16070EFG1271
    LIMITATIONS AND EFFECTS

           OF

 WASTE DISPOSAL ON AN OCEAN SHELF
           by
 Florida Ocean Sciences Institute
     1605 S. E. Third Court
 Deerfield Beach/ Florida   33441
         for the
  Environmental Protection Agency
Demonstration Project Grant 16070 EFG
          December 1971

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                  EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Protection
Agency and approved for publication.  Approval does not
signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and
policies of the Environmental Protection Agency nor does
mention of trade names or commercial products constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.
                         ii

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                          ABSTRACT
The biological, chemical and physical oceanographic proper-ties
of the coastal waters off Pompano, Boca Raton and Delray,
Florida were investigated over a three year study to determine
the effects of marine waste disposal from the untreated out-
falls at Pompano and Delray and the planned outfall for Boca
Raton.  The macroscopic benthic communities and microbiotic
organisms of the sediment-water interface and of the free
drifting plankton were surveyed.  The number of microbiotic
organisms were consistently low in coastal waters.  Blooms
with numbers greater than 500 per ml were rare.  A pile of
sand and blackened organic material, approximately 3 feet high,
50 feet long and 30 feet wide forms beneath the outfall.  Only
one pollution resistent sludge worm can survive in this area.
The periphery of the pile, stretching 100 feet north-south and
50 feet east-west, is restrictive to the number of species
which can survive.  A large number of current cross, temperature,
salinity and current meter observation reveal that due to the
extreme narrowness of the Continental Shelf, coastal circula-
tion is dominated by the Florida Current.  Large fluctuations
in coastal currents are produced by east-west meandering of
the western edge of the Florida Current.  Current reversals
are produced by cyclonic spin-off eddies which frequently pass
through and flush the coastal waters.  These effects mask the
periodic, diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal fluctuations.  Fluoro-
metry, dye tracing techniques were used to determine the spacial
and temporal sewage field concentrations.  Prevailing onshore
winds cause the surface sewage plumes, containing high concen-
trations of coliform bacteria, to travel towards the
highly populated bathing beaches.  Treatment for bacteria kill
is recommended for all southeast Florida outfalls.  A method
for determining the percent treatment for each outfall is given.
This report was submitted in fulfillment of Demonstration
Project Grant WPD 165-01 (R-l) -67 under the sponsorship of the
Water Quality Office, Environmental Protection Agency.
                             111

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                            CONTENTS


Section                                               Page

    I      CONCLUSIONS                                  1

   II      RECOMMENDATIONS                              3

  III      INTRODUCTION                                 5

   IV      MACROSCOPIC BENTHIC  BIOLOGY                 7

    V      MICROBIOTIC ECOLOGY  OF OCEAN SEWAGE        83
           OUTFALLS IN THE  HOLLYWOOD-POMPANO
           BEACH-DELRAY BEACH AREA

   VI      OCEANOGRAPHIC  FEATURES OF NEARSHORE       105
           WATERS ON A NARROW CONTINENTAL SHELF

  VII      POMP ANO BEACH  MARINE WASTE DISPOSAL       171

 VIII      ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                            301

   IX      REFERENCES                                 303
                               v

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                           FIGURES


No.                                                     Page

  1     Study Area                                        8

  2     Boca Raton Sand Sampling Transects               10

  3     Pompano Beach Outfall Region Sand                11
           Sampling Stations

  4     Pompano Beach Outfall Terminus                   12

  5     Boca Raton - Sand Grain Analysis and             31
           Bottom Topography - Transect 1

  6     Boca Raton - Sand Grain Analysis and             32
           Bottom Topography - Transect 2

  7     Boca Raton - Sand Grain Analysis and             33
           Bottom Topography - Transect 3

  8     Pompano Beach - Sand Grain Analysis and          34
           Bottom Topography - Outfall Region

  9     Boca Raton - Sand Sampling - Transect 1          60

 10     Boca Raton - Sand Sampling - Transect 2          61

 11     Boca Raton - Sand Sampling - Transect 3          62

 12     Pompano Beach - Sand Sampling - Outfall Region   63

 13     Boca Raton - Sand Sampling - Transect 3          64

 14     Pompano Beach - Sand Sampling - Outfall Region   65

 15     Pompano Beach - Outfall Pile and                 71
           Periphery Fluctuations

 16     Pompano Beach Outfall Region Polychaete          73
           Distribution

 17     Pompano Beach Outfall Region Arthropoda          74
           Distribution

 18     Pompano Beach Outfall Region Amphioxus,          75
           Mollusk, and Bryozoa Distributions

 19     Boca Raton - Sand Sampling - Transect 3          77

 20     Pompano Beach - Sand Sampling - Outfall Region   78
                               VI

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FIGURES                                             continued



No.                                                     Page



 21     Boca Raton and Pompano Beach Sand Sampling       80



 22     Study Area                                      106



 23     Boca Raton Study Area                           108



 24     Pompano Study Area                              109



 25     Pompano Temperature Profile - April 11, 1969    111



 26     Pompano Temperature Profile - May 5, 1969       112



 27     Pompano Temperature Profile - June 24, 1969     113



 28     Pompano Salinity Profile - June 24, 1969        114



 29     Pompano Temperature Profile - June 25, 1969     115



 30     Pompano Salinity Profile - June 25, 1969        116




 31     Pompano Temperature Profile - July 7,  1969      117



 32     Pompano Salinity Profile - July 7, 1969         118



 33     Pompano Temperature Profile - July 8,  1969      119



 34     Pompano Salinity Profile - July 8, 1969         120



 35     Pompano Temperature Profile - July 9,  1969      121



 36     Pompano Salinity Profile - July 9, 1969         122



 37     Pompano Temperature Profile - August 19, 1969   123



 38     Pompano Salinity Profile - August 19,  1969      124



 39     Pompano Temperature Profile - Sept. 11, 1969    125



 40     Pompano Salinity Profile - Sept. 11, 1969       126



 41     Pompano Temperature Profile - Nov. 21, 1969     127



 42     Pompano Temperature Profile - Jan. 16, 1970     128



 43     Pompano Salinity Profile - Jan. 16, 1970        129



 44     Pompano Temperature Profile - Jan. 27, 1970     130



 45     Pompano Salinity Profile - Jan. 27, 1970        131
                               VI1

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FIGURES                                             continued

No.                                                     Page

45A     Hillsboro Inlet Tidal Plume                     138

 46     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #2         141
           (Dec. 6, 1968 - Jan. 6,  1969}

 47     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #1         142
           (Dec. 6, 1968 - Jan. 6,  1969)

 48     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #3         143
           (Jan. 20, 1969 - Jan. 31,  1969)

 49     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #2         144
           (Feb. 26, 1969 - Mar. 27,  1969)

 50     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #1         145
           (Mar. 27, 1969 - Apr. 11,  1969)

 51     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #2         146
           (May 16, 1969 - June 2,  1969)

 52     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #2         147
           (June 13, 1969 - July 2, 1969)

 53     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #2         148
           (July 8, 1969 - July 24, 1969)

 54     Boca Raton Study Area,  Current Meter #2         149
           (July 25, 1969 - August 11, 1969)

 55     u and v Components of Actual Current            152

 56     v Component:  Actual ,  Tidal, Residual          158

56A     Northward Migration of a Florida Current Eddy   162

 57     Time versus v - Component                       166

 58     Location of Ocean Outfalls (SE Florida)         172

 59     Effluent Discharge from the Pompano Outfall     174

 60     Pompano Beach Outfall Terminus                  177

 61     Streamline Model of Outfall Plume               184

 62     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation 188

 63     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       189

 64     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation 190
                               VI11

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FIGURES                                             continued




No.                                                     Page



 65     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       191



 66     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  192



 67     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       193



 68     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  194



 69     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       195



 70     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  196



 71     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       197



 72     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  198



 73     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       199



 74     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  200



 75     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       201



 76     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  202



 77     Distance versus Sample Fit Standard Deviation   203



 78     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  204




 79     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       205



 80     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  206



 81     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       207



 82     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  208



 83     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       209



 84     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  210



 85     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       211



 86     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  212



 87     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       213



 88     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  214



 89     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       215



 90     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation  216
                               IX

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FIGURES                                             continued

No.a.                                                     Page

 91     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       217

 92     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation 218

 93     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       219

 94     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation 220

 95     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       221

 96     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Standard Deviation 222

 97     Distance versus Sample Standard Deviation       223

 98     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              226
           Dilution x 1000

 99     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    227

100     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              228
           Dilution x 1000

101     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    229

102     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              230
           Dilution x 1000

103     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    231

104     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              232
           Dilution x 1000

105     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    233

106     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              234
           Dilution x 1000

107     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    235

108     Distance versus GJaussian Fit Total              236
           Dilution x 1000

109     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    237

110     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              238
           Dilution x 1000

111     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    239

112     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              240
           Dilution x 1000

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FIGURES                                             continued
113     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    241

114     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              242
           Dilution x 1000

115     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    243

116     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              244
           Dilution x 1000

117     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    245

118     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              246
           Dilution x 1000

119     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    247

120     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              248
           Dilution x 1000

121     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    249

122     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              250
           Dilution x 1000

123     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    251

124     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              252
           Dilution x 1000

125     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    253

126     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              254
           Dilution x 1000

127     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    255

128     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              256
           Dilution x 1000

129     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    257

130     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              258
           Dilution x 1000

131     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    259

132     Distance versus Gaussian Fit Total              260
           Dilution x 1000

133     Distance versus Sample Total Dilution x 1000    261
                               XI

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FIGURES                                             continued

No.                                                     Page

134-    Dilution Contours of 1000 T.C./100 ml           265-
149                                                     281

150     Surfacing of Outfall Discharge                  284

151     Distance versus Total Dilution                  285
                               XII

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                       TABLES


No.                                                   Page

 1       Sand Sampling Field Notes - Boca Raton         13
            Transect #1

 2       Sand Sampling Field Notes - Transect #2        17

 3       Sand Sampling Field Notes - Transect #3        21

 4       Pompano Beach Outfall Region - Sand            26
            Analysis and Field Notes

 5       Boca Raton Sand Analysis - Specimen            36
            Index by Station - Transect 3

 6       Pompano Beach Outfall Region - Specimen        46
            Index by Station

 7       Boca Raton Sand Sampling - Species List        53

 8       Pompano Beach Outfall Region -                 57
            Species List

 9       Boca Raton - Species Distribution              68

10       Species of microscopic algae and protozoa      86
            recorded from 181 samples representing
            four environmental niches in the Boca
            Raton area from 1967 to 1969.

11       Resultant Winds                               134

12       Drift Card Releases                           135

13       Current Meter Data Statistics - v Component   150
            (knots)

14       Principle Harmonic Components of the Tide     154

15       v - Component (north-south)                   155

16       u - Component (east-west)                     156

17       Tidal Fluctuations:  v - Component            160

18       Tidal Fluctuations:  u - Component            161

19       Ocean Outfalls on the Southeastern            173
            Florida Coast

20       Monthly Averages of Pompano Outfall           175
            Discharge Rate
                             Xlll

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TABLES                                           continued

No_«_                                                  Page

21    Fluorometer Calibration                         179

22    Fluorometry Experiments                         180

23    Power of Plume Spread                           224

24    Total Dilution -vs- Distance: 97% confidence    287

25    Plant Dilution and Percent Treatment            292
         No Die-Off

26    Plant Dilution and Percent Treatment            293
         Winter Die-Off

27    Plant Dilution and Percent Treatment            294
         Summer Die-Off
                               xiv

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                         SECTION I

                        CONCLUSIONS
The following statements are a summary of the conclusions
reached in each section of this report.  For more detailed
information one is referred to the conclusion segment and
body of each section of this document:

1.  Zonation and species diversity of benthic organisms
perpendicular to shore are due primarily to bottom stability,
which is controlled by the north-south configuration of the
main reef 1 to 1.5 nautical miles offshore of the main reef,
in approximately 60 feet of water.

2.  The Pompano outfall region consists of three zones:

    (1) Polluted:  A pile of sand and blackened organic
        material, approximately 3 feet high, 50 feet
        long and 30 feet wide which forms beneath the
        outfall.  Only one pollution resistent sludge worm
        can survive in this area.

    (2) Tolerant:  The periphery of the polluted zones,
        stretching 100 feet north-south and 50 feet east-
        west from the outfall and is restrictive to the
        number of species which can survive.

    (3) Unaffected:  The area outside the periphery
        which does not inhibit benthic communities.

3.  The number of planktonic organisms were consistently
low in the coastal water near Pompano and Delray outfalls.
No noticeable fertilization effects were found.  Planktonic
blooms with numbers greater than 500 per ml were rare.

4.  Due to the extreme narrowness of the Continental Shelf
(1 to 1.5 nautical miles), coastal circulation and exchange
processes are dominated by the Florida current.

5.  Large fluctuations in speed and direction of coastal
currents are produced by east-west meandering of the western
edge of the Florida current.

6.  Resultant currents are predominately in the north-south
direction with north currents occuring approximately 60% of
the time and south currents 30%.

7.  Current reversals are produced by cyclonic eddies which
spin off the Florida current and travel northward through th©
coastal waters.
                              1

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8.  Periodic diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal currents are
found to be of equal magnitude and are dominated by
fluctuations of the Florida current.

y.  Spin-off eddies behave as major flushing mechanisms for
the coastal waters.

10.  The residence time of coastal water is estimated from
the number and duration of spin-off eddies to be on the order
of one week.

11.  Shelf water is strongly stratified in late spring and
early summer.  The combination of stable stratification and
strong currents can mix discharged waste below the surface
preventing the effluent from surfacing.

12.  During the remainder of the year the effluent will rise
to the surface forming a "boil" and then move horizontally
with the resultant surface current forming a "plume".

13.  Ocean outfalls along southeast Florida do not discharge
"into the Gulfstream" but rather into a narrow strip of
coastal water which is directly under the influence of
the Gulfstream.

14.  The predominance of onshore winds produces a shoreward
component in the resultant surface currents.  This causes
the outfall plume to travel at some angle toward shore,
depending upon the relative strength of the wind and the
longshore velocities induced by the Florida currents.

15.  Disinfection of sewage effluents/ untreated or treated,
must be accomplished for all southeast Florida outfalls.
Equations and a table summary for bacteriological kill is
given in the body of the report for determining the percent-
age destruction of total coliforms needed for each outfall
dischcirging at the ninety (90) foot isobath.  During the
period December 1 through April 30, the combination of low
wetter temperature causing higher bacterial survival time,
and prevailing on-shore winds; there may occur an intersectio
of bacteriological concentrations in excess of 1000 total
coliforms per 100 ml with the surf waters of our bathing
beaches.

It is therefore necessary that the bacteriological kill
requirements be required by regulatory agencies, with
corresponding adequacy of design and operation of dis-
infection equipment.

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                         SECTION II

                       RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings of this study, which is centered around
the Pompano ocean outfall, it is recommended that all sewage
effluent being discharged into the coastal waters of south-
east Florida be treated in the plant for coliform removal.
This will require the engineer to re-evaluate current chlor-
ination practices which merely control odor, and to develop
new methods which will lead to effective bacterial destruction.

The results of this study show clearly that we are only
beginning to understand the southeast Florida coastal exchange
processes.  A broader study is needed that can cover the
coastal strip from Key Largo to Cape Kennedy.  A network of
oceanographic sensors should be deployed that can monitor such
events as Florida Current meandering and the passage of spin-
off eddies.  A systematic sampling program as routine surveillance
should be initiated to track the spatial movements of sewage
effluent from all of southeast Florida's outfalls.  A low budget
agency surveillance program should include tracking the down-
stream plume with dye, and collection of samples within the
plume monitored for total coliforms, phosphate,  and other
constituents as may be required.  Samples for planktonic
determinations should be taken in conjunction with the effluent
tracking.  Predictive hydrodynamic and convective modeling
techniques should be applied to this region in order to under-
stand the dynamics of coastal circulation and exchange processes.

This study was based on discharge of untreated effluents to
the ninety (90) foot isobath.  Discharge of untreated effluents
into outfalls extending into deeper water, particularly beneath
the semi-permanent pycnocline region, should be considered as
an additional safety factor.

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                        SECTION III

                       INTRODUCTION
         "In Kohln, a town of monks and bones,
         And pavements fang'd with murderous stones
         And rags, and hags, and hideous wenches;
         I counted two and seventy stenches
         All well defined, and several stinksI
         Ye Nymphs that reign o'er sewers and sinks.
         The river Rhine, it is well known,
         Doth wash you city of Cologne;
         But tell me, Nymphs, what power divine
         Shall henceforth wash the river Rhine?"
                           (Samuel Taylor Coleridge)


Even in the latter part of the 18th Century the problem of
sewage waste disposal pricked man's social conscience.
Engineers have devised many alternates to both the pretreat-
ment of waste and the movement of the treated effluent to
its inevitable resting place, the sea.  One such alternative
has been the direct discharge of waste via ocean outfall
systems which, where feasible, offers definite economic
advantages by eliminating various pretreatment stages and
affording less hazard to the fresh waters carrying the treated
effluent to its ultimate disposal point.  The purpose of this
project has been to determine the effects and limitations of
sewage waste disposal via ocean outfall systems along Florida's
lower east coast.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES

Oceanographic features of the near shore circulation were
determined using the following methods:  horizontal and ver-
tical arrays of current meters and thermistors covering the
study area from Pompano to Delray, Florida; and field surveys
of temperature, salinity and currents.  The data was analyzed
manually and on the Florida Atlantic University computer to
show the resulting spatial and temporal variations of velocity,
temperature and salinity.  The objective of the analysis of
the oceanographic data was to determine the cause and effect
relationships of the observed parameters and the significance
of the resulting near shore features to ocean outfall disposal.

Disperions model studies were conducted with emphasis on the
determination of concentration as a function of position and
time.  The objective of these dispersion measurements and
models was to develop an understanding of the following:  boil
formation and dilution (initial dilution in the bouyant plume
to establish concentration, c(t), and occurrence of a surface
boil as a function of cross current and density stratification);

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effluent plume shape and direction (down current transport
and dispersion)  to establish c(x,t)  and trajectory as a
function of current speed and direction and density strati-
fication; and the behavior of the concentration maximum as a
function of down-stream distance.  This latter will be
accomplished by a continuous fluorometer measurement of dye
concentration, and analysis of these measurements by appli-
cation of both diffusion and stream flow models.

To then determine what effect, if any, ocean outfalls have
on the surrounding benthic community, the following were done:
organisms in the area of Boca Raton prior to outfall injection,
and beneath the existing outfalls, were identified and keyed
for pollution indicators; nutrient concentrations and organic
content of core samples beneath the outfalls were determined;
and sediment-water interface studies, plankton determinations,
and an analysis of settleable solids beneath the outfalls
were conducted.

Bacteriological samples from the fluorometer outlet at peak
dye readings in the boil and downstream plume, plus samples
from the sewage lift stations  were collected for the purpose
of making total and fecal coliform counts (using the "standard
methods" MPN technique, and the parallel membrane filter-fecal
coliform (M-FC)  method according to the "Brezenski techniques".)
Additionally, the results from the dye studies,, i.e., c(x,t),
were compared to the bacteriological data.

The final objective of this study has been to interpret the
near shore circulation features, dispersion model studies,
constituents of the benthic community, and bacteriological
concentrations in terms of state water quality standards.

The data collected during this study is being retained by
either Florida Ocean Sciences Institute or the individual
investigator responsible for the analysis.  The observations
are in many different forms:  raw data (i.e., strip charts,
log books and collected specimens;)  first phase analysis such
as spatial and temporal charts, plots and tables; and second
phase analysis which consists of computer cards and printouts.
Anyone interested in obtaining data or other information
concerning this study should write to Science Coordinator
Florida Ocean Sciences Institute.

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                          SECTION IV

                  MACROSCOPIC BENTHIC BIOLOGY
PURPOSE OF STUDY

The macroscopic biology portion of this three-year study
conducted for the Federal Water Pollution Control Admin-
istration was originally designed as a before and after
survey of the reef in the vicinity of the future sewage
outfall at Boca Raton, Florida.  The reef survey was con-
sidered to be quantitatively and qualitatively inaccurate
because of the difficulties in obtaining equal size sam-
ples, processing the rock material, and mutilation of the
specimens -which made identification difficult.  In lieu of
the reef survey, a sand survey was initiated as the sam-
pling was relatively easy, processing was less difficult,
and specimens were collected in good condition, yielding
accurate and meaningful data.

The Boca Raton sand sampling program was initiated during
the second year of the grant as a before and after survey
of the area of possible influence from deposition of waste
material from the Boca Raton outfall.  In the latter part
of the third year it became evident that the outfall con-
struction would not be completed and the after portion of
the survey could not be performed.  In order to formulate
some comparative conclusions from our studies, a sand sam-
pling program was initiated in the area of the active Pom-
pano Beach sewage outfall.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of
sewage, discharged from an ocean outfall,  on macroscopic
marine life.  The Pompano Beach outfall site was selected
because it was geographically the nearest active outfall to
Boca Raton and, consequently,  would have similar physical
oceanographic parameters and biota.

The purpose of this report is to show the difference be-
tween the macroscopic, benthic biota of two areas—Boca
Raton which is relatively unaffected by outfalls, and Pom-
pano Beach which has been subjected to the effects of sewage
discharge for the past five and one-half years.  These areas
are shown in Figure 1.
PROCEDURES

STATION DETERMINATION

The general area selected at Boca Raton lies north and in-
shore of the future outfall site.

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co
                                Figure 1
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This is the area most likely to be influenced by effluent
due to the predominant northerly currents, approximately
sixty percent of the time.

The sampling stations at Boca Raton were plotted on a chart
at three hundred foot intervals on east-west transects
•which extended to a distance of six thousand feet offshore
(see Figure 2).  Surveyor's transits located on fixed shore
positions -were used to position a boat over the sampling
station.  Citizen band radios were used for communication,
and when the boat was in position, an anchored buoy was
released.  The sand sampling location was arbitrarily set at
one foot south of the anchor or the nearest sand pocket,
if the anchor was on a reef.

The Pompano Beach outfall region sand sampling stations were
determined by scuba divers  (see Figure 3).  The "outfall
pile" stations were located on top of the sludge pile
accumulation below the end of the pipe (see Figure 4).  The
"outfall periphery" stations were located in the sand just
beyond the pile and in front of the pipe.  The fifty and one
hundred foot stations located on the compass points were de-
termined by placing a stake, with a line attached, at the
end of the pipe and swimming a compass course to the length
of the line.
SAMPLING METHODS

All samples were taken by a diver-biologist with a scoop and
a 3100 ml container.  The container was filled with bottom
material from the same point to an approximate depth of five
inches.  On occasion, this was not possible due to the thin
layer of sand covering the hard rock or an insufficient
amount of material in the sand pocket.  When conditions did
not permit the normal sampling technique, rather than de-
lete the station, the quantity of material was obtained by
using a larger surface area, and a note was made of the sam-
pling technique variation.  The 3100 ml container was emp-
tied underwater by inverting it inside a plastic bag.  Thus,
the sample was brought to the surface without any loss of ma-
terial.  The plastic bag also contained water which helped
keep the organisms alive.  Rose bengal stain was added to
the sample and assimilated by the organisms, turning them
pink.  Their color and movement aided in locating them dur-
ing processing.  The color was also helpful during iden-
tification, as it made anatomical features more discernible.

The topographical features of the area,  bottom composition,
proximity of the station to the reef and rock outcroppings,
etc., were noted.  The presence and predominance of any sur-
rounding fauna and flora were also noted.  Depth of the sam-
pling station was determined from a depth gage.  This data
is given in Tables 1, 2,  3,  and 4.

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                                                  Figure 2
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                                     Figure 3
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SAMPLE PROCESSING

All samples were processed -within four to six hours after
being taken.  The material -was sieved with ocean water,
using 1/2", 1/4" and 1/12" sieves.  The material retained
by each sieve was examined, the specimens were removed and
preserved in 70% alcohol.
IDENTIFICATION

Identification of specimens beyond the basic classification
of phylum and class was difficult at times, due to the scar-
city of biological keys for this area.  Frequently, keys
that are applicable are out of date or out of print.

The organisms were separated to species, and classification
carried as far as possible.  The polychaetes were the most
numerous organisms.  Mr. Jack Taylor, Aquatic Biologist with
the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, St. Petersburg
Beach, Florida, classified them to the family level, and a
few to species.  This was rapidly accomplished on short no-
tice.  Time permitted only the separation and classification
of the organisms of transect three at Boca Raton and the
outfall region at Pompano Beach.  The organisms of transects
one and two at Boca Raton were classified only to phylum or
class.

With the exception of the stations on transect c>ne at Boca
Raton, all samples were analyzed for particle size, see Ta-
bles 2, 3, and 4, and Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8.  The amount of
material  (sand, shell fragments, coral debris, etc.) re-
tained by each sieve was volumetrically determined by liq-
uid displacement.  This is not an accurate geological meth-
od and the results were meant only for comparison with the
biological data.
RESULTS

The data obtained is presented in concise chart, table, or
graph form in order to simplify analysis and present a com-
pact report.  The following terms are used in the field notes
and graphs and require definition:

     Coarse rubble slope - The area lying seaward of the
          main reef and adjacent patch reefs.  The bottom
          consists of large shell fragments, coral debris,
          sand, and sometimes Halimeda plates.  The bottom
          has the appearance of being flat, but has a sea-
          ward decline.
                               30

-------
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-------
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      "Dusty" - A fine covering lying  in the troughs of the
           sand ripples.

      Fine  Sand - Sand with approximately 95% or greater of
           the sample material smaller than 1/12  (2mm).

     Open Sand - An area where there  is no geological fea-
          tures such as reef or rock  in the immediate vi-
          cinity.

     Patch reef - Small isolated reef.

The species lists and specimen indices by station for Boca
Raton and Pompano Beach (Tables 5, 6,  7,  and 8) are di-
vided into major groups such as Polychaeta,  Mollusca,
Arthropoda, etc.  The specimens are listed as follows:

     Polychaeta

          15 - Opheliidae - Armandia  aqilis
          Explanation:  15 specimens  of Amandia aqilis
          from the family Opheliidae  were found in the
          sample.

     Polychaeta

          1 - Capitellidae - sp A
          Explanation:  One unidentified specimen from the
          family Capitellidae was found and given a species
          title of A to differentiate between it and other
          unidentified species of that family.

     Anthropoda

          Amphipoda

          1 - unidentified sp E
          Explanation:  One specimen  of an unidentified
          Amphipod was found and given a species title of
          E to differentiate between  it and other
          unidentified Amphipoda.

The graphs of specimen number and specie number for the Boca
Raton transect and Pompano Beach outfall area  (Figures 9,
10, 11, 12, 13,  and 14)  represent only the groups of orga-
nisms which are found frequently or in considerable num-
bers.  Several small groups such as Echiurida and Sipuncul-
ida are not graphed individually, but are considered in the
total tabulations.
                              35

-------
                           Table 5


                  BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

           Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3
Station 1/2 - 10'* - This station was located approximately
       half way between station 1 and the beach, (see page
       for explanation) .

       Polychaeta
         15 Opheliidae -  Armandia agilis

       Mollusca
         Gastropoda
           53 - Veneridae - Tivela f loridana
            1 - Olividae  - Oliva sp

Station 1 - 20 ' * - 300 ' from shore

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - unidentified sp E

       Mollusca
         Gastropod
           1 - Olividae - Oliva sp

Station 2 - 16'* - 600' from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Opheliidae sp A

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           2 - Haustoriidae sp A

       Mollusca
         Gastropoda
           1 - Veneridae - T^ivela. f loridana
Station 3 - 25'* - 900' from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Opheliidae - Armandia agilis
         2 - Opheliidae - Amraotrypane aulogaster

*Water depth
                           36

-------
                            Table 5


                  BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

      Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3 (continued)
       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           2 - Haustoriidae sp A
           2 - Unidentified sp A

       Chordata
         subphyla Cephlachordata
           1 - Amphioxus

Station 4 - 30'* - 1200' from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Opheliidae - Ammotrypane aulogaster

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           4 - Lysianassidae sp A

Station 5 - 30'* - 1500' from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Capitellidae sp A
         1 - Opheliidae - Armandia agilis

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           2 - Lysianassidae sp A

       Mollusca
         Pelecypoda
           1 - Cardiidae - Car di urn sp A
           1 - Veneridae - Pitar fulminata

Station 6 - 36'* - 1600' from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Opheliidae - Ammotrypane aulogaster
         1 - Opheliidae - Armandia agilis
*Water depth
                          37

-------
                            Table 5


                 BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

     Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3 (continued)
       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - Haustoriidae sp A

       Mollusca
         Pelecypoda
           1 - Cardiidae - Cardium sp A
           1 - Cardiidae - Cardium sp B

       Chordata
         Cephlachor data
           1 - Amphioxus

Station 7 - 42'* - 2100' from shore

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - Lysianassidae sp A
           1 - Unidentified sp C

       Decapoda
         1 - Unidentified crab sp A

       Mollusca
         Pelecypoda
           2 - Cardiidae - Cardium sp A
           4 - Veneridae - Pitar fulminata

       Nemertina
         1 - Unidentified sp A

Station 8 - 47'* - 2400' from shore - Laboratory accident
       The lid was cracked and sample dried up, allowing
       only basic identification.

       Polychaeta
         2 - Unidentified sp A

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - Unidentified sp D
*Water depth
                         38

-------
                            Table 5


                  BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

      Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3 (continued)
       Decapoda
         1 - Unidentified shrimp sp B (lab accident)

       Chordata
         Cephlachordata
           1 - Amphioxus

       Bryozoa
         5 - Unidentified sp A

Station 9 - 52'* - 2700' from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Arabellidae sp A
         1 - Capitellidae sp A
         1 - Orbiniidae sp A
         3 - Sabellidae sp A
         2 - Sabellidae sp B
         1 - Spionidae sp A
         1 - Spionidae sp B
         5 - Terebellidae sp A
         1 - Unidentified sp B

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           2 - Ampeliscidae - Ampelisca spinipes
           1 - Lysianassidae sp A

       Decapoda
         1 - Albuneidae - Albunea qibbsi

       Mollusca
         Pelecypoda
           3 - Cardiidae - Cardium sp A

       Bryozoa
         38 - Unidentified sp A
         62 - Unidentified sp B

Station 10 - 58'* - 3000' from shore
*Water depth
                          39

-------
                            Table 5


                  BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

      Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3 (continued)
       Polychaeta
         1 - Arabellidae sp A
         1 - Lumbrineridae sp A
         1 - Ophellidae - Ammotrypane aulogaster

       Arthropoda
         ATiphipoda
           2 - Ampeliscidae sp A
           2 - Ampeliscidae - Ampelisca spinipes
           2 - Lysianassidae sp A

       Mollusca
         Gastropoda
           1 - Unidentified sp A

       Pelecypoda
         1 - Cardiidae - Cardium sp A
         1 - Veneridae - Pitar fulminata

       Chordata
         Cephla chor da ta
           2 - Amphioxus

       Bryozoa
         60 - Unidentified sp A
          5 - Unidentified sp B

Station 11 - 75'* - 3300' from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Capitellidae sp B
         1 - Lumbrineridae sp A
         2 - Nereidae sp A
         1 - Orbiniidae sp B
         1 - Phyllodocidae - Phyllodoce catenula

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           2 - Ampeliscidae - Ampelisca spinipes
           2 - Ampeliscidae sp A


*Water depth

-------
                            Table 5


                  BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

      Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3 (continued)
       Mollusca
         Pelecypoda
           5 - Cardiidae - Cardium sp A
           1 - Venerida - Tivela floridana

       Bryozoa
         13 - Unidentified sp A
         36 - Unidentified sp B

       Sipunculida
         1 - Unidentified sp A

Station 12 - 80'* - 3600' from shore

       Polychaeta
         2 - Glyceridae - Glycera sp
         2 - Maldanidae - Clymenella zonalie

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - Podoceriidae sp A
           1 - Unidentified sp F

       Decepoda
         1 - Unidentified shrimp sp C

       Mollusca
         Pelecypoda
           3 - Veneridae - Pitar fulminata
           1 - Veneridae - Dosina elegans

       Bryozoa
         14 - Unidentified sp B

Station 13 - 77'* - 3900' from shore

       Arthropoda
         Decapoda
           1 - Inachidae sp A
*Water depth

-------
                            Table 5


                 BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

     Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3 (continued)
       MollUSC£i
         Pelecypoda
           1 - Cardiidae - Cardiurn sp A
           1 - Lucinidae - Lucina leucocyma
           1 - Lucinidae - Phacoides nassula
           2 - Veneridae - Dosina elegans

       Echinodermata
         1 - Ophiuroidea sp A

       Bryozoa
         1 - Unidentified sp A
         3 - Unidentified sp B

Station 14 - 70'* - 4200'  from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Capitellidae sp A
         1 - Lumbrineridae sp A
         1 - Sabellidae sp A
         1 - Sabellidae sp C

Station 15 - 65'* - 4500'  from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Polynoidae sp A
         2 - Sabellidae sp B
         1 - Unidentified sp C

       Arthropoda
         Decapoda
           I - Calappidae sp A
           1 - Unidentified shrimp sp D

       Moll usca
         Pelecypoda
           1 - Tellinidae - Tellina sp

       Echinodermata
         1 - Ophiuroidea sp B
*Water depth
                          42

-------
                           Table 5
                BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

    Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3 (continued)
       Chordat.a
         Cephlachordata
           1 - Amphioxus

Station 16 - 80'* - 4800'  from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Capitellidae sp B
         1 - Lumbrineridae sp A
         1 - Onuphidae sp A

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - Ampeliscidae - Ampelisca spinipes

       Chordata
         Cephlachordata
           3 - Amphioxus

       Bryozoa
         1 - Unidentified sp C

Station 17 - 98'* - 5100'  from shore

       Polychaeta
         1 - Glyceridae sp A
         2 - Lumbrineridae sp B
         2 - Maldanidae - Clymenella zonalie
         1 - Sabellidae sp D
         1 - Spionidae sp C

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - Ampeliscidae - Ampelisca spinipes

       Echinodermata
         Echinoidea
           1 - Clypeasteridae - Clypeaster rosaceus
         Ophiuroidea
           1 - Unidentified sp C
*Water depth

-------
                           Table 5


                BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

    Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3 (continued)
       Chordata
         Cephlachordata
           I - Amphioxus

       Bryozoa
         1 - Unidentified sp D

       Decopoda
         1 - Unidentified shrimp sp E

       Echinodermata
         Echinoidea
           1 - Clypeastridae - Clypeaster rosaceus
         Ophiuroidea
           1 - Unidentified sp D

       Chordata
         Urochordata
           Ascidiacea
             1 - Unidentified sp A

Station 20 - 100'* - 6000'  from shore

       Polychaeta
         2 - Capitellidae sp A
         1 - Eunicidae - Eunice rubra
         1 - Lumbrineridae - sp A
         1 - Nereidae sp B
         1 - Sabellidae sp A
         1 - Sabellidae sp B
         1 - Syllidae - Haj
         1 - Syllidae sp A

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           4 - Ampeliscidae - Ampelisca spinipes
           5 -- Ampeliscidae sp A
           5 - Podoceridae sp B
           1 - Unidentified sp C
           1 - Unidentified sp G
- Sabellidae sp B
- Syllidae - Haplosyllis spongicola
- ,Svl 1 i dae sn A
*Water depth

-------
                          Table 5


               BOCA RATON SAND ANALYSIS

    Specimen Index by Station - Transect 3  (continued)
       Decapoda
         1 - Unidentified shrimp sp F

       Echinodermata
         Ophiuroidea
           1 - Unidentified sp E

       Miscellaneous
         2 - Unidentified worm
*Water depth

-------
                         Table 6


               POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

                 Specimen Index by Station
100'  north of outfall - 11/11/69 - 92'  -  The sample was
       taken in a patch reef area.  The sand was tan and
       contained a few black particles  which constitute
       the pile at the outfall.

       Polychaeta
         1 - Amphinomidae sp A
         1 - Capitellidae sp A
         2 - Capitellidae Notomastus sp*
         1 - Cirratulidae sp B
         2 - Onuphidae sp A*

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - Ampeliscidae Ampelisca spinipes
           2 - Ampeliscidae sp A
           1 - Podoceridae sp A*
           3 - Unidentified sp A

       Mollusca
         Pelecypoda
           1 - Solemyacidae - Solemya occidentalis

       Echinodermata
         Ophiuroidea
           1 - Unidentified sp A
           1 - Unidentified sp B

50'  north of outfall - 1/22/70 - 91' -   The sample was
       taken in a patch reef area and the tan sand
       contained more of the black particles that consti-
       tute the outfall pile.

       Polychaeta
         3 - Amphinomidae sp B
         2 - Arabellidae sp A*
         1 - Dorvilleidae sp A
         2 - Glyceridae sp A
         6 - Onuphidae sp A*
         1 - Sabellidae sp A*
         4 - Spionidae sp A
         2 - Syllidae Haplosyllis sponqicola


*species was found also at Boca Raton

-------
                        Table 6


              POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

          Specimen Index by Station (continued)


       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           11 - Unidentified sp A
            1 - Unidentified sp B
            1 - Caprellidae sp A

       Mollusca
         1 - Cardiidae Cardiurn sp

       Chordata
         Cephlachordata
           2 - Amphioxus

       Echinodermata
         1 - Holothuroidea sp A

       Nemertina
         4 - Unidentified sp A
         2 - Unidentified sp B
         5 - Unidentified sp C

       Sipunculida
         1 - Unidentified sp A

       Bryozoa
         1 - Unidentified sp A

Outfall Periphery - 1/22/70 - 90'  -  The sample was taken
       just beyond the outfall pile and right in front of
       the pipe.  The sand was dark gray and contained some
       black particles that constitute the outfall pile.

       Polychaeta
         4 - Amphinomidae sp A
         1 - Amphinomidae sp C
         1 - Arabellidae sp A*
         1 - Cirratulidae sp A
         1 - Glyceridae sp B
         1 - Nereidae Neanthes spp
        17 - Spionidae sp A
         2 - Spionidae sp B
*species was also found at Boca Raton

-------
                         Table 6


               POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

           Specimen Index by Station (continued)


       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           15 - Unidentified sp A
            1 - Caprellidae sp A

       Copepoda
         2 - Harpacticoida sp A

       Malacostraca
         1 - Cumacea - Bodotriidae

       Chordata
         Cephtochordata
           4 - Amphioxus

       Nemertina
         6 - Unidentified sp A
         1 - Unidentified sp B
        12 - Unidentified sp C

Outfall Pile - 1/22/70 - 88'  -  The sample was taken in the
       pile built up at the end of the 30 inch effluent
       pipe, see figure 4.  All material was black., greasy,
       and gave off a strong hydrogen sulfide odor.  The
       sample contained one femoral chicken bone, several
       small pieces of metal, and numerous citrus seeds.

       Polychaeta
        10 - Capitellidae Capitella capitata
        22 - Nereidae Neanthes succinea and N. arenac-
             codentata mixed

       Arthropods
         1 - Nebaliacea

Outfall Pile - 2/16/70 - 88'  -  The sample was taken in the
       same location as in Outfall Pile - 1/22/70.  The sam-
       ple material was black, greasy,  and gave off a hydro-
       gen sulfide odor.  It contained citrus seed and sev-
       eral pieces of aluminum foil.
*species was also found at Boca Raton

-------
                        Table 6


               POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

          Specimen Index by Station  (continued)
       Polychaeta
         5 - Capitellidae Capitella capitata
         1 - Nereidae Neanthes spp. mixed

       Arthropoda
         Copepoda
           1 - Harpacticoida sp B

Outfall periphery - 11/11/69 - 90'  -  The sample was taken in
       the sand at the edge of the pile.  The sand1s con-
       sistancy was somewhat black and greasy and gave off a
       hydrogen sulfide odor.

       Polychaeta
         2 - Arabellidae sp B
         1 - Capitellidae Notomastus sp*
         1 - Capitellidae sp B
         1 - Sabellidae sp A*

       Mollusca
         Gastropoda
           1 - Olividae Oliva sayana
           1 - Nassariidae Nassarius albus (arubiquus)

       Chordata
         Cephlachordata
           1 - Amphoixus

Outfall Periphery - 1/14/70 - 90'  -  The sample was taken in
       the same location as the previous periphery samples.
       The sample characteristics were similar to those of
       other periphery samples.

       Polychaeta

         1 - Ampharetidae sp A
         1 - Amphinomidae sp D
         1 - Arabellidae sp C*
         1 - Capitellidae Notomastus sp*
         1 - Lumbrineridae sp A*
         1 - Onuphidae sp B
         4 - Onuphidae sp A
         4 - Spionidae sp A

*species was also found at Boca Raton

-------
                        Table 6


               POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

          Specimen Index by Station (continued)
       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           2 - Aoridae sp A
           4 - Aoridae sp B
           3 - Unidentified sp C

       Decapoda
         I - Dromiidae sp A

       Mollusca
         Gastropoda
           1 - Nassariidae Nassarius albus (ambiquus)

       Chordata
         Cephlachordata
           1 ~ Amphioxus

       Echinodermata
         1 - Echinoidea sp A

       Sipunculida
         1 - Unidentified sp B

       Chaetognatha

         1 - Unidentified sp A

       Misc.
         4 - Unidentified worm

100'  south of outfall - 11/11/69 - 89'  -  The sand sample
       taken in a patch reef area was tan and contained a
       few black particles of which the outfall pile is
       composed.

       Polychaeta
         1 - Sigalionidae sp A
         1 - Spionidae sp A
         1 - Fragment

       Mollusca
         Gastropoda
           1 - Nassariidae Nassarius albus (ambiquus)

*species was also found at Boca Raton
                          50

-------
                       Table 6


              POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

         Specimen Index by Station (continued)
       Sipunculida
         2 - Unidentified sp C

       Bryozoa
         6 - Unidentified sp A*

100'  east of outfall - 11/11/69 - 95'  -  The sand sample
       obtained in a patch reef area was composed of tan
       sand and a few black particles of which the outfall
       pile is composed.

       Polychaeta
         1 - Sabellidae sp A*
         1 - Terebellidae sp A

       Arthropoda
         Amphipoda
           1 - Aoridae sp A
           1 - Aoridae sp B

       Mollusca
         Gastropoda
           1 - Nassariidae Nassarius albus (ambiguus)

       Bryozoa
         1 - Unidentified sp A

100'  west of outfall - 11/11/69 - 89'  -  The sand sample
       obtained in the patch reef area was tan and con-
       tained very few black particles that are found in
       the outfall pile.
       Polychaeta
         1 - Arabellidae sp D
         1 - Ampharetidae sp A
         1 - Dorvilleidae sp B
         1 - Maldanidae sp A
         1 - Onuphidae sp A*
         1 - Spionidae sp A
*species was also found at Boca Raton
                          51

-------
                      Table 6


             POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

        Specimen Index by Station  (continued)
      Arthropoda
        Amphipoda
          I - Lysianassidae sp A
        Decapoda
          I - Unidentified shrimp sp A

      Mollusca
        Gastropoda
          I - Strombidae Strombus gigus  (juvenile)

      Scaphopoda
        1 - Siphonodentalidae Cadulus guadridentatus
        1 - Detaliidae Dentalium eboreun

      Chordata
        Cephlachordata
          3 - Amphioxus

      Bryozoa
        1 - Unidentified sp A
:species was also  found at Boca Raton
                        52

-------
                          Table 7

                 BOCA RATON SAND SAMPLING

                       Species List


                        Polychaeta
Arabellidae
 *unidentified sp A
 *unidentified sp B

Eunicidae
  Eunice rubra

Lumbrineridae
 *unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B

Nereidae
  Nereis pelagica
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B

Ophelidae
  Armandia agilis
  Ammotrypane aulogaster

Phyllodocidae
  Plyllodoce catenula

Sabellidae
  unidentified sp A
 *unidentified sp B
  unidentified sp C
  unidentified sp D

Spionidae
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B
  unidentified sp C

Terebellidae
  unidentified sp A
Capitellidae
 *Notomastus sp
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B

Gylceridae
  Glycera sp
  unidentified sp A

Maldanidae
  Clymenella zonalie

Onuphidae
 *unidentified sp A
Orbiniidae
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B

Polynoidae
  unidentified sp A

Sigalionidae
  unidentified sp A
Syllidae
 *Haplosyllis sponqicola
  unidentified sp A
Unidentified Polyfihaeta
  species A - lab accident
  species B
  species C
  species D - fragment
 'species was found in the Pompano Beach outfall region also
                        53

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                         Table 7

                BOCA RATON SAND SAMPLING

                 Species List (continued)


                       Arthropoda
Amphipoda

  Ampeliscidae
   *Ampelisca spinipes
   *unidentifled sp A

Leucothoidae
    Leucothoe sp

Podoceridae
  unidentified sp A
 *unidentified sp B
Isopoda

  Unidentified sp A

Decapoda

  Albuneidae
    Albunea gibbessii

  Calappidae
    unidentified sp A

  Unidentified Decapoda
    unidentified sp A
    unidentified shrimp sp B
    unidentified shrimp sp C
    unidentified shrimp sp D
    unidentified shrimp sp E
    unidentified shrimp sp F
  Haustoriidae
    unidentified sp A
  Lysianassidae
    Tryphosella sarsi
    unidentified sp A

  Unidentified Amphipoda
    unidentified sp A
    unidentified sp C
    unidentified sp D
    unidentified sp E
    unidentified sp F
    unidentified sp G
  Inachidae
    unidentified sp A

  Palaenmonidae
    Periclimenes longi-
      caudatus
lab accident

fragment
 'species was found in the Pompano Beach outfall region also

-------
                         Table 7

                BOCA RATON SAND SAMPLING

                 Species List (continued)


                       Mollusca
Gastropoda

  Olividae
    Oliva sp

  Nudibranchia
    Elysiidae
      unidentified sp A

Pelecypoda

  Cardiidae
    Cardium sp A
    Cardium sp B

Tellinidae
  Tellina sp
Veneridae
  Dosina elegans
  Pitar fulminata
  Tivela floridana
Ophiuroidea
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B
  unidentified sp C
  unidentified sp D
  unidentified sp E
  unidentified sp F
Cephlochordata
  Amphioxus sp
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp C
Lucinidae
  Lucina leucocyma
  Phacoides nassula
                       Echinodermata
Echinoidea
  Clypeastridae
    Clypeaster rosaceus
                       Chordata
                       Bryozoa
Urochordata
  Ascidiacea
    unidentified sp A
 *unidentified sp B
  unidentified sp D
*species was found in the Pompano Beach outfall region also
                       55

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                        Table 7




               BOCA RATON SAND SAMPLING




                Species List (continued)






                      Sipunculida






  unidentified  sp A                unidentified  sp  B




                      Miscellaneous




  unidentified  worm
'species was found  in the Pompano  Beach outfall  region also
                        56

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                         Table 8

               POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

                      Species List


                        Polychaeta
Ampharet idae
  unidentified sp A
Arabellidae
 •T an i dent if ied sp A
  unidentified sp B
 •"•unidentified sp C
  unidentified sp
                  D
Cirratul i d^.e
  unider 11 f ied sp A
  unidert t.f :.ed sp B

Glyceridae
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp fl

Ma Ldanidae
  unidentified sp A
Onuphidae
 *unider:t if ied sp A
  unidentified, sp B

Sigalion ..dae
  unidentified sp A
Sylli lae
              spongicola
Amphinomidae
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B
  unidentified sp C
  unidentified sp D

Capitellidae
  Capitella capitata
 *Notomastus sp
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B

Dorvilleidae
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B

Lumbrineridae
 *unidentified sp A
Nereidae
  Neanthes succinea
  N. arenacodentata
Sabellidae
 *unidentified sp A
Spionidae
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B
  uniuentified sp C

Terebellidae
  unidentified sp A
 'species was found in the Boca Raton region  also

-------
                        Table 8

              POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

                 Species List (continued)


                        Arthropoda
Amphipoda
  Ampeliscidae
   *Ampelisca spinipes
   *unidentified sp A

Caprellidae
  unidentified sp A

Podoceridae
 *unidentified sp A
Decapoda
  Dromiidae
    unidentified sp A

Cumacea
  Bodotriidae
    unidentified sp A

Nebaliacea
  unidentified sp A

Copepoda
  Harpacticoida
    unidentified sp A
    unidentified sp B
Aoridae
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B

Lysianassidae
  unidentified sp A

Unidentified Amphipoda
  unidentified sp A
  unidentified sp B
  unidentified sp C

Unidentified Decapoda
  unidentified shrimp sp A
                        Mollusca
Gastropoda
  Olividae
    Oliva sayana

  Strombidae
    Strombus gigus (juvenile)
Nassariidae
  Nassarius albus
       (ambiguus)
 "species was found in the Boca Raton region also
                         58

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                         Table 8

               POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION

                  Species List (continued)
Pelecypoda
  Cardiidae
    Cardium sp
Solemyacidae
  Solemya oc-
    cidentalis
Scaphopoda
  Siphonodentalidae
    Cadulus quadridentatus   Detaliidae
                               Dentalium eboreun

                      Echinodermata

Ophiuroidea          Holothuroidea        Echinoidea
  unidentified sp A    unidentified sp A    unidentified
  unidentified sp B
Cephl a cho r da t a
  Anvphioxus sp
    sp A
                         Chorda x.a
                        Nemertina
  unidentified sp A    unidentified sp B    unidentified
                                              sp C

                       Sipunculida

  unidentified sp A    unidentified sp B    unidentified
                                              sp C
  unidentified sp A
 *unidentified sp A
  unidentified worm
                       Chaetognatha
                         Bryozoa
                       Miscellaneous
*species was found in the Boca Raton region also
                         59

-------
            Figure 9
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DISCUSSION

All samples were taken by the same person, employing iden-
tical sampling techniques.  Coring devices -were not fea-
sible due to the frequency of coarse bottom material and
the occasional thin layer of sand over hard rock.  The
scoop and container method permitted quantitatively equal
samples to be obtained at each station.  The similarity of
the specimen graphs of transects 1, 2, and 3 at Boca Raton
(Figures 9, 10, and 11) show a consistent correlation of
the quantitative and qualitative data and substantiate the
validity of the sampling technique.

A comparative transect -was not completed at Pompano Beach,
due to the time factor of processing and identification of
specimens.  Also,  rough vjeather after October hindered
diver sampling.
SPECIES DISTRIBUTION

There are numerous physical, chemical, and biological para-
meters governing the distribution of organisms.  Some of
the major ones are listed as follows:

     Physical - temperature, turbidity, sedimentation, par-
           ticulate matter,  color, water depth, bottom
           composition and bottom stability.

     Chemical - dissolved gases, dissolved nutrients,
           chlorinity, pesticides, heavy metals and oily
           substances.

     Biological - propagation, proliferation, preditor-prey
           relationships, ecological chains and marine food
           webs.

The biological parameters are heavily dependent upon the
chemical and physical parameters.  Of the chemical and
physical parameters listed,  only water depth, bottom compo-
sition and bottom stability vary sufficiently from station
to station to influence species distribution and will be
discussed with the individual groups.

The zonation of organisms was not discernible at Boca Raton
until data analysis was completed.  Zonation is clearly
evident in one group, the bryozoans.  Their zone is ap-
proximately 1500 feet wide and lies inshore of the main reef
in water 40 to 65 feet deep.
                               66

-------
This zone does not appear to correlate -with substrate
composition; however, it lies in the "shadow" of the reef
and the water depth is such that the bottom would be dis-
turbed only by severe storms and long swells.

Another discernible feature of the Boca Raton transects is
a near shore zone of the mollusk Tivella floridana.  They
appear in varying distances from shore, from 150 feet* to
900 feet, and in depths from 10 to 20 feet.  They are found
on open,  fine sand, but this is not a controlling factor
in their distribution as they are not found in all areas of
open,  fine sand.  There is insufficient correlation between
water depth, distance from shore, bottom composition, and
the T. floridana distribution to determine a cause and effect
relationship regarding their distribution.

Substrate composition appears to be the factor determin-
ing the distribution of the echinoderms, especially the dom-
inating Ophiuroidea  (brittle stars).  The adult organisms
require a substrate which provides cover, protection and
meets their biological requirements which are provided by
the main reef and the coarse rubble slope lying seaward of
it (see Figures 5, 6, and 7).

There are no evident zonation of the polychaete group as a
whole, but there is a more subtle species zonation within
the group (see Table 9).  Armandia aqilis was found in
depths, ranging from 10 to 40 feet with the maximum number
appearing approximately 150 feet from shore and in 10 feet
of water.  Ammotrypane auloqaster appeared to be widely dis-
tributed in a zone with water depth ranging from 16 to 58
feet.   A. aqilis and A. Aulogaster did not appear in depths
greater than 36 and 58 feet respectively, thus exibiting
limited zonation.  Eunice ruba appeared to exhibit the most
limited distribution of the polychaetes, as it was found
only in depths greater than 90 feet for the stations covered
and in the coarse rubble habitat.  This data does not indi-
cate whether bottom composition or water depth is the domi-
nant parameter.
*Station 1/2, transect 3, Boca Raton was established after
collection data indicated mollusk zones in transects 1 and 2
which lie to the north and south of transect 3.  A sampling
station at 1/2 the distance from shore to station 1 or 150
feet from shore located these organisms.
                               67

-------
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                                            69

-------
All remaining species of polychaetes show little defin3_te
zonation as does the previous mentioned species.  However,
they do show a preference for water deeper than 50 feet.
This depth corresponds closely with the inshore boundary of
the bryozoans.

It is more difficult to establish zonation within the
arthropod group, but a similarity with the polychaetes is
evident.  The unidentified Haustoriidae is found in water
less than 40 feet deep, and the members of the family
Ampeliscidae, Ampelisca spinipes and an unidentified species,
are found in water deeper than 50 feet, see Table 9.  Again,
the inshore depth limit of the species found in deeper water
corresponds very closely with that of the bryozoan zone.
The distribution of the unidentified species A of the family
Lysianassidae overlaps the seaward portion of the inshore
species distribution and the shoreward portion of one of the
offshore species distribution, see Table 9.

The distributions of the mollusks Pitar fulminata and
Cardium sp appear to correspond somewhat with that of the
unidentified arthropod species A of the family Lysianas-
sidae.  The chordate Amphioxus apparently has a wide dis-
tribution, as it was found in depths from 20 to 120 feet at
Boca Raton.  The minor phyla appear to be sparsely scat-
tered and display no explicit zonation.
POMPANO BEACH OUTFALL REGION ZONATION

The zonation of the Pompano Beach outfall region is based
upon samples taken in the immediate vicinity of the outfall
discharge point.  This encompasses samples taken up to 100
feet north, south, east and west of the discharge point.

The outfall pile is the product of the organically rich.,
dense effluent particles settling to the bottom at the end
of the pipe, see Figure 4.  Under "normal conditions" the
pile is approximately 12 feet long on a north-south axis, 6
to 8 feet wide, and 3 feet high in the center, see
Figure 15.  The periphery is the result of the horizontal
spread of this material to the surrounding area.  The pe-
riphery, defined as the area where the sand is covered with
black material, normally extends approximately 30 feet to the
north, 20 feet to the south, 20 feet to the east, and 5 feet
to the west.  All measurements are given with the end of the
outfall pipe as the reference point, see Figure 15.

Outside the periphery lies an area extending mostly to the
north where scattered debris can be found.  The debris con-
sists of numerous cigarette filters and small pieces of
toilet tissue, moderate quantities of small pieces of metal
(aluminum foil, "pop top" tabs, razor blades, etc.), and
                               70

-------
                           Flexure 15

   POMPANO BEACH  - OUTFALL PILE AilD PERIPHERY FLUCTUATION
      PILE
6-8'WIDE
           12
  PILE PROFILE
                                                   N
          /So1
                           SCATTERED.
                           TISSUE PAPER
                          POP TOP TABS
                         RAZOR BLADES
                                            PERIPHERY
                                        PIPE
                                       SCALE l"= \5'
                       "T-TORIIAL "  CONDITIONo
  PIPE
  SCOUR
  4"DEEP
2' WIDE


  PILE  PROFILE
                       
-------
small quantities of wooden pencils, ball point pens, and
black particles which compose the outfall pile and pe-
riphery.  The majority of the effluent is less dense than
the receiving body and,  therefore, rises to the surface
•where it is at the mercy of the currents.

The pile and the periphery are in constant fluctuation due
to the large variations of oceanographic features in the
near shore waters.

An example of the fluctuations of the outfall pile and
periphery is shown in Figure 15.  The pile is located just
north of the end of the pipe, and there is slight scouring
where the pile is normally located.  The outfall periphery
has shifted somewhat to the north, and the bottom area that
is littered with scattered debris extends to the northeast.
Pockets of cigarette filters and tissue paper were found on
the north side of patch reefs to the south,  east and north-
west of the outfall pipe; see Figure 15.  This condition
appears to be the result of a strong north current.

The polychaetes were the most numerous organisms in the out-
fall area and exhibit zonation in relation to the outfall;
see Figure 16.  There was repetition of eight species found
in the outfall periphery and the stations located on the
compass points.  Seven species occur in the periphery and
the stations to the north; see Figure 16.  The periphery and
the west sampling station had 3 species in common.  There
is little or no species correspondence between the periphery
and the stations to the south and east.  Neanthes succinea,
N. arenaccodentata and Capitella were found exclusively in
the organically rich outfall pile with the exception of one
Neanthes specimen which was found in the outfall periphery,
an area also organically rich.  The distribution of the
arthropods appear to be in a northerly and easterly direction
from the outfall periphery, see Figure 17, with separate
species recurring in each direction.  The bryozoan colonies
appear to encircle,  but do not inhabit the outfall pile and
periphery; see Figure 18.  There was no species zonation
within the echinoderm distribution.

Seven species of polychaetes were found at both Boca Raton
and Pompano Beach in similar depths.  A comparison of the
number of specimens of these species showed no appreciable
increase of specimens per sample at the outfall region over
the Boca Raton area; see Figure 16.

There were no corresponding arthropod or mollusk species
found at both the Boca Raton area and the Pompano Beach out-
fall region.  Amphioxus was found at both locations, as was
one unidentified bryozoan, species A at Pompano Beach which
is species B at Boca Raton.
                              72

-------
                                               Figure  16
                                                  'CM IT- co
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                                                    73

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                                               Figure  17
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                         Figure 18
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The distribution of organisms in the immediate vicinity of
the Porapano Beach outfall is primarily due to nutrients;
oxygen levels; and hydrogen sulfide levels.  The outfall
pile has high concentrations of nutrients and hydrogen sul-
fide, but internally it is low in dissolved oxygen.  An-
erobic conditions evidently exist just beneath the surface
(Lackey, 1969),  but the surface is aerobic due to the con-
stant flushing action of oxygen rich sea-water.  The pe-
riphery is organically rich sand, but does not have the
same fauna as the pile due to the greater concentration of
oxygen and a lovjer concentration of hydrogen sulfide.  The
above mentioned parameters in the area outside the periphery
approach "normal" conditions.  The levels of dissolved ox-
ygen and hydrogen sulfide may be the major restricting pa-
rameters in species distributions in the outfall pile and
periphery areas, but sufficient data was not available to
support this hypothesis.
SPECIES DIVERSITY

Sepcies diversity has been utilized as a measurement re-
garding the "general health" of the environment.   Favorable
conditions are delineated by -wide species diversity -with few
specimens of each species.  Adverse conditions are ac-
companied by a decrease in the number of species and an in-
crease in the number of specimens.  Species diversity can be
represented by the ratio of specimens per species, and,
thus, is a number greater than one; the greater the number,
the less diversity.  Figures 11, 12, 13, and 14 indicate
the number of specimens and species per station for tran-
sect three at Boca Raton and the Pompano Beach outfall region.
Figures 19 and 20 show the specimen to species ratio per
station of these two areas.  Figure "19, " the graph of
Boca Raton area, delineates the "healthful" condition, and in
general, has a low specimen to species ratio -with two ex-
ceptions, Station ]/2 and the bryozoan zone.  The specimen
per species ratios serve as background information for com-
parison with the Pompano Beach data.

The specimen per species curve for the Pompano Beach out-
fall region, Figure 20, shows high ratios for the poly-
chaetes at the outfall pile and the outfall periphery sam-
ple taken on 1/22/70.  The anthropod ratios for the 50'
north sample and the outfall periphery sample taken 1/22/70
are high, as are those for Amphioxus in the periphery sam-
ples taken on 1/14/70 and 1/22/70.  The total ratio was
high at the outfall pile and the outfall periphery sample on
1/22/70.  Core samples indicated that the polychaete popu-
lation which comprises nearly the entire biota was located
at or near the surface of the outfall pile.  The reason for
the low specimen per species ratio of the pile sample taken
on 2/16/70 is uncertain, but may be due to erosion of the
                              76

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      Figure 19
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       77

-------
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                                                     78

-------
pile surface during rough -weather prior to sampling.  The
polychaete population did not have sufficient time to fully
reestablish itself.  Figure 19 shows that the polychaete
specimen per species curve is very similar to that of the
total.  Thus,  it can be further stated that the poly-
chaetes "set the curve" in the Pompano Beach outfall re-
gion.

The outfall periphery is subject to variations in organic
content, therefore, causing some fluctuation in the biota
arid accounting for the variability of the specimen content
of the periphery samples.  Due to the predominant north
current, denser material in the effluent -would tend to be
deposited in this direction,  and the organisms -would es-
tablish themselves accordingly, thus accounting for the
high specimen per species ratio of the "50 foot north"
station.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Figure 21 shows the mean specimen per species values for
the stations in the Pompano Beach outfall region and the
Stations 17, 18 and 19 on transect three at Boca Raton
•which are in depths similar to those at Pompano.  The out-
fall region graph is a combination of north-south and east-
west curves.  The mean values for Stations 17, 18 and 19 are
given as background information.

The ratios for the stations 100 feet from the outfall are
very close to the  Boca Raton background value, while the
outfall pile mean ratio is 4.4 times the mean for Boca
Raton.  The outfall periphery mean ratio is almost twice
the background value,  as is the ratio for the station 50 feet
to the north.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

It is difficult to make firm conclusions concerning the dis-
tribution and relationships of the macroscopic benthic
community to the Pompano and Delray outfalls, without
having data previous to the outfall useage.  Biological com-
munities undergo continuous change on a variety of time
scales in accordance to a large number of fluctuating en-
vironmental parameters.  However, by comparing the areas in
the vicinity of the outfalls to an area most likely removed
from the influence, one can make suggestions as to the ef-
fect of effluent on the surrounding benthic communities.

The zonation and species diversity of the organisms at
Boca Raton are due primarily to bottom stability.
                               79

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Figure 21
   80

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The stability is caused by the main reef which runs north
and south in approximately 60 feet of water.  The reef
acts as an "underwater breakwater" in diminishing the
turbulent effect of storm waves on the bottom sediment.
The reef forms a sand "bowl" which lies inshore of the
reef.  It serves as a natural sediment trap and as a source
of nutrients which are by-products of decaying organisms
and the feces of living organisms.  The relative qui-
escence of the sediment-water interface in the "bowl" helps
retain the nutrients and offers a near shore habitat less
subject to the rapid changes occuring in the shelf waters.
Bottom stability is further supported by the presence of
algae/ Caulerpa and the red filamentous algae which forms
a mat in the open sand,  thus, indicating enrichment of the
area.  The advent of algae in the "bowl"; see Tables 1, 2,
and 3, provides the necessary parameters such as harbor-
age, food source, etc.,  which, in turn, produce species
diversity.  The zone of stable bottom begins in approxi-
mately 50 feet of water and extends almost to the inshore
side of the main reef.

Inshore of the stable zone lies an area of relatively un-
stable bottom, due to wave action, and has very little or
no algal covering.  This area is inhabited by relatively
few species as compared to the more stable zone.  The sand
samples taken in pockets on the reef were low in production
of organisms in comparison with the surrounding areas.  The
coarse rubble slope area is high in benthic biota produc-
tivity due to bottom composition and stability.

The biological data from the Pompano Beach outfall region
was compared with background data established at Boca
Raton.  This data indicates there are three zones in Pom-
pano Beach outfall region:   1)  unaffected; 2)  tolerant or
intermediate and 3)  polluted zone.

The data from the stations 100 feet from the outfall com-
pares closely with the background data from Boca Raton, thus
indicating very little or no organic enrichment (the unaf-
fected zone).

The lack of data prior to the operation of the Pompano out-
fall makes it impossible to state whether there has been an
exclusion of organisms that inhabited the outfall region
prior to activation.  This can only be determined by a be-
fore and after study.

Surrounding the outfall pile is a zone defined as the out-
fall periphery.  It is an area of esthetic pollution as it
has a thin layer of black particles, citrus seeds, small
pieces of metal, cigarette filters,  small pieces of paper,
etc., covering the sand.  This area is inhabited by species
tolerant to organic enrichment.   Some of these organisms
                              81

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have been found at surrounding stations and on transect
three at Boca Raton.  This zone's exact extent is not
known, however, the station 50 feet to the north shows
close species correlation with the periphery.  With more
adequate sampling of the periphery, it would be possible
to establish its extent and compile a more complete index
of "tolerant organisms" in this area.

The data indicates that gross pollution exists only in the
outfall pile.  Visual observations lead us to believe that
organic buildup is restricted to the pile and periphery due
to the less dense effluent material rising to the surface
and traveling horizontally with the current away from the
point of discharge.  The findings indicate that Neanthes
succinea, N. arenaccodentata,Capitella capitata are indi-
cators of pollution, as they were found exclusively in the
outfall pile with one minor exception.  According to Wass,
from Olson & Burgess, 1967, N. succinea and C. capitata
have been cited by numerous authors as indicators of organic
pollution.

It is known that the pile and periphery fluctuate.  Is there
a seasonal fluctuation in the size of the outfall pile and
periphery?  Are the pile and periphery increasing in dimen-
sion?  And if so, what is their effect on the fauna and
flora of the area?  Has there been an exclusion of orga-
nisms?  There are still many unanswered questions.  A thor-
ough survey of the Pompano Beach area and an "after survey"
of the Boca Raton area would permit a more vivid picture of
sewage effluent effects on the macroscopic, benthic biota of
the open ocean, continental shelf.
                               82

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                         SECTION V

             MICROBIOTIC ECOLOGY OF OCEAN SEWAGE
             OUTFALLS IN THE HOLLYWOOD-POMPANO
             BEACH-DELRAY BEACH AREA
ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM

Outfalls for treated and untreated sewage in ocean water "have
produced much discussion pro and con as to whether this is
a desirable method of waste disposal.  Generally, if the
sewage components do not come back to the beaches/ little
public interest is aroused until some magazine or newspaper
prints a lurid account of the frightful consequences.  Since
such writings rarely, if ever, consider the alternatives,
and since they are frequently based on inadequate knowledge
of what actually occurs, much concern may be aroused.

In truth the problem has been too little studied up to the
present.  A seaside city or community, faced with rapid
population growth and the necessity of sewage disposal can
find very little information on whether or not it can utilize
the ocean, how far out its outfall must extend, whether or
not the sewage should first be treated, what can be incor-
porated in its sewage, and the biological effects of ocean
disposal.  This last problem has been studied during the
past two years, and since microscopic algae and protozoa
are probably most quickly responsive to environmental change,
work has been concentrated on them.

At Pompano Beach engineering studies indicated an outfall
about 6000 feet out, and at a depth of 90 feet on the
continental shelf, would not "wash back" onto the beaches.
Work has concentrated on this outfall, but studies of the
Delray Beach, and Hollywood Beach outfalls, and other local-
ities, especially some studies at places far removed from
sewage, were done.

Because a first effect of sewage is to fertilize the receiving
water, the first discernable biologic effect would be an
increase in the biota of the water so fertilized.  This is
not simple to look for unless the amount of dilution is taken
into account, and knowledge of the currents enables tracking
of the enriched water.  The following lines of work were
carried out:

     1.  Quantitative and qualitative analyses of
         surface plankton from the shore to well
         into the Gulf Stream at intervals of about
         1000 yards.  This was principally at Pom-
         pano Beach.

     2.  Comparison with shelf plankton at various
                            83

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         other places.  No data included.

     3.  Studies of the sediment-water interface
         microbiota beneath the Pompano Beach and
         Delray Beach outfalls, and for comparison/
         interface samples distant from outfalls.

     4.  Studies of organisms accumulating on slides
         in the vicinity of outfalls/  and  also at a
         distance from outfalls/ as on the Boca
         Raton current meter.

     5.  Studies of the relation of organic matter
         and nutrients in cores from beneath the
         outfalls and elsewhere to the organisms
         present there.

     6.  A listing of the observed microorganisms
         in the area, with an evaluation of common-
         ness or rarity, and seasonal occurrence.

     7.  Notes on macroscopic organisms beneath the
         outfalls.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

SURFACE TRANSECTS, SHORE TO GULF STREAM

Generally speaking, there is a decrease in the numbers per
milliliter of microscopic algae and protozoa from shore to
Gulf Stream with a sharp decrease in the Stream.  These are
all surface figures except for a few tows with a Clarke-
Bumpus plankton net,  No. 20.  Some tows were made at 30 feet,
100 feet and 200 feet.  Numbers were rather similar to a
depth of 30 feet with sharp decreases at 100 and 200 feet.
While this is probably a light effect, it should be noted
that photosynthetic organisms, especially diatoms and
dinoflagellates, were abundant and normally present in inter-
face material as deep as 150 feet.

These surface samples were brought in unkilled but were
protected from sunshine.  Temperatures were disregarded since
there is rather a small difference in winter and summer.
In the laboratory the samples were centrifuged for 3 to 5
minutes at about 2200 rpm in conical-ended 50 ml tubes, the
supernatant was decanted by pipetting and the catch reduced
to 6, 12, or 25 drops, i.e., 6 drops equal 100 ml, or 1 drop
equals 16-2/3 mis.  A drop was put beneath a 25 mm square
No. 1 cover glas and 2 paths across the cover, at right
angles to each other, were counted at 100 and 400 diameters.
One drop was generally good for only about 15 to 20 minutes
due to lethal osmotic changes as the water evaporated around
                               84

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the edges.  Counting and identification was by bright field
illumination only, using a Leitz Labolux microscope.

Table 10 includes a list of the species founa in these
transects.  It also indicates whether or not the organisms
are common; that is, it gives frequency of occurence in the
number of times these transects were analyzed.  Table 10 is
not quantitative, but it does indicate frequency of occurence
in a 100 ml sample, which is the minimal amount of water
examined by the water bottle-centrifuge method.  Any set of
transect samples shows the number of each species for one
milliliter of raw water.  Although such factors as plankton
patchiness, direction of both wind and tidal current, sal-
inity, etc., may interfere, the general pattern is a decrease
from the shore seaward, with the numbers usually below 200
per ml at the inshore stations and decreasing to about 50
or 60 per ml at the Gulf Stream stations.

The most important fact is that numbers were consistently
low, and with a midpoint about the station nearest where the
boil from the outfall emerged.  Blooms (500 or more organisms
per ml) were rare.  On a few occasions, a species would reach
or exceed 500 per ml.  For example August 5, 1968, one or
possibly two species of a very small centric diatom  (Cyclo-
tella and/or Detonula)  attained numbers of 784 and 1700 per ml
at the two shoreward stations, but thereafter dropped to well
below 500, then to 48 or less per ml.  However, such occur-
ences are seldom encountered.

Consistent knowledge of the nitrate and orthophosphate values
for these surface waters is not available.  A few determina-
tions were made for Florida Power and Light Company to compare
Biscayne Bay and this area of shelf water, and they were
low - very low.  To explain the low population figures values
of these nutrients should have been obtained.  From a
practical standpoint, the populations probably indicate
extremely small increases of nitrate and orthophosphate.
Lacking accurate figures for these, definite proof is not
available.  There could be other reasons such as toxicants
in the outcoming sewage or insufficient dilution of the sewage,
but generally where sewage discharge noticeably increases
nutrients, the increase is reflected in higher plankton counts.
Where the Boca Raton area has shoreward numbers consistently
below 300 per ml, Tampa Bay numbers run above 2500 per ml and
Escambia Bay above 5000 per ml.  These two locations are known
to be high in nitrate and phosphate in the Gulf Stream, again
for comparative purposes.  These values are well below 0.1 ppm
of nitrate and 0.01 of phosphate.  In November 1969, two
Gulf Stream Stations, 12000 and 17000 feet off Pompano Beach,
and at a temperature of 77° F. had 36 and 54 organisms per ml
respectively.  On August 5, 1968, the most distant three
samples were in the Gulf Stream, the last 30000 feet offshore.
They contained 70, 33 and 38 organisms per ml.
                              85

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                       Table 10

        Species of microscopic algae and protozoa
       recorded from 181 samples representing four
       environmental niches in the Boca Raton area
       from 1967 to 1969.
Niche                         Transect  Gulf   Inter- Slide
                                       Stream  face

No. Samples                     73       28     60     20

Organisms                          Number occurrences

Sulfur bacteria
  Achromatium oxaliferum                        25
  Beggiatoa alba                                17
  Beggiatoa arachnida                           29
  Beggiatoa gigas                                4
  Beggiatoa leptomitiformis                      6
  Beggiatoa minima                               1      1
  Beggiatoa mirabilis                           10
  Thioploca sp.                                  1
  Thiorhodacene, various                         1
  Thiospirillum sp.                              1
  Thiothrix niveus                               5
  Thiovulum majus                                6

Green algae s.s. -
Chlorophyceae
  Chlorella sp.                  9
  Halosphaera sp.                1
  Green cells, minute           49       16             6

Blue green algae
  Agmenellum sp.                                 2
  Anabaena sp.                   5               5
  Anacystis sp.                                  5
  Arthrospira sp.                1               71
  Borzia trilocularis                                   1
  Fremeyella violacea                                   1
  Johannesbaptistia
    pellucida                                    5
  Lyngbya, 10 m. diameter,
    red                                         18      1
  Lyngbya, 25 m. diameter,
    red                                         12      1
  Lyngbya, 60 m. diameter,
    red                                          9
  Merismopedia sp.                        181
  Oscillatoria sp.               5              20      2
                           86

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Niche                        Transect  Gulf   Inter-  Slide
                                      Stream  face

Blue green algae, con't
  Richelia intracellularis                1
  Schizothrix calcicola          3               53
  Skugaella sp.                 13        8
  Spiralina major                                3      1
  Spirulina minor                                5      1

Green flagellates -
Volvocida
  Bipedinomonas rotunda          3        2
  Bipedinomonas pyriformis       2        12
  Chlamydomonas marina                           4
  Chlamydomonas sp.                                     1
  Dunaliella-viridis?           14        22
  Monochrysis lutheri?                    1
  Oltmansiella lineata           1               1
  Platymonas sp.                 1
  Pyramidomonas disomata         3               1
  Pyramidomonas grossi          31        351
  Pyramidomonas octociliata      1               1
  Pyramidomonas sp.                       33

Green flagellates -
Euglenida
  Anisonema grande                               6
  Anisonema emarginatum                          9
  Anisonema lateralis, p.n.                      1
  Anisonema lineata, p.n.                        31
  Anisonema orbicular!s          1               4
  Anisonema ovale                               29      2
  Anisonema variable                             3
  Anisonema sp.                                  7
  Cylindromonas
    floridensis, p.n.                            4
  Cymbomonas sp.?                                1
  Dinema grisoleum                              11
  Distigma proteus                               3
  Entosiphon caudata p.n.                        4
  Entosiphon cuneatum                            3
  Entosiphon obliguum                            2
  Entosiphon ovale, p.n.                         3
  Entosiphon polyaulax                           1
  Entosiphon salcatum                            1
  Euglena floridensis, p.n.                      1
  Euglena sp.                    1               7
  Eutreptia sp.                 13        1     13
  Eutreptiella sp.                               1
  Hyalophacus sp.                                1
  Jenningsia diavomophaga                        1
  Khawkinea ocellata                             1
  Notosolenus apocamptus                         1
                           87

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Table 10, continued

Niche                        Transect  Gulf   Inter-  Slide
                                      Stream  face

Green flagellates -
Euglenida, con't
  Notosolenus orbicular!s                        1
  Peranema granulifera                           2
  Peranema trichophorum                          4
  Petalomonas carinata                           5
  Petalomonas papilio                            1
  Petalomonas pusilla                            5
  Petalomonas spinosus, p.n.                     1
  Petalomonas sp.                                1
  Pleotia vitrea                                 4
  Scytomonas pusilla                             4
  Sphenomonas elongata                           5
  Sphenomonas teres                              9
  Tropidoscyphus octocostatus                    2
  Urceolus sabulosus                             1

Olive-green, brown or red
flagellates - Cryptomonadida
  Chilomonas marina              2        25
  Chroomonas spp                 9               23
  Cryptomonas erosa                             14
  Cryptomonas marina, p.n.                      18
  Cyathomonas truncata                           1
  Hillea spp                    11               1
  Rhodomonas baltica             3               1
  Rhodomonas sp.                19        1     14      7

Yellow or brown flagellates-
Chrysomonadida
  Chrysamoeba sp.                2
  Chrysochromulina spp.         36        622
  Olisthodiscus luteus           1               1

Calcareous, yellow flag-
ellates - Coccolithophorida
  Acanthoica schilleri           1
  Acanthosolenia sp.                      1
  Discosphaera thompsoni         4
  Rhabdosphaera sp.              32             2
  Syracosphaera carteriae       42       13
  Syracosphaera sp.                       22
  Silicious flagellates-
  Silicoflagellida
    Dictyocha fibula                      1
    Ebria tripartita             2

Green flagellates -
Chloromonadida
  Chattonnella subsalsa                          3

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Table 10, continued

Niche
Green flagellates -
Chloromonadida,  con't
  Gonyostomum sp. (?)
  Thaumatomastix flava,
  Thaumatomastix glauca,
  Trentonia flagellata
  Vacuolaria virescens
     Transect  Gulf   Inter-  Slide
              Stream  face
p.n.
 p.n.
Dinoflagellates -
Dinoflagellida
  Amphidinium acuta
  Amphidinium bipes
  Amphidinium brittanicum
  Amphidinium crassum
  Amphidinium depressum, p.n.
  Amphidinium herdmanni
  Amphidinium klebsii
  Amphidinium kofoidi
  Amphidinium latum
  Amphidinium longum
  Amphidinium operculatum
  Amphidinium roseolum
  Amphidinium rugosa, p.n.
  Amphidinium scissum
  Amphidinium spinosum, p.n.
  Amphidinium sp.
  Ceratium belone
  Ceratium candelabrum
  Ceratium concilians
  Ceratium furca
  Ceratium fusus
  Ceratium gibberum
  Ceratium horridum
  Ceratium karsteni
  Ceratium lineatum
  Ceratium rnassiliense
  Ceratium minuta
  Ceratium setacevsm
  Ceratium tripos
  Ceratium sp.
  Ceratocorys, sp. 1
  Ceratocorys, sp. 2
  Cochlodinium schuetti
  Dinophysis tripos
  Diplopsalis lenticula
  Diplopsalopsis
  Entomosigma
  Exuviaella apora
         1
         2
        12
         1
         1
         1

         6
         2
         3
         4
         1
         1
         7
         2
         3
        11
         2
3
1
2
4
2
5
5
1
1
1
1
6
4
1
7
3
4
4
2
2
7
       1
       3
       8
       1
       1
 3
20
 1

25
 2
31
 2
 3
 2
11
 7
 1
 3
 1
25
 1
 2
 2
10
                        89

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Table 10, continued

Niche
Dinoflagellates -
Dinoflagellida, con't
  Exuviaella marina
  Exuviaella sp.
  Goniodoma polyedricum
  Gonyaulax diegenesis
  Gonyaulax triacantha
  Gonyaulax sp.
  Gymnodinium alba, p.n.
  Gymnodinium albulum
  Gymnodinium breve (?)
  Gymnodinium conicum
  Gymnodinium flavum
  Gymnodinium longum,  p.n.
  Gymnodinium mirable
  Gymnodinium oculatum, p.n.
  Gymnodinium punctatum
  Gymnodinium pyginaeum
  Gymnodinium splendens
  Gymnodinium simplex
  Gymnodinium uberrimum
  Gymnodinium variable
  Gymnodinium sp.
  Gyrodinium crassum
  Gyrodinium pingue
  Gyrodinium sp.
  Histoneis
  Massartia rotundata
  Massartia sp.
  Nematodinium
  Ornithocercus magnificus
  Ornithocercus sp.
  Oxyrrhis marina
  Oxytoxum scolopax
  Peridinium cerasus
  Peridinium depressum
  Peridinium divergens
  Peridinium globulus
  Peridinium longa
  Peridinium triqueter
  Peridinium trochoideum
  Peridinium tubus
  Peridinium sp.
  Phalacroma argus
  Phalacroma cuneata
  Phalacroma rosea
  Phalacroma sp.
  Podolampas bipes
Transect  Gulf   Inter- Slide
         Stream  face
    1
    1
    1
    1
   14
    2
   12
   17
    1

    1
    1
    4

    2
    3
    2
    4
    2

   20

    7
    4
    1
    6
    9
    3
    3
    2
    2
    5
    6
    1
   12
13
 2

 4
 3
 5
 2
 3
 2
 1
 1
 3
             2
             3
30

 1
 1
1

3

1
5

1

1

1
2
5

2

2
3
2
2
5
2
26
2
4
4

3
5


1
1
1

 2
 1

 2

 9
                          90

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Table 10, continued

Niche                        Transect  Gulf   Inter-  Slide
                                      Stream  face

Dinoflagellates -
Dinoflagellida, con't
  Podolampas palmipes            2        1
  Polykrikos schwartzi                    1      1
  Pronoctiluca pelagica          1        1
  Protoceratium reticulatum      1        13
  Protodinium sp.               27
  Prorocentrum gracile           2
  Prorocentrum micans            3               21
  Prorocentrum scutillum                         2
  Prorocentrum triangulatum      7        2
  Pyrodinium bahamiense          2
  Pyrophacus horologicum         3        3
  Thecadinium kofoidi                           25
  Thecadinium spinosus, p.n.                     1
  Torodinium robustrum           4        52

Diatoms - Bacillariophyta
  Actinoptychus undulatus                        3
  Amphora ovalis                 3              31      2
  Amphora superba, p.n.                          72
  Amphiprora minor, p.n.         1
  Amphiprora sp.                 4              25
  Asterionella japonica          2        1     12
  Asterionella kariana                    1     10      3
  Biddulphia aurita              8              10      3
  Campylosira cymbelliformis     1               7
  Chaetoceras atlanticus         2
  Chaetoceras curvisetus                         1
  Chaetoceras decipiens         11        1
  Chaetoceras
    galvestoniensis              3        18
  Chaetoceras solitaria         13        11
  Chaetoceras
    unispinosus, p.n.            3
  Chaetoceras sp.               13        76
  Cocconeis spp.                 3              14      6
  Corethron hystrix                              2
  Coscinodiscus concinnus                        4
  Coscinodiscus socialis         1
  Coscinodiscus sp.             12        4      7      1
  Cyclotella spp.               35        6      1
  Cymbella sp.                            15
  Detonula sp.                  41        8
  Diploneis minor, p.n.                          5
  Diploneis sp.                  2              25
  Diatoma sp.                                    3
                          91

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Table 10, continued
Niche
Diatoms - Bacillariophyta,
con' t
  Eunotia sp.
  Granematophora sp.
  Guinardia flaccida
  Gyrosigma angusta, p.n.
  Gyrosigma sp.
  Hemiaulus haucki
  Hemiaulus membranaceus
  Hemiaulus sinensis
  Lauderia borealis
  Leptocylindrus danicus
  Licmophora abbreviata
  Licmophora sp.
  Lithodesmium undulatura
  Melosira sulcata
  Melosira sp.
  Navicula ostrea
  Navicula van houteni
  Navicula viridis
  Navicula spp.
  Nitzschia closterium
  Nitzschia formosa
  Nitzschia recta
  Nitzschia seriata
  Nitzschia sigmoidea
  Nitzschia longissima
  Nitzschia paradoxa
  Pinnularia sp.
  Pleurosigma sp.
  Rhizosolenia alata
  Rhizosolenia delicatula
  Rhizosolenia fragilissima
  Rhizosolenia fragilissima
  Rhizosolenia hebetata
  Rhizosolenia setigera
  Rhizosolenia
    stolterforthi
  Skeletonema costatum
  Spathyneis mobilis, p.n.
  Stephanopyxis turris
  Streptotheca thamensis
  Striatella unipunctata
  Synedra longa, p.n.
  Synedra ulna
  Synedra undulatus
  Synedra sp.
Transect  Gulf
         Stream
     Inter-  Slide
     face
    7
    5

    9
    1
    7

   11
    3
    1
    2
    2
    1
   57
   54
   63

    4
    6
    1
   15
    3
    2
    1
   18

    5
   63
    1
    1
    1
 1
 1
 3
 1
 6
 8
12
13
 1
 3
 1
24
20
 3
 1
 8
16

 1
21
 2
48
39
 6
 3
13
24
18
27

31
1
11





1

1
1
22
27
4
8
2
1
1
5

 1


 5
               8
19
13
                           3
                           2
                           92

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Table 10, continued

Niche
Diatoms - Bacillariophyta,
con't
  Surirella sp.
  Tabellaria fenestrata
  Thalassiosira rotata
  Thalassiosira sp.
  Thalassiothrix sp.
  Tropidoneis lepidoptera
  Tropidoneis minor, p.n.
  Tropidoneis sp.

Zoomastigophorea
  Bicocca mediterranea
  Bodo agilis
  Bodo celer, p.n.
  Bodo globosa
  Bodo marina
  Bodo reniformis, p.n.
  Bodo rugosa, p.n.
  Bodo sp.
  Calycomonas ovale
  Cercobodo sp.
  Ciliophrys marina
  Craspedomonadida
  Dinomonas vorax
  Hasleya sp., p.n.
  Monas sp.
  Multicilia lacustris
  Oicomonas termo
  Oicomonas sp.
  Phanerobia pelophila
  Pleuromonas radians, p.n.
  Pleuromonas saltans, p.n.
  Protospiromonas sp., p.n.
  Rynchobodo nasuta
  Spiromonas angusta
  Sterromonas formicina
  Zooflagellata, unid.

Rhizopodea
  Actinaria spp.
  Actinophrys marina
  Amoeba spp.
  Amoebulae spp.
  AmpMtrema elongata
  Arachnula
  Foraminifera spp.
  Globigerina spp.
Transect  Gulf   Inter-  Slide
         Stream  face
   16
    4
    1
    1
    5
    4
    1
    1
    1
    3
    3
    1
    1

    4
    2
    1
   20
   53
    1
    1
 1
 3
 1
 1
 1
 3
 2
 1
 1


 4
 2
14
            11
 1
 1

 1
 1
43
 2
 4
        8
        8
        2
        2
        2

        4
        1

        6
 4
 1
 4
 1
 5

39
                    1
                    1
                   24
                    4
        6
        1

        1
        4
8
                            93

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Table 10, continued

Niche                        Transect  Gulf   Inter-  Slide
                                      Stream  face

Rhi zopodea,  con't
  Gromia oviformis                              11
  Gymnophrys cometa                              3
  Heleopera                                      1
  Heliozoa spp.                           1      5
  Pelomyxa sp.                                   1
  Radioleria spp.                         4
  Raphidiophrys pallida                          3
  Raphidiophrys sp.                              2
  Shepheardiella taeniformis                     2
  Vahlkamphia albida                             2
  Vahlkamphia guttula                            1
  Vahlkamphia limax                              1
  Vampyrella laturitis                           1
  Unid. testate rhizopods        1               1

Ciliata
  Acanthostomella sp.                     1
  Albatrossiella filigera        1
  Amphisia sp.                                   2
  Ampho r e 11 op s i s
     (mexicana?)                  4        21
  Aspidisca costata                              3
  Aspidisca hexeris                             15      1
  Aspidisca lynceus              2               5
  Aspidisca steinii                              1
  Aspidisca turrita                              1
  Aspidisca sp.                                  4
  Chaenea gigas                                  7
  Chaenea teres                                  2
  Chaenea sp.                                    3
  Codonella sp.                  21
  Codonellopsis sp.              1        23
  Coleps amphicanthus                            1
  Coleps hirtus                                  4
  Coleps pulcher                                 2
  Coleps sp.                                     7
  Condylostoma (patens?)                         4
  Condylostoma sp.                               1
  Cothurnia sp.                                  1
  Cristigera phenix                              6
  Cryptopharynx rugosa, p.n.                     5
  Cryptopharynx stigerus                         9
  Cyclidium sp.                           1     19
  Dadayiella ganymedes                           1
  Diophrys appendiculata                         8
  Diophrys triangulata, p.n.                     2

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Table 10, continued

Niche
Transect  Gulf   Inter-  Slide
         Stream  face
Ciliata, con't
  Diophrys sp.
  Drepanomonas spinosus, p.n.
  Dysteria aculeata
  Dysteria monostyla
  Dysteria olivaccum
  Dysteria sp.
  Epiclintes ambiguus
  Epiplocylis blanda             1
  Euplotes minima
  Euplotes vannus
  Euplotes sp.
  Favella panamensis             1
  Favella sp.                    2
  Frontonia marina
  Gastronauta membranaceus
  Geleia decolor
  Geleia floridensis
  Gruberia sp.
  Hemiophrys sp.
  Holophrya sp.
  Holosticha discocephalus
  Holosticha fasciola
  Holosticha flava, p.n.
  Holosticha ovalis
  Holosticha violacea
  Holosticha sp.
  Hypotrichida, unid. spp.
  Kentrophoros lanceolata
  Lembus fusiformis
  Lembus infusionum
  Lionotus sp.
  Loxophyllum maleagris
  Mesodinium acarus              1
  Mesodinium cinctum             1
  Mesodinium rubrum              2
  Metacystis truncata
  Oxytricha discocephalus
  Oxytricha fallax
  Oxytricha sp.                  1
  Parablepharisma sp.
  Parafavella  (elegans?)
  Peritromus californicus
  Peritromus emmae
  Peritromus faurei
  Peritromus montana
  Peritromus rugosa, p.n.
                    2
                    3
                    1
                    1
                    1
                    3
                    4

                   10
                    2
                    5
                    1
                    1
                    1
                    8
                    1
                    5
                    1
                    1
                    1
                    1
                    2
                    9
                   19
                    6
                    3
                    1
                    1
                    7
                    5
                    4
                    7
                    3
                    1
                   11
                    1

                    3
                    1
                    5
                    1
                    4
                          95

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Table 10, continued

Niche
Ciliata, con't
  Peritromus sp.
  Pleuronema marina
  Podophrya fixa
  Prorodon sp.
  Protocrucia pigerrima
  Protocrucia sp.
  Protorhabdonella sp.
  Pseudoprorodon arenicola
  Remanella margaritaceum
  Remanella rugosa
  Remanella sp.
  Rhabdonella (hebe?)
  Saprophilus agitatus
  Steinia marina
  Stentor auriculata
  Stephanopogon colpoda
  Stichotricha secunda
  Strobilidium sp.
  Strombidium conicum
  St rombi d i urn sp.
  Telostoma ferroi
  Tintinniduum primitives
  Tintinnopsis minuta
  Tintinnopsis platensis
  Tintinnopsis prowazeki
  Tintinnopsis rotundata
  Tintinnopsis subacuta
  Tintinnopsis sp.
  Tintinnus pectinis
  Tintinnus sp.
  Tintinnidae, unid sp.
  Tontonia appendiculata
  Trachelocerca coluber
  Trachelocerca
    phoenicopterus
  Trachelostyla sp.
  Trochilia salina
  Trichopelma torpens
  Uroleptus mobilis
  Uroleptus rattulus
  Uroleptus sp.
  Uronema filificum
  Uronema marina
  Uronychia setigerus
  Uronychia sp.
  Urostyla caudatus
  Vorticella sp.
  Zoothamnium
Transect  Gulf   Inter-  Slide
         Stream  face
    1
   17
    1
    2
    1

    3
    1
    1
    4
1
3

1
1

1
1
2
2
                    1
                    5
                    1

                    1
                    1
                    5
                    4
                    1
                    3
                    3
                    4
                    1
                    9
                    1
             3
             1
1
1
       1
      11

      27

       3
       3
       1
       3
       2
       1
       1
      12
       3
       1
       1
                          96

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On the basis of transect samples during the past two years,
the plankton numbers reflect no increasing fertility of the
surface waters in the area Hollywood to Delray Beach.
Species which are characteristic of recent organic pollution
are exceedingly rare.  Total species per sample are few, and
both species and numbers are characteristic of impoverished
shelf water.  In addition they are similar to those of
Hutchinson Island shelf water, and to some extent of lower
Biscayne Bay, both of which are nutrient poor.
SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE STUDIES

In water which is not too turbulent or too shallow, particulate
organic matter such as sewage particles or the debris of dead
organisms, usually sink to the bottom and there are mineralized
by biological action.  It was thought that introduced sewage
might have a fallout in the area where released even though
the plume rose to the surface in 90 feet of water, and was
dispersed by wind and tidal currents.  Accordingly SCUBA
divers were employed to bring up samples of the interface,
both near the sewer outfalls and from places far removed.

Divers carried rigid plastic (thick walled) tubes about
15-24 inches long to the bottom at depths of 15 to 150 feet.
There the tube was jammed into the bottom, so that if possible
the top of the core was not less than six inches from the top
of the tube.  The top was stoppered, then the bottom.  If the
sand or silt was loose and uncompacted, the tube could be
leaned to one side and then the bottom stopper inserted.
It may not be generally realized, but this usually obtains
an undisturbed interface, since the top tends to be crusty
except in quite coarse sand and shell fragments.

These tubes are brought into the laboratory in a bucket of
water, protected from the sun,  and the top stopper removed,
care being taken to assure no leak at the bottom.  Usually
water is pipetted off until only about an inch remains over
the core.  Examination of this pipetted water shows usually
a biota similar to the surface water, but with some bottom
organisms.  The cores are viable for 24-48 hours, and actually
the interface biota is best represented after several hours
standing in the laboratory.

The interface, about 1.4 millimeters thick, is an amazing
microcosm.  Its microbiota is far more similar, sample to
sample, than the macrofauna of much larger samples of bottom
material.  Examination is simply by taking a succession of
drops of mixed water and surface material, spreading beneath
a cover glass and examining at 100 and 400 diameters.  A
rough quantitation is possible by estimating the number of
drops in a 2 or 3 millimeter interface for the tube diameter,
then counting the organisms in each of several drops.  In a
silt or very fine sand interface counting is not too difficult,
                               97

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except for movement by the organisms.  But in coarse sand, or
shell debris it is all but impossible, so tenaciously do the
organisms cling to the grains or fragments.  Some such as the
diatom Cocconeis or certain blue green algae are actually
attached to the grains.  Attempts at dislodging the organisms
by flushing out with ice cold fresh water, back flushing and
agitation, have been futile.  Removal of the finer suspension
after gentle agitation and about a two second lapse for
coarse particle settling has been partly successful, especially
if the fine suspension is centrifuged gently for about three
minutes.

Table 10 indicates that some surface organisms are found in
the interface.  Their occurrence there is very limited both
as to number and as to species.  Actually the two groups are
distinctive.  The shelf water plankton typically includes a
few volvocids, a few cryptomonads and coccolithophorids, certain
dinoflagellates, diatoms and swimming ciliates all with organ-
elles for swimming, or in the diatoms, flotation mechanisms.
There is a sharp difference also between the shelf plankton
and the Gulf Stream plankton.  The interface organisms are
principally creeping organisms - sulfur bacteria, some blue
green algae which are red in color, colorless euglenids,,
characteristic dinoflagellates, many pennate diatoms, a great
variety of ciliates and a few rhizopods - thecate forms mostly,
and exclusive of the globigerinids, acantharians and adio-
larians of the Gulf Stream.  There are exceptions of course -
the shelf surface water often contains the blue green alga
Richelia, epiphytic Rhizoso1enia, and a species of the ciliate
Vorticella, epizoic also on diatoms.  But the largest ciliates
such as Tracheloc erca, S ten tor and Condvlostoma are interfaces
organisms.

The abundance of ciliates attests to the high population of
bacteria there; the saprozoic euglenids to the release of
soluble organic matter; the sulfur bacteria to the abundance
of sulfides; and the many photosynthetic diatoms and dino-
flagellates to the release of nitrate and phosphate.  The red
color of many indicates the filtered-out portion of the
spectral light even at 150 feet.

For many of these no satisfactory taxonomic placement was
possible.  Some are certainly undescribed species,  but time
has not yet allowed a literature search for most of them.
Because of this a number have the designation p.n.  in Table 10,
denoting a handy provisional name for purposes of enumeration
as they recur.

The very numbers of interface organisms is an indication of
how important is this interface as a place where mineralization
is very active.  Many of the organisms there are facultative,
but very few are found below about the three millimeter depth
in the sediment.
                              98

-------
BUILD-UP BENEATH OUTFALLS

For some time now,  black mounds have built up beneath the
Pompano Beach and Delray outfalls.  The mounds and surrounding
periphery fluctuate in height and perimeter usually being no
more than three feet high and perhaps fifty feet or less long,
twenty or thirty wide.  They are semi-permanent,  subject to
current attrition.   They are the first indication of a sewer
outfall effect in this area.

They are inhibitory to the normal interface biota, at their
location.  The only microscopic interface organisms found on them
are bacteria, a few colorless flagellates (Bodo,  Trepomonas,
Monas and Oicomonas) and a few large ciliates.  Thus on December 9,
1969, the following 17 organisms were recovered from the interface
of the mound beneath the Pompano Beach outfall:
Sulfur bacteria
  Beggiatoa alba

Zooflagellata
  Bodo marina
  Trepomonas rotans
  Unidentified species

Ciliata
  Condylo stoma
  G a s tro nauta
  Gruberia
  Hemiophrvs
  Loxophyllum
  Oxytricha
  Peritromus
  Trachelocerca coluber
  Trachelocerca phoenicopterus
  Uronychia
  Unidentified species

Metazoa
  Polychaeta
  Copepoda  (harpacticoid)
Seven of these were not found in any of four cores surrounding
this mound at approximately 100 foot distances from it.  Only
two of them were found in all five cores.  Yet the outer four
cores yielded 75 other species in the time available for their
study.  (A fairly comprehensive analysis of a core interface
required two to four hours.)   Other examinations of these mounds
at other times generally produced the same results:  a black
deposit, harpacticoid copepods and a few species,but often large
numbers, of ciliates.  Curiously they not infrequently contained,
in each 2-inch core, a few emphipods, and capitellid worms,  such
as Reish has found around the California outfalls.

The inhibitory effect on the normal bottom biota and the normal
process of mineralization is clear.  A large area blanketed by
such a deposit would not only have this effect, but also a serious
effect on the food chain.  It was pointed out above that such
shelf waters are impoverished, i.e., low producers, and they
could stand more production of microscopic plants and animals to
fatten the food chain.  And if sewage contains N and P, why not
use it?  The process of mineralization in these mounds is almost
certainly anaerobic, despite our lack of DO measurements there.
This means it is slow.
                               99

-------
Yentsch in his analysis of December 29,  1969,  suggests the
possibility of the diatom population being augmented in the
vicinity of outfalls by fertilization.   This does not occur,
either for diatoms, photosynthetic dinoflagellates,  or
saprozoic euglenids; all three groups being very abundant at
points far removed from outfalls.   Since figures for nitrogen
and phosphorus are more than open ocean, or offshore shelf
waters, and since Yentsch believes these values reflect those
in the sludge mounds, it seems reasonable to expect higher
photosynthetic populations.  This does not occur; instead
there is a lowering of the population,  with no suitable
explanation available.  Blackening of the sand and the types
of organisms present indicate an anaerobic process,  and it is
probable that what mineralization occurs is due to bacteria,
and that not enough fertilizer is released to increase either
plankton or interface organisms.
SLIDE EXAMINATIONS

Neither the plankton nor the interface studies provided much
of a clue to organisms capable of attaching to a solid
substrate and forming colonies there.  Some few colonies of
Zoothamnium and a few colonial diatoms were noted,  but nothing
like the folonial ciliates important in sewage treatment.
Accordingly rectangular racks were constructed which would
hold a dozen microscope slides at top and bottom, and which
were open on both sides.  Some of these racks were attached
to the sewer outfall, some to the current meter, far distant
from any sewage.  Numbered slides were inserted and left for
24, 48 and 72 hours.  At the end of these intervals, the slides
or the entire rack were removed, placed in a bucket or other
container of water, and brought in.  One side was wiped off,
and a cover glass was placed on the middle of the other side.
The slide could then be examined at 100 and 400 diameters,
and organisms in 625 millimeters could be identified and
counted.

Much of the evidence from these studies was negative.  The
slides from the outfall conduit simply did not acquire a high
population, even at the end of 72 hours.  It had been expected
that after 24 hours a bacterial film would be present along
with numerous zooflagellates of the genera Bodo, Monas, and
Oicomonas, and some ciliates.  The bacterial film developed,
but very little else, even after 72 hours.  From the number
of times this was repeated it appears as if the plume of sewage
is inhibitory, either from its composition or by creating a
strong vertical current.

At the current meter the slides were more productive.  Few
organisms accumulated, even after 72 hours, near the surface
(20-30 feet), but near the bottom a more varied and numerous
                               100

-------
biota developed.  Often the slides were too overgrown at
72 hours to count.

This biota was an ecologic group.  First to appear were
bacteria, then zooflagellates and the ciliates Dysteria and
Chilodonella.  Then naviculoid diatoms appeared, and seemed
to reproduce and remain on the slide.  There was some mixture
of diatom species eventually, but beautiful colonies of
Licmophora, an unidentified arcuate species, and Asterionella
kariana usually dominated.  On some slides almost the only
organism was the suctorian Podophrya posing the question of
whether or not it fed on diatoms.  After 72 hours the slides
were frequently overgrown with diatoms, hydroids, nematode
worms, and hypotrichous ciliates had also appeared.  Asterionella
kariana was virtually unknown in these studies until it appeared
on the slides.  The same is true of Podophrya.  Apparently
there is a separate environmental niche for such attaching
organisms.  However these slides rather present an academic
than a practical interest, aside from the possible inhibitory
action of the sewage plume.


SHELF VERSUS GULF STREAM PLANKTON BIOTAS

Almost the only green, non-motile cells found in this work
occurred as plankton at the near shore stations.  The inshore
waters out to depths of more than 100 feet often contained
a few pennate diatoms, and such species as Asterionella
japonica, certain species of Chaetoceras, Rhizosolenia and
small centric forms.  Actually most of the species listed
by Cupp for the area around La Jolla, California, or the
Pudget Sound area, occurred here despite the much warmer
water.  The greatest difference was in the low numbers of
large centric diatoms near Boca Raton.

Euglenids were almost lacking.  Cryptomonad genera showed
several species of Cryptomonas, Chilomonas, Rhodomonas, and
Hillea, occasionally in large numbers.  Volvocida were
restricted almost wholly to Pyramidomonas qrossi.  Large
dinoflagellates were scarce but small species of Gvmnodinium
and Gryodinium occurred.  Coccolithophorids were represented
almost, wholly by Syracosphaera carterae.  Other groups were
occasional, except a few tintinnids occurred with some
frequency, but not abundance, likewise Strombidium.

The Gulf Stream not only had much smaller numbers - there
were fewer species and they were different.  This is shown
in Table 10,  and it applies especially to Coccolithophorids,
Acantharia, and Radiolaria.  Such mixing of shelf and Gulf
Stream species as occurred was usually more than 6000 feet
offshore.  It was found that water bottle samples in the Gulf
Stream gave a poor picture of its biota, so a Clarke-Bumpus
                               101

-------
sampler using a No.  20 net was employed.   This was towed at
the surface, at 30 feet,  at 100 and at 200 feet.   The numbers
or organisms in the top meter and at 30 feet was  about the
same, but there were fewer at 100 feet,  and very  markedly less
at 200 feet.  This was true of virtually all species; there was
no stratification of copepods at any of these four depths.

Only a few species of Radiolaria were encountered; but
Acantharia, though unidentified, were quite diverse.   Ciliates
were mostly tintinnids - a few species,  rare in occurrence.
It was found that if the net was towed a short time,  and the
catch was washed into 800 or 1000 mis of water, there was no
quick die off, so that species were studied alive.  Unfortun-
ately, Acantharia preserved very poorly,  even with 3-5%
formalin.
CONCLUSIONS

Table 10 is quite informative in regard to the quality of
organisms in the four ecological situations involved.  First,
it provides an idea of abundance,  because of three of these
situations, and with few exceptions,  the fourth,  the organisms
listed were encountered in one ml. of water, i.e., in any ml.
of raw water the organisms occurred at least once, for a
particular sample.  The number of occurrences as shown in
columns 1, 2, 3 and 4 also gives an idea of frequency of
occurrence, but not whether the organism is seasonal.  The
table does not give information as to the total numbers of
each species on any date, and hence little idea of population
density.  This would have to be determined from the individual
reports, and there is little to be gained from an attempted
average of these, since one species may occur in relatively
large numbers on one date, and a different species on another
date.  It has been stated above that blooms are virtually
lacking in the transect samples and that the numbers in the
interface are large - perhaps 18,000 to 24,000 diatoms in some
samples, with 100 to 1600 colorless euglenids and the same
number of ciliates per ml.  Trichodesmium (Skujaella) may
bloom in the Gulf Stream, and is certainly the dominant
organism there.

Table 10 also graphically separates the free floating from
the creeping organisms, and the consumers of bacteria
(ciliates) from those more dependent on photosynthesis.  This
is not so clear-cut because light penetrates the depths at
which the outfalls were located in sufficient quantity to
affort phytosynthesis.  Its lessened effectiveness is shown,
however, in the red color of the blue green algae and dino-
flagellates at these depths.

This separation also indicates the nature of the processes
which occur at the various depths.  Thus the surface waters
                               102

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of the transects have 25 species of ciliates,  most of them
tintinnids, and the Gulf Stream 20.  These are probably
obligate aerobes, feeding on bacteria.  The interface
ciliates number 99, many of them facultative aerobes, but
also feeding largely on bacteria.  The indication is that
bacteria are few in the surface waters, abundant in the
interface.  But the euglenids and colorless dinoflagellates
of the interface, some of which are facultative aerobes,
also indicate that soluble organic matter is being liberated
here, whereas the surface waters are impoverished of both
inorganic and soluble organic matter.  And the only indi-
cation of any sewage effect is directly beneath the outfalls,
where the numbers of all organisms are greatly reduced.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES

The analyses furnished do not give the organic content of
the cores beneath the outfalls or distant therefrom.  It is
recommended that any future studies do this on a dry weight-
ash basis.  It is recommended also that an effort be made
to determine H2S in these cores, since this gas is toxic.
If the blackening of the particulate matter is due to metallic
sulfides, H2S becomes of less importance.  Nevertheless, if
the cores are left stoppered, the organisms die, and H2S is
nasally detectable.  This indicates a goodly amount of organic
matter.  If these black mounds build up, the buried organic
matter will be mineralized with great slowness.

It is also recommended that an oxygen probe be used, since
H2S and ©2 are compatible in small amounts.  But the two sets
of data for nitrogen and phosphorus are not sufficient, beyond
indicating that more than normal are actually released.  How-
ever NO-^/N was lacking in the cores both beneath the outfall
and 100 feet away, as well as immediately above the Pompano
core on September 29, 1969.  PO|/P was much higher in the
supernatant water than in the cores.  Such an unbalanced
condition is not conducive to high biotic production.  A
conspicuous weakness of these studies is that not enough
chemical data was amassed to find correlations with the biotic
data, but this was not possible under the working conditions
and time available.
                               103

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                           SECTION VI

                OCEANOGRAPHIC FEATURES OP NEARSHORE
                WATERS ON A NARROW CONTINENTAL SHELF
INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS

Ocean outfalls are being utilized to dispose of human waste by
ocean fringing communities throughout the world.  The economic
benefit of disposing sewage with little treatment through use
of outfalls is being justified by the assumptions that:
(1)  the ocean is vast and therefore capable of dispersing and
diluting the discharge without degradation of water quality;
(2)  sea water die-off of pathogenic bacteria is very rapid so
that public health standards are not violated;  (3)   bacterial
breakdown and recycling of wastes will occur without signi-
ficant buildup of organic material.  These three assumptions
cannot be applied uniformly to all outfall locations for they
are dependent upon a particular localities oceanographic
features.

It is not the ocean as a whole that is receiving the discharged
wastes, but rather the nearshore waters.  Therefore, the ocean-
ographic environmental parameters associated with each outfall
side will control the short and long term effects of wastes
disposal into the nearshore receiving waters.  The environ-
mental parameters will control the spacial and temporal
movements of the effluent field after discharge into the near-
shore waters.  Physical parameters such as current speed and
direction, wind speed and direction, temperature, salinity and
their associated horizontal and vertical distributions will
determine whether or not the effluent will surface, how it will
disperse, how long it will remain in the area, and the magni-
tude of natural bacteria die-off.

Florida Ocean Sciences Institute has been investigating, for the
past three yeras, the oceanographic parameters of the nearshore
waters off Pompano, Boca Raton, and Delray as related to the
Pompano and Delray outfalls (Figure 22).  These outfalls dis-
charge at a water depth of 90 feet as will the Boca Raton outfall
when construction is completed.  By classical definition this
water depth is defined as the "edge" of the continental shelf
or the point where the bottom profile gradient increases to
1 foot in the vertical for every 20 feet horizontal.

The nearshore circulation off Pompano, Boca Raton, and Delray
departs from the typical shelf water movements which are con-
trolled by tide and wind forces for two significant reasons; the
extreme narrowness of the continental shelf  (1 - 1^ miles in
width) and the close proximity of the Florida Current  (Gulf
Stream).  The western edge of the Florida Current meanders
laterally  (east-west) causing large fluctuations of current
speed and direction in the shelf waters which mask wind and
tide induced variations.  The interaction of the Florida Current
                              105

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DELRAY   BEACH


          OUTFALL
 BOCA RATON
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with its land boundary at the Continental Shelf produces large
cyclonic eddies in the shelf waters that are entrained northward
by the Florida Current and further complicate the nearshore
circulation.  The major oceanographic features of the nearshore
waters off Pompano, Boca Raton/ and Delray in general will
typify the continental shelf waters of Southeast Florida.
Differences may occur as the Continental Shelf widens enabling
tide and wind forces to exert more influence on the water further
removed from the Florida Current.
INSTRUMENTATION

The observed coastal water movements are the resultants of the
combined tide, wind and Florida Current induced currents.  In
order to separate the forces and their resulting currents it is
necessary to record the significant parameters involved, simul-
taneously and continuously over long time periods.  To accomplish
this, a sensor array was constructed off Boca Raton to record
current speed and direction, temperature profile, wave height,
tidal fluctuations of sea level, and wind speed and direction.

A triangular array of Marine Advisor Savonius Rotor current
meters (Model #Q-12) was constructed across the shelf at
Boca Raton  (Figure 23).  Each current meter was rigidly mounted
25 feet beneath the surface on top of a stationary tower which
was cemented and guyed into the bottom, thus eliminating any
error due to instrument motion.  The current meters were sep-
arated by a distance of 2640 feet.  Current meter #2 was posi-
tioned at the edge of the Continental Shelf.  Three Yellow
Springs Instrument Company thermistor probes were attached to
the support tower of current meter #2 at depths of 25, 55, and
95 feet.  Wave heights and mean sea level fluctuations were
measured with a wave staff constructed by the Georgia Institute
of Technology Field Station under a Navy Contract.  Wind speed
and direction was measured 30 feet above the beach with an
anemometer on loan from Florida State University.  The signals
from the above sensors were transmitted via cable back to
Georgia Tech. Field Station and Radar Tower for analog recording.

A fourth Marine Advisors Current Meter was rigidly constructed
near the Pompano Outfall 25 feet beneath the surface  (Figure 24).

Horizontal and vertical distributions of temperature and sal-
inity were measured with a portable, in-situ, Beckman RS-5
Salinometer.  Spacial distributions of currents across the
shelf were measured with free drifting current crosses.  Accurate
positioning was obtained by using shore located optical transits.

The current meters were calibrated in the laboratory electronically
and in the field by comparing data readout against dye measure-
ments.  Divers released dye at the current meters and timed
the dye displacement over a known distance.  This procedure
was repeated five times at each meter.  The difference in speed
between the average of the five dye releases and the average
                                107

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of the current meter data was never greater than .04 knots.
Because of the rapid biological fouling in these shallow,
nearshore waters the current meter had to be checked frequently
and replaced after four to six weeks of operation.

The thermistors were calibrated in the lab by comparing them to
a Hg. thermometer.  The thermistors were found to be linear and
interchangeable over the desired temperature range (67.5-92.5°F).

The Beckman portable salinometer was calibrated with the aid of
a laboratory, inductive cell type salinometer on loan from the
ESSA Physical Oceanographic Lab in Miami.


METHOD AND PROCEDURE

TEMPERATURE-SALINITY-CURRENT OBSERVATIONS

Transects of temperature and salinity perpendicular to the shore
across the Continental Shelf at Pompano and Boca Raton have been
conducted since December 5, 1968.  Each transect consisted of a
line of stations starting inshore and proceeded east until the
Florida Current was reached.  This was determined when the temp-
erature and salinity became horizontally stable and of the order
of magnitude expected of the Florida Current.  Other visual
indications of the Florida Current were boat drift (as determined
from shore located transists) and the deep blue water color
typical of the Florida Current.  At each station temperature
and salinity were measured at ten foot intervals from the surface
to the bottom or to a depth of 240 feet which was the cable
limit.  Stations were usually less than 3000 feet apart.  Free
drifting current crosses were released in the surface, 20 and
40 foot depths at intervals along the transects.  Current crosses
were made of plywood sheets  (IV x IV)/ and were either weighted
to suspend from a surface float at a desired depth or were balanced
to remain a few inches below the surface with only a small marker
pole above surface.  Figures 25 through 45 are typical examples
of transects for different seasons at Pompano.  Pompano outfall
discharges at a point where the bottom profile intersects the
90 foot water depth.

The temperature transects show a seasonal variation of sea
surface temperature of approximately 16°F.  A minimum temperature
of around 70°F occurs in January and February and increases to
a maximum of about 86°F in June and July.  The vertical temp-
erature structure of the nearshore waters is well mixed with
small vertical temperature gradients from mid-August to the
latter part of April.  Strong stratification with vertical
temperature gradients as high as 12°F in 90 feet of water begin
to appear at this time and predominate until mid-August.  Large
vertical temperature gradients produce large density  (sigma-t)
gradients and thus a very stable water column.  This is shown
in the waste disposal section of this report to be very important
                                 110

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in mixing the discharged effluent at a subsurface depth and
preventing the waste material from surfacing.

Temperature isotherms across the Continental Shelf show a
seasonal variation.  In the fall, winter and spring,  north
currents show a deepening of isotherms in the seaward direction.
The western edge of the Florida Current is seen to coincide
with the "cold wall" of sharply sloping isotherms.  Pronounced
horizontal temperature gradients in the surface will also
position the western edge.  Measurements of current speed and
temperature indicate that the western edge of the Florida
Current is meandering laterally from its westward most position
on the shelf to about 4.7 miles offshore which is in good agree-
ment with the meandering fluctuations found by Schmitz and
Richardson (1968).  During the late spring and early summer,
strong stratification predominates and isotherms tend to become;
horizontal, making positioning of the western edge of the
Florida Current with temperature measurements difficult.

Of major importance to nearshore circulation is the frequent
occurance of current reversals.  These reversals are thought
to be produced by cyclonic eddies which spin off the Florida
Current due to the frictional interaction with the side bound-
ary and are advected northward through the shelf waters.
These eddies produce south currents in the shelf waters of
equal magnitude as the north currents.  In general the south
currents will be strongest, and the distance offshore to the
north currents will be greatest, when the center of the  jcldy
is directly offshore.  During the passage of an eddy, water
from the Florida Current is advected shoreward then turns south,
therefore, temperature isotherms become horizontal and at times
show a slope deepening toward the west with south currents.

The salinity transects consistently show a subsurface core of
high salinity water.  The salinity in the core ranges from
36.2 to 36.6 0/00 and represents the high salinity core of the
Florida Current.  Transects with northward coastal currents
show the core of the 36.4 0/00 isohaline to vary horizontally
from 4500 to 8500 feet offshore and vertically, the core ranges
from 30 to 60 feet beneath the surface.  The position changes
of the high salinity core reflect the latteral meandering of
the western boundary of the Florida Current.  The western
boundary is seen to be located over the Continental Slope
(8000 - 9000 feet offshore at Pompano) with an oscillation
about this position on the order of one mile either east or
west for north currents.  The distance offshore to the Florida
Current is thus dependent upon the width of the Continental Shelf
as defined by the slope of the bottom profile.  The distance
offshore to strong north currents is extended up to five miles
during the passage of an eddy.  Transects with south currents
consistently show "higher salinity water closer to shore.  This
is because a south current represents a Florida Current eddy
with water being shed directly off the Florida Current traveling
                                132

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west and then turning south.  At the end of an eddy the currents
shift counterclockwise back to the north, therefore,  the passage
of an eddy can act as a flushing mechanism for the shelf water.

The horizontal and vertical distribution of currents in the
nearshore waters was determined from the extremely large amount
of current cross and fluorescein dye field surveys conducted
over the three year period of this study (Lee, 1968) .  North
currents show a decrease in intensity as the shore is approached
and as the bottom is neared.  When the western edge of the
Florida Current is in close to shore large lateral shears often
occur.  South currents show a maximum speed on the shelf which
decreases in intensity toward the shore and to the east as
the center of the eddy is approached.  East of the center
current direction shifts to the north and the intensity in-
creases to a maximum north speed in the current axis of 4 to
5 knots.

At any point in time and space nearshore currents can be thought
of as the vector sum of the current speed and direction induced
by the Florida Current, tide and wind forces.  The tidal
influence will be discussed in a separate section of this
report.  The Florida Current produces a current to the north
or south with average speeds around 0.5 knots and rapid fluc-
tuations ranging from 40 to 70 percent of the mean.  Observance
of current cross surveys with crosses placed in the surface,
20 feet and 40 feet (Lee, 1968)  show the main wind effect is
in altering the direction of the surface current.  The monthly
resultants of wind speed and direction given in Table 11 for
West Palm Beach, 1968, show a predominance of onshore (easterly)
winds in the Southeast Florida area.

Onshore winds produce a shoreward component in the resultant
northerly or southerly currents.  The current field surveys
show that the water movement in the vicinity of the outfall
is normally to the north or south with a small shoreward com-
ponent depending on the magnitude of the onshore winds.
Current cross surveys normally last about 4 hours, therefore,
only short term water movements are investigated.  Drift cards
were used in order to see if the long term effect of the wind
induced shoreward component would transport water from the
outfall region to shore.  Drift cards were released at stations
on a line perpendicular to the shore, ten at each station,
starting inshore and proceeding east until the Florida Current
was reached.  A complete listing of the results from these
drops is given in Table 12.

The drift card returns were very poor, only 6.7% of the cards
released were returned.  The larger number of returns from the
south reflect the greater number of bathers in the Fort Lauder-
dale area.  In general, the data indicate the typical features
of the nearshore currents, i.e. the recovery distance increases
as the release distance from shore increases representing a
                                133

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cyclonic shear across the shelf for north currents.  Releases
into south currents show the cyclonic nature of Florida Current
eddies.  Cards released on September 16, 1969 and January 16,
1970 first went south then one can assume after some period of
time turned east at the end of the eddy then traveled north and
eventually came ashore.  The cards dropped furthest from shore
were recovered the greatest distance north.  The cards dropped
close to shore on January 16, came ashore before they reached
the end of the eddy.  Drift card data reveal only a gross idea
of the water movements during the time lapse between release
and recovery and should be used for no other reason.  There is
no way of knowing how long the card drifted parallel to shore
in the swash and surf zones before beaching, nor how long it
lay on the beach before recovery.  However, it does indicate
that free drifting objects released in the nearshore waters
will come ashore at some time and distance dependent upon the
circulation features of the area.
TIDAL INLET DISCHARGE

The effect of the Hillsboro and Boca Raton inlets (Fig. 22)  on
nearshore circulation was discussed in the Second Annual Report.
These inlets ebb and flow with a 12.43 hr. period in response
to the southerly passage of the principal lunar semidiurnal,
progressive tidal wave, down the Florida Straits (Richardson,
1967).  Inlet discharge, being less saline and warmer than the
shelf waters and therefore less dense, floats above the shelf
water as a shallow lens approximately 4 feet deep.  The Pompano
salinity profiles (Figure 25-45) show the inlet discharge in
the inshore waters as a shallow layer extending from 3000 to
6000 feet offshore with salinities 2 - 4% less than the shelf
water.  Those transects are approximately 2 miles south of the
inlet showing that Pompano inlet discharge travels south -
southeast from the inlet even against a north current on the
shelf.  Figure 45A from the second annual report (Lee, 1968)
is included to show the horizontal movement of the tidal plume.
The convergence of currents in the surface produces a sharp
color contrast between the dark brown tidal water and the
green shelf water.  This color contrast made it easy to map the
southeast movement of the plume by marking the edge of the
plume with a fast boat, and shore transits.  The inlet plume
pushes south because the inlet is discharging in a southeast
direction, thus supplying enough momentum to travel south against
a north current.  Current cross measurements show the plume to
be traveling southeast at about 0.25 knots.  The north surface
currents on the shelf converge with the tide plume,  then are
diverted toward the north-east around the plume.  Subsurface
currents travel north unaffected by the tidal plume.  The Boca
Raton inlet discharges perpendicular to the coast, as does the
Fort Lauderdale inlet, therefore the plume extends to the east
then travels either north or south depending on the direction
of the nearshore currents.  A possible solution to reduce the
                                 137

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periods of turbid inlet discharge from the Pompano bathing
waters would be to reconstruct the Hillsboro inlet to discharge
perpendicular to the shelf then the discharge would travel a
greater distance offshore before turning north or south with
the nearshore currents as evidenced by the Boca Raton and
Fort Lauderdale inlets.
CURRENT METER RECORDS

In order to obtain a description of the nearshore circulation
that can be systematically analyzed to reveal the effects of
the producing forces/ long, continuous records of current
speed and direction are required.  The triangular current
meter array at Boca Raton  (Figure 23)  was put into operation
December 6, 1968.  These current meters and the current meter
at Pompano have been recording with only minor interruptions
for servicing and equipment failure since their installation.
Each meter records simultaneously in consecutive five minute
cycles/ 2^ minutes of direction then 2Jf minutes of speed.
The current meter records from Boca Raton are representative
of the water movements throughout the study area.  Current
meter #2 is positioned relative to the Continental Shelf in
the same location as the outfalls of Pompano and Delray and
the soon to be completed Boca Raton outfall.  The current
meters are positioned 25 feet beneath the surface.  Compar-
isons of current cross measurements in the surface and at 25
feet show that currents at this point normally can vary +0.05
knots from the surface currents.  Current direction at 25 feet
is approximately the same as the surface.  Therefore the current
meter data is assumed to be representative of the surface cur-
rents.  The data from the analog record of current meter #2,
over the time period December 6, 1968 to August ll/ 1969, was
key punched for computer analysis.  Fortran programs were
developed to provide the following information:

          1.  For every 10° compass interval:
              a)  frequency of observations
              b)  mean velocity
              c)  standard deviation
              d)  variance
              e)  percent fluctuation

          2.  Convert data into the u (east-west)
              and v  (north-south) components.

          3.  Compute and plot the u and v energy
              spec tr urns.

          4.  Model and predict the u and v tidal
              currents.

          5.  Subtract the tidal currents from the
              actual currents yielding a residual
                                139

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              u and v current.

          6.  For the u and v currents of the actual,
              tidal and residual currents compute:
              a)   mean velocity
              b)   standard deviation
              c)   variance
              d)   percent fluctuation
              e)   percent positive
              f)   percent negative
              g)   mean positive
              h)   mean negative

          7.  Plot the actual, tidal and residual for
              both the u and v component current.

The current speed and direction data for every 10° compass
interval can be displayed graphically with the current roses
of Figures 46-54.  The mean current speed in knots for each
interval is shown at the ends of the protruding observation
arms.  The most striking feature of the current rose drawings
is the predominance of north and south currents with speeds of
the same magnitude.  Currents to the east and west are less
frequent with speeds approximately one half that of the north-
south currents.  There appears to be a seasonal variation of
speed of the north-south currents.  Minimum speeds occur during
January and increase to a maximum around the end of July.  The
abnormal grouping of currents to the east shown in Figures 25,
28 and 29 are not real features of the currents.  The break
point on the current direction potentiometer sensor was set
on east, therefore, east currents produce large fluctuations
on the readout.  The person taking off data has a tendency to
call large fluctuations in direction an east current.  In
actuality the east current should be spread out over an inter-
val from 70° to 110°.

The currents of interest in terms of determining the shoreward
movement of water from the vicinity of the outfall are the
negative u component  (west) of the current velocity, therefore,
the current velocity vectors were resolved into the north-
south (v component) and east-west  (u component) currents.  A
positive v component would be a current to the north and neg-
ative v to the south.  A positive u component indicates an
east current and negative u is to the west.

Statistical computations were made on the data used to construct
the current rose drawings and are presented in Table 13.  The
v component table shows 62% of the v component currents are
to the north with a mean of 0.45 knots and 31% to the south
with a -0.39 knot mean.  The u component shows 47% of the
u components to the east and 47% to the west with means of
0.17 and -0.16 knots respectively.  The seasonal variation of
current speed is clearly evident.  A minimum +v component of
0.20 knots occurs in late January and a maximum of 0.70 knots
in late July.  This represents a seasonal fluctuation of 55%
                                140

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of the mean northerly current.  Based on previous results of
investigations of the Gulf Stream this seems excessively high.
Fuglister (1948), reported a seasonal fluctuation of 14% of the
mean, Hela (1952), found 10% and Richardson (1967)  also concluded
10% as an upper bound for seasonal fluctuations.  However, these
investigations were all conducted within the stream where the
average fluctuation is only 9.23% of the mean (Smith, Zetler
and Broida,  1969).  During July the trade winds intensify due
to the increased pressure gradient of the Bermuda-Azores High
(Stommel, 1965).  This increase in the circulation of the
North Atlantic wind system in the summer may be responsible for
the increase in the nearshore current speeds in late July,
however, this is merely speculation.  A seasonal fluctuation
of 10% of the mean speed in the Florida Current would be mag-
nified in the shelf waters, for not only would the speed of
the Florida Current be greater but the western boundary would
spread laterally.  Thus, the western edge of the Florida Current
would be closer to current meter #2 for a greater amount of
time in July, therby, accounting for a high seasonal fluctuation
of 55% of the mean.

The u component data show that west currents have the lowest
speeds of any direction (-0.16 mean).  The current speed must
be considered in conjunction with the duration in order to see
the effect of west currents in transporting water shoreward
from the region of the Pompano outfall.  Negative u components
are produced by two means:  1) The start of a Florida Current
eddy when current direction cycles counterclockwise through
west, which is of relatively short duration (1-2 hours) ;  2)
As the east-west component of a steady, resultant current at
some angle to the west from north or south.  The west component
of a northwest or southwest current can last for long periods
of time.  Figure 55 is a typical plot of the u and v components
of the actual  (observed) currents taken from current meter #2
computer print-out.  The component to the west lasts for 38
hours with speeds from -0.02 to -0.38 knots.  Using a mean u
component of -0.2 knots for west currents, it would take 6 hours
for effluent from the Pompano outfall to reach shore.  Figures
46-54 show that current vectors in the direction of 200  make up
a large percent of the total number of observations.  This is
because a current vector of 200° is produced by the passage of
a Florida Current eddy, which occurs quite frequently.  During
an eddy, the water movement at current meter #2 is predominately
in the direction of 200° advecting Florida Current water onto
the shelf.  The normal situation is for the currents to shift
to a southerly direction as the shore is approached, thus,
decreasing the speed of the west current and either increasing
the travel time of effluent before it reaches the bathing areas
or diverting it away from the bathing areas.  At the southern
end of an eddy the current direction changes to east and event-
ually to the north with the Florida Current.
                                151

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TIDAL ANALYSIS

Current meter data from Pompano and Boca Raton consistently
show large fluctuations in both speed and direction.  These
fluctuations can be seen in both the large standard deviations
of Table 13 or graphically in Figure 55.

Tidal currents are produced by the periodic variation of mean
sea level associated with a large number of tide producing
forces.  Both the tidal forces and resulting currents vary as
simple periodic motions, therefore, tidal currents are seen
in a spectral analysis of time series data as a peak of energy
at the associated tidal frequency.

Energy spectra for the u and v components (Lee, 1968) were
computed and plotted for each set of data given in Table 13,
using the program developed by Mannring and Tennant  (1968),
in order to determine if there was any periodicity to the
observed fluctuations.  The spectrums revealed that approx-
imately 90% of the energy is associated with periods greater
than 20 hours.  There is an absence of any predominate peaks
associated with particular frequency bands.   The spectra
suggest that the large scale fluctuations present in the data
are aperiodic.  However, because of the accumulation of energy
in the near tidal and long period motions, the amount of tidal
influence in the variations could not be concluded from energy
spectrums.

A harmonic analysis of the current records was performed in
order to separate the tidal effects and predict the tidal cur-
rents.  The actual tide producing force is a linear combination
of the amplitude and phase of each constituent force.  Although
there may be a great number of constituent forces the tide
producing force can be reliably estimated using only the five
major tidal components listed in Table 14 (Durham, et al, 1967).

The Coast and Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Maryland conducted
a harmonic analysis on a 29 day current meter record from
Pompano, to obtain the amplitude and phase of the 24 most
significant constituents.  The results for the five major
constituents are given in Tables 15 and 16.

Tidal currents in the nearshore waters are predominantly in a
north-south direction.  Since tidal changes in sea level are
strictly semi-diurnal in the Florida Straits, it is surprising
to find that diurnal tidal currents are of the same magnitude
as the semi-diurnal currents are present.  This was explained
by Zetler (1968), as the result of a longitudinal diurnal
standing wave joining the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean
with a node near Miami.  If this hypothesis is true, then the
K (1) phase angle near the node should be 90° earlier than
the K (1)  tide of the Gulf of Mexico.  Smith, et al  (1969),
using data from the monster buoy anchored in the Florida
                             153

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                       TABLE 14



          PRINCIPLE HARMONIC COMPONENTS OF THE TIDE






Name of Component                    Symbol     Period  (hours)



Principle Lunar Semi-diurnal          M(2)        12.43



Principle Solar Semi-diurnal          s(2)        12.00



Larger Lunar Elliptic Semi-diurnal    N(2)        12.66



Luni-Solar Diurnal                    K(l)        23.43



Lunar Diurnal                         O(1)        25.82
                              154

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                     TABLE 15


             v - Component  (north-south)

                                if
Constituent     Phase  (degrees)       Amplitude (knots)


    M(2)            110.27                 0.060


    N(2)            337.16                 0.020


    S(2)             57.13                 0.042


    0(1)             20.82                 0.054


    K(l)             31.21                 0.064
*  These phases are all referred  to  tidal flow to the north;
    to determine the flow  to  the  south apply + 180°.
                           155

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                    TABLE 16

             u - Component  (east-west)

Constituent     Phase  (degrees)      Amplitude  (knots)

    M(2)            352.83                 0.020

    N(2)            282.14                 0.004

    S(2)             29.26                 0.007

    0(1)            331.35                 0.012

    K(l)            285.74                 0.021
*  These phases are all referred  to  tidal flow to the north;
    to determine the flow  to  the  south apply + 180°.
                          156

-------
Current off Hollywood, Florida calculated a K (1) phase angle
of 284°, referred to the Greenwich meridian.  This is approx-
imately 90  earlier than the 20  Greenwich phase for K (1) in
the Gulf of Mexico.  The Greenwich phase for K  (1) from the
Pompano current meter data (v component) is 291°, which is in
good agreement with Smith and approximately 90° earlier than
the 20  Greenwich phase for the Gulf of Mexico,  thus supporting
the standing wave hypothesis.  Pompano, being near the node
experiences large diurnal currents without a diurnal change
in sea level.  The semi-diurnal currents are due to the semi-
diurnal progressive tidal wave moving through the Florida Straits
from north to south.

Tidal current predictions for the u and v velocity components
using the ten largest constituents from the harmonic analysis
were performed on the data records from Pompano and Boca Raton
using the following model  (Schureman,, 1958) :
               10
          Vj_=   Z  H± cos  (a.j_t +0^)              (1)
              i = 1

where i is the subscript for each constituent; H is the con-
stituent amplitude; a is the speed of the constituent; t is
time; and a= Greenwich  (Vo + u) +  jL§ - pL - K in which:
                                 15
          S = west longitude in degrees, of time meridian used
              at this station.

          L = west longitude in degrees of station for which
              predictions are desired.

          P = 0 when referring to the long period constituents.

          P = 1 when referring to the diurnal constituents.

          P = 2 when referring to the semi-diurnal constituents,
              etc.

          K = phase lag of constituent.

          Greenwich (Vo+ u) =  Equilibrium argument  (Vo + u) for
                               meridian of Greenwich.

Equation  (1) will therefore predict at any time  (t) the amplitudes
of the u and v tidal currents.

Computer plots were constructed of:  the u and v observed
currents at Pompano and Boca Raton; the predicted tidal cur-
rents; and the residual currents obtained by subtracting the
predicted tidal current from the actual current.  Figure 56 is
a representative plot of the v component current for two days of
the 29 day record from Pompano.  This plot shows the large varia-
tions in current speed and direction which are typical of the area.
The actual current shows strong currents to the  south lasting 20
                                157

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hours.  These strong south currents represent the northward
passage of a Florida Current eddy.  The actual and residual
nurrents are practically exact images indicating that the
i.idal contribution to the actual currents is small.  The tidal
current curve shows the mixed nature of the tides with semi-
diurnal and diurnal fluctuations present/ which are, for the
most part, out of phase with the fluctuations of the actual
current.

Smith et al, (1969), calculated a fluctuation of 10% of the
mean surface current as representative of the Florida Current.
The percent of these fluctuations due to tides was found to
be 21.35%.  The nearshore currents show a mean v component of
approximately 0.50 "knots for either north or south currents
and a mean u component of about 0.20 knots for east or west
currents  (Table 13) .  The average fluctuation of the observed
current ranges from 40 to 70 percent of the mean, determined
by dividing the standard deviation by the mean velocity for
each 10° compass interval.  The percent of the modulations
in the observed currents due to tides is given in Table 17
and 18.  The percent of the total current fluctuations due
to tidal current fluctuations is approximately 4.8% for the
v component and 2.7% for the u component.  It is apparent
that tidal currents are insignificant to nearshore circulation
in the southeast Florida area.  The combination of a narrow
continental shelf and the presence of a strong offshore current
which is meandering laterally into the shelf waters and pro-
ducing eddies which pass over the shelf produces large varia-
tions in current speed and direction in the nearshore currents
which mask tidal variations.
FLORIDA CURRENT EDDIES

The frictional interaction of the western boundary of the
Florida Current with the Continental Shelf produces large
lateral current shear, meandering, and spin-off eddies.
These non-linear effects make it very difficult to solve the
governing equations of motion.  Although the dynamics of this
region are not well understood it is believed that instabilities
develop in the shear region which grow into eddies and are
advected northward by the Florida Current.

The current meter data from Pompano and Boca Raton show the
northward passage of an eddy as a counterclockwise cycle of
the current vector.  The time of passage  (duration) of an
eddy may be from a few hours to 60 hours with speeds to the
south ranging from -0.2 to -1.5 knots.  Boca Raton current
meter data over the period from December 6, 1968 through
September, 1969 show the passage of 163 eddies in 270 days,
i.e. approximately 4 eddies/week.

Figure 56A shows the spatial characteristics of a hypothetical
eddy that was first presented in the second annual report
                               159

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          TABLE 17




Tidal Fluctuations;  v - Component
Date
12/6
1/10
1/20
2/26
3/27
5/16
6/13
7/8
7/25
- 1/6
- 1/20
- 1/31
- 3/27
- 4/11
- 6/2
- 7/2
- 7/24
- 8/11
Actual Current
Variance
.2229
.0515
.0720
.1327
.1692
.2999
.2153
.2751
.3514
Tidal Current
Variance
.0077
.0057
.0058
.0074
.0076
.0081
.0077
.0078
.0080
% Fluctuation
due to tides
3.45
11.10
8.06
5.58
4.40
2.71
3.25
2.84
2.28
                 160

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            TABLE 18




Tidal Fluctuations;  u - Component
Date
12/6 -
1/10 -
1/20 -
2/26 -
3/27 -
5/16 -
6/13 -
7/8 -
7/25 -
1/6
1/20
1/31
3/27
4/11
6/2
7/2
7/24
8/11
Actual Current
Variance
.0383
.0234
.0104
.0176
.0227
.0875
.0971
.0363
.0547
Tidal Current
Variance
.0008
.0007
.0007
.0007
.0008
.0008
.0008
.0008
.0008
% Fluctuation
due to tides
2.09
2.99
6.73
3.98
3.52
0.91
0.82
2.20
1.46
                161

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PROPOSED OUTFALL




  BOCA RATON

-------
 (Lee, 1968).  This eddy was constructed from current cross
observations at the start, middle and end of different eddies
and from current meter records taken over the same period.
Although current reversals can be explained by the northward
passage of a meander or wave in the Florida Current or as a
coastal counter current, the eddy concept is preferred based
on field observations of currents, temperature and salinity.
During periods of south currents the temperature, salinity/
water color and clarity were representative of the Florida
Current, indicating that shelf waters were being replaced by
water from the Florida Current and the reversals were not
simply coastal counter currents.  Current cross observations
at the southern end of eddies have shown the existance of a
disturbance line, formed where south currents in the eddy
converge with northerly moving shelf water, producing a
turbulent rip of easterly currents.  This disturbance line
was traveling north at approximately 0.6 knots.  It was hard
to conceive of a progressive wave producing this type of
convergence and/or horizontal distribution of temperature
and salinity.

The cyclonic nature of an eddy will transport water from the
Florida Current onto the shelf at the beginning of the eddy
and transport the shelf water offshore at the end.  Thus, the
passage of an eddy can act as a flushing mechanism for the
shelf waters.  The flushing capability or the ability to remove
and dilute pollutants will depend on the size, strength and
phase speed of the eddy.  This can be thought of in terms of
the duration of an eddy as seen from current meter records.
The greater the duration then the greater the size of the
eddy and the amount of time for transporting shelf water off-
shore.  Observations of water clarity and current meter records
indicate that an eddy lasting 16 hours or greater with maximum
southerly speeds greater than -0.6 knots can flush the shelf
waters.  Current meter records show that the frequency of
occurance of eddies with the above duration and speeds ranges
from 1 to 9 days.  Therefore, the residence time or length of
time a pollutant will reside in the shelf water is estimated
to be on the order of one week.

In order to predict the effect of eddies on nearshore circul-
ation a mathematical model is needed which will describe the
resulting water movements.  The model herein described is
based on the linear combination of a background current
 (Florida Current), with a moving circular vortex  (Florida
Current eddy).  The resulting flow is assumed to be two dimen-
sional in the x - y plane, with y positive to the north and
x positive to the east and the origin at a current meter.
The circulation in a free circular vortex is given by Owczarek
 (1968) as

           r= 2n-                              (2)
                                163

-------
where r is the radius of the vortex and ^   the velocity in
the 9 direction or direction of rotation of the vortex.  The
magnitude of the flow velocity induced by the vortex can be
written
The actual velocity as measured by a current meter v is the
vector sum of the background velocity V and the velocity in-
duced by the vortex ve

        v = V + ve                              (4)

This can be written in component form as

        u = U + ~J— . sin 9                   (5)
                ^  re

        v = V _ -~f—- • cos 9                   (6)
                *  re

where re is the magnitude of the vector re/ positioning the
center of the vortex relative to a current meter ,  and 9 is the;
angle re makes with the x axis.  The eddy position vector re
can be written
        re =  (x^ + y2)^                          (7)

where x and y are the component distances to the center of the:
eddy.  Since the eddy is moving we can write
               r           2               2 Ih
        re =   L(x0 + UBE t)  +  (y0 + VBE t)  J^  (8)

where XQ and yo are the initial distances from the current
meter to the center of the eddy, i.e. when the influence of
the eddy is first beginning to affect the current meter, u „
and vBg are the components of the background eddy movement
and t is time.  Since

        sin 9 = y                                (9)


   and
        cos 9 = x                                (10)


equations 5 and 6 can be rewritten as

        u = U + 	L_2 .  (y0 + vBEt)             (11)
                £•  -L g~i

        v = V - 	[_  .  (x_ + uRpt)             (12)
                rr	~*~J     O    D£J
 Equations  11  and  12  represent a  model  for nearshore circula-
 tion  during the passage  of  a Florida Current eddy.   The model
                               164

-------
is based on the seven parameters U, V, UBE/ VBE/ XQ, y0/ and r ,
These parameters will describe the movement of an eddy, its
position and its strength or circulation.

The seven parameters can be determined by using least square
regression techniques to minimize the sum of squares

        sl =Et Cu(P1...P7,t) - u(t)]  2         (13)

        S2 =\ [v(P1...P7,t) - v(t)]  2         (14)

where u(P]_. . .P7, t)  and v(P^...P7,t) are the velocity components
of the model, being a function of the 7 parameters  (P^.., .P7)
and time (t) .  The u(t) and v(t)  are the velocity components
from the current meter data.  The sum of squares S]_ and S2 are
combined to yield one set of parameters that apply to both
the u and v components.  Using initial estimates (P^....P7) of
the seven parameters, the difference between the minimizing
parameters and the initial parameters can be solved for by
regression, converging until this difference is small, thus
yielding the parameters of the model.  Although, the regression
program has not as yet been completed, estimates of the model
have been made using initial estimates of the seven parameters.
Figure 57 is a computer plot of the v component computed from
the data (plotted with ones) and from the model (plotted with
twos)  using data from current meter #2 for a 19 hour eddy on
December 13, 1968.  The following values were used for the
initial estimates of the parameters:

        U = 0.0 knots = 0.0 ft/min

        V = .50 knots = 50.0 ft/min

        UBE = 0*0 knots = 0.0 ft/min

        VBE ~ -265 knots = 26.5 ft/min

        xo = 11,600.0 feet

        yo = -14,830.0 feet

         r  = 9,620,000.0 feet2/min

These parameters produce a very good fit between the model and
the actual data (Figure 57).  The parameters are only for the
v component model (equation 12).  In order to find the exact
parameters that will fit both the v and u models to the data,
the complete model using the least  square regression program
must be utilized.  However, the initial estimates of the para-
meters are reasonably close for they were calculated from the
data.  These estimates show that the eddy of December 13, had
a radius of approximately 6 miles and was traveling northward
at about 0.26 knots.  The maximum south current speed during
                               165

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the 19 "hour eddy is -0.82 knots and occurs when the eddy
velocity, in the direction of rotation of the eddy, which is
interacting with a +0.50 "knot background current,  is approx-
imately 1.32 knots.

Long periods of south currents as seen in the current meter
records, typically show two or more peaks of maximum south
current  (see Figure 55).  These peaks are out of phase with
the tidal currents and are far too rapid and large of a var-
iation to be wind induced.  Therefore, these peaks and the
resulting currents are thought to be produced by a combination
of two eddies interacting with each other and traveling north-
ward through the shelf waters.  Long periods of south currents
can then be thought of as a coupling of two or more eddies
moving through the area.  It is a simple matter to combine
eddies in the model in order to fit data with long periods
of south currents and several peaks.

The passage of eddies through the study area does not display
periodicity, indicating that their formation is a random
process.  The determination of accurate values of the eddy
parameters from the model will lead to a better understanding
of eddy formation in the boundary layer of not just the
Florida Current, but of major ocean currents in general.

A more complete model of nearshore circulation can be devel-
oped by including in equations (11) and (12) terms for the
u and v components induced by tidal and wind forces.  The
tidal influence is given by equation  (1) and is of little
importance to the resultant nearshore currents.  Expressions
for the wind influence need to be developed and included in
the model.  The wind effect does not appear to be significant
to the large fluctuations that occur in the data.  This is
not conclusive however, because good, continuous wind data
was difficult to obtain and the current meters are 25 feet
beneath the surface.  There may be a long term wind effect,
on the order of days, that may be of importance to the model.
Combining wind and tidal effects with equations (11) and
(12)  will yield a model for nearshore circulation that should
give a very accurate fit with the actual nearshore currents.
CONCLUSIONS

The fate of waste material discharged into the nearshore re-
ceiving waters of southeast Florida is dependent upon the
resultant water movements.  Observed currents in the shelf
waters show large variations in current speed and direction
due to the extreme narrowness of the Continental Shelf and
the close proximity of the Florida Current which meanders
laterally up to five miles.  The resultant currents are pre-
dominately in a north-south direction.  Currents are to the
north approximately 60% of the time and to the south about
30%.  The mean current to the north is around 0.50 knots as
                               167

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is the mean south current.  Currents in the east or west dir-
ection represent only about 10% of the observations.  The
mean current to the west is approximately 0.20 knots which also
equals the mean east current.  The average fluctuations of
the observed currents ranges from 40 to 70% of the mean.  The
percent of this modulation due to tides is approximately 4.8%
for the v component and 2.7% for the u component.  Thus/
tidal currents are insignificant to the resulting nearshore
circulation.  The periodic tidal fluctuations are dominated
by the large aperiodic fluctuations produced by the meandering
of the western boundary of the Florida Current and the pro-
duction of Florida Current eddies which travel northward
through the shelf waters.  Nearshore currents show a seasonal
variation in speed of 55% of the mean flow.  A minimum mean
north current of around 0.20 knots occurs in late January
and a maximum of 0.70 knots occurs in late July.

Cyclonic spin-off eddies are produced in the western boundary
region of the Florida Current and are transported northward
through the southeast Florida Shelf region.  The cyclonic
nature of the eddies transport water from the Florida Current
into the coastal waters at the start of the eddy, and carries
the shelf water offshore at the end, thus the passage of an
eddy can act as a flushing mechanism for the coastal waters.
The duration of an eddy past one point ranges for 2 to 60
hours.  Approximately 4 eddies/week travel through the near-
shore waters.  An eddy lasting 16 hours or greater with max-
imum speeds of -0.60 knots or greater will flush the shelf
water.  Eddies of this strength and duration occur approx-
imately once per week.  Therefore/ an estimate of the resi-
dence time for coastal water is on the order of 1 week.  A
mathematical model for nearshore currents during the passage
of an eddy is developed by combining a uniform background
current (the Florida Current) with a moving circular vortex.
The important eddy parameters (position of eddy, northward
velocity of eddy/ velocity of background current, and the
eddy circulation) can be determined from the model.  These
parameters will aid in understanding the flushing character-
istics of eddies and the dynamics of major ocean currents.

Strong temperature stratification occurs in the shelf waters
during late spring and early summer.  The combined effect of
the stable water column and strong currents can mix discharging
waste below the surface preventing the effluent from surfacing.
During the remainder of the year the discharge will normally
rise to the surface forming a "boil" and then move horizontally
with the resultant surface current.  The Pompano sewage outfall
discharges into either shelf water; the western edge of the
Florida Current or the western portion of an eddy.  Regardless
of which occurrence is taking place, the predominance of
onshore- winds in southeast Florida will produce a shoreward
component  (negative u component) in the resultant surface
currents.  The current meter records show that the negative
u components of the current velocity can last for days with
                               168

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north or south currents that have an angle toward shore.  The
mean speed of the negative u component (west current)  is -0.20
knots (±.05 knots).  Therefore, effluent from the vicinity of
the Pompano outfall could reach the bathing waters in 6 hours
if the u component remained constant.  However, as the shore
is approached the current velocity will slow and become more
parallel with the shoreline, decreasing the negative u com-
ponent.   Effluent being discharged into the nearshore waters
along the southeast Florida coast will not travel indefinitely
with the Gulf Stream, but will come in contact with the bathing
waters at some distance and time from the point of discharge
depending upon the nearshore oceanographic parameters.  It
is, therefore, essential to tag the effluent and follow its
movement in time and space, determining simultaneously the
water quality and associated oceanographic parameters.
                             169

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                         SECTION VII

              POMPANO BEACH MARINE WASTE DISPOSAL
INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS

The disposal of sewage effluent with the use of ocean
outfalls was first begun in southeast Florida by Miami Beach
in 1937.  Since that time an increasing number of ocean
fringing communities have employed outfalls.  Figure 58
shows the location of ocean outfalls along the southeast
Florida Coast.  The particulars for each outfall are given
in Table 19.  The only treatment effluent undergoes for
most of these outfalls is in grinding up solids into small
particles and skimming off floating material.  The discharge
point varies from a water depth of 16 feet,  located 4600
feet offshore to a depth of 90 feet, 10,000 feet offshore.
At a water depth of 90 feet the bottom slope steepens to
1 foot vertical for 20 feet horizontal or greater, which
is one manner of defining the edge of the Continental Shelf.
It was shown in the hydrographic data that the western
boundary of the Florida Current meanders laterally across
this point.  The outfalls of the Miami area are approximately
one mile inside of the seaward edge of the Continental Shelf.

The only outfalls that have been investigated in any detail
are the Pompano Beach, Delray and Hollywood outfalls.  The
Boca Raton outfall is under construction and should be put
into operation by the end of the summer 1970.  The Pompano
Beach outfall has undergone intensive investigation during
this study and will be the principle outfall covered in this
report.

The Pompano outfall was put into operation toward the end of
the 1963-1964 fiscal year.  The sewage undergoes comminution
to grind up solids and skimming to remove floating material.
The effluent is pumped through a 30 inch diameter pipe, 7400
feet long to the discharge point in a water depth of 90 feet.
Pumping is accomplished by three 2600 GPM (gallons per minute)
pumps which start automatically according to the level of
sewage in the holding vat.  Figure 59 shows a continuous one
week record of the pumping rats from the Pompano Master Lift
Station.  Two daily peaks are apparent, at 10:00 AM and
8:00 PM, of approximately 18 x 104 GPH (gallons per hour) or
3000 GPM.  The monthly variations in the average pumping rate
are given in Taole 20.  The values in Table 20 are based on
monthly averages of daily readings taken by the City of
Pompano Department of Water and Sewers.  A seasonal variation
of the pumping rate is clearly evident.  A maximum discharge
of greater than 3 MGD (million gallons per day) occurs during
February and March and a minimum of about 2.5 MGD occurs in
September.  This variation reflects the winter population
                            171

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LOCATION  OF
OCEAN OUTFALLS
         SOUTHEAST
            FLORIDA
RIVIERA BEACH
  PALM BEACH


  LAKE WORTH
                           OELRAY BEACH

                            BOCA RATON


                         POMPANO BEACH
 •5790'

 5200'


 5100'

 5500'

 7400'



 1023 5'

 IOOO01

 7000'
4600'
                   FIG. 58

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                      TABLE 20




    Monthly Averages of Pompano Outfall Discharge Rate
Month
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Year
1968
1968
1968
1968
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
Pi scharqe (MGD)
2.531
2.892
2.650
2.661
2.953
3.134
3.150
2.938
2.689
2.771
2.930
2.970
Temp.
87
85
83
80
79
79
79
81
83
84
87
88
Average   2.855
                         175

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growth of south Florida.
FIELD METHODS

Sewage effluent discharged from the Pompano Beach outfall
is less dense than the surrounding shelf water,  therefore,
rises vertically to the surface.  Figure 60 is a photograph
of the Pompano outfall.  It shows the less dense effluent
rising to the surface and heavier "sludge" being deposited
as a "pile" beneath the outfall.  This pile represents an
organic buildup on the bottom approximately 3 feet high and
stretching about 50 feet in a north-south direction and 25
feet east-west.  The dimensions of this pile are constantly
being changed due to variability in the pumping rate and
scouring action of nearshore currents.

The rising effluent forms a "boil" in the surface above the
outfall that stretches out horizontally as a "plume" in the
direction of the surface current.  Rhodamine-WT dye was used
to tag the effluent and determine the horizontal and vertical
changes in concentration.  The dye was pumped continuously
into the Pompano Lift Station sewage reservoir where it is
homogeneously mixed with the effluent.  Grab samples were
taken at different locations in the Lift Station vat and at
different times during the experiment.  Concentration of the
dye in these samples was determined in the lab by diluting the
samples and reading the values from a G. K. Turner Model III
fluorometer, thus, yielding values for the initial concentra-
tion in PPB (parts per billion).  The initial concentrations
were found to be nearly equal in space and in time during an
experiment, showing the homogeneous nature of the dye-sewage
mixture.  Pumping dye into the lift station tags the whole
effluent plume.

The concentration of dye in the boil and downstream in the
plume was measured underway with the fluorometer by using
a continuous flow through door and pumping water through
the door at a steady rate.  The intake was mounted on the
transom and was adjustable from the surface down to depths
of 7 feet.  Plume traverses were made at right angles to the
axis of the plume.  Current speed and direction was deter-
mined by releasing free drifting current crosses,.  The temp-
erature and salinity structure of the water column in the
vicinity of the outfall was measured with a Beckman RS-5
Portable Salinometer at 10 feet intervals.  Wind speed and
direction and wave heights were visually estimated.  Bacteria
samples were taken from the outlet hose of the fluorometer
at the peak dye concentration of a traverse as shown on the
fluorometer readout.  Bacteria samples were collected by the
personnel of the Palm Beach County Health Department, iced
and returned to the lab for processing.  All positioning was
accomplished using fixed shore located transits.  Dye con-
centrations along a traverse were recorded on an analog strip
                               176

-------
..*•-.
           177

-------
chart recorder.

The fluorometer was calibrated for both Rhodamine-B and
Rhodamine-WT.  The calibration relationships between the
sensitivity settings of the fluorometer and the dye concen-
tration in PPB/chart division are presented in Table 21.
There are 50 chart divisions on the strip chart/ therefore/
the fluorometer is capable of detecting dye concentrations
over a 1500 PPB range.  The range can be greatly extended
by diluting the sample.

Pompano fluorometry experiments were begun in earnest during
the last week of August/ 1969.  Since that time 19 experiments
have been conducted/ amounting to approximately one experiment
per week/ weather permitting.  A physical description of these
experiments is given in Table 22.  Initial dilution is the
dilution of the effluent due to rising from the outfall pipe
to the surface.  The initial dilutions of Nov. 3 and Nov. 10
are questionable.  On Nov. 3 the concentration measured in
the boil was much too low/ due to boil movement in a strong
current, giving an erroneous value for the initial dilution.
Disregarding these two measurements/ initial dilutions range
from about 70:1 to about 250:1.  Downstream dilutions are
due to the changes in dye concentration from the boil to some
distance downstream in the plume/ they are typically an order
of magnitude less than initial dilutions.  Total dilutions
are the overall dilution for the experiment/ from the initial
concentration to the peak concentration at the furthest point
measured downstream from the boil.  Disregarding experiments
of Jan. 21 and Jan. 26 which were slugs of dye injected in the
lift station/ total dilution ranges from 1000:1 to 6000:1.
This dilution is dependent on the amount of time and distance
from the boil.  Dye slug experiments of Jan. 21 and Jan. 26
were conducted in order to tag the effluent for longer time
periods.  These runs will not be reported at this time as
the analysis that follows was set up for continuous source
experiments.

Field experiments typically lasted about four hours.  After this
time the sampling boat would be a distance from the boil where
dye concentrations were too low to be measured with the fluor-
ometer.  The field experiments usually began by starting the
dye pump at 0700 hours.  There was a time delay of nearly
90 minutes before the dye would surface in the boil.  Then
after waiting another 90 minutes for the dye plume to reach
a "quasi-steady state" the measurement program would begin.


WASTE DISPOSAL FROM AN OCEAN OUTFALL

MODELS

In the literature most of the effort to understand the  spreading
of a plume from an outfall has centered around  a diffusion
                              178

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model.

The argument runs as follows:  We have a dye concentration
at every point in space and time,  p (x/y/a/t) .  Central to
the diffusion model is the assumption that the contaminant
will flow from regions of higher concentration to regions
of lower concentration; in other words there is a concen-
tration current density 3(x/Y/a/t) which is

       J(x,y/a,t) =     -k
-------
Finally, then, in this simplest diffusion model, we have
the standard equation for two dimensional diffusion with
the time being replaced by the downstream distance divided
by the current velocity.

If we assume the downstream size of the plume is very large
compared to the initial boil we are justified in using a
point-source solution tc^this equation which is
              R         y       z±	
      .        K       	^~n        r)               f C.\
P(x,y,z) = TTUav(x)cr (x)  e 2o. (x) e  ^ ^             ($)
            y   z       y        z

oj« - #x) . £                                 <«
       a ,az  = standard deviation in the y and z directions.
       R = pumping rate of the contaminate.

Although this model is not particularly successful in
describing the dispersion of contaminate it does provide  a
motivation for the way in which we have analyzed our data.

In order to give some shape to our data we have "kept score"
by saying that we assume a form for  P  consistent with
equation  (5), but we leave     a  (x) and     CTZ(X) to be
determined by experiment rather than both of them being
determined by the downstream distance.

   2.  The _Stream Line Limit:  In this limit we assume
       a)  We seek a time-independent solution hence
             ap/at   =o
       b)  k(r)  = 0, thus there is no diffusion.

Under these assumptions

              v  • vp = 0                          (7)

This equation means  that the concentration is constant along
a stream line.  If the background fluid is incompressible
and is in irrotational flow, then

              v = v$                             (8)
   and
              V2$ = 0                            (9)

         $= velocity potential

Figure 61 is a sketch of a two-dimensional plume generated
by a point-source.  Note the following features of this
plume.

       a)  There is  no concentration dilution down-stream.
       b)  The plume approaches a fixed width, and does
           not continue to spread.
                               183

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Both of these facts are contrary to our experimental data,
We will, however, make use of the stream line plume in
attempts to extrapolate our data to other situations.
DATA ANALYSIS

As previously indicated the diffusion model provides the
basis of our analysis.

The data collected include:

       a)  A series of transit marks from fixed shore
           location.
       b)  The strip-chart fluorometer record.
       c)  Various physical data:  current velocity,
           wind velocity, grab sample dye concentrations
           from the lift station reservoir.

The first step in the analysis is the graphical reduction of
the transit marks from each station which are plotted by hand
on a map of scale 1" = 300'.  From this map the length of the
transect and the di stance of the mid point of the transect
are read directly.  The Rustrak data is digitized by reading
the strip chart in intervals of .1" and taking an estimated
average value for the concentration over that interval.

As previously indicated the diffusion model provides the basis
for our analysis.  For each transect we assume that
We calculate the parameters ay (x) ,   ag (x)  and y0  in two ways

   1)  Sample Fit Analysis

In this method of analysis we calculate the mean position
of the concentration, the standard deviations of the concen-
tration about the mean and the amount of dye swept out in
each transect.  If we assume uniform boat speed we can divide
the transect into the same number of intervals as the analog
record.

   Let

        Ay = The length of each interval.

        p (s) = The concentration at the center of the
               sth interval.

        M- = Distance to the mean of the concentration
            along the transect.
                              185

-------
         cr = Standard deviation of the concentration
            about the mean.
         n        n
    U = AyZ pg(s-%)/Z  ps                          (ID
         8=1       8=1

    a = (Ay2Z  (s-%)2p /Z  PCJ  - |a,2)%                  (12)
          8=1       S  8=1 S
If we assume that the  shape of the concentration profile is
Gaussian we can calculate the peak concentration.

If we assume that P  = peak value of concentration,
            n
       P= AyZ  pCfrJ/JJTna                          (13)
            s=i        y
and if we assume that the form given previously for P(x,y, a),
we can then calculate the depth of the contaminate distribution.
               _   n
         a = R/J^-AyZ  p(s)-U                    (14)
          Z           5=1
       where R = dye release rate (cu. ft/hr)
         and U = current  speed  (ft/hr)

These things are computed for each transect of every run and
are listed in the printout of results.

   2)  Gaussian Fit Analysis

This type of analysis tries to take into account the exper-
imental problem which arises due to the sensitivity of the
fluorometer.  It is often observed that the fluorometer does
not record the presence of dye when the dye is apparent to
the naked eye.  This is due to the fact that it is not desir-
able to switch fluorometer sensitivity in the middle of a
transect.  When the  fluorometer is set on its highest sen-
sitivity the dye concentration recorded will be only at the
higher values along  the transect.  That is, we only see the
peak.

Under these circumstances the sample fit method will con-
sistently underestimate the width of the plume.

We have attempted to correct this observational bias by
making a Gaussian fit  to  the observed concentration.  We
fit the observed concentration data with a Gaussian shape
containing three parameters.  For fixed depth s, and fixed
downstream distance we have
       P = peak value
       yo = mean value
       a    = cross- stream standard deviation
        y
In making a least-squares fit with a regression function  such
                              186

-------
as this it is better to fit the logarithm of the data to the
logarithm of the regression function.  Thus at the s^
interval

       In  p(s) =   Y (s)                        (16)

       In  p(ys)=  In P-\  (ys - % ) 2,        (17)
                       2ay
and in this form we determine the Gaussian parameters from
a least square fit of a second degree polynomial to the
logarithm of the concentration at every interval.  By this
means we determine a peak concentration/ a mean value and a
standard deviation for the concentration profile at every
transect.

The logarithm of the cross plume standard deviation computed
by both the Gaussian fit analysis and the sample fit analysis
is plotted (abscissa) against the logarithm of the x distance
(ordinate) of each transect downstream from the boil  (Figures
62-97).  These plots were performed on the IBM 360 computer
at Florida Atlantic University.  The "ones" are the (computed)
standard deviations.  A linear regression function was fitted
through these values using least square techniques and is
plotted as "twos".  The date of each run is shown at the top
of the drawing as year-month-day.  A linear regression function
of the form

                  S = (B1)X + B2                 (18)

was used to fit the data.

       where  £  = log a
              Y     e y
              X = log x
The coefficients Bl and B2 were determined from the fit and
are shown in the lower righthand corner of each plot.  These
plots show a good comparison between the two techniques.
Equation  (18) can be used to predict the spread of the plume
with downstream distance.  Using
          £  = log a
          y     e y
         X = log x

we can write equation  (18) as:

         ay = antilog  (B2) x B1                (19)

The spread of the plume depends on the power Bl.  Table 23
lists the values of Bl computed by the two techniques.
Table 23 also shows that the agreement between the two tech-
niques becomes better as the amount of data increases  (# of
transects).  The negative values of experiments on 11/10,
12/8 and the low values of 11/24 and 1/5 AM are the result
                              187

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      TABLE 23




Power of Plume Spread
Date
8/26
8/27
9/16
9/29
10/15
11/3
11/10
11/24
12/1
12/8
12/15
1/5
1/5
1/12
1/19
1/21
1/26
2/9
Bl Guassian Fit
0.577
0.447
0.178
0.595
0.629
0.411
-0.177
0.008
0.923
-0.305
0.563
0.007
0.234
0.454
0.139
-0.002
0.409
0.598
Bl Sample Fit
0.543
0.248
0.190
0.567
0.572
0.671
-0.113
0.136
0.773
-0.375
0.429
0.076
0.132
0.374
0.295
-0.052
0.408
0.596
# of Transects
28
5
5
15
9
5
4
6
13
5
10
7
7
13
6
21
28
13
       224

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                       d ai s erroneous.  The  1/21 experiment
                       -.".'•  •   '^'lis amount of  dye was insuff-
                       . r. .   - :  - .  •- ,t: outfall,  resulting  in
                       -• v'i-1 i'- ,   It  "'i\t: cor.^i-ders only  the
                        than *"  -.ran sects  (not. including  1/21)
                                                            * "
                                   to vary from x'    to  x
                     ii^r. rit numbers correspond quite well to
                     '  the sample  fit.  The  differences  arise
                      -. r.-1 -r -ii -j ... •-.  is spread out in the cross-
                     :-e tne G,j.i&sian fit standard deviation
                      vmple ^Lf  standard deviation.  We  feel
                      t  met no-..',  is  generally  a more reliable
                     /: the width  of the plume.

                     .'• -it  the effluent undergoes after leaving
                       L::ing and dispersion  with the shelf is
                       '.ran^rrot .   Total dilution is the  peak
                       a transect  divided by the initial
                       . <-.-\v                       (20)

   ".•;;• - ?--         ';  -  i  . t'c-i,tal  dilution)

                 X-  Lr.lx)

Tne coefi icj uL-T.td ci,  c2,  and c3  were computed and plotted in
 -i •- '  '  '        hri ,.'  r^rnej of Figures 98-133.

T. «  -   :.lc-f    c;-w .'joocl agreerpent  between the two techniques
..-.'•    • -s  •-:  -  :,<:..  pt:-iiv concentration of each transect.   The
G?:';-,;-;ian  pea\ concentration will normally  underestimate the
\y-- •  .... . ... t;_   -nor.'.ng the '"iussian total dilution slightly
io..\-  . nd -  woala .oe  expected and  therefore,  a more conservative
•"! '"  •-    • v..    ;_<_j L .1 ;l. :or  '-tundpoi iit.

If o>  --  --  -- >f-c'  -, wa] ae O-T ^n v in6 Total Conforms  (T.C.)/100
.":!  .'"  .  -'       ••.-:"  . ;  tj i.^^...,  _  .aa - Ldpeisicjji will not be sufficient to  reduce
tri-:-   -,•!-•--"  "--i;-,c•-.'•'• t-.ratjor  of l-.ac-i.eria down  to the standard
1;,  '-.";-  ~     ' -,._t  >. -tanct-.. f. ro: i 'lie outfall  to shore.  Only
                                 225

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261

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the experiments of 8/27/69,  11/24/69,  12/8/69 and 1/21/70
is the dilution sufficient to reach the safe bathing water
standard in 20,000 feet.  One must then consider bacteria
die-off in sea water and determine if the combined effects
of dilution and die-off are sufficient to reach the bathing
water standard in a reasonable distance from the outfall.  The
experiments of 1/21/70 and 1/26/70 used one and two gallon
slugs respectively of Rhodamine -WT dye injected into the
Pompano Lift Station.  Experiments of this type yield a large
amount of data and can be tracked for large time periods.  A
consistent feature of the drawings is that experiments with
a large number of traverses (data points)  give better results.
Experiments with few data points can cause the parabolic
regression function to become biased and start to increase
with distance if the pea"k concentration of the last traverse
increases.  In figures where this occurs the fit should be
ignored after the last data point.

   3)   Plume Reconstruction

The most comprehensive way to present the data is to produce
a map of surface concentration in the plume.  A meaningful
map to construct is the contour profile of the state standard
for type IIA water, water which is judged safe for body con-
tact.   We assume a concentration of 3 x 10/ T.C./100 ml at
the lift station which is the generally accepted coliform
concentration of raw sewage, and we assume that the sewage
is diluted in the same way that the dye is diluted.  We are
thus most interested in the 30,000:1 dilution contour, which
dilutes the initial concentration to 1000 T.C./100 ml.

Before we can plot this contour we must smooth out the system-
atic error in the location of the mean point of the various
transects.  The actual location of the mean position is
biased by the response time of the fluorometry system, mainly
due to the fact that it takes several seconds for the sea
water to be pumped into the fluorometer.

Thus we first locate the mean positions of each transect, then
we fit a second degree polynomial to these locations.  This
polynomial fit uses the north-south location as the indepen-
dent variable and fits the east-west variable.  This choice
is based on the fact that the north-south distance tends to
change more during the course of an experiment.

Once the mean positions are fitted we then artificially re-
position each transect to have its mean value on the fitted
line.   We re-position the transect by keeping the x position
(north-south) fixed and changing the y position.

The contours are calculated by taking each transect and cal-
culating the position along the transect where 30,000:1
dilution of the initial concentration would occur.  Since?
this dilution for normal dye pumping rates is below the
                               262

-------
sensitivity of the fluorometer some form of extrapolation
is necessary.  We have chosen to extrapolate both by using
the Gaussian fit analysis and the sample fit analysis.

This double analysis is performed because it is felt that
there is considerable advantage in providing two points of
view which represent different extremes.  The Gaussian fit
method will always estimate a larger cross-stream standard
deviation than will the sample fit.  The oaiaple fit peak
concentration, however, will be larger than the Gaussian fit
pea"k concentration.  Thus, the Gaussian fit plume contour
will be wider but shorter, whereas the sample fit will be
longer and narrower.  When the transit yields data which
is peaked and of a general Gaussian form the two methods
give nearly identical results.

   4)   Natural Bacteria Die-off

We introduce the effect of bacterial die-off by the method
of Stewart et al (1969) .  If one neglects diffusion in the
downstream direction (x) one finds
          e (x y B)._«-
             'Y/ '~    (x)a (x)        y
   l                   z
   ±- = time for bacteria to die off to ^ of their
   original concentration.

Putnam in the Stewart  (1969) study established two values of
 \ ,  one representative of winter die-off, the other repre-
sentative of summer die-off.

         A   = ,31/hour  (winter)

         A. _ = 1.55/hour (summer)
          £*
These two values of \  are used to decrease the peak concen-
tration as a function of downstream distance, and contours
are calculated and plotted which take die-off into account.

It should be noted that this method of calculating die-off
will underestimate the bacteria concentration because of
dispersion along the stream direction.  If, however, we
assume that the downstream dispersion is comparable with
cross-stream diffusion this effect leads to at most a 15%
underestimate at dilutions of the order of 30,000:1.

   5)  Scaling with Pumping Rate

A large unknown factor in our experimental work is the way
in which measured quantities depend upon pumping rate.  Again,
we take two different points of view which represent the
extremes.  From the diffusion point of view, increasing the
pumping rate will simply lead to a corresponding increase in
the concentration at every point.  The stream line flow point
                              263

-------
of view, however, would be scaled by an area R/U.  This area
is the area through which the contaminate flows.  From this
point of view, then, it is reasonable to assume that the
cross-stream width of the plume is increased when the pumping
rate is increased.

We have plotted dilution contours which show each of these
assumptions for a tripling of the pumping rate at the Pompano
Lift Station.  A factor of three was chosen because that would
represent saturation capacity of the pumping capability of
the present lift station.

   6)   Dilution Contours

Sewage outfall plumes were reconstructed from the fluorometry
experiments using the before mentioned techniques to plot
the dilution contours shown in Figures 134-149.  These plots
represent equal contour lines of 1000 T.C./100 ml based on:

       1.  The observed Gaussian fit data using:
           a.  no die-off
           b.  winter die-off
           c.  summer die-off
       2.  Three times the concentration.
           a.  no die-off
       3.  Three times the standard deviation.
           a.  no die-off

Therefore, the area inside a set of dilution contours has a
bacteria concentration in excess of the state standard
1000 T.C./100 ml, and the bacteria concentration outside of
the contour is below the standard.  The length of the contours
from the outfall is a function of the rate at which dye is
being pumped into the outfall, the amount of time since the
dye was started and the current speed.  These factors are
important as to the amount of dilution the dye will undergo.
Field measurements normally lasted about 4 hours, at which
time the dye concentration was diluted to the point where it
was no longer measurable with the fluororneter.  Bacteria
samples were taken by personnel from the Palm Beach County
Health Department at the peak dye concentration along a tra-
verse.  These samples were iced, and transported back to the
shore laboratory for determination of numbers, using standard
tube,  dilution techniques.

This method was found not to be satisfactory due to the long
and variable time spans between collection and analysis.  How-
ever,  the concentration of Total Coliforms/100 ml as measured
in this manner at the last traverse of an experiment is shown
in brackets.  In general the bracketed values of bacteria are
in agreement with the dilution contours.

The dilution contours of the observed data with no die-off
and winter die-off show a large area of surface water with
                              264

-------
          FIGURES 134-149

Dilution Contours of 1000 T.C./100 ml

  1.  Gaussian Fit
         Observed:
             No Die-off
         Winter Die-off
         Summer Die-off
      3 x Initial Concentration:

             No Die-off  -.-.-.-.

      3 x Standard Deviation:

             No Die-off  —.. — ..

  2.  Sample Fit
       Observed:

             No Die-off  -o-o-o-o

      Current Speed  (knots) 	*•

      Wind Speed  (knots) i     £>

  3.  Measured Bacteria Concentration

       Total Coliforms/100 ml  -  [  ]
             265

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bacteria counts in excess of the standard for bathing waters,
stretching out several miles from the outfall.  Winter die-off
contours show very little difference from the no die-off
contour.  The only winter die-off contour that closes is in
Figure 143.  The low current speed of 0.1 knot on this exper-
iment enabled a travel time of around 5 hours to close the
contour.  The summer die-off contours close a short distance
from the outfall,  restricting the polluted region to a small
area around the outfall in most cases.  However, for the
experiments shown in Figures 139 and 141 the summer die-off
contours do not close.

The effect of tripling the pumping rate of the Pompano out-
fall is shown in the dilution contours by either increasing
the concentration threefold or by tripling the cross stream
standard deviation.  This represents the result of using
either a diffusion model or a streamline model, respectively.
Since both processes are taking place the end result of
tripling the pumping rate will probably lie somewhere between
the two views.  Increasing the concentration will cause the
contours to extend further downstream.  Increasing the cross
stream standard deviation will extend the width of the con-
tours.  Both view points will greatly increase the area of
polluted water within the contours.  Figures 134, 135, and
142 also show the dilution contour for the observed data
with no die-off using the sample fit analysis.  These curves
are in good agreement with the similar curves of the Gaussian
fit contours.  The width of the plumes are slightly smaller
using the sample fit techniques as was previously suggested
would occur.

In general the effluent plumes as shown by the dilution
contours stretch out to the north or south and show a shore-
ward component in direction, which is dependent on the strength
of the onshore wind.  The likelihood of an effluent plume
reaching the bathing waters with bacteria counts higher than
the standard increases as the intensity of onshore winds
increase.  Figures 134, 136, 139, 141, 142, and 145 show
experiments where it is apparent that if the plume continues
in the direction indicated then water with bacteria counts
in excess of 1000 T.C./100 ml will reach the public bathing
waters.

It is evident from the dilution contours that outfall effluent
plumes need to be tagged and traced for longer time periods.
If dye is used as the tracer this means pumping dye at a
much greater rate and for longer periods, which is a large
monetary expense.
SANITARY ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

Sewage effluent discharged from the Pompano outfall has a
salinity near that of fresh water  (1.0 0/00) at the point of
                              282

-------
discharge.  The salinity of the receiving shelf water is
approximately 35 0/00.  Thus, the effluent being less dense
than the shelf water will rise to the surface, forming a
"boil".  The diffusion and mixing of the rising effluent is
very vigorous.  Salinity of the effluent within the boil is
only 1 to 2 0/00 less than the shelf water.  Initial dilu-
tions on the order of 100:1 to 200:1 are quite common.  If
the shelf water at the point of discharge is stably strati-
fied and strong currents are present then the rising of the
effluent will be hindered.  If these conditions are strong
enough, the effluent will be prevented from rising to the
surface and mixed at some subsurface depth.  The stability
of the water column can be thought of as the vertical grad-
ient in sigma-t ( CT t) or density.  The vertical gradient of
sigma-t    ACT t/Az        calculated from the surface to a
depth of 90 feet (outfall depth)  is plotted against surface
current speed in Figure 150 as a log-log plot.  Stability
was calculated from measured values of temperature and
salinity at 90 feet and the surface.  Surface currents were
measured with free drifting current crosses.  The formation
of an effluent surface "boil" was noted on each experiment.
Figure 150 indicates that there is a critical relationship
between current speed and stability beyond which a boil will
not form.  A solid line was drawn through the data points to
represent this critical relation for boil formation.  The
regression coefficients were determined from the data points
associated with this line.  The critical relationship for
boil formation was then determined as:

       v = o.36(ACT(_/Az)"1-7                      (22)

Thus,  if the current speed and stability combination lies
above this line the effluent will be mixed at some subsurface
level and greatly reduce the probability of it reaching the
bathing waters.  This relationship needs much more data to
give it validity,  especially in the late spring and early
summer when strong stratification predominates.

Effluent being discharged from the Pompano outfall will
undergo an initial dilution on rising to the surface and a
downstream dilution in the plume due to mixing and dispersion
with the shelf water.  The sum of these two dilutions is the
total dilution the effluent will undergo at some point down-
stream after discharge.  The total dilution from the initial
concentration in the lift station to the peak concentration
on a traverse was determined for every fluorometry experiment.
A composite log-log plot of the total dilution (Gaussian fit)
at each transect against the x distance downstream to the
transect is shown in Figure 151 for the data from all exper-
iments.  The "ones" symbolize actual data points.  A second
degree polynomial was fitted through the data points using
least square fitting and is plotted as "twos".  If we let:

                x = Downstream Distance
                              283

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                y = Total Dilution
                X = Inx
                Y = Iny

then the regression function used to fit the data has the
form:

       Y = aX2 + bX + c                        (23)

The standard error of regression (e) was calculated and a
function two times the standard error from Y was fitted to
the data (plotted as threes)  using

       Ye = aX2 + bX + c + 2e                  (24)

the coefficients were calculated to equal

                a = -0.002
                b = -0.643
                c = -1.965
                e =  0.865

therefore

       Ye = -0.002X2 -0.643X -.235             (25)

using equation 25, one is 97.7% confident that the total
dilution will not be greater than Ye/ i.e., the data will lie
to the left of the Ye fit 97.7% of the time.

Assuming an initial concentration of 30 x 10  T.C./100 ml for
raw sewage, a total dilution of 3.33 x 10~~> or less is nec-
essary in order to reduce the initial concentration to 1000
T.C./100 ml.  This total dilution is plotted as "fours" in
Figure 151.  Within a distance of 14,000 feet of the Pompano
outfall, a total dilution of peak concentration in the plume;
has never been measured that would be sufficient to reduce
the initial concentration to the state standard.

Equation (25) can be used to predict the total dilution at
any point downstream from the boil with 97.7% confidence that
the actual total dilution will not be a larger number than
the predicted value.  The total dilution was calculated at
500 foot intervals from the boil using equation  (25).  The
results are presented in Table 24.

The outlet of the Pompano Outfall is located approximately
7400 feet offshore.  At a distance of 7500 feet Table 24
shows a total dilution of 2.18 x 10" .  This would reduce the
initial concentration of 3 x 107 T.C./100 ml to 6.54 x 104
which is about 65 times greater than the standard.  At, 15000
feet from the outfall the total dilution of 1,36 x 10~-* will
reduce the initial concentration to 4.08 x 104 which is 41
times larger than the standard for bathing waters.
                              286

-------
               TABLE 24




Total Dilution -vs- Distance:   97% confidence
Distance
500

1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000

6500
7000
7500
Total
1.

8.
6.
5.
4.
4.
3.
3.
3.
2.
2.
2.

2.
2,
2.
35

47
45
31
57
04
64
33
07
86
68
53

40
28
18
Dilution
x

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
io-2
•3
10~J
10~3
10~3
io-3
io-3
10~3
10~3
10~3
io-3
10~3
10~3
-3
ID""3
10~~3
10~3
Distance
8000

8500
9000
9500
10000
10500
11000
11500
12000
12500
13000
13500

14000
14500
15000
Total
2.08

2.00
1.92
1.85
1.79
1.73
1.68
1.63
1.58
1.54
1.50
1.46

1.42
1.39
1.36
                                         Dilution
                                         x 10
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                             _3
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                                         x 10
                                             -3
                   287

-------
Using Millipore filtering techniques, bacteria die-off for
Southeast Florida waters was determined by Putnam during the;
study by the city of Hollywood on the Hollywood outfall,
Stewart (1969).

       (MPN)t = (MPN)Q e-*31t; (winter)        (26)

                       water temperature 75°F

       (MPN)t  = (MPN)0 e~1>55t; (summer)       (27)

                       water temperature 85°F

   where  t = time  (hours)

       (MPN) t = most probable number of bacteria at
                time (t)

       (MPN)0 = most probable number of bacteria at
                time (t = 0)

Time (t)  can be expressed using the current speed  (v) and the
distance downstream from the boil (d) .  The most frequent
currents are to the north or south with a mean speed of 0.5
knots.  Using the 0.5 knot current speed and the distance
offshore of the Pompano outfall (7400 feet) equations (26)
and (27)  become:

       (MPN)t = (MPN)0 e~°*74    (winter)

       (MPN)t = (MPN)0 e~3*72    (summer)

This amounts to a reduction of the initial concentration at
a distance of 7400 feet from the outfall of 4.77 x 1Q-1 and
2.42 x 10~2 for winter and summer die-off.  The initial con-
centration will therefore undergo a total reductiop due to
dilution and die-off of 1.04 x 10   and 5.28 x 10~°.  This
results in bacteria counts of 31,200 and 1,574 T.C./1QO ml
for the winter and summer at a distance of 7,400 feet from
the outfall.  At a distance of 15,000 feet the total reduc-
tion will yield bacteria counts of 14,100 and .31 T.C./100 ml
for winter and summer.  At approximately 30,000 feet down-
stream winter die-off will produce a total reduction cf the
initial concentration down to the bathing water standard.

Although the observed nearshore currents are produced mainly
by the offshore Florida Current and are typically to the
north or south there is an onshore component in the current.
direction.  The carrent meter records, drift card experiments
and dilution contours have shown that this onshore component
can cause an outfall effluent plume to reach the bathing
waters at some distance from the boil.  Dilution of the ef-
fluent due to mixing and dispersion with shelf water and
bacteria die-off have been shown to be insufficient in
reducing the initial concentration of bacteria down to safe:
bathing water standards within a distance of 30,000 feet
                              288

-------
in the winter and 7,500 feet in the summer.  It is there-
fore highly probable that during the winter season the com-
bination of onshore winds, greater effluent pumping rate,
weakly stratified water column and low bacteria die-off
will cause bacteria concentrations greater than 1000
T.C./100 ml to occur in the bathing waters near the Pompano
outfall.

In order to be 97% confident that polluted water from the
Pompano outfall will not reach the bathing waters, the
effluent should be treated to reduce bacteria counts to
1000 T.C./100 ml at a distance of 6000 feet from the outfall.
Therefore, the closest to the shore that water with bacteria
counts in excess of safe bathing standards would come is
1400 feet.  This will restrict pollution in terms of bac-
teria counts to a plume stretching no more than 6000 feet
from the Pompano outfall.  The plant dilution (Dp) necessary
to reduce the initial concentration of bacteria to 1000
T.C./100 ml at a given distance from the outfall can be
calculated from:

       Dp = 1000 (T.C./100 ml)                  (28)
            Q.Dt.e-  *d/v

   where        Q = Initial concentration of bacteria
                       (T.C./100 ml)

                Dt = Total dilution (from Table 24)

                \  _T .31   (winter die-off)
                     kl.55   (summer die-off)

                d = distance from outfall  (feet)

                v = current speed (feet/hr)

The percent treatment (% T)  for coliform removal in the
sewage plant necessary to produce the calculated plant dil-
ution is given by:

       % T = (1 - Dp) 100                        (29)

In order to determine the plant dilution and percent
treatment of the Pompano outfall system necessary to restrict
pollution to 6000 feet from the outfall we use the following
values:

                Q = 3 x 107 T.C./100 ml

                Dt = 2.53 x 10~3

                ^  _  .31     (winter)
                     1.55     (summer)

                d = 6000 feet


                              289

-------
Winter die-off  Dp = 5.95 x 10
                v = 0.2 knots = 1216 feet/hr

The current speed represents the mean speed of the west com-
ponent, determined from the current meter records.  Using
equation (28)  and (29)  the plant dilution and percent treat-
ment for the Pompano outfall is for:

                No die-off      D  = 1.32 x 10~2

                                % T = 98.68%

                                              -2
                                            LU
                                %'T = 94.56%

                Summer die-off  Dp = 2.94 x 10~

                                % T  =70.6%

if one used the mean current speed of the more predominate
north-south currents of 0.5 the plant dilution and percent
treatment become:

                No die-off      Dp = 1.32 x 10~2
                                % T = 98.68%

                Winter die-off  D  = 2.44 x 10~2

                                % T = 97.56%
                                              —1
                Summer die-off  D  = 2.94 x 10

                                % T = 70.6%

If the Pompano outfall system increased the pumping rate 3
times, then as was shown by the dilution contours, the
result could be explained in two ways:  1)   the initial
concentration would increase by 3, thus increasing by 3
all the values in the plume  (diffusion theory)y 2)  the
cross plume standard deviation would increase by 3, thereby
increasing 3-fold the width of the plume (stream flow theory)

In order to see the effect of increasing the pumping rate
on plant dilution and percent treatment one can simply in-
crease the initial concentration by an equivalent amount
and perform the calculations.  The result of increasing the
Pompano outfall pumping rate 3-fold is as follows:

   for 0.5 knot current

                No die-off      D  = 4.4 x 10~3

                                % T = 99.56%

                Winter die-off  D  = 8.1 x 10
                	   p

                                % T = 99.19%
             290

-------
                                             _2
                Summer die-off  D  = 9.8 x 10

                                % T = 90.20%

   for 0.2 knot current
                                             _3
                No die-off      D  = 4.4 x 10
                                 p
                                % T = 99.56%

                Winter die-off  D  = 1.98 x 10~2
                	   P
                                % T = 99.02%

                Summer die-off  D  = 10.2

                                % T = None

The Pompano outfall is discharging at a water depth of 90
feet.  This is the point on the Continental Shelf where the
slope of the bottom topography steepens (break in shelf) .
The 90 foot depth is similar in this respect all along the
Southeast Florida Shelf.  Since the western edge of the
Florida Current meanders laterally across the break in shelf
then the variations and distributions of the oceanographic
features such as currents, temperature and salinity should
be similar.  Thus/ any outfall discharging at the 90 foot
water depth would be expected to have a similar total dil-
ution and bacteria die-off as Pompano.  Table 19 shows 6
outfalls that are either in operation or soon to be completed,
that discharge in a water depth of 90 feet.  The plant dil-
ution and percent treatment necessary to prevent water from
the respective outfalls with bacteria counts greater than
the state standard from coming closer than 1000 feet from
shore can be calculated based on the techniques used in
Pompano.  These calculations using the mean speed of 0.5
knots for the predominate currents are presented in Tables
25, 26, and 27.  The initial bacteria concentration of the
outfalls shown in the above tables is determined as some
product7of the initial bacteria concentration of Pompano
(3 x 10  T.C./100 ml).  The product is determined as the
ratio of the pumping rate of the outfall in question to that
of Pompano (from Table 19) .  The total dilution  (Dt) values
were taken from Table 24 based on the values for d from column
4.  The values for die-off were computed from e  Ad/v.  Plant
dilution  (Dp)  and percent treatment  (% T) were computed with
equations  (28) and  (29) .

This approach represents a conservative method of estimating
plant dilution and percent treatment in terms of bacteria
only.  It is an empirical approach relying on real data and
not on a model which may only sometimes apply.  It is con-
servative for it is based on a 97.7% confidence limit that
the actual total dilutions will never be greater than the
values given in Table 24 and shown in Figure 151.  It is
conservative in that the total dilution values are for the
                              291

-------
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-------
peak concentrations in the effluent plume.  It is conser-
vative in that it is a method to prevent pollution of the
bathing waters from occuring at any time within the confidence
limits.  It is also conservative in that a 0.50 knot current
was used in computing the time of travel for bacteria die-off.
If a 0.2 knot current is used then, during the summer (85°F
water temperature)  no plant treatment would be necessary at
Pompano, die-off is large enough to kill the bacteria.  The
values given in Table 19 are not up to date and the pumping
rates are daily averages, not peaks.  In this respect the
approach is not as conservative.

The remaining outfalls from Table 19 that do not discharge
in 90 feet cannot be estimated by this method.  This is
because the values for total dilution given in Table 24 will
not apply to the shallower depths.  Field surveys to determine
bacteria concentrations and total dilution-vs-distance are
greatly needed for these outfalls and the outfalls discharging
in 90 feet of water.
CONCLUSIONS

Many communities along the southeast Florida coast are using
ocean outfalls to dispose of human effluent.  These communities
are employing little if any treatment.  They rely on the
receiving shelf waters to dilute the wastes and kill off the
bacteria and viruses.  After leaving the outfall pipe the
effluent being less dense than the surrounding water will
rise to the surface forming a "boil".  Once in the surface
the effluent stretches out in the form of a "plume".  If
the combined effects of current speed and stability are great
enough the effluent will be prevented from rising to the
surface and will be mixed with the shelf water at some sub-
surface depth, thus, decreasing the likelihood of it coming
ashore.  The effluent undergoes large initial dilutions
ranging from 70 to 250:1 on rising to the surface from
90 feet due to mixing and dispersion with the shelf water.
The horizontal dilutions occuring in the plume are approxi-
mately an order of magnitude smaller than the initial dilutions.
The product of these two dilutions is the total dilution from
the sewage plant to the peak concentration in the plume.

A diffusion model and stream line model were investigated.
The stream line model was not used in the analysis because
it produces no downstream dilution and the plume approaches
a fixed width and does not continue to spread.  The diffusion
model was used to keep track of the fluorometry data and
provides the basis for our analysis.  The data were analyzed
in two ways:  1)  Sample fit analysis where the cross plume
standard deviation and total dilution was determined from
the traverse data; 2)  Gaussian fit analysis where the
standard deviation and total dilution were determined from
a Gaussian curve fitted to the traverse data.  In general the
                              295

-------
two approaches are in good agreement,  with the; sample fit
analysis giving slightly higher peak concentrations and. the
Gaussian fit analysis larger cross plume standard deviations.
The longer the fluorometry experiment and the greater the
amount of data then the agreement becomes better.

The Pompano fluorometry experiments were reduced to dilu-
tion contours showing the line of 1000 T.C./100 ml using
no die-off, winter die-off, summer die-off rates and with
increasing the pumping rate 3-fold.  Increasing the pumping
rate will either increase the initial concentration and
extend the effluent plume or increase the standard deviation
and widen the plume depending on whether a diffusion or
stream line view is taken.  The dilution contours show a
large area of water with bacteria concentrations greater
than the state standard of 1000 T.C./100 ml for bathing waters.
Winter die-off has very little effect on the dilution contours.
Summer die-off reduces the pollution to a small area around
the outfall.  A large number of the dilution contours show
a shoreward component whose direction is dependent upon the
strength of the onshore wind.  Current meter records also
show a shoreward component with a mean of 0.2 knots that can
last several days.  Drift cards dropped in the region of the
Pompano outfall have come ashore at many sites along the
Florida east coast.

A composite log-log plot of total dilution-vs-downstream
distance for all the fluorometry experiments reveals that
mixing and dispersion of the effluent with shelf water will
not reduce an initial concentration of bacteria of 3 x 10'
T.C./100 ml to the safe bathing standard in 14,000 feet from
the outfall.  A second degree polynomial was fitted to this
plot yielding an equation for predicting total dilution with
distance.  A line two standard error of regressions away
from the data fit was plotted.  The equation for this line
enables the total dilution to be predicted with 97.7% confi-
dence that the actual total dilution will not be greater
(worse from a pollution standpoint) than predicted.  These
predicted values were tabulated for every 500 feet from the
Pompano Outfall.

Assuming a current speed of 0.5 knots and a distance of 7,400
feet from the Pompano Outfall, bacteria die-off will account
for a reduction of 4.77 x lO"1 of the initial concentration
in the winter.  This represents a total reduction due to
die-off and total dilution of 1.04 x 10~J and leaves a bac--
teria count of 31,200 T.C./100 ml.  At 15,000 feet the total
reduction will yield bacteria counts of 14,100 T.C./100 ml
for the winter.  It takes a distance of 30,000 feet from the
outfall before the total reduction of the bacteria reaches
the state standard.

Total dilution and bacteria die-off are insufficient in
reducing the initial concentration of bacteria to safe bathing
                              296

-------
water standards within 7500 feet, which is the distance from
the outfall to shore.  Therefore, pollution of the bathing
waters from the Pompano Outi'.-.Il is a marked possibility,
especially in the winter whr-  "hi ah coliform counts are found
5 nautical miles from the outfail.  In order to insure that
the bathing waters are not polluted by high bacteria con-
centrations, the effluent snould be treated for coliform
removal in the sewage plant in order to restrict the polluted
effluent plume to a distance of 6000 feet from the outfall.
A formula was created from which the plant dilution and
percent treatment necessary to accomplish this can be cal-
culated.  The recommended treatment for bacteria kills in
the Pompano Outfall is 97.56% for winter  (75°F water temper-
ature) and 70.60% during the summer (85°F water temperature).
It should be possible to calculate the plant dilution and
percent treatment for any outfall on the southeast Florida
coast that discharges in 90 feet of water, using the tables
and formulas derived for Pompano.  A table of plant dilution
and percent treatment for all the outfalls in 90 feet of
water is shown in the text.  The treatment recommended is
similar to that of Pompano.  The large outfall systems of the
Miami area are discharging in water depths less than 90 feet
so that Pompano total dilutions will not apply.  The total
dilution of effluent from these outfalls will have less effect
on reducing the initial concentration of bacteria than Pompano,

Fluorometry experiments should be conducted on all the outfall
systems of southeast Florida in order to determine the actual
values of dilution and plant treatment necessary to protect
the bathing waters.

The only pollution indicator from the Pompano Outfall found
to be significant is the number' of total coliforms/100 r.il
in the effluent plume.  Strong currents at the point of
discharge prevent a large build-up of organic material that
would decrease dissolved oxygen, and increase nutrient con-
centrations and turbidity.  The concentration of dissolved
oxygen, phosphate and nitrate decrease to background a short
distance from the outfall.  However, the strong currents
are responsible for extending the polluted effluent plume
to large distances from the outfall by decreasing the die-off
time .

The Miami outfalls are discharging approximately one laiJc-
inside of the edge of the Continental Shelf.  These outfalls
have greater pumping rates than Pompano, water depths are
less and currents are slower.  Under these conditions an
organic buildup may very likely be taking place.

The approach taken in computing plant dilution and percent
treatment for outfalls discharging at water depths of 90 feet
is conservative for it is based on preventing the occurance
of pollution in the bathing waters with a 97.7% confidence.
                               297

-------
EVALUATION IN TERMS OF WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

Class III waters are those which are to be used for recrea-
tional purposes, including such body contact activities as
swimming and water skiing; and for the maintenance of a
well-balanced fish and wildlife population.  All coastal
and beach waters, including off-shore waters, not otherwise
classified shall be classified as Class III waters.  The
following are the state classification criteria for Class III
waters:

      1)  Sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes
          shall be effectively treated by the latest
          modern technological advances as approved
          by the regulatory agency.

      2)  The pH of receiving waters shall not be
          caused to vary more than one (1.0)  unit
          above or below normal pH of the waters.
          The lower limit shall not be less than
          six (6.0), not the upper limit more than
          eight and one-half (8.5).  In cases where
          pH values may differ from these limits
          due to natural background or outside causes,
          approval of the regulatory agency shall
          be secured prior to introducing such
          material in waters of the state.

      3)  The dissolved oxygen concentration shall
          not be artificially depressed below four
          (4.0)  ppm, unless background information
          indicates the prior existence of lower
          values under unpolluted conditions.  In
          such cases, lower limits may be utilized
          after approval by the regulatory authority.

      4)  The coliform bacteria group shall not
          exceed 1,000 per 100 ml as a monthly
          average,  (either MPN or MF counts)«  It
          shall not exceed this number of more than
          20% of the samples examined during any
          month; nor shall it exceed 2,100 per 100 ml
          (MPN or MF count) on any one day.  This
          criteria shall apply only to waters used
          for body contact activities.

      5)  Class III waters shall be free from sub-
          stances attributable to municipal,  indus-
          trial, agricultural, or other discharges
          in concentrations or combinations which
          are toxic or harmful to human, animal, or
          aquatic life.

      6)  Class III waters shall be free from dele-
                              298

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           terious materials attributable to muni-
           cipal/ industrial, agricultural, or other
           discharges producing color, odor, or other
           conditions in such a degree as to create
           a nuisance.

       7)  The turbidity shall not exceed fifty (50)
           Jackson units as related to standard
           candle turbidimeter measurements above
           background.

       8)  The temperature shall not be increased so
           as to cause any damage or harm to the
           aquatic life or vegetation of the receiving
           waters, or interfere with any beneficial
           use assigned to such waters.

The data from this study indicate that state water quality
criteria are not exceeded with regard to pH, dissolved oxygen
concentration, turbidity, temperature, or deleterious material
in quantities sufficient to be a nuisance in the area of
man/water contact.  Marginal conditions exist regarding the
presence of floatable materials.

Along with a limited amount of aesthetic pollution the findings
indicate the presence of certain biological indicators of
pollution in the vicinity of the sludge pile at the outfall
terminus.  Potential pollution of coastal waters exists in
the man/water contact zone whenever the downstream plume inter-
sects with surf waters causing a monthly average coliform
concentration in excess of 1000 MPN/100 ml.
ENGINEERING IMPLICATIONS

If the use of ocean outfalls as a method of waste disposal is
to continue, the engineer is confronted with finding a solution
to the potential beach wacer contamination due to floatable
solids and bacteriological indices.

Experimentation with comminution in series following coarse
and fine screening may produce a satisfactory particle size to
preclude the event of floatables breaking across the currents
and intersecting the beach surf.  Primary treatment with
effective removal of floatable solids including grease would
insure a more dependable everyday method when practiced in
parallel with series comminution for normal maintenance by-pass
of the primary unit.

The "State of the Art" of reliable and continuous disinfection
of sewage to reduce bacterial loading on a receiving water
provides empirical data as to the dosage and contact time to
provide residuals capable of 98 to 99.8 percent destruction of
coliforms.
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In assessing bacterial removal efficiency following varying
degrees of treatment,  there appears to be a major discrepancy
between the predictive level and the accomplished.  It will be
necessary for the engineer to re-evaluate current chlorination
practices which merely control odor, and to develop new methods
which will lead to effective bacterial destruction.

The oceanographic and marine waste disposal sections of this
report indicate a semi-permanent stratification layer between
200 to 300 feet water depth.  It is therefore important that
existing and planned outfalls of southeast Florida be investi-
gated as to the feasibility of discharging within this depth
range.  The combination of greater stratification, increased
vertical distance, stronger magnitude currents will aid in
mixing effluent beneath the surface.  At times when the effluent
does reach the surface the increased distance to shore will
further aid in reducing effluent concentrations to bathing water
standards before intersecting the beach.
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                         SECTION VIII

                        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The first two years' reports were prepared by Dr. Raymond F.
McAllister, Professor of Ocean Engineering, Florida Atlantic
University, as principal investigator.  These acknowledged
contributions of time, efforts, funds, interest and assistance
from many individuals, municipalities, and federal and state
agencies who unselfishly responded to Florida Ocean Sciences
Institute's call for help.

In the final year, principal investigator was Mr. Lawrence D.
Lukin, P. E ,  Director, Division of Environmental Health,
Palm Beach County Health Department, and required more of
in-house involvement.  Worthy of special recognition are the
following:

          Mr.  Thomas N. Lee, author of the oceanographic
          portions of the report.

          Mr.  James B. McGuire, who developed the
          mathematical model.

          Messrs. James Barry, Terry L. Davis and Dr.
          James B. Lackey, co-authors of those portions
          pertaining to marine biology.

          Mr.  Joseph J. Richter, who assumed the overall
          editorial responsibility for this final report.

          Dr.  F. A, Eidsness, Black, Crow and Eidsness, Inc.,
          as general consultant on environmental engineering
          practices related to this study.

          Further, we wish to recognize the assistance
          and continual guidance given to this project by
          Dr.  D. J. Baumgartner of the Environmental
          Protection Agency, Corvallis, Oregon.

Further information relating to this project may be obtained
by contacting Mr. Lawrence D. Lukin, Principal Investigator,
Florida Ocean Sciences Institute, Inc., 1605 S. E. Third Court,
Deerfield Beach, Florida  33441.

This project was supported by the Water Quality Office,
Environmental Protection Agency, under Demonstration Project
Grant 16070-EFG.
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                           SECTION IX

                           REFERENCES
Abbott, R. T., 1954:  American Seashells.  D. Van Nostrand
   Co. Inc., Princeton, N. J., 541 pp.

Barnard, J. L., 1969:  The families and genera of marine
   gammaridean Amphipoda.  U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 271, Smith-
   sonian Inst. Press, Washington D. C., 535 pp.

Durham, Donald L., et al, 1967:  Analysis of tidal current
   observations over the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of
   Mexico.  Texas A & M Research Foundation, College Station,
   Texas.  Project No. 286, Contract No. 2119 (04), Ref.
   67-1-T, Final Report.

Fuglister, F. C., 1951:  Annual variations in current speeds
   in the Gulf Stream.  J. Mar. Res., 10, pp. 119-127.

Hartman, O., 1951:  The littoral marine annelids of the Gulf
   of Mexico.  Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci. Univ. Texas, vol. 2,
   no. 1, 117 pp.

Hela, I., 1952:  The fluctuations of the Florida Current.
   Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf Caribb. 1, pp. 241-248.

Lackey, J. B., 1969:  Report on microbiological studies.
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   unpublished, 13 pp.

Lee,  T. N., 1968:  Demonstration of the Limitations and Effects
   of Waste Disposal on an Ocean Shelf.  Florida Ocean Sciences
   Institute.  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
   Project #WPD 165-01 (R-l)  -67, Second Annual Report.

Manring, J. E. and J. S. Tennant, 1968:  Oceanographic vari-
   ability study.  Florida Atlantic University Project No.
   2049  (Part II).  Office of Naval Research Contract No.
   N00019-67-C-0561, Final Report, Unpublished Manuscript.

Miner, R. W., 1950:  Field Book of Seashore Life.  G. P.
   Putnam's Sons, N. Y., 888 pp.

Morris, P. A., 1951:  A Field Guide to the Shells.  Houghton
   Mifflin Co., Boston, 236 pp.

Olson, T. A. and F. J. Burgess, et al, 1967:  Pollution and
   Marine Ecology.  John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., 364 pp.

Owczarek, Jersey A., 1968:  Introduction to Fluid Mechanics,
   Pa., International Textbook Co., 516 pp.
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 Pearson,  E.  A.,  et al,  1960:   Waste Disposal in the Marine
      Environment.   Pergamon Press,  N.  Y.,  569 pp.

 Renaud,  J. C.,  1956:  A report on some polychaetous annelids
      from the Miami-Bimini area.   Am.  Mus. Novi #1812, 40 pp.

 Schmitz,  William J.,  and W. S. Richardson, 1968:  On the
      transport  of  the Florida Current.  Deep Sea Research,
      15,  679-693.

 Schureman, Paul, 1958:   Manual of Harmonic Analysis and Pre-
      diction of Tides.   U.S.  Department of Commerce, Coast
      and Geodetic  Survey,  Special Publication No. 98, 317 pp.

 Smith, J. A., B. D. Zetler, and Saul Broida, 1969:  Tidal
      modulation of the  Florida Current surface flow.  Marine
      Technology Society Journal,  3, May 69, pp. 41-46.

 Stewart,  R.  E.,  H. D. Putnam, R.  H. Jones and T. N. Lee, 1969:
      Diffusion  of  Sewage Effluent from an Ocean Outfall.
      American Society of Civil Engineers,  Civil Engineering
      in  the  Ocean  II, Miami Beach Dec. 12, Unpublished
      Manuscript.

 Stommel,  H.,  1965:  The Gulf  Stream,  Berkeley and Los Angeles.
      University of California Press, 248 pp.

 Wariuke,  G. L. and  R.  T. Abbott, 1962:   Caribbean Seashells.
      Livingston Publ. Co., Narberth, Pa.,  348 pp.

 Wass, M. L.,  1955:  The decapod crustaceans of Alligator Harbor
      and adjacent  inshore areas of northwestern Florida..  Quart.
      J.  Fla.  Acad. Sci., Vol. 18, no.  3, 47 pp.

 Wilber,  C. G.,  1969:  The Biological Aspects of Water Pollution.
      Charles C. Thomas, Publisher,  Springfield, 111., 296 pp.

 Zetler,  Bernard D., 1968:  Tides in the Gulf of Mexico.  Phy-
      sical Oceanography Laboratory, ESSA,  Miami.  Preliminary
      Report.  Unpublished Manuscript.
*U 8 QOVIRNMINT PRINTING OFFICE W2 484-434/10 1-3
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