EPA-600/7-79-074
                                           March 1979
               WESTERN ENERGY
     SULFATE/NITRATE l^DNITORING NETWORK
               PROGRESS REPORT
                     by

             Michael J. Pearson
               Marc Pitchford
               Robert Snelling
       Monitoring Operations Division
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory
               P. 0. Box 15027
          Las Vegas, Nevada  89114
ENVIRONMENTAL MDNITORING AND SUPPORT LABORATORY
     OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
          LAS VEGAS, NEVADA  89114

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                                DISCLAIMER
     This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Monitoring and
Support Laboratory-Las ^gas, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, and
approved for publication.  Mention of trade names or commercial products
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                                    11

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                                FOREWORD
     Protection of the environment requires effective regulatory actions
which are based on sound technical and scientific information.  This
information must include the quantitative description and linking of
pollutant sources/ transport mechanisms, interactions, and resulting
effects on man and his environment.  Because of the complexities involved,
assessment of specific pollutants in the environment requires a total
systems approach which transcends the media of air, water, and land.  The
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory-Las Vegas contributes to
the formation and enchancement of a sound monitoring data base for
exposure assessment through programs designed to:

          .  develop and optimize systems and strategies for moni-
             toring pollutants and their impact on the environment

          .  demonstrate new monitoring systems and technologies by
             applying them to fulfill special monitoring needs of
             the Agency's operating programs

     There is increasing evidence relating atmospheric sulfate and nitrate
aerosols to health effects and visibility degradation.  In many areas of
the country, however, sulfates and nitrates are not routinely monitored.
This report describes a program which has enriched the quantity and quality
of the sulfate and nitrate data for an eight-state region in the western
United States.
                                            GeorgaB .Morgan
                                            Director'
                                            Environmental Monitoring and
                                            Support Laboratory
                                    111

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                m WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AREA




                  AREA OF PRIMARY INTEREST
Figure  1.   Western  Energy  Resource  Development  Area

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                                CONCLUSIONS
     The primary tasks of this program have been to inprove the distri-
bution and quality of sulfate and nitrate data available for the WERDA.
Projections for 1978 show a substantial increase in sulfate-nitrate
monitoring and itrproved geographic coverage.  Through the Western Energy
Quality Assurance program, data quality is being assessed.  The results of
this program indicate an improvement in data quality.  Finally, data
reported show some detectable regional variations and a strong contrast
with data reported for the eastern United States.

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                            NETOORK DEVELOPMENT
     EMSL-LV is engaged in a multi-year program which began in 1975 and
was designed to evaluate the air quality impacts of energy-related develop-
ments in the WERDA.  The primary objectives of the program are to establish
an energy-related air quality baseline, evaluate air quality trends, assess
the impacts of specific energy-related development activities, and predict
the impact of proposed energy developments.

     Early in this program particulate SO^j and N03 were recognized as pol-
lutants of major concern.  A survey of SO^ and NC>3 data collected in the
WERDA during 1975 was conducted.  The results of this survey are presented
in Column 1 of Table 1.  In terms of the numbers of reporting stations,
Arizona and North Dakota were the only states which had a significant level
of SO^/NO-D monitoring activity.  A map showing the distribution of the
SO^/NCs monitoring stations (Figure 2) illustrates the poor geographic
coverage provided by the 103 stations reporting SC^/NOo data in 1975.
Based on this type of data survey it was apparent that a program was re-
quired to increase the amount of SO,/NCs data gathered.

     Such a program was initiated early in 1976.  Since there was an
abundance of high volume particulate samplers being operated by a variety
of groups throughout WERDA, it was not necessary to establish new sampling
locations.  Filter samples which were being gravimetrically analyzed for
total suspended particulates could also be analyzed for SO^/NO .  State air
pollution control agencies operate the majority of particulate samplers in
the WERDA.  The EMSL-LV also operates a large high volume particulate
sampling network in the southwest through a contract with the Ute Research
Laboratory (URL) (see Figure 3).

     With the exception of Arizona and New Mexico, the states which comprise
the WERDA are in EPA Region 8.  Representatives of Region 8 were contacted
concerning augmentation of the  state operated particulate sampling net-
works for SCh/NO,. analysis.  The regional representatives suggested that
the states of Montana, Colorado, North Dakota, and South Dakota could per-
form this analysis on filter samples from their networks with a modest
increase in their grant funding.  The states of Utah and Wyoming would
require considerable additional support to perform S04/N03 analysis, but
would be willing to send samples elsewhere for that analysis.

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             TABLE 1.  NUMBER OF STATIONS REPORTING

Sulfate Nitrate
Projected Projecte*
75 76 77 78 75 76 77 78
Arizona 56 43 42 61
Colorado 3 3 31 34
Montana 4 8 5 19
New Mexico 1355
North Dakota 29 36 36 36
South Dakota 2206
Utah 5 6 8 18
Wyoming 3 2 0 13
TOTAL 103 103 127 192
19 14 17 26
2 1 31 33
4 4 0 14
1155
30 37 37 37
2206
5 6 8 18
3 2 0 13
66 67 98 152

*Based on data in the National Aerometric Data Base on May 4,  1978,
 a station is counted if it reports data during any portion of
 the year.

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Figure 2.  Sulfate-nitrate sampling in the WERDA,  1975

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                                    n
                                      CANYONLANDS
                                       NAT L PARK
                                      D
 UTE NETWORK SITE

 EXISTING POWER PLANT

D EXPANDING POWER PLANT
D PROPOSED POWER PLANT
               ZION NAT L PARK
                    GRAND CANYON
                     NAT L PARK
           LAKE MEAD NAT L
           RECREATION AREA
    Figure 3.   Ute  Research  Laboratory  Hi-Vol sampler  network
     Funds were transferred in the surtmer of 1976 from the EMSL-LV to
Begion 8 so that the state grants to Montana, Colorado, North Dakota, and
South Dakota could be increased to support SO^/NO^ analysis.  Augmentation
of the URL network for SO^/NC^ analysis was accomplished by expanding their
scope of work and furnishing them with the equipment and training  required.
Arrangements were made for samples to be sent from the states of Utah and
Wyoming to the URL for analysis.

     Analysis for SO^/NO^ by a number of laboratories  was delayed.   The
majority of the program outlined above was operational by June, 1978.  The
remainder of the laboratories were performing SO^/NOo  analysis by  the end
of 1978.  The effects of this program are to nearly double the number of
locations reporting SC^/NOo data (see Table 1) and to  provide much better
geographic coverage of WERDA  (see Figure 4).

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   /
Figure 4.  Sulfate-nitrate sampling in the WERDA, 1978

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                             QUALITY ASSURANCE
     In order to compare the data collected by the various laboratories in
the WERDA, the quality of the various data sets most be known.  A quality
assurance program was developed to evaluate the sample collection and
analysis performed by each laboratory and to provide technical assistance
in areas that would improve data quality.  A portion of this program
directly relates to the quality of the sulfate and nitrate data.  The par-
ticipants in this program are Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico,
North Dakota, Northern Testing Laboratory and Ute Research Laboratory.

     During the last quarter of 1976, Rockwell International under a con-
tract monitored by the Quality Assurance Branch of the Environmental Moni-
toring and Support Laboratory at Research Triangle Park  (EMSL-RTP) , began
a series of interlaboratory cross comparisons.  Among these comparisons
were checks of high volume sampler  (Hi-Vol) flow calibrations and sulfate
and nitrate analysis.  In order to be consistent with the quality assurance
program, an anonymous laboratory code is used to report the results of the
various audits for the laboratories.  Only the results of Rockwell compari-
sons with EMSL-RTP are identified in the report.

     The first portion of the comparisons affecting the data quality is the
high volume sampler flow-calibration performance check.  A calibration kit
containing a series of "unknown" orifice plates is sent to the participating
laboratories.  With this equipment mounted on a Hi-Vol sampler, measurements
of the pressure drop across the various plates and the flow using the labor-
atory's flow meter are made.  These values and the ambient pressure and
temperature are reported to Rockwell International.  The flows are then
computed and a report sumnarizing the results of all the participating
laboratories is compiled.

     In order to evaluate the analysis capabilities of each participating
laboratory a set of four-to-six filter strips spiked with varying amounts
of sulfate and nitrate ions is sent to each laboratory on a quarterly
basis.  Each laboratory analyzes the filter samples and reports the results
to Rockwell International.  Rockwell analyzes a minimum of ten filter sets
to establish the sample values using the methyl-thymol blue procedure for
sulfate and the copperized cadmium reduction method for nitrate.  The
results of the individual laboratory analyses are compared with Rockwell's
results and a summary report is compiled.

     The results of the Hi-Vol flow calibration and the sulfate and nitrate
analyses are summarized in Tables 2 and 3.  These tables give the mean

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     TABLE 2.   HI-VOL FLOW CALIBRATION - PERCENT DIFFERENCE
Lab
1st Half 1977
Mean       SD
2nd Half 1977
Mean       SD
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
- 3
- 9
19
- 2
-11
1
- 1
.4
.5
.8
.2
.7
.9
.5
10
3
9
3
2
1
2
.1
.2
.3
.2
.0
.7
.2
0
- 5
2
- 3
0
- 4
10
.6
.6
.4
.4
.1
.6
.4
3.
6.
12.
2.
1.
0.
6.
2
1
2
8
8
9
2

     TABLE  3.  QUALITY ASSURANCE  AUDITS  - PERCENT DIFFERENCE




1976
4th Quarter
Lab
A
B
C
D
E
r
G
EV!SL-RTP

Mean
119.2
- 9.3
- 5.6
34.7

53.5
- 16.2
- 0.2

SD
123.4
12.4
21.4
54.1

63.0
18.0
2.0

1976
4th Quarter
Lab
A
B
C
D

F
EMSL-RTP
Wean
5885.0
14.5
0.9
35.7

63.1
1.2
SD
7835.2
11.6
6.0
42.0

88.8
1.0

1977


1st Quarter
Mean
12.3
- 5.0
9.0
12.6

2.5
5.9
3.4

1977
SD
8.5
3.9
5.1
14.3

7.9
3.7
2.3


1st Quarter
Mean
31.7
- 11.2
- 0.1
20.8

- 11.3
9.3
SD
23.9
4.3
22.2
13.1

4.5
4.1
SULFATE
1977


2nd Quarter
Mean
131.5
- 25.9
- 0.5
- 14.6
7.3
10.8
- 13.3
- 1.2
NITRATE
1977
SD
31.3
18.5
12.6
19.2
4.5
9.7
9.5
8.3


2nd Quarter
Mean
105.1
- 8.6
157.3
5.8
29.4
- 18.6
- 7.7
ED
6.5
10.8
350.2
17.0
6.3
9.0
2.4



1977


3rd Quarter
He an
3.
9.
- 20.
- 19.
6.
3.
- 18.
2.


3rd
He an
22.
15.
4.
- 16.
0.
6.
1.

9
9
8
0
8
2
7
9

1B77
SD
13.8
4.6
31.1
33.7
3.4
3.2
36.5
3.5


Quarter

2
7
4
5
1
7
9
sn
7.4
4.6
12.3
10.2
8.6
11.0
1.9

1977


4th Quarter
Mean
4 .1
- 1.9
- 22.3
26.5
13.3
20.3
- 18.9


1977
SD
10.0
13.3
45.6
66.7
18.5
52.4
29.2



4th Quarter
Mean
12.8
21.9
- 41.8
9.5
5.9
- 0.5

SD
16.2
12.9
6.2
6.0
8.4
17.4

                                 10

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and standard deviation (SD) of the percent difference between the results
of Rockwell and the individual laboratories.  Additional information is
provided in the annual report prepared for EMSL-KEP by Rockwell.

     In general, the quality assurance program results indicate an improve-
ment with time.  The results of the Hi-Vol flow calibration audits, pre-
sented in Table 2, show a decrease in the percent difference.  The majority
of the laboratories show a mean percent difference of 5% or less for the
second half of 1977.  The sulfate and nitrate results, presented in
Table 3, show a similar irtproving trend, with percent differences of
approximately 25% or less for the fourth quarter of 1977.  The extreme
values in Table 3, which may indicate serious problems with analysis pro-
cedures, appear to have been eliminated during the course of this program.
                                     11

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                              DATA ANALYSIS
     The data reported to the National Aerometric Data Base for the WERDA
for 1975 through the present are presented in Table 4.  These data are
the result of a retrieval made on May 4, 1978, and provide the basis for
the analysis presented in this report.  Further station information is pro-
vided in Appendix A.  It should be noted that this data base is a dynamic
system and modifications can occur at anytime.  Therefore, retrievals made
at other times may result in different quarterly means and different
stations reporting.

     In computing the quarterly means, the retrieval program used half the
assumed minimum detection limits for all reported values less than that
detection limit 0.5 yg/m3 for sulfate and 0.05 yg/m3 for nitrate.  Mean
values are then rounded to the nearest 1 yg/nr for sulfate and 0.1 yg/m3 for
nitrate.

     While analyzing the data for North Dakota, a possible error was de-
tected.  Approximately 20 of the state-operated stations reported zero
values for July through September 1975 and higher values before and after
this period.  Nine additional stations reported zero values from September
1975 through June 1976 with higher values before and after this period.
This was reported to EPA Region 8 and data correction is pending further
investigation.  Since data values reported in this area are generally less
than 3 yg/m3, these data should have little effect on the analysis presented
in this report.

     As mentioned in earlier sections, the density and geographic distri-
bution of stations reporting sulfate and nitrate data in 1975 are inadequate
for detailed regional analysis and trend assessment.  Only Arizona and
North Dakota reported enough data to draw regional conclusions.  Since 1975,
the amount and coverage of these data have shown continuous improvement.  Even
so, significant gaps still exist in the 1977 data.  Until late 1976, the
quality and intercomparibility of the data reported were unknown.

     To overcome the data deficiencies and provide an analysis on a regional
scale, a series of assumptions were required.  It was assumed that the
temporal variability of the data could be ignored, thereby allowing mixing
of 1975 data with 1976 and 1977 data.  Quarterly means were all weighted
equally, regardless of how many samples were included in the mean.  Finally,
the quality and intercomparability of the data were assumed to be adequate
for the purpose of this analysis.
                                    12

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     Given these assumptions, the means for each quarter were displayed in a
series of maps.  These maps were used to develop a composite map of the
mean values based on all available data.  A series of arbitrary ranges
were then selected to classify the data.  Areas lacking data were left
blank, while data areas were shaded to indicate the data range.  The re-
sults of this analysis are presented in Figures 5 and 6.

     The sulfate composite map (Figure 5) shows a number of regional
characteristics.  The North Dakota area reports values from 1 to 3 yg/m
with small areas (probably related to local sources) reporting in the
3 to 6 yg/m  range.  Data in the 1 to 3 yg/m3 range are also reported in
northern Arizona, southern Utah, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern
Colorado.  In contrast, the remainder of Colorado reports large areas in
the 3 to 6 yg/m3 range and southern  Arizona reports values from 3 yg/m3
to greater than 15 yg/m .  With the exception of southern Arizona the region
as a whole lies in the range from 1 to 6 yg/m3.

     The sulfate composite map also shows the significance of point sources.
The Salt Lake City area in northern Utah is a dramatic example.  A single
point source is the probable cause of the greater than 15 yg/m3 sulfate
area on the western edge of Salt Lake City.  This effect appears to drop
off rapidly to the 3 to 6 yg/m3 range.  Similarly, each of the high sulfate
areas in southern Arizona can be linked to large point sources.

     The sulfate data for the WERDA sharply contrast  values reported for
the eastern United States.  In 1975 Mitre  (Greeley et al., 1975) reported
mean sulfate values in the West ranging from 2.6 yg/m3 in rural areas to
6 yg/m3 in urban areas.  With the exception of the point source areas already
pointed out, sulfate in the WERDA is consistently below the 6 yg/m3 figure.
In contrast, Mitre reported eastern mean values ranging from 8 yg/m3 in
non-urban areas to 13 yg/m3 in urban areas.

     The nitrate data, presented in Figure 6, show somewhat poorer
coverage than the sulfate data.  Mean values range from 1 yg/m3 to 5 yg/m3
with only one area reporting greater than 5 yg/rn^.  The composite map also
shows greater variability than was seen in the sulfate area.  As one might
expect, major urban areas report higher nitrate values and show greater
variability over small geographic areas.  Rural areas, on the other hand,
report lower and more uniform values.  Although the categories used to
classify nitrate data were small, it is likely that this urban variability
is real and source-related.  Aside from the high urban values, no regional
contrasts are apparent.

     The quality and intercomparability of the data deserve some further
consideration.  It should be noted that data comparison within an area con-
trolled by a single agency may not be drastically affected by the question
of data quality.  All data values should be subject to the same quality
control and should result in long term means that can be compared with
other means for the laboratory.  However, comparison of different laboratory
regions could have some definite problems.  If today's quality assurance
program can be considered representative of the past, then errors of 20%
                                     13

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-------
Figure 5.  Regional composite map of sulfate concentrations,
                          1975-1977
                             25

-------
                                                    j:;!;:;!;: 0-1 ug/m3


                                                        1-2 ug/m3
                                                    ;{*
                                                        2-3 ug/m3
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Figure  6.   Regional composite  map of nitrate concentrations,
                            1975-1977
                                26

-------
to 50% are most likely.  However, as can be seen in Table 3 errors in
excess of 100% have occurred and could significantly alter the regional
comparisons.

     At this tine, the data do not provide adequate regional coverage.
However, projections for 1978 suggest considerable improvement in data
coverage.  The addition of data in Wyoming, and the expansion of sulfate
analysis in Montana, Utah, and Arizona should provide the data base needed
for detailed regional analysis.  A continuation of this data reporting for
2 to 3 years should also provide sufficient data to assess regional trends
in the WERDA.
                                     27

-------
                               REFERENCES

1.  Charlson, R. J., A. P. Waggoner, J. F. Thielke, Visibility Protection
    for Class I Areas:  The Technical Basis.  (Publication Pending) April,
    1978.

2.  Environmental Protection Agency, Position Paper on Regulation of
    Atmospheric Sulfates, EPA-450/2-75-007, September, 1975.

3.  Greeley, R. S., R. P. Ouellette, J. T. Stone, S. Wilcox, Sulfates and
    the Environment - A Review, Mitre Corporation MTR-6895.  March, 1975.
                                    28

-------
                                APPENDIX A

                         STATION LISTS AND

    Appendix A has been provided to facilitate the location of each station
referenced in the report.  The first portion of this appendix lists the
station codes used in this report along with their corresponding station
names and SAROAD numbers.  The map coordinates provided in column 4 can be
used to locate the station on the state maps following this list.  Addi-
tional information on the individual stations is available from the
National Aerometric Data Base using the SAEOAD system.
                                   29

-------
CODE
STATION
SAROAD ID.
MAP COORDINATE
         ARIZONA
 1       Ajo
 2       Teec Nos Pos
 3       Redrock
 4       Eager
 5   '    Casa Grande
 6       Chandler
 7a      Douglas
 7b      Douglas
 7c      Douglas
 8       Paul Spur
 9       Page
10       Kaibeto
11       Coppermine
12       Bodaway
13       Tsai Skizzi
14       Tuba City
15       Flagstaff
16a      Hayden
16b      Hayden
17a      Miami
17b      Miami
18       Glendale
19       Grand Canyon
           National Park
20       Morenci
21       Kingman
22       Carefree
23       St. Johns
24       Guadalupe
25       Litchfield
26       Mesa
27       Davis Dam
28       Moccasin
29       Lake Havasu
30       Mineral Park
31       Bacabi
32       Show Low
33a      Nogales
33b      Nogales
34       Paradise Valley
35       Phoenix
36       Lee's Ferry
37a      Phoenix
37b      Phoenix
                          030020001
                          030040001
                          030040003
                          030040005
                          030100001
                          030120001
                          030180003
                          030180004
                          030240004
                          030180005
                          030200004
                          030200010
                          030200011
                          030200012
                          030200013
                          030200014
                          030280001
                          030300001
                          030300901
                          030300003
                          030480902
                          030320001
                          030370001

                          030380001
                          030420001
                          030440006
                          030440007
                          030440008
                          030440009
                          030460002
                          030500006
                          030500009
                          030500013
                          030500014
                          030520003
                          030520007
                          030540002
                          030540003
                          030570002
                          030600002
                          030200007
                          030600004
                          030600010
                   F2
                   A6
                   A6
                   D6
                   E4
                   E3
                   G6
                   G6
                   G6
                   G6
                   A4
                   A4
                   A4
                   A4
                   A5
                   B4
                   C4
                   E5
                   E5
                   E5
                   E5
                   E3
                   B3

                   E6
                   Cl
                   D3
                   E3
                   E3
                   E3
                   E4
                   Bl
                   A3
                   Cl
                   Bl
                   B5
                   D5
                   G4
                   G4
                   E3
                   E3
                   A4
                   E3
                   E3
                         30

-------
CODE
STATION
SAROAD ID.
MAP COORDINATE
37c      Phoenix
38a      Phoenix
38b      Phoenix
39       Organ Pipe
           National Monument
40       Green Valley
41       Rillito
42       Rillito
43       Tucson
44a      Twin Buttes
44b      Twin Buttes
45       Florence
46       San Manuel
47       Prescott
48       Safford
49a      Scottsdale
49b      Scottsdale
50       Sierra Vista
51       South Tucson
52       Sun City
53       Superior
54a      Tucson
54b      Tucson
54c      Tucson
54d      Tucson
55a      Tucson
55b      Tucson
56       Tucson

         COLORADO
 1       Red Mesa
 2       Ignacio
 3       Towaoc
 4       Adams City
 5       Sand Dunes N. M.
 6       Brush
 7       Colorado Springs
 8       Cortez
 9       Craig
10       Delta
11       Denver
12       Denver
13       Denver  (Gates Rubber)
14       Denver  (CARIH)
15       Fort Collins
16       Glenwood Springs
                          030600014
                          030600011
                          030600013
                          030620005

                          030620007
                          030620009
                          030620010
                          030620011
                          030620015
                          030620016
                          030640001
                          030640003
                          030660001
                          030680001
                          030740003
                          030740004
                          030760001
                          030780001
                          030790002
                          030800003
                          030860001
                          030860002
                          030860009
                          030860012
                          030860007
                          030860008
                          030860013
                          061300002
                          061300003
                          061600004
                          060020001
                          060060001
                          060280001
                          060380004
                          060440002
                          060480001
                          060540001
                          060580001
                          060580002
                          060580003
                          060580009
                          060820001
                          060920001
                   E3
                   E3
                   E3
                   G3

                   G4
                   F4
                   F4
                   F4
                   G4
                   G4
                   E4
                   F5
                   C3
                   F6
                   E3
                   E3
                   G5
                   F4
                   E3
                   E4
                   F4
                   F4
                   F4
                   F4
                   F5
                   F5
                   G5
                   G2
                   G3
                   Gl
                   B6
                   F5
                   B8
                   D6
                   Gl
                   A3
                   D2
                   C6
                   C6
                   C6
                   C6
                   A6
                   C3
                          31

-------
CODE
STATION
SAROAD ID,
MAP COORDINATE
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
  1
  2
  3
Grand Junction
Greeley
Gunnison
Walden
La Junta
Love land      >
Mesa Verde N. P.
Mesa Verde N. P.
Pueblo
Pueblo
Meeker
Rangely
Steamboat Springs
Sterling
Johnstown
La Salle
Platteville
Erie
Loveland

MONTANA
Missoula
Missoula
Missoula
Missoula
Missoula
Frenchtown
Glacier National Park
Helena
Ft. Howes
Ashland
Decker
Billings
Butte
Ekalaka
Lindsay
Lindsay
Helena
Helena
Poplar
Colstrip

NEW MEXICO
Dulce
Huerfano
Chaco  Canyon N.M.
060980010
061000006
061020001
061120002
061220001
061480002
061530002
061530003
061820001
061820003
061860001
061860002
061920003
062080001
062220003
062220004
062220005
062220006
061220002
271100001
271100009
271100016
271100017
271100015
271100014
270570001
270720001
271240008
271360026
270060009
270080006
270160005
270200002
270360002
270360003
270760903
270860002
271340001
271360027
 320920003
 321000007
 321Q00011
     Dl
     B6
     E4
     A4
     F8
     B6
     Gl
     Gl
     E7
     E7
     B2
     Bl
     B3
     A8
     B6
     B6
     B6
     B6
     B6
     C2
     C2
     C2
     C2
     C2
     C2
     A3
     D4
     E9
     E9
     F9
     E7
     E4
     Dll
     CIO
     CIO
     D4
     D4
     BIO
     E9
      A3
      B2
      B2
                              32

-------
CODE
STATION
SAROAD ID,
MAP COORDINATE
 4      Burnham
 5      Albuquerque

        NORTH DAKOTA.
 la     Maryvale
 Ib     Valley City
 2      Medora
 3a     Bismarck
 3b     Bismarck
 4      Bowman
 5      Bismarck
 6a     Fargo
 6b     Fargo
 6c     Fargo
 7      Devils Lake
 8a     Dickinson
 8b     Dickinson
 9      Mandaree
10      Halliday
lla     Grand Forks
lib     Grand Forks
12      Glen Ullin
13      Mott
14      New England
15a     Jamestown
15b     Jamestown
16      Grassy Butte
17      Garrison
18      Washburn
19      Mandan
20      Beulah
21      Beulah
22      Minot
23      New Salem
24      Parshall
25      Stanton
26a     McClusky
26b     McClusky
27      Valley City
28      Wahpeton
29      Lake Darling
30      Williston

        SOUTH DAKOTA
 1      Black Hills National
          Forest
                          321000012
                          320040001
                          350040001
                          350040002
                          350080001
                          350100001
                          350100002
                          350160001
                          350200001
                          350220001
                          350400001
                          350400002
                          350260001
                          350300001
                          351140001
                          350340001
                          350340002
                          350480001
                          350480002
                          350520001
                          350560001
                          350560002
                          350580001
                          351180001
                          350700001
                          350720001
                          350720002
                          350740001
                          350760001
                          350760002
                          350780001
                          350800001
                          350820001
                          350860001
                          351060001
                          351060002
                          351240001
                          351260001
                          351300001
                          351360001
                          430110001
                   B2
                   D4
                   D8
                   D8
                   Dl
                   E5
                   E5
                   El
                   E5
                   E10
                   E10
                   E10
                   B7
                   D2
                   D2
                   D3
                   D3
                   CIO
                   CIO
                   E4
                   E3
                   E2
                   E7
                   E7
                   D2
                   C4
                   D5
                   E5
                   D4
                   D4
                   B4
                   E4
                   C3
                   D4
                   D5
                   D5
                   E8
                   F10
                   B4
                   Bl
                   El
                         33

-------
CODE
STATION
SAROAD ID.
                                                 MAP COORDINATE
 2      Sioux Falls
 3      Pierre
 4      Newell
 5      Hot Springs
 6      Lemmon

        UTAH
 1      Escalante
 2      Henrieville
 3      Glen Canyon City
 4      Kearns
 5      Magna
 6      Ogden
 7      Salt Lake City
 8      Navajo Mt.
 9      Oljato
10      Aneth
11      Bloomington
12      St. George
13      Ogden
14      Vernal
15      Price
16      Mills
17      Lyndyl
18      Green River
19      Moab
20      Emery
21      Huntington
22      Bryce Canyon
          National Park

        WYOMING
 1      Casper
 2a     Cheyenne
 2b     Cheyenne
 3      Yellowstone
          National Park
 4      Converse Co.
 5      Riverton
 6      Rock Springs
 7      Granger
 8      Douglas
 9      Gillette
10      Newcastle
11      Buffalo
12      Lusk
13      Wheatland
                           431480001
                           431340001
                           430240001
                           430780001
                           431320001
                           460300002
                           460300003
                           460400003
                           460440001
                           460520001
                           460680001
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                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
1. REPORT NO.
  EPA-600/7-79-074
                             2.
                                                           3, RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION NO.
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
 WESTERN ENERGY SULFATE/NITRATE MONITORING
 NETWORK PROGRESS REPORT
             5, REPORT DATE
               March 1979
             6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
7. AUTHOR(S)
                                                           8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
 Michael J. Pearson.  Marc Pitchford, and Robert  Snellincj
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
 Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory
 Office of Research and Development
 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Las Vegas, NV   89114
             10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.

                    1NE833
             11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
12, SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
 U.  S. Environmental Protection Agency-Las Vegas
 Office of Research and Development
 Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory
 Las Vegas, NV   89114                   	
             13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD
              Prooress
             14. SPONSORING AGENCY
                    EPA/600/07
                                                                                     /ERED
16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
16. ABSTRACT
      Interest in sulfate and nitrate aerosols has been on the increase largely due to
 studies relating sulfate and nitrate to health  effects and visibility degradation and
 to changes in our national energy policy.  The  present and planned utilization of
 coal resources in the western United States will  add to the sulfate-nitrate burden.
 However, little sulfate-nitrate data are available to establish a baseline and
 evaluate the  impact of this development.
      A program was initiated by the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory
 at Las Vegas  to increase the number of locations  monitoring sulfate and nitrate in
 the Western Energy Resource Development Area.   This was accomplished primarily by
 augmenting the existing particulate sampling networks.   This program has resulted
 in doubling the number of locations reporting sulfate and nitrate data and improving
 the geographic coverage.   To evaluate and improve the quality of these data, a
 quality assurance program has also been established.
      The sulfate-nitrate network resulting from this program was fully operational
 at the end of 1978.   The data reported thus far indicate generally low values  in
 this area.  Typically,  sulfate values are less  than 6 micrograms per cubic meter
 (yg/m3)  and nitrate  values are less than 3 yg/m3.   The  data presented in this
 report cover  the sampling period from January 1975 to December 1977.
17.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
                                              b.IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
                           c. COSATI Field/Group
  Air pollution
  Sulfates
  Nitrates
  Particulates
  Monitoring services
  Energy
Western Energy Resource
Development Area
 (WERDA)
   43E
   43F
   68A
   99F
18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
  RELEASE TO THE PUBLIC
                                              19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report I
                                                UNCLASSIFIED
                           21. NO. OF PAGES
                              48
20. SECURITY CLASS (This page)
  UNCLASSIFIED
22. PRICE
  A03
EPA Form 2220-1 (Rtv. 4-77)   PNKVIOUS COITION is OMOUCTC

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