CONFERENCE
                in the matter of
    Pollution of the Interstate Waters of the
             UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER
                   VOLUME III
               St. Paul, Minnesota




                February 8, 1964
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE




                Washington, D.C.

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                           OOOR64004
                   CONFERENCE
                in the matter of
    Pollution of the Interstate  Waters of  the
             UPPER MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
                   VOLUME III
               St. Paul,  Minnesota

                February  8,  1964
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH,  EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

                Washington,  D.C.
                              U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc
                              Region V, Library
                              230 South Dearborn Street
                              Chicago, Illlnoli  60604

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                          VOLUME III
                       CONTENTS;
STATEMENT OF:                          .        PAGE




Dr. M. M. Hargraves  (Con't)
MINNESOTA EXHIBITS                             PAGE




XIII                                           657




XIV                                           . 664




XV                                             670




XVI                                            677




XVII                                           837




XVIII, Vol. 1                                  875




XVIII, Vol. 2                                  931

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                                                        657
                      EXHIBIT XXZZ
                   STATE OF MINNESOTA

           WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION

   CLASSIFICATION AMD STANDARDS FOR THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

AND TRIBUTARIES FROM THE RUM RIVER TO THE UPPER LOCK AMD DAM

                  AT ST. ANTHONY FALLS


          The classification for use and the pollution

standards as hereinafter set forth are hereby adopted and

established for that portion of the Mississippi River from

but not including the mouth of the Rum River to the upper

lock and dan at St. Anthony Falls, approximately at the nortbf-

castward extension of Fifth Avenue South in the City of

Minneapolis, and streams tributary thereto.

     Section 1.  Classification for Use.

     (a)  The primary use of the waters requiring mainten-

          ance of water quality in accordance with the

          standards hereinafter prescribed is as a source

          of public water supply for drinking, food

          processing, and related purposes.

     (b)  Other uses for which waters of such quality are

          suitable are industrial processing and cooling,

          navigation, pleasure boating, fishing, bathing,

          swimming, and other recreational uses, subject

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                                                   658
     to such restrictions on any such 11*99 which in-
     volve close, frequent, or prolonged contact with
     the water •• nay be necessary for protection of
     public health.
(c)  Other beneficial usee for which water of lower
     quality may be euitable nay be exercised in the
     waters, provided the effects do not actually or
     potentially conflict with the uses specified in
     paragraphs (a) and (b).
Section 2.  Belated Conditions
     The waters should meet the recommended U. 3.
     Public Health Service raw water requirements for
     Group IV, as defined in Public Health Bulletin
     No. 296, Manual of Recommended Water Sanitation
     Practice, 19^6, ao that after Class IV treatment
     as specified in said manual the water will meet
     the requirements for drinking water as specified
     in U. S. Public Health Service Drinking Water
     Standards, 1962.  Waters having the quality afore-
     said will be suitable for maintenance of game fish
     of species commonly inhabiting waters of the
     vicinity under natural conditions.
Section 3.  Standards
(a)  Ho raw sewage, and no industrial waste or other
     wastes, treated or untreated, containing viable

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                                                 699

     pathogenic or^e ft lisas or any substances wblcb Msy


     cause disease, <>udan&or the public health, or      j


     otherwise impair the quality of thr receiving


     water* for public water supply shall be discharged


     into tb<  watom.


(b)  No trrnted sewage effluent shall be discharged into


     th« watora from any sourc<> orifrioating after tbe


     taking i-fft-ct htroof, including, without limitation


     discharg*» from wateroraft.


(o)  Mo treated .Towage effluent, Industrial waste, or


     other wastes shall b< discharged into the waters
                                                        I
                                                        !
     so as to cause any nuisauc< conditions, including, '
                                                        i
                                                        i
     without limitation, the pr< uenct  of substantial    ;


     amounts of floating solids, scuta, oil slicks,      I
                                                        i
                                                        I
     suspended solids, material discoloration, obnoxious


     odors, visible ga^ins, sludg>  deposits, substan-


     tial fuuerus growths, or other offonsiv< effects.


(d)  No treated giwagf  effluent, industrial waste, or


     oth
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                                                   660
     effluent, industrial waste, or otter waste* shall
     be restricted so that after reasonable oppor-
     tunity for Mixing and dilution thereof with the
     receiving waters the dissolved oxygen oonteot of
     snob waters will be maintained at not less than
     5 milligrams per liter, based on the monthly
     average flow which is exceeded by 90 per cent
     of the monthly average flows of record for the
     month of August or February, whichever is lower,
     and so that a level of not less than 4 milligrams
     per liter will be maintained under any instan-
     taneous low flow conditions.
(f)  The discharge of industrial waste or other wastes
     shall be controlled so that the heat content of
     such discharges, after reasonable opportunity for
     mixing and dilution thereof with the receiving
     waters, does not raise the temperature of such
     waters above 93° F at any point, based on the
     critical month of August and the monthly average
     flow specified in paragraph (e),
(g)  The discharge of treated sewage effluent, indus-
     trial waste, or other wastes shall be restricted
     so that at any water supply intake the maximum
     limits for chemicals in the waters shall be such
     that after Class XV treatment has been provided

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                                              661
•• specified in Section 2 (Public Health Bulletin
Kb. 296), the concentrations reoomended in the
0. S. Public Health Service Drinking liter
Standard*, 1962, will not be exceeded in the treat-
ed water.  Such discharges shall also be re-
ctricted so that after reasonable opportunity
for mixing and dilution of the discharge with the
receiving waters, on the basis of the monthly
average flow specified in paragraph (e), the
concentrations of the substances specified below
will not be exceeded in the waters.
   Aooonia       2,0 milligrams per liter
                 (as Nitrogen)
   Chromium      1,0 milligrams per liter
                 (as Chromium)
   Copper        0*2 milligrams per liter
                 (as Copper)
   Cyanide       0.02 milligrams per liter
                 (as Cyanide ion)
   Oil           Hot to exceed a trace
   pH range      6,5 - 9.0
   Radioactive   Not to exceed the lowest oonoen-
    materlals      tratlons permitted to be dis-
                   charged to an uncontrolled
                   environment as prescribed by

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                                                  662
                      the appropriate Federal authority

                      or by the State Board  of Health.

     Means for expediting nixing and dispersion of such

     treated sewage effluent,  industrial  waste, or

     other wastes la the receiving waters shall be

     provided BO far as practicable whenever deemed

     necessary by the Commission to maintain the  quality

     of the receiving waters in accordance with

     applicable standards.

(b)  No treated sewage effluent, industrial  waste, or

     other wastes shall bo discharged into the waters

     in such quantity or in such manner alone or  in

     combination with other substances as to cause

     pollution thereof as defined by law.

(i)  In any case where, upon application  of  the respon-

     sible person or persona,  the Commission finds

     after a bearing thereon that by reason  of exception

     al circumstances the strict enforcement of a

     provision of these standards would cause undue

     hardship and would be unreasonable,  that disposal

     of the sewage, industrial waste, or  other wastes

     involved is necessary for public health, safety,

     and welfare, and that no means for such disposal

     in strict conformity with the standards is reasonably

     available, tlu  Commission, in its discretion, may

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                                               663
perait a variance therefrom upon such conditions
as it nay prescribe for prevention, control, or
abatewent of pollution and in harmony with the
general purpose and intent of the standards.


Adopted March 28, ±963

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                                                        664
                       EXHIBIT XIV
                   STATE Of MINNESOTA




           WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION




CLASSIFICATION AND STANDARDS FOR THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND




TRIBUTARIES FROM THE UPPER LOCK AND DAM AT ST. ANTHONY FALLS




TO THE OUTFALL OF THE MINNEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL SANITARY DISTRICT



                 SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT








          The classification for use and the pollution




standards as hereinafter set forth are hereby adopted and



established for that portion of the Mississippi River frora




the upper lock and dan at 5Jt, Anthony Palls, approximately




at the northeastward extension of Fifth Avenue South in the



City of Minneapolis, to immediate ly above* the outfall of the




Minneapolis-5t. Paul Sanitary District sewage treatment plant




in the City of St. Paul, approximately at the eastward ex-




tension of Baker Street East in said city, and streans



tributary thereto except the Minnesota River.




     Section 1.  Claaaifleation for Use.




     (a)  The uses of the waters requiring maintenance of




          water quality in accordance with the standards



          hereinafter proscribed arc pleasure boating,




          fishing, and other recreational uses, subject to




          such restriction on any such uses which involve

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                                                    665
                                                        i
     close, frequent, or prolonged contact with the     |

     water aa nay b« necessary for protection of        ;
                                                        <
     public health*                                     »
                                                        i
                                                        i
                                                        i
(b)  The waters way be uaed for navigation, general     i

     industrial purposes, and other beneficial uses for \

     which water of lower quality nay be suitable,

     provided the effects do not actually or potentially

     conflict with the uses specified in paragraph (a).

Section 2.  Belated Conditions

     The waters are suitable for the aforesaid uses and

     for maintenance of gawf fish of species connonly

     inhabiting waters of the vicinity under natural

     conditions, but not as a source of drinking water

     or special quality industrial process water, or

     for bathing or swimming, subject to such restric-

     tions on any such uses which involve close, fre-

     quent, or prolonged contact with the water as nay

     be necessary for protection of public health.

Section 3.  standards

(a)  Mo major quantities of sewage, industrial waste,

     or other wastes, treated or untreated, shall be

     discharged into the waters.  Mo treated sewage,

     industrial waste, or other wastes containing

     viable pathogenic organisns shall be discharged

     into the waters without effective disinfection

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                                                    666
     during the mummer wrath*, except under emergency
     conditions.  Effectlye disinfection of any dis-
     charges, including combined flows of sewage and
     atom water, may be required to protect the afore-
     said uses of tbe waters.
(b)  No sewage, industrial waste, or other wastes shall
     be discharged into the waters so as to cause any
     nuisance conditions, including, without limitation,
     tbe presence of substantial amounts of floating
     solids, scum, oil slicks, suspended solids,
     material discoloration, obnoxious odors, risible
     gassing, sludge deposits, substantial fungus
     growths, or other offensive effects.
(c)  The discharge of oxygen-demanding sewage, indus-
     trial waste, or other wastes shall be restricted
     so that after reasonable opportunity for mixing
     and dilution thereof with tbe receiving waters  tbe
     dissolved oxygen content of such waters will be
     maintained at not less than 4 milligrams per liter,
     based on the monthly average flow which is exceeded
     by 90 per cent of tbe monthly flows of record
     for the month of August or February, whichever
     is lower, and so that a level of not less than
     3 milligrams per liter will bo maintained under
     tbe minimum dally flow which is exceeded by 98

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                                                   667
     per cent of the siniMtm daily flows of record for
     the month of August or February, whichever is lover
(d)  The discharge of industrial waste or otter wastes

     shall be controlled so that the beat content of

     such discharges, after reasonable opportunity for

     mixing and dilution thereof with the receiving

     waters, does not raise the temperature of such

     waters above 93° F, baaed on the critical month

     of August and the monthly average flow specified

     in paragraph (c),

(e)  The discharge of sewage, industrial wastes, or

     other wastes shall be restricted so that, on

     the basis of the monthly average flow specified

     in paragraph  (o), the limits hereinafter speci-

     fied will not be exceeded in the waters after
     reasonable opportunity for nixing and dilution:

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Ammonia
Chromium
Copper
Cya aide
Oil
pH range
Phenolic
 materials
Radioactive
 materials
                                    668
2.0 milligram* per liter (as Nitrogen)
1.0 milligrams per liter (aa Chromium)
0.2 milligrams per liter (as Copper)
0.02 milligrams per liter (as Cyanide  ion
10 milligrams per liter
6.0 - 9.0

0.01 milligrams per liter (as Phenol)

Kot to exceed the lowest concentrations
 permitted to be discharged to an uncon-
 trolled environment as prescribed by
 the appropriate Federal authority or
 by the State Board of Health
Means for expediting mixing and dispersion of such
sewage, industrial waste, or other wastes in the
receiving waters shall be provided so far as practicable
whenever deemed necessary by the Commission to main-*
tain the quality of the receiving waters in accordance
with applicable standards.

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                                                  669
(f)  No sewage, industrial waste,  or other waste*  •ball
     be discharged into tht  water* in ouch quantity or
     In such manner alone or in combination with other
     substances as to cause pollution thereof as de-
     fined by law.
(g)  In any case where, upon application of the re-
     sponsible person or persons,  the Commission finds
     after a hearing thereon that  by reason of ex-
     ceptional circumstances the strict  enforcement of
     a provision of those standards would cause undue
     hardship and would b<  unreasonable, that disposal
     of the sewage, industrial  waste, or other wastes
     involved is necessary for  piiMie braltb, safety,
     and welfare, and that no means for  such disposal
     in strict conformity with  the standards is reason-
     ably available,  thi  Commission,  in  its discretion,
     may permit a variance therefrow  upon such condi-    j
     tions as it nay prescribe  for prevention, control,
     or abatement of pollution  and in harmony with the
     general purpose and intent of the standards.

     Adopted March 28,  ±963
                     # * «

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                                                         670
                       EXHIBIT XT









                   STATE OP MINNESOTA




           WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION




CLASSIFICATION AMD STANDARDS FOR THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER AMD




TRIBUTARIES FROM THE OUTFALL OF THE MINNEAPOLIS-ST.  PAUL




SAHITART DISTRICT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT TO LOCK AND DAM




                   NO. 2 NEAR HASTINGS
          The classification for use and the pollution stand*



ards as hereinafter set forth are hereby adopted and



established for that portion of the Mississippi River from



immediately above the outfall of the Minneapolis-St. Paul




Snnltary District sewage treatment plant in the City of



3t. Paul, approximately at the eastward extension of Baker



Street East in said city to the U. S. lock and dam No. 2



above Hustings.



     Section 1.  Classification for Use



          The uses of the waters requiring maintenance of



          water quality in accordance with the standards




          hereinafter prescribed are for Industrial



          processes, general cooling water, stock and



          wild life watering, restricted irrigation, dis-



          posal of treated sewage and waste effluents,



          fish survival, esthetic enjoyment of river scenery,

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                                                  671
     and passage of watercraft in connection with

     navigation and pleasure boating in such manner as

     to avoid close, frequent, or prolonged contact

     with the water.

Section 2.  Related Cond it ions

     The waters are suitable for the aforesaid uses and

     for survival or passage of game fish of species

     commonly inhabiting waters of the vicinity under

     natural conditions, and for disposal of treated

     sewage and industrial waste effluents for which

     no other means of disposal i.s available.  Treat-   j

     ment of the waters may be necessary for some in-

     dustrial uses.

Section J.  3ta uda rds

     (a)  No major quantities of untreated sewage,

          industrial wast*-, or otht r wastes shall be

          discharged into th<  wat< rs.  No treated

          sewage, industrial waste,  or other wastes

          containing viable pathogenic organisms shall

          be discharged into the  waters without

          effective disinfection during the summer

          months, except under emergency conditions.

          Effective disinfection of  any discharges,

          including combin*d flows of sewage and storm

          water,  may be r< quired to  protect the aforesaikt

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                                               672
     uses of the water*.
(b)  No sewage, Industrial waste, or other wastes
     aba 11 be discharged into th» waters so a»
     to cause any nuisance conditions, including,
     without limitation, the presence of sub-
     stantial amounts of floating solids, scum,
     oil slicks, suspended solids, material dis-
     coloration, obnoxious odors, visible gassing,
     sludge deposits, substantial fungus growths,
     or other offensive effects.
(c)  The discharge of oxygen-demanding sewage,
     industrial waste, or other wastes shall be
     restricted so that after reasonable
     opportunity for mixing and dilution thereof
     with the receiving waters the dissolved
     oxygen content of such waters will be main-
     tained at not less than 2 milligrams per
     liter, based on the monthly  average flow
     which is exceeded by 90 Per  cent of the
     monthly average flows of record for the month

     of August or February, whichever is lower,
     and so that a level of not less than 1 milli-
     gram per liter will be maintained under the
     minimum daily flow which is  exceeded by 95

     per cent of the minimum dally flows of record

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                                              673
     for the nontb of August or February which-
     ever is lower.  In addition to the afore-
     said requirement*, the highest levels of
     dissolved oxygen which are attainable by
     continuous operation of all the units of
     the treatment works discharging into this
     reach of the river at their ttaxinun capability
     consistent with practical limitations of such
     works shall bo maintained in the waters,
     except for emergencies, in order to improve
     conditions for fish and for other uses of
     the waters.
(d)  The discharge of industrial waste or other
     wastes shall ix  controlled so that the heat
     content of such discharges, after reasonable
     opportunity for nixing and dilution thereof
     with the receiving waters, does not raise
     the temperature of such waters above 93° F
     based on the critical month of August and
     the aontbly average flow specified in
     paragraph (c).  Further reduction in beat
     discharges may be required if necessary to
     avoid substantial interference with or
     adverse effects upon other uses.
(c)  The discharge of sewage, industrial wastes,

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 Ammonia
 Chromium
 Copper
 Cyanide
 Fluoride
 Oil
pH range
Phenolic
                                          674
or other wastes shall be reetrioted eo that,
on the basis of the Monthly average flow
specified in paragraph (o), the limits here-
inafter specified will not be exceeded in
the waters after reasonable opportunity for
mixing and dilution:

     2.0 milligram* per liter (as Nitrogen)
     1.0 milligrams per liter (a*. Chromium)
     0.2 milligrams per liter (as Copper)
     0.02 milligrams per liter (as Cyanide ion)
     2.0 milligrams per liter (as Fluoride ion)
     10 milligrams per liter
     6.0 - 9.5
  materials    0.1 milligrams per liter (as Phenol)
Radioactive
  materials    Mot to exceed the lowest concentrations
               permitted to be discharged to an un-
               controlled environment as prescribed
               by the appropriate Federal authority
               or by the State Board of Health.
Means for expediting mixing and disperson of such
treated sewage effluent, industrial waste, or other
wastes in the receiving waters shall be provided so

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                                                    675
far as practicable whenever deeded necessary by the
Commission to maintain the quality of the receiving
waters in accordance vitb applicable standards*


     (f)  No sewage, industrial waste, or other
          wastes shall bo discharged into the waters
          in such quantity or in such manner alone or
          in combination with other substances as to
          cause pollution thereof as defined by law.
     (g)  In any case where, upon application of the
          responsible person or persons,  the Commission
          finds after a bearing thereon that by reason
          of exceptional circumstances the strict
          enforcement of a  provision of these standards
          would cause undue hardship and  would be un-
          reasonable, that  disposal of the sewage,
          industrial waste, or other wastes involved
          is necessary for  public health,  safety, and
          welfare,  and that no means for  such disposal
          in strict conformity with the standards is
          reasonably available,  the Commission,  in its
          discretion, may permit a  variance  therefrom
          upon such conditions as it may  prescribe for
          prevention, control,  or abatement  of  pollution
          and  in harmony with  the general  purpose and

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                                         676
intent of the standard*.
Adopted March 28, ±963.
           * * *

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                                                  677
                EXHIBIT XVI
           Report  on Investigation


          of  the Mississippi  River


       From the Mouth of  the  RUB  River


    To the Mouth of  the  3t. Croix River




           July and August,  ±960


                     and


          August and September, ±96!
      MINHl 30TA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH


   Division of Environmental Sanitation


    Section of liter Pollution Control


                  for the


Minnesota later Pollution Control Commission

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                                                        678
 Report on Investigation of the Mississippi River from the

Mouth of the Run River to the Mouth of the St. Croix River
                                                       ^t
  July and August, ±960, and August and September, ±96!


         ("includes infomation as of May, 1962.)
                      INTRODUCTION




          The 1961 investigations of the river were made

to obtain information for the Legislature and others con-

cerned and to provide a basis for possible classification

and adoption of standards for the Mississippi River in this

area by the later Pollution Control Commission.  The general

area under consideration is shown in Figure I6




aoope of the Investigation
          The major part of the field investigation was con-

fined to the Metropolitan Area from the Coon Rapids dan to

immediately below the Junction of the St. Croix River and

the Mississippi River.  The field investigation from the

Mouth of the Run River in Anofeca to the Coon Rapids dam was

completed in August, 1960.  The field investigations con-

sisted of physical observations and collection of water

samples at representative stations for bacteriological and

chemical analysis.  Bottom mud samples were also collected

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                                                      679
 for determination of percent volatile material and examina-

 tion for bottom  fauna.  An  inspection of all the major storm,

 sanitary,  and combined  sewers discharging to the Mississippi

 River in the  Twin Cities was made with personnel of the

 MSSD (Minneapolis-St. Paul  Sanitary District).  A copy of

 the sewer inspection report by the MS3D for this tour is

 attached as Appendix E.

           The sampling  stations are shown in Figures II, III,

 and IV,  and described in Tables 1 and 2.


 Personnel


           C.  1.  Kiester and L. E. Richie, Assistant Public

 Health rngineer  and  Geologist, respectively, were in charge

 of  the field  party.   R. D* Mill r, W. F. Hodgins and

 T.  R,  SheIton, Assistant Public Health engineer and Engineer-

 ing Aides, respectively, participated in the field survey,

 together with several temporary employees.  The survey was

 organized and conducted under the general direction of

 L.  H. Smith, Chief of the Section of Water Pollution

Control and Executive Engineer of the Water Pollution

Control Commission, and C. A* Johannes, Public Health

 Engineer.  The basic report was prepared by C. E. Kiester.

          Physical, chemical, and bacteriological examina-

 tions of the  samples wers performed in the laboratory of
I

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                                                       680
tbe Division of Environmental Sanitation under the direction
of R. I. Fracier, Chief of tbe Section of Engineering
Laboratories.

Acknowledgements

          Maurice L. Robins, Chief Chemist and Sanitary
Engineer, 8. M. Schwartzfield, Chemist, and P. F. Farinacol,
Chemist Aide, all of tbe MSSD staff rendered valuable
assistance during tbe survey.

                  BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Previous General Surveys

          In 1928 a comprehensive survey'^' was made of the
Mississippi River fro* tbe Camden bridge in Minneapolis
to below LaCrosse, Wisconsin, by tbe Minnesota Department
of Health in collaboration with tbe Minnesota Commissioner
of Gave and Fish and tbe Wisconsin Department of Health.
The win conclusion drawn from this survey on tbe condition
of the river in tbe Metropolitan Area was that "a condition
of public nuisance exists, except during periods of rela-
tively bigh water, in tbe section of tbe river fro* tbe
bead of tbe pool above tbe Twin City Lock and Dam in

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                                                              i
                                                           681 j
                                                              t
Minneapolis to the influx of the St. Crolx Biver at Prescott"

This eoadition was evidenced by odors, floating and

suspended material, sludge deposits and by tbe ebullition  of

gases.  It was reooBtsteiaded by the participating agencies

that "tb*> pollution uf the river should be restricted to

such an extent that tbe public health hazard will be reduced
                                                              i
to a wiuiwuB, that tbe health of live stock will not be       j

materially endangered, that the present public nuisance will

be eliiwiaated  and that fish life in the river, at least
below tbe tKMitb of tbe St. Croix, will not be Jeopardized."
                                          (4)
          In 1933 another pollution survey   of tbe Mississippi

River from tbe Minneapolis water treatment plant in Pridley

to tbe Bastings dan was nade by this Department,  It

was found during this survey that "the polluted condition

of the Mississippi River in tbo Metropolitan Area bad

not improved since the investigation of 1928; in fact, tbe

pollution was more pronounced at this time than it bad been

in tbe past".  During the period from June, 1929, through

the suw&er of 1933* the Metropolitau Dx-alaa^* Coonui&sion

had also collected samples, at intervals of two weeks or

less, from the river at sampling points extending from above

Minneapolis to tbe outlet of Lake Pepin.

          The Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District sewage

treatment plant was constructed Au 1938 and tbe South         ]
                                                              I
St. Paul waste treattteut plant was constructed in ±940.       \
                                                              i

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                                                         682
One of the operational r&sg^ttsi&ilitieis imposed upon tl»

MS8D by tibia Department was the collection of data on the

condition of the river.  Slnoe that tine the ISflD has done

sampling of the river throughout the Metropolitan Area and

below, and has routinely aaalyaaeH the samples for bacterial

numbers aiad chemical contents  The MSSD now samples at a

total of 24 at at ions, from the Minneapolis water purifi-

cation plant in Fridley to the outlet of Lake pepin above

Read's Landing.  Samples arc normally collected twice a

BOnth at stations above the MSSO plant, onoe or twice a

week at stations on the river from the ifSSD plant to Bed Win

and approximately twice a month at stations on the lower

river fron Rod Wing through Lake- Pepin.  Analyses are made

in the laboratory of the HS3D plant.

          From December 17, ±951> to January 17, 1952, a

survey(5) of the Mississippi River frott the Minneapolis

water purification plant to the Ford dam was made by this

Department.  Shortly before and during this period, raw

sewage was discharged to the river frota Minneapolis sewers.

The purpose of this discharge of raw sewage was to allow

boat fron the warm sewsge (normally about 59° F) to melt

ice which was causing congestion in the river.  It was

found during this survey that the coliform, 5-day BOD,

suspended solids, and turbidities were higher in all samples

taken at the Gage, Lock and Dam Ho. 1 (Ford Dam) than that

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                                                     683

which was normally expected using median values for 1930

and 1951  fron the  Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District's

records as a  criterion.

           In  November of 1956, au investigation was made of

Upper and Lower  Spring Lake to determine  the suitability for

discharge of  Industrial  wastes from St*  Paul Aamonia         i
                                                              i
Products, Inc.   The  results of this survey showed that        !

wastes from the  plant should go directly into the current    i

of  the Mississippi River and not into Spring Lake as origin-

ally  proposed.

           In  Jaauary of  195&,  a *»urv'y ^s wd<> of the

Mississippi River  from the  Fridl.y arm  t»  th-» Hastings das

in  cooperation with  tb«*  Minn* so fen IDorMj.'tc'vr't of Conservation.

The primary purpose  of this itw«-~;t.irr,itinu \vn« to determine

the caust: of  tainting of fish,  the distribution of tainted

fish,  and wain sources of th<  causativ*  ur* sits,  The results

of the survey were not conclusiv* *

           In  1958, in conjunction with an investigation of

waste  disposal at  3t.  Paul  Anmnnia Protects, Inc., Liquid

Carbonic  Division, General  Dynamics Corporation,  and the

Minnesota Mining and  Manufacturing Company,  Inc.,  Chemolite

Plant, a  survey of the Mississippi River  in  the Pine Bend

area was made by this  DepartBK  nt^  '"'.  The  survey showed

that the  general condition  of  the river  in this area  was

relatively  unsatisfactory,  although th« dissolved  oxygen

-------
                                                      684

concentration* were higher than those found during the ±961


survey.  At a number of locations, the banks near the water-


line were covered with black septic sludge.  The chemical


analyse* of the river samples showed a alight increase in


the manganese and ammonia content of the river below the


ammonia plant waste outfall.


          In 1958, a survey' ' was made by this Department


of the Mississippi River from Elk River to Hastings.  This


survey consisted mainly of the collection of samples for


radioactivity analysis in order to determine background


conditions.

                  (o\
          A report**' entitled "Pollution and Recovery


Characteristics of the Mississippi River" has recently been


completed and published.  The project was sponsored by the


MSSD following a public hearing on the condition of the


river held by the later Pollution Control Commission in


June, 1956.  The report was prepared by the Sanitary


Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering,


Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota, under the


direction of Professor George J. Scbroepfer, and covers


river characteristics, deoxygenation, reaoration, river


capacity investigations, degree of treatment requirements,


and treatment supplementation.


          In the past few years a number of fish kills in


the area from St. Paul Park to the Hastings dam, mainly

-------
                                                       685

 in the  vicinity  of  Spring Lake, lure  been  reported to  this
 JCtopa rtment ,   The  cumber  a»*d severity of then* kill*



 to be  increasing  each  year.   In  September, ±961, a flab kill



 in tbe vicinity of  Spring  Lake waa  investigated by a Beater



 of this Department  and a biologist  of tbe staff of tbe Depart f



 neat of Conservation.  Tbe flab  kill was generally confirmed*








 later  Quality aaapling Program








          Water samples  for cbcnical and bacteriological



 analysis have been  collected  from tbe Mississippi River



 since  1933 by tbis  Department as part of a statewide basic



 water  quality monitoring program.   On tbis part of tbe



 Mississippi River,  samples have  been collected at Anoka „



 the Minneapolis water  purification  plant, tbe Coon Rapids



 dam, and tbe  Hastings  dam.  Tbe  analytical data have been



 compiled in published  volumes wblcb are available upon re-


                       (9)
 quest  to tbe  Department^'.








 Exi sting Sou roes of Ite jit es








          Listed below are known specific sources of wastes



 with discharge directly  to the Mississippi River.  Tbe list




 does not include intermittent discharges from storm or by-



pass sewers ,  which are discussed in a later section, or

-------
                                                        686
discharges wbiob are not directly to the main stem of the
river.  A discussion of the tributaries !• given in
Appendix C.


Aaoka (population 10.562)


          Tbe Aaoka sewage treatment plant outfall is not
in the area under consideration, but discharges to tbe
Mississippi River immediately above the mouth of the Bun
River.  The plant consists of a grit chamber, primary
settling tank, high-rate trickling filters, final settling
tanks, cblorination contact tank and separate sludge diges-
tion tanks.  Tbe sewage treatment plant is designed to treat
sewage and industrial waste flowing at a rate of 1.44 mgd
(Million gallons per day), having a BOD (5-day biochemical
oxygen demand) of 300 mg/1 (milligrams per liter) and to
produce an effluent BOD of approximately 75 mg/1.


northern States Power Company (Riverside plant)
          This steam electric generating plant is located at
approximately Station M-5.9 in north Minneapolis.  It had
a capacity of about 300,000 kilowatts as of 1961.  In
February and August, 1960, tbe thermal additions to the
river were about 11,000 million and 3,000 million BTU

-------
                                                        687
                                             (2)
(British Thermal Volts) per day, respectively' \  February



and August data are used since these are considered the



two Important souths from the standpoint of river conditions.



It Is estimated that in the year 2000 the thermal additions



will be approximately 13,000 million BTTU per day in February



and 10,000 Billion BTTU per day In August.  A substantial



proposed expansion to this plant was announced recently



by the Company.






northern States Power Company (High Bridge Plant)






          This steam generating power plant is located at



approxinateiy Station M-12.5 in St. Paul.  It had a capacity



of about 305*000 kilowatts as of 1961.  In February and



August, 1960, the thermal additions to the river were about


                                                           (2J)
42,000 Million and 31,000 Billion BTU per day, respectively*"'



It is estimated that in the year 2000 the thermal additions



will be approxinateiy 26,000 Billion BTU per day in February



and 27,000 million BTU per day in August.






Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District (population served



approximately 1.050.000)






          The existing sewage treatment plant was designed



to provide primary treatment of domostlo sewage and a limited]

-------
                                                        688
amount of industrial waste flowing at the rate of 134 ngd.
The plant consist* of the following units:  mechanically
cleaned bar screens, grit chambers, flocculating tanks,
settling tanks, chemical feeders, chiorlnators, sludge
concentration tanks, vacuum filters, and incinerators.  Dur-
ing periods of low river flow, sedimentation treatment
nay be augmented by flocculation and chemical treatment.
          The average raw sewage flow to the plant in 1960
was ±58.2 mgd«, while the five year average from 1936
through 1960 was 147,8 mgd .  ( Flow and analytical data
are from annual reports submitted by the Minneapolis*-
St. Paul "Sanitary District to this Department.)  The 1960
average BOD of the plant influent was 233 «g/l a&d the 1960
average BOO of the plant effluent was 159 n»K/l» or a re-
duction of approximately 32 per cent.  The average BOD
reduction through all the plant units from 195& through
I960 was approximately 35 per cent.  This leaves an
approximate daily discharge of 210,000 Ib. of BOD to the
river, based on 1960 data.  This amount will probably be
somewhat larger in 1962 and increase in the future unless
reduced by treatment, based on the yearly flow increase
estimated from past records.
          Preliminary studies on the sewage treatment needs
of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area have been completed.
Plans and specifications for secondary treatment units on

-------
                                                          689
 enlargement of the present plant to handle the flow for
 the area served are being prepared.  Preliminary plan* are
 to provide additional treatment facilities capable of produc-
 ing an effluent of about 65 mg/1 of BOD.  Approval of
 financing of the project was recently announced by the Board
 of Trustees.


 South St. Paul (population 22.032)


          The existing plant provides primary and secondary
 treatment for approximately 11 mgd of waste with an average
 BOD of approximately 1,190 tag/I.  The plant was designed to
 treat packinghouse wastes and sewage flowing at the rate of
 10*0 mgd with 800 ttg/1 of HOD.  An average BOD reduction of
 about 68 per cent is ordinarily achieved through the treat-
 ment units .  ( Baaed on annual reports submitted to this
 Department by the South St. Paul Sewage Commission.)  On
 this basis, approximately 34,800 pounds of BOD is discharged
 to the river each day.  The plant consists of the following
 units:  grit chamber, grease flotation unit, flooculation
 tanks, primary settling tanks, standard-rate trickling fil-
 ters, final settling tanks, chlorinatlon contact tanks, and
 raw sludge lagoons.
          Preliminary engineering studies have been completed
and plans approved for improvements to the facilities,

-------
                                                          690
consisting of • proposed anaerobic effluent pood.  Tbl« is
expected by the consulting engineer to reduce the plant
•ffluent BOD by 50 per cent for an overall final effluent
concentration of about 200 mg/1.


King Paeking Company


          This is a neat processing plant located in the
former Cudaby Packing Company plant in Newport.  Recommenda-
tions have been Bade by tbis Department for adequate waste
treatment facilities.  Tbis plant does not slaughter animals
but processes frozen beef.  Preliminary engineering studies
are needed to determine tbe characteristics of the wastes.
northwestern Refining Company, 3t. Paul Park


          The waste treatment facilities consist of a cooling
tower for oxidation of pbenolics, stripping unit for removal
of sulfidea, an API oil separator, a small oil recovery
lagoon, a larger oxidation lagoon, and a hay filter.  The
system was designed to treat oil refinery wastes flowing
at tbe rate of about 3.3 mgd.  The effluent of the large
lagoon is discharged through hay filters directly to tbe
Mississippi River.  Spent caustic is segregated and disposed
of separately.  Reports on the effluent quality are submitted

-------
                                                         691
periodically to this Department by the Company.
 3t« Paul Park (population 3.26?)



          A secondary treatment plant was constructed in

 1955*  It was designed to treat sewage and waste at a rate

 of 0.200 mgd, with a 5-day BOD of 200 mg/i, and to produce

 an effluent of 40 mg/1.  The plant consists of a duo-darifiejr

 for primary and final sedimentation, high-rate trickling

 filter, cblorination contact tank, and separate sludge

 digestion tank*  When the capacity of the plant is reached

 expansion of the existing plant will be necessary as indica-

 ted for the second stage of construction in the original

 design.



 J. L. Shiely Company^ Washington County



          The Company has provided clarification basins for

 treatment of waste water from washing of gravel and sand.



 3t. Paul Ammonia Producta, Inc., Dakota County



          The waste treatment facilities consist of a basin

 for neutralization of spent process chemicals, pumps, an

orifice meter and automatic flow-recording device, and a

-------
                                                       692

pi Meter with automatic recorder.  The ay stew was designed


for rsvjovai of floatable oil and the addition of cbenioals


as nay be required to neutralize waste flowing at the rate


of 0,650 Mgd.  The effluent i» discharged, through a force


vain, to the Mississippi River near s>28.2*  The Company


sennits a Monthly report to this Department shoving results


of analysis of the waste for various constituents, such


as nitrates, pH, oil, obroauites, and aetnonia.  Dovestlc


sewage is disposed of by weans of septic tanks and soil


absorption fields.
Liquid Carbonic, Division of General Dynamics Corporation,


Dakota County
          The wastes consist essentially of cooling water    j
                                                             i

and a small amount of process chemicals used in the product- •
                                                             t
                                                             \
tion of solid and liquid carbon dioxide fron gas supplied    :
                                                             i

by at, Paul ABHBonia Products, luc.  The waste is pumped      1


into the force amis tyhioh also carries the waste from        i
                                                             t


St. Paul Amonia Products, Inc. Treatment consists of re-    ,

                                                             i

action with the St. Paul Aaaaonia Products, Inc., waste in the I

                                                             i

pipeline.  Bejrcrts are submitted Monthly with the report     j


of St. Paul Aawonia Products, Inc.

-------
                                                        693
               041 Ckaaptay. Dufcota County
          The waet« treatment  facilities  consist of the

          tmitsjt  a oitemieal neutralization and •tripping

unit for ttNwtmeiit &t spent chemicals,  surge tank,  caustic

          QW^K't ^^ ^i ^Ai »«par«tor, two «torage lagootui,

          t^ lagoon^ a t»ay filter,  biological filter for

          
-------
                                                        694
tbe lagoon effluent being reused in the plant*  Gypi
sludge will be stored in tbe lagoon.  Area run-off is to be



monitored, and if found to be of unsatisfactory quality,



will be diverted to an emergency detention pond.  Domestic



sewage is treated in septic tanks and soil absorption fields,







Cottage Grove Township, Washington County
          The sewage treatment plant serves one subdivision



(Thompson Estates) and is designed to provide primary and



secondary treatment, by tbe activated sludge process, for



sewage from a population of about 4,000, or a flow of 0.400



mgd with a BOD of about 200 mg/1.  The units are considered



capable of producing an effluent of approximately 20 mg/1



of BOD, and a high reduction in solids.  Tbe plant consists



of a manually cleaned bar screen, primary settling tank,



aeration tank, secondary settling tank, chlorinator, and



cbiorination contact tank, heated sludge digestion tank and



sludge drying beds.  The effluent is discharged to tbe



Mississippi River.  Provision is made for expansion of tbe




plant to include additional subdivisions.

-------
                                                                695  !



                          raiufftCtttrittg Company»  Cbew/olite Plant, >
                          ay* >aa^iiW*aiu»*itj»ra>* jt«ana»t ^ i* " i m tlbifcm 01 ai'Jfei^ami'a«M»Mi««oi^*»ii«g»»^i>*aaaa»li»»*c*ifei ^^iiitit;* include a  short-tern



**s't.E-'» >       »i -'ife.*^? -  s; -  <:,mSr -: :. ^Kicsation  lagoo&t  and an



ifc:,1.',, -       ,-^e,,  ^   ;:;•««  i :|  isv"  :i:  tta^« been segregated and



«»•«  -.*     -  , el w«4"ic-t-*-i,|«   4'*©«li»g water ia segregated



     ;       : i«d *e|ii fa,t»tii|r^   iAjj4iw*tio sewage ia treated in



     «,<:,        ..,:«^* „?  -« tiM  effly^at  i^ing dlsobarged to the



    E.-f       -rfv^ssa^   :tep.,ji*t.vi i« lft§t-«?ft4  l"^i*-iiiti€:m Control Coamlssion recently



appv^fr-   vit&« fur pf^^iied  uew u^t&atruction designed to



                    ail at the «Łisting waste treatment
                     -   tre-atueiit  plant  is designed to  provide



               iicatictft a art cLi^fiaatioti^ and  digest ion  of
                                         studies  of a lagoon



                  fcir  fytkbttr  yess mtion of BOD and phenols,     |



 ad i»r •-  .-.-.'k  «  ai»Kr-;'?  ef lźi*'r»«»«-$ifcents in in-plant waste       i
                                                                     t
                                                                     i

                             ii,  p, ^r*a» on a pilot activated    i

-------
                                                       696
sewage solids, for sewage aad waste flowing at the rate
of 0.6 mgd.  The design strength of tba sewage is 300 ag/1
of BCD and 230 mg/1 of suspended solids.  The plant is
designed to produce an effluent of approximately ±90 Kg/I
of BOD and 75 wg/1 of suspended solids.  The effluent is
discharged directly to the Mississippi River near X459.4.


H. D. Hudson Manufacturing Company (Hustings)


          Untreated chronic acid wastes from this metal
fabricating plant are discharged directly to the Mississippi
River near the U3H 61 bridge.  Preliminary engineering studie^t
on waste treatment facilities have been completed and final
plans and specifications arc* now being prepared.


Proposed Sou roes of 'Bastes


          A sewage treatment plant to serve the North
Suburban Sanitary Sewage District communities has been pro-
posed, but specific details are not available.  The area to
be served includes an estimated 1970 population of 210,000,
and a possible ultimate tributary population equivalent of
about 888,000, without regard to industrial wastes.  The
plant as originally proposed would be located near the
SH 100 bridge with the effluent to be discharged at a point

-------
                                                         697
below ths Minneapolis water intake near tto« Csvden bridge.
          northern state* Power Company tea proposed eon-
at motion of a 1,000,000 kilowatt stean electric re Derating
plant to be located at Red Book station in Mewport near
Range 11420,5,  This plant is to be placed in operation by
1970.

                        QEEERAL

River Flow* (*Data from U, 8, Geological Surrey later-Supply
Paper Kb. 1628.)

          The »ean flow measured in the Mississippi River
at the Robert Street bridge in St. Paul during the years
1894-189? and 1900 to 1959 was 9»8?2 ofs (cubic feet per
second).  The acan flow in the river near the Coon Rapids
dam during the years ±931 to 1959 was 6,903 ofs.  The Mean
flow oeasured in the Minnesota River near Carver during the
years 1924 to 1959 was 2,929 cfs.  Frequency curves of
the monthly average flow are shown in Figures V, YI, and
VII.  The daily average flows for the Months of August
and September at the two gaging stations on the Mississippi
River and at the one on the Minnesota River are given in
the following table:

-------
            Flow in the Mississippi River at the Robert Street  and
     Coon Rapids Gaging Stations, arid in the Minnesota River near Carver*

                          August and September,  1961
                                  Flow in cfs
                                                                                 698

Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
I**
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Average
Robert
August
4,210
4,320
5,970
6,700
6,460
6,340
5,930
5,510
5,220
5,140
4,750
4,300
3,990
3,790
3,640
2,980
2,760
2,800
2,680
3,410
2,930
2,580
2,450
2,440
2,470
2,560
2,230
2,270
2,120
1,920
1,800
3,764
St. Bridge
September
1,780
1,730
1,860
i,5to
1,750
1,670
1,840
1,680
1,790
1,840
2,180
2,640
2,520
2,210
3,050
3,140 ,
2,900
2,900
3,010
2,430
3,440
3,260
3,230
2,950
2,960
2,920
2,560
2,440
3,100
2,990

2,477
Coon Rapids Dam
August
2,500
2,100
2,450
2,370
2,000
1,700
1,630
1,660
1,770
1,380
1,600
1,600
1,320
1,600
1,400
1,320
1,070
1,230
1,400
2,000
1,360
1,110
1,240
1,200
1,270
1,400
1,300
1,330
1,190
1,120
1,100
1,540
September
1,100
1,200
1,250
1,270
1,200
1,180
1,350
1,150
1,330
1,490
1,700
2,090
2,050
1,850
2,350
2,200
2,050
1,750
1,780
2,240
2,460
2,480
2,390
2,360
2,300
2,200
2,000
2,100
2,300
2,350

1,851
Carver
August
2,250
3,620
^,310
4,450
^,530
4,380
3,900
3,540
3,690
3,390
2,900
2,730
2,510
2,270
2,070
1,850
1,660
1,580
1,590
1,660
1,590
1,520
1,500
1,410
1,320
1,220
1,160
1,110
1,040
1,000
917
2,344
September
821
717
685
637
629
557
541
605
661
645
637
597
, 637
845
901
1,040
1,360
1,400
1,260
1,110
976
933
893
861
829
797
741
741
733
749

818
*Provisional data from St. Paul office of U.S.  Geological Survey.

-------
                                                        699
          It can be seen iron the frequency curves that the

Monthly average flow in the Mississippi River near the

Cooo Rapids dam and at the Robert Street bridge in Augumt,

1961, was exceeded In approximately 97 per cent and 84

per cent, respectively, of the months of record, based on

July, August and September averages.  At theme same loca-

tions, the monthly average flow in the river in September,

1961, was exceeded in approximately 96 per cent and 95

per cent, respectively, of the same months of record.

The average daily flow for this survey period was 2,591 cfs

at the Robert Street bridge and 1,650 cfs near the Coon

Rapids dam.  From these figures it is evident that the

flow in the river during this survey was considerably less

than the average for this period of the year, based on

available records.

          The minimum daily averag.  flow recorded at the

Robert Street bridge as shown in the available records was

652 cfs, while the maximum daily average flow was 123,000 cfs

The minimum daily average- flow ever recorded at the gaging

station near the Coon Rapids dam was 536 cfs, while tht

maximum daily average flow ever recorded was 75,900 cfs.

          Figure Till shows the maximum period of deficient

discharge in the Mississippi River mar Anoka and at the

Robert Street bridge in St. Paul.

-------
                                                       700
Weather
            Rainfall data in the survey area for the months

of August and September 1961 are as follows:



     Precipitation in Vicinity of the Metropolitan Area

               August and September* 1961*                   j
                                                             i

                   Monthly Total (inches)  Total Over Survey j
                                           Period (Inches)
Station
Chaska
Elk River
Minneapolis WB AP
Rosemount Agrl.
Exp. Station
St. Paul
Stlllwater
August
2.30
1.96
2.38
2.01
1.34
1.8?
September
4.15
4.70
3.01
2.86
2,64
2.97
Aug. 22 to Sept. 27
3.46
4.95
3.00
2.60
2.68
3.06
, 6l





*Prom U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Weather Bureau, Cllmatologloal

Data, Minnesota.

-------
                                                        701


          The average summer precipitation from April to



October is approximately 22 inches which is an average of



about 3 or 4 inches per month.  The daytime temperatures



during the survey were generally about normal, varying



from 50° to 93° F.  The temperature of the river water



varied in the August part of the survey from 73° to 80° F



and in the September part of the survey from 57  to 77° F,


                                   o
with an average of approximately 71  F for the entire survey.






Description of River






          The Mississippi River rises in Bernando de Soto



Lake in Becker County and flows 2,364 miles to the Gulf of



Mexico.  Approximately 510 miles, or nearly 22 per cent,



is above the Metropolitan Area.  The drainage area above



Minneapolis is about ±9,400 square miles and above St. Paul,



including the Minnesota River watershed, is 36,800 square



miles.



          The Mississippi River has an average slope of



about three feet per mile between Minneapolis and the Crow



Wing River.  Between the Crow Wing River and Lake Bemidji,



the area drained is largely lakes and swamps, and the slope



of the river is little more than 0.6 foot per mile.



Between Lake Bemidjl and Lake Itasca, the slope Increases



slightly and averages 1.3 feet per mile.  The sections)

-------
                                                         702
involved ID tbis survey extend fro» the outlet of the RUM
River for approximately 60 atiles through the Metropolitan
Area to the junction with tb« at. Croix River.  This section
of river is characterized by relatively steep slopes, and
includes Upper and Lower St. Anthony Falls Lock and Dam,
Lock and Dan No. 1 at the Ford plant and Lock and Dam
Ho. 2 at Hastings.

Uses of the River

          For the purposes of this report, the river in the
survey area has been divided into three sections.  Section
one is from the Run River in Anoka to the Upper Lock and
Dan of St. Anthony Falls, Minneapolis.  Section two is
from the Upper Lock and Dan of it. Anthony Falls to the out-
fall of the MS 3D sewage treatment plant in St. Paul.
Section three is from the outfall of the MSSD sewage treat-
ment plant in St. Paul to the Junction with the St. Croix
River below Hustings.
          The first section of the river is partly in
residential areas and partly in an industrial area in north
Minneapolis.  This section is the major surface source for
the Metropolitan Area water supply.  At the present time,
Connercla1 traffic is not possible in the upper portion of
this section (above the Soo Line Bridge in north Minneapolis)

-------
                                                      703
however, considerable commercial o*e is expected OD the

river Just above  at. Anthony fblls when the Upper Birbor

project la completed.  In a report submitted to Congress,

set  forth In House Document 33, 83th Congress, first session,

on the proposed nine foot channel extension In Minneapolis,

the  USCF (U.S. Corps of Engineers) estimated that a move-

ment of 2,060,000 tons per year to the area above the

 St.  Anthony Falls could be expected.  A number of small

pleasure boats use the river throughout this section.  It

is possible that marinas and public boat launching ramps

nay  be provided above the Falls which may result in an

increase in the number of small boats in this section.

          The second section of the river is located entire-

ly in the Minneapolis-3t. Paul area.  In the river from

the  Minnesota River junction to the MSSD plant, water

transportation of commercial products is the predominant

use.  The products Include coal, petroleum, grain, etc.

With the completion of larger grain terminals, additional

sand and gravel facilities, and increasing volumes of coal

needed in the area, the commercial use of the river is

definitely increasing.  In anticipation of such increase,

the  U3CE,  at the request of the Port Authority of St. Paul,

held a public bearing in December, ±961, on proposed develop-

ment of Pig's Lye Lake for additional harbor capacity.

          In this same section, there is a large amount of

-------
                                                       704
pleasure boat traffic.  There are about five private Marinas
and the municipal marina at Harriet Island i« currently
being enlarged substantially.  During tbe survey, a number
of water skiers were noted in tbe area.
          Tbe third section of tbe river passes through
residential and Industrial areas south of 3t, Paul and
wooded terrain in tbe Pine Bend area.  It is generally used
for tbe barge transportation of commercial products such
as grain, coal, sand, and gravel, etc.  There is a con-
siderable amount of pleasure boat traffic, primarily boats
passing through to tbe St. Croix or Lower Mississippi River.
There are also a number of marinas in this section.
          Relatively little recreational and commercial
fishing is done at present in tbe river in the Metropolitan
Area.  Most of tbe recreational fishing is done in Sections
one and two, and in tbe lower end of Section three.  A
fishery survey was made in tbe upper 12 miles of Section one
by tbe Surveys and Inventories Unit of tbe Division of Game
and Fish, Minnesota Department of Conservation, in August,
±960.  The results of tbe survey showed that carp were
taken in tbe greatest number and that tbe fish population
was composed of species normally present in large streams.
There were a large number of small mouth bass and blue
gills taken, indicating that this section of the river
affords game fish habitat of good quality (see Appendix D).

-------
                                                         705
Municipal  Information
          There are 114 incorporated municipalities in the

 seven-county Metropolitan Area, of which ±3 directly

 border on the Mississippi River in the survey area.  The

 latter communities with their means of sewage disposal are

 listed in Table 3.  These communities, excluding the two

 central  cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, are primarily

 residential.  The townships bordering Section three are

 sparsely populated but the population Is growing rapidly.

 In recent years considerable industrial growth has taken

 place in some of the suburban areas.  The most significant

 developments of the past decade have been located in the

 Pine Bend area, Roseville, St. Louis Park-Hopkins area,

 Golden Valley, Maplewood, and the Minneapolis-St. Paul

 midway area.  An extensive population study, including

 trends, municipal data, etc., is presented in a report*1 '

 on the expansion of sewage works in the Metropolitan Area

 by the M33D.  Basic studies in these fields have been com-

 pleted and are being made by the Metropolitan Planning

Commission.

          As shown in Table 3, the majority of the communi-

 ties bordering the river have only individual residential

 sewage treatment facilities which consist of septic tanks

and soil absorption fields.   Four of the communities have

-------
                                                         706
existing contract* witb wither Minneapolis or St. Paul and

discharge their sewage through tbems sewers to tbe MSflD

sewage treatment plant.  Five of tbe communities are either

entirely or partially served by separate municipal sewage

treatment plant**


Municipal later Supply
          Tbe Mississippi River in tbe survey area is tbe

sole water supply source for Minneapolis and supplementary

source for St. Paul*  Both Minneapolis and it. Paul supply

water by contract to sooe of their suburbs.  Minneapolis

takes its water directly fron tbe river to tbe Fridley

softening plant which serves two separate filtration plants

located in Fridley and Columbia Heights.  Bated capacity

of tbe softening plant is 120 ogd, while tbe combined

capacity of tbe filtration plants amounts to 158 agd.

          Tbe at, Paul raw water pumping station is located

approximately four miles above tbe Minneapolis intake.

Tbe water is pumped through conduits to a series of lakes

wbieb serve as impounding reservoirs,  Tbe river water

augments water taken from watersheds directly north of

St. Paul.  Tbe lake system is physically divided into two

separate basins; i.e., tbe Vadnais Lske system and tbe

Centerville system.

-------
                                                         707
                             Tbe water from the Vadnals
Lake ayvtem flow* directly to the water treatment plant
and tb« water in the Centervilie system In pimped into the
Vadnaia Lake chain.  St. Paul water is treated at the
MoCarroo's Station.  Tbe rated capacity of the plant is
approximately 100 mgd.
          Tbe following table lists the communities bordering
the Mississippi River wbich have public well water systems:

     Anoka                  South St. Paul
     Coon Rapids            St. Paul Park
     Fridley                Bastings
     Brooklyn Center        Cottage Grove Township
                              {Thompson Estates)

          Tbe remaining communities bordering the Mississippi
River have no public water systems but depend upon well
water supplies serving individual homes.
          later used for commercial, industrial, domestic,
community and miscellaneous purposes in the Metropolitan
Area averages approximately 233 tagd.  Of this amount,
approximately 97 mgd comes from surface sources.  The de-
mand for surface water for municipal systems in this area
will probably increase during the next 20 years to an
average of about 200 mgd.  In units in which stream flow

-------
                                                          708
is commonly measured, the estimated average demand for



•orface water for Municipal supply in 1980 is equivalent



to 310 of* with a maximum demand of nearly 620 cfs.



After completion of the navigation looks at St. Anthony



Falls, a flow of about 350 eta will be required for



operation of the looks.  On this basisf a flow of 1,000



ofs in the Mississippi River above Minneapolis will barely



meet the maximum needs for these two purposes alone.



          The water supply needs of the Metropolitan Area



have recently received intensive study by the Department



of Conservation.  Results of these studies are reported



in Bulletin 11, 1961, which is available from the Depart-



ment of Administration.



          It should be pointed out that the river water



supply is or may be used not only for residents of St. Paul



and Minneapolis but by a majority of residents of the



suburbs.  A high degree of protection of the quality of



these waters is required to hold to a minimum possible



health hazards to these users.








Selection and Designation of Sampling Stations
          A mileage index system is used for the purpose of




identifying the sampling ranges, individual stations, sewer




outlets, and other points of interest on the river and

-------
                                                        709

tributaries.  The system involves th« use of the letter II


to identify atatlone on the Mississippi River, folloved


by a number which represents the distance in niles frosi


the lower Northern Pacific Railway Bridge below St. Anthony


Falls.  The zero mileage point was taken at this


railroad bridge because it is used as the zero mileage


point for the entire Mississippi River by the U. S. Corps of


Engineers.  It previously represented the upper limit of


navigation and channel improvement.  The plus sign between


the If and river mileage identifies stations below the zero    !


mileage point and the minus sign identifies stations above    '


the zero mileage point.  The ranges are divided into equal    !
                                                              i

sections by points from left to right (facing downriver),     ;


with the first point or station on the left end of the


range being numbered 1, the next station numbered 2, etc.


These are listed as subscripts to the mileage, for example:


M+20.8^.  Samples taken at varying depths are identified


with a "d* following the corresponding surface station


number.  A "c" following the range mileage designation


represents a composite of the samples collected at the


stations on the sampling range«

-------
                                                        710
Sampling Procedures
          The majority of tbe river samples were collected

from an 18-foot Aluma-Craft boat equipped for all types
of water and bottom sampling.  Surface samples collected
for bacteriological analysis were taken with a "dip-
stick" approximately three to four feet out from tbe moving

boat and only a few inches below the surface.  The other
samples were generally collected at approximately 0.6
of tbe depth at the station.  The depth samples for
bacteriological analysis were collected with a special spring
loaded depth sampler at tbe same depth aa the water chemistry
samples.  Tbe water samples for chemical analysis were
collected at approximately 0.6 depth with a standard "double"
sampler.  Generally, the water chemistry samples
collected on the ranges or cross-sections were composited
from thoroughly mixed individual samples.  The bottom
samples were obtained by means of a Peterson dredge or
Kkman bottom sampler.
          Tbe water samples were kept in iced cases until

they could be transported to the Department laboratory

in Minneapolis.  The bacteriological samples were examined
and processed within 24 hours after collection.  The
bottom fauna samples were preserved with formalin and

stored for later examination.

-------
                                                       711
                   FIELD OBSERVATIONS
Sewer Outfalls


          There are approximately 65 sewer outfalls to the

Mississippi River in Minneapolis and St. Paul.  A list of

the severs is given in Table 4 and their locations are

shown in Figures IX, X, and XI*  The sewer systems in the

two core cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul were originally

designed to carry combined sewage and storm water to the

river.  When interceptor sewers were constructed to carry

the sanitary sewage to the M33D plant, regulators were

installed at the Junctions of the new interceptors and

the old trunk sewers.  These devices divert excess flows

directly to the river.  Because of occasional faulty

operation of the regulating devices, incomplete separa-

tion, and generally increased flows during and after

rains, there is at present a considerable amount of flow

to the river from various sewers.  Personnel of the M<33D

regularly inspect the sewer outfalls, record from which

sewers there is flow, estimate the rate of flow, and

describe the physical characteristics of the flow.  This

information is periodically reported to this Department

(see Appendix E).

          In July, 1961, a representative of this Department

-------
                                                        712
accompanied M3SD personnel during tbelr inspection.  At

this time, a number of the sewers were seen to be discharging

and the flow from the Minnehaha, Davern, and Robie sewera

bad the physical appearance of raw sewage.



River Section One



          From the boat, tbe water generally appeared to be

turbid and colored; but wben viewed in tbe sample bottles,

tbe water was fairly clear.  A large oil slick was seen

near Nicollet Island and signs of oil accumulation on tbe

sbore.  A sewer in this area was found to be discharging

approximately 300 gpw (gallons per minute) of waste con-

taining about 125 mg/1 of oil directly to the river

(Range M-1.5).

          The Minneapolis water purification plant was

apparently discharging supernatant from tbe lime sludge

settling pond serving tbe softening plant to tbe Mississippi

River Just below tbe purification plant.  The river water

in this area was cloudy and murky, and a large quantity

of tbe lime sludge was found on tbe bottom of the river.

Just below tbe Camden bridge, a sewer (M-4.9) was dis-

charging to tbe river from tbe left bank.  Tbe effluent bad

a very murky appearance, which was probably caused by tbe

presence of filter backwash water from tbe Columbia Heights

-------
                                                              I
                                                        713
 t iltration plant of the  linnet poll* water syste*.   Tb«
 river water in the vicinity of  this sewer appeared  to be
 very  turbid.
           There was a  considerable  aaount of  refuse on
 both  baoka of  the river  between the Broadway  and Lowry
 Avenue bridges,   aoaie  of the refuse such  as cans, brush,
 etc.,  bad  been washed  Into  the  river.  No other visible
 evidence of unoatiafaotory  conditions was found in  the
 investigation  of the shorelines in  this section of  the
 river. This part of the river  is being improved for navi-
 gation by  the  dredging of a  nine-foot channel.  3cction
 one is expected  to be  opened to navigation in 1962.

 liver  flection  Two
           Pros) the boat  the  water appeared to be turbid and
 greenish,  and  soaie of  the samples,  when viewed in the
 sample  bottles, also were greenish.
           The  bottoai in  this section of the river was
 found to consist generally of fine  sand and nod.  Mb
 sludge deposits were found,  although scaie  of  the aud bad
a very strong odor,  probably fro» decaying organic Matter,
          The  following  table shows the sewers which were
 found to be discharging  to the  river at this  tlaie, the
estiaated  flow, physical appearance of the flow, and the
reaults of analysis of random aavplea of the  flows:

-------
5-.*wer Outfall
Estimated
Flow (gpm)
Appearance
Tenth Avenue S.F.

Fifth Street So.
t ^dal V»il Falls
Portland Avenue
Eustii Avenue
Otto W.
Randolph W.
38th Str»«t
Minnehah* (sMll
  opening)
Davern
St. Peter
Eagle
Moses
Trout Brook at river
1,500-1,700

1,600
2,000
300
•»
1,200
300

150-200

150
100
200-300
50-100
Feathers, cloudy,
  turbid
Cloudy
Clear
Gray, cloudy
Yellowish-brewn
Gray, cloudy
Gray, cloudy
Gray, cloudy
Cloudy, sewage
  solids
Cloudy
Fairly clear
Cloudy
Cloudy
Slightly cloudy
Colifora Group Organisms
      (MPN/100 ml)*
       3,100

       170,000
       780
     >249000,000
       20,000
       5,400,000
       16,000,000
         , 000, 000
       5,^00,000
       490,000
       1S1009000
       ?80
       2,400,000
*Most probable number per 100 railliliters.
 > - Mean* greater than.

-------
                                                         715
          From the data it can be seen that the majority
of the flows probably contained atone sewage.  The higher
colIfore values are in the ranges normally found in raw
••wage.
          During the investigation a number of water skiers
were noted near the Minnesota River Junction.  Also in
this area, near Hidden Falls, and below the Ford dam, large
numbers of people were using the river bank* for picnicking.
Considerable pieaaure boating i» done here, and there is a
large new marina near the Davern sewer outfall which was
harboring approximately 70 boats at the time of the survey.


River Section Three
          This section of the river, extending from the

MSSD sewage treatment plant to the St. Crolx River junction,
was in very poor physical condition.  Discoloration of the
river by the M33D and South St. Paul effluent was evident.

This entire section of the river appeared cloudy and turbid
from the boat, and the samples, when viewed in the sample

bottles, appeared to be in the same condition.  The river

appeared to be in a slightly better condition in the

Hast ings-<3t» Croix River area.  Occasionally large oil

slicks were noted on the water surface, apparently from the

barges using the river.

-------
                                                          716
          The river bottom from tbe MS3D plant to approxi-
mately M^-52 was covered with a heavy black dodge.  Tbe
heaviest deposits of sludge were found below tbe South
.it. Paul waste treatment plant where depths of sludge
greater than 2.0 feet existed.  From this point down-
stream, tbe sludge depths decreased steadily until relatively
snail quantities of sludge were found between M4J2 and tbe
Hastings dan.  In tbe area of the greatest sludge depths
below the South St. Paul waste treatment plant, tbe water
surface was covered with small gas bubbles, caused by tbe
decomposition of sludge on tbe bottom.  In many places the
banks held accumulations of black sludge which yielded
odorous gases when disturbed.
          In order to determine tbe nature and extent of
bottom deposits in the river, a two month special study
was conducted in 1939 by the University of Minnesota for
tbe M33D, as part of the general river studies mentioned
earlier.  Their report states that "little or no bottom
deposits were found above the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary
District treatment plant outfall.  The river bottom
immediately above the outfall consisted of rock and sand
with but a trace of organic deposits and with a faint
organic odor.  The first real evidence of a bottom deposit
was found at Station M-flT.O along the east shore of
the river.  From this point downstream to B«O7*5 bottom

-------
                                                          717
deposit* up to 4.5 feet deep were found to range fro* one

side of the river to the other varying: in width and depth."

Thi» generally agrees with conditions found by this Depart-

ment during the 196! investigations.

          Two submerged aewer outfalls were noted in the

river in tbf South St. Paul area near the Arnour and

Company, Inc., and Swift and Company, Inc., meat packing

plants.  ID both of these areas, the river water was

highly colored, and solids, characteristic  of packinghouse

wastes, were seen.

          Very little recreational use is made of this

section of the river.  During the survey only a small

number of pleasure boats were noted passing through and

no one was seen using the river for swimming or fishing.

          Growths of sewage fungus were seen near the shore

below the Bastings sewage treatment plant outfall.

          Cross-section depth recordings were made at each

sampling range with a sonic depth sounder.  The bottom pro-

files are shown in Figures XII, XIII, and XIV.


Inspection Trip


          On August 24, 1961, the fat<>r Pollution Control

Commission and staff members of this Department traveled

by boat on the Mississippi River from the University

-------
                                                         718
campus to the Bastings look and dan to observe tbe physical
condition of the river at first band.  The trip covered
most of factions two and three.


              DISCUSSION oar ANALYTICAL DATA


          The results of the laboratory analysis of the
samples are listed in Tables 5, 6, and 7 and shown in
Figures XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XXX, and XX.


Bacteriological


          The results of tbe examination of the bacteriologi-
cal samples are expressed in terms of coliform group organ-
isms as tbe UPH/100 ml (most probable number per 100
milliliters of sample).  The undifferentiated collfom
group is ordinarily used as an indicator of tbe presence
of fecal material or sewage.  Bar graphs showing tbe coli-
form group levels found at each range are shown in
Figures XV, XVI, XVII, and XVIII.  It should be noted that
different scales are used for each graph.
          Coliforn> organisms found in the individual samples
*ro° Section one varied from less than 200 to 54,000
MPM/100 ml, which is not unexpected in view of the discharges
to tbe river.  Tbe average concentration of conforms across

-------
                                                        719
a range increased to a maximum of approximately 22,700

MPK/100 ml near the St. Paul water intake.  The minimum

average ooaoeatratioa of coliform* found in the samples

collected in a single sampling range was approximately

1,470 MPN/lOu ml, which was near the Minneapolis water

purification plant.  The concentration of ooliform organism!

in the random samples collected from the flow in the sewers

discharging in 3eotion one was generally low, and did not

appear indicative of fecal contamination.

          From the Minneapolis water purification plant

(Range M-6.2) the concentration of collforms found in the

samples taken down river steadily increased to a maximum

of wore than 24,000,000 MPN/100 ml below the Minneapolis-

3t. Paul sewage treatment plant (M-2Q.8),

          The concentration of coliform organisms in the

samples from Section two varied from 1,700 to 240,000

KPN/100 ml.  A number of the storm sewer flows in this

section of the river contained very high coliform concen-

trations.  The data for these samples are given in the

section on field observations.  It appears from the analyti-

cal data and the field observations that the flow from

a number of the sewers contained fecal material which was

responsible for the high coliform concentrations.  The

Minnebaha sewer (small opening), for example, was observed

on three different occasions and each time the flow had

-------
                                                        720
the physical appearance of raw sewage.

          The average coliform concentration found ID the

samples fro* this entire section was much greater than

was found in Section one, which was probably because of the

•torn sewer flows.  As shown in the bar graphs in Figure XVI

there was a consistent increase in coiifonn concentration

going down-river through this section, with maximum

average values of 2*5,000 and 24,300 MPN/100 01 found at

Ranges Mfl?.8 and M4J.6.6, respectively.  The highest concen-

tration of colifores in this section of the river (240,000

MPH/100 ml) was found in a sample collected at Hf6802, which

was just below the Minnebaha sewer outfall.

          At a number of the ranges, depth samples were

collected in the main channel for bacteriological analysis.

Prom the data, there appears to be very little specific

relation between the conforms found in the depth samples

and those found in the corresponding surface samples, i.e.,

neither consistently high nor low in relation to the surface

sample.  The concentrations were, however, relatively the

same in magnitude, i.e., where the collform concentration

in the surface sample was high the coliform concentration

in the depth sample would also be high.

          The coliform organisms found in the samples

collection in Section three varied from 450 to greater

than 24,000,000 MPN/100 ml.  As expected, the highest

-------
                                                         781
concentrations were- found la the range* below the M33D,
the  South  ^t. i*»ul, and  St. Paul Park acwage treatment
plants.  From those maxiinun valuta (greater than 24,000,000
MiNf/lOO ml at Rouge M+20.8, 21,300,000 MPH/100 ml at  Range
11*22.7, and ±9,350,000 MPH/100 ml at Range M-23.6), the
avorag* coliforro concentration stt-adlly decreased to
2,550 MPN/100 ml at Rang* M442.0.  Cblorination of the
< fflu, nt was not being done at any of those plants at the
tinu  of the «urv< y.  There was a slight increase in coil-
forms in the samples collected tx.low tb<  Bastings treatment
plout and bt low the mouth of the Vertaillion River
(10,700 JSPN/1GO ml) as compared to those fouad in the samples
collected abov.  Hastings at Rang'  M-39.1 (^,650 MPN/100 wl).
          The coliforws in the depth samples aud those
found in the corresponding surface  sampl* s were relatively
of about the 9am<  magnitude in  ^oction tjhrc^s also, but
ther- was uo consistent relationship of high or low between
the collforma in the depth samples in comparison with those
in the corresponding surface samples.  It appears frov the
data  that at the tine of the investigation there was  no
significant stratification of the surface ourroots and depth
currents on most of the river in respect to content of
collform organisms.

-------
          Oxygen
          Samples for DO (dissolved Oxygen)  analysis were



generally collected at the sane stations as  the samples



for bacteriological analysis.  The concentration of dis-



solved oxygen in Seotion one Tarried from 7.0 to 11.8



ng/1 with an average of approximately 9.8 mg/1 for all  of



the samples collected in the river in both the 1960 and



1961 surveys.  The values found in 196! were slightly higher



than those in 1960, although the per cent of saturation



was about the sane, because of lover water temperatures



in 1961,  In no piaee in the river in this section was



there any serious oxygen deficiency, nor did there appear



to be any significant change in DO content from the left



to the right side of the river at any of the sampling



ranges.  Ail DO samples were collected, however, in day-



light hours only.



          In the upper part of Section two,  as can be seen



in Figure XIX, the concentration of dissolved oxygen found



in the samples was generally at about the same level as in



Section one, but the dissolved oxygen at Ranges M-13.8  and



M-16.6 warn much lower.  At these ranges the  dissolved



oxygen averaged 5.5 and 5.2 ng/1, respectively, which is



decrease of more than 3 tug/1 from the next range upstream



(M-9.1).  This may be attributed to the combined effects

-------
                                                         723
 of  the  discharge  fro*  storm  sewers, and the  flow  from the

 Minnesota  River.   Records of dissolved oxygon  found  in

 samples collected routinely  by this Department at Sbakopec

 as  part of the water quality sampling program, sbow  values

 since 1956 ranging from 3.8  to 8.0 mg/1 and  averaging

 approximately 6.0 during the months of June, July, August,

 and September.  Lower  values would be expected in the

 lower part of the river above the confluence with the

 Mississippi River.

           The concentration  of dissolved oxygen in the
                                                              i
 samples collected in Section two varied from 4.9  to  12.1      j
                                                              *
 mg/1 with  an overall average  of approximately  8.8 mg/1.       j

 The dissolved oxygen averaged about 10.5 mg/1  above  the

 Minnesota  River Junction and  about 6.5 mg/1 below.. At

 no point in the river  in Section two at this time was there

 serious oxygen depletion such as to interfere with fish

 life.  However, it should be  borne in mind that sampling

was limited to a  short period and conditions may vary

for many reasons.

           In Section three the concentration of dissolved

oxygen in the samples varied  from none found to 15 mg/1,

with tb« highest concentration being found in Range M+57.0

in the shallow river backwater called Lake Rebecca, near

Hastings.  Virtually total oxygen depletion was found

from Binge M*20.8 through M-28..5 below the MS 3D and

-------
South St. Paul plants, although at acne of these ranges



low concentrations of dissolved oxygon were found In back-



waters off the nain river channel.  At Range lit29.4




a low concentration of dissolved oxygen was found in



all the sanples and from this point the oxygen increased



steadily to the end of Section three below the junction



with the 3t« Croix River.



          Figure XX shows how the dissolved oxygen concen-



trations varied across the river in the same range.  It can



be seen that at Ranges Mrl>.8 and Krl6.6 above the MS3D



plant there was little different from one side to the



other.  At Range 14*17.3 below the HSSfD sewage treatment



plant and above the South St. Paul waste treatment plant



there was a significant change with the lowest DO values
                                                  x


being found on the left side of the river.  This would



seen to indicate that the effluent of the 113SD plant



channeled along the left side of the river for some dis-



tance before it became completely dispersed.  At Range



M4-20.8 below the South St. Paul waste treatment plant there



was a complete oxygen deficiency at all of the stations



in the range.  The BOD values reflect the addition of



wastes from the right bank.



          In the report "Pollution and Recovery Characteris-




tics of the Mississippi River w'2' records of dissolved




oxygon found in the; river are used as a basis for

-------
                                                        7*5
determining tte rlvtr deoxygenation rates.  This involved
the manipulation of various river characteristics such as
temperature, flow, ehaanal width, reaeration, etc., with
the deoxygenation rates of primary settled effluent,
activated sludge plant effluent, and trickling filter
plant effluent to determine the theoretical oxygen sag
curves in the river for different degrees of treatment for
each type of plant at various points of discharge in the
Metropolitan Area.  From these results, it is possible
to determine the degree of treatment necessary to main*-
tain given standards of DO.  The deoxygenation rates thus
calculated were based on data collected by personnel of
the MSSD over a period of almost 25 years.
          This Department, on the basis of this and past
Investigations, is in general agreement with the river
sampling techniques and laboratory procedures used by the
U33D to compile the data, although the data have certain
limitations which should not be overlooked.  Personnel
of this Department have on numerous occasions accompanied
M3SD personnel on the sampling trips and have split samples
for separate analysis.  The 1133D laboratory also cooperates
as a participating laboratory in the United States Public
Health Service Basic Water Quality Program.
          It is understood that the deoxygenation rates
used in the river study were based on analysis of samples

-------
                                                        7*6
collected at M+12.8 (Robert 9tr««t bridge in St. Paul).
Long-tent BOD analyses were made on samples collected over

a number of year* and the average of the results was used.
The deoxygenatlon rates calculated for this portion of the
river above any major sewage or waste discharge were then
combined with th« deoxygenation rates for primary settled
effluent, activated sludge plant effluent, trickling filter
plant effluent, etc., to obtain the deoxygenation rates
used for the river below the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary
District sewage treatment plant and the South St. Paul
waste treatment plant.
          Comparison of DO and BOD data for this range
(M*13.8) will generally reflect conditions at the tint
of this survey and those for which the d<~oxygcnation rates
were calculated.  The following table summarizes average
DO and BOD data for the years 1950 through 1960 for
Range M-fl^.B as reported by the M3SD for the months of
July, August, and Stpteesb? rs

-------
     Dissolved Oxygen and BOD Concentrations                    727
                  Range frM.3.8
 Averages for July^ August, and September (mg/1)

Year          _	    DO        	BOD

I960                   ?.00                3.30
1959                   6.75                2.65
1958                   6.80                3.10
195?                   7.25                2.80
1956                   ?.65                2.90
1955                   7.25                2.40
1954                   7.'-?                2.90
1953                   ','.60                2.75
1952                   8.00                2.25
1951                   7.60                2.60
1950                  J?.QO                2.25

Av«rage                7.40                2.72

-------
                                                         728
          It can b<  »eea that tbe average concentration of

DO Is higher than any found by tbi» Department ID auction

three, and the average BOD reported !• lower than found by

this Department during the 196! survey.

          Comparison of the DO fccrid by this Department

during the survey and the DO found by the MS3D at tbe

same ranges within the period of the survey show generally

tbe same results.  The following table shows tbe two act*

of data for samples collected in August and September by

the separate staffs:

-------
                Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations                         729
                  August and September. 1961
WPC
Range
M-6.2^1)
M+0.4
M+5.4
M+13.8
M+16.6
M+20.5*3)
M+22.7
M+26.5
M+33.9^ '
M+37.8
DOW
9.8
8.5
10.7
5.5
5.2
0
0
0
4.8
5-9
Date
9-21
9-20
9-19
9-15
9-15
9-14
9-13
9-11
8-25
8-23
MSSD
D0(5)
9.85
10.05
10.00
4.85
5.10
0
0
0
4.50
2.65
Date
9-28
9-28
9-28
9-14
9-14
9-14
9-14
9-14
8-23
8-29
1 - Corresponds to Range M-5.5 used by the MSSD.
2 - Average of DO for all stations in the range.
3 - WPC range nearest this is M+20.8.
4 - WPC range nearest this is
5 - Single random sample.

-------
                                                         730
          Although some of the samples were collected at
different times with slightly different river flow condi-
tions, the results of the sampling and analyses by this
Department and th« M3SD staff arc generally comparable.
The data show a progressive degradation and some recovery
in the water quality of the river in Section three«
          It appears that the average long term conditions
used as a basis for the calculations presented in the
HSSD report on the pollution and recovery characteristics
of the river are somewhat better than the actual conditions
found at the tine of this survey; however, it should be
noted, as stated in a preceding section of this report,
that river flows were unusually low at this time (sou
General, River Flow).

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

          Figure XIX shows the BOD data for all three
sections.  The BOD values found in the samples collected
*n Section, one ranged from 1.5 to 5«8 »gA» a&d averaged
approximately 3.9 ag/1.  The BOD values in Section two
ranged from 1 to 7.5 mg/1 and averaged approximately
5.0 mg/1, a moderate increase from Section one.  The BOD
found in samples from the flow of a number of sewers
discharging to the river in Section two was generally high,

-------
                                                          731
 indicating a probable sewage discharge.  The alight over-
 all increase of BOO in Section two,  a a compared to Sect ion
    t was probably the result of the  discharges from these
           Tbt  BOD inorea aid significantly in Section three.

 The valuta ranged from 1  to 14 nag/1  and average  approxi-

 mately  9.4 «g/l.   The  SOD in tht  river below th« MSSD

 sewage  treatment  plant and South  St. Paul waste  treatment

 plant was consi durably higher than would b<  expected even

 in  a moderately polluted  riv«r.   Figur<  XX show* bow the

 BOD varied across thf;  river at sampling ranges below the

 plants, together  with  the disioivrd  oxygt n profiles.

           Analysis of  samples coll«*ctf:d in tht river only

 a short divtancf  away  from the subra'  rgcd outfalls of the

 South 3t.  Paul packing plants (Ranges  M+19.6 and Mt-20.0)

 showed  BOD values of 50 and 55 ng/1.   Thcs*.  ar*  substantial

 values  in  view of the  fact that the  samples  were collected

 from the riv r rather  than the outfdls,  thereby  including

 diluting rivt'r water with th» waste.
General . Ibter
          The nutrient levsl of the river water, as indicated

by the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus found in the

samples, varied considerably.  In Sections one, two, and

-------
                                                          732
three the phosphorus concentrations averaged approximately

0.097, 0.18, and 0.48 mg/1, respectively, while the total
nitrogen concentrations averaged 0.70, 0,80, and 3.4 «g/l,
respectively, for the sane sections.  ID each case the
average concentration increased more than four times from
Section one to Section three.
          The phenol concentration found in one Individual
sample collected in Section three reached a maximum of
0.049 mg/1 (below northwestern Refining Company at Range
M+23.6) coMpared with others of less than 0.005 ng/1 at
Range M+29.4.  There was no increase in average phenol
concentration found in the range across the river above
the refinery as compared to the range below the refinery
(0.045 mg/1 above, 0.059 »fi?A below).  The average concen-
tration  in Section three was 0.024 mg/1.
          The ammonia concentration found in the samples
collected in 3ection three varied from 1.0 to 1.4 ng/1.
The average concentrations found in Sections one and three

were 0.03 »g/l and 0.93 »8/l«


Bottom Muds


          River bottow samples were collected at a number of
stations and analyzed for total volatile matter.  The
samples were dried, weighed, and ashed in a furnace at 600° C

-------
                                                         733
for 30 minutes, re-weighed, and the difference ID weight

taken as the volatile natter.

          Where there are heavy accumulations of organic

sludge, the per cent volatile matter would be expected to

be high.  The following table lists the ranges sampled and

the per cent volatile matter found in each sample:

-------
                                                              73*
Total Volatile Matter as Per Cent of Dried Sample
             August,  September, 1961
Range and
Station
M-7.7X
M-6.22
M— 6.2o
M-2.2-L
M-2.22
M-2.2.
M+13.81
M+13.82
M+13.83
M+16.6^
M+l6.62
M+16.6
M+17.^
M+17.32
M+17.33
M+20.8!
M+20.82
M+20.83
M+22.7n
$ TVM
0.82
1.8
4
1.3
2.4
7.1
5.4
4.2
23.1
5.9
5-3
10.3
15
16.2
9.8
5.1
10.3
8.4
Range and
Station
M+22.72
M-t-22.73
M+23.61
\t l OO ^
n ~ Ł i •w«
M+23.63
M+26.55^
MH-26.52
M+26.53
M+26.5,,
M+28.2
2 .23
*^^^fcO • fc i
jN
**^fcO + Ł mf
M*29.42
M+-29.4
M+29.4^
M+29.46
M*29.4?
M+31.9,
Range and
Ł TVM Station
10.5 M+31.92
3.4 M+31.93
8.1 M-J-31.9^
9.2 M+31.95
6.3 M+31.96
o /^ Vtt^^ O
1 M+33-22
5.4 M+33.23
12 M-t-37.0
7.0 M+37.0
7.4 M+37.0.
2.0 M+37.0x
5.8 M+39.3^
9.1 M+39.12
5.0 M+39.1
7.4 M+39.82
0.9 M+39.8-
4.7 M+42.02
5O ^X^Ji ^ rt
,Ł. nt^^.u,.
 TVM
8.2
4.3
7.7
1.4
6.8
2.5
1.0
6.9
4.0
8.8
7.1
7.4
1.4
2.1
1.2
6.6
1.8
4.4
0.6

-------
                                                        735
           It  can be seen from the table that there was *

 definite  increase in the per  cent volatile matter of  the

 bottcNi mud below the M8SD and South  St.  Paul treatment

 plant*.   The  bottom samples collected  in Section  one

 averaged  approximately  2# volatile natter, compared with

 approximately 8.556 in Section two, and approximately  6# in

 Section three.   Much of the volatile matter  found in

 Sections  one  and two probably can be attributed to decaying

 organic matter deposited in slack water out  of the main

 channel of the river and in the pools  of the St.  Anthony

 and Ford  dams.


                  SUMMARY ASP  CONCLUSIONS


           1.  The 1961  survey on  the Mississippi  River

 extended  from the junction with the  Rum  River to  the

 junction  with the St. Croix River below  Hastings,  and

 comprised  a period of several  weeks.   For the purposes  of

 the survey, the river was divided  into  Sections one, two,

 and three, from Anoka to  St.  Anthony Falls,  the

Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary  District plant, and  the mouth

of the St. Croix  River below Hastings, respectively.

 Samples for chemical, bacteriological, and biochemical

analysis were collected at a number of stations located

at representative ranges throughout the  survey area.

-------
                                                       736
Bottom mud samples were also collected at all of the range*
for total volatile' •fitter analysis.  Physical measurements
were made of sludge depth on the river bottom in that part
of the river below the Metropolitan Area.  The dissolved
oxygen and temperature were measured in the field, other
analyse* were made in the Minneipolis laboratory of the
Division of Environmental Sanitation of the Department
of Bealth,
          2«  The physical appearance of the river in
Section* one and two was relatively good, with the exception
of t avail are* below the Minneapolis water purification
plant, and localized areas where refuse had been dumped
on the river banks,  flection three was in very poor condi-
tion.  Beavy deposits of sludge were encountered fron
below the outfall of the Minneapolis'St. Paul Sanitary
District sewage treatment plant to the Bastings dam.
In the vicinity of Bange M+20.8 (near south St. Paul) the
entire river was covered with gas bubbles arising from the
decomposition of sludge on the bottom.
          3.  Tb« effluents of the Minneapolis-St. Paul
Sanitary District sewage treatment plant and the South
St. Paul waste treatment plant were found to be materially
affecting the condition of the river.  An excessive increase
in coliform group organisms and in biochemical oxygen
demand was found in the river below these plants, together

-------
                                                        737
with a zone of total oxygen depletion which waft followed
by partial recovery.  Uncontrolled discharge* of sewage
and waste* from atom sewers and other sources also contrib-
uted significantly to deterioration of river conditions in
the river upstream in the Metropolitan Area.
          4.  Bacteriological sampling and analysis showed
a generally consistent  increase in colifona group organ-
isms going downstream throughout Sections one and two
to Range M-H23.6.  From  this point on, the coliform organisms
steadily decreased in number.  High coliform group organism
levels were found in every section of the river and are
considered Indicative of a potential health hazard to
anyone coming into intimate contact with the river water.
Coliform concentrations at some ranges in Section one
were much higher than in considered desirable in a source
of water supply and any increase would present an added
hazard to the safety of the water supply.
          5.  The dissolved oxygen concentrations were found
to be relatively high in SectIJOB one, averaging approximately
9.8 rag/1.  In Seption two the overall dissolved oxygen
concentration averaged approximately 8*8 mg/1.  In Section
three there was found to be total oxygen depletion from
Range M-20.8 through Range M-28.3, or a distance of 7i miles.
From this point,  the dissolved oxygen content began to
increase, recovering to approximately 5.0 mg/1 immediately

-------
                                                          738
below the Junction with tlM St. Croix Biver.
          6.  The results of this survey show that the
basic data and information contained in the report "Pollution
and Recovery Characteristic* of the Mississippi River",
sponsored by the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District,
1961, are in reasonable accord with conditions found by this
Department to be existing at this time, insofar as they
aay be related, on the basis of comparable conditions.
          7.  In tents of coliform group organisms, the
pollution of Sections one, two, and three is described as
moderate, severe, and gross, respectively, while in terms
of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand the
pollution of Sections one, two, and three is described as
light, moderate, and gross, respectively.

-------
                                                                               739
                          MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
                       Division of Environmental Sanitation
                        Section of Water Pollution Control

                          Mississippi River Survey, from
                           Rum River to Coon Rapids Dam
                              July and August, I960

                                     Table 1


                                SAMPLING STATIONS
Range        Station                         Description

IM.8.8         1-3          In the Mississippi River at the Champlin Bridge (USH
                            169), at equal intervals from left to right.

               c            Sane as above.  Composite of Stations 1, 2, and 3.

11-18.3         1-3          In the Mississippi River approximately 100 yards below
                            the junction with the Rum River, at equal intervals
                            from left to right.

               c            Same as above.  Composite of Stations 1, 2, and 3«

11-17.3         1-3          In the Mississippi River approximately ijmiles southeast
                            of the Champlin bridge (USH 16?), at equal intervals
                            from left to right.

     j         1-3          In the liississippi River approximately 3fk mile above
                            the Coon Rapids dam, at equal intervals from left to
                            right,

               c            Same afi above.  Composite of stations 1, 2, and 3»

-------
                                                                                740
                          MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
                       Division of Environmental Sanitation
                        Section of Water Pollution Control

                          Mississippi River Survey, from
                        Coon Rapids Dam to St» Croix River
                             August & September, 1961

                                    Table 2


                               SAMPLING STATIONS
Range        Station                        Description


M-12,9         1-2        In the Mississippi River approximately 3/1; mils below the
                          Coon Rapids dam, at equal intervals from left to right,

               c          Same as above.  Composite of Stations 1 and 2,

M-9«8          1-3        In the Mississippi River at the St, Paul pumping station,
                          at equal intervals from left to right*

               c          Same as above.  Composite of Stations 1, 2, and 3,

H-7,7          1-3        In the llississippi River approximately Ł mile above the
                          USH 100 bridge, at equal intervals from left to right.

               c          Same as above.  Composite of Stations 2 and 3,

I't-6,2          1-3        In the llississippi River approximately 50 yards above the
                          Minneapolis water treatment plant ran vrater intake, at
                          equal intervals from left to right,

               c          Same as above.  Composite of Stations 1, 2, and 3,

               2d         Same as above at a 3-foot depth below Station 2,

U-h»9                     Columbia Heights line belovr the Camden Bridge,

H-2,3                     Sewer discharging to the Mississippi River approximately
                          75 yards below the Broadway bridge,

M-2,2          1-3        In the Mississippi River approximately 350 yards above
                          Bassetts Creek, at equal intervals from left to right,

               c          Same as above.  Composite of Stations 1, 2, and 3*

               2d         Same as above at an 8-foot depth below Station 2,

M-l«7          1-3        In the Mississippi River approximately 500 yards below
                          Bassetts Creek, at equal intervals from left to right,

               c          Same as above.  Composite of Stations 1, 2, and 3*

               2d         Same as above at an 8-foot depth below Station 2,

U-l»5                     Nlcollet Island sewer discharging to the east channel of
                          the Mississippi River from Nicollet Island.

-------
                                                                                 741
                         Misaiaaippi River Survey, from
                       Coon Rapida Dam to St. Croix River
                            August & September, 1961

                                Table 2  (cont'd)

	SAMPLING  STATIONS  	___

Range        Station                        Deacription

U-0.1                      10th Ave. S.E. sewer approximately 150 feet below the
                           Tenth Avenue Bridge.

MK>.1           1          Sewer on left  bank approximately 100 feet below the
                           Northern Pacific Railroad bridge.

MfO.l                      Sewer on left  bank approximately 150 feet below the
                           Northern Pacific Railroad bridge*

MK>»U           1-2        In the Mississippi River at the Washington Avenue
                           bridge, at equal intervals from left to right.

                c          Same as above. Composite of  Stations 1 and 2.

                2d         Same as above  at a 12-foot depth below Station 2.

MfO.6                      Fifth Streets  sewer directly  below Fairviev/ Hospital.

Mfl.5           1-2        In the Mississippi River at the Franklin Avenue bridge,
                           at equal intervals from left  to right.

Mfl.5                      Bridal Veil Falls sewer

M4-3.1           1-2        In the Mississippi River at the Lake Street-Marshall
                           Avenue bridge, at equal intervals from left to right.

                o          Same as above.  Composite of  Stations 1 and 2.

                Id         Same as above  at a 12-foot depth below Station 1.

M4-3.2                      Eustls Avenue  sewer on St. Paul side.

1*3.8                      Portland Avenue sewer on St.  Paul side.

Mfh.l                      38th Street sewer on Minneapolis side.

M*h.6                     Randolph W. sewer on St. Paul side.

M4-5.2                      Otto 17. aewer  above the Ford Bridge on St. Paul aide.

Mf5.U           1-3        In the Miaaissippi River at the Ford Bridge, at equal
                           intervals from left to right.

                c          Same aa above.  Conposite of Stations 1, 2, and 3.

Mff>,6                     Sewer below Ford hydro-olectric plant.

     J                     Minnehaha aewer (small opening) below the Ford dam
                          on the Minneapolis aide.

-------
                                                                                 742
                         Mississippi River Survey, from
                       Coon Rapids Dam to St. Croix River
                            August & Septenber, l?6l

                                Table 2  (cont«d)

                             .  SAMPLING  STATIONS
Range
Mf6.0


MI-7.5
Station
1-2
c
2d
1-3
Description
In the Mississippi River approximately Ł mile below the
Ford lock and dam, at equal intervals from left to right.
Same as above. Composite of Stations 1 and 2,
Sane as above at a 10-foot depth below Station 1.
In the Mississippi River at the Seventh Street bridge in
                          St.  Paul,  at  equal  intervals from left to right.

               c          Sane as  above.   Composite  of Stations 1, 2, and 3»

               2d         Sasie as  above at a  6-foot  depth below Station 2.

                          Cavern sewer  on left bank.

Mf8.0                     At the outlet of the marina near  the extension of
                          Davern Street in St. Paul.

!If9,l          1-3        In the Mississippi  River approximately 600 feet below
                          the junction  with the  Minnesota River, at equal intervals
                          from left to  right.

               c          Saae as  above.   Composite  of Stations 1, 2, and 3«

               2d         Same as  above at a  12-foot depth  below Station 2.

H4-11.6                    Outlet of creek receiving  Randolph E. sewer discharge.

MW3.1                    Eagle sewer on  the  left bank belovr the Wabasha bridge.

M4-13.1         1          Moses sewer on  the  right bank.

MKL3.U                    St. Peter sewer on the left bank near  the Wabasha bridge,

1HO3.8         1-3        In the Mississippi River at the Robert  Street bridge,  at
                          equal intervals from left to right.

               c          Same as above.   Composite of Stations  1,  2,  and 3»

MflU.O                    Temporary sewer on right bank belov; the Robert Street
                          bridge.

                          Trout Brook sewer on left bank below Robert Street bridge*

-------
                                                                                 7*3
                          Mississippi River Survey, from
                        Coon Rapids Dan to St. Croix River
                             August & September, 1961

                                 Table 2 (cont'd)

	SAMPLING STATIONS	

Range        Station                           Description


Mfl6.6         1-3        In the Mississippi River approximately 300 yards above
                          the outfall of the I6SD sewage treatment plant, at
                          equal intervals from left to right,

               c          Same as above.  Composite of Stations 1 and 2,

               2d         Sane as above at a 12-foot depth below Station 2,

!Jfl7»3         1-3        In the Mississippi River approximately 2 miles above the
                          South St, Paul waste treatment plant, at equal intervals
                          fron left to right*

               2d         Same as above at a 10-foot depth below Station 2,

               S          Same as above on the surface at Station 2,

Mfl9,6                    Above submerged sewer outlet off right bank opposite
                          Swift and Company, Inc., in South St, Paul.

MJ20.0                    Above submerged sewer outfall off right bank opposite
                          Armour and Company, Inc., in South St, Paul,

11*20.8         1-3        In the Mississippi River approximately \ mile below the
                          South St, Paul waste treatment plant, at equal intervals
                          from left to right,

               2d         Same as above at an 8-foot depth below Station 2.

Mf22,7         1-3        In the Mississippi River at the Inver Grove bridge, at
                          equal intervals from left to right,

               2d         Same as above at an 8-foot depth below Station 2,

LIf23,0                    Outfall of the Northwestern Refining Co. lagoon to the
                          Mississippi River,

Mf23.0         1          Outfall of the St. Paul Park sewage treatment plant to
                          the Mississippi River,

               I-k        In the Mississippi River approximately 500 yards belor; the
                          St. Paul Park sewage treatment plant and the Northwestern
                          Refining Co., at equal intervals from left to right,

               2d         Same as above at a 12-foot depth below Station 2.

               1-3        In the Mississippi River at Upper Qrey Cloud Island above
                          the J. L. Shiely Co, loading dock at equal intervals
                          from left to right.

-------
                                                                                744
                         Mississippi River Survey, from
                       Coon Rapids Dam to St, Croix River
                            August & September, l?6l

                                Table 2 (cont'd)

                               SAMPLING STATIONS
Range
Mf2302


Hf28.2
Mf28.3
11*29.ll
Station
  c

  1


  2-5



  c

  kd

  1-k
  2$

  3d

  1


  2


  1-7
               C2

               Id

               1-6


               cl

               o2
                     Description
                          In River Lake adjacent to the sampling range on the river.

                          Sane as above.  Composite of Stations 1, 2, and 3 a
Outfall of the St. Paul Ammonia Products, Inc., to the
Mississippi River.

In the Llississippi River near the St, Paul Aianonia
Products, Inc., submerged waste outfall, at equal
intervals from left to right,

Same as above.  Composite of Stations 2, 3, and k»

Same as above at a 12 -foot depth below Station 1*.

In the Mississippi River between the Sta Paul Ammonia
Products, Inc., outfall and the Great Northern Oil
Company barge slip, at equal intervals from left to right

Same as above.  Composite at Stations 1, 2, and 3.

Same as above at the surface of Station 2.

Same as above at an 8-foot depth below Station 3.

At the west end of the Great Northern Oil Company
barge slip,

At the center of the Great Northern Oil Company barge
slip,

In the Mississippi River starting at the junction
between Upper and Lov/er Spring Lake to Iloore Lake at
equal intervals from left to right,

Same as above.  Composite of Stations 2, 3, and iu

Same as above.  Composite of Stations 5 and 6.

Same as above at a 6-foot depth below Station 1.

In the Mississippi River immediately below Spring Lake,
at equal intervals from left to right,

Same as above.  Composite of Stations 3, ht Ł, and 6.

Same as above.  Composite of Stations 1 and 2.

Same as above at an 8-foot depth below Station 5>.

-------
                          Mississippi River Survey, from
                        Coon Rapids Dam to St. Croix River
                             August & September, 1961

                                 Table 2  (cont«d)

                                SAMPLING  STATIONS
Range        Station                           Description


Mf33»2         1-3         In the Mississippi River approximately 1^ miles  above  the
                           outlet of  the creek which receives  the iraste  from the
                           Minnesota  Mining and llanufacturing  Company Chemolite Plant,
                           at equal intervals from left  to right,

               c           Same as above.  Composite of  Stations  1,  2, and  3»

               2d          Same as above at a 12 -foot depth below Station 2.

Mf3lj..9         1           In the creek below the Minnesota Llinir.g and llanufacturing
                           Company Chemolite Plant settling pond  approximately 1,000
                           feet from  the Itlssissippi River.

Mf37«0         1-6         In the Mississippi River above the  Hastings dam,  at equal
                           intervals  from left to right.

               cl          Sane as above.  Composite of  Stations  1,  2, and  3»

               C2          Same as above.  Composite of  Stations  U,  5, and  6.

               2d          Same as above at a 12 -foot depth below Station 2.

Hf39.1         1-3         In the Mississippi River at the USH 61 bridge in
                           Hastings,  at equal intervals  from left to right.

               c           Same as above.  Composite of  Stations  1,  2, and  3«

               2d          Same as above at a 12 -foot depth below Station 2.

Mf39«U                     Hastings sev/age treatment plant effluent.

Mf39«6                     In the outlet of the Hastings llarina to the Mississippi
                           River on the right side of the river.

Mf39.8         1-3         In the Mississippi River approximately 200 feet below  the
                           junction v^ith the Vermillion  River, at equal  intervals
                           from left  to right.

               c           Same as above.  Composite of  Stations  1,  2, and  3.

               2d          Same as above at a 10-foot depth below Station 2e

1*39.8         ii           In the Veraillion River approximately  1,000 feet  from
                           the Mississippi River.

-------
                                                                               746
                          Mississippi River Survey,  from
                        Coon Rapids Dam to St. Croix River
                             August & Septenber, 1961

                                Table 2 (cont'd)

                               SAMPLING STATIONS
Range        Station                           Description


     0         1-3        In the Mississippi River'approximately 300 yards below
                          the junction with the St.  Croix River, at equal intervals
                          from left to right.

               c          Sane as above.  Composite  of Stations 1, 2, and 3.

               2d         Saris as above at a 12-foot depth below Station 2.

-------
                                                                                                                 747
Contract for
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-------
                         MINNESOTA DER'JITIENT OF HEALTH
                      Division of Environmental Sanitation
                       Section of ITater Pollution Control

                         Mississippi River  Survey, 1961

                                    Table h

                     SEHEl OUTFALLS TO THE  MISSISSIPPI RIVER
                                                                                  748
          .(1)
Minneapolis1
  Columbia Heights Line
  Camden
  31st Avenue N.E.
  38th Avenue N8
  33rd Avenue N.
  26th Avenue N,
  21st Avenue N.
  Broadway
  llith Avenue K.
  Bas setts Creek
  1st Avenue N.
  3rd Avenue N.E.
  8th Avenue S.
  10th Avenue S.E.
  llth Avenue S.
  2nd Street S.
  Uth Street S.
  5th Street S.
  Oak Street
  2?th Avenue S.E.
  Cecil Street S.E.
  Opening above lipls. headhouse
  Opening below I pis. headhouse
  Franklin
  26th Street
  Bridal Veil Falls
  Lake Street
  33th Street
  liLnnehaha  (Large opening)
  MLnnehaha  (Small opening)
St. Paul (Continued)
  Sherman
  Eagle
  Market
  St. Peter
  lannesota
  Cedar
  Robert
  Eaton
  Jackson
  Sib ley
  Broadway
  Hoses
  Custer
  Arthur
  Robie
  State
  Minnetonka
  Trout Brook at lith St,
  Trout Brook at River
  Urban
  Belt Line

Fridley^2)
  USH 100
  Edge Way
  62nd Way
  Logan Parkway
  BeUaire

Brooklyn Center'  '
  71st Avenue N»
  70th Avenue N,
  69th Avenue N,
  65th Avenue N.
  59th Avenue N.
  57th Avenue N«
  56th Avenue N,
  55th Avenue N,
  53rd Avenue N«
                                                              St. Paul
                                                                Broaduay
                                                                Eighth Avenue
                                                                Tenth Avenue
                                                                Pullman Avenue
                                                               Hastings
                                                                Eddy Street
                                                                Vermillion Street
                                                                Sibley Street
                                                                Tyler Street
                                                                Bailey Street
St.
  Eustis Avenue (Somerville )
  Otis Avenue
  Marshall Avenue
  Portland Avenue
  Princeton Avenue
  Jefferson Avenue
  Randolph 17.
  Scheffor
  Otto W.
  Davern
  Otto E,
  Randolph E.
  Drake
  •Smith
1,  Seirers given the same name as used in the MSSD inspection reports.
2,  Storm sewers named for the nearest Street or Avenue*  These sewer outfalls are
    not inspected by iBSD personnel*

-------
                                                  749
       Analytical aud Field Data



MlMiMippi River Survey, 1960 and 196!








               9»otion 1








 froM BUM Hlv«r in Anoka to the Upper



  Look and Da» of St. Anthony Falls,



              Minneapolis







                Table 5

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            750





















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                                              761
      Analytical and Field Data



   Mississippi River Survey, ±961








               Section 2








From Upper Lock and Dam of St. Anthony



      Falls to the Outfall of the



Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District



  Sewage Treatment Plant in St. Paul








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                                                    772
            Analytical and Field Data



         Mississippi River Survey, 1961







                    Section jj








             From tbe Outfall of the



     Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District



    Sewage Treatment Plant in St. Paul to tbe



Junction with the St. Croix River, Below Bastings
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                                                        78?
TWIN   CITIES   METROPOLITAN   AREA

                                       	-_ — -,'	1_
                         A— _j_^
           Legend                !
         Outline of proposed metro-   I
          politan sanitary district  j_      ^
         Area served by present
          Minneapolis-St. Paul
          sanitary district
         North suburban sanitary sewer
          district
                                               MINN. DEPT. OF HEALTH
                                                  SEC. OF WPC.
                                                   MAY 1962

-------
                                                SKETCH  MAP SHOWING APPROXIMATE  LOCATION
                                                  OF  STORM  AND COMBINED  SEWER  OUTLETS
                                                            TO THE MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
                                                            IN  THE  METROPOLITAN  AREA
                                                                       SECTION  I
                                                                             St Pout woter intoke
                                                   BROOKLYN  PARK
71 st Ave. N.
70th  Ave N
69th  Ave N
65th. Ave. N.
59th Ave N
57th  Ave. N.
56th Ave N
55th. Ave.N
53 rd. Ave.N
Belloire
Logon Parkway
62nd. Woy
Edge Woy
USH -100
51 St. Ave N
49th. Ave. N.
Columbia Heights Lane
Camden
31 st  Ave. N  E
36th Ave N
33rd. Ave N
26th. Ave N
21 st  Ave N
Broodwoy
14th.  Ave. N
Bossetts Creek
1st. Ave. N
3rd. Ave N.E.
                                                          BROOKLYN
                                                           CENTER     4
                                                                                	I
                                                                               Minneapolis water works
                                                                                  COLUMBIA   HE IGHTS
                                  MINNEAPOLIS
                                                                              PLYMOUTK
                                                                               MI01C
                                                                                   26
                                                                                             MINN. DEPT OFHEALTr
                                                                                                 SEC. OF W PC
                                                                                                  MARCH 1962
Baseaon US Geological  Survey Maps

-------

-------

-------

-------
                                              SKETCH MAP  OF MISSISSIPPI  RIVER  FROM  THE
                                                  MOUTH  OF  THE  RUM RIVER  IN ANOKA
                                                    TO THE  UPPER LOCK  AND  DAM  AT
                                                    ST.ANTHONY  FALLS  IN  MINNEAPOLIS
                                                                 SECTION  I
Boted us Geolooica' Survey Maps
MINN DEPT OF HEOLT
   SEC. OF WPC
   MARCH 1962

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794
   FIG.

-------
                                                                              799
                           MISSISSIPPI   RIVER  SURVEY
                            RIVER  BOTTOM C ROSS-SEC TIONS
                            BY  RECORDING DEPTH SOUNDER
                            AUGUST  22  to September 27, 1961
        20L
        40
                  M + 22.7
                                                        M + 23.6
        20L
        40
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                                                                  M + 2 8. 3
    ZO L
     40
R R
                                  R R
         Main ri ver channel
   Spring  Lake     Moor* Lake

           M + 29.4
                                                                      Baldwin Lake
L- Left bank
R- R ight bank
                                    MINN DEPT. OFHEALTH
                                        SEC. OF WPC.
                                        MARCH,! 96 I
                                           FI G. TTTT

-------
                                                                            8oo
                          MISSISSIPPI   RIVER  SURVEY
                           RIVER BOTTOM C R OSS - S ECT I 0 NS
                            BY RECORDING  DEPTH  SOUNDER
                            AUGUST 22 to September 27, 1961
   20R
    40
       Main  channel
                        M+ 31.9
                                                                  M+ 33. 2
        Rebecca Lake
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                                           Main channel
                                                                      M + 3 9. I
a.
o>
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          40
               M-f 39. 8
                                                    M+42 0
 L- Left bank
 R- Right  bank
MINN. DEPT.OF HEALTH
    SEC. OF WPC.
    MARCH, 1962

-------
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                                             807 - 810
Photographic material presented at the




proceedings has been omitted.  Copies




are on file with the Minnesota Department




of Health.

-------
                                                              i

                                                           811 !

            MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

         Division of Environmental  Sanitation

          Section of Water Pollution Control
             Mississippi Rive  Survey, ±96!



                      Bibliography



1.  Toltz, King, Duvall, Anderson and Associates, Inc.,
                                                              i
    Consulting Engineers, St. Paul, Minnesota, Report on the  !

    Expansion of Sewage forks in the Minneapolis- St. Paul

    Metropolitan  Area.  Project sponsored by the Minneapolis

    St. Paul Sanitary District.  September, 1960.



2.  Minneapolis -St. Paul Sanitary District, Pollution and

    Recovery Characteristics of the Mississippi River,

    Project conducted by the Sanitary Engineering Division,

    Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology,

    University of Minnesota, September, ±961.



3.  Metropolitan Drainage Cosnnission of Minneapolis and

    St. Paul, Second Annual Report , 1928.

-------
                                                        812

4.  Minnesota Department of Health, Report of Special



    Investigation of the Pollution of the Mississippi River,



    May and June,
5.  Minnesota Department of Health, Memorandum on a Survey   ,



    of the Mississippi River fron Above Minneapolis at the   i



    Minneapolis Water Works Intake to Below Minneapolis at   I
                                                             t


    the Ford Dam, December 17, 1951, to January 17t ±952.    j







6.  Minnesota Department of Health, Report on Investigation



    of Waste Disposal at St. Paul Ammonia Products. Inc.



    and Liquid Carbonic Division. General Dynamics Corporation
    and Survey of the Mississippi River in the Pine Bend



    Area, Dakota County. July 22-25. 1958.






7.  Minnesota Department of Health, Report on Investigation



    of Waste Disposal, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing



    Company, Chemolite Plant, Washington County, September



    22-26,. 1958.






8.  Minnesota Department of Health,  Memorandum on Investi-



    gation of Radioactivity in the Mississippi River from



    Elk River to Hastings,July 22 to August 1, 1957*



    July 22 to August 14, 1958.

-------
                                                         813
                                                              i
9.  Minnesota Department of Health, Water  quality  Sampling   '



    Program, liinaeaota Lakes and  Streams,  Vol.  I i'c II,




    1955-59-

-------
                                                             I
                                                         814
             MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF H1ALTH
          Division of Environmental Sanitation
           Section of Water Pollution Control

                       Appendix C
            Memorandum on the Tributaries to
        the Meiu Stem of the Mississippi River
               in the Metropolitan Area
                       May, 1962
Rum River                                                    :


          All of the sources of direct discharge of raw
sewage have provided or are making progress toward construe- [
tion of treatment facilities.  Cambridge and Onaroia con-     ;
structed plants in ±959 and 1952, respectively.  Milaca and  '
                                                             i
                                                             i
Princeton put raw sewage stabilization ponds into operation  '.
in 1961.  Preliminary engineering studies on the sewage      :
                                                             i
treatment ^eeds of Isanti are in progress.
          Minimum flow recorded at St. Francis over a 27
year period is 29 cfs (cubic feet per second), with an
average of 575 cfs.  Data from analysis of 44 routine
samples collected over the past several years at Anoka
are as follows:

-------
                                                        815
 Itea              Determinations   Average   Miniaua   Maxiaua
 Coliform  Group         44             3,800     200      17,000
   (MPH/100 ml)
 DO (»g/l)             44             9.9       6.0      13.9
 BOD   (ag/1)            44             3.2       0.7      7.5
Ela Creek


          Flows through Champlln into the Mississippi River
immediately below Anoka.  Champlin has no public sanitary
•ewer and there are no known sources of industrial waste
discharge.  The area drained is principally farm land.


Coon Creek


          Drains the upper part of the Metropolitan Area
watershed lying largely northeast, east, and southeast of
Anoka; roughly north to Soderville, east to  5H 65 and
south to Fridley.  The watershed is mainly flat, sandy
agricultural land and is sparsely populated except for the
southern part southeast of Anoka where there are extensive
suburban residential areas such as Thompson Park in
Coon Rapids.  The creek discharges into the Mississippi
River a short distance below the Coon Rapids dam at n point
•bout six miles above the Minneapolis water intnke and nbout

-------
                                                        816
two miles above the St. Paul pumping station.
          There are no known sources of pollution at present
except possibly private homes, and little use Is Bade of
the creek except for stock watering.  Some avioning is done
at a avail ponded area immediately north of USH 10 in
Coon Rapids.
          Since 1960, a number of samples have been collects
and flow estimates made at a point a short distance above
the mouth.  The data are as follows:


Item             Determinations   Average   Minimum   Maximu.
Flow (cfs)*            4              40       30          6c
  *l96o data
Coliform Group        1J            6060      ?80      24,00o
  (MPN/100 ml)
DO (mg/1)             13            9.0       6.4      11.0
BOD (mg/1)            13            3.7       1.8      6.5


Bioe Creek


          Drains the area northeast of Fridley and discharges
into the Mississippi River at a point about one mile below
the St. Paul pumping station and about three miles above
the Minneapolis water intake.  Residential development in
the lower part of the watershed is fairly extensive, but

-------
                                                         817
there 1m at present no discharge from a public sanitary
•ewer system into the creek.  New Brighton is the only
sewered municipality in the watershed and discharge is to
the Minneapolis system via the Twin Cities Arsenal force
nain.
          Several relatively swnll industries discharge
wastes separately within the watershed.  These include a
refinery and four rendering plants in New Brighton which
discharge wastes to Rush Lake and thence to Rice Creek
above Long Lake; and one rendering plant in Blaine which
discharges wastes to a slough area.  These plants provide
facilities for removal of oil and grease from the wastes
before discharge.  A more comprehensive report on an
extended survey of Rice Creek is presently being completed
by this Department.
          A number of water samples have been collected
at various stations on Rice Creek in the past several
years.  The data for the station near the East River Road,
a short distance above the mouth, are summarized below:

-------
                                                        8ia  :

Item             Determinations   Average   Miniaua   Maximum


Plow (cfs)»            7              28        4         80 I
                                                             !

  »196o data                                                 I


Colifora Group        1?            }425      220      17,000


  (MPN/100 ml)


DO (mg/1)             I?            8.2       0.1      18.0


BOD (mg/1)            13            7.4       3.0      15.0




Shiogle Creek




          Shingle Creek drains an area lying generally


northwest of north Minneapolis,  The watershed includes
                                                             i
most of Brooklyn Park, Maple ^rove, Brooklyn Center, Osseo,


and parts of Plymouth, New 3ope, Crystal, Hobbinsdale, and


Minneapolis.  The area is still mainly rural, but inter-


spersed are substantial residential areas.  There are at


present no major waste producing industries in the area nor


is there any surface discharge from a municipal sanitary


sewer system.  Some of the municipalities provide sever


service; e.g., Osseo and Robbinsdale, but discharge to the


Minneapolis system.  The creek is largely undeveloped and


little used for recreational purposes at present except for


Camden Park in Minneapolis.  Preliminary studies are under-


way for development of new park areas along the creek in


Brooklyn Center and Brooklyn Park.

-------
                                                       819
          Data for  Shingle Creek at the Lyndale Avenue North


station are am follow*:
Ite*


Flow (cfs)*


  »196o data


Collfono Group


  (MPH/100 «1)


DO (mg/1)
Determinations   Average   Minimum   Maximum!


      5              28      Hone      120
     11





     11


     11
509,800     450    5»4oo,oop




   9.7      6.6    15.2    I


   4.2      1.5    ll.o    ;
Bassetts Creek
          Bassett's Creek drains an extensive area west of


Minneapolis, including the watershed of Medicine Lake.


The area drained is largely devoted to residential develop-


nent and faraing, and includes all or part of Golden Valley,


Robbinsdale, Crystal, New Hope, St. Louis Park, Plymouth,


Medicine Lake and Minnetonka Village.  The communities of


Golden Valley, St. Louis Park, Crystal, and Mew Hope


provide sewer service and discharge to the Minneapolis


system.  Plymouth and Minnetonka Village do not have


public sanitary sewer systems.


          The creek is considered potentially valuable for


recreational use because of the growing residential areas

-------
                                                        820
near  It, but at present it is largely undeveloped for
recreational purposes except for the section which flows
through Wirth Park  in Minneapolis.  Most of tbe creek
through Minneapolis is not accessible since it has been
confined in a stora sewer.  There are no known major
sources of discharge of sewage or industrial wantes either
in Minneapolis or in the suburbs*
          Sampling  data for Baasetts Creek at a station
Just  above tbe mouth, near the Plymouth Avenue bridge,
are summarized as follows:


Item             Determinations   Averse   Minimiia   Maximum
Flow (cfs)*            4            116        4        250
  *1960 data
Collform Group        13          866,900    7,900   3,500,0
  (MPN/100 ml)
DO (mg/1)             12          6.6         3.8       9.3
BOD (mg/1)            13          13.7        2.5       26


Minnebaba Creek


          Minnehaba Creek serves as tbe outlet of Lake
Minnetonka and also drains an extensive area between
Lake Minnetonka and the Mississippi River.  The drainage
area lies due west of Minneapolis and includes all or part

-------
                                                         821


of the adjacent suburbs of Morningside, St. Louis Park,


Richfield, and Edina, as well as Hopkins and a large number


of other communities farther removed.  The watershed between


Lake Minnetonka and Minneapolis is an attractive, rolling,


wooded area and has been substantially developed for


residential purposes.  The Lake Minnetonka watershed proper


is not specifically included in this discussion as such


since reports are available on special studies made in


recent years in that area.


          All of the municipalities named above provide


sewer service and discharge to the Minneapolis system.


None of the other communities in the watershed, but farther


removed, provide sewer service at present, but several


have engineering studies or pl*ms in progress.  There are


no major, separate industrial outlets to Minnehaha Creek


either in the suburbs or in Minneapolis and so far as is


known, there are no major sources of pollution of the


creek at this time.  The areas immediately adjacent to the   j


creek have been utilized for residential purposes wherever   i
                                                             i
                                                             i
possible except for some particularly low, swampy areas      i


which are mainly in the westernmost  suburbs.  The eastern   j


part of the creek is highly prized as a recreational asset   ;
                                                             i
                                                             i

since it flows through or nearby a number of lakes in the    {

                                                             j

residential area of south Minneapolis and flows through      '


Minnehaha Park with its famed Minnebaha Falls.

-------
                                                         822
          A number of samples have been obtained at a

•tation Just above the mouth la Minnebaha Park, but on

several occasions no sample could be collected because of

littl* or no flow.  The analytical data are summarized,

as follow*, without regard to those period* when no flow

was found:
Item


Colifona Group


  (W»H/100 ml)


DO (mg/1)


BOD (ttg/1)
Peterminat ions   Average   Minimum

     8            22,400    1100
8
8
9.0
5.1
5.9
3.3
Maximur>
      !

160,001.




11.5  i
Minnesota River
          There is at present only one source of raw sewage

on the lower river below the Carver Rapids, i.e., at

Chaska.  The Cbaska Village Council, however, has authorized

preparation of final plans and specifications for a secondary


sewage treatment plant.

          Recent construction includes treatment plants to

serve the Cedar Grove development and the Owens-Illinois

Glass Company plant in Valley Industrial Park east of

Sbakopee.  A  lime sludge pond and aeration flume are pro-

vided at the American Crystal Sugar Company near Cbaska,

-------
                                                       823
and studies are ID progress on further Improvenents.  The
other major industries such as ftnhr Halting Company in
Sbakopee, Cargill, Inc. in Savage, and the Black Dog plant
of Northern States Power Company are either served by
separate waste disposal facilities or plans provide for
ultimate diversion of the waste to a municipal sewage
treatment plant.
          This section of the Minnesota River is presently
being used mainly for navigation and other purposes connected
with the industries on the lower river.  Such use is
expected to expand substantially in the near future if
the projected nine foot channel improvement up to the Carver
Rapids is authorized by Congress as anticipated.  Develop-
ment for recreational purposes, mainly in connection with
pleasure boating:, has begun and considerably more is in
prospect, particularly in regard to use of lands near
Fort Snelling for park purposes to serve the Metropolitan
Area.
          The lower river carries a substantial amount of
sewage and wastes which are discharged from the communities
and industries on the lower river with only primary or no
treatment, and at times the capacity of the river to
assimilate the waste load has been overtaxed.  The flow
of the river is quite variable and may be seriously reduced
at tines such that oxygen depletion may occur, particularly

-------
in late summer and winter.  The river has bm»n opened for



promiscuous fishing in the winter on several occasions by



the Department of Conservation.



          Water samples are collected routinely in the



river below Sbakopee.  The data for the period 1952 to the



present are summarized as follows:








                 County Boad ±8 Bridge
Item



Coliform Group



  (MPK/100 ml)



DO (ag/1)



BOD (og/1)
Item




Colifora Group




  (MPN/100 ml)




DO (og/1)




BOD (mg/1)
Determinations   Average   Minimum   Maximum-



     48          51,800      330     54o,000I
48
48
7.2
5.7
0.4
1.8
20
12
  Cedar Avenue Bridge








Pet era inations   Average   Minimum




     4           11,200     2600
Maximum
22,000
4
4
8,4
7.7
4.5
3.5
10.2
14

-------
                                                          825
 St.  Croix River
           There are no sources  of  raw sewage to the lower
 portion of the St.  Croix River,  i.e.,  from Taylors  Falls
 to the moutb.
           Recent treatment plant construction includes
 Stillwater which provided primary  treatment  in 1960.  Other
 sewage treatment plants  are located at Taylors Falls and
 Bayport,which  also  receives sewage from tbe  Minnesota State
 Prison.
           Tbe  smaller  communities  along tbe  lower portion of
 tbe  St.  Croix,including  Afton, Lakeland Shores,  St. Mary's
 Point,  Lake St.  Croix  Beach and  Marine on tbe St. Croix,
 do not  bave public  sanitary sewer  systems.
           The  lower portion of tbe river including  Lake
 St. Croix  is an  area used heavily  for sucb recreational
purposes as boating, fishing, water skiing,  and  bathing.
           Water  samples  are collected routinely  from the
Bridge on USB 10 at Prescott.  Tbe data for tbe period
1955 to date are summarized as follows:

-------
                                                        826



It«ro             Determination*   Mean    Minimum   Maximum




Col iform Group        57            285     < 20       1500




  (MPH/100 »1)




DO (mg/1)             58            8.8     4.2       14.1




BOD (rag/1)            58            2.8     0.5        6.8







 '-'  Means teas than.

-------
                                                        82?
                                             Appendix D
A Statement to the Water Pollution Control Commission in

connection with a bearing on the pollution and on the classi-

fication and adoption of standards therefore, of the

Mississippi River between the Run River and the St. Croix

River, May 28, ±962
           Minnesota Department of Conservation
                Division of Game and Fish

             Section of Research and Planning

-------
                                                         828

      Information an Flab itt th» Mississippi River frees


the Mouth of the Run River to the Mouth of the St. Croix Rive*-




          The sections of the Mississippi River from the      j
                                                              i

Run Rive? to the Upper Lock and Data of St. Anthony Fall*,     ;


from the Upper Lock and Daw of St. Anthony Falls to the out-  j
                                                              t
fall of the present Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District    i


sewage disposal plant, and from the outfall of the present    t

                                                              I
Hinneapoiis~St. Paul Sanitary District sewage disposal

plant to the mouth of the St. Croix River have attracted      •
                                                              i

some attention as fishing waters in recent years.  Game       j

fish are present and some fishing both sport and commercial   \


for rough fish is done in one or more of these sections of    \
                                                              i
the River.                                                    !




Fish Species Present




          Species of fish known to occur in the Mississippi

River between the Run River and the St. Croix River are


shown in an appended list.  Eleven species of game fish


including walleye pike, northern pike, largeoouth and
                                                              I

snallmouth bass and panfish and thirteen species of rough-    J

fish are recorded.  The list is not assumed to be a complete

list of all species present in this stretch of the river.

The species listed, however, are fish expected to be present

-------
                                                         829

in a large warm-water stream.


          The abundance of fisb in these sections of the


Mississippi River is indicated only by limited information


obtained from (l) three stations in the Upper Section between!


tbe Rum River and a point 3 miles below the Coon Rapids dan  j


sampled in ±960 in an electro-fishing survey of the


Mississippi River between the 3~o»ile point below Coon Rapids

                 i/
Dam and Elk River  (I/ Electro-fishing survey of the Upper


Mississippi River uear Elk River, Minnesota,  Section of


Research and Planning, Rept., Aug., 1960.) and (2) a teat


netting survey in 1956 of the fish population in a portion


of the Lower Section known as Spring Lake located south of

                                                     2/
the main channel a few miles above lock nnd dam No. 2 .


(2/ Wildlife and Recreational Values of Spring Lake, Dakota


County and possible effect of ammonia plant wastes upon


them.  Section of Research and Planning, Report, Nov., 1956.)


The fishery survey in ±960 indicated at least fair popula-


tions of bluegills and smallmouth bass and therefore


suitable habitat for these species at that time in the


areas sampled in tbe upper portion of the section from


tbe Rum River to St. Anthony Falls.  The 1956 survey of


Spring Lake showed at that time that game fisb were less


than half as abundant in Spring Lake as in Pool 5 above


Red fing and that rough fish were about equal in abundance


in the two areas*  Newness of tbe electro-fishing technique,

-------
                                                         830
uniqueness of the Mississippi River within and above the
Twin Cities with respect to other flab waters in Minnesota
and the limited scope of the data do not allow comparisons
with other waters.


Fishing


          Information on use of the Mississippi River between
the Rum and the St. Croix Rivers for sport fishing is avail-
able in the form of letters from anglers, notes from tele-
phone conversations, and press releases in the files of the
Section of Research and Planning.  These include accounts
of satisfactory walleye pike and swnllmouth bass fishing
within and above Minneapolis and St. Paul and a few reports
of crappie catches below Pigs Eye Island in backwater areas
near Newport and near Grey Cloud Island.  Fishing success
for walleye pike, northern pike and catfish in Spring Lake
was reported in 1956 to be low and to have declined over
the previous 15 years.  Off-flavor of the fish was mentioned
with most reports of game fish catches made in the lower
section between the present Sanitary District Sewage
disposal plant and Look and Dam No. 2 at Bastings.
          Commercial seining for rough fish has been
carried out in the Spring Lake area of the lower section
since at least 1925.  From July 1, 1961, to April 30, 1962,

-------
                                                        831
115,840 pounds of  flab moatl?  aarp w«r« caught.,  iva.u :4-:  Ł,t»€>
approximately five years  froź  July 1,  1957  to April '*;,.•,  l'X>2
1,049,292 pounds of rough fish have been cuugbt  its sprang
Lake.  This compares with approximately 47^747,155        of
rough fish taken in the State  mm a wboie for the
period.
          The Mississippi Elver between the Rum  River a
the  St. Croix River and throughout its length upntrean
from the Hum River is little used by fishermen compared  to
other fishing waters in Minnesota at the present time.,
It is probable, however,  that  the Mississippi River through-
out  its length above the  Rum River and between the Hum  River
and  St. Croix River will  be used more  by fishermen in the
future if the human population increases according to pre
ductions and provided present  stream conditions  witb respect
to fish life can be improved or kept the same.
Effect of proposed classifies tioa  ajid
          It appears likely the classification  and  standards
as proposed for the three sections of the Mississippi  Si vet-
between the Run and the St. Croix Rivers will allow no
further deterioration of conditions for fish in these
sections of the stream and may result in some improvement ,   j
particularly if there is no significant change  toward  lower

-------
                                                         832
flows in the long tewn pattern of stream flow in these
sections of the river.  In the Mississippi River Immediately
below the mouth of the St. Croix River it appears, as in
the past, that improvement of conditions for fish will be
dependent primarily upon adequate dilution of the Mississippi
River by water frott the St. Croix River.
                              Bernard R. Jones
                              Biological Services Unit
                              Section of Research and Planning


Approved:
          John B. lioyle, Supervisor
          Section of Research and Planning

-------
                                                         833
             Specie* of Fish Eeoorded froź the



Mississippi River Between the Rum River and at. Croix River
         Game Fish
         Rough Fish
    Walleye pike



    Northern pike



    Rockbass



    Bluegill



    Black crappie



    Puropkinseed sunfish



    Largsooutb bass



    Soallmoutb bass



    Catfish



    Sauger



    Greea Suafish
Carp



Comneo sucker



Black bullhead



Yellow bullhead



Silver redhorse



northern redhorse



Perch



Buffaloflsb



Dogfish (Lower section)



Shortnose gar  (lower section)



Gizzard shad  (lower section)



River sucker  (lower section)



Sheepsbead  (lower section)

-------
Revised 9/1/59
                                                                 Appendix B
                    MINNEAPOLIS-SAINT PAUL S^flTARI DISGUST

               INSPECTION OF FORirSR SBJHt OUTLETS..IN
                                        o

                                 July 20, 1961
On the above date an inspection of former sewer outlets into the lilssisaippi
River was made by the Sanitary'District,  The outlet locations and discharge
conditions are tabulated below.
West Bank

Caradon

38th Ave, N.

33rd Ave. N.

26th Ave, N.

21st Ave. N.
Broadway


lUth Ave. N,

Bassetts Creek

1st Ave. N.

8th Ave. S.


nth Ave. S.
                  Discjiarge Cpndj t ion     Qjrtlet Location
                  No Flow

                  No Flow

                  Lt, Flow - Clean

                  No Flow

                  Lt, Flow - Clean
Lt. Flow - Sewage -
Lt, Oil Film

No Flow
                        Franklin

                        26th Street

                        Lake Street

                        38th Street

                        Minnehaha
                                          East Bank
                                          Columbia Hts, Line
Heavy Flow, Oil Slick   31at Ave. N.E.
No Flow

No Flow - No Vapor-
Discoloration

No Flow
2nd St. S. (River Terminal Coal Dock)
    St. S,
Lt. Flow Sewage) Oil
film along W* Bank
                                          3rd Ave. N.E.

                                          10th Ave. S.E.


                                          Oak Street

                                          2?th Ave. S.E.

                                          Cecil St. S.E.

                                          Bridal Veil Falls
 Discharge Location



(Submerged Outlet)

 No Flow

 Lt. Flow

 No Flow

 Large Opening -
 Lt. Trickle
 Small Opening -
 Heavy Sewage Disch.




 Lt. Flow - Clean

 Not Vis, - Dredging

 No Flow

 Heavy Flow -
 Sewage - Vapor

 Lt, Trickle - Clean

 (Submerged Outlet)

 No Flow

 Clear Flow - No
 Odor
5th Sts S,        Lt. Flow Sewage

Opening Above Mpls, Headhouse      Lt, Flow

Opening Below Mpla. Headhouse      Lt, Flow

33rd St, S,       No Flow          Inspected byi  Paul - Carl "Chuck Keiater
NOTEi  Main St. Sewer will be checked periodically by "IJlxineapolia Sewer" 'bepartment
       as per agreement with Flour Mills Organizations,
       Rained Previous Evening and a«m,
 - Copied from IflLnneapolis-St, Paul Sanitary District Form I/-12

-------
Revised 5/V58
                                                                                  835
                     IIDIMEAPOLIS-SAINT PAUL SANITARY DISTRICT

                 INSPECT TOM OF FORMER SEflER OUTLETS BI SIT?" PAUL

                                  July 20, 1961
On the above date an Inspection of former
Rivar was made by the Sanitary District,
conditions are tabulated below.

Outlet Location   Discharge Condition

Bustis Ave. (Somerville)  No Flow
                        sewer outlets into the Jlississippi
                        The.outlet locations and discharge
Otis Ave.

Marshall Ave.

Portland Ave.

Princeton Ave.

Jefferson Ave.

Randolph 17.

Scheffer

Otto

Davern

Otto E.

Randolph E.

Drake

Smith

Sherman

Eagle

Market Street

St, Peter
No Flow

No Flow-

No Flow

No Flow

No Flow

No Flow

No Flow

H. Flow - Clean

Heavy Sewage Flow

No Flow

Trickle - Clean

Constr, - No Access

No Flow

No Flow

H. Flow - Sewage

No Flow

Lt. Flow - Clean
Outlet LOGation

Minnesota

Cedar

Robert

Eaton

Jackson

Sibley

Broadway

Moses

Custer

Arthur

Robie

State

llinne tonka

Trout Brook at
  Uth St.

Trout Brook at River

Urban

Belt Line
Discharge Condition

No Flow

Lt. Flow - Sewage

No Flow

No Flov;

No Flow

Ko Flow

Lt. Flow Sewage

No Flow

No Flow

Lt. Sewage Flow

Heavy Sevage Flow

Barge Blocking Vierr

No Flow

Lt. Flow - Clean


No Flow

No Flow

No Flow
                             Inspected by:  Paul -Carl - Chuck Keister
Rained Previous Evening and a«a.
Copied from Minneapolis-St, Paul Sanitary District Form L-13.

-------
                                                                 836
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-------
                                                       837
                       EXHIBIT XVII
             MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OP HEALTH

          Division of Environmental Sanitation
           Section of Water Pollution Control


    Oil Pollution of Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers
      During the Winter of 1962 and Spring of 1963
                     April 17, 1963


                         GENERAL


           The purpose of this memorandum is to provide
information regarding two substantial oil losses which
occurred during the winter of 1962-63.  The losses involved
considerable quantities of petroleum oil from the Richards
Oil Company near Savage in Scott County and crude soybean
oil from the Honeynead Products Company in Mankato.  The
prolonged presence of large quantities of oil on the
Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers recently has given rise
to a considerable number of complaints concerning the
nuisance created, and has caused an extensive kill of ducks
and some other wildlife.

-------
                                                        838
           Both losses occurred during th« winter months
and were caused by mechanical failure of storage tanks or
pipelines under extremes of low temperatures or temperature
changes.  Neither loss was deliberate, but it is probable
that the losses could have been avoided if adequate con-
finement structures or other suitable facilities had been
provided.
           The following is a general summary of the
activities of this Department which provided the staff for
the Mater Pollution Control Commission in the handling of
this episode.  It does not include a discussion of the
activities supervised by the Department of Conservation or
other agencies.  Analytical data are contained in Appendix 1.

Richards Oil Company, Savage

           The loss of oil reportedly occurred before
December 31* 1962 (possibly on December 8), because of three
thermal contraction breaks in a long pipeline which per-
mitted an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of a low viscosity
cutting oil to flow from a large storage tank into a diked
containment area.  The containment area, however, did not
prevent the oil from reaching the Minnesota River because
of the unfortunate circumstance that open culverts had
been installed through the dikes to drain surface water.

-------
                                                       839
Moat of the oil probably reached the river i««ediat«ly
after the  loss occurred.
           Information concerning the oil spill was first
brought to the attention of this Department on January 14,
1963» by B, R. Jones, Supervisor of Biological Services,
Minnesota  Department of Conservation.  The matter was
investigated by R. D. Miller, Assistant Public Health
Engineer of this Section, on January 22.  Because of a
very recent snowfall, the only evidence of an oil spill
visible at the time was under the overhanging end of a
barge moored at the company dock on the Minnesota River.
The extent of the oil loss and the specific cause were not
revealed by the plant operator at the time, and the investi
gator was  led to believe that the oil spill was of a minor
nature and attributable to faulty unloading operations or
a leaking barge.  Verbal recommendations were made at the
time that the company Investigate thoroughly the cause of
the oil spill and provide safeguards for controlling future
incidents.  These were later confirmed in writing in a
letter dated January 31* in which the company was also
requested to advise this Department promptly of the results
of the investigation and preventive measures proposed.  No
reply was received.
           When the spring thaw in late March revealed the
oil lying on the river ioe and it began to be carried down

-------
                                                       340
the Minnesota River, the Departisent received many
complaints.  A atoond investigation was made on March 14
by 0. R. Koonce, Aaaiatant Public Health Engineer of thla
Section, and the representatives of the company again
repeated substantially the same account of the epiaode aa
given in January.  There was oil vlaible on the ice of the
river at Port Richards at thia time and the company waa told
to take all neceaaary measures to prevent further loaaea.
           A0 the Minnesota River ice disappeared, it became
evident that oil waa continuing to flow from company property
into the river, and a third investigation waa made on March
18 by Mr. Kbonce.  The true volume and circumstances of the
oil spill were revealed at this timej although not much
oil was being carried to the river by surface drainage from
the property.  The company waa again admonished and requested
to watch for oil going to the river and take additional
measures preventing further oil losses in order to minimize
adverse effects on the river.
           The company apparently did nothing about thla
situation and aa the volume of the spring run-off increased,
residual oil entrapped on the property again flowed to the
river.  On March 27, a Joint investigation was made with a
representative of the U. 3. Army Corps of Engineers, and Mr.
M. Richards waa told to take immediate action to prevent
oil from going to the river.  A visit was made on Mar oh 28

-------
                                                       841

and aa yet no work had b««n done toward this end.  Mr.


Koonce then directed Mr. B. Richards to immediately aeal


the culvert which was carrying a great quantity of oil to


th« ditch and this was done.  Later on the same day a dam


and baffle were constructed in the ditch to stop all further


flow of oil into the river,


           On April .1 a conference was held with Mr. Richards


in the office of Lyle H. Smith, Chief of the Section of


Water Pollution Control.  A general outline of remedial


possibilities was presented to Mr. Richards which included


the continued temporary ponding of the water and oily wastes


in the ditch and retention of oil by a baffle, although      i

                                                             !
this meant flooding cf a neighbor's property.  An alternate  j
                                                             !
                                                             i
proposal was made to provide * permanent facility to contain j

                                                             s
and skim the wastes o»> his own property.


           It was requested that a sump be constructed to


akim the Impounded oil, which had not yet been done, and


permission was granted on a temporary basis to use emulsi-


fiers on the oil that probably could not be held and would,


therefore, discharge to the river.  This action was con-


curred in by the U. S. Corps of Engineers.  It was felt


that the widespread use of emulslfiers might cause a fish


kill and their Indiscriminate use was discouraged.  Use


of emulsifiers on oil In th« impended area was not recom-


mended because this would result in more oil being carried

-------
                                                        842  S



to the river.                                                :
           Ml*. Richards on April 3 Informed the Department
                                                             i
                                                             i

that Department personnel would In the future be barred from ;
                                                             I


his property.  The matter was referred to the Commission's



legal adviser who discussed It with Mr. Richards' lawyer.



Mrs. Richards later advised the Department that the company
                                                             !


would cooperate and that she was now In charge because Mr.   j



Richards was ill and unable to handle business affairs.







Honeymead Products Company, Mankato







           Dean Hahn, Sanitarian of the Mankato district



office of this Department, notified this Section by telephone



late in the afternoon of January 23 that a tank had ruptured



at the Honeymead plant earlier that day, spilling some 2-3



million gallons of crude soybean oil.  Arrangements were



made Immediately for a field investigation on the next day.   !



           On the morning of January 2^, a phone call from

                                                              i

a newspaper reporter was received to the effect that the



City of Mankato, which was assisting In cleaning the



residential area flooded by the oil, was preparing to dump



truckloads of the spilled oil into the Blue Earth River as



a disposal method.  The city manager was Immediately notified



by phone that this method of dispetal was unsatisfactory



and should be discontinued at once.  A field investigation by

-------
                                                        843
R. D. Miller, Assistant Public Health Engineer of the
Section, later on the day of January 24 confirmed that the
practice had been discontinued.  It was estimated that in
total about 1/2 of the spilled oil had reached the Blue
Earth River at a point immediately above the confluence
with the Minnesota River.
           Verbal recommendations were made to the company
and city concerning the removal of the spilled oil from the
river surface and the area and its ultimate disposal.
One of the recommendations, later confirmed by letter, was
for the responsible agents of the company and the city to
review the selection of an ultimate disposal site with
personnel of the Mankato district office.  These recommenda-
tions were confirmed by letters addressed to the company
and the city dated January 25.  The specific causes of the
tank failure have not yet been ascertained.
           The obvious presence of soybean oil on the
Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers and requests by the U. S.
Corps of Engineers prompted a Joint follow-up Investigation
of the Hbneymead oil problem at Mankato on March 28.  At
that time,  it was apparent that moat of the oil which
reached the Blue Earth River had either been salvaged or had
been carried downstream by the spring flush.  Two other
significant sources of soybean oil were found at this time.
One was a dump area near the main plant and the other a

-------
                                                       844



disposal pit In a ravin* about two miles east of Rapldan.




The latter had been utilized for dumping of oil removed



from the spill area.  Oil from both was draining Into the



nearby rivers.




           There had been no attempt by either the company



or the city to review the selection of such dump sites with




personnel of the Mankato office as requested in the letter



of January 25.  The company had originally provided a



small earth dike In the ravine to atop drainage to the



LeSueur River which is tributary to the Blue Earth River,



but the dike had recently been overtopped and washed away



by accumulated snow melt water and oil.




           Verbal recommendations were made at this time



for the company to take Immediate emergency action to stop



the flow of oil from both places to the streams.  It was



suggested that the dump area near the main plant be diked



off immediately and that the oily materials be removed to  a



mere suitable disposal site.  Recommendations for action



at the ravine site included rebuilding of the dam as an



emergency expedient, diversion of surface drainage from the



upper end of the ravine, and ultimate abandonment of the



dump after rodent eradication and covering of the waste



with an adequate layer of earth.



           Subsequently, phone calls to this Department




on March 29 and April 2 from an official of the Honeymead

-------
                                                      845
Indicated that on March 29 action had been taken to atop

the flow of oil from both souroea and that on April 2 work

waa progressing on permanent corrective meaaurea.  The

Honeymead problem areas were again checked on April 5, and

It waa found that the company had carried out all the

recommendations made on March 28 except abandonment of the

pit.


              WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION


           The Commission was Informed of thla situation

In detail at the meeting held in Minneapolis, State Board

of Health Building, on March 28.
           After considerable discussion it became apparent  j
                                                             i
                                                             i
that an emergency order could not be issued under the        j
                                                             i
circumstances.   A motion was passed, however, urging that

all possible legal action be taken by the Commission's legal
counsel to stop further oil discharges and prosecute those

responsible If the facts warrant.  The motion is as follows:
      "that Mr. C. S.  Wilson be instructed to contact

      the County Attorney of Scott County and offer the

      assistance of the Water Pollution Control Commis-

      sion to investigate the facts and prevent further

      pollution of the Minnesota River by Richards Oil

      Company and take such other action as may now bt

-------
                                                       846


     presently appropriate."
                        iTJ/DIES WITH THE UNITED



              STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE                   ;






           The effect _pf t/,e oil on the dl'.;e Eartr.,



Minnesota, and MissJssippl Rivers was ,'nvestigated by a field,1



crew during the third and fourth weeks of April.  Lowell     i
                                                             i

Keup and Kenneth Mackenthun, Biologists, and Carl Hirth,     '•



Chemist, were the members of the U. 3. Public Health Servioe

                                                             (

field crew.  Gerald S. Allen, Associate Public Health        ;



Engineer, represented this Department.                       '.



           The condition of the Blue Earth River and the



Minnesota River in the Mankato area was observed on April    ;
                                                             i
                                                             t

16.  The Honeyraead plant was also visited at this time,  c



number of bottom mud samples were collected about one-



quarter mile below the plant on the Blue Earth River.  There



was evidence of oil having mixed with the sand on the



beach in this area, making a hard crust about three feet



above the water level.  There was no evidence of excessive



amounts of soybean oil in the water.



           The dump area, located near the LeSueur River



about two miles east of Rapidan, was also visited at the



same time.  Considerable oil, apparently soybean oil, was



Impounded in low areas of the river bottom near the LeSueur

-------
                                                       847
River shoreline.  A varnish-like covering was noted on
the willows at the banks of the river, indicating that oil
had escaped into the river during the spring run-off period.
The oil which was present in the low areas could enter the
river during periods of heavy run-off, if further preventive
measures are not taken^
           The condition of the Minnesota River was
observed from the U. S. Highway 169 bridge at LeSueur, the   j
U. S. Highway 169 bridge at Shakopee and State Highway 36
bridge at Bloomington, as well as at Mankato.  Some oil was
evident at most of these places.
           The condition of the Mississippi River in the
area of Red Wing was investigated on April 17.  Some oil
scum was confined in the Red Wing municipal boat harbor at
this time.  The scum had a milky white appearance, with
some brown film on the surface.  Stringy, taffy-like oil
material had accumulated along the shore.  According to
the State Qame Warden, Ronald Shager, the entire harbor
had been covered with a thick scum two or three days earlier.
The wind had apparently blown much of this material back
into the river.  All of the vegetation on the banks of the
river in this area had a dark marking about two feet above
the present water level.  Markings on the vegetation were
also observed on both sides of Upper Lake Pepln.
           A number of white balls, apparently soybean oil,

-------
                                                     848
were observed on or near the iurface in the upper part
of Lake Pepln on April 17.  They generally varied In
diameter fro» one-eighth inch to two inches.  These balls
seemed to be working toward the shore and breaking up,
forming long, white stringy material.  This stringy, tough
material had collected^on the shore at Wacouta.  Pools of
milky material covered with a brown scum were noted in the
low areas at this beach.  A hard, varnish-like crust was
also observed on the beach.  Much of the stringy material
had become tough and coated with a thin, brown film.  Approxl
raately a half dozen dead ducks were observed in about 150
yards of shoreline at the Wacouta beach.  They were covered
with the oily material.  The condition of the shoreline on
the Wisconsin side of the lake, across from Wacouta, was
much the sane as noted on the Minnesota shore.
           A number of bottom samples were collected in the
Red Wing boat harbor and in Upper Lake PCpin near Bay City,
Wisconsin, and Wacouta, Minnesota, on Friday, April 19.
White material, apparently soybean oil, was evident in many
of these samples, particularly in the samples collected near
the end of the Red Wing dock about 100 yards from the shore.
Sone evidence of oil was also noted In the bottom samples
collected at Wacouta and Bay City; however, not in the
quantity observed at Red Wing.
           Public Health Service personnel collected bottom

-------
                                                       849

samples and observed conditions in Sturgeon Lake above

Red Wing on April 22.  Some stringy material had accumulated

on the shoreline; however, little oil was noted in the

bottom samples collected in the lake.

           On April 2k, Mr. Allen and Robert 0. Eckart,

Public Health Engineering Aide of this Department,
                                                             |
investigated shoreline conditions on the Mississippi River   !

below Red Wing to determine the extent of oil accumulation   j
                                                             i
on the beaches.                                              :
                                                             I
           A limited amount of small, stringy material was

observed on the beach at the Boy Scout Camp on Central       j
                                                             j
                                                             i
Point, located about two miles northwest of Lake City.       j
                                                             i
                                                             !
The oil was not mixed with the sand and could be easily      j

removed from the beach.  No oily material was observed

downstream from this point on the Minnesota shore.

           Large quantities of oily material had collected

on the beaches at Bay City, Wisconsin, and mixed with the

sand,  causing a hard crust to develop about three feet

above the water level.   The oil not only collected on the

beach surface, but had also mixed with the sand for some

depth.  The shoreline,  including a municipal beach, will

be unsuitable for use this summer.  White, sticky material

had accumulated along the bottom in the water near shore,

along about 100 yards of beach, making it almost impossible

to land a boat in that area.

-------
                                                      850    I
           A small amount ol wh'te, stringy material was
blown onto the beach at Maiden Rock, as well as at Bay City,
at the time of the Investigation.  It appeared that this
material was the white oil balls that may previously have
settled to the bottom of the lake.
           Oil had also collected and dried on the beaches
at Maiden Rock, Wisconsin; however, not In the quantities
noted at Bay City.  Still less material was observed on
the beaches at Stockholm, Wisconsin.  Oil mixed with debris
was in evidence at Pepin, Wiaconin, and appeared to have
been washed in recently from other areas upstream.  No oily
material was observed below I'«p^n on the Wisconsin shore.
The lock master at Lock and >>rn Mo. 14 in Alma, Wisconsin,,
reported that no wMte, oily •naterial, or excessive oil
slick had been seen in the rjver in that area this spring.
           In the Mississippi River and lake Pepln area,
it appeared that the shoreline near Bay City, Wisconsin,
and Wacouta, Minnesota, received the major quantity of
oily material.  Apparently the 3oe in Lake Pepin confined
the oil to the upper lake in early April.  The effect of
the oil on the shoreline appears to have extended down into
Lake Pepin to at least Maiden Rock, Wisconsin.  It appeared
that more of this material had accumulated on the
Wisconsin than on the Minnesota shore.  So«e of the oily
debris was seen as far down the stream as Pepln, Wisconsin.

-------
                                                         851
Additional debris can be expected to continue to wash down-
stream in the future; however, the nuisance conditions caused
by this latter action are unlikely to be severe.  Results
of the technical studies will be reported upon by the U. S.
Public Health Service.

                          CONCLUSIONS

           1.  Mr. Richards failed to take any action
until the Department virtually engineered the temporary
project for him.  He did not cooperate with the Department
at all in the early stages when preventive measures would
have been more effective, as shown by his failure to give
the investigators the facts, and finally forbade access to
his property or to him except through his lawyer.  The
company failed to retain professional help and delayed
 onstructlon of works until forced to proceed by a direct
order of the U. S. Corps of Engineers.  Plans for permanent
facilities are now being prepared by a consulting engineer.
           2.  The Honeymead Company has been cooperative
with the Department in carrying out their recommendations,
but there was a lack of responsible supervision of measures
taken to dispose of the spilled oil so as to avoid further
pollution.  It appeared evident also that more vigorous and
thorough salvage operations should have been undertaken by

-------
                                                      852
the company to remove all possible oil from the river before
the spring flush.
           3.  The oil losses have had a disastrous effect
upon waterfowl, were highly deleterious to riverfront
recreational facilities, and have resulted in nationwide
publicity.
           4.  The episode glaringly emphasized that the
agency which is primarily responsible for control of
pollution in Minnesota, the Water Pollution Control Commis-
sion, does not have specific authority to require preventive
measures to effectively contain stored non-waste materials,
nor does it have authority to require those responsible for
a loss of this kind to take necessary clean-up or salvage
action unless a public health emergency Is created.

-------
                                                      853
                                         Appendix 1


                MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OP HEALTH


             Division of Environmental Sanitation


              Section of Engineering Laboratories





           LABORATORY .STUDIES OP OIL RECOVERED FROM


                SAVAGE AND MANKATO SPILLS





           Nineteen oil samples have been collected and


characterized in this study.  The results are summarized


in the attached table.


           Initially samples were extracted with chloroform.


The chloroform and aqueous phases were separated and the


chloroform phase filtered through medium porosity paper.


Part of the chloroform solution was treated with activated


carbon, and both parts were placed on a steam bath to


evaporate the chloroform.  Infrared studies were made of


the oil residue.


           This treatment was satisfactory for soybean oil,


but the petroleum oil under Investigation had volatile


aromatic constituents which were mostly removed during


treatment.  The use of Irtran—2 windows makes it possible


to handle wet samples in the Infrared apparatus and the


procedure finally used ir preparing samples was simply that


of drawing off as dry a portion as possible after the

-------
                                                       854    i

sample had been allowed to stand for several hours.  This    i

procedure could be expected to eliminate losses of volatile
                                                             i

constituents in the laboratory, but the samples contain'ng

petroleum oil were still low in aromatlcs.  Apparently


these materials tend to disappear rapidly, possibly by       j


evaporation, from the ^spilled material.                      i
                                                             i

           Oil samples were mechanically removed from the    '
                                                             I
ducks collected in this study and analyzed directly without  i
                                                             i
treatment.                                                   j


           At times, the oil which normally floated on the   i
                                                             i
surface of the river tended to sink.  One such sample of oil ;
                                                             i
from the bottom of Lake Pepin  (number 6283) was examined     !


and found to be soybean oil.  in boiling water, the ell      j


again started to float on the surface, releasing a consider-i
                                                             i
                                                             i
able quantity of sand and dirt as well as water-soaked twigs i

and leaves.  The tendency to sink apparently resulted from   j

the entrapment of this heavy material in the oily mass.

           The use of a finely divided material such as


dlatomaceous earth, which would not readily separate from


the oil, had been suggested as a means of causing the oil


to sink to the bottom and remain there until decomposed.

Laboratory experiments indicated that for pure soybean oil

one pound of diatoraaceous earth would be required for every


four pounds of oil.  Less diatomaceous earth would probably


be needed In actual use since the oil would already have

-------
                                                         855
entrapped some fine clay, etc.  The stability of the

mixture with time is still being tested.

           A BOD  (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) study
                                                             i
was made of material collected from the beach at Wacouta,    ;

Minnesota, in Upper Lake Pepin on April 17.  The sample      i

was prepared for the BOD test by macerating 6.4 grams of     i
                                                             i
the solid material with 245 ml (milliliters) of water in     j

a Waring blender.  The resulting mixture was then diluted    i
                                                             i
with BOD dilution water in BOD bottles, seeded with river    j
                                                             I
water, and incubated for 5 days at 20° c.                    i

           Dilutions which provided useful oxygen depletion  j
                                                             j
data, and the oxygen measurements obtained, were as follows: j
Sample Concentration

in Laboratory Bottle
                                                             i
                       Oxygen Depletion  mg of Oxygen consumed
                            (mg/1)
                                          per mg of sample
52
26

10.4
5.2
4.3
2.7

1.4
1.0
0.08
0.10
i
0.13
0.19
           The increase in the BOD with greater dilution

appears to be attributable to the low solubility of the

material.  The results Indicate a relatively low BOD for

organic material.  It would not under conditions in the

-------
                                                            i
                                                            i



                                                        856 '

                                                            i

stream or lake exert an oxygen demand as great aa obtained  .

                                                            i


In the laboratory, alnoe the sample was thoroughly macerated




and mixed before the analysis.  The material normally occurs




in the river in large pieces and would not expose much




surface area to bacterial activity.




           It appears _that oily material typical of the




sample analyzed would not have sufficient oxygen demand to




significantly affect the oxygen resources of the river.

-------
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-------
                                                         859

                                          Appendix 2


                MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OP HEALTH

             Division of Environmental Sanitation




         Summary of Section of Water Pollution Control


          Field Activities Regarding Oil Pollution of


               Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers


                      January - May, 1963




January 14:  Water Pollution Control informed by phone by    i


           B. R. Jones of Department of Conservation of      j

                                                             |
           oil pollution by Richards Oil Company near Savage.!
                                                             i
                                                             i
January 17:  Department of Conservation mailed complaints    ;
                                                             i
           of oil pollution by Richards Oil Company to the   ]
                                                             i

           Minnesota Department of Health.                   j
                                                             I
                                                             i
January 22:  R. D. Miller of the Minnesota Department of


           Health investigated Richards oil spill and found


           evidence of oil on ice near the dock area.


           Verbal recommendations were made.


January 23.  D. Hahn of the Mankato District office called


           and stated 2-3 million gallons of soybean oil


           escaped from ruptured tank of Honeymead Products


           Company at Mankato.


January 24;  R. D. Miller investigated oil spill of Honeynead


           at Mankato and made recommendations.   Honeymead

-------
                                                       860
           and city were cleaning oil from area.
January 25:  R. D. Miller wrote Hon«ym«ad and city about
           resulta of investigation of oil spill, no
           reply received.  Recommended disposal  measures
           be taken under supervision of District office.
January 31:  R. D. Miller wrote letter to Richards Oil
           Company concerning the oil spill and Indicated
           safeguards to take.  No reply.
March 11:  Department of Conservation phoned about oil
           on Minnesota River at Richards Oil Company at
           Savage.
March 14:  0. R. Koonce investigated, found oil on ice at
           Port Richards area.
March 15:  0. R. Koonce talked to Mr. Richards concerning
           the spill and was led to believe that  spill re-
           sulted from unloading of a barge.  Recommended
           certain things to assure higher degree of care in
           unloading and finding pipeline leaks.
March 18:  Department of Conservation telephoned  again about
           Richards oil pollution.  G. R. Koonce  visited
           again and discussed circumstances of the spill
           with company.
March 25:  Complaint of oil on the Mississippi River at
           Newport.  Q. R. Koonce investigated and found
           Mississippi River from St. Paul to Newport covered

-------
                                                       861
           with oil.  Letter to Mr. Richards concerning
           oil spill.  Received numerous complaints from
           individuals concerning the oil.
March 27:  G. R. Koonce and C. A. Johannes of this Depart-
           ment and Messrs. Poster and Ryder from U. S.
           Corps of Engineers investigated oil spill at
           Richards.  Requested immediate construction of
           retention pond with baffle to skim oil from flot-
           going to river.  Truck and shovel moved to site
           at river.
March 28:  G. R. Koonce visited again, had not yet stopped
           oil flow into the Minnesota River.  Mr. M.
           Richards said they would start today.   Advised
           sealing of culverts to ditch.
              G. R. Koonce collected samples of oil on
           the Mississippi River at Hastings.  Petroleum
           oil went down first and soybean oil began to
           flow past the Hastings Dam No. 3 on March 27.
              R. D. Miller and G. R. Koonce visited
           Honeymead and found that soybean oil from broken
           oil barrels at a storage place on their plant
           site in Mamcato was going into the Blue Earth
           River.   Oil from the dump area about two miles
           east of Rapldan was flowing into the LeSueur
           River which is a tributary of the Blue Earth
     !

River1

-------
                                                       862


           and the Minnesota River.


March 29:  George Walker of Honeymead called to inform us


           that they had diked off and were currently


           cleaning up the dump in the plant area and were


           reconstructing the dam with sandbags at the dump


           area in the ravine about two miles east of


           Rapidan.                                          ,
                                                             j

               G. R. Koonce, and R. R. Jones of the          i
                                                             i

           Department of Conservation, went to Ric'r-v-ds.


           The dam and baffles were installed and v.-^re       j
                                                             i

           holding brok the oil.  There was no oil or water  I

                                                             i
           going ir.-to the- river.                             |
                                                             s

March 31:  Richards Oil Company burned oil from their  land.  i


April 1:  George Walker of Horeymead celled to inform  s     ;
                                                             n
                                                             !
           that good progress was being made in controlling  ;
                                                             i
                                                             t
           oil seepage.  He stated that they had stopped the I

                                                             i
           flow of oil to the river on last Friday and were  ;

                                                             i
           building a larger dam at the foot of the ravine   '

                                                             i
           near Rapidan with heavy equipment.  He also       i

                                                             <
           reported that drainage from field tiles which     !

                                                             !
           enters the head of the ravine was being tiled     j


           around the dump area.                             j
                                                             !
               L. H. Smith, C. A. Johannes, and G. R. Koonne. !
                                                             t

           Mr. Myron Richards visited office and was told    I


           that drainage ditch should be cleaned and tMt    J

-------
                                                       863

           he should dike and hold the water on hie own


           property.  He was advised to install a sump to


           catch oil from the baffle.


April 1:  0. R. Kbonce.  Water going over the dam at
                                                             !

           Richards.  Some oil near dam on river side, was   i


           advised to skim oil off before it got to river.   j
                                                             !
               G. R. Koonce, and B. R. Jones of the Depart-  I
                                                             i

           ment of Conservation, checked the Mississippi     \
                                                             i
           River from Pine Bend to the outlet of Spring Lake.


           Pound dead fish and ducks and oil on the river.


April 2:  G. R. Koonce.  Gave permission to Richards Oil     i
                                                             !

           Company to use emulslflers on oil which is in     j
                                                             i

           danger of going into the river.                   ]
                                                             i

April 3:  G. R. Koonce.  Mr. Myron Richards called and said  !
                                                             i
                                                             *
           the Department of Health waa no longer welcome    !


           on his property, was very emotional and disturbed


           about the publicity he received.  He said that


           further contacts should be made through his


           lawyer.


               Cheater Wilson, Special Assistant Attorney


           General, called Richards' attorney and called


           attention to the right of entry provided Depart-


           ment personnel in the Water Pollution Control Act.


April 4:  G. R. Koonce and U. S. Public Health Service


           officials checked Minnesota and Mississippi

-------
                                                       864   ''

                                                             3


           Rivare and found oil slick on Mississippi         :




           River at Newport and soybean oil on the Minnesota !
                                                             3



           River in BJoomlngton at the Cedar Avenue Bridge.




           At Bay City, Wisconsin, and Hastings, Minnesota,




           there was putty-like oil on the bottom oi the



           r3ver.




April 5?  Gf. R. Koonce was informed oy Mrs. Richards *•>?.*-.




           she is now conducting the business of the jcrnp^ry




           as Mr. Richards is ill, and the company w. ] T;




           comply with the Department's recommendations.




April 5:  G. R. Koonce visited Richards and suggested r,hat




           they clean the ditch and dike the water or  their




           own property and ooiissruct a sump,  'They Iiad



           used the emulsifier o;'' ';he oil between the raffle



           and the dike.  No oil on the river.




               G. H. Koonce visited Honeymead.  They had




           dammed the barrel dump area in the back of their




           plant and constructed two dams In the ravine




           at their dump area two miles east of Rapidan.




           No oil on the Blue Earth or Minnesota Rivers.




April 9:  G. R. Koonce.  B. RJchards called and is go'ng




           to clean ditch starting next Thursday.




April 12:  Good Friday.  Conference with officials of U. S.




           Public Health Service re Governor Rolvaag's




           request for federal assistance and their

-------
                                                       865
           preliminary investigation.  G. R. Kbonce also

           accompanied Hayse Black of Public Health Service

           on visit to Richards and Honeymead.

April 16:  public Health Service crew arrived and began

           river survey near Mankato.  Accompanied by G. S.

           Allen of this Section.  Governor Rolvaag

           announced end of emergency and released National

           Guard.                                            I
                                                             i
April 17:  Public Health Service crew and G. S. Allen aur-   1
                                                             I
           veying Mississippi River.                         j

April 20:  Lyle H. Smith, Chief, Section of Water Pollution  j
                                                             i
           Control, and George Koonce visited Richards       1

           and found an oil slick goi:ng intc the r.l ; ••
                                                             i
                                                             i
           Called Mr. Richards and Douglas Barr, his con-

           sulting engineer.

May 2:  G. R. Koonce visited Richards.  Another earthen

           dike had been constructed, but some oil was still

           going to the river.  Also visited Honeymead and

           found oil on river but no oil going to LeSueur

           River from diked area.

May 13:  G. R. Koonce visited Richards.  Because of heavy

           rains, large oil slick was going into the river.

           Made recommendations for improvements.  Preliminary

           plans for waste disposal facilities reviewed with

           Douglas Barr.

-------
                                                       866
May 1^1:  0. R. Kbonce visited Richards.  Pound oil slick

           going into river.
Notes:  A considerable number of other activities including  !
                                                             ]
           conferences with other agencies concerned, tele-  '

           phoning of information in response to inquiries,  i
                                                             i
                                                             !
           and gathering of evidence such as sampling of     !
                                                             i
           oil and water for laboratory analysis, have also  i

           been conducted and are continuing.                i

-------
                                               867 - 873
Photographic material presented at the




proceedings has been omitted.  Copies




are on file with the Minnesota Department




of Health.

-------

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                                                                        68.-
                                                                              974
                        WATER QUALITY SAMPLING PROGRAM
                                 1958 and 1959

                              RADIOACTIVITY DATA
Station and Date
Total Gross
   Beta
Dissolved Gross
Alpha	Beta
Suspended Gross
Alpha      Beta
Be -5.3, New Ulm»
  Jan. ti, 195«
  Feb. 17, 1958
  April 16, 1958
                                 Gottonwood River
   8.U
   8.7
                  39
            27
Be-63, __Winnebago*
  Jan. 9, 195B
  Jan. 29, 1958
  April 15, 1958
Be-8it, Blue Earth*
  Jan. 9, 195»
  Jan. 29,.1958
  April 15, 1958
                              -Blue Earth River
   38
   U.8
   IFB
                             35
                             17
                               IFB-
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Ca-13.U, Welch*
  Jan. 30, 1958            12
  April 29, 1958
Ca-37.6, Northfield*
  Jan. 29, 195«31
  April 30, 1958
                             25


                             3U
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                                IFB'
   * Specific station location details given in preceding section
  ** IFB - Indistinguishable from background

-------
                                                                           975
                      WATER QUALITY SAMPLING PROGRAM
                               1958 and 1959

                            RADIOACTIVITY DATA
Station and Date

Mi -16. 8, Shakopee*
Jan. b1, 195S
Feb. 17, 1958
April 15, 1958
June 2, 1958
June 2k, 1958
July 28, 1958
Aug. 11, 1958
Sept, 23, 1958
Oct. 29, 1958
Dec. 9, 1958
Feb. 16, 1959
May 18, 1959
June 18, 1959
Mi-70, Henderson*
Jan. «, 1958
Feb. 17, 1958
April 15, 1958
June 2, 1958
Mi -97, St. Peter*
Jan. a, 1958
Feb. 17, 1958
April 15, 1958
June 2, 1958
Mi -12 9, Court land*
Jan. tj, 1950
Feb 17, 1958
April 16, 1958
June 2, 1958
Nov. 19, 1959
Mi-298, Ortonville*
May 19, 1958
July 8, 1958
Aug. U, 1958
Sept. 9, 1958
Oct. 1U, 1958
Nov. 1U, 1958
Jan. 6, 1959
Total Gross
Beta
L — "Minnesota

23
81












32
63



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51



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6.6
12
8.5
2.9
5.5

8.5
Gross
Beta




60
U5
22
89
77
ko
U8
9.0
13
60
57



58
19



79
h2



59
51
15

6k
18
k2
kB
12
U8
Hi
Suspended
Alpha





2.3
IFB**
0.35
0.73
2.0
1.1*

0.53
1.6





6.6




0.85




0.9
O.U

2.3
5.3
0.81
1.3
IFB

3.3
Gross
Beta




13
2k
IFB
hi
35
IFB-
25
17
IFB
IFB
IFB



13
91



7.0
U8



IFB-
57
10

52
26
IFE
17
6U
32
IFB'
 * Specific station location details given in preceding section
** IFB - Indistinguishable from background

-------
                                                                         72..   976
                        WATER QUALITY SAMPLING PROGRAM
                                 1958 and 1959

                              RADIOACTIVITY DATA


                        Total Gross      Dissolved Gross      Suspended Gross
Station and Date	Beta	Alpha	Beta	Alpha	Beta

                            ^•^"Mississippi River

LM-38, Ha sting s»
  May 15, 1958                            9          20        1.5      10
  June 26, 1958                           3.5        53        1.1      IFB**
  July 31, 1958                           3.8        62        2.0      11
  Sept. 22, 1958                          1.9        kO        IFB      16
  Oct. 23, 1958                           0.8       ,63        1.6      31
  Nov. 20, 1958                                      6k                 IFB-
  Feb. 26, 1959                           3.3        8.3       1.3      9
  Mar. 17, 1959                           IFB        6.0       0,25     IFB
  June 11, 1959                                      29                 2k
  July 21, 1959                                      18                 13
LM-106, La Crosse Wise.*
  May 13, 1958                            2.6        IFB-       1.1      IFB-1
  June 19, 1958                           1.6        37        2.2      16
  July 21, 1958                           1.5        5k        0.96     19
  Aug. 27, 1958                           0.14i       50        IFB      8.7
  Oct. 9, 1958                            IFB        38        0.75     120
  Nov. 19, 1958                                      6k                 11
  Feb. 10, 1959                           1.U        12        0.36     5.5
  April Hi, 1959                          IFB'        25        0.86     20
  Aug. k, 1959                                       kk                 28
   * Specific station location details given in preceding section
  ** IFB - Indistinguishable from background

-------
                                                                           73-
                                                                              977
                        WATER QUALITY SAMPLING PROGRAM
                                 1958 and 1959

                              RADIOACTIVITY DATA
Station and Date
Total Gross
   Beta
Dissolved Gross
Alpha	Beta
Suspended Gross
Alpha	Beta
                               Mississippi River
Ul'i-lii, Anoka*
  Jan. lli, 1958
  Jan.. 22, 1958
  Jan. 28, 1958
  Feb. 13, 1958
  March 31, 1958
  April 23, 1958
  May 9, 1958
  May 15, 1958
  May 21, 1958
  May 26, 1958
  June 5, 1958
  June 17, 1958
  June 26, 1958
  July 10, 1958
  July 17, 1958
  July 31, 1958
  Aug. 6, 1958
  Sept. k, 1958
  Sept. 22, 1958
  Oct. 7, 1958
  Oct. 16, 1958
  Oct. 22, 1958
  Nov. 5, 1958
  Nov. 20, 1958
  Dec. 2, 1958
  Jan. 8, 1959
  Feb. 26, 1959
  March 12, 1959
  April 28, 1959
  May 28, 1959
  June 8, 1959
  July 21, 1959
  Oct. 29, 1959
    27
    IFB--
    IFB-:
    11

3.6

IFB-
1.1
o.U
1.6
2.2
1.8
12
IFB '
3.6
0.8U
IFB
IFB
3.1
2.7
3.9


IFB-
0.61
1.6
2.0



O.U2
19
21
23
IFB
19
30
39
29
92
2UO
i|2
81
52
Mi
7.U
6k
27
110
92
ko
70
13
23
19
25
31
28
9.3

0.26

2.2
0.32
0.?8
IFB-:
iuo
IFB
IFB
3.2
O.U6
IFB
0.82
O.U7
2.9
2.1
1.1


0.78
O.ii
0.18
O.kh
t


O.U3
IFB^
IFB
7.5
7.0
39
U7
37
0.2
U3
15
18
28
7.5
28
IFB-
18
IFB-
70
17
IFB'.
11
20
9.9
IFB
48
3U
U.o
IFB-
   * Specific station location details given in preceding section
  ** IFB - Indistinguishable from background

-------
                                                                      7V-
                                                                           978
                     WATER QUALITY SAMPLING PROGRAM
                              1958 and 1959

                           RADIOACTIVITY DATA
Total Gross
Station and Date Beta
Ł^•"1113 siss
UH-26.7, Elk River*
Jan. 1U, 1958 31
Jan 22, 1958 IFB**
Jan. 28, 1958 18
Feb. 13, 1958 23
April 1, 1958 28
April 22, 1958
May 9, 1958
May 15, 1958
May 21, 1958
May 26, 1958
June 5, 1958
June 17, 1958
June 26, 1958
July 10, 1958
July 17, 1958
July 31, 1958
August 6, 1958
Sept. h, 1958
Sept. - 2 2', 1958
Oct. 7, 1958
Oct. 16, 1958
Oct. 22, 1958
Nov. 5, 1958
Nov. 20, 1958
Dec. 2, 1958
Jan. 8, 1959
Feb. 26, 1959
March 12, 1959
April 28, 1959
May 28, 1959
June 8, 1959
July 21, 1959
Oct. 29, 1959
UM-68, Sauk Rapids*
Jan. 23, 195 H 31
April 1, 1958 25
April 22, 1958
Dissolved
Alpha
ipjli River






1.8
0.75

IFB
IFB
1.5
1.6
l.U
2.5
12
18
1.7
IFB
2.6
IFB'
1.3
2.5
IFB


IFB
2.2
0.92
1.6



0.95



3.1
Gross
Beta







17
20
33
28
38
28
k9
29
9k
90
72
100
kl
61
2k
37
25
lUo
69
M-7
3k
IFB
32
21
5U
36
8.U
10



1U
Suspended
Alpha








0.72

3.9
IFB-
1.7
IFB-
IFB
0.97
IFB-
1,2
IFB-'
0.33
1.3
0.78
1.3
U.8
1.7

0.33
IFE
0.27
IFB-'
O.U3



IFB



IFB
Gross
Beta








18
IFB
18
19
22
29
IFB
31
iili
27
29
33
2i;
IFB-
11
7.7
68
IFB-
31
IFB
12
IFB*-
U2
25
17
11
7.2



17
 * Specific station location details given in preceding section
** IFB - Indistinguishable from background

-------
                        WATER QUALITY SAMPLING PROGRAM
                                 1958 and 1959

                              RADIOACTIVITY DATA
                                                                         77..
Station and Date
Total Gross
   Beta
Dissolved Gross
Alpha	Beta
Suspended Gross
Alpha	Beta
                                  Root River
Ro o -2.5, La Ore so ante*
  June 19, 1950
  July 21, 1958
  Aug. 27, 1958
  Oct. 9, 1958
  Nov. 9, 1958
  Feb. 10, 1959
  April Hi, 1959
  Aug. U, 1959
                  IFB**
                  8.2
                  IFB
                  1.6

                  1.3
                  1.1
lu
U6
23
33
28
19
11
150
IFB
1,8
IFB
1.3

1.1
0.78

21
20
12
19
IFB-
20
IFB
97
                                   Rum River
Ru-3U, Isanti*
  Jan. 22, 1958
  April 2, 1958
  April 23, 1958
Ru-102, Pease*
  Jan. 22, 1958
  April 2, 1958
  April 23, 1958
  June 10, 1958
Ru-152, Vineland-fr
  May 7, 1958
  June 10, 1958
  July Hi, 1958
  Aug. 18, 1958
  Sept. 29, 1958
  Nov, 5, 1958
  Dec. 2, 1958
  June 1, 1959
    12
    17
    23
    61
                  3.1
                  0.95

                  O.U
                  IFB
                  1U
                  o.U

                  3.6
            23
            29
            50

            9.2
            23
            75
            hi
            80
            190
            100
            37
 2.8
 0.88

 IFB
 1.3
 IFB
 0.32
 2.8
 1.1
 IFB-
28
17
23

IFE
20
59
UU
IFB'
96
21
13
   * Specific station location details given in preceding section
  *# IFB - Indistinguishable from background

-------
                                                                                 980
                        WATER QUALITY SAMPLING  PROGRAM
                                 1958 and 1959

                              RADIOACTIVITY DATA
                        Total Gross      Dissolved  Gross       Suspended Gross
Station and Date           Beta          Alpha _ Beta _ Alpha _ Beta

                                          River
SC-0, Prescott Wise.*
  Jan. 21, 1?59             22
  March 21, 1958            30
  April 30, 1958                         0.38        IFB**     IFB       IFB
  May 15, 1958                                       7.7                 32
  June 26, 1958                          IFB-'        52         IFB-.       8.6
  July 31, 1958                          1.2         5U         1.1       IFB.
  Sept. 22, 1958                         IFB'        16         0.3U      IFB-.
  Oct. 23, 1958                          IFB         29         2.1       18
  Nov. 20. 1958                                      33                   IFB*
  Feb. 26; 195?                          1.6         23         O.U7      19
  March 17, 1959                         0.8         12         0.2U      IFB
  May 5, 1959                            O.U         17         O.JO      23
  June 11, 1959                                      19      -             IFB-
  July 21, 1959                                      16                   6,0
SC-22 ,6, Stillwater*
  March 27, 1560            35
SC-U5, Osceola*
  April 9, 1959                          0.36        2.1       IFB       IFB
50-111, Danbury-*
  Jan.21, 1958              8.7
  March 26, 1958            23
  May 5, 1958                            0.93        11         0.63      16
  June 12, 1958                          IFB         28         IFB       IFB
  July 16, 1958                          6.3         85         IFB       25
  Oct. 1, 1958                           2.0         17         1.1       9.7
  Dec. 3, 1958                                       7.0       0.65      23
  Feb. 25, 1959                          IFB         23         O.U6      18
  April 9, 1959                          l.U         10         0,19      Hi
  June 3, 1959                                       23                   IFE
   * Specific station location  details  given in preceding section
  ** IFB - Indistinguishable  from background
                       U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
                       Region V, Library
                       230  South Dearborn Street   >-'""
                       Chicago,  Illinois  60604        .    ,,?
                                                                           GPO 878-467

-------
-------
                                                                                                                            775
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