor operation.
  The presence of  radionuclides in growing
area waters may also have public-health  sig-
nificance since shellfish,  along with other
marine organisms, have the ability to concen-
trate  such  materials  (31)  (32) (33) (36).
The degree to  which  radioisotopes will be
concentrated depends upon  the species of
shellfish and the specific radioisotope.  For
example, it has been reported that the East-
  See footnote 8 on page 13.
ern oyster  has a  concentration  factor of
17,000 for Zn 85 whereas the concentration
factor for Sr89 is approximately unity (31).
The distribution  of the radioisotope in the
shellfish and the biological half-life are also
variable.  Sources  of  radioactive materials
include fall-out, industrial wastes, and nu-
clear  reactors.  Limiting maximum permis-
sible concentrations of radioactive materials
expressed in terms of specific radioisotopes
and unidentified mixtures in water and food
have been established  (35)  (36).  The cur-
rent standard should be consulted in evaluat-
ing the public-health significance of detected
radioactivity in market shellfish.
  The bacterial quality of active shellfish will
ordinarily be directly proportional to the bac-
terial quality of the water  in which they
grew; however, considerable variation in in-
dividual  determinations  may be expected.
The coliform MPN's of the shellfish usually
exceed those of the overlying water because
shellfish filter large quantities  of water to ob-
tain food, thereby  concentrating  the  sus-
pended  bacteria.   This  relationship  will
depend upon the shellfish species, water tem-
perature, presence of certain  chemicals, and
varying capabilities of the   individual an-
imals. (See appendix A.)
  4. Conditionally  Approved Areas.The
suitability of some areas for harvesting she1"
fish for direct  marketing is dependent
the attainment of an  established
ance  standard  by sewage treats
discharging effluent, directly or
the area.  In other cases the sa.,
of an area may be affected by seas<.
lation, or  sporadic use of a dock or *
facility.   Such areas  may  be classified
conditionally approved.
  State shellfish control agencies shall estab-
lish conditionally approved areas only when
satisfied  that  (a)  all  necessary measures
have been taken to insure that performance
standards will  be met, and (b) that precau-
tions have been taken to assure that shellfish
will not be marketed from the areas subse-
quent to any failure to meet the performance
standards and before the shellfish can purify
themselves of polluting micro-organisms.
14
                                                                              January 1959

-------
  Satisfactory compliance.This item  will
be satisfied when
  a. The water quality requirements for an
approved area are met at all times while the
area is approved as  a source of shellfish for
direct marketing.
  b. An operating procedure for each condi-
tionally approved area is developed jointly by
the State shellfish control agency, local agen-
cies, including those responsible for operation
of sewerage systems, and  the local  shellfish
industry.  The operating procedure should be
based on an evaluation of each of the poten-
tial sources of pollution which may affect the
area.  The procedure  should establish  per-
formance standards, specify necessary safety
devices and measures, and define  inspection
and check procedures.   (These procedures
are described  in more detail in the following
public-health explanation.)
  c. A closed safety zone  is established be-
tween the  conditionally  approved area  and
the source of pollution to give the State agency
time to stop shellfish harvesting if perform-
ance standards are not met.
  d. Boundaries of conditionally approved
areas are so marked as to be readily identified
by harvesters.
  e. Critical sewerage  system  units are so
designed,  constructed, and maintained  that
the chances of failure to  meet the established
performance  standards  due  to mechanical
failure or overloading are minimized.
  f. There is a  complete  understanding of
the  purpose  of the conditionally approved
classification by all parties concerned, includ-
ing the shellfish  industry.   Successful func-
tioning of the concept is dependent upon the
wholehearted  cooperation  of all  interested
parties.  If such cooperation is not assured
the State should not approve the area for di-
rect harvesting of market shellfish.
  g. Any failure to meet the  performance
standards  is  immediately  reported to  the
State shellfish control agency by telephone or
messenger.   In some instances States  may
find it desirable to delegate the authority for
closing a conditionally  approved  area  to a
representative of the agency located in the
immediate area.
  h. The State immediately closes condition-
ally approved areas to shellfish harvesting
following a  report that  the performance
standards have not been met.  The area shall
remain closed until the performance stand-
ards can again be met plus a length of time
sufficient for the shelfish to purify themselves
so that they will not be a hazard to the public
health.  (See section  D-l, "Relaying," for
information on  the length of time required
for self-purification of shellfish.)
  i. The State shellfish control agency makes
at least two evaluations during the shellfish
harvesting season of each conditionally ap-
proved area including inspection of each crit-
ical unit of the sewerage system to determine
the general mechanical condition of the equip-
ment, the accuracy of recording devices, and
the accuracy of reporting by the operating
agency.
  j. If it is discovered that failure to meet
performance standards have  not  been  re-
ported by the operating agency, or if the per-
formance standards are  not met, the area
shall immediately revert to a restricted or
prohibited classification.
  k. All data relating to  the operation of a
conditionally approved area, including oper-
ation of sewerage systems, are maintained in
a file by the State shellfish control agency.
  Public-health explanation.The condition-
ally approved classification is designed pri-
marily to protect  shellfish growing areas in
which the water  quality  might undergo a
significant adverse change within a short pe-
riod of time.10  The change might result from
overloading or mechanical failure of a sewage
treatment plant, or bypassing of sewage at a
lift station.
  Water quality in many growing areas in
the more densely  populated sections of the
country is, to some degree, dependent  upon
the  operation of  sewage  treatment plants.
For example, the boundaries of an approved
shellfish area might be determined during a
period when a  tributary sewage treatment
plant is  operating at a satisfactory level. If
  10 A natural disaster may also cause many sewage treatment
plants to be out of service for an extended period  of time.  The
con) approred area concept is not ordinarily concerned
with such emergency situations.
January 1959
                                         15

-------
there is some interruption  in treatment  it
follows that there will be some degradation
in water quality in the growing area, which
may justify a relocation of the boundaries.
The degree of relocation would depend upon
such items as the distance between the pollu-
tion source  and the growing area, hydrog-
raphy, the amount of dilution water, and the
amount of pollution.
  The concept is also applicable to other sit-
uations  in  which there may be a rapid or
seasonal change in water quality.  Examples
of such situations include
  a. A growing  area  adjacent to  a resort
community. During the summer months the
community  might have a large  population
which might have an adverse effect on water
quality.   However, during the winter  when
there are few people in the community the
water quality might improve  sufficiently  to
allow approval of the area. In some States
this is known as a seasonal closure.
  b. A protected harbor in a sparsely settled
area might  provide  anchorage for a fishing
fleet several months a year. When the fishing
fleet is in, the harbor water would be of poor
sanitary  quality;  however, during  the re-
mainder of the year the quality of the harbor
water might be satisfactory. The area would
be  approved  for  shellfish harvesting only
when the fishing fleet is not using the harbor.
   c. The water quality in an area fluctuates
with the discharge of a major river.  During
periods  of  high runoff the area  is polluted
because of  decreased flow time in the  river.
However, during periods of low runoff the
area might be of satisfactory quality and thus
be approved for shellfish harvesting.
   The establishment  of conditionally ap-
proved areas might  be considered whenever
the potential  for sewage contamination  is
such that the  limiting  water quality criteria
for an approved area  might be exceeded  in
less than one week due to  a failure of sewage
treatment,  or other situations as described
above.
   The first step in determining whether an
area  should be placed in the  conditionally
approved classification is the evaluation  of
the potential sources of pollution in terms of
their effect on water quality in the area. Po-
tential  sources  of  pollution  include  the
following:
     (1)  Sewage treatment plants.
       (a)  By-passing of all or part of sew-
     age because of mechanical or power fail-
     ure, hydraulic overloading, or treatment
     overloading.
       (b)  Reduced degree of treatment due
     to operational difficulties or inadequate
     plant.
     (2)  Sewage lift stations.
       (a)  By-passing  during  periods  of
     maximum  flow   due  to  inadequate
     capacity.
       (b)  By-passing because of mechanical
     or power failure.
     (3)  Interceptor sewers or  underwater
  outfalls.
       (a)  Exfiltration due to  faulty con-
     struction.
       (6)  Leakage  due to damage.
     (4)  Other sources of pollution.
       (a)  Sewage from merchant or naval
     vessels.
       (b)  Sewage from recreation  use of
     area.
  The second step in establishment of a' con-
ditionally approved area is the evaluation of
each source of pollution in terms of the wate,r
quality standards to be maintained, and the
formulation of performance standards for
each installation  having a significant effect
on the sanitary quality of the area.  Exam-
ples  of   performance  standards  might
include:
     (1) Bacteriological quality of effluent
  from  sewage   treatment  plants. This
  might be stated in terms of chlorine resid-
  ual if the bacteriological quality of the ef-
  fluent can be positively related to chlorine
  residual.  The following is an example of a
  performance standard  (37) : "The me-
  dian coliform  MPN,  in any one  month,
  shall not exceed 500 per 100 ml., based on
  not less than  16  composite samples per
  month, and not more than 10 percent of
  the samples shall have an MPN  in excess
  of 10,000 per 100 ml. Determinations of
  the chlorine residual of the effluent should
  be made hourly and recorded in the perma-
  nent plant records."
 16
                                                                             January 1959

-------
     (2)  Total quantity of  sewage  which
  can be discharged from any given unit, or
  from a combination of units, without caus-
  ing the basic water quality standards to be
  exceeded.
     (3)  Amount of shipping in the area and
  the  amount of  sewage  which can  be
  expected.
  Design  criteria which may be  useful in
formulating an opinion on the  quantity of
sewage which can be discharged into an area
without exceeding the desired water quality
standards  include:  Population  equivalent
(coliform) of  sewage; predicted survival of
coliform in sea water, effectiveness of chlo-
rination, and the total quantity of clean dilu-
tion  water  in an area.  Results of many
studies on the survival of bacteria  in  sea
water have been summarized in  An Investi-
gation of  the Efficacy of Submarine Outfall
Disposal of Sewage and Sludge; Publication
No.  14,  California State  Water  Pollution
Control Board, 1956.
  The  mechanical equipment at critical sew-
age treatment or  pumping units  should be
such that interruptions will  be minimized.
Wherever possible operations should be auto-
matically recorded on charts.  Examples of
the requirements which might be imposed,
depending upon the importance of the unit in
terms of water quality, include:
     (1) Ample  capacity for storm  flows.
  (Storm water should ordinarily be excluded
  from the sanitary system.)
     (2) Standby equipment  to  insure that
  treatment or pumping will not be inter-
  rupted because  of damage to a single unit
  or to power failure.
     (3) Instrumentation   of  pumps  and
  equipment to allow  the regulatory agency
  to determine that performance standards
  have been met.   Examples  include:
       (a)  Recording  scales to indicate rate
    of chlorine use. Chlorine flow can be in-
    tegrated with hydraulic flow to establish
    a ratio.
       (b)  Liquid level  recording gauges in
    overflow channels of sewage treatment
    plants and wet wells of lift stations to
    indicate  when overflow  takes  place.
    Charts  should  be  dated  and  initialed
    by the  operator.   Gauges  should be
    calibrated so  that discharge  can be
    estimated.
       (c)  Automatic devices to warn of fail-
    ure  or malfunctioning at  self-operated
    pumping stations or treatment plants.
     (4)  The effect of storm sewage can be
  calculated  by multiplying the total  esti-
  mated flow by  the observed coliform con-
  tent.  The result can be expressed in terms
  of population equivalents  (coliform).
  Design and operation of equipment should
be such  that closure provisions  should  not
have to be invoked more than once per year
under ordinary circumstances.
  A closed safety area  should be interposed
between the conditionally approved area and
the source of pollution.  The size of such area
should be based on the total time it would
take for the operating  agency to detect a
failure,  notify the  State   shellfish control
agency, and for the latter agency to stop shell-
fish harvesting.  It is recommended that the
area be of such size that the flow time through
the safety area be at least twice that required
for the notification process  to become effec-
tive.  Due consideration should be given to
the possibility that closure actions might be
necessary on holidays or at night.
  The type of marking which will be required
for conditionally  approved  areas will vary
from State to State depending upon the legal
requirements for closing an area.
  The length of time a conditionally approved
area should be closed  following a temporary
closure will depend upon several factors in-
cluding the species of shellfish, water tem-
perature, purification rates, presence of  silt
or other chemicals that  might interfere with
the physiological activity of the shellfish, and
the degree of pollution of the area.  (See sec-
tion D-l of this manual for  additional infor-
mation   on  the   natural   purification  of
shellfish.)
  5. Restricted Areas.An area may be clas-
sified  as  restricted when a  sanitary survey
indicates a limited degree of pollution which
would make it unsafe to harvest the shellfish
for direct  marketing.   Alternatively   the
States may classify such areas as prohibited.
(See section C-6, this  manual.)   Shellfish
January 1959
                                        17

-------
from such areas may be marketed after puri-
fying or relaying as provided for in section D.
  Satisfactory compliance.This  item will
be satisfied when the following water quality
ceriteria are met in areas designated by States
as restricted.1112
  a. The  area is so contaminated with fecal
materials that direct consumption of the shell-
fish might be hazardous, and/or
  b. The area is not so contaminated with
radionuclides or  industrial wastes that con-
sumption of the shellfish might be hazardous,
and/or
  c. The  coliform median MPN of the water
does not exceed 700 per 100 ml. and not more
than 10 percent of  the  samples exceed  an
MPN of 2,300 per 100 ml. in those portions
of the  areas most probably exposed to fecal
contamination during the  most  unfavora-
ble hydrographic and pollution  conditions.
(Note: this concentration might be exceeded
if less  than 800,000 cubic feet of a coliform-
free dilution  water  are available for  each
population equivalent  (coliform) of sewage
reaching the area.)
  d. Shellfish from restricted areas  are not
marketed without controlled purification or
relaying.
  Public-health  explanation.In  many  in-
stances it is difficult to draw a clear line of
demarcation between polluted  and non-pol-
luted areas.  In such instances the State may,
at its  option, classify areas of intermediate
sanitary quality  as  restricted and authorize
the use of the shellfish for relaying, or con-
trolled purification.
  6. Prohibited Areas.An area shall be clas-
sified prohibited  if the sanitary survey indi-
cates that dangerous numbers of pathogenic
micro-organisms might reach an area.  The
taking of shellfish from such areas for direct
marketing shall  be prohibited.  Relaying or
other  salvage operations shall be carefully
supervised to insure against polluted shellfish
entering trade channels.  Coastal areas which
have not  been subjected to sanitary surveys
  11 It is not mandatory that States us this classification. Areas
not meeting the approreil classification may be closed to all har-
vesting for direct marketing.
  1J Routine sanitary surveys and reappraisals of restricted areas
shall be made on the same frequency as for approved areas. (See
section C-l.)
shall be automatically classified as prohibited.
  Satisfactory compliance.This item will
be satisfied when:
  a. An area is classified as prohibited if a
sanitary survey indicates either of the follow-
ing degrees of pollution:
     (1) The area is  so contaminated with
  radionuclides or industrial wastes that con-
  sumption of the shellfish might be hazard-
ous and/or
     (2) The median  coliform  MPN of the
  water exceeds 700 per 100 ml. or more than
  10 percent of the samples have a coliform
  MPN  in  excess of  2,300  per  100  ml.
   (Note:  This   concentration  might   be
  reached if less than 800,000 cubic feet of a
  coliform-free dilution water are  available
  for each population equivalent (coliform)
  of sewage reaching the area.)
  b. No market  shellfish are  taken from
prohibited areas except by special permit as
described in section D.
  c. Coastal areas in which sanitary surveys
have  not been irade  shall be automatically
classified as prohibited.
  Public-health  explanation.The  positive
relationship  between enteric disease and the
eating of raw or  partially  cooked  shellfish
has been outlined in section C-l.  Prevention
of the interstate transport  of  shellfish con-
taining sufficient numbers of pathogenic mi-
cro-organisms to cause  disease is a primary
objective of the Cooperative Program. There-
fore,  areas containing dangerous concentra-
tions of micro-organisms  of fecal origin, or
areas which may  be  slightly contaminated
with fresh fecal discharges, should not be ap-
proved  as a source of shellfish for direct
marketing.
  7. Closure  of  Areas Due  to Paralytic
Shellfish Poison.The State shellfish control
agency  shall regularly collect and assay rep-
resentative samples of shellfish from growing
areas where paralytic shellfish poison is likely
to occur.  If the poison content reaches 80
micrograms  per 100 grams of the edible por-
tions of raw shel fish meat, the area shall be
closed to the taking of the species of shellfish
in which the poison has been found.13  The
  13 This value is based on the results of epidemiological investi-
gations of outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poison in Canada in
1954 and 1957 (38) (39).
 18
                                                                                   June 1902

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harvesting of shellfish from such areas shall
be controlled in accord with the recommenda-
tions of sections E-l and E-2 of this manual.
  The quarantine shall remain in effect until
such time as the State shellfish control agency
is convinced the poison content of the shellfish
involved is below the quarantine  level.14
  Satisfactory compliance.This  item  will
be satisfied when
  a. The State  shellfish control  agency col-
lects and assays representative  samples  of
shellfish for the presence of paralytic shellfish
poison  from  each  suspected growing area
during the harvesting season.   (See section
B-2 for assay methods.)
  b. A  quarantine  is  imposed  against the
taking1 of shellfish when the toxicity reaches
80 micrograms per  100 grams of the edible
portion  of raw shellfish.
  Public-health explanation.In some areas
paralytic poison is collected temporarily by
bivalve  shellfish from  free-swimming, one-
celled marine plants on which these shellfish
feed.  The  plants  flourish seasonally when
water conditions are favorable.
  11 The provisions of this item apply only to shellfish which will
be marketed as a fresh or frozen product as properly controlled
heat processing will reduce the poison content of the shellfish.
  Cases of  paralytic  poisoning,  including
several fatalities, resulting  from  poisonous
shellfish have been  reported from both  the
Atlantic and Pacific coasts.  The  minimum
quantity of poison which will cause intoxica-
tion in a susceptible person is  not  known.
Epidemiological  investigations  of  paralytic
shellfish poisoning in Canada have indicated
200 to 600 micrograms of poison will produce
symptoms in susceptible persons and a death
has been attributed to the ingestion  of a prob-
able 480 micrograms of poison.  Investiga-
tions indicate that lesser amounts of the poi-
son have no deleterious effects  on humans.
Growing areas should  be  closed at a lower
toxicity level to provide an adequate margin
of safety since in many  instances toxicity
levels will change rapidly (38) (39).  It  has
also been shown  that the heat treatment af-
forded  in  ordinary  canning processes  re-
duces  the  poison content  of raw shellfish
considerably.
  A review of literature and research dealing
with the source of the poison, the occurrence
and distribution of poisonous shellfish, physi-
ology and  toxicology, characteristics  of  the
poison, and prevention and control  of poison-
ing has been prepared and is obtainable from
the Public Health Service (40).
January 1959
                                        19

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                                     Section  D
        PREPARATION  OF  SHELLFISH  FOR MARKETING
  1. Relaying.State shellfish control agen-
cies  may approve  the intra  or interstate
transplanting  of  market shellfish from  re-
stricted or prohibited areas to approved areas
subject to certain limitations.  All phases of
the operation  shall  be under the immediate
supervision of responsible State (s)  shellfish
control or patrol agency (s).  A memorandum
of understanding shall be developed between
the agencies responsible for the control of in-
terstate relaying operations.  (Shellfish may
be transplanted from an approved area to an-
other like area at any time without restriction
due to  sanitary reasons.)
  Satisfactory compliance.This item  will
be satisfied when
  a.  Shellfish  are not relaid from restricted
or prohibited areas to approved areas without
written permission of the State shellfish con-
trol agency.
  b. All relaying operations are under  the
immediate supervision of the State shellfish
control or patrol agency.  Supervision shall
be such  that no polluted shellfish are mar-
keted before the end of the approved relaying
period.  The supervising officer shall be  au-
thorized and equipped to  enforce the State
regulations on relaying; shall actually super-
vise the harvesting, transport and relaying of
shellfish; and shall patrol the approved area
during the period that shellfish  are under-
going the cleansing process.  However, direct
supervision will not be necessary if relaying
operations  are carried out during  a  period
when shellfish may not be marketed. A con-
tinuous record of water temperature, salinity,
and any other critical variables must be main-
tained  when it is known that the limiting
values  may be approached and when the mini-
mum relaying periods are being used.
  c.  State  permission to  re-lay shellfish is
given only  to responsible persons unless the
entire operation is under  direct supervision
by the State, Responsibility shall, when pos-
sible, be determined by the past record of the
permit appli aant. It is recommended that ap-
plicants  be required to  post  performance
bonds.
  d.  Relaid shellfish are held in the approved
area for a  period of time sufficient to allow
them to cleanse themselves of polluting bac-
teria.   (The time required  for purification
will  be  determined by water  temperature,
salinity,  initial bacteriological quality and
species of shellfish.)
  e.  Relaid (shellfish are not harvested with-
out written permission from the State shell-
fish control agency.
  f.  Areas designated for relaid shellfish are
so located  and marked that  they may  be
readily  identified by  the harvesters and so
that  shellfish in any adjacent approved area
will not be contaminated.  (This requirement
applies only to relaying during the harvest-
ing season.)
  g.  Shellfish are not relayed intra or inter-
state from restricted  or prohibited areas to
approved areas without written  permission
of the State (s) shellfish control  agency (s).
(If shellfish are relayed interstate, a  memo-
randum  of agreement shall  be  developed
outlining the control  measures to be used.)
  Public-health explanation.  Shellfish
transplanted from a  polluted to a clean en-
vironment  will cleanse themselves of  the
polluting bacteria.   This is a natural phe-
nomenon resulting from the shellfish feeding
processes.   Bacteria  in the body and  shell
cavity of the shellfish at  the time of trans-
20
                                                                                June 1962

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planting are either used as food or are ejected
in f eces or pseudofeces.
  The length of time required for this cleans-
ing process is influenced by many factors in-
cluding original  level  of pollution, water
temperature, presence of chemicals inhibitory
to physiological activity of the shellfish, salin-
ity, and varying capabilities of the individual
animals.  Advice on limiting water tempera-
tures, either maximum or minimum, should
be obtained from local marine biologists.
  Investigations  by marine biologists  have
confirmed that the physiological activities of
the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is
reduced when the water temperature falls be-
low a certain value.  It has been found that
the pumping rate of Eastern oysters  is re-
duced at water temperatures  below 50 F.,
and  that  most animals stop pumping  at  a
water temperature of about 41 F.  However,
a few oysters show slight  activity at temper-
atures approaching 32 F. (41) (42).  This
phenomenon was first noted by shellfish bac-
teriologists who found that Eastern oysters
harvested from polluted  areas  during cold
weather had coliform contents comparable
with those of oysters harvested from clean
areas during warmer weather  (43)   (44)
(45).
  Gibbard, et al.  (46)  investigating temper-
ature-induced hibernation was unable to dem-
onstrate coliforms in Eastern oysters within
a few days  after  the  water temperatures
dropped to 32 F.  The rapidity with which
hibernating oysters become active when the
water temperature rises above the threshold
value was discussed by Wachter (47) in 1925
and  was  demonstrated by Gibbard, et al.
(46).   The  latter  investigator found  that
contamination accompanying  a  sudden two
degree increase in water  temperature from
41 to 43 F. was reflected in the oysters in
one day.
  Relaying operations must be carefully su-
pervised by an official State agency since the
shellfish  may  contain  pathogenic  micro-
organisms.  Control must apply to all phases
of the operation including initial harvesting,
t  -no- ->rtation, replanting, purification pe-
       id final harvesting for marketing if the
       g area is adjacent to a restricted area
or to an area containing relaid shellfish which
have not been released for harvesting.
  2. Controlled Purification.Shellfish from
restricted or prohibited  areas may  be mar-
keted after  effective controlled  purification.
Purification shall be permitted only under the
immediate supervision of the State  shellfish
control agency.  Water used for purification
shall be of high bacteriological quality and its
physical and  chemical properties  shall  be
favorable to maximum physiological activity
of the shellfish.  Stringent precautions shall
be taken by the State shellfish control agency
to insure that shellfish  harvested from re-
stricted or prohibited areas are actually sub-
mitted to an effective purification process be-
fore marketing.
  Purification of  shellfish  from prohibited
areas shall not be  approved by the State un-
less relaying is  not practical for biological
reasons, and no public-health hazard will re-
sult from the use of such shellfish.
  Satisfactory compliance.This item will
be satisfied when:
  a. The  controlled purification  system, in-
cluding water treatment,  has been demon-
strated  to be consistently effective for  the
species  of shellfish being purified.  Purifica-
tion may be accomplished in either a natural
body of water or in tanks.   (In  determining
the effectiveness of the process at  least the
following  factors  shall  be investigated:
Water temperature, silt or turbidity, dis-
solved oxygen, presence  of chemicals, and
time required for purification.)   The bacteri-
ological quality of the purified shellfish shall
be at least equal to shellfish of the same spe-
cies harvested from local  approved areas.
  b. A  purification plant  operating proce-
dure is  developed and copies are supplied to
the Public Health Service.
  c.  Water used for purification is obtained
from an area  meeting  the physical and bac-
teriological  requirements  of an approved
growing area, or in the case of treated water
the bacteriological  limits of the Public Health
Service Drinking Water Standards  (48)  are
met.  If water is  to be  treated, it  shall  be
obtained from an  area meeting at  least the
sanitary requirements for  a restricted area.
  d.  Water  used for purification has chem-
       1950
                                                                                      21

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ical and physical characteristics conducive to
maximum physiological activity of the shell-
fish.  (Consideration shall be given to the
following:  Presence of chemicals, turbidity,
temperature, salinity and  dissolved oxygen,
and  to  the  adequacy  of  the facilities  of
the operating agency for measuring these
characteristics.)
  e. Shellfish are freed of contamination and
foreign  material adhering to shells before
purification.
  f. Shellfish are culled before  and after
purification.
  g. Purification plant  operation  is  under
the administrative control  of the State shell-
fish control agency.  Purification plants may
be operated by agencies other than the State;
however, insofar as the Cooperative Program
is concerned, the State is responsible for sat-
isfactory operation.
  h. Laboratory control is maintained over
the purification operation.  Controls shall in-
clude at least the following:  Daily or tidal-
cycle bacteriological  quality of water; final
bacteriological quality for each lot of shellfish
purified; and, when they are critical factors,
hourly or continuous salinity  determinations
and tidal-cycle turbidity determinations.
  i. The plant operator possesses a satisfac-
tory knowledge of the  principles of water
treatment and bacteriology.
  j. Animals,  rodents,  and  unauthorized
persons are excluded from the plant.
  k. Plant employees fulfill the qualifications
for a shucker as described in section B-28,
part II of this manual.
  1.  The State has  an effective  system for
assuring that shellfish  harvested from re-
stricted areas will be submitted to purification
before marketing.  Shellfish harvesting from
prohibited areas for controlled  purification
shall be under the immediate supervision of
the State.
  m. Shellfish from prohibited areas are not
subjected  to purification  unless the State
shellfish control agency can show that relay-
ing or depletion is not biologically feasible;
and that no  public-health  hazard will result
from the use of such shellfish.
  Public-health  explanation.The ability of
shellfish to purify themselves in  clean water
was discovered early in the 1900's.  The bio-
logical process is reasonably well understood
and is described by Arcisz and Kelly (26) as
follows :
  "Purification  iis a mechanical  process ef-
fected by the phyisiological functioning of the
shellfish in clean water. When shellfish are
feeding, the gills act as a filter to strain out
some  of the material that may be brought in
by the water which passes through them.  If
this  water  contains  sewage,  some  of the
micro-organisms in it are entrapped in the
mucus on the body of the shellfish and trans-
ferred to the alimentary tract. Some of these
are perhaps utilized  as food (49) and the
others discharged from the body in the form
of feces  and pseudofeces.   When shellfish
from  polluted water are placed in clean water,
the sewage bacteria are eliminated from the
shellfish,  and,  since no more  are ingested,
purification is accomplished."
  The purification  process has been investi-
gated extensively in England and to a lesser
extent in the United States and Canada (50)
(51)   (52).   The  technique is reliable  if
proper methods a:^e used, and insofar as  is
known, is applicable to all commercial species
of shellfish.
  Many of the earlier investigators suggested
that  purification IDC  accomplished in tanks
using water which had been subjected to a
treatment process  (52).  The  analogy with
water treatment was carried to the point of
recommending a chlorine residual in the puri-
fication tanks.  However, fishery biologists
have  shown that shellfish  pumping  is de-
creased or inhibited by even  small quantities
of chlorine  (53)  (i<4).   The  inhibitory effect
of chlorinated-decMorinated  water on activ-
ity of Eastern oysters has been noted by the
Public Health  Service  Shellfish  Sanitation
Laboratory.
  Since purification depends upon the pump-
ing rate of the shellfish, it is important that
the water be free  of chemicals or physical
characteristics  which might interfere with
this activity. For  example,  silt or dissolved
organic substances may influence the pump-
ing rates of shellfish  (55)  (56).  The rela-
tionship of  water  temperature to pumping
rates has been mentioned previously.
22
                                                                              January 1950

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  Shellfish purification facilities have gener-
ally been considered to include holding tanks
and  water treatment facilities  (57)  (58) ;
however, investigations in Canada and Eng-
land have demonstrated that purification can
be accomplished  with relatively simple in-
stallations if the  operation  is  supervised
properly (59) (50)  (60)  (61).  Accordingly,
any purification process of 'proven effective-
ness will be  accepted by the Cooperative
Program.
  Administrative control of the purification
process is necessary to insure that shellfish
are properly washed and culled, are held for
the required length of time, and that the puri-
fication water supply is properly controlled.
January 1959
                                        23

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                                      Section E
       CONTROL OF HARVESTING FROM  CLOSED AREAS
  1. Identification of Closed Areas.Shell-
fish harvesters shall be notified by direct no-
tice and warning signs of areas closed to har-
vesting.  Closed areas shall be so marked or
described that they may be easily recognized
by the harvesters.  The measures necessary
to accomplish delineation and notification will
vary with the structure of the local shellfish
industry and with the legal requirements of
each State.
  Satisfactory  compliance.This item will
be satisfied when:
  a. The boundaries of the closed areas are
marked by fixed  objects or landmarks in a
manner which permits successful prosecution
of any violations  of the closed areas.
  b. Shellfish harvesters are notified of the
location of closed areas by publication or  di-
rect notification  (such  as registered mail)
and by warning  signs  posted at points  of
access to each closed area.  The method of
notification and identification  should permit
the successful prosecution of persons harvest-
ing shellfish from the closed areas.  (The lim-
iting  of shellfish  harvesting permits to spe-
cific areas is an alternative to posting or noti-
fication.  Where such a system is used, post-
ing will be required only for closed  areas
which contain market shellfish.)
  Public-health explanation.Previous sec-
tions  of this manual  have  described  the
public-health reasons for  limiting shellfish
harvesting to areas free of contamination and
paralytic shellfish poison.  Methods have been
described  for the evaluation and classifica-
tion of such areas. However, classification is
not effective unless the State can prevent ille-
gal  harvesting of shellfish for direct market-
ing from these closed areas.
  For the most part, control of  illegal har-
vesting depends upon the  police activities as
described in section E-2.  However, adequate
delineation of the closed areas is fundamental
to effective patrol.
  The type of area identification will be de-
termined by the structure of the local shellfish
industry.   Posting a  warning  sign  is  one
method of informing shellfish harvesters that
an area is closed to the taking of shellfish for
public-health reasons.  However, if the local
shellfish  industry  is highly organized,  with
shellfish being harvested by only a few opera-
tors, identification may be accomplished by
officially  informing the harvesters  that cer-
tain areas a re closed to the taking of shellfish.
It is  recommended  that the advice  of the
State's legal counsel be obtained to insure that
the marking of closed areas and notifications
to shellfish harvesters are such that illegal
harvesting can be  prosecuted successfully.
  2. Prevention of  Illegal  Harvesting  of
Shellfish From Closed Areas.Closed grow-
ing areas shall be patrolled by a State agency
to  prevent illegal harvesting.  The  patrol
force shall be so equipped that its officers will
be able to apprehend persons taking shellfish
from closed areas.
  Satisfactory compliance.This item  will
be  satisfied when
  a. There is no evidence  that shellfish are
being harvested from closed  areas except by
special permit as required  to meet local con-
ditions.
  b. Closed shellfish  growing areas are pa-
trolled by representatives of an official agency,
due consideration being given to night, week-
end and holiday patrols.   (States may  dele-
gate patrol activities to local organizations;
however,  responsibility for effective control
will remain  with  the State insofar  as the
Cooperative Program is concerned.
  c. Patrol forces are so equipped  that per-
sons observed in closed areas may be appre-
hended.
  d. Complete records of patrol  activities,
including violations  and court  actions, are
maintained in the central office of the State
shellfish control or patrol agency.  It will be
24
                                                                              January 1959

-------
the responsibility of the State to include local
patrol activities in these records.   (See sec-
tion A, subsection 2 (e) regarding monthly
summaries of patrol activities.)
  Public-health explanation.The primary
objective  of the Cooperative Program is to
insure that shellfish will be harvested only
from areas which are free of dangerous con-
centrations  of pathogenic micro-organisms,
industrial or radioactive wastes, or paralytic
shellfish poison.
  Growing areas may be classified as to their
public-health suitability for shellfish harvest-
ing on the basis of information obtained by
sanitary  and toxicological surveys.   How-
ever, if local shellfish harvesters are not con-
vinced of the need for restrictions, shellfish
may  be harvested  surreptitiously  from the
closed areas.  Thus, patrol failure may nul-
lify the public-health safeguards  resulting
from sanitary survey activities.
  The fact that law prohibits the removal of
shellfish from certain  areas will deter most
persons from  attempting to  harvest such
shellfish provided they are aware of the law
and of the areas which are closed.   However,
local public opinion may not support the need
for such  closures.  In  such cases  favorable
opinion can  probably  be developed  only
through an educational program or a locally
demonstrated need such  as an epidemic or
outbreak  of  paralytic  shellfish  poisoning.
There is  also a  minority element not con-
cerned with the welfare  of their  customers
and who,  through ignorance or purpose, will
attempt to circumvent the harvesting restric-
tions.
  Patrols must, therefore, be directed against
three classes of individuals; i.  e.,  those who
are ignorant of the law, those who believe the
law is unjtfst or unreasonable, and those who
have no regard for the law.
  Several  mechanisms  for  improving the
effectiveness of patrols include educational
programs to  acquaint shellfish  harvesters
with  the  public-health  reasons for the clos-
ures, elimination of the "temptation element"
by  depletion,  and  relaying or purification.
Apprehension, prosecution, and punishment
of violators is a final resort.
  The type of patrol organization needed for
any particular  situation cannot be specified
and is determined by the nature of areas to
be patrolled, means  of  access, methods  of
harvesting,  and species.  Patrol equipment
should be such that the officers can apprehend
persons harvesting shellfish in a closed area.
Necessary  equipment might include patrol
boats capable of operating  in  open  waters;
small, high-speed,  readily transportable
boats, or patrol automobiles.  In many in-
stances, two-way radio will be helpful in co-
ordinating patrol activities.
  Organization  of  the patrol activity must
take into consideration the need for night,
weekend,  holiday,  and  surprise  patrols.
Either nuisance or continual patrol may be
used depending on the nature of the area to
be patrolled and the type of industry.
  The adequacy of State laws as a basis for
prosecution is an important component of this
activity.  Shellfish patrol will  probably  be
ineffective  if State laws are so written or
interpreted that violators cannot be  success-
fully prosecuted, or if penalties are so small
that they are economically unimportant.  The
latter point may  be important in an  area
where local public  opinion does not  support
the need for the restriction.
  3. Depletion of Closed  Areas.The State
shellfish control or patrol agency shall super-
vise all depletion operations.  All market-size
shellfish and as many of the smaller size as
can be gathered by reasonable methods shall
be removed in the initial depletion operation.
Depletion of each area shall be carried out at
intervals to prevent the development of mar-
ket-sized shellfish.
  Satisfactory  compliance.This item will
be satisfied when
  a. The  State shellfish control  or patrol
agency exercises direct supervision over each
depletion project including patrol of the area
in which the shellfish are relaid.  (See section
D-l.)
  b. All market shellfish and as many of the
smaller  size shellfish  as can be gathered by
reasonable methods are removed in the deple-
tion operation.
  c.  Similar supervised depletion operations
January 1959
                                                                                       25

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are carried  out at intervals to prevent de-
velopment of market-sized shellfish in quanti-
ties which would  make commercial harvest-
ing- economically practicable in the depleted
areas.
  Public-health explanation.Complete re-
moval of shellfish from polluted to clean areas
under  appropriate  precautions is the best
safeguard  against   contaminated  shellfish
reaching the market. In some cases depletion
may be more economical and effective than
patrol of closed ,reas.
                                   Appendix  A

      BACTERIOLOGICAL CRITERIA  OF  SHELLFISH AND
                            SHELLFISH  WATERS
  The bacteriological examination of shellfish
and shellfish growing waters is important in
evaluating the sanitary quality of the aquatic
environment; the  sanitary  quality of  the
shellfish as harvested; and, the changes in the
sanitary quality of shellfish which occur dur-
ing harvesting, shucking-packing, and mar-
keting.
  Section C of this manual outlines the pro-
cedures to be followed in evaluting the sani-
tary quality of an  area.   The objective  data
obtained through bacteriological examination
of water samples is frequently indispensable
in making  such evaluations.  However, the
statistical and biological factors which influ-
ence bacteriological results must be  recog-
nized and understood if valid interpretation
of results is to be obtained.   The purpose of
this  appendix is to describe  some of these
factors as they are understood in 1958, and
to mention  some additional sources of infor-
mation.
  Shellfish will generally reflect the bacterio-
logical quality of the water in which they have
grown.   However, this relationship is  ap-
parently not sufficiently constant to permit
development  of  a  uniform  bacteriological
standard which could be applied to all species
of shellfish.  For example, the soft shell clam
(Mya arenaria) shows a consistently higher
coliform content than do other species har-
vested from are,s of like sanitary quality.
Similarly, Eastern oysters harvested from
South Atlantic ar d Gulf areas have a higher
coliform content ;han those from the Middle
Atlantic States.13  Seasonal variation is also
pronounced (2).  Table 1 demonstrates some
of these variations.
 " The geographic subdi visions used coincide with those used in
"Fishery Statistics of the United States," Fish and Wildlife Serv-
ice, U. S. Department of the Intel ior.
26
                                                                            January 1959

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  The bacteriological quality of Eastern oys-
ters harvested from the North and  Middle
Atlantic regions has been well investigated.
Oysters as harvested from approved areas in
these two  regions  should not  ordinarily ex-
ceed a coliform MPN of 230 per 100 grams of
shellfish meats although a few samples may
approach or exceed 2,400 per 100 grams.  If
this latter  value is exceeded in two consecu-
tive  samples,  the  State  shellfish  control
agency should investigate to  determine the
probable cause.
  Eastern   oysters  harvested from  Chesa-
peake Bay, South Atlantic or  Gulf States
cannot be  expected to meet  routinely this
standard of 230  per 100 grams even  though
harvested from water of like sanitary quality.
This  has been demonstrated in papers pre-
sented by Wilson and  McClesky (62)  and in
the discussions at the 1956 and 1958 Shellfish
Sanitation  Workshops  (2) (3).
  The data contained  in table II shows coli-
form contents of oysters  (Crassostrea vir-
ginica)  as harvested  from  areas of  high
sanitary quality  on the Gulf coast.
  On the basis of these data, oysters as har-
vested from Gulf areas might ordinarily have
a coliform MPN of less than 2,400/100 grams.
However,  if this value is exceeded  in two
consecutive samples, the State shellfish con-
trol agency should undertake an investigation
to determine the probable cause.
  The bacteriological quality of hard  clams
(Mercenaria  mercenaria)  harvested  from
the New England and Middle Atlantic States
has also been thoroughly investigated and the
relationship  seems  well  established  (20).
The findings of many State investigations are
supported by Public Health Service Shellfish
Sanitation Laboratory findings as shown in
table  I and which indicate the limiting coli-
form  MPN's described for Eastern oysters
from  the New  England and  Middle Atlantic
States are also applicable to  hard clams har-
vested, from similar areas. It is not known if
similar bacterial results could be expected in
hard  clams harvested from Chesapeake Bay
or South Atlantic States.
  The bacteriology of soft shell clams  (Mya
arenaria) has  also been  investigated exten-
sively in the Canadian Maritime  Provinces
and the  New England and Middle Atlantic
States.   Data indicate that the limit of 230
cannot always be met in the case of soft clams
harvested from approved areas and also that
they will consistently have higher coliform
MPN's than oysters or hard clams harvested
from  the same area  (2).  Preliminary in-
vestigations by the Maryland Department of
Health  indicate  high coliform  MPN's  are
                                          TABLE I

                   Average Shellfish Coliform MPN's for Various Applied Water MPN's
Water temperature
Less than 8 C
8-17 C
20^23 C

Species
Soft clams
Hard clams
Eastern oysters
Soft clams
Hard clams
Eastern oysters
Soft clams
Hard clams
Eastern oysters

Average shellfish MPN
Average water MPN's
20
380
76
26
350
120
130
375
84
37
70
930
170
64
980
320
450
833
220
190
250
2,300
370
160
2,800
840
1.600
1,900
560
960
700
4,800
710
340
6.500
1,900
4,700
3,600
1,200
3,600
1,000
6,200
890
450
8,700
2 500
6,800
4,500
1,600
5,800
   Source: Bacteriological Examination as an Indicator of Sanitary Quality of Market Shellfish; C. B. Kelly; Proceedings, 1956 Shellfish Sanitation
Workshop; Public Health Service, Washington, D. C., 1956.
   Note: This data is based on experiments conducted at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and may not be directly applicable to other regions.
January 1959
                                                                                        27
    647036 O - 62 - 3

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found in soft clams harvested from the rela-
tively warm water  of  Chesapeake  Bay  al-
though the water quality is high and the areas
are free of pollution  (2).  If a coliform MPN
of 2,400/100 grams of soft-clam meats is ex-
ceeded in two successive samples of clams as
harvested from approved areas the State
shellfish  control agency should investigate to
determine the probable cause.
   Studies on the  bacteriological  quality of
mussels harvested from approved areas in the
Canadian Maritime Provinces, New England,
and the  Middle  Atlantic  States  indicate
that the  water  to shellfish coliform relation-
ships are similar to those described  for soft
shell  clams.  However, mussels  may have
somewhat higher MPN's than other  shellfish
species harvested from like areas.
   It is  emphasized  that the foregoing bac-
teriological  relationships apply only  to shell-
fish at the time of removal from the  growing
areas and not to shell stock in storage for any
appreciable  period  of  time,  or  to  shucked
shellfish.
   The influence of  shucking,  packing,  and
storage on the  bacteriological quality of the
shucked  product  has been  recognized for
years. One investigator has  reported a posi-
tive correlation between plant sanitation or
operating practices and the  standard plate
count of the product (63).
   The Canadian  Department  of National
Health and  Welfare in 1950 pointed  out that
most of  the United States shucked  Eastern
oysters sold in Canada had high  coliform
MPN's, high standard plate  counts,  or both.
They reported that  of  77 shipments  of
shucked  Eastern  oysters from  the United
States, 44.2 percent had a coliform  MPN of
less than 230 while 41.5 percent had  coliform
MPN's  in excess of 16,000  per 100 grams.
These results,  when interpreted in  accord
with the 1946 Manual of Recommended Prac-
tice for Sanitary Control  of the Shellfish In-
dustry indicated the oysters were from a pol-
luted source or had  been grossly mishandled
 (64).
   The significance of these results  was dis-
cussed at the 1950 meeting of the Canadian
Interdepartmental Shellfish Committee.  On
the basis of limited  information on the sani-
                  TABLB II
Coliform MPA"so/Oysters Sam-pled at Time of Harvesting
 Coliform MPN per 100 gms. meats
Less than 230	
Less than 2,400___
Less than 24,000__
Less than 160,000_
 Percent of
 Samples ' in
Stated Group
          63
          90
          97
         100
  i No. of Samples, 30.
  Source- Proceedings, 1956 Shellfish Sanitation Workshop; Bacterio-
logical Examination as an Indicator of Sanitary Quality of Market
Shellfish, Kelly, C. B.

tary quality  of similar shellfish  sold on the
American markets, it was decided to establish
an  interim   bacteriological  standard  for
shucked Eastern oysters sold in Canada. This
standard was based on the premise that an
increase in the bacteria content  of market
shellfish was; unavoidable.   Adoption of this
interim standard  by  Canada resulted in a
significant improvement in the sanitary qual-
ity of shucked oysters imported  from the
United States  (2).
  In  1950  the Public  Health  Service, in co-
operation with the Government of Canada
and several State health departments, investi-
gated  the bacteriological changes  occurring
during the processing and shipment of oys-
ters from Chesapeake Bay to selected market
areas.  The study demonstrated a marked
deterioration  in bacteriological  quality dur-
ing shucking and shipment to market  (65).
  In 1954 and 1955 the Virginia Department
of  Health  also investigated the changes  in
bacteriological quality which took place  in
oysters during shucking and packing (2).  It
was found that in the winter months about
two-third of the samples of shell oysters had
coliform MPN's of 230 or less  per 100 grams.
However,  during the  summer  months few
samples were under 230/100 grams and only
25  percent were below 2,400.  On the "as
packed" product during the  winter months
10  percent of the samples had a coliform
MPN of 230 or less, 50 percent were 2,400 or
less, 75 percent were 9,000 or  less,  and  90
percent were below 24,000 (2).
  The bacterial changes taking  place during
the harvesting and processing of oysters  in
28
                                                                               January 1959

-------
the Gulf States has been investigated by the
Public  Health  Service Shellfish  Sanitation
Laboratory  in  cooperation with  the States
 (2}   (3).   These studies  have shown:  (1)
oysters as harvested in the Gulf States are of
higher  coliform content than are those har-
vested from areas of like  sanitary quality in
New England  and  Middle Atlantic States;
 (2)  a  significant increase in  the coliform
content may take place in the shell oyster
prior to shucking;  and (3)  an increase in
bacteria content takes place during shucking.
These results are shown in table III.
   Results  obtained  in  these  bacteriological
studies  of  shellfish  harvesting,   shucking-
packing and marketing were reviewed at the
1956 Shellfish Sanitation Workshop (2).  In
recognition  of  the data presented, the  1956
Workshop recommended  the  temporary use
of an  "Acceptable," "Acceptable-on-Condi-
tion,"  and "Rejectable" classification based
on  a  combined  coliform  MPNstandard
plate count index of quality for shucked East-
ern oysters as marketed. The 1956 Workshop
also recommended  that the  Public Health
Service and  the interested States undertake
a cooperative  study  of the  bacteriological
quality of shucked Eastern oysters shipped
from  Chesapeake Bay  to  New  York  and
Canadian markets.  Such a cooperative study
was undertaken by the interested State and
Federal agencies in the fall of 1956.
  The results of this two-year  study were dis-
cussed at the 1958 Shellfish Sanitation Work-
shop (3).  On the basis of these discussions
the Workshop recommended a two part  "Ac-
ceptable-Re jectable"  interim  market  stand-
ard  for  shucked  Eastern  oysters based  on
fecal coliform  MPN's and  standard  plate
counts.
                                          TABLE III
            Coliform MPN's and Standard Plate Counts of Oysters During Harvesting and Processing

COLIFORM MPN RANGE
Less than 230 _ _ _ . _ _ . . _ .
231-2400 _ _ _
2401-24,000
24,001-160,000_
160,000 or more
Number of samples
STANDARD PLATE COUNT RANGE
1-1500. .. ---
1600-10,000 	 __ ... _..
11,000-50,000
51,000-1,000,000
1,000,000 or more
Number of samples. . .

Percent of samples in stated group or less
Shell oysters
Dug
63
90
97
100
30
29
79
90
100
28
0 hours '
45
81
100

11
0
82
100

11
12 hours 2
5
15
50
85
100
20
5
15
30
100
20
Shucked oysters
As
shucked 3
5
5
47
79
100
19
0
5
20
90
100
20
Pots4
0
5
31
47
100
19
0
5
10
100
19
As
packed 5
0
5
79
95
100
19
5
10
52
100
19
   1 Shell oysters as delivered to the shucking plant.
   2 Shell oysters after 12 hours storage at shucking plant.
   3 Oysters at time of shucking.
   4 Oysters as delivered to packing room.
   s Shucked oysters as packed.
   Source: Proceedings,  1956 Shellfish Sanitation Workshop; Bacteriological Examination as an Indicator of Sanitary Quality  of Market Shellfish,
Kelly, C. B.
January 1959
                                                                                          29

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32.  Gong, J. K., et v,l.: Uptake of Fission Products
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33.  Radioactive Contamination of Certain Areas  in
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34.  Weiss, H.  V., and Shipman, W. H.: Biological
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    April 1957.
30
                                         June 1962

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35. Atomic  Energy, Federal  Register, January 29,
    1957.
36. Maximum Permissible Amounts of Radioisotopes
    in the Human Body and  Maximum Permissible
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37. Water Quality Survey of Hampton Roads Shell-
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38. Tennant, A. D., Naubert, J., and  Corbeil, H. E.:
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    the Canadian Medical  Association Journal, 72:
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42. Loosanoff, V. L.: Some Aspects  of Behavior of
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    of Oysters During Hibernation, American Jour-
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44. Gumming, Hugh S.: Investigation of the  Pollu-
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June 1962
                                              31

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                                                INDEX
                                              Page
Approved areas:
    bacteriological quality	     13
    bacteriological quality of shellfish from__  27, 28
    classification  	     11
    definition 	     13
    industrial wastes	     13
    radioactive materials	     14
    relationship to sewage treatment	     15
    sanitary survey	     11
Bacteriological:
    content of hibernating shellfish	     22
    control of purification	     23
    die out	10,17
    examination of growing water	     10
    frequency of water sampling	     10
    influence of shucking-packing and storage
      on bacterial quality of shellfish	     27
    most probable numbers	  2,10
    procedures	      8
    quality of hard clams	     27
    quality of mussels	     28
    quality of oysters	     27
    quality of shucked market oysters	     28
    quality of soft clams	     27
    relationship of sewage treatment to water
      quality 	     15
    shellfish-water relationship	     25
Certificates, shipper	      6
Classification of growing areas	11,13
Coliform group, definitions	      3
Conditionally approved areas:
    boundary marketing	15,17
    definition	     14
    discussion	     15
    establishment of performance standards-     14
    in harbors	     16
    near resort  areas	     16
    performance standards	     16
    records	     15
    relationship to river discharge	     16
    safety zones	15,17
    water  quality  requirements	     14
Controlled  purification:
    administrative control	     21
    definition 	      3
    discussion	     22
    laboratory control	     22
    use of shellfish from restricted  or  pro-
      hibited areas	     21
    water  quality required	     21
Cooperative program:
    application to growing areas	      5
    application to  handlers	      5
    application to harvesters	      5
    definition  	      3
    history 	      3
Closed areas:
    depletion of	     24
    marking of  boundaries	15,17, 23
    notification  to harvesters	     23
    use of shellfish	20,21
Definitions	      3
Depletion of closed areas	     24
Die-out of  bacteria	10,17
                                              Page
Disease from shellfish	9,13,19
Growing areas, definitions	      3
Hibernation of shellfish	     21
Industrial wastes:
    in approved  areas	     13
    in prohibited areas	     18
    in restricted areas	     18
Infectious hepatitis from  shellfish	     13
Intrastate sale of shellfish	      7
Laboratory:
    bacteriological procedures	      8
    chemical and physical procedures	      8
    control of purification	     22
    toxicological procedures	      8
Laws and regulations:
    classification of growing areas	      4
    control of illegal harvesting	      4
    general requirements	      4
    harvesting  permits	      4
    relationship  to patrol	23,24
Most probable numbersee bacteriological.
Paralytic shellfish poison:
    closure of areas	     18
    collection and assay of samples	     18
    discussion	     19
    in approved  areas	     12
    laboratory examination for	      8
    quarantine  level	  18,19
Patrol:
    equipment required	     24
    frequency	     23
Need:
    shellfish  for purification	     22
    records	     23
    relationship  to State  laws	     24
    relaying	     20
Prohibited areas:
    bacteriological quality	     18
    depletion of	     24
    establishment of	     18
    identification and  marking	     23
    patrol  of	23,24
    radioactive materials in	     18
    use of shellfish from	18,21,24
Radioactive materials:
    in growing areas	     13
    in shellfish	     14
    maximum permissible concentrations	     14
Records:
    court actions	  5,23
    operation of conditionally approved areas-     14
    patrol activities	  5,23
    plant inspection	      5
    purification plant  operation	     22
    relaying	     20
    sanitary  surveys	5,9,11
Relaying:
    from restricted or prohibited areas	     20
    marking  and identification of  relaying
      areas	     20
    permission for	     20
    supervision   of	     20
June 1062
                                                                                                       33

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                                              Page
Repackers:
    inspection	      6
    records of inspection	      6
    requirements for certification	      5
    sanitary rating	     29
Restricted areas:
    bacteriological quality of	     18
    depletion of	     24
    establishment of	     17
    fecal contamination of	     18
    patrol  of	     23
    radioactive materials in	     18
    use of shellfish from	18,21,24
Sanitary surveys:
    content  of	      9
    definition 	      3
    frequency required	,	      9
    purpose	     10
    records	    5, 9
    sewage treatment evaluation	14,16,17
Self-purification of shellfish	20,22
Sewage treatment:
    instrumentation and  records	     17
    performance standards for	     16
    records  of	15,17
                                              Page
Sewage treatmentContinued
     relationship to approved areas	    14
     relationship to bacteriological sampling__    14
Sewage treatmentContinued
     special equipmert requirements	    17
     storm  sewers	    17
Shellfish shipper certificates:
     control 	     6
     expiration date	     6
     requirements for	   5,6
Shellfish shipper list	   1,5
Shell stock shippers:
     inspection	     6
     records of inspection	     6
     requirements for certification	     5
Shucker-packers:
     inspection	     6
     records of inspection	     6
     requirements for certification	     6
     sanitary  rating	     6
Transplanting	     3
Typhoid feversee Disease.
Wet  storage	    13
34
                                                                                                 June 1962

                                                                    US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1962  O	647038

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          GOV

WASHINGTONX, TRAN
   D C
                                  PATUXENT  RIVER  NAVAL
                                  ' ~ .TATION ANNEX
                                    UXENT RIVER
                                      AlR STATioN
PATUXENT  RIVER  BASIN
                                           FIGURE I

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                      TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                           Page

INTRODUCTION  .......................   1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION   ...................   2

WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES .................   3

    Andrews Air Force Base ... ..............   3

    Fort Washington National Monument  ..........   5

    Fort Belvoir . .  . . ,	.........   5

    Lorton Nike Site  (No. 6U)  ..............   7

    East Coast Radio Transmitting Station  . . . . . . .  .   7

    Naval Propellant Plant, Indian Head  .......   .   8

    Waldorf Nike Site (No. WO  ..............  10

    Naval Research Laboratory Field Site, Waldorf  .  .  .  11

    Manassas Air Force Base  ...............  11

    Quantico Marine Corps Reservation  ..........  12

    East Coast Radio Receiving Station ..........  ih

    Radio Research Field Site, ONR, La Plata . .  . . .  ,  15

    Naval Weapons Laboratory, Dahlgren ..........  15

    George Washington Birthplace National Monument ....  16

    Coast Guard Station, Piney Point ...........  16

    Naval Outlying Field, Webster  ............  17

    Smith Point Light Station  ..............  17

MARYLAND'S CLASSIFICATION PROGRAM FOR SHELLFISH GROWING
  AREAS  .........................  18

CONCLUSIONS   ....... o  ............. o  .  20

RECOMMENDATIONS  .....................  23

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                        INTRODUCTION






        The Maryland State Department of Health recently pro-



hibited (effective September 1, 196U) the harvesting of shellfish




from several areas of the Chesapeake Bay due to water pollution,,



Included in this prohibition was one relatively small area of



the Potomac River estuary in Breton Bay near Leonardtown, Maryland,



which has since been largely reopened.  Neale Sound north of Cobb




Island and a portion of the upper reaches of St. Mary's River



have been closed for some time  The closures mentioned above



are related to the effects of municipal waste discharges.  In



order to determine the extent to which waste discharges from



Federal installations may have contributed to these unsatisfactory



conditions, a review was made of waste disposal practices at



nearby Federal government facilities.  This report summarizes



the waste disposal practices at Federal installations in the



Potomac River Basin below Washington, D0 C, presents a dis-



cussion of the effects of the waste effluents on water quality,



and sets forth recommendations for necessary action.

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                     GENERAL DESCRIPTION






        The Potomac River Basin drains an area of 14,670 square




miles in Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the




District of Columbia.  The tidal estuary portion of the Basin




drains 35090 square miles and is 116 miles long.  The average




stream flow to the head of the estuary is 11,060 cfs (cubic feet




per second), or approximately 10 cfs per square mile,.  Salt




water influence  normally extends to Mount Vernon, and tidal




influence extends to the northwest corner of the District of




Columbia.




        Except for the District of Columbia section and inlets




and bays on the western shore, the Potomac River estuary lies




within the State of Maryland   The Upstream limit of shellfish




production in the estuary lies between Colonial Beach and Dahlgren,




Virginia, on the western shore and just downstream from the




Potomac River Bridge (Morgantown) on the eastern shore  The




Potomac River produces about 13 per cent of the clams and 10




per cent of the oysters harvested in Maryland.   In addition,




shellfish are harvested from the tributary bays lying in Virginia.

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                  WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES






        The seventeen Federal Installations discharging waste




effluents to the Potomac River estuary or to tributaries of the




estuary below the District of Columbia include nine in Maryland




and eight in Virginia.  Following are brief descriptions of




these installations and their waste disposal practices, listed




from upstream to downstream.  The locations of these installations




are shown in Figure 1, inside back cover.






Andrews Air Force Base




        Andrews Air Force Base is located in Prince George's




County, Maryland, approximately five miles southeast of the




District of Columbia.  A large fleet of various types of aircraft




is maintained, repaired and stored.  The daytime population is




estimated to be about llt-,000, including military and civilian




personnel.  The sanitary wastes from Andrews Air Force Base are




treated in three sewage treatment plants.  Plants No 1 and No,




h discharge to the Potomac River Basin, while Plant No. 3 discharges




to the Patuxent River Basin.  In addition, about 8,UOO gpd




(gallons per day) are treated by septic tanks and tile fields in




areas remote from the main sewage treatment plants




        Sewage Treatment Plant No.  1 has a capacity of 913?500




gpd and consists of a comminuter, Par shall flume., lift station,




Imhoff tank, open sludge drying beds, trickling filters with

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                                                            k



rotary distributors, final settling basins, and chlorination



followed by a contact tank.  The plant is currently receiving



approximately 700,000 gpd of domestic wastes  Air Force



personnel have indicated that the plant has achieved a BOD




(biochemical oxygen demand) reduction in the range of 85 per



cent, indicating good treatment.  The plant effluent is dis-




charged to Meetinghouse Branch which flows into Tinker's Creek,




a tributary of the Potomac River.



         Sewage Treatment Plant No k receives domestic wastes



from the golf club and is also of the Imhoff tanktrickling



filter type.  The plant experiences varied flows as usage is



largely dependent upon season and weather.  The effluent is dis-



charged to Payne's Branch, a tributary of Tinker's Creek and the



Potomac River.



         The treatment provided by these two plants is adequate,



and the operation is considered to be good.  In view of this,



the bacteriological quality of the Potomac River is not expected



to be appreciably affected by the discharges from these plants.



         Industrial wastes which consist mainly of aircraft wash-



waters are discharged to the Patuxent River Basin.  A compre-



hensive survey of all waste discharges has been completed by a



private consultant, and an active program is underway to provide



modifications of procedures and/or treatment of industrial wastes



where needed.

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                                                            5



Fort Washington National Monument




         Fort Washington, operated by the National Park Service,



is located on the Potomac River in Prince George's County, Mary-




land, about six miles south of the District of Columbia.  An



estimated 1,500 gpd of sanitary wastes are treated by septic tank



and sub-surface sand filter  No discharge has been observed from



the filter.  Several temporary chemical comfort stations are




rented from a private company on a daily basis when large crowds



are expected.






Fort Belvoir



         Fort Belvoir is an Army Corps of Engineers facility



located in Fairfax County, Virginia, about nine miles south of



Alexandria,  The mission of Fort Belvoir is the training of




engineer officers and the testing of military engineering equip-



ment.  The work-day population of the Fort is estimated to be



18,500 persons with the majority of these living on the post0



         Most of the domestic wastes of the Fort are treated at



two sewage treatment plants,,   Septic tanks with sub-surface



disposal are used to serve several isolated areas.  A program



is underway to connect most of the septic tanks to the main



sewerage system.



         Sewage Treatment Plant No*  1, serving approximately



3,700 persons, consists of bar screens,, primary settling tanks,




intermittant fixed-nozzle trickling filter, and chlorination with

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                                                              6





contact tank.  Open sludge drying beds are used for raw sludge.



Average flow to the plant is 312,000 gpd.  The plant is effect-



ing an 88 per cent BOD removal and an 86 per cent removal of



suspended solids, Indicating good operation.  The final plant



effluent is discharged through a 200-foot outfall to Gunston



Cove.  Sewage Treatment Plant No. 2, the larger of the two plants,



consists of a grit chamber, comminuter, primary settling tanks,



intermittent trickling filters, secondary settling tanks, and



chlorination with contact tank.  Primary and secondary sludges



are digested in a heated digester.  The digested sludge is then



dewatered by a vacuum filter.  The final sludge from this plant



and from Plant No. 1 is used for fertilizer, land fill and com-



post.  The treatment plant is effecting a 90 per cent BOD



removal and an 81 per cent removal of suspended solids, again



indicating good operation.  The flow to Plant No. 2 averages



1.45 mgd (million gallons per day).  The final effluent is dis-



charged into the Potomac River through a 900-foot outfall sewer.



        All septic tanks are reported to be operating satisfac-



torily with no discharge from the drain fields except at the



golf course club house, which has been observed to overflow to



Accotink Creek.



        All motor pools and vehicle parks are provided with



grease and oil separators which are carefully maintained,,  The



recovered grease and oil are sold.  The nuclear and climatic

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laboratory discharges 7.5 mgd of cooling water which has passed



once through a heat exchanger.  This waste, to which no chemicals



have been added, discharges to the Potomac River.



        The Potomac River, which receives the effluents from the



two primary sewage treatment plants, is in a degraded condition



near Fort Belvoir.  Algal blooms have occurred in the main stem



and also in Dogue Creek.  The well-treated effluent from Fort



Belvoir would be expected to have no significant effect on the



bacteriological quality of the Potomac River.





Lorton Nike Site



        Nike Site No. 64, located about 1.5 miles west of Lorton,



Virginia, in Fairfax County, has a complement of 50 persons.



Domestic wastes totaling about 3,000 gpd are treated by septic



tanks followed by sand filter beds.  The effluent is chlorinated



before discharge to Giles Run, a tributary of Occoquan Creek,



As this type of treatment effects very good bacterial reductions,



no appreciable effect on the bacteriological quality of the



receiving waters would be expected.





East Coast Radio Transmitting Station



        The East Coast Radio Transmitting Station, operated and



maintained by the Department of the Army, is located in Prince



William County, Virginia, approximately two miles southeast of



Woodbridge on Occoquan Bay.  The Station is manned 24 hours a

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                                                              8





day and has a rated complement of 110 persons.  Domestic wastes



are treated in two systems.  The system serving the quarters



area consists of a septic tank and sand filter followed by



chlorination before discharging to Marumsco Creek, a tributary



of Occoquan Bay.  This type of treatment effects very good



bacterial reductions.  This system treats an estimated 2,800



gpd from 41 full time residents in the housing area.  The



second system treats an estimated 2,000 gpd from personnel of



the three shifts in the operations area and consists of a septic



tank which discharges to land.  The effluent flows over land to



reach Occoquan Bay through marshy land.  Funds have been approp-



riated to divert these domestic wastes into the Woodbridge



Sanitary District's sewage treatment plant.  Bids are being



sought, and the proposed completion of the project is expected



for November 1964.  The project will eliminate discharge of



inadequately treated sewage to surface waters.





Naval Propellent Plantf Indian Head



        The Naval Propellant Plantf located near Indian Head,



Maryland, in Charles County, about 25 miles south of the District



of Columbia, carries out research on, and development of, chemical



propellents.  Approximately 2,800 persons are employed, and 500



persons are residents at the installation.  Domestic wastea from



the Housing Area are treated in a primary sewage treatment plant



with chlorination before discharge to the Potomac River.  Domestic

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wastes from the Rocket Engine Test Area and the Storage Area are




treated in three Imhoff tanks, two of which discharge to the



Potomac River, and one of which discharges to a tile field.  In



addition, individual septic tanks serve the area, two overflowing



to the Potomac River, one to Mattawoman Creek, and others discharg-



ing to tile fields.  The total flow to the Potomac River, including



the above systems without tile fields and the primary plant, is



about 255,000 gpd.  The total flow to the tile fields from the



Imhoff tank and the septic tanks is about 45,000 gpd_



        Both domestic and industrial wastes are discharged, un-



treated, from the Industrial Area through a combined system to



Mattawoman Creek,,  Several septic tanks in this area also dis-



charge effluent to Mattawoman Greek*  The flow of the industrial



wastes is estimated to be about 20,000 gpd^, but no estimate is



available on these domestic wastesc  The Stumpneck Area, utilized



for ordnance disposal, is separated from the major portion, of the



installation by Mattawoman Creek.  Approximately 130 persons



contribute wastes to eight septic tanks which discharge to sxib-



surface tile fields or to the surface of the ground.  Approxi-



mately 380,000 gpd of cooling water are discharged to the



Potomac River from the installation.  Steam eondensate is wasted



to the ground at various locations,  A project which includes



facilities to provide treatment for & .major port ion. of untreated



wastes from the installation is' proposed, for scheduling in. the



1969 Military Construction Program,

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                                                             10





Waldorf Nike Site



        Nike Site No. 44 is located near Waldorf in Charles County,



Maryland.  Domestic wastes are treated in three systems.  Wastes



from the control area and the mess hall receive treatment in an



extended mechanical aeration unit followed by chlorination.  This



unit with a design capacity of 100 persons presently treats the



wastes from 20 persons over each 24-hour period.  The discharge,



estimated to be 1,200 gpd, is to a ditch leading to Mattawoman



Creek.



        Wastes from the launching area are treated by septic tank



followed by sand filter and chlorination of effluent*  The contri-



buting population is the same as in the control area, and the



effluent, estimated to be 1,200 gpd, discharges to the same ditch.



        The housing area contains 12 units currently housing 3&



persons.  The wastes, estimated to be about 3,000 gpd, are treated



by septic tank followed by a sand filter bed.  Any effluent from



the filter bed would be collected in an artificial pond for



seepage; however, no effluent from the bed has been observed to



date.



        The small amount of well-treated and chlorinated waste



from the Waldorf Nike Site would be expected to have negligible



effect upon the bacteriological quality of the waters of Matta-



woman Creek or the Potomac River.

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                                                             11

Naval Research Laboratory Field Site,. Waldorf
        The Naval Research Laboratory Field Site, Waldorf, is
located in Charles County, Maryland, at the former Nike Site No.
45 Control Area.  An experimental antenna is being constructed
for research on communications.  About 15 to 20 persons will be
present during a normal work-day.  The existing system of septic
tank followed by a sand filter bed with post-chlorination will
be continued.  The discharge will be to a ditch running to
Mattawoman Creek.  The final effluent should have no appreciable
effect upon the bacteriological quality of Mattawoman Creek or
the Potomac River.

Manassas Air Force Base
        Manassas Air Force Base, located approximately nine
miles south of Manassas in Prince William County, Virginia, con-
tains the 647th Radar Squadron, SAGE.  The total population of
the Base is 175 persons, including residents.  The sanitary
wastes from one building, containing seven persons during the
work-day, discharge to a septic tank with sub-surface tile field
for disposal of effluent.  The main sewage treatment plant, which
serves the remaining 168 persons, was designed for a population
of 350.  It provides comminution, activated sludge treatment,
secondary settling, chlorination, and sludge drying on open beds.
The effluent, which ranges from 10,000 to 15,000 gpd, is dis-
charged to a small tributary of the South Fork Quantico River,

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                                                             12





which is a tributary of the Potomac River,  Operation of the



plant is considered to be good, and the effluent should have



little effect on the bacteriological quality of the Potomac



River.





Quantico Marine Corps Reservation



        The Quantico Marine Corps Reservation covers approximate-



ly 50,000 acres in William, Stafford, and Fauquier Counties,



Virginia, about 30 miles south of Washington, D. C.  The popula-



tion of the Reservation is 13,543, which includes 7,600 military



personnel and dependents who reside on the Reservation.  The



Reservation contains the Marine Corps Schools, including Camp



Barrett and Camp Upshur, and the Marine Corps Air Station,



including Brown Field,



        Sanitary wastes are mainly treated at the following



facilities:



        (l)  Mg.ifl Sewage Treatment Plant  consisting of pre-



             chlorination, sedimentation, trickling filters,



             final sedimentation, post-chlorination, and sludge



             digestion and drying, discharging 1.39 mgd to the



             Potomac River.



        (2)  Camp Upshur Sewage Treatment Plant  consisting



             of sedimentation, activated sludge process, final



             sedimentation, chlorination, and sludge digestion

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                                                     13





     and drying, discharging 94,000 gpd to Cedar Run



     of Occoquan Creels:, a tributary of the Potomac River.



(3)  Rifle Range Sewage Treatment Plant  consisting



     of sedimentation and digestion of sludge in an



     Imhoff tank, trickling filter, final sedimentation,



     ehlorination,, and sludge drying, discharging 60,000



     gpd during the summer to Beaver Run of Aquia Greek,



     a tributary of the Potomac River,  Winter flows



     decrease to about 25,000 gpd.



(4)  Brown Field Sej[ajge,J^a1^niL_. Plant  consisting



     of sedimentation and digestion of sludge in an



     Imhoff tank, ehlorination, and sludge drying, dis-



     charging a maximum flow of 86,400 gpd to Chopa-



     wamsic Creek, a tributary of the Potomac River.



     Maximum flows, which occur during the summer,



     exceed design capacity.



(5)  Midway Islands Sewage Treatment Plant  consisting



     of sedimentation and heated digestion of sludge in



     a circular Imhoff tank, trickling filter, final



     sedimentation, chlorination, and sludge drying,



     discharging 62,000 gpd to Tank Greek, a tributary



     of the Potomac River.




(6)  SssS&^SI^^^S3L^&-lSS^mL^lS^L  consisting



     of sedimentations activated sludge processf final

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                                                             14





             sedimentation, chlorination, and sludge digestion



             and drying, discharging 164,500 gpd to Aquia Creek.



        In addition to the above facilities, four septic tanks



and a cesspool receive a total flow of about 8,000 gpd with the



effluent discharged to sub-surface systems,,  Two septic tanks



located in the Brown Field Area overflow to the Potomac River,



and wastes from sanitary facilities at three other locations



discharge directly to the Potomac River.



        The principal industrial waste consists of washwater



from vehicle washracks.  Substantial amounts of greases and oils



are gaining entry to the Potomac River from the washracks.  A



landfill, receiving digested sewage sludge, ashes, and fill dirt,



located on the west bank of the Potomac River, is contributing



pollutional material to the river.





East Coast Radio Receiving Station



        The East Coast Radio Receiving Station, operated and



maintained by the Department of the Army, is located in Charles



County, Maryland, near La Plata.  An estimated 10,000 gpd of



sanitary wastes are treated by extended aeration, followed by



sand filter beds, before discharging to Clark Run of Zekiah



Swamp of the Wicomico River, a tributary of the Potomac River.



With this degree of treatment, the effluent might have a limit-



ed effect upon the bacteriological conditions in Clark Run,



while the effect would be negligible in the shellfish growing



areas of the Potomac River,

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                                                             15





Radio Research Field Site. ONR. La Plata



        The Radio Research Field Site, La Plata, Maryland, of



the Office of Naval Research, is contractor-operated and located



at former Nike Site No. 54.  About five persons will be located



at the former control area during an eight-hour work-day.  The



existing waste treatment facilities, consisting of septic tank



and sand filter bed, will be utilized.  No waste effluent is



expected from the filter bed tinder the present operation, since



the treatment system was designed for a far greater number of



persons.





Naval Weapons Laboratory,, Dahlgren



        The Naval Weapons Laboratory, located at Dahlgren,



Virginia, two miles downstream from the Potomac River (Morgan-



town) Bridge, is engaged in Naval weapons developmental activit-



ies.  The base has a population of 2,800 during the day and



1,000 at night.  The main portion of the base is served by a



secondary sewage treatment plant consisting of a barmlnuter,



primary settling basins, trickling filters, secondary settling



basins, chlorinators and chlorine contact tankss and sludge



digesters and drying beds.  The plant is currently operating at



its design capacity of 350,000 gpd.  The presently achieved



over-all BOD reduction of 85 per cent indicates good, operation,,



Discharge is to Machodoc Creek.  The plant effluent should have



very little effect upon the bacteriological quality of the

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                                                             16





adjacent Maryland shellfish waters under normal operating condi-



tions.  A potential adverse affect exists, however, due to the



possibility of emergency by-pass or plant malfunction, necessitat-



ing the discharge of raw or partially treated sewage and to the



proximity of both Maryland and Virginia shellfish growing waters



in the immediate vicinity.



        A total of 20 septic tanks with sub-surface disposal



facilities serve outlying areas.  A photographic laboratory dis-



charges several hundred gallons per week of solutions into the



main sewerage system.
George Washfl^gtWi Birthplace National Monument



        The George Washington Birthplace National Monument,



operated by the National Park Service, is located on the Potomac



River in Westmoreland County, Virginia.  Three septic tanks



receive about 1,000 gpd of sanitary wastes, with the effluent



being discharged to sub-surface tile fields.





Coast Guard Station, Piney Point



        The Coast Guard Station, Piney Point, is located in St.



Mary's County, Maryland, and has a complement of 11 men.  One



six-room house quarters nine men; a three-room house quarters



two men; and a small building contains the radio watch and



garage.  Each of the three buildings is served by a septic tank



and seepage pit.  No surface discharge has been observed from



the seepage pits.

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                                                             17





Naval Outlying Field, Webster



        The Naval Outlying Field, Webster, located in St. Mary's



County, Maryland, consists of two operational activities.



        About 15 to 20 enlisted men carry out the functions of



the landing field crew, including the operation of fire trucks



and other emergency vehicles.  Aircraft from the Patuxent Naval



Air Station and Andrews Air Force Base make occasional landings



there.  This activity will probably be discontinued in the near



future.



        The Naval Air Navigation and Electronics Project has a



complement of about 65 persons who are present during working



hours studying radar and electronic navigation.  Three septic



tanks serve the installation, one with a tile field, which dis-



charges to St. Mary's river, and the other two with chlorination



of the effluents before discharge to St. Mary's River.  These



discharges occur in "approved" shellfish waters.





Smith Point Light Station



        The Smith Point Light Station, operated by the Coast



Guard, is located about three miles off the mouth of the Potomac



River in the Chesapeake Bay off of Northumberland County, Virginia.



About 500 gpd of sanitary wastes are discharged, without treat-



ment, to the Bay into "approved" shellfish waters.

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                                                             18
             MARYLAND'S CLASSIFICATION PROGRAM FOR
                     SHEIXFISH GROWING AREAS
        Part I of the Manual of Operations of the Cooperative

Program for the Certification of Interstate Shellfish Shippers.

Public Health Service Publication No. 33, stipulates that shell-

fish growing areas are categorized according to four classifica-

tions:  "approved," "conditionally approved," "restricted," and

"prohibited/1

        The Maryland State Department of Health, as a participant

in the cooperative State-Public Health Service-industry program

for the certification of interstate shellfish shippers, currently

uses two classifications for all shellfish production waters.

All shellfish areas are designated as either "approved" or "pro-

hibited."  However, since about November 1, 1964, predelineated

temporary closure areas have been established within "approved"

areas, subject to possible sewage influence in the event of

treatment plant by-passing or failure.  This is essentially

consistent with the "conditionally approved" concept used in

the cooperative shellfish program.

        For classification purposes, the Maryland State Depart-

ment of Health has divided the Potomac River estuary and

surrounding area of the Chesapeake Bay into five sections, as

shown in Figure 1*  Based upon bacteriological sanrpling and

sanitary surveys, the following classifications have been

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                                                             19





assigned within these sections.  In Section I, Neale Sound north



of Cobb Island is classified as "prohibited;" the remainder of



Section I is classified as "approved."  In Section II, Breton



Bay, north of a line drawn from Society Hill to Lovers Point,



is classified as "prohibited."  The remainder of Section II is



classified as "approved."  Section III is classified as "approved"



in its entirety.  In Section IV, St. Mary's River upstream from



a line from Portobello Point east to the opposite shore is



classified as "prohibited."  The remainder of Section IV is



classified as "approved."  Section V, which covers an area of



Chesapeake Bay north of the Potomac River from Cedar Point to



Point Lookout, is classified as "approved," except that a small



area adjacent to the Patuxent Naval Air Station is classified



as "prohibited."  This latter prohibited area is discussed in



the report, "Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations,



Patuxent River Basin, October 1964."

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                                                             20





                          CONCLUSIONS





        1.  Twelve of the seventeen Federal installations in the



Potomac River Basin, below Washington, D. C., either provide



adequate treatment of wastes or have initiated construction pro-



grams to correct existing deficiencies.  These installations



are:  Andrews Mr Force Base, Fort Washington National Monument,



Fort Belvoir, Lorton Nike Site, East Coast Radio Transmitting



Station, Waldorf Nike Site, Naval Research Laboratory Field Site,



Manassas Air Force Base, Radio Research Field Site of the Office



of Naval Research, Dahlgren Naval Weapons Laboratory, George



Washington Birthplace National Monument, and the Piney Point



Coast Guard Station.



        2,  The Naval Weapons Laboratory, Dahlgren, Virginia,



has adequate secondary treatment, is well operated, and under



normal operating conditions has no adverse affect on the



bacteriological quality of Maryland shellfish waters,  A poten-



tial adverse affect exists, however, in the event of emergency



by-pass or plant malfunction and due to the immediate proximity



of Virginia shellfish waters which are located between the



treatment plant outfall and the Maryland shellfish waters



        3.  The five remaining Federal installations (Naval



Propellant Plant, Indian Head; Quantieo Marine Corps Reservation;



East Coast Radio Receiving Station; Naval Outlying Field, Webster;



and Smith Point Light Station) were found to have certain

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                                                             21





deficiencies in waste treatment practices, as noted in the



following sections.  However, in view of the nature of these



deficiencies, the size of the installations involved, and their



location in relation to the shellfish growing areas concerned,



it is felt that the waste effluents from the Naval Propellant



Plant, Indian Head; Quantico Marine Corps Reservation; and East



Coast Radio Receiving Station do not contribute in any signifi-



cant manner to the bacteriological conditions which brought



about the recent closing of shellfish growing areas in the



Potomac River below Washington, D. C.



        4.  Two septic tanks at the Webster Naval Outlying Field



discharge chlorinated effluents directly to the St. Mary's River,



which is a shoreline violation in an "approved" shellfish area.



        5.  Sanitary wastes from the Smith Point Light Station



are discharged untreated to the Chesapeake Bay, in violation of



requirements in an "approved" shellfish area.



        6.  At the Indian Head Naval Propellant Plant, the dis-



charge of septic tank, Imhoff tank and primary treatment plant



effluents to the Potomac River is not considered to be adequate



treatment.  In addition, the discharge of untreated domestic



and industrial wastes to the Mattawoman Creek is not acceptable,



nor is the practice of disposing of septic tank effluents to



the ground surface adequate in view of the potential health



hazard associated with this procedure.

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                                                             22





        7.  At the Quantico Marine Corps Reservation, the design



capacity of the Brown Field Primary Sewage Treatment Plant is



exceeded during the summer months.  In addition, effluents from



two septic tanks located in the Brown Field Area and untreated



wastes from three other locations discharge directly to the



Potomac River,



        8.  Wastes from vehicle washracks at the Quantico Marine



Corps Reservation containing grease and oils are discharged to



the Potomac River.



        9.  A landfill operation at the Quantico Marine Corps



Reservation is contributing pollutional material to the Potomac



River.



       10.  A treatment facility at the East Coast Radio Receiv-



ing Station discharges waste effluent to Clark Run without



chlorination.

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                                                             23





                        RECQMyENBAlIONS





        1.  A detailed engineering study should be made to



determine the most feasible solution or solutions to current



deficiencies in treatment practices at the Indian Head Naval



Propellant Plant,,  Specific items to be considered include:



            a.  Provision of secondary treatment or its



                equivalent for all domestic and industrial



                wastes,



            b.  Separate treatment of industrial wastes, if



                these wastes are shown to be toxic to.bio-



                logical treatment processes.



            c.  Sub-surface disposal of effluents from



                septic tanks.



        2.  The Quantico Marine Corps Reservation should initiate



an action program leading to the design and construction of



adequate secondary treatment facilities to serve the Brown Field



Area.  Additional capacity in the primary units of this plant



should be provided as required to insure adequate treatment of



the peai summertime loads.



        3,  Adequate treatment facilities should be provided at



all locations within the Quantico Reservation where septic tank



overflows and untreated wastes currently discharge to the Potomac



River.

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                                                             24





        4.  The Quantico Reservation's landfill operation on the



west bank of the Potomac should "fee moved Inland, if feasible, to



eliminate this source of pollutian of the Potomac River.



        5.  Wastes generated by vehicle washing operations at



the Quantico Reservation should receive adequate treatment for



oil and grease removal.



        6.  Dahlgren Naval Weapons Laboratory should provide



dual effluent ehlorination facilities to insure the highest



possible degree of protection for shellfish areas adjacent to



the treatment plant outfall.  Arrangements should also be made



for notification to the Maryland and Virginia Departments of



Health in the event of plant malfunction or ehlorination failure.



        7.  Septic tanks at the Webster Naval Outlying Field



should be provided with sub-surface disposal systems



        8.  Untreated wastes from the Smith Point Light Station



should receive adequate treatment.



        9.  Chlorination should be provided for all effluents



discharged to surface waters from sanitary waste treatment



facilities of these installations,

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION	     1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION  	     2

WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES	     3

    Cove Point Light Station	 .     3

    Naval Reserve lab (Chesapeake Beach)	     3

    Thomas Point Shoal Light Station	     4

    Coast Guard Station, Annapolis 	     4

    Naval Academy (Annapolis)  ..............     5

    Ellieott City Post Office  	     6

    Fort MeHenry National Monument (Baltimore)	     7

    Corps of Engineers facility, Fort McHenry (Baltimore).     7

    Naval Reserve Training Center, Baltimore 	     S

    GSA-DJE Depot, Curtis Bay	     9

    Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Creek	    10

    Fort Howard Veterans Administration Hospital	    11

    Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (Strawberry
      Point)	    11

    Edgewood Arsenal	    13

    Aberdeen Proving Ground  ...... 	    14

    Naval Training Center,  Bainbridge  .	    15

    Perry Point Veterans Administration Hospital .....    16

    Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Resident Office
      (Chesapeake City)	    16

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                    Light Attendant Station	    17

    Kent County Nike Site (No. 30) (Tolchester)	    17

    Coast Guard Station, Tilghnan Island	. .     18

MAEXLAHD'S CLASSIFICATION ERQ3BAM FOR SHELLFISH GROWING
  AREAS	    19

CONCLUSIONS  .......................    20

RECOMMENDATIONS	    22

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                          INTRODUCTION





        The Maryland State Department of Health recently pro-



hibited the harvesting of shellfish from several areas of the



Chesapeake Bay due to water pollution.  In order to determine



the extent to which Federal installations may contribute to these



unsatisfactory conditions, a review was made of practices at



those installations which discharge waste effluents to the



Chesapeake Bay system in Maryland.  This report summarizes the



waste disposal practices at all Federal installations, excluding



those in the Potomac and Patuxent River Basins, which could



affect the water quality of the upper Chesapeake Bay and sets



forth recommendations for improvements where necessary.  Two



previous reports presented similar information on Federal installa-



tions in the Potomac and Patuxent River Basins.



        The report has been prepared in cooperation with the



Division of Environmental Engineering and Food Protection, Shell-



fish Sanitation Branch of the Public Health Service.

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                      GENERAL DESCRIPTION





        The Chesapeake Bay is a large estuarine system with a



total drainage area of 67,000 square miles, covering parts of



the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, West



Virginia, and Virginia.  The surface area of the Bay, plus its



tributary estuaries, is 3,260 square nautical miles.  Waters of



the Bay are used extensively for recreation, cooling water sup-



plies, and sjort and coHmereial fishing.  The shellfish harvest



in Maryland totaled 34.3 million pounds in 1963 and was valued



at 9.3 million dollars.

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                    WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES





        Twenty-one Federal installations in the upper Chesapeake



Bay area, excluding the Potomac and Patuxent River Basins, were



considered to be located such that waste effluent discharges



could conceivably affect the quality of shellfish growing waters



in Maryland.  Following are brief descriptions of those installa-



tions and their waste disposal practices, listed clockwise



around the Bay.  The locations of the installations are shown



on Figure 1, inside back cover.





Cove Point Light Station



        The Cove Point Light Station of the Coast Guard is



located near the southern tip of Calvert County, Maryland.



Sanitary wastes from three residence units with 15 persons and



the radio building are discharged to a septic tank followed by



a tile field.  Seepage from the tile field to the ground surface



has been observed.  A new system consisting of a septic tank



followed by a sand filter bed, from which no effluent is expected,



has been planned and is expected to be completed by June 1965.
Naval Reserve Lab



        The Naval Reserve Lab, located at Chesapeake Beach in



Calvert County, Maryland, employs 350 to 400 persons.  Approxi-



mately 38,000 gpd (gallons per day) of domestic wastes are treat-



ed in a secondary sewage treatment plant designed for 50,000 gpd,

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consisting of primary sedimentation, secondary treatment by



trickling filter, secondary sedimentation, post-chlorination,



and sludge digestion and drying.  Discharge is to the Chesapeake



Bay.  Periodic laboratory analyses of the plant effluent reveal



good operation.  BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal has



been in excess of 90 per cent.  Two septic tanks discharging to



sub-surface systems receive 100 gpd from remote buildings.



About 1,000 gpd of wasted cooling water are discharged from cool-



ing towers of the air conditioning system to the Chesapeake Bay.





Thomas Point Shoaj. Light Station



        Thomas Point Shoal Light Station of the Coast Guard is



located in the Chesapeake Bay about 1.5 miles off of Thomas



Point in Anne Arundel County, Maryland.  Approximately 500 gpd



of sanitary wastes are discharged to the Bay without treatment.





Coast Guard Stationf Annapolis



        The Coast Guard Station, Annapolis, is a search and



rescue unit quartered in a two-deck barge docked near the mouth



of Back Creek, a tributary of the Severn River in Arme Arundel



County, Maryland.  Out of a staff of ten, an average of five to



eight men may be found aboard at any one time.  Sanitary wastes



are treated by two septic tanks in series and are chlorinated



before discharging to the creek.  This system is not considered



to be satisfactory.  Wastes from the galley, showers, lavatories,

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and an automatic clothes washing machine discharge overboard



with no treatment.  Sanitary sewers of the City of Annapolis



are available within a few hundred feet,





Naval Academy



        The Naval Academy, located on the south side of the



Severn River in Annapolis, Maryland, discharges approximately



1.18 mgd (million gallons per day) of domestic wastes to the



Academy sewerage system, which is connected to the Annapolis



City system.  Approximately 175,000 gpd of laundry wastes are



discharged to the Severn River without treatment.  The Fiscal



Year 1966 Military Construction Program includes plans for



building a new laundry with construction planned for the spring



of 1966.  After completion, discharge of laundry wastes will be



to the Academy sewerage system.



        The Marine Engineering Laboratory, Naval Radio Station,



Naval Station, Naval Small Craft Facility, and the Naval Academy



Officer's Golf Association, all located on the north side of the



Severn River opposite the Naval Academy, are served by a primary



sewage treatment plant operated by the Naval Academy.  Personnel



plus dependents total about 2,200 persons, of whom about 1^,500



are residents; and the Golf Association has 325 members  The



plant, designed to treat 1.0 mgd, is presently receiving 430,000



gpd of domestic wastes.  Treatment consists of pre-chlorination



for odor control, sedimentation, post-chlorination, and sludge

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digestion and drying.  The plant effluent flows by gravity



through a pipeline laid on the bottom of Carr's Creek and finally



discharges about 1,500 feet out in the Severn River,  A -weir



higher than the maximum high tide separates the effluent pipe-



line at the plant from the pipeline in Carr's Creek.  While no



chlorine contact chamber has been provided^ calculations show



that a contact time of about a half hour is provided by the out-



fall pipe.  Approximately #.4 mgd of cooling water are pumped



from the Severn River and discharged back to the .River with no



chemicals added.  The lower Severn Hiver estuary is a "prohibited"



shellfish harvesting area.





Ellicott City Post Office



        The Ellicott City Post Office,, located in Howard County,



Maryland, discharges sanitary wastes directly to Tiber River



without treatment  Post Office employees total 28 persons, and



in addition.,eight to ten persons In the County Agent's Office



are located in the same building.  No eojssninity sewerage system



is available in Ellicott City; however, the County is currently



developing a sewerage system program.  All other buildings in



the area also discharge wastes directly, without treatment, so



that treatment of wastes from the Post Office, as a temporary



measure, would have very little beneficial effect.

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Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine



        Fort McHenry, located in Baltimore, Maryland, and operat-



ed by the National Park Service, attracts about a half million



people each year.  Of these, perhaps two-thirds go to the



Visitor Center and 50,000 to 60,000 pay admission to enter the



Fort.  The average attendance during August, the heaviest month,



through the main gate is 3,300 persons per day.  It is estimated



that a maximum of 30,000 gpd of sanitary wastes are treated in



two septic tanks.  A 12,000-gallon eeptie tank serving the



Visitor Center, discharges directly to the Northwest Branch,



Patapsco River, and a 3,500-gallon septic tank receiving wastes



from inside the Fort, discharges directly to the Patapseo River.



City sewers are located about a quarter of a mile away, but on



the other side of a ravine and at a higher elevation.  This



installation is located adjacent to an Army Corps of Engineers



installation and a Navy Reserve Center, both discharging inade-



quately treated wastes.  Therefore, consideration should be



given to a cooperative effort by these agencies to connecting



sanitary facilities to the City system or to constructing a com-



mon facility at one of the installations to provide adequate



treatment.





Corps of Engineers Facilityf Fort McHenry



        The Corps of Engineers Facility at Fort McHenry, in



Baltimore, Maryland, consists of two buildings.  One building

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                                                              8
contains a soils laboratory with ten persons and a navigation



group with five persons.  The second building is a warehouse



with five persons.  Another ten field personnel are present at



the facility briefly each day.  The total waste of about 450



gpd discharges without treatment directly to the Patapsco River.



Since this facility is located adjacent to both Fort McHenry



National Monument and the Naval Reserve Training Center, neither



of which provide adequate treatment, consideration should be



given to a cooperative program of waste disposal with those



agencies.  City sewers are located about a quarter of a mile



away, but on the other side of a ravine and at a higher eleva-



tion,





NavajL Reserve Training Center. Baltimore



        The Naval Reserve Training Center, Baltimore, is located



adjacent to Fort McHenry in the City of Baltimore, Maryland.



The installation contains three buildings (only one in use at



the present), a destroyer escort (DE-218), and a grounded sub-



marine.  Twenty-six assigned persons administer the Training



Center; 58 men are aboard the destroyer escort full time; and



approximately 275 persons attend training sessions for three



hours on five nights per week and eight hours per day on week-



ends.  About 50,OCX) gpd of domestic wastes are discharged directly



to the Northwest Branch, Patapsco liver, without treatment.



Siace this installation is located adjacent to both Fort McHenry

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National Monument and a Corps of Engineers facility, neither of



which have adequate waste treatment, consideration should be



given to a cooperative program of waste disposal with those



agencies.  City sanitary sewers are located about a quarter of



a mile away, but on the other side of a ravine and at a higher



elevation.






GSA - HidS Depot,. Curtis Bay



        The Defense Materials Service of the General Services



Administration operates the Curtis Bay Depot for the stock pil-



ing of strategic and critical materials for the Government in



Anne Arundel County, Just south of Baltimore, Maryland.  The



Army operates a Reserve Center on 20 acres of the total of 828



acres at the installation.  A 20,000-gallon septic tank serves



22 DM3 personnel and 20 Army personnel on an 8-hour, 5-day per



week basis, 50 Army Reservists on Thursday evenings, and 500



Army Reservists one weekend each month, eight hours each of the



two days.  A mess hall is operated for the mid-day meal for two



days one weekend a month.  Also, one residence with two addition-



al persons discharges to the tank.  A 2,000-gallon septic tank



serves 3^ persons in a change house with showers.  Both of the



septic tanks overflow directly to Curtis Creek without further



treatment.  A 500-gallon septic tank serves one person at the



guard house on each shift.  Sanitary facilities at the pier on



Curtis Creek serve two men during a regular work week and some

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                                                             10






of the Reservists part-time during the sunnier, discharging



apparently with no treatment.



        One vehicle maintenance shop services Army vehicles and



another shop services EMS vehicles.  Some minor discharges to



the storm drains of solvents, gasoline, oils, and radiator



drainings were observed.





Coqst Guard Yard, Curtis Creek



        The Coast Guard Yard is located south of Baltimore in



Anne Arundel County, Maryland.  The installation is "bordered by



Curtis Creek, a tributary of Curtis Bay and the Patapsco River.



It is the ship repair yard for Coast Guard vessels and headquarters



for small craft surveillance.  Population consists of 1,250



civilian employees, who work eight hours a day, and from 120 to



500 military personnel, who are residents.



        Domestic wastes, estimated to be in the magnitude of



25,000 gallons per day during normal work days, are discharged



from toilets and urinals to 15 septic tanks.  One septic tank



has sub-surface tile fields, seven overflow to Arundel Cove (a



tributary of Curtis Creek), and seven overflow to Curtis Creek.



Total tank capacity is reported to be 21,000 gallons.  Coast



Guard personnel indicated that the tanks are cleaned every



spring by private contractor.  Other sanitary wastes from showers,



washbowls, etc., are estimated to be approximately 35,000 gallons



per day and are discharged to storm sewers.

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                                                             11

        The Coast Guard vessels that operate out of Curtis Bay
on various missions periodically return for supplies and repairs.
While docked, domestic wastes are discharged overboard.  No
estimate is available as to what this volume may be.  If vessels
are docked for prolonged periods, the crews move into barracks
located on the base.
        Industrial wastes, for which an estimate is not avail-
able, are discharged untreated either into Arundel Cove or
Curtis Creek, or are collected in containers and disposed of by
commercial contract.  The wastes originate from the many shops
which carry on diverse activities in support of vessel repair
and maintenance.

Fort Howard Veteran^ AdainjLstration Hospital
        The Fort Howard VA Hospital, located in Baltimore County,
Maryland, discharges about 100,000 gpd of wastes to the Patapsco
River.  Most of the wastes are not treated, the only treated
effluents being from a few small septic tanks,  A program of
sewer construction is underway by the Baltimore County Depart-
ment of Public Works to collect all of the wastes from the
hospital for treatment at Baltimore City's Back River Sewage
Treatment Plant by the end of calendar year 1965.

Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant
        The Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, located on

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                                                             12






land leased from the Martin Company at Strawberry Point in



Baltimore County, Maryland, carries out modification of aircraft,



propalsion experiments, and acoustics testing.  Approximately



200 persons are present during a normal working day.  Sanitary



wastes of about 7,000 gallons for eight hours each day are



treated in a secondary sewage treatment plant designed to treat



about 16,000 gallons for eight hours each day (a rate of 48,000



gpd) and consisting of sedimentation and digestion of sludge in



a two-story circular tank, trickling filter, final sedimentation,



chlorination with contact tank, and sludge drying  Discharge is



to Prog Sfortar Creek, a tributary of Middle River.  Becirculation



from the bottom of the final sedimentation tank to the primary



sedimentation tanks removes sludge from the final tank and pro-



vides adequate moisture and nutrients to the trickling filter



during periods of low flow (nights and weekends).  The final



sedimentation tank was converted from a previously existing



septic tank and has no provision to collect floating solids.



The lack of this feature is probably not serious under present



low flows, but in the event flows are increased substantially,



the need for a skimming device should be determined.  No apparent



industrial waste problems exist, although the handling and



storage of jet fuels present a potential problem from spillage,



so that great care must be given in any transfer of the fuel.



The General Services Administration has issued a permit to the

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                                                             13





Air Force to use this installation for a three-year period, but



the beginning date has not been settled.





EdgewQod Arsenal



        The Edgewood Arsenal of the Department of the Army,



covering 4,700 acres near Edgewood, Maryland, in Baltimore County,



has a population of 7,100, of which 3,200 are residents.  Activ-



ities include research and development of chemical warfare agents,



operation of a former Army chemical plant by the Diamond Alkali



Chemical Company, and research and development by the Nuclear



Research Labs.  The Fourth Missile Battalion Headquarters is



stationed at the Arsenal, and a battery is maintained near the



Arsenal.  A primary sewage treatment plant, consisting of com-



minution, sedimentation, and sludge digestion and drying,



receives an average of 1.4 mgd of domestic wastes from the



Arsenal and from Edgewood and vicinity.  Discharge is to the



Bush River.  An additional 20,000 gpd from remote areas of the



Arsenal are treated by septic tanks, some of which discharge to



the Gunpowder or Bush Rivers or their tributaries, while others



discharge to sub-surface tile fields.  About 40,000 gpd of



domestic wastes from the missile battery are treated by septic



tank, followed by sand filtration and chlorination.



        The chemical plant discharges to Canal Creek of the Gun-



powder River approximately 600,000 gpd of cooling water (110 -



120F.) and 150,000 gpd of industrial waste containing alkalies,

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                                                             14

calcium carbonate, and chlorine from the manufacture of chlorine,
caustic soda, and hydrogen from salt.  An additional estimated
850,000 gpd of industrial waste containing organic solvents from
the Chemical Research and Development Labs and caustic soda from
the Bulk Operation lab are discharged to the Bush River.  A
study by the Army Environmental Hygiene Agency in 1962 showed
substantial bacterial contribution from the Arsenal to Bush
River and also showed high pH values in Canal Creek, Gunpowder
River, Kings Creek, and Bush River.

Aberdeen Prov;ing Ground
        Aberdeen Proving Ground, a large Army Post located in
Harford County, Maryland, has two primary missions; (l) research,
development, and engineering testing of .Army material, and (2)
ordnance and other military training.  Employment totals approx-
imately 10,700; some 5,000 of which are residents along with
about 2,500 dependents.  Most of the sanitary wastes are treated
in two sewage treatment plants.  In addition, a small primary
plant serves the airport and discharges to Romney Creek, a
tributary of the Chesapeake Bayj and 58 septic tanks with sub-
surface tile fields serve outlying areas.  The Main Sewage Treat-
ment Plant, with a design capacity of 2.8 mgd, receives an
                    /
average flow of 1.35 mgd and consists of screening, sedimenta-
tion, and sludge digestion and drying.  Effluent is discharged
to Spesutie Narrows (a tidal basin artificially closed at the

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                                                             15



northern end with the southern end open to the Chesapeake Bay).


Spesutie Narrows is located within the boundaries of the reserva-


tion.  The Pussey Sewage Treatment Plant,with a design capacity

                                                  /
of 500^,000 gpd, receives an average of 167,000 gpd from 670


Wherry Housing units.  Treatment consists of screening, sedimenta-


tion and digestion of sludge in Imhoff tanks,, secondary treat-


ment by trickling filter, final sedimentation, and sludge drying.


Effluent is discharged to Swan Creek, which is located outside


the reservation and flows to the Chesepaake Bay,  The unchlorinat-


ed effluents from both major sewage treatment plants could cause


bacteriological contamination of the Chesapeake Bay.  Industrial


wastes consist mainly of vehicle wash waters.



Naval Training Center,. Bainbridge


        The Naval Training Center at Bainbridge, iferyland, in


Cecil County, has a 24-hour population equivalent of about 7,100


(that is, countis^ an 8-hour employee as one-third equivalent


and & full-time resident as one equivalent).  Sanitary wastes


from the Training Center, Manor Heights housing, and a county


school, averaging 675,000 gpd, are treated in a secondary sewage


treatment plant designed to treat an average flow of 3.0 mgd.


(Some of the treatment units are out of service due to the re-


duced flows).  The treatment plant consists of grit chamber,


pre-chlorinator, comminuter, primary settling basins, trickling


filters, final sedimentation basins, post-chlorinator with

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                                                             16
contact chamber, and sludge digesters and drying beds.  The
plant effluent discharges to the Susquehanna River below Port
Deposit, Maryland.  The well-treated and chlorinated effluent
should have little effect upon the "bacteriological quality of
the river or the Chesapeake Bay,
Perrv Point Yeterqiftp Ai^inistra'tiion Hospital
        The Perry Point VA Hospital, located in Cecil County,
Maryland, provides care for about 1,500 patients with a component
of 1,200 employees.  About 300 of the employees reside on the
grounds with their dependents.  Effective January 14, 1965, the
approximately 500,000 gpd of domestic and industrial wastes
generated by this installation received secondary treatment in
the Perryville Sewage Treatment Plant.  This treatment plant,
owned and operated by the Town of Perryville, Maryland, is a
modified activated sludge plant including primary clarifiers,
combination aeration and settling tanks, heated digester, sludge
drying beds, and chlorination.  This well-treated and chlorinated
effluent should_have little effect upon the bacteriological quality
of t^e Susquehanna River^r the Chesapeake Bay.
        The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Resident Office of the
Corps of Engineers is located at Chesapeake City, in Cecil County,
Maryland.  The Resident Office employs 69 persons, nine of whom

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                                                             17

are present in the office during the working day, five days a
week; and one person is present all other times.  The remaining
persons are present only at the beginning and the ending of the
working day.  About 600 gpd of sewage are treated in a septic
tank and discharged directly to the Chesapeake and Delaware
Canal.

Chesapeake City Light Attendant Station
        The Chesapeake City Light Attendant Station of the Coast
Guard is located at the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Resident
Office of the Corps of Engineers at Chesapeake City, Maryland.
The Station has a component of four men who are present during
the working day five days a week.  The one building consists
largely of shops for attending lights along the Chesapeake and
Delaware Canal.  One 40-foot "buoy "boat is maintained at the Sta-
tion.  Wastes are treated by a septic tank which discharges
directly to a small boat basin along the Chesapeake and Delaware
Canal.  This procedure is unsatisfactory.

     County Nj,ke Sifre
        Nike Site No. 30 is located near Tolchester in Kent
County, Maryland.  The Control Area is served by two septic
tanks with leaching wells.  Three identical systems serve the
MCA Housing Area and two sections of barracks at the Launch Area,
consisting of septic tanks, sub-surface sand filters with underdrains,

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                                                             18





and chlorination.  Discharge from the sand filters,  totaling



about 6,000 gpd, is to a small tributary of Chesapeake Bay.



This small amount of well-treated and chlorinated effluent would



be expected to have very little effect upon the bacteriological



quality of the tributary and of the Chesapeake Bay.





Coast Guard Station. Tilghman Island



        The Coast Guard Station, Tilghroan Island, located in



Talbot County, Maryland, has a component of nine men.  The Sta-



tion is a  search and rescue unit, as well as a light attendant



station.  It is located in one building, and waste disposal  is



through a septic tank and sand filter bed.  No discharge has



been observed from the bed to date.

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                                                             19
             MABXLAND'S CLASSIFICATION PROGRAM FOR
                     SHELLFISH GROWING AREAS
        Bart I of the Manual of Operations of the Cooperative
Prograjj for the Certification of Interstate Shellfish Shippers t
Public Health Service Publication No. 33, stipulates that shell-
fish growing areas are categorized according to four classifica-
tions;'  "approved," "conditionally approved," "restricted," and
"prohibited."
        The Maryland State Department of Health, as a participant
in the cooperative State-Public Health Service-industry program
for the certification of interstate shellfish shippers, currently
uses two classifications for all shellfish production waters.
All shellfish areas are designated as either "approved" or "pro-
hibited."  However, since about November 1, 1964, predelineated
temporary closure areas have been established within "approved"
areas, subject to possible sewage influence in the event of
treatment plant by-passing or failure.  This is essentially
consistent with the "conditionally approved" concept used in
the cooperative shellfish program.
        The shellfish harvesting areas in Maryland waters cover-
ed by this report, classified as "prohibited" as of December 1,
1964, are shown on Figure 1.  All other areas are classified as
"approved."

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                                                             20

                          CONCLUSIONS

        1.  Six of the 21 Federal installations in the Chesa-
peake Bay area of Maryland, excluding the Potomac and Patuxent
River Basins, provide a satisfactory degree of treatment for
sanitary wastes.  These installations are: Naval Reserve Lab at
Chesapeake Beach; Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant at
Strawberry Point; Naval Training Center at Bairibridge; Kent
County Nike Site near Tolchester; Coast Guard Station, Tilghman
Island; and Perry Point VA Hospital.
        2.  At the Cove Point Light Station, seepage of septic
tank effluent from the tile field to the ground surface presents
an unsatisfactory condition.  The problem has been recognized
by Coast Guard authorities, and plans for a new disposal system
are complete.
        3.  The Thomas Point Shoal Light Station provides no
treatment for sanitary wastes.
        4.  The Coast Guard Station, Annapolis, provides inade-
quate treatment of sanitary wastes.  The problem has been
recognized by the Coast Guard authorities, and plans are under-
way to connect to the Annapolis sewerage system.
        5.  Laundry wastes from the Naval Academy are discharged
directly to the Severn River without treatment.  The Severn
River and adjoining areas of the Chesapeake Bay are highly
utilized for recreation and for Naval Academy boating activities,

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                                                             21





so that a Mgh degree of protection of the waters is necessary,



        6.  The Post Office at Ellieott City provides no treat-



ment of sanitary wastes.  However, plans for a sewerage system



are underway by Howard County, and it is anticipated that the



Post Office will connect to this system when it becomes avail-



able .,  Short term remedial measures would have little beneficial



effect, because all other buildings in the area provide no treat-



ment.



        7.  At Fort MeHenry National Monument and Historic



Shrine, the septic tanks are not considered as adequate treat-



ment devices.



        8.  The Naval Reserve Training Center, Baltimore, pro-



vides no treatment of sanitary wastes,



        9.  The Corps of Engineers Facility at Fort McHenry pro-



vides no treatment of sanitary wastes.



       10.  At the GSA-HB Depot, the septic tanks are not con-



sidered as adequate treatment devices.  Some minor discharges



of solvents, gasoline, oil, and radiator drainings to storm



drains were observed.



       11.  At the Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Creek, 14 septic



tanks which overflow are not considered to constitute adequate



treatment.  The discharge of other sanitary wastes to storm



drains is also not acceptable.  The untreated discharge of



industrial wastes from various activities also contributes to

-------
                                                             22






pollution of Curtis Bay.



        12.  The Fort Howard VA Hospital provides no treatment



of sanitary wastes.  However, plans are underway to connect to



the Baltimore sewerage system daring 1965,



        13 o  Inadequate treatment of wastes from the Fort MeHenry



National Monument, the Corps of Engineers Facility at Fort



McHenry, the Naval Reserve Training Center at Baltimore, the



Ourtis Bay GSA-H6 Depot, the Curtis Greek Coast Guard Yard,



and the Fort Howard VA Hospital represents a health hazard, due



to the fact that these discharges occur in a potential shellfish



harvesting area subject to "sport harvesting" at this time.



        14  At the Edgewood Arsenal, ehlorination of the effluent



from the primary sewage treatment plant is not provided,  A high-



er degree of treatment is needed, considering the high recreational



use of the receiving waters and the location of an "approved"



shellfish area immediately downstream from the installation.



Waters receiving domestic and industrial wastes have been observed



to have excessive bacteriological and pH levels.  Several septic



tanks discharge directly to surface waters.



        15.  At the Aberdeen Proving Ground, ehlorination of the



effluents from both ma^or sewage treatment plants is not pro-



vided..  A higher degree of treatment is needed at the main plant,



considering the high recreational use of the Chesapeake Bay and



the location of an "approved" shellfish area immediately downstream



from the installations.

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                                                             23





        16.  At the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Resident



Office^, the septic tank is not considered as an adequate treat-



ment device.



        17.  The Chesapeake City Light Attendant Station pro-



vides no treatment of sanitary wastes.

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                                                             24

                        BECCMMMDATIONS

        1.  The Cove Point Light Station should be provided with
a new septic tank and sub-surface disposal system, as planned.
        2.  The Thomas Point Light Station should provide adequate
treatment of sanitary wastes.
        3.  The Coast CJuard Station, Annapolis, should connect
to the Annapolis sewerage system, as planned.
        4.  At the Naval Academy, plans should be developed to
provide secondary treatment including chlorination.
        5.  A cooperative program of waste disposal should be
developed by the Naval Reserve Training Center, Fort McHenry
National Monument, and the Corps of Engineers Facility, Fort
McHenry.  Consideration should be given to connecting to the
Baltimore sewerage system.
        6.  The GSA-HB Depot should provide sub-surface disposal
of septic tank effluents, or an alternate plan for secondary
treatment including chlorination should be developed.
        7.  The Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Creek, should conduct
an engineering study to develop plans for adequate collection
and treatment of sewage and industrial wastes.  Such plans
should include provisions for:
            a.  Collection of all sanitary wastes, including
                wastes from showers, wash basins,  etc., now
                discharging to storm sewers.

-------

-------
                                                             25



            b.  Collection and proper treatment of all industrial



                wastes.  Separate treatment should be provided



                if these wastes are not amendable to conventional



                sewage treatment processes.



            c.  Provision in the collection system to care for



                wastes emanating from docked vessels.



            d.  Secondary type waste treatment facilities, includ-



                ing chlorination of plant effluent.



        8.  Edgewood Arsenal should provide ehlorination of



waste effluent from the primary sewage treatment plant as soon



as possible.  Plans should be developed to provide secondary



treatment including chlorination in the near future.  All septic



tanks discharging to surface waters should be provided with sub-



surface disposal of effluents, or the contributing facilities



should be connected to the Arsenal sewerage system.  Additional



data should be obtained to determine whether industrial wastes



from the Arsenal are causing pollution of receiving waters.



        9.  The Aberdeen Proving Ground should provide chlorina-



tion of waste effluent from both major sewage treatment plants



as SOCHI as possible.  Plans should be developed to provide



secondary treatment of all wastes, including chlorinstion, in



the near future.



       10.  The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Resident Office



and the Chesapeake Light Attendant Station should either be con-



nected to the Chesapeake City sewerage system or a plan for pro-



viding secondary treatment with chlorination should be developed.

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                                                             26





       11.  Federal installations should make arrangements for



notification to the Maryland Department of Health in the event



of plant malfunction or chlorination failure.

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                                                      LEGEND
                                                           NOTEJ   FEDERAL  INSTALLATIONS IN  THE PATUXENT
                                                           AND POTOMAC  RIVER  BASINS  ARE COVERED  IN
                                                           SEPARATE REPORTS
                                                             COVE  POINT LIGHT STATION
                                                             NAVAL RESERVE  LAB
                                                             THOMAS POINT SHOAL LIGHT STATION
                                                             COAST GUARD  STATION, ANNAPOLIS
                                                             NAVAL ACADEMY,  ANNAPOLIS
                                                             ELL!COTT  CITY POST OFFICE
                                                             FORT  McHENRY NATIONAL  MONUMENT
                                                             CORPS OF  ENGINEERS FACILITY, FORT McHENRY
                                                             NAVAL RESERVE  TRAINING  CENTER
                                                             GSA-DMS DEPOT,  CURTIS  BAY
                                                             COAST GUARD YARD, CURTIS  CREEK
                                                             FORT  HOWARD VETERANS   HOSPITAL
                                                             NAVAL  WEAPONS INDUSTRIAL  PLANT
                                                             EOGEWOOD ARSENAL
                                                             ABERDEEN  PROVING  GROUND
                                                             NAVAL  TRAINING  CENTER, BAINBRIDGE
                                                             PERRY POINT  VETERANS  HOSPITAL
                                                             CHESAPEAKE 6 DELAWARE  CANAL  RESIDENT  OFFICE
                                                             CHESAPEAKE  CITY LIGHT  ATTENDANT STATION
                                                             KENT  COUNTY NIKE  SITE  (NO  30)
                                                             COAST GUARD STATION, TiLGHMAN  ISLAND

                                                           i-oo  =  FEDERAL  INSTALLATIONS

                                                                =  AREAS  PROHIBITED TO SHELLFISH HARVESTING
FEDERAL  INSTALLATIONS - CHESAPEAKE  BAY  AREA  OF MARYLAND

-------
                  THE POTOMAC ESTUARY

               STATISTICS AND PROJECTIONS
                                  ##
                    Johan A. Aalto
Presented at the winter public meeting of the Interstate
Commission on the Potomac River Basin at Fredericksburg,
Virginia, on February 29, 1968


Acting Director, Chesapeake Field Station, Middle Atlantic
Region, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
Department of the Interior

-------
                      THE POTOMAC ESTUARY
                  STATISTICS AND PROJECTIONS
                                      **
                        Johan A. Aalto
        Before examining the Potomac Estuary in particular as a

changing environment, it is necessary that we view the critical

area of the upper estuary, the center of our interest in this

discussion of water quality, in its proper perspective within

the entire Potomac River Basin.  Since problems of the Potomac

Estuary were last discussed at a meeting of this group in 196^,

considerable data have been collected and analyzed which enable

us to identify more precisely areas where water quality degrada-

tion has occurred, the extent to which inadequately treated waste

discharges continue to contribute to this degradation, and the

effect of desirable and necessary corrective actions by

municipalities or industries.

        Several stream segments upstream from the Metropolitan

Washington area have been identified where water quality does

not conform with established nor proposed State standards .  How-

ever, in every case the natural assimilative capacity of the

receiving waters has been adequate to eliminate any measurable
    Presented at the winter public meeting of the Interstate
    Commission on the Potomac River Basin at Fredericksburg,
    Virginia, on February 29, 1968.
**
    Acting Director, Chesapeake Field Station, Middle Atlantic
    Region, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
    Department of the Interior.

-------
water quality degradation long before it reached the upper estu-




ary near Washington.  Staff of the Chesapeake Field Station of




the Middle Atlantic Region, Federal Water Pollution Control




Administration, have determined the general pollution abatement




actions necessary to control the major waste discharges of the




Potomac River Basin.  These immediate needs have been presented




in an internal document made available to pertinent State, County,




and other governmental agencies as a cooperative service, in




accordance with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1.965.




We have also carried out special studies of the upper estuary




and of selected upstream reaches of the River, as requested by




the Water Quality Sub-Task Group of the President's Interdepart-




mental Task Force on Project Potomac.  Several technical data




reports have been published in connection with bacteriological,




nutrient, diffusion, and other investigations of water quality




conditions in the Potomac Estuary.




        It should come as no surprise to you that more than two-




thirds of the total pollution load in the Potomac River Basin,




expressed as 5-day biocnemical oxygen demand (BOD), is discharged




as treated sewage wastes into the upper Potomac Estuary.  Fortu-




nately, industrial development envisioned by President George




Washington has not materialized, so that industrial wastes are




not a significant part of the water quality problem in the




Estuary today.

-------
        The waste assimilative capacity of the free-flowing River




upstream is greater than that of the Estuary where the net seaward




flow is slow, especially during the critical low flow months in




late summer.  Waste loads from the Washington Metropolitan area's




population of approximately two million people, after present




treatment levels, are equivalent to the untreated sewage from




850,000 people.  This load of approximately 1^0,000 pounds of




5-day BOD per day is eight times the assimilative capacity re-




quired to maintain a dissolved oxygen (DO) average of 5 milligrams




per liter (mg/l).  We find that the proposed DO objective has not




been met in recent years between Fort Washington and the Alexandria-




Washington area, and that the DO at certain critical low flow




periods has approached total depletion.  The high BOD loads are




the major but not the only causes of the oxygen depletion observed.




Bottom deposits, representing accumulated suspended organic solids




discharged from sewage treatment plants exert appreciable oxygen




demand upon the estuarine waters.  Also, the nutrient content of




these discharges may stimulate profuse algal blooms which, while




objectionable in themselves, also deplete DO upon decay.  These




are among the several factors contributing to water quality




degradation observed in the Estuary.




        There has been no clearly defined downward trend in DO




values in the upper Estuary since 196U, even with the unusually




low flows during the summer months of the intervening years.




This may reflect some improved treatment plant efficiencies.

-------
        Bacterial pollution is excessive in the Metropolitan area




by any standards.  There has been a general upward trend in the




mean coliform counts since 196^.  Average counts observed have been




as high as 500,000 MPN per 100 ml in sections of the upper Estuary.




Counts in excess of 1,000 per 100 ml generally classify water un-




suitable for recreational use.  The upward coliform trend can be




attributed to the increase in population served by sewage treat-




ment plants which chlorinate effluents during the summer months




only and by increase in urban runoff during storms.




        Intensive bacteriological investigations by staff of the




Chesapeake Field Station, conducted from January to March 1967,




showed highest coliform counts at the Woodrow Wilson Bridge samp-




ling station but decreasing somewhat toward Fort Washington.




Considerably lower counts were recorded at stations both upstream




and downstream from these bounds.  There is a net downstream move-




ment in the Estuary accounting for a part of the gradual coliform




decrease by dispersion and dilution.  Normal tidal excursion, how-




ever, tends to retain high counts in the general area of the major




sewage treatment plant discharges and may explain some of the




erratic high counts found at upstream stations near the head of




the Estuary.  Median counts per 100 ml at Woodrow Wilson Bridge




for this period were 91,000 MPN coliforms and 25,000 MPN fecal




coliforms (E. Coli).  Incidentally, positive salmonella was




identified in seven out of nine swabs taken.  Note that the




approved Maryland water quality standards for this reach specify

-------
that a count in excess of 2^0 MPN fecal coliforms per 100 ml




indicates a need for a supplementary sanitary survey.  By bacterial




standards, it is obvious that the estuarine waters are grossly




polluted.




        Other water quality parameters have not changed signifi-




cantly since 196U.  Staff of the Chesapeake Field Station have




conducted rather intensive surveys as the basis for planning ef-




fective pollution control action programs for the upper Potomac




Estuary.  Primary sources of pollution are the six major munici-




pal waste treatment plants in the Washington Metropolitan area.




These plants are discussed below in order of total waste load




contribution.  The approximate population equivalent discharged




by each plant is shown in Figure 1.  It must be borne in mind




that in working with biological processes, the sampling data




vary widely; nevertheless, a mean of continuous sampling data




over the year will furnish a reliable index of plant performance.




        The District of Columbia Water Pollution Control Plant




discharges approximately 72 per cent of the total BOD load to




the Estuary.  Although the plant efficiency has increased from




approximately 60 to 70 per cent BOD removal, this falls short




of the 85 per cent removal that can be expected reasonably from




secondary treatment plants.  The load, however, has increased




some 25 per cent since 196^*, so that there has been no signifi-




cant change in the net BOD load discharged to the Estuary.




Additional primary facilities are presently being designed.

-------
        The Arlington Sewage Treatment Plant accounts for l6 per




cent of the total load to the Estuary.  This loading is a dispro-




portionate share according to the population served, but the sewage




receives only primary treatment which amounts to approximately 35




per cent BOD removal.  Secondary treatment facilities have been




completed and are currently under test, with full operation antici-




pated in March of this year.  These facilities are designed for 90




per cent BOD removal.




        The Fairfax County Westgate Sewage Treatment Plant contrib-




utes seven per cent of the total loading to the Estuary from an




intermediate type treatment plant with approximately 50 per cent




BOD removal.




        The City of Alexandria Sewage Treatment Plant discharge




represents four per cent of the total BOD load.  The plant pro-




vides secondary treatment with approximately 75 per cent BOD




removal efficiency.  There is a temporary overloading of these




facilities from Fairfax County sewers which have been accepted




pending construction of additional facilities by Fairfax County




in Accotink.




        The remaining sewage treatment plants in the area are




Fairfax County's Dogue Creek and Little Hunting Creek plants and




the Department of Defense Ft. Belvoir and Pentagon plants.   All




of these plants contribute approximately one per cent of loading




to the Estuary.  Relatively remote locations have little adverse




effect on water quality.

-------
                                                              7






        In correlating average monthly DO values along the upper




Estuary with location of treatment plant outfalls, it can be seen




that the values decrease steadily to a minimum for the two miles




upstream from Woodrow Wilson Bridge.  This area receives the dis-




charge from the District of Columbia, Arlington, Alexandria, and




Fairfax-Westgate Sewage Treatment Plants (Figure l).  There is a




slow recovery from this area to Fort Washington where a DO value




of k mg/1 is reached.




        Summarizing, it can be stated that water quality in the




upper estuarine zone in the Metropolitan Washington area is degraded




as indicated by the DO and bacterial parameters.  An analysis of




the historical data since 196U shows no significant quality change,




either degradation or improvement.  The effects of impounded ef-




ficiency in the sewage treatment plants and some limited reduction




in the frequency and intensity of combined sewer overflows appear




to have been offset by an increase in waste loads from the rapidly




expanding population.  As a basis for evaluating the waste assimi-




lative capacity of the upper Estuary, Maryland water quality




standards for DO have been applied; since a major part of the




critically polluted areas are located in Maryland waters, as can




be seen from the map (Figure 2).  Standards for the State of




Virginia and the District of Columbia have been submitted, though




not yet approved.  These standards are expected, however, to be




compatible with those of Maryland for adjoining segments and for




principal tributaries flowing into the Potomac River.

-------
                                                              8


        The water quality data collected by the District, the

States, and other agencies have been supplemented with sampling

and analyses by staff of the Chesapeake Field Station.  The annual

compilations of water quality data from the cooperative network

of the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin have been

especially useful.

        Water quality and associated waste load data have been

used as input to the Potomac River mathematical model.  This model

represents a systems analysis approach which enables us to examine

and predict water quality problems that may occur and to develop

alternative solutions which may be made available to basin-

implementing agencies.  A discussion of the Potomac Estuary model,

developed by Dr. Leo J. Hetling, formerly of the Field Station,

was presented at a previous meeting.  This model is of special

interest as it has been applied in the solution of DO, nutrient,

and salinity problems.  Based upon an analysis of flows during

the critically dry years of 196^, 1965, and 1966, it has been

determined that area sewage treatment plants will be required to

remove the following percentages of 5-day BOD to achieve the

corresponding mean DO levels in 1985:

        PerCent BOD Removal            Mean DO in mg/1

                 80                           1.5
                 85                           3.0
                 90                           h. 0
                 95                           5-0

-------
        The above figures were based upon utilization of Bloorn-




ington and Savage Reservoirs and water use as projected by the




Corps of Engineers in their Potomac River Basin Report, and they




include the effects of benthal uptake.  In general, the indicated




minimum DO figures run about 1 rag/1 below the mean.




        For comparison, the 19&5 DO profile shows a mean of 2 mg/1




with a minimum less than 1 mg/1.  If 85 per cent BOD removal were




assumed, the mean DO projected for the critical months of July,




August, and September would be somewhat below 5 rag/1 and the mini-




mum, slightly below k mg/1.  This level of treatment can be




reasonably achieved by conventional biological methods and is




used as a basis for the short-term projections that follow.




        The staff of the Chesapeake Field Station is actively




engaged in development of a comprehensive program for reducing




pollution in the Potomac River Basin.  This involves the collec-




tion and analysis of data from water quality investigations, the




identification of waste discharge sources, technical assistance




to other agencies, the development of new systems analysis tech-




niques for evaluating effects of present and future waste dis-




charges on water quality, and the determination of immediate needs




for pollution abatement.




        Comprehensive water pollution control programs for other




basins of the Chesapeake Bay Drainage Area are also under way in




cooperation with interstate, State, and local agencies and other




interested organizations.

-------
                                                             10






        A mathematical model of the free-flowing upstream Potomac




River has also been developed and verified for main stem segments




only at this time.  Further work is in progress to refine the




model for several tributaries which have local water quality




problems.  This model will permit rapid evaluation of effects of




projected waste discharges on water quality at virtually all




critical locations in the Potomac River Basin.  It is necessary




for the Chesapeake Field Station staff to possess interdisciplinary




technical competence since chemical, bacteriological, biological,




oceanographic, and mathematical as well as the engineering disci-




plines are represented.  The Field Station is also investigating




biological aspects of thermal pollution, nutrient-chlorophyll




relationships, and small boat pollution effects.




        In attempting to make projections, better qualified




prognosticators have hesitated where water pollution abatement




was involved, and the usual course is to refer the complexity of




the problem and propose further studies.  However, it should be




obvious from the items presented thus far that first, the Potomac




estuarine water quality is degraded far beyond any reasonably




accepted standards; and second, the direct cause, the inadequately




treated sewage disposal plant wastes, requires correction.  The




agencies responsible for each treatment plant are aware of each




plant's deficiencies in capacity and efficiency.  A program to




provide this capacity and the minimum 85 per cent removal by




conventional biological treatment can be realized.  All that is

-------
                                                             11






necessary is the appropriation of funds for the design, construc-




tion, and operation of the additional facilities.  At the same




time, some provision for advanced waste treatment should be




included.  In addition, full-time chlorination at all sewage




treatment plants is essential for control of bacterial pollution.




        Sewer separation programs will continue, and new approaches




to reducing overflows and urban runoff will be explored under




present research grants.  Turbidity in the River will be reduced




by enforcement of existing regulations and enactment of new regu-




lations similar to those pioneered in Montgomery County.




        The program just outlined can be placed into effect witn-




in three years and should be implemented immediately as a first




step.  An interstate agency to resolve political differences and




prepare the long-term plan must be established.




        The technical expertise is available.  Water quality en-




hancement can be realized, but it is contingent upon aroused




citizen interest to demand action and assume the financial obli-




gations that such action entails.




        In short, pollution abatement in the Potomac River Ustuary




is up to you!

-------
        POTOMAC   RIVER   ESTUARY
           BOD5 CONTRIBUTIONS 1966








700



600

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 400

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-------

-------
/
   /
                    Little Foils - Uppfcr  Limit
                      hain Br.
                                  o
                                o\ WASHINGTON,  D. C.
                                 o
                                <*
     ARLINGTON CO.
                                              Giesboro Pt.

                                                   0
                                                  / Dist. of Columbia Water
                                                  Pollution Control Plant
                                                 PRINCE  GEORGES/ CO.
      Fairfax - Westgate S. T. P.

           FAIRFAX  CO.
  Fort
Belvoir
                                Fairf/lx-X-ittle Hunting  Cr.  S. T. P.
                                           Ft. Washington
                 Fairfax VDogue Cr.  S. T. P.
                                                GENERAL LOCATION MAP
                                   POTOMAC RIVER-WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN  ARE/!
                      Point - Lower Limit
                                                                         FIGURE   2

-------
                            VOLUME 24

                           1976 Annual
               Current Nutrient Assessment - Upper Potomac Estuary
               Current Assessment Paper No.  1

               Evaluation of Western Branch  Wastewater Treatment
               Plant Expansion - Phases I and  II

               Situation Report - Potomac River

               Sediment Studies in Back River  Estuary, Baltimore,
               Maryland

Technical      Distribution of Metals in Elizabeth River Sediments
Report 61

Technical      A Water Quality Modelling Study of the Delaware
Report 62      Estuary

-------
                            VOLUME  21

                         Technical Papers

11        A Steady State Segmented Estuary Model

12        Simulation of Chloride Concentrations in the
          Potomac Estuary - March 1968

13        Optimal Release Sequences for Hater Quality
          Control in Multiple-Reservoir Systems - 1968

                            VOLUME  22
                         Technical  Papers

          Summary Report - Pollution of Back River - January 1964

          Summary of Water Quality - Potomac River Basin in
          Maryland - October 1965

          The Role of Mathematical  Models in the Potomac River
          Basin Water Quality Management Program - December 1967

          Use of Mathematical Models as Aids to Decision Making
          in Water Quality Control  - February 1968

          Piscataway Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study
          Report - August 1968

                            VOLUME  23
                        Ocean Dumping Surveys

          Environmental Survey of an Interim Ocean Dumpsite,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - September 1973

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim  Dumpsites,
          Middle Atlantic Bight - January 1974

          Environmental Survey of Two Interim Dumpsites
          Middle Atlantic Bight - Supplemental Report -
          October 1974

          Effects of Ocean Disposal Activities on Mid-
          continental Shelf Environment off Delaware
          and Maryland - January 1975

-------
                             VOLUME  19  (continued)

                          Working  Documents

           Wastewater Inventory -  Potomac  River  Basin  -
           December 1968

           Wastewater Inventory -  Upper  Potomac  River  Basin -
           October 1968

                             VOLUME 20
                          Technical  Papers.

 1          A Digital  Technique  for Calculating and  Plotting
           Dissolved  Oxygen  Deficits

 2          A River-Mile Indexing  System  for  Computer Application
           in Storing and  Retrieving Data       (unavailable)

 3          Oxygen Relationships in Streams,  Methodology to be
           Applied when Determining  the  Capacity of a Stream to
           Assimilate Organic Wastes - October 1964

 4          Estimating Diffusion Characteristics of  Tidal Waters 
           May 1965

 5          Use of Rhodamine  B Dye as a Tracer in Streams of the
           Susquehanna River Basin - April 1965

 6          An In-Situ Benthic Respirometer - December 1965

 7          A Study of Tidal  Dispersion in the Potomac River
           February 1966

 8          A Mathematical  Model for  the  Potomac River - what it
           has done and what it can  do - December 1966

 9          A Discussion and  Tabulation of Diffusion Coefficients
           for Tidal  Waters  Computed as  a Function  of Velocity
           February 1967

10          Evaluation of Coliform Contribution by Pleasure Boats
           July 1966

-------
                             VOLUME  17  (continued)

                           Working Documents

28         Selected Biological  Surveys in the James River Basin,
           Gillie Creek in the  Richmond Area, Appomattox River
           in the Petersburg Area, Bailey Creek from Fort Lee
           to Hopewell  - April  1968

                             VOLUME  18
                           Working Documents

29         Biological  Survey of the Upper and Middle Patuxent
           River and some of its Tributaries - from Maryland
           Route 97 Bridge near Roxbury Mills to the Maryland
           Route 4 Bridge near Wayson's Corner, Maryland -
           Chesapeake Drainage Basin - June 1968

30         Rock Creek Watershed - A Water Quality Study Report
           March 1969

31         The Patuxent River - Water Quality Management -
           Technical Evaluation - September 1969

                             VOLUME 19
                          Working Documents

           Tabulation, Community and Source Facility Water Data
           Maryland Portion, Chesapeake Drainage Area - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Patuxent River Basin - October 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Potomac River Basin below Washington, D.C.- November 1964

           Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
           Chesapeake Bay Area of Maryland Excluding Potomac
           and Patuxent River Basins - January 1965

           The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections -
           February 1968

           Patuxent River - Cross Sections and Mass Travel
           Velocities - July 1968

-------
                             VOLUME 16

                          Working Documents

16         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland, Pennsylvania, to
           Havre de Grace, Maryland - July 1967

17         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study, Potomac
           River Basin - June 1967

18         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Central  Western
           Shore of Chesapeake Bay. Area (Magothy, Severn, South, and
           West River Drainage Areas)  July 1967

19         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs, Northwest
           Chesapeake Bay Area (Patapsco to Susquehanna Drainage
           Basins in Maryland) August 1967

20         Immediate Water Pollution Control  Needs - The Eastern
           Shore of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia - September 1967

                             VOLUME 17
                           Working Documents

21         Biological Surveys of the Upper James River Basin
           Covington, Clifton Forge, Big Island, Lynchburg, and
           Piney River Areas - January 1968

22         Biological Survey of Antietam Creek and some of its
           Tributaries from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania to Antietam,
           Maryland - Potomac River Basin - February 1968

23         Biological Survey of the Monocacy River and Tributaries
           from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to Maryland Rt. 28 Bridge
           Potomac River Basin - January 1968

24         Water Quality Survey of Chesapeake Bay in the Vicinity of
           Annapolis, Maryland - Summer 1967

25         Mine Drainage Pollution of the North Branch of Potomac
           River - Interim Report - August 1968

26         Water Quality Survey in the Shenandoah River of the
           Potomac River Basin - June 1967

27         Water Quality Survey in the James and Maury Rivers
           Glasgow, Virginia - September 1967

-------
                            VOLUME  13   (continued)

                          Working  Documents

 5         Summary  of  Water  Quality and Waste Outfalls, Rock Creek
           in  Montgomery County, Maryland and the  District of
           Columbia -  December  1966

 6         Water Pollution Survey  - Back  River  1965  -  February 1967

 7         Efficiency  Study  of  the District  of  Columbia Water
           Pollution Control  Plant - February 1967

                             VOLUME  14
                          Working  Documents

 8         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study -  Susquehanna
           River Basin from Northumberland to West  Pittson
           (Including the Lackawanna  River Basin)   March  1967

 9         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Jum'ata
           River Basin - March 1967

10         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Rappahannock
           River Basin - March 1967

11         Water Quality and Pollution  Control  Study, Susquehanna
           River Basin from Lake Otsego,  New York,  to Lake  Lackawanna
           River Confluence, Pennsylvania -  April  1967

                             VOLUME  15
                          Working Documents

12         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  York River
           Basin - April 1967

13         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  West Branch,
           Susquehanna River Basin - April  1967

14         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  James River
           Basin - June 1967

15         Water Quality and Pollution Control  Study,  Patuxent River
           Basin - May 1967

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   30


   31


   32
   33
   34
Appendix
  to 1
Appendix
  to 2
    3


    4
                  VOLUME 11  (continued)
                 Data Reports

Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary - Gilbert Swamp
and Allen's Fresh and Gunston Cove - 1970

Survey Results of the Chesapeake Bay Input Study -
1969-1970

Upper Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Studies - Bush River,
Spesutie Narrows and Swan Creek, C & D Canal, Chester
River, Severn River, Gunpowder, Middle and Bird Rivers -
1968-1971

Special Water Quality Surveys of the Potomac River Basin
Anacostia Estuary, Wicomico,River, St. Clement and
Breton Bays, Occoquan Bay - 1970-1971

Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River - 1970

                  VOLUME 12
               Working Documents

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Danville, Pennsylvania and
Conowingo, Maryland

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Danville,
Pennsylvania and Conowingo, Maryland - November 1966

Biological Survey of the Susquehanna River and its
Tributaries between Cooperstown, New York and
Northumberland, Pennsylvnaia - January 1967

Tabulation of Bottom Organisms Observed at Sampling
Stations during the Biological Survey between Cooperstown,
New York and Northumberland, Pennsylvania - November 1966

                  VOLUME 13
               Working Documents

Water Quality and Pollution Control Study, Mine Drainage
Chesapeake Bay-Delaware River Basins - July 1967

Biological Survey of Rock Creek (from Rockville, Maryland
to the Potomac River)  October 1966

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                             VOLUME 10(continued)
                           Data Reports

15         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River -  1967

16         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River -  1968

17         Water Quality Survey of the Patuxent River -  1969

18         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transects,
           Intensive and Southeast Water Laboratory Cooperative
           Study - 1969

19         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Phosphate
           Tracer Study - 1969

                             VOLUME 11
                            Data Reports

20         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Transport Study
           1969-1970

21         Water Quality Survey of the Piscataway Creek Watershed
           1968-1970

22         Water Quality Survey of the Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity of Sandy Point - 1970

23         Water Quality Survey of the Head of the Chesapeake Bay
           Maryland Tributaries - 1970-1971

24         Water Quality Survey of the Upper Chesapeake Bay
           1969-1971

25         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Consolidated
           Survey - 1970

26         Water Quality of the Potomac Estuary Dissolved Oxygen
           Budget Studies - 1970

27         Potomac Estuary Wastewater Treatment Plants Survey
           1970

28         Water Quality Survey of the Potomac Estuary Embayments
           and Transects - 1970

29         Water Quality of the Upper Potomac Estuary Enforcement
           Survey - 1970

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                            VOLUME 9   (continued)

                            Data Reports


           Investigation of  Water Quality in Chesapeake Bay and
           Tributaries  at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Department
           of  the Army, Aberdeen, Maryland - October-December 1967

           Biological Survey of the Upper Potomac River and
           Selected Tributaries - 1966-1968

           Water Quality Survey of the  Eastern Shore Chesapeake
           Bay, Wicomico River, Pocomoke River, Nanticoke River,
           Marshall Creek, Bunting Branch, and Chincoteague Bay -
           Summer 1967

           Head of Bay  Study - Water Quality Survey of Northeast
           River, Elk River, C & D Canal, Bohemia River, Sassafras
           River and Upper Chesapeake Bay - Summer 1968 - Head ot
           Bay Tributaries

           Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1967

           Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1968

           Wastewater Treatment Plant Nutrient Survey - 1966-1967

           Cooperative  Bacteriological  Study - Upper Chesapeake Bay
           Dredging Spoil Disposal - Cruise Report No. 11

                            VOLUME 10

                            Data Reports

 9         Water Quality Survey of the  Potomac Estuary - 1965-1966

10         Water Quality Survey of the  Annapolis Metro Area - 1967

11         Nutrient  Data on  Sediment Samples of the Potomac Estuary
           1966-1968

12         1969  Head of the  Bay Tributaries

13         Water Quality Survey of the  Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity  of  Sandy Point - 1968

14         Water Quality Survey of the  Chesapeake Bay in the
           Vicinity  of  Sandy Point - 1969

-------
                                  VOLUME  6  (continued)

                              Technical  Reports

     51          A System of Mathematical Models for Water Quality
                Management

     52         Numerical Method for Groundwater Hydraulics

     53         Upper Potomac Estuary Eutrophication Control
                Requirements

     54         AUT0-QUAL Modelling System

Supplement      AUT0-QUAL Modelling System:  Modification for
   to 54        Non-Point Source Loadings

                                  VOLUME  7
                              Technical Reports

     55         Water Quality Conditions in the Chesapeake Bay System

     56         Nutrient Enrichment and Control Requirements in the
                Upper Chesapeake Bay

     57         The Potomac River Estuary in the Washington
                Metropolitan Area - A History of its Water Quality
                Problems and their Solution

                                  VOLUME  8
                              Technical Reports

     58         Application of AUT0-QUAL Modelling System to the
                Patuxent River Basin

     59         Distribution of Metals in Baltimore Harbor Sediments

     60         Summary and Conclusions - Nutrient Transport and
                Accountability in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin

                                  VOLUME  9
                                 Data Reports

                 Water  Quality  Survey, James River and Selected
                 Tributaries  -  October 1969

                 Water  Quality  Survey in the North Branch Potomac River
                 between  Cumberland and Luke, Maryland - August 1967

-------
                             VOLUME 3   (continued)
                         Technical Reports


27         Water Quality and Wastewater Loadings - Upper Potomac
           Estuary during 1969


                             VOLUME 4
                         Technical Reports


29         Step Backward Regression

31         Relative Contributions of Nutrients to the Potomac
           River Basin from Various Sources

33         Mathematical Model Studies of Water Quality in the
           Potomac Estuary

35         Water Resource - Water Supply Study of the Potomac
           Estuary

                             VOLUME 5
                         Technical Reports


37         Nutrient Transport and Dissolved Oxygen Budget
           Studies in the Potomac Estuary

39         Preliminary Analyses of the Wastewater and Assimilation
           Capacities of the Anacostia Tidal River System

41         Current Water Quality Conditions and Investigations
           in the Upper Potomac River Tidal System

43         Physical Data of the Potomac River Tidal System
           Including Mathematical Model Segmentation

45         Nutrient Management in the Potomac Estuary


                             VOLUME 6

                         Technical Reports


47         Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Input Study

49         Heavy Metals Analyses of Bottom Sediment in the
           Potomac River Estuary

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                            PUBLICATIONS

                U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                             REGION III
                       ANNAPOLIS FIELD OFFICE*


                              VOLUME 1
                          Technical  Reports


 5         A Technical  Assessment of Current Water Quality
           Conditions and Factors Affecting Water Quality in
           the Upper Potomac Estuary

 6         Sanitary Bacteriology of the Upper Potomac Estuary

 7         The Potomac Estuary Mathematical Model

 9         Nutrients in the Potomac River Basin

11         Optimal  Release Sequences for Water Quality Control
           in Multiple Reservoir Systems

                              VOLUME 2
                          Technical  Reports


13         Mine Drainage in the North Branch Potomac River Basin

15         Nutrients in the Upper Potomac River Basin

17         Upper Potomac River Basin Water Quality Assessment

                              VOLUME  3
                          Technical  Reports


19         Potomac-Piscataway Dye Release and Wastewater
           Assimilation Studies

21         LNEPLT

23         XYPLOT

25         PLOT3D


     * Formerly CB-SRBP, U.S. Department of Health, Education,
       and Welfare; CFS-FWPCA, and CTSL-FWQA,  Middle Atlantic
       Region, U.S. Department of the Interior

-------
            Table of Contents

               Volume 19
Tabulation, Community and Source Facility Water Data -
Maryland Portion, Chesapeake Drainage Area - October 1964
Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations -
Patuxent River Basin - October 1964
Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
Potomac River Basin below Washington, D. C. -
November 1964
Waste Disposal Practices at Federal Installations
Chesapeake Bay Area of Maryland Excluding Potomac
and Patuxent River Basins - January 1965
The Potomac Estuary - Statistics and Projections
February 1968
Patuxent River - Cross Sections and Mass Travel
Velocities - July 1968
Wastewater Inventory - Potomac River Basin -
December 1968
Wastewater  Inventory - Upper Potomac River Basin
October 1969

-------

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U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
       Annapolis  Field  Office
      Annapolis Science Center
     Annapolis, Maryland  21401
         WORKING  DOCUMENTS
                                  Cci\u'-r for Environmental
                          16:50 /xr-jU Street (3PM52)
                          rlnWirtlphia, PA 19103
           Volume  19

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      u  '. y  IV  .   ipli :i
                       flu
C   ,'  '' - r u  Drii   r^i  i)o]i on   nc   v' f j_oc i ^y




        h i.1 vc.   D  ri'h; ''f^c	




RESULT '  OI<  Ginvi,,.	




',.   !"  )   -."cell onal ^ ""    oL hhe T'';  L




     ..     .( - u   rove   T.l   	




 -.   Ot   ,h,  7r LO - !.y  "L:    ' - ' Ly Ac^u;:
     U Q  :
D.   r:>.-- ";_Ject, on;;, Jon o  cl;il River




     (Rive- :\\\c..  5^.6  lo 7" JO  .  .  .

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                            I.   INTRODUCTION
    A.   fi*ujYW Description
         The Chesapeake Field Station,  JFWPCA,  conducted field  surveys
 from  1966 to 1968 to obtain cross-section measurements and mass travel
                                                               >
 velocities in the Patuxent River and Little Patuxent  River.   Cross-section
 surveys  were conducted on the  tidal river between Jones Point (River Mile
 36.8) which is the uppr  limit of hydrographic  information on the USGS
 7  1/2 minute (scale  1:24,000)  quadrangles,  and  RM 53.4,  which is near  the
 head  of  tide.   In this  reach cross-sect ions were  measured at  0.2 mile
 intervals.
         Cross-section and  dye  travel surveys were conducted on selected
 reaches  of the Patuxent River  near and downstream from the Baltimore-
 Washington Parkway, near Montpelier, Md., (RM 73.4) said on selected
 reaches  of the Little Patuxent River near and downstream from US Route 1,
 (RM 81.0).  A  basin map is  shown in Figure  1.   River  mile zero is at the
 mouth of the tidal river near  Solomon's, Md.
    B.   Purpose and Authority
         These  field activities  were undertaken  to provide information  about
 physical characteristics of the river  for use in  computing the effects of
waste discharges on the river.  The survey was  conducted and this report
prepared under  the provisions  of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
as amended  (33 U.S.C. 466 et. seq.) which directed the Secretary of the
 Interior to develop programs for eliminating pollution of interstate waters
and improving the sanitary conditions of surface and underground waters.

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                      II.  METHODS  AND  PROCEDURES

    A.   Crosssection Ift^iLSurfments

         1.  Field procedures

         In the non-tidal reaches, where  the  river is quite narrow, widths
                                               ^
were usually measured using a marked rope.   An   optical rangefinder with

a range  of 8 - 100  feet was also used.   The  river was crossed both by

wading and by boat.   Depths were measured at transverse stations with a

narked staff.

         In the tidal  reaches, somewhat more  elaborate procedures were neces-

sary.  The water was  always deep enough  to require a boat.  Depths were  det-

ermined using a portable battery-operated, pointer-indicating, non-recor-

ding depth finder.  The transducer foot  was  at first held over the side

by handj later a clamp was used to hold  it to the gunwale of the skiff.
    JUf,
The   instrument usd indicated depths on 0  - 12 and 0 - 120 foot scales.

The range selection,  an unusual feature, reduces the loss in precision

encountered in sound  shallow water with  a depth finder designed for use

in water more than a hundred feet deep.

        River widths taried from about 100 to nearly 1,000 feet.  Narrower

sections were measured using a 300-ft. marked steel-cable tagline of the

Lee-Au type.  The line was anchored or tied at one end, and then carried
JA
 Edmund Scientific Co. 6 inch rangefinder.  This instrument was of limited
usefulness for large river work because of its short range.  In other
respects it was satisfactory.  (See disclaimer below.)
^tifr
  Ray Jefferson Model 400.  (See disclaimer below.)

Disclaimer:  Mention of equipment items by manufacturer or mention of speci-
fic features of said equipment does not constitute endorsement by FWPCA.

-------
across the river and held fast.  A second boat was used to measure depths



at the transverse stations.



        The widths of a majority of the wider sections were measured using



the following procedure:  The boat was steered directly across the river



running at a uniform speed.  Depths were read at uniform time intervals



(usually 10 seconds) measured by a watch with a sweep-second hand.  The



exact .location of the section was noted, and the width in feet was later



estimated from topographic maps.  The measured depths were then pro-rated



in the cross-section by dividing the width into equal segments so the num>-



ber of segments agreed with the number of depths.  Cross-sections so obtained



are marked "time sections".  The tagltne was occasionally used in conjunc-



tion with the optical rangefinder to measure widths of more than 300 feet.



        2.  Computations



        Bottom profiles were plotted from measured depths and transverse



distances.  These graphs are shown in Sections III-C and III-D of this



report for the tidal and non-tidal reaches respectively, in river mile



order beginning at the downstream limit of the survey.  The vertical axis



of the graphs is measured depth, with the observed water surface at zero.



A second horizontal line representing the water surface at mean low water



(I/O) appears on the cross-section plots for the tidal river.  This graphi-



cal adjustment is necessary to obtain depths and cross-sectional areas



at a common tidal height condition.  Areas indicated on the cross-section



graphs for the tidal river are those cross-sectional areas below MLW.



Graphs of cross-sectional area versus river mile are shown in Section III-A.

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                                            *
Cross-sectional areas were measured using a  ooltpnasating  polar plani-

meter.

         In order to estimate the variation of the actual tidal heights as

influenced by wind from the   heights due to the astronomical tides, a

measurement was made from an arbitrary temporary reference point  (RP) to

the water surface preceding and following each day's cross-section measure-

ments.   The RP was located at Hill's Bridge, the crossing  of Md.  Route 4,

near Wayson's Corner.  The elevation of the RP was related to the elevation

of MLW by measuring down on the bulkhead to the high water mark.  The high

water mark was assumed to lie above MLW by 2.4 ft., a distance equal to

the mean tidal range.  Observed and predicted tidal heights are listed in

Table 1  as variations from MLW.

         The procedure outlined gave the actual tidal heights at the beginning

and end  of each day's surveying period at Hill's Bridge only.  Locations

downstream  were referred to the Hills Bridge measurements by assuming

(a) that the wind produced a uniform change in mean tidal  height  in the

reach between    Hill's Bridge and Nottingham (RM 38.4, near Jones Point)

over the time involved in making each day's cross-section measurements;

and (b) that the astronomical tides would be superimposed on the  longer-
 Keuffel and Esser Model 62 0000.  (See disclaimer page 2.)

H"Jfr
  as indicated by the predicted heights in the US Coast and Geodetic
Survey Tide Tables. 1968.
   Hill's Bridge and Nottingham are "subordinate tidal stations", at
which predictions can be obtained by difference from a reference station
(Baltimore).  Tidal heights are not recorded at most subordinate stations.

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11
Tidal Itaiffht
a
Kb.
Mar.
Ibr.
to.
Mur.
Mar.
Mar.
Mur.
Mur.
Mar.
Apr.
88)
29
7
8
11
20
21
22
25
26
29
2
(0-2400)
1010
1330
0930
U25
1030
1510
1030
1530
1510
1000
1530
1030
1530
1000
1530
1030
1430
1100
1530
1000
1410
\4TW 
-0.9
-1.2
+1.6
+0.6
+1.8
+1.2
+0.3
+2.0
+1.1
+1.9
+0.5
+U2
-1.3
-1.4
-0.4
+1.6
-0.4
+1.4
-0.1
-0.2
above Mi)
+0.6
-0.2
+0.3
+1.8
+2.1
+1.4
+2.2
-0.1
+1.4
+2.4
+1.3
+1.4
+4.4
-0.4
+4.8
-0.4
+5.1
-0.2
+5.4
+4.4
+1.4

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period tidal height variations produced by wind.
        Under these assumptions, actual tidal heights at Nottingham were
estimated by adding or subtracting the differences in predicted (astron-
omical) tidal heights between Hill's Bridge and Nottingham to the actual
heights measured at Hill's Bridge.  The tidal heights at the beginning and
end of each day's surveying were interpolated linearly with distance between
Hill's Bridge and Nottingham.  The changes in tidal height with time over
the reach covered that day could then be estimated.
        Locations upstream from Hill's Bridge were referred to the Hill's
Bridge measurements under the assumption that tidal action stopped it the
upper limit of the tidewater survey (EM 53.4).  Differences in the observed
tidal heights proceeding and following each day's surveying were decreased
to zero linearly with distance between Hill's Bridge and RM 53.4.  Variations
with time over the day's surveyed reach were then estimated.  Cross-sections
in the extreme upper tidal reaches probably vary as much with streamflow as
with tide.  Streamflow my exert an appreciable effect on cross-sectional
area as far downstream as BM 49, where the tidal river begins to enlarge
greatly.
        For the non-tidal river, where depth and cross-sectional area vary
with river discharge, the cross-sectional areas were computed from cross-
section graphs plotted exactly as measured.  Areas of these sections must
therefore be related to the river discharge at which they were taken.  The
variation of depth and cross-sectional area with flow is discussed in Section
III-C.

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                                                                JI .- 6


     (3.  ha.:.,: 'LVavej.Velocity He  :uix/iart:

         The time-of-travel of the vater in,-?, ,, v; ;  rie i.'.ur* d ;.'r:>,.i  >nc tr>  three

 tlrrx:.; in four stream,  reaches, each of .,'hich ronialne-d  a I!" Geil o;_,.' cal  f Sur-

 vey *lemporary caging elation.   'It'. U;'G,' hail ]  T p>'c. v.i ou; Jy  -.mciivt'd  a

 t.iUK-of-travel r.urvey covering the ;c foui1 plur, t;'0 arid! .ion.nl rrnchc ,  both

 of i.'hic-h included gages.   Gaging station iorction.'. ond th-  nur.ibc.1 o"

 l/i/iic-of-travcl :jasurcnent.:  in each reach nee indi."ted in Treble '\

         Tine of travel war; determined by Jnb.-'odU'Jnt Khod'^AJn'  B dye into

 the rater nnc detecting i', later at a point dor n:;ti'f-;  t.   A  ^->'"] ou; o.-acLr .-

 var, u:>ed to dc=toct the dye.   Sai^jle^ "ere tak:-n -'t ten-uinutc intei v-fil  

 ".o chot bhc peak concentration  could be e: r.ily diotirigulr-hcd.  The clrijsi.c

 tliae between time of  release  ."nd the time of pc^k. rnd the  dl:;tancu  bctx.-rcn

 the relec.K and sampling point; were used to dctcn.u.nc ari ^ve.'nge  '&.,:

 travel velocity over  the reach.   All time-of-travel measurement,, ,,-r-rc

 conducted during periods of  steady flo^;.  Dye vclocit'c  : "o obtained arc

 indicated on graphs of discharge vercuo velocity  in Section 133..B.

     C.   '/aviations of Depth and Telocity l-.Mth liiycr Discharge

         The logarithms of  depth and velocity ve.'c  plotted against  the logar-

 ithms  of rnver discharge for  the six gaging stations in  the  urvcy area,

using  average depths and average velocities frov  the UfSGS discharge measure-

ments.   The resulting graphs  are shown in Section  III-B.

         Logarithms of dye  velocities obtained fron ti/acer ^tudie.^  were

also plotted versus the logarithms  of river discharge.   Dye  velocities
*  These  stations consist of reference  points to establish urtcr  uirfacc
   elevations  at river locations at which the stage-discharge  relation has
   been established.   Terminology does  not refer to short-term installation
   of a recording gage.

** Turner Model  III (See disclaimer Page 2).

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     31ft&JLflA
fetuxant Rivtr at
                                Tabla 2

                              STATICM  MBCRIPTIONS


                                            fiiSBLMttt


                                                75.0
                                  ffljflf flf ^TBYII1
                                     CIS IX
                                     BSOS U
Patuxtnt Rivtr at
Pi<
-------
formed  straight lines parallel  to but at lover  value than the average




velocities  from discharge.  The parallel orientation of the  ''velocity"




and "velocity adjusted" liner, hn". been found to be  M g'ncrnJly valid




relationship.   The "velocity adjusted" IJne can be  used to find  Lhe




ion::-,  travel velocities at variour; discharge::.




        The "depths" IJne can be U"f?d bo tr-'nrUnte  depth;" ;ind cro;;n--




"< clj.ori'j 1 ?iriv;;- to .jtreatr f l.o ,  rendition.'  )th>:  th/m Uio.,'- .t v:hl<'h




the cro ;r;-.jections were measui'ed.   Rear;onable accuracy should be main-




tnin'.'d  in ero.;;;-:;ocbi onal crear. <:.,, long" .1.; thf  riv<~   ".tagc  doe', no. exceed




bank-iXill conditions.

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                                               US 40
                                                   BALTO.-WASH. PARKWAY
           MONTPELIR(RM75.0)
	SAVAGL H  (RM8I.5)


,	STATION L-l  (RM63.8)

 PIC.EON HOUSE CORNER (RM63.7)



  US 50 (JOHN HANSON HWY. at RM 60.7)


     QUEEN ANNE'S BRIDGE (RM54j9!
                                                                        HILLS BRIDGE (RM47.4)
        LEGEND

A ESTABLISHED GAGING STATIONS

A TEMPORARY GAGING STATIONS
 TiDAL HEIGHT PREDICTIONS
    (USC&G!. SUBORDINATE STATIONS)
               NOTTINGHAM (RM38.4)
                                                                        JONES POINT (RM 36.8)
                                                                                        SOLOMONS
                                                                                         ISLAND
                                                                                   FIGURE

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                                                    Ill  -  1
III - A.  CROSS-3ECTIOIIAL AREAS OF THK TIDAL RIVER




                 VERSUS RIVER MILE

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                                                  Ill -
III - B.  DEPTH, VELOCITY AMD 'TELOCITY ADJUSTED




            VERSUS RIVER DIGCI1ARGE

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        (RIVER MILES 53.6 TO 73.l|)

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                                                                                                    LJU
                                                                                                 
-------
                           UNITED STATES
                   DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
           FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                      Annapolis Science Center
                     Annapolis, Maryland  21401
                                                  April 29, 1969
     TO:  Participants of the Potomac River Basin Wasteirater
          Inventory:

SUBJECT:  Revision Number 1 of the Wastewater  Inventory Potomac
          River Basin

          Enclosed is a copy of Chapter III which has been cor-

          rected and updated.  Chapter III  as  originally published

          should be discarded as it contains some errors.  Other

          changes to be made in "pen and ink"  are also enclosed.

          Again, any additional comments or corrections are
          invited.
                                  Norbert A. Jaworski, Ph.D
                                  Sanitary Engineer
                                  Chesapeake Technical Support
                                     Laboratory
                                  Middle Atlantic Region
          Enclosures  3

-------
                        PEN AND INK CHANGES
     1.  Page  II - 2  Under Governmental Agencies;  Add Pennsylvania
State Health  Department
     2.  Figure III - 1  Keyser should be designated primary treatment
     3.  Page  IV - 2  * = Wastewater Discharge to a Municipal System
     4.  Table V - 1, Page V - 2  Indexes I-Biological Class for West
Virginia Pulp & Paper Company should be changed to B-ll
     5.  Table V - 1 (Cont.), Page V - 3  Change Westernport, Maryland
under Receiving Stream  to North Branch Potomac River and for same under
Remarks add Upper Potomac River Commission Plant
     6.  Table V - 1 (Cont.), Page V - 4  Ridgely, West Virginia change
Removal of BOD (%) to zero.  Under Receiving Stream for same change to
North Branch  Potomac River and under Remarks no treatment
    7.  Table V - 4, Page V - 8  Williamsport, Maryland Effluent BOD
should read 350
     8.  Table V - 5, Page V - 9  Doubleday & Company Index should
read A-2
    9.  Table V - 5, Page V - 9  Marquette Cement Mfg. Company Index
should read H-2
   10.  Table V - 5, Page V - 9  Western,  Maryland R. R. Index  should
read E-7
   11.  Table V - 12,  Page V - 20  Cumberland TWP, Pennsylvania Effluent
BOD (#/dav) should read 8

-------

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                                                              Ill - 1
                           CHAPTER III
                             SUMMARY
       As of December, 1968, there are 384 known wastewater discharges
in the Potomac River Basin.  From the detailed inventory presented in
Chapter V and from the 1958 inventory published by the U. S. Public
Health Service, the following information has been summarized:
       1.  There are about 2,900,000 people served by 264 domestic
           wastewater treatment facilities in the basin.  Of the
           2,702,000 people served, the wastes from 13,000  receive no
           treatment, 100,000 receive primary treatment,  and 2,787,000
           receive intermediate-secondary wastewater treatment.   (See
           Figure III - 1 for major municipal wastewater  discharges in
           the Potomac River Basin)
       2.  There are 67 industrial biodegradable wastewater discharged
           producing about 151,900 #/day of biochemical oxygen demand
           (BOD) of which approximately 5C$ is removed by wastewater
           treatment.
       3.  The wastewater BOD loading for the entire basin  is pre-
           sented below:
Waste Before
Type Treatment
(#/day)
Sanitary 591,100
Industrial 151 f 900
Total 743,000
% of
Total
80
_2P_
100
After
Treatment
(#/day)
158,000
75r300
233,300
% of
Total
68
_JI_
100

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                                                       Ill - 2


4.  In 1958, the sewered population of the basin was about


    2,050,000 with a total municipal and industrial BOD


    loading, after treatment, of about 325,000 #/day.


5.  Of the present 2,900,000 sewered population, about 86


    percent is in the Washington, D. C. Metropolitan area.


6.  Industry in the North Branch and Shenandoah sub-basins


    discharge about 61 and 31 percent, respectively, of the


    total BOD loadings from industrial sources.  (See Figure


    III - 2 for major industrial wastewater discharges in the


    Potomac River Basin)


7.  In the basin, there are 28 industrial and municipal


    facilities discharging a total of 2,114,000,000 gallons


    per day of cooling water.  (See Figure III - 3 for major


    thermal discharges in the Potomac River Basin)


8.  The nutrient wastewater loadings [phosphorus (PO.) and
                                                    A

    total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) as N] discharged into the


    surface water of the basin are presented below:
Waste
Type
Sanitary
EndustriaA
Total
PO
(#/diy)
73,400
8,000
81,400
% of
Total
90
JLJL
100
TKN
(#/day)
60,000
5fOOO
65,000
% of
Total
93
_1_
100
9.  Of the total wastewater nutrient loading in the basin,


    approximately 77 percent and 83 percent of the phosphorus

-------

-------
                                                       Ill - 3
and TKN, respectively, is from discharges in the
Washington, D. C. area.

-------

-------
             WASTEWATER INVENTORY
              POTOMAC RIVER BASIN
                December 1968
                 Compiled by:

             Norbert A. Jaworski

                     and

                Johan A. Aalto



         Supporting Laboratory Staff:

               Donald W. Lear
               James Marks
               Orterio Villa
               Anne Favorite
           Chesapeake Field Station
            Middle Atlantic Region
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
       U. S. Department of the Interior

-------
     .
                       7/.BLI". OF  CONTENTS
                                                            Pa/rr
LJ.",T  IT TABUS  ..................       ii
i IGT  or FIGURE   .................       ii i
  II.   INTOOL'UGTION   ...............     II  - I
            IXrpooc ar-'  '.ccpo  ...........     II  - 1
        r.   Authority ...............     II  - 2
        ";.   'I'jknov.'IedgnentJ? ............     II  - 2
 III.   r-^-.^PY ..................   Ill  - l
  IV.   DATA SOURCES  AND PR'^TrrTATION .......     IV  - 1
        i.   D:tta L'ourcec  .............     IV  - 1
        ?.   r-'ta p->cfc-ntaticn  ...........     IV  - 2
   V.   ,VAiSTn/>.Tr;r I^/T'INTORY   ...........     V  - 1

-------
                           LIST OF TABLE3





Number



IV - 1   Industrial Wastev.-ater Classification and Index.  ...    IV -  3




Municipal niul Industrial Wastewnter Inventory:
V - 1
V - 1'
V - 3
V - 4

V - 5
V - 
V - 7

V - -
V - c~>
V - 10
V - 11
v - r:
V - 13
V - IA
V - Vj
V - 16
V - I'"'
V - 18
North Branch Potomac River Basin 	 	
South Branch and Upper Potomac River Basin 	
Opequon Creek 	 	 	 	 .
Conococheague Creek and Upper and Middle
Fotoir.ac River Basin 	
Antietam and Middle Potomac R-'ver Basin 	
North Fork Shenandoah River Basin 	
North Rj ver at South Fork Shenandoah
River Basin 	 	 	
Middle River of South Fork Shenandoah River Basin . .
.qouth River of South Fork Shenandoah River Basin . .
Main Sterr. South Fork Shenandosh River Basin 	
Main Steir Shenandoah 	
Catoctin Creek, .V.J.; (Jatoctin, Ya . ; Monocacy, Pa . . .
Monocacy River, Md 	
Lower Portion of Upper Potomac River Basin 	
Upper Esturry of Potomac River Basin 	
Or^oquari Creek Basin 	
i/id lie fctuary of lotoirac River Basir. 	
Lower Estuary of Potomac River Basin 	
V -
V -
V -

V -
V -
V -

V -
V -
V -
V -
V -
V -
V -
V -
V -
V -
V -
V -
-7
5
r!

s
Q
11

13
14
16
17
19
20
^1
-'3
~ i
-'7
30
3?

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                          LIST OF  FIGURES




Number                                                            Pafig




III - 1     Major Municipal V/aste  Discharges	     Ill - 4






III - 2     Major Industrial vVastewater Discharges	     Ill - ^






III - .3     Major Thermal Discharges	     Ill - C

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                                                                I - 1



                            CHAPTER I



                             PREFACE






        The first complete inventory of water uses and wastewster



loadings in the Potomac River Basin was compiled in 195tS by the



U. S. Public Health Service.  Since then numerous surveys, investi-



gations, and inspections of these facilities have been conducted




by various local, state, and federal agencies.  These findings



were consolidated in 1966, by the Chesapeake Field Station, into




a waste inventory as part of the President's Water Quality Sub-



Task Force Study and distributed to the several state, county,



and municipal agencies involved.  It has been continuously updated



and revised and served as a basis for this inventory.



        Since 15."',  other parameters such as nutrients have become



a significant factor in water quality rranagement.  The need for



current waste discharge data continues.  Knowledge of existing



and past water use and wastewater loadings is essential in pro-



viding for water quality management in any river basin.

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                                                                II  -  1



                             CHARTER  II



                             INTRODUCTION






A.  Purpose and Scope



        As part of the Chesapeake Bay-usquehanna River Basins  Project,



the Chesapeake Field Station (CFS), Middle Atlantic Region, Federal



Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) has undertaken a com-




prehensive water quality jranagement study of the Potomac River  Basin.



Important phases of this study are the determination of the effects of



wastewater discharges on water quality in the Potomac Estuary and  the



recommendation of a program to achieve the approved water quality



standards for this interstate river.



        An essential part of the background investigation has been the



compilation of n current inventory of all wastewater discharges in the



Potomac Ri\er Basin.  This compilation, in conjuction with past infor-



mation end future projections, forms the base from which a comprehensive



water quality management program can be developed.



        Presented in this report is a complete inventory of all reported



wastevreter discharges including:



1.  Population Served             '. .  % BOD Removal



2.  Wastewater Index              ".  Phosphorus in effluent (#/day)



7.  A'astewater Flow (;;gd)         8.  Nitrogen in effluent (///day)



/,.  Untreated BOD (/'/day)         9.  Receiving Stream



',.  Treated BOD (///day)          1C.  Remarks

-------
Tne preceding  information is presented in detail and summary form by

sub regions, eighteen  in all.  Maps showing major municipal, industrial-

<; iodegradable, and thermal wastewater discharges ore also prenenloii.

3.  Authority

        This survey was conducted and the report prepared under the

prcv, is ions of  l,be Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended ('<'}

U.r.C. / i  et seq.) which directs the Secretary of the Interior to

prepare or develop programs for eliminating or reducing the pollution

of  interstate waters and tributaries thereof and improving the sani-

iary condition of surface and underground waters, -in cooperation with

State water pollution control agencies and with the municipalities and

industries involved.

C.  Acknowledgments

        The assistance and cooperation of various governmental and insti-

tutional agencies together with the industries in the basin enabled the

Chesapeake Field Station to collect gnd assemble data in what would

otherwise have taken a much longer period of time.  While every agency

and industry contacted provided valuable assistance, the cooperation of

the following governmental agencies and industries who participated in

the sampling program merit special recognition:

Governmental Agencies:

        Maryland Department  of 'A'ater Resources
        Maryland State Department of Health
        Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin
        Virginia Department  of Conservation and Economic Development
        Virginia State Water Control Board

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                                                                 IT
        West Virgii""1'a  Department of Natural Resources
        Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission
        District  of  Columbia,  Depart!! ent of Public Health
       District  of  Columbia,  Department of Sanitary Engineering
        Upper  Potomac  River Cormipsion. V/on1 ernport, Maryland

    cipal.i I. ies;
        City of Alexandras,  Virginia
        City of Winchester,  Virginia
        City of Waynesboro.  Virginia
        City of Staurton,  Virginia
        City of Hancock, Maryland
        City of Tinto, Maryland
        City of Oresepto^rr.,  Maryland
        City of Bowll'ig Green, Maryland
        City of Cumberland,  Maryland
        City of Frederick, Maryland
        Citv of liagerstown,  .Varyland
        City of Williamsport, Maryland
        City of Martinsburg, West Virginia
        City of Rormey, 7/est Virginia
        City of Potersl-'Tg,  tfest  Virginia
        City of fv'oorefield,  West  Virginia
        City of Keyser, West Virginia
        Town of Front Royal, Virginia
        Borough of Chairbersturg,  Pennsylvania
        Borough of Gettysburg, Fennsyl\rania
        Dorough of Greencastle, Pennsylvania
        Borough of vVaynesboro, Fennsylvania
        Borough of Mercersburg, Pennsylvania
        County of Fairfax, Virginia
        County of Arlington, Virginia
Industries;
        Celanese Fibers Company, A:, celle,  Maryland
        West V'rginia Pulp and Paper Company,  Luke, Ivlaryland
        Byron and Sons, W;lliansport.  Maryland
        Loewengart and Company, 1','ercersburg,  Pennsyl'-ania
        Loewengart and Coirpany, Petersburg,  ronBgylyania-- H/.  t/
        Rockingham Poultry Coirpsny,  .Voorefield,  V.'est Virginia
        *3. I. DiiPoij4,, J.Iartir.sbi:rg,  ".Vest Virginia
        Minnesota Lining and Manufacturing Conpany, ?'artinsourg,
            West Virginia
        Corning Glass Co;rpa:y, Mar^.insburg,  7/est Virginia
        Ha 11 town Paper Co-ipany, Hilltown,  '.Vest Virginia
        S. 1. DuPont Company, ','/a;."r.eEv'oro,  Virginia

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                                                        II  -  /
Croirpton-Shenandoah, Waynesboro, Virginia
Merck and Company, Elkton, Virginia
American Viscose, Front Royal, Virginia
Potomac Edison Company, Hagerstown, Maryland
Potomac Electric Power Company, '.Vashington, D, C.

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                                                               Ill  -  :




                            CHAPTER III




                              SUMMARY




        As of December, 19' 6, there are 34 known wastewater  discharges




in the Polo ac River Basin.  Fro>! the detailed  inventory  presented  in




Chapter V and from the l^i'o inventor:; published by the U. S.  F-jbl'c




Health Service, the following information has beer, summarised;




        1.  Ihere are about 2,'rO?,000 people served by -  /, domestic




            wastewater treatment facilities in the basin.  Of the




            :,VO?,000 people served, the wastes fron 13,000 receive no




            treatment, 100,000 receive primary treatirent, and ?,:~ )';,000




            receive Intermediate-secondary.' wastewater treatment.  (See




            Figure III - 1 for major municipal wastewater discharges ir.




            tne Potomac River Basir)




        ?.  There are 67 industrial biodegradable wastewater dischargee




            producing about 151,900 ;/ /day of biochemical  oxygen derrand




            (BOD) of which approximately nO% is removed by wastewaier




            treatment.




        3.  The wastewater BOD loading for the entire basin is pre-




            sented below:
Waste
Type
Ggni tary
Industrial
Total
Before
Treatment
>,1,100
151.900
7/,3,OOQ
. 01
Total
"0
20
100
After
Tre
15^
75
TJ-J
a tment
xday)
, 000
.300
,300
;" of
Total
.v
v2
100

-------
                                                       Ill  -  ->

 4.   In  1^5b\  the sewered population of the '-35In was about

     2,0';0,000 v/ith a  total municipal  arid industrial BOD

     loading,  after treatment, of about 3?r>,000 ^-'day.

     Of  Mie  present  ?,  Mi,iHXi sewered  populatio1', ohout  M

     percent is in the  V.'ashington, D.  C. Metropolitan area.

  .   Industry  in the North Branch and  Shenandoah suh-basins

     'J'scl.arfe r.bout  1 and 31 percent, respectively, of the

     total BOD loadings fro-,  industrial sources.   (See Figure

     III  - ? for r.a."or  industrial wastewater discharges in the

     I'otoiiac Paver 3asir)

 7.   In the  basir,  there  are 28 industrial and nunicipal

     facilities  discharging a total of 2,114,000,000 gallons

     per day of coolinF water.   (See Figure III - 3 for najor

     (.henrial discharges i.j the Potomac fLiver Basin)

     Tie nutrient  v/astev/pter loadings  [phosphorus (P0_,/) and

     total K.'eldahl  nitrorer  (1KN) as  N] discharged into the

     surface water  of the basin are presented below:

     Waste          P0,;          ;.' of          TKN         % of
     Type         r.4y/day)        Total       (/  'day)       Total
Sa niter;/
Industrial
Total
~!'i , 000 -'1
nnr; -i
 ^^
'5.000 100
60,000
: .COO
- ooo
J  -
77
100
9.  Of 4he total wastewater nutrient  loadin" 'n the basin,

    approximately 75 percent  ?nd  '0 percent of tae phosphorus

-------
                                                     Ill
ii'J TKN.  respectively,  is  from
                                        vefi  'n the
'.Vashl -utton,  D. C. ^

-------

-------

-------

-------
                                                                 IV - 1




                              CHAPTER  IV




                    DATA SOURCES AND PRESENTATION






A.   Jatn I'ourceG




         The information used in co; pill "4;  the wast ewater invertory




v/as  obtained froir; ;;iany sources including:




         ].   '!;>e VXV, cooperative  'ndustrial water use survey for the




             Cnesapeake Bay-o^squehanna River  Basics  Fro.'ect (Formerly




             iy the Pi;hiic Health Service of the  U. C, Department of




             Keslth,  Education,  and V/elfare and MOV/ "::/ :,he Federal




             '.Vater Pollution Control Administration of l.l.e U. i'l.




             Department of the I-.terior)




         ^.   IVastev/ater treatne:>t records and  inventories as corrpiled




             .>y the various state agencies  in  Virginia,  ,','est Virginia,




             and I'&rylend.




         ?.   '.Yastewater inventor;/* prepared  in  1966 *r.y the Chesapeake




             Field Station ss part of the President's S'.b Task Force




             on water quality and the sut'sequent  cooperative was le-




             v/at er surveyr iy Chesapeake Field  Station.




All municipal  discharges  r:avi^, a wastewater  flow greater Uian 1.0




..jjd  and all industries v:ith biodegradable waste  with a  flow greater




ihan 0,5 rigd  were saipled durirg ].-">  -\  For :-ost of these  discharges,




three  V,-hour  composites  were obtained and analyzed  for  BOD,  PO/,  and




TKN.




',7rsJ ewatt-r  load in,-3  for the reminder of the  facilities  were deter-




mined fvor1  either o-hour  composites,  grab sanples, or fror'  assmred

-------
                                                                IV -
 value:;.   Jb'or the latter the folloT.'ini;  o.Uour: ptio:iiL;  v/ero us en;

         Dorestir Vastewater Flow                 10P jcd
         Untroatec BOD (to inly Domestic)          :>00 ng/1
         Untreated BOD (KicrJy Industrial)        :^0 nc/3
         ''0!" i->5;:ovpl - Primary Hants               '-Tv?
         POD Ren oval - Secondary i'lnnts             ^%
         Fhosphorue - (PO^, es PO. )                JO nig/1*
         Nitrogen - (TKN as N)                    17 mg/1*

 T:;e  f?.o-ivs and loadings presented in this report  ere consider0. 1 to

 pversre  annual values for the IQo^' calender year.
         In the detailed inventory presented  in  Chapter V, the following

a bl >r e v J a 1 i one  are u r ed :

         M   =  Not Applicable

         UNK  -  Unla.own

         3T   ~  Septic Tanks

         *     -  .Vfiste/;ater Discharge for I^onicipal System.

An Jndustrlal  -.vastev.'ater rroupin^ which ,vas  developed  by the Chesapeake

Fjelu otatioi'.  v:es used to classify and index the discharges.  (See

Table IV - 1.)
       
        These are  average concentrations as determined  ''n  s  nutrient
survey during' 19;V .   A  report presenting the findings of the survey
is currently beir^ prepare:"  by the Chesapeake Field Station.

-------
                                                                     TV

                             Table IV   1

           INDUSTRIAL V/ASTEV/ATEn CLARIFICATION AND INDKX

                       Chesapeake Field Station
                          Armapol is ,  '.Maryland
    1.  Wjnic'pal,  Institutional,  etc.
    ?.  Industrial

B.  INDUSTRIAL BIOLOGICAL  WASTES   (I-Biol.)

    1.  Tanneries ?nd  Leather Trades
     ?.  Pharmaceuticals  (antibiotics, Mologicals;  e.g., penicillin)
    ;.  Alcohol  Industries (brewing and distilling)
    /'.  Miscellaneous  Fernentatior. Industries
        Glue, Size,  and  Gelatine  Plants
        '.Vooi Oouring
      .  Text Lie  i/ianufacture (natural  fibers;  e.g.,  cotton, wool, silk, flax)
    8.  Floor-cloth  Manufacture
    ,  Laundries
   10.  Paper
   IT.  Pulj

C.  FOOD PROCESSING  WASTES  (Food)

    1.  Canneries
    -?.  Meat Packing,  3 laughter rouse, and  Related Trade?
    '/..  Poultry
        Milk and Dairy Wastes
        Corn Products  Plants
    (~.  Bee4 Su.?ar Factories
    7.  Cane cupar Factories
    H.  Fist Processing  Plants
    vl.  Other Food Processing  and  Dehydration Plants
   in.  Citrus
   11.  Beverages (soft  drinks)

D.  AGRICULTURAL AND UifflAN RUNOFF   (Arric.)

    1.  Piggeries
    5.  Chicken Yar'Ic

E.  HYDROCARBON WASTES   (Hy-Car.)

    i .  Oil >Vells
    1.  Fetroleuii' Refining

-------
                                                                        IV -
     :.  Styrene  Manufacture
         Co-pelyrrer Rubber Pi-ants'
         Butadiene  Plants
         Nature!  Rubber Processing  or fie^Iairring
         Fetro] Stations, Gs rages,  Engineering V.orks
         A j rcr?1 ft Ma i ntenance

     PHENOLIC ',YA3Ti'r (Pheno.)

     1 .  Gan Plants and Dy-pi'oduct  Coke Plants
     \  Tar DJGti llation, Road Oil,  *>nd Cresoting  Plants
     , .  C^eir;' ;-a 1 Plants
     ..  oyi'tbeti'1  Resin Plants
     ' .  iv'ood Distillation
     1 .  Hye Manufacturing

     :.:i;JCELLAljKOUJ  OHOANIC CHEIv'JCAL .VASTES (Orran.)

     j.  f'ti-.-ifio'i Pleats ( .::, TNI, Tetryl,  Anmoni'ir picrste, etc.)
     .?.   oyuthetic  or  Man-jiiade Textile  P'.berc (e.g. rayon,  rylon, etc.)
         Orcjaniu Cher.dcel Manufacture
     ' .   Fairrtn and VarnichPs
         Oil ana Grease  Procecsir.^ a:rl  ilefining

H.   COOLING A'ASTSJ (Cool.)

     1 .   Coolin-T .i;pt,e
         l.'Jner&] Wac'a I/iff  J lurries arri ou.spojisions (e.f;,  stone aav/i^;^ r-a;i
         nnd chJna clay v.'asr::'ng)
         I.'Jne PJrsinege (j-it  '.veter fro.T  coaJ  cines)
         Fichle Liquor //'asttJ (c-.<:- iron  and copper pickling, jalvani;.in,y
     ? .   L'lectro-i'.latir.g
     t; .   iVater ^01 ten ing
         Inorganic Chenacal  ;.fer:ufectur :nt- ..astes
     . .   Battery Fanufacture
         Coal-vaching
   1' .   Inorganic Pig; ents
   11 .   Fnotogrephir? Pastes

J.   IUDIOAGT1VE .VAST^J (Red.)
     (e.;.  atojjic e:iergy plants ar.ri o./.ner:i:.e;itel stations; hospitals pud
         in:!ur trie:- iK'ing  rs'Iioact i. /e isotopes)

-------

-------
                                    V  -
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-------
                             LIST OF TABLES


Number                                                               Page

IV -  1   Industrial Wastewater Classification and Index ....   .IV   3

Municipal and Industrial Wastewater Inventory:

V  -  1    North Branch Potomac River Basin 	    V   2

V  -  2    South Branch and Upper Potomac River Basin	   .  .    V   s

V    3    Opequon Cr-ek   , .    .  .    ....      	       V -  7

V    4    Conococht-a^ue Creek and Upper and Middle Potomac
          River Basin	        	      ....       V -  <-;

V    >    Am ielam and Middle Potomac River Basin	    V   ()

V    h    North Fork Shenandoah River Basin	    V   11
               
V    7    North River nt  South Fork Shenandoah
          k i vi' i  Bus in    	   ....   	      ...    V   1  i

V  -  H    Middle River of South Fork Sht-nandoah River Basin  . .       7   14

V  -  9    South River oi  South Fork Shenandoah River Basin ...       V -  16

V    !0   Main Stem South Fork Shenandoah River Basin  .  .      . .      V   ]~

V  -  II   Main Stem Shenandoah	       V -  19

V    12   Caloctin Crei.-k. Md  ; Catoctin,  Va. ;  Monoracy,  Pa.  ...      V   .'()

V  -  13   Monocacs River, Mu.     .  .        .    	      V -  ,-i \

V  -  14   Lower Portion oi Upper  Potomac River Basin  	       V   i  ]
                                   11

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                             LIST OF FIGURES







Numbt-r                                                               Pago




111 - 1       Major Municipal Waste Discharges	Ill - 3







111 - 1       Major Industrial Wastewater Discharges  	 Ill   4







III - 3       Major Thermal Discharges	Ill   !>
                                   111

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                                                                     I    1







                               CHAPTER I







                                PREFACE




        The first complete inventory of water uses and wastewater Loadings




 in the Potomac River Basin was compiled in 1958 by the U. S. Public Health




Service.  Since then numerous surveys, investigations, and inspections




of these facilities have been conducted bv various local, state, and




federal agencies.  These findings wrre consolidated in 1966, into a waste




 inventory as part of the President's Water Quality Sub-Task Force Study




/tnd distributed to the several state, county, and municipal agencies




 involved.  It  has been continuously updated and revised.




        Since  195H, other parameters such as nutrients have become a




significant  factor in water quality management.  The need for curnnt




waste discharge data continues.   Knowledge of existing and past water




use and wastewater loadings is essential  in providing for water qualitv




           in  any river basin.

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                                                                       II    I
                                CHAPTER II


                               INTRODUCTION

A    Purpo&e  and Scope

         In accordance with Recommendation !- of  the  Potomac  Ent\ f(.i-::upt

Conft.-ti.-nc>'.  the Federal Water Pollurion Control Administration,  Middl<-

Atlantic  Region,  in cooperation with the Interstate  Commission  on i lu-

Potomac .  ih<' States if Maryland  Virginia and West Virginia  has  ' ride t

t.iki-n  a  joint  water quality st'^dv of the Upper Potomac Basin.  An

i sscnt i    Ireated  BOD (#/day)             10,   Remarks

         1 he  preceding information is presentee! IP detail ami  summai

lc>rm bv  suh-  regions,  four'.ten in  all.   Maps  shewing major municipal ,

) ndust. r lal -hu>d gradable   and thermal  wastewaier discharges are  ^K.

presented.


^    Acknowledgements

        The assistance and cooperation  of various governmental and  insti

tutiun.il  agencies  together with the  industries  in the basin enabled  the

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                                                                     II  - 2







Middle Atlantic Region to collect and assemble data in what would other-




wise have taken a much longer period of time.  While every agency and




industry contacted provided valuable assistance, the cooperation of




tht- governmental agencies and industries who participated in the sampling




program is greatly appreciated.

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                                                                  ill   1


                             CHAPTER III


                               SUMMARY

        As of October 1969.  there  are 271  known wastewater  discharges

in the Upper Potomac River Basin.   From the  detailed  inventory  presented

in Chapter V, the following  information has  been summarized:

        1.  There are about  420,700 people served by  135  domestic

            wastewater treatment  facilities  in  the Upper  Basin.
   ,             

            (See Figure  III    1 for major  municipal wastewater  dis-

            charges  in the Potomac  River Basin)

        2.   There are 14  industrial  biodegradable wastewater discharges

            producing about  77,600  #/day of  biochemical oxygen  demand

            (BOD)  of which approximately 60%  is  removed by waste-

            water  treatment.

        3.   Ihe  wastewater BOD  loading for the Upper Basin  is presented

            below;
                          Before                     After
              Waste        Treatment      % oi       Treatment       7,, ot
            	Ty_pe	(#/day)	To ta 1	(/day)
San i tary
1 ndustr lal
1 (  t a 1
117,5OO
161,000
278,500
42
58
100
44 , 40O
73,200
117,600
3*
62
10O
       4,   Industrv  in  the Upper Basin discharges about 62% of the tria

            BOD  loadings.  (See Figure III - 2 for major industrial wast

            water discharges in the Potomac River Basin)

       5.   In the Upper Basin, there are 26 industrial and municipal fas

            discharging a total of 1,180 million gallons per day of <.

    -------
    

    -------
                                                              Ill -  2
    
    
    
    
    6.  The nutrient wastewater loadings (phosphorus (PO^) and total
    
    
    
    
        Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) as N) discharged into the surface
    
    
    
    
        water of the basin are presented below:
    Waste
    Type
    Sanitary
    Industrial
    
    Total
    PO^
    (#/day)
    10,400
    7,600
    18,000
    % of
    Total
    58
    42
    100
    TKN
    (#/day)
    5,900
    4,900
    10,800
    % of
    Total
    55
    45
    100
    

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    -------
                                                                         IV  -  1
                                   CHAPTER  IV
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                          DATA SOURCES AND PRESENTATION
    
    
    
    
    A   Data Sources
    
    
    
    
            The  information used in compiling the wastewater inventors was
    
    
    
    
    obtained from many sources including:
    
    
    
    
            I.   The 1964 cooperative industrial water use survey for  the
    
    
    
    
                 Chesapeake Bay-Susquehanna River Basins Project (Formerly
    
    
    
    
                 by the Public Health Service of the U. S. Department  oi
    
    
    
    
                 Health, Education  and Welfare, and now by the Federal
    
    
    
    
                 Water Pollution Control Administration of the U. S.
    
    
    
    
                 Department of the Interior)
    
    
    
    
            2    Wasiewater treatment records and inventories as compiled
    
    
    
    
                 by the various state agencies in Virginia, West Virginia
    
    
    
    
                 Maryland and Pennsylvania-
    
    
    
    
            3.    Wastewater inventory prepared in 1966 as part .~>i the
    
    
    
    
                 President's Sub Task Force on water qualitv and the sub',--
    
    
    
    
                 qi-ent cooperative wastewater surveys.
    
    
    
    
    All municipal discharges having a wastewater flow greater than 1 0 mgd
    
    
    
    
    and all industries with biodegradable waste with a tlow greater th.tn
    
    
    
    
    O.b mgd were sampled during 1968-   For most of these discharges,   three
    
    
    
    
    2& hour composites were obtained and analyzed for BODS PO^.  and TKN.
    
    
    
    
    Wastewater loadings for the remainder of the facilities were determined
    
    
    
    
    from either  8-hour composites,  grab samples, or from assumed values
    
    
    
    
    For the latter the following assumptions were used;
    

    -------
                                                                        IV
             Domestic  Wastewater  Flow                  100 gcd
             Untreated BOD  (Mainly  Domestic)           2OO mg/l
             Untreated BOD  (Highly  Industrial)         250 mg/l
             BOD  Removal  -  Primary  Plants              35 %
             BOD  Removal    Secondary Plants            85 %
             Phosphorus - (PO^ as P04>                 30 mg/l*
             Nitrogen    (TKN  as N)                     17 mg/l*
    
    The  flows and  loadings presented  in this report are  considered  to  be
    
             annual  values  tor the  1968 calendar
    B -  Data Presen tat ion
    
            In  the- detailed  inventory presented in Chapter V, the following
    
    abbreviations are used;
    
            NA  = Not Applicable
    
            UNK = Unknown
    
            ST  = Septic Tanks
    
            *   = Wastt-water Discharge for Municipal System
    
    An  industrial wastewater grouping which was developed by the Chesapeake
    
    Technical Support Laboratory was used to classify and index the discharges
    
    (See Table IV   1)
           *These are average concentrations  as  determined  in a  nutrient
    survey during 1966
    

    -------
                                                                        IV
                                  Table IV  -  1
    
    
                  INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CLASSIFICATION AND INDEX
    
    A.  SANITARY  (San  )
    
        1.  Municipal,  Institutional, etc,
        2.  Industrial
        3-  Unincorporated areas
    
    B.  INDUSTRIAL BIOLOGICAL WASTES (I-Biol.)
    
        1   Tanneries and Leather Trades
        2.  Pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, biologicals; e.g., penicillin)
        3   Alcohol  Industries 
    -------
                                                                       IV - 4
    
        3- 'Styrene Manufacture
        4.  Co-polymer Rubber Plants
        5.  Butadiene Plants
        (S,  Natural Rubber Processing
        7.  Petrol Stations, Garages, Engineering Works
        8.  Aircraft Maintenance
    
    F.  PHENOLIC WASTES (Pheno.)
    
        1.  Gas Plants and By-product Coke Plants
        2.  Tar Distillation, Road Oil, and Cresoting Plants
        3.  Chemical Plants
        4.  Synthetic Resin Plants
        5.  Wood Distillation
        6.  Dye Manufacturing
    
    G.  MISCELLANEOUS ORGANIC CHEMICAL WASTES (Organ.)
    
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