DRAFT
     Development Document for
Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines
and New Source Performance Standards
              for the

             AUTO
              AND
     OTHER LAUNDRIES

       Point Source Category
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

            APRIL 1974

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                            DRAFT


                        Publication Notice                            2



    This is a development document for proposed effluent _limitations   7

guidelines and new source performance standards.  As such, this        8

report is subject  to  changes resulting from comments ^received during   9

the period of public  comments on the proposed regulations.  This       10

document in its final form will be published at the time the

regulations jfpr this  industry are promulgated.                         11


    This report has been entered into a computer to facilitate         13

processing, print  outs, arid  revisions.  The various "machine           15

commands" necessary to accomplish these steps are, therefore, present  16

in this draft version.  For  example, line numbers are shown in the     17

right margin, percent and dollar symbols represent underlining         18

instructions, and  a dash under individual letters ^s a reference       19

point for making corrections.  The commands will not appear in the     20

final report.


    R.eaders who desire clarification or amplification of the material  22

presented while making J^heir reviews are invited to contact:           23


                (1) Walter L. Muller;  (2) Donald E. Banning            27
         Mail:  National Field Investigations Center                   28
                5555  Ridge Avenue                                      29
                Cincinnati,  Ohio 45268                                 30
        Phone:  (1) 513-684-4208; (2)  513-684-4371                     31
            of commercial products does not constitute endorsement by  35

the U.S. Government.                                                   36

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               DRAFT
             DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT

                     FOR

    PROPOSED EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES

                     AND

       NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

                     FOR

           AUTO AND OTHER LAUNDRIES
                  A.  D. Sidio

                   Director
     !."" f' ••-•:-: Amenta! Protection
                 April 1974

    OFFICE OF ENFORCEMENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL
National Field Investigations Center - Cincinnati
               5555 Ridge Avenue
            Cincinnati, Ohio  45268

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                           DRAFT





                              Abstract                                 3








    This document presents  the findings of an in-house study of auto   7




and other laundries point sources by  the National Field Investi-




gations Center-Cincinnati,  Environmental Protection Agency for _the     9




purpose of developing effluent limitations guidelines and Federal      10




standards of performance for  the industry, to implement Sections _3_04   11




and 306 of the Federal Water  Pollution Control Act, as amended _(33     12




U.S.C. 1251, 1314 and 1316, 86 Stat.  816 et. seq.)  (the "ACT").






    Effluent limitations guidelines contained herein set forth the     14




djegree of effluent reduction attainable through the application of     15




_the best practicable control  technology currently available and the    16




d_egree of effluent reduction  attainable through the application of     17




the best available technology economically achievable which must be    18




achieved by existing point sources by July 1, 1977, and July 1, 1983,  19




respectively.  The standards  of performance  for new sources contained  21




herein set forth _the degree of effluent reduction which is achievable  22




through the application of the best available demonstrated control     23




technology, processes, operating methods, or other alternatives.       24






    ^upportive data and rationale  for development of the proposed      26




Affluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance are       27




Contained in this report.                                             28

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                           DRAFT
                             CONTENTS
SECTION                                               PAGE

   I  Conclusions                                       1-1

  II  Recommendations                                  II-l

 III  Introduction                                    III-l

        Purpose and Authority                        III-l

        Summary of Methods Used  for Guideline
        Development and Standards  of Performance      III-2

        General Description of Industries             III-5

        General Background                           III-5

  IV  Industry Categorization                          IV-1

        Rationale for Subcategorization                IV-1

        Industrial Laundries                          IV-2

        Linen Supply, Power Laundries  (Family and
        Commercial), and Diaper  Services               IV-3

        Auto Wash Establishments                      IV-6

        Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                 IV-7

        Coin-operated Laundries  and Dry Cleaning
        Facilities and Laundry and Garment Services
        Not Elsewhere Classified                      IV-8
                             iii

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                           DRAFT
       Dry Cleaning Plants Except Rug Cleaning        IV-9

  V  Waste Characterization                            V-l

       Industrial Laundries                           V-l

       Linen Supply, Power Laundries (Family and
       Commercial) and Diaper  Services                 V-6

       Auto Washes                                    V-9

       Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                  V-15

       Coin-operated Laundries and Laundry and
       Garment Services Not Elsewhere Classified       V-15

       Dry Cleaning Other Than Rugs                    V-18

 VI  Pollutant Parameters                             VI-1

       Suspended Solids                              VI-1

       Dissolved Solids                              VI-3

       Turbidity                                     VI-4

       BOD(5)                                        VI-4

       COD                                           VI-5

       TOC                                           VI-5

       pH                                            VI-6

       Alkalinity                                    VI-6

       Oil and Grease                                VI-7

       MBAS                                          VI-7

       Heavy Metals                                  VI-7

VII  Control and Treatment Technology                 VII-1

       Historical Treatment                         VII-1

       Industrial Laundries                         VII-2
                             iv

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                     DRAFT
   Flotation-Diatomaceous Earth Filter System  VII-3

   Dual System                                VII-7

Linen Laundries,  Power Laundries (Family
and Commercial)  and Diaper Services            VII-7

   Modified Linen Systems                      VII-7

   Flotation-Diatomaceous Earth Filter System  VII-7

   Flotation-Sand Filter System                VII-9

   Oxidation-Charcoal Filter System            VII-9

   Centrifugal Filter-Aerobic Digestion System VII-10

Car Washes                                    VII-10

Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                 VII-13

Coin-operated Laundries Facilities and Dry
Cleaning Facilities, and Laundry and Garment
Services, Not Elsewhere Classified             VII-14

   Coagulation with Alum-Sand Filtration-
   Carbon Adsorption                           VII-14

   Precoating and Filtration Through
   Diatomaceous Earth                          VII-16

   Precoating With Diatomaceous Earth and
   Cationic Surfactant Flocculation            VII-21

   Vacuum Diatomite Filter                     VII-22

   Activated  Carbon-Polyelectrolitic System   VII-22

   Flotation Clarification                     VII-25

General                                       VII-26

   Micro-straining                            VII-26

   Lint Screens                               VII-26

   Reverse Osmosis                            VII-28

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                              DRAFT
            Ozonization                                VII-28

          Ultrasonic Cleaning                          VII-28

         Dry Cleaners                                  VII-30

VIII  Cost,  Energy, and Non-Water Quality Aspect       VIII-1

  IX  Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available
      Effluent  Guidelines and Limitations                IX-1

         Pretreatment Standards for Existing Sources     IX-2

         Identification of BPCTCA                        IX-3

         Industrial Laundries                            IX-3

         Linen  Supply, Power Laundries (Family
         and Commercial) and Diaper Services             IX-5

         Auto Wash Establishments                        IX-5

         Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                  IX-5

         Coin-operated Laundries and Dry Cleaning
         Facilities and Laundry and Garment Services
         Not Elsewhere Classified                        IX-6

         Dry Cleaning Plants Except Rug Cleaning         IX-6

         Loadings  Summary                                IX-6


   X  Best Available Technology Economically Achievable   X-l

         Introduction                                     X-l

         Industrial Laundries                             X-l

         Linen  Supply, Power Laundries (Family
         and Commercial) and Diaper Services              X-2

         Auto Wash Establishments                         X-2

         Carpet and Upholstering Cleaning                 X-2

         Coin-operated Laundries a.nd Dry Cleaning
                              vi

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                              DRAFT
         Facilities and Laundry and Garment Services
         Not  Elsewhere Classified                        X-3

         Dry  Cleaning Plants Except Rug  Cleaning          X-3

  XI  New Source Performance Standards and
      Pretreatment Standards                            XI-1

         Introduction                                   XI-1

         Industrial Laundries                           XI-2

         Linen Supply, Power Laundries (Family and
         Commerical), and Diaper Service                XI-2

         Auto Wash Establishments                       XI-3

         Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                  XI-3

         Coin-operated Laundries and Dry Cleaning
         Facilities and Laundry and Garment Services,
         Not  Elsewhere Classified                       XI-4

         Dry  Cleaning Plants Except Rug  Cleaning         XI-A

 XII  Acknowledgments and Contacts                     XII-1

XIII  References                                      XIII-1

 XIV  Glossary                                         XIV-1

      Abbreviations                                    XIV-7

      Conversion Table                                 XIV-8
                             vii

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                            DRAFT
                              Tables



Table                                            Section   Page

 1      Best Practicable Control Technology          II        4

 2      Economic  Survey of Laundry Industry         III        8

 3      Typical Laundering Schedule for Shop Towels  IV        4

 4      Typical Laundering Schedule for Kitchen
        Towels                                       IV        5

 5      General Industry Waste Characterization       V        2

 6      Typical Industrial Laundry Waste              V        4

 7      Industrial  Laundry Wastewater Loadings        V        7

 8      Pollutant Concentration in Wastewater from
        a Typical Linen Supply Laundry                V        8

 9      Typical Loadings in Wastewater From Tunnel-
        type Auto Washes                              V       11

10      Typical Pollutant Concentrations in Waste-
        water From  Self-service Auto Wash             V       12

11      Pollutant Concentration in Wastewater
        from a Typical Tunnel Type Auto Wash          V       13

12      Pollutant Concentration in Wastewater
        from a Typical Laundromat                     V       17

13      Control Parameters                           VI        2

14      Waste Treatment Efficiences For Various
        Parameters  in  Industrial Laundry Waste
        Treatment                                  VII        4

15      Average Contaminant Concentration
        Reductions  Achieved by Industrial Laundry
        Treatment for  Flotation-DE-System           VII        5

16      Wastewater  Quality Ranges For Industrial
        Laundry  Treatment Systems for Flotation-
        DE-System                                  VII        6

                              viii

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                                 DRAFT
17      Linen  Laundry Wastewater Treatment Effluent
        Quality Data                                VII       8

18      Reduction  of Pollutants by the Oxidation -
        Charcoal Filter  System                      VII      11

19      Reduction  of Pollutants by the Centrifugal-
        Filter-Aerobic Digestion System             VII      12

20      Performance of CAAAC  System in the Treat-
        ing of Laundromat Wastewater                VII      15

21      Efficiency of CASFAAC System in Reducing
        BOD and COD Content of Laundromat WastewaterVII      17

22      Summary of pH values Achieved by
        CASFAAC System in Treating Laundromat
        Wastewater                                 VII      18

23      Summary of Values for Total Dissolved
        Solids Achieved  by CASFAAC System in
        Treating Laundromat Wastewater              VII      19

24      Pollutant  Reduction by Diatomaceous Earth
        Filter System in Treating Laundromat
        Wastewater                                 VII      20

25      Coin-operated Laundry Pollutant Reduction
        Efficiency of DEFCSF  System in Treating
        Laundromat Wastewater.                      VII      23

26      Operating  Results for Vacuum Diatomite
        Filter to  Treat  Laundromat Wastewater       VII      24

27      Laundromat Wastewater Reductions By
        Flotation-Clarification                     VII      27

28      Typical Rejection Levels by Reverse Osmosis
        Treatment  of Domestic Sewage                VII      29

29      Summary of Various Wastewater Treatment
        Systems                                    VII      31

30      BPCT Treatment Costs  (Sept. 73)
        Self-Service Auto Wash (1,500 autos/month)  VIII      4

31      BPCT Treatment Costs  (Sept. 73)
        Automatic  Car Wash (7,000 autos/month)      VIII      5
                              ix

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                                 DRAFT
32      Cost  of  BPCTCA, Industrial Laundries,
        90,000 Ib/Week Plant                       VIII        8

33.      Cost  of  BPCTCA, Industrial Laundries,
        25,000 Ib/Week Plant                       VIII        9

34      Cost  of  BPCTCA, Linen Supply, Power
        Laundries  and Diaper Services
        90,000 Ib/Week Plant                       VIII       13

35      Cost  of  BPCTCA, Linen Supply, Power
        Laundries,  and Diaper Services
        25,000 Ib/Week Plant                       VIII       14

36      Incremental Costs of BATEA, Linen
        Supply,  Power Laundries and Diaper Services
        90,000 Ib/Week Plant                       VIII       15

37      Incremental Costs of BATEA, Linen Supply
        Power Laundries and Diaper Services
        25,000 Ib/Week Plant                       VIII       16

38      Consultants' Estimate of Residual Value
        in Laundry Wastewater.                     VIII       17

39      Cost  of  NSPS, Linen Supply, Power
        Laundries  and Diaper Services
        90,000 Ib/Week Plant                       VIII       18

40      Cost  of  NSPS, Linen Supply, Power and
        Diaper Services
        25,000 Ib/Week Plant                       VIII       19

41      Cost  of  BPCTCA, Coin-Operated Laundry
        25 Machine Installation                    VIII       22
42
43
Incremental Cost  of  BATEA, Coin-Operated
Laundry,  25 Machine  Installation
                                                  VIII
Total Cost of NSPS,  Coin-Operated Laundry
25 Machine Installation                    VIII
24
                                                            25
44      Estimated Costs  of BPCTCA, Carpet and
        Upholstery Cleaning Facility

45      Best Practical Control Technology
        Currently Available  (BPCTCA)
        Concentrations
                                          VIII
28

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                           DRAFT
46     Best Practical Control Technology
       Currently Available (BPCTCA),  Loadings      IX
                            Figures


Figure                                          Section  Page

  1     Laundry Wastewater Distribution System       V      3

  2     Typical Carwash Wastewater Reclamation       V      10
        System

  3     Laundromat Wastewater Treatment System       V      16
                            xi

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                          DRAFT
                                                                     2
                             SECTION I                               8
                            Conclusions                              10

    The auto  and other laundries point ^ource category has been        14

subcategorized, for  the purposes of establishing effluent limitations  15

guidelines  and  standard of performance as follows:


    Subcategory 1                                                     18

         Industrial  Laundries (SIC No. 7218)                           20

    Subcategory 2                                                     22

         Linen  Supply  (SIC No. 7213)                                  25
         Power  Laundries, Family and Commercial (SIC  No. 7211)         27
         Diaper Service (SIC No. 7214)                                29

    Subcategory 3                                                     32

         Auto Wash Establishments (SIC No. 7542)                      34

    Subcategory 4                                                     36

         Carpet and  Upholstery Cleaning (SIC  no. 7217)                 38

    Subcategory 5                                                     40

         Coin-operated Laundries and Dry Cleaning (SIC No. 7215)       43
         Laundry and Garment Service Not Elsewhere  Classified          44
         (SIC No. 7219)                                               45

    Subcategory 6                                                     48

         Dry  Cleaning Plants, except Rug Cleaning (SIC No. 7216)       50

Factors such  as age, size of laundry, process employed, wastewater     53

constituents  and wastewater control technologies do not justify        54

further Categorization.                                               55
                               1-1

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                               DRAFT
    The laundries are listed  in descending order  of the strength of    57






the wastewater they discharge.  Presently 90.1% of all laundries are   58




connected  to municipal wastewater treatment facilities, and do not     59




treat their effluent before discharge.






    Approximately 30% of existing car washes r_ecycle their             62




wastewater.  The rest discharge it untreated _into a municipal sewer    64




system.






    Dry cleaning plants, except those that clean  rugs, discharge       66




little or  no process wastewater.                                      67
                               1-2

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                           DRAFT
                             SECTION II
                           Recommendations                             7

Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available (BPCTCA)        10

    Recommended limitations on pollutants in any process wastewater    14

discharged into navigable waters are presented in Table 1 for:          15

Subcategory 1 - industrial laundries;  Subcategory 2 - power Laundries  16

(family and commercial), linen supply, and diaper service;  and          17

Subcategory 5 - coin-operated laundries,  dry cleaning ^facilities,  and  18

laundry and garment services not elsewhere classified.  The three       20

remaining subcategories either do not discharge into navigable  waters  21

or can, but using BPCTCA, remove all of the japllutants before so        22

discharging their effluent.  These subcategories are: 3 - auto  wash    23

establishments; 4 - carpet and upholstery cleaning facilities;  and 6   24

- dry cleaning plants (except rug cleaners).                           25

Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA)              27

    The recommended limitations on pollutants in any process waste-    29

water discharged into navigable waters by plants in Subcategory 1  ^re  31

the same as those presented in Table 1.  By using BATEA,               32

Subcategories 2 and 5 shall remove all the pollutants from any          33

effluent so discharged, subcategories 3,  4, and 6 are no discharge of

process wastewaters.
                                                   NOTICE
                                   These are tentative recommendations based upon
                                   bformation in this report and are subject to char-°
                                   based upon comments received and further internal
                                                review by EPA.
                                II-l

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                          DRAFT
New Source Performance Standards and Pretreatment Standards            35

    Performance Standards                                              37

    New sources in the industry laundry subcategory should meet the    39

limitations outlined as best practicable control technology currently  40

available as presented in Table 1.   New sources in the other five      4]

 subcategories shall remove all  pollutants listed in Table 1 from     42

their process wastewater before discharging it into navigable waters.  43

    Pretreatment Standards                                             45

    New sources that will discharge their process wastewater into a    48

municipal sewer system shall treat  it in the following manner before   49

doing so:

    ^ubcategories 1 and 2; reduce all incompatible pollutants to or    5]

below the levels shown in Table 1.                                      52

    jjubcategory 3; pass the wastewater through a detention jsump or     55

holding basin to settle out heavy solids.

    j5ubcategories 4 and 5; filter the wastewater through a lint        57

jscreen.                                                                58

    jsubcategory 6; since little or  no wastewater is generated, no      6]

pretreatment is required.

Pretreatment by Existing Sources                                       63

    The wastewater from plants in Subcategories 1 and 2 that contains  66

incompatible pollutants referred to in 40 CFR, Part 128 jshall be       67

given BPCTCA treatment before being discharged into J^he treatment      68

works.  No materials prohibited in  40 CFR, Part 128.13 shall be        69


                                                        NOTICE
                                        These are tentative recommendations based
                                n~2    information in this report and aire subject to c
                                             upon comments received and further internal
                                                     jeview by EPA.

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                             DRAFT
introduced into  such  a  system,  ^ubcategories 3, 4, and 6 are no       70

discharge of process  wastewaters.
                                                     NOTICE
                                     These are tentative recommendations based upon
                                     information in this report and are subject to chancrv
                                     bated upon comments received and further internal
                                                   review by EPA.
                               II-3

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            DRAFT
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                        DRAFT
                             SECTION III                               6









                            Introduction                               8




Purpose and Authority                                                  11






    Section 301(b)  of  Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended  13




(The Act)  requires  the achievement by not later ^han July 1, 1977, of  14




effluent limitations for  point  sources, other ^han publicly owned      15




treatment  works,  which require  application of jthe best practicable     16




control technology  currently available as defined b_y the               17




administrator pursuant to Section 304(b) of the Act. Section 301(b)




also requires the achievement by not later than July 1, 1983, of       18




effluent limitations for  point  sources, other than publicly owned      19




treatment  works,  which are based on the application of the best        20




available  technology economically Achievable which will result in      21




reasonable further  progress  toward the national jjpal of eliminating    22




the discharge of  all pollutants, as determined in accordance with      23




regulations issued  by  the Administrator pursuant to ^Section 304(b) to  24




the Act.  jSection 306  of  the Act requires the achievement by new       25




sources of a Federal standard of performance providing for the         26




control of the discharge  of  pollutants which reflects the greatest     27




degree of  effluent  reduction which the Administrator determines to be  28




achievable through  the application of the best available demonstrated  29




control technology  processes.   Operating methods, or other             30
                               III-l

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                        DRAF1
alternatives,  including,  where practicable, a standard permitting no   31

discharge of pollutants.                                               32

    jsection 304(b)  of the Act requires the Administrator to publish    34

within one year of  enactment of  the Act, regulations providing         35

guidelines for effluent limitations setting forth the degree of        36

effluent Deduction  attainable through the application of the best      37

practicable Control technology currently available and the degree of   38

effluent reduction  attainable through the application of the best      39

available control measures and practices achievable including          40

treatment techniques, processes  and procedure innovations, operation   41

methods, and other  alternatives.  The regulations proposed herein set  42

forth effluent limitations guidelines pursuant to Section 304(b) of    43

the Act for auto and other laundries.

Summary of Methods  Used for Development of Effluent                    46
Limitations Guidelines and Standards of Performance                    49

    The effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance   51

proposed herein were developed in the following manner.                52

    _!_.   The point  source category was first studied for the purpose   55

of determining whether separate  limitations and ^tandards are          56

appropriate for different subcategories within the Category.  This     58

included a determination of differences in materials used, product     59

produced, process employed, age, size, wastewater constituents and     60

other factors  that  would require development of separate limitations

and standards  for different segments of the point source category.     61
                              III-2

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                           DRAFT
    2_.   The raw waste characteristics  for each subcategory were then  63




Identified.  This included an analysis  of:                             65




         _(a) the ^source £Low ^nd volume of water used in the process   70




    employed and the sources of  waste and wastewaters in the plant;    71




         _(b) The Constituents _(_including thermal) of all wastewaters,  75




    including toxic constituents and other Constituents which result   76




    in taste, odor, and color in the water or Aquatic organisms;       77




         _(c) The constituents of the waste waters which should be      78




    ^ubject to effluent limitations guidelines and standards of        81




    performance were identified;




         _(d) the full range of control  and treatment technology.       83




    This included:                                                     84




              _(1) identification of each distinct wastewater control   86




    and _treatment technology, J-ncluding both in-plant and end of       88




    process technologies,  which  are existent or capable of being       89




    designed for each subcategory;




              (2) the amount of  constituents (including thermal) and   91




    the chemical, physical and b_iological characteristics of           93




    pollutants;




              _O) the effluent level resulting from the application    94




    of each £f the  treatment jind control technologies;                 97




              _(4) the problems,  limitations and reliability of each    100




    treatment and control  technology and the required implementation   102




    time;
                               III-3

-------
                            PRAFi
              _(5)   the non-water  quality ^environmental impact, such    107




    as the effects of the application of such technologies upon other




    _p_ollution problems, including air, solid wastes, noise and         108




    radiation;




              _(6)  the energy  requirements of each control and          111




    _t_reatment technology;                                             112




              J7)  the cost of the application of treatment             116




    technologies.




    The information,  as outlined  above, was then evaluated in order    118




to determine what  levels of technology constituted the best            119




practicable Control technology currently available, the best           120




available technology economically achievable, and the new source       121




performance standards and pretreatment guidelines,  ^n identifying     122




such technologies  various factors were considered.  These included     123




the total cost of  application of  technology in relation to jthe         124




effluent reduction benefits to be a.chieved from such application, the  125




age of equipment and facilities involved, the process employed, the




engineering aspects of the application of various types of control     126




_techniques process changes, non-water quality environmental impact     127




(including energy requirements) and  other factors.                     128




    The data on which the above analysis was performed were derived    130




^rom EPA permit applications, EPA sampling and inspections,            131




consultant and industry reports.                                       132
                               III-4

-------
                          DRAFT
General Description of  the Industries                                  134
    The industries  discussed by this document are the auto and other    136
laundries.  It encompasses the following nine Standard Industrial       138
Code Classifications listed with their SIC numbers:                     139
    SIC 7211 - Power Laundries, Family and Commercial                  142
    SIC 7213 - Linen Supply                                            143
    SIC 7214 - Diaper Service                                          144
    SIC 7215 - Coin-operated Laundries and Dry Cleaning                145
    SIC 7216 - Dry  Cleaning Plants, Except Rug Cleaning                146
    SIC 7217 - Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                          147
    SIC 7218 - Industrial Laundries                                    148
    SIC 7219 - Laundry  and Garment Services, Not Elsewhere             149
               Classified                                              150
    SIC 7542 - Auto Wash Establishments                                151
    The definitions of  the plants ^ncluded are contained in the        155
Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972 (the definitions as     156
stated jLn the SIC Manual are included in Section XIV Glossary.)         157
General Background                                                     159
    The product of  the  auto wash establishments, is  s_elf-explanatory.   162
The product of the  eight remaining categories is a clean fabric.  The   163
methods, of obtaining this end, differ greatly depending on what is     164
being cleaned in any given operation or process.
    With the exception  of dry cleaning plants, the remaining five       167
categories use substantial quantities of process waters.  The          168
                              III-5

-------
                           DRAFT
effluent from the process  varies greatly from _load to load depending   169




on laundering schedule used  and the  items l^eing washed.                170






    The various phases of  _the  laundry industry can be separated into   173




each of the SIC classifications.   E_ut most laundries actually do work  174




in several of the SIC classifications; even _though the company name    175




might tend to indicate only  one phase.






    I_n general, laundry wastewater in the major cities of America      177




makes up 5 to 10% of the average daily flow of sewage.  _It is one of   179




the most objectionable of  all  wastes, £ontributing anywhere from 10    180




to 20 times as much contamination  as the average domestic waste.  _It   182




is usually strongly alkaline,  highly colored, and contains large




quantities of soap or synthetic detergents, soda ash, grease, dirt     183




and dyes.  Laundry wastewater  has  a  biological oxygen demand of two    184




to five times ^hat of domestic sewage.  Laundry wastewater can be a    186




severe wastewater treatment  problem  for a community of any size.






    The laundry industry is  an essential service industry classified   189




according to Table 2, based  on _the 1967 Census of Business Report on   190




Laundries, Cleaning Plants and Related Services, ^ssued by the U. S.   192




Department of Commerce Bureau  of the Census, Released August 1970.     193






         Considerable information  has been collected, see References,  195




Section XIII.  Additional  information has been obtained by visiting    196




and sampling the wastewater  from plants that were referred to as       197




being explanatory as to: strength  and volume of wastewater; type of    198






                               III-6

-------
                         DRAFT
laundry and  the pretreatment or the recycling  of wastewater.  The      199




following laundries were visited: Cintas,  Cincinnati, Ohio; Mission




Linen Supply,  Santa Barbara, California;  the Roscoe Company, Chicago,  200




Illinois; Medical Arts Linen Supply Company, New York, New York;       201




Sterling Laundry, j>_ilver Spring, Maryland.  Security Amirkahanian, a   202




rug, drapery and furniture upholstery plant and the Parkway Auto       203




Wash, Inc.,  both of Cincinnati, Ohio, were  also visited.






    J5amples  were collected but they were  not,  in all cases,            205




representative of the _p_retreatment and recycle wastewater, because of  206




the failure  and/or breakdown of the treatment  systems.
                              III-7

-------
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                               III-8

-------
                            DRAFT
                             SECTION IV                                6

                       Industry Categorization                         8
Rationale For Subcategorization                                       11

    Inhere is a well-established order in  the  strength of laundry       13
wastewater, with industrial laundry wastewater being the strongest     15
and most varied.  Linen supply laundries  discharge the next most       16
difficult wastewater to treat followed by that from power laundries,   17
(family and commercial),  diaper service activities, auto wash
establishments, Carpet and upholstery cleaning operations, and coin-   18
operated laundries and dry cleaning facilities.  Establishments        19
primarily engaged in repairing, altering, or  storing clothes for       21
individuals, and those that function as other hand laundries have the  22
least difficult wastewater to treat.   !Dry cleaning plants, except rug  23
cleaning, have little or  no discharge of  process wastewaters.          24

    Auto washes are classified by  themselves  because: (1)              26
Technologically, jLt is easier for  them to clean up their effluent      27
than it is for the laundries;  _£2)  they have an economic incentive to   28
reclaim washwater; _£3) the equipment they need to reclaim and reuse    29
water is available, off the ^helf,  from many  manufacturers.            30

    Carpet and upholstery cleaning  is classified separately because,   33
its wastewater is different from other laundries and although Jrhe      34
wastewater generated is similar to  that from  auto washes, it is much
                                IV-1

-------
                          DRAFT
more Dilute and the equipment needed  to treat it for reuse is not      36
available.

    I)ry cleaning plants (other  than rug cleaning) were classed         38
individually because their greatest use of water is for non-contact    39
pooling purposes in solvent  recovery  stills.                           40

Industrial Laundries                                                  42

    Industrial laundries are located  in highly populated areas and     44
discharge their wastewater Into municipal treatment facilities.  They  46
are among the largest laundries covered in these guidelines.  for      47
example, a medium size industrial  laundry will process between 80,000
- 100,000 pounds of dry wash £er week.  Typical industrial laundry     49
waste characteristics and chemical formulas are covered in Section V.

    Tables 3 and 4 present typical laundering schedules for shop       51
Bowels and kitchen towels, respectively.  ^Schedules for other items    53
would vary slightly.

    The first operation or flush on the schedule for Table 3 is        55
merely an initial rinse to remove  readily loosened soil.  The suds     57
operation of Table 3 emulsifies the oils and greases and loosens all   58
the soil.  T_he carryover is  merely an extension of the suds operation  59
as _a high percentage of the  supplies  initially added are still         60
present.  Tliis operation takes  advantage of that fact by utilizing     61
the remaining cleaning ability  of  the suds chemicals.  The carryover   63
                                IV-2

-------
                           DRAFT
is followed by as  many  as  10 rinses to remove _the used detergent and   64




loosened soil.  The shop  towels are then dyed and rinsed.  On the      66




next break salt is added  to set the dye.  A, final cold rinse aids in   67




setting the dye and also  removing excess dye.  The laundered items     68




are then loaded into ^tainless steel tubs, which are rolled into an    70




extractor where excess  water is squeezed out.  The water drains into   71




the heat reclaimer pit  and is used to warm the incoming water.  The    72




clean articles are then taken to gas-fired driers where the rest _of    73




the water is evaporated.   After this operation, the laundered items    74




are folded and packaged into standard bundles and ^redistributed to     75




the customers.






The many different types  of soil, laundry formulations, _and            78




operations (including _the batch type operation of each washing         79




machine) all contribute to Altering contaminant concentrations and     80




wastewater flows.   JSach operation presented in Tables 3 and 4          81




discharges such that with ^nly one machine operating, a series of      82




wastewater surges  occurs,  ^ach unlike the one preceding it in          83




quality.  I_t is not practical to subcategorize industrial laundries    84




because individual plants are so variable.                             85






Linen Supply, Power Laundries (Family and Commercial), and Diaper      87




Services                                                              88






    T?his subcategory is recognized within the _industry as having the   91




second strongest average  waste.  Operations are similar to those       92
                                IV-3

-------
                     DRAFT
                        TABLE 3*
                Typical Laundering Schedule

Washing Operations
Flush
Suds
Carryover
Rinse 1
Rinse 2
Rinse 3
Rinse 4
Rinse 5
Rinse 6
Rinse 7
Rinse 8
Rinse 9
Rinse 10
Dye
Salt
Cold Rinse
For

Water Level
(Gals)
354
110
110
354
354
354
354
354
354
354
354
354
354
354
-
354
Shop Towels

Temperature
OF
Line
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
185
175
165
155
145
-
100

Operation
Length
(Min)
2
15
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2

Supplies

NaOH, silicate
and base oil











Dye
Sodium chloride

*From Reference 92, Table C-l.
                         IV-4

-------
                     DRAFT
                        TABLE 4*
                 Typical Laundering Schedule
For Kitchen Towels

Washing Operations
Flush
Flush
Break
Suds
Rinse 1
High Suds
Bleach
Rinse 2
Rinse 3
Rinse 4
Rinse 5
Sour

Water Level
(Gals)
354
354
111
111
354
177
150
354
354
354
354
66

Temperature
OF
175
190

190
190
190
150
190
175
175
175
Line

Operation
Length
(min)
4
2
5
4
2
4
7
2
2
2
2
4

Supplies


Base oil alkali
Alkali, soap

Soap, alkali
Bleach




Sour, mildicide
*From Reference 92, Table C-3
                         IV-5

-------
                             DRAFF
outlined in Table 4, jxcept that two sudsing  stages a.nd a bleach-and-  94
sour step are utilized.  A sour is  an acid  chemical added in the last  95
washing operation to negate the swelling  effect of the alkali.  TThe    96
initial break operation is similar  to a suds  operation except jthat no  97
soap is added.  j[tarch, as well as  other  compounds, is also            98
frequently added to linen wash loads.

Auto Wash Establishments                                              100

    ^n general an auto wash has a tunnel  or bay configuration, amd     103
there are variations of each type.

    Tunnel Type Carwash                                         •      105

    In a tunnel-type plant the vehicle is washed as is is pulled from  107
station to station by a continuous  chain.  E,ven if the washing         108
operation itself is Completely automated, wiping, drying and interior  109
cleaning are usually done manually  by employees or the customer.  _If   111
the carwash is a drive-through type where the customer remains in his
car, Vie usually has to do the Detailing.  The trend in the auto wash   114
industry is to do away with as much labor as possible to reduce costs  115
and to eliminate £roblems associated with an unskilled or semi-        116
skilled JLabor force.                                                  117

    The tunnel type wash is the most expensive to build — up to       119
£200,000 — but it can also produce the most income; the largest       120
plants liandle more than 1,000 cars  a day.                              121
                                IV-6

-------
                             DRAFF





    Bay-type Carwash                                                  123






    There are many variations of the bay-type carwash.                 125






    At a "wand-type"  coin-operated facility _the customer parks his     128



car in a bay and Deposits  coins in a meter, he then has five minutes   129



to wash his car with  water from a pressurized wand (300 - 500 psi).



lie can spend the entire  period spraying on a soapy wash or elect  to    130



use some clear rinse  water.  Most operators find that their customers  131



pay for two five-minute  operations.






    In some instances, the wand is activated by a pump in a roll-     133



around cabinet. VJastewater  characteristics are discussed in detail    134



in Section V.






    _In a "roll-over"  carwash the customer parks his car ^n a bay  and   137



the washing equipment, including brushes, move over the car. A        138



variation of this  is  a system in which a_ coin-operated robot machine   140



circles _the car, and  cleans  it with pressurized soapy water and rinse  141



water.






Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                                        144



    At present, about 30%  of all rug cleaning operations are done in   148



the home and this  percentage will undoubtedly increase.               149






    In a typical in-plant  cleaning operation, the rug is first beaten  151



_to remove dust and dry solids and is then wetted with water and a     153



mild, dilute detergent.  _It  then passes through a system of either     154






                               IV-7

-------
                         DRAFF
rollers or brushes which work the  detergent into the J[iber, to         156

suspend the dirt,  a clean water  rinse  follows, finally excess water    157

is squeezed out and the rug  is air dried.  The industry is trying to   158

reduce the amount  of water vised  in the rinse cycle by using new        159

detergent formulations, jind  about  25%  is already dicing so.             162


    The amount of  water from upholstery cleaning, which is basically   164

a dry process, is  in the order of  0.1% of the total effluent from      165

carpet and upholstery Cleaning operations and will, therefore not be   166

described.
Coin-operated Laundries and  Dry  Cleaning Facilities, and Laundry and   169
Garment Services Not Elsewhere Classified                              170
    ^lost coin-operated laundries  contain between 25 and 35 machines,   175

each of which uses 25 - 30 gallons  of water per washing cycle.  An     177

average weekly wastewater volume  of  50,000 gallons can be expected.    178

Approximately 100 pounds of commercial detergent are used per week.    179

Fifteen cycles per day is about standard for a washer, but many        180

JLaundromats use machines that do  25  cycles or more per day.            181


    Many coin-operated laundries  are located in areas without ji        184

municipal sewer system to discharge  into, but _p_ackage treatment        185

facilities are available from several manufacturers which can reduce

_the contaminants from the process wastewaters to acceptable limits.    186


    Coin-operated dry cleaning is a  solvent cleaning process with no   188

process wastewater discharge.
                                IV-8

-------
                            DRAFT
    l^aundry and garment  services not elsewhere classified include      190
Chinese ^nd French hand  laundries,  facilities where clothes are        192
altered and repaired,  and pillow-cleaning operations.  £ince their     194
effluent is small in both volume and contaminant JLevel, this           195
operation will not be  described.

    A^s a group, the effluent of industries in this subcategory ±s      198
weaker than domestic sewage and can, therefore, be handled easily by   199
municipal treatment plants.  Wastewater characteristics are discussed  200
in detail in Section V.

Dry Cleaning Plants, Except Rug Cleaning                               202

    The advent of wash and wear fabrics has reduced the business of    205
the conventional-type  dry cleaning  plants.  B^oth the number of plants  206
operating and amounts  processed have dropped sharply.  The industrial  207
dry cleaner, however,  is enjoying unprecedented growth because of two  209
factors.  One is the increasing use of "65/35" dacron polyester        210
fabrics which lend themselves  to easy dry  cleaning,  The other is      211
stricter local ordinances on industrial _laundries which                212
conventionally wash with water.

    There are basically  three  filter systems used in conventional-     215
type dry cleaning operations;  _(1) single charge filters; (2)           216
multicharge filters; and (3) regenerative filters.  All are designed   218
to separate solids from  the solvent jind contain two essential parts,   219
a septum and a filter  medium.  The  filter medium, usually diatomite    220

                               IV-9

-------
                            DRAFT
powder, is contained in the septum, a_ porous but rigid structure,       221
Most septums are made of wire screen fabrics and paper.  The filtered  223
solvent ^s then introduced into either an atmospheric or a vacuum      225
still.  The first  type is used to distill perchlorethylene, and the    227
second to distill  petroleum _solvent.  After garments have been dry     229
cleaned, j.ny solvent remaining in them is removed by centrifugation    230
and drying.  Charcoal filters may be used to remove dyes from the      231
solvent.

    ^Industrial type dry cleaners employ basically the same             233
technologies, but  they have to contend with removing large amounts c>f  236
heavy oils and grease.
                               IV-10

-------
                            DRAFT




                              SECTION V                                3








                       Waste Characterization                          5




    The normal constituents  of raw  effluent from auto and other        8




laundries are listed in Table 5.                                       9




Industrial Laundries                                                  11




    The industrial laundry wastewater distribution system presented    13




_in Figure 1 has a recycle ratio of  from 46 to 100%.  _It uses city-     16




softened water, and any of it that  is not recycled is discharged into




the municipal treatment system (92).                                   17




    Wastewater Constituents                                            19




    The primary contaminates in industrial laundry wastewater are      21




suspended solids, BOD,  alkalies,  oil and grease, and heavy metals.     22




^Typical concentrations  are summarized in Table 6.                      23




    The wastewater has  the general  appearance of thin oily mud and     25




contains material from  towels used  by printers, tool and die makers,    26




filling station attendants,  etc.  The soil may be in the form of       28




paints, varnishes, lacquer,  Latex rubber, ketone solvents, inks        29




utilized in catalog and candy wrapper manufacturing, or carbon black   30




and other material utilized  at newspaper printing plants.  Organic     32




pollutants could be any or all of 30 hydrocarbon solvents, over 300    33




dyes, pigments, and _inks from rags  used to clean presses used in the   34




printing of fliers, catalogs, and the like.  Thus, the laundry ends    35




up with what ever product its customers may be using plus any of the   36
                                 V-l

-------
              DRAFT
               TABLE 5
General Characterization
of Wastewater from Laundries and Auto Washes

Parameter
BOD (5)
TSS
IDS
pH
Oil and Grease
Hg
Ni
Fe
Cd
Zn
Cr
Cu
Pb

Minimum

15
15
104
5.1
38
- / 0.0005
0.3*
3.2
0
0.40
0.4
0.1*
0.6*


Maximum
ppm
2,482
4,350
6,454
13
2,229
0
2
8
0
8
3
9
35




.0

.007
.5
.3
.6
.9
.6
.3
.8

5
6
Average
1,073
869
2,267
10
723
-
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
13
15
17
.4
22
24
.4*
.0
.02*
.40
.5*
.1*
.6*
9
10
11


19


26
28
30
32
34
36
38
Less Than
41
                V-2

-------
DRAFT
  l-l :»  r-4
  c:^< c. z w
    o o r c.
    i
    i

    I
        C.

        R
                        
-------
        DRAFT
           TABLE 6
Typical Industrial Laundry Waste(92)
Parameter
Total Solids
TOC
Total Volatile Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
Oil and Grease
pH - units
Total Alkalinity
BOD
Total Dissolved Solids
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Cadmium
Iron
Nickel
Mercury
Minimum
4,856
950
3,250
649
1,458
403
11.0
1,825
647
1,550
1.0
0.2
3.0
0.55
< .05
3.5
1.0
0.001
Maximum
mg/1
8,649
6,300
5,284
4,950
2,225
3,756
13.0
3,190
1,314
6,545
3.6
9.3
35.8
8.9
0.6
126
2.5
0.007
Average 10
12
6,748 15
2,482 16
3,866 17
2,809 18
1,889 19
1,538 20
12.0 21
2,066 22
830 23
4,697 24
2.4 25
3.7 26
13.2 27
4.1 28
.2 29
42 30
1.4 31
0.003 32
            V-4

-------
                         DRAF1



pollutants it may add during the cleaning process which could _include   37




any or all of the following: (1) alkalies — caustic soda, jspda ash,    38




soda metasilicate, sodium sesqui silicate, tri sodium phosphate,       39




tetra sodium pyrophosphate, and sodium tri polyphosphate;  (2) ^paps     40




— of vegetable or animal oils; (3) detergents — anionic jjynthetic     41




and non-ionic synthetic; (4) bleaches — sodium hypochlorite, calcium   42




hypochlorite, lithium hypochlorite, dimethyl d^ichlorohydantoin  (DDE)    43




and chlorocyanuric acid; and trichlorojisocyanuric acid; _(5)  sours  —    45




acid fluorides, sodium jrLlico fluoride, ammonium silico fluoride,       46




zinc silico fluoride, sodium acid fluoride, ammonium acid  fluoride     47




and ^luoro oxalate; (6) starches of both corn and wheat derivatives;    48




(7) blueing compounds — water solubles of aniline dye stuffs;  (8)     49




fabric softeners —( cationic synthetics); (9) bacterial static        50




agents — quaternary ammonium compounds, and two phenol compounds;     51




_GLO) dust control compounds consisting of petroleum derivatives; (11)   52




^lame retardants — boric acid - borax and phosphates; (12)  dyes:       54




(13) petroleum ^solvents — including perchloroethylene; (14)            55




fungicides — quaternary ammonium salts used mostly in linen           56




laundries and tributyl tin most used in industrial laundries;  (15)     57




spotting agents — dichloroljenzene, carbitols and emulsifying agents;   58




(16) jstripers — sodium hydro^ulfite,  titanium sulfate and titanium     60



chloride; (17) neutralizers or antichlors such as sodium sulfite and    62




sodium thiosulfate (18) enzymes of the protease type used primarily     63
                                 V-5

-------
                         DRAFT
in hospital work to  reduce water consumption by removing the  blood,     63

etc., _from operating room gowns.                                       64

    The loadings from a  typical industrial laundry operation  are        66

tabulated jLn Table 7.                                                  67

    Flow Rate Analysis                                                 69

    The flow rate depends upon the size and activity of the            71

particular plant, both of which vary widely.  The plant shown in        73

Figure 1 has a flow  rate that varies from 341 to 814 liters per

minute; _however, its recycling system has a capacity of only  200        74

liters per minute.

Linen Supply -- Power Laundries and Diaper Services                     76

    _The wastes from  linen supply laundries are typically lower in       78

concentration than those from industrial laundries (92).   Values are    80

presented in Table 8.

    T_he typical loading  of suspended solids in the wastewater of        82

linen laundries is 0.03  Ib/lb material washed, the TDS is 0.08 Ib/lb    84

garment and 0.03 Ibs/lb  garment oil and grease.

    Members of the industry claim that there are no bacteriological     87

or viral contaminates present in the wastewaters from diaper  services   88

and hospitals.  No definitive data are available to substantiate this   89

assertion.
                                  V-6

-------
                              TABLE 7*
Wastewater Loadings
Industrial Laundry

Parameter
BOD (5)
TSS
IDS
Oil and Grease
Hg
Ni
Fe
Cd
Zn
Cr
Cu
Pb


lb/1,000 gallons
Minimum Maximum
13
8
13
2
0.000008
0.04
0.03
0.0004
0.004
0.01
0.002
0.02
20
36
55
19
0.00006
0.09
1.05
0.01
0.07
0.03
0.08
0.29


Unit Output
Average Ib/lb
17
18
39
10
0.00002
0.01
0.35
0.002
0.033
0.020
0.031
0.110
0.098
0.025
0.220
0.056
0.0000001
0.00006
0.0020
0.00001
0.00018
0.0001
0.00017
0.00062
4
6
9
10
11
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Calculated from Table 6
27
                                 V-7

-------
                 DRAFT
                   TABLE 8
Pollutant Concentration in Wastewater
From a Typical


PH
Alk., mg/1 CaCO(3)
TS, mg/1
TVS, mg/1
SS, mg/1
COD, mg/1
BOD, mg/1
Soluble Solids, mg/1
Vol. Sol. Solids, mg/1
Oil and Grease, mg/1
Sol. COD, mg/1
Cr
Cu
Pb
Zn
Cd
Ni
Linen Supply

Minimum
1.0.3
500
1,973
1,468
500
2,125
97
1,725
964
203
1,173
-
-
-
-
-
	
Laundry (92)

Maximum
11.2
925
3,663
1,630
1,474
5,113
797
2,038
991
1,220
2,590
-
-
-
-
-
_
5
6
9
Average 10
13
679 14
2,675 15
1,549 16
736 17
3,057 18
314 19
1,837 20
978 21
628 22
1,649 23
.06 24
.27 25
.70 26
.47 27
.04 28
2.10 29
No data available
                     V-8
31

-------
Auto Washes
                              DRAFT
    A_ flow diagram showing  a  typical wastewater reclamation system     94




used at some car washes  is  presented in Figure 2.  The designers of    95




this particular system claims that 85% of the water used can be




recycled.  Although many other reclamation systems are available l^ess  97




than 30% of car washes resort to recycle.  The rest use municipal      99




water and are connected  to  a  municipal ^reatment plant.                100




    Wastewater Constituents                                           102




    The constituents found  in wastewater from car washes vary widely   104




and are affected by such factors as number of cars cleaned,            105




geographic location, and weather conditions.  The water contains       106




exceedingly high amounts of total solids, total volatile jsplids,       107




suspended solids, and grease,  and its BOD content exceeds that




present in the effluent  of  js_econdary treatment plant (39) .              108




    ^ypical waste loadings  in wastewater from a tunnel-type car wash   110




are presented in Table 9.   The minimum, maximum, and average           112




concentrations of pollutants  for a typical self-service car wash       113




during a _t_en-month period are shown in Table 10.  Table 11 gives the   115




maximum, minimum, and average concentrations for eight j»rab samples    116




collected at a tunnel-type  car wash during a seven and one-half hour   117




period in October 1973.   Tiiese data are based on an average computed   118




from the eight samples .
                               V-9

-------
                                              DRAFT
                              5'
          I
                                         SOAP  RETURN
                                           TO  PIT
                        RINSE HATER
   SOAPY
WASH WATER

     I   CUSTOMER'S  CARWASH     ,
     I   EQUIPMENT & BOOSTER
                                           KE ....UP
                                          FROM
                                      CITY  WATER
 i    L	p T— ,—,  -
 j       4ViWM^
                                         15% loss with car
            — CARWASH PIT-

1
2
3
5
6
  FILTER  PUMP WITH  BASKET STRAINER

  WASH WATER  FILTER REMOVES DIRT FROM WATER

  PUMP

  DETERGENT FILTER  REMOVES SOAP FROM WATER

  RECYCLE TANK

  BOOSTER PUMP


                     Figure 2

            Typical  Wastewater Reclamation
                 System for Carwash(104)
                            V-10

-------
       DRAFT
TABLE 9**
Typical Loadings in Wastewater
From Tunnel-Type Auto Washes

Parameter
BOD (5)
TSS
TDS
Detergents
Oil and Grease
Ni
Fe
Cd
Zn
Cr
Cu
Pb
* = Less Than
** Calculated From

lb/1
Maximum
0.95
4.5
17.6
27.4
1.6
0.006*
0.03
0.0003*
0.003
0.008*
0.003*
0.001*


,000 gallons
Minimum
0.17
0.95
5.0
1.9
0.31
0.003*
0.03
0.0002*
0.003
0.003*
0.001*
0.001*


Average
0.48
2.3
10.2
12.6
0.70
0.003*
0.03
0.0002*
0.003
0.004*
0.001*
0.001*


Unit Output
Ib/car
0.020
0.011
0.46
0.56
0.032
0.0001*
0.001
0.0001*
0.0001
0.0002*
0.00001*
0.00001*

Tables 10 and 11
5
6
c
10
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
38
 v-ii

-------
                                               DRAFT
                            TABLE 10
          Typical Pollutant Concentrations in Wastewater             5
                From Self-Service Auto Washes (40)                   6

                        (10 month period)                          8

	11
                               Minimum       Maximum        Average   12
	mg/1	mg/1	mg/1   13

Total Solids                      729          3,334          2,006  15

Total Volatile Solids              207            871            456  17

Suspended Solids                   95            840            386  19

Volatile Suspended Solids           25            116             72  21

BOD(5)                            15            166           '  57  23

Oil and Grease                     38            200             86  25
                                  V-12

-------
DRAFT
  TABLE 11
Pollutant Concentrations
Tunnel-Type
(Based on eight
in Wastewater
Auto Wash
grab samples)
From A

Minimum Maximum
Freon extractable oil-grease mg/1
BOD(2), mg/1
BOD(5), mg/1
BOD (7), mg/1
Suspended solids tng/1
Volatile suspended solids mg/1
Total solids mg/1
Alkalinity -Phenolphthalein mg/1
Alkalinity - Total mg/1
Turbidity JTU
TOC mg/1
COD mg/1
Total P mg/1
TKN u._ '1
Surfactants (LAS) mg/1
Ni mg/1
Ca mg/1
Cr mg/1
Ba mg/1
Sn mg/1
Mg mg/1
V mg/1
Mo mg/1
Ti mg/1
As mg/1
Pd mg/1
Tl mg/1
Ga mg/1
Al mg/1
Sr mg/1
Sm mg/1
Zn mg/1
Cd mg/1
Mn mg/1
Fe mg/1
Pb mg/1
0.1*
4
28
39.3
160
55
728 1
6
146
68
25
156
27
1.8
105
.3*
10
.4*
.2*
1.*
10
1.*
.2*
.2*
10.*
.5*
.4*
.1*
.6
.1
.9*
.3
.02*
.1
J.
.5
0.3
32.8
78.7
99.0
234
88
,964
25
199
179
56
274
37
6.6
185
.7*
60
1.*
.4*
1.
20
3.*
.4*
.6*
30.*
1.*
1.*
.3*
1.
.3
2.*
.4
.04*
.1
4.
1.*
5
6
8
11
Average 12
.2 13
18.6 14
52.2 15
64.8 16
189 17
74 18
921 19
11 20
160 21
124 22
45 23
222 24
34 25
3.1 26
147 27
.4* 28
30 29
.5* 30
.2* 31
1.* 32
15 33
1.* 34
.2* 35
.3* 36
20.* 37
.6* 38
.5* 39
.1* 40
.8 41
.2 42
1.* 43
.4 44
.02* 45
.1 46
4. 47
.6* 48
    (Continued on next page)






    V-13

-------
                            DRAFT
Be mg/1
Sb mg/1
Cu mg/1

pH units
Temp. C
4 uhos/cm(3) Conductivity
* = Less Than
   .01*
   .5*
   .1*
  8.7
 25.0
710
     .03*
    1.*
     .3*

    9.1
   28.0
3,000
     .01*  49
     .7*  50
     .1*  51

    8.9  53
   26.0  54
1,020 55
     57
Analyses by EPA, Office of Enforcement & General Counsel,
NFIC-Cincinnati, October 1973.
                                59
                                60
                             V-14

-------
                               DRAFT
    Flow Rate Analysis                                                 121

    A_ self-service facility uses approximately 20 gallons per car,      124

and at a typical 6-bay  facility about 38,000 gallons are used per

inonth(39).   Tlie tunnel  type car wash for which data are presented in   126

Table 10 used 4^200 gallons of water for 94 cars in a seven and one-   127

half hour period.   For  an  average of approximately 45 gallons.         128

    The removal of protective coatings from newly imported autos       131

using organic solvents  is  considered an jjidustrial process and is,      132

therefore,  _treated under transportation guidelines.                    133

Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                                         135

    TChe constituents in wastewater generated by this operation are      137

similar to those found  in  the Affluent from car washes excepting that   138

less oil and grease are present.  No definitive data are available  to   139

substantiate this  assertion.

Coin-operated Laundries and Dry Cleaning Facilities and                142
Laundries and Garment Services Not Elsewhere Classified                144

    The normal daily flow  through the waste filtration system of the   148

typical laundromat shown in Figure 3 is 6,300 to 8,500 gallons.

    Wastewater Constituents                                            150

    typical wastes are  presented in Table 12.                          152

    Typical waste  loadings  re 0.04 Ib of suspended solids/load, 0.20   155

Ib of of TDS and .01 1^ detergents.
                                 V-15

-------
                                      DRAFT
   TO
   AND  C13CHAKGE
"RAKSFEX
 PUMP
                               CHEMICALS
               MIXING
                TAf.X
 N. I
FILTER
                     FILTER
                     PUMP
                FLOAT
               CCNTRCx.
      SLUOGT,
       PU.V?
                                       RAW
                                      "FnO.M WASHER
TANK
V

(
                                                                  H. 2
                                                                 FILTER
TO SLUDGE
K)LD!?c3 TANK
                  HOLOi.N'G    TAN'K
            Precoat is diatomaceous earth.
              VAl.VF   SETTINGS

        PRECOAT   C?i S7RcA.M   DESLLOOE
  OPEN  UA6.7.8    L2,3.G,7
  CLOSED   4,5       4,5.0
                                        Figure  3

                          Laundromat Wastewate::  Treatment Sysemt (110)


                                         V-16

-------
                         DRAFT
                       TABLE 12
Pollutant Concentrations in Waste-waters

From Typical Laundromats (110)


Minimum Maximum
mg/1 mg/1
ABS
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
COD
Alkalinity
Chlorides
Phosphates
PH
Nitrates
Free Ammonia
Sulfates
BOD (5)
3.0
15.0
104.0 2,
65.0 1,
61.0
52.0
1.0
5.1
-
-
-
119
126.0
784.0
064.0
405.0
398.0
185.0
430.0
10.0
-
-
-
243
5
6
Average
44.0
173.0
812.0
447.0
182.0
57.0
148.0
- 21
1.0*
3.0
200.0
170 25
9
10
11
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

22
23
24

   Less Than                                             27
All units in mg/1 except pH which is expressed in units.            29
                           V-17

-------
                              DRAFT
    H.OW Rates Analysis                                              157




    Most installations contain between  25 and 35 machines,  each  of     159




which uses  25-3Q gallons of water per washing cycle for a total        161




weekly average of 50,000 gallons.  Approximately 100 pounds of         163




commercial  detergent are used per week  (69).




Dry Cleaning  Other Than Rugs                                         165




    The only  pollutants in the dry cleaning process are those which    167




are extracted from the cleaned materials.  These are collected at the  169




time of solvent recovery and should be  disposed of by a scavanger.     170




    jJection VI describes the pollutant  parameters and sets  forth the   172




rationale for selection or rejection of waste constitutents and  their  173




relation to the control parameters.                                   174
                               V-18

-------
                          DRAFT
                             SECTION VI
                        Pollutant Parameters                           8




    Based on this study, the  selected control parameters for each      11




^ubcategory are listed in Table  13.  The rationale for selection or    13




rejection of waste constituents  _is as follows.                         14






    Upon review of the EPA regional permit applications for the        16




discharge of wastewaters from auto and other laundries, industrial     17




data, and observations made during EPA plant inspections, it was       18




determined that the following chemical, physical, and biological       19




pioperties or constituents jire found within the process wastewater     20




effluent.  The values will differ by type of laundry, _p_lant size, and  22




production: ^uspended solids, dissolved solids, BOD(5) COD, TOC, pH,    24




alkalinity, oil and grease, _turbidity and heavy metals.  The degree    26




of control exercised over these  various parameters depends on whether  27




the wastewater is discharged  into a stream or a municipal sewer        28




system.






Suspended Solids                                                      30






    j>oil and grit from the products laundered will show up in the      32




Affluent as suspended solids.                                         33






    ^Suspended solids can kill fish and shellfish by causing Abrasive   36




injuries and can clog the gills  and respirating passages of various    37




aquatic fauna.  They can also blanket jstream bottoms, thereby killing  38






                                VI-1

-------
                       DRAFT
                         TABLE 13
                     Control Parameter

Subcategory pH SS BOD (5)
1.

2.

3.
Industrial
Laundries XXX
Linen, Power and
Diaper Laundries XXX
Auto Wash X X
Oil and
Grease

X

X
X
Heavy
Metals

X

X

4.   Carpet Upholstery
    Cleaning

5.   Coin-operated and
    Laundries Not Classi-
    fied Elsewhere

6.   Dry Cleaning Except
    Rug Cleaning
X     X
X
X
                          VI--2

-------
                           DRAFT
eggs and food  organisms and destroying spawning beds.   ^Indirectly,      40




suspended solids  are  inimical to aquatic life because they ^creen out   41




light and carry down  and  trap bacteria a.nd decomposing organic w?^tes   42




on the bottom.  This  promotes and maintains the development of         43




noxious conditions  and depletes oxygen, k^ills fish, shellfish, and     44




fish food organisms,  and  reduces the ^recreational value of the water.   45






    T_he suspended solids  and BOD(5) in a laundry effluent can cause     47




an oxygen sag  to  occur if it is discharged directly to a small         48




stream, but they  can  be handled without difficulty in a sanitary       49




waste treatment facility.  The municipality may, however, levy a       50




surcharge for  having  to process them.






Dissolved Solids                                                       52






    J5pil removed  from laundered items can raise the concentration ^f    55




dissolved soUds  in the wash water by 500 to 6,000 mg/1.  Dissolved     56




solids concentrations as  low as 50 mg/1 are harmful to some            57




industrial operations.  T_he United States Public Health Service        58




(USPHS) has set a limit of 500 mg/1 for drinking water.  Lethal        59




concentrations for  fresh  water fish range from jj,000 to 10,000 mg/1,    61




and concentrations  exceeding 2,100 mg/1 in irrigation waters liavc      63




harmed crops.
                               VI-3

-------
                                  DRAFT




Turbidity                                                             65






    ^Turbidity is a measure  of  the  light absorbing properties _of        68



constituents in water.   For a  commercial laundry these result from     69



colloidal susions.  For an  auto wash  these result from colloidal       70



suspensions.  Values range  from 100 to 700 turbidity units.            71






    Excessive turbidity in  water interferes with the penetration of    74



light and inhibits photosynthesis; this, in turn, decreases the        75



production of organisms on  which fish d_epends for food.                76






    S^ettleable solids and turbidity were not selected as controlling   78



parameters because they are functions of suspended solids.  _Suspended  80



solids are a more precise measurement of the concentration which is    81



controllable through treatment.






Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)                                        83






    Because of the nature of the organic compounds present in the      85



detergents used and in various types;  of soil, oxygen-consuming         86



materials are Jound in laundry-generated wastewater.  J50D refers to    88



the amount of oxygen required  to destroy Biodegradable organic matter  89



under aerobic conditions.  Biological treatment facilities have        90



little trouble treating this Constituent, but industrial wastes        93



having high BOD(5) concentrations  have caused serious oxygen



Depletion problems in streams  whose assimilative capacity is           95



relatively low.
                                VI-4

-------
                                     DRAFT
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)                                           97


    A. sizeable chemical oxygen  demand will exist in the raw waste      101

stream for the same reasons as  given under BOD.  Values range from     102

2,125 mg/1 to 5,311 mg/1,  and higher values are found in recycled      103

waters.  ()ne activated sludge plant effected 94% reduction but         105

concentration was jstill high  (300 mg/1).  IJnder certain conditions,     107

wastewaters with a high COD can deplete oxygen in receiving waters.     109


Total Organic Carbon (TOG)                                             111


    ^n general TOC is  equal to  or greater than BOD(5).  TOC is a       114

measure of total carbon, while  BOD(5) measures about two-thirds of     115

the total in a five-day period.  When an empirical relationship can     117

be established between the total organic jcarbon and biochemical        119

oxygen demand, the total organic carbon provjLdes a speedy and          120

convenient way to estimate the  other parameters that express the       121

degree of organic contamination.


    The mg/1 ranges for this parameter are: linen laundries 530-2,150   123

and industrial laundries ^..200-4,400 mg/1.  j>_ince most loading and     126

removal data are given in  terms  of BOD, and an interrelation between   127

BOD, TOC, and COD exists,  the parameters of TOC and COD have been      128

excluded in favor of BOD control.
                               VI-5

-------
                             DRAFT




pH                                                                    130






    Unless neutralization is  practiced, wastewater from Jjidustrial,    133



linen and coin-operated laundries will have a high _p_H value because    134



of the alkalinity of the detergents used.  T_he range will be 9.5 -     135



13.3.






    IJot only is the hydrogen  ion a potential pollutant in J^tself,  it   138



can also increase the toxicity  of other substances, such as ammonia.   139



The permissible range of pH for fish  is 6.0 to 9.0 under normal        140



conditions jis is influenced by  such  factors as temperature, dissolved  142



oxygen, prior acclimatization,  and the content of various anions and   143



cations.






Alkalinity                                                            145






    The alkalinity of water,  a  measure of its capacity to Accept       148



protons,  jis usually imparted  by the  bicarbonate, Carbonate, and        150



hydroxide components of a natural or  treated water ^upply.  These      152



constituents can have a direct  or indirect effect on ^oil, plant       153



growth, water fowl, and public  water  supply processing control.        154






    The use of caustic solutions to  swell the fiber in a commercial    156



_laundry produces an alkaline  wastewater.  The concentrations of        159




alkalinity, expressed in terms  of mg/1 total alkalinity _(CaCO(3)),     160



vary from 250-3,200 depending on the  type of fabric to be ^aundered    161
                                VI-6

-------
                              DRAFT
and its soil content.   j[ince  regulation of pH indirectly controls      162




alkalinity, _there is no need  to  control alkalinity directly.           163






Oil and Grease                                                        165






    Oil and grease are found  in  laundry effluents in varying degrees,   167




Depending on the use to which the  laundry was put.  The range can be   169




as broad as 245 - 2,300 mg/1. The concentration in the effluent from  170




a carwash ranges from 38 to 200  mg/1.  Oil and grease can have         171




deleterious effects on domestic  water  supplies and can be toxic to     172




fish.  Oil and grease can form unsightly scum in streams, clog         173




sewers, and cause Derating problems in treatment plants.              174






Detergents (Methylene Blue Active  Substances)                          176






    The use of synthetic detergents that contain _surface active        180




agents ("surfactants") for general cleaning purposes sometimes _caused  181




natural waters to foam when alkyl  benzene sulfonate (ABS) was          182




popular.  The number of such  incidents has dropped, however, since     183




mid-1965 when the detergent industry switched _to the production of     185




the more biodegradable linear ^Ikylate sulfonate (LAS).                186






Heavy Metals                                                          188






    The presence of metals in industrial laundry effluents ±s a        191




matter of serious concern because  they may be toxic _to the biological  192




jsystem of a receiving stream. They can also affect operation of       194




public biological treatment facilities.  If they are discharged to a   196






                                VI-7

-------
                              DRAFT
sewer system,  they either pass through £ treatment system untreated    197




or, if present in high concentrations, create a_ toxic condition  in     198




the facility.  For these reasons  it  is imperative that heavy metals    199




be controlled  jlf they are discharged to either surface water or  a      200




municipal waste facility.                                            201






    Some of  the more common metals and their ranges of concentration   206




in mg/1 for  industrial laundries  are: chromium 1.0 - 3.6;  copper 0.2




- 9.3; lead  3.0 - 35.8; zinc 0.55 -  8.9; cadmium 0.01 - 0.6; _iron 3.5  208




- 12.6; nickel 1.0 - 2.5; and mercury 0.05 - 0.70 (92).






    The metals of concern are Hg, Ni, Cd, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb.          210
                               VI-8

-------
                            DRAFT




                             SECTION VII                               6








                  Control and Treatment Technology                     8



Historical Treatment                                                  11






    At present,  very few laundries discharge directly into a stream    13



or have any type of waste treatment system.  Historically, about nine  15



out of 10 plant  owners have  preferred to discharge their wastewater



jlirectly to publicly owned treatment facilities rather than to _treat   17



it.  j>ome constituents of the discharges, such as heavy metals and     19



oil and grease,  a.re incompatible with sanitary treatment, but the      20



owners generally ignored this on the grounds that the concentrations   21



are extremely small.






    Wastewater recycling is  practiced at approximately 30% of          23



existing car washes.  Almost all the rest discharge their effluent     24



directly into municipal sewer jsystems after removing some grease and   25



oil and solids;  _a few direct it into leaching fields.                  26






    (loin-operated laundries  almost invariably discharge into           28



municipal systems.






    The dry cleaning industry uses expensive solvents and reuses them  31



as many times as possible.   The only water discharged is cooling       33



water from the condenser.
                              VII-1

-------
                               DRAFT





State-of-the-Art Treatment Technology                                 35






    T_he discussion of a particular technology under one jnibcategory    38



does not limit its possible application _in  others.  A wastewater       40



treatment system will probably have: to  be designed ^hat is applicable  41



to the individual plant, using various  existing  subsystems of          42



technologies.






    The following assumptions are made  for  all recycle systems         44



mentioned in this report; (1) That all  systems have appreciable        45



losses of water primarily through carryoff  on product, evaporation     46



and consequently will jrequire the addition  of make-up water to         47



compensate for the negative water balance.   Examples of this would be  48



(a) 15% losses for car washes by carryout,  (b) 20 - 30% losses in      49



fabric laundry operations by drying.  _£2) The removal of solid wastes  50



generated by these recycle systems are  beyond the scope _of these       51



guidelines.  Proper disposal of these wastes is  the responsibility of  52



the individual operation concerned jand  is regulated by appropriate     53



governmental agencies.






Industrial Laundries                                                  55






    Ito technology currently exists that can treat the exceedingly      57



high concentrations of pollutants in  industrial  laundry wastewater in  58



a completely satisfactory manner.   One  unproven _system has been        60



constructed specifically to pretreat  industrial  laundry wastewater,



jind it might be possible to modify several  linen laundry systems for   61






                               VII-2

-------
                       DRAFT
such use.   There is  also  an alternative operating procedure that        62




could be applied to  industrial laundries.                              63






    Flotation Diatomaceous Earth  (DE) Filter System                    65






    In this system,  the wastewater is first treated with Calcium        68




chloride during a high pH.  This  aids in breaking any emulsions.   Air   70




flotation and skimming then removes the bulk of the oil and grease.




The flotation effluent is passed  through a diatomaceous jarth filter    72




and the scum collected is compacted by vacuum filtration.  The final    74




effluent is neutralized with  sulfuric acid _p_rior to discharge, and     75




the sludge cake is stored until periodically removed ^or disposal.      76






    T_he average percent and range of removal achieved by both          78




flotation and the overall system  is presented in Table 14,  jind Table    80




15 gives the average concentrations in the influent and the Affluent    81




from the flotation system and the diatomaceous earth filter.  Table     82




16 presents the ranges of the water quality.






    One of the problems with  this type of system is that it does  riot    85




reduce the concentration  of many  of the pollutants to the point that    86




they can be discharging into  a public system or navigable waters.




jn.udge removal and space  requirements are also problems.               88
                              VII-3

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-------
                              DRAFT

    Dual System                                                      90


    _In essence, this is  an alternative operating procedure that calls  92

for jjretreatment by dry  cleaning before washing, ^reducing the amount   94

of oil and grease present  by  80 to J35%.  jCpsts and space requirements  97

can be problems.


    Modified Linen Systems                                           99


    It might be possible to modify the flotation-sand Jrilter system   102

and the oxidation-charcoal filter system for use at industrial        103

laundries.
Linen Laundries,  Power Laundries  (Family and Commercial),  and         105
Diaper Services                                                      107
    Wastewater from this  subcategory contains a much smaller          110

Concentration of pollutants than  industrial laundry wastewater.   Four  113

pilot treatment systems are presently in operation.


    Flotation DE Filter System                                        116


    This system has been  described _under industrial laundries.         119


    The concentrations and percent reductions of pollutants for  both   122

the flotation and DE filter effluents are presented in Table 17.

jTLudge removal and space  requirements are two problems posed by  this   123

system.
                              VII-7

-------
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-------
                           DRAFT




    Flotation-Sand Filter  System                                       125






    Jin this system, the wash wheels dump the process water into an     127



equalization and storage tank,  f^rom there it passes through an air    128



flotation unit to a holding tank.  Then it is pumped rapidly through   130



a sand filter a_nd into a final  storage tank.  After that, it goes      132



through a heat exchanger and is returned to the plant for reuse.       133



This system reduces suspended solids from 800 mg/1 to 320.             134






    Oxidation Charcoal Filter System                                   136






    This system was designed to treat the wastewater partially by      138



altering the laundry chemicals  and partially by a recycling            140



technology.  The hardware  of this system consists of a modular         141



arrangement of ^several components.                                     142






    The first of these is  a spillway from the wash wheel with a        144



jsloped flume that causes heavy  particles to fall into a sludge pit.    145



There are three screens of graduated sizes in the spillway.  The       147



water is pumped into a tank which contains ^n oxidation chamber and a  148



settling chamber.






    The chemical and jthe oil and grease are destroyed in the           151



oxidation chamber.  Jji the settling chamber the remaining heavy        152



particles jind the insoluble salts settle out.  The water is then       154



pumped through a filter tank which screens out ^he lint and into an 8  155



inch diameter 30 inch high charcoal column where final filtration      156
                               VII-9

-------
                           DRAFT
takes place.  The reduction of  pollutants achieved by this system are  157
presented in Table 18.                                                 158

    Centrifugal Filter  Aerobic  Digestion System                        160

    ^n this system a polymer coagulent is added ^p the wastewater,     164
the pH is adjusted,  and the effluent is passed _through a centrifugal   165
separator.  It then goes through a mixed-media jgplishing filter into   167
an atmospheric aerobic  digester and soap separation chamber.           168
Finally, the effluent passes through a pressure adsorption filter.     169
The pollutant reduction efficiency of this system is presented ±ri      171
Table 19.

Auto Washes                                                           173

    Because of the relatively low concentrations of pollutants ^n      176
their wastewater, many  owners of these establishments have found it    177
both economical and practical to recycle wash and/or their rinse       178
water.

    The simplest of these technologies calls for recirculating         180
untreated washwater.  The washwater flows to a sump where the solids   182
settle out.  Depending  on the size of the sump and settling time       183
allowed, riorinally only  suspended solids larger than 100 microns will   185
settle out.  Although simple in operation, this system had two major   186
economic drawbacks:  j[l)  effective results call for the use of large,   187
expensive sumps; _£2)  the sumps  must be cleaned frequently.             188
                              VII-10

-------
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                           DRAFT
    Often there is  an  economic advantage to treating and recycling     191




the washwater.   This is  done by having an automatic system Jjiject a    193




prepared solution of germicide aind clarifier into the used washwater   194




to preserve detergents,  prevent the formation of slime and odors, and  195




improve water quality.   The water then passes through centrifugal      196




separators which can remove solids smaller than five microns.   There   198




are savings on the  "tap in" charge to a sewer, sewage charges,  and




the cost of water and  soap.






    Systems used to recycle rinse water are much more elaborate than   201




washwater recycling methods because greater purity must be obtained.   202




The used rinse water is  collected in gravity drains that run to an     204




inground collection sump or storage tank where ±t is chemically       205




treated with a prepared  solution of germicide, de-emulsifier,  and      206




clarifier.  Then it passes through a basket strainer, a washwater      207




filter to jremove dirt  from the water and a detergent removal filter    208




to remove soap.  A^  washwater recycling system combined with  a rinse    209




water recycling system ^prms a total recycling system.                210






Carpet and Upholstering  Cleaning                                      212






    Much the same as auto wash, see Section V.                        214
                              VII-13

-------
                         DRAFT
Coin-Operated Laundries  and Dry Gleaming Facilities, and Laundry and   218
Garment Services Not Elsewhere Classified                              219
    TChere are a large number  of wastewater treatment jtechnologies      223

available for use at coin-operated  laundries _and some are adaptable    224

for the complete recycling of wastewater.


    Coagulation with Alum and Adsorption Through Activated Carbon      226


    T?his system coagulates the effluent with alum and lime, then       228

passes _it through a carbon filter element.  The values of pollutants   230

in the raw waste, in the effluent after coagulation, and in the        231

effluent from the carbon filter are presented in Table 20.
    Coagulation With Alum,  Sand  Filtration and Adsorption              234
    Through Activated Carbon                                          236
    ^En this system,  the wastewaters  are  screened and temporarily       239

^tored in a holding  tank,  _then pumped  through an alum coagulation      241

system.  Alum is added to  lower the  pH to 4.2 - 4.5 and then the       242

wastewater enters an upflow _tank to  be flocculated (three minute       243

contact time).   The  wastewater from  this tank is treated with lye so   244

that the pH ^ifter settling is  about  7.0.  The wastewater flows         246

through copper tubing to the mid-depth of a. large settling tank.  The  248

sludge that forms is disposed  of periodically and the clear super-

riatant is pumped through one of five pressure sand filters ^n          250

parallel.  The effluent passes up through a bed containing Duolite     251

      exhange resin  A 102D for detergent removal.  _It then flows up    253
                               VII-14

-------
        DRAFT
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                            DRAFT
through a bed of  granular activated carbon to remove objectionable     254




odors and colors.   From  there, one-third of the flow passes through a  255




cation and sui anion exchange resin for complete deionization,  jind is   257




combined with the other  two-thirds of the wastewater.  The wastewater  258




is then chlorinated and  the pH adjusted before it enters the clean     259




water tank for reuse.  The pollutant reduction values achieved by      260




various subsystems jire presented in Table 21, 22, and 23.              261






    Precoating and Filtration Through Diatomaceous Earth (DE)           264






    lr\ this system, a  45-pound charge of DE is added to water in the   266




mixing tank and the liquid is then passed through the filter elements  267




which become coated with the suspended DE.  This operation usually     269




takes 3-6 minutes, and the waste jmrifica_tion cycle is then            271




initiated.  Wastewater is pumped from the holding tank Jro the mixing   272




tank, through the filters, and finally to the treated water tank.




This cycle normally lasts 15 minutes during which time 375 gallons of  274




wastewater are processed.  A timer switch then shuts off the filter    276




pumps and activates a  mechanical shaker which "bumps" _the coating off  277




of the filter elements.   Another coating is then applied as described  278




above.






    The pollutant reduction data for this system are presented in      281




Table 24.
                               VII-16

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-------
                     DRAFT
                         TABLE 22
        Summary of pH Values Achieved by CASFAAC* System
in Treating Laundromat Wastewater

Units
Raw Waste
Flocculation Tank
Settling Tank
Sand Filter
Detergent Removal
Activated CArbon
Demineralizer

Number of
Samples
134
136
117
117
117
117
134

Minimum
5.0
3.9
4.2
4.5
5.0
5.2
5.1
(60)
Maximum
7.6
6.0
6.7
6.7
7.0
6.9
6.8

Average
7.13
4.45
5.58
5.76
5.95
5.99
6.07
*Coagulation with alum,  sand filtration, and
adsorption through activated carbon.
                           Vn-18

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-------
         DRAFT
         TABLE 2L
Pollutant Reduction Efficiency of

Diatomaceous Earth F
ilter System

in Treating Laundromat Wastewater (110)

Parameter
BOD mg/1
COD mg/1
TDS mg/1

Influent.
133
285
488
Turbidity Percent Trans.
P0(4) mg/1
pH (Units)
Acidity mg/1
Alkalinity mg/1
Hardness mg/1
Coliform/100 ml
169
7.2
91
368
208
"72,000

Effluent
34
45
715
97
6
8.5
89
372
266
•^10

Percent
Reduction
73
85
-44

94

2
- 1
- 8

            VII-20

-------
                             DRAFT
    Precoating with Diatomaceous Earth and Cationic                    284
   ^Surfactant Flocculation                                           286
    This treatment system is  designed  to treat up to 10,000 £als/day   290

of wastewater which _is pumped to  the mixing tank at a constant rate    291

from a 6,000 jjallon holding tank.  _The holding tank operates on level  293

control and time cycle so that one jlay's flow can be treated prior to  294

low-level cutoff.   Chemicals, such as  cationic surfactant and calcium  295

salt, are metered  to the mixing tank.  ^At alkaline pH operation,       296

caustic is also added at this point.   The retention period in the      297

mixing tank is 10  minutes.


    At the start of a day's operation, diatomaceous earth is adde'd to  300

the mixing tank and pumped through the filter to coat it.

Flocculated waste  is then filtered through the diatomite at a          301

constant flaw rate for a period of 15-30 minutes.  The filter          303

elements are then  mechanically bumped  to remove the decoating.  The    304

precoat floe mixture is reprecoated on the filter elements and Cycled  305

until the filtrate runs clear. The waste is again filtered for the    306

15-30 minute period,  filtration  and bumping are repeated until all    308

waste is treated.                                                      309


    During each filtration cycle, the  flow rate tends to fall off as   311

flocculated solids build upon the outside of the filter cake.  When    313

the cake is bumped and reprecoated, the flocculated solids are         314

redistributed through the diatomite.   j>ince this increases the         315

resistance to filtra_tion, the flow rate and total volume filtered per  316


                               VII-21

-------
                           DRAFT
cycle ^gradually decreases.  A_ practical maximum of 25 bumps can be     318




attained before reprecoating with j[resh diatomite.  At the end of a    320




treatment run,  the spent  diatomite mixture is jDumped to a disposal     321




point.  The total volume  of sludge per treatment run is 70 gallons.    322




This can be periodically  hauled  to a disposal site or dried on a       324




small sand bed.  The pollutant parameter reductions for this system    325




are given in Table 25.






    Vacuum Diatomite Filter                                            327






    The basic unit consists of a vacuum diatomite filter preceded by   330




a reaction and recycling  tank.   The unit for a 30-machine laundromat   331




is contained in a prefabricated  metal tank 8 ft long, 3 ft wide, and   332




6 ft high (3.4 m by 0.9 m by 3.6 m) .  T_he reaction chamber is          333




approximately 2.5 ft (0.8 m) long and the jfliter chamber is 5.5 ft     334




(1.7 m) long.  T_he basic  treatment equipment consists of 8 filter      335




elements, each of which has a surface area of _15 sq ft (1.4 sq m), a   336




120 gpm (0.44 cu m/min) recirculating pump, a d.ry feeder, slurry       337




feeder and controls, and  a pump  to  transfer _the wastewater from the    338




storage tank to the treatment unit.  Typical operating results are     339




detailed in Table 26.






    Activated Charcoal PolyelectrolLte System                          341






    TJiis process calls for adding of activated charcoal to a jDoly-     344




^lectrolite to form a floe.  The effluent is then clarified and        346




passed through a diatomite filter.  The BOD of the effluent is         347






                              VII-22

-------
                          DRAFT
                         TABLE 25



                 Laundry Waste Treatment

                  Coin-Operated Laundry

         Pollutant Reduction Efficiency of DEFCSF*
          System in Treating Laundromat Wastewater(85)
Influent Effluent
mg/1 lb/1,000 gal mg/1 lb/1,000 gal
BOD
COD
Total Solids
Volatile Solids
Phosphate
243
572
1,270
379
267
2.03
4.77
10.59
3.16
2.23
90
171
1,050
110
150
0.75
1.43
8.76
0.92
1.25
Percent
Reduction
67
70
17
71
44
*Diatomaceous earth filtration and cationic surfactant  flocculation.


Salt  added        480        4.00

Cationic added    88        0.73
                      VII-23

-------
   DRAFT
     VD O CO O
H CV
^TrO
H H

-------
                         DRAFT
reduced by 95% and the pH is  about  10 or 11; _the system does not       349




remove oil and grease.






    Flotation Clarification                                           351






    ^n this process,  laundry  wastewater is pumped into a 1,000-gallon  353




_tank to produce a mixture of  acid and alkaline wastes.  Bentonite is   355




injected into the waste line  to  the ballast tank.  ^Treatment is begun  356




when the tank is nearly full.                                          357






    The blended wastewater has a temperature of about 120 degrees F    359




as it leaves the ballast tank, where a 1.44% solution of sulfuric      360




acid is injected ^nto the waste  line.  An automatic recorder-          363




controller is used to maintain the  pH at 5.0.  A_s the wastewater       364




flows from the ballast tank ^p the  clarifier, it passes through a      365




lint trap, a. hydraulic flow regulator, and a heat exchanger where it   366




is warmed to ^40 degrees F.  Downstream from the heat exchanger, a     368




10.8% solution of alum ±s injected  by a metering pump at the rate of   369




25.0 gpg.  A_ 1.94% solution of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) jLs      371




injected, and the pH level is maintained at ^.0 by another automatic   372




pH recorder-controller.  .A chemical floe is formed by the addition of  373




alum and caustic.  This floe  is  then lifted by bubbling air through    374




the liquid.






    The floe formed in the main  flow line contains or is attached to   376




adr bubbles which cause it to rise  through the flocculation chamber    378




when it reaches the clarifier.   The floe and its entrapped air and     379






                              VII-25

-------
                          DRAFF
waste collect on the  surface as a foamy sludge,  which is  removed by    380




skimmer blades.   The  liquid, separating from the floe as  it emerges    381




from the ^locculation chamber, flows first downward,  then upward       382




_through an annular  space, and over a weir into the laundry.  There it  384




is tapped off and pumped into a 1,000 gallon storage  tank.             385




Laundromat wastewater reductions by flotation clarification are        387




presented in Table  27.






General                                                              389






    The following technologies can be applied by all  the               391




subcategories discussed thus far in this Section.                      392






    Micro-Straining                                                  39A






    This process involves the use cf high-speed, continuously back-    397




washed, rotating drum filters, that work in open,  gravity-flow         398




conditions.  ^Et  could be employed directly after rapid-and^slow-sand    400




filtration for the  r_ecovery of wash water.  Micro-straining has not    402




been studied in  relation to industrial laundry wastewater.






    Lint Screen                                                       404






    T_his is a simple  screen that filters the lint out of  wastewater.   406




It must be removed  and cleaned periodically.                          407
                              VII-26

-------
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                       VII-27

-------
                             DRAFT
    Reverse Osmosis                                                    409


    _In this process,  wastewater is cleaned by passing it through a     412

semipermeable membrane.   Only one facility is known to be using it —  413

a 2:inen laundry in Denmark.  Equipment is expensive and energy         415

requirements are high.   Typical percent rejections ^or various         417

constituents found in domestic sewage are summarized _in Table 28;      418

feed water recovery  level of approximately 92%.


    Ozonization                                                       420


    This process consists of adding ozone to wastewater _to oxidize     423

the pollutants.  _Its  principal applications are the sterilization of   424

Conventionally-purified  water, taste; and odor control, the             425

elimination of iron  and  manganese, and the removal of color.  This     427

process has not been used in a laundry wastewater system.


    The reduction of  foaming by ozonizing raw sewage and the effluent  429

from ^ewage treatment plants is closely related to the Deduction of    431

anionic surfactants  (as  measured by the methylene blue _test).  The     433

ozonized effluent is crystal clear and nearly odorless.                434


    Ultrasonic Cleaning                                                436


    Verbal information has been obtained from researchers _that the     439

laundering of fabrics by the use of ultrasonics has b^een successfully  440

demonstrated on a joint  laboratory-Industrial ^.aundry study.  No       442

definitive data is available at this time.
                               VII-28

-------
                      DRAFT
                         TABLE 28
                  Typical Rejection Levels
                             by
       Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Domestic Sewage*(27)
Constituent	Percent

Total Dissolved Solids                              93

Total Volatile Solids                               92

Total Hardness                                     93

Soluble  TOC                                      40 - 50

Soluble  TIC                                        68

Organic  Nitrogen                                  100

Ammonia  Nitrogen                                   88

Phosphates                                         98

Chlorides                                          89

Sulfates                                          97

Alkalinity                                         81

Total Coliforms                                   100
*Type 510 membrane utilized.
                             VII-29

-------
                          DRAFT
Dry Cleaners                                                         445


    T_he only process wastewater  generated _comes from using a water     448

injection method to remove water-soluble soil.  Th±s wastewater is     450

removed from the recycled solvent by means of a Reparation and         451

filtering system.  The volume is small and disposal should be no       452

problem.   The only control required of the dry cleaning  industry is ji  454

program of good housekeeping such as proper maintenance  and operation

of equipment.                                                        455


Summary                                                             457


    The effluent reductions obtainable by the application _of the       460

various technologies are summarized in Table 29.
                              VII-30

-------
                 TABUi  29
SUMMARY OF  VARIOUS WASTEWATEE TREATMENT
                 SYSTEMS
     Lorla. I  PnmptL»tt
                  VII-31

-------
                             DRAFi
                            SECTION  VIII
            $%Cost, Energy and Non-Water Quality Aspect$%              8

_$%Auto Wash Establishments$%                                          13


    _$%Best Practicable Control Technology  (BPCT)$%                     16
    _$%Best Available Treatment (BAT),  and$%                            18
    _$_%New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)$%                        20

    Rase level of practice in the auto wash industry is passage        23

through a sump and direct discharge  to a sewer, ji leaching field, or   24

surface waters.  For those plants discharging  to surface waters, BPCT  25

is total recycle.  Total recycle  systems are commercially available    26

and are already in operation in auto washes that previously

Discharged to municipal systems.   The  systems  have typically been      28

installed as cost-saving devices  to  avoid  paying effluent Charges.     29


    Recycle systems are characterized  by scale economies that result   31

in a differential impact depending on  the  size of an auto wash.  _In    33

view of this impact costs have been  developed  for two sizes of

facilities: _(1) an average self-service car wash; and (2) an average   35

automatic car wash.


£%Self-Service Auto Washes$%                                          37


    T_he average self-service car  wash  is assumed to have 6 bays and    39

to service 1500 cars per month or ^8,000 cars  per year.                40

Manufacturers of recycle systems  indicate  that the lowest cost to      41

equip and install a recycle system for a self-service auto wash would  42


                               VIII-1

-------
                        DRAFT
be about $7820 (1973  costs).  Maintenance costs are assumed to be 4%    43




of capital costs  or $312/year.  Operating costs are based upon 4 man    44




days per year of  service, and are equal to $320/year.  j^ludge would    45




accumulate at a rate  of  about 200 Ibs. per year (0.011 Ibs. per car




washed) and disposal  costs  would be negligible.  The system would      47




consume about 1600 kilowatt hours of energy per year.






    Manufacturers of  recycle equipment claim that without recycling    49




about $0.06 of detergents a_re used to wash each car; with recycling    50




these costs for detergents  are cut to $0.03 per car.  These claims     51




may be subject to question  so the costs for BPCT in Table  30 are




presented for two conditions.  First the costs assume no savings on    52




detergents.  The  second  set of costs assumes a $0.03 per car savings    53




on detergent costs.   In  addition, a savings of  	 per gallon is       54




assumed for water saved  by  recycling in the second set of costs.       55






    T_he costs of  BAT  and NSPS would be essentially the same as BPCT    57




because the technology is the same.  The cost of NSPS would be         58




somewhat lower because installation costs would be reduced.  The       59




difference, however,  is  not great enough to be economically




significant.






    Pretreatment  costs for  small self-service auto washes are zero.    61




Base level of practice in the industry is passage through a sump       62




prior to discharge  to the sewer.  j>ince the pretreatment guideline     63




specifies this technology,  no costs are involved.
                              VIII-2

-------
                               DRAFT
^Automatic Autc  Washes$%                                             65



    The typical automatic auto wash is assumed  to  service 7,000 autos  67


per month.   The capital cost for purchase and installation of a        68


recycle system for  this facility would be about $14,400  (Sept. 1973


dollars).   At 4%  of capital costs, maintenance  costs would be $575     69


per year.   Operations would demand about 8 man  days per year or $640   70


per year.   T_he system would use about 5000 kilowatt-hours of energy    71


per year.   _S_ludge would accumulate at a rate  of 77 pounds per month    72


and disposal costs  would be negligible.



    Again,  as was the case for the self-service auto wash, two sets    74


of costs for BPCT are presented in Table 31.  T_he  first set assumes    75


no savings  for detergents or water and the second  set does.
                              VIII-3

-------
                         DRAFT
                            TABLE 30
                                     79
                  BPCT Treatment Costs  (Sept. 73)
             Self-Service Auto Wash  (1500 autos/month)
Investment:

Annual  Costs:

    Capital Costs

    Depreciation

    0 & M  (excluding energy
     and power costs)

    Energy and Power Costs

    Detergent Savings

    Water  Savings
                Total

Costs per Auto Washed
No Savings

 $7.,820
Savings  Included

    $7,820
782
782
632
50


$2,240
$0.124
782
782
632
50
-450
-108
$1,682
$0.093
82
84

87

89

91

93

95

97
98

100

102

104
105

107
                             VIII-4

-------
                          DRAFT
                             TABLE 31                                113

                 BPCT Treatment Costs (Sept.  1973)                    115
               Automatic Car Wash (7,000 autos/month)                  116

                              No Savings   Savings  Included           120
Investment:                     $14,400         $14,400                121

Annual Costs:                                                         123
  Capital Costs                  1,440           1,440                124
  Depreciation                   1,440           1,440                125

  O&M (excluding  energy                                               127
   and power  costs)               1,215           1,215                128

  Energy & Power  Costs              125             125                130

  Detergent Savings                              -2,520                132

Water savings               	-504	          134
      Total                     $4,220          $1,196         .       135

Costs per Auto Washed            $0.050          $0.014                137

    The costs  of  BAT and NSPS for the automatic  auto wash would again  142

be essentially the same as BPCT.  At most,  the installation cost for   143

a new auto wash would be reduced by $1,000.   This would amount to a    144

total reduction of only $0.001 per auto washed.


    As for the self-service auto wash, the  costs of  pretreatment are   146

zero.


    £%Assumptions$%                                                   148


    P_ower Costs - $0.025 per kwhr                                     150


    Depreciation  - 10% per year                                       152


    Capital Costs - 10% per year                                      154
                              VIII-5

-------
                        DRAFT





    Credit for Water -  $0.30 per 100D  gallons                          156






    Use Reduction                                                     158






industrial Laundries                                                  160






    Best Practicable Control Technology Available (BPCTCA)              163




    The task of estimating  the costs of achieving BPCTCA by            167




industrial laundries is complicated because laundries come in a        168




variety of sizes, _and their inputs and processes differ markedly.       169




These variations are reflected in differences in wastewater flows  and  170




characteristics.  The task  of cost estimation is further complicated   171




by the absence of operating treatment  systems.






    The cost estimates  developed here  rely heavily on the costs of     173




installing and operating the oxidation charcoal filter system which    174




has been used as the model  on which the proposed treatment is based.






    Ease level of practice  in the industry is assumed to be a heat     176




reclaimer unit and a lint screen.  £osts have been developed for two   177




laundry sizes — a 90,000 Ib/weelc laundry and a 25,000 Ib/week         178




laundry.  The unit processes and overall treatment system for the  two  179




sizes are exactly the same. Only the  scales of the treatment systems  180




are different.






    The first step in the treatment process is flow equalization.       182




For the 90,000 Ib/week laundry, this requires a tank with a capacity   183
                               VIII-6

-------
                          DRAFT
of 1,500 gallons while a 900-gallon  tank is needed for the 25,000      184




Ib/week laundry.






    The second step in the treatment process is a dissolved air        186




flotation and skimming unit.   The  third step in the process is a       188




chemical-physical separator system employing aeration.  This stage of  189




the process has also been referred to as aerated storage.  R>r the     190




90,000 Ib/week laundry the system  requires two of these units having




_!, 200-gallon capacity.  The two units operate in coordination with     192




each other.  One stores and aerates  while the other empties and        193




fills.  Two 900-gallon units  are required for the 25,000 Ib/week       194




laundry.  These units are essentially aeration mixing devices that     195




have been installed ^p operate as  part of the overall treatment        196




system.  Units are available  from  a  number of manufacturers.           197






    The fourth step in the treatment system is passage of the          199




wastewater _through the monofilament  filter/oxidation chamber.  This    201




unit is essentially an aerated tank  lined with a fabric filter.




I_nfluent waters are aerated and filtered through the filter,  ^gain,   203




the size of these units could be 1,200 and 900-gallons of capacity




_for the 90,000 and 25,000 Ib/week  laundries, respectively.             204






    The fifth and final step  in the  system is carbon filtration.  JEn   207




both cases — for the large and small laundry — this is assumed to




be a _300-gallon, upflow filter containing 75-100 Ib of granular        208




carbon.
                               VIII-7

-------
                         DRAFT
    T_he estimated  costs of installing and operating this treatment      210


system appear in Tables 32 and 33.                                     211



                             TABLE 32                                 215

                          COST OF BPCTCA                              217
                       INDUSTRIAL LAUNDRIES                           218
                       90,000 LB/WEEK PLANT                           219
	222
Investment Costs:                                                      223
(Including installation  and  contingencies)                             224
    1,500-gallon equalization tank                $3,000               226
    Dissolved air flotation unit                  15,000               227
    Two aerated storage  units                     12,600               228
    Filter/oxidation  chamber                       3,300               229
    Carbon filter                                 1,100               230
    200 square foot area @ $50/SF                 10,000               231
                           Total                $45,000               232

Annual Costs:                                                         234

    Capital                                     $ 4,500               236
    Depreciation                                  4,500               237
    Sludge disposal  ($12/day X  250)                3,000               238
    Operation/Maintenance*                         4,500               239
    Carbon (replaced  twice per  year)                 100               240
    Filters (replaced twice per year)            	60_               241
                             Subtotal           $16,660               242

    Electricity                                     800               244
                             Total              $17,460               245

    Cost per pound of laundry — $0,004                                247

*0ther package systems have required as high as one-fourth             249
pound of carbon replacement for every 1,000 gallon treated.            250
This would translate  to  about $3,000 per year.                         251
                              VIII-8

-------
                          DRAFT
                             TABLE  33                                267

                          COST OF BPCTCA                             269
                       INDUSTRIAL LAUNDRIES                          270
                       25,000 LB/WEEK  PLANT                          271
                                                                    274
Investment  Costs:                                                    276
(Including  installation and contingencies)                            277

    900-gallon equalizing tank               $ 2,000                 279
    Dissolved air flotation unit              15,000                 280
    900-gallong aerated storage unit           5,700                 281
    900-gallon filter/oxidation chamber         3,000                 282
    Carbon  filter                              1.100                 283
                              Subtotal       $26,800                 284
    200 square feet @ $50/SF                  10.000                 285
                              Total          36,800          .       286

Annual Costs:                                                        288

    Capital                                 $ 3,680                 290
    Depreciation                               3,680                 291
    Sludge  Disposal ($3/day x 250)                750                 292
    Operation and Maintenance                  3,500                 293
    Carbon                                        50                 294
    Filters                                  	50
                                                                   295
                             Subtotal        $11,710                 296

    Electricity                                  400                 297
                             Total          $12,110                 298

    Cost per pound of laundry  $0.009                                 300
                              VIII-9

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                       DRAFl
    Best Available Technology Economically Achievable                  253
    (BATEA)  and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)                254

    The effluent requirements of BATEA and NSPS are the same as for    258

BPCTCA in the industrial  laundry subcategory.  The costs of BATEA and  260

NSPS might be somewhat  less  than BPCTCA because of _the possibility of  261

innovative process changes and overall lower installation costs.

Nevertheless, costs may be as high as those of achieving BPCTCA by     262

existing sources.   Therefore, the costs of BATEA and NSPS are taken    263

to be the same as  those in Tables 32  and  33.


    Pretreatment Standards for Existing and New Sources                303

    Pretreatment requirements for existing and new sources are         307

equivalent to BPCTCA.   The costs of pretreatment for new sources are   308

estimated to be the same  as  the estimates for BPCTCA that appear in    309

Tables 32 and 33.   pretreatment for existing sources would never be    310

more than the costs in  Tables 32 and  33.  I_n many cases the costs of   311

pretreatment for existing sources may be  ze.ro provided the             312

municipality receiving  the discharge  is committed in its National      313

Pollutant Discharge Elimination System  (NPDES) permit  to remove the    314

portion of incompatible pollutants equal  to that which would be        315

provided by BPCTCA.  I_n these cases,  the  savings achieved by not       316

having to install BPCTCA  equipment will be offset by user charges.     317


Linen Supply, Power Laundries  (Family an.d Commerical)                  321
and Diaper Service                                                    322

    As was true for industrial  laundries, this subcategory is          326
                              VIII-10

-------
                          DRAFT
characterized by variety —primarily with  respect  to size, rates of     327




wastewater flow, and concentations  of  constituents in the waste        328




flows.  It would be fruitless to try to  provide  the great number of    329




separate cost estimates that would  be  necessary  to capture all of the  330




diversity in this subcategory.  The differences,  though  identifiable,  331




are not that great when reflected in their effects on treatment        332




systems costs or economic impacts owing  to scale and equipment         333




limitations in pollution control engineering and technology.




    £pst estimates have been developed for  two sizes of linen supply   335




laundries.  Costs for commercial and diaper  service laundries are      336




assumed to be essentially the same  for similar size operations.  The   338




two sizes of laundries are the 90,000  Ib/week operation and the




25,000 Ib/week facility.  These sizes  cover  the  range for industrial   339




laundries and similarly appear  to  cover the range for linen,          340




commercial,  and diaper services laundries.






    Available (BPCTCA)                                                344




    A_ lint screen and a heat reclaimer are  again assumed to Comprise   349




base level of practice.  Thereafter, BPCTCA  consists of equalization,  350




screening, aerated storage,  monofilament filtration/oxidation, and     351




carbon filtration.   These unit processes are described in more detail  352




in the cost  discussion for industrial  Laundries with the exception of  353




the screening process.  This screening process consists of a           354




motorized screen filter that is self cleaning.  J5olids collect on the  355
                             VIII-11

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                     DRAFT

screen and are automatically  scraped off into a sludge container that  356
                                                                             €
is emptied periodically.

    The costs of BPCTCA for linen supply, power laundries, and diaper  358
services are presented  in  Tables 34 and 35.                            359    *

    Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA)          362
    and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)                        363
    BATEA and NSPS require total recycle of wash and rinse, waters.     367    *
jjince a minimum of 10%  and usually 15 or more percent of process       368
waters are j^ost through evaporation and being carried out with the     369
wash load, the recycle  system requires considerable make-up water.     370
Recycle systems that have  been operated have typically run at between  447
K) and 20% make-up water.                                              448
                                                                             •
    The BPCTCA system described in the previous section and costed     450
out in Tables 34 and 35 provides a level of effluent quality that can  451
be reused as wash and rinse water.  The only modifications necessary   453    f
to the BPCTCA system are the  addition of a_ storage tank, the           454
provision of recirculation pipes and pump,  and the automatic valving   455
for make-up waters from the water supply.  The costs of these          456    A
                                          "~~                                  ^^
modifications have been estimated for the 90,000 and 25,000 Ib/week    457
plants and have been added to the BPCTCA costs to provide the
incremental BATEA cost  estimates that appear in Tables 36 and 37.      458    A
                           VIII-12

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              DRAF1
                   TABLE 34

                COST OF BPCTCA
LINEN SUPPLY,  POWER LAUNDRIES, AND DIAPER SERVICE
              90,000 LB/WEEK PLANT
                                                                     374

                                                                     376
                                                                     377
                                                                     378
                                                            381

                                                           383

                                                           385
                                                           386
                                                           387
                                                           388
                                                           389
                                                           390
                                                           391

                                                           393

                                                           395
                                                           396
                                                           397
                                                           398
                                                           399

                                                           400
                                                           401

                                                           403
                                                           404

                                                           406
Investment Costs:

    1,500-gallon equalization tank
    Traveling  Screen
    Two 1,200-gallon aerated storage tanks
    1,200-gallon filter/oxidation chamber
    Carbon filter
    200 square foot area @ $50/SF
Annual Costs:

    Capital
    Depreciation
    Sludge Disposal  ($12/week)
    Operation  and Maintenance
    Carbon (replace  twice per year)

    Filters (replace twice per year)
    Electricity
             Cost per pound of laundry $0.0026
 $3,000
  3,600
 12,600
  3,300
  1,100
 10.000
$33,600
$ 3,360
  3,360
    650
  3,500
    100

	60
$11,030

    800
$11,830
                        VIII-33

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                          DRAFT
                             TABLE  35                                 409

                          COST OF BPCTCA                              All
         LINEN SUPPLY, POWER LAUNDR"ES,  AND DIAPER SERVICES            412
                       25,000 LB/WEEK PLANT                           413
                                                                     416
Investment  Costs:                                                     418
(Including  installation and contingencies)                             419

    900-gallon equalization tank                      $2,000          421
    Traveling screen                                   3,600          422
    900-gallon aeration storage unit:                    5,700          423
    900-gallon filter oxidation chamber                 3,000          424
    Carbon  filter                                      1,100          425
    200 square feet of space @ $50/£iF                  10,000          426
                                                    $25,400          427

Annual Costs:                                                         429

    Capital                                         $ 2,540          431
    Depreciation                                       2,540          432
    Sludge  disposal                                      200          433
    Operation and maintenance                          2,500          434
    Carbon                                                50          435
    Filters                                         	50          436
                                                     $7,880          437

    Electricity                                          400          439
                                                     $8,280          440

    Cost per pound of laundry  $0.0067                                 442
                             VIII-14

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                       DRAFT
                            TABLE 36                              462

                   INCREMENTAL COSTS OF EATEA                      464
        LINEN SUPPLY, POWER LAUNDRIES, AND DIAPER SERVICES           465
                      90,000 LB/WEEK PLANT                         466
469
Investment Costs:
Storage Tank (12,500 gallons)
Piping and valves
Subtotal
144 square feet at $50/SF
Total

$18,000
500
$18,500
7,500
$26,000
471
473
474
475
476
477
Annual  Costs:                                                     479

    Capital                                           $ 2,600     481
    Depreciation                                        2,600     482
    Operation and maintenance                          	500     483
                              Total                  $ 5,700     484

               Increased cost  per pound of  laundry $0.0013           486
                            VIII-15

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                        DRAFT
                           TABLE 37                              489

                   INCREMENTAL COSTS OF BATEA                      491
        LINEN SUPPLY, POWER LAUNDRIES,  AND DIAPER SERVICES           492
                      25,000 LB/WEEK PLANT                         493
496
Investment Costs:
Storage Tank (3,500 gallons)
Piping and valves

70 square feet $50/SF


$ 5,200
350
5,550
3,500
$ 9,050
498
500
501
502
503
504
Annual Costs:                                                     506

    Capital                                           $   905     508
    Depreciation                                          905     509
    Operation and Maintenance                           	300     510
                                  Total               $ 2,110     511

           Incremental cost per pouad of laundry $0.0017             513
                            VIII-16

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                         DRAFT
    The 90,000  Ib/week laundry is assumed  to use approximately 5.5     517




gallons of water per pound of laundry.   C)ne consultant has estimated   519




that by recycling a laundry one can save as much as $0.95 per 1,000    520




gallons of water used or $0.0052 per pound of  laundry.  Table 38       521




shows the consultant's estimates.  I_f the  figures in the table are     522




correct, the decision to go to BATEA directly  rather than to BPCTCA    523




would result in a lower annual £er pound cost  of laundry washed.  The  525




total cost of BATEA from existing base  level of practice would amount




to $0.0026 and  0.0013 less $0.0052 or a net saving of $0.0013 per      526




pound of laundry for the 90,000 Ib/week laundry and $0.0067 and        527




$0.0017 less $0.0052 or a net cost of $0.0032  per pound for the        528




25,000 Ib/week  laundry.






                             TABLE 38                                 532
CONSULTANT'



Water purchase
Sewerage Surcharge
Water softening
Heating water
Laundry room supplies

S ESTIMATE OF RESIDUAL VALUE IN
LAUNDRY WASTEWATER

Value/1,000 gallons
$ 0.33
0.28
0.05
0.26
0.02
$ 0.95
534
535
538
540
542
543
544
545
546
547
                               VIII-17

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                         DRAFT
    Hew Source Performance Standards  (NSPS)                          552




    NSPS for linen supply, power laundries, and diaper services are   554




the same as the requirements for BATEA.  The costs of achieving NSPS   556




for a new source are  equal to the sum of the costs of BPCTCA and the   557




incremental costs of  achieving BATEA.  T_he costs of NSPS for the two   558




sizes of typical laundries appear in  Tables 39 and 40.





                            TABLE 39                               562
COST OF NSPS
LINEN SUPPLY, POWER LAUNDRIES, AND DIAPER
90,000 LB/WEEK PLANT
Investment Costs:
1,500 gallon equalizing tank
Traveling screen
2 - 1,200 gallon aerated storage tanks
1,200 gallon filter/oxidation chamber
Carbon filter
Storage tank
Piping and valves
344 square feet @ $50/SF
Total
Annual Costs:
Capital
Depreciation
Sludge disposal
Operation and maintenance
Carbon replacement
Filter replacement

Electricity

Cost per pound of laundry $0.0039
SERVICES

$ 3,000
3,600
12,600
3,300
1,100
18,000
500
17,500
$59,600

$ 5,960
5,960
650
4,000
100
60
$16,730
800
$17,530

564
565
566
569
571
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
583
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
593
594
595
                             VIII-18

-------
                         DRAFT
                             TABLE  40                                598

                           COST OF  NSPS                              600
         LINEN SUPPLY, POWER LAUNDRIES, AND DIAPER SERVICES            601
                       25,000 LB/WEEK PLANT                          602
                                                                    605
Investment  Costs:                                                    607

    900 gallon equalizing tank                     $ 2,000           609
    Traveling screen                                 3,600           610
    900 gallon aerated storage unit                   5,700           611
    900 gallon filter/oxidation chamber               3,000           612
    Carbon  filter                                    1,100           613
    Storage tank                                     5,200           614
    Piping  and valves                                  350           615
    270 square feet @ $50/SF                        13.500           616
                                                  $34,450           617

Annual Costs:                                                        619

    Capital                                       $ 3,450           621
    Depreciation                                     3,450           622
    Sludge  disposal                                    200           623
    Carbon  replacement                                  50           624
    Filter  replacement                                  50           625
    Operation and maintenance                        2,800           626
                                                  $10,000           627

    Electricity                                        400           629
                                                  $10,400           630

         Cost per pound of laundry $0.0083                            632
                             VIII-19

-------
                            DRAFT
    Pretreatment Standards  for  Existing^ and New Sources                634



    Pretreatment requirements for  existing and new sources are         638

Equivalent to BPCTCA.   The  costs of pretreatment for new sources are   640

the same as those estimated for BPCTCA in Tables 34 and 35.  In many   642

cases, the cost of pretreatment for existing sources may be _z_ero       643

provided the municipality receiving the discharge is committed in its

NPDES permit to remove the  portion of incompatible, pollutants equal    644

to that which would be provided by KPCTCA.  In these cases, the        646

savings achieved by not having  to  install BPCTCA equipment will be     647

offset by user charges.


Coin-Operated Laundries and Dry Cleaning Facilities, and Laundry       651
and Garment Services Not Elsewhere Classified                          652

    Coin-operated laundries and the catch-all subcategory of dry       657

cleaning and laundry and garment services not elsewhere classified

include a wide range of types and  sizes of facilities.  The dry        659

cleaning establishments not elsewhere classified should already be

practicing no discharge of  any  process wastewaters.  The laundries     661

other than coin-operated laundries more than likely have wastes that

are similar to those of coin-operated laundries.  _I_f the wastes of     663

these other laundries are not comparable, then they £an be treated as  664

linen or industrial laundries whichever has the strength of wastes

that more closely approximates  that of the laundry in question.        665
                              VIII-20

-------
                          DRAFT
    For the purposes  of  cost  estimates, one size of coin-operated      667




laundry has been treated.  jSjlnce coin-operated laundries cater to      668




local demand and depend  heavily cm proximity to the user, these        669




facilities seldom exceed 50 machines.  On the other hand the minimum   670




size coin-operated laundry would s_eldom contain fewer than 10          671




machines.   _In view of this relatively  limited range, a representative  672




facility of 25 machines  will  serve as  a good basis for cost            673




estimates.  The economies of  scale are not so great that the           674




estimated unit costs  for the  25 machine facility c_annot be readily     675




assumed about equal for  the 10 or 50 machine facility.  _S_imilarly,     676




the accuracy of the cost estimating techniques and the economic




impact techniques _is  not so fine as might be offered by a multiple     677




set of estimates based on size of the  laundry facility.






    T_he typical facility is assumed to contain 25 washing machines.    679




The maximum daily design flow for the  facility is assumed to be 1,000  680




gallons per hour or 4^0 washes per hour given a typical flow of 25      681




gallons per load.  Base  level of practice for the facility is assumed  682




to be passage of the  wastewaters through a lint screen prior to        683




discharge.






    Best Practicable  Control  Technology Currently Available (BPCTCA)   685






    BPCTA is passage  through  a lint screen and filtration.  The        688




capital cost required is that for the  installation of the filter and




a_ sludge gravity thickening tank for removal of sludge from the        689









                             VIII-21

-------
                          DRAFT
backwash water.  The costs of BPCTCA appear in Table 41.  (The costs   691

are based on  the cost of a mixed media filter and not a diatornaceous

earth filter.)                                                        692



                             TABLE 41                                696

                          COST OF BPCTCA                             698
                       COIN-OPERATED LAUNDRY                          699
                      25 MACHINE INSTALLATION                         700
                                                                     703
Investment Costs:                                                     705

    3-phase filter,  including media,                   $ 2,500        707
      valving and  skid mounting                                       708
    Piping and valving                                     500        709
    Gravity sludge thicking tank with pump drain            750        710
      (100 gallon)                                                   711
    Space (20 square feet @ $50/SF)                      1,000        712
                                Total                 $ 4,750        713

Annual Costs:                                                        715

    Capital                                           $   500        717
    Depreciation                                          500        718
    Sludge removal                                         50        719
    Operation and  maintenance                          	100        720
                                                      $ 1,150        721

    Electricity                                           100        723
                                Tctal                 $ 1,250        724

    Cost per wash                                                     726
    '(50,000 gal/wk @ 25  gal/wash)  $0.012                             727
                             VIII-22

-------
                           DRAFT
    Best Available Treatment Technology Economically                   729
    Achievable (BATEA)                                                 730

    BATEA for coin-operated laundries and the other facilities in      734

this subcategory is r_ecycle of  process wastewaters.  j>everal           736

manufacturers produce physical-chemical units that provide this level

£f treatment.  The systems consist  of chemical coagulation,            738

clarification, filtration, and  carbon absorption.  Although these      740

systems are package units there is  no reason why, with planning and

minor modifications, the filter installed for BPCTCA could not be      741

incorporated into the package plant for BATEA.                         742


    The estimate for the incremental costs of going from BPCTCA to     744

BATEA appears in Table  42.                                            745

    Again it is useful  to examine the possible offsetting savings      782

that might be made possible by  recycling.  According to the figures    784

in Table 38, and the flow assumptions with respect _tp the 25 machine   785

laundry, the recycling  system could reduce production costs by £0.018  786

per wash.   If these savings were realized, the incremental costs of    787

achieving BATEA would be equal  to $0.066 less $0.018 or $0.048 per     788

wash.
                              VIII-23

-------
                        DRAFT
                            TABLE 42                                749

                     INCREMENTAL COST OF BATEA                       751
                       COIN-OPERATED LAUNDRY                         752
                      25 MACHINE INSTALLATION                        753
                                                                     756
Investment:                                                          758

    Package plant installed                         $ 27,000          760
    Less  savings for filter from BFCTCA              - 1,000          761
    Additional space (100 - 20 = 8C SF)                4,000          762
                                                   $30,000          763

Annual Costs:                                                        765

    Capital                                         $ 3,000          767
    Depreciation                                      3,000          768
    Sludge removal                                        0          769
    Carbon replacement                                  300          770
    Operation and maintenance                        	400          771
                             Subtotal              $ 6,700          772

    Electricity                                     	50          774
                             Total                 $ 6,750          775

    Incremental cost per wash                                         777
    (50.000 gal/wk @ 25 gal/wash)  $0.066                              778
                             VIII-24

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                          DRAFT
    New Source Performanc Standards  (NSPS)                           790






    NSPS requirements  are the same as BATEA.  The total costs of      793




achieving NSPS will be somewhat less than the sum £f  the BPCTCA costs  794




and the incremental costs of BATEA because no transition costs are    795




incurred in going from BPCTCA to BATEA.  The costs of achieving NSPS   796




appear  in Table 43.





                            TABLE 43                               800
TOTAL COST OF NSPS
COIN-OPERATED LAUNDRY
25 MACHINE INSTALLATION
Investment Costs:
Installed package plant
Space (100 square feet)
Total
Annual Costs:
Capital
Depreciation
Sludge removal
Operation and maintenance
Electricity
Cost per wash
(50,000 gal/wk @ 25 gal/wash) $0.068


$27,000
5,000
$32,000
$ 3,200
3,200
50
500
$ 6,950
150
$ 7,100
802
803
804
807
809
811
812
813
815
817
818
819
820
821
823
824
826
827
                            VIII-25

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                           DRAFT
    Again,  should  the  savings of Table 38 be realized this cost could   831




be reduced  to $0.068 less $0.018 or $0.05 per wash.                     832






    Pretreatment for Existing and New Sources                          834






    tfo pretreatment will be required of coin-operated laundries        836




except under very  unusual circumstances.  Therefore,  the costs  of       838




pretreatment are expected to be zero.






Dry Cleaning Plants Except Rug Cleaning                                840






    Tlie dry cleaning subcategory discharges non-contact cooling water   842




only.  BPCTCA,  BATEA,  NSPS, and pretreatment requirements for          843




existing and new sources all jspecify no discharge of  processing        844




water.  ]3ase level of  practice in the subcategory is  no discharge  of    845




process water.  The cost of water pollution control is zero for the    846




subcategory.






Carpet and  Upholstery  Cleaning Facilities                              848






         The typical carpet and upholstery cleaning facility passes    850




its wastewater through a lint trap and discharges to  a municipal       851




sewer.  Generally, those wastewaters contain no incompatibles and       852




there will  be no pretreatment requirements for existing or new         853




sources other than a lint trap which is already accepted practice  so    854




the costs of pretreatment for existing and new sources are zero.       855
                             VIII-26

-------
                          DRAFT
    The volume and characteristics of the wastewaters from carpet and  858




upholstery cleaning facilities are similar to those of the auto wash




industry.   JBPCTCA requires  recycling of treated wastewaters and no     859




discharge  for carpet Eind  upholstery cleaning facilities that           860




presently  discharge to surface waters.  Makeup water will be required  861




for such systems to replace the waters retained by the laundered       862




materials  and lost through  drying.






    The cost of BPCTCA has  been estimated for a typical carpet arid     865




upholstery cleaning facility.  The typical facility is assumed to be   866




primarily  a carpet cleaning operation.  I_t cleans up to 1,200 square   868




yards of carpet per day using an  average of _twelve gallons of wash     869




and rinse  water per square  yard of carpet.  The daily design flow for  870




the waste  treatment and recycle system is assumed to be _15,000         871




gallons per day.






    The installed cost of a package recycle system for a £ar wash      874




would be approximately $12,000.   The modification of the system to     875




incorporate the addition  of activated carbon filtration could cost     876




another $3,000.  The overall capital cost for the system installed     877




would be about $16,000.






    The estimated investment and  annual costs for BPCTCA for the       879




typical carpet and upholstery cleaning facility appear in Table 44.     880
                              VIII-27

-------
                         DRAFT
                             TABLE 44                                885

                     ESTIMATED COSTS OF BPCTCA                        887
              CARPET AND UPHOLSTERY CLEANING FACILITY                 888
               (DESIGN FLOW -- 15.,000 GALLONS PER DAY,                 889
              CAPACITY — 1,200 SQUARE YARDS OF CARPET)                890
                                                                     892
Investment Cost:                                                      895

    Modified  package treatment system               $16,000           897

Annual Costs:                                                         899

    Capital                                          1,600           901
    Depreciation                                      1,600           902
    Operation and Maintenance                                         903
    (excluding energy and power)                      1,000           904
    Carbon replacement                                1,500           905
    Sludge disposal                                 	50           906
                              Subtotal             $ 5,750           907

    Power                                              100           909
                      Total Annual Cost            $ 5,850           910

    Cost per  square yard of carpet  $0.019                            912
    Cost per  (9 x 12) carpet	$0.23                             913
    BATEA and NSPS  for sources discharging to  the  surface waters are   918

the same as BPCTCA.  T_he incremental costs of  BATEA above those of     919

BPCTCA are zero.  The costs of NSPS are the same as those for BPCTCA   920

presented in Table  44.
                             VIII-28

-------
                           DRAFT
                             SECTION IX
       Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available         8
                 Effluent Guidelines and Limitations                   9
Introduction                                                           13


    The effluent limitations which must be achieved by July 1, 1977,   15

jire to specify the degree of effluent reduction attainable through     17

the application of the best practicable control technology currently   18

available.  There is, within the industry, a_ lack of technical         20

sophistication Jrhat derives from the fact that it is a service         22

industry.  Because its custcomers are also potential competitors,      23

e_ach cost increase results in a diminished market.  The industry-has,  25

therefore, done little research and development in the field of water  27

pollution control.


    _Best practicable control technology currently available empha-     29

_s_izes treatment facilities at the end of the servicing process but     31

includes the con_trol technology employed within the process itself     32

when this is considered to be normal practice within an _industry.      34


Consideration was given to:                                            36
       The total cost of application of technology in relation         40
       to the effluent reduction benefits to be achieved               41
       from such application;                                          42
       the size and age of equipment and facilities involved;          44
       the process employed and the type of product being              45
       processed;                                                      46
       the engineering aspects of the application of various           48
       types of control techniques;                                    49
       process changes; and                                            51
                                                     NOTICE
                                T-. . These are tentative recommendations based up an
                                     information in this report and are subject to change
                                     based upon comments received and further internal
                                                  review by EPA.

-------
                           DRAFT
       non-water quality environmental impact  (including               53
       energy requirements).                                            54
    A_ further consideration is the degree of economic and engineering  60

reliability which must be established for the technology to be         61

currently available.   As a result of demonstration projects and  pilot  63

plants, there must exist a high clegree of confidence in the            64

engineering and economic practicability of the technology at the time  66

construction starts or Control facilities are installed.               68


Pretreatment Standards for Existing Sources                            70


    Some companies, particularly industrial and linen supply           72

laundries, may have to pretreat their wastewater if it contains         73

pollutants that are incompatible with a municipal sewer system.         74

incompatible pollutants, such as heavy metals, are discussed in  40     75

CFR, Part 128.  Pretreatment should be to the degree attainable  by     76

the application of the best practicable control technology currently   77

available, except that Credit may be taken if the municipality is      78

committed in its NPDES permit ^o remove a portion of the incompatible  79

pollutant.  Pndustries other than industrial and linen supply          80

laundries wuld not generally have incompatible pollutants and would   81

not need to pretreat prior to discharge to a municipal system.  Other  83

materials, such as rags, grease, acids, and explosive wastes, must     84

not be allowed to enter the sewerag,e system.
                                                     NOTICE
                                     These are tentative recommendations based upcn
                                IX-2 '"formation in thw report and are subject to change
                                     based upon comments received and further internal
                                                  review by EPA.

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                            DRAFT
Identification of Best Practicable. Control Technology                   87
Currently Available  (BPCTCA)                                            89

    Industrial Laundries                                                92


    BPCTCA will include the following:                                  94


    JL.  A lint screen;                                                  96


    2_.  an equalization tank large enough to handle varrying            99

    operational fjLows;                                                  100


    3_.  a flotation clarification system;                               102


    j4_.  a chemical physical separator system employing aeration;        104


    5_.  a settling chamber where the remaining heavy particles and      107

    insoluble salts will settle out;


    6_.   a monofilament filter/oxidation chamber;                       109


    _7_.   a charcoal filter.                                             Ill


    The levels of effluent reductions obtainable by such a^ system are   114

listed in Table 45.  J3jince present control ard treatment practices      115

followed at industrial laundries are almost completely inadequate, i_t   117

is not possible to delineate a specific existing sequence or

combination of in-process controls which could qualify a_s BPCTCA.       119

The system described above is not in use at any industrial laundry.     120

but represents a level of technology that can be applied by July 1,     121

1977.
                                                      NOTICE
                                      These are tentative recommendations based up - n
                                IX-3  information in this report and are subject to ch.-.r
                                      based upon comments received and furlher intcr.u I
                                                   review by EPA.

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DRAFT
 TABLE 45
  BPCTCA


mg/1
BOD(5)
SS
Industrial
Laundries

30
30
Oil and
Grease 10
Hg
Ni
Cd
Zn
Cr
Cu
Pb
Units
PH
Still
NDP =
.0001
0.5
0.02
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.5
6-9
cooling water
No discharge
Linen
Laundries

30
30
10
.0001
0.5
0.02
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.5
6-9
not included.
of pollutants.
Auto
Washes

NDP
NDP
'STOP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP


Carpet and
Upholstery
Cleaners

NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP
NDP


Dry 9
Cleaning
Coin-ops Plants
14
30 NDP 16
30 NDP 18
20
NDP 21
NDP 23
NDP 25
NDP 27
NDP 29
NDP 31
NDP 33
NDP 35
37
6-9 NDP 39
41
43
                        NOTICE
        laete are tentative recommendations based upon
        information in this report and are subject to chants
  IX-4  based upon comment* received and further interned
                     review by EPA.

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                              DRAFT
    Linen Supply, Power Laundries (Family and                          12A
    Commercial), and Diaper Services                                   126
    A typical system currently being used in linen laundries consists  129

of a screening operation, an oxidation ^ank, and an activated          130

charcoal filter.  The effluent reductions obtainable by this system    131

are listed in Table 45.


    Auto Wash Establishments                                           133


    Approximately 30% of the auto wash industry has found it           135

economical ^p recycle process wastewaters.  It is estimated that       137

approximately 15% of the wash water is lost through vehicle carryoff.  138

Recycling represents the best practicable control technology           139

currently available for this industry.  A_ typical recycling facility   140

consists of a filter pump with basket strainer, a_ wash water filter    141

to remove dirt, a detergent filter to remove soap, and &_ recycling     142

tank.  The system can be completely self-contained.                    143


    Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                                     145


    A_t present the carpet and upholstery cleaning industry does not    148

treat its process wastewater, but it can do so by making simple        149

modifications to systems used by the auto wash industry.  This can     150

include, for example, adding a charcoal filter to remove color.  By    151

taking such steps, carpet and upholstery cleaning industry can        .152

achieve recycling.  Makeup water is required to replace the water      153

lost through drying.
                                                      NOTICE
                                      These are tentative recommendations bated upon
                                      information in Ink report and are subject to change
                                      based upon comments received and further Internal
                                                   review by EPA.

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                               DRAFT
    Coin-Operated Laundries and Dry Cleaning Facilities, and Laundry   156
    and Garment Services Not Elsewhere Classified                      158

    Various types of treatment exist within the coin-operated          161

JLaundries ranging from a simple lint screen to recycle.  A_ system      163

that is consistent with the best practicable control technology        164

currently available for the coin-operated laundries is filtration      165

through a lint screen and a d_iatomaceous earth filter.  The effluent   167

reductions obtainable by this type of treatment are presented in       168

Table 45.


    T_he coin-operated dry cleaning segment discharges only noncontact  170

£ooling water and therefore the best practicable control technology    171

currently available will be no discharge of process wastewaters.  The  173

soil that is removed from the garments is in the form of a muck or

sludge.


    Dry Cleaning Plants Except Rug Cleaning                            176


    The dry cleaning subcategory discharges only noncontact cooling    179

water and, therefore BPCTCA will be no discharge of _p_rocess            180

wastewater.  T_he soil that is removed from the garments is in the      181

form of a muck or sludge.                                              182


Loadings Summary                                                       184


    The wastewater loadings for all subcategories in terms of Ib/unit  186

of production based on typical water volume and amount of fabric       188
                                                     NOTICE
                                     These are tentative recommendations based upon
                                IX-6 information in this report and are subject to change
                                     based upon comments received and further internal
                                                  review by EPA.

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                               DRAFT
processed are presented in Table 46.  The concentrations are from

Table 45.
189
                             TABLE  46
1
4
                              BPCTCA
9
Parameter
BOD(5)
Suspended
Solids
Oil and
Grease
Hg
Ni
Cd
Zn
Cr
Cu
Pb
Waste Loading
Industrial*
Laundry
Ib/lb
0.0014
0.0014

0.0005
.5 X 10 (-8)
.2 X 10(-4)
.1 X 10(-5)
.2 X 10 (-4)
.2 X 10 (-4)
.9 X 10(-5)
.2 X 10 (-4)
Ibs/Unit Output
Linen**
Laundry
Ib/lb
0.0014
0.0014

0.0005
.5 X 10(-8)
.2 X 10(-4)
.1 X 10(-5)
.2 X 10(-4)
.2 X 10(-4)
.9 X 10(-5)
.2 X 10 (-4)
10
Coin-Operated*** 11
Laundry 12
Ib/load 13
0.0075 15
17
0.0075 18
20
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
*Average industrial load 800 pounds, average volume of water 38
used is 4,470 gallons as per pp 24-25 Rexnord Report. 39
**Average linen load of 550 pounds, average volume of 3,025 40
gallons as per page 148, Rexnord Report. 41
***Flow/unit = 30 gal/load, page VII of this report. 42
                                                   NOTICE
                              XX-7   ete are tentative recommendations based up
                                   information in this report and are subject to change
                                   based upon comment* received and further internal
                                                review by EPA.

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                             DRAFT
                              SECTION X
          Best Available Technology Economically Achievable            7

Introduction                                                           11


    The best available technology economically achievable guidelines   13

and limitations for the auto and other laundries are to be achieved    14

not later than July 1, 1983.  The technologies described in Section    16

VII were determined by identifying _the best control and treatment      17

technology employed within the industrial Category or subcategory      18

during on-site inspections, by EPA laboratory analyses, and following  19

consultation with recognized experts in the industry.  Unlike BPCTCA   20

technology, which is based on an average of the best performance,

BATEA technology is based on the best demonstrated ^echnology taking   22

into account such factors as: (1) type of process employed; (2)        23

operating methods; (3) batch as opposed to continuous operations; _(4)  24

use of alternative raw materials and mixes of raw materials; (_5) use   25

of dry rather than wet processes (including substitution of

^recoverable solvents for water); _(6) recovery of pollutants as by-     27

products.


Industrial Laundries                                                   29


    Industrial laundries must treat their effluent using a method      31

that reflects the best Demonstrated technology discussed in Section    32

VII.  j[ince there are wide variations within the industrial laundry    33

                                                     NOTICE
                                     These are tentative recommendations based upon
                                x~-'-  information in this report and are subject to change
                                     based upon comment* received and further internal
                                                  review by EPA.

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                             DRAFT
industry, no single system can be used by all plants.   An  example  of    35

BATEA would be the use of recoverable solvents (oil)  in the cleaning    36

of floor mopheads because this completely jeliminates  wastewater         37

discharges.  The dual-phase washing process can also  represent BATEA.   38

Expanded modifications of individual modular treatment  equipment,  as    40

described in Section VII, used individually or in combination can

also qualify as BATEA.  The effluent reductions obtainable by the       42

application of the best available technology economically  achievable    43

are the same as those lasted in Table 30 of Section IX.                44


Linen Supply, Power Laundries (Family and Commercial)                   47
and Diaper Services                                            .        49

    The best available technology economically achievable  by this       52

subcategory ±s recycling of process wastewaters.  The technology for    54

achieving this is described in Section VII.


Auto Wash Establishments                                               56


    By employing BPCTCA, this subcategory can achieve zero discharge    58

of process wastewater pollutants into navigable waters; BPCTCA was     60

discussed in Section IX.


Carpet and Upholstering Cleaning                                       62


    By employing BPCTCA, this subcategory can achieve zero discharge    65

of process wastewater pollutants into navigable waters; BPCTCA was     66

discussed in Section IX.


                                                    NOTICE
                                    These are tentative recommendations  based upon
                                X-2 information b this report and are subject to char;
                                    based upon comments received and further internal
                                                 review by  EPA.

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                              DRAFT
Coin-operated Laundries and  Dry  Cleaning  Facilities                    69
and Laundry and Garment Services Not  Elsewhere Classified              71

    The best available technology economically achievable by this      75

subcategory is recycle of process wastewaters; the technology for      76

achieving this is described  in Section  VII.


Dry Cleaning Plants Except Rug Cleaning                               78


    jiy employing BPCTCA,  this subcategory can achieve zero discharge   80

of process wastewater pollutants into navigable waters; BPCTCA was     82

discussed in Section IX.
                                                    NOTICE
                                „_- These are tentative recommendations based v?
                                    information in this report and are subject to cha
                                    based upon comments received and further inter.
                                                 review by EPA.

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                             DRAFT
                             SECTION XI
     New Source Performance Standards and Pretreatment Standards       8

Introduction                                                           11


    The term "new source" is defined in the Act to mean "any source,   13

_the construction of which is commenced after the publication of        14

proposed regulations prescribing a standard of performance." £ew       16

source performance technology is based on an analysis of h.ow the       17

level of effluent may be reduced by changing the production process    18

itself either by extension or modification of ^xisting systems or by   19

complete conversion to new, more efficient methods.


    Except for industrial laundries, new sources have two choices:     21

_(1) discharge to a municipally owned treatment plant with pre-         22

treatment where required by Federal regulations or as prescribed by    23

the J^ocal sewer ordinance, (2) wastewater treatment to reclaim and     24

recycle process water in what is basically a closed loop system.       25

Fresh water would be added only to make up what is lost through        26

evaporation or carryout in the product,  periodic removal of           28

dissolved solids by sophisticated treatment inethods may be required.   29

Due to the possible build up of salts in industrial laundry            30

wastewater, new sources in Subcategory 1 will not have to employ a     31

closed loop system.
                                                      NOTICE
                                      These are tentative recommendation* based u;i .a
                                XI    information in this report and are subject to d;;>r « -
                                      based upon comments received and further internal
                                                   review by EPA,

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                               DRAFT

Industrial Laundries                                                   34

    Performance Standard                                               36

    New sources within this subcategory _shall meet  the  limitations      39

outlined as best practicable Control  technology currently available    40

in Section IX.

    Pretreatment Standard                                              42

    Before discharging into municipal systems all incompatible          44

pollutants, as  defined in the Federal Register Vol.  3_8,  No.  215,        45

November 8, 1973, shall be pretreated to or below _the levels           46

presented in Table 30 of Section  IX.   The technology consistent with   47

achieving these reductions is discussed in Section  IX.
Linen Supply, Power Laundries (Family and Commercial)  and               50
Diaper Service                                                         52

    Performance Standard                                               54
        sources within this subcategory shall not  discharge any        57

process wastewater pollutants into navigable waters.   J^t shall  be      59

recycled through reclamation plants,  as outlined in Sections VII, IX,   60

and X for reuse.


    Pretreatment Standard                                              62


    If a once-through method of operation is used, ^incompatible        65

pollutants must be pretreated prior to being discharged ijito a          66


                                                     NOTICE
                                     These are tentative recommendations based upon
                                XI~2  information in this report and are subject to change
                                     based upon comments received and further internal
                                                   review by EPA.

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                               DRAFT
publicly owned treatment works and the pollutant levels  achieved       65

shall riot exceed those given in Table 30 of Section IX.                 66


Auto Wash Establishments                                               68


    Performance Standard                                               70


    New sources within this subcategory shall not discharge any        73

process wastewater pollutants into navigable waters.  The technology   74

that can be used to achieve this objective is discussed  in Section

IX.


    Pretreatment Standards                                      •       76


    For new systems designed to discharge into publicly  owned          79

treatment facilities, pretreatment £an be satisfactorily accomplished  80

by passing the wastewater through a detention sump to remove heavy     81

particulate matter.


Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning                                         83


    Performance Standard                                               85


    New sources in this subcategory sshall not discharge  any process     88

wastewater  into navigable waters but recycle it as discussed in       89

Section IX.
                                                     NOTICE
                                     These are tentative recommendations based upon
                                XI-3 '"formation in this report and are subject to change
                                     bated upon comments received and further internal
                                                  review by EPA.

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                                DRAFT

    Pretreatment Standards                                             92


    No pretreatment other than a lint screen is required because the   94

wastewater generated does not contain incompatible pollutants.          95


Coin-operated Laundries and Dry Cleaning Facilities and                98
Laundry and Garment Services, Not Elsewhere Classified                 100

    Performance Standard                                               102

    New sources _in this subcategory shall not discharge any process    106

wastewater into navigable waters.                                      107


    Pretreatment Standard                                              109


    Because of the nature of the wastewater generated (Section  V)  jjnd  112

the economics involved (Section VIII) no treatment is required  before  114

the wastewater is discharged into publicly owned treatment works.       115


    'In the event that the effluent pollutant strength  or flows        117

exceeds the _l_imits required by a municipality's sewer code, ^he        119

payment of a sewer surcharge would be economically preferrable  for

the laundry.


Dry Cleaning Plants Except Rug Cleaning                                121


    Performance Standard                                               123
    Jtew sources in this subcategory shall n.ot discharge any process    126

wastewater into navigable waters.
                                                     NOTICE
                                     These are tentative recommendations based v-
                                XI-'+ information in this report and are subject to c:
                                     based upon comments received and further LU.I.
                                                  rsv!«w by EPA.

-------
                               DRAFT
    Pretreatment Standards                                             128


    Because the largest amount of water used by this ^ndustry  is non-   131

contact in nature, jLt does not have to be treated  before  it  is         132

allowed to enter a publicly owned treatment works.                      133


    Any solid waste generated as a result of _splvent recovery           136

operations should not be dumped into storm sewers  but  should be         137

disposed of in a well-operated landfill or h.auled  to such a  facility    138

by a firm approved by the governing authority.
                                                    NOTICE
                                     These are tentative recommendations based upon
                                XI_5 information in this report and are subject to change
                                     based upon comments received and further internal
                                                  r^-v e* bv t.FA.

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                             DRAFT
                           SECTION XII
                          Acknowledgments                            7

MR. Donald Bulk,  The Roscze Company, 3517 W.  ERRISON  Street,          11
Chicago, Illinois 60624

Mr. L.  R.  Danek,  Culligan International Company,  1  Culligan Parkway,   13
Northbrook, Illinois 60062

Mr. Phillip Deegan, Laundry and Cleaners Allied  Trades Association,    15
Inc., 11 East Illinois Street, Chicago, Illinois  60611                 16

Mr. Max L. Feinberg, Attorney, Suite 600, 134 North Lasalle St.,       18
Chicago, II. 60602

Mr. Ward A. Gill, National Automatic Laundry  and  Cleaning Council, 7   20
South Dearborn Street C_hicago, Illinois, 60603                        21

Mr. Arthur Mallon, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, B.C.   23

Ms. Margaret Pritchard, Consulting Engineer to Medical Arts Linen      25
.Supply, 605 Wesfield Avenue, New York, NY 07090                        26

Dr. Manfred Wentz, International Fabric Institute,  8001 Georgia        28
Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland, 20910                                29
                              XII-1

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                               DRAFT
                              Contacts                                 32
Mr. Tom Alexander,  EPA-OPE,  Economic Analysis Branch, Waterside Mall,  35
Washington, DC

Dr. Melvin M.  Baevsky,  Association  of  Interior Decor Specialists,      37
1815 N. Fort Meyer  Dr., Arlington,  Virginia, 22209                     38

Mr. Albert Becker,  Ace  Tank  and Heater Co., R.R. 1, Frankfort,         40
Indiana, 45041

Mr. Robert L.  Borlick,  Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,    42
DC 20460

Mr. Charles Branch, Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, 3.421   45
Peachtree Street, N.E.  Atlanta, Georgia 30309                   ~

Mr. Stephen F. Brown, Dow Chemical  Company, 2020 DOW Center, Midland,  47
Michigan 48640

Mr. Robert G.  Chelton,  Hytek International Corporation, 1035           49
Industrial Parkway, Medina,  Ohio 44256.

Mr. Samuel T.  Church, Central Laundries and Hospitals Laundries        51
Association, Inc.,  175  Ipswitch, Boston, Mass. 02215                   52

Mr. Robert Coleman, National Institute of Rug Cleaning, Arlington,     54
Virginia.                                                             55

Ms. Delores Cooper, Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX, 100    57
California Street San Francisco, California, 94111                     58

Mr. John Crawley, Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati,   60
Hamilton County, Ohio.                                                 61

Mr. Phillip W. Croen, Wisconsin Fabricare Institute, Inc., 229 E.      64
Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee,  Wise.  53205

Dr. James Cruver, Gulf  Environmental Systems                           66

Mr. Swep Davis, OPE, Economic Analysis Branch, Waterside Mall,         68
Washington, DC

Mr. Roger Doggett,  Arthur D.  Little, Inc., Acorn Park, Cambridge,      70
Ma., 02140

Mr. Paul Duruel, Cincinnati  Water Works, Cincinnati, Ohio              72
                              XII-2

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                               DRAFT
Mr. Roger Doggett,  Arthur D. Little, Inc., Acorn Park, Cambridge,      70
Ma., 02140

Mr. Paul Duruel,  Cincinnati Water Works, Cincinnati, Ohio              72

Mr. Robert K.  Ermatinger, Laundry and Cleaners Allied Trades           74
Association,  .543  Valley  Road, Upper Montclair, New Jersey, 07043       75

Mr. Paul Flannigan,  State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency,     77
Columbus, Ohio.                                                        78

Mr. Mike Ginsberg,  Medical Arts Linen Supply, 605 Westfield Avenue,    80
New York, NY  07090

Mr. Richard Gray, Komline-Sanderson Engineering Corporation, Peapack,  82
New Jersey, 07977

Mr. Everett Hall, National Association of Institutional Laundry        84
Managers, Christ  Hospital, 2139 Auburn Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 45219    85

Mr. James Harrington,  New York Environmental Conservation Department   87

Mr. Jeffrey Hass, Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, Curtis  90
Building, 6th and Walnut Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 19106

Mr. Ray Henderson,  Hydrextor Company, 3839 Oakton Avenue, Skokie,      92
Illinois

Mr. Fred C. Herot,  Colin A. Houstan and Associates, Inc. 1154 Old      94
White Plains  Rd., Mamardneck, NY 10543

Mr. William Holt, Parkway Auto Wash Inc.                               96

Mr. Colin A.  Houston,  Colin A. Houstan and Associates, Inc.  1154 Old  99
White Plains  Road,  Mamaroneck, New York 10543

Mr. Michael A. Jimenez,  Aqua-Mizer Corporation, 216 Daniel Webster     101
Highway, Nashua,  New Hampshire 03060

Mr. Lee Johnson,  International Fabric Institute, P.O. Box 940,         103
Joliet, Illinois  60434

Mr. C. Roy Josephs,  Cook Machinery Company, 4301 S. Fitzhugh Avenue,   105
Dallas, Texas 75226

Mr. Robert C.  Knipe, Laundry and Cleaners Allied Trades Association,   107
_Inc., 543 Valley  Road, Upper Montclair, New Jersey 07043               108
                               XII-3

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                                  DRAFT
Mr. Louis Laden, Bade County Laundry and Dry  Cleaners A_ssn., 434       111
Catalonia Avenue, Coral Gables,  Florida

Mr. T. J. Lageman, Mission Linen Supply, 635  E. Montecito St., Santa   113
Barbara, Ca.

Mr. Richard Laskey, Procter and  Gamble Company, 11530 Reid Hartman     115
Highway, Cincinnati, OHio, 45242

Mr. Ronald Levy, Arthur D. Little,  Inc. Acorn Park, Cambridge, Mass.,  117
02140

Mrs. Ruth Livesey, National Institute of Infant Services,              119
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Mr. David J. MacKenzie, Textile  Rental Services Association, 942       121
Westwood Blvd, Los Angeles, Ca.

Mr. Jack Moore, Aqua Systems,  Inc.,  P.O. Box  1578, Ft. Lauderdale,     123
Florida, 33302

Mr. H. Richard Moon, Norge Corporation, Edison, New Jersey, 08817      125

Mr. Erling Nielson, Technical Fabricators,  Inc., Nutley, New Jersey.   127

Mr. Robert A. Olsen, Procter and Gamble Company, 11530 Reid Hartman    129
Highway, Cincinnati, OH 45242

Mr. Ralph Pettybone, Professional Laundry Institute, 118 W. Randolph   131
Street, Chicago, 111. 60601

Mr. Bert H. Perlmutter, Aqua Systems Inc.,  P.O. Box 1578, Ft.          134
Lauderdale, Florida, 33302

Mr. Henry Quackenbush,  Industrial Equipment,  200 Ridgewood Place,      136
Springhill Station, Mobile, Ala

Mr. Earl Rosenberg, Laicon, Inc., Westchester, Illinois.               138

Mr. Barnet L. Rosenthal Institute of Industrial Launderers, 8608 N_.    141
W. 59 Court, Ft. Lauderdale,  Florida.

Mr. Ben Russell, American Laundry Digest, 500 N. Dearborn, Chicago,    143
Illinois.

Mr. Robert Schmidt, National  Carwash Council, Chicago, Illinois.       145

Mr. Carl T. Schueren, Born Oil Company, Midland Building, Cleveland,   147
Ohio, 44115
                              XII-4

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                               DRAFT
Mr. William Seitz,  Neighborhood  Cleaners, Assn. 116 E. 26th St., New   149
York, NY 10016

Mr. Joseph R.  Schuh,  Linen Supply Assn. of America, 975 Arthur         151
Godfrey Road,  _P.O.  Box 2427, Miami  Beach, Florida 33140.               152

Mr. Seller, Environmental  Protection Agency, Region II, 26 Federal     154
Plaza, New YOrk,  NY 10007

Mr. Samuel B.  Shapiro, Linen Supply Association of America, 975        156
Arthur Godfrey Road,  P_.0.  Box  2427, Miami Beach, Florida, 33141        157

Mr. Jerry Siemour,  Metropolitan  Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati,  159
Ohio.,

Mr. Mervyn Sluizer, Jr., Institute  of Industrial Launderers, 613 W.    161
Cheltenham Avenue,  Philadelphia, Pa. 19126

Mr. John Smith, National Environmental Research Center, Cincinnati,    163
Ohio, 45268

Mr. Frank Spangler, Westinghouse Electric Corp. 246 E. Fourth Street,  165
Mansfield, Ohio,  44902

Mr. John Stanton, Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati,   167
Hamilton County,  Ohio.                                                168

Mr. Tom Steinkamp,  Metropolitan  Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati,  170
Hamilton County,  Ohio.                                                171

Mr. Thad Stephens,  Procter and Gamble Company, 11530 Reid Hartman      173
Highway, Cincinnati,  Ohio, 45242

Mr. Ronald C.  Story,  Cla-Val Company, Newport Beach, Ca., 92663        175

Mr. Robert Symenson,  Standard  Oil of Ohio, Cleveland, Ohio             177

Mr. Jean Thaneuf, Environmental  Protection Agency, Region I, J. F. K.  179
Federal Building, Boston,  Ma.  02203                                   180

Mr. Louis Theoharous, Procter  and Gamble Company, 11530 Reid Hartman   183
Highway, Cincinnati,  Ohio, 45242                            ~~

Mr. Cecil Treadway, General Bouchelle Inc., 200 E. Marquette Road,     185
Chicago, Illinois,  60637                                               186

Mr. Carl Vomer, Metropolitan Sewer  District of Greater Cincinnati,     188
Hamilton County,  Ohio.                                                189
                              XII-5

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                            DRAFT
Mr.John L. Woolsey, Pennwalt Corporation,  9390 Davis Avenue,  Laurel,   192
Maryland, 20810

Mr.  Robert J.  Zilli, John-Mansville Products Corporation, Greenwood    19A
Plaza, Denver, Colorado, 80217                                     195
                            XII-6

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                           DRAFT
                           SECTION XIII
                            References                                7

1.     Keffer,  C.  E.,  "The  Syndet Problem After Five Years of            11
      Progress,"  Public Works, 9_5, 1, 82 (1964).                        12

2.     Semling,  Harold V.,  "Detergents and Water Quality,1' Household     14
      and Personal  Products  Industry, July 1972, pp 30.                 15

3.     Lashen,  Edward  S., and Keith A. Booman, "Biodegradability         17
      and Treatability of  Alkylphenol Eehoxylates - A Class of          18
      Non-ionic Surfactants, Jour. WPCF.                                19

4.     Eisenhauer, Hugh R., "Chemical Removal of ABS from Waste-         21
      water Effluents," Jour. WPCF Vol. 37.. No. 11, pp 1567-1578.       22
      November 1965.                                                    23

5.     Eckenfelder,  W. Wesley,Jr., "Removal of ABS and Phosphate         25
      from Laundry  Wastewaters," Purdue Univ. Eng. Ext. Bull.           26
      Series 117, Pt. 1, pp  467  (1965).                                 27

6.     Coughlin, F.  J., "Detergents and Water Pollution Abatement,"      29
      Am. J. Public Health,  .55,  5, 760  (1965).                          30

7.     Sengupta, Ashis K.,  and W. 0. Pipes, "Foam Fractionation -        32
      The Effect  of Salts  and Low Molecular Weight Organics on          33
      ABS Removal," XIX Purdue Conference, pp. 811.                     34

8.     Buescher, C.  A., and D. W. Ryckman, "Reduction of Foaming         36
      of ABS by Ozonation,"  XIX  Purdue Conference, p. 251.              37

9.     U. S. Department of  Commerce, "1967 Census of Business"           39
      Selected Services, Laundries Cleaning Plants, and Related         40
      Services.                                                        41

10.   National Automatic Laundry and Cleaning Council, "Coin            43
      Laundry Waste Discharge Survey."                                  44

11.   Wayman, C.,  et  al.,  "Behavior of  Surfactants and Other            46
      Detergents in Water  and Soil-Water Environments,"  Public         47
      Works 96., 9,  160 (1965).                                          48

12.   Hoover, Thomas  B.,  "Polorographic Determination of NTA,"          50
      Environmental Protection Technology Series, June 1973.            51
                               XI1I-1

-------
                            DRAFT
13.   O'Farrell,  Thomas  P.,  Dolloff F. Bishop, and Stephen M.           53
     Bennett,  "Advanced Waste Treatment at Washington, DC,"            54
     FWPCA,  Taft Research  Center, May 1969.                            55

14.   Feige,  Walter A.,  and Edward L. Berg, "Full Scale Mineral         58
     Addition  at Lebanon,  Ohio," Water and Sev;age Works, 1973,         59
     pp R-79-94.                                                      60

15.   Stomberg,  John B., Dolloff F. Bishop, Paul H. Warner, and         62
     Samuel  H.  Griggs,  "Lime Precipitation in Municipal Waste-         63
     waters,"  Chemical  Engineering Symposium Series, Water             64
     1970, Vol.  67_, No. 107.                                           65

16.   Ghassemi,  Masood,  and Harold L. Recht, "Phosphate Precipitation   67
     with Ferrous Ion," Water Pollution Control Series, 17010          68
     EKI, September 1971.                                              69

17.   Rand Development Corp., "Phosphorus Removal by Ferrous Iron and   71
     Lime,"  Water Pollution Control  Series, 11010 ECO, January 1971.   72

18.   Menar,  A.  B., and  D.  Jenkins, "Calcium Precipitation in Waste-    74
     water Treatment,"  Research Reporting Sereis, No. 17080, DAB,      75
     December  1972.                                                   76

19.   Boucher,  P. L., "Micro-Straining and Ozonization of Water and     78
     Wastexvrater, XIX PUrdue Conference, p. 771.                        79

20.   Villers,  R. V., E. L.  Berg, C.  A. Brunner, and A. N. Masai,       81
     "Municipal Wastewater Treatment by Physical and Chemical          82
     Methods,"  W & SW Reference #1971  (Jour. WPCF, Part 1,             83
     March 1972).                                                     84

21.   Hais, Alan B., John B. Stomberg, Dolloff F. Bishop, "Aluir.         86
     Addition  to Activated Sludge With Tertiary Solids Removal,"       87
     presented  at 68th  National Meeting of the A.I.Ch.E., March 1971.  88

22.   Smith,  John M., Arthur M. Masse, and Walter A. Feige, "Upgrading  90
     Existing  Wastewater Treatment Plants," Pergamon Press,            91
     Inc.,  September 1972.                                             92

23.   Rex Chainbelt, Inc.,  "Amenability of Reverse Osmosis Concentrate  94
     to Activated Sludge Treatment," Water Pollution Control Series,   95
     17040,  EUE, July 1971.                                           96

24.   Feige,  Walter A.,  and John M. Smith, "Wastewater Applications     98
     with a  Tubular Reverse Osmosis  Unit," A.I.Ch.E. Publication,      99
     Water - 1973, January 1974.                                       100
                               XIII-2

-------
                           DRAFT
25.   Bashaw,  J.  D.,  J.  K. Lawson, and T. A. Orafino, "Hollow Fiber     102
     Technology  for  Advanced Waste Treatment," Environmental           103
     Protection  Technology  Series, 17040 FEE, December 1972.           104

26.   Douglas,  A. S., M.  Tagami, and C. E. Milstead, "Membrane Materials  106
     for Wastewater  Reclamation by Reverse Osmosis," Water Pollution   107
     Control  Research Series 17040 EFO, June 1970.                     108

27.        "R.O.:A Profile," Industrial Water Engineering               110
     Vol.  70_,  No.  3, May-June 1973.                                    Ill

28.   "Removal of Synthetic  Detergents from Laundry - Laundromat        113
     Wastes," Research Report #5, New York State Water Pollution       114
     Control  Board,  Albany, March 7, 1960.                             115

29.   Grieves,  Robert B., Jerry L. Bewley, "Treating Laundry Wastes     117
     by Foam  Separation," Jour. Water Poll. Contr. Federation,         118
     Vol.  _45_,  No.  3, 1973.                                             119

30.   Galonian, G.  E., and Autenbach, "Phosphate Removal from Laundry   121
     Wastewater," Jour.  Water Poll. Contr. Fed., August 1973.          122
     pp. 36-53.                                                        123

31.   "Commercial Laundering Industry," Public Health Service           125
     Publication No. SON.                                              126

32.   Knutson,  V. A., "Plant Operations," Hospitals, 46, pp. 171-6,     128
     April 1,  1972.                                                    129

33.   Engley,  Frank B.,  Jr., "Hospitals and the Environment Biological  131
     Interrelationships," Hospitals., 46, p. 83, October 16, 1972.      132

34.   Economics of Clean Water, Vol. _!, EPA, U. S. Government Print-    134
     ing Office, Washington, DC  (1972).                                135

35.   Smith, Robert,  and Walter F. McMichael, "Cost and Performance     137
     Estimates for Tertiary Wastewater Treating Processes," FWPCA      138
     Report No.  TWRC 9,  June 1969.                                     139

36.   "Air and Water  News,"  Vol.  7_, No. 34, pp. 4-5, August 20, 1973.   141

37.   Industrial  Wastewater  Discharges, New York State Department       143
     of Health,  Albany,  New York, June 1969.                           144

38.   Bailey,  James R.,  Richard J. Benoit, John L. Dodson,              146
     James M. Bobb,  Harold  Wallman, "A Study of Flow Reduction         147
     and Treatment of Wastewater  from Households," Water               148
     Pollution Control Research  Series, Prog. No. 11050FKE,            149
     December 1969.                                                    150
                               XIII-3

-------
                              DRAFT
39.  Hedges,  Ralph C.,  "The  Coin  Carwash  Industry," New York State     152
     Coin Carwash Seminar, April  25,  1968.                             153

40.  Yu,  Ben C.  H.,  "A  Report  on  Water Pollution Control Research,"    155
     May 1965 (Final Report, June 1965).                               156

41.  "Detergents in the Carwash Age," Detergent Age, Vol. 3_, No. 12,    158
     May 1967.                                                         159

42.  Reilich, Helmut G.,  "Technical Evaluation of Phosphate Free       161
     Home Laundry Detergents," EPA Project No. 16080 DVF,              162
     February 1972.                                                    163

43.  Menar, Arnold B.,  and David  Jenkins, "The Fate of Phosphorous     165
     in Waste Treatment Processes: The Enhanced Removal of Phosphate   166
     by Activated Sludge." 25th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue    167
     University, 1970,p.  655.                                          168

44.  Mulbarger,  M. C.,  "The  Three Sludge  System for Nitrogen and.       170
     Phosphorus  Removal," EPA, Office of  Research and Monitoring,      171
     April 1972.                                                      172

45.  Bunch, Robert L.,  and M.  B.  Ettinger, "Biodegradability of        174
     Potential Organic  Substitutes for Phosphates," 25th               175
     Industrial  Waste Conference, Purdue  University, 1970.             176

46.  City of Baltimore, Maryland, "Phosphate  Study at the Baltimore    178
     Back River  Wastewater Treatment  Plant,"  Water Pollution Control   179
     Research Series, No. 17010 DFV,  September 1970.                   180

47.  Sadek, Shafik E.,  "An Electrochemical Method for Removal of       182
     Phosphates  from Waste Waters," Water Pollution Control            183
     Research Series, No. 17010,  February 1970.                        184

48.  Azad, Hardom S., and Jack A. Borchardt,  "Phosphorus Uptake        186
     by P-Starved Algae," 25th Industrial Waste Conference,            187
     Purdue University, p. 325, 1970.                                .  188

49.  Grieves, Robert B.,  "Foam Separation Processes From Industrial    190
     Waste Treatment: Phenol,  Phosphate,  and  Hexavalent Chromium,"     191
     25th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University, p. 192,      192
     1970.                                                            193

50.  Zenz, David R., and Jos.  R.  Pinnicka, "Effective Phosphorus       195
     Removal by  the Addition of Alum  to the Activated Sludge           196
     Process," 25th Industrial Waste  Conference, Purdue                197
     University, 1970,  p. 273.                                        198
                               XIII-4

-------
                              DRAFT
51.   Campbell,  Lome  A.,  "The Rcle of Phosphate in the Activated       200
     Sludge Process," 25th  Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue         201
     University,  1970,  p.214.                                          202

52.   Witherow,  Jack L.,  "Phosphate Removal by Activated Sludge,"       204
     25th Industrial  Waste  Conference, Purdue University, 1970,        205
     p.  1169.                                                          206

53.   Heinke,  Gary W.,  and Jack E. Norman, "Hydrolysis of Condensed     208
     Phosphates in Wastewater," 25th Indus. Waste Conference,          209
     Purdue University,  1970, p.644.                                   210

54.   Mulbarger, Michael  C.,  and Shifflett, "Combined Biological        212
     and Chemical Treatment  for Phosphorus Removal," Chemical          213
     Engineering Progress Symposium Series, Vol, 67_, No. 107,          214
     1970.                                                             215

55.   Black  & Veatch Consulting Engireers, "Process Design Manual       217
     for Phosphorus Removal," Progrsm 17010 GNP,, October 1971.         218

56.   Aulenbach, Donald B.,  Patrick C. Town, Martha Chilson,            220
     Treatment  of Laundromat Wastes," Research Reporting Series,       221
     Project 12120 DOD,  February  1973.                                 222

57.   Flynn, John M.,  and Barry Andres, "Laundrette Waste Treat-        224
     ment Processes," Journal Water Pollution Control Board,           225
     p.  783, June 1973.                                                226

58.   "Coin Operated and  Other Commercial Laundr:'.es," West              228
     Virginia 1970 Regulations, Sec, 14.                               229

59.   Rosenthal, Barnet L.,  Joseph E. 0"Brien, Gilbert T. Joly,         231
     and Alan Cooperman, "Treatment of Laundromat Wastes by            232
     Coagulation With Alum  and Adsorption Through Activated            233
     Carbon," Massachusetts  Department of Public Health, March         234
     1963.                                                             235

60.   Aulenbach, Donald B.,  Patrick C. Town, Martha Wilson,             237
     "Treatment of Laundromat Wastes - I. Winfa:.r Water                238
     Reclamation System," 25th Industrial Waste Conference             239
     Purdue University,  1970, pp. 36-53.                               240

61.   Elenfelder, W. Wesley,  Jr.,  Edvin Barnhart,, "Removal of           242
     Synthetic Detergents From Laundry and Laundromat Wastes,"         243
     Research Report  #5, New York State Department of Health           244
     April 2, 1957.                                                    245
                               XIII-5

-------
                              DRAFT
62.    International Fabric  Institute, "An Introduction to               249
      Industrial  Drycleaning Methods, Part 2," IFI Special              250
      Reporter, Vol.  I,  No. 4, February 1973.                           251

63.    Rosenthal,  Barnet  L., et al, "Industrial Laundry Waste            253
      Water Treatment Study," Massachusetts Department of Public        254
      Health,  Project 148,  April  1964.                                  255

64.    Guidelines  Washing Formula, White Family Work, F - 1 - 1,         257
      H.  Kohnstamm and Company, Inc.                                    258

65.    Guideline Washing  Formula,  White Industrial Garments              260
      (Coveralls, Shirts and Pants), F-4-1, H. Kohnstamm and            261
      Company,  Inc.                                                    262

66.    Guideline Washing  Formula - Diapers, F-6-1, H. Kohnstamn & Co., Inc..  264

                                                                       266
67.    Guideline Washing  Formula - Linen Supply Classification #1 -      267
      Litht Soil  - Motel and Hotel Sheets and Pillowslips, F-3-1,       268
      H.  Kohnstamn & Co., Inc..                                         269

68.    Guideline Washing  Formula - Hospital, Motel, Hotel, Nursing       271
      Home, Institutional Lightly Soiled White and Fast Colors,         272
      F-2-l-l,H.  Kohnstamn & Co., Inc..                                 273

69.    Guideline Washing  Formula - H. K. Detergent Oil, Polyester/       275
      Cotton Garments Including "Ferment Press" White Fabrics,          276
      "Light to Medium Soiled," F-7-1, H. Kohnstamn and Co., Inc.       277

70.    International Fabric Institute, "Drycleaning Solvent Vapors       279
      and O.S.H.A.," IFI Bulletin Service No. 5-491, Aug. - Sept. 1973.  280

71.    I.F.I.,  "Rule 66 Petroleum  Solvents," IFI Bulletin Service,       282
      No. T-490,  July 1973.                                             283

72.    I.F.I.,  "Textile Damage Analysis Statistics for 1972," IFI        285
      Bull. Service,  No. T-489, June 1973.                              286

73.    I.F.I.,  "Monitoring Solvent Leaks," IFI Bull. Service, No.        288
      T-488, May  1973.                                                 289

74.    I.F.I.,  "Performance of Vinyls in Drycleaning," IFI Bull.         291
      Service, No. T-487, April 1973.                                   292

75.    I.F.I.,  "Approved  Solvents  - 1973," IFI Bull. Service, No.        294
      T-486, March 1973.                                               295

76.    I.F.I.,  "Washing Formulas," IFI Monthly Special Reporter,         297


                              XIII-6

-------
                               DRAFT
     1-3,  September  1972.                                              297

77.   I.F.I.,  "An  Introduction to Industrial Drycleaning Methods,       299
     Part  I," IFI Special Reporter, 1-3, Winter 1973.                  300

78.   I.F.I.,  "Sewer  Ordinances, Part I," IFI Special Reporter,         302
     1-11,  June 1973.                                                  303

79.   I.F.I.,  "Sewer  Ordinances, Part 2," IFI Special Reporter,         305
     1-12,  July 1973.                                                  306

80.   I.F.I.,  International Fair Claims Guide for Consumer Textile      308
     Products, IFI Special Reporter, 1-13, August 1973.                309

81.   Livesy,  Ruth P.,  "The Contribution of Diaper Service              311
     Accreditation to  Infant Health Care," Clinical Pediatrics,        312
     Vol.  II, No.  9, September 1972,                                   313

82.   Standards for Accrediting Diaper Services, Diaper Service         315
     Accreditation Council, July 1973.                                 316

83.   National Automatic Laundry and Cleaning Council Vastewater        318
     Treatment Committee, Coin Laundry Waste Discharge Survey,         319
     NALCC,  Chicago, Illinois                               "           320

84.   American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists,           322
     "An Industrial  Waste Guide to the Commercial Laundering           323
     Industry," Industrial Laundrer,, p. 23.                             324

85.   Eckenfelder,  W. Wesley, "Removal of ABS and Phosphate From        326
     Laundry Waste Waters," 25th Industrial Waste Conference,           327
     Purdue Univ., p.  467, 1964,                                       328

86.   Chicago Sewer Ordinance, Metropolitan Sanitary District of        330
     Greater Chicago.                                                  331

87.   McCabe,  Joseph  C., "Reclaiming Laundry Waste Water for Reuse,     333
     Part  I," Starchroom Laundry Journal, p. 70, November 1954.        334

88.   McCabe,  Joseph  C., "Reclaiming Laundry Waste Water for Reuse,     336
     Part  II," Starchroom Laundry Journal, p. 70, December 1954.       337

89.   Stark,  Karl,  "Treatment of Water Wastes," Industrial Launderer,   339
     p.  29,  March 1962.                                                340

90.   Halton,  J. E.,  L. L. Silver, and J. V. Graham, "Navy Points       342
     Way to Water Savings," Starchroom Laundry Journal, p. 10,         343
     July  15, 1957.                                                    344
                              XIII--7

-------
                               DRAFT
91.   Barnum,  Marshall,  "Water  Reuse Project Shows Possibilities,"      347
      Line Supply News,  p.  70,  March 1969.                              348

92.   Douglas, Gary.   Demonstration of  a Modular Wastewater Treatment   350
      System for the  Textile  Maintenance Industry, EPA Grant #FYY 12120  351

93.   Oehnel,  Erich,  "Clean Laundry Without Pollution .. A Discussion   353
      of Washfloor Supplies," Can  Hosp., 48: 46-8, July 1971.           354

94.   Eisenhauer, Hugh R.,  "Chemical Removal of ABS From Wastewater     356
      Effluents," Jour.  WPCF, Nov. 1965, p. 1567.                       357

95.   Pollution Control Department, City of Kansas City, Mo.            359

96.   Degler,  Stanley E.,  "News From Washington," Water and Wastes      361
      Engineering, 10 September 1973.                                   362

97.   U. S. Army Mobility  Equipment Research and Development            364
      Center,  Fort Belvoir  Virginia "Treatment of Wastewaters           365
      From Military Laundries."                                        366

98.   Allen News, Vol. JL,  Number 3, 1973.                               368

99.   National Carwash Council,  "Survey Report for Water and Sewer      370
      Costs and Tap-on Fees in  295 U. S. Cities."                       371

100.  Wiltrout, Dale, "Water  Reclamation and Vehicle Washington,"       373
      Auto Laundry News, Vol. 22,  No. 8, Aug. 1973, p. 18.              374

101.  Smith, Louis H. V.,  "Reclaimed Water Plays Role of Growing        376
      Importance," Auto Laundry News, May 1970.                         377

102.  Moore, Jack W., "How the  1965 Water Quality Act Affects Coin      379
      Laundry Operations,"  Management Guidelines from NALCO, No. 48,    380
      September 1967.                                                  381

103.  Water Quality Standards of the United States, Territories,        383
      and the District of  Columbia, American Public Health              384
      Association Subcommittee  on  Water Quality Control, June 1969.     385

104.  Aqua Systems Equipment  Brochure,  Aqua Systems, Inc.               387

105.  I.F.I. Bulletin 1-14  "Perchlorethylene Vapors in Dry              389
      Cleaning," Sept. 1973.                                            390

106.  Greater Cincinnati Metroplitan Sewer District, Sewer              392
      Ordinances 1973"                                                 393

107.  Office of Research and  Monitoring, U. S. Environmental            395


                               XIII-8

-------
                                DRAFT
      Protection Agency,  "Treatment: of Laundromat Wastes,"              396
      Environmental  Protection Technology Series, EPA-122-73-108,       397
      February 1973.                                                    398

108.   "Pretreatment  of Discharges to Publicly Owned Treatment           400
      Works," EPA Bulletin.                                             401      ^

109.   Engineering Study  "Denormandle Towel and Linen Supply             403
      Company," Chicago  Illinois - Laicon Corporation.                  404

110.   Engineering Study  "Ideal Uniform Rental Service,1' Niles,          406
      Illinois - Laicon  Corportation.                                   407      f

111.   Manfred Wentz,  "Effluent Guidlines Survey," International         409
      Fabricare Institute.                                              410

112.   EPA 16080 DVF,  Dec.  1970 "Development of Phosphate Free           412
      Home Laundry Detergent."                                          413      f

113.   Laicon Incorporated,  "Engineering Report on Waste                 415
      Discharge from North Shore Uniform Inc."                          416

114.   Engineering Study  "Morgan Laundry - Laicon Corp.                  418
                                                                                •
115.   Eilers, Richard G.,  "Condensed One-page Cost Estimates            420
      for Wastewater Treatment," Ncv. 1970.                             421

116.   North Carolina Dept.  of Water Resources - "Investigation of       423
      Treatment of Waste From Coin Operated Laundries," 1960.           424
                                                                                •
117.   Philadelphia Quartz Company, "Laundry Washroom Handbook."         426

118.   Office of Permit Program "Interim Effluent Guidance for           428
      NPDES Permits," 1973.                                             429

119.   U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Proposed Water            431      4
      Quality Information,  Volume I and II, October 1973.               432

120.   J. M. Flynn, B. Andres, "Launderette Waste Treatment              434
      Processes," Water  Pollution Control Federation Journal            435
      pp. 783-798, June  1963.                                           436
                                                                                4
122.   Ruffner, G., et al, "Encyclopedia of Association," Volume         438
      I, National Organizations of the U. S.                            439

122.   Johns-Manville Corp, "Drycleaners Handbook," 10th Edition.        441

123.   Laicon Incorporated, "Engineering Report on Pilot Precoat         443      4
      Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter @ Morgan Linen Facility,"  1973.        444


                               XIII-9

-------
                             DRAFT
124.   "1967 Census of Business" Selected Service,  Laundries, Cleaning   447
      Plants, August 1970.                                           448

125.   Robert C. Thomas, Innovative Consultants,  Inc., "New Developments  450
      for Treating and Reclaiming Waste Water,"  paper presented at  the  451
      61st Annual Convention and Exhibit; Linen  Supply Association  of   452
      America, May 3, 1973, p. 10.                                   453
                            XIII-10

-------
                               DRAFT
                            SECTION XIV
ABS
Activated Sludge
Aeration
Afterfloc
Analine dye

Anionic synthetic


Bacterial static
agents

Bench scale
testing



Bentonite clay

Blueing compounds

BOD
Break
Calcium hardness
           Glossary                                7

Alkyl benzene sulfonate.                            10

The gross mass of viable  cells and  their            12
associated solid products.                          14

The ratio of a volume of  air  drawn  into a volume    16
of gas £r liquid.                                  18

Solids formed by the precipitation  or               20
crystallization of dissolved  material in water      21
upon standing.  This material is measured as        22
jsuspended solids in subsequent analysis.            23

Coal tar dyes.                                     25

Surface active agents which attract grease and      27
dirt from the surface to  the  water.                 28

Quaternary ammonium compounds and two phenol        30
compounds.                                         32

Lab testing that closely  simulates  full scale       34
waste treatment unit processes and  are utilized _tp  37
size full-scale equipment.  These tests are quick,  38
portable, and easily performed.                     39

Diatomaceous earth (D.E.).                          41

Water solubles of analine dye stuff.                43

Biochemical Oxygen Demand, a  term which signifies   45
_the amount of dissolved oxygen which will be taken  47
out of the water during the decomposition of the    48
wastes.

The first step in a wash  cycle in which supplies    51
^re used.  It is designed to  wet down the.loadand   53
remove as much of the readily _spluble soil as       54
possible.

Hardness based on a calcium carbonate ^itration to  57
a £H of 4.5.                                       58
                               XIV-1

-------
                                  DRAFT
City softened
water

Cycle time
D/E. body feed
Water with the calcium hardness removed.
60
62
D.E. filter
backwash
D.E. precoat
Dissolved Solids
Dry Time
Effluent
The time required for a vacuum filter  to  inake  one   65
complete drum revolution.                           66
The addition of filter aid (D.E.)  while  filtering
wastewater on a precoated DE filter to  the
wastewater feed; thus, providing a continuous
clean surface for subsequent _solids separation.

The act of reversing the water flow to  the  DE
filter at a flowrate sufficient to knock off the
filter ake.  This occurs when the filter cake
resistance _is too great to accommodate  the
required flow rate.

The initial layer of DE added to the DE  filtering
elements jjrior to starting the dirty wastewater
feed,  generally, 0.5 to 0.76 kg/sq m (0.1  to  0.15
Ib/sq ft) of filter aid is applied to _treat the
initial wastewater flow.
Those solids passing through a standard  glass
fiber filter and dried at constant weight  at ^
degrees C.
That portion of a vacuum filtration cycle joccur-
ring between the point of drum rotation  out  of  the
sludge to the point of vacuum release.

Waste containing water discharged _f_rom a plant.
Effluent Criteria  Maximum or minimum _limits for waste loads
                   Established by  regulatory agencies.

                   A protein produced by  a  living cell that jicts as a
                   catalyst.
Filter leaf
Filter septums
A small filter system of. known area that  is  free
draining and utilized for holding filter  cloths
during vacuum filter sizing bench tests.

The filter aid support element,  generally long
tubular stainless j^teel supports or cloth bags
jsupports, that retain the filter aid.
69
70
71
72

74
76
78
79
81
83
85
86
88
90
94
95
96

100

103
104

108
112
113
116
117
118
                               XIV-2

-------
                                 DRAFT
Flush
A wash operation occurring at  the  beginning  of  the   121
wash cycle in which no supplies  are  added  to        122
merely wash out loose soil and dirt  to  increase     123
the effectiveness of the supplies  when  they  are     124
added.
Grease
See Hexane Solubles.
                                                   126
Heavy metals       Lead,  cadmium, zinc, mercury, iron, chromium,       129
                   n_ickel and  copper in this report.                   130
A general term for organic compounds  which contain   133
^nly carbon and nydrogen in the molecule.            134
Hydrocarbons
Industrial Laundry A laundry washing especially shop towels, printers  137
                   towels,  and  dust mops, wherein the wastewater       138
                   contamination  is abnormally high compared to other  139
                   laundry  types.
LAS
Linen laundry
Mass loading
Neutralizers or
Anti-chlors
Oxygen-sag curve
Pickup time
Pilot Plant
Linear alkyl sulfonate.
                                                   141
A laundry washing primarily linen flatwork jsuch as   145
sheets, table linen, continuous towels,  kitchen     146
towels, etc., wherein the wastewater contamination
is low Compared to the other laundry types.          147
The mass of suspended solids;  applied  to  a unit
area of the flotation tank in a  unit  of  time,
measured as kgs/day/sq m or Ibs/day/sq ft.

Sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite.
A curve that represents the profile  of  dissolved
oxygen content along the course of a stream,
resulting _f_rom deoxygenation  associated with
biochemical oxidation of organic matter and
reoxygenaticn through the absorption of
atmospheric oxygen and through biological
photosynthesis .   Also called  dissolved  oxygen  sag
curve.
                                                    150
                                                    151
                                                    152

                                                    154
                                                    156

                                                    159
                                                    160
                                                    161
                                                    162

                                                    163
                                                    164
That portion of the v_acuum filtration cycle         167
joccurring during the time the drum is submerged iri  169
the sludge.
Small scale continuous testing of model waste
                                                    171
                               XIV-3

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                                DRAFT
Testing
Point Source
Quaternary

Recycle ratio


Rise rate



Scum



Sewer charge


Sewer surcharge
SIC code
Soil
Sour
Specific
resistance
Spotting agents
treatment processes to develop design  data  for       173
direct scale up to full scale equipment.             175

Any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance,   177
jLncluding any pipe, ditch, channel,  tunnel,          178
conduit, well, discrete operations,  or vessel,  or    179
other ^floating craft,  from which pollutants  are or   180
may be discharged.
Consisting of four components.
182
Pressurized flow rate divided by _the raw flow r_ate   186
times 100, expressed as percentage.                  187

The rate at which solids Reparation  occurs  in a      190
flotation unit, i.e., the velocity with which a      191
^uspended particle is lifted in the  liquid  medium.   192

The liquid fraction containing the _solids that is    195
skimmed from _the flotation unit and  used as vacuum   196
filter feed.

A sewer use tax, or cost Charged by  a municipality   199
jzp a sewer user to pay for this service.             200

A sewer tax above the sewer charge determined by     203
the strength of the wastewater discharge,           204
generally in terms of wastewater BOD and suspended   205
solids.

Standard Industrial Classification code.             207

The dirt, grease, and other material present ^in      210
laundry prior to washing.  This is the material      211
that must be cleaned from the articles.

An acid compound a_dded to the last wash operation    215
to adjust the pH of the final rinse  riear            216
neutrality.

A measure of the ability of a vacuum filter         218
sludge cake to impede the flow of water through      220
jits pore structure; utilized to measure the effect   222
of sludge chemical conditioning.

Dichloro benzene, carbotols, ard _emulsifying        225
agents.
                               XIV-4

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                               DRAFT
Stripers
Submergence
Suds
Supplies
Surface overflow
rate
Suspended solids
Syndets
Sodium hydro sulfite,  J^itanium sulfate  and           229
titanium chloride.

A measure of sludge depth in the vacuum filter,      231
usually expressed as the percentage of  the  drum      233
diameter beneath the filter vat sludge  level.        234

The wash operation wherein the detergent ^s added    238
to emulsify oil and greases and to _s_uspend  the       239
majority of the soil for discharge.

The chemicals used for removing _the soil in the      242
wash cycle; this includes all chemicals added  to     243
the wash cycle.

The hydraulic loading of the flotation  unit per      245
unit area of tank per unit time, usually expressed   2.47
a_s 1 pm/sq m _(gpm/sq ft)  of tank.

Solid matter retained by  a standard glass j!_iber
filter and dried to constant, weight at  103-105
Degrees C.

Synthetic detergent.
Thermal pollution  A rise  in water  temperature jLnduced by higher
                   temperature  effluents.
Total solids
Treatment load
(Waste load)
Treatment Work
Vacuum Filter
blinding
The sum of the homogeneous suspended and f_pr  one
hour at 180 degrees centigrade.

Numerical value of any waste parameter (such  as
BOD content, etc.) that serves to define the
Characteristics of a plant effluent.

Includes sewage treatment facilities, sewage
Collection systems and their appurtenances.
2.49

252

253

255

258
259

262
263

265
267
269

271
272
Vacuum filter
solids loading
The deposition of solids in the weave of a filter   274
cloth such that the cloth cannot pick up any new    277
solids.  On a belt filter, cloth blinding leads _to  279
no cake discharge from the discharge roll;
therefore, no sludge is being dewatered by those    280
areas manifesting blinding.

The mass of dry sludge solids picked up per unit    282
area of filter; a measure of cake thickness.        285
                               XIV-5

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                                  DRAFT
Vacuum filter
yield


Vacuum filtrate


Wash cycle


Wash formula


Wash operation


Washroom

Wash wheel

Water level
Wipers
The mass of dry sludge  solids dewatered on a unit   287
area of filter in a unit  of  time, normally          290
measured as kgs/sq m filter/hr 91bs/sq ft/hr).       291

The water passing through the filter cloth and riot  295
retained in the sludge.

The entire operation required to launder a machine  298
load of an article.                                 299

The complete schedule _of  application of detergents  302
_and other supplies in laundering.                   303

One discrete machine discharge during a wash        306
crycle, e.g. a flush, suds, or rinse.                307

The area where the wash wheels are located.         309

The washing machine itself.                         311

The depth of water in the cylinder of the w_ash      314
wheel while it is laundering an item.  This depth   315
is often used to calculate the volume of water      316
used in the laundering  process, and _in the          317
calculation of water volume  used in one wash
operation.

Shop towels and printers' towels.                   319
                              XIV-6

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                          DRAFT
                           Abbreviations                             322









BOD               Biochemical Oxygen Demand                          326




BTU               British Thermal  Units                              327




cm                centimeter                                        328




cfm               cubic feet per minute                              329




cmm               cubic meter per  minute                             330




cu ft             cubic feet                                        331




cu m              cubic meter                                       332




cu jd_            cubic yard                                        333




DI5                diatomaceous earth                                 334




_ft                foot                                              335




gal               gallons                                           336




gpm               gallons per minute                                 337




hp_                horsepower                                        338




hr_                hour                                              339




in.               inches                                            340




kg                kilograms                                         341




kg-cal            kilogram-calories                                  342




I                 liter                                             343




Ib                pound                                             344




1pm               liters per minute                                  345




ii                 microns                                           346




ug                micrograms                                        347
                              XIV-7

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                             DRAFT
umohs             micro-mohs                                      348




mg               milligram                                       349




min              minute                                          350




mm               millimeter                                      351




mpm              meters per minute                                352




psi              pounds per square inch                           353




sq cm             square centimeter                                354




sq ft             square feet                                     355




sq m             square meters                                   356




TOG              total organic carbon                             357
                            XIV-8

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                            DRAFT
                          CONVERSION  TABLE
                       ENGLISH TO METRIC  UNITS
                                                  4
                                                  5
                                                                             8
Multiply (English Units)
                  by
                    to Obtain (metric Units)   9
   English Unit
Abbreviation Conversion  Abbreviation Metric  Unit
acre
acre -
feet
ac
ac ft
0.405
1,233.5
ha
cu m
hectares 13
cubic meters 14
British Thermal
  Unit               BTU
British Thermal
  Unit/pound         BTU/lb

cubic feet/minute    cfm
cubic feet/second    cfs
cubic feet           cu ft
cubic feet           cu ft
cubic inches         cu in
degree Fahrenheit    F°
feet                 ft
gallon               gal
gallon/minute        gpm
horsepower           hp
inches               in
inches of mercury    in Hg
pounds               Ib
million gallons/day  mgd
mile                 mi
pound/s quare
 inch (gauge)
square feet
square inches
tons (short)

yard                 yd
                 0.252

                 0.555

                   028
             kg cal

             kg cal/kg
    0.028    cu m/min
    1.7      cu m/min
    0.028    cu m
   28.32     1
   16.39     cu cm
0.555(QF-32)1  °C
    C.3048   m
      785
      0631
                 3
                 C
                 0.7457
                 2.54
                 0.03342
                 0.454
             3,785
                 1.609
1
I/sec
kw
cm
a tin
kg
cu m/day
km
psig  (0.06805 psig +1)1  atm
sq ft             0.0929  sq m
sq in             6.452   sq cm
ton               0.907   kkg
                  0.9144  m
1 Actual conversion,  not a multiplier
                                            11
            15
kilogram-calories  16
            17
kilogram calories/  18
kilogram    19
cubic meters/minute  20
cubic meters/minute  21
cubic meters  22
liters      23
cubic ccintimeters  24
degree Centigrade  25
meters      26
liters      27
liters/second  28
killowatts  29
centimeters  30
atmospheres  31
kilograms   32
cubic meters/day  33
kilometer   34
            35
atmospheres(absolute)  2
square meters  37
square centimeters  38
metric tons (1,000  39
kilograms   40
meters      41

            43
                                    Pr3tect':on
                   ChL^go, Illinois   60604
                               XIV-9
                                                        US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OF:ICE 1974— 758-493/1171

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