530SW140C
         ASSESSMENT  OF  INDUSTRIAL HAZARDOUS
           WASTE  PRACTICES — ELECTRONIC
         COMPONENTS  MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
This final  report  (SW-140c) describes work performed
   for the  Federal  solid waste management programs
            under  contract no. 68-01-3193
   and is reproduced as received from the contractor

        U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                       1977

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BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA
SHEET
1. Report No.
              3. Recipient's Accession No.
               PB-265  532
4. Title and Subtitle
  Assessment  of  Industrial  Hazardous Waste Practices-
  Electronic  Components  Manufacturing  Industry
                                                        5. Report Date
                                                          January,   1977
                                                        6.
7. Author(s)
   Gerald  0.  Peters,  James  Levin,  Peter Thomas
                                                        8. Performing Organization Kept.
                                                          No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

  WAPORA,  Inc.
  6900  Wisconsin  Ave.,  N.W.
  Washington,  D.  C.    20015
                                                        10. Project/Task/Work Unit No.
                                                        11. Contract/Grant No.

                                                           68-01-3193
12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address

  EPA,  Hazardous Waste Management  Division
  Office  of  Solid  Waste
  Washington,  D. C.    20460
                                                        13. Type of Report & Period
                                                           covered  Final  -
                                                           Oct.1975-Jan.1977
                                                        14.
15. Supplementary Notes

   EPA Project  Officers  - Allen Pearce,  Timothy  Fields
16. Abstracts            This report describes hazardous waste generation and management in the electronic components
                   manufacturing industry, defined as those plants whose primary products are components intended for
                   assembly Into electronic equipment.  The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) of the industry
                   is 367. Twenty-three plant surveys showed that product and manufacturing process diversity within
                   tho industry precludes satisfactory correlation of tiiese factors with waste types.  Based upon the
                   plant survey data, land-disposed wastes of the industry- fall into ten waste categories including
                   five categories which are both land-disposed  in quantifyable amounts and contain hazardous materials
                   {halogenated solvents, non-nalogenated solvents, wastewater treatment sludges, painting wastes, and
                   hydraulic and lubricating oils), and five categories which included either unquantifyable amounts of
                   hazardous materials, no hazardous materials or were not typically land-filled  (metal scrap, concen-
                   trated cyanides, concentrated acids and alkalies, plastic wastes, and miscellaneous). Isolated
                   occurrences of berylium- and PCB-containing wastes wore recognized.  Hazardous properties of Che
                   industry's land-disposed wastes include f laramabllity, corrosivity/demal irritation, oral toxiclty,
                   and bioconcentration.  Constituents of the wastes which had these properties were non-halogenated
                   solvents, various heavy metals, flourides, and oils. The estimated total quantity of potentially
                   hazardous wastes land-disposed by the industry in 1975 was 49,500 kkg (54,500  tons) on a wet weight
                   basis of which more than half was wastewater  treatment sludges.   With the exceptions of sorae halo-
                   genated and non-halogenated solvents which are segregated and reclaimed and of occasional on-site
                   disposal of oils and wastewater treatment sludges, most potentially hazardous wastes (87 percent)
                   generated by surveyed plants were ultimately  land-disposed off-site by private contractors.  The
                   best technology currently applied and the technology required to provide environmentally adequate
                   treatment for each waste stream and attendant costs are discussed.
17. Key Words and Document Analysis.  17a. Descriptors

  Industrial Wastes
  Electronic Components  Manufacturing
  Waste  Treatment
  Solid  Wastes
                                   Hazardous  Wastes
                                   Wastewater  treatment  sludges
                                   Solvents
                                   Oils
                                   Disposal  and  treatment  technology
                                   Disposal  and  treatment  costs
17b. Identifiers /Open-Ended Terms
17c. COSATI Field/Group
                       REPRODUCED BY
                      NATIONAL  TECHNICAL
                     INFORMATION  SERVICE
                       U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                          SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161
18. Availability Statement
19. Security Class (This
   Report)
      UNCLASSIFIED
                                          20. Security Class (This
                                             Page
                                                UNCLASSIFIED
                                                                   21. No. of Pages
                                                                       207
                                                                                            22. Price
FORM NTIS-3S (REV. 10-73)  ENDORSED BY ANSI AND UNESCO.
                                   THIS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED
                                                                                            USCOMM-DC 828S-P7*

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     This report has been reviewed by the U.S.  Environmental Protection
Agency and approved for publication.   Approval  does not signify that
the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names or
commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by
the U.S. Government.


An environmental protection publication (SW-140c) in the solid waste
management series.

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                           ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
     Mr. Allen Pearce and, later, Mr. Timothy Fields, Office of Solid
Waste, Hazardous Waste Management Division, were the EPA Project Officers
responsible for monitoring this Assessment.

     Mr. Gerald Peters acted as WAPORA's program manager and principal
investigator.   The guidance and advice of Mr. James Levin contributed
significantly to the conduct of this Assessment.  Mr. Peter Thomas, Miss
Penny Blackwell, and Mr. William Duckert were key technical staff involved
in various phases of the program activities.

     Special expression of appreciation is extended to the 23 electronic
components manufacturing companies and their personnel who voluntarily
participated in this Assessment.
                                iii

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                              TABLE OF  CONTENTS

Section                                                                       Page
    I   EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY  	  	  	    1

          INTRODUCTION	    1
          PROJECT METHODOLOGY   	  	  	    1
          MAJOR FINDINGS  OF  THE STUDY	    5

               Description of  the  Industries	    5
               Waste  Characterization	    6
               Waste  Stream  Quantification	    9
               Treatment  and Disposal Technology  	  	   16
               Costs  of Treatment  and Disposal	19

   II   DESCRIPTION OF THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING  INDUSTRY  ....   23

          INTRODUCTION	„	23
          PRODUCTS OF THE INDUSTRIES	   23
          ECONOMIC STRUCTURE	   24
          GEOGRAPHIC  DISTRIBUTION  OF PLANTS  	  	  	   26
          EMPLOYMENT	   30
          GEOGRAPHIC  DISTRIBUTION  OF PRODUCTION	35
          ECONOMIC TRENDS	36

  III   WASTE CHARACTERIZATION   	   45

          INTRODUCTION	45
          CRITERIA FOR  THE DETERMINATION OF A POTENTIALLY  HAZARDOUS WASTE  .  .   49

               Toxicity	50
               Flammability	51

          DEFINITION  OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE  STREAMS   	   51

               Sampling Techniques and  analytical methods   	   52

          WASTE GENERATION:  RAW MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING  PROCESSES
             AND  WASTE  SOURCES	53

               RAW MATERIALS	54

                   Metals	58
                   Metal Salts	58
                   Metal Oxides and Carbonates	60
                   Glass	62
                   Plastics	63
                   Paints and Organic  Coatings   	   63
                   Oils	64
                   Halogenated Solvents 	   64
                   Non-chlorinated Solvents  	   66
                   Acids and  Alkalies	66
                   Miscellaneous  Raw Materials   	   66

               MANUFACTURING PROCESSES  AND  PROCESS WASTES   	   68

                   Solvent  Cleaning  	   69
                   Sawing and Cutoff	71
                                     iv

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Section                                                                      Page

                    Baking	    71
                    Acid Cleaning and Etching	    72
                    Electroplating  	    72
                    Dry Booth Painting	    73
                    Vacuum  Metalizing   	    73
                    Thermoforming Plastics  	    74
                    Casting Plastics  	    74
                    Grinding, Polishing and Lapping   	    74
                    Non-plastic molding   	    75
                    Frit Salvaging	    75
                    Phosphor Deposition   	    75
                    Cyanide Clenaing of Metals  	    75

                    Process Flow Diagrams	    75

         NATURE OF  PROCESS WASTES  	    78

               INTRODUCTION 	    78
               WASTE CATEGORIES	    84

                    Halogenated Solvents  	    84
                    Nonhalogenated  Solvents  	    86
                    Wastewater Treatment  Sludges  	    88
                    Plastics	    91
                    Hydraulic and Cutting Oils	    93
                    Paint Wastes	    94

               IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE  STREAMS  ....    94

                    Halogenated Solvents  	    97
                    Nonhalogenated  Solvents  	    98
                    Wastewater Treatment  Sludges  	    98
                    Plastics	    98
                    Hydraulic and Cutting Oils	    98
                    Paint Wastes	    98

         QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTE STREAMS   	    99

               DATA  BASE	    99
               TOTAL WASTE  GENERATED	100
               QUANTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTES AND
                 HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS  OF THE WASTE STREAM  	  103

                    Halogenated Solvents  	  103
                    Nonhalogenated  Solvents  	  103
                    Wastewater Treatment  Sludges  	  103
                    Plastics	104
                    Paint Wastes	104

               PROJECTED CHANGES IN WASTE GENERATION  	  104
               EFFECTS OF PUBLIC LAW 92-500 ON THE WASTEWATER
                 TREATMENT SLUDGE  WASTE  STREAMS  	  105

         SUMMARY OF THE WASTE STREAM QUANTIFICATIONS   	  108

   IV   TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY  	  Ill

               INTRODUCTION 	  Ill

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Section
              LANDFILL	Ill
              SECURED LANDFILL  	   112
              INCINERATION  	   112
              RECLAMATION	112

         DESCRIPTION OF PRESENT WASTE HANDLING AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY   ...   112
         DESCRIPTION OF PRESENT TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY   	   115
         ON-SITE VS. OFF-SITE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL  	   116
         PRIVATE CONTRACTORS AND SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS 	   117
         WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY FOR AN AVERAGE PLANT  ....   118
         SAFEGUARDS USED IN DISPOSAL	119
         LEVELS OF TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY FOR POTENTIALLY
            HAZARDOUS WASTE STREAMS  	   121

   V  COST ANALYSIS	129

              INTRODUCTION	.,	   129
              TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS	   130

              LEVEL I TECHNOLOGY	„	   130

                   Halogenated  Solvents	   130
                   Nonhalogenated Solvents  	 	   130
                   Wastewater Treatment Sludge 	 	   131
                   Lubricating  and Hydraulic Oils	   131
                   Paint Wastes	131

              LEVEL II TECHNOLOGY	131

                   Halogenated  Solvents  	   132
                   Nonhalogenated Solvents  	   132
                   Wastewater Treatment Sludges   	   132
                   Lubricating  and Hydraulic Oils	] 32
                   Paint Wastes	133
              LEVEL III TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                133
                   Halogenated Solvents   	  133
                   Nonhalogenated  Solvents  	  133
                   Wastewater Treatment  Sludges   	  134
                   Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils	134
                   Paint Wastes	134

          IMPACT OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTES MANAGEMENT COSTS
            TO THE INDUSTRY	134

          TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS AT AN AVERAGE PLANT  	  137

  VI  REFERENCES	142

 VII  GLOSSARY	145
                                      VI

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                       LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix
    A     PRODUCTS OF THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY,
             SIC 367
    B     WASTE GENERATION VOLUMES FOR THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANU-
             FACTURING INDUSTRY
    C     METHODOLOGY
    D     PRIVATE WASTE CONTRACTORS AND SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS
                               vxi

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                      LIST OF TABLES
Table                          Title

 1-1      Four-digit SIC Categories in the Electronic Components
          Manufacturing Industry, Number of Plants in the Categories,
          Number of Plants Surveyed and Percent Surveyed.             4

 1-2      Process Waste Categories which are Land Disposed by the
          Electronic Components Manufacturing Industry and their
          Hazardous Properties or Constituents.                       8

 1-3      Electronic Components Manufacturing, SIC 367, Process Waste
          Generation, 1975, State and EPA Region Totals (kkg/year)   H

 1-4      Electronic Components Manufacturing, SIC 367, Process Waste
          Generation, 1977, State and EPA Region Totals (kkg/year)   12

 1-5      Electronic Components Manufacturing, SIC 367, Process Waste
          Generation, 1983, State and EPA Region Totals (kkg/year)   13

 1-6      Summary of Treatment and Disposal Methods Provided for the
          Five Potentially Hazardous Waste Streams of the Electronic
          Components Manufacturing under the Three Technology Levels 18

 1-7      Estimated Potentially Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal
          Costs                                                      20

 1-8      Treatment and Disposal Costs for Potentially Hazardous
          Wastes at an Average Electronic Components Manufacturing
          Plant by Waste Stream and Treatment and Disposal Technology
          Level                                                     " 21

II-l      Economic Data for the Four-digit SIC categories in the Elec-
          tronic Components Manufacturing Industry                    ^

II-2      Total Value of Shipments for Product Groups in SIC 3679    27

II-3      Product Mix in the Electronic Components Industry as shown
          by Primary Product Specialization Ratio and Coverage Ratio 28

II-4      SIC 367 Electronic Components Manufacturing Industry—
          Geographic Distribution of Plants                          29

II-5      Employment Size of Establishments                          31

II-6      SIC 367, Electronic Components Manufacturing — Distribution
          of Plant Size by Employment, State, and EPA Region         32

II-7      Employee to Value of Shipment Ratios for the Four-digit
          SIC's - Electronic Components Values in terms of Number
          of Employees Per Million Dollars                           39
                             Vlll

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 LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED)


Table                              Title                            Page

 II-8     Value of Shipments for the Nation, EPA Region and States
          by Four-digit SIC and the Industry

 II-9     Average Value of Shipments Per Plant for the 10 States
          with Largest Production

 11-10    Estimates of Four-digit SIC Production levels for 1975,
          1976, 1977, and 1983 as measured by value of shipments      42


          Electronic Components Manufacturing, SIC 367, Process Waste
          Generation, 1975, National Totals                           4"

III-2     Electronic Components Manufacturing, SIC 367, Process Waste
          Generation, 1977, National Totals                           ^

III-3     Electronic Components Manufacturing, SIC 367, Process Waste
          Generation, 1983, National Totals                           48

III-4     Distribution of Surveyed Plants by Geographic Location
          Census Regions and EPA Regions                              -*-*

III-5     Raw Materials in Electronic Components Manufacturing        56

III-6     Metal Plating Processes, Bath Constituents and Concentrations
          of Constituents in the Electronic Components Industry       59

III-7     Composition of Cathode Ray Tube Phosphors                   61

III-8     Non-Chlorinated Solvents Used in Surveyed Plants, Their
          Flash Points and Threshold Limit Values                     67

III-9     Manufacturing Processes used in Surveyed Electronic Com-
          ponents Plants                                              70

111-10    Process Wastes Generated by Manufacturing Processes in the
          Electronic Components Manufacturing Industry                77

III-ll    Chemical Analysis of Halogenated Solvent Wastes from
          Electronic Component Manufacturing Plants                   87

111-12    Chemical Analysis of Non-Halogenated Solvent Wastes from
          Electronic Component Manufacturing Plants                   89

111-13    Chemical Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Sludges from
          Electronic Component Manufacturing Plants                   92

111-14    Chemical Analysis of Oil-containing Wastes from Electronic
          Components Manufacturing Plants                             95
                             IX

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 LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED)
Table                             Title

111-15    Chemical Analysis of Paint Wastes from Electronic
          Components Manufacturing Plants                             96

111-16    Ratios of 1977 and 1983 Value of Industry Shipments to
          1975 Value of Industry Shipments                           106

 IV-1     1975 Plant Production, Employment,  Number of Plants, Waste
          Stream Generation Rates and Level I Disposal Technology for
          the Electronic Components Manufacturing Industry and for an
          average Plant                                              120

 IV-2     Treatment and Disposal of Halogenated Solvents             123

 IV-3     Treatment and Disposal of Non-Halogenated Solvents         124

 IV-4     Treatment and Disposal of Wastewater Treatment Sludges     125

 IV-5     Treatment and Disposal of Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils   126

 IV-6     Treatment and Disposal of Paint Wastes                     127

  V-l     Estimated Potentially Hazardous Waste Treatment and
          Disposal Costs                                             135

  V-2     Total National Costs to the Electronic Components
          Manufacturing Industry for Potentially Hazardous
          Waste Treatment and Disposal

  V-3     SIC 367 Profitability, 1975 Total Profits, and Comparisons
          between Total Profits and Potentially Hazardous Waste
                                                                     I 00
          Treatment and Disposal Costs                               -LJO

  V-4     Treatment and Disposal Costs for Potentially Hazardous Wastes
          at an Average Electronic Components Manufacturing Plant
          by Waste Stream and Disposal Technology Level

  V-5     Average Plant Costs for Treatment and Disposal, 1975, SIC -
          367 Electronic Components Manufacturing Industry

  C-l     Chemical Analysis of Miscellaneous Waste Samples           C-5

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                      LIST OF FIGURES


Figure                         Title                                Page

 II-l         Number of SIC 367 Plants in Each State                  38

 II-2         Value of Industry Shipments - SIC 367 in Current
              Dollars and in 1967 Dollars                             43

III-l         Example Process Flow Diagram, Integrated Circuits,
              SIC 3674                                                79

III-2         Example Process Flow Diagram, Electron Tubes,
              SIC 3673                                                80

III-3         Example Process Flow Diagram, Electronic Connectors,
              SIC 3678                                                81

III-4         Example Process Flow Diagram, Magnetic Tape, SIC 3679   82

III-5         Example Process Flow Diagram, Complex Components,
              SIC 3679                                                83
                          XI

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                             SECTION  I

                        EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY

 INTRODUCTION

     This  study  is an assessment of  the hazardous waste management practices
 of  the  industry  establishments which manufacture electronic  components,
 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 367.   It is one of  a  series of
 industrial studies initiated by the  Office of  Solid Waste, Hazardous
 Waste Management Division, of the  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 (EPA).  The studies have been conducted for  information purposes only
 and not in response to a Congressional regulatory mandate.   As such,
 the studies serve to provide EPA with:  (1)  an initial data  base on
 current and projected types  and quantities of  industrial wastes, applicable
 treatment  and disposal techniques  and their  associated costs;  (2) a data
 base for technical assistance activities; and  (3) a background for guide-
 lines development work.

     The definition of "potentially  hazardous  waste" used  in this study
 is based upon contractor investigations and  the assessment of wastes
 generated  by SIC 367 plants  exclusively.  This definition  does not reflect
 final EPA  judgement since any Agency definition must be broadly applicable
 to a wide  range  of different types and combinations of wastes.  Some of
 the criteria for a hazardous designation applied to this report make use
 of numerical limitations designed  initially  for other environmental con-
 trol purposes, and all of the criteria are based entirely  on information
 available  to the contractor  at this  time.   The reader is cautioned that
 the validity of these criteria for this purpose rests on many unknown or
 partially  understood factors and that the criteria should be subject to
 review when mechanisms to illustrate actual effects of wastes in specified
 environments become available.

     This  report describes the SIC 367 industry in terms of plant distri-
 bution by  geographic region, size, employment, and products; analyzes the
 types of total and potentially hazardous wastes generated and estimates
 their present and projected  quantities; and discusses the various methods
 currently  used to treat and  dispose  of these waste streams and those alter-
 native methods needed to treat,  dispose,  or reuse each waste stream in an
 environmentally adequate manner.    The costs of both present and alternative
 treatment  and disposal practices were estimated based on data collected
 during plant surveys and information published in other EPA reports (1-4,
 33, 37,39).
PROJECT METHODOLOGY

     Standard Industrial Classifications were used to develop and compare
information on the product areas within SIC 367, their production, and
wastes.  The statistical description of the industry and the product areas
as defined by four-digit SICs presented in Section II was developed primarily
from U.S. Bureau of the Census and other U.S. Department of Commerce data,

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along with Dun & Bradstreet directories and computer printouts.  Where data
were not available - for example, in states that have less than three plants
in a product area - contractor assumptions were applied.  Published statis-
tics and contractor estimates were used to project to 1983 value of ship-
ments in each of the product areas.

     The mechanism used primarily to characterize the wastes of these
industries was on-site surveys of representative plants.  1972 Census
of Manufacturers [5] data was the initial source of information for selec-
tion of plants to be visited.  Dun & Bradstreet Marketing Services for
Manufacturers, 1975 [6] provided names, addresses and products of manu-
facturers and was used to select companies for contact to request approval
of plant visits.  Twenty-two plants were visited and one other plant pro-
vided data for this study.  Plants visited were distributed: (1) geographi-
cally in proportion to the number of SIC 367 plants present in the four
Department of Commerce Census Regions and (2) on the basis of product
manufactured in proportion to value of shipments in each four-digit SEC.

     The most difficult problem encountered in the conduct of this study
was obtaining permission for plant visits.  Over two hundred plants listed
by Dun & Bradstreet  [6] were selected for contact on the basis of geo-
graphical location and primary product manufactured.  Responsible personnel
in these plants were contacted by telephone to request their voluntary
participation in the study.  Substantive reasons given for not allowing
plant visits generally fall into four catagories:

     0  production technology was the basis of the company's competitive
        posture and had to be protected.

     0  economic conditions had caused employee layoffs and as a result,
        the remaining personnel had become burdened with too many respon-
        sibilities to be able to grant the time required for the plant
        survey.

     0  employment, production, material usage and/or waste generation  data
        were considered trade secrets which could be extrapolated by compe-
        titors into plant operations information, outside knowledge of  which
        could be detrimental to the company.

     0  it was company policy not to voluntarily participate in any outside
        surveys.

     The frequency with which the first three reasons listed were cited
support literature descriptions of the industry [10] as being highly compe-
titive and technologically turbulent.

     The contractor has made every effort to verify the plant data collected
during the survey and to protect plant data under the provisions of the U.S.
Freedom of Information Act (40).

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     The twenty-three surveyed plants were distributed among the nine
four-digit SIC categories of the industry as shown in Table 1-1.  More
recent data on the electronic components manufacturing industry as a
whole [10] indicates that the number of industry plants dropped to 2,500
in 1975 so that the 23 plants surveyed actually represent 0.92 percent of
the industry.  However, the total 1975 value of shipments from surveyed
operations represents 3.6 percent of the industry.

     The small number of plants surveyed in each SIC category precludes
reporting some types of data gathered from the plant visits since trade
secrets could thereby be disclosed.  The small number of plants visited
in each SIC category similarly precludes identification of and quantification
of "typical" process flow diagrams for any four-digit SIC category.  Lack
of uniformity in process flow and raw material usage among the four-digit
SIC categories prevents meaningful designation of a typical process flow
diagram for the electronic components industry as a whole.  This lack of
uniformity among the SIC categories is accented by several examples of
completely dissimilar process flows between plants within the same SIC
category.

     During the plant visits, seventeen waste samples were collected.  These
samples were subsequently analyzed for properties or chemical constituents
considered, after a preliminary literature search, to be of consequence
in quantifying the waste streams and in the designation of wastes as potentially
hazardous.  Sample parameters used in quantifying wastes were drying loss
of solids at 103°C, ignition loss of solids at 550°C, solids at 550°C and
percent water.  Sample parameters used in assessing the hazardous nature
of the wastes were flash point, oil and grease (hexane extractables), pH,
cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, zinc, fluoride and trichloroethylene.
The samples represented six waste categories as listed below.

     Waste Type                                 Number of Samples

Halogenated Solvents                                   2
Non-halogenated Solvents                               3
Wastewater Treatment Sludges                           3
Oils                                                   2
Paint Wastes                                           2

Miscellaneous                                          5

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                                Table  1-1
                 Four-digit  SIC  Categories  in  the  Electronic  Components
                 Manufacturing Industry,  Number  of  Plants  in the  Categories
                 Number  of Plants  Surveyed  and Percent  Surveyed.
SIC  3671  Electron Tubes,  Receiving Type
     3672  Cathode  Ray Television  Picture
                            Tubes
     3673  Electron Tubes,  Transmitting
     3674  Semiconductors & Related  Devices
     3675  Electronic  Capacitors
     3676  Electronic  Resistors
     3677  Electronic  Coils &  Transformers
     3678  Electronic  Connectors
     3679  Electronic  Components,
               Not  Elsewhere Classified
                                               Number  of    Plants    Percent
                                                  Plants0   Surveyed   Surveyed
25
0
75
53
325
113
86
246
92
1,840
2,855
2
3
5
1
2
1
1
7
23
2.
5.
1.
0.
2.
0..
2.,
0.
0.
7
7
5
9
3
4
2
4
8
     °Source:   1972 Census of Manufacturers [5]

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     Information obtained at the plants and in the literature was used to
describe the various manufacturing processes employed, raw materials used
and the sources and nature of process wastes.  The plant surveys also
provided information on quantities of wastes generated by product area.
Waste generation data and value of shipments or employment data provided by
the plants were used in conjunction with Census information on value of
ship meats'": to estimate national volumes of significant waste streams generated
by the industry in 1975.  Using published forecasts of industry production
and contractor assumptions, the 1975 waste quantities were projected to
1977 and 1983 taking into consideration the effects of water pollution con-
trol legislation on waste generation to land-disposal.  The estimated pro-
duction of electronic components per state, as measured by value of shipments,
was used to disaggregate the national waste quantities by state and EPA Region.

     Throughout the waste quantification steps, it was assumed that waste
generation within any one product area would be proportional to plant
production as measured by value of shipments.  Value of shipments was the
only type of data available from both plants and industry-wide literature
that could serve as a basis for supportable assumptions about waste generation.

     Most of the cost data on the treatment and disposal of process wastes
from the electronic components manufacturing industry were obtained during
the survey visits.  These data were supplemented by information provided in
literature sources.  Since Level III technology (defined in the "Treatment
and Disposal Practices" Section) has generally not been implemented by the
industry as yet, cost estimates for this technology as it applies to various
waste streams were developed from other studies (33, 37, 39).

MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

     Description of the Industries

     SIC 367, Electronic Components Manufacturing, includes eight specific
product areas identified by four-digit SIC's and one four-digit SIC that
covers everything not classified in the first eight.  This latter four-digit
SIC, 3679, covers 34.6 percent of the industry on the basis of value of
shipments and 64.4 percent on the basis of number of plants.  The four-
digit industry classifications are listed in Table 1-1.

     According to the 1972 Census of Manufacturers, there were 2,855 es-
tablishments in the industry.   Total employment was 334,500.  All of the
states and the District of Columbia have electronic component plants
except Alaska, Montana, North Dakota and Wyoming.   Six states, California,
New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, have over
100 plants each and, together, have 64 percent of the plants and 66 percent
of the production as measured by value of shipments.

     In terms of constant 1967 dollars, the total value of shipments for
the industry increased from $7.5 million in 1967 to $8.5 million in 1972.

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Estimates of total values of shipments made for 1975, 1977 and 1983 are
$9.0, $10.7 and $15.7 million>respectively, indicating continued growth
in the industry.  The most rapidly growing product area is SIC 3674 -
Semiconductors, which includes transistors, diodes and more recently
developed integrated circuits.  Declining production is occurring in SIC
3671 - Electron Tubes - Receiving Type, SIC 3675 - Capacitors, and SIC
3676 - Resistors.  Displacement of these devices by semiconductors is the
apparent cause of their decline.

     Waste Characterization

     Due to a high degree of design diversity within product: areas, wastes
of the industry are categorized by the primary constituent of wastes, not
by raw material usage or manufacturing process.  Ten categories of process
wastes were recognized in surveyed plants:

     °  Halogenated Solvents
     0  Non-halogenated Solvents
     0  Wastewater Treatment Sludges
     0  Plastics
     0  Oils
     0  Paint Wastes
     0  Metal Scrap
     0  Concentrated Cyanides
     0  Concentrated Acids and Alkalies
     0  Miscellaneous process wastes

All of these categories, except plastics, contain wastes which would be
considered potentially hazardous according to the definition of potentially
hazardous wastes used in this report.  However, metal scrap, concentrated
cyanides, and concentrated acids and alkalies are not land-disposed in sig-
nificant quantities by the industry.  Metal scrap, except beryllium oxide
wastes, is nearly always sold to metal reclaimers.  The cyanides, acids and
alkalies are typically oxidized and neutralized by conventional methods of
wastewater treatment and produce no residue for land disposal.  Only one of
the twenty-three surveyed plants land disposed of concentrated cyanides or
acids.  The only hazardous waste recognized in the miscellaneous category
was one containing polychlorinated biphenyls.  (This waste is considered
atypical of the product area in which it is generated, resistors.  In addition,
its use in this product is being discontinued.)  The manufacturer's company
did not specify the material which will replace the use of PCB's.  The term
"waste stream" is used here to denote the other six process waste categories
which  are typically land disposed.

     The waste streams classified as potentially hazardous either manifest
one or more toxic characteristics, or are flammable.  No biological, radio-
active, or explosive wastes are generated in SIC 367.

     The toxic characteristics include corrosivity/dermal irritation,
bioconcentration, and toxicity.  The latter term is used to mean the
range of toxic effects not included in the other manifestations.

-------
Wastes with a flash point of 38°C (100°F) or below [U.S. Department of
Transportation (41) ] are considered potentially hazardous because of
their flammability.

     Thus, the criteria for hazardousness used in this report are as follows:
      Hazard

Flammability

Corrosivity/dermal irritation

Toxicity
Bioconcentration
       Criteria

Flashpoint less than 38°C (100°F) (41)

pH less than 5.0 or greater than 9.0

Raw waste leachate from a waste
contains a constituent exceeding maxi-
mum contaminant level of Federal Water
Quality Criteria [14]

Contains cadmium, lead, mercury, or
PCB in any detectable concentration
     The wastes of these industries necessitate these broad criteria.  In
some cases, a hazardous constituent accounts for the bulk of the waste
stream or is the only component.  In others, hazardous constituents
account for a much smaller portion of the total waste stream, but are
distributed throughout and cannot be segregated in waste handling.

     Of the ten process waste categories recognized in surveyed plants
that are typically landfilled,  all except plastics had at least one
occurrence of a property or chemical constituent which is considered to be
hazardous under the above criteria.  The process waste categories are
listed in Table 1-2 and their hazardous properties or constituents are
identified.  These process waste categories are not inclusive of all of
the wastes generated by the electronic components manufacturing industry.
Dilute acids, dilute cyanides, furnace and oven gasses and some wastewater
constituents are not expected to be land disposed.  In addition, portions of
all the identified waste streams, except perhaps paint wastes and plastics,
are either recovered (solvents, metals), are disposed of by gaseous emissions
(solvents, paint wastes), end up in wastewater effluents instead of being
converted to wastewater treatment sludges (dissolved and particulate metals,
fluorides, solvents, oils) or are destroyed (cyanides, acids, and alkalies).
Discussion and quantification of these process waste categories is limited
to those portions which were destined for land disposal from surveyed plants.
Detailed quantification, including estimation of 1975 national waste totals,
estimation of hazardous constituent quantities, disaggregation of national
waste and constituent totals to EPA Region and state quantity estimates,
and projection of estimated 1975 quantities to 1977 and 1983, is applied
only to potentially hazardous process waste streams which are generated
and land-disposed in significant quantities, hereafter referred to as
"waste streams".  These "waste streams" are the land-disposed portions
(and/or recycled in the case of halogenated and non-halogenated solvents)
of the following process waste categories:

-------








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-------
     0  Halogenated Solvents
     °  Non-halogenated Solvents
     0  Wastewater Treatment Sludges
     0  Oils
     0  Paint Wastes

     Single examples of land-disposal for concentrated cyanides, con-
centrated acids and the miscellaneous waste category (a bag-house residue
containing polychlorinated biphenyls) were seen in surveyed plants.  Two
plants land-disposed of beryllium metal and/or beryllium oxide wastes.
These wastes have hazardous constituents and are discussed in detail,but
there is insufficient data on these process wastes to warrant detailed
quantification.

     Waste Stream Quantification

     The only index of production useful for converting waste quantities
reported in surveyed plants to three- and four-digit industry waste quan-
tities was value of shipments.  Because of a lack of comparability between
product categories in waste generation, plant waste quantity data was
extrapolated to product area quantities (four-digit SIC's,except for SIC 3679
 - Electronic Components, Not Elsewhere Classified,where six-digit SIC's
were used) using the ratio of plant waste quantities to plant 1975 value
of shipments and multiplying by the SIC's 1975 value of product shipments
[10].  Product area waste stream volumes thus obtained were added by waste
stream across product areas to obtain total waste stream quantities for
those portions of the industry represented by surveyed plants.

     Products representing thirty-five percent of the value of product
shipments in the electronic components manufacturing industry were not in-
cluded in surveyed plants.  Product area that were not surveyed fall into
three categories:

     0  Nineteen percent of the industry is represented by seventeen product
        areas in SIC 3679 which individually have small proportions of the
        industry production

     0  One percent of the industry is represented by SIC 3671, a previously
        important segment of the industry.  No SIC 3671 plants would agree
        to participate in the survey.

     0  Fifteen percent of the industry value of shipments is produced in
        miscellaneous product categories which are too small to be identified
        in Census data [5, 10].

It is the contractor's opinion that plant surveys in these three categories
would reveal process waste types and waste disposal practices not recognized
in the 23 plant surveys completed to date.  However, the typical process waste
categories in  the unsurveyed 35 percent of the industry are assumed to be
similar in composition and generation rate to the typical process waste cate-
gories for the surveyed portion of the industry.  Therefore, total waste
quantities developed from plant data and product area value of shipments are

-------
multiplied by —-rr- = 1.54 to estimate industry-wide process waste quantities.

Where less than three examples of land-disposal for a process waste category
(concentrated cyanides, concentrated acids and alkalies) or individual
potentially hazardous process wastes (bag-house residue containing PCB, beryl-
lium wastes), the results of quantification are not reported in order to
protect the confidentiality of data provided voluntarily by private businesses.
The total land disposed quantities of these particular process wastes are
negligible in relation to other process waste quantities.

      For the six process waste categories which are land disposed in signifi-
cant quantities, Tables 1-3, 1-4, and 1-5 give the combined total process waste
quantities, potentially hazardous waste quantities and hazardous constituent
quantities for the electronic components manufacturing industry for 1975,
1977 and 1983, respectively.  Total and potentially hazardous waste quantities
are presented as both wet and dry weights in kilo-kilograms per year (kkg/year)
Dry weight refers only to the non-aqueous p  tion of the process wastes.  Wet
weight includes the weight of water in the wastes.  The totals presented in
Tables 1-3, 1-4, and 1-5 are disaggregated by states and EPA Regions according
to the percent of industry value of shipments attributed [5] to those juris-
dictions.  The national process waste totals for 1975, 1977 and 1983 are
separately disaggregated by waste stream in Tables III-l, III--2, and III-3
(See Section III).  Disaggregations by year, jurisdiction, and process waste
category are provided in Appendix B.

      Several points of interest can be made from estimates in the waste
quantity tables:

      0  the five EPA Regions with the greatest quantities of total process
         wastes, potentially hazardous wastes, and hazardous constituents and
         their percentages of the national totals for these pcirameters are:

                      EPA Region  II - 27.7 percent
                      EPA Region  IX - 17.9 percent
                      EPA Region   V - 16.9 percent
                      EPA Region   I - 11.3 percent
                      EPA Region III - 11.1 percent

                    Five region total- 84.9 percent

      °  the five states with the greatest quantities of total process wastes,
         potentially hazardous wastes, and hazardous constituents and their
         percentages of the national totals are:

                      New York         22.2 percent
                      California       16.8 percent
                      Pennsylvania      8.6 percent
                      Massachusetts     6.7 percent
                      Illinois          6.6 percent

                    Five state total -  60.9 percent

(Since regional and state quantities were disaggregated on the basis
of state value of shipments, the jurisdictional percentages are constant
for all parameters.)
                                 10

-------
                                             TABLE  1-3
     State
 ALABAMA              IV
 ALASKA               X
 ARIZONA              IX
 ARKANSAS              VI
 CALIFORNIA            IX
 COLORADO              VI11
 CONNECTICUT           I
 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA  III
 DELAWARE              111
 FLORIDA              IV
 GEORGIA              IV
 HAWAII                IX
 IDAHO                 X
 ILLINOIS              V
 INDIANA              V
 IOWA                 VII
 KANSAS               VII
 KENTUCKY              IV
 LOUISIANA             VI
 MAINE                 I
 WRYUWD              111
 MASSACHUSETTS         I
 MICHIGAN              V
 MINNESOTA             V
 MISSISSIPPI           IV
 MISSOURI              VII
 MONTANA              VI11
 NEBRASKA              VII
 NEVADA                IX
 NEW  HAMPSHIRE         I
 NEW  JERSEY            II
 NEW  MEXICO            VI
 NEW  YORK              II
 NORTH CAROLINA        IV
 NORTH DAKOTA          VIII
 OHIO                 V
 OKLAHOMA              VI
 OREGON                X
 PENNSYLVANIA          III
 RHODE  ISLAND          I
 SOUTH CAROLINA        IV
 SOUTH DAKOTA          VIII
 TENNESSEE             IV
 TEXAS                 VI
 UTAH                  VI11
 VERMONT               I
 VIRGINIA              III
 WASHINGTON            X
 WEST VIRGINIA         III
 WISCONSIN             V
 WYOMING               VIII

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
                                   ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  MANUFACTURING
                                                SIC 367
                                        PROCESS WASTE GENERATION
                                     1975 State and EPA Region Totals
                                               (kkg/year)
Total Potentially
Total
(Wet Wt.)
209.
0.
623.
299.
10141.
214.
1302.
0.
160.
2072.
0.
0.
387.
3969.
2279.
236.
90.
423.
0.
361.
205.
4023 .
398.
1028.
0.
240.
0.
260.
0.
522.
3356.
387.
3 3370.
554.
0.
2024.
170.
1.04.
5174.
388.
376.
244 .
143.
2026.
481.
153 .
1050.
92.
136.
502.
0.
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
127.
0.
378.
302.
6155,
J30.
839.
0,
97.
1257.
0,
0.
235.
2409.
1383,
143,
54.
257.
0,
219.
124.
2440.
241 .
624.
0,
150,
0,
163,
0,
317,
2037.
235.
8115.
336.
0.
1229.
103,
63,
3140,
236 ,
220.
140,
07,
1230,
292.
91 .
637.
56,
02.
304.
0.
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.:

0.
360.
177.
5994.
126.
81 /.
0.
95 .
1225.
0.
0.
229.
2346.
1347.
140.
53.
250,
0.
213.
1.23 .
23/7.
235,
608.
0.
1 46.
0.
31/9.
0.
309.
3904.
229.
7903.
320.
0.
1197.
100.
61 ,
3050.
229 .
222.
144.
05.
1 1 9 / .
204 .
!!9.
621 .
54.
BO.
1'9 /.
0.
) (Dry Wt.
90.
0.
267.
120.
4341.
91 .
591.
0.
69.
SO/.
0.
0.
166.
1699.
976.
101.
38.
181 .
0.
154.
80,
1721.
1/0.
440.
0.
1 06.
0.
115.
0.
224.
1436.
166.
5/23.
23 /.
0.
867.
73.
45.
2215.
366,
161 .
104.
61 .
86 /.
206,
64.
449.
39.
50.
215,
0.
Total Hazardous Constituents
(Dry Wt.)
Fl amlnable Heavy
) Solvents Metals Fluorides Oils
49.
0.
144.
69.
2349.
49.
320.
0.
37.
4HO.
0.
0.
90,
919,
528.
55 «
21 .
9U.
0.
84.
47.
933 .
9?.
23U.
0.
5/.
0.
61-'.
0.
123 .
777.
90.
3097.
12Ci.
0.
469.
39.
24.
1199.
90.
07.
56.
33.
469.
111.
35.
243.
21.
.11 .
116.
0.

0


0

1
0

1
0
0

3
1



0


3


0

0

0

2

10

0
1


4




1






0
.160
.
.500
.240
.138
.171
.109
.
« 1 29
.662
.
,
.311
.185
.829
.199
.072
.339
,
.289
.164
.227
.319
.075
,
.199
.
,215
,
.419
.693
.311
. 729
.445
,
.625
.136
.003
. 152
.311
, 302
. 196
.115
.626
.306
.123
.842
.0/4
.109
.403
,
0.
0.
0.
0.
5 .
0,
1 .
0,
0.
1 .
0.
0.
0.
2 *
1 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
2.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
*•>
0,
6.
0.
0.
1 .
0.
0.
2 *
0.
0.
0.
0.
3 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.

0


13

1
0

2
0
0

5
3



0


f;

1
0

0

0

4

10

0
2


/




2


]



0
. 208
,
.B55
.411
.924
.293
.09/
,
.220
.845
.
.
.532
.450
.329
.324
.123
.501
.
.495
.281
.521
.546
.412

.340
.
. 368
,
.71 /
. 608
.532
.359
. /61
.
.780
.233
.143
.105
.533
.516
. 335
. 196
. 702
.661
.20/
.442
. 126
. 306
.609
.
60260.
         36575.
                   35620.
                                       3960,
                                               48,356
                                                            20.
                                                                  82.744
6B24.
16726.
6/24.
3 / 7 7 .
30200.
28U2.
(142.
V38.
10/64.
503.
4 1 42 ,
10152.
4081 .
2293.
6 L 9 3 ,
1749.
511 .
5/0.
6533.
354 .
4034.
van/.
39/5.
21'33.
6029.
1/04.
470.
555.
6 3 62.
345.
2921 .
/MO.
:'R/U.
1617.
4366.
1 234.
360.
402,
460 /.
:".,o.
3501.
3875.
1550.
U75.
2363.
660.
195.
217.
2494.
135.
5,476
13,422
5,396
3.031
El , 1 85
2.313
.6/6
,753
8.637
.460
3.
8,
3.
o
5 .
1 .
0.
0.
5 .
0,
9.3/0
22.967
9.233
5. It)/
14.00J,
3.957
1. 156
1 . 200
1 4 . 7HO
,001
                                                 1,1

-------
                                            Table  1-4
                                   ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  MANUFACTURING
                                                SIC 367
                                        PROCESS WASTE GENERATION
                                     1977 State and EPA Region  Totals
                                               (kkg/year)
                                                          Total Potentially   Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
    State
ALABAMA               IV
ALASKA                X
ARIZONA               IX
ARKANSAS              VI
CALIFORNIA            IX
COLORADO              VI11
CONNECTICUT           I
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA  III
DELAWARE              III
FLORIDA               IV
GEORGIA               IV
HAWAII                ix
IDAHO                 X
ILLINOIS              V
INDIANA               V
;OWA                  vii
KANSAS                VII
KENTUCKY              IV
LOUISIANA             VI
WINE                 I
MARYLAND              111
MASSACHUSETTS         I
MICHIGAN              V
MINNESOTA             V
MISSISSIPPI           IV
MISSOURI              VII
MONTANA               VIII
NEBRASKA              VII
NEVADA                IX
NEW HAMPSHIRE         I
NEW JERSEY            II
NEW MEXICO            VI
NEW YORK              II
NORTH CAROLINA        IV
NORTH DAKOTA          VIII
OHIO                  V
OKLAHOMA              VI
OREGON                X
PENNSYLVANIA          HI
RHODE ISLAND          I
SOUTH CAROLINA        IV
SOUTH DAKOTA          VIII
TENNESSEE             IV
TEXAS                 VI
UTAH                  VI11
VERMONT               I
VIRGINIA              III
WASHINGTON            X
WEST VIRGINIA         III
WISCONSIN             V
WYOMING               VIII

    TOTALS

REGION  I
        II
        III
        IV
        V
        VI
        VII
        VIII
        IX
        X
Total
(Wet Wt.)
317,
0.
942,
452,
15332.
323.
2089.
0.
242.
3132.
0.
0.
586.
6000.
344o.
357.
136.
639.
0.
545.
309.
6079.
601 .
1554.
0.
•375.
0.
406.
0.
790.
5073.
586.
20215.
830.
0.
3061.
257.
157.
7823.
587,
568.
368.
216.
3063.
727.
228.
1587.
139,
205.
758.
0.
91106.
10317.
25288.
10166.
5711,
15421 .
4357.
1273.
1419.
16273.
002.
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
170.
0.
506.
243.
0244.
174.
1123.
0.
130.
1684.
0.
0.
315.
3226.
1853.
1 92 .
73.
344.
0.
293,
166,
3269.
323.
836.
0.
201.
0.
2 1 8 .
0,
42r. .
2728.
315.
10869.
451 .
0.
1646.
138.
85.
4206,
315.
305.
198.
116.
1647.
391.
122.
853.
75.
110.
40B.
0.
48987.
5548,
13597,
5466,
3071 ,
8292 .
2343.
684.
763.
8750 .
474.
Hazardous Waste
(Wet W~.)
271 .
0.
(106.
387.
13129.
276.
1709.
0.
207.
2602.
0,
0.
502.
5138.
2951 .
306.
116.
1)40.
0.
467.
265.
5206 ,
515,
1331 .
0.
321 .
0.
347,
0 ,
676 .
4344 .
502.
17310.
718.
0.
2621 .
220,
135,
6699.
502,
406.
315.
1 05 .
2623 .
623.
195.
1359.
119.
175,
649.
0.
78016.
8035.
21655.
0706.
4890,
13205.
3731 .
1 090 .
1215,
13935,
75'.") .
(Dry Wt.,
125.
0,
371,
1 78 .
6041,
12,'.
823.
0.
95.
1234.
0.
0.
231.
2364.
1358.
141 .
53.
'") C, »•)
0.
215.
122.
2395.
237 .
612.
0.
14P,
0.
.160.
0.
311.
199V.
231 .
7965.
330 .
0.
I 206 .
101 .
62.
3082.
231 .
224,
145.
05,
1207.
287.
90,
625,
55.
01 ,
299.
0.
35897.
4065.
9964.
4006.
2250,
6076.
1717.
501.
559.
6412.
347.
Flammable Heavy
) Solvents
62.
0.
184.
"89.
3001.
63.
409.
0.
47.
613.
0.
0,
115.
11 75.
674.
70.
27.
125.
0.
107.
61.
I 190.
118.
304.
0.
73.
0,
79.
0.
155.
993.
115.
3957.
164.
0.
599.
50.
31.
1531.
115.
111.
72.
42.
600.
142.
45.
31 1 .
27.
40.
140.
0.
17833.
2020 .
4950.
1990.
1118.
3010.
853.
249.
270.
31.05.
173.
i Metals
,351
0.
1.043
.501
16.975
.357
2.313
0,
.268
3.468
0.
0.
,64i3
6.643
3.815
.391:1
.150
.708
0.
.604
.343
6.73L
,66.4
1.721
0.
.415
0.
.449
0.
.874
5.617
.648
22.381
.928
0.
3.389
.284
.174
B.661
,650
.629
. 400
. 23V
3.391
.8<)ti
.252
1 .757
. 1 54
,227
.840
0,
100.070
11.423
27.990
11.256
6.323
17.073
4.824
1.409
1.571
10.017
.976
Fluoride
0.
0.
1 ,
0,
10.
0.
1.
0.
0.
1? +
0.
0.
0.
4.
;>.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
4.
0.
1 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1 .
3.
0.
14.
I .
0.
"} ^
0,
0.
5 «
0.
0.
0.
0.
2.
0.
0.
1.
0.
0.
1.
0.
62.
7.
17.
7.
4.
10.
3.
1 .
1.
11.
1.
a Oils
.397
0.
1. IfiO
.567
19.209
.404
2.617
0.
.303
3.924
0.
0.
.734
7.518
4.317
.447
.170
.801
0.
.683
.388
7.616
.753
1 .947
0.
.469
0.
.508
0,
.989
6.356
.734
25.326
1 . 050
0.
3 . 835
, 322
.197
9,801
.735
.712
,462
,271
3.837
,911
,205
1 . 989
.174
,257
.950
0.
114,145
12.926
31 .603
1.2.737
7. 155
19.320
5,459
I . 595
1 .777
20.300
1. 105
                                                   12

-------
                                              Table  1-5
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                                         PROCESS VASIE GENERATION
                                      1983 State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
     State
 ALABAMA                IV
 ALASKA                X
 ARIZONA                IX
 ARKANSAS               VI
 CALIFORNIA             IX
 COLORADO               VI11
 CONNECTICUT            I
 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA   III
 DELAWARE               III
 FLORIDA                IV
 GEORGIA                IV
 HAWAII                 IX
 IDAHO                  X
 ILLINOIS               V
 INDIANA                V
 IOWA                   VII
 KANSAS                 VII
 KENTUCKY               IV
 LOUISIANA              VI
 MAINE                  I
 MARYLAND               111
 MASSACHUSETTS          I
 MICHIGAN               V
 MINNESOTA              V
 MISSISSIPPI            IV
 MISSOURI               VII
 MONTANA               VIII
 NEBRASKA              VII
 NEVADA                 IX
 NEW HAMPSHIRE          I
 NEW JERSEY             II
 NEW MEXICO            VI
 NEW YORK               II
 NORTH CAROLINA         IV
 NORTH DAKOTA          VIII
 OHIO                  V
 OKLAHOMA              VI
 OREGON                X
 PENNSYLVANIA           111
 RHODE ISLAND           I
 SOUTH CAROLINA         IV
 SOUTH DAKOTA          VIII
 TENNESSEE              IV
 TEXAS                 VI
 UTAH                  VI11
 VERMONT               I
 VIRGINIA              III
WASHINGTON            X
WEST VIRGINIA         III
WISCONSIN             V
WYOMING               VIII

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
Total
(Wet Wt.)
440.
0.
L308.
623.
21303,
449.
2903.
0.
336.
4352.
0.
0.
814.
6337.
4/08.
496.
JUS.
1189.
0.
758.
430.
0447.
IM:J.
2159.
0.
520.
0.
564.
0.
1097.
7049.
U14.
2008/.
1165.
0.
4253.
357.
219.
J0869,
815.
7li9.
512.
300.
4256.
J 0 1 1 .
316.
2205.
193.
205.
1054.
0.
26500.
14335.
35136.
14126.
/935,
21426.
6054.
1768,
1971 .
22611 .
1 225.
Waste
(Dry Wt
2,50.
0.
707.
339.
11507.
242.
1563.
0.
182.
2351.
0.
0.
440.
4503.
2586.
268.
102.
400.
0.
409.
232.
4562 .
451 .
1166.
0.
2m .
0,
304.
0.
593.
3808.
440,
151 /I.
629.
0.
2297.
193.
118.
5871.
440.
426.
276.
162.
229V.
546.
171 .
1191 .
104.
154.
569.
0.
68376.
7743.
10979.
7630.
4286.
1 1573.
3270.
955.
1065.
12213.
662.
Hazardous Waste
.) (Wet Wt
3/6.
0.
1117.
5.57.
tUt 93.
383.
24/9.
0.
287.
3/17.
0.
0.
695.
/I20.
4009.
424.
161 .
759.
0.
647.
36 /.
7214.
/ I 3.
1044.
0.
444.
0.
491 .
0.
937.
6020.
695.
:'.iVU7.
995.
0.
3632.
305.
187.
92!!2,
696.
6/4.
437.
257.
3634.
063 .
270.
1083,
1 65.
2 13.
"00.
0.
too ion.
1 2243.
3000/,
12063.
6/76.
1829U.
51 70.
1 5 I 0 .
I 6Si3.
19710.
1 046.
. ) (Dry Wt
I /3.
0.
516.
248.
8397.
t/7.
1.1-14.
0.
133.
1715.
0.
-0.
32] .
3286.
I 88 7.
196.
74.
350.
0.
299.
169.
3329.
329.
II51 .
0.
205.
0,
222.
0.
432.
2778.
321 .
1 10 /I ,
459.
0.
1676.
141 .
86.
4204.
321 .
31 I .
202,
1 18.
16/7.
398,
1 25 .
869.
/6.
J II'.
415.
0.
49896.
5650.
13849 .
5568.
3128.
8445.
2386.
697.
//7.
09 1 2.
483.
Flammable Heavy
.) Solvents
81.
0.
240.
1 IS.
3913.
82.
533.
0.
62.
799.
0.
0.
149.
1532.
879.
91.
35.
163.
0.
139.
/9.
1552.
153.
397.
0.
96.
0.
104,
0.
202.
1295.
149.
5160.
214,
0.
781.
65.
40.
1997.
150.
145.
94.
55 .
782.
186.
58.
405.
35.
' »'"*
194.
0.
23254. 1
2633.
6454,
2595.
1458.
3936.
1112.
325.
362.
4154. :
225.
Metals
.485
0.
1.443
,693
23.498
.495
3,202
0.
.371
4, BOO
0.
0.
.898
9.196
5.28J.
.547
.208
.980
0.
.336
.474
9.317
. 92 t
2.382
0.
.574
0.
.622
0.
1.210
7.775
.B98
30.9(71
1.285
0.
4.691
. 393
.241
1 1 . 98V
.899
.8/1
.565
.331
4.694
I .IJ5
.349
2.433
.213
.314
1 . 162
0.
39.632
15.813
38,757
15.581
8,752
23.634
6.6/8
1.951
2 . 1 74
24.941
1 .351
Fluorides Oils
0.
0,
1.
0.
13.
0.
•> ^
0.
0.
3.
0.
0.
0.
5 .
3.
0.
0.
1.
0.
0,
0.
5.
1.
1 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
] .
4.
0.
17.
3 .
0.
3.
0.
0.
7.
0.
0.
0.
0.
3.
1 .
0.
1 .
0.
0.
1 .
0.
77.
9.
21 .
9.
5 .
13.
4.
1.
1.
14.
1.
.55J
0.
J . 638
. 786
26.667
. .562
3.634
0.
.421
5.448
0.
0.
1.019
10.437
5 . 993
.621
.236
1.112
0.
.948
. 538
10.574
1 .046
2.703
0.
.652
0.
. /06
0.
1.3/3
8.824
1.019
35, 160
1 . 458
0.
5.324
.446
.2/4
13,606
t . 020
,90H
.641
.376
5.327
1.265
.396
2. 761
.241
.356
1.319
0.
158,466
17.945
43. 905
1 /. 683
9 . 933
26.822
7.5/9
2.214
2.467
20.305
1 .533
                                                    13

-------
0  From Tables III-l, III-2 and III-3,  the largest process waste
   category on a dry weight basis is the non-halogenated solvents
   waste stream, comprising an estimated 42 percent of the industry's
   total process wastes in 1975.   Halogenated solvents and then
   wastewater treatment sludges follow non-halogenated solvents in
   quantity on a dry weight basis.  It is the contractor's opinion
   that halogenated solvents are actually used in more operations
   than non-halogenated solvents, but ease of on-site recovery by
   distillation greatly reduces the quantity of halogenated solvent
   wastes.

0  On a wet weight basis, wastewater treatment sludges is the largest
   waste stream for all years estimated.  Between 1975 and 1977, the
   percentage of total process wastes attributable to wastewater
   treatment sludges increases from 46 percent to 56 percent.  This in-
   crease relative to other waste streams would be the result of
   implementing the 1977 goal for best practicable control technology
   currently available (BPCTCA or BPT)  for all electronic components
   manufacturing plants which have heavy metals, concentrated acids and
   alkalies and/or fluorides in their process wastewater.  Estimation of
   the increase is confused somewhat by the fact that many of the manu-
   facturing plants are located in urban areas where municipal sewerage
   is available to receive process wastewaters.  Pretreatment standards
   for discharge to municipal sewers are not universally applicable even
   where process waste waters contain the pollutants relevant to this
   study.  The estimated quantities of wastewater treatment sludges
   could, for this reason, be somewhat high.

0  The effect on sludge quantities of implementing the 1983 goal for
   best available technology economically achievable (BATEA or BAT)
   is expected to be minimal.  Available literature [7,8,9] predicts
   that technology required for wastewater treatment by 1983 will pro-
   duce small increases in wastewater treatment residues over the 1977
   quantities.  Increases would only occur for those plants which dis-
   charge treated wastewaters to streams.  The increase would largely be
   due to brines generated by evaporators or reverse osmosis.

0  Increases in other waste stream quantities are expected to be directly
   related to increased industry production.  No specific changes in
   wastes or in waste generating processes can be predicted from survey
   data or available literature.   Considering the rate of product tech-
   nology improvement that has occurred in the past thirty years, however,
   some shifts in waste stream types and quantities appear to be inevit-
   able, if not predictable.

°  Flammable solvents occur primarily in only two waste streams;
   non-halogenated solvents and paint wastes.  Because of the wide-
   spread use of non-halogenated solvents, flammable solvents are by far
   the most abundant hazardous constituent of industry wastes.
                           14

-------
      0  Various heavy metals are  found in all of the industry's waste streams.
         Heavy metals in the plastics waste stream are in particulate form,
         tightly bonded to waste recording tape and are, therefore, not con-
         sidered hazardous.  The other waste streams and the process waste
         categories not present in a sufficient number of plants to quantify
         (concentrated cyanides, concentrated acids and alkalies and scrap
         metal) also contain heavy metals.  Heavy metals in the scrap metal
         category would not be sufficiently soluble to be hazardous.  However,
         heavy metals in concentrated cyanides and concentrated acids and al-
         kalies are already in solution and are, therefore, hazardous.

      °" Fluorides are present in  high concentrations only in  the process waste
         waters and wastewater treatment  sludges of plants which clean or etch
         glass or silicon  (SIC's 3671, 3672 and 3674 primarily).  Present de-
         velopment documents for effluent guidelines applicable to the electronic
         components manufacturing  industry [7,8,9] are not specific as to the
         need to remove fluorides, but the toxic properties of fluorides at high
         concentrations are recognized.   Removal of fluorides  along with heavy
         metals by coprecipitation at elevated pH, plus possible future require-
         ments to remove fluorides, even  if present independently of heavy
         metals, contribute to the presence of fluorides in the wastewater
         treatment sludges.


      °  Oils are most abundant in the lubricating and hydraulic oils waste
         stream.  The sensitivity  of many aquatic species to non-vegetable
         oils, plus the presence in. many industrial oils of a  great variety
         of toxic additives, are the basis for classifying oils as hazardous
         constituents.

      The processes in surveyed plants which generated the various process
wastes are identified and described in Section III of this report.  Table 111-10
correlates the processes with the  types of land-disposed waste generated by each.

      Three of the five potentially hazardous waste streams each originate from
a limited number of manufacturing  process categories.   Paint wastes are gen-
erated solely by operations in the materials coating process category.   Halo-
genated solvent wastes, with a few minor exceptions, are generated by solvent
cleaning and drying.   The hydraulic and lubricating oil wastes are generated
generally within two process categories:   mechanical material  removal (lubri-
cating oils) and,  to a lesser extent,  metal forming (lubricating and hydraulic
oils).  Small amounts of hydraulic oil are also wasted from machinery used in
other process categories such as plastics molding and non-plastics molding.

      Wastewater treatment sludges and non-halogenated solvents,  however,
are each wasted from a number of process categories.  Many of  the process-
es included in the mechanical material removal, material forming,  material
coating and, especially,  chemical-electrochemical process categories require
water either in the process itself or to transport process wastes.   Any on-
site treatment of the wastewaters yields  residues which typically must  be
land disposed.  Process waste material contributions to any one plant's
                                 15

-------
wastewater treatment sludge usually come from several processes simultan-
eously, thereby precluding the possibility of economic recovery of materials
in the sludge.

     Similarly, non-halogenated solvent wastes are frequently generated by
processes in several process categories:  mechanical material removal, ma-
terial forming and material coating process categories in addition to sol-
vent cleaning and drying processes.  Segregation of non-halogenated solvent
wastes generated within any one plant is more feasible than segregation of
water carried wastes.  Economic recovery of some solvent wastes, even when
segregated, would be difficult to achieve because of relatively low costs
for fresh solvents and high levels of contamination in many waste solvents.

     Treatment and Disposal Technology

     On-site treatment is common for the halogenated solvents and wastewater
treatment sludge waste streams.  Treatment of halogenated solvent: wastes in-
volves reclamation by distillation either in the holding tank used for cleaning or, in
plants using large solvent quantities, in separate, centrally located units.
Solvents treated on-site are reused in operations which do not: have stringent
quality control requirements.

     Wastewater treatment sludges are typically concentrated either by lagoon-
ing or by physical means such as centrifugation or filter pressing.  Because
of the large number of constituents in wastewater treatment sludges, recovery
and reuse of the sludge constituents is not practiced and is not practicable
on-site.

     Some in-process treatment of materials used in production, such as
filtering of plating baths and settling of water soluble cutting oils,
is practiced.  Since these methods do not treat wastes, but produce them
instead, they are not considered here to be on-site waste treatment process-
es, although the distinction in some cases is very fine.

     Off-site treatment of halogenated solvent, and non-halogeriated solvent
wastes is common.  Treatment is directed toward reclamation arid ranges from
repackaging of slightly contaminated solvents to multiple fractionation pro-
cedures for mixed still bottoms.  Some incineration of solvent: wastes, both
on- and off-site, was recognized during plant and contractor visits.  Whereas
halogenated solvents were found to be reclaimed both on- and off-site, non-
halogenated solvents were not commonly reclaimed on-site, presumably because
of the fire hazards involved in their distillation and recovery.

     Reclamation of oil wastes is limited to petroleum distillates which
are generated in large volumes.  No treatment of water soluble cutting oils,
the most common process waste in this category, was recognized.


     No treatment of plastic wastes was noted.  Thermoplastic scrub material
is usually recycled through the molding process, but the use of these plastics
was limited in the surveyed plants.  Wasted plastics are stored and hauled
directly to landfills.

     On-site disposal of potentially hazardous waste streams was practiced
in surveyed plants for thirteen percent of the wastes, by annual wet weight.


                                   16

-------
One large, terminal wastewater lagoon, and a large volume on-site surface
dump operation account for most of this on-site disposal volume.  The remain-
der of on-site disposal operations were surface dumps of small volume solvent
wastes.  The small number of examples found for on-site disposal does not form
an adequate basis for extrapolating to estimates of on-site disposal by pro-
duct area or by waste stream.

     Off-site disposal of the potentially hazardous waste streams was gen-
erally by landfill either in separate drummed or undrummed liquid disposal
areas, or in a mixture with municipal solid waste.  Extensive use of land-
fills designed for receiving hazardous wastes and minimizing leachate and
runoff contamination of water resources (secured landfills) was noted in the
state of California.  Secured landfill  disposal of potentially hazardous wastes
was also noted for at least one potentially hazardous process waste in each
of three other states:  Illinois, New York and Massachusetts.

     All off-site treatment and disposal of wastes was performed by private
contractors for the surveyed plants.  Contractor services ranged from haul-
ing wastes to municipally-owned landfills to complex, multiple waste stream
reclamation, residue incineration and secured landfill operations.  Most
contractors provide only one service to the plant to which they are contracted.
The use of multiple contractors for a plant is more common than a single con-
tractor providing multiple services.

     The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has defined three levels of
treatment and disposal technology which are or may be applicable to potential-
ly hazardous waste streams generated by the industries which manufacture elec-
tronic components and are destined for land disposal.  These technology levels
are defined as follows:

     LEVEL I - The technology currently employed by the majority of facilities —
i.e., broad average present treatment and disposal practice.

     LEVEL II - The best technology currently employed.  Identified technology
at this level must represent the soundest process from an environmental and
public health standpoint currently in use in at least one location.
Installations must be commercial scale.   Pilot and bench scale installa-
tions are not considered for this level.

     LEVEL III - The technology necessary to provide adequate health and
environmental protection.   Level III technology may be more or less sophis-
ticated or may be identical with Level I or Level II technology.  At this
level, identified technology may include pilot or bench scale processes
providing the exact stage of development is identified.

     Waste storage, reclamation,  volume reduction and disposal methods under
each technology level and for the five potentially hazardous waste streams of
the electronic components manufacturing industry are summarized in Table 1-6.
Details of treatment and disposal technology for these waste streams are dis-
cussed in Section IV of this report.  In general, the industry recognizes the
                                   17

-------
:  QJ -H
)  j 4-1
                        I
 3 i-l
. C
 CO -O

 *&
                                                                           rH -H
                                                                            a  >
                                                                            go
  a co u
  E  o re
  o  & jc
  u -o  M
 •H     o
  e  x- M-I
  O  C  O
i 0>  at rH
* -H  6  O
3 Id  4J  C
3    CO J5
: a>  a>  o
3 .e  n  ai
) 4J  AJ 4J
                                                                         CU  0)  0)
                                                                         >  >  >
                                                                         01  CU  01
                                                     18

-------
value and/or hazards of the halogenated solvents, non-halogenated solvents
and wastewater treatment sludge waste streams.  More attention is paid to
their proper treatment and disposal than the smaller, but still potentially
hazardous, oil and paint waste streams.

     Costs of Treatment and Disposal

     Estimated treatment and disposal costs for each potentially hazardous
waste stream are shown in Table 1-7.  Based on 1975 waste generation
rates, the total cost to the industry for Level I technology is $1,258,000/
year.  Level II technology applied to 1975 waste generation rates would in-
crease costs by 34 percent to $l,683,000/year.  Similarly, Level III
technology would increase costs by 35 percent over Level I technology to
$1,696,000.  The cost increase between Level I and Level II technology
results primarily from dewatering and secured landfilling of wastewater
treatment sludges, and from secured landfilling of unreclaimable non-halogenated
solvents.  Additional cost increases between Level II and III are due to
increased reclamation of lubricating and hydraulic oils, with secured land-
filling of residual oil sludges, and to segregation and incineration of
paint wastes, followed by ash disposal in a secured landfill.  Since the oil
and paint waste stream quantities are small compared to the other major
waste streams, the overall cost increase to the industry for Level III
above Level II is less than one percent.

     The costs of potentially hazardous waste treatment and disposal for any
of the three technology levels is expected to have insignificant impacts on
the economic structure of the industry as a whole.  The industry costs for
treatment and disposal of potentially hazardous wastes as a percentage of
industry profits, before taxes, is estimated for 1975 to be 0.2 percent for
Level I, and 0.27 percent for Levels II and III.

     Using Census data [10] for the number of electronic component manufac-
turing plants nationwide in 1975 and waste generation rates developed in
this study, it is estimated that the average plant generates 22.2 kkg/yr of
potentially hazardous wastes.  The average plant's costs for treatment and
disposal of these wastes increases from $501/yr for Level I to $673/yr for
Level II and $678/yr for Level III.  Table 1-8 shows the costs attributable
to each potentially hazardous waste stream.
                                 19

-------
                               TABLE 1-7
                ESTIMATED POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE
                    TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS
PROCESS WASTE

Halogenated Solvents
  Reclamable (credit)
  Non-Reclamable
$/kkg of Waste on Wet, Weight Basis  ($/ton)
    LEVEL I     LEVEL II     LEVEL  III
    [5K46)]1     [48(44)11     [47(44).j1
    55C50)1      55(50')        55(50)-L
Non Halogenated Solvents
  Reclamable (credit)
  Non-Reclamable
    [40(36)11     [37O4)]1     [37(34) I1
    55(50)1      62(57)2      62(57)2
Waste Treatment Sludge
    22(20)3
33(30)4      33(30)4
Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils    22(20)'
Paint Wastes
    10(9)
                 19(17)'
51(46)3
             27(24)
                                                                   3
54(49)3
-*- Plant Data or Industry Data.
^ Source: Reference [37].
3 Source: Reference [33].
4 Source: Reference [43].
                                   20

-------
                              TABLE 1-8
      TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS FOR POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTES
        AT AN AVERAGE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING PLANT BY
         WASTE STREAM AND TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL1
                         Waste Generation
Potentially Hazardous     Rate per Plant   	Plant Cost in $/year	
    Waste Stream	       (kkg/year)     Level I   Level II   Level III
                    o
Halogenated Solvents      4.3
  reclaimable                    2.58       [132]     [124]       [124]
  non-reclaimable                1.72       94.6      94.6        94.6

Non-Halogenated Solvents^ 6.16
  reclaimable                     .62       [24.6]    [22.8]      [22.8]
  non-reclaimable                5.54        305       344         344

Wastewater Treatment
  Sludges                11.1                244       366         366

Lubricating and Hy-
  draulic Oils

Paint Wastes

             Totals      22.24              501.0     673.3       678.3
0.6
0.08
13.2
.8
11.4
4.1
16.2
4.3
  Based on 2,500 plants in 1975 [10], 1975 waste stream generation rates
  from Table III-l, and unit costs from Table V-l.
2
  Assume 60% reclaimable; 40% non-reclaimable.
o
  Assume 10% reclaimable; 90% non-reclaimable.
                                   21

-------
                                 SECTION II

                        DESCRIPTION OF THE ELECTRONIC
                      COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
INTRODUCTION

     The products and economic structure of the Electronic Components Manu-
facturing Industry are described in this section.  Employment, number of
plants, and value of shipments data are presented for the nine product
groups of the industry.  The geographic distributions of plants and of
production for each of the nine product areas is also presented.  Produc-
tion, as measured by value of plant shipments, is used later in this report
to extrapolate waste volumes from plant visit data for the industry.  Economic
trends in the electronic components manufacturing industry in terms of increase
in value of shipments are analyzed.

     The three-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) for this
industry is 367.  This U.S. Department of Commerce classification has been
used to define the scope of this study in terms of the types of industrial
plants to be studied.

     The following sources of information were used in developing the follow-
ing industry characterization:  the 1972 Census of Manufactures for Communica-
tion Equipment, including Radio and TV, and Electronic Components and Acces-
sories [5], the Dun and Bradstreet Marketing Services for Manufacturers,
1975 [6], and U.S. Industrial Outlook, 1976 [10].  The 1972 Census of
Manufactures has been used as the prime source of statistical information
about the industry.  In instances where the Census of Manufactures data are
insufficient, data extracted from Dun and Bradstreet has been used as the
basis for estimates.  Analysis of economic trends in the industry depend
largely upon government projections reported in U.S. Industrial Outlook 1976.


PRODUCTS OF THE INDUSTRIES

     SIC 367 products are components intended for use in the assembly of
electronic end products and equipment.  This SIC is defined by product
function, not by materials or processes used in their manufacture.  This,
plus advances in electronics research that constantly creates new manu-
facturing processes and new products, result in complex, rapidly evolving
market and manufacturing structures within the industry.

     The 1972 Census of Manufactures provides detailed listings of the
products of SIC 367.  There are nine general categories of products in the
industry as defined by the four-digit SIC - 3671 through 3679 as listed
below:

      SIC                                  Product Category

     3671                             Electron Tubes, Receiving Type
     3672                             Cathode Ray TV Picture Tubes

-------
      SIC                                  Product Category

     3673                             Electron Tubes, Transmitting and
                                        Special Purpose
     3674                             Semi conductor and Related Devices
     3675                            *Capacitors for Electronic Applications
     3676                            *Resistors for Electronic Applications
     3677                            *Electronic Coils and Transformers and
                                        other Inductors
     3678                            *Connectors for Electronic Applications
     3679                             Electronic Components, Not Elsewhere
                                        Classified

     * - Plants with primary products in these product categories were given
     four-digit classifications for the first time in the 1972 Census of
     Manufactures.  Prior to that they were included in SIC 3679 - Electronic
     Components, not elsewhere classified.
Products are further sub-categorized into seven-digit SICs.  A list of these
SIC categories is presented in Appendix A.

     It is important to note that SIC 3679 is a grouping of numerous types
of electronic components which have little in common except the fact that
they individually do not merit ranking as four-digit SIC.   Whereas there is
some degree of product and manufacturing similarity within each of the other
eight four-digit SIC's, SIC 3679 encompasses the miscellany of the industry.
Nevertheless, on the basis of total value of product shipments, SIC 3679
plants represents 34.6 percent of the electronic components manufacturing
industry.
ECONOMIC STRUCTURE

     The overall size of the electronic components industry is reflected
in the following figures taken from the 1972 Census of Manufactures [5].

     Total number of establishments                              2,855
     Total number of employees                                 334,500
     Total value of shipments, including interplant
       transfers                                        $8,561,000,000

Similar statistics are presented in Table II-l for each four-digit SIC.  The
percentage of industry establishments, employees and value of shipments in
each four-digit SIC are also shown.  On the basis of all these parameters,
the largest segments of the industry are SIC 3679, Electronic Components-
Not Elsewhere Classified and SIC 3674, Semiconductors and Related Devices.
While SIC 3674 includes a relatively small number of products which are
closely related in terms of manufacturing processes and product function,
SIC 3679 has tremendous product and manufacturing process variety as dis-
cussed below.
                                    24

-------



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     As an index to the production levels for the diverse products in SIC
3679, the 1972 total value of shipments for major product categories (as
grouped in the 1972 Census of Manufactures) within the SIC are presented in
Table II-2.  It is noteworthy that the largest subcategory within SIC 3679
again is the "not elsewhere classified" sub-category.  This subcategory, for
which no product descriptions are given, represents 18 percent of the entire
electronic components industry on the basis of value of shipments.  The
percentage of plants manufacturing items in this miscellaneous subcategory
is likely higher than 18 percent since SIC 3679 plants have a lower average
value of shipments than the rest of the industry ($1.6 million per year per
plant for SIC 3679 vs $5.6 million per year per plant for the other eight
four-digit SICs).  An estimated 34 percent of the plants in the electronic
components industry produce as primary products components which are not
specified by kind at either the four-or seven-digit levels in the Census
of Manufactures.

     Manufacturing plants are assigned to an SIC based upon the shipment
values of products.  The product within a plant having the highest shipment
value is the primary product of that plant.  Secondary products and receipts
for activities such as merchandising and contract work also contribute to
the plant's total value of shipments.  The value of primary products shipped
by all of the plants classified within an SIC as a percentage of the value
of both primary and secondary products shipped is the "primary product
specialization ratio" for the industry.  The ratio of value of primary pro-
duct shipments for an SIC to the total value of shipments for the SIC product,
regardless of what type of plant it was made in, is the "coverage ratio" for
the product.  Both of these ratios are indices to the product mix for plants
in an SIC.  The primary product specialization ratios and the coverage ratios
for the four-digit SICs of the electronic components manufacturing industrjr
are presented in Table II-3.  As an example, plants primarily making resistors,
SIC 3676, also produce other products which contribute 10 percent of their
value of industry shipments.  Resistors account for 90 percent of their ship-
ments, (primary product specialization ratio).  However, only 74 percemt of
all resistors made in this country are manufactured by SIC 3676 plants
(coverage ratio).

     This product mix information indicates that there is some degree of
integration within SIC 367 plants.  That is, some plants produce secondary
products.  These secondary products may or may not be electronic components.
Few of the plants visited for this study had products in only one four-digit
SIC.  In general, smaller plants appear to be less integrated than high
product volume plants.


GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS

     Table II-4 indicates how the 2,855 electronic components manufacturing
plants reported in the 1972 Census of Manufactures are distributed in the
United States.  Breakdowns for each four-digit SIC are given by State, EPA
Region and nationally.  In most instances, the Commerce Department cannot re-
                                    26

-------
                                   TABLE II-2

             Total Value of Shipments for Product Groups in SIC 3679

                                              Table Value of
                                           Shipments including
                                           Interplant Transfers
                                               ($ million)

Electronic parts not elsewhere classified,
   specialized electronic hardware and parts
   not specified by kind

Magnetic recording media

Printed circuit boards

Antennas and accessories

Microwave components and subassemblies

Electron tube parts

Static power supply converters

Crystals, filters and related devices

Switches, mechanical types for electronic
   circuitry

Transducers

Relays

Phonographic cartridges and pickups

Phonographic needles and cutting stylii

Earphones and headsets

Complex components (two or more components
   packaged and shipped as a single unit)

Delay lines

                                                 2850.8*
% of Total
s
1583.6
254.4
184.9
111.9
103.3
98.3
98.1
95.3
77.9
62.9
40.6
38.7
33.0
26.0
22.8
19.1
55.5
8.9
6.5
3.9
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.3
2.7
2.2
1.4
1.4
1.2
.9
.8
.7
  100.0
* _
    This value is not the same as that given for SIC 3679 in Table II-l.  The
    original source of the above information was the Current Industrial Reports
    series MA-36N as reported in the 1972 Census of Manufactures.  The information
    in Table II-l has a different data base and can not be disaggregated to individual
    product groups.
                                      27

-------
                                TABLE  II-3
                 Product Mix in the Electronic  Components
                   Industry as shown by Primary Product
                 Specialization Ratio and  Coverage  Ratio
            SIC

3671 Electron tubes, receiving
3672 TV tubes
3673 Electron tubes, transmitting
3674 Semiconductors
3675 Capacitors
3676 Resistors
3677 Coils and Transformers
3678 Connectors
3679 Miscellaneous
                                            Primary Product         Coverage
                                          Specialization Ratio         Ratio
                              83                   94
                              91                   98
                              68                   92
                              89                   92
                              90                   87
                              90                   74
                              87                   79
                              87                   81
                              72                   80
Primary Product
Specialization Ratio
Coverage Ratio
=  Value of Primary Product Shipments
   Value of Primary and Secondary Product Shipments for plants
     with the primary SIC

   Value of Primary Product Shipments	
   Value of Primary Product Shipments in all Industries
Source:  1972 Census of Manufactures
                                     28

-------
                                                                      TABLE  11-4



i. a.
2. AK
3. AZ
4. AR
5. CA
6. CO
7. CT
8. DE
9. DC
10. FL
11. GA
12. HI
13. ID
14. IL
15. IN
16. IA
17. KS
18. V.1
19. LA
20. ME
21. KD
22. MA
23. MI
24. UN
25. MS
26. MO
27. MT
28. NB
29. NV
30. NH
31. NJ
32. SM
33. NY
34. DC
35. SD
36. OH
37. OK
38. OR
39. PA
40. RI
41. SC
42. SD
43. IS
44. TX
45 l)T
46. VT
47. VA
48. UA
49. UV
50- «,
51. W



EPA Region
IV
X
IX
VI
IX
VIII
I
III
III
IV
rv
IX
X
V
V
VII
VII
IV
VI
I
III
I
V
V
IV
VII
VIII
VII
IX
I
11
VI
II
IV
VIII
V
VI
X
III
I
IV
Vtll
IV
VI
VIII
I
III
X
III
V
VIII
National Totals
EPA








Region I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
SIC 3671

Electron
Tube, Recei
ing Type


4 U
1 W








2 U
1


1 «
1


2 W








3

2U


1


7




1W







25
2
5
7
1
4
5
0
0
1
0
S.1C 367 Electrc
SIC 3672
Cathode
Ray —
v- TV Pic-



1
5 W
1 K
1 W

1 W
4 U
1 W


8
5
1 W



1 «
2 V

1 W
1 U



1 W
1 W
1 W
5

10


8

1 W
5




5 W


1 U
1 W
1 «
1 W

75
3
15
10
5
24
7
2
1
6
2
SIC 3673


Transmitting



12

3


3
1


2



1 V


1 W
10
1 W






1
7
1 V
3





4





2

I




53
14
10
6
5
3
1
0
2
12
0
SIC 3674

and Relat-
1

8

110 U

9


10 W
1 W

2
6 U
1 W
1 W
1 W


2
2 W
35 W
5
2 W

3



1 W
30
I
38
2 W

9H


19
4



14
2
1
5




325
52
68
26
14
23
15
5
2
118
2
ig Industr, - G.
SIC 3675

Electronic
1

2

20

6


2



10 W
5


1

2

4


3


2

3
10

9
3

1


8

5

3
3

2
5


3

113
17
19
13
18
19
3
2
0
22
0
•o^raphic Dist
SIC 3676

Electronic


1 H

14
2
3


4 W



6
7
23





5





2 W

4
9

4
6 VI

1W


10
.U



2


1

1


86
13
13
12
10
14
2
5
2
15
0
ribution ot Plan
SIC 3677

Coils and


1
2
36
1 W
7


10
1 W


53
14
4
1 U


1 W

8 W
8
6

4 "

1 U

1 W
17

32


10

2
9

1
2
3
A




1
t

246
17
49
10
15
97
6
12
1
37
2
SIC 3678

Electronic
1 W


1
22
1
6


2



8
3

1




6
1
2

1 W

1 W

1
3

11


4
1 W

9
3



2 W


1 «
1 W



92
16
H
10
3
18
4
3
1
22
1
SIC 3679
Electron
Components
NFC
18 W

28 W
3
432
24 W
64

2
59 W
1 W

1 W
130
30
7 W
15
7 W

3
30 U
140
35
39
1 W
19

6
1 W
15
165
2 W
230
13 W

59
21
10
85
11

2
3 W
63
3 H

19 W
15

29

1840
233
395
136
102
322
89
49
27
461
26


State
Total
21
0
40
11
652
29
99
0
3
94
5
0
3
225
66
16
18
10
1
9
35
210
51
50
4
27
0
13
2
27
249
4
339
24
0
93
22
13
156
19
6
4
9
94
7
3
33
17
3
39
n
2855
367
588
230
173
524
132
78
36
694
33
Source:  1972  Census  of Manufactures supplemented by WAPORA estimates  indicated by "W".  Most state plant totals and all EPA Region Plant Totals include
         some numbers  estimated by WAPORA,
                                                                       29

-------
port the number of plants in a state if doing so would result in disclosing
production information for individual companies.  Therefore, where number
of plants given for any state in Table II-4 is three or less, the number is
usually a WAPORA estimate.  (Total numbers of plants for individual states
and for EPA regions will be in error according to the number of states for
which estimates had to be made).

     According to all sources of information used in developing Table II-4,
four states - Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming - have no electronic
component manufacturing plants.  California has 22 percent or 652 of the SIC
367 plants in the nation.  Five other states have over 100 plants:  New York
(339), New Jersey (249), Illinois (225), Massachusetts (210), and Pennsylvania
(156).  These six states with the greatest number of plants have 64 percent of
the electronic component manufacturing plants in the nation aad are all
heavily industrialized with other types of plants.  The four EPA regions in
which these states are located, Regions I, II, V and IX, collectively have
76 percent of the electronic component manufacturing plants.  Figure II-l,
illustrates the national distribution of SIC 367 plants.

     The reason or reasons for concentration of this industry in the northeast
states, Great Lakes states and California are not explicitly stated in avail-
able information sources.  Availability of skilled labor and proximity to
distribution sources for specialized chemicals and materials are probable
causes for the demonstrated geographical concentration of the industry.


EMPLOYMENT

     The number of total employees and of production workers in the plants
within each primary four-digit SIC has been reported in Table II-l.  The
1972 Census of Manufactures disaggregates the number of total employees in
each SIC according to the number of employees per plant.  The number of plants
in several employment size ranges are presented for each four-digit SIC in
Table II-5 as extracted from the Census data.

     Disaggregation by state and EPA Region of the numbers presented in
Table II-5 was attempted using the Dun and Bradstreet Marketing Services for
Manufactures, 1975 [6].  Many of the entries in the Dun and Bradstreet
listing include the number of employees at a plant.  Tabulation of the
numbers is presented in Table II-6.

     In all categories where Census and Dun and Bradstreet data are comparable,
i.e., national and state totals, SIC 3671, SIC 3672 and SIC 3673, the numbers
derived from Dun and Bradstreet are higher.  Some of this difference may be
due to growth of the industry between 1972 and 1975.  However, this large
apparent increase in the number of plants is not supported by the facts [5] that
(1) the industry-wide increase in the number of plants between the 1967 and
1972 Census was only 15 percent; and (2) the number of plants for SICs 3671,
3672, 3673, 3675 and 3676 actually decreased between 1967 and 1972.  Such a
dramatic change in plant numbers after  1972  as  suggested by  the Dun and
Bradstreet data, therefore, does not seem likely.  The high  Dun and Brad-
street figures are attributed  to some difference in criteria  for  including
plants in the listing.
                                      30

-------




















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31

-------
                                                TABLE  II-6

             SIC  367  ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING  — DISTRIBUTION OF PLANT SIZE
                                  BY EMPLOYMENT,  STATE, AND EPA REGION
9.  DC
LQ. ?L
11. CA
12. tfl
13. ID
14. IL
15. IN
16. IA
17. KS
18. ICY
19. LA
20. ME
21. TO
22  HA
23. MI
24. MH
25. MS
26. HO
27. MT
28. NB
29, NV
30. \H
31. HJ
32, KM
33. NY
3*. 1C
35. TO
36. OH
3'. OK
]B. OR
39. ?A
40. 3.1
41. SC
42. sD
43. TV
44. TX
45. IT
46. VT
47  VA
48. VA
49. rfV


I
21 23
11 1
1
1
1
4 1
1 1
1
1 1
1
3111
1 11
1 1
1 412
1
1 1
1
1
Bun & Braditreec Total 5J
Cenbus Total 25
1 1
1 3212
I 512
IV 1 1 1 1
2 L
1 24
1 1


2
1
821 1 1
1
1
3 1
1
11 12
11 1
I
1
1 1
2 1
1
2 2 ] 1
511 13
211 1
1
113 1

3 ,
3
1
2
ai
75
21 23
3 1
312
21 11
4 10 9 3
0- 10- 20- M)- 100- 500-

1 1
644 31
1
1 1
1 1 1
1
1 21
I 1
1
1
4 1 2 1 3 2 1
1
1 3 L 1 1
2 3 1 L 21
1 3.1 1
1



21
53
J 32421
3 42122
1
1 1 11
2 2221
1 1
645 I 3 1

Not '



1
1


2
2





2
1


                                                         32

-------
                                                   TABLE  II-6
                                                  (Continued)
                      10-  20-  50- 100- 500-
                                                           10-  20-  50-  100-  500-
                                                           15	43	23	499   Wt
26. MO
27  MT
30. SH
31. NJ
37. OK
33  OK
39. FA
                       Pwi_t_Br_3datreet Total   M
                                                          33

-------
                                     TABLE II-6
                                    (Continued)
34. SC
35. KD
36. OH
SIC 3678
20- 50- 100- '.00- tlot
49 99 499 999 IQOQf -hown


1 i








1















1












1111 1
Census Total 92




1 i
1 1


1 1
1111 1

0- 10- 2C-
9 19 49
213
14 4 8
307 154 173
16 3 11
15 21

1 1

3 4

1 1
25 41
8 14
1
2 8
1 2
1
9 9
35 40
12 15
11 13
2
3 1
2
1 54 63
5 3
1 48 73
7 2
16 22
4 7
2 6
27 34
4 9
2
I
4 1
1 2

3 3
1 2
21 i 10
"l249 528 ~66~T"

11B 59 15
249 102 136
92 41 49
68 31 34
209 77 115
94 37 3
50 8 1
21 4 1
324 160 14
24 9 1
1249 528 66
SIC
 11 '
69 3 26
59 1 15
37 34
104 9 30
19 47
16 0
f> 11
106 13 8 41
2 2
492 55 )4 127
                                                                                     5I5T
                                                                                      694
                                                                                       33
                                                                                     1855
                                          34

-------
     Both the overall differences in numbers between Dun and Bradstreet
and the Census of Manufactures and the very low Dun and Bradstreet numbers
for plants in SICs 3675, 3676, 3677 and 3678 indicate that their listing
has not been updated to reflect the separation of these product groups
from the pre-1972 SIC 3679.  The inclusion of these new categories was
initiated in the 1972 Census of Manufactures.

     The value of using information from Table II-6 for making regional and
state waste generation estimates based upon disaggregated employment is, for
these reasons, low.   A better data base on which the plant employment
statistics can be disaggregated geographically is not available.

     While available data does not allow reliable estimates for geographic
distribution of employment, employment figures are a reasonably good measure
of industry production as measured by value of shipments.  Due to variations
in raw material prices and in costs associated with process operations,
correlations between employee numbers and value of shipments are likely
valid only within a limited range of product types.  For instance, competi-
tion between transformer manufactures would create a somewhat constant ratio
of employees to value of shipments in SIC 3677 plants.  The same ratio would
not necessarily apply to plants manufacturing television picture tubes where
material and energy costs are quite different.

     Total employees: value of shipments and production employees: value of
shipment ratios for the four-digit SICs are presented in Table II-7.  These
ratios have been used for estimating value of shipments from a few of the
plants surveyed for this study which could not disclose their production
figures but could give either total employment or production employment.


GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCTION

     Due to the diversity of SIC 367 products, it appears that the best
indicator of production distribution is value of shipments.  This parameter
is reported in the 1972 Census of Manufactures in two ways that could be
used to describe production distribution.  Total value of plant shipments
are reported for plants according to their primary, four-digit SIC product
and according to the state and census region in which the plant is located.
Total value of plant shipments include values of primary products, secondary
products and miscellaneous receipts.  Alternatively, the value of product
shipments of specific products is reported for some states and census regions
regardless of the primary product SIC of the plants in which they were manu-
factured.  Due to the requirement that the Department of Commerce not publish
information which would disclose operational data for any single plant, neither
source of data is complete for all census regions or states.  However, the
plant-related parameter, total value of plant shipments, is associated with
data on the number of plants in most states.  Numbers of plants in the States
have been used here to extend the available value of shipments data to states
where the Department of Commerce could not report hard data.

     Total value of shipments is reported in the Census by four-digit SIC
and state for $3,511 million of the $8,798 million per year (1972) for the entire
industry.  To extend the data the assumption was made that the state value of plant
shipments can be estimated for each four-digit SIC by applying the formula:
                                    35

-------
    Number of plants in state	     Value of shipments     Value of ship-
  Number of plants in census region  x  for census region   =  ments for state

     This extrapolation was not done: (1) for states with less than four
plants classified in the primary SIC of concern; and (2) for states which
did not have applicable regional value of shipments data.

     Table II-8 presents both the firm value of shipments data from the
1972 Census of Manufactures and the extrapolated figures.  Extrapolated
data and state/SIC positions for which some data was presented in the
Census are identified by the letter (D).  Percentage of production covered
by firm plus extrapolated values are given for each four-digit SIC and for
the industry.

     It is interesting to note for the states which have the greatest pro-
duction that the ranking of state value of shipments for SIC 367 is not the
same as the ranking for number of plants in each state.  New York, which is
second to California in number of plants by a large margin, had the highest
value of shipments.  Pennsylvania also had a large value of shipments for
the number of plants.  The average value of shipments per plant for the 10
states with the greatest production is given in Table II-9.  High averages
in New York and Pennsylvania may indicate that plants there are more highly
integrated since larger plants, in general, contract out less work than smaller,
more specialized plants.


ECONOMIC TRENDS

     The best index available to estimate industry production for SIC 367
and its four-digit SIC's for different years is value of industry shipments
data adjusted by Wholesale Price Indexes, to reflect the changing value of
the dollars that are purchasing electronic components.   Wholesale Price Indexes
convert  current dollars for the month or year in question  which have 1967 as
the base year.  While this adjustment does not account for changes in the pro-
duction: value shipped ratio that would be due to mechanization, better
management, design innovation and other non-cost factors, it does make value of
shipments data for different years more comparable.

     Figure II-2 presents historic and projected value of industry shipments for
SIC 367 from 1958 through 1985.  As noted in this figure, data for 1958, 1963,
1967 and 1972 came from the Department of Commerce Census of Manufactures.
These numbers are based on the most comprehensive government surveys performed
for the industry.  Data for 1971 and 1973 are annual estimates based upon a
more limited data base.  Data for 1974, 1975, 1976 and 1985 are estimates made
by the Bureau of Domestic Commerce,  [10].

     Wholesale Price Indexes as shown in Figure II-2 were used to deflate the
value of industry shipments figures.  Increases in the Wholesale Price Indexes
for SIC 367 beginning in late 1973 generally occurred later and were of smaller
magnitude than the WPI  for all commodities.  No change in the WPI for SIC 367
has been assumed for projections beyond 1975  [11].
                                       36

-------
     Value of industry shipments projections at the four-digit SIC level have
been made by the government only to 1976 [10].  However, estimates have been
generated for the purposes of this report which reflect:  (1) the total size of
the industry projected for 1976 and 1985 by the Domestic and International
Business Administration; (2) proportion of the industry currently shared by the
nine four-digit SIC's; and (3) known trends in the industry.  The estimates for
1975, 1977 and 1985 are shown in Table 11-10.  Since the Wholesale Price Indexes
for electronic components was assumed to remain constant in the industry-wide
projections and since economic data collected during plant visits was in 1975
dollars, these estimates are all in 1975 dollars.

     Two major trends in the electronic components industry which would affect
waste generation projections are growth in SIC 3674 - Solid State Devices and
increasing use of foreign facilities for assembly of solid state devices whose
parts are fabricated within the United States.  Increasing reliance on semi-
conductors is supplanting production potential in SIC 3671 Electron Tubes -
Receiving, SIC 3676 - Resistors and SIC 3675 - Capacitors [11].  These trends
are reflected in Table 11-10.  Strong competition within the industry, especially
in the rapidly expanding semiconductor segment, is resulting in some companies
taking advantage of cheaper labor markets in foreign countries.  Typically, a
company with plants in the United States and in countries such as Mexico,
North Korea, Taiwan or the Phillipines will produce parts that require highly
skilled workers and supervisory personnel in the United States.  These parts
are shipped to the company's overseas plants for assembly in complex components
or in end-of-line products [11].  The effect of increased use of foreign plants
is not factored into future production estimates [10] which are the basis here
for future waste generation estimates.  1977 and 1983 waste generation esti-
mates would be reduced to an unquantifyable degree by increased foreign pro-
duction or assembly operations.  Other market and technology changes in this
turbulent industry could have significant,  but presently unpredictable, effects
on the amounts and types of land-disposed waste generated.
                                  37

-------
38

-------
                               TABLE II-7

                    Employee to Value of Shipment Ratios
              for the Four-digit SIC's - Electronic Components
        Values in terms of Number of Employees Per Million Dollars
             Total Employees                  Production Employees
                                               Value of Shipments

                                                      41.2

                                                      17.5

                                                      25.7

                                                      21.6

                                                      50.5

                                                      42.2

                                                      54.0

                                                      26.0

                                                      22.7

367               38.1                                26.4

3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
Value of Shipmen
49.5
21.5
42.8
36.1
62.1
55.1
66.8
37.6
33.1
SOURCE:  1972 Census of Manufactures
NOTE:  These statistics were used to estimate annual value of shipments
       for surveyed plants which could provide production employee or
       total employee data but could not release data on value of shipments.
       Plant value of shipments are used in this study to extrapolate plant
       waste data to industry estimates.
                                   39

-------
                   Value of Shipments for th^ Nation,  EPA Regions  and  States  by  Four-digit  SIC  ami  the  Industry.
                      Values are for Total Shipments from Plants Classified  in the  Designated Primary SlC's
State

1. ALA
2. AL
3. AZ
4. ARK
5. CA
6. CO
7. CS
8. DE
9. DC
10. FL
11. GA
12. HI
13. ID
14. IL
15. IN
16. IA
17. KS
18. KY
19. LA
20. ME
21. MD
22. MA
23. MI
24. MIN
25. MIS
26. MO
27. MT
28. NB
29. NV
30. NH
31. NJ
32. NM
33. NY
34. NC
35. ND
36. OH
37. OK
38. OR
39. PA
40. RI
41. SC
42. SD
43. TN
44. TX
45. UT
46. VT
47. VA
48. WA
49. WV
50. WI
51. WY
Total from
3671
IV
X
IX
VI
IX
VIII
I
III
III
IV
IV
IX
X
V
V (D)
VII
VII
iv CD)
VI
i
in
i CD)
V
V
IV
VII
VIII
VII
IX
i
II (D)
VI
II
IV
VIII
v CD)
VI
X
in CD)
i
IV
VIII
IV
VI
VIII
i
in
X
III
V
VIII
Table 0
3672 3673 3674 3675 3676 3677
CD)

55.0 W (D)
CD)
177.3 W 742.6 W 43.7 W 42.3 W 32.3 W
(D)
25.9 W 7.7 28.8 W (D) 5.5


CD) 151.4 W CD) CD) 12.7 (D)


(D)
129.8 W CD) 3.4 (D) 35.6 W 62.1
81.1 W CD) CD) 42.8 W 34.9
(D) 8.0 W



14.7 W (D)

86.6 W 250.1 W 19.2 W 1?.0 W 6.9 W
3.0 11.8
CD) 12.0 W

6.8 W (D)

(D) CD)

CD) (D) 9.6 W
CD) 60.6 W 26.6 12.8 34.1 W 13.8
(D)
CD) 25.9 W 496.6 19.7 15.1 W 48.8
34.2 35.0

113.5 W 18.3 W CD) 24.7

(D)
(D) 34.6 W 288.2 25.8 37.9 W 26.5
29.4 W
48.6 W (D)
CD)
(D) (D)
235.5 " (D) (D)
(D) CD)
7.4 W (D)
(D) 67.3 W 23.3 (D)

(D) CD)
CD) 9.7 W

324.4 410.9 2404.0 256.1 264.4 309.7
3678
16.

21.
CD)
59.0 W 384.
17.
44.5 76.


(D) 82.



57.9 W 262.
CD) 50.
13.
13.



29.
6.6 167.
(D) 29.
CD) 67.

21.

11.

CD) 24 .
(D) 168.

87.8 1135.
11.

28.9 W 57.
CD) 10 .
8.
81.5 W 99.
CD) 13 ,



32.


35.
13.

419.

366.2 2924.
3679
0

4

5
8
1


8



8
6
0
1



9
7
3
6

1

1

4
0

7
8

4
8
9
1
3



4


6
4

0

6
U

W
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W
V


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w
W

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CD)
w






w





w


w
w

w

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W



w

w


To Ml
16.

76.

1481.
17.
188.


246.



551,
209,
21,
13,.


14 .,
29.
549.
44.
79.

29.

11.

34,
313.,

1829.
81.

242.
0

4

7
3
5


')



6
4
0
i


7
I
I
1
6

t

I

0
9

6
0

a
10.8
8.
593.
42.
48.


267.

7.
126.
13.

58.

7260.
9
6
7
6


9

4
2
4

7

3
National Total from
Census of
% included
Table
EPA Region
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X


LEGEND.




Mfg. 230.4
in
0
(from data in Table











Entry

Blank
CD)
18 . 3 vJ
2s). 9
696.5 479.3 2686.9 445.8 372.2 353.5

46.6 85.7 89.4 57.4 71.0 87.6
only)
112.5 309.3 48.0 21.6 12.4
86.5 523.2 32.5 46.5 62.6
101.9 311.5 25.8 37.9 26.5
151.4 34.2 83.6 12.7
324.4 24.7 78.4 155.2
235.5
6.8 8.0

177.3 797.6 43.7 42.3 32.3


Interpretation

- No data available
- Data provided in Census insufficient for e 
-------
                                TABLE II-9

                    Average Value of Shipments Per Plant
                 for the 10 States with Largest Production
                 SIC  367 Value
                  of Shipments
Value of Shipment
    per plant
New York

California

Pennsylvania

Illinois

Massachusetts

New Jersey

Texas

Florida

Ohio

Indiana
($ million/year)
1829.6
1481.7
593.6
551.6
549.1
313.9
267.9
246.9
242.8
209.4
Number of Plants
339
652
156
225
210
249
94
94
93
66
($ million/year)
5.4
2.3
3.8
2.4
2.6
1.3
2.8
2,6
2.6
3.2
SOURCE:  1972 Census of Manufactures
                                       41

-------




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                                   SECTION III

                              WASTE CHARACTERIZATION


INTRODUCTION

     The products of the electronic components manufacturing industry are typified
by a high degree of design diversity.   The manufacturing processes used to achieve
the product designs are numerous and not consistently related to design.   While the
products and the process designs of the industry can be grouped according to func-
tion, there is little direct correlation between product groups (as defined by the
four-digit SIC's) and wastes generated from their manufacture.   There is better
correlation between manufacturing process used and wastes generated.   However, since
manufacturing processes often vary widely even within restricted product groups,  the
correlation between available industry employment, plant size,  and production data
on the one hand, and wastes on the other, cannot be made on the basis of manufacturing
process.  For these reasons, waste streams are defined for this study according to the
general chemical nature of process wastes actually recognized in the plants surveyed.
This approach is facilitated by the practice common in the industry of segregating
some of their process wastes.  Discussion of treatment and disposal technology is also
aided by using waste-defined waste streams.

     Ten process waste categories with potential for final disposal in or on the land
were recognized during the 22 plant visits made for this study:

     0   Halogenated Solvents
     0   Non-halogenated Solvents
     0   Wastewater Treatment Sludges
     0   Plastics
         Oils
     0   Paint Wastes
     0   Metal Scrap
     0   Concentrated Cyanides
     0   Concentrated Acids or Alkalies
     0   Plant trash (includes miscellaneous process wastes)

     The nature and process sources of these waste streams will be discussed in this
section.  Estimates of industry-wide quantities have been made for the first six
waste categories for 1975, 1977 and 1983.  Hazardous constituents of the waste
streams, as defined by considerations discussed below, have also been estimated.
Results of these estimations are presented in Tables III-1-3.  Disaggregation by
state and EPA region of waste streams containing significant amounts of hazardous
constituents and of the hazardous constituents themselves is discussed in this sec-
tion.  Results of the disaggregations are presented in Appendix B.

      Metal scrap,  concentrated  cyanides,  and  concentrated acids  and  alkalies  are
not  land-disposed  in  significant  quantities by  the  industry.   Metal  scrap,
except  beryllium oxide wastes,  is nearly always sold  to  metal  reclaimers.   The
                                        45

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cyanides, acids and alkalies are typically oxidized and neutralized by convention-
al methods of wastewater treatment and produce no residue for land disposal.  Only
one of the twenty-three surveyed plants land disposed of concentrated cyanides or
acids.  The only hazardous waste recognized in the miscellaneous category was one
containing polychlorinated biphenyls.  The low frequency at which these process
wastes were land-disposed by the surveyed plants resulted in insufficient data
to support extrapolation to prevent area (SIC) or industry-wide levels.

CRITERIA FOR THE DETERMINATION OF A POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE

     There are many definitions of "hazardous materials" in use today.  They are
variously designed for application in implementing the Clean Air Act, the
Longshoremen's and Harbor Worker's Compensation Act, and Department of Transpor-
tation regulations.  Others are built into pending legislation on solid waste
disposal, and still others have been posed for purposes of earlier EPA hazardous
waste studies relating to other industries.  The two considerations, stated or
implied, most common to all of them are the potential for acute or chronic adverse
effects.  This concept is also inherent in the hazardous criteria applied in this
report.

     One definition of "hazardous waste" in rather wide use is any waste or combin-
ation of wastes which pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human
health or living organisms because such wastes are lethal, non-degradable, or
persistent in nature; may be biologically magnified; or may otherwise cause or
tend to cause detrimental cumulative effects.  In interpreting this definition
in its Report to Congress, Disposal of Hazardous Wastes [12], submitted in ac-
cordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, EPA established five categories of
hazardous wastes.  These are:  toxic chemical, flammable, biological, radioactive,
and explosive.  The wastes generated by SIC 367 plants fall within the first two
of these categories.  No wastes are produced which meet the definitions of the
radioactive, explosive, or biological categories set forth in the report.

     Toxicity is defined in the Report to Congress as the ability of a waste
to produce injury upon contact with or accumulation in a susceptible site in
or on the body of a living organism.  Toxicity, as it applies to the wastes of
these industries, may be manifested in several ways.  A corrosive waste may
produce dermal irritation, an acute toxic effect.  This type of waste may also
be involved in long range situations because of interaction with metals or
other wastes.  Genetic change and bioconcentration are also long term effects
which are not immediately discernible.  The remaining manifestations of toxicity,
ranging from minor systemic or local injury to death, are grouped under the
umbrella term of "toxicity" for the purposes of this report.

     While  these effects,  in the usual use of  the term, are  frequently
exhibited in  acute  form,  the effects which may result  from  the wastes of  these
industries  are most likely to be long term,  chronic  effects.  This  is because
wastes  are  produced which by almost any definition must be  classified as  po-
tentially hazardous, but  the quantities generated are  unlikely to create  acute
situations  in the ambient environment.

     The degree of  flammability of  a waste is  rather easily  established as  dis-
cussed  below, but most toxic effects are not as  readily measured.

-------
     Toxicity

     Within the scope of this project,  assessment of whether wastes may present
a potential hazard due to toxic effects must be based on available information
and evidence generated by experts in the toxicological field.   The body of
toxicological literature, however,  suffers certain deficiencies for the pur-
poses of this project.  The most serious of these is that it is nearly all
occupationally or laboratory oriented.   Correlations between concentrations of
substances and morbidity and mortality data are scarce,  and frequently an epi-
sode — ranging from simple irritation to death — is described without refer-
ence to the amount of the compound which engendered it.   In the few cases where
this information is given, however, it usually documents toxic responses to high-
er concentrations than levels which could be expected to accrue from deposition
of relatively small quantities of these substances in a land disposal operation.
Few epidemiological facts are available so that information developed on the
basis of occupational or laboratory exposure must be substituted.

     The literature is replete with descriptions and documentation of the toxi-
city of elemental substances, but reliable information on certain specific com-
pounds used by manufacturing plants within SIC 367 is sparse or apparently non-
existent on some materials which have only recently come into use.  In some
cases where data are available, multiple references are in conflict with one
another.

     Because of these constraints on documenting the chronic long term toxi-
city of compounds at various concentrations, it was decided to accept the
Federal Water Quality Criteria [14] as the basis for assessing toxicity of
process waste constituents.  Process waste constituents which are present
in soluble form in a waste or which leach in a concentration which exceeds
the relevant criteria renders the waste potentially hazardous.  The revision
of the criteria under a new title,  Quality Criteria for Water, is not yet
completed, although draft information is available which reflects current
thinking.

     Data have been developed through laboratory leachate tests performed on
waste samples collected at surveyed plants to support this approach.  These
are discussed below.  It is a conservative approach and is based more on
unknown factors than known ones with regard to the fate of these compounds in
a land disposal operation.  In the absence of an accurate gauge of their be-
havior under all environmental conditions, including synergism or inhibition,
this narrow criterion appears to be a necessary safeguard against improper dis-
posal.  The criterion may result in the classification of some wastes as toxic
which may not reach harmful concentrations in water leachate or runoff as a
result of unsecured land disposal.   For instance, sludges resulting from chemi-
cal precipitation of electroplating wastewaters may not release harmful concen-
trations of heavy metal ions in a landfill unless saturated by ground water or
disposed along with acid wastes.  Oils disposed of in drums may leak into the
landfill over time but absorption and adsorption by fill dirt or other material
may contain the oils adequately.  As more data are developed on the long-term
behavior of these substances in landfill situations, the strict criterion ap-
plied here could be subject to revision.
                                     50

-------
     An acute toxic criterion applicable to electronic components manufactur-
ing wastes is somewhat easier to document since it is more closely akin to
occupationally-oriented concentrations.   This is the corrosivity/dermal irri-
tation criterion which, for purposes of this study,  has been set at a pH of
less than 5.0 and greater than 9.0, which are widely accepted safety ranges
[14].  The intensity of the local and secondary complications, however, is
more directly related to the concentration of the corrosive substance than
to the volume or "dose" [15].

     Bioconcentration may be defined as the selective concentration, or
storing, of a specific chemical species by an organism.  This phenomenon
occurs in organisms ranging from water-borne microorganisms to humans.  An
organism's own chemistry will determine which substances it will accumulate
and in what quantities.

     While there is still a great deal to be learned about this process, there
is ample evidence to show that several substances contained in the wastes from
the manufacture of electronic components can be retained and stored by organisms
up to harmful levels.  These include cadmium, lead,  mercury, and polychlorinated
biphyenyls (PCB's) [16-23]. Thus, the entry of any amount of these substances
into the environment is undesirable from the standpoint of the potential long-
term hazards.  However, cadmium, lead, and mercury are naturally present in at
least trace amounts in many materials which become wastes, and PCB's have
become widely disseminated in recent years.  This being the case, the bioconcen-
tration criterion for use in this report is that any measurable amount of these
substances in a waste results in a hazardous designation.

     Flammability

     The second criterion applied to wastes of the subject industries in
determining their hazardous nature is the measure of flammability.  Any
waste with a flash point of 38°C (100°F) or less as  measured by the Tag
Open Tester is deemed a potential acute hazard.  This is the limit which is
used by the Department of Transportation to designate hazardous flammable
solvents which require a red label warning.

     The application of the measure of flammability  to specific pure organic
solvents is quite precise.  This information is widely available in chemical
and supplier literature.  The flash point of mixed solvents as well as solvent-
laden wastes is not as well established although a new test procedure has been
developed and has been implemented to test the flash point of selected wastes
[25].  For purposes of this study,  any mixture of waste organic solvents with
a flash point of 38°C (100°F) or below is considered potentially hazardous.
This is the same criteria for flammability used by the U. S. Department of
Transportation [41].

DEFINITION OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE STREAMS

     A hazardous waste stream emanating from SIC 367 plants is defined as one
which meets one or more of the following criteria:
                                     51

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        Hazard                            Criteria for Waste Streams

     Flammability                         Flashpoint less than 38°C (100°F)  [41]

     Corrosivlty/dermal irritation        pH less than 5.0 or greater than 9.0

     Toxicity                             Raw waste or water leachate of a waste
                                          contains a constituent exceeding maxi-
                                          mum contaminant level of Federal Water
                                          Quality Criteria [14]

     Bioconcentration                     Contains cadmium, lead,  mercury, or
                                          PCB, in any detectable concentration

     The waste streams of these industries necessitate this broad definition.
In some cases, a hazardous constituent accounts for the bulk of the waste stream
or is the only component.  In others,  hazardous constituents account for a much
smaller portion of the total waste stream, but are distributed throughout and
cannot be segregated in waste handling.

     When waste streams are neutralized, equalized, or otherwise chemically
treated on the premises to the extent that they no longer meet any of the
above criteria and are mechanically handled in the process, they are not con-
sidered potentially hazardous waste streams for disposal.

     Sampling Techniques and Analytical Methods

     In order to develop new information on the waste streams of these indus-
tries to support hazardous/non-hazardous classifications, samples were collect-
ed at surveyed plants.  The selection of the sample(s) to be taken was left to
the discretion of the survey team since each plant is different in terms of
process and raw material usage.  However, the general guidelines were that:
(1) the wastes should be destined for land disposal or incineration, and (2)
they should be generated in relatively significant quantities  (usually defined
as more than 190 liters  (50 gallons) per year).  As a result of this plus waste
availability, the waste streams collected varied from one facility to another.

     The samples are all grab samples and represent the characteristics of a
waste only at the time it was taken.  Sixteen samples of both liquid and solid
materials were analyzed.

     The analytical methods employed are described in detail in Appendix C.
Briefly, the methodology was as follows:

     0   Metals - atomic absorption spectroscopy
     0   Oil and Grease - hexane extraction
     0   H20 - Karl Fischer titration

     Certain constituents of the samples were analyzed both a£5 the samples were
received and as they were leached with distilled water.  These constituents were
                                    52

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metals including cadmium,  chromium,  copper, iron,  lead,  zinc,  nickel,  and mangan-
ese.  These metals were chosen based on:   (1) their hazardous  nature,  and (2)
the likelihood of finding them in detectable concentrations in the waste streams.

WASTE GENERATION;  RAW MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND  WASTE SOURCES

     The composition and quantity of individual process  wastes result  from raw
materials usage, types of manufacturing processes  and the sequence of  manufac-
turing processes (process flow).   Materials, processes and process flows are,
in turn, determined by product and process design.   As stated  previously, there
is no consistent industry-wide relationship between product design and manufac-
turing process design.  Competition based largely  upon innovative design enforces
product and process diversity.  Design changes in  traditional  components such
as electron tubes, resistors and transformers appear to  be intended primarily  to
!_%,rove component reliability and secondarily to reduce  costs.  In product areas
where the product technology has not yet matured,  such as semiconductors,
complex components (two or more components assembled into a single unit) and
recently developed components which have not yet realized high-volume produc-
tion, design changes appear to be intended to improve component functions
primarily and reliability secondarily.  New electronic components have been de-
veloped continuously, particularly since World War II.

     Because general relationships cannot be described between product areas
(SIC's) and process wastes, the approach used here in describing the wastes
of the industry is empirical.  Data gathered during 22 plant visits and con-
tained in one report provided by a plant not visited has been assumed to be
representative of the industry.  Plants were selected for the survey accord-
ing to the following criteria in order that the group be as representative of
the industry as possible and also yield the maximum amount of  data:

     0   Product representation was achieved by surveying a number of plants
         within a product area (four-digit SIC) proportional to the value of
         shipments of that part of the industry.  1972 Census  data [5] was the
         base for determining the proportions.

     0   Geographic representation was achieved by surveying a number of plants
         within each Census region proportional to the number of electronic
         component manufacturing plants in that region.   The Census regions are
         those groups of states used by the Department of Commerce for industrial
         surveys.

     0   Whenever feasible, plants with the most highly integrated (least amount
         of jobbing work out) operations were selected for survey.  This re-
         sulted in an average value of shipments per plant for the surveyed
         plants, $16.9 million, that was four times the average value of ship-
         ments per plant for the industry, $4.2 million [10].   This bias toward
         the larger, more highly integrated plants was established for the pur-
         pose of maximizing  number of manufacturing processes and wastes ob-
         served for a given number of plants.  One result of this bias is thought
         to be a slight overestimation of waste volumes for the industry as a
         whole because, in general,  the plants visited were generating all of
                                    53

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         the wastes related to produce manufacture,  whereas smaller shops would
         have some of the product wastes generated by a job shop.   There Is no
         data available on the amount of work jobbed out by smaller plants.
         Reduction of the waste quantity estimates according; to the degree of
         jobbing is not feasible, therefore.

     The distribution of surveyed plants by product  and by geographic location
is shown in Table III-4.  It is noteworthy that the  target number of plants for
this study, 25,  was not achieved due to industry reluctance to participate volun-
tarily in this study.  These companies which  did allow surveys were exceptional
in this regard.

      Raw materials,  common manufacturing  processes  and wastes  of  the electronic
 components manufacturing  industry are  described  in  the  following  sections.
 Example process  flow diagrams  for five major product areas  are presented  at
 the  end of this  section which  show  the relationships between raw  materials,
 manufacturing processes,  and wastes.

      Raw Materials

      The list of  raw materials  recognized during  the twenty-two plant visits
 includes ninety-plus materials  that  fall  into  ten categories according  to
 chemical composition.   The categories  and materials are  listed in Table III-5
 along with their  most  common  function(s).  Only  those materials are included
 that either;  (1)  were  used, in  whatever amount,  in  a variety of products  or
 (2)  were significant to the manufacture of at  least one  product.   The type
 of use  in  the industry, whether general to several  products or significant
 to one  or  a few  products  and whether incorporated into  the  product or just
 necessary  to processes, is also noted  for the  materials  in  Table  III-5.

      This  list cannot  be  considered  inclusive  for the industry.   Product  de-
 sign varies considerably  within product groups,  even for such  established
 components such  as resistors,  capacitors  and electron tubes.  Material  compo-
 sition, both product and  non-product,  is  often considered a trade secret  so
 that materials found in some  plants may be dissimilar from  materials used
 for  the same product in another plant.  Many low-volume  and recently developed
 electronic components,  where  product design would vary  even more  than for
 the  established  components, have not even been recognized in this survey.  It
 is probable that  the raw  materials  list for electronic  components  manufacturing
 would increase in direct  proportion  to the number of plants visited until a
 great number of plants  were included.

      Nevertheless, because the  method  of  selecting  plants for  the survey
 was  oriented toward  (1) including as many product types  as  possible and (2)
 including  mainly  large, well  integrated plants, most of  the commonly used
 and  many of the waste-significant (high volume or high hazard potential)
 materials  have been  recognized  during  the survey  and are included in Table III-5,

      The ten material  categories are discussed below.   Significant properties
 which make the categories useful to  the industry, or which  result  in a
 recognizable hazard  potential  are emphasized.
                                     54

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 I
M
H
          S3
          O
          M
          O
          W
          Pn
          W
                             co
                             a
                             o
                            •H
                             M
                                                 i-H  i-H CM
O CM  CO LO  r—I CM  1—I
                                                                   r-lco
                                                                      (CM
                             >-( 4J
                             o a
                             *8
                                (/I
                                          CM  ro
                                                               oo o\
                                                               55

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                                                         TABLE III-5

                                   RAW MATERIALS  IN ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                Material

              Gold
              Silver
              Platinum
              Palladium
              Solder: Pb/Sn
              Aluminum
              Silicon
              Stainless Steel
              Kovar metal
              Copper stock
              Copper wire
              Brass
              P-Bronze
              Tungsten
              Molybedenum
              Nickel

              Chromium

              Beryllium
              Be/Cu alloy
              Chromium cyanide

Metal         Copper cyanide
Salts         Silver cyanide
              Gold cyanide
              Rhodium sulfate
              Nickel chloride
              Nickel sulfate
              Sodium cyanide
              Potassium cyanide
              Potassium stannate
              Zinc sulfide
              Zinc-cadmium sulfide
              Zinc stearate
              Ammonium dichromate

              Yttrium oxide

Metal Oxides  Cadmium oxide
and Carbonate Lead oxide
              Titanium oxide
              Sand
              Barium Carbonate
              Strontium carbonate
              Calcium carbonate
              Iron, Zinc, Magne-
                sium, Lead and
                Strontium oxides
              Magnesium, Ammo-
                nium, Calcium, and
                Nickel carbonates
              Aluminum oxide

              BeO ceramic
              Barium titanate

Glass         Structural glass

              Specially formu-
                lated glasses

Plastics      Silver epoxy
              Thermosetting plastics
              2-part epoxy resins
              Sllicone/Rubber
              Resin shields

Paints and    Epoxy-based paints
Organic       Oil-based paints
Coatings      Lacquers and varnishes
              Graphite paint
              Polychlorinated
                blphenols
                                                         Function
Conductive, protective coating
Conductive, protective coating
Incorporated in capacitors for conductive prop.
Incorporated in capacitors for conductive prop.
Lead attachments
Metal vacuum coating; wire; structural
Substrate for semiconductors and int. circuits
Structural and conductive metal
Structural and conductive netal
Structural and conductive metal
Conductive metal
Structural and conductive metal
Structural and conductive metal
Heating element for vacuum metalizing
Current carrier for vacuum metalizing
Conductive, protective coating; provides
  strength and corrosion resistance in alloys
Conductive, protective coating; provides
  strength and corrosion resistance in alloys
Windows for X-ray tubes
Electrical contacts
Source of chromium for electroplating

Source of copper for electroplating
Source of silver for electroplating
Source of gold for electroolating
Source of rhodium for electroplating
Source of nickel for electroplating
Source of nickel for electroplating
Metal cleaner for electropLating
Metal cleaner for electroplating
Source of tin for electroplating
Phosphor in black & white and color TV tubes
Phosphor in black & white and color TV tubes
Binder for products formed from powders
Component of color TV picture tube screen
  photoresist
Phosphor in color TV tubes

Source of cadmium for electroplating
Used in making glass/glass seals  (fritting)
Component of carbon-core r€>sistors
Component of carbon-core resistors
Coating on electron tube c£thodes
Coating on electron tube cathodes
Coating on electron tube cathodes
Components of ferrites and permanent magnets
Components of ferrites and permanent magnets
Sapphire crystal growing, semiconductor
  glassivation and grit blasting
Insulator for high-temperature uses
Ferroelectric ceramics

TV tube and receiving tube bodies;
  hermetic seals for other components
Coating on some semiconductors; photocon-
  ductors; windows in special purpose  tubes

Adhesive, sealant and electronic conductor
Encapsulation of components
Encapsulation of components
Encapsulation of components
Protective lining in TV tubes

Protective covering and labeling
Protective covering and labeling
Protective covering insulatLon & impregnation
TV tube painting
Dielectric fluid in transformers and
  capacitors (not found in surveyed plant).
  Impregnation of carbon-core resistors.
                                                                                                    Usage
General use, minor amounts
General use, minor amounts
Specialized - 3675
Specialized - 3675
General
General
Specialized - 3674
General
General
General
General
Specialized - 3673
Specialized - 3673
Non-product
Non-product

General

General
Specialized - 3673
Specialized - 3673
General

Genera 1
General; minor amounts
General; minor amounts
General; minor amounts
Genera L
Genera L
Gc-nera L
Genera L
Genera I.
Spiecia Lized
Specialized
Specialized
3672
3672
3672 and Ferrites
Specialized - 3672
Specialized - 3672

Specialized - 3673
Specialized - 3672
Specialized - 3676
Specialized - 3676
Specialized - 3671 (. 3672
Specialized - 3671 i 3672
Specialized - 3671 t, 3672
Specialized - Ferrites
Specialized - Ferrites
Specialized - 3674
and Crystals
Specialized - 3673
General
General

Specialized - 3673 & 3674

Possibly general - limited ami.
General
General
General
Specialized - 3672

General
General
General
Specizlized - 3672
Specialized - 3675, 3676,
& 3677.
                                                    56

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Table  III-5  -  Cont'd.
Oils
                Material
              Cutting oils
              Mineral oil
              Hydraulic oils

              Zero-sulfur oil
                                                         Function
                         Coolant  and  lubricant  in  grinding, cutting,
                           and polishing operations.   Normally mixed
                           with high  proportion of water

                         Energy transfer in  machinery  used for
                           material forming  and material  removal
                         Filling  some special purpose  electron tubes
                                                                                                   Usage
Chlorinated
Solvents
Trichloroethylene         Vapor  and immersion degreasing
1,1,1 Trichloroethane    Vapor  and immersion decreasing
Perchloroethylene         Vapor  and immersion decreasing
Trifluorotrichloroethane Vapor  and immersion degreasing  and drying
Methylene chloride        Paint  and resin stripping
Non-chlorinated
Solvents
              Methyl alcohol

              Isopropyl alcohol
              Polyvinyl alcohol
              Ethyl acetate
              n-butyl acetate
              Xylene
              Toluene
              Acetone

              Methyl ethyl ketone
              Cyclohexanone

              Stoddard solvent

              Graphite

              Carbon
              Asbestos
              Silicon carbide
              Arsine, diborane, &
                phosphorus oxychloride
                gases
              Rosin
                         Immersion degreasing and  drying; vehicle
                           for photoresist
                         Immersion drying
                         Vehicle for graphite paint  &  photo resist
                         Vehicle for graphite paint  &  photo resist
                         Photoresist stripping
                         Vehicle for photoresist and epoxy resin paint
                         Vehicle for acrylic lacquer;  cleaning used
                           picture tubes ; vehicle  for  metal oxides
                           in magnetic tape manufacturing.
                         Immersion drying and degreasing; paint &
                           organic coating equipment cleaner
                         Plastics cleaning
                         Vehicle for metal oxides  in magnetic
                           tape manufacturing
                         Equipment maintenance

                         Component conductive paint  and  carbon-
                           core resistors
                         Component of carbon-core  resistors
                         Parts wrapping
                         Abrasive
                         Semiconductor doping
                         Soldering flux
General - non-product



General - non-product

Specialized - 3673

General
General
General
General
Specialized - 3672


General

General
Specialized - 3672
Specialized - Ferrites
Specialized - 3674
General
General
General

Specialized - Magnetic Tape
General
Specialized - 3672 & 3676
Specialized - 3676
Specialized
Specizlized - crystals
Specialized - 3674
General
                                             57

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     Metals - Metals are essential to all electronic components due to their
conductive properties toward electricity.  Silver, gold, copper, aluminum,
tin and their alloys are utilized because their high conductivity is essential
to the operation of components or because their use in leads and connectors
keeps electric power loss to a minimum.  A tremendous variety of alloys of
these metals with each other and with other elements such as lead, nickel,
chromium, iron, beryllium, zinc, silicon, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese,
palladium, and rhodium.  These metals or their alloys are selected for use
in electronic components according to their conductivity, resistivity,
resistance to corrosion, durability transparency to magnetism, transparency
to radiation, ease of attachment to other  metals and cost.

     Another group of alloys including stainless steel, Kovar steel, brass,
bronze and phosphorus bronze are selected for use as structural elements of
electronic components based upon their strength, ease of attachment to other
metals, and conductivity.

     Two metals which have poor conductivity in their pure form, silicon
and germanium, were used in the surveyed semiconductor plants as substances
for integrated circuits and semiconductors.  These metals acquire useful
electronic characteristics when doped with impurities such as aluminum, boron,
phosphorus and arsenic.

     With the exceptions of beryllium metal and beryllium/copper alloy
(.4 to 2.0% Be), the metals in this material category have no hazardous pro-
perties.  Small surface to volume ratios of metal and metal scrap prevent
significant dissolution in water and solvents.  Some possibly 'hazardous metal
oxides and metal ions may be lost to wastewater streams as a result of metal
cleaning operations using acids, alkalies or cyanides.  Metal ions and oxides
so generated will, however, be treated and disposed of along with similar ions
and oxides from other material categories.

     Metal Salts -  The predominant use in the electronic components industry
of non-carbonate metal salts is in electroplating.  Many metal parts used in
components must be protected from corrosion by plating with nickel, chromium,
silver, gold,  rhodium, or tin.  Typically, steel or copper parts must be plated
with copper prior to the protective metal plating.  Combinations of the
plated metals, either in layers or as alloys with each other or with addi-
tional metals such as indium, zinc, cadmium, or cobalt are also used.

     A list of metal plating processes which were recognized during the plant
survey or which would probably find application in the industry is presented
in Table III-6.   Also shown in that table are the components of the plating
baths which might have to be removed from dragout wastewater or which would
be present in the concentrated baths when disposed of.  Concentrations in
ounces per gallon  and grains per liter shown are for fresh baths.   Concentra-
tions in the depleted baths may be equal to or somewhat less than in the fresh
bath, since optimum plating characteristics are not maintained below the
minimum concentrations shown.  Constituent concentrations in dragout wastewater
will be several orders of magnitude less than the bath concentrations because
of dilution.
                                     58

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                                 TABLE III-6
                Metal Plating  Processes, Bath Constituents and
      Concentrations of Constituents in the Electronic Components  Industry
    Plating Process
Cyanide Copper (alkaline)
Copper Pyrophosphate
    (alkaline)
Copper Sulfate

Copper Flurborate

Watts Nickel


Sulfumate Nickel


Fluoborate Nickel


Bright Nickel

Electroless Nickel

Decorative chromium
Silver

Gold

Rhodium
Tin
Main Bath Constituents

    Free CN"
        ++
      Cu
   pyrophosphate

   sulfuric acid

      BF~
      Ni
 sulfates and chlorides
     Boric acid
      Ni
  Sulfamate (SOjNI^)
    boric acid

     BF4~
     boric acid
Operating Concentrations
   (oz/gal.)   grams/liter
        2-11       15-82
     .5 - 2.4    3.7-18

        2-4        15-30
      23 - 28    172-209
     5.2 - 6.6     39-49
       4-10      30-75
       8-16     59-118
      22 - 44    164-329
      7.7 - 14.2  58-106
      not specified
        4-6     30-45
       8.2 - 15   61-112
       26 -  15  194-860
        4-6     30-45
      7.6 - 10.5  57-78
       22 - 30  164-224
        2-4    15-30
                             same as Watt's Nickel with cobalt, zinc,
                               cadmium or organic brightners
                                   Ni
                                Sodium hypophosphite
                                   Cr 03
                                    Ag+
                                  Free CN~
                                    Au
                                  Free CN~
                                    Rh
                                    Sn
                                     6-13    45-97
                                    10 - 27    75-202
                                    20 - 54   150-404
                                    2.6 - 3.5  19-26
                                      4-6    30-45
                                    .16 - 2.5 1.2-19
                                      4-6    30-45
                                    1.3 - 2.6 9.7-19
                                      5-21   37-157
SOURCE:   Metals Handbook. Vol.  2  [26].
                                     59

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     Metals to be electroplated must be thoroughly cleaned.  A cyanide copper
plate is often the first layer applied.  Immediately before this is done,
a cyanide cleaning bath containing either potassium or sodium cyanide, is
used.  These salts are also added to copper, silver and gold plating baths
themselves to maintain the design concentration of cyanide.

     A second significant use of metal salts in the electronic component
industry is as luminescent phosphors in cathode ray tubes..  Phosphors
are crystalline salts, usually sulfides, silicates or fluorides to which a.
small amount of metal has been added as an impurity.  Average size of the
phosphor particles usually lies between 2 and 20 micrometers.   The phosphors
luminesce with color and emission persistence characteristics that depend
on the composition of the phosphor, particle size, thickness of the glass
screen, and phosphor application technique [27].

     A list of registered phosphors is presented in Table III-7 along with
their typical uses.  Phosphors P4 and P22 are expected to be the most widely
used due to their application in television picture tubes.

     A specialized use is made of zinc stearate, an organic salt, for binding
powders in non-plastics melding operations.  Zinc stearate is blended with
mixtures of metal oxides or other compounds prior to molding components or
component parts.   Baking volatilizes the stearate and binds the particles
into a solid mass.  Use of zinc stearate was recognized during the plant
surveys in the manufacture of resistors and ferrites.

     A specialized use of ammonium dichromate is made in screening color
television picture tubes.  Photoresist used to form a matrix on the screen
contains this toxic salt.  When selectively stripped from the. screen with
hydrogen peroxide, the photoresist and dichromate salt are removed from the
tube and disposed of.

     Metal Oxides and Carbonates - A variety of purposes were found during
the plant surveys for metal oxides and carbonates in the electronic components
industry.

     Metal carbonates were found to be components of ferrite materials and
permanent magnets.  Magnesium, ammonium, calcium and nickel carbonates are
powdered and mixed with the oxides of iron, zinc, magnesium, lead and
strontium prior to molding into various shaped ferrites.  Barium, strontium,
and calcium carbonate are coated on the cathodes of electron tubes, both
receiving and cathode ray tubes.

     Lead oxides are used in the finishing and repair of glass tubes.  The
oxide is a major component of glass stock used to make glass to glass seals
(glass fritting)  when inserting cathode ray guns in TV picture tubes, for
instance.

     Cadmium oxide is the source of cadmium in electroplating.  Only limited
use of cadmium plating was recognized in plant visits.  Cadmium plate pro-
tects steel parts by sacrificial corrosion.  Cadmium's solderability and the
small amount of corrosion products it generates make cadmium attractive in
                                 60

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                                               TABLE III-7

                             CCKPOSITION OF CATHODE RAY TUBE PHOSPHORS (27]
PHOSPHOR

   PI
   P2
   P3
   P4
   P5

   P7
   P9
   P10
   Pll
   P12

   P13
   P15
                                   COMPOSITION
                                                                                         MAJOR USE
Zinc silicate: manganese
Zinc sulfide: copper
Zinc beryllium silicate:  manganese
Zinc sulfide: silver and Zinc cadmium sulfide:
Calcium tungstate
Zinc sulfide: silver and Zinc cadmium sulfide:
Calcium pyrophosphate
Potassium chloride
Zinc sulfide: silver
Zinc magnesium fluoride: manganese

Magnesium silicate: manganese
Zinc oxide
silver
copper
   P16    Calcium magnesium silicate:  cerium

   P17    Zinc oxide and Zinc cadmium  sulfide:  copper
   P18    Calcium magnesium silicate:  titanium and Calcium beryllium
            silicate: manganese

   P19    Potassium magnesium fluc^ide:  manganese
   P20    Zinc cadmium sulfide: silver
   P21    Magnesium fluoride: manganese
   P22    Zinc sulfide: silver, Zinc silicate:  manganese, Zinc
            phosphate: manganese
          Zinc sulfide: silver, Zinc cadmium sulfide: silver, Zinc
            cadmium sulfide:  silver
          Zinc sulfide: silver, Zinc cadmium sulfide: silver, Yttrium
            vanadate: europium
          Zinc sulfide: silver, Zinc cadmium sulfide: silver, Yttrium
            oxysulfide: europium
          Zinc sulfide: silver, Zinc cadmium sulfide: copper, Yttrium
            oxide: europium
          Zinc sulfide: silver, Zinc cadmium sulfide: copper, Yttrium
            oxysulfide: europium

   P24    Zinc oxide
   P25    Calcium silicate:  lead:  manganese
   P27    Zinc phosphate:  manganese
   P28    Zinc cadmium sulfide: copper
   P31    Zinc sulfide: copper

   P32    Calcium magnesium silicate:  titanium, Zinc cadmium sulfide:
   P33    Magnesium fluoride: manganese
   P34    Zinc sulfide: lead: copper

   P35    Zinc sulfide selenide:  silver
   P36    Zinc cadmium sulfide: silver:  nickel

   P37    Zinc sulfide: silver: nickel

   P38    Zinc magnesium fluoride:  manganese
   P39    Zinc silicate: manganese:  arsenic
   P40    Zinc sulfide: silver
            Zinc cadmium sulfide:  copper
   P41    Zinc magnesium fluoride:  manganese
            Calcium magnesium silicate:  cerium
                                                           copper
Cathode ray oscillography and radar
Cathode ray oscillography
Not provided
Black and white TV tubes
Photographic application

Radar and oscillography
Not provided
Traffic control radar
Photographic applications
Radar

Not provided
Flying spot scanning systems & photo-
  graphic applications
Flying spot, scanning systems & photo-
  graphic applications
Not provided

Not provided

Radar
Yellow component of P4
Radar

Color TV tubes

Color TV tubes

Color TV tubes

Color TV tubes

Color TV tubes

Color TV tubes

Flying spot scanner tubes
Slow luminescence decay tubes
Color TV monitor service
Radar
Oscilloscope tube

Radar
Radar
Oscillography, radar - slow lumine-
  scence decay
Oscillography
Flying spot scanning

Flying spot scanning and photo-
  graphic application
Radar
Radar
Slow luminescense decay - similar
  to P4
Mix of P12 and P16
                                                61

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electronic components where electric current flow must not be impeded and
parts are required to fit to small tolerances.  Cadmium plate cannot be
used on external surfaces of components that heat up because toxic cadmium
fumes may be generated  [26].  Handling and disposal of cadmium oxide is
likewise critical.

     Yttrium oxide is a component of at least one phosphor used for color
television picture tubes.  No toxicity hazard has been determined for yttrium
oxide.

     Titanium oxide is used in formulating powder mixtures molded into carbon
core resistors.  Toxicity of titanium oxide is very low and presents no known
hazard [20].  Sand, chiefly silicon oxide, is also used for compounding the
resistor mixtures.

     Aluminum oxide finds several applications in the electronic components
industry.  Sapphire and ruby crystals used as solid state device substrates
and laser crystals are aluminum oxide containing metal impurities.  Aluminum
oxide is used for grit blasting of metal and glass parts and, in finely
ground powders, for grinding and polishing metals and non-metals.  Also,
minor use is made of aluminum oxide in coating semiconductor products.
Aluminum oxide has no hazardous properties.

     Other metal oxides used in the industry can be generally classified as
dielectric ceramics and subclassified as electrical insulators or piezo-
electric ceramics.  Ceramic electrical insulators are generally made of
porcelain which presents no hazard.  However, in electron tubes where high
temperatures are expected, beryllium oxide ceramic is used.  Cutting and
grinding of the beryllium oxide ceramic produces powder which can cause skin
irritation and respiratory damage [20].

     Piezoelectric ceramics or crystals possess electrical properties due to
their not having identical centers of positive and negative charges in their
crystal structures.  Mechanical compression or elongation of these materials
produce weak electric impulses so that pressure applied to piezoelectric
ceramics can be determined by measuring voltage potential across them.
Alternatively, electrical signals applied to the ceramics produce movement
which can be used to produce high-frequency sound waves and to tune electronic
circuits [28].  With the possible exception of lead zirconium oxide, which
was not found in the plant surveys, the piezoelectric ceramics; are chemically
inert and would not present a handling or disposal hazard.  Piezoelectric
ceramics found during the plant surveys were barium titanate and silicon
dioxide (quartz).

     Glass - Glass finds its most general use in the electronic components
industry as a structural element in television picture tubes and electron
ray tubes.   Many special purpose glasses are developed for such uses as
windows in special purpose electronic tubes and as photoconductors, a sub-
category of semiconductors.

     Although some heavy metals are added to glass, the chemical structure
                                  62

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of glass is such that no hazard, aside from physical injury by broken glass,
is likely.

     Plastics - The most common use of plastics in the electronic components
industry is for encapsulation of individual components.  Thermoplastic,
thermosetting and epoxy polymers are utilized for this purpose.  Thermoplastic
polymers, including acetyls, acrylics, nylons, polystyrenes and cellulosics,
and thermosetting polymers, including aklyds, aminos, epoxies, phenolics, and
polyesters, are applied to small components by injection or transfer molding.
Thermal setting silicon/rubber formulations are normally used for making seals
on large components.  Other components, due to irregular shape sensitivity
to temperature or large size, must be encapsulated by casting methods which
normally employ two-part epoxy resins.  A special use of two-part epoxy resins
is made when the plastic must have electrical conducting properties.  For this
purpose, high concentrations of finely powdered silver is a part of the resin.
Cast plastics harden as a result of chemical polymerization instead of
temperature-dependent polymerization.

     With the exception of some possible migration of minor amounts of
plasticizers, none of the plastic materials used are considered hazardous.
Incineration of plastics is to be avoided because of the release of toxic
gases from some types of plastics.

     Paints and Organic Coatings - Many electronic components are spray
painted, dip coated and/or printed with an identification label.  Solvent
thinned paints or coatings are generally used for components due to the
extra measure of protection they afford in humid environments compared to
water-based paints.  Enamels and epoxy-based paints were found during the
plant surveys to be hand sprayed on components in dry air filter spray
booths.  Components requiring maximum protection from humidity but which
cannot be electroplated, such as filter coils, rheostate and transformer
coils, are dipped in lacquers or varnishes.  These organic coatings are
mixed with a high proportion, up to ninety-six percent, of solvents such as
xylene.  Complex components such as assembled circuit board modules may
also receive an organic coating either as the final protective measure or
prior to casting in plastic.  Acrylic paints find use in printing and labeling
operations.  Also, an acrylic lacquer is used with a toluene carrier to
coat the inside of aluminized-screen television picture tubes with powdered
aluminum.

     Paints containing heavy-metal pigments could present a hazard if
improperly handled.  Thinning solvents have various flash points and
toxicities as vapor but might generally be considered hazardous.  Labor
regulations require adequate ventilation in painting and dipping areas so
that in-plant hazards are minimized.

     Specialized uses of graphite-containing paint and of polychlorinated
biphenyls were recognized during the plant surveys.   Graphite-containing
paints are used as a conductive film on the inside of television picture
tubes.  These paints are sprayed on in the manner of other oil and epoxy
based paints but use polyvinyl alcohol as the vehicle.  No additional
                                  63

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hazard is imparted to the paints by the addition of graphite.  Polychlori-
nated biphenyls were used in one surveyed plant as an organic coating on
carbon-core resistors.  The polychlorinated biphenyls impregnate the compo-
sition material and, when dry, waterproof the resistor.  The use of these
highly toxic compounds for this purpose is being discontinued in the surveyed
plant.  The material chosen to replace PCB's in this application was not:
reported.

     Oils - With the exception of zero-sulfur oil used for filling a special
purpose electron tube, oil uses recognized during plant surveys were related
to product fabricating operations. Oils are generally not incorporated into
the products themselves.

     Cutting oils are mixed with water and used as coolants and lubricants
in metal and non-metal cutting, grinding and polishing operations.  The oil
itself is often a petroleum distillate that may contain additives such as
organic stabilizers, bactericides, corrosion and foaming inhibitors, dyes,
and inorganic water conditioners.  The water soluble cutting oils are mixed
with water so that the oils compose from 2 to 20 percent of the coolant.
The mixture is typically a fine emulsion, not a true solution.  Although
some cutting oil additives may be toxic or have detrimental properties if
distributed in the environment, it is beyond the scope of this report to
survey these additives.

     Mineral oil, also a petroleum distillate, is used undiluted as lubri-
cants and coolants for the same purposes as cutting oils.  Although mineral
oils are recognized as carcinogens of the skin and scrotum [20], they are
also used medicinally as a laxative.

     Minor amounts of hydraulic oil are used to replace leaked or discarded
oil in metal and non-metal forming machines and in plastics molding machinery.
Hydraulic oils are refined from lube oil stock and have had solvents and
waxes extracted.   As with cutting oils, various additives are present in
hydraulic oils depending upon their industrial application.

     Halogenated Solvents - The electronic properties of many materials used
in manufacturing electronic components depend on the absence of unwanted
impurities.  Most components are, therefore, cleaned at one or more points
in their process flow scheme.  The most commonly used cleaning materials in
electronic components manufacturing are the halogenated solvents; trichloro-
ethylene, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, perchloroethylene and trifluorotrichloro-
ethane.  These solvents are excellent degreasers.  They can be used in both
vapor and immersion degreasers.  Vapor degreasing is used where cleanliness
standards are especially high since the vapors stay cleaner than solvents in
which parts are immersed.

     Trichloroethylene is gradually being replaced by the less reactive 1,1,1
trichloroethane.   Trichloroethylene is one of the solvents controlled by Rule
66 of the Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District as being photochemically
reactive [29].  Recognition of this property resulted in the development of
1,1,1 trichloroethane as a less reactive substitute in cleaning operations.
                                  64

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Specialized use is made of trichloroethylene in testing the operation of some
components at low temperatures.  Since it does not freeze above -86.8°C
(-124T) , trichloroethylene is used in low temperature baths for testing
component performance at low temperatures.

     Trifluorotrichloroethane, also known as Freon, is most commonly used in
vapor degreasing equipment.  Some use of this solvent is made in soaking or
wiping applications, but its low boiling point, 118°F, and low latent heat
of vaporization make the solvent economical to heat to its vapor point, off-
setting initial high cost of the solvent itself.  Trifluorotrichloroethylene
does not attack some varnishes and paints that the other solvents would soften
and dissolve.

     Perchloroethylene can be used interchangeably with the other halogenated
solvents for some applications.  In vapor degreasing, it is used in preference
to the other halogenated solvents where high operating temperatures are
desirable.  Its boiling point is the highest of this group, 250°F.

     Methylene chloride use was found to be more restricted in the electronic
components industry than the  other halogenated solvents.  It is sometimes
mixed with trifluorotrichloroethane in vapor degreasers.  It was also found
to be used in removing paint and in softening resins during reclamation of
defective television picture tubes.

     The halogenated solvents are of primary importance in cleaning electronic
components because of their excellent abilities to solubilize waxes and
greases.  Their lack of flash points [18] make them safer than most non-
chlorinated solvents from the aspect of fire hazards.  These solvents are
volatile, however, and the vapors can be narcotic and toxic.  Excessive
inhalation of the vapors can cause headaches, fatigue, loss of appetite,
nausea, coughing and a loss of the sense of balance [20].  Threshold limit
concentrations in air for constant exposure without harm range from 100
parts per million for trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene to 1000 parts
per million for trifluorotrichloroethane [30].  Adequate ventilation in
work and storage areas is, therefore, required.

     An additional hazard is posed when these solvents are oxidized by high
intensity light or exposure to temperatures of 250°F up.  The by-products of
dichloroacetyl chloride, phosgene and hydrochloric acid [20].

     Hazards related to halogenated solvent use in industrial applications
have been adequately documented.  However, hazards to the environment are not
clearly defined for these solvents except for the photochemical reactivity
of trichloroethylene.  The halogenated solvents used in electronic components
manufacture are members of a group of compounds, chlorinated hydrocarbons,
which includes many persistent and toxic materials that have severe environ-
mental consequences when improperly distributed or disposed.
                                   65

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     Non-chlorinated Solvents - The properties of non-chlorinated solvents
vary greatly and are, therefore, utilized for a variety of applications in
the electronics components industry.  Twelve different non-chlorinated solvents
were used in surveyed plants and as many specific applications were recognized.
General types of applications for these solvents are immersion degreasing
and drying; thinners for paints and lacquers; vehicles for photoresists,
paints and polishing compounds; photoresist developing and cleanup of painting
and other equipment.

     All of the non-chlorinated solvents used in the surveyed plants are toxic
to some degree if ingested or inhaled for long periods of time, above certain
threshold concentrations.  However, their most significant hazardous property
as a group is their flammability.  The various solvents, their flash points
and threshold concentrations are listed in Table III-8.

     Acids and Alkalies - Precleaning of metals as part of electroplating
operations, etching of silicon in semiconductor manufacture, addition of boric
acid in nickel plating baths and removal of surface impurities from some
non-metals require the use of acids and/or alkalies.  Sodium hydroxide was
the only alkali found in surveyed plants.  A sodium hydroxide bath commonly
follows acid rinse baths in electroplating shops.  Strong sodium hydroxide
solutions are markedly corrosive to skin.

     Hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, nitric, sulfuric, acetic, boric, and phos-
phoric acids are used in the processes noted above.  As with sodium hydroxide,
the corrosive nature of these acids requires care in handling.

     Etching of silicon dioxide from silicon and glass component parts is
normally accomplished with concentrated solutions of hydrofluoric acid.
Fluoride ions in the concentrated waste acid and in rinse waters are present
in high concentrations in the wastewaters of plants etching silicon or glass.
Fluoride is an acceptable constituent in water in concentrations of 1.4 to
2.4 mg/1 because of the protection it provides in preventing dental caries  [13].
However, excessive concentrations of fluoride ions causes dental fluorosis and,
in human body doses on the order of 2.5 grams, death [20],  Reduction of
wastewater fluoride concentrations is required by state regulations in at
least one of the plants surveyed for this report.

     Miscellaneous Raw Materials - Several materials were used in surveyed
plants which do not readily fit into the above categories.  Their use and
hazardous nature are discussed separately here.

     Graphite - Conductive paints containing finely ground graphite are used
in television picture tubes to help disperse excess ionic energy from the
screen phosphors.  Ground graphite is also a component of the carbon core in
composition resistors.  In neither case is graphite considered hazardous.

     Carbon - Like graphite, powdered carbon is a component of the carbon
core in composition resistors.  Also like graphite, it is not considered
hazardous.
                                 66

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                                  TABLE III-8

              Non-Chlorinated Solvents Used in Surveyed Plants,
                Their Flash Points and Threshold Limit Values
Methyl Alcohol

Isopropyl Alcohol

Polyvinyl Alcohol

Ethyl Acetate

N-Butyl Acetate

Xylene

Acetone

Methy Ethyl Ketone
 (2-butanone)

Cyclohexanone

Stoddard Solvent

Phenolic Developer
Flash Point °F

      50

      53

     175

      24

      72

   84 - 115

       0


      22

     111

   100 - 110
Threshold Limit_Value
     (TLV) pp;

      20o(3)

      400(3')

      None

      400

      150

      100(3)
      200

       50

      100
             (composition not known)
(1) SOURCE:  Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials ? Sax^ N.I. [20],

(2) From:  "Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances in Workroom Air
              Adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial
              Hygienists for 1974"  reprinted in Sax  [20].

(3) Solvents that can be absorbed continuously from airborn concentrations or
       by direct contact.  Overall exposure can be thereby increased as well
       as direct effects such as mucous membrane irritation, corneal burns or
       skin defatting.
                                    67

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     Silicon carbide - Carborundum is used to grind quartz crystals to desired
shape and thickness.  The carborundum by itself is inert and poses no hazard.

     Asbestos mat - Expensive, fragile glass parts and other component parts
are wrapped in matted asbestor fiber for shipping.  Although chemically inert,
long exposure to asbestor fibers in the atmosphere can lead to pulmonary
fibrosis.  While any use of asbestos might increase ambient levels, this
use is not prevalent enough to be of specific concern in the electronic
components industry.

     Arsine, dioborane, phosphine and phosphorus oxychloride gases - Concen-
trations of these highly toxic gases in the parts per million range are used
in controlled temperature furnaces to dope exposed surfaces on silicon wafers
being made into integrated circuits.  These gases, whether as exhaust from
furnaces, as escaped gases from cylinders, or as remnants in used cylinders,
pose serious industrial hazards.  Therefore, common practice is to vent
furnace exhausts and closed cylinder encasements to water scrubbers or
directly to the atmosphere.  Minute quantities of arsenic from arsine will be
sorbed on the photoresist and exposed silicon surfaces and, hence, would end
up in waste photoresist solvents and in scrap silicon.  This quantity is
expected to be too low to be of concern in land disposed wastes.

     Rosin - Rosin is used as soldering flux in soldering operations.  Rosin
applied to wire connections cleans the oxides from the metal when heated.
This is necessary to assure a good mechanical and electrical connection
between wires and the solder.  Rosin is not toxic although it may act as an
allergen.  Its flash point is necessarily high, 370°F, so that it does not
ignite when solder is applied with heat.

     Manufacturing Processes and Process Wastes

     Based upon information gathered in twenty-two plant surveys, there are
no manufacturing processes in general use throughout the electronic components
industry.  Product and process designs are tremendously varied.  These design
differences result in component cost and performance differences which determine
the competitive position of manufactures in a very competitive market.  Con-
tinuing improvements in product and process design technology assure that this
situation will not change in the direction of design standardization.

     Forty manufacturing processes were recognized in the twenty-two plants
surveyed.  These manufacturing processes can be grouped into eight process
categories.  With the exception of Solvent Cleaning and Drying, process
categories used here are the same as those used in "Development Document for
Effluent Limitation Guidelines and Standards of Performance for the Machinery
and Mechanical Products Manufacturing Point Source Category" [7].  Solvent
Cleaning and Drying is included here as a separate process category because
of its frequency of occurrence and because solvent wastes are identifiable
in almost all instances as a waste stream that is segregated from other process
wastes.  It is interesting to note that all of the process categories found
in machinery and mechanical products manufacturing except casting and molding
metals and smelting and refining are found in electronic components manufacturing,
                                  68

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     The occurrence of the manufacturing processes by product classifications
is summarized in Table III-9.  The only manufacturing process that was used
in more than one-half of the plants was solvent cleaning.  Eight other
processes were used in more than one-quarter of the plants:  sawing and cutoff,
baking, electroplating, acid cleaning and etching, dry booth painting,
vacuum metalizing, thermoforming plastics, and casting plastics.  Process
descriptions and their typical process wastes are described for these nine
most frequently encountered manufacturing processes.

     Solvent cleaning - The requirement for frequent, high efficiency clean-
ing of raw materials and partially manufactured components is related to
the impact of impurities on component performance.  Often, where a range of
solvents and solvent cleaning equipment is available, the more expensive
alternative is chosen if it improves cleaning efficiency.  For this reason
the halogenated solvents are used extensively in electronic components
manufacturing.  While they are generally more expensive than non-halogenated
solvents, they are also more effective for many purposes.

     Three basic solvent cleaning operations were recognized in the surveyed
plants:  manual cleaning, immersion, and vapor degreasing.  Manual cleaning
with solvents is typically used on process equipment such as spray painting
guns, organic coating vats, vacuum metalizing domes, and polishing and
lapping machinery.  Because the residuals to be removed are often heavy
organics, light solvents such as acetone and Stoddards solvent are used.
Rags and scraping equipment must be used also.  Wastes from manual cleaning
with solvents are normally too dirty or are mixed with rags so that solvent
recovery is impractical.  The wastes are, with notable exceptions, small in
quantity and are disposed of along with paper and container wastes in dump-
sters.  One exception is found in magnetic tape manufacturing where batch
mixing wastes are manually cleaned from process equipment.  The quality
of waste from this operation can be significant.  Metal oxides, vehicle
solvent for dip coting, and the clean-up solvent would be included in the
solvent wastes from manual cleaning.

     Immersion of raw materials, partially manufactured components and com-
ponents to be reworked or repaired in solvents is standard practice when
high-efficiency cleaning is not required.  Immersion baths become more and
more contaminated with use until they must finally be discarded.  Since
cleanliness standards are generally high, waste solvents from immersion
baths are capable of being reclaimed with a high percentage of solvent yield.
Any of the cleaning solvents described in Raw Materials can be used in
immersion baths.  These include all of the halogenated solvents, methanol,
isopropyl alcohol, acetone, toluene and methy ethyl ketone.   Methanol and
acetone immersion baths can serve the additional purpose of removing water
from materials after other types of cleaning that involve acids and water.
In some cases the methanol and acetone wastes require only dewatering to
be reusable.  Mechanical agitation of component parts in solvent baths or
ultrasonic agitation of solvent and parts is practiced in many cases.

     Whereas immersion cleaning is commonly done at room temperature, vapor
degreasing requires heating of solvents to their boiling point.  For this
reason, the halogenated solvents must be used to reduce fire hazard.  The
                                    69

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                     TABLE III-')






MANUFACTURING PROCESSES JSED IN SURVEYED ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS PLANTS






                                                      3679

NUMBER- OF PLANTS SURVEYED
Mechanical Material Removal
Sawing And cutoff

Scribtnjt
Grit fclast
Mechanical Ecchinc
M»t«rial ForninK
Metal forming
Class forming
Non-plastic noldln*
Baking
Mil line
DOPlne (Epitaxial demolition)
Crystal xrowth
Aaseablv Operations
Hand soldering
Wave soIdcrlrK

Spot welding
Gold bondlnn
BrazlnR
Mecnanical lend attachment
Wire winding
Glass/metal seal

FlertroplatinR
Alkaline clcanliut ar mecsl.
Cvanide cleaning of matala

Material CoatlnR
Dry booth painting
Vacuun metallzlnc
PtinclnR/labellnc;
Organic coatlnR (dipplnR.
Gold termination
Carbonate salt coictns
Phosphor deposition

Thennoformini! plastics

Solvent Cleaning ^nd Drying
Solvent cleaning
Solvent dryine

2
2


1


1


2













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8
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                            70

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halogenated solvents have no flash point whereas all of the commonly used
non-halogenated solvents have flash points within or slightly above plant
operating ranges.  Vapor degreasing is the most attractive solvent cleaning
method where high cleaning efficiency is required.  The solvents are heated
in the bottom of the vapor degreasing tank.  Solvent vapor is condensed and
prevented from leaving the degreasing equipment with the use of cooling coils
around the top  of the bath.  At the same time the vapor condenses on the
materials lowered into the tank to be cleaned.  Solvent vapors contain little
or no impurities to be left as a film on the product when it dries.  Many
vapor degreasers come equipped with solvent distillation equipment or can
be easily converted to distill contaminated solvent, thereby increasing the
useful life of solvents and reducing wastes.  Sludge from solvent distilla-
tion, because the quantities produced are generally minor and because impuri-
ties are concentrated, is not ameanable to recovery except from very large
volume operations.

     Sawing and Cutoff - This process designation refers here to any opera-
tion where metal or non-metal stock or component parts are altered in size
or shape by mechanical means.  In crystal manufacturing, the process involves
the use of thin grinding wheels operated at high speed to shape the desired
part by removing slabs or discs from stock material.  For metals, sawing
and cutoff is used here to cover a variety of machine shop operations used
in metals forming.  Only three plants had multiple machine shop operations
- two producing parts for special electron tubes, SIC 3673, and one producing
parts for electronic connectors, SIC 3678.  Glass cutting to remove electron
guns from TV picture tubes to be repaired and trimming stacks of metal and
ceramic wafers in capacitor manufacture were the other sawing and cutoff type
manufacturing processes recognized in the plant surveys.

     Wastes from sawing and cutoff depend upon the material involved.  A
slurry of grinding powder and cutting oil or mineral oil is generated from
sawing and cutoff of crystals.  The machine shops generate metal scrap often
coated with cutting oil.  Electron guns are discarded from TV picture tube
repair operations.  Mixed metal and ceramic scrap from capacitor manufacturing
is collected for metal salvage.

     The saws, lathes and presses used in sawing and cutoff operations require
maintenance.  Replacement and leakage of hydraulic oil in some machinery
produces a minor amount of this oil as waste.  Periodic cleaning of lathes
and saws with solvents results in generation of minor amounts of waste solvents
generally too contaminated and in too small volume for reclamation.

     Baking - Baking is used to set organic binding agents such as zinc
stearate and to remove  gaseous  impurities from metals.  Organic binders are
used to consoldiate the milled components: capacitors, resistors, and ferrites.
Films containing metal salts are bound to picture tube screens by baking off
similar binders.  Hydrogen impurities in the metal bodies of some special
purpose electron tubes are removed by simultaneous baking and vacuum evalua-
tion of the tube body.   Baking,  as defined by these operations, produces
no wastes of concern to this report.  Some exhausts may contain  gaseena*
contaminants but none have been turned into wastes that require land disposal.
                                   71

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     Other manufacturing processes that could be considered types of' baking
are doping, crystal growth and furnace soldering.  These processes are not
included as baking processes in Table III-9.  Doping, or expitaxial deposi-
tion, is a basic process in producing semiconductors and integrated circuits.
Prepared silicon wafers are heated in quartz containers containing an inert
gas plus small concentrations of arsine, diborane, phosphine, phosphorus
oxychloride or silane gas.  The dopant gas diffuses into exposed surfaces
of the wafer.  The impurities determine the electronic character of the
silicon surface.  While the dopant gases are all highly toxic, it appears
to be unlikely that they would end up in detectable quantities in any
wastes disposed of on land.

     Sapphire and ruby crystals are grown by slowly cooling molten aluminum
oxide as it is being drawn out of a molten bath.  Lumps of aluminum oxide
left in the crucibles is the only waste from this process.

     Furnace soldering uses the same material as wave or hand soldering, a
tin/lead alloy, but performed pieces of solder are clamped in place on
component parts and are fused in place inside furnaces.  There is no waste
from this process.  All solder normally adheres to the component.

     If the plants using baking, as defined for Table III-9, are added to
the other plants using similar furnacing operations, then these operations
would be as common in the surveyed plants as solvent cleaning.  However,
there is very little material waste generated by the operations and none
of it would be considered hazardous.

     Acid Cleaning and Etching - Acid solutions are used in electronic com-
ponents manufacturing to clean surface impurities from nori-metals such as
glass and aluminum oxide, to clean metals prior to electroplating, to etch
silicon oxide from silicon wafers used in semiconductors and to soften
various organic films.

     Hydrofluoric acid is used extensively in the industry for glass cleaning
and silicon etching in semiconductor manufacturing due to its ability to
remove silicon oxide.  Hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acids are commonly
used to clean metals prior to electroplating.  A mixture of sulfuric acid
and hydrogen peroxide is used to remove photoresists from silicon wafers
in integrated circuit production.

     The cleaning or etching is a simple process in which parts are first
immersed in appropriate concentrations of acid and then rinsed in water.

     The acid necessarily dissolves some of the material being cleaned.
This becomes significant in cleaning of metals since the waste acids will
contain some of the metals as particles or as ions.  Neutralization of the
acid baths and the rinse waters is commonly practiced but this does not
necessarily remove the metals.  Where chemical precipitation is employed to
remove metals, they are incorporated into the treatment sludge.

     Electroplating - Electroplating is a process in which an adherent
                                   72

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metallic coating is deposited on an electrode (the part being plated) to
produce a surface with properties or dimensions different from those of
the basic metal.  In the electronic components industry the purpose of
electroplating is most frequently to provide corrosion resistance to metal
component parts.  Exceptions to this include the electroplating of silver
on quartz crystals to provide the exact dimensions necessary for tuning the
crystal and electroplating silicon wafers with layers of gold and silver to
produce zehner diodes.

     Salts of the metal to be plated on the component part are dissolved
in the aqueous electroplating bath.  Metals used and composition of the
baths has been discussed in Raw Materials and are listed in Table III-6.

     Wastes from spent or contaminated baths and from rinse waters are
all carried and have little solids content.  Traditionally, therefore, much
of these wastes have been discharged directly to municipal sewers.  However,
the toxicity of metal ions and cyanides in these wastes and modern efforts
to properly treat and dispose of them is resulting in increasing use of
chemical precipitation to remove the metals.  Where cyanide is also dis-
charged it is oxidized prior to chemical precipitation for metals removal.

     Dry Booth Painting - Many component parts and finished components are
painted for decoration and/or corrosion protection.  Painting may be either
an alternate or a supplement to electroplating for these purposes.

     The most frequently recognized method of painting in the plant surveys
was dry booth painting.  The part, component, or racks of the items are
set in a chamber, open on one side and ventilated through the top and/or
back, and sprayed by means of air-pressure operated paint guns.  Ventilating
fans bring air from the work room into the chamber and through air filters.
Paint particles which are picked up by the air draft are caught on the air
filter and dry there.  Clogged air filters and clean-up materials from
maintaining the spray guns are the wastes from this type of operation which
would be land disposed.  In most instances these wastes are included
with other plant trash in dumpsters.

     Vacuum Metalizing - Thin metal films are applied as conductive elements
in several types of components by vacuum metalizing.  Depending upon appli-
cation, aluminum, nickel, chromium, silver or gold are deposited by this
technique.

     The process involves explosive heating of the metal to be deposited
inside a vacuum chamber containing the component parts to be treated.
Either electricity passed through a high resistance conductor or radio
frequency energy are used to rapidly vaporize the deposition metal. Com-
ponents are held on racks and oriented toward the metal source.

     Wastes from this process are generated when the vacuum dome and racks
are cleaned after numerous layers of the metal have been deposited on them.
The amount of metal involved is very small since each deposition is very
thin.  Wire brushes in conjunction with some type of solvent are used
                                   73

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manually to clean the domes.  When silver or gold are removed, the wastes
are generally combined with other  precious  metal wastes for reclamation.
Otherwise, the solvent is disposed of in the same manner as similar solvents
used in the plant.

     Thermoforming Plastics - This designation for plastics molding includes
three similar processes:  injection molding, transfer molding and silastic
molding.  All three processes utilize heat to liquify and/or to polymerize
the plastic stock.  Injection modling can employ both thermosetting and
thermoplastic resins.  Scrap from the thermoplastic resins can be reground
and used again if mixed with fresh resin.  Transfer molding is limited to
thermosetting resins which cannot be reused.

     Whereas injection and transfer molding are generally used for encapsu-
lation of small components, silastic molding is typically used for forming
seals on larger components.  The stock material has silicon and rubber
constituents which are temperature setting.

     Excess plastic material is cut from the component.  This scrap con-
stitutes the waste from thermoforming of plastics.

     Casting Plastics - Two-part epoxy resins, which polymerize chemically
instead of thermally, are used for encapsulation, adhesion and sealing.
Application of these resins without the use of heat is termed casting.
After mixing, the liquid or semisolid plastic is poured, painted or simply
spread on the component or component-part.  A special purpose, two-part
epoxy resin containing silver powder and used for adhesion or sealing
purposes also acts as an electrical conductor.

     Unused portions of batches are the waste from casting of plastics..
This material hardens and, with the exception of the silver-containing
resins, is discarded with the plant trash in dumpsters.  The silver-
containing resin wastes are typically returned to the supplier for credit
on the silver.

     In addition to these relatively common processes, five other processes
are significant in the amount or type of waste generated.

     Grinding, polishing and lapping - These operations are carried out
for the purpose of putting a smooth finish on non-metals.  Ferrites,
crystals and some semiconductor substrates are finished in this manner.
These finishing operations involve the use of an oil or solvent vehicle
containing an abrasive such as alumina, carborundum or diamond dust.  De-
pending on the coarseness of the abrasive, the process of finishing the.
material surface is termed grinding (coarse), polishing or lapping (fine).

     After finishing or between use of successively fine abrasives, the
material being finished is cleaned with solvents.  The solvent waste con-
taining the waste abrasive and vehicle constitutes the waste from these
processes.  Any of a number of halogenated and non-halogenated solvents are
used for the cleaning operation.   With the exception of finishing ferrites,
which contain metal oxides and carbonates, the hazardous properties of the
finishing wastes in surveyed plants were related to the type of solvents
                                  74

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and oils used as the abrasive carrier or cleaning solvent.

     Non-plastic molding - The term "non-plastic molding" is used here
to encompass three operations used in surveyed plants which involved
molding or extruding composition materials into component parts.  The
primary similarities between the three processes were that the starting
material was first milled to powder form, that a binder was mixed with
the powder and that the formed part was baked to set the binder.

     However, the starting materials, and therefore, the scrap generated
differed  in all three cases.  One of the wastes was off-spec ceramic
material which  posed no obvious hazard.  Another was a mixture of molded
sand, carbon, graphite and organic resins from resistor manufacturing.
Some of this material had been soaked in polychlorinated biphenyls and so
is considered hazardous.  The metal oxides and carbonates that are filter
pressed into the approximate size and shape desired for ferrites also
appear in the wastewater from the process.  Treatment of that wastewater
produces a metal-containing sludge for land disposal.

     Frit salvaging - In the reclamation of used or improperly made
television picture tubes, lead-containing frit solder glass is removed
from the tubes with nitric acid.  Lead in the wastewater generated by
this process is precipitated as lead carbonate by the addition of sodium
carbonate.  This waste is generated in SIC 3672 and possibly 3671.  Despite
its restricted occurrence by product area, the high concentrations of lead
suspected in the sludge make it a significant waste.

     Phosphor deposition - Also limited to occurrence in SIC 3672 is the
process of depositing phosphors on television picture tube screens.  The
composition of phosphors is described in Raw Materials of this report
section.  The phosphors are mixed with a bonding agent in water and coated
on the inside of the tube screen by contact.  Approximately one to two
percent of the phosphors are lost to the wastewater stream.  Some of this
can be reclaimed by use of a filter press since the salts are in relatively
insoluble, crystalline form.  Fine particles are lost to the sewerage
system where they can end up as part of a chemical treatment sludge or be
discharged to municipal sewers.  Zinc and cadmium in these water carried
wastes are of concern due to their toxicity to wildlife and humans [14].

     Cyanide cleaning of metals - Prior to electroplating with copper, the
part to be plated must be precleaned in an alkaline cyanide solution.  Both
the concentrated cyanide bath and the rinse water used to remove the cyanide
must be disposed of.   With one exception in the plant survey, both the baths
and rinse waters are treated by alkaline chlorine oxidation of the cyanide
thereby lowering the cyanide concentrations to acceptable levels.  This
treatment is performed prior to mixing with any other wastewaters to avoid
the possibility of releasing hydrogen cyanide by acidifying the wastes.
Neither remaining cyanide nor  the much less toxic intermediate oxidation
product, cyanate, would be found in higher concentration in the wastewater
treatment sludges than in treated wastewater.  For this reason cyanides are
not a hazardous component of wastewater treatment sludges.
                                    75

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     One of the four plants which used the cyanide cleaning process and
had electroplating baths containing cyanides disposed of the spent or
contaminated baths by drumming and burial in a secured landfill.   This
is being done in spite of the fact that equipment for oxidation of dilute
cyanide rinse waters is, or will be provided.  The availability of a
secured landfill and a contractor to haul the wastes, plus the economics
of increasing the capacity and operating costs of cyanide oxidation equip-
ment combine to make land disposal of concentrated cyanides more attractive
for this plant than treatment as a wastewater.

     There is a very real question as to whether future disposal of con-
centrated cyanide will be by the traditional alkaline chlorine oxidation
or by drummed landfills.  There are no constituents in the cyanide wastes
which would upset the effectiveness of the oxidation process.   This effi-
ciency can be as high as 99.6 percent [7],  However, proposed effluent
guidelines for 1983, best available technology economically achievable,
require that there be no discharge of wastewater pollutants.  Achieving or
approaching this goal may result in more cyanides being landfilled.  However,
expenditures already committed to treatment of cyanides in wastewater, high
efficiency attainable by the alkaline chlorine oxidation process, and the
present unavailability of landfills which can accept cyanides close enough
to many plants are expected to weight against significant increases in land
disposal of cyanides.  An estimated 225 metric tons of concentrated cyanide
wastes (equivalent to 60,000 gallons) are generated per year for electro-
plating operations in electronic connector and special electron tube
manufacturing.

     Table 111-10 summarizes the occurrence of process wastes observed in
surveyed plants by manufacturing process.  As explained earlier, additional
plant visits, especially within SIC 3679-Electronic Components Not Elsewhere
Classified, would likely turn up more processes and more types of wastes.
However, the common manufacturing processes and wastes of the electronic
components manufacturing industry are represented in Table IEI-10. Process
wastes considered by the contractor to be potentially hazardous are circled
in Table 111-10.

     Process Flow Diagrams

     There is no general process flow diagram that would adequately typify
manufacturing plants in the electronic components manufacturing industry.
As has been noted, process flow diagrams representing one product area or
four-digit SIC can be in substantial error for other plants within the same
grouping.  Nevertheless, five process flow diagrams are shown here for
product areas in which at least two plants with similar operations were
surveyed.  The process flow diagrams are presented without quantification
of raw material usage or waste generation to protect the confidentiality of
information provided by the companies since all five diagrams are based on
less than four plants each.  None of the diagrams are intended to be
descriptions of the operations of any one plant.  Generally, information
was integrated from the two or more plants visited in a product area to
develop these example process flow diagrams.  The example process flow
                                    76

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diagrams are presented to illustrate the basic flow of raw materials through
manufacturing processes to the various waste streams.  Treatment and disposal
of the waste streams are discussed in Section IV of this report.

NATURE OF PROCESS WASTES

     Introduction

     As shown in Table 111-10 the process wastes generated in electronic com-
ponents manufacturing plants can be grouped into ten categories according to
the major constituent of the waste.  These categories are:

     0  Halogenated Solvents
     0  Non-halogenated Solvents
     0  Wastewater Treatment Sludges
     0  Plastics
     °  Oils
     0  Paint Wastes
     0  Metal Scrap
     0  Concentrated Cyanides
     0  Concentrated Acids or Alkalies
     0  Miscellaneous (generally generated in low volume and
                      non-hazardous in nature)
     Wastes in three of these categories — metal scrap, concentrated
cyanides and concentrated acids and alkalies — are infrequently disposed
of on the land.

     Nearly all of the metal scrap generated is collected, stored separately
in the plant, and sold to contractors for reclamation.  The electronic
components industry is a major consumer for precious metals such as gold,
silver, platinum and palladium.  Strict measures are taken to prevent loss
of process wastes constituted of these metals.  Copper, brass and steel
scrap, while not as valuable, is usually generated in sufficient quantity
to make resale profitable even for small plants.  Small amounts of metal
grindings and dust generated in the machine shops for electronic connector
and special purposes electron tube manufacturing plants are not collected
for salvage and are disposed of with floor sweepings.  Generally, such
unsalvaged metal scrap is not generated in this industry in quantities
sufficient for concern.  One exception to this statement is the waste
generated from working beryllium oxide ceramic, beryllium/copper alloy
and beryllium metal.  Great caution is necessary in handling these bergIlium
materials and their wastes.  Beryllium compounds can act locally on the
skin to cause dermatitis and, if inhaled, can lead to respiratory system
damage and even death if pneumonitis becomes severe [20],  Data on beryllium
waste generation in surveyed plants is not sufficient to support projections
of waste volumes for the industry.  Very specizlized applications of
beryllium materials in relatively small component parts indicate that the
total beryllium wastes would be small.

     The potential for disposal of concentrated cyanide wastes on land has
                                  78

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been discussed in connection with the cyanide cleaning process.  It is ex-
pected that cyanide wastes generated by the electronic components manufac-
turing industry will not become a significant waste stream for land disposal.

     The concentrated acid and alkali wastes generated in the industry are
amenable to treatment as a wastewater by neutralization.   While c imponents
of these wastes could include fluorides and any of the metals used in the
industry which must be removed from the wastewater, and will ultimately be
land disposed as sludges, it is unlikely that a significant proportion of
the untreated concentrated acid and alkali, wastes will be containerized arid
landfilled.

     The miscellaneous process wastes recognized during the survey are
generally generated in low volumes for the industry although the amount
generated from individual plants must be significant.  For instance, glass
scrap from electron tube manufacturing plants becomes a locally significant
waste.  These miscellaneous process wastes are not considered by the con-
tractor to be hazardous.  Most of the miscellaneous process wastes, when
land disposed, are combined with plant trash such as packaging and
cafeteria wastes for landfill along with municipal solid waste.

     Included in the miscellaneous process waste category is an atypical
waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls generated by a resistor manu-
facturer.  PCB's are used here to impregnate the composition resistors as
a means of water-proofing them.  The composition material trimmed off
after molding, which is otherwise innocuous, contains the PCB.  This waste
is collected and transported to an industrial incinerator for destruction.
Replacement of PCB's by a non-toxic substitute in this plant is planned.
Other  uses of PCB's in the electronic components manufacturing industry,
i.e., in capacitor and transformer manufacturing, were recognized in the
plant surveys conducted for this study.  No quantification of PCB containing
wastes in these product areas can be made from the survey data, therefore.

     These four waste categories are not significant to this study of land
disposed industrial process wastes for the reasons mentioned.  The remaining
six waste categories are discussed below.  These waste categories are
designated as the significant waste streams of the electronic components
manufacturing industry destined in whole or in part for land disposal.

     Waste Categories

     Halogenated Solvents - The process waste in this waste stream show a
wide range in the degree of contamination by other materials.  In plants where
relatively small volumes of halogenated solvents are used as high efficiency
cleaners, the waste can be sufficiently uncontaminated for reuse in other
industries without distillation.  However, also included in this waste
stream are still bottoms from in-plant solvent distillation, which can have
high concentrations of oils, soldering flux, metal particles, non-metal
particles, and metal ions.

     The best established toxicity effect of halogenated solvents is their
narcotic effect when present in air above threshold concentrations.
                                  84

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Although these values are much lower than their vapor pressures, it is
unlikely that the threshold concentrations would be exceeded anywhere ex-
cept inside buildings.  Hazards to landfill personnel due to inhalation
of the solvents' vapors would be likely, therefore, only under very unusual
circumstances.  Solvent wastes that are stored on-site prior to disposal
are normally stored in outside areas or in well-ventilated buildings.

     A greater hazard in the disposal of halogenated solvent wastes is the
potential for generation of highly toxic gases if they are heated to
temperatures above 250°F.  Such heating can occur in landfills where ash
or flammable materials susceptible to spontaneous combustion are disposed.
To the contractor's knowledge, the probability and actual toxic effects of
heating halogenated solvents to this temperature have not been thoroughly
studied.  The property of releasing toxic gasses due to heating has not,
therefore, been included as one of the criteria for potentially hazardous
wastes in this report.

     The effects of releasing the halogenated solvent wastes to the environ-
ment is difficult to assess with available information.  All of these
solvents are aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons which have potential for
damage to the heart, liver, and kidney proportional to the saturation of
the molecular structure with chlorine [20].  Data on damage to humans by
aliphatic chlorinted hydrocarbons is generally collected only in relation to
medical and industrial usage, not from situations where environmental con-
centrations of the materials are involved.   In the absence of published
criteria for halogenated solvents in water and in light of relatively high
doses required to produce toxic effects-*-, the presence of halogenated solvents
in a process waste does not render the waste hazardous for the purpose of
this report.

     Many of  the solvent wastes included in this waste stream, however,
contain oil and heavy metal impurities which are toxic to man and/or
wildlife.  Table III-ll presents the analysis of the two halogenated sol-
vent wastes collected from electronic component plants.  These  samples
show the wide range of solids content for this waste stream.  Also note-
worthy is the presence of lead in both samples with the amount  of leachable
  The most up-to-date summary of the toxic effects of chemical substances
[42] does not list any toxic dose , by oral administration for any of the
halogenated sovlents.  Lethal oral doses reported range from 857 mg/kg for
trichloroethylene in more than 9470 mg/kg for 1,1,1 trichloroethane in
guinea pigs.  The lethal oral dose for man would require ingestion of 145 ml.
of pure solvent by a 100 pound person.  The only solvent in this group for
which data on carcinogenicity is available is trichloroethylene.  A dose
of 351 grams/kg administered orally and intermittently over a period of 78
weeks caused cancerous tissues in mice [42].  This is a near-lethal dose
given over a long period of time.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration
permits decaffinated coffee to have a concentration of trichloroethylene
of 25 mg/1 [31].
                                 85

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lead in the trichloroethane sample being particularly high at 23.2 mg/1.
Flash points for the samples indicate that flammable impurities were present
in the sample since the halogenated solvents have no flash point if uncon-
taminated.

     The proportions of this waste stream contributed by the various solvents
and sludges is estimated by the volumes of each generated in surveyed plants.
Estimated annual volume of these waste solvents in the plants from which
data was available were used to determine the following percentages of
generation:

                             Percent of Total Estimated Volume
     Waste Solvent           (weight basis) in Surveyed Plants

     Perchloroethylene sludge              38.4*
     Trichloroethylene                     29.2
     Mixed solvents                        12,5
     Perchloroethylene                      6.3
     1,1,1 trichloroethane                  6.1
     Freon                                  4.5
     Methylene chloride                     1.4
     Freon sludge                            .8
     Mixed sludge                            .7
     Trichloroethylene sludge                .1
                                          100.0
*The large percentage of perchloroethylene sludge is due to extensive use
of the solvent in one large plant.
     Non-halogenated Solvents - As is the case with the halogenated solvent
wastes, the non-halogenated solvents wastes show great variability in their
degree of contamination.  Perhaps the least, contaminated are the methanol
and acetone wastes that result from drying operations.  Rinse water remain-
ing from acid cleaning operations is diluted in solvent baths.  The solvents
dry much faster on the components than water alone up to a point where the
water content becomes too high.  The baths are then usually sent to solvent
reclaimers where they require only dewatering.  At the other extreme of
contamination are solvents used as vehicles for lapping compounds or for
cleaning lapping compounds for components.

     Due apparently to the lower cost of non-halogenated solvents there
is less effort put forth in segregating these wastes for reclamation except
for those, like methanol and acetone used in drying operations, which are
still comparatively clean after use.

     Nearly all of the non-chlorinated solvents used by the electronic com-
ponents manufacturing industry have flash points below 100°F.  Exceptions,
such as polyvinyl alcohol and cyclohexanone are used for specialized appli-
cations and represent a small proportion of the non-halogenated solvent
                                    86

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87

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waste stream.  The entire waste stream is considered here to be flammable
since the proportion of non-flammable solvents is small.

     Analytical data for non-halogenated solvent wastes collected during
plant visits are presented in Table III-12.  The solids content of those
wastes analyzed are low.  No heavily contaminated wastes in this waste
stream appear in this sampling.  Chromium was present in all three samples
at concentrations slightly above the limit of detection by the method used.
The only other heavy metal concentrations of note are the 21 mg/1 of lead
and the 455 mg/1 of zinc present in the glass slurry.  Only small percentages
of the lead and zinc in this sample leach out in water, however.

     The proportions of this waste stream contributed by the various sol-
vents is estimated by the volumes of each generated in surveyed plants.
Estimated annual volume of these waste solvents in the plants for which
data was available were used to determine the following percentages of
occurrence in the industry:
                                       Percent of Total Estimated Volume
            Waste Solvent              (weight basis) in Surveyed Plants

      Mixed solvents (includes some
        halogenated solvents mixed
        with non-halogenated solvents)               67.7%

      Methanol                                       14.4
      Acetone                                        12.4
      Isopropyl Alcohol                               2.8
      Photoresist and developers
         e.g., xylene                                 1.8
      Polyvinyl alcohol                                •5
      Stoddard solvent                                 .4
      Methyl Ethyl Ketone -\
      Xylene              _j~
                                                    100.1%

Not included in this waste stream or in calculation of the above percentages
are solvents used for cleaning painting equipment.  These wastes are included
in the painting wastes.

     The high percentage of mixed solvents reflects a lesser concern for
segregation of non-halogenated solvents when compared to the halogenated
solvents.

     Wastewater Treatment Sludges - Water-carried wastes significant to sludge
generation in surveyed plants can be grouped into three categories:

     1.  particulates - primarily metal oxides and metal salts
     2.  metal ions - including all of the metals used for plating plus common
metal contaminants such as lead, zinc, and iron.

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     3.  fluorides - as fluorides ion or as silico-fluorides from silicon
wafer and glass etching.

Processes used in these plants to separate these wastes from the wastewater
include sedimentation, coprecipitation at elevated pH, and filtration.  Most
of the wastewater treatment sludges from the surveyed plants included water-
carried wastes from several manufacturing processes.  Quantification of the
percent of particulate contaminants,  metal ion contaminants, and fluorides
from survey plant data is not feasible without a much more exhaustive sampling
and analysis program than that conducted for this study.

     Wastewaters containing only particulates are treated by either sedi-
mentation or filtration.  The sludge generated is easily dewatered and
relatively inert although small particle size of some of the metal oxides
and solubility of the metal salts could result in the release of metal ions
from the sludge over time.

     Electroplating wastewaters, acid wastewaters from metal cleaning, and
many combined wastewaters require pH adjustment to cause the coprecipitation
of metal hydroxides.  All three of the common wastewater treatment processes
can be used in treatment of such wastes.  However, pH adjustment followed by
sedimentation of the metal hydroxides is the typical combination for treat-
ment.  Sludges from pH adjustment of these wastewaters are often difficult
to dewater.

     The source of fluorides in wastewaters from SIC's 3671,, 3672, 3674 and
crystal manufacturing is hydrofluoric acid used in cleaning glass, silicon or
quartz.  Treatment processes apparently designed specifically for the
removal of fluorides were present in only one plant visited.  Here, addi-
tion of lime resulted in the precipitation of calcium fluoride, CaF2-  Lime
precipitation of fluorides at a pH of 11 will remove fluorides down to a
concentration of 10-20 mg/1.  The solubility of calcium fluoride prevents
more efficient removals.  A typical effluent limitation of 1.5 mg/1 would
require a two stage operation inlcuding lime precipitation followed by
adsorption of alumina or bone char or ion exchange.  Acid regeneration
waters from the second stage recycled to the lime precipitation step would
result in almost complete conversion of fluoride consumed in the plant to
calcium fluoride [32].  The only data on fluoride concentrations in untreated
wastewater from surveyed plants is from a grab sample taken at a semi-
conductor plant.  Removal of the 440 mg/1 of fluoride in the wastewater would
result in the generation of approximately 15,000 pounds of calcium fluoride
per million gallons of wastewater.  At a maximum solids concentration of
five percent that might be obtained without concentration, 36,000 gallons of
sludge per million gallons or 3.6 percent of the wastewater flow would have
to be disposed of by concentration and/or landfill.  Regulatory control of
fluorides in wastewater effluents has potential for dramatically increasing
wastewater sludge generation from the industry since:   (1) there is very
little attention being paid to fluoride removal at present in the industry;
and  (2) most other significant constituents in wastewaters are already being
removed by most of the plants which generate them.  Because of its size
and its heavy use of hydrofluoric acid and because many of these plants
                                  90

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currently do not provide chemical precipitation of their wastewaters, the
semiconductor industry will likely be the most affected by fluoride removal
requirements.

     Analytical data for wastewater treatment sludges collected during plant
visits are presented in Table 111-13.  These samples demonstrate the wide
range of solids concentrations possible in this waste stream.  The 98 percent
solids concentration in the metal oxide sludge is considered to be atypically
high, however.

     While the metal concentrations in these sludges are almost universally
high compared with other waste streams, the amounts of metals that leached
with water are very small fractions of the metals present.  This data fails
to show that the Federal Water Quality Criteria would be violated by the
leachates.  However, solubilities of the metal hydroxides are increased as
pH of sludge and surrounding groundwater in a landfill decreases.  Short
term release of metals from these sludges is small.  Sludges exposed to
percolating groundwaters which typically are neutral to slightly acidic
can be expected to gradually decompose and release metals for long periods
of time.  High concentrations of all the metals tested indicate that these
sludges would provide a reservoir of potentially soluble metals if disposed
of in such a manner as to be exposed to percolating groundwaters.

     In addition to metals, at least one of the sludge samples contained
fluorides.  The concentration reported, 12 mg/kg, is in terms of the amount
of fluoride leached per kilogram of sludge by two volumes of distilled water.
The aqueous concentration of fluoride in the leachate was 6 mg/1, well above
the maximum allowable concentration for drinking water of 1.4 - 2.4 mg/1 [13].
Total fluorides were not analyzed for this sample by a complete chemical
analysis of a wastewater treatment sludge provided by a semiconductor firm
shows that calcium fluoride constituted one percent of the sludge solids
equivalent to a concentration of approximately 1300 mg/1 - fluoride in the
sludge.  Solubility of the calcium fluoride is dependant upon pH so that it
would gradually be leached from the sludge as would the metals.

     Plastics - Included in this waste stream are plastic scrap from trimming
injection and transfer molded components, rubber scrap from silicon/rubber
molding, unused portions of mixed epoxies, and polyester film scrap from
slicing and packaging magnetic recording tape.  Plastic process wastes which
do not enter the waste stream include a portion of the thermoplastic type
plastic scrap which can be recycled in-plant and epoxies containing silver
powder which are collected and returned to the manufacturer for credit on
the silver.

     The durability of plastics is determined in part by the degree of
plasticizer retention by the plastics.  Plasticizer migration results in
embrittlement of the plastic part.  Since the durability of most electronic
components is of prime consideration in their design, the use of stable
plasticizers in electronic component plastics is thought to be common practice.

     Data collected during plant visits would indicate that the highest
volume waste material in this waste stream is magnetic recording tape scrap.
                                  91

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Much of this tape scrap is coated with the metal oxides, carbon, graphite
and organic binding compounds  (other plastics) that give the tape its
functional properties.  Because they are tightly bound by the organic binders
to the film, potentially toxic metal oxides, such as chromium oxide, would
not be likely to leach from the tape.  Release of chromium oxide could be
effected by dissolution of the organic binders by solvents or by incineration
of the waste tape.  The possibility of these occurrences in a landfill has
not been evaluated.

     The remainder of this waste stream is also considered to be innocuous
as sanitary landfill material.

     Hydraulic and Cutting Oils - A variety of process wastes are included
in this waste stream.  The common characteristic for these process wastes is
the presence of a significant amount of oil.  The oils, based upon plant
survey data, are all petroleum distillates and range from approximately five
percent of waste for the water soluble cutting oils to essentially j. J percent
of the waste for leaked or replaced hydraulic fluids.   The most common waste
in the waste stream is water soluble cutting oils.  These are used in both
metal fabricating operations and in ferrite and crystal grinding operations.
Generally, the water soluble cutting oils are recirculated between the lathes
or other cutting'.equipment and settling tanks where particles removed from
the metal or non-metal stock are settled out.  The slurry made up of sedi-
mented particles and cutting oil is periodically collected and disposed of.
The solids content of this waste can be very high and is, of course, dependent
upon the type of material being worked.

     Oil-based lapping compounds represent a smaller portion of this waste
stream.  Alumina, diamond powder and carborundum are intentional additives
in the lapping compounds.  Particles added to the lapping compounds from
the component part plus some of the solvents used to clean the part between
successive lapping cycles are included in the waste from this operation.

     Waste hydraulic oils generally do not contain the large amount of
particulate matter present in other oil wastes.   However, long periods of
contact,  sometimes at high operating temperatures, with metals lining the
conduits  of the hydraulic machinery result in heavy metal contamination of
the oils  [33].

     Chemical analysis of two lapping compound wastes are presented in
Table 111-14.   An insufficient volume of the mineral seal oil-based ctTpping
was collected to perform leachate tests.

     The  potential for high concentrations of heavy metals in oil wastes is
demonstrated by the analytical results for the mineral seal oil based lapping
compound.   Significant metal concentrations, especially lead and chromium,
are also  expected in the cutting oil wastes generated in metal working
machine shop.   Based upon data gathered for a related report [33] lead
concentrations as high as 2,275 mg/kg and chromium concentrations as high
as 1,340  mg/kg are to be found in cutting oil wastes.   These metals are
generally in particulate form and would be solubilized in a landfill
                                 93

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situation slowly and in inverse proportion to particle size.

     Oils present in this waste stream could cause taste and odor problems
in water supplies if the wastes are improperly disposed.  A numerical limit
on the order of 0.01 tng/1 of oil is expected to be set for receiving waters
for the protection of fish and wildlife [34].

     Paint Wastes - Included in this waste stream are discarded filters from
dry booth spray painting operation, solvent and paint soiled clean up rags,
and solvents used for paint clean up.  The paint waste stream, therefore,
encompasses a variety of materials.  All of the wastes, however, contain
paint pigments.  Lead, zinc, and chromium are frequent components of these
pigments.  In addition, the solvents used to thin paint and to clean up painting
equipment are typically non-chlorinated types such as acetone, alcohols and
xylene which have flash points below 100°F.

     Paint wastes are typically disposed of sporadically and, except for
the cleaning of vats used for dip coating, they are seldom disposed of in
significant quantities at any one time.  Because of the nature of paint
waste generation, little attention is paid to their segregation and disposal.
The usual disposal method, therefore, involves mixing with other plant trash
in dumpsters for sanitary land filling.

     Chemical analysis of two paint waste samples is presented in Table IEI-15.
Chromium and lead concentrations in the samples are significant as would be
expected.  However, the solubility of these metals in water varies greatly
between the two samples.  This difference in metals solubility may be the
result of the pH difference between the samples.  The flash point of the
acetone-based waste is below 100°F and, so, Is considered flammable.  Although
flash point was not analyzed for the other sample, a flash point above 84°F
and possibly below 100°F is postulated because of the presence of xylene.

     Identification of Potentially Hazardous Waste Streams

     Of the ten categories of process wastes identified at the beginning of
the previous section, all include some materials which are hazardous according
to the criteria discussed under "Criteria for the Determination of a Potentially
Hazardous Waste."   The definition of waste stream that is used here is that
it is a category of process wastes, a significant quantity of which was land
disposed by surveyed plants.  This definition excludes metal scrap, concen-
trated cyanides, and concentrated acids and alkalies from designation as
waste streams.  The typical disposal practices for these wastes were discussed
in the previous section, "Nature of Process Wastes."  Beryllium wastes are
the only materials in these categories which are likely to be typically
land disposed.  The amount of beryllium wastes generated in the industry
is not quantifiable from the data collected in plant visits.  Based upon the
restricted use of beryllium-containing raw materials, it is likely that
the amount of beryllium wastes generated by the industry is small.

     The miscellaneous waste stream includes the atypical polychlorinated
biphenyl waste mentioned previously.  Discontinuation of PCB use in the
                                 94

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                        96

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surveyed plant in the near future will eliminate the only hazardous material
recognized in the miscellaneous waste stream.

     The hazardous characteristics of the remianing six waste streams is
summarized below:

     Halogenated Solvents - The toxicity of the halogenated solvents as air
contaminants is well established [30].  Trichloroethylene, the most commonly
used solvent in this group, has also been found to be photochemically reac-
tive [29].  However, toxicity of the halogenated solvents in soil, ground-
water,  or surface water is not established in available literature except
as extrapolated from industrial air contaminant standards [1],  In lieu of
more concrete information on toxicity and the fate of the solvents in land
disposal operations, classification of this waste stream as potentially
hazardous on the basis of solvent toxicity is not proposed at this time.

     Solvents are highly susceptible to contamination by materials which can
be readily identified as being hazardous, however.  For example, one of the
two halogenated solvent waste samples analyzed for heavy metals for this
study contained 125 mg-lead/kg.  Approximately one-fifth of the lead in
that sample leached into water at neutral pH.

     The types and concentrations of toxic contaminants in waste solvents
would be dependent upon the use to which they are put and the degree of
particulate or ionic contamination allowed.  In order to estimate a crude
ratio of hazardously contaminated solvent wastes to total solvent wastes,
the heavy metals analyses for the five solvent samples collected for this
study (halogenated and non-halogenated) were examined for the amount of
leachable metal in them.  Two of the samples, one halogenated solvent and
the other non-halogenated, contained hazardous concentrations of leachable
lead.  Cadmium, chromium, copper, and iron did not leach to hazardous
levels in any of the five samples.  Leachable zinc was found in all five
samples at concentrations of 0.1 to 4.26 mg/kg of solvent.

     Although zinc can be toxic to sensitive freshwater fish and inverte-
brates, the solvent waste streams are not judged to be hazardous due to
this constituent.  Drinking water criteria (5.0 mg/1-zinc) are higher than
zinc concentrations in the leachates (equivalent to approximately one-half
of the leachable concentrations reported for the solvent since the solvent
samples were mixed 2:1 with water for the leachate test).  The sensitivity
of aquatic species to zinc is highly variable and dependent on several
water quality parameters.  While there is a possibility of adverse impact
from the zinc contained in improperly disposed solvent wastes, the criteria
for judging the impact are not sufficiently developed to be of utility in
this study.

     The determination that two-fifths of both solvent waste streams are
potentially hazardous is based on the presence of hazardous amounts of
leachable lead in two out of the five waste solvent samples.  This basis
                                  97

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for quantifying the potential hazardousness of these waste streams is admit-
tably incomplete.  More information on the toxicity of halogenated solve:nts
to aquatic and terrestrial biota, the potential for generation of highly
toxic  gases  from heating halogenated solvents and more data on the heavy
metal content of both classes of solvent wastes is needed.

     Non-halogenated Solvents - In addition to the leachable heavy metals
content of waste solvents, the non-halogenated solvents used in surveyed
plants with few exceptions had flash points below the standard for flamma-
bility, 100°F.   The entire waste stream is classified as potentially hazardous
for this reason.

     Wastewater Treatment Sludges - Heavy metals and fluorides are present
in the wastewater treatment sludges generated by electronic component manu-
facturing plants.  At the elevated pH's of these sludges, pH 8 and above,
the metals are insoluble and only appear in water leachates in concentrations
near or below the limits of analytical detection by the methods used.   (See
Appendix C).  Fluorides, on the other hand, appear in the leachates in con-
centrations of approximately 5 tc 20 mg/1 at the pH of the sludges.  These
concentrations exceed the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations
standard for fluoride of 1.4 to 2.4 mg/1. (temperature dependent).

     At lower pH's the metal hydroxides and the fluorides become more soluble
in water.  These sludges are expected to decompose in time if disposed of in
landfill situations where they would come into contact with groundwater or
acidic wastes.   Suspected long term, gradual release of heavy metals and
fluorides from these waste sludges is the basis for classifying them as
potentially hazardous.

     Plastics - Plastic wastes are not hazardous by the criteria established
for the purpose of this study.  Two aspects of plastics disposal, release
of plasticizers and conversion to toxic gases if improperly burned, may
pose  unquantified hazards for disposal of specific plastics or for disposal
of plastics in combination with flammable materials.  The risk of these
hazards cannot be assessed adequately from data collected for this study.

     Hydraulic and Cutting Oils - Improperly disposed oil wastes present a
hazard to fish and wildlife in very low concentrations.  A limit on the order
of 0.01 mg/1 is expected to be set for oil in fresh water [34].  Adverse
effects on public drinking water supplies involving taste and odor problems
have been caused by improperly disposed oils.  The entire waste stream is,
therefore, classified as potentially hazardous.  The presence of dissolved
and particulate metals in much of the waste stream adds to the hazardous
nature of the oil wastes.

     Paint Wastes - Chromium and lead are used extensively in paint pigments
and are present in significant concentrations in paint wastes whether the
wastes are dry, such as dry booth filters, or solvent soaked.  The widespread
presence of these metals is the basis for classifying this waste stream as
potentially hazardous.  Other metals, especially zinc,  are also present and
contribute to the hazard.
                                 98

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     In addition to the heavy metal content, a substantial fraction of this
waste stream has flammable solvents as a constituent.  As estimated one-half
of the waste stream is flammable due to the presence of these solvents.

QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

     Data Base

     Data collected in conjunction with twenty-two plant visits plus infor-
mation provided by one company which did not allow a plant visit is the basis
for estimating the quantities of process wastes generated by the electronic
components manufacturing industry.

     In many instances particular wastes in individual plants were unquanti-
fiable.  Except for wastes which have recovery value, require specialized
handling or are generated in some known proportion to raw material usage,
reliable records of waste quantities are not kept.  In a few instances,
particularly in large, highly integrated plants, attempts to allocate known
plant-wide waste quantities to the product area under study would have
required more effort than the companies were willing to contribute.  Never-
theless, a substantial amount of reliable plant data was obtained for each
of the waste streams recognized for the industry.

     Data was provided in a variety of units depending upon the nature of
available written records, nature of the waste, or the rationale used by
the company representatives in estimating the amounts of waste.  These values
were converted to kilograms of waste generated per year using appropriate
conversion factors.  Many of the wastes were liquid.  Usually the density
of the waste itself was not available.  In such cases, the densities of the
major raw materials and approximate proportions of those materials in the
waste were used for the conversion.

     The specific gravities assumed for various wastes were:


                                            Specific Gravity	
     Halogenated Solvents                 Kg/L.         Ibs/gal.

     Perchloroethylene                    1.45            12.1
     Trichloroethylene                    1.45            12.1
     Freon                                1.45            12.1
     Halogenated Solvent Sludges       1.75-2.0        14.6-16.7
     Methylene Chloride                   1.3             10.8

     Non-Halogenated Solvents

     Isopropyl Alcohol                     .9              7.5
     Methanol                              .9              7.5
     Acetone                               .9              7.5
     Mixed solvents                     .9-1.4          7.5-11.7
     Xylene                                .82             6.8
     Non-halogenated Solvent Slurries   1.0-1.3         8.3-10.8
     Stoddard Solvent                     1.5             12.5
                                 99

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     Wastewater Treatment Sludges
                                            Specific Gravity	
                                           ;/L.          Ibs/gal.
     Calculated from solids content and specific gravity of solids.
     The specific gravity of sludge solids assumed to be 1.8 (= 15 Ibs/
     gallon).
     Hydraulic and Lubricating Oils

     Paint Wastes
   .9

  1.5
      7.5

     12.5
     For the purpose of extrapolating plant waste data to industry estimates,
data on value of plant or product area shipments was requested.  Where this
was not made available, the number of either production or total employees
involved in manufacturing the product under study was provided.

     All plant data collected has been recorded on plant survey reports such
as the one reproduced in Appendix C.  Copies of the completed reports are
maintained by EPA.  Due to nearly universal company requests for confidenti-
ality of this information, none of the plant information is reported here in
such a manner that it can be attributed to any one company.

     Total Waste Generated

     The method for extrapolating plant waste data to industry waste stream
estimates included the following steps using hypothetical plant data to
illustrate the steps.

     1.  Annual waste generation estimates for each process waste in any
one plant was converted to pounds per year (Ib/yr) as mentioned above.  Each
waste was categorized by waste stream.  For the example, assume that the
following wastes were generated from two plants in SIC 3677 and 36790 31:
     Waste Stream
     Halogenated Solvents
     Non-Halogenated Solvents
     Wastewater Treatment Sludges
     Hydraulic and Lubricating Oils
     Plastics
     Paint Wastes
     Metal Scrap
     Concentrated Cyanides
     Concentrated Acids & Alkalies
         Plant
  Waste Generation Rate
        (lbs/yr)
Plant #1       Plant #2
SIC 3677

 10,000
 15,000
    0
   100
    0
   200
    0
    0
    0
SIC 36790 31

     5,000
     2,000
    10,000
      500
     1,000
      400
       0
       0
       0
                                  100

-------
     2.  The plant waste stream generation rates were extrapolated to nation-
wide waste stream generation rates for that product area (SIC) using value
of product shipment data if such was available for the plant.  Alternatively,
manufacturing or total employee data was used for the extrapolation.  Each
plant was thereby found to represent a percentage of the national production
for its product area (SIC).  Except for SIC 3679, the industry value of
product shipments (1975)data [10] or employment(1972) data [5] was taken at
the 4-digit level (3672, 3673, etc.).  For SIC 3679 plant product areas were
taken as 6- or 7-digit SIC's because of product diversity within 3679. Value
of shipments and employment data for these product areas are available only
for 1972 [5].  The ratio of the nationwide statistic (value of shipments
or employment) to the plant statistic was then multiplied by the waste
generation rates for each waste stream present.

     Assuming for our example that plant #1 (SIC 3677) could not release value
of shipments data but did report that they had an average of 120 production
employees, the ratio used to extrapolate their waste generation data would
be:

         1972 production employees for SIC 3677_ 19,100
              Plant #1 production employees        120


Similarly for Plant #2 for which product value of shipments was available:

         1972 value of product shipments, SIC 3679 31 = $38.7 million = 32 2
               Plant #2 value of product shipments      $1.2 million

Multiplying these factors by the plant waste generation rates in our example
would yield product area waste generation rates:
                                                   Product Area
                                               Waste Generation Rate
                                                    (Ibs/year)
         Waste Stream                        SIC 3677      SIC 36790 31

         Halogenated Solvents               1,590,000         161,000
         Non-halogenated Solvents           2,385,000          64,400
         Wastewater Treatment Sludges           0             322,000
         Hydraulic and Lubricating Oils        15,900          16,100
         Plastics                               0              32,200
         Paint Wastes                          31,800          12,880
         Metal Scrap                            0                 0
         Concentrated Cyanides                  0                 0
         Concentrated Acids and Alkalies        0                 0

     3.  Not all of the product areas surveyed were represented by a single
plant as in the example.  Also, plant waste generation rates were not always
quantifiable for some plant process wastes although the plant survey showed
the presence of the waste.  Waste generation rates for similar wastes from
multiple plants within the same product area were added together and multiplied
                                  101

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by a product area:  plant ratio calculated with the sum  of the plant value
of shipments (or employee numbers converted to plant value of shipments per
Table II-7) instead of single-plant statistics.  Where no wastes in a par-
ticular waste stream were generated by one of the plants, a zero was added
into the overall waste generation rate for the multiple plants.  If a waste
was produced in one of the plants but its generation rate was not quantifiable,
a side calculation was performed for other plants in the product area for
which the waste type was quantifiable.  The average waste generation rate in
pounds per million dollars of value of product shipments was multiplied by
the subject plant's value of product shipments to estimate the plant's waste
generation rate.

     4.  The 23 surveyed plants represented eleven different product areas.
For each of these eleven product areas waste generation rates in pounds per
year for the nine process waste categories were projected as described above.
Because many of the waste generation rates could reveal confidential informa-
tion about specific plants, they are not presented here by process area. The
waste generation rates were summed by waste stream across product areas to
yield SIC 367 waste stream quantities.  Three of the waste stream quantities
were based on only one plant's waste generation rate.  These waste str€:ams
were concentrated cyanides, concentrated acids and alkalies and beryllium
wastes from the metal scrap process waste category.  For reasons discussed
at length earlier, the quantification of these three waste streams ceased
at this point.  Because the quantities for these waste streams were very
small when extrapolated to the SIC 367 level, they were dropped from the total
waste stream calculation also.

     5.  Of the six remaining waste streams, two typically contained signifi-
cant percentages of water:  wastewater treatment sludges and oils.  The
average solids concentration of the wastewater treatment sludges waste
stream (percent dry weight) was determined from laboratory analysis of sam-
ples and information provided by surveyed plants.  This average was weighted
by the volumes of these sludges as scaled up to product area values.  Average
solids concentration of the sludges was determined by this method to be 20
percent.  The remainder of this waste stream is considered to be water since
very small volumes of materials such as solvents and oils (which would
volatilize during the solids test) were present in the sludge waste stream.
In contrast to the sludges, the oil waste stream data on percent water was
meager.  Due to the extensive use of water soluble cutting oils, the Largest
volume waste in the oil waste stream, the water content is estimated to be
ninety percent.  Total waste volumes for these two waste streams are, there-
fore, expressed in terms of both wet and dry weight.  For other waste streams
the water content is estimated to be very small so that wet and dry weights
are reported to be the same.

     6.  The eleven product areas represented by the 23 surveyed plants
cover 65 percent of the electronic components manufacturing industry.  The
dry and wet weights of each waste stream were, therefore, multiplied by
100%/65% = 1.54 to estimate the industry-wide quantities for each waste
stream.  The assumption implicit in this step is that the major process
waste categories of the unsurveyed portion of the industry will be similar
in type and generation rate (per million dollars of value of product shipments)
                                  102

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to the surveyed portion.

     7.  To this point all quantities were expressed in pounds per year.
These figures were converted to kilokilograms per year (kkg/yr) by dividing
by 2205.

     Quantification of Potentially Hazardous Wastes and
     Hazardous Constituents of the Waste Stream

     The nature and hazardous constituents of the waste streams have been
discussed above.  The proportion of the waste streams considered hazardous,
and the basis for estimating quantities of the hazardous constituents of
the waste streams are briefly summarized below by waste stream.

     Halogenated Solvents - Based on the fact that two out of the five sol-
vent samples (halogenated and non-halogenated) collected in the surveyed
plants had leachable, heavy  metals in concentrations exceeding the relevant
criteria for toxicity or bioaccumulation, two-fifths of this waste stream
is estimated to be potentially hazardous.

     Quantification of heavy metals as a hazardous constituent of the solvent
waste streams is hindered by the availability of data.  Five waste solvent
samples (two halogenated, one mixed, and two non-halogenated) were collected
and analyzed for this study.  Water leachable heavy metals concentrations
in these samples ranged from 0.25 mg/kg to 11.9 mg/kg (cadmium, chromium
lead, and zinc).  A value of 4.3 mg/kg is used here to estimate the concen-
tration of leachable, heavy metals in the halogenated solvent waste stream.

     Oils are also present in the halogenated solvents wastes.  It is
estimated that roughly 100 mg/kg oil is present in the two-fifths of the
waste stream that has been used enough times to pick up significant heavy
metals concentrations.

     Non-halogenated Solvents - Using the same rationale as developed for
the halogenated solvents, approximately two-fifths of this waste stream has
seen sufficient use to have picked up significant concentrations of heavy
metals and oils.

     In addition to the presence of oils and heavy metals, the entire waste
stream is estimated to be flammable, i.e., has a flash point below 100°F
(32°C) and is, therefore, potentially hazardous.

     Wastewater Treatment Sludges - All of these wastes contain either heavy
metals or fluorides or both in significant concentrations.  At the pH of
the sludges, above pH 8, the fluorides are soluble in concentrations above
the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation Standards while the
heavy metals are not,  based upon leachate tests on samples.  Heavy metals
and fluorides are both expected to be leached from the sludges over long
periods.  Rate of leaching and concentration of these constituents in
leachate will be dependent upon the amount and acidity of local groundwater.
The entire waste stream is considered potentially hazardous due to the
                                   103

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presence and probable release to the environment of heavy metals and fluorides.

     The combined average concentration of lead, cadmium and chromium in sludge,
for which detailed analysis is available, is 880 mg/kg expressed as a part of
of the sludge dry weight.  The amount of fluorides in sludges was derived from
data on hydrofluoric acid usage in several plants.  These calculations assumed
that one hundred percent of the 70 percent hydrofluoric acid consumed would
be converted to insoluble fluorides at elevated pH's.  While this removal
efficiency is not achievable, it is a reasonably close approximation.
Analytical results provided by one company of the fluoride in their sludge
are in agreement with the results obtained by this method.

     Plastics - No hazardous constituents have been recognized in this waste
stream.

     Oils - Oils present as part or as the major constituent of cutting, hy-
draulic and lapping oils renders all of these wastes in this waste stream
hazardous.  Due to the high proportion of water soluble cutting oils in this
waste stream, the average concentration of oils in the waste stream is
estimated to be five percent, although specific wastes are nearly 100 percent
oil.

     Based upon analysis of two lapping oil wastes, the combined average
concentration for lead, chromium, and cadmium in this waste stream is 2600
mg/kg as a part of the dry weight.

     Paint Wastes - The wide-spread use of lead and chromium in formulating
paints results in nearly universal heavy metals contamination of this waste
stream.  Based upon the analysis of two paint waste samples, the average
lead plus chromium concentration in paint wastes is estimated to be 260 mg/kg
dry weight.  The ability of these metals to leach into water from solvent-
containing paint wastes appears from limited data to be dependent upon pH.
The effects of the presence of solvents in paint wastes on metal solubility
has not been analyzed for this study, but such information would be relevant
to assessing the potential hazard of such paint wastes as dry booth filters
on which atomized paint has dried.

     Also present in some of the wastes in this waste stream are flammable,
non-halogenated solvents used in paint equipment clean up.  It is estimated
that fifty percent of the paint waste stream is flammable, non-halogenated
solvents.

     Projected Changes in Waste Generation

     With the exception of the wastewater treatment sludge waste stream,
effluent guidelines for wastewater discharges are not expected to have a
significant impact on quantities of the significant waste streams generated
by the electronic components manufacturing industry in the future.

     The 1977 and 1983 quantities of the six major waste streams were in-
creased in proportion to the changes in product area value of shipments
presented in Table 11-10.  The ratios of 1977 and 1983 value of industry
                                 104

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 shipments are listed in Table 111-16.  With the exception of the wastewater
 treatment sludge waste stream these ratios were multiplied by the waste
 stream volumes calculated for each product area as described above. The
 proportions of potentially hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents were
 calculated from the 1977 and 1983 waste stream totals in the manner described
 above for the 1975 waste stream quantities.

     The calculations of future waste volumes are consistent with the assump-
 tion used throughout this report that wastes generated within each product
 area are proportional to production as described by value of shipments.  The
 use of value of industry shipments in some steps of the calculations and
 value of product shipments results in some inconsistencies since the values
 are not strictly comparable.  However, the error created is considered to be
 much smaller than that caused by the accuracy of basic waste data obtained
 from the plants and by the relatively small number of plants visited, less
 than one percent of the national total.  The use of both indexes of produc-
 tion is necessitated by the failure of available information sources to
 provide consistently applicable figures at the four-digit SIC level in terms
 of either one of the indexes.

     Effects of Public Law 92-500 on the Waste-
     water Treatment Sludge Waste Stream

     Sections 301, 304(b), and 306 of the 1972 Amendments to the Federal
 Water Pollution Control Act call for implementation of effluent limitations,
 standards of performance and pretreatment standards for point sources other
 than publicly owned treatment works.  Two levels of wastewater treatment
 technology are to be implemented, the earliest by July 1, 1977 and the
 other by July 1, 1983.  The 1977 technology level involves application of
 the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT).  The 1983
 technology level is based on the best available technology economically
 achievable (BAT) and has the goal of eliminating the discharge of all water
 pollutants.

     Effluent limitations and performance standards for the electronic com-
 ponents manufacturing industry are proposed in three applicable documents:
 "Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards of
 Performance for the Machinery and Mechanical Products Manufacturing Point
 Source Category" [7], "Development Document for Proposed Effluent Limitations
 Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards - Copper, Nickel, Chromium
 and Zinc Segment of the Electroplating Point Source Category" [8], and
 "Development Document for Interim Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and
 Proposed Finishing Segment of the Electroplating Point Source Category" [9].

     Three categories of industrial point sources are covered by these de-
velopment documents:   existing plants with direct discharge to navigable
waters, new plants with direct discharge to navigable waters, and both old
 and new plants which discharge to municipal wastewater treatment works.

     While the requirements for BPT and BAT differ slightly between the
 three development documents for these point source categories (pretreatment
 standards and technology for plants that discharge to municipal works, for
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                              TABLE  111-16

                     Ratios of 1977 and 1983 Value of
                     Industry Shipments to 1975 Value
                         of Industry Shipments(a)
           SIC

          3672

          3673

          3674

          3675

          3676

          3677

          3678

          3679
12ZI
1.222
1.236
1.250
1.188
1.132
1.244
1.250
1.226
1983
1.620
1.712
1.769
1.442
1.139
1.733
1.769
1.642
(a)  - Calculated from estimates presented in Table'11-10.
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instance, are covered only by the machinery and mechanical products document),
BPT for 1977 will be achieved by cyanide oxidation, hexavalent chromium
reduction to the trivalent form, neutralization, and coprecipitation of
metals as hydroxides at elevated pH.  Coprecipitation of the metals produces
a sludge with one to two percent solids.  This sludge is lagooned in sealed
ponds or concentrated by various methods to solids concentrations as high
as 40 percent prior to land disposal.  Recovery of metals from coprecipi-
tation sludges is rarely practicable  [9].

     BAT for all three documents involves no discharge of pollutants from
processes used in the electronic components manufacturing industry.  Achieve-
ment of BAT in 1983 for existing sources and in 1977 for some new sources
[7] is expected to require in-plant control of pollutant discharge, chemical
treatment of wastewater as for BPT, and 100 percent water reclamation and
reuse.  The documents recognize that the achievement of no-discharge may be
feasible by methods other than those suggested.

     Pretreatment standards for both technology levels at this time are
still in the process of review [35].  Uncertainty exists about what effect
the type of local municipal treatment provided will have on these standards.
For instance, if a municipal treatment plant is required to remove phosphorus
from the effluent because of nutrient problems in the receiving waters, lime
or alum flocculation and sedimentation will likely remove some of the heavy
metals and fluorides discharged by electronic component manufacturing plants.
In such cases, the yet-to-be-issued pretreatment guidelines may remove the
requirement for pretreatment at small plants, thereby reducing or eliminating
the amount of sludge generated at the electronic components plant itself.
Applicable pretreatment standards are currently being formulated and, so,
are not available for predicting their impact on sludge generation.

     Because the impacts of new treatment technology and revised pretreatment
requirements cannot be practiced, it is assumed for the purpose of estimating
future sludge production from the industry that BPT technology will be
utilized in all electronic components plants by 1977.

     Coprecipitation sludges will, by this assumption, be generated by all
plants with heavy metals in their wastewater.  While the development docu-
ments are not specific in regard to recommended methods for the removal of
fluoride, it is assumed here that its precipitation with lime will be required
in all plants where it is currently discharged.

     1975 generation of wastewater pretreatment sludges is estimated by
applying the previously described procedure used for all waste streams.  A
sufficient amount of data was available to estimate sludge generation for
each product area.

     Estimates for 1977 generation of wastewater treatment sludges are based
on the assumption that all plants which have manufacturing processes generat-
ing heavy metal and/or fluoride water carried wastes will generate sludges
in the same proportion to production (value of shipments) as plants in similar
product areas already generating sludges.   Average solids concentration
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 (dry weight), metal concentration, and fluoride concentration in the sludges
 is assumed to be the same as in sludges found in surveyed plants.

     The development documents [7,8,9] predict that the incremental increase
 in sludge generation caused by the no-discharge technology suggested for
 1983 will be small.  Recovery of water by reverse osmosis and evaporation
 of the reverse osmosis brine is expected to add a comparatively small volume
 of soluble salts to the wastewater treatment sludge waste stream.   This
 volume is considered to be negligible for the purposes of estimating 1983
 sludge generation.

     In-plant water and pollution control measures may ultimately result in
wide-spread use of contractor removal of concentrate cyanide, metal and
 acid and alkali solutions for land disposal.  This is currently practiced
by at least one electronic components manufacturing plant.  Disposal of
 hazardous pollutants by this method may aid plants in meeting the 1985 BAT
 requirements but will have the effect of creating larger volumes of waste
 for land disposal.  Possible economic advantages of land disposal of con-
 centrated wastewaters will likely be influenced by a number of considerations
 such as proximity of suitable land disposal sites, the cost of land disposal
 (which will be directly affected by land disposal regulations), and costs
 for both existing and future alternative treatment technologies.  For the
purposes of estimating concentrated cyanides, acids, alkalies and waste-
water treatment brines waste streams generated by the electronic components
manufacturing industry, it is assumed that the quantity will remain at the
 negligible levels suggested by plant survey data.

 SUMMARY OF THE WASTE STREAM QUANTIFICATIONS

     Process wastes of the electronic components manufacturing industry have
been grouped according to their origin and major constituent into ten waste
 categories.  On the basis of their final disposal in significant quantities
 to the land, six of these waste categories are defined for this report as
 "waste streams" of the industry.  These waste streams have been quantified
 for 1975 in terms of metric tons generated per year and projections of their
 volumes for 1977 and 1983 by methods described in the report.  Four wastes,
 beryllium clean-up materials,concentrated cyanides, concentrated acid and
 alkalies, and a polychlorinated biphenol waste, are considered to be potenti-
 ally hazardous but have not been considered as waste streams and are not
 quantified here because they either are not generated in significant quanti-
 ties or are not typically land disposed as generated by the industry.

     Results of the waste stream quantifications are presented in three
 sections of this report.  Total waste stream volumes, total potentially
 hazardous waste stream volumes and total hazardous constituents are reported
 for 1975, 1977 and 1983 in Tables 1-1, 1-2, and 1-3.  National, state and
 EPA Region volumes are reported in those tables for all waste streams and
 constitutents without identifying the waste streams of origin.  National
 volumes of the individual waste streams, their potentially hazardous wastes
 and hazardous constituents for 1975, 1977 and 1983 are presented in Tables
 III-l, III-2, and III-3.  Disaggregation of the national volumes are presented
 in Appendix B.  Allocation of the national figures to the states was performed
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using the value of industry shipments reported in Table II-8.   Adjustments
to that data were made to account for value of shipments not  reported by
state.  Unreported four-digit SIC value of shipments were divided evenly
among states which had plants but for which values were not reported
(designated "(D)" in Table II-8).  These figures were added to the reported
state totals and divided by the national total value of shipments for SIC
367.  The state ratios were multiplied by the various national waste
volumes to determine state volumes.  State volumes were added by EPA Region
to determing EPA Regional values.
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                                SECTION IV

                     TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

     This section describes the treatment and disposal technology utilized
by the electronic components manufacturing industries.  Except for organic
solvent reclamation, on and off site, by some plants, there is little treat-
ment of potentially hazardous wastes prior to disposal.  Concentration of
wastewater treatment sludges, considered here as waste treatment process,
is practiced in a few plants.  Most of the wastewater treatment sludges,
lubricating and hydrualic oils, and paint wastes are all disposed of in
landfills without prior treatment.

     Because of their liquid state, most of the wastes are drummed for
transportation to landfill or reclamation sites.  Virtually all of the po-
tentially hazardous waste destined for o£€-site disposal or reclamation is
handled by private contractor.  Contact was made with reclaiming operations
and landfill sites were visited to find out how the wastes were handled
and ultimately disposed of.

     Three levels of technology are indicated in this section for each
potentially hazardous waste.  Level I is the most prevalent technology;
Level II is the best method presently used which is amenable to more wide-
spread use; and Level III is the technology which is most adequate from
an environmental and public health perspective.

     There are differences between individual plants in handling and dispos-
ing of the wastes related to quantities generated, economics, and attitude
towards waste disposal.  In general electronic component manufactures pay
very close attention to manufacturing processes to maintain high product
quality.  This includes careful in-plant handling of all wastes so that
final product quality is not adversely affected by in-plant waste handling
methods.

     With the exception of water-carried wastes, little future change is
expected in the waste disposal and treatment technology of these industries.
However, within SIC 3674 — Semiconductor Manufacturing, new products quickly
develop to replace old ones and this could lead to changes in waste quan-
tities, treatment and disposal technology in the second largest four-digit
SIC classification in this industry.

     Definition which apply to the technologies discussed here are as
follows:

     Landfill - Land disposal facilities characterized by their acceptance
of a wide variety of wastes including garbage which are compacted in
layers and covered daily.  They do not normally have special containment,
monitoring, or provision for treatment of leachate.  Some have liquid
waste disposal facilities separate from solid waste disposal.
                                   Ill

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     Secured Landfill - Land disposal facilities characterized by impervious
containment of the waste with provisions for monitoring and treatment of
leachate if required.  Adequate diversion and control of surface water are
required as well as registration of the site for a permanent record of its
location once filled,

     Incineration - Combustion of an organic or partially organic waste
stream with adequate means for complying with applicable air pollution con-
trol regulations and for disposal of collected particulates and ash (usually
of a potentially hazardous nature) in a secured landfill.

     Reclamation - Processes used to turn a process waste into a usable raw
material for electronic component manufacturing and/or other industries.

DESCRIPTION OF PRESENT WASTE HANDLING
AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

     With few exceptions the surveyed plants were well organized and main-
tained in an unusually dust and litter-free condition.  Standards of plant
cleanliness are high to minimize the potential for contamination of incom-
plete components.  In accord with the high cleanliness standards, most
process wastes are collected as they are generated.  Separate storage of
process wastes outside of production areas is common practice for most
plants.

     Organic solvents and wastewater treatment sludges are the more frequently
treated potentially hazardous waste, although they are by no means treated
in all plants.  Lubricating and hydraulic oils and paint wastes are not
generally treated in these plants because of the small quantities generated.

     Both the halogenated and non-halogenated solvents are carefully handled
to avoid spills of these expensive and reclaimable materials and to prevent
dangerous accidents that could result from their toxicity and flammability.
Halogenated solvents are twice as expensive as nonhalogenated solvents and
are often reclaimed in-plant by a batch distillation process explained below.
Solvent wastes removed from the plants range in amount of impurities from
the still bottoms of in-plant halogenated solvent reclamation to solvents
clean enough for resale without further processing,  U.S. Department of
Transportation shipping regulations [36] require that the flammable wastes
be properly containerized and labeled for transportation.

     The most common waste treatment technology recognized in the surveyed
electronic components manufacturing plants was the reclamation of organic
solvents.  Eight of the fifteen plants that use organic solvents have these
solvents reclaimed, either off-site by a private contractor or on-site
reclamation facilities.  Based on the plant survey data 59 percent of the
halogenated solvent wastes and 50 percent of the nonhalogenated wastes are
segregated for reclamation.

     Solvents reclamation techniques range from repacking where clean solvents
are disposed of to distillation and fractionation where separation of mixed
solvents is required.  Many of the solvents disposed of by plants in SIC 367
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are clean enough to be reused for other industrial purposes with little or
no treatment being required.  One private contractor simply repackaged the
waste solvent in smaller volumes before selling it to other customers.  Pri-
vate contractors that process large quantities of organic solvents from many
different industries generally distill solvents for reclamation.

     The type of on-site reclamation facilities is generally a function of
plant size.  The large plants which have on-site reclamation facilities
tend to have separate distillation facilities for solvent reclamation.  One
large plant used a fixed-bed carbon adsorption process for solvent reclamation.
Smaller plants which reclaim solvents on-site use a batch distillation system
built into the process equipment for reclamation of halogenated solvents.
The batch distillation process observed in plant surveys involves heating
up the halogenated solvent contained in vapor degreasing tanks.  Upon heating,
the halogenated solvent is evaporated and the condensate is collected and
siphoned into another vessel.  The remaining unevaporated still bottoms are
disposed on-site, drummed for landfill, or shipped in containers to off-site
reclamation facilities,  The halogenated solvent is then returned to the
cleaned tanks for reuse once the still bottoms are removed.

     Use of reclaimed organic solvents where feasible is usually more econom-
ical than purchasing unused solvents,  For organic solvent quantities of
less than four drums, reclamation costs range from 25 percent to 40 percent
of the cost of purchasing unused solvents when the efficiency of reclamation
ranges from 90 percent to 20 percent.  For organic solvent quantities
of greater than four drums, reclamation costs range from 18 percent to 30
percent of the cost of unused solvents when the efficiency of reclamation
ranges from 90 percent to 20 percent [26].

     In spite of the attractive economics of solvent reclamation, most
electronic component manufacturers do not reclaim all organic solvents.  Most
plants reclaim the more expensive halogenated solvents by an on-site batch
distillation process, but many small plants find it more economical, because
of location and transportation costs, to dispose of small quantities of used
organic solvents without reclamation.  Some plants will purchase back reclaimed
solvents.  However, most plants require unreclaimed solvents because product
quality demands ultraclean surfaces where surface contamination can alter
the electronic properties of components.

     Depending on the suspended solids and heavy metals content of contact
process waters, some wastewaters are treated before discharge into the
sanitary sewer.  Thirteen of the surveyed plants treated their wastewater
before discharge into sanitary sewers.  Nine of these thirteen used physical/
chemical treatment methods such as chemical precipitation with sedimentation,
or in a few instances just sedimentation, thereby generating a sludge for
disposal.  Four of these nine plants indicated that the wastewater sludges
are concentrated by centrifugation or pressure filtration.  One plant placed
its sludge in an on-site lagoon where the water is allowed to evaporate be-
fore the sludge is pumped out and transported off-site for final disposal
at an unknown site.
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     Centrifugation is a process whereby sludge is fed into a rotating bowl
at a constant flow rate where it separates into a dense cake with a solids
concentration ranging from 15-40 percent and a dilute stream called centrate.
Centrate is usually recycled through the wastewater treatment plant.   Pres-
sure filtration is a process whereby sludge is pumped in between two plates
to which pressure is applied.  The pressure forces the water through filter
cloth, which is fitted over the plates, and through the plate openings
producing a filter cake with a solids concentration ranging from 35-40
percent.

     Sludges generated in the treatment processes observed in the plant vis-
its vary from being 0.25 percent to 97 percent solids.  This range is due
to the many different processes and materials used in electronic component
manufacturing.  The sludges are either drummed, placed in the dumpsters or
piped into speical tank trucks for transportation typically to off-site land-
fill disposal.  The sludges are drummed for disposal when relatively small
quantities are generated.  Large quantities of liquid sludge are held in
tanks and are more economically transported by special tank trucks.  Highly
concentrated sludges, such as those produced by pressure filtration and
centrifugation, are sometimes stored in a dumpster set aside for sludges
only.

     Handling of the wastewater sludges in electronic component manufactur-
ing depends on the amount of sludge generated.  In the plants that generate
large quantities of sludge, it is usually more economical, because of
transportation and disposal costs, to reduce the volume of the wastewater
sludges before final disposal. Some plants located in urban environments
may also find sludge treatment economical when nearby landfill disposal
sites are not available.

     Lubricating and hydraulic oils are not usually treated before disposal
because of the small quantities generated.  Separated lubricating and. hy-
draulic oils inlcude both water-based coolants and petroleum distillate
oils.  Two plants indicated that the petroleum distillate oils were recycled,
One plant filtered the oil and recycled it while the other recycled the oil
after sedimentation.  In the second plant the unfiltered residue and sedi-
ment is drummed for final disposal.  Water-based coolants which are too
dirty  for continued use are usually disposed of without reclamation.

     Many plants use small quantities of oils which are disposed of without
recycling.  When small quantities are generated, the waste oils are mixed
in with the general solid waste in the dumpster for disposal,,  In one plant
the lubricating and hydraulic oils were combined with the wastewater and
unreclaimed solvents for handling by the wastewater treatment: plant and,in
another the oil was dumped on-site.  In plants where large quantities are
generated, waste oils are usually separately drummed for disposal.

     Paint wastes are also not usually treated before disposal because of
the small quantities generated.  Paint wastes consist of spent dry filters
containing paint residue and waste paint cleaned up with rags and solvents.
Paint wastes are often thrown in the dumpster along with other general
industrial solids wastes for disposal.  Iri unusual situations where large
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dip tanks are cleaned or large quantities of paint wastes are disposed of,
the wastes are usually separately drummed for disposal.

DESCRIPTION OF PRESENT TREATMENT
AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY

     A wide range of treatment and disposal technologies are practiced in
the electronics components manufacturing industries.  Waste disposal tech-
nology varies between plants due to factors of size, economics and attitude
towards waste disposal.  In general the larger plants apply more sophisti-
cated technology to waste disposal.  Waste disposal technology for potentially
hazardous wastes ranges from on-site surface dumping to controlled incinera-
tion with disposal of residue in a landfill.

     Segregation of potentially hazardous wastes for storage and disposal
is typical in surveyed plants.  Segregation of potentially hazardous wastes
is practiced in plants which generate large quantities of waste, in plants
where some of the wastes are reclaimed or recycled, and in plants that have
very strict waste handling procedures.  In some of the plants where potenti-
ally hazardous wastes are shipped off-site for reclamation and disposal;
segregation, labeling and handling of the wastes are done according to
Department of Transportation Specifications [36].  Organic solvents are
segregated from other potentially hazardous wastes because they are either
destined for reclamation or considered more dangerous due to toxicity or
flammability.

     Most of the unreclaimed halogenated and nonhalogenated waste solvents
are landfilled or incinerated.  Small volumes of still-bottom sludges and
unreclaimed solvents are sometimes dumped on the plant grounds.

     Six of the surveyed plants dispose of unreclaimed, nonhalogenated sol-
vents and halogenated solvent still bottoms in a landfill.  Three of these
plants indicated that disposal was in a secured landfill.  Pour of the
plants incinerated some unreclaimed solvent wastes,  Four plants dumped
small quantities of still bottom sludges or unreclaimed nonhalogenated
solvents on the plant grounds and three plants discharged small quantities
of nonhalogenated solvents in the sanitary sewer.

     Organic solvents and unreclaimed still bottoms that are disposed of in
a sanitary landfill are usually not mixed in initially with the other dry
solid waste but are placed in separate storage areas reserved for liquids.
Small quantities, ranging from .09 kkg/year to 6 kkg/year, of halogenated
and nonhalogenated solvents are dumped on-site.  Some company spokesmen
indicated that the reason for on-site dumping and sewering small quantities
of waste organic solvents is that such small quantities did not cause any
environmental harm and need not be disposed of in another way.

     Only large plants among those surveyed incinerated waste solvents.
Two plants have on-site incineration facilities.  For plants located in
urban environments where nearby landfill sites are not available, incinera-
tion may be economically more attractive than landfill disposal for
potentially hazardous wastes.
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     Wastewater treatment sludges, generated separately from other potentially
hazardous wastes, are usually kept segregated during storage and disposal.
Most of the surveyed plants use private contractors to dispose of the waste-
water treatment sludges in a landfill.  Two plants indicated that disposal
of the wastewater treatment sludges are irt a secured landfill.  Two other
plants indicated that the sludges were incinerated with disposal of final
residue in a landfill.  Wastewater treatment sludges disposed in a landfill
are usually placed apart from municipal solid wastes and are often mixed
with liquid wastes.

     Lubricating and hydraulic oils are not necessarily segregated from
other wastes for storage and disposal.  Petroleum distillate oils, where used
in large quantities, may be segregated from other wastes for reclamation.
Except for reclamation of petroleum distillate oils, most of the lubricating
and hydraulic oils are disposed of by private contractor in a landfill.
Petroleum distillate oils deemed too dirty for reclamation and the residue
from recyIcing operations are also placed in a landfill.  One plant indicated
that oils not recycled were incinerated.  This particular plant mixed all
chemical wastes together and transported them by private contractor off-site
for incineration.  Another plant practiced on-site disposal of water soluble
coolant oils by dumping on the plant grounds.  Where small quantities are
generated,the waste oil is sometimes either mixed with the plant solid waste
or dumped on the plant property.  Most plants using small quantities of
lubricating and hydrualic oils, however, dispose of the waste in off-site
landfills without reclamation.  Company spokesmen indicated that the economics
of reclamation only become attractive when large quantities of petroleum
distillate oils are used.  No reclamation of water soluble cutting oils was
recognized except for the common practice of sedimentation or filtration
in-plant.

     Paint wastes are not usually segregated from other wastes for storage
and disposal unless large quantities are generated.  Contractor disposal in
a landfill along with other plant trash from dumpsters is the most common
method of paint waste disposal.  There is no recycling of paint waste indi-
cated by the plant visits.  Most painting operations used dry booths or hand
painting operations.  In some plants disposal of dry spray booth filters
is done with the general plant solid waste which is placed in a landfill
along with-small quantities of paint clean-up materials including solvents
and wet rages.  One plant placed small quantities of solvent-based lacquer
clean-up waste in an on-site lagoon along with wastewater treatment sludges.

     In plants where large quantities of solvent-based paint waste are
generated, paint waste are separately drummed for landfill.

ON-SITE VS. OFF-SITE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

     Treatment of potentially hazardous wastes generated by surveyed plants
is generally limited to the organic solvents and wastewater treatment sludges.
Some petroleum distillate oils and solvent--based paint wastes from the plants
were reclaimed in off-site facilities but the number of occurrences of this
practice and the volumes involved were small in comparison to the entire
waste streams.
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     As has been previously described, in-plant halogenated solvent recla-
mation is a common practice.  The lack of a flash point in these solvents
and the high cost of new solvents makes this practice attractive to both
large and small plants.  Off-site reclamation of approximately half of both
the halogenated and nonhalogenated solvent waste streams is suggested by
survey data.  On-site distillation of nonhalogenated solvents was not
practiced in any of the surveyed plants, apparently because of relatively
low replacement cost and the substantial risk of fire or explosion during
the process.

     When wastewater treatment sludges are concentrated prior to disposal,
it is done on-site in proximity to the wastewater treatment facilities to
minimize transportation costs.  Of the eight surveyed plants generating
these sludges, two concentrated the sludges in lagoons, two centrifuged
them and two used filter presses.

     Thirteen percent of the potentially hazardous wastes quantified for the
surveyed plants were disposed of on-site.  Individual plant wastes disposed
of on-site ranged in volume from halogenated solvent sludges and non-
halogenated  solvents surface dumped a few gallons at a time at four plants
to wastewater treatment sludges from a large plant held indefinitely in an
on-site lagoon.  Another high volume waste, a water-soluble cutting oil,
is surface dumped at a different plant.  On-site incineration of paint wastes
is practiced at one plant.

     On-site disposal of small volume wastes from small plants is likely
more common than indicated by the plant survey data.  Small plants, in lieu
of regulations to the contrary, generally will not commit the attention and
resources necessary to find adequate disposal methods for their potentially
hazardous wastes.  As explained in the next section, personnel in the small
plants do not view the small volumes of waste whcih they generate as a
source of danger.

PRIVATE CONTRACTORS AND SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS

     It was specifically reported in only one instance that a plant's own
trucks haul some of their potentially hazardous wastes to a disposal site.
It is understood that some components manufactures make occasional and
unscheduled trips to haul nonhazardous trash to a municipal disposal area,
but it was not suggested that these loads contain the wastes defined as
hazardous in this report with any frequency.  Thus, although the plant
surveys were very limited in number, it is felt that they establish the
fact that the majority of the wastes generated by SIC 367 plants are carried
away from the plant by private contractors.

     A list of 49 contractors reported by the plants visited is shown in
Appendix D.  Their methods and capabilities vary quite widely.  The final
disposal method of four private contractors is listed as "unknown" since
ultimate disposition could not be identified by plant personnel and the
contractors could not be contacted and do not appear on recent EPA lists
of disposal contractors.  Due to their local character, it is expected
that these four contractors probably employ land disposal without reclama-
tion or incineration.
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     Landfill disposal is listed for twelve operations and secured landfill
disposal is listed for seven operators.   Due to state and local regulations
governing land disposal, none of the unsecured landfills are suspected of
being "dumps."

     Four of the contractors listed have incineration facilities;  eight
reclaim solvents and one reclaims oil;  twelve others recover metals.  Metal
is generally reclaimed on an industry-wide basis and therefore has not been
designated as a waste stream.

     Seven disposal sites which serve SIC 367 plants were visited  during
the study.  Five of these were on-site disposal sites.  Two sites  belonged
to contractor organizations, one in Region IX and the other in Region IV.

     One contractor disposal site was a sanitary landfill which disposed of
liquid waste separately from solid waste.  Liquid waste was disposed of here
in drums in separate cells of a sanitary landfill.  The company spokesman
said that the purpose of separation was to minimize leaching in a  landfill
which may result if the drummed liquid and solid waste were disposed of
together.

     The other site was a secured landfill which had two separate  disposal
areas.  One area contained drummed liquid wastes which is covered  daily and
the other was a lagoon.  The drummed area contains toxic chemical  wastes such
as cyanides, and the lagoons contain other less toxic sludge-liquid
wastes.  In general, the wastes were separated to prevent chemical reaction
between different wastes that might adversely affect operation and management
of the secured landfill.

     One other contractor, visited in a related industrial hazardous waste
survey [33], disposes of wastes generated by one of the plants visited in
SIC 367.  The company disposes of organic chemical wastes through  an
incineration.  The incineration equipment includes extensive air pollution
control including two high-energy venturi scrubbers.

     A good deal of information was obtained on the services of another more
sophisticated disposal and recovery contractor in Region II through the
survey of a large plant belonging to one of its customers.  This contractor
facility provides oxidation-reduction,  acidulation, neutralization, chemical
detoxification, chemical fixation, and thermal destruction of liquid wastes
as well as oil and solvent recovery.  Its fluidized bed incinerator is
equipped with an alkaline gas scrubber.  Final disposal of unreclaimed
residue is in reinforced, membrane-lined, clay cells of a secured  landfill
with leachate collection and treatment.  Analytical services are available
to determine the appropriate methods and cost of disposal.

WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY
FOR AN AVERAGE PLANT

     Process, product and waste diversity among the surveyed plants pro-
hibits realistic description of raw material usage, process flow,  or waste
generation in terms of how a typical electronic components manufacturing

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plant operates.  However, average waste generation figures can be calculated
from the national figures on number of plants, value of shipments and waste
stream totals presented elsewhere in this report.  Typical present disposal
technology for each waste stream is equivalent to Level I technology described
under "Treatment and Disposal Technology."  Relevant information is pre-
sented in Table IV-1 for the entire industry and for an average plant in
terms of value of shipments, number of employees, annual waste stream volumes,
and current disposal technology.

SAFEGUARDS USED IN DISPOSAL

     The degree of waste segregation, in-plant waste handling and storage,
and disposal methods chosen by plant managers appears,from conversations
with them,to be influenced by six factors:  1) value of the waste for recla-
mation, 2) hazards to plant personnel, 3) regulations governing disposal and
transportation, 4) risk of lowering product quality, 5) amount of waste
generated and 6) costs of handling and disposal.  Environmental and public
health considerations beyond compliance with regulations are a factor in
waste handling and disposal decisions primarily in those companies large
enough to commit personnel to perform evaluations of such risks for the
company's specific wastes.

     Value of wastes for reclamation is a determining factor in the dispo-
sition of metal wastes, halogenated solvents, nonhalogenated solvents and,
to a limited degree, petroleum distillate oils.  Some of the most rigorous
precautions taken in the industry for waste reclamation apply to clean-up
of precious metal wastes for obvious reasons.  These wastes are a commodity
for which contractors submit bids even to relatively small plants.  Efforts
expended to segregate and sell solvent and oil wastes are proportional to
the amount and cleanliness of the waste.  Some plants give these wastes to
contractors, dispose of them on-site or even pay to have them taken away
if the amounts generated are small.  No wastewater sludges, plastics or
paint wastes were reclaimed from surveyed plants.

     Hazards to plant personnel from solvent wastes, cyanide solutions and
beryllium wastes are well recognized.  Occupational Safety and Health
Administration regulations appear to have been particularly effective in
educating industry personnel to the hazards posed by these materials.  Stor-
age of solvent wastes in outside enclosures is a universal practice.  Segre-
gation of cyanide wastewaters from possibly acidic solutions is in line with
recognized engineering practice.  Heroic measures are taken in one plant
that cuts beryllium oxide stock,including work area ventilation, containeri-
zation of air filters, personnel clothing, lubricating solution, clean-up
rags and floor sweepings, and long distance transportation to a secured
landfill.

     Department of Transportation regulations [36] promote segregation of
flammable solvent wastes.  State regulations governing disposal of hazardous
wastes in California, Illinois, and Massachusetts do not directly affect
company decisions about waste handling since all hazardous wastes generated
by surveyed plants in these states are handled by private contractors.
                                     119

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Costs involved in disposal of hazardous wastes in these states have the
effect of minimizing the mixing of hazardous with nonhazardous wastes,
however.  Air pollution regulations appear to have minimal impact on
hazardous waste generation and disposal although reclamation of airborn
solvents from magnetic recording tape manufacturing serves the dual purpose
of reducing air emissions and recovering valuable solvents.  Nationwide
application of the concern about the photoreactivity of trichloroethylene,
xylene, and toluene, as embodied in Los Angeles Rule 66 [29],may result  in
a reduction in their occurrence in the organic solvent waste streams.

     Because product performance is a basis of competition in the industry,
especially for manufactures of technologically mature components, and be-
cause sometimes minute amounts of contamination can detract from product
performance, plant managers often pay considerable attention to in-plant
control of wastes.  The use of "white rooms" in several plants visited
testify to this concern.  Where plant cleanliness is of such concern, the
degree of waste segregation and the attention paid to removing the wastes
are high.  A secondary result of this attention appears to be a better
awareness of the ultimate fate of the wastes.

     Where waste volumes are low, the economic incentives to give special
handling to waste is naturally low also.  In addition, there appears to be
a correlation between the amount of waste material generated and the plant
managers opinion about its hazardous nature.  In part, this may be due  to
the amount of attention that personnel in small plants can afford to give
such matters.  As a result, only those wastes which present an in-plant
danger, such as the organic solvents, are considered hazardous.  Paint
wastes and waste oils are often not considered hazardous at all.  Safe-
guards chosen for the disposal of low volume wastes and wastes which do
not immediately threaten personnel safety or product quality are often
nonexistent.

LEVELS OF TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY FOR
POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE STREAMS

     The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has defined three levels  of
treatment and disposal technology which are or may be applicable to potentially
hazardous waste streams generated by the industries which manufacture elec-
tronic components and are destined for land disposal.  These technology
levels are defined as follows:

     LEVEL I - The technology currently employed by the majority of facili-
ties — i.e., broad average present treatment and disposal practice.

     LEVEL II - The best technology currently employed.  Identified technology
at this level must represent the soundest process from an environmental and
public health standpoint currently in use in at least one location.  Instal-
lations must be commercial scale.  Pilot and bench scale installations  are
not considered for this level.

     LEVEL III - The technology necessary to provide adequate health and
environmental protection.  Level III technology may be more or less sophisticated
                                  121

-------
or may be identical with Level I or Level II technology.   At his level,
identified technology may include pilot or bench scale processes providing
the exact stage of development is identified.

     There are five major waste streams in the manufacturing of electronic
components that have been designated as potentially hazardous in Section III.
Levels I, II, and III treatment and disposal technologies for halogenated
solvents, nonhalogenated solvents, wastewater treatment sludges, hydraulic
and lubricating oils and paint wastes are presented in Table IV-2 to IV-6.

     The number of plants in the industry using each technology was esti-
mated on the basis of survey data from 22 plants.  This sample: of establish-
ments represents less than one percent of the number of electronic components
plants but 3.6 percent of industry production.

     The most prevalent current technology (Level I) for halogenated and
nonhalogenated solvents is reclamation with disposal residuals in a landfill.
Level II, the best technology currently in use, is the same as Level I for
halogenated and nonhalogenated solvents except that the residual is disposed
of in a secured landfill.  For halogenated solvents Level III, environmentally
adequate technology, is the same as Level II, assuming proper burial of the
unreclaimable residue in the landfill.  Proper burial separate from flammable
materials and ashes is recommended to prevent combustion in proximity to the
halogenated solvent residues which can result in the emission of poisonous
gases.  The flammability of nonhalogenated solvents required that Level III
technology be reclamation of solvents with incineration of unreclaimable
solvents and disposal of the incinerated ash and still bottoms in a secured
landfill because of possible heavy metal constituents.  Limited availability
of adequate incinerators and secured landfills presently limits widespread
use of Level II and Level III treatment and disposal technologies for
halogenated and nonhalogenated solvents.

     Contractor disposal in a landfill is Level I technology for wastewater
treatment sludges, lubricating and hydraulic oils, and paint wastes.  Except
for a small amount of on-site dumping on the plant grounds and incineration
by some plants, this technology is almost universally applied in the industry.

     Level II technology for wastewater treatment sludges is on-site dewater-
ing and secured landfill disposal.  Reduction in sludge volume by various
dewatering methods will preserve space in secured landfills and reduce the
amount of free water present.  Level III technology is the same as Level II
for wastewater treatment sludges.

     Level II technology for lubricating and hydraulic oils is reclamation
with landfill disposal of the unreclaimable residual.  This technology
may not find more widespread use due to the unfavorable economics of reclaim-
ing small quantities of lubricating and hydraulic oils.  Level III technology
should include, in addition to Level II technology, disposal in a secured
landfill of the unreclaimable residue due to possible oil and heavy metal
toxicity from leachate if allowed to contaminate groundwater or surface
water.
                                  122

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                                  127

-------
     Level II technology for paint wastes is incineration with landfill
disposal of the ash.  Only a few plants practice this technology because
of the limited availability of incinerators and the small quantities of
paint waste generated.  Due to the flammability of some of the paint
wastes, Level III technology should be the same as Level II with disposal
of the ash in a secured landfill to prevent leachate contamination of the
groundwater or surface water.
                                     128

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                               SECTION V

                             COST ANALYSIS

 INTRODUCTION

     The potentially hazardous waste treatment and disposal costs for
 Level I technology are discussed first for each of the five basic waste
 streams.  This is followed by an evaluation of Level II and Level II
 costs.  A summary table showing treatment and disposal costs for each
 major waste stream  at each technology level is also provided.
 Estimated annual costs to the industry as a whole are given and compared
 with the profitability of the industry.

     An assessment of potentially hazardous waste treatment and disposal
 costs for an average plant is provided for each of the three technology
 levels.  These costs are based on the implementation of off-site
 treatment and disposal practices due to their prevalence within the
 industry.

     Due to the relative scarcity of usable cost data from the plant
 surveyed, it was not generally possible to assess the factors which most
 strongly affect the variability of potentially hazardous waste treatment
 and disposal costs for this industry.

     Cost data were difficult to obtain during the surveys due to a lack
 of:

     1.  Reliable cost information
     2.  Reliable information on the quantities of waste generated
     3.  Reluctance of the plants to release cost information.

     Supplemental cost data were taken from the industry and government
 literature and information supplied by waste disposal contractors.
 These are referenced in the discussion.

     Level III technology is not generally being implemented by the
 electronic component manufacturing industry.  Cost estimates for this
 technology were derived from literature sources referenced in this
 section.

     A key feature of this cost analyses is that the costs given for
 each technology level are based on off-site waste disposal.  The reasons
 for this are:

     1.  Eighty-seven percent of wastes quantified in surveyed plants
was disposed of off-site.

     2.  Most existing plants are located in predominantly urban areas
where space availability for treatment and disposal facilities on-site
would be a major problem.
                                 129

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     3.  For all but the very largest establishments,  most  types  of
potentially hazardous wastes are generated in small  enough  quantities
that environmentally adequate on-site treatment and/or disposal would be
economically unattractive compared with off-site alternatives  —  even
those comprising Level III technology.

TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS

     Level I Technology

     Level I technology is defined by EPA as  the prevalent  technology
currently employed — i.e., the broad average present  treatment and
disposal practice.  The costs of handling, treating, arid  disposing of
each waste stream of the subject industries are discussed below.

     Halogenated Solvents - Waste halogenated solvents are  commonly
found in electronic component manufacturers'  plants.   The most prevalent
method for treating and disposing of these wastes consists  of  reclaiming
off-site by private contractors.  Residue from reclaiming operations is
disposed of in a landfill operation.  Interestingly  enough, the
electronic component manufacturers are often paid for  this  waste  solvent
by the solvent reclaimers.  Plant survey data show that the range of
credit given to the plants for the solvent is $40-$55/kkg ($36-$50/ton)
with an average value of $51/kkg ($46/ton).

     There seems to be two basic reasons why solvent reclaimers are
willing to pay for these spent solvents.  First, the spent  solvents
often require little, if any, reprocessing.  Sometimes, they can  be  sold
directly from the drums in which they are received.  Second, electronic
component manufacturers sometimes negotiate contracts  for a given firm
to handle several "waste" or reject streams from a plant  some  of  which
will contain precious metals.  Contractors may take  a  small loss  on
spent solvent in order to secure a plant's scrap metal.

     Roughly 40 percent of waste solvents are disposed off-site in
landfill operations.  One plant reported a cost of $121/kkg ($110/ton)
for the disposal of 5.0 kkg/yr (5.5 tons/yr)  of spent  chlorinated
solvent, but little additional data for landfilling  this  type  of
material was obtained from the site visits.  Based on  the surveys of
plants in the machinery industry, it is expected that  the cost of
landfilling halogenated solvents is roughly $55/kkg  ($50/ton).

     Nonhalogenated Solvents - Level I technology for  reclaimable
nonhalogenated solvents is off-site reclamation with residue disposal in
a landfill.  Nonredaimable wastes are disposed of in  a landfill
operation.  As with the halogenated solvents, electronic  component
manufacturers are sometimes paid for their waste solvent  by solvent
reclaimers.  A much smaller proportion of the nonhalogenated solvent
waste stream is economically reclaimable because of  greater
contamination of the wastes and lower cost for new solvent  than for
halogenated solvents.
                                  130

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     A wide range of prices were charged for reclaimable spent solvents
by the manufacturers, according to the plant site surveys.  This range
was $15-$130/ kkg ($14-$118/ton) with an average of $40/kkg ($36/ton).
Acetone was the waste solvent involved at both the low end and the high
end of the cost range.  Methanol and isopropyl alcohol were also
commonly found in the plants surveyed.

     Separate cost data for nonreclaimable solvents are not usually
maintained by the plants according to the surveys.  It is estimated on
the basis of visits to special machinery manufacturing plants [33] that
disposal of nonreclaimable, nonhalogenated solvents in landfill
operations is approximately $55/kkg ($50/ton) for Level I.

     Wastewater Treatment Sludge - Wastewater treatment sludges
generated by electronic component manufacturers are usually disposed of
by a private contractor at some type of landfill operation.  Based
primarily on survey data from this industry as well as from the special
machinery manufacturing industry, it appears that the cost of
landfilling Wastewater treatment sludges is approximately $22/kkg
($20/ton).

     Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils - Waste lubricating and hydraulic
oils are generally disposed of in an off-site landfill by a private
contractor.  This constitutes Level I technology for waste oils in this
industry.

     Disposal cost data for this waste from the site visits were sparse,
probably since most of the plants tend to combine waste oils with other
process wastes and garbage, rather than handling the oils separately.
However, data obtained from plant surveys in the special machinery
manufacturing industry show that the average cost for land disposal of
waste oil is $22/kkg ($20/ton).

     Paint Wastes - Level I technology for paint wastes consists of
hauling and disposal by a private contractor to an off-site landfill
operation.  The waste stream consists of paint sludge, residue, and some
dry filters and rags.  Because of the relatively small quantities of
paint wastes generated at most electronics manufacturing plants,
separate disposal cost data are not usually determined.  However, data
obtained from visits to similar sites in the special machinery industry
show that paint wastes disposal on landfill operations costs about
$10/kkg ($9/ton).

     Level II Technology

     Level II potentially hazardous waste treatment and disposal
technology is defined as the best technology currently employed as found
through site surveys or in the literature.  Identified technology at
this level must represent the soundest process from an environmental and
health standpoint currently in use in at least one manaufacturing
location.
                                  131

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     Halogenated Solvents - Level II technology  for  reclaimable solvents
is off-site reclamation by a private contractor  with still bottoms  (if
any) disposed of in a secured landfill.   The plant using  this  technology
could not supply adequate cost information,  so it has been calculated,
based on other data collected in this study, that the average  amount
received by the manufacturer is approximately $48/kkg ($44/ton).  It  is
assumed that the cost of secured landfilling will be passed on to
manufacturer by the reclaiming contractor.   Level II technology for
nonreclaimed solvents is off-site disposal  in a  landfill  operation.   As
noted previously, the cost of this practice  is approximately $55/kkg
($50/ton).

     Nonhalogenated Solvents - Level II  technology for  reclaimable
solvents consists of off-site reclamation with disposal of any still
bottoms generated in a secured landfill.  As noted in the previous
section, it is estimated that roughly 200 manufacturing establishments
make use of this technology.

     One SIC 367 plant implementing this technology  reported receiving
$50/kkg ($45/ton) for spent solvent.  It has been calculated,  based on
Level I technology costs and the incremental cost for disposing of  still
bottoms in a secured landfill instead of a  sanitary  landfill,  that  the
average amount of money received by plants  for their waste solvent  is
$37/kkg ($34/ton).  Level II technology  for nonreclaimable waste solvent
consists of off-site disposal in a secured  landfill  operation.. Based
primarily on a recent study of the hazardous waste management  service
industry [37], the cost of this practice is roughly  $62/kkg $57/ton).
The range of values used to determine this  cost  was  $15-$63/kkg
($14-$57/ton).  The higher value was selected to be  consistent with the
industry-reported data for Level I of $55/kkg $50/ton)  and to  provide; an
allowance for disposal in a "secured" landfill versus a sanitary
landfill.

     Wastewater Treatment Sludges - Level II treatment  .and disposal
technology for wastewater treatment sludges  consists of dewatering
followed by disposal in a secured landfill  operation.  Dewatering plus
disposal in secured landfills will add up to $ll/kkg ($10/ton) to the
Level I cost, resulting in a total cost  of  approximately  $33/kkg
($30/ton).

     Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils - The reclamation of  waste oils
off-site by a private contractor has been determined to be Level II
technology.  Residues and sludges from the  reclaiming operations were
disposed of in a landfill operation.  No directly applicable cost data
from the electronics component manufacturing industry were available,
but similar operation in the special machinery manufacturing industry
[33] showed that the average cost for this  technique is roughly $19/kkg
($17/ton) , although costs tend to vary over a wide range.. The main
reason for this appears to be the quality of the waste  oil prior to
rerefining — i.e., the amount of "dirt" it contains.  For example, the
prices quoted for small lots of waste oil by a midwestern rerefining
contractor are as follows:
                                 132

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                                                   Price Range
         "Dirt" Concentration in Oil            C/liter     C/gal.

                      15%                        0-1         1-5
                     10-15%                       0          0
                      10%                       [0-7]        [1-7]

     Dirt concentrations are determined mainly by visual means.  The
contractor will pay up to 2
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nonreclaimable nonhalogenated solvents is incineration with  ash disposal
in secured landfills.  Based on data contained in the recent
EPA-sponsored study of the hazardous waste management service  industry
[37], it has been calculated that the cost of this practice  is
approximately $62/kkg ($57/ton).   This is based on an incineration  cost
of $4l/kkg ($37/ton), a secured landfilling cost of $21/kkg  ($19/ton),
and an ash generation of 0.1 kkg/kkg of waste.

     Wastewater Treatment Sludges - Level III technology  for the
treatment and disposal of wastewater treatment sludges is the  same,  as
Level II — on-site sludge dewatering followed by secured landfill
disposal.  As noted previously, this costs about $33/kkg  ($30/ton).

     Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils - Waste oils generated by  electronic
component manufacturers should be reclaimed,  with residual sludge being
disposed of in a secured landfill operation.   It has been calculated,
based on data from the machinery  industry surveys [33] and the report on
the hazardous waste management service industry [37],  that the cost of
this practice is approximately $27/kkg ($24/ton).

     Paint Wastes - Level III technology consists of segregation from
plant trash, and incineration followed by ash disposal in secured
landfills.  It has been calculated, based on data contained  in another
EPA report [33], that this practice costs $54/kkg ($39/ton).

     Table V-l summarizes the estimated treatment and disposal costs for
each potentially hazardous waste  stream discussed above.   Based on  this
information, plus the estimated generation rate of these  wastes in  1975,
the total treatment and disposal  costs to the industry are listed in
Table V-2.  The total cost for treating and disposing of  all potentially
hazardous wastes of the industry  using Level I technology is
$1,258,000/year.  Level II technology applied to 1975 waste  generation
rates would increase costs by 34  percent to $1,683,300/year.   Similarly,
Level III technology would increase costs by 35 percent over Level  I
technology to $1,696,000.  The cost increase between Level I and Level
II technology results primarily from dewatering and secured  landfilling
of wastewater treatment sludges and from secured landfilling of
unreclaimable nonhalogenated solvents.  Additional cost increases
between Level II and III are due  to increased reclamation of lubricating
and hydraulic oils with secured landfilling of residual oil  sludges and
to segregation and incineration of paint wastes followed  by  ash disposal
in a secured landfill.  Since the oil and paint waste stream quantities
are small compared to the other major waste streams, the  overall cost
increase to the industry for Level III above Level II is  less  than  one
percent.

IMPACT OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE
MANAGEMENT COSTS TO THE INDUSTRY

     The costs of treatment and disposal for potentially  hazardous
wastes for either of the three technology levels described here are
judged to have an insignificant impact on the profitability  of the
                                  134

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                               TABLE V-l
                ESTIMATED POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE
                    TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS
PROCESS WASTE

Halogenated Solvents
  Reclamable (credit)
  Non-Reclamable


Non Halogenated Solvents
  Reclamable (credit)
  Non-Reclamable
$/kkg of Waste on Wet Weight Basis ($/ton)
    LEVEL I     LEVEL II     LEVEL III
    [5K46)!1
    55(50)1
    [40(36)1J
    55 (50)-1
Waste Treatment Sludge


Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils    22(20)


Paint Wastes                      10(9)3
    22(20)3

          3
[48(44)1
 55(50)1
[37(34)1J
 62(57)2
[47(44)]
[37(34)]J
 62(57)2
 33(30)4      33(30)4


 19(17)3      27(24)3


 51(46)3      54(49)3
^ Plant Data or Industry Data.
2 Source: Reference [37].
3 Source: Reference [33],
4 Source: Reference [43],
                                 135

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                             TABLE V-2
           TOTAL NATIONAL COSTS TO THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

                MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY FOR POTENTIALLY

                HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
                                      COST $THOUSAND/YEAR3'4
PROCE'SS WASTE                   LEVEL I     LEVEL II     LEVEL III


Halogenated Solvents1            -92.7       -73.3         -73.3


Nonhalogenated Solvents2         700.7       802.32        802.32


Wastewater Treatment Sludge      609 .,84      914.8         914.8


Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils    33.9        29.3          41.6


Paint Wastes                       2.0        10.2          10.8
                   TOTAL       1,258       1,683.3       1,696
  Assume from Industry data 60% recoverable 40% nonrecoverable.
2
  Assume from Industry data 10% recoverable 90% nonrecoverable.

  Incorporating costs listed in Table V-l and 1975 waste quantities

  in Table III-l.
4
  Wet weights of waste stream used in quantification.
                                 136

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electronic components manufacturing industry as a whole.   Based upon
before tax profitability for SIC 36 - Electrical and Electronic
Equipment for three quarters in 1975 and the first quarter of 1976,  the
electronic components manufacturing industry is estimated to have had a
6.15 percent average profitability (profit per sales dollar)  before
taxes [44] for the period of the survey.  At an estimated value of
industry shipments of $10,395,000,000 for 1975 [10] the industry profit
for the year is calculated to have been approximately $639,000,000.
These statistics and the percent of profit represented by technology
Levels I, II and III costs are presentedin Table V-3.

     Thus, the incremental cost of implementing Level II  or Level III
technology will not significantly affect the financial position of the
electronic component manufacturing industry as a whole.

TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS AT AN AVERAGE PLANT

     Based on Census data [10], the average manufacturing plant in SIC
367 employs 109 production workers and generates sales of approximately
$4 million per year.  Such a plant also generates about 22.2 kkg/yr
(24.4 tons/yr) of potentially hazardous wastes as shown in Table V-4.
The costs of the treatment and disposal of these wastes are $50I/year
for Level I, $673/year for Level II, and $678/year for Level III
technology.

     Summary information on plant characteristics, potentially hazardous
waste streams, treatment and disposal costs and treatment and disposal
technologies for an "average plant" in the industry is presented in
Table V-5.
                                137

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                                  TABLE V-3

                  SIC 367 PROFITABILITY, 1975 TOTAL PROFITS,
             AND COMPARISONS BETWEEN TOTAL PROFITS AND POTENTIALLY
             HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS
             o  Average profit before taxes = 6.15% per sales dollar

             o  Value of Industry Shipments - SIC 367 = $10,395 million2

             o  Calculated 1975 profit = $639 million
  Total Estimated CostJ
to SIC 367 for Treatment
and Disposal of Potentially
Hazardous Wastes in $thousand/yr.

Percent of 1975 profit
  before taxes
                                       Level I
                                      Technology
                                     1,258
                                      0.2
                                                    Level  II
                                                   Technology
1683.3
 0.26
             Level III
            Technology
1696.,
 0.27
Profit assumed to be equal to SIC 36 as a whole.
  available for SIC 367 individually.

Source: Reference (10).

From Table V-2.
                                                       No data is
                                 138

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                              TABLE  V-4
      TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL COSTS FOR POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS WASTES
        AT AN AVERAGE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING PLANT BY
         WASTE STREAM AND TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL1
                         Waste Generation
Potentially Hazardous     Rate per Plant   	Plant Cost in $/year
    Waste Stream	       (kkg/year)     Level I   Level II   Level III
                    o
Halogenated Solvents      4.3
  reclaimable                    2.58       [132]     [124]       [124]
  non-reclaimable                1.72       94.6      94.6        94.6

Non-Halogenated Solvents3 6.16
  reclaimable                     .62       [24.6]    [22.8]      [22.8]
  non-reclaimable                5.54        305       344         344

Wastewater Treatment
  Sludges                11.1                244       366         366

Lubricating and Hy-
  draulic Oils

Paint Wastes

             Totals      22.24              501.0     673.3       678.3
0.6
0.08
13.2
.8
11.4
4.1
16.2
4.3
  Based on 2,500 plants in 1975 [10], 1975 waste stream generation rates
  from Table III-l, and unit costs from Table V-l.
2
  Assume 60% reclaimable; 40% non-reclaimable.
3 Assume 10% reclaimable; 90% non-reclaimable.
                                   139

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                             TABLE V-5

          AVERAGE PLANT COSTS FOR TREATMENT DISPOSAL, 1975
       SIC 367 - ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY


Plant Characteristics:

  Annual production = $4.2 million value of shipments
  Location - urban or suburban area in North Atlantic, Great Lakes
    or West Coast states.
  Manufacturing Processes  - No typical processes.  Industry is typified
    by a high degree of product and manufacturing process diversity.


_     .  ,,   TT    ,                                              Amount for Treatment -
Potentially Hazardous
Waste Streams-	                                             Disposal per Plant
  •    °"K-"'"'-              Composition          Physical Form   (klcg/yr) Wet Weight

  Halogenated Solvents      Perchloroethylene    Liquid to semi-        4.3
                            Trichloroethane      solid for still
                            1,1,1 Trichloroethy- bottoms
                              lene
                            Freons
                            Methylene Chloride
                            Still bottoms from
                              reclamation Df
                              above solvents
              (60% reclaimable; 40% nonreclaimable)

  Nonhalogenated Solvents    Mixed solvents       Liquid to semi-        6.16
                              (halogenated and   solid for still
                              nonhalogenated)    bottoms and
                            Methanol             slurries
                            Acetone
                            Alcohols
                            Proprietary photo-
                              resists
                            Xylene
              (10% reclaimable; 90% nonreclaimable)

  Wastewater Treatment      Particulate metals   Liquid to semi-       11.1
  Sludges                     and osides         solid.  2-98% solids.
                            Chemically precipi-
                              tated anions and
                              cations
                            Oils
                            Solvents


  Lubrications and          Water—soluble oils   Liquid                 0.6
  Hydraulic Oils            Petroleum derived
                              oils

  Paint Wastes              Spray booth filters  Solids and              .08
                            Clean up rags        liquids
                            Solvent/paint mix-
                              tures

Treatment/Disposal
Cost/Technology Level:      Level I            Level II            level  III

  Contractor Services       S501.00            $673.30              $678.30

  [See Table V-4 for cost/waste stream.   On--site treatment/disposal is not
  typical for this  industry.]

  Continued
                                140

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              to  a. u ra r-1
                            £•3.'
              I 4J
              C -r*
              C S
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        L. iH    QJ
                            141

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                             SECTION VI

                             REFERENCES
 1.  TRW Systems Group, Recommended Methods of Reduction, Neutraliza-
     tion, Recovery or Disposal of Hazardous Waste,  16 Vols.,  EPA
     Contract Study Report,  Aug.  (1973).

 2.  Versar,  Inc.,  Assessment of  Industrial Hazardous Waste Practices,
     Inorganic Chemical Industry,  Draft Report, EPA Contract No. 68-
     01-2246, October (1974).

 3.  Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Program for the Management
     of Hazardous Wastes,  EPA Contract No.  68-01-0762, July (1973)

 4.  Arthur D. Little, Inc., Alternatives to the Management of Hazardous
     Wastes at National Disposal  Sites, EPA Contract No,.  68-01-0556, May
     (1973).

 5.  1972 Census of Manufactures,  SIC Industry Groups 365, 366 & 367.

 6.  Dun and Bradstreet, 1975 Marketing Services for Manufactures.

 7.  Development Document  for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and
     Standards of Performance for the Machinery and Mechanical Products
     Manufacturing Point Source Category, EPA Contract No. 68-01-2914, June
     (1975).

 8.  Development Document  for Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines &
     New Source Performance Standards:  Copper, Nickel, Chromium and Zinc
     Segment of the Electroplating Paint  Source Category; EPA 440/1-73-003,
     August (1973).

 9.  Development Document  for Interim Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines
     and Proposed New Source Performance  Standards for the Metal Finishing
     Segment of the Electroplating Point  Source Category, EPA-440/1-75/
     040-a, April (1975).

10.  U.S. Industry Outlook,  Bureau of Domestic Commerce  (1976).

11.  Personal communication:  Jack R. Clifford; Science & Electronics
     Division, Domestic and International Business Administration;
     February 12, 1976.

12.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Report to Congress, Disposal
     of Hazardous Wastes,  SW-115 (1974).

13.  National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Environmental
     Protection Agency, Federal Register, December 24, 1975.


                                142

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14.  Water Quality Criteria, Report of the National Technical Advisory
     Committee to the Secretary of the Interior, April  (1968).

15.  Gleason, M. N., et al., Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products,
     3rd Ed., Williams and Wilkins, Co., Baltimore  (1969).

16.  Hamilton, A., and Hardy, H.S., Industrial Toxicology, Publishing
     Services Group, Inc., Acton, Mass.  (1974).

17.  Browning, E., Toxicitv of Industrial Metals. Appleton - Century -
     Crofts, New York (1969).

18.  Faith, W. L., et al., Industrial Chemicals, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
     New York (1965).

19.  Scroeder, H. A., Trace Metals and Chronic Diseases in Advances
     in Internal Medicine, Vol. VIII, Year Book Publishers, Inc.,  (1956).

20.  Sax, N. I., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 4th Ed.,
     Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York  (1975).

21.  Plunkett, E. R., Handbook on Industrial Toxicology, Chemical
     Publishing Co., New York (1966).

22.  Jacobs, M.  B., The Analytical Toxicology of Industrial Organic
     Poisons, Interscience Publishers, New York (1967).

23.  Thienes, C. H.,  and Haley, T. J., Clinical Toxicology, Lea and
     Febiger, Philadelphia  (1964).

24.  Principles for Evaluating Chemicals in the Environment, National
     Academy of Sciences  (1975).

25.  Chicago Society of Paint Technology, "Flash Point of Mixed Solvents,"
     Journal of Paint Technology, December (1969).

26.  American Society for Metals, Metals Handbook, Vol. 2, Heat Treating,
     Cleaning and Finishing, 8th Ed., Metals Park, Ohio  (1969)

27.  JEDEC Electron Tube Council, "Optical Characteristics of Cathode Ray
     Tube Screens," Electronic Industries Association; Washington, D.C.
     (1971) April.

28.  Elements of Materials Science, 2nd Ed., Lawrence H. Van Vlack,
     Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc.
                                   143

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 29.  Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District,  Rule 66;  1966.

 30.  American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,  "TLVs,
      Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents
      in the Workroom Environment with Intended Changes for 1974,"
      Reprinted in [20].

 31.  Personal communication:  Edith Wolfe,  Office of Public Information,
      U.S. Food and Drug Administration, March 1,  1976.

 32.  Sittig, M. , Pollutant Removal Handbook Noyes Data Corporation,
      Park Ridge, New Jersey (1973).

 33.  Assessment of Industrial Hazardous Wastes Practices - Special Machinery
      Manufacturing Industries.  EPA Contract No.  68-01-3193, 1976.

 34.  Personal communication:  Dr. Leonard Guarraia, Criteria Branch,
      Office of Water and Hazardous Materials, EPA, March 9, 1976

 35.  Personal communication:  Gary Otake and Allen Hais, Municipal
      Technology Branch,  Division of Water Program Operations, March  9,  1976.

 36.  49 C.F.R. Chapter I, Subchapter A.

 37.  Foster, D. Snell, Inc., "Potential for Capacity Creation in the
      Hazardous Waste Management Service Industry,"  1976.

 38.  Colgate, Craig, Jr., Ed.  1974 National Trade and Professional Asso-
      ciates of the United States and Labor Unions, Columbia Books, Inc.,
      Washington, D.C. 1974.

39.  Analysis of the Variation in the Charges for  Treatment and Disposal of
     Hazardous Wastes (SIC's 355, 357, and 367), EPA Contract No. 68-01-3193,
     1976.

40.  Title 5, U.S. Code,  USC.  Section 552(1970),  As amended by Freedom of
     Information Act Amendments of 1974, Pub.L. No. 93-502, 88 Stat 1561.

41.  49 C.F.R. Chapter, I, Subchapter A, Paragraph 173.115.

42.  Christensen, H.E., Luginbyhl, T.T., and Carroll, B.S., Registry  of
     Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 1975 Edition,, U.S.D.  H.E.W.,
     Rockville, Md., 1975.

43.  Gehm, Harry W. and Bregman, J. I.  Handbook of Water Resources and
     Pollution Control, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.

44.  "Quarterly Financial Report for Mining, Manufacturing and Trade  Cor-
     porations," Federal Trade Commission, 1976.
                               144

-------
                             SECTION VII

                              GLOSSARY

Acute toxicity - any poisonous effect produced within a short period
of time, usually up to 24-96 hours, resulting in severe biological
harm and often death.

Baking - any process involving heating of components to alter the
physical or chemical nature of one or more component parts.

Bioconcentration -the accumulation of substances in living organisms
resulting from ingestion and/or differential absorption of the substances
in living tissue vs. environmental media.

Carcinogen - a substance or agent producing or inciting cancer.

Casting plastics - encapsulation or sealing of components by means
of two-part epoxy resins poured, spread, or painted onto the component.

Coverage ratio - proportion of primary products shipped by the establishments
in the industry to total shipments of such products by all manufacturing
establishments.

Doping - addition of impurities to silicon surfaces by baking the
exposed silicon in the presence of a non-reactive gas containing the
impurity; also "epitaxial deposition."

Drag-out - the amount of solution carried out of an electroplating or
other surface finishing bath by the details immersed and the racks
holding the article.

Dry booth painting - a material coating process involving spray painting
of various types of paint on components in partially enclosed ventilation
chambers.  Waste paint particles are removed from the air stream by dry
filtration.

Electroplating - electrodisposition of a metal or alloy from a suitable
electrolyte solution:  the article to be plated is connected as the
cathode in the electrolyte solution; direct current is introduced
through the anode which consists of the metal to be deposited.

Etching - removal of oxides from metals with the use of acids.

Electroless plating - a metal deposition process employing a chemical
                               145

-------
reducing agent to reduce a metal salt so that it will deposit on a
catalytic surface.

Flash point - the temperature at which the vapor of a material will
ignite when exposed to a small flame under controlled test conditions.

Furnace soldering - an assembly operation in which preformed solder is
applied to metal component parts by baking.

Glass forming - any process in which glass materials are molded or joined,

Glass fritting - the joining of glass to glass with tbe use of lead-con-
taining glass.

Gold termination - dipping component parts in molten gold to provide a
thin gold film.

Hazardous constituent - a constituent of a process waste or waste stream
which meets the definition of "hazardous" detailed in this report.

Incineration - the controlled process by which solid, liquid or gaseous
combustible wastes are burned and changed into gases; the residue pro-
duced contains little or no combustible materials.

Incinerator - an engineered apparatus used to burn waste substances and
in which all the combustion factors — temperatures, retention time,
turbulence and combustion air — can be controlled.

Leachate - liquid that has percolated through solid waste or other
mediums and has extracted dissolved or suspended materials from it.

Leaching - the process by which soluble materials in the soil, such as
nutrients, pesticide chemicals or contaminants, are washed into a lower
layer of soil or are dissolved and carried away by water.

Mechanical etching - the removal of thin films on coated component parts
with the use of a sharp stylus.

Mechanical lead attachment - attachment of wire leads to components using
clip devices to provide an electrically sound connection.

Milling - grinding of materials to a fine powder so that it will mix
uniformly in liquid vehicles.

Mutagen - a substance that tends to increase the frequency of mutations.

N.E.C. - also written as n.e.c. - Not  elsewhere classified.

Non-plastic molding - the forming, by extrusion or filter pressing, of
non-plastic, composition materials.
                                  146

-------
Organic coating - a material coating process in which the component is
dipped into a varnish or lacquer and solvent bath.

Phosphor deposition - the coating of television picture tube screens
with a water-based vehicle containing organic binders and various metal
salts (phosphors) .

pH - a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a material, liquid or solids;
pH is represented on a scale of 0 to 14 with 7 representing a neutral state,
0 representing the most acid and 14, the most alkaline.

Photoresist application - the coating of silicon wafers or television
picture tube screens with various organic photoresists.

Plastics molding - the process of forming shapes of plastic materials
using dies.

Primary product - the product of a manufacturing plant (or the products
SIC designation) which makes the greatest contribution to the plants
value of shipments.

Process waste - any material discarded as a function of a manufacturing
operation, whether land-disposed or not.

Primary product specialization ratio - proportion of product shipments
(both primary and secondary) of the establishments classified in the
industry represented by the primary products of those establishments.

Product area - the class of manufacturing plants which produce a given
product as defined by four-digit SIC's for SIC's 3671 through 3678 and
by five- or seven-digit SIC's for SIC 3679.  This designation was es-
tablished to maximize the amount of material and process flow similarity
for products grouped by SIC.

Sawing and cutoff - any operation which alters the size or shape of metal
or non-metal material by mechanical means.

Scribing - separation of silicon-based semiconductor elements by scratch-
ing the silicon surface and breaking off the element from the wafer.

Still bottoms - the heavy ends remaining in distillation equipment after
solvent reclamation.

Teratogen - a substance or agent which tends to cause developmental mal-
formations or monstrosities.

Thermoforming plastics - plastics molding using the application of heat.
Includes thermoplastic molding and thermosetting.

Thermoplastic polymers - a plastic which reverts to a fluid state upon
the application of heat.
                                 147

-------
Thermosetting polymers - a plastic which does not revert to a fluid state
upon the application of heat.

Vacuum metalizing - condensation of thin metal coatings  on the cool sur-
face of a metal piece in a vacuum.

Value of industry shipments - total value of shipments from plants
classified within an SIC according to their primary product.  Includes
value primary and secondary products plus services performed.

Value of product shipments - the value of shipments of any product within
an SIC regardless of the plant's SIC where produced.

Waste category - classes of process wastes grouped according to origin
(as wastewater treatment sludges) or chemical characteristics of the most
common or most hazardous constituent.

Waste stream - any waste category that is typically land disposed in
significant amounts by the electronic components manufacturing industry
or their contractors.

Welding - joining two or more pieces of material by applying heat,
pressure, or both, with or without filler material to produce a local-
ized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface.
                                 148

-------
            APPENDIX A

PRODUCTS OF THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
       MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
             SIC 367
                Industries and Products
SIC Code   	

3671	       ELECTRON TUBES, RECEIVING TYPE

36710 11   Standard, GT, and GT/G
36710 12   Miniature
36710 13   Subminiature
36710 15   Other

3672	       CATHODE RAY PICTURE TUBES, INCLUDING REBUILT

           Television picture tubes, including rebuilt:
36720 13   Black and white
36720 15   Color

               TRANSMITTAL, INDUSTRIAL, AND SPECIAL PURPOSE ELECTRON TUBES
                 (EXCEPT X-RAY) :

           Power and special purpose tubes:
36730 11   High vacuum tubes
36730 22   Gas and vapor tubes
36730 27   Klystrons
36730 51   Magnetrons
36730 91   Forward wave tubes
36730 92   Backward wave tubes
36730 93   Light sensing tubes
36730 94   Light emitting and special purpose display tubes
36730 95   Storage tubes
36730 96   Miscellaneous special purpose tubes

3674	       SEMICONDUCTORS

36741 —   Integrated Microcircuits, (Semiconductor Networks):

36741 13       Monolithic, digital
36741 23       Monolithic, analog
36741 15       Chip, all types
36741 25       Chip, all types

36742      Transistors:

36742 61       Silicon
36742 65       Germanium
36742 67       Other (gallium arsenide, silicon carbide, etc.)
                   A-l

-------
36743 —   Diodes and Rectifiers:

36743 23       Silicon
36743 43       Germanium
36743 13       Selenium and copper oxide
36743 91       Other

36749 —   Other Semiconductor Devices:

36749 92       Solar cells
36749 93       Other
36749 94       Zener diodes, (voltage regulator and voltage reference diodes)
36749 95       Other semiconductor devices
36749 96       Semiconductor parts (chips, headers, cams,  etc.)

36740 00   Semiconductor devices,  N.S.K.,  for establishments with 10
             employees or more
36740 02   Semiconductor devices,  N.S.K, for establishments with less
             than 10 employees

36750 00       CAPACITORS FOR ELECTRONIC  APPLICATIONS

36750 12   Paper, metalized paper, film, and dual dielectric
36750 21   Aluminum electrolytic (a.c.  and d.c.)
36750 31   Tantalum electrolytic
36750 41   Ceramic dielectric
36750 51   Mica dielectric
36750 61   Capacitors for automotive ignition systmes
36750 62   Other

               RESISTORS FOR ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS

36760 11   Composition, fixed
36760 51   Deposited carbon and metal film, fixed
36760 31   Wire-wound, fixed
36760 15   Variable nonwire-wound, precision and nonprecision
36760 36   Variable wire-wound, precision and nonprecision
36760 55   Other (thermistor, thermistor-bolometers, varister,  etc.)

           Coils, Transformers, Reactors,  and Chokes for Electronic Applications;

36770 32   Audio transformers
36770 33   Low frequency chokes and filters
36770 41   Plate and filament transformers, including  autotransformers,
             except toroidal

           Pulse transformers:
36770 62   Computer types
36770 63   Other types
36770 12   RF chokes
36770 13   RF coils and IF transformers
                                  A-2

-------
36770 71   Television transformers and reactors (horizontal output,  vertical
             deflection, focus coils, deflection yokes,  etc.)
36770 91   Toroidal windings (transformers and reactors),  except complete
             magnetic amplifiers
36770 92   Other (balum coils, permeability tuning devices, etc.)

               ELECTRONIC CONNECTORS:

36780 81   RF
36780 82   Cylindrical
36780 83   Rack and panel
36780 84   Printed circuit
36780 85   Fusion sealed
36780 86   Other

           Electronic Components, N.E.C.,  Except Phonograph Needles
             and Cutting Styli

           Magnetic Recording Media:
36790 01   Audio range tape
36790 02   Computer tape
36790 04   Video tape

36790 13   Electron tube parts, except glass blanks
36790 31   Phonograph cartridges and  pickups

           Complex components (two or more components packaged and
             shipped as a single unit),  except filters and other items
             listed elsewhere:
36790 21   Passive component packages, or  "modules" assembled  from con-
             ventional components (RC networks, tone control packages,
             interstage coupling packages)
36790 22   Active component packages  or "modules" assembled from con-
             ventional components
36970 23   Active or passive component packages of "modules" (assembled
             from components fabricated during the assembly process  or
             from specially designed, discrete, miniature  components
             designed only for use in modules)
36790 32   Switches, mechanical types for  electronic circuitry (coaxial,
             tap, rotary wafer, slide selector, and similar types)
           Cutting Components,, n.e.c.,  Except Phonograph  Needles  and
           Static power supply converters  for electronic applications,
             sold separately:
36790 43   Regulated
36790 44   Unregulated
36790 45   Variable frequency
36790 46   Other (a.c., d.c., converters and inverters,  klystrom,
             vibrator etc.)

           Relays for electronic applications:
36790 33   Clapper, rotary, plunger,  or solenoid
36790 34   Other
                                   A-3

-------
36790 35   Home antennas
36790 37   Auto antennas
36790 38   Antennas accessories,  sold separately
36790 52   Printed circuit boards, printed cables,  and  forms  already
             etched, placed, etc., ready for component  insertion

           Transducers, electrical/electronic input or  output,  n.e.c.:

           Accoustical:
36790 11   Sonar
36790 12   Ultrasonic, vibration, etc.

           Mechanical:
36790 14   Accelerometers
36790 15   Pressure
36790 16   Strain gages and other mechanical
36790 18   Thermal;  Pyrometers,  thermo-couples, etc.,  excluding bimetal-
             lic, mercury, and other mechanical output  types
36790 19   Other optical (including any not covered under  crystal,  etc.),
             chemical, magnetic,  nuclear, etc.

36790 28   Delay lines
36790 29   Earphones and headsets, except telephone

           Microwave components and devices, except antennas, tubes, and
             semiconductors:

           Ferrite (including yttrium garnets)  microwave components:
36790 61   Circulators, all types, permanent magnet
36790 62   Circulators, electromagnetic, used as switches, modulators,
             etc.
36790 64   Phase shifters
36790 65   Other ferrite microwave components
36790 63   Isolators

           Microwave devices, other than ferrite and solid state:
36790 66   Attenuators, dummy loads, high and low power terminations, etc.
36790 67   Cavities
36790 68   Couplers: (directional couplers, hybrid  junctions, etc.)
36790 69   Duplexers and diplixers, except electric tubes  and ferrite devices
36790 71   Reactive microwave components, n.e.c.
36790 73   Rotary joints and sector scan joints
36790 74   Switches, coaxial and  waveguide
36790 75   Rigid waveguides and fittings
36790 77   Flexible waveguides and fittings
36790 78   Other microwave components, exceipt ferrite devices

           Mircrowave subassemblies:
36790 56   Parametric amplifiers
36790 57   Other solid state assemblies (frequency  multipliers, harmonic
             generators, etc.)
                                  A-4

-------
           Crystals, filters, and related devices:

           Filters, except microwave:
36790 92   LC, RC, etc.
36790 91   Infrared, ultra-violet, etc., excluding  optical lenses  (ger-
             manium silicon, fused quartz, rock salt,  and  other)
36790 93   Mechanical
36790 94   Quartz and other piezoelectric filters

36790 95   Quartz crystals
36790 96   Other crystals (ADP, Rochelle salt, ruby,  garnet,  etc.)
36790 39   Electronic parts, n.e.c., and specialized  electronic hardware.
                                  A-5

-------
                 APPENDIX B
      WASTE GENERATION VOLUMES FOR THE
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
                      B-l

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                             PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — HALOGEKATED SOLVENTS
                                      197! State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/y«ar)
   State
ALABAMA               IV
ALASKA                X
ARIZONA               IX
ARKANSAS              VI
CALIFORNIA            IX
COLORADO              VI11
CONNECTICUT           I
DISTRICT OF COLOMBIA  III
DELAWARE              HI
FLORIDA               IV
GEORGIA               IV
HAWAII                IX
IDAHO                 X
ILLINOIS              V
INDIANA               V
IOWA                  VII
KANSAS                VII
KENTUCKY              IV
LOUISIANA             VI
MAINE                 I
MARYLAND              111
MASSACHUSETTS         I
MICHIGAN              V
MINNESOTA             V
MISSISSIPPI           IV
MISSOURI              VII
MONTANA               VI11
NEBRASKA              VII
NEVADA                IX
NEW HAMPSHIRE         I
NEW JERSEY            II
NEW MEXICO           VI
NEW YORK               II
NORTH CAROLINA        IV
NORTH DAKOTA         VIII
OHIO                  V
OKLAHOMA              VI
OREGON                X
 PENNSYLVANIA          111
RHODE  ISLAND          I
 SOUTH CAROLINA        IV
 SOUTH DAKOTA         VIII
 TENNESSEE             IV
 TEXAS                  VI
 UTAH                  VIII
 VERMONT               I
 VIRGINIA              III
 WASHINGTON            X
 WEST VIRGINIA         III
 WISCONSIN             V
 WYOMING               VIII

     TOTALS

 REGION I
        II
        III
        IV
        V
        VI
        VII
        VIII
        IX
        X
Total Potentially
Total
(Wat Wt.)
37.
0,
111.
54,
1814,
36.
247 ,
•_> ,
2Q ,
371
0.
0.
3'.
no.
4>''f;,
1 ~ ,
i ^ ,
"4,
0 >
j5.
3 7 .
71 ° ,
T"L
134.
>> ,
!4

•13,
. .
''3.
.500 ,
£?
2392.
oc
r. a
"••j2 ,
~o ,
] u
?2a
69,
-;7 ,
?4
26
762 .
T ,•
27 .
ISP,
La,
24.
|J0,
A r
10"30.
1221 ,
~>QO~>
1.203 .
6^4,
1325.
516 ,
1 51 .
163.
1 ?2i .
! 04 ,
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
37 ,
0,
Ill .
54 ,
1314.
J3.
247.
0 ,
29 (
371 .
f ,
0.
6°,
710.
tos ,
',". .
1*.
76 ,
A ,
55 *
~~7 4
^19,
"7 |_
1 3 4 .

»4 ,
A .
48.
0 .
?3.
^ 0 '
39.
2 3 '? n
•7

0, 0, 0, 0. 0, 0. 0, 0. 0, 0. 0. 0 * 0. 0. 0, 0. 0. 0. 0, 0. f) t 0. 0« 0, 0, 0- 0 , A , A , A 0, 0, 0 « 0. 0, 0. 0, 0. 0 * A t 'J. 0 . 0. 0, A , 0. 0, 0, Oils .004 0. .012 .006 . IS9 .004 .026 0. ,003 .039 0. 0. .007 .074 ,043 .004 .002 .008 .007 .004 .075 .007 .019 0. .005 0. ,005 0. .010 .063 .007 .249 .010 0. .033 .003 , 002 .0?7 .007 ,Q'~>-> , 005 . 003 , 0.38 . 00" . 003 .020 .002 .003 .009 0. L.I 24 . 127 * 31 2 .125 .070 .190 .054 .016 .013 .201 ,011 B-2


-------
    State
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                SIC 367
                           PROCESS  HASTE GENERATION — NON-HALOGENATED SOLVENTS
                                      197S  State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (Meg/year)
ALABAMA                IV
ALASKA                 X
ARIZONA                IX
ARKANSAS               VI
CALIFORNIA             IX
COLORADO               VI11
CONNECTICUT            I
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA   III
DELAWARE               111
FLORIDA                IV
GEORGIA                IV
HAWAII                 IX
IDAHO                  X
ILLINOIS               V
INDIANA                V
IOWA                   VII
KANSAS                 VII
KENTUCKY               IV
LOUISIANA              VI
MAINE                  I
MARYLAND               111
MASSACHUSETTS          I
MICHIGAN               V
MINNESOTA              V
MISSISSIPPI            IV
MISSOURI               VII
MONTANA                VIII
NEBRASKA               VII
NEVADA                 IX
NEW HAMPSHIRE          I
NEW JERSEY             II
NEW MEXICO             VI
NEW YORK               II
NORTH CAROLINA         IV
NORTH DAKOTA           VIII
OHIO                   V
OKLAHOMA               VI
OREGON                 X
PENNSYLVANIA           III
RHODE ISLAND           I
SOUTH CAROLINA         IV
SOUTH DAKOTA           VIII
TENNESSEE              IV
TEXAS                  VI
UTAH                   VI11
VERMONT                I
VIRGINIA               III
WASHINGTON             X
WEST VIRGINIA          III
WISCONSIN              V
WYOMING                VIII

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
Total Potentially
Total
(Wet Wt.)
54.
0.
159,
7 6 «
2592 ,
sJJ *
353,
0 ,
41 ,
52°,
0 ,
0 ,
OQ (
1014.
532.
•'>0,
23.
103.
0,
"2 ,
52.
1029,
102.
263 .
0 .
j3.
0,
6',
0.
133.
353.
O-J ,
3417.
142,
3,
517
43,
27 ,
1322.
9° .
"i ,
-,2,
:7 ,
513,
123,
33-
268.
27 .
35,
123.
0.
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
54.
0,
159,
76.
2592.
55.
353.
0 .
41 ,
529 .
0.
0.
90 ,
1 0 1 4 ,
582,
oO,
23 ,
103,
r).
92 ,
52,
1028.
102,
263.
0,
63 ,
0,
6°,
0,
133,
353.
' '9 »
3417,
142,
0,
5 17,
43,
0-7
1322,
''9 ,
°4,
62.
37 ,
513.
123.
78.
268.
23 .
35,
128.
n ,
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.)
54.
0.
159.
76.
2592,
c"tr
353.
0,
-41.
529.
0,
0.
90 ,
1014.
582.
60.
23.
108.
0,
92,
52 ,
1 023 ,
102.
263 ,
0 ,
,i3.
0.
69,
0 .
133.
853,
99,
3417.
142,
0.
517.
43.
27 ,
1322,
99,
96 ,
tj2 *
37,
513,
123,
38.
268.
23.
35.
128.
0 *
(Dry Wt.)
54.
0.
159.
76.
2592.
J wj .
353 ,
0.
41.
529 ,
0 .
0,
99,
1014,
582.
60.
23.
103.
0.
no t
52,
102P,
102,
2o3.
0.
63 .
0 +
69,
0.
133,
858,
"Q,
3417.
142,
0.
517.
43.
27 .
1322.
°9.
96,
••32 ,
37-
513,
123,
33,
268.
23,
35.
128.
0.
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flamable
Solvents
43.
0.
143.
69.
2332.
49.
318.
0,
37.
476.
0.
0.
09.
913.
524.
54,
21.
97.
0.
83.
47,
925,
91.
236,
0.
57.
0.
62.
0,
120.
772.
89,
3075.
128.
0.
466.
39.
2*.
1 190.
39.
86.
56 .
13.
466 *
111,
35 ,
241.
21.
31 .
115.
0.
Heavy
Metals
.000
0.
.001
.000
.010
, 000
-001
0 ,
,000
,002
0.
0.
.000
.004
.002
.000
.000
.000
0.
.000
.000
.004
.000
.001
0,
,000
0,
,000
0.
,001
. C'03
,000
,014
.001
0,
. 002
,000
,000
. 005
. 000
,000
.000
.000
.002
. 000
.000
.001
.000
.000
.001
0,

Fluorides
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 ,
0.
0.
0 ,
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
r, t
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 ,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0 »
0,
0,
0,
'! ,
0 ,
0.
0 ,
0,
0 .
0,
0.
0 ,
0.
0,

Oils
.005
0.
.016
.008
.259
.005
.035
0.
.004
.053
0.
0.
,010
.101
.053
,006
.002
.011
0.
,009
.005
.103
,010
,026
0.
.006
0,
.007
0.
,013
. 036
,010
,342
,014
0.
.052
.004
,003
,132
010
, 0 J 0
.','06
,004
,052
.012
.004
,027
. 002
. 003
.013
0.
15400,
         15400,
                   13400,
                            15400,
                                      13860.
                                                  ,062
174J.
>274.
1718.
763.
2407.
737 ,
2 ! 5 ,
240.
2751 ,
1 'f.
1744,
4? 74.
1713,
"65,
2,507,
73™ ,
2 lc^ .
210,
2~"J1 ,
1 ?° .
1"T44 .
4274.
1~13.
"65.
260'.
737.
215,
2 -lii -
2751.
149
L~44.
4274.
1718.
"65.
2607,
737 ,
215.
240.
2751 .
149,
15^0.
7847.
1547.
369.
2346.
i63.
194,
216.
2476,
134.
,007
,017
,007
,004
.010
, 003
,001
, 00 1
- .011
,001
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0 ,
0,
0.
0 .
                                                                    1 , 540

                                                                     , 174
                                                                     .42^

                                                                     ,097
                                                                     .261
                                                                     , 074
                                                                     ,022
                                                                                                          .015
                                                B-3

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                         PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — WASTEHATER TREATMENT SUTOGES
                                      1973 State and EPA Region To till
                                                (kkg/year)
    State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
 EPA
Region

 IV
 X
 IX
 VI
 IX
 VIII
 I
 III
 III
 IV
 IV
 IX
 X
 V
 V
 VII
 VII
 IV
 VI
 i
 in
 i
 V
 V
 IV
 VII
 VIII
 VII
 IX
 I
 II
 VI
 II
 IV
 VIII
 v
 VI
 X
 III
 I
 IV
 VIII
 IV
 VI
 VIII
 i
 in
 X
 III
 V
 VIII
Total Potentially
Total
(Bet He.)
96.
0.
286,
133.
4665.
98.
636.
0.
74.
953.
0 «
0.
1-3.
1326.
1043.
109.
41,
195.
0.
1 66.
<=4.
1850.
183.
473.
0.
114,
0.
123.
0 «
240 ,
1544.
178.
4150.
255 .
0.
931 .
"3.
43,
23SO .
17°.
173.
112,
-± o *
'32,
221 ,
•V~ ,
•133.
42,
^ T
231.
0.
27720.
3139.
7A t
0,
24,
0,
47.
300.
35.
1196.
50.
0 .
181.
15.
9.
463.
35 ,
34.
T">
13.
181 .
13,
13.
'-4 .
3.
12 ,
45,
0.
5390. -
610.
1496 ,
wOl .
333.
912.
25!":.
•7^ (
34.
963.
5.: ,
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.]
96.
0.
236.
133.
4665 .
93.
636.
0.
74.
953.
0.
0.
178.
1826.
1043.
109.
41.
195.
0.
166.
94.
1350.
133.
473.
0,
114.
0.
123.
0.
240.
1544.
173.
6150.
255.
0.
931.
73.
48.
2380.
179.
173,
112.
66.
932.
221 .
69.
433.
42.
62.
231.
0.
27720,
3139.
7694,
3093.
1 733 .
46°2.
1326.
387.
132,
4951 ,
263.
1 (Dry Wt^)
19.
0.
56.
27 .
907.
19.
124.
0.
14.
185.
0.
0.
35.
355.
204.
21.
3.
38.
0.
32 .
13.
360.
36.
92.
0,
T~l f
0.
24.
0.
47.
300.
35,
1196.
50.
0.
181.
15.
9.
463.
35.
34.
o-* t
13.
131.
43.
13.
94.
O
12.
45.
0.
5390.
610.
1496.
601.
333.
912.
253,
75.
34.
963,
52.
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Vt.)
Flaamable Heavy
Solvents
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
A ^
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0 ,
0.
0,
0 ,
A f
_ Metals
.166
0.
.493
,237
3.034
.169
1.095
0.
.127
1.641
0.
0.
.307
3. 144
1.S06
.187
.071
.335
0.
.236
.162
3.135
.315
.814
0.
.1°6
0.
.213
0.
.41*
2,658
.307
10.593
.439
0.
1 .604
.134
.032
4.099
.307
.293
.193
.113
1.605
.3B1
.119
. C3"*
!o73
,107
.397
0.
47.740
5. 406
13.2S1
5,327
2.992
3.030
2,283
.667
.743
3,527
, 462
Fluorides
0.
0.
0.
0.
5.
0.
1.
0.
0.
1.
0.
0.
0.
T t
I.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
"> f
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
n t
0.
6.
0.
0.
1.
0.
0.
1 (
0,
0,
0.
0.
1,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
23,
3.
a.
3 .
')
5.
1,
0.
r'J t
5 .
0.
Oils
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0,
0,
0.
0.
0 .
0,
                                                  B-4

-------
    State
                       EPA
                      Region
ALABAMA                IV
ALASKA                 X
ARIZONA                IX
ARKANSAS               VI
CAUR3RNIA             IX
COLORADO               VI11
CONNECTICUT            I
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA   III
DELAWARE               111
FLORIDA                IV
GEORGIA                IV
HAWAII                 IX
IDAHO                  X
ILLINOIS               V
INDIANA                V
IOWA                   VII
KANSAS                 VII
KENTUCKY               IV
LOUISIANA              VI
MAINE                  I
MARYLAND               111
MASSACHUSETTS          I
MICHIGAN               V
MINNESOTA              V
MISSISSIPPI            IV
MISSOURI               VII
MONTANA                VIII
NEBRASKA               VII
NEVADA                 IX
NEW HAMPSHIRE          I
NEW JERSEY             II
NEW MEXICO             VI
NEW YORK               II
NORTH CAROLINA         IV
NORTH DAKOTA           VIII
OHIO                   V
OKLAHOMA               VI
OREGON                 X
PENNSYLVANIA           111
RHODE ISLAND           I
SOUTH CAROLINA         IV
SOUTH DAKOTA           VIII
TENNESSEE              IV
TEXAS                  VI
UTAH                   VI11
VERMONT                I
VIRGINIA               III
WASHINGTON             X
WEST VIRGINIA          III
WISCONSIN              V
WYOMING                VI11

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                                    PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — PLASTICS
                                      1975 State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
Total Potentially
Total
(W«t Wt.)
16.
0.
48.
23.
"""7 *
16.
106.
0.
12,
159,
0,
0.
30.
30 4 .
175.
13.
7 ,
32.
0.
28.
J 6,
308.
10,
7° *
0,
19,
n.
"'I
0.
40.
"IS1".
30.
102S.
43.
0,
155,
13.
8.
397.
JO,
29.
1 S?
11 ,
155,
37,
12
30.
T t
10.
38,
0 .
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
16.
0.
48.
23.
777,
16.
106.
0 »
12.
159,
0.
0 *
30.
304.
175.
13.
? .
32.
0.
23,
16.
308,
30.
79.
0.
19.
0.
21,
0.
40 ,
•^57 ,
30,
1023,
>3,
0.
i'JS.
13.
8.
397.
30,
29.
1".
11 ,
155.
17,
12.
SO.
7 f
10.
38.
0,
Hazardous Waste
(Wat Wt.)
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0 .
0,
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0,
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0,
0.
0 ,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
o .
0.
0,
0 .
0,
0 ,
0.
0 .
0.
(Dry Wt.)
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
r\ t
0.
0.
o.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 -
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flaooabl*
Solvents
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
o.
0.
0.
0.
f>.
rt .
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0 .
0,
0 .
0.
0 .
Heavy
Metals
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,

Fluorides
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0 ,
0,
0,
0.
0.

Oils
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
4420,
523.
1232.
516.
290,
762.
221.
o5-
"72 .
325.
15.
523.
1232.
516.
290,
732.
221.
65,
T~)
825,
45 ,
0.
0.
0.
0.
••).
0,
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0 .
A (
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0
0
0
^
0
0
0
0
A
0
                                                             0.
                                                             0.
                                                             0.
                                                             0.
                                                  B-5

-------
    State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLU«IA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                SIC 367
                        PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — LUBRICATING & HYDRAULIC OILS
                                      197S  State and EPA Region Totals
                                               (kkg/year)
 EPA
Region

 IV
 X
 IX
 VI
 IX
 VIII
 I
 III
 III
 IV
 IV
 IX
 X
 V
 v
 VII
 VII
 IV
 VI
 i
 in
 i
 V
 V
 IV
 VII
 VIII
 VII
 IX
 I
 II
 VI
 II
 IV
 VIII
 v
 VI
 X
 III
 I
 IV
 VIII
 IV
 VI
 VIII
 I
 III
 X
 III
 V
 VIII
Total Potentially
Total Waste
(W«t Wt.)
5 .
0.
16.
8.
259.
"3.
35.
0.
4,
5 3 .
0.
A ,
10.
101.
53.
6 .
"!
1 1 .
0.
o .
5 ,
103.
13.
26.
0 .
A.
0,
-7
0,
13.
36.
to.
342,
1-1.
0 .
52.
4.
3.
n_,
1 0.
! 0 ,
£ ,
4.
5"1
12,
1.
27.
n
3 .
13.
0.
(Dry Wt.)
1.
0,
~> t
1 .
31.
1.
4.
0.
0.
6.
0.
0.
1.
12.
7 ,
L .
0.
1.
0.
1 .
1 .
12.
1 .
3 .
0 .
1 .
0.
1 .
0.
T
10.
t .
41 .
2 *
0.
6 .
I .
0 .
16 .
1 .
L .
1 ,
A t
Q .
1 .
0.
1.
0.
0 ,
o ^
0.
Razardou
(W«t Wt.)
5 .
0.
16.
3,
259.
5.
33.
0.
4.
33.
0.
0.
10.
101,
58.
A.
T
11.
0.
9,
~J t
103.
10.
26.
0.
o .
0.
7,
0.
13.
86.
10,
342.
14.
0.
"32,
4.
3,
132.
10.
10.
6.
4.
>52 .
12 .
4,
27.
2 (
3 .
13.
0.
13 Wast*
(Dry Wt.)
1.
0.
i 1
1.
31.
1 .
4.
0.
0.
6.
0.
0.
1 .
12.
7.
1.
0.
1.
0.
1 .
1 .
12.
1,
3.
0.
1.
0.
1,
0.
o t
10.
1.
41.
n
0.
6 .
1 ,
A t
16.
1.
1 .
1 .
0.
6 ,
1 .
0.
3.
0.
0.
O (
0,
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flammable Heavy
Solvents Metals Fluorides Oils
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
A .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0 ,
0,
0.
0.
.002
0.
.005
.002
.073
.002
.Oil
0.
.001
.016
0.
0.
.003
.030
.017
.002
.001
.003
0.
.003
.002
.031
,003
.008
0.
.002
0.
.002
0.
.004
.026
,003
.103
.004
0,
.016
.001
.001
.040
,C03
.C03
.002
,001
.016
,004
.001
.003
.001
,001
.004
0,
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
r, t
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
o.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
,273
0.
.323
.397
13.476
.234
1.836
0.
.213
2,753
0.
0.
.515
5.2^4
3 . 029
.314
.119
* 5o.2
0.
.479
.272
5.343
. 523
1.366
0.
.329
0.
. 357
0.
.694
4.459
,515
17.76(3
,73~
0.
2 . 690
.226
, 139
6 , 87o
,51l3
, -19V
,32t
, i°0
2.692
,63°
, 200
1 . 3"5
,122
,180
,667
0,
                  L540,

                   174.
                   427.
                   172.
135.

 21 .
 '31 .
 21 .
 12.
 31 ,
  9.
  3.
  3.
 33.
                                    1540,
                                               185.
                                                                              0,   30.080
174.
427 ,
1^2.
".".
261.
74 .
22 .
24.
275.
15.
21.
51.
21 '
12.
-51 ,
o.
3.
~ f
33 .
2 .
0.
0.
0 »
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
A w
0,
.052
.129
. 052
,029
.078
.022
.006
,007
.033
,004
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0,
0,
0.
A (
0 +
0.
9
22
8
5
13
3
1
1
11

,069
, 227'
,93o
. 020
. 554
.330
.11?
.247
. 30 -1
• ' w>
                                                      B-6

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                                  PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — FAINT WASTES
                                      1975 State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
    State
                       EPA
                      Region
ALABAMA                IV
ALASKA                 X
ARIZONA                IX
ARKANSAS               VI
CALIFORNIA             IX
COLORADO               VIII
CONNECTICUT            I
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA   HI
DELAWARE               111
FLORIDA                IV
GEORGIA                IV
HAWAII                 IX
IDAHO                  X
ILLINOIS               V
INDIAN*                V
IOWA                   VII
KANSAS                 VII
KENTUCKY               IV
LOUISIANA              VI
MfUNE                  I
MARYLAND               111
MASSACHUSETTS          I
MICHIGAN               V
MINNESOTA              V
MISSISSIPPI            IV
MISSOURI               VII
MONTANA                VI11
NEBRASKA               VII
NEVADA                 IX
NEW HAMPSHIRE          I
NEW JERSEY             II
NEW MEXICO             VI
NEW YORK               II
NORTH CAROLINA         IV
NORTH DAKOTA           VIII
OHIO                   V
OKLAHOMA               VI
OREGON                 X
PENNSYLVANIA           III
RHODE ISLAND           I
SOUTH CAROLINA         IV
SOUTH DAKOTA           VIII
TENNESSEE              IV
TEXAS                  VI
UTAH                   VI11
VERMONT                I
VIRGINIA               III
WASHINGTON             X
WEST VIRGINIA          III
WISCONSIN              V
WYOMING                VIII

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
Total Potentially
Total
(Wet Wt.)
1 .
0.
o
1.
34.
1.
3,
0,
1 .
7 ,
0.
0 ,
1 .
13.
S
1.
0.
1 (
0.
1 .
}
13.
) .
3 •
0,
1 ,
0,
1 ,
0 ,
n
1 1.
1 .
•»4,
2 t
0,
7 ,
1,
0,
17.
I ,
I ,
I ,
0,
7 f
'^ ,
1.
1 >
0.
0.
o
0 -
2 0 0 *
.""* j »
'5 -5 .
22 .
i 3 ,
34*
io,

3 t
Jw i
2 ,
Waste
(Pry Wt.)
1 .
0,
-i (
1 .
34.
1 »
-.j t
0.
1.
7 (
0.
0.
1 .
13,
3,
1.
0,
i ,
0,
i ,
\ .
13.
j ,
3 .
A +
1 .
0.
1 .
0.
2 ,
1 I .
1 ,
44.
2 .
0.
7 ,
1 .
0 «
f.
i
1
1 .

7 r
-> t
\ ,
3 ,
0 .
0.
n
0 .
200,
23.
£6 ,
on
L3.
34,
i 0 ,
3
3
~6 ,
o
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.)
1 .
0.
-~t
i ,
3-4.
1 .
5.
0.
1.
"7
0.
0.
1 .
13.
3.
1.
0.
t .
0 .
1 .
1 .
13.
1 .
3.
0.
1 ,
0.
1 .
0.
2 *
11.
i ,
44.
2.
0.
7 .
1 .
0.
17.
1 .
t ,
1 ,
0.
7 ,
o
1 ,
3.
0.
0.
2 .
0.
200.
23 y
36,
^1
13.
34.
10.
3,
3 .
36.
2 .
(Dry Wt.)
1 .
0.
T
1.
34.
1 .
U *
0.
1.
7,
0,
0 *
I .
13.
8.
1.
0.
1 .
0.
1 ,
1 ,
13.
1 .
3.
0-
^ 4
0.
1 ,
/) >
^
11.
1 ,
44.
't t
0,
7 ,
1,
0.
17.
1 .
] .
I ,
0.
7 ,
n
1.
3.
0.
0.
2.
0.
200.
23.
54 .
"i "i
13.
34.
10,
3.
3.
3i.
; ,
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flaouble
Solvents
0.
0.
1.
0.
17.
0 .
T ^
0 *
0 t
7,
0 .
0.
1 ,
•*
4*
0*
0.
1 .
0.
1.
0*
7 _
1 ,
T
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
1.
6.
1 .
~>O
1.
0.
3.
0.
0.
9,
1 ,
1 ,
0.
A ,
3 *
1 .
0.
2 .
0,
0.
1 .
0-
:oo.
11 .
28.
11.
5.
V'
5.
1.
2 .
IB.
1.
Heavy
Metals
.000
0.
.000
.000
.008
.000
.001
0.
,000
. 002
0.
A ,
.000
,003
,002
.000
.000
.000
0.
.000
,000
,003
. 000
.001
0.
.000
0,
.000
0.
. ooo
.003
. 000
,010
.000
0.
. 002
,000
,000
,004
, 000
,0'iO
,000
,000
.002
,000
. 000
. 00 1
.000
.000
.000
0.
.046
. oos
.013
.oos
.003
,003
,002
.001
,001
. oos
,000

Fluorides
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0 »
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0,
0.
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
n
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
A .
r.
0.

0 ,
J ,
0 .
0.
0 .
0.
0.
A .
0 *
0 *
0.
0 .
A
0,
0.
0 *
0,
0 ,

Oils
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 <
0.
0.
0.
0 -
0 ,
0 .
0,
.1 ,
0 .
0
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0 .
0.
0,
.),
0,
                                                            B-7

-------
                                     ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                  SIC  367
                              PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — HALOGENATED  SOLVENTS
                                       1977 Scat*  «nd  EPA Region Totals
                                                (king/year)
     State
                        EPA
                      Region
ALABAMA                IV
ALASKA                  X
ARIZONA                IX
ARKANSAS                VI
CALIFORNIA              IX
COLORADO                VIII
CONNECTICUT             I
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA    III
DELAWARE                111
FLORIDA                IV
GEORGIA                IV
HAWAII                  IX
IDAHO                   X
ILLINOIS                V
INDIANA                V
IOWA                    VII
KANSAS                  VII
KENTUCKY                IV
LOUISIANA               VI
MAINE                   I
MARYLAND                111
MASSACHUSETTS           I
MICHIGAN                V
MINNESOTA               V
MISSISSIPPI             IV
MISSOURI                VII
MONTANA                 VI11
NEBRASKA               VII
NEVADA                  IX
NEW HAMPSHIRE           I
NEW JERSEY              II
NEW MEXICO             VI
NEW YORK                II
NORTH CAROLINA          IV
NORTH DAKOTA           VIII
OHIO                    V
OKLAHOMA               VI
OREGON                 X
PENNSYLVANIA            III
RHODE ISLAND            I
SOUTH CAROLINA          IV
SOUTH DAKOTA           VIII
TENNESSEE               IV
TEXAS                  VI
UTAH                   VI11
VERMONT                 I
VIRGINIA                III
WASHINGTON             X
WEST VIRGINIA           III
WISCONSIN              V
WYOMING                VIII

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X


Total Waste
(Wet Wt.:
48.
0.
143.
6".
2332.
49,
313.
0.
37.
476.
C1 .
0.
39,
913,
524.
54.
2 1 .
97 .
0.
33.
47.
725.
-> i t
236.
,^ t
37,
'.) *
i2.
0.
120.
~72 .
0?.
3073 .
120.
0.
466.
3" .
24 ,
1190.
39 ,
3 ,-,,
?.'i ,
~3 ,
4o^j .
til.
35 •
241 ,
21 .
j I .
115.
0.
13960.
1570,
3347.
154",
36s.
2346.
663.
i°4.
2to,
24^.
134.
> (Dry Wt.)
48.
0.
143.
67.
2332.
49.
313.
O.
37.
476.
0.
0.
39.
"13.
524.
54 .
21 .
"7.
0-
33.
\7 .
925.
91 .
23.b.
0.
57.
0 .
62.
0.
120.
772 .
89,
,3075.
12S.
Q ,
466.
39.
24.
1170,
89.
Si.
56.
,'"3,
466 ,
111.
35.
241 .
21.
3] .
115.
D .
13860.
157Q.
3347,
1547.
G6?.
2316.
663.
194.
216.
24"' £ .
1 1 •' *
Total Potentially
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.)
21.
0 .
64.
31.
1037.
Tl (
141.
0.
16.
212.
0.
0.
40.
406.
233.
24.
9 ,
43,
0.
37 .
21 .
411.
41 ,
105.
0.
25 *
0.
27,
0.
53.
343.
40.
1367.
cr-7
0,
207,
17.
11.
529.
•10,
33.
25 .
15.
^07 .
"49.
15.
L07.
o t
14,
"H ,
0.
6160.
6?8,
1710.
6B7.
386.
1043.
295.
•36.
96.
1100,
.', 0 *
(Pry Wt.)
21.
0,
64,
31.
1037.
'">"!
141.
0.
16.
212.
0.
0.
40.
406.
233.
24.
9.
43.
0.
37.
21 .
411.
-)1 ,
105.
0,
25.
0.
27,
0,
33,
343.
->0,
1367.
57.
0.
207.
17.
11.
S2<5.
40,
,18.
'I'll.
13 ,
207,
49.
15.
107.
Q ^
14.
51.
0.
6160.
6=8,
I.'IO.
687.
386.
1043,
OO1^
86.
"6.
1100.
60 ,
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flammable Heavy
Solvents
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
A ,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0 .
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
n f
0 *
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
') *
0.
0,
0,
0.
0,
Metals
,000
0.
. 301
.000
.309
. 300
.001
0.
.000
.002
0,
0.
.000
.004
,002
.000
.000
.000
0.
.000
.000
,004
.000
,001
0.
. 000
0.
.000
0.
.000
,003
.000
.012
.001
0.
.002
.000
. 000
.005
, 000
. 000
.000
.000
,002
.o"o
. 000
,001
,coo
.coo
.COG
0,
t 0 55
,006
.015
.006
.003
,000
,003
.001
.001
.010
.001
Fluor
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
A .
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
A ,
0,
0,
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0
0.
ll .
ides Oils
.005
0.
.015
,007
,238
.005
.032
0.
. 004
,049
0.
0,
, 009
. 093
,054
.006
.002
.010
0.
.003
.005
,095
.009
.024
0.
.006
0.
.006
0.
.012
,0^9
.009
.314
,013
0.
.043
.004
,002
.122
.009
.00?
.006
,00,5
. 043
.01 1
.004
.025
. 002
.O0."5
.012
0.
1.417
,160
.393
.158
,08"
,240
. 0613
, 020
.022
.253
,01-1
                                                 B-8

-------
                                   ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MAOTTFACTUtlKG
                                                 SIC  367
                           PROCESS WASTE  GENERATION — NON-HALOGENATED SOLVENTS
                                      1977  State  and  EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
    Stat*
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
f*W HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

    TOTALS

REGION  I
        II
        III
        IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
        IX
       X
 EPA
Region

 IV
 X
 IX
 VI
 IX
 VIII
 I
 III
 III
 IV
 IV
 IX
 X
 V
 V
 VII
 VII
 IV
 VI
 I
 III
 I
 V
 V
 IV
 VII
 VIII
 VII
 IX
 I
 II
 VI
 II
 IV
 VIII
 V
 VI
 X
  III
  I
  IV
 VIII
  IV
 VI
 VIII
  I
  III
 X
  III
 V
 VIII
Total Potentially
Total
(Wat Wt.)
64.
0 *
191.
92 .
3110.
£>5.
42-1.
0 ,
49.
635.
A ,
0.
1 19,
1217.
699.
-7-1 f
•>-
130.
0.
Ill .
63,
1233,
122,
315,
0.
7o.
0,
82.
0 ,
160,
1029.
119,
HOO.
i-'O,
0,
621.
52.
~° .
'3<37,
11'?,
115.
75 .
4" >
olJ J.
148 ,
(1 5 ,
322.
28.
42.
134,
0.
Mute
(Dry Wt.)
64.
0.
191 .
92.
3110.
65.
424.
0.
49.
635 .
A ^
0.
11'=,
1217,
699.
-? I
T7 f
130,
0.
111.
o3 *
1233.
122.
315.
0.
76,
0 *
32.
0 •
160.
1029,
119.
4100,
170.
0.
621.
52.
32.
1587,
11'?.
t L5.
75.
44 ,
62i.
1 48.
4o.
322.
28.
42.
134.
•D.
Hatardoua Ht«te
(Wat Wt.)
64.
0,
191,
92 ,
3110.
65.
42-4.
0.
49.
635.
0,
0,
] I0.
1217.
499.
~7^
27.
130.
0.
111.
63.
1233.
122.
315,
0.
76 /
0.
82,
0.
160.
1029.
119,
4100.
170.
0.
621.
52.
32.
1587.
U9.
115.
7T.
44.
621 .
148.
46.
322,
28,
42.
154. -
0.
(Dry Wt.)
64.
0.
191 ,
92,
3110.
65.
424.
0.
49,
635.
0,
0,
119.
1217,
699.
7-) t
27 +
130.
0,
111.
63.
1233,
122.
315.
0.
^6,
0.
82.
0.
160.
1029.
119,
4100.
170.
0 .
621,
>j2 *
32.
1587.
119.
115.
73.
44.
621,
148.
•»6.
322.
23,
42.
154.
0.
Total Hazardous
Flaoaabl*
Solv«nt»
59.
0. 0
175.
34.
2851,
60.
388.
0. 0
45.
582.
0, 0
0, 0
109,
1116,
341 .
66.
25.
119,
0. 0
101.
S3.
1130.
112,
289.
0, 0
70.
0. 0
75.
0. 0
147.
943,
109,
3759 .
156.
0. 0
569.
48.
29,
1455.
109.
106.
63.
40.
569,
135.
42,
295.
26 ,
38.
141,
0. 0
Haavy
Metal a
.000

,001
.000
.013
.000
.002
.
.000
,003
,
,
,000
.005
.003
.000
.000
.001

.000
.000
.005
,001
.001
.
.000
,
.000
,
.001
.004
.000
.017
.001
.
.003
.000
.000
.007
.000
.000
.000
,000
.003
.001
. 000
.001
.000
.000
.001

Conatltuenta (Dry Wt.)

Fluoric!
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
o.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0 ,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0.
0,
0.
0 ,
0,
A (
0,
0 .
0,
0 ,
0.
0 ,
0.
0.
0.
0.

tea. Oila
.006
0.
.019
.009
.311
.007
.042
0.
.005
.064
0.
0.
.012
.122
.070
.007
.003
.013
0,
.011
.006
,123
.012
.032
0,
,008
0.
.008
0,
.016
.103
.012
.410
,017
O.
,062
.005
.003
.159
.012
.012
.007
00-1
,062
.015
.005
.032
,003
.004
,015
0.
               1S480,   18480.   18480.   18480.   16940.
                                                                 .077
                                                                                  1.848
209 3 *
5129,
2062.
115;3,
1123.
d84,
258-
2BS.
3301
[70.
2093.
5129,
2062 ,
1138.
3128.
384.
2138,
208 .
3301 .
[ ?<• .
2093.
5129.
2062.
1158.
3123,
334,
258,
288.
3301,
J79.
2093.
512".
2062.
1133.
3128.
834.
258.
2S8,
3301,
179.
1918.
4702,
1390,
1062.
2867.
310.
237.
264.
3026.
164.
.009
,021
.009
.005
.013
.004
.001
.001
,014
.001
0.
0.
0.
0.
A (
0.
0 .
0,
0 .
0.
.209
.513
.206
. 116
.313
,083
.026
.029
, 320
,013
                                                 B-9

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                         PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — WASTEWATER TREATMENT SUIDCES
                                      1977 State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
     State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
 EPA
Region

 IV
 X
 IX
 VI
 IX
 VIII
 I
 III
 III
 IV
 IV
 IX
 X
 V
 v
 VII
 VII
 IV
 VI
 I
 III
 I
 V
 V
 IV
 VII
 VIII
 VII
 IX
 I
 II
 VI
 II
 IV
 VIII
 V
 VI
 X
 III
 I
 IV
 VIII
 IV
 VI
 VIII
 I
 III
 X
 III
 V
 VIII

Total
(Wet Wt.)
177.
0.
525,
252,
3552,
130.
1165.
0,
135.
1747,
0.
0,
327,
3347.
1°22 .
19°.
76 .
357.
0.
304.
173.
3391.
335.
oft — ,
0,
209,
f.
225.
0 *
440.
2930.
32^ .
U2-'6.
463.
i) .
1707,
143.
30.
4364,
,-"2~
'SI '.
205.
121,
1703.
406
12"7 .
335.
'? ,
114.
423,
0 ,
50820.
5755.
1 4100 ,
'5,1 71 .
3135,
•3602.
2431 ,
710.
791 ,
? 077,
4°2.

Waste
(Dry Wt,)
37.
0.
111.
54.
1314.
38.
247.
0.
29.
371 .
0 »
0.
69.
71O.
408.
42.
16.
76.
0.
65.
37.
719.
71.
134.
0.
44.
0.
48.
u ,
93.
oOO.
i9 .
2 3Q2 .
9° ,
0.
362.
30.
19.
°26 ,
j9 .
i • ,
t4,
2o .
362 ,
36.
27 .
108.
16.
~1 i t
90 ,
0.
10780.
1221.
2992 ,
1 203 ,
A7o,
1 82', ,
51o.
151.
16S,
1926.
104 .
Total
Potentially
Hazardoua Waate
(Wet Wt.) (Dry Wt.)
177.
0.
525.
252.
3552.
180.
1165.
0.
135.
1747.
0.
0.
327.
3347.
1922 .
199.
76.
357.
0.
304.
173.
3391.
335.
367.
0,
209 ,
0 ,
225.
0
440.
2830.
327,
11276.
468.
0.
1707,
I'1 3.
08.
4364.
32 7.
31 7.
205.
121.
1708.
406.
127.
885.
77.
114.
423 .
0.
50320.
5755.
14106.
5671,
31&5,
8602,
2431.
710.
791,
907".
492 ,
37.
0.
111.
54,
1814.
38.
247,
0,
29.
371.
0.
0.
69.
710.
408,
42.
16.
76.
0 *
05.
37,
719.
71.
184.
0,
44 ,
0.
.18.
0,
93.
oOO.
69.
2392.
99,
0.
362.
30.
19,
g2i.
69.
67,
44.
2:> ,
362,
36,
2? ,
188.
16.
24,
90,
0.
10780,
1221.
2992,
1 203 ,
676.
1325.
536.
151,
168.
1926.
]«4,
Total
Hazardous
Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flainable Heavy
Solvents Metals
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0 «
0 ,
0,
0,
0,
0,
>,
0 .
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0,
<"'.
0.
0 ,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0,
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
,} (
1).
0 .
.348
0.
1.035
.497
16.345
.355
2.295
0.
, 266
3. Ml
0 .
0,
.643
6.593
3. '86
.392
. i49
.703
0,
.599
.340
6.o79
.06!
1 ."'03
0.
. •'> 1 1
0.
.146
0.
.£67
5,574
,643
22.210
.921
0,
3,363
.232
.173
3 . 593
,645
.624
.403
.233
3.365
,779
.250
1 ,744
.152
,225
,333
0.
100. 100
1 1 . 336
27.7f?4
11.1 70
6 , 274
16.943
4.-R7
1.3?R
] .5??
1 "•" , Pl'O
, 9*9
Fluorides
0.
0.
1.
0.
10.
0.
1.
0.
0.
2.
0.
0.
0,
4.
2 ,
0.
0,
0.
0 »
0.
0.
4.
0.
1.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1 ,
3.
0.
14.
I .
0,
^ ,
0.
0,
5 .
0.
••} ^
0 ,
0 .
2 .
0 +
0.
i ,
0.
0.
1.
0.
62.
7,
17.
7 ,
1,
JO.
3 .
1.
j ,
11 .
1 .
Oils
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0 ,
0 .
0,
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0,
0.
0,
0.
o .
0.
0 .
A ,
0 ,
0.
0.
0 +
0.
Q *
0,
0 ,
0,
0.
0,
0,
0-
A .
Q.
0 «
p", f
0.
                                                 B-10

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                                    PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — PLASTICS
                                      1977 Scats and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kltg/year)
                                          Total Waste
    State
ALABAMA                IV
ALASKA                 X
ARIZONA                IX
ARKANSAS               VI
CALIFORNIA             IX
COLORADO               VIII
CONNECTICUT            I
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA   III
DELAWARE               111
FLORIDA                IV
GEORGIA                IV
HAWAII                 IX
IDAHO                  X
ILLINOIS               V
INDIANA                V
IOWA                   vn
KANSAS                 VII
KENTUCKY               IV
LOUISIANA              VI
MAINE                  I
MARYLAND               111
MASSACHUSETTS          I
MICHIGAN               V
MINNESOTA              V
MISSISSIPPI            IV
MISSOURI               VII
MONTANA                VIII
NEBRASKA               Vtl
NEVADA                 IX
NEW HAMPSHIRE          I
NEW JERSEY             II
NEW MEXICO             VI
NEW YORK               II
NORTH CAROLINA         IV
NORTH DAKOTA           VIII
OHIO                   V
OKLAHOMA               VI
OREGON                 X
PENNSYLVANIA           III
RHODE ISLAND           I
SOUTH CAROLINA         IV
SOUTH DAKOTA           VIII
TENNESSEE              IV
TEXAS                  VI
UTAH                   VI11
VERMONT                I
VIRGINIA               III
WASHINGTON             X
WEST VIRGINIA          III
WISCONSIN              V
WYOMING                VIII

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
;w«t wt.)
19.
0,
56 *
907.
19.
124.
0.
1-J,
185,
0.
0,
35,
35 j .
204,
21 ,
S.
38.
0.
32 .
18,
3i>0 ,
36.
02 ,
0,
A ,
24.
0,
4~.
300.
35.
1196,
50,
A ,
181 .
15.
Q ^
•163,
35 ,
34.
13,
131 ,
43,
13.
S -
12,
45,
0,
53"0,
610,
14°6,
601 ,
338.
912,
258,
(Dry Wt.
1".
0,
56.
907.
1°.
124.
0,
14,
185.
0.
0,
35.
355 ,
204,
21 .
8.
38.
0,
32 .
18,
360.
.56,
°2 .
0,
A ,
24,
0 ,
47.
300.
35.
1196,
SO.
0,
181.
15,
9.
463.
35,
34.
13.
131 ,
43,
33,
8.
12,
45.
C'.
5390,
610,
1496,
oOl .
33G.
912.
258,
84,
Hazardous Waste
Wet Wt.)
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0 ,
0,
0.
0.
0,
0 .
0.
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
(-; ^
0.
0,
0.
0,
0 .
0 .
A v
0
0 .
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
0 .
0,
0,
0.
i (Dry_Wt.)
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0,
r\ t
<•/.
0.
0,
0 .
0.
0,
0,
0.
0,
0 .
0 t
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
A t
0,
A
'">.
r, f
A v
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0 -
0.
0.
n ,
0.
0 .
0.
0.
Flammable
Solvents
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
/) ,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0-
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
A ,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 ,
0.
0.
0,
0 .
0.
0,
0,
0.
Heavy
Metals
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
o *
0 .
0.
0,
0,
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
r, ,
0.
0,
0,
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0 t
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

Fluorides
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0 »
0 ,
0 »
0 .
0,
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0 -
0.
0.
0 *
0 *
0.
L* t
0.
0,
0.
0.
A t
0,
0.
0.
A .
0.

0.
0,

A ,
0.
A,
0.
0.
0.
0 »
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0 .
0.
0.

Oils
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0 «
0,
0 »
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 +
0.
0.
A i
0,
0 »
0,
0.
0 *
0.
0.
C' .
0 .
0,
0.
A ,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
f>.
A ,
0.
0 *
0,
') .
0.
^, (
0,
0 *
0.
0.
0 *
0,
0.
0 »
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
                                                  B-ll

-------
    State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAVMII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
WISE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
I>EW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE  ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

     TOTALS

REGION I
        II
        III
        IV
        V
        VI
        VII
        VIII
        IX
        X
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MMiDTACTDRlNG
                                                 SIC 367
                        PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — LUBRICATING & HIDRAULIC OILS
                                      1977 State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
 EPA
Region

 IV
 X
 IX
 VI
 IX
 VIII
 I
 III
 III
 IV
 IV
 IX
 X
 V
 V
 VII
 VII
 IV
 VI
 I
 III
 I
 V
 V
 IV
 VII
 VIII
 VII
 IX
 I
 II
 VI
 II
 IV
 VIII
 V
 VI
 X
 III
  I
  IV
 VIII
  IV
 VI
 VIII
  I
  III
 X
  III
 V
  VIII
Total Potentially
Total
(Wet Wt.)
8.
0.
24 .
11.
38",
9.
53.
0 .
6,
79 .
0.
0,
15.
152,
87
o.
3 (
1? .
0 .
1-1 ,
8.
154
15.
3°
0
V,
0 .
10.
0,
20.
129.
If. .
313.
2 I :
0 .
"'8 -
-
4
1 ° £' ,
15,
1-^ .
^ ,
5.
"8.
18.
6,
40.
4.
5 *
19.
0.
23jO ,
262.
641,
258.
145.
3 = 1,
110.
32 .
36.
413.
H "1
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
1 .
0.
2.
1,
39.
J .
5.
0.
1.
S.
0.
0.
t.
15.
o.
i.
0 •
2.
0 *
1 .
1 .
15.
1 ,
4.
0 .
1 .
o .
1 .
0.
2.
13.
1 .
?1 .
~ ,
0 >
•~A.
1 ,
0 ,
20.
I ,
t ,
I ,
1 .
8,
2,
1.
4.
0,
1 .
2 ,
0,
231 .
26.
64 .
26.
1 4 .
39.
11 .
3,
4.
41 .
2 .
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.)
8.
0.
24.
11.
389.
8,
53.
0.
6 »
7".
0.
0.
15,
152.
8~ .
o
3.
lo.
0.
14.
8.
154,
13.
-i".
0.
13 .
0 .
10.
0 .
Tl
12° ,
15.
513.
21 .
0.
"'S,

4.
193.
15,
14,
Q t
5 .
73,
IS.
6.
40,
4,
5 ,
19.
0.
2310.
262.
641,
253.
145.
391.
110,
32.
36.
413.
22,
(Dry Wt.)
1 .
0.
2.
1 .
3°.
1.
5 *
0.
1 ,
8.
0 ,
0.
1.
15.
9.
1 .
0 .
2.
0.
1 .
1 ,
15,
2 .
4 ,
0
1.
0 .
1
0,
2,
13.
1 .
51.
-> ^
0.
S ,
1 ,
o .
20
1 ,
1.
1 ,
1 ,
8.
2.
1.
4,
0.
1.
2.
0 *
231.
26.
64.
26,
1-! ,
39.
11 .
3.
4.
41 ,
2
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flosaable Heavy
Solvents
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0 .
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0 ,
0.
0 .
0.
0 .
0-
o.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0,
0.
0.
0 ,
>,' .
0,
0 ,
0.
0,
0,
0 ,
.)
0
0 ,
0.
0 ,
0-
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0 .
0.
0.
0.
Metals Fluorides Oils
,002
0.
,006
.003
.096
, 002
. 013
0,
,OQ2
, 020
0,
0.
.004
..038
.022
,002
,001
. 0(<4
0.
. 003
,002
.038
.004
.010
0.
.002
0.
.003
0.
.005
,032
,004
. 12i
. 305
0,
,019
. 002
,001
, 040
,004
, 004
, 002
,003
.01"
.005
.001
.010
,001
.001
.005
0.
.570
,C65
.158
.064
,03o
.096
.027
. OOS
.009
. 102
,00o
0,
.) ,
0,
0.
0 .
r\ t
0.
0.
0.
0 «
0.
0.
0 *
0.
0 .
0,
0 .
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
Q (
0,
0.
0 .
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.

0 .
A i

0.
0.
0,
0 .
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0 »
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
,385
0.
1 . 146
.550
It. 659
.393
2,543
0 ,
,295
3.812
0 ,
0.
* ^ L 3
7 . 303
4,194
.434
. loS
,7';S
0 ,
, oe>4
,2"7
7,393
. 732
1 ,S?'l
0.
.456
0 .
, 4°4
0.
, 9il
6,174
,713
2K602
1 ,020
0 .
3 . "25
"" 1 *^
, 1°1
9, 520
."'1-'
. 6 " 1
.4-13
. 2c ~:
3, "23
.885
, 2~"
1 . °32
.16'?
.249
. 923
0 .
110.88':
JO c-c- -
30,776
12.373
6 , 950
18.769
5.303
1 .f.49
1 . 72"
I'. 305
I -0"3
                                                  B-12

-------
     State
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                                  PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — PAINT HASTES
                                      1977 State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
                       EPA
                      Region
ALABAMA                IV
ALASKA                 X
ARIZONA                IX
ARKANSAS               VI
CALIFORNIA             IX
COLORADO               vni
CONNECTICUT            I
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA   III
DELAWARE               III
FLORIDA                IV
GEORGIA                IV
HAWAII                 IX
IDAHO                  X
ILLINOIS               V
INDIANA                V
IOWA                   VII
KANSAS                 VII
KENTUCKY               IV
LOUISIANA              VI
MAINE                  I
MARYLAND               111
MASSACHUSETTS          I
MICHIGAN               V
MINNESOTA              V
MISSISSIPPI            IV
MISSOURI               VII
MONTANA                VI11
NEBRASKA               VII
NEVADA                 IX
NEW HAMPSHIRE          I
NEW JERSEY             II
NEW MEXICO             VI
NEW YORK               II
NORTH CAROLINA         IV
NORTH DAKOTA           VIII
OHIO                   V
OKLAHOMA               VI
OREGON                 X
PENNSYLVANIA           III
RHODE ISLAND           I
SOUTH CAROLINA         IV
SOUTH DAKOTA           VIII
TENNESSEE              IV
TEXAS                  VI
UTAH                   VI11
VERMONT                I
VIRGINIA               III
WASHINGTON             X
WEST VIRGINIA          III
WISCONSIN              V
WYOMING                VIII

    TOTALS

REGION  I
        II
        III
        IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
        IX
       X
Total Potentially
Total
(Wat Wt.)
1 .
0 *
3.
1.
41 .
t ,
6 .
0,
1 ,
8.
0.
0.
*•)
16.
9.
1 .
0 *
2 t
0.
1 .
1.
16,
2 ,
4.
0.
1,
0.
i .
0,
•-J
14.
T ^
S5.
~' ,
0.
3.
1.
0.
21 ,
•i
2 ,
1 ,

3 ,
"j
1 ,
4,
0 t
i .
-> t
0,
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
1,
0.
3.
1.
41.
1 .
6,
0.
1 ,
a.
0.
o .
2 t
lo.
9 ^
L .
0.
-i ^
0.
1.
1
lo.
o f
4.
0,
1 .
0 .
1 ,
0.
1
14.
o t
G5.
")
0,
3.
I ,
0.
.11 .
1
1
1 .
1 .
3.
H
1 .
4,
0.
1 .
2 ,
0 .
Hazardous
(Wat Wt.) (I
1.
0.
3.
\,
41.
1 ,
6.
0,
1 .
8.
0.
0.
2.
16,
9 (
1.
0.
-)
0.
1 ,
i .
16,
2 .
4.
0.
i ,
0.
1.
0.
O
14,
-> +
55 «
*•)
0,
t).
i .
0.
21.
2 .
i
1.
1 ,
e.
"i (
i .
4.
0.
1.
't
0.
Uaite
)ry Wt.)
1 .
0.
3.
1.
41.
1 .
6.
0.
1 .
8.
0.
0 .
o
16.
9.
1.
0.
2 .
0.
1 t
i.
16,
O
4.
0.
1.
0 »
1.
0.
1
14,
o (
G5.
'T
0.
3.
1 .
0.
21.
2 .
2,
1 .
1 .
8.
-)
i .
4.
0.
1 .
o (
0,
Total Hazardous Conatltuant* (Dry Wt.)
Flanabl*
Solv«nti
0.
0.
1.
1.
21.
0.
3.
0.
0 .
4.
0.
0.
1.
3,
5 t
0.
0.
1.
0.
1 .
0,
a.
i .
n t
0.
1 .
0.
1,
0.
1.
7,
t .
27.
1.
a.
4.
0.
0.
11 .
1 .
t .
0 .
0,
J .
i.
0.
^
0.
0.
1 .
0.
Haavy
M«tala
.000
0.
.001
.000
.010
.000
.001
0.
.000
.002
0.
0.
.000
.004
.002
.000
.000
.000
0.
.000
.000
.004
.000
.001
0.
.000
0.
.000
0.
.001
.003
.000
.014
.001
0.
.002
.000
.000
,005
.000
.000
.000
.000
,002
.000
.000
.001
.000
.000
,001
0.

Fluorld««
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.

Oil a
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
o.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
o.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
28,
68.
        246.
          6S.
                  246.
                            246.
                                     123.
           4.
          44,
23.
68,
27 ,
15.
42,
12.
3 ,
4.
44-
T
28,
68.
27.
15,
•^n.
12.
3 ,
4.
14
2 ,
14,
34.
14.
8.
21 .
6 .
2 ,
"2,
22,
1 .
.007
,017
.007
.004
.010
.003
.001
001
.011
,001
0.
0.
0,
0.
0 .
0,
0,
0,
0,
0.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                            PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — HALOGENATED  SOLVENTS
                                      1983 Sue* and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
    State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
 EPA
R«glon

 IV
 X
 IX
 VI
 IX
 VIII
 i
 ill
 in
 IV
 IV
 IX
 X
 V
 V
 VII
-VII
 IV
 VI
 I
 III
 I
 V
 v
 IV
 VII
 VIII
 VII
 IX
 I
 II
 VI
 ii
 IV
 VIII
 V
 VI
 X
 III
 I
 IV
 VIII
 IV
 VI
 VIII
 i
 in
 X
 III
 V
 VIII
Total Potentially
Total
(Vet Wt.)
70.
0 «
207.
90 ,
3369.
71.
45?.
0.
tj3 ,
088.
0,
0 .
129.
131°.
757.
;•;?.
30 .
J it.
0.
120.
)D -
1336.
( 7 ~1
342-
0.
32.
0.
39,
0.
173,
i: 15.
129,
4442 ,
1P4.
0.
o73 +
54.
35,
1719.
129 -
123 .
31 .
•:d.
.- 7T (
LsO,
'50 .
"49,
30.
45,
167.
0.
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
70,
0.
207.
99.
3369.
71 .
459,
0.
53.
688.
0.
0.
129.
131°.
757,
-T.
30.
1-01 .
0
120,
63,
! 336.
132.
342.
0.
^r .
0.
39.
0.
1~3.
1115.
129,
4442
184.
0.
673,
56.
35,
171?.
129,
125.
01 .
•)H.
673,
160.
50,
34',->.
30,
45,
167.
0.
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.)
32.
0.
95.
4o.
1555,
33.
212 .
0.
25.
318.
0.
0.
59,
609.
349,
3£.
14.
65.
r t
55.
31,
617.
el .
153.
0,
38.
0.
41,
0,
80,
515.
59.
2050.
35.
0.
310.
26.
16.
793.
oO,
53,
.;?,
22 ,
311 ,
74 .
23 .
16L .
14 .
21
77 ,
0.
(Dry Wt.:
32.
0.
95,
46.
1555.
33,
212.
0.
*2_i *
318,
0.
0,
5",
60Q.
349.
36.
14,
65,
0 .
53 ,
31,
6 1 7 .
61 .
158,
0 ,
38,
0.
41 .
0,
80.
515.
59.
2050 .
85.
0.
310.
26.
16.
7°,?.
60,
58,
37,
22,
311 ,
74,
23 .
161,
14,
21.
~>-l
0.
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flammable
) Solvents
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
l\ t
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0 ,
o.
0 ,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
Heavy
Metals
.000
c.
,001
.000
.013
.000
.002
0.
.000
.003
0.
0.
,000
.005
.003
,000
. 000
.001
0.
.000
. 000
,005
.001
.001
0.
.000
0.
. 000
0.
.001
,004
, 000
,017
,001
0.
.003
.000
000
, 007
. OOQ
000
, 000
, 000
. 003
,001
.000
.001
.000
.000
,001
0,

Fluorides
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0 *
0,
0.
0,
1} ^
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
A ,
0.
0,
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,

Oils
.007
0,
,021
.010
.337
.007
,046
0.
.005
.049
D.
0.
.013
,132
. r'76
. 008
.003
,01 »
0.
,012
.007
.134
.013
,034
0.
.008
0.
.009
0 .
.017
.111
.013
.444
.018
0,
.067
,006
.003
.172
,013
.012
, 000
.005
.067
.016
.003
,035
,003
, 005
,0 17
0,
                20020.   20020.     9240.
                                              9240
                                                                                    2.002
2267,
5557,
2234,
1255.
338" ,
95",
230.
312.
T;^"' ,
19 J,
2267.
5557,
2234.
1255.
3389,
957,
2L'0,
312.
757 T
l?-i,
10-16.
2565,
1031.
57=,
1564.
442,
129.
144
1630.
:}9.
1046,
2565,
1031 .
579,
1564,
442 ,
129,
144,
1630 .
39,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0 ,
0,
, 009
,021
,009
,005
.013
,004
.001
,001
, 0 1 4
.001
0,
0.
0.
0 *
0 ,
0,
0.
0 ,
0,
0 ,
. 227
, 556
.223
, 1213
* 339
.096
.028
.031
,353
,01°
                                               B-14

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTUMHG
                                                 SIC 367
                           PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — NON-HALOGENATED SOLVENTS
                                      1983 Stat« and EPA Region Totals
                                                (kkg/year)
    State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
 EPA
Region

 IV
 X
 IX
 VI
 IX
 VIII
 I
 III
 III
 IV
 IV
 IX
 X
 V
 V
 VII
 VII
 IV
 VI
 I
 III
 I
 V
 V
 IV
 VII
 VIII
 VII
 IX
 I
 II
 VI
 II
 IV
 VIII
 V
 VI
 X
 III
 I
 IV
 VIII
 IV
 VI
 VIII
 i
 in
 x
 in
 V
 VIII
Total Potentially
Total
(Wet Wt.)
36.
0.
255.
122.
4146.
87.
565.
0,
65.
847.
0.
0 .
158.
1623.
932 .
97,
37.
173.
0.
147.
84.
Io44.
Io3.
420.
0.
101 .
>-» ,
110,
0.
214,
13^2,
153.
34o7.
227.
0,
823.
.,u9.
•13.
2116.
L59.
L54.
100,
'33.
029,
J.O-7.
o2 ,
4 29.
57,
55 ,
205.
0 .
24640.
2790.
6339,
2750,
1D44.
4171.
1173.
3-! 4 .
384,
•>401 ,
23B .
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
36.
0.
255.
122.
4146.
87.
565.
0.
65.
847.
0.
0.
153.
1623.
932 .
97.
37.
173.
0.
147.
34.
1644.
loo .
420.
0.
101,

110,
0.
214.
1372.
158.
5467.
227 .
0.
828.
69.
43.
2116.
159.
154.
100.
58,
823.
J97.
o2.
429.
37 .
55.
205.
0.
24640,
27"0 ,
6B39.
2750.
1S44.
4171.
1 178.
344.
334.
4401 .
238.
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.:
86.
0.
255.
1 '"*'"'
4146.
37.
565.
0.
65.
847.
0.
0.
153.
1623.
932,
97.
37.
173.
0 ,
147.
34.
1644.
163.
420 .
0.
101.
0.
110.
0.
214.
1372.
153.
5467,
227,
0,
323,
49.
43.
2116.
IS"?.
154,
100.
58.
828,
1 9 7 ,
62,
42V,
37.
55.
205,
0,
24640.
27'?0.
o339.
2700.
1544,
4171.
1178,
344.
384,
1401,
233.
) (Dry Wt.)
36.
0,
255.
122.
4146.
87.
565.
0.
a5.
847.
0.
0.
153,
1623.
932,
97.
37,
173.
0.
14".
34.
1644.
163.
420.
0 +
101.
0.
110.
0.
214.
1372,
158.
5467,
227,
0.
828,
69,
43.
2116.
1C9.
154,
100.
38.
823.
19"7.
A 2.
429.
37,
35 •
205.
0.
Tocal Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flamnable
Solvents
80.
0.
239.
115.
3887.
82.
530.
0.
61.
794.
0.
0,
148.
1521.
374.
91.
34.
162.
0.
133.
78.
1541.
152.
394.
0.
95.
0.
103.
0.
200.
1286,
148.
5 125 *
213.
0.
776.
45.
40.
1983.
149.
144.
93.
55.
777,
184.
58.
-402.
35.
52.
192.
0.
24640. 23100.
2700,
683? ,
2750,
]544,
41/1! ,
1178.
344,
334,
-1401.
238,
2616.
.= 412.
'iS^S.
1448.
3910.
1105.
323.
360.
4126 ,
224.
Heavy
Metals
.000
0.
.001
.000
.016
.000
.002
0.
.000
,003
0.
0.
,001
.006
.003
.000
.000
.001
0.
.001
.000
.006
.001
.002
0.
.000
0.
.000
0.
.001
.005
.001
,021
.001
0.
.003
.000
.000
.008
.001
,001
.000
,000
,003
.001
,000
.002
.000
.000
.001
0.
.092
.010
.026
.010
.006
.016
.004
.001
.001
.017
.001

Fluorides
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.

Oils
.009
0.
.025
,012
.415
.009
.057
0.
.007
.085
0.
0.
.016
.162
.093
.010
.004
,017
0.
.015
.008
.164
.016
.042
0.
.010
0.
.011
0.
.021
.137
.016
.547
.023
0.
,083
.007
,004
,212
.016
,015
.010
.006
.083
,020
,006
,043
,004
.006
,021
0,
2,464
.27°
.634
.275
.154
.417
.118
. 034
.038
.440
.024
                                                       B-15

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                         PROCESS UASTE GENEKAHCH — WASTEUATBR TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                      1983 Sect* and EPA. Region Totals
                                                (kk«/year)
    State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
ICMA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

    TOTALS

 REGION  I
        II
        III
        IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
        IX
       X
 EPA
Region

 IV
 X
 IX
 VI
 IX
 VIII
 I
 III
 III
 IV
 IV
 IX
 X
 V
 V
 VII
 VII
 IV
 VI
 I
 III
 I
 V
 V
 IV
 VII
 vin
 VII
 IX
 I
 ii
 VI
 II
 IV
 VIII
 V
 VI
 X
 III
 I
 IV
 VIII
 IV
 VI
 VIII
  I
 III
 X
  III
 V
 VIII
                                                                               Total  Hazardous  Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Total
»*.*.)
246.
0.
732.
352.
11921.
251.
1624.
0.
Id3.
24J5.
0 .
0.
455.
4666.
2679.
278.
105.
4°7,
0.
524.
241
4-27.
407,
1208.
0.
291 ,
0 .
315.
0.
614.
3945.
455.
15718.
452.
0,
2330,
200.
122,
6082 ,
15A.
442,
236 ,
I ^8 ,
2382.
56-i,
177,
123-'..
103,
L59.
590 ,
0.
70840.
3022.
19643.
r°o5 .
44^0.
1199"
J3SS.
990.
1 103.
12o53.
43?
:W«ste
(Pry Wt.)
54.
0.
159.
76.
2592,
53.
353.
0.
41.
529.
0,
0,
99.
1014.
582.
60.
23.
108.
0.
92,
52,
1028.
102.
263.
0.
63.
0,
59,
0.
133.
358.
9",
3417,
.142.
0.
517.
43.
27.
1322,
9V.
94 .
62 ,
,57 ,
Sl'J.
123,
30,
268.
23.
35.
123.
0.
15400.
1744.
4274.
1713.
965,
2607,
••37.
215.
240.
2751 ,
1 49.
Hatardous Waste
(Wet Wt.)
246 ,
0.
732.
352.
11921.
231.
1624.
0,
188.
2435.
0.
0,
455.
4666.
2679.
273,
133.
497.
0,
424 »
241.
4727.
•><;/.
1203.
0.
2"! .
0.
315.
0.
614.
3945.
423.
15718.
632.
0.
2380.
200,
122,
6092,
454.
442.
236,
163.
2382,
56 i.
177.
1234.
108.
159.
590.
0.
70840.
8022.
19663.
7905.
4440,
11990,
3388,
"90.
1103.
12653.
48- •
(Dry Wt.)
54.
0.
159.
76.
2592.
55.
353.
0.
41.
529,
0,
0.
99
1014.
582,
60,
23,
108.
0.
°2.
52.
1028,
102.
243.
0.
63.
0,
69.
0.
133.
958.
99,
3417.
142.
0.
517,
43.
27 .
1322.
09 t
96 .
62,
37 .
518.
123.
38.
268.
23.
35.
128.
0.
15400.
1744.
4274.
1718.
965.
240"',
737,
215.
240,
2751.
1 4 J ,
Flaonable
Solvents
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
A +
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0 .
0 *
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
Heavy
Metals
.482
0.
1.432
.688
23.324
.491
3.173
0.
.368
4.765
0.
0.
.8"!
9.129
5.242
.543
.206
.973
0.
. 330
,471
9.248
.915
2.364
0.
.570
0.
.617
0.
1.201
7.713
.891
30.752
1.273
0.
4.656
.390
. 23°
11 .901
,89 5
.864
,560
.329
4.659
1 . 107
,346
2,415
.211
.312
1 .154
0.
0. 13S.600
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0 ,
15.696
38.470
15.466
8.688
23.459
6,629
1 ,936
2,158
24,7'57
1.341

Fluorides
0.
0.
1 .
0.
13.
0.
2.
0 .
0.
3.
0.
0.
0.
5.
3.
0.
0.
1, ,
0.
0.
0.
5.
1.
1.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
1,
4,
0,
17,
1 ,
0,
3.
0.
0.
~7 .
A .
0.
0.
0.
3,
1 ,
0.
1 ,
0.
0,
1 .
0.
77.
9 |
21 .
9.
5.
13 *
4.
1.
1 ,
14,
1.

Oils
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0 ,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0 *
0 *
;, ,
'"* 1
o.
0,
I,1.
                                                 B-16

-------
                                    ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
                                                 SIC 367
                                    PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — PLASTICS
                                      1983 State and EPA Region Totals
                                                (Vkg/year)
    State
                       EPA
                      Region
ALABAMA                IV
ALASKA                 X
ARIZONA                IX
ARKANSAS               VI
CALIFORNIA             IX
COLORADO               VI11
CONNECTICUT            I
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA   III
DELAWARE               III
FLORIDA                IV
GEORGIA                IV
HAWAII                 IX
IDAHO                  X
ILLINOIS               V
INDIANA                V
IOWA                   VII
KANSAS                 VII
KENTUCKY               IV
LOUISIANA              VI
MAINE                  I
MARYLAND               III
MASSACHUSETTS          I
MICHIGAN               v
MINNESOTA              V
MISSISSIPPI            IV
MISSOURI               Vtl
MONTANA                VI11
NEBRASKA               VII
NEVADA                 IX
MEW HAMPSHIRE          I
NEW JERSEY             II
NEW MEXICO             VI
NEW YORK               II
NORTH CAROLINA         IV
NORTH DAKOTA           VIII
OHIO                   V
OKLAHOMA               VI
OREGON                 X
PENNSYLVANIA           111
RHODE ISLAND           I
SOUTH CAROLINA         IV
SOUTH DAKOTA           VIII
TENNESSEE              IV
TEXAS                  vi
UTAH                   VI11
VERMONT                I
VIRGINIA               III
WASHINGTON             X
WEST VIRGINIA          III
WISCONSIN              V
WYOMING                VIII

    TOTALS

REGION I
       II
       III
       IV
       V
       VI
       VII
       VIII
       IX
       X
                                                                               Total Hazardous Constituent* (Dry Wt.)
Total
(Wet Wt.)
o -y
0.
90.
33.
1296.
O -1
l~7 .
0 .
20.
2 ii5 .
0.

4°,
5i)r ,
291.
3".
11 ,
34.
'*>.
->o.
"~> .'
514,
31 ,
131 .
A
32 ,
0 .
34,
0 <
o7 »
-12".
4*.
708,
-i.
<2 f
259,
OT
13.
ail.
^'•j .
!'3.
it .
13.
2^^ ,
ol .
19.
13 'I
12.
ir.
0-1,
0,
,-700.
B72,
•"'I 77
359',
423,
1 303 .
3o3,
109.
12 J.
1375,
J f
Waste
(Dry Wt.)
~t~> t
'),
SO.
33.
129o.
27.
177.
0.
20,
2a'J.
0.
0.
49,
507.
291,
30.
11.
C 4 4
0.
44.
2i.
514.
31.
131.
0.
32.
0.
54 .
0.
47,
429.
AQ ,
1703.
71.
0.
25?.
TT t
13.
461.
GO.
43.
31 .
13.
259.
61 .
!'->
134.
12,
17.
64.
0.
7700 .
372.
2137.
859 .
483.
1303.
3o3.
103,
120.
1375 .
/ -i >
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.)
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
o ,
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0 *
0 »
0.
0 .
0.
') .
0 ,
0.
0.
0,
0 .
2 t
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0 ,
0 .
0.
0 ,
0,
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
r, f
0 *
0.
0 .
0.
0,
0 .
(Dry Wt.)
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0.
} ,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0 ,
0.
0 *
Flammable
Solvents
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
(1
0 »
0 »
0.
,"l
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0,
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0,
0 ,
0,
0,
0.
0.
0,
Heavy
Metals
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0 ,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
o.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 ,
0 *
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.

Fluorides
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 »
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0 .
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0 *
0,

Oils
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0 .
0 ,
0.
0 .
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0 .
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
c ,
0.
0
0,
0.
0.
0 ,
0,
0,
0,
0 ,
0,

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
                                                   B-17

-------
            ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANOTACTORISG
                        SIC 367
PROCESS WASTE GENEBATION — LUBRICATING & HTORAULIC OILS
             1983 State and EPA Region Totals
                       (kkg/year)

State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAIt€
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MIM^ESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
I^W HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
I^W MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING
TOTALS
REGION I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
EPA
Region
IV
X
IX
VI
IX
VIII
I
III
III
IV
IV
IX
X
V
V
VII
VII
IV
VI
I
III
I
V
V
IV
VII
VIII
VII
IX
I
II
VI
II
IV
VIII
V
VI
X
III
I
IV
VIII
IV
VI
VIII
I
III
X
III
V
VIII













Total Waste

-------
  ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUFACTURING
               SIC  367
PROCESS WASTE GENERATION — FAINT WASTES
    1983 State and  EPA R«glon Totals
              (kkg/year)

State
ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALITORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
DELAWARE
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE '
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
rCVAOA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TEI*ESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING
TOTALS
RESION I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
EPA
Region
IV
X
IX
VI
IX
VIII
I
III
III
IV
IV
IX
X
V
V
VII
VII
IV
VI
I
III
I
V
V
IV
VII
VIII
VII
IX
I
II
VI
II
IV
VIII
V
VI
X
III
I
IV
VIII
IV
VI
VIII
I
III
X
III
V
VIII











Total Potentially
Total
(W«t Wt.)
1 ,
0.
3.
o t
52.
1 ,
7,
0 .
1.
11.
0.
0.
1
20 .
12,
1 ,
ti t
2 .
0.
O
1 .
21 .
2,
Br
0 ,
1 .
0.
1 .
0.
o .
17,
~i
r?8 ,
.1 .
0 .
1 0 ,
1 .
I .
2s>.
O
1
L .
L ,
10,
2 *
1 .
5.
0.
i .
3 .
0.
300.
3S.
as.
34.
17,
b2 .
15.
j t
5 .
-jb «
J,
Waata
(Dry Wt.)
1 .
0.
3.
2,
-j~. .
1.
-r ,
0 .
1.
11 .
0,
0.
T ^
20.
12.
1 .
').
2 .
0,
~>
1,
2 L ,
o
5 t
0.
1 .
\> .
L .
0.
3.
J.7.
.;.
ofj.
3 »
0.
10.
1 .
1.
24 .
"5
2 .'
t .
1 .
10.
2 .
i ,
5.
0.
1.
3-.
0.
303.
35.
85.
34.
19.
52.
Ib.
4,
^ »
bO .
3 .
Hazardous Waste
(Wet Wt.)
1.
0.
z.
'-) t
52.
1.
7.
0.
1.
11.
0.
0.
->
20.
12.
i ,
0.
2,
0.
~i (
L ,
21 .
n (
5.
0.
1 .
0.
I .
0 .
3 .
17.
2.
68.
3.
0.
LO.
1.
1 ,
2A.
2 .
o
I.
1.
10.
•-)
L,
5 »
0.
1.
3.
0,
308.
35.
C5 .
34.
19.
52.
15.
4 .
5.
55.
3.
(Dry Wt.)
1 .
0.
3 *
o t
52.
1.
7.
0.
1.
11 .
0.
0.
n
20.
12,
i .
0.
T
0.
-> t
I .
21.
*1
5.
0,
1.
0.
1 .
0.
3.
17,
T (
68,
3 ,
0.
JO.
1.
1 ,
26,
T
2.
1.
1 ,
10.
T
1.
5,
0,
1 ,
3 *
0.
300.
35.
85.
34 .
1'?.
^•"1
15.
4,
b »
53 .
3 .
Total Hazardous Constituents (Dry Wt.)
Flammable
Solvents
1.
0.
-> t
1.
26.
1.
4.
0.
0.
5 »
0.
0.
t.
10.
6.
t .
0.
1.
0.
1 .
1 .
10.
1.
3 .
0.
1.
0.
i.
0.
1 ,
9 ,
L .
34.
1.
0.
5 .
0.
0.
13,
I.
1 .
i .
0.
5.
1.
0.
3.
0.
0.
1.
0.
154.
17.
43.
17,
10,
26.
7 *
2 .
•T
23 ,
1 .
Heavy
Metals
.000
0.
.001
.000
.013
.000
.002
0,
.000
.003
0.
0.
.000
.005
.003
.000
.000
.001
0.
.000
.000
.005
.001
.001
0.
.000
0.
.000
0.
.001
.004
.000
.017
.001
0.
.003
.000
.000
.007
.000
.000
.000
.000
.003
.001
000
.301
.000
.000
.001
0.
.077
.009
,021
.009
.005
.013
.004
.001
.001
.014
.001

fluorides
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.

Oils
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0,
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
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            B-19

-------
                            APPENDIX C

                            METHODOLOGY



SELECTION OF PLANTS FOR SURVEY


     The following objectives and criteria for selection of plants to

be surveyed for this study were defined at its initiation:

     •  The goal for total number of plants to be surveyed was 30.

     •  The first 25 plants visited were to be chosen to be as represen-

tative of the product areas and geographic distribution of the industry

as possible with the stipulation that large plants were preferred to

maximize the amount of information obtainable per visit.  Regional or

product area problems recognized during the first 25 visits would be

selectively investigated further by the remaining five visits.

     •  The geographic distribution of the first 25 plants surveyed

would be proportional to the total number of electronic component plants

in each of the four Department of Commerce Census Regions based upon

1972 data [ 5] as shown below:


                                Number of             Survey Goal-
     Census Region           Industry Plants        Number of Plants

     Northeast                    1107                    10

     North Central                 602                     5

     South                         364                     3

     West                          782                    _7
                                  2855                    25
                                   C-l

-------
     •  The product area distribution of the first 25 plants surveyed

would be proportional to the industry value of shipments in each of

the nine four-digit SIC's based upon 1972 Department  of  Census Data  as

shown below:


                            Value of Industry        Survey Goal-
        SIC                 Shipments ($ mil)      Number of Plants

       3671                      230.4
       3672                      696.4                    4
       3673                      479.3
       3674                     2686.9                    8
       3675                      445.8                    1
       3676                      372.2                    1
       3677                      353.5                    1
       3678                      491.9                    2
       3679                     3041.6                  	8

                                8798.1                   25

     SIC's 3671, 3672 and 3673 were initially grouped together on the

basis of available information [ 7 ] which suggested that manufacturing

processes and materials were similar for the three product areas.

     Names, addresses, phone numbers, products SIC (however, see

Section II) and, occasionally, value of shipments for electronic compo-

nent manufacturers were available from Dun and Bradstreet Marketing

Services for Manufacturers, 1975 [ 6 ].  Management personnel of plants

selected from this list according to the above criteria  were contacted

to request their voluntary cooperation in this study. Written requests

for their cooperation including information about the study and the

types of information sought were sent to companies that  indicated a

willingness to participate.  The distribution of the plants which were
                                  C-2

-------
visited or that provided sufficient information for analysis (one




company rejected a plant visit but supplied pertinent information by




mail) is presented in Table III-4.  Reticence of a majority of companies




contacted to participate plus limited time allocated to plant selection




resulted in an inability to acquire even the planned 25 initial visits.




Nevertheless, those plants visited provide satisfactory representation of




the industry.  The plants account for 0.92 percent of the 2500 industry




plants estimated to be in operation in 1975 [IQ]-  However, because of the




bias toward large plants, 3.6 percent of the 1975 value of industry




shipments is represented by these plants.  At the same time, small plants




are included in those visited.  Seven of the 23 participating plants had




annual sales less than the industry average per plant of $4 million per




year.







TRADE ASSOCIATION CONTACTS




     In an effort to include as much  industry participation as possible,




trade associations which represent electronic component manufactures




were sought.  Eight trade associations listed under "Electricity and




Electronics" in the 1974 volume of National Trade and Professional




Associations of the United States and Labor Unions [38] were contacted.




Three other associations suggested by the initial contacts were also




conducted.  Only one trade association, the Electronic Industries Associ-




ation,-' indicated that they represent electronic components manufactures.




Approximately 200 electronic components manufactures support this associ-




ation.  EIA provided a copy of its membership list and some technical




information phosphors used in cathode ray tubes.







                                  C-3

-------
PLANT VISITS




     A standard interview format was developed for use in obraining and




recording plant information.  The form is shown at the end of this




Appendix.  The plant visits were generally limited to four hours or




less and, depending upon the consultant's judgement, included three




phases:  (1) the company representative(s) was interviewed to acquire




information on the size, product and operation of the plant; (2) a tour




of the operation of the plant facilities was requested emphasizing raw




materials used, process flow, waste generation by the various manufactur-




ing processes, and waste handling and disposal methods; and (3) when the




company representative could not estimate waste volumes, this information




was sought in waste contractor billing records.







LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF WASTES




     A total of 16 process waste samples were collected from manufacturing




plants.  Analytical methodology is described below.




     Analytical result for 12 of these samples has been r€;ported in




Section III - Waste Characteristics.  The remaining four samples were not




discussed in Section III because of reasons explained in description of the




wastes below.  Results of the analyses is reported in Table C-l.




     Sample 1 - This was an untreated wastewater sample from a semiconductor




manufacturing plant.  The sample was collected primarily to determine the




amount of fluoride wasted from silicon etching with hydrofluoric acid.




The 440 mg/1 of fluoride is quite high and would be expected to be quite




harmful to aquatic biota if discharged directly to a stream.  The wastewater,







                                   C-4

-------
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                                         C-5

-------
however, is discharged to a municipal wastewater treatment plant.




Contraction of fluorides in the treatment plants effluent is not known.




Except for a small amount of chromium in the wastewater, heavy metal.




concentrations are very low.




     Sample 2 - This sample was an alkaline cleaning solution collected




from an area of an electronic components plant where another related




product was being made.  Cadmium and chromium concentrations in this




waste reflect its use with various metal products.




     Samples 3 and 4 were parts of television picture tubes that broke




during remanufacturing operations.  Sample 3 was fractured glass from




a screen.  The sample was leached in 1:1 nitric acid and results are




expressed in terms of micrograms of metal leached per square inch of sur-




face.  The large amount of lead can be attributed to the frit used to




fuse glass pieces together.  The zinc and probably the cadmium probably




originated in the screen phosphors.  Sample 4 was a piece of resin that




is applied to some tubes to reduce safety hazards from implosion.




Again, the sample was leached in acid.  Results are in terms of mg/kg




as for most other samples.  The relatively small amount of chromium in




this sample probably is a residue from acid cleaning of the tube during




original manufacture.




     Analytical methods are described below:




     Flash Point




     A Setaflash Tester (closed cup, range 5Q-225°F) model OISF was used




in all flash point measurements.  This instrument has been accepted by




the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM Method D-3278-73) as






                                   C-6

-------
well as the Department of Transportation.  All values reported were to




the nearest degree Fahrenheit except where no flash was observed (upper




limit of detection is 225°F).




     Oil and Grease (Hexane Extractables)




     The oil and grease content of the sludge samples was determined




by first drying a portion (20 g) of the sample with magnesium sulfate




(monohydrate),  followed by grinding into a dry powder.  The resulting




powder was then extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using 150 ml of hexane




as the extracting solvent (four hours at 20 cycles/hours).  The solvent,




containing the extracted oil and grease, was then evaporated at 45 °C in a




beaker.  After dessicating, the beaker was weighed and the oil and grease




(hexane extractable) content calculated (reported as mg/kg).




     The oil and grease content of the liquid samples were determined by




first acidifying a portion of the sample with HC1 to a pH of 1.  The solid




and/or viscous grease was then separated from the liquid by filtration




(Whatman #40 filter paper containing one gram of filter aid).  The filter




paper, containing the oil and grease, was then extracted as described




above for the sludge samples in a soxhlet apparatus using 150 ml of hexane.




The oil and grease content was reported as mg/kg (hexane extractable).




(Lower detection limit 25 mg/1).   Reference:  Standard Methods for the




Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Ed., Method 209C, p. 412, Method




209A, p. 409, APHA, AWWA, WPCF, 1971.




     Metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb,  and Zn)




     Samples for metal analyses were prepared for atomic absorption




spectroscopy by two procedures.  First, the samples were weighed into







                                  C-7

-------
250 ml Erlenmyer flasks and twice the samples' weight of distilled water




was added.  The flasks were sealed and placed on a Burrell Model 75




wrist action shaker and agitated for 8 hours.  The samples were then




centrifuged and filtered through 0.45 micron filters to remove particulate




matter.   (pH and specific conductance of the filtrates were measured.)




The filtrates were acidified with HNOo and evaporated to dryness on a hot




plate.  The residues were dissolved with HC1 and diluted to a known volume




with distilled water.  The metals were then determined by atomic absorp-




tion spectroscopy as described in Manual of Methods for Chemical Analysis




of Water and Wastes, U.S. EPA, 1974.




     Second, the ignited solids obtained from the percent solids at 550°C




were treated with HN03 and evaporated to dryness.  The residues were




leached with HC1 and diluted to known volumes with distilled water.  The




metals were determined as above.




     The ranges of detection limits in ppm were as follows:
Cd
Cr
Cu
Fe
Pb
Zn
Ni
Mn
0.02 -
0.02 -
0.06 -
0.08 -
0.5 -
0.02 -
0.1
0.04
0.2
0.2
0.2
1.0
10.0
0.2


Fluoride
     The fluoride content was determined by leaching 25 grams of sample




with 50 ml of distilled water.   After filtering, the filtrate was




analyzed for fluoride by adding SPADN  reagent and comparing the spectro-




photometrically measured absorbance with standards.  The results were






                                   C-8

-------
reported as leachable fluoride on an mg/kg of sample basis.   (Lower




limit of detection - 0.1 mg/kg).  Reference:  Standard Methods for the




Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Ed., Method 121C, p. 174, APHA,




AWWA, WPCF, 1971.




     £H




     The pH of the liquid sample, as well as the leachates obtained from




leaching the solid samples  (see metal analysis methodology) was determined




using an Analytical Measurements digital pH meter and a combination




electrode.  All measurements were made at ambient temperature and re-




ported to the nearest 0.1 pH units.  The meter was standardized against




standard buffer solutions at pH 4, 7,and 10.




     Drying Loss of Solids at__ 103°C




     Samples were weighed into tared dishes previously ignited at 550°C.




The dishes were placed in a drying overn at 103°C and dried to a constant




weight.   (Lower limit of detection 0.01%.)




     Ignition Loss of Solids at 550°C




     The weighed dishes from the drying loss at 103°C were placed in a




muffle furnace at 550°C and ignited to a constant weight.  The weight




loss from 103°C to 550°C was calculated as ignition loss at 550°C.




(Lower limit of detection - 0.01%.)




     Solids at 550°C




     The residue remaining after ignition at 550°C was calculated as




solids at 550°C.   (Lower limit of detection - 0.01%.)  1970 Annual




Book of ASTM Standards,  Part 21.
                                   C-9

-------
     Water




     Water was determined on the aqueous-organic mixtures using the




Karl Fisher Titration with visual end point.   The Karl Fischer Titration




for water is represented by the simplified equation:




(I2 + S02 + CH3OH + 3 Pyridine) + H20   (2 Pyridine H+ 1~ +




                                           Pyridine HOS02OCU3)






          (Karl Fischer Reagent)        End Product with H20




     Samples were weighed into CH-jOH, which had been titrated free of




water, and standard Karl Fischer Reagent was added to a visual end point.




Colored I2 is consumed in the reaction with water allowing end point




detection.  (Lower limit of detection - 0.2%.)  Chemical Analysis, H. A.




Laitinen, 1960, p. 421 FF.




     Trichloroethylene




     The trichloroethylene (M.W. 131.4, B.P.  87°C) content of those




samples suspected of containing a significant amount was determined




according to the following procedure:




     1.  A mixture containing 33% toluene, 33% methanol, and 33% sample




was prepared and distilled.  The distillate boiling over at up to 105°C




was collected and analyzed by gas chromotography.




     2.  One microliter of distillate was injected into a Varian series




280 gas chromatograph, isothermally operated at 70°C, using a flame




ionization detector and a 1/4" x 6' stainless steel column packed with




15% Carbowax - TPA on 80/100 Chromosorb W.  The chromatograph was




operated in conjunction with a strip chart recorder and an Autolab




integrator.




                                   C-10

-------
     3.  Calculation of the percent of trichloroethylene in the unknown




samples were made by comparison with standard trichloroethylene solutions




and the internal methanol standard present in each of the samples distilled.




     Results were reported as % trichloroethylene.  (Lower limit of detec-




tion - 0.1%.)  References:  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water




and Wastewater, 13th Ed., Method 113A, p. 100, APHA, AWWA, WPCF, 1971 and




H. McNair, E. Bonelli, Basic Gas Chromatography, Consolidated Publishers,




California, p. Ill, 1967.




     Precision and Accuracy




     Precision and accuracy data collected in-house on methods used to




analyse these samples exceed the precision and accuracy data in Manual




of Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Waste, U.S. EPA, 1974.




     Precision and accuracy data were not determined on these samples




for the following reasons:




     1.  The samples were of such great variety that replication, to




have been meaningful, would have required that every sample be included.




The work involved would have been beyond the scope of this program.




     2.  The sample size was insufficient in some cases.




     3.  Accuracy data could not be obtained on the water leached analyses




because pH could not be controlled.  Control of pH is necessary to prevent




precipitation of elements added to obtain accuracy data.




     4.  Samples collected were non-homogeneous grab samples and do not




necessarily represent long term conditions.
                                   C-ll

-------
                                                              WAPORA,  Inc.
                                                              Contract No.  68-01-3193
                   Assessment of Industrial  Hazardous Waste Practices
                     Electronic Components Manufacturing  - SIC  367

                                  Plant Survey Report
I.  GENERAL INFORMATION

    Company Name


    Plant Address                                                   Zip


    Contact Cs)                                            Telephone




    Date of Visit                          Survey Team


    EPA Representative
    Total Number of  Employees at Plant    	


    Plant Age


    Recent Modifications to Plant or  Environmental  Controls
    Planned Modifications to Plant or  Environmental  Controls
    Articles on Waste Treatment or Process Modifications
    Previous Sample Analysis of Waste Streams
                                            C-12

-------
II.  PLANT PRODUCTION
Product

4 digit
SIC

Number/yr Sales/yr


# Employees

II.   PRINCIPAL AND WASTE SIGNIFICANT RAW MATERIALS
      Material
Product or Process
    Used For:
Usage
Rate
                                                                   Disposition
Product
Waste Stream
     Composition of  Trade-Named  Materials:

     Trade Name                      Composition
                                                 Composition Data
                                                  Acquired From
                                              C-13

-------








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-------
 I.   WASTE  SAMPLING DATA
                                         Sample  #1           Sample  #2           Sample  #3
 aste  Stream Description and
 Designation  (from Section V)
ate/Time  Sampled
 ample  Description.  Volume  of  sample,
  color,  composition,  flov or size
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'reservation  Required
lontainer Type and  Size
Identification Number
Lecommended Analysis
Analysis Performed/Results
                                           C-19

-------
VII.  COST DATA - For appropriate waste streams identified in Section V,  indicate
           source and dependability of data,  any actions taken to verify  data and
           whatever breakdown of data possible according to capital,  land,  labor,
           equipment, debt servicing and contractor service costs.
                                           C-20

-------
VIII.  PROCESS AND WASTE PLOW DIAGRAM - Using data from Sections III, IV and V present
            a material flow diagram for each SIC represented in plant.
                                           C-21

-------
                           APPENDIX D

       PRIVATE WASTE CONTRACTORS AND SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS
                                 EPA REGION
Montvale Laboratories
270 Talbot Avenue
Dorchester, Mass.

Eastern Smelting &
  Refining Corporation
Lynn, Mass.

Davis Refuse Co., Inc.
127 Orchard Street
Stamford, Conn

Turnpike Furnace Co.
127 Tunnix Hill Road
Fairfield, Conn.

W. R. Archer
1034 Garden Road
Orange, Conn

Axton-Cross
Poughkeepsie, NY

Dachenhausen
5083 Kings Highway
Saugerties, NY

Pollution Control Corp.
Oswego, NY

Wayne Scrap
Lyons, NY

Chem-Trol Pollution
  Services, Inc.
P. 0. Box 200
Model City, NY

Chemical Waste Disp. Co.
42-14 19th Avenue
Astoria, NY

L&M Steel Drum
54 Van Courtland Pk. Ave.
Yonkers, NY
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
                  TYPE OF FACILITY
                  Secured Landfill
                  Metal Recovery
                  Unknown
                  Incineration
                  Landfill
Unknown
Landfill
Incineration
Metal Recovery
Secured landfill;
Incineration
Metal Recovery
Solvent Recovery
                                   D-l

-------
 APPENDIX D
 (Continued)
 Auburn Container  Co.
 Auburn,  NY

 Buffalo  Solvents
 Tonawanda,  NY

 Simon  Wrecking  Co.,  Inc.
 P.  0.  Box  1184
 2525 Trenton  Avenue
 Williamsport, PA

 Industrial  Salvage Co.
 294 Depot  Station
 St. Marys,  PA

 Prince William  Trash
  Service
 Manassas, VA

 Conservit
 Hagerstown, MD

 Maryland Metals & Residue
 Baltimore,  MD

 Rollins-Purle,  Inc.
 P.  0.  Box 2349
 Wilmington, Delaware

 Erie Disposal Co.
 1754 W. 16th Street
 Erie,  PA

 Fox Disposal
 Hagerstown, MD

Dekalb County Sanitation
  Department
Beaufort Highway
 Shambly, GA

F&J Disposal
1120 Helvetia Drive
Highland, Illinois
                                  EPA REGION
 II
 II
 III
 III
 III
III
III
III
III
III
                    TYPE OF FACILITY
 Landfill
 Solvent  Recovery
 Incineration



 Metal Recovery



 Landfill


 Metal Recovery


 Metal Recovery



 Unknown



 Landfill


 Landfill
IV
V
Landfill
Landfill
                                  D-2

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APPENDIX
(Continued)
                                 EPA REGION
TYPE OF FACILITY
Santow Brothers
3208 S. Shields
Chicago, 111.                      V

Waste Management of 111,
P. 0. Box 563
Palos Heights, 111,                V

Superior Co.
Ft. Wayne, Indiana                 V

Active Disposal
2708 South 9th Avenue
Broadview, Illinois                V

Chemical Waste Management
P. 0. Box 21F
Calumet City, Illinois             V

Roberts Sewer Service
Ottawa, Ohio                       V

Walker Metallurgical
Detroit, Michigan                  V

Newland Hauling
Ottawa, Ohio                       V

SCA Services
1726 Main Street
Kansas City, MO                    VII

Copper State Chemicals
748 E. 16th Street
Tucson, Arizona                    IX

Ken's Oil
11622 Magee Land
Garden Grove, California           IX

Baron-Blakslee
9445 Ann Street
Sante Fe Springs, California       IX

Phenix Labs
1310 W. Colling Avenue
Orange, California                 IX
Metal Recovery
Secured Landfill
Metal Recovery
Landfill
Oil Recovery
Landfill
Metal Recovery
Landfill
Landfill
Solvent Recovery
Secured Landfill
Solvent Recovery
Solvent Recovery
                                   D-3

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APPENDIX
(Continued)

                               EPA REGION

Chatham Chemicals Co.
P. 0. Box 1801
Escondido, California              IX

Nuclear Engineering Co.
Box 156
San Ramon, California              IX

Miller & Gibson
10408 Bret Avenue
Cupertino, California              IX

Oscar E. Erickson, Co.
249 Tewksbury Avenue
Richmond, California               IX

Southwest Solvents
3411  W. Buchanon
Phoenix, Arizona                   IX

Romic Chemical Corporation
2081 Bay Road
Palo Alto, California              IX

Jos Levin and Son
2225 3rd Street
San Francisco, Calif.              IX
TYPE OF FACILITY
Solvent Recovery
Secured Landfill
Secured Landfill
Unknown
Solvent Recovery
Solvent Recovery
Metal Recovery
                                                                Uol522
                                              6 U. S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE UI77--2W-848/158
                                    D-4

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