SECOND SESSION

                    OF THE



              CONFERENCE
              /


TO CONSIDER THE ESTABLISHMENT OF WATER QUALITY

STANDARDS FOR THE MISSOURI RIVER BASIN INTERSTATE

           WATERS  -  STATE OF IOWA
                    held in


             Council Bluffs, Iowa

              April 15 - 16, 1969
           TRANSCRIPT OF PROCEEDINGS

-------
               CC_NTENTS_


                                             PAGE;

Murray Stein                                    5

Carl V. Blomgren                               15
                                          and 402

Edwin E. Geldreich                            269

Gen. C. Craig Cannon                          288

T. C. Ferris                                  295

Dr. Graham Walton                             303

Dr. Aaron A. Rosen                            307

Robert W. Sharp                               3l6

Kenneth R. Roberts                            348

Dr. Clarence M. Tarzwell                      372

Bob A. Hegg                                   391

H. 0. Hartung                                 399

Robert S. Burd                                412

Edward Lightfoot                              413

William W. Amundson                           442

Mrs. George G. Koerber                        444

Carl R. Noren                                 450

Robert C. Russell                             451

D. F. Beam                                    456

-------
                                                       B
                    CO_NTENTS_




                      (CONTINUED)






                                                  PAGE:




     Dr. Robert L. Morris                          464




     Dr. Roger . Bachmann                         499




     R. J. Schliekelman                            504




     Dr. Jack H. Gakstatter                        566




     Harry M. Harrison                             573




     Robert Buckmaster                             5&5






REBUTTAL




     Carl V. Blomgren                              609




     Robert S. Burd                                6l4




     Dr. Aaron A. Rosen                            6l8




     Edwin E. Geldreich                            622




     R. J. Schliekelman                            625




     Melville . Gray                              627




     John M. Rademacher                            628




     Frank L. Carlson                              630

-------
               The Second Session Conference to Consider

the Establishment of Water Quality Standards for Inter-

state Waters Subject to the Jurisdiction of the State of

Iowa convened at 9:30 o'clock a.m. on April 15, 1969., at

the Chieftain Hotel, Council Bluffs, Iowa.



PRESIDING:

     Mr. Murray Stein
     Assistant Commissioner for Enforcement
     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     Department of the Interior
     Washington, D.  C.


PARTICIPANTS:

     William W. Amundson
     City Engineer
     City of Sioux City
     Sioux City, Iowa

     Dr. Roger W.  Bachmarm
     Rural Route #3
     Ames, Iowa

     D.  F. Beam
     Vice Chairman,  Nebraska Committee
     for Pure Air and Water, Inc.
     Omaha,  Nebraska

     Carl V. Blomgren
     Director of Office Technical  Support
     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     Kansas  City,  Missouri

     Robert  Buckmaster
     Chairman,  Iowa  Water Pollution
     Control Commission
     Des Moines, Iowa

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                                                       3
PARTICIPANTS (CONTINUED):

     Robert S.  Burd
     Deputy Assistant Commissioner for Operations
     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     Washington, D. C.

     Brig. General C. Craig Cannon
     Missouri River Division Engineer
     Corps of Engineers
     Omaha, Nebraska

     Prank L. Carlson
     Engineer,  Genesee County,  Michigan
     Drain Commission Pollution Control
     Flint, Michigan

     T.  C. Ferris
     Water Hygiene Representative, Environmental
     Control Division, Department of Health,
     Education,  and Welfare, Region IV
     Kansas City, Missouri

     Dr.  Jack H. Gakstatter
     State Hygienic Laboratory  - Des Moines
     Des  Moines, Iowa

     Edwin E. Geldreich
     Reserach Microbiologist
     Bureau of  Water Hygiene
     U.  S. Public Health Service
     Cincinnati, Ohio

     Melville W. Gray
     Assistant  Director of Environmental
     Health Services,  Kansas State
     Department  of Health
     Topeka,  Kansas

     Harry M. Harrison
     Iowa State  Conservation Commission
     Des  Moines, Iowa

     H.  0. Hartung
     President,  Missouri River  Public
     Water Supplies Association
     University  City,  Missouri

-------
PARTICIPANTS (CONTINUED)

     Bob A. Hegg
     Sanitary Engineer, Missouri Basin Region
     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     Kansas City, Missouri

     Mrs. George G. Koerber
     Director and State Chairman for Water
     Resources, League of Women Voters of Iowa
     Ames, Iowa

     Edward Lightfoot
     Missouri Water Pollution Board
     Jefferson City, Missouri

     Dr. Robert L. Morris
     Associate Director, Iowa State
     Hygienic Laboratory - Ames
     Ames, Iowa

     Carl R. Noren
     Director,  Missouri Department
     of Conservation
     Jefferson City, Missouri

     John M. Rademacher
     Regional Director, Missouri Basin Region
     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     Kansas City, Missouri

     Kenneth R. Roberts
     Fishery Biologist, Bureau of Commercial
     Fisheries, U. S. Department of the Interior
     Ann Arbor, Michigan

     Dr. Aaron A. Rosen
     Chief, Waste Identification and Analysis
     Activities,  Advanced Waste Treatment Research
     Laboratory,  Federal Water Pollution Control
     Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio

     Robert C.  Russell
     Executive  Secretary,  Iowa Division
     Izaak Walton League of America
     Iowa City, Iowa

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                                                      4-A
PARTICIPANTS (CONTINUED):

     R. J. Schliekelman
     Technical Secretary, Iowa Water
     Pollution Control Commission
     Des Moines, Iowa

     Robert W. Sharp
     Regional Supervisor, Division of Fishery
     Services, Bureau of Sport Fisheries &
     Wildlife, Minneapolis, Minnesota

     Dr. Clarence M. Tarzwell
     Director, National Marine Water Quality
     Laboratory, Federal Water Pollution Control
     Administration, West Kingston, Rhode Island

     Dr. Graham Walton
     Chief, Technical Services, Bureau of
     Water Hygiene, U.S. Public Health Service
     Cincinnati, Ohio
ATTENDEES:

     Larry E. Albaugh
     Spencer Packing Company
     Spencer, Iowa

     Lee Albaugh
     Water Pollution Commission
     Charles City, Iowa

     L. E.  Allen
     Izaak Walton League of America
     Great Trails Chapter
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

     Jean Amos
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Kansas City, Missouri

     Richard D.  Anderson
     Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
     Minneapolis, Minnesota

-------
ATTENDEES (CONTINUED):

     Richard K. Ballentine
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Cincinnati, Ohio

     W. L. Banks
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Kansas City, Missouri

     Wilber A. Blain
     Needham Packing Company
     Sioux City, Iowa

     Harvey L. Brake
     G-lenwood, Iowa

     Dan Brindley
     Iowa Health Department
     Des Moines, Iowa

     Ivan L. Burmeister
     U. S. Geological Survey
     Iowa City, Iowa

     William A. Carle
     Iowa Public Service Company
     Sioux City, Iowa

     J. A. Chittenden
     Iowa Beef Packers, Inc.
     Dakota City, Nebraska

     Carl Chloupek
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Lincoln, Nebraska

     Tom Corothers
     City of Sioux City Health Department
     Sioux City, Iowa

     Cal Cox
     Soil Conservation Service
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

-------
                                                      4-C
ATTENDEES (CONTINUED):

     Thomas 0. Dahl
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Kansas City,, Missouri

     James Diggins
     Harrison County
     Lagon, Iowa

     Charles T. Evitts
     Sioux City, Iowa

     Ralph Fagan
     City of Council Bluffs
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

     T. A. Filipi
     Nebraska Water Pollution Control
     Lincoln, Nebraska

     Charles A. Geisler
     City of Omaha
     Omaha, Nebraska

     Eugene Gilson
     Mills County Conservation Board
     Glenwood, Iowa

     Charles H. Hajinian
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Adminstration
     Kansas City, Missouri

     Frank E. Hall
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Chicago, Illinois

     Paul Harley
     Interior Department
     Omaha, Nebraska

     M. Don Harmon
     City Manager
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

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ATTENDEES (CONTINUED):

     John Harrison
     State of Nebraska
     Omaha, Nebraska

     Mrs. Leslie Hendrickson
     Sioux Ikettes, Izaak Walton League
     Sioux City, Iowa

     G. I. Hoilien
     Conservation Commission
     Waukon, Iowa

     Robert C. Horn
     Terra Chemicals Int., Inc.
     Sioux City, Iowa

     P. J. Houser
     Iowa State Health Department
     Des  Moines, Iowa

     Calvin Hultman
     Congressman Scherle's Office
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

     Randall S. Jessee
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Kansas City, Missouri

     Richard L. Johnson
     Iowa Conservation Commission
     Missouri Valley, Iowa

     John J. Kaplan
     Blue Star Foods

     Duane E. King
     State Conservation  Commission
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

     Richard Knowles
     Denison Bulletin"
     Denison, Iowa

-------
ATTENDEES (CONTINUED):

     Anthony L. Kucera
     Mississippi Vallen Association
     Omaha,  Nebraska

     Paul Leach
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Kansas  City, Missouri

     Kenneth M. Mackenthun
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Cincinnati, Ohio

     Kenneth A. Mackichan
     U. S. Geological Survey
     Lincoln,,  Nebraska

     Daniel  G.  Manning
     Corps of  Engineers
     Omaha,  Nebraska

     Robert  L.  Markey
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Kansas  City, Missouri

     Mrs. Mildred B. May
     League  of  Women Voters
     Omaha,  Nebraska

     Robert  A.  Maxey
     Plant Pesticides Control,  ARS
     Omaha,  Nebraska

     William McLaughlin
     Iowa Development Commission
     Des Moines, Iowa

     Othie R.  McMurry
     Iowa Water Pollution Commission
     Des Moines, Iowa

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                                                      4-F
ATTENDEES (CONTINUED):

     Art Meger
     Hensingion, Durham, Richardson
     Omaha,  Nebraska

     Donald M. Meisner
     SimpGO
     Sioux City, Iowa

     Dale J. Mills
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

     Dennis Mishek
     Iowa Department of Health
     Des Moines, Iowa

     R. B. Moorman
     Iowa Wildlife Federation
     Ames, Iowa

     Dr. D.  I. Mount
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Duluth, Minnesota

     Ambrose Muenchratt
     Iowa Water Pollution
     Control Commission
     Earling, Iowa

     Bill Nelson
     Kirkham Michael & Associates
     Omaha,  Nebraska

     William R. Nicholas
     Tennessee Valley Authority
     Chattanooga,Tennessee

     R. G. Paulette
     Stanley Consultants
     Muscatine, Iowa

     H. W. Poston
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Chicago, Illinois

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                                                       4-G
ATTENDEES (CONTINUED):

     Thomas J. Powers
     Director, Water Quality Standards
     Office of Regulatory Programs
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Cincinnati., Ohio

     M. E. Reul
     Council Bluffs City Water Works
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

     John Samson
     Omaha, Nebraska

     Paul Schliesser
     Omaha Chamber of Commerce
     Omaha, Nebraska

     Monte G. Scholten
     Spencer Packing Company
     Spencer, Iowa

     A. D. Sidio
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Cincinnati, Ohio

     Walter Sorensen
     County Supervisor
     Little Sioux, Iowa
     James Speers, M.D.
     State Department of Health
     T~le>a Mf~> -i r\ e> c;  Tr\^ra
     Mrs. Theressa Streitz
     League of Women Voters
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

     Manlee J. Stueve
     County Supervisor
     Missouri Valley, Iowa

-------
                                                      4-H
ATTENDEES (CONTINUED):

     Harold Summers
     S&H Products, Inc.
     Audubon, Iowa

     Rowena Taylor
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Kansas City, Missouri

     A. L. Thomas
     Harrison County Engineer
     Logan, Iowa

     John Thorson
     Iowa Power & Light Company
     Council Bluffs, Iowa

     Bernice Trively
     Randolph,  Iowa

     Rolland A. Trively
     Fremont County Sup.
     Health Board
     Randolph,  Iowa

     Ed Weinheimer
     Conservation Commission
     Greenfield, Iowa

     Mrs. Ed. Weinheimer
     Greenfield, Iowa

     W. J. Wells, Jr.
     Bell, Galyordt and Wells
     Omaha, Nebraska

     A. T. Wicks
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Kansas City, Missouri

     G. R. Wimmer
     Industrial Development Council
     Sioux City, Iowa

-------
ATTENDEES (CONTINUED):

     Bern Wright
     Federal Water Pollution
     Control Administration
     Washington, D. C.

-------
              Opening Statement  - Mr. Stein
                   OPENING STATEMENT




                          BY




                   MR. MURRAY STEIN








               MR. STEIN:  The Conference is  open.




               We have opened a little late today because




of the change in place, and I hope  everyone was alxte to get here.



               This conference to consider the  establish-




ment of water quality standards is being held under the




provisions of Section 10 (c)(2) of the Federal  Water




Pollution Control Act as amended.




               It covers the waters of the Mississippi Ri
Missouri River, and designated tributaries of these water;



subject to the jurisdiction of Iowa which are considered



interstate waters under the Federal act.




               This is the Second Session of the donferen




as we had one last week in Davenport, Iowa.  An official




notice of the Conference was entered into the record there




I don't think it will be necessary to keep that notice,
/er,

-------
              Opening Statement - Mr. Stein






but if anyone has any questions about the .-jurisdiction of




the conference or the rivers which are included, which I




think comes out of the reports as we go ahead, then get




in touch with Mr. Jessee and copies of the notice will be




made available to  you so you can see all the particulars




               The conference today will deal with the




Mississippi River basin--or Missouri--




               MR. SAMSON:  You mean the Missouri River




basin, don't you, Mr. Stein?



               MR. STEIN:  Thank you.  I appreciate that




assist  from Nebraska.  Otherwise you wouldn't be here




               MR. SAMSON:  We are listening to you.




               MR. STEIN:  Right.  That shows how well we




are doing.



               It will be the Missouri River basin and tho




tributaries of the basin.




               The water quality standards established by




the State of Iowa in accordance with Section 10 (c)(l) of




the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to be applicable




to these waters have been determined in part not to be




consistent with the protection of the public health and




welfare, the enhancement of the quality of the water, and




                  	I

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	7





               Opening  Statement  -  Mr.  Stein






 the  purpose  of the  Federal Water Pollution  Control  Act,  as




 provided  by  Section 10 (c)(3)  of that  Act,  with  particula:-




 reference to:



                1.   The treatment requirements  and imple-




 mentation plan for  waste  discharges  to the  Mississippi  an<




 Missouri  Rivers;




                2.   The requirements  for disinfection  of




 controllable waste  discharges  which  may be  sources  of




 bacteriological  pollution;




                3.   The temperature criteria  for  the inter--




 state waters of  the States other than  the Mississippi and




 Missouri  Rivers.




                Therefore, in accordance with the  provisions




 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,  the  Secretary




 of the Interior,  in a  letter dated January  l6, 1969,  to



 Governor  Ray of  Iowa,  has called this  conference  to con-



 sider the establishment of water quality standards  appli-




 cable to  the above  interstate  waters subject to  the juris-




 diction of the State of Iowa.




               Notice  of  this  conference has been served




 to appropriate parties  as described  in Federal regulation*




 and  notice of  this  conference  has  been published  in the





	   	

-------
 	8





               Opening Statement - Mr. Stein






 Federal Register.




                The parties to this conference are repre-




 sentatives of Federal departments and agencies, interstat




 agencies, States, municipalities and industries who are




 contributing to, affected by, or have an interest in the




 water quality standards for the waters to be covered by




 the oonference and who register their intent to be partie




 at the conference sessions, and such other persons whom




 the Chairman, upon application and good cause shown,




 admits as parties to the conference.




                If anyone wants to be a party to the con-




 ference or speaker to the conference, he  should fill out




 one of the slips and so indicate and we will try to




 accommodate him.



                My name is Murray Stein.   I am from head-




 quarters of the Department of the Interior in Washington



 and the representative of Secretary Hickel.




                A word about the procedures governing the




 conduct of this conference.



                This is the first conference of its




, kind.  The first session in Davenport last week was the




 very  first one and this is the second.  I think the

-------
              Opening Statement - Mr. Stein




procedures, therefore, may be a little new to a  lot  o'




professional people who are attending.



               So if you have any questions on the con-




ference, I would suggest that you get in touch with  Mrs.




Rheta Piere--stand up, Mrs. Piere, so they can see you--




our National Conference Coordinator, and she can  supply




the answers or she will find a person who can supply the




answers.



               Under the law, as you can see, we  have a




lot of parties to the conference, so we have to  depend




on everyone's cooperation and good will if we are going




to run an equitable and fair hearing, which is our pur-




pose here today  to do this in as fair and as equitable




a way as we can.  We substantially and I think almost




completely achieved that at Davenport.  I hope we will




be equally successful here.  I am talking just about




the procedural matters now.  But if we are going to  be




successful, it depends on your cooperation with  this




large group.



               The Federal Water Pollution Control Admin-




istration has arranged for the presentation of material con-




cerning the quality- of the waters to be covered by the conference,

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 	  	10





               Opening Statement - Mr, Stein






 the uses5both existing and potential, of such waters, and




 the criteria necessary to protect such uses, the person




 or persons, if any, contributing ox* discharging arty matter



 affecting the quality of such waters, and remedial




 measures, if any, recommended by the Federal Water Pol-




 lution Control Administration.  Each party to the con-




 ference will be given an opportunity to make a statement




 concerning the water quality standards for the waters




 covered by the conference, and I hope we will confine the




 remarks of this session to the Missouri River and its




 tributaries.




                An opportunity after all the parties have




 been heard to make a further statement will be afforded




 to any of the parties to the conference and this will



 include rebuttal of other parties'  views and an oppor-



 tunity to make recommendations for water quality standard




 in either a first or subsequent statement.




                I think the procedure last week indicated




 that with a group of this size, if you have the fortitude




| to stay here long enough for the rebuttal period, that




 we can afford everyone an opportunity to not .lust appear




 once in rebuttal.  If he feels it necessary to appear

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	11





               Opening Statement - Mr.  Stein






 more than once,  twice or  three  times,  I think we  may be



 able to afford that opportunity so we  can get a full record



 and everyone  will  have a  chance to say what he feels he



 has to say without being  cut  off.   The only thing,  again,




 that I have to ask,  please  use  your own discretion  and



 conscience and self-restraint to be sure  that the material



 is  relevant and  germane to  the  issue.   I  think unless we



 all do that,  we  are  not going to be too successful.



               Now,  as Chairman,  if it becomes necessary,



 I may limit the  presentations so that  repetitious and



 irrelevant statements may not come in.  We  did not  have



 to  do that last  week.  I  hope we won't have to do it here



               A written  record and verbatim transcript



 is  being  made  by Mrs. Virginia  Rankin,  and  subsequent to



 the conference the conference Chairman will submit



 to  the Secretary of  the Interior the verbatim conference



 transcript, including all charts,  tabulations  and similar



 data,  and  then the Secretary, of course,  will  take  any



 action which  is  indicated under Federal law to proceed



 with the  establishment of the standards.



               I would-suggest  that all speakers and  par-



 ticipants  come to  the podium  and  identify themselves  for

-------
	12





              Opening Statement - Mr. Stein






purposes of the record.  For the purpose of aiding the




reporter in making the transcript,, we w'ould ask you, even




if your name is called, to introduce yourself and give




your affiliation from the podium before you give the




statement.




               We also have just one live microphone here




I think with using a little common sense and discretion




we can get by with it.  You have to recognize that if the




Chair wants to speak or if you are speaking up here that




we both have to share the microphone.




               As a follow-up of last week's conference,




we have a telegram received from Mrs. Fred Wupper, Presi-




dent of the League of Women Voters of Nebraska, which we




would like to put in the record.



               "The League of Women Voters of Nebraska



support the statement of the League of Women Voters of




Iowa to require secondary treatment of sewage from cities




towns and communities along the Missouri River."




               In addition to that we have a statement




submitted by Mrs. George G. Koerber, State Chairman, Wate




Resources, League of Women Voters of Iowa, who would like




this appended to the first session, and she says:

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	13





              Opening Statement - Mr. Stein






               "in reply to the speaker who immediately




followed the presentation by the League of Women Voters




of lowa^ we would like to add the following comments to




the record.



               "The League of Women Voters has been




active to support public referenda to construct sewage




treatment facilities.  For example., the League in Illinois




supported the Natural Resources Development Bond Act of




1968 and is presently working for submission of a similar




proposal to the voters of Illinois.  The Leagues in the




Northshore Sanitary District were particularly in their




recent efforts for a $35 million bond issue to provide




advanced treatment.  This bond issue carried only in




League communities and fortunately by a sufficient ma,]'oriiy




so that it carried within the District as a whole.  These




examples in the speaker's own State should suffice to sho*




that the League takes action to pass public referenda for




funds to provide the degree of treatment the organization




believes is necessary."



               I believe Mrs. Koerber is in the room?




               MRS. KOERBER:  Yes.




               MR. STEIN:  I wonder if with your

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	14





              Opening  Statement  -  Mr.  Stein






 permission  I  can  make  one  suggestion.   I  understand  your




 reluctance  to name  another State,  but  we  have  to  preserve




 the  record.   No one knows  who  this refers to.   1  assume




 this  refers to Illinois., is  that correct?




               MRS.  KOERBER:   Yes, to  Mr.  Morton.




               MR.  STEIN:   Yes,  all right.




               Now,  I  also have  one other statement  from




 Roger W.  Bachmann,  PhD., Rural Route 3,  of Ames,  Iowa.




 Before  I  put  this in the record, I would  suggest  that I




 might give  a  copy of this  to perhaps Mr.  Schliekelman or




 Mr.  Rademacher for  their consideration,  and  if they  have




 no  comment  I  will .just put it  in the record.   But I  think




 this  raises a technical question,  and  I  do not want  to




 put  this  in the record without giving  both these  groups



 an  opportunity to look at  this.  (See p. 499 for statement.)




               With that,  we will  call on the  Federal




 Government  to make  a presentation.  Mr.  Carl  Blomgren.

-------
                     	15





                     C. V. Blomgren
              STATEMENT BY CARL V. BLOMGREN




           DIRECTOR OF OFFICE TECHNICAL SUPPORT




      MISSOURI BASIN REGION, FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION




       CONTROL ADMINISTRATION,KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI









               MR. BLOMGREN:  Mr. Chairman, I am  Carl




Blomgren, Missouri Basin Region, Federal Water Pollution




Control Administration.




               This statement summarizes the report




entitled, "Water Quality Standards Conference - State of




Iowa, Iowa Interstate Waters of the Missouri River Basin,




convening April 15, 19&9, which was transmitted to the




Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission on March  19, 19^9




I request, Mr. Chairman, that a corrected copy of this




report be admitted to the record and I hereby hand the




amended copy to the conference reporter.




               MR. STEIN:  Do you want the whole  report




put in the record?




               MR. BLOMGREN:  If you want that, Mr.




Chairman.




               MR. STEIN:  That will be done.




               (Which said report is as follows;)	

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                                                                           16
WATER QUALITY SIMHUROS
               CONFERENCE
                    Still 01
                      IOWA
             Iowa Interstate Waters
                         of the
                Missouri River Basin
                     convening:
                   April 15,1969
               Council Bluffs, Iowa
C OPY  N0
                                                                        T
                                                   U S  DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                                   FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                                                                     MISSOURI BASIN REGION

-------
                                                                               17
                                                   MISSOURI  RIVER DRAINAGE
                                                      IN CONFERENCE  AREA
    EXPLANATION


   ~ SUBREGION BOUNDARY

    SU8BASIN BOUNDARY
ISSOURi
IAMEWO1K STUDIES
I OCT 1965 MO 9^0-1
SCALE IM MILES

-------
18
                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                            Page
  I.  INTRODUCTION                                           1-1
      A.   Purpose                                            1-1
      B.   Authority                                          1-1
      C.   Scope                                              1-2

 II.  SUMMARY                                               II-l

III.  BACKGROUND                                           III-l
      A.   Description of Area                              III-l
      B.   Economy                                          III-l
      C.   Hydrology                                        III-7

 IV.  WATER USES, WASTE SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY           IV-1
      A.   Water Uses                                        IV-1
      B,   Existing Waste Sources                            IV-14
      C.   Impact of Water Quality on Use                    IV-32
      D.   Monitoring                                        IV-41

  V.  QUALITY CRITERIA NECESSARY TO SUPPORT EXISTING
      AND FUTURE WATER USES                                  V~l
      A.   Treatment                                          V-l
      B.   Disinfection                                       V-l
      C.   Temperature                                        V-l
      D.   Nondegradation                                     V-2
      E.   Radioactivity                                      V-3
      F.   Standards of Related States                        V-3

 VI.  RECOMMENDATION                                        VI-1

VII.  APPENDIX                                             VII-1

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                                                                       19



I.  INTRODUCTION




    A.  Purpose




    The Secretary of the Department of the Interior directed, by




notice of March 5, 1969, that sessions of a conference be held in




Davenport and Council Bluffs, Iowa, on April 8 and 15, 1969,




respectively, to consider the establishment of water quality




standards for the interstate waters under control of the State




of Iowa.




    B.  Authority




    The water quality standards established by the State of Iowa




in accordance with Section 10(c)(l) of the Federal Water Pollution




Control Act, as amended  (33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.) are determined in




part not to  be consistent with the protection of the public health




and welfare, the enhancement of the quality and value of the water




and the purpose of the Act as provided by Section 10(c)(3) of that




Act.




    Section  10(c)(2) of  the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,




as amended  (33 U.S.G. 466 et seq.) provides that, should the




Secretary of the Interior find the water quality standards adopted




by the State do not protect the public health or welfare, enhance




the quality  of the water and serve the purposes of this Act  (The




Federal Water Pollution  Control Act), taking into consideration




their use and value for  public water supplies, propagation of fish




and wildlife, recreational purposes, and agricultural, industrial




and other legitimate uses, he may, after reasonable notice, call a




conference of representatives of appropriate Federal departments
                              1-1

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20
     and agencies, interstate agencies, State, municipalities and




     industries involved prior to preparing regulations setting




     forth standards of water quality to be applicable to the inter-




     state waters or portions thereof.




         In accordance with the provisions of the Act, the Secretary




     of the Interior has called this conference to consider the




     establishment of water quality standards relative to the three




     excepted items below:




         1.  The treatment requirements and implementation




         plan for waste discharges to the Missouri and




         Mississippi Rivers;






         2.  The requirements for disinfection of controllable




         discharges which may be sources of bacteriological




         pollution;




         3.  The temperature criteria for the interstate




         waters of State other than the Missouri and




         Mississippi Rivers.






         C.  Scope



         The interstate waters subject to the jurisdiction of the State




     of Iowa are as follows:




         The waters of the Missouri River, Chariton River, Middle Fork




     Medicine River, Weldon River, Little River, Thompson River, Bast




     Fork of the Big River, Grand River, Platte River, East Fork of  the




     102 River, Middle Fork of the 102 River, Nodaway River, West Tarkio

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                                                                   21




River, Tarklo River, Nishnabotna River, Little Sioux River, Big




Sioux River, Rock River and Kanaranzi Ditch.  These waters are




shared Jointly with other States.  The scope of this report,




while limited to the Missouri River Basin waters in Iowa, has




included for the purposes of clarification the impact of water




quality in these interstate streams on the water uses and water




quality standards of the adjoining States.
                                1-3

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22



  II.  SUMMARY




       The following summarizes the more extensive text and appendices




  of this report.




       A.  The area of Iowa covered by Part II of the VJater Quality




  Standards Conference is approximately 17,000 square iniles or about 30




  percent of the land area of the State.  This area supports about 600,000




  people.  The population is projected to remain relatively stable although




  people will migrate from rural to urban areas.  Agriculturally associated




  enterprises constitute the backbone of the economy with meat packing




  being the largest industrial water user and waste producer.




       B.  Municipal and industrial wastes amounting to approximately




  1,500,000 population equivalents (P.E.) are discharged into the waters




  draining to the Missouri River System.




       C.  The 30 sewer systems in Iowa  municipalities in the Missouri




  Basin discharging waste to interstate streams handle a total connected




  waste loading of 483,000 population equivalents.  Eighteeen of thess




  sewer systems handling less than 15 percent of the total connected load-




  ing, provide secondary treatment.  Eight of the systems handling 85




  percent of the loading provide only primary treatment.  Two discharge




  to adjoining municipalities.  Wastes collected by the other two systems




  are discharged without treatment.




       D.  Of 167 industries in the conference area covered by this report,




  9 have direct discharges to streams.  The design organic waste leadings




  before treatment is reported to be 342,000 population equivalents and




  with treatment estimated to remove 85 percent of the BOD, with the dis-




  charge P.E. approximately 50,000.  A complete industrial waste inventory
                               11-1

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                                                                          23




based upon plant surveys is not available.




     E.  In addition to the wastes gciieratcd by the resident population




and direct industrial activities, there is a significant animal waste




problem.  It is estimated that at least 3,300,000 cattle and calves




and 6,100,000 hogs and pigs were on farms.  These animal wastes have




a population equivalent of 65,000,000 and can cause oxygen depletion,




bacterial and nutrient pollution problems, and esthetic degradation in




a stream.




     F.  The number of cattleat present over five times--and the number




of hogs and pigs  almost ten tinesthe human population of the study




area is expected to increase substantially in the next decade.  Unless




controlled, the wastes produced can be expected to increase bacterial




and nutrient levels in the tributary streams and the main ste:n of the




Missouri.




     G.  Sediment is a major pollutant in the Missouri River Basin.




Uncontrolled runoff in the lo-wa portion of this Basin contributes




substantial amounts to the annual load.




     H.  Investigations of existing water use by Department of the Interior




personnel have identified eight categories of beneficial uses.  Of these




eight categories, public water supplies,  recreation, navigation,  wild-




life habitat,  and cornaercial fishing are  considered to have the greatest




potential for expansion.




     I.  The Missouri River on the western boundary of Iowa probably has




the greatest potential for recreation development in tha Conference area.




There are over 30 known dev?lc^cd recreation areas along the Missouri
                               II-2

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24
River in Iowa.  The Corps of Engineers has proposed 35 recreation sites

for construction between Sioux City and Rulo, Nebraska.
     J.  High bacterial densities have been observed in the entire reach
of the Missouri River from Sioux City to St. Joseph.  The bacterial
densities exceed the permissible limits which have been accepted by
common practice for water supply and recreation use to protect the public

health and welfare.
     K.  During dry weather streamflow conditions over 85 percent of the

total coliform densities in the River are attributable to municipal waste

effluents.   Calculations of the effect of two-stage disinfection and
secondary treatment with disinfection on the coliform densities demonstrate
that concentrations of  less than 10,000 organisms per 100 ml can be obtained.
     L.  High densities  of bacteria and high concentrations of nitrogen and
phosphorous  are found in Iowa  tributaries to the Missouri River, especially
during periods of  storm water  runoff.  Much of  this is attributable to

 intense  agricultural  land use  with the consequent use of  fertilizers and
 the  deposition of  animal wastes on land.
     M.   Survey results from  the main  stream stretch  of  the Missouri River
 in Iowa  identified adverse  changes in water  quality.  Turbidity increased
 four-fold  in the  length of reach surveyed and cyanides and phenols were found.
     N.   Biological  investigations revealed  predominately clean water
organisms and associated aquatic life above  Sioux City.   However, a consistent
 increase in  pollution tolerant organisms and biota were observed in many
 stretches  of the  river  between Sioux City and St. Joseph.
     0.   The main stem  of  the  Missouri  is highly regulated with flow
 characteristics determined by  navigational and  flood  control needs.  Hydro-
 logically, 40 percent of the  tributaries  in  Iowa are  intermittent.  The

                                II-3

-------
                                                                        25



balance of the streams have measurable low flows except in their head-




waters.  It is indicated, therefore, that the latter group of streams




could support a fishery.




     P.  Public water users relying on the Missouri River as a source of




supply report problems associated with turbidity, ammonia, coagulation,




taste and odors.




     Q.  Recreational activities on the main stem include boating, water




skiing, swimming and wading.  These activities are directly affected by




presence of floating material and grease balls, high bacterial densities,




dissolved organics and turbidity.  Samples of water taken in the survey




had as high as 2000 bacteria per drop.




     R.  Esthetic values of the waters in this area are reduced due to




turbidity, floating materials, and other effects which reduce or eliminate




the opportunity for development of spectator oriented activities, e.g.,




boat or canoe races, etc.




     S.  Tainting of fish flesh has been reported by commercial and sport




fishermen in many areas of the main stem of the Missouri River.




     T.  Fouling of fishnets and lines with grease is common below major




municipal and industrial waste outlets.  Similarly, boat hulls of recrea-




tional watercraft are fouled with grease and scum.




     U.  Every State which borders on the Missouri River, except for Iowa




has adopted as part of its Standards, a minimum requirement for secondary




treatment or its equivalent for wastes discharged into the Missouri River.




This provision, for secondary or equivalent treatment, has been enacted by




the States of South Dakota, North Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri,




and Montana.  Iowa Standards require secondary treatment on all streams




except the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers.






                                      II-4

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26
   III.   BACKGROUND




        A.   Description of Area




        The conference area covered by the report includes the drainage




   area of the Big Sioux River below Sioux Falls and the Missouri River




   from Sioux City, Iowa, downstream to the Iowa-Missouri state line.




   This portion of western Iowa includes slightly more than 17,000




   square miles.  The average annual precipitation in this area ranges




   from 25 to 34 inches and the annual temperature ranges from -40 to




   115 Fahrenheit.




        The topography is varied, ranging from broad fertile flood




   plains to bluffs bordering the flood plains (which sometimes reach




   several hundred feet in height) and lands varying from steep slopes




   to gently rolling hills.




        Transportation routes, including two interstate highways, serve




   all of the area.  Interstate 29, a north-south route extending from




   Kansas City to Sioux City east of the Missouri River, and Interstate




   80, an east-west route, cross in the Council Bluffs and Omaha Stan-




   dard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA).  Airlines, railroads and




   pipelines also serve the area in both east-west and north-south




   directions.  Navigation on the Missouri River extends from St. Louis




   to Sioux City.




        B.  Economy




            1.  Past and  Present




        Total population  of the conference area has  increased steadily




   since World War II.  The conference  area  and  the  entire State of




   Iowa have experienced "a decrease in  farm  population during this period.
                                III-l

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                                                                         27



The rate of urban growth, however, has exceeded the decrease in farm




population resulting in a net increase in total population.




     While the cities of Sioux Falls and Omaha are not in the conference




area, they do influence the area's economy and, therefore, must be con-




sidered.  A total of about 1.3 million people influenced the area's




economy in 1960.  About 600,000 people live in this portion of the




conference area and 35 percent live in rural areas.  However, in the




conference area, over one-half of the I960 population lived in rural




areas, reflecting a significant influence of agriculture in the conference




area's economy.




     The Omaha-Council Bluffs, Sioux Falls, and Sioux City SMSA's,




with an average population growth in the period 1940 to 1960 of 36




percent, represented most of the population increase.  The large




SMSA's along the Missouri River with their population increases from




1940 to 1960 are listed below.




                                     Population




       City




Omaha-Council Bluffs




Sioux Falls




Sioux City




            TOTAL




     Agriculture is a major employer in the conference area.  Agriculture




and the processing of food products are the backbone of the area's economy.




In 1960, over one-fourth of the area's employment were in agriculture and




agriculturally related industries.  Most of the remaining workers were




employed in the service and trade sectors of the economy.
1940
325,153
57,697
113,463
496,313
1960
457,873
86,575
120,017
664,465
7o
Increase
42
51
6
36
                             III-2

-------
28




          Iowa is located on the  western edge of the Corn Belt.   The




     soil is fertile and climatic conditions and topography are  favor-




     able for the production of corn and other feed grains.  Iowa also




     produces large numbers of calves and hogs.   A good supply of feeder




     calves, large numbers of hogs,  available feed grains and roughage




     and adequate transportation for distribution to markets, gives




     Iowa a competitive advantage over other areas in raising livestock.




     As a result, Iowa is the largest producer of finished cattle and




     hogs ready for slaughter in the United States.




          Farm activity in this area is about 60 percent livestock,




     dairy and poultry farms with 40 percent cash grain, general or




     special crop farms.  Recent investigations reveal that about 80




     percent of total monetary value of farm products are derived from




     the sale of livestock and livestock products.




          About 2 million cattle are on feed in farm feedlots in Iowa.




     This is about 20 percent of cattle on feed for slaughter in the




     United States.  There are some large commercial operations and many




     small farm feedlots spread throughout the State.  Pottawattomie




     County ranks first in numbers of cattle on feed in Iowa.




          Iowa and its bordering states raise about 60 percent of all the




     hogs produced in the United States.  Iowa markets about 20 million




     hogs annually, some of which are shipped out of the State for




     processing.  Iowa accounts for about 14 percent of the cattle  and




     22 percent of the hog production in the U.S.
                                      III-3

-------
                                                                      29
     The large cities of Sioux Falls, Sioux City, and Omaha-Council




Bluffs are transportation and service centers for large surrounding




rural areas.  The service and trade industries continue to increase




providing the supporting services required of a business community.




These service and trade industries include transportation and stor-




age, retail trade, communications, finance, insurance, etc.




     In recent years, many of the meat slaughtering industries have




been decentralizing.  They are locating throughout the farm belt




rather than remaining concentrated in large metropolitan areas.  The




trend is to locate these slaughter plants near the supply of animals.




     Mining activities in the area are limited to construction mater-




ials--cement minerals, sand and gravel, stone and clay.  Mineral




production is concentrated in approximate proportion to the distri-




bution of population, which creates the market for such construction




materials.




         2.  Future




     Population and economic growth through 1980 is expected to be




governed by historic trends.  Growth rates calculated by the Office




of Business Economics for this area depict rates of growth, based




on the trends of an agricultural economy, lower than those of tho




Missouri Basin Region or the United States.  Mechanization of both




farm operations and subsequent processing operations of farm products




has led to reduced manpower requirements.  In the conference area,




these trends have not been balanced by growth trends of other forms




of economic activity.
                                 III-4

-------
30
        Population projections  for  these  cities  are  based  on  the  entire




   urban area or Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA)  in which




   they are located.   The major growth is expected  to  be in the Omaha-




   Council Bluffs SMSA as illustrated in  the following table.




           SMSA                    1960           1980   Percent  Increase




   Omaha-Council Bluffs          457,873         662,000        45




   Sioux Falls                    86,575         118,000        36




   Sioux City                    120,017         139,000        16




   Council Bluffs and vicinity are expected to experience a high  rate




   of growth thru 1980.  The 1960 population of 65,407 is expected to




   reach about 84,000 by 1980.   This would be a 28 percent increase.




        Employment in major urban areas will reflect trade and service




   concentrations with manufacturing employment being dominated by the




   processing of agricultural products.  Future increases in farm produc-




   tion will be based upon the use of additional capital, increased




   technology and improved cultural practices.




        The  largest industrial water user and waste producer is expec-




   ted  to  continue to be the meat packing industry.  The demand for




   meat has  been  increasing and  is projected  to increase at a  rapid




   rate in the  future.




        Decentralization of the  meat  slaughtering industry is  expected




   to  continue; however,  the large metropolitan areas  are  also projected




   to  continue  to increase  in  agricultural  processing.




        Future  industrial growth in  Council Bluffs  should  increase  at




   moderate  rate.  Emphasis will continue  to be on  trade  and  service




   industries--transportation,  communication,  retail  trade,  insurance,
                                     III-5

-------
                                                                        31
government, etc.   Manufacturing growth will be primarily in the




agricultural processing sector.  A large livestock slaughtering




plant should begin operation during 1969.   This will be a cattle




slaughtering operation and the waste will  be discharged to the city




sewerage system.   This plant could overload the present treatment




facilities to such an extent that expansion of the treatment plant




will be necessary.  With the continued projected growth of feeding




around Council Bluffs, additional livestock slaughtering plants




will be needed to process these animals.




     New specialized slaughtering plants similar to the one being




built in Council Bluffs can compete economically with the outlying




plants provided they have an adequate supply of livestock.  The




Iowa Beef Packers processing plant at Dakota City, Nebraska is a




good example of a profitable slaughtering operation that is located




near an urban area.  This plant is now one of the largest beef




operations in the country.  The future increase of plants similar to




this one appears good.




     Sioux City with a larger population and industrial base than




Council Bluffs has a slower rate of population growth.  The two




cities, however,  are very similar in their industrial characteristics.




Trade and service industries are expected to be the major employer.




Food processing is projected to be the largest manufacturing sector




by 1980.  Both cities have a good supply of livestock in the area




with an increasing demand for meat, the opportunities for new livestock
                                 III-6

-------
32






slaughtering facilities appear favorable.  Projected industrial growth




and population increases will probably overload present treatment facilities




of both Sioux City and Council Bluffs by 1980.




     The manufacture of chemical products, mainly fertilizers, pesticides




and other agricultural chemicals,is projected to increase three-fold.




     Mineral production in the conference area is confined to non-




metallic construction materials  and no change is foreseen.




     C.  Hydrology




     That portion of Iowa drained by the Missouri River constitutes




nearly one-third of  the State's  total drainage area or about  17,380




square miles.  The drainage  basins in the western portion of  the




State  are relatively long and narrow and have a  general course  from




northeast to  southwest.  Of  the  interstate  streams  tributary  to




the Missouri  River,  the Big  Sioux has the largest drainage area  of




9,030  square  miles,  including 1,970 square  miles that  are non-




contributing.  The  intrastate streams are typically much  smaller




with  the  Boyer River ranking first with  drainage of 1,188 square




miles. The Floyd  and Maple  Rivers are  the  only  other  large  intra-




 state  streams with  921  and  742  square miles,  respectively.   Size rank-




 ings  of  the remaining  basins are shown  in Table  III-C-1.




      Unlike the  streams found  in the northeast of Iowa,  those of the




western  portion  are  characterized  by periods  of  excessively  low




minimum  daily discharge.   Because  groundwater does  not play  the




 supporting  role  that it does in northeastern streams,  the base
                           III-7

-------
                                                                                    33
                          TABLE III-C-1
                          DRAINAGE AREA OF IOWA                    ,
     STREAMS GREATER THAN 100 SQUARE MILES IN MISSOURI RIVER BASIN
	STREAM	TOTAL  DRAINAGE AREA

Big Sioux River                                               9030

Little Sioux Kiver                                            4507

Nishnabotna River                                             2819

Rock River                                                    1688

Boyer River *                                                 1188

Nodaway River                                                 1182

Floyd River *                                                  921

Chariton River                                                 817

Maple River *                                                  742

Thompson River                                                 729

Soldier River *                                                445

Platte River                                                   282

Mosquito Creek *                                               267

Weldon River                                                   240

West Fork Hundred and Two River                                212

Kanaranzi Creek                                                205

Tarkio River                                                   206

Grand River                                                    206

Pidgeon River *                                                165

East Fork Hundred and Two                                      111

Sixmile Creek *                                                108

Little River                                                   102

*  Non-Interstate waters.  Tho?e without asterisk show only drainage area
   at Iowa State line.

\f Modified from "Drainage Area of Iowa Streams" by 0. J. Larimer, December
   1957, and U.S.G.S. .vater Supply Papers.  Those interstate  streams referred
   to in the Secretary's letter but lass than 100 sq. miles are:  l.'esc Tarkio
   Creek, 92.5 sq  ui.; Middle Fork Hundred and Two 62.1; East Fork of Big
   Creek, 13.4; and Middle Fork Medicine Creek, 13.3.

                                  III-8

-------
 34





flows of the streams in western and southern Iowa are much lower.




Consequently, they are dry for days and in some cases even for weeks.




The intermittent streams with average discharge below 100 cubic feet




per second (cfs) are affected the most in periods of even moderate




drought.  Table I1I-C-2 lists eight such streams with "minimum daily




discharges" as well as "7-day lowest mean discharges."  Some streams




have minimum daily discharges of zero cfs during several weeks




throughout the period of record.  Similarly in periods of severe




drought, streams having an average discharge of several hundred cfs




are greatly affected and often have minimum daily discharge of only




1 or 2 cfs.




     Of all the Iowa tributaries of the Missouri River, only the Little




Sioux River near Turin had a. 7-day lowest mean discharge exceeding 20




cfs.  This flow was estimated on a five year period of record.  Nearly




80 percent of all streams with flow measurement showed 7-day lowest




mean values of less than 3 cfs and half of these had days with 0 cfs.




The periods of record varied as shown in Table III-C-2.




     A 7-day, 10-year low flow period has been adopted by the Iowa




Water Pollution Control Commission as the criteria both for the




design of waste treatment facilities and the minimum flow to which




the criteria part of the water quality standards would be applicable.




This period shows the capricious nature of Iowa streamflows in relation




to applying valid water quality criteria and possible treatment requirements,




Table III-C-3 lists the most important rivers and shows a 1, 7 and 30
                                   III-9

-------
                                                                                                                                       35
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-------
                                                                       39
day, 10-year low flow.  It Is noteworthy to point out that where

differences exist in drainage areas, the anomolies are due to smaller

subbasins being partially incorporated or duplicated when shown in a

major basin.

     Numerous Low-Flow Volume-Frequency Duration Curves are also

supplied for eight of the more important tributaries.  The selected

durations are for 1, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 days as well as an annual

period.  The exceedence frequency of the points plotted for each

duration for all stations was based on the formula normally used

by  the USGS where:

     Return Period or
     Recurrence Interval in Years  N+l
                                     M

or

     Exceedence Frequency per 100 Years   M
                                          N+l

     N  Number of Years of Record

     M * Order of Magnitude (rank) of event

For the stations and durations where zero flows were experienced

during a significant number of the years of record, an arbitrary

assignment of a mean  flow value of 0.1 cfs was made.


Footnote:  The frequency curves drawn through the plotted points were

based on fitting the Pearson Type III function by use of moments of

logarithms of the annual minimum flow values in accordance with the

procedure developed by L. R. Beard, Hydrologic Engineering Center,

Sacramento District, Corps of Engineers.
                             111-14

-------
  1,000,000
    ina,aaa
    ia,aaa
Ul
K
     iaaa
       iaa
        i a

                     a /
                    s
                                     LOW-FLOW
                                VOLUME-FREQUENCY
                                 DURATION CURVES


                               X
                   X.
                                         "
                         X"
                                            j*
                         i?
                                                 s
                                                      301 OHY
                                                      3Q QRY
7


3 OTT



t CF1Y
          99     95  90   80  70 60 50 40  30 20   10  5
                   EXCEEOENCE FREQUENCY PER HUNDRED YEARS
ROCK RIVER NR ROCK. VFU_Y

       1949-1352 KEN
                                            06-4835. da

-------
                                    LOW-FLOW
                               VOLUME-FREQUENCY
                                DURATION CURVES
 iD,aaa.aoa
  i,aaaaaa
   loo.aoa
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                                     aa anr



                                     so anr

                                     la nnr

                                      7
M  M   K>  70 60  M 4O 30  20
   CXCtCDCNCC FMCQUCNCY KM HUNCMCO



   BlQ
                                         10   S
                         1929-1962 MXN
                                  >QQ

-------
  1,000,000
   IQQ,QQQ
z
w
X
    10,000
     L,QQO
       IQ JL
        in
                                     LOW-FLOW
                               VOLUME-FREQUENCY
                                DURATION  CURVES
                    r

                           :z:
                               ^
7
                                 y .
                                     ^
                                     Z:
         m
                                               Z-
         =?~.~
                                       /
                                                     9a tnr
                                                     3tt OT<
                                                      ia onr
                                                       3 CPTf
                M90   K>  70 0  M 40 K)  70   10
                   CXCCCOCNCC FRCQUCNCV PCK HUNO4ICO TCAM
                  i_rrn_c BICBJX
                                  MIN

-------
                                      LOW-FLOW
                                 VOLUME-FREQUENCY
                                  DURATION CURVES
  i,ooa,oaa
    iao,aaa
     LQ.QQQ
     l,QQQ
Ul
       iaa
                                                       1+HUPL.
                                                        aa orr
                              SQ cnr

                              la cnr

                               7 cnr

                               3 antr
                99*0  80 70 60 50  40 30  20   10   5
                    EXCEEOENCE FREQUENCY PER HUNDRED YEARS
RIVET* nr LOCFN,

19 19-23,
                                             06-6099.00
                          111-18

-------
44
                                      LOW-FLOW
                                 VOLUME-FREQUENCY
                                  DURATION CURVES
  ultima nun
   i,aaa,aaa
    ian,nan
 w   iavoaa
 Ul
 
      i, ana
        laa
          aa


          act

          ta
                 95  90   80  70  W 50 40  30  20   10  5
                    EXCEEDENCE FREQUENCY PER HUNDRED YEARS
                           NXVOt
                                    MZN
OB-Biaa.aa
                         111-19

-------
 in,nan,ana
  i,aaa,aaa
    iaa,aaa
     ia,aaa
Ill
a
S
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     i,aaa
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                                       LOW-FLOW
                                  VOLUME-FREQUENCY
                                   DURATION  CURVES
                                                         SQ
an OFTT


I* onrr


 7 OFTT

 3 OFTT


 L ORT
                 95  90   80 70  60 50 40 30 20   10   5
                    EXCEEOENCE FREQUENCY PER HUNDRED YEARS
                      rfXVBFf NR BURLJtfMCTCtsI JUNCTION, MO.


                           1922- L962           OC-B175.QQ
                           111-20

-------
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 iaaao.
  i, ODD
   too
                                  LOW-FLOW
                             VOLUME-FREQUENCY
                              DURATION CURVES
                                                    3Q CORY
                                  3D DPTT


                                  L4 PPIY

                                   7 crrr

                                   3 CPTT


                                   I  ant
            95  90   00  70 > 50 40  30 20   10
                EXCEEOENCE FREQUENCY PER HUNDRED YEARS
102 raven nr

     1933-1
                                      MQ
                               PUN
OB-BL9B.QQ
                     111-21

-------
  1,ODD,Odd
    Laaaoa
U
    ia,aaa
     1,000
       LQD
       LO
           X
             *
                                     LOW-FLOW
                               VOLUME-FREQUENCY
                                DURATION CURVES
^
                    7^
                        ^
X-
                                  r^f
                                 -IX
                               	u
     X
                                       2_;
              ;z
                                               .^x^
                                                 2
                                                    f-IM>JHL.
                                                     3Q CTTT
                                                      7 a-vr
                                                      t nnrr
               9590   80706050403020   10  5      1
                   EXCEEOENCE FREQUENCY PER HUNDRED YEARS


                    FUTTTC RIVER HT FIGENCY, TO.

                         1925-23,33-62       DB-B2QS.DQ

-------
21-8
   As an example, the curves for Station 8195, 102 River at Maryville,




   Missouri,  (Curve G) show that the minimum values for the 7-day curve




   were 1.4 acre-feet for 3 of the 30 years of record.  Although the graph




   shows 1.4  acre-feet, this value is equated to an actual base line value




   of zero cfs.  The eye-fit curve should not be extended below about 3.7




   acre-feet  (roughly .3 cfs).  The exceedence frequency per hundred years




   nearest this point is 90 percent.  It is assumed that in future years




   the minimum 7-day low flow expected from 102 River at Maryville will be




   zero cfs 10 percent of the time.




         (NOTE:  All curves A through H shown are for the climatic year




                ending March 31.)




        The discharge rates of the Missouri River  itself are briefly




   summarized in Table III-C-4.  Periods of record end  in 1967 and date




   back  for the indicated number of years.  It is  essential to under-




   stand that the flow of the Missouri is highly regulated on the main




   stem  and,  therefore, the overall discharge values are somewhat




   buffered.
                                    111-23

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1H-24

-------
50





  IV.  WATER USES, WASTE SOURCES A;,"D WATER QUALITY





  IV-A - WATER USES




       1.  INTRODUCTION




       Section l(a), Declaration of Policy, of the Federal Water Pollution




  Control Act (33 USC 966 et seq.) states "The purpose of this Act is to




  enhance the quality and value of our water resources and to establish




  a  national policy  for the prevention, control, and abatement of water




  pollution."  The value of the nation's water resources for all beneficial




  uses are impaired  to a degree proportional  to the instances of poor




  quality caused by  discharge of controllable wastes.  Adherence to the




  Federal policy declared in the Act requires that all beneficial uses




  of the water be recognized.  Quality enhancement requirements must be




  promulgated in such a manner as to protect those uses and increase the




  value of the resource.




       In the area of the Missouri River Basin between Sioux City, Iowa,




  and St. Joseph, Missouri, information on beneficial uses were obtained




  from:  1) water quality standards documents; 2) a synoptic survey of




  the main stem and  selected tributaries by Department of the Interior




  personnel; and 3)  from reports prepared by other State and Federal




  agencies.




       The following eight categories of use are documented for the streams




  in question and are recognized as deserving of protection from impair-




  ment by quality degradation.




            1.  Public water supplies




            2.  Recreation, including body contact water sports, fishing,




                boating and esthetic appreciation




            3.  Commercial fishing





                                  IV-1

-------
                                                                          51

           4.  Wildlife habitat

           5.  Industrial water  supply

           6.  Navigation

           7.  Agriculture

           8.  Animal Watering

      A summary of the number of use points by category on  the main

 stem Missouri found during  the  synoptic survey is displayed  in Table-IV-A-1,

 Table IV-A-2 contains a list of discrete use points.


                             Table IV-A-1

      Summary of Existing Water Uses by Category, Missouri main stem

 between River Mile 449.5 (St. Joseph Bend) and River Mile  734.0  (Con-

 fluence of Big Sioux r.nd Missouri River.)


    Use Category               Iowa  Missouri  Nebraska  Kansas  Total

1.  Public Water Users

2.  Recreational _!/

3.  Commercial Fishing

4.  Wildlife Habitat 2f

5.  Industrial Water Users/

6.  Navigation Installations

                             3/
7.  Agi Lev-"1. Crural Withdrawals'

8.  Ar.inr.'. Vatering Sites_3/
                  TOTAL

_!/  Public access sites only - does not include private access developments
    by Ir.divi duals.

2/  Migratory waterfowl use  the entire river reach during migration periods
    as rest crcas and provide extensive hunting opportunity for local
    and cut-oC-Ptate bird hunters.

_3/  Total shown is expected  to be less than actual use.

4_/  Power generating plants.
                                   IV-2
1
27
17
11
2
5
2
0
65
1
11
3
0
1
2
0
0
18
1
39
16
2
3
32
0
4
97
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
79
36
13
6
39
2
4
202

-------
                                                           TABLE-IV-A-2
                EXISTING WATER USES OF THE MISSOURI RIVER KNOWN TO THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                 (1) Public Water Supply (21 Industrial Water Supply (3) Recreation (4) Fishing (5) wildlife Habitat
                              (6) Animal watering (7) Agriculture (8) Navigation (9) Waste Assimilation
           LOCATION*

732-734 Sioux City Bend
726-732 Floyd Bend
722-726 Dakota Bend



719-722 Qmadl Bend

716-719 Browers Bend


714-716 Snyder Bend

711-714 Glover 's  Point  Bend

708-711

702.5-708 Omaha Mission Bends



 698-702.5 Honona Bend


 693-698 Blackbird Bend


 691-693 Tievllle Bend


 6S6-691 Decatur Bends


 681.5-686 Louisville Bends



 676.5-681.5 Blencoe Bends

 670-676.5 Little Sioux Reach



 JS6-6VO  Little Sioux Bend




 663-666  Bullard  Bend


 661-663  Soldier  Bend

 657.5-661 Peterson Cut-Off

 655-657.5 Sandy  Point  Bend

 651-655  Tysons  Bend

 649-651  California  Cut-Off

  648-649  Blair
  644-648 DeSoto Bend


  642-644 DeSoto Cut-Off



  637-642 Calhoun Bends


  634-637 Boyer Bend

  631-634 Rockport Bends



  626.5-631 Pigeon Creek Bends





  623.5-626.5 Florence Bend
                 IOWA (east side of river)

(Confluence of Big Sioux and Missouri Rivers) - 734
(3) Rivercade Flotilla (several boat clubs plus USCG
      Auxiliary)
(9) Perry Creek inlet - 732.2
(4) Commercial fishing
(9) Drainage - 731.8
(3)(4) City Park (Boating,  traterskilng,  picnic, etc)
(8) Rock barge - 731.8
(8) Kay Dee Chemical (Ammonia plant) - 731.8
(9) Stockyards drainage

(7) Intermittent irrigation
(9) AFB primary plant outfall

(9) Terra Chemical Plant (Ammonia)



(2) Iowa Power and Light Co.-75 MGD Cooling Water-718.3
(8) Borden's Chemical (Ammonia storage)

(Planned Snyder-Winnebago Recreational Coaplex-709 to 716)



(9) Sloan  (pop 600) secondary plant outfall
                                                                                                  NEBRASKA (west side of river)
                                                                                           (9) So. Sioux City dump - 733
                                                                                           (9) Drainage - 732.5
                                                                                           (3) Thacker's Marina - 30 boats - 732.5
                                                                                           (3) So. Sioux Marina - 75 boats - 732.2
                                                                                           (3) City Park - boat ramp
                                                                                           (4) Commercial fishing
                                                          (7)  Intermittent irrigation
                                                          (3)  Rich's Marina-20 boats-726.5 (Hike
                                                                Rich,  Sioux City)
                                                          (9)  Iowa Beef Packers effluent
                                                          (9)  Dakota City (pop. 600) effluent

                                                          (4)  Commercial fishing (James and Hobt,
                                                                Satterwalte)
                                                          (3)(4) Omadi State Park
 (9) Township dump
 (3) Lighthouse Marina - 20 boats

     (Planned Blackbird Bend Recreation Area)
 (3) Ivy Island Area

 (4)(5) Onawa Material Yards - County Conservation Area


 (3) Marina-Tekamah Boat Club - 20 boats (Robt. Aronson)
 (3)(4)(5) County Conservation Area

 (5) Louisville Bend State Refuge
 (3)(4)(5) County Conservation Area
 (9) Kleghorn ditch (from Onawa and Whiting)
(4)(5) Deer Island Recreation Area
 (4)(5) Three Rivers Recreation Area
 (4)(5) Little Sioux Delta Recreation Area
 (3) Marina - 5 boats (Elwood Peterson)
 (7) Intermittent Irrigation

 (4) Commercial (Chas. Hilton)
 (3) Marina - 10 boats - cabins (Ivy Lane)
     Soldier Bend Recreation Area
  (3)  Tyson Bend Recreation  Area
  (3)(4)(5)  California  State  Recreation  Area  and Refuge

  (3)  Rand Access  (Recreation Area under development)
  (4)(5)  Rand  Bar  Recreation  Area
  (3)(4)(5)  National  wildlife Refuge (Kermit  Dybsetter,


  (3)(4)  Wilson Island Recreation Area
  (3)  Boat ramp
  (3)  Boat dock
  (3)  Goose Haven Cabins
                                                            (3)(4) Sandstone Bayou Recreation  Area  -
                                                                    Boating
                                                            (6) Cattle access area

                                                            (3)(4) Big Elk Park
                                                           (3)  Decatur Marina-cablns-50 boats
                                                                 (Earl Hlghtree)
                                                           (8)  Tobin's  Island (C of E terminal)
                                                            (3)(4) Masonic Area

                                                            (6) Cattle feeders-(John Schneider and
                                                                  Wm. Lydlck)
                                                            (3)(4) Lydick1 s Lake
                                                           (3) Bullard Bend Hunting Area
                                                             (3) Cottonwood Marlna-50 boats - 20 cabins
                                                                   (Duane Spanton)
                                                            (8) Gulf Chemical (Ammonia Storage)
                                                            (8) National Alfalfa Dehydrating and
                                                                 Milling Co.
                                                            (3) Public boat ramp
                                                            (3)(8) Kelly Ryan-Farm Equipment manufacture
                                                            (8) Alfalfa Hilling Co.
                                                            (8) Chemical storage (Ammonia)

                                                            (4) Commercial (Pat Mallett and James
                                                                 Ryan, Blair)

                                                            (3) Waterfowl hunting area
                                                               (Nuclear Power Plant under construction-
                                                                  Omaha Public Power District)
                                                             (8)  Limestone  guarry docks
                                                             (3)  Boat dock
                                                             (3)  Marina-30 boats-Surfslde North
                                                                   (Robt.  Vondrasek)

                                                             (3)  Boat dock
                                                             (3)  Recreation Area (under development)
                                                             (>  Gov't Maintenance Base (C of E)
                                                             (3)  Boat ramp - (Dodge Park under
                                                                   development-picnic area, cabins)
                                                                                             (1) Omaha M.U.D.-capacity-140 MGD; use
                                                                                                   thru 1968- 65 MGD; current use- 40 MGD;
                                                                                                   after 1982- 70 MGD; (Robt. Bell,
                                                                                                   Director; Richard Hawes, Hgr of Water
                                                                                                   Supply)
                                                                                             (2) Omaha Public Power Dist. - cooling use-
                                                                                                   210 MGD (Ted Hartung, Director)
     Location  is  referenced  to channel mileage as  indicated  in Corps of Engineers publications:
     1) Omaha  District  "Missouri River-Ponca  to Rulo, Nebr." - 30 June 1968
     2) Kansas City  District "Part  1, River and Harbor Projects" - 30 June 1968

-------
                                                                                                                                            53
          EXISTING WATER USES

           LOCATION*
623.5-626.5 Florence Bend-
              Continued
618-623.5 The Narrow*
615-618 Council Bend
                                                       TABLE-IV-A-2 (Cont'd)


                              OF THE MISSOURI RIVER KNOWN TO THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION--Contlnued
612-615 Omaha Bend
607.5-612 Gibson Bend


605-607.5 Manaws Bend
601-605 Bellvue Bend
 598-601 Bellvue Reaches


 596-598 St. Marys Cut-Off
 594-596 Papllllon Bend
 589-594  Plattsmouth Bends
 585-589  Tobacco Bend

'583-585  Bluff  Bend

 582-583  Calumet

 579-582  Bartlett  Bend

 576-579  Pin Hook  Bend

 574-576  Van Horns Bend

 570-574  Civil  Bends

563-570  Copeland  Bends


 560-563  Nebraska  Bend
 557-560 Frazlers Bead

 555.5-557 otoe Bend

 551-555.5 Hamburg Bends



 547-551 Barney Bends

 543.5-547 Kansas Bends

 542-543.5 Nlshnabotna Bend


 540-542 Peru Bend

 535-540 Sonora Bends
 532-535 Brownvllle Bends
                                                 IOWA (east side of river)
                                   (Car body smelter under construction)
                                (1) City of Co. Bluffs water Intake; capaclty-11 HGD;
                                      current use-7 MOD; alter 1982-   USD; Barney Re,
                                      Mgr.
                                (9) Outfall from City primary plant (39,000 P.E.)


                                (3) Boat Dock
                                (8) Peavey Co. of Omaha Terminal
                                (9) Rendering Plant (600 P.E.)
(3) Boat Ramp


(3)(4> Pottawattamie County Conservation Area (State
         Rec. Area under development)
(2) Iowa Power and Light Plant-cooling;  68 KGD;  (John
      Thorson, Mgr.)
                                 (3)(4) Boat Landing
 (3) Boat ramp
 (3) Boat Dock
                                 (5)  State  Wildlife  refuge
                                 (3)(4)  Boat  ramp -  Waubonsie  River  Access
 (3)(4)(8)  Hamburg Boat  Landing

             MISSOURI  (east  side  of  rlver)-552.6
    (Confluence of Nishnabotna and Missouri Rivers)-542
                                 (3) Boat Landing
                                                                  'NEBRASKA (west side of river)

                                                           (8) West Central Co-op Grain Co. Terminal
                                                           (8) Pentzien, Inc. Boatways
                                                           (8) Mo. Portland Cement Co. Terminal
                                                           (8) Cargo Carriers Terminal
                                                           (6) Cattle feed lot

                                                           (3) River Club Marlna-50 boats
                                                           (8) Aaron Ferer Scrap Metal
                                                           (8) Archer-Daniels Midland Co. Terminal
                                                           (8) Sioux City and New Orleans Terminals
                                                           (8) Carglll, Inc. Terminal
                                                           (8) Municipal Dock
                                                           (9) Omaha Packing Co. (2600 P.E.)
                                                           (9) Outfall from City Primary plant
                                                                 (750,000 P.E.)
                                                           (8) Cargill, Inc. Terminal
(9) Outfalls from Packing Bouses and
      Stockyards
(3) Boat Landing
(4) Commercial (Emil Dusek, Omaha)
(9) Quaker Oats Furfural (250,000 P.E.)

(8) Mo. Valley Inc. Terminal

(3)(5) Fontenelle Forest (nature park-
         refuge) (James Malkowskl, Mgr.)
                                                           (3) Boat Dock
                                                           (9) Outfall from Bellvue primary plant
                                                                 (5200 P.E.)
                                                           (2) Nebr. Public Power Dist.; Usage-
                                                                 25 MGS (R. J. Rhodes,  Mgr.)
                                                           (3) Boat ramps - City Recreation Area

                                                           (3) Offutt Lake Intake - Boating lor AFB
                                                           (4) Sport

                                                           (8)(9) Allied Chemical Plant
                                                           (3) Boating-developed area
                                                           (4) Commercial Fishing (Melvln Barr,
                                                                 Plattsmouth)

                                                               (Confluence of Platte and Missouri
                                                                  Rivers) - 594 to 595
                                                           (5) State Wildlife Management Area
                                                                 (Gary Drowns, Mgr.)

                                                           (3)(4)(8) Municipal Dock - Boat Bamp
                                                                       Plattsmouth Boat Club-30 boats
                                                           (9) Outfall from Plattsmouth primary plant
                                                                 (3600 P.E.)
                                                            (8) Equity Union Grain Co.  Terminal
                                                            (8) Rock  Dock  -  Quarry
                                                            (3)(4) Boat  Ramp
                                                            Riverview State Rec.  Area

                                                            (8)  Steinhart  Terminal  (City wells  near
                                                                 River-Vern  Livingston)(873-3353)
                                                            (3)(4) Boat  Ramp
                                                            (8)  Hid  States Grain  Terminal
                                                            (8)   Bartlett Grain  Co.  Terminal
                                                            (8)   steinhard Terminal-Municipal  Dock
                                                            (9)  Outfall  from  Nebr City primary  plant
                                                                 (12,000  P.E.)
                                                            (8)  Nebr City  Dock and  Grain Terminal
                                                            (3)  Boat Ramps
 (3)  Boat  Ramp

 (3)  Boat  Ramp

 (3)  Boat  Landing
 (4)  Commercial (Ramon "Dutch" Henry,  Peru)

 (9)  Peru  Secondary Plant (250 P.E.)
                                                                                            (8) Continental Grain Co. Terminal
                                                                                            (8) Brownville Grain Co. Terminal
                                                                                                  (Mr. Holland)
                                                                                            (3) Boat Ramp

-------
                                                                                          ft  E
                                                                                         O

                                                                                             M Ift O

                                                                                         *-> O Cl r-4
                                                                                             C  W -M

                                                                                          O O  ^ d

                                                                                         rH 3  0)
                                                                                          p t-t  > H
I
                                                     a  
                                                     c   t
                                                                                                                                        o  o
                                                                                                                                       m u
                                                                                                                                                                                         IT oo n r: ri
                                       0

                                      I
I

-------
                                                                         55
     2.   PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES




     Withdrawals for public water supply needs  represent  the  water  use




among the highest protection level requirements and  value in  the  area




 b'eing considered.  TLo cities of Council Bluffs,  Iowa;  Omaha,  Nebraska




 and St.  Joseph, Missouri  use the Missouri  River as  a source  of supply.




 These three withdrawals  combined are  approximately  62  million gallons




 of water per day.




     Withdrawal and use of water for public consumption,  which is con-




 taminated by inadequately treated wastes,  is not consistent  with accepted




 practices for the  protection of public  health  and welfare.




     3.   OUTDOOR RECREATION




     In an attempt  to identify  and analyze  the  recreational assets  and




 uses of we-te-n Iowa and  the Missouri River, many pertinent  recreation




 reports, studies,  and plans were reviewed.  Based on this review,




 Appendix C was prepared which  is entitled  Outdoor Recreation  end .'ater




 Pollution in Western Iowa and  Along; the Missouri River.  This appendix




 should  be referred to as  it contains detailed  and descriptive informa-




 tion on the recreation resources of this area.




     The numerous documents reviewed were prepared by various  govern-




 mental  agencies and represent  the findings  and recommendations of




 exhaustive efforts.   All  appear to be unanimous  in  their conclusions




 of the  Missouri River that recreation is an existing use; that there




 is a latent and growing demand for additional  resources  and  facilities;




 and that the area  is capable of meeting the unsatisfied  needs and
                               IV-6

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56
   demands.   Furthermore,  the Missouri  River  and  its  immediate  environment




   can provide recreational opportunities  beyond  those  required by  the




   resident  population.




      Present recreation use along the  Missouri River in  Iowa has not




   met its potential  for the amount of  land and water acreage involved.




   While being light,  however,  it appears  that most recreation  activities




   are participated in with sightseeing, boating,  picnicking, and fishing




   as the most popular.   There  are over 30 known  developed  recreation




   areas along the Missouri River in Iowa.  Included  among  this list are




   boat clubs, marinas,  city parks,  conservation  areas, refuges, recreation




   areas, boat rarnps,  commercial  cabins, boat docks,  and  boat landing sites.




   There are even a greater number of recreation  areas  on the Nebraska  side




   of the river.   These  generally include  the Scime type of  areas as in  Iowa;




   however,  the list  is  expanded  to include State parks,  wildlife management




   area, nature park,  waterfowl hunting areas, and a  river  club.




      While  this  relates a direct use of the  river at developed recreation




   sites, there is undoubtedly  a  considerable amount  of use that occurs  in




   the natural undeveloped reaches for  such activities  as hunting,  hiking,




   camping,nuturc study, fishing, etc.   Also, there is  undoubtedly  a




   significant c.-.r.oant  of use resulting  from persons driving roads and trails




   in quest  of pleasure  drives  and sightseeing.




      Water  skiing surprisingly is enjoyed even though  the  river contains




   a high silt load.   Swlvuning  is not considered  a common activity  due  in




   large measure  f.o the  dangerous water conditions and  high turbidity.  In




   the Sioux City area there is an annual  canoe race  on the river which is




   well attended.  Fish  species in this stretch of the Missouri include







                                   IV-7

-------
                                                                           57
catfish, drum, crappie, black bass, white bass, walleye, ??.uger and




paddlefish.




     The Corps of Engineers estimate that 250,000 visitor-clays are presently




initiated at limited access points between Sioux City and Rulo, Nebraska,




which includes the stretch of the Missouri River in Iowa.  For comparative




purposes, another projection might be useful  that of f isherna.n-days on  the




80-mile stretch of the Missouri between Sioux City and Yankton, South Dakota.




The BSF&.W estimates that 32,000 fisherman-days occur annually.  This




stretch of the river below the Gavins Point Dam, is immediately upstream




from the Iowa border.  It is not affected by multi-source wastt discharges.




     Figures compiled fro-.r data in Iowa's outdoor recreation plan indicate




that SOPC 52 million days of recreation use, by residents 12 years and




older, occurred in the western region of Iowa in 1955.  Driving for




pleasure, picnicking, sightseeing, and walking for pleasure were the most




popular activities sought.  Although an exact neasurement of pre?e-; u-se




is unavailable, it can readily be seen that the Missouri River is used




for recreation purposes.




     Pe-'usps the best way to depict the recreation potential of the




Missouri River is to outline the more significant actions proposed,  and




express some of the pertinent extracts from the reference material.   Fore-




most, is the establishment of the Lewis and Clnrk Trail along the. full




route of the Missouri River.   Since Congress established the Lewis and




Clark Trail Commission in 19GA,  the Missouri River has been recognized as




a national resource worthy of development to a far greater dsgree than




heretofore.  The purpose of this act was to create an appreciation of the
                                IV-8

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58






resources, encourage their conservation,  and to promote  the  protection




and development of outdoor recreation resources along the  route  for public




use and enjoyment.  The development plan prepared by the Bureau  of  Outdoor




Recreation provides for many and varied resources linked along the  entire




route to satisfy the full spectrum of recreation activities  from the most




active to the most passive.  Some 35 recreation sites were  identified for




construction by the Corps of Engineers between Sioux City  and Rulo, Nebraska.




     The National Commission, in association with all of the affected States




including the Iowa State Lewis and Clark Trail Committee,  is now implement-



ing those actions necessary to achieve the national objectives.   To date,




one of the principal tasks has been accomplished--that is, the marking and




historical interpretation of the route on the roads which  parallel, adjoin,




and otherwise provide access to the river.  Among the problems mentioned




as confronting full attainment of the recognized goals is  water pollution.




The Commission specifically recommended that the FWPCA give  continuing




attention to the abatement and control of water pollution and that States




also take steps to strengthen measures to reduce water pollution along




the Trail route.




     The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation's preliminary report on the Middle




Missouri Tributaries Subregion  (part of the MBIAC Framework Study) indicated




that increased future  recreation demands would result as  "greater  interest




in the Missouri River  as a play area, as pollution and  silcation control




result in clearer and  cleaner waters and greater interest in and use  of




the Missouri River as  the Lewis and Clark Trail plans are completed."




Further,  "That the most  pressing current needs are  for  development of
                                 IV-9

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                                                                          59
planned boat access points on and access to the river and  improvement  and




development of the Missouri River Oxbow Lakes."  Finally,  "The most




important and widely mentioned Type I potential is the promotion and




development of recreation sites, roads, trails, signs, interpretive




facilities, and other improvements in connection with the  Lewis and  Clark




Trail."




     In the MBIAC May 1968 Missouri River main stem study, it was esti-




mated that recreation demand would be 10,520,000 activity-days by 1980




exclusive of fishing and hunting.  This generally involves the main  stem




from Yankton, South Dakota, to St. Joseph, Missouri, and includes the




Missouri through Iowa.  Sightseeing accounted for 40 percent of the  esti-




mated use.  Of significance in this report is that 33 percent of the water




oriented needs could be met by the main stem of the Missouri in 1980.




Based on data in Iowa's outdoor recreation plan, recreation use by resi-




dents 12 years or older, is expected to be over 54 million days in 1980,




in the western counties.




     Speaking at a 1964 MBIAC meeting, the Planning Director of the  Iowa




State Conservation Commission discussed Iowa's long range recreation plans.




Of importance is this statement, "The Missouri, on our western boundary,




probably has the greatest potential for recreational development of  any




one area that we could mention.  With flood control a reality, a stable




river channel, navigation and other factors of progress, we suspect  a




major buildup of people along the Missouri."




     The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife has projected capacity




figures  for fisherman use along the 161-mile stretch of the Missouri
                              IV-10

-------
6o
 River in Iowa.  The 71 miles from Sioux City through Burt County, they




 estimate the capacity is 125 fisherman-days per mile per year.  In the




 lower 90 miles, it is reduced to 25 fisherman-days per mile per year.




 Thus, the  river's total capacity is 11,125 fisherman-days per year.  This




 is  for the entire river and would be halved if Iowa's portion would be




 separated.  It should be pointed out that these figures represent capacity,




 not actual use.




      As in the case of existing recreation use, potential use defies




 exact measurement for the Missouri River in Iowa.  However, it has been




 plainly demonstrated that the Missouri River, and its immediate enviorn-




 ment, offer tremendous opportunity for public use and enjoyment to both




 the local  resident and the nation as a whole.  The future use will expand




 commensurate with access and facilities.  It can be expected  that use on




 the waters of  the Missouri will principally be in the form of fishing and




 boating, and on the adjoining lands in the form of sightseeing, picnicking,




 hiking, driving and walking  for pleasure, and in historical interpretation.




      4.  COMMERCIAL FISHING



      Thirty-six separate commerical fishing use points were identified




 in  the conference area.  Of this total, 17 were located in the State of




 Iowa and the remaining 19 in the States of Nebraska and Missouri.  Tlio




 true intensity of commercial fishing demand is probably not reflected




 by  these figures, since the use points were identified by interview




 and not check of the numbers of commercial fishing permits issued by




 conservation agencies.
                                  IV-11

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                                                                          6i
    5.  WILDLIFE HABITAT




    The conference area is in one of the major migratory bird  flyways.




Consequently,  many of the marsh and wetland areas  serve as nesting or




temporary resting sites for waterfowl in their annual migrations.




Thirteen conservation or waterfowl hunting locations were located  by survey




along the Missouri River stressing the importance  of the area  in main-




taining suitable waterfowl populations in the flyway.  With increasing




interest and enthusiasm by the sporting and conservation groups, it




is expected that many additional areas will be reserved in the future




for the support of wildlife.




    6.  INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY




    Discrete industrial water supply users identified by the synoptic




survey numbered six.  Of this total, two were located in Iowa and




the remaining four in Missouri and Nebraska.  Future economic develop-




ment of the major metropolitan areas will undoubtedly be based on




industrial growth and an increase in the industrial water use can be




expected.  Unidentified are the numerous industries obtaining their




water supply from municipalities.




    7.  NAVIGATION




    Navigation is an important use of the Missouri River.  The Federal




Government has invested millions of dollars in structures to maintain




and improve a navigable channel in the river.  Each year efforts are




made, weather depending, to extend the navigation season.  The brief




survey identified a total of 39 navigation installations to assist in
                                 IV-12

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62
  loading materials  on and  off  the  river  barges.  A  premise  for  future




  development  of  the conference  area  certainly trust  be ir-ore  extensive




  use of waterborne  conrr.erce.




       8.  AGRICULTURAL WITHDI^AWALS




       Only  two distinct  agricultural withdrawal points were located by




  the Department  of  the Interior  survey.  More intensive  farming practices




  on the flood protected  plains  bordering the river  would  certainly




  increase the quantity of  water  for  agricultural usage through  supple-




  mental irrigation.




       9.  ANIMAL V;ATERIKG




       The animal watering  usage  on  the rmin steri was  found  entirely in




  the State  of Nebraska.




      10.  GENERAL




       At the  present tirre,  the  primary uses of  the  Missouri River are




  domestic water  supply,  navigation,  recreation  and  commercial  fishing.




  Other use  categories identified ere in  the infancy of growth.   Futar3




  development  of  the area will  see  a more intensive  water  v.se in oach




  category.
                                   IV-13

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                                                                         63
IV-B - EXISTING WASTE SOURCES




     1.  MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCES




     A tabulation of municipal waste treatment systems discharging into




the main stem of the Missouri River between Gavins Point Dam and the Iowa-




Missouri State line and all municipal waste treatment systems in the State




of Iowa discharging to tributaries of the Missouri River is included on




pages IV-24 and IV-30.




     Most treatment facilities constructed or enlarged since 1956 have




utilized Federal construction grants.  These treatment facilities were




constructed at a total cost of $40,283,174 including Federal grants




amounting to $6,170,645.




     All towns and cities located on the main stem section of the Missouri




River, with the exception of Omaha, have at least primary waste treatment




facilities in operation at the present time.  The existing treatment




facilities for the city of Omaha will eventually receive all wastes




from land areas draining directly to the Missouri River, but at the




present time are only capable of treating approximately 50 percent of




the wastes.  Omaha has under construction facilities which will pretreat




industrial wastes.  When these are completed, all wastes will receive




primary treatment.




     Of the 14 municipalities along the Missouri River between Yankton




and Rulo, nine provide only primary treatment and the other five provide




secondary.  On Missouri River Basin interstate streams in Iowa there are




28 cities with sewage systems.  Eighteen provide secondary, eight only




 primary,  two discharge to.adjoining municipalities, and two provide




no treatment of their wastes.  Of the 118







                                   IV-14

-------
municipal discharges to intrastate waters, 94 receive secondary

treatment, 15 primary and 9 have no treatment.

                      Total Number of Treatment Facilities

                          Secondary                117

                          Primary                   32

                          None                      11
                                   TOTAL           160

     Wastes discharged to these 160 municipal sewerage systems have

a total estimated population equivalent of 3,500,000.  Secondary

treatment is provided for only about 48 percent of this connected

load.  Fifty-one percent of the waste loading is discharged to 31

plants which provide primary treatment.  Less than one percent of

the wastes is discharged without treatment.

     2.  INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER SEPAPATE WASTE SOURCES

     There are two hospital installations, one chemical plant aid a

rendering company and eight packing plants of varying sizes in western

Iowa with separate waste systems.  Their combined waste loadings

before treatment are estimated to equal 342,000 population equivalents

(P.E.).  The rendering company at Alton, Iowa, is discharging raw

wastes to a stream.  The remaining nine plants (1 chemical and eight

packing) operate their own treatment facilities which provide an

estimated BOD removal of over 85 percent.  Seven large meat packing

companies in this group account for about 337,000 P.E.'s.   Significant

industrial or other waste disposal systems are listed in Table IV-B-1.

The estimated flow from these seven plants is about six million gallons

per day.
                                 IV-15

-------
                            TABLE  IV-B-1
            Major Industrl-1 and Other Separate Waste Systems
Missouri Basin - Iowa
City
Harlan
Oakland
Oakland
Glenwood
Denison
Denison
Cherokee
LeMars
Alton
Sioux City
Glenwood
Cherokee
Reported
Design Data
P.E.(BOD) Flow (gpd)
Western Iowa Pork
American Beef Packers
Oakland Beef Feeders
Swift & Company
Iowa Beef
Farmbest
Wilson & Company
Blue Ribbon Beef
Rendering Co. (No Trmt.)
Terra Chemical Co.
State Hospital
Mental Health Institute
24,250
21,600
-
38,650
76,800
64 , 500
84,600
26,450
200
-
3,070
1 , 500
390,000
720,000
-
1,000,000
960.000
850,000
1,300,000
800,000
-
700,000
432,000
200,000
Reported
Efficiency
95%
95+%
(1)
(2)
98 . 5%
857o(3)
98+%
(1)
0
<*)
85%
35%
(1)  No surface effluent

(2)  Packing plant and treatment facility under  construction.
     (Estimated completion April 1969.)

(3)  Surfpac filter unit under construction.

(4)  Ammonia waste - 1.5 day of flow equalization in ponds.
                                 IV-16

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66

      The Iowa Directory of Industries lists in the Missouri Basin in

 Iowa the following number of industries by selected classification:

           Food and Kindred Products          121

           Chemical and Allied Products        29

           Petroleum Products                   3

           Rubber and Plastics                 10

           Primary Metals                       3

           Electro Plating                    	1
                      TOTAL                   167

      Many of these industries discharge their wastes to municipal sewerage

 systems.

      The number of industrial waste sources relating to meat processing

 is a reflection of the extent of agricultural activity in the conference

 area.

      3.  FEDERAL INSTALLATIONS

      There are five significant Federal installations on or near the

 Missouri River bordering the State of Iowa.

      The Corps of Engineers' dock and service base at Omaha is served

 by a septic tank and subsurface soil absorption system.  The DeSoto

 National Wildlife Refuge has a number of waste treatment systems.  The

 headquarters and major recreational areas are served by seven septic tanks

 and subsurface soil absorption systems.  All of these are of adequate

 size and are functioning satisfactorily.  Some of the low use areas in

 the refuge are served by pit or vault toilets.  All of the pit toilets

 are scheduled for replacement by more adequate facilities.

      The Offutt Air Force Base has a complete sewage system.  The wastes
                                 IV-17

-------
                                                                        67
have a volume of 1.1 tngd with an estimated P.E.  strength of 14,700.   The




treatment facilities provide an 88 percent removal of BOD.   The effluent




has an estimated P.E. of 1,800 and discharges to Papillion Creek about




1\ miles above the confluence with the Missouri River.




     The Omaha Air Force station has been deactivated; however, a por-




tion of this station will be operated by the Federal Aviation Administra-




tion.  The existing septic tank-lagoon is adequate for the  loading.   The




effluent is discharged to a small watercourse several miles from its




confluence with the Missouri River.




     The Sioux City Air Base operated as a tenant of the Sioux City




Municipal airport until 1 July 68 when the base  was deactivated.   The




City of Sioux City continues to provide sewage service for  some housing




that remains in use.  A lagoon provides treatment for the wastes.  This




flow will be intercepted and the lagoon abandoned upon completion of an




interceptor sewer now under construction.  Some  wastes from the airport




and Sergeant Bluff also discharge to the lagoon.




     Winnebago Indian Agency has a complete sewerage system.   The wastes




are estimated to have a volume of 600 gpd with an estimated strength




of 100 P.E.'s.   Treatment provides a 90 percent  removal of  BOD.   The




lagoon which provides the treatment  had no overflow as of Kay 1968




and at the time of this inspection,  the water level was from 1 to 2




feet below the overflow level.




     4.  UATERCRAFT POLLUTION SOURCES




     a.  Recreation Craft




     There are no available compiled records of  recreational  boating on




the main stem of the Missouri in the area.   There are reports that
                               IV-18

-------
68
a number of houseboats are seasonally anchored below Gavins Point Dam




on the main stem of the Missouri River.  Houseboats and floating dormitories




are usually anchored during the warmer season in sheltered coves.




     There are a number of marinas for the launching and servicing of




recreational craft and the indications are that the recreational use




of this stretch of the Missouri River will increase.  As of December 1968,




approximately 70,000 boats are registered by the Iowa Conservation




Commission and 10,250 by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission.  A




question regarding available onboard toilet facilities is included in




the Iowa registration form.  It is estimated less than one percent of




the registered boats have toilet facilities.




     Meetings have been held by the Conservation and Health Departments




of Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota for the purpose of discussing uniform




watercraft regulations to avoid difficulties that would result from non-




uniform requirements.  Regulations requiring holding tanks for storage




of water from marine toilets will be considered by States as a positive




means of control.  An agreement has been reached among the State agencies




and the Corps of Engineers requiring "pump out" facilities in the newly




developed marinas to accommodate boats with holding tanks.




     b.  Commercial Craft




     The river has considerable commercial use.  There are 29 commercial




towboats operating on the Missouri River.  There were 319 tows during




1968 with an average of 15 tows on the river daily, with a total operation




of 97,700 hours during the year.  Table IV-B-2 shows the operating time




in 1966 and the types of waste disposal provided on the commercial and




Federal boats.
                                IV-19

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                                                                         69
     A  trial run of transporting cattle by barge apparently was quite




successful and there may be additional barging of cattle on the river.




Should  this practice be continued, it could result in considerable




pollution with the washing overboard of animal wastes.




     c.  Accidental Spills and Discharges




     Accidental spills may result from collisions, sinking of barges




or the  loss overboard of open containers.  Spills may also result




from the servicing of boats which could introduce oil, gasoline or




grease  into the water.  This discharge of petroleum material may result




in fire hazards and affect taste and odor of water used for domestic




purposes.  Discoloration of vessels, piers, docks and other water




structures will also occur.




     Serious land-based spills have occurred.  One resulted from a fire




at a chemical plant in Omaha.  Two were the result of a ruptured storage




tank of fertilizer chemical in the Sioux City area.  Public water supplies




were endangered snd a fish kill occurred.




     5.  Agricultural Waste Sources.




     The study area in Iowa includes the western reaches of the Corn




Belt with extensive feeding areas of both cattle and hogs.   It includes




the drainage area of the Big Sioux River below Sioux Falls  and the




Missouri River from Sioux City, Iowa, downstream to St.  Joseph, Missouri.




     Surveillance station data indicate that the Nebraska-Iowa-Missouri




reach of the Missouri River at times carries an organic pollution burden




equal to that of the discharge of the untreated wastes of 80,000,000




people.  This loading, then exceeds by 10 times the human population of




the entire basin.   The pollution of the basin caused by industrial




activity may equal  that of the population;  therefore,  the balance must




                                IV-20

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70
                                        TABLE IV-B-2
               Commercial and Federal Watercraft Operating in the Mis s outIBa s i n
       Type
       Craft

     Dredge

     Towboat

     Launch
                                          Op. Time 1966
                     Avg.       No      Avg.
                    Pass.      Craft    Days  Hrs.
    Owned or        & Crew     in      Per   Per
   Operated By,	Ea._]3oa_t Operation  Boat  Day  Months  Type Disposal
Army Engrs.,  Omaha

Army Engrs.,  Omaha

Army Engrs.,  Omaha
     Survey Boat  Army Engrs., Omaha

     Survey Boat  Army Engrs., Omaha
53       1        000   Central Aerobic

 2       4      150    8         Package Maceration

 2       4       40    8         Package Mflcerat'on

 2       1      176    8         Package Maceration

 3       2      150    8         Package Maceration
     Cutter
                  Coast Guard
                                          13
     Work Boats   River Const.
                  Cntrctrs.

     Pile Drivsr  River Const.
                  Cntrctrs.
                                                 44
                                18
                                        170
                                         70
                                              24      9    Pnckag^ Maceration
                                                   ea .
                                                         N.->ne
     Towboats
                  Commercial Barge
                  Li ncs
                                         14
                               *29     **25i'.    24
                                                                           None-
     *Total of 29  commercial  towboats  in Missouri  River  service  and  an  nvera?, >  of  Lt>  arc

     in river dai 1 v.


     **258  is average  for  ib  towboats  with  total  operation  91,000  hours for  1966.

     Total  number  of trios  in 1966  was 359.
                                           IV-21

-------
                                                                          71






represent that caused by agricultural endeavors and so-called natural




sources.



     The main cause* of agricultural associated water pollution are:




(1) sediments; (2) nutrients; (3) chemicals; and (4) animal wastes.




     Some four billion tons of sediment are washed into tributary




streams in the United States each year.  The estimated losses incurred




by such pollution and the inherent problems cost the American people




half a billion dollars annually.  Heavy rains cause large amounts of




silt, debris and other solid materials to be carried into the river.




As the river level rises, turbidity, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)




and bacterial count increase tremendously.  After the river crests and falls




back to lower stages, the turbidity, BOD and bacterial count all decline.




This physical and biological pollution phenomena is largely the result




of agricultural operations.




     Land runoff and natural drainage contribute significant quantities




of silt and other materials which are carried as a suspended load by




the Missouri River.  The silt portion, including valuable top soil is




reflected by the four-fold increase in turbidity observed between Gavins




Point Dam and St. Joseph.  The sediment load causes economic damages




to water users as exemplified by increased water treatment costs at




municipalities, high channel and harbor maintenance costs for navigation




interests, depressed esthetic values for recreational uses, and fish




kills associated with sediment clogged gills.




     Land runoff can increase the bacteriological content and the nutrient




level of the waters.  Fertilizer usage is extensive in Iowa.  Iowa is




number 2 in the Nation in consumption of primary plant nutrients using




636,250 tons of N, 345,656 tons available P205 , 282,308 tons of K20




                                IV-22

-------
72
   for a grand total of 1,264,214  tons  of fertilizer  in  the  year  ending




   June 30,  1968,   This represents approximately  nine percent  of  the  total




   fertilizer used in the United States.




         Studies on land runoff have  shown that 10-25 percent  of  the




   fertilizers applied to the land may  be lost  through drainage.




         Iowa is the leading State in the United  States  in the production




   of swine  and beef cattle and is among  the leaders  in  the  production of




   other meat animals.  There are  approximately 46,000 feeder  lots  in the




   State and the 1967 marketing statistics show four  million fifty-seven




   thousand  beef cattle sold.  The population equivalent (P.E) of livestock




   on Iowa farms in the Missouri drainage, based  on  the  BOD  of the  animal




   wastes, is over 65 million.  This includes approximately 3,300,000




   cattle and calves and 6,100,000 hogs  and pigs on farms.
                                    IV-23

-------
                                                                                                                                    73
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-------
                                                                        81






IV-C - IMPACT OF WATER QUALITY ON USE







     Current information on the changes in water quality of the




Missouri River as the reach between Gavins Point Dam and St. Joseph




is available from tv?o sources.  These are the FWPCA water quality




monitoring stations at Yankton, South Dakota; Omaha, Nebraska; and




St. Joseph, Missouri and the results from the baseline survey




conducted in October 1968 and January 1969.  These data demonstrate




significant quaiity degradation downstream from the Iowa-South Dakota




Border.




    Samples from the Gavins Point Dam releases and at the Yankton,




South Dakota monitoring show a relatively high quality water suit-




able for all recognized beneficial uses.  Turbidity, nutrient,




dissolved organics and bacterial indicator organism concentrations are




low and the biological habitat reflects essentially non-polluted




conditions.




    Doxvnstream from the Sioux City area the effects of waste




discharges are immediately reflected by the water quality changes.




Densities of bacterial indicator organisms increase significantly.




Concentrations of quality parameters indicative of recent pollution




such as nutrient levels (nitrogen and phosphorus), dissolved organics,




cyanides and phenol are increased.  There is also serious destruction of




the aquatic habitat in the Sioux City area.




    Below the Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area the river quality




again reflects the impact of waste discharges.  The aquatic habitat
                                 IV-32

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82
   for  a  distance  of  54 miles downstream supports numbers of pollution




   tolerant  organisms.  Densities of bacterial indicator organisms




   increase  sharply.  The  concentrations of dissolved organics as




   measured  by BOD and the nutrient concentrations are significantly




   higher.




       Overall, there is  a  significant deterioration of water quality




   between Gavins  Point Dam  and St. Joseph, Missouri.  This degradation




   is the result of point  source pollution from municipalities and




   industries and  from siltation caused by land runoff.  The existing




   data show a constantly  increasing suspended load of pollutants and




   turbidity carried  by the  Missouri River.  Detailed reports on the




   physical, chemical and  biological quality are contained in Appendixes




   A, B,  and F.




       The  physical, chemical and biological characteristics of an area's




   water  resource  have an  important impact on regional development patterns,




   overall  economics  and esthetic well-being of the area residents.




       The  eight  major use  categories considered applicable to the main




   stem reach of the  Missouri River under consideration in the conference




   report are discussed in Section IV-A.  How these use categories are




   affected  by present water quality conditions will be considered here.




       In  the National Technical Advisory Committee Report on "Water




   Quality  Criteria"  (April  1, 1968), the Subcommittee on Public Water




   Supplies  developed a tabulation of desirable criteria  for waters for




   public consumption.  Certain of these criteria are shown in Table IV-C-1,




       It  can be  assumed  that if a raw x^ater source which consistentlv
                                   IV-33

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                                                                                                       83



TABLE IV-C-1               SURFACE WATER CRITERIA FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES



           Constituent or  Characteristic       Permissible                   Desirable
                                                Criteria                     Criteria


Physical:

     Color  (color units) 		-75 	<10	

     Odor 			Virtually absent		-

     Temperature* -- 	do 	Narrative	--,	

     Turbidity 	do	Virtually absent	

Microbiological:

     CoHforra organisms		10,000/100 ml1 ---	<100/100 ml1 	-	

     Fecal  conforms 	-	2,000/100 oil1  		<20/100 ml1 	---

Inorganic Chemicals:                                     (<"g/l)                  (8/l)

     Alkalinity  -- 		Narrative 	Narrative  	

     Ammonia			-	0.5 (as N) -- 	<0.01  ---	---	-	

     Arsenic*	0.05 	Absent --		

     Barium*					1.0	 - 	do	 	

     Boron*	1.0	do	

     Cadmium*	0.01 	do	 	

     Chloride* --	-	--	250		<25 -- --				

     Chromium,*  hexavalent -..-..	0.05 	Absent	--

     Copper*			1.0			Virtually absent	

     Dissolved  oxygen  	5* 4  (monthly mean) 	Near saturation  	

                                              t>3 (individual sample)

     Fluoride*	-	Narrative		---Narrative	

     Hardness*	do--	do	

     Iron (filterable)  			0.3 	Virtually absent 	

     Lead*	--	---0.05 		Absent		 	

     Manganese* (filterable) --	0.05	---		do			

     Nitrates plus  nitrites*	10 (as N) 	Virtually absent			

     pH (range)	-	-	-	6.0-8.5		Narrative			

     Phosphorus*	Narrative	do	

     Selenium*	0.01 	Absent 	

     Silver* -	-	-	-	0.05 --	-		do	-	

     Sulfate*	--	-	-250	<50 ---	-	

     Total dissolved  solids*			500 -	-- -	<200	-

        (filterable residue).

     Uranyl ion* ---			5 --	--Absent	-

     Zinc*	-	-	5	-	--Virtually absent 	-

     *Most Common Treatment Processes Have Little Effect  on This  Constituent.
   JL/  See Original Reference   for  Discussion.
                                                  IV-34

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showed these desirable characteristics were available,  it would  represent




the  safest, cheapest possible source of domestic supply.  This  situation




is not encountered frequently in major urban areas and  hence consumers




must either settle for water of less desirable characteristics or pay




additional monies to have the water quality improved by treatment




processes.  Fortunately treatment processes exist which, at a price,




can convert almost any water including grossly polluted fresh water into




a potable product.  However, since the price of delivered water is




proportional to the quality of raw water source, prevention of water




quality degradation is of benefit to each  consumer and water treatment




becomes of  importance to all water users in downstream locations.




    The survey information demonstrates the presence of materials in




sufficient  concentrations which present problems to water treatment




plants.  The high bacterial densities  observed during normal flows were




in excess of those commonly accepted by standard public health  practice.




Heavy  silt  loads  increased treatment  costs and  created  sludge disposal




problems  and short  filter runs.   Phenols and  other  organic  material




when  combined with  chlorine  can  result in  taste  and  odor problems




causing consumer  complaints.   The presence of ammonia  in high concentra-




tions  greatly  increases  the  chlorine demand resulting  in higher water




treatment costs.  During storm runoff these problems are intensified.




    During the  synoptic  survey conducted by the Department  of the




Interior certain conditions,  as  outlined below, were discovered which




 indicate? substantial degradation of the water source from controllable




waste discharges.  The geometric mean coliform densities at all stations




 downstream from Sioux City,  Iowa in the reach being considered were in
                                    IV-35

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                                                                        85
excess of desirable criteria.   Nutrient levels encountered in the stream




increased below the first major waste source on the main stem and




throughout the reach under consideration.




     The levels of nutrients created are adequate to support excessive




biologic growths and generate taste and odor problems in water supplies.




     Water quality requirements for industrial uses vary widely but the




same general development as used for public supplies will hold in this




category.  In addition, it should be noted that desirable criteria for




contact recreation use are more stringent than for public water supply.




     In the case of esthetic appreciation and recreational values,




desirable characteristics expressed in "V?ater Quality Criteria" are in




Table IV-C-2.




     During the survey conducted by FWPCA personnel, many observations




were made which demonstrated a direct contravention of quality shown




in the above Table.  The survey biologists found areas of severe bio-




logical habitat degradation.  Many of the benthic organisms found were




those associated with polluted water.  Significant quantities of float-




ing debris including greaseballs the size of oranges were seen in the




river.  Traces of phenolics were measured in the water.  Phenol when




combined with chlorine will impart offending tastes.




     The undesirable esthetic and hazardous conditions created by solid,




floating, suspended, and dissolved material to boaters, water skiers,




waders, and fishermen demonstrates the need for improvements in




waste treatment.  The possible disease agents present with these
                             IV-36

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86
                               Table  IV-C-2
                    Water  Quality  Criteria  For  Esthetics
                              And Recreation
   A.   General  Requirements  For  Esthetics

        I.   All surface waters  should  be  capable  of  supporting life
            forms of esthetic value.

       II.   Surface waters should be  free of substances attributable
            to discharges or wastes as follows:

            (a)  Materials that will  settle to form objectionable deposits.

            (b)  Floating debris, oil, scum, and  other matter.

            (c)  Substances producing objectionable color, odor, taste,
                 or turbidity.

            (d)  Materials, including radionuclides, in concentrations or
                 combinations which are toxic or which produce undesirable
                 physiological responses in human, fish, and other animal
                 life and plants.

            (e)  Substances and conditions or combinations thereof in
                 concentrations which produce undesirable aquatic life.

   B.  Primary Contact Recreation Requirements

       I.   Criteria for mandatory factors.

            (a)  Fecal coliform should be used as the indicator organism
                 for evaluating the microbiological suitability of recrea-
                 tion waters.  As determined by multiple-tube  fermentation
                 or membrane filter procedures and based  on a  minimum  of
                 not less than  five samples for any 30-day period of the
                 recreation season, the fecal coliform content  of primary
                 contact recreation waters  shall  not exceed a  log mean of
                 200/100 ml, nor shall more than  10 percent of total samples
                 during  any 30-day period  exceed  400/100  ml.

             (b)  In primary contact recreation waters, the pH should be
                 within  the range  of  6.5  -  8.3 except when due to nat  iral
                 causes  and  in  no  case shall be  less than 5.0 nor more
                 than  9.0.  When the  pH  is  less  than 6.5  or more  than
                 8.3,  discharge of substances which further increases
                 unfavorable total acidity or alkalinity  should be  limited.
                                        IV-37

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                                                                        87
materials and the hazard presented to persons handling boats and




other gear coming in contact with these waters should not be overlooked.




In addition, this debris in the river can cause significant damages to




equipment.  The fouling of fish nets and boat hulls results in many




dollars in maintenance by the owners.  Many boaters have suffered




engine failures due to the destruction or clogging of cooling water




pumps by silt.  The larger more solid debris, when hit by a moving




boat, can puncture boat hulls with ease, causing a real danger to




life and limb.  The potential for pathogenic organisms to be present




is thoroughly documented by the high total and fecal coliform densities




measured in the river samples.  In common terms, densities of coliform




indicators found vary during normal flows from 2 to 250 per drop.




During storm flows these levels may rise as high as 2000 per drop.




    The main stem, as it flows through or by Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas




and Missouri, forms the historic center of Missouri River commercial




fishing.  Available records indicate that no significant commercial




fishery existed on the upper main stream in Montana and North Dakota




until the advent of the main stem reservoirs.




    Carp, buffalo and catfish have dominated the annual production of




river fishes since 1908.  These species have consistently comprised




over 92 percent of the catch.  A progressive decline has .occurred in




annual production since 1908.  In 1963 total production was 12 percent




of that of the 1908 catch, although showing constant percentages of




the three primary groups--carp, buffalo and catfish.  Since 190R there




has also been an accompanying decrease in numbers of commercial fisher-




men within the four-state area.  These declines are at least partially






                                   IV-38

-------
88
    attributed  to  a  progressive degradation of Missouri River water quality.




    In particular, some  of the recent  decrease in  fishing  pressures both




    in th  commercial and  private  sector  can  be  attributed to complaints




    concerning fish flesh  tainting.   Technical studies  to  identify com-




    pounds which taint fish flesh  are  a relatively undeveloped  and diffi-




    cult study area.  Definitive  results  and  clarification of the magnitude




    of the tainting problem and  its  specific  causes will be difficult to




    obtain.




        Closely related to the fishing resource  is the  use for  wildlife




    habitat.  Thirteen separate  conservation or  designated waterfowl




    hunting areas are located within the study reach.  In  addition perhaps,




    several hundred private "blinds" are constructed in the study reach




    during the fall months of the migration period.




        It is axiomatic that water quality that can be tolerated by, and is




    productive of fish and their food  organisms is generally adequate for




    waterfowl and their habitat.  Indeed, fish and many of the organisms




    upon which they  feed  are also important in the diet of many  species




    of wildlife;  e.g., loons, mergansers, other ducks, herons, otters,




    raccoons,  etc.   It is  obvious that requirements  for survival  of  fish




    and  aquatic organisms  also constitute the same requirements  for  pre-




    servation  of  the wildlife habitat.




         Very  little-  attention has been given to the  optimum quality  of




    drinking  water  for  farm  animals.   While  the standards of quality for




    human consumption ma\  not be  justified for  farm animals, there  are




    certain  contaminants  which may  be hazardous to livestock.  The  danger
                                        IV-39

-------
of direct infection to livestock through the consumption of water con-




taminated with pathogenic agents is a possibility and deserves attention.




    Protection of water quality for other agricultural uses involves




similiar safeguards to industrial and domestic criteria.  The potential




of this water resource to provide a supplemental irrigation supply for




food production should not be destroyed or allowed to be degraded.




    Water quality requiremnnts for commercial navigation arc not




critical if demands for other use categories are met.  It should be




recognized that benefits from water quality enhancement for other




purposes will also cause benefits to accrue in the areas of esthetics




and health protection to those same persons involved in navigation




activities .




    Review and comparison of data available make it clear that man




and his activities ha^e caused and are now causing substantial degra-




dation of water quality and causing damages to the beneficial use




potentials in the reach of the Missouri River between Sioux City, Iowa




and St. Joseph, Missouri.
                                   IV-40

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90
   IV-D - MONITORING




        Water quality monitoring in the Missouri  River drainage  of  Iowa




   should accomplish the objectives of providing  baseline water  quality




   information and determining compliance with water quality standards.




        Baseline water quality data are obtained  for determining long




   term quality trends of the major streams and for determining  water




   quality of streams where information is lacking or incomplete.   This




   information is used in water quality management.




        In accomplishing the second objective, determining compliance




   with water quality standards, water quality data are obtained to detect




   violations of stream quality criteria established by the State standards




   and detect pollutants which interfere with the legitimate uses of streams.




   This requires a monitoring effort involving:  (1) establishing stream




   sampling stations above and below major or significant waste outfalls;




   (2) selecting parameters pertinent to measuring effects of various




   types wastes discharges on stream water quality; (3) adopting an optimum




   sampling frequency at monitoring stations, particularly on streams where




   rapid changes in  stream quality can  occur  from  slug discharges of treated




   and untreated wastes.  Th< following measures should be taken in develop-




   ing and operating a comprehensive monitoring network on the  streams which




   affect the quality and uses of  interstate waters:




         1.  Acquire  and analyze basic water pollution control information




   to determine monitoring m-eds.  This would require the  following:




   (a) assessing treatment facilities  of  all municipalities, industries




   and agri-industries  through  studies  of existing information  collected




   and through  on-site  investigations;  and (b) assessing historical  and
                                   IV-41

-------
                                                                           91
current water quality data and conducting  stream surveys on streams




where water quality information is inadequate or lacking.




     2.  Develop a cooperative monitoring plan through agreements




between all local, State and Federal agencies engaged in stream sampl-




ing activities.  The implementation of a cooperative monitoring plan




would accomplish the following:  (a) minimize duplication of monitor-




ing efforts; (b) permit an optimum number of stations to be operated;




(c) satisfy the water quality parameter needs of all entities; and




(d) facilitate the exchange of water quality and related data between




all agencies concerned with water quality problems.




     3.  The scheduled sampling frequencies of existing and proposed




monitoring stations operated by the Iowa Water Pollution Control




Commission are on a quarterly basis for physical, chemical and bacteri-




ological parameters.  The sampling frequencies for these parameters




should be increased to at least weekly intervals on the  following streams:




          a.  Missouri River




          b.  Big Sioux




          c.  Rock River




          d.  Little Sioux River




          e.  Nishnabotna River




          f.  Nodaway River




          g.  East Fork of 102 River




          h.  Chariton River




          i.  Floyd River




          j.  Boyer River
                                  IV-42

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92
          4.   Monitoring stations  should be  established  on  the  following

     interstate streams:

              a.   Middle  Fork Medicine River

              b.   Weldon River

              c.   Little  River

              d.   Thompson River

              e.   Middle Fork of 102  River

              f.   West Tarkio River

              g.   Tarkio River

              h.   Grand River

              i.   Platte River

              j.   East Fork of Big River
          (NOTE:  A listing of proposed and existing Federal and State
           monitoring stations is shown in Appendix D)
                                       IV-43

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                                                                        93
V.  QUALITY CRITERIA NECESSARY TO SUPPORT EXISTING AND FUTURE WATER USES









     A.   Treatment




         The degree of waste treatment consistent with the protection




of all stipulated beneficial uses ar d with the purposes and intent of




the Federal Water Pollution Control Act must be stated in the water




quality standards.  The present and future water uses recognized




for the conference area are already impaired by quality degradation.




Consequently, secondary treatment, including at least 85% removal




of BOD, is required.




    B.  Disinfection




        The protection of public water supplies, certain industrial




uses, full and partial body contact sports, including swimming,




water skiing, wading and fishing, requires a maximum reduction or




elimination of opportunity for individual contact with disease pro-




ducing agents.  Since municipal waste discharges are a major source




of pathogenic organisms, disinfection of these wastes is mandatory.




    C  Temperature




        Temperature, a catalyst, a depressant, an activator, a




restrictor, a stimulator, a controller, a killer, is one of  the most




important and most influential water quality characteristics to life




in water.  Temperature determines those species that may be  present;




it activates the hatching of young, regulates their activity and




stimulates or suppresses their growth and development; it attracts




and kills when the water becomes too hot or becomes chilled  too
                                  V-l

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suddenly.  Colder water generally suppresses development; warmer




water generally accelerates activity and may be a primary cause of




aquatic plant nuisances when other environmental factors are suitable.




    Temperature is also a factor in recreational enjoyment.  Exces-




sivelv high temperatures may lessen the pleasure of water contact




sports .  The maximum water temperature that will not induce undesir-




able physiological effects after prolonged exposure must be less than




90 F. with 85 F. considered the safe maximum limit for continuous




exposure for several hours.  Limited exposure to water warmer than




85 F. can be tolerated for short periods of time without causing




undesirable physiological effects, especially under unique circum-




stances  such as bathing in hot  springs where physical exertion  is




limited.




    For  waters serving as a raw water  source for domestic uses,




temperature  is an important factor.  From an esthetic viewpoint,




water  over  85 F. loses its desirability and appeal.  Over a  1 F.




hourly temperature variation  adversely affects  the  coagulation  in




 the  treatment  process. Rapid changes  in  temperature  or excessive




 temperatures which kill the  stream biota can ultimately  result in




 taste  and  odor problems.




     D.   Nondegradation




         The declaration of  policy contained in the  Federal Water




 Pollution  Control Act states  that the  purpose  of the  Act is  to




 enhi.r.Cc the quality  and value of the Nation's  water resources.




 Enhancement of quality can be achieved only through improving
                                   V-2

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                                                                       95
existing low quality water, protecting high quality waters and in




no case permitting further degradation of existing quality.   There-




fore, it is imperative that all water quality standards, in order to




be consistent with the purposes and intent of the Act,  contain a




statement of policy concerning nondegradation.




     E.  Radioactivity




         Water treatment plants remove little radioactive pollution




from raw water supplies.  The Department of the Interior is interested




in upgrading radiological criteria to conform to the latest recommen-




dation of Federal agencies.  Iowa concurs with this objective.




     F.  Standards of Related States




         One of the guidelines designated by the Department of the




Interior to be used in establishing water quality standards for inter-




state waters was that the State standards were to be reviewed in terms




of their consistency and comparability with those for affected waters




of downstream or adjacent states.  The results of this  review are




reflected in the items excepted from the Secretary of the Interior's




approval of Iowa's standards.  With regard to these items, the fol-




lowing paragraphs summarize the criteria and requirements from the




standards of states adjacent to or downstream of Iowa.




     1.  Treatment




         Every state which borders on the Missouri River, with the




exception of Iowa, has adopted as part of its standards a minimum




requirement of secondary treatment or its equivalent for wastes dis-




charged into the Missouri River.  The language used by these states
                                 V-3

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96
  varies, but all essentially have this requirement.  The final com-




  pliance dates  for implementation of  secondary treatment vary with each




  State.




       The Nebraska standards for the  Missouri River provide for a




  minimum of  secondary  treatment.  These standards have been approved




  by  the Secretary of the Interior.  Nebraska treatment facilities




  shall be in operation prior to completion of equivalent downstream




  facilities.  The December  1982 date  for Missouri is the final compliance




  date.  An earlier compliance date will be required when survey results




  show such a need.  The Kansas standards for the Missouri River provide




  for the best practicable treatment of all significant wastes.  The




  Kansas standards have not  been approved by the Secretory of the Interior,




       2.  Disinfection




           All of  the states adjoining Iowa in the Missouri River Basin




  have established acceptable bacterial criteria for interstate waters.




  Minnesota,  Nebraska,  and Missouri have set limits on the bacterial




  concentrations for all interstate waters and all uses in the Missouri




  River Basin.   South Dakota has set limits on the bacterial concentra-




   tions  on domestic water  supply,  fish life propagation, recreation, and




   irrigation  uses.  The criteria in Missouri are not applicable when




  streams  are affected  by  storm water  runoff.  Minnesota standards




   require  the effective disinfection of any discharges, including  com-




  bined  flows of sewage and  storm  water, where necessary to protect  the




   specified  uses of  the interstate waters.
                                     V-4

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                                                                           97
     3.   Temperature

         Minnesota has established temperature criteria on these waters

which limit the temperature increase to 5 F. above ambient temper-

ature except in Class A fishery waters where no increase is permitted

or to a maximum temperature as shown in the following table:

                        Maximum Temperatures F.
Class of Water   Ja   F	Mr    Ap   My   Jn   Jl   Ag   Se  Oc   N   D

2A Fisheries &
   Recreation               No material increase above natural

3A Industrial
   Consumption   35   35    40    50   60   70   75   75   70  60   50   40

2B Fisheries &
   Recreation    37   37    43    55   67   80   86   86   80  67   55   43

2C Fisheries &
   Recreation    45   45    51    63   75   87   90   90   87  75   63   51
Note:

     2A  Propagation and maintenance of warm or cold water (sport or

         commercial) fishes, aquatic recreation and bathing.

     2B  Propagation and maintenance of sport or commercial fishes,

         aquatic recreation and bathing.

     2C  Propagation and maintenance of locally found common fish

         species and recreation not requiring prolonged, intimate

         contact.

     Missouri standards state that effluents shall not elevate or depress

the average cross-sectional temperature of the stream more than 5 F., and

the stream temperature shall not exceed 90 F.  Missouri has set a
                                   V-5

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98
    maximum temperature of 93 F.  in the Des Moines  River to be  con-




    sistent with the Iowa standards.




         South Dakota standards designate "Fish Life Propagation--Warm Water




    Semi-permanent" as a use of the Big Sioux River.  The stream temperature




    shall not exceed 90 F. and the maximum temperature change is  limited




    to 8 F.




         Nebraska does not shire waters with Iowa except for the Missouri




    River.  Nebraska standards limit the allowable change from background to




    5 F. May through October and to 10 F. November through April in the




    Missouri River.
                                      V-6

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                                                                        99






VI.  RECOMMENDATIONS




     A.  Treatment and Control




     1.  All significant municipal wastes discharged into the interstate




waters of Iowa shall receive a minimum of secondary treatment prior to




discharge.  All significant industrial wastes shall receive an equivalent




of secondary treatment prior to discharge into any interstate stream.




For the Missouri River, a timetable of compliance shall be submitted




no later than December 31, 1969.  In no case shall the compliance date




be any later than December 31, 1977.




     2.  Control of bacteriological pollution by continuous disinfection




shall be implemented.  A timetable for implementation shall be established




by September 30, 1969.  In no case shall the compliance date for the




installation and operation of continuous disinfection facilities extend




beyond December 31, 1970.




     3.  For the production and well-being of locally occur ing desirable




stream fish populations, heat additions should be limited as follows.




     At no time shall the addition of heat be authorized which will raise




the water temperature more than 5 F; but in any event the addition




of heat shall not raise water temperatures above a maximum tailored




for each individual lake or stream and necessary to protect the pro-




duction of locally occurring desirable fish populations and their




associated biota.




     4.  On March 6, 1969, the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission




agreed to a motion supporting statements as adopted by some western




States and approved by the Department of the Interior concerning the
                                  VI-1

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100




 protection of waters whose quality may exceed that of established




 standards.




      Typical language is as folloxv's:




         Waters whose existing quality is better than the established




         standards as of the date on which such standards become




         effective will be maintained at high quality; provided that




         the State has the power to authorize any project or development




         which would constitute a new source of pollution or an increased




         source of pollution to high quality water, when it has been




         affirmatively demonstrated that a change is justifiable to




         provide  necessary economic or social development; provided




         further  that the necessary degree of waste treatment to maintain




         high water quality will be required where physically and econ-




         omically feasible.  Present and anticipated use of such waters




         will not be precluded under the conditions aforesaid.  In




         implementing this policy the Secretary of the Interior will be




         kept advised and will be provided with such information as he




         will need to discharge his responsibilities under the Federal




         Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.




      The  following recommendations are made in addition to the exceptions




  taken  in  the Secretary's letter of January 16, 1969, and Notice of




 Conference d,:ted March 5, 1969.




      5.   The quality of effluents or other waste water discharged to




  the  Missouri River and its interstate tributaries in Iowa shall be of




  such quality s  to assure that the concentration of phenol in the receiv-




  ing  stress shnll not exceed 1 part per billion.
                                 VI-2

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                                                                           101
     6.  a.  Radioactive materials of other than natural origin shall




         not be present in any amount which shall cause the concentra-




         tion of such materials to exceed the limi-ts established in the




         1962 Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards or 1/30




         (168 hour value) of the values for radioactive substances




         specified in the National Bureau of Standards Handbook 69.




         b.  The annual average concentration (dissolved) of a specific




         radionuclicle, excluding Radium226 and Strontium90, should not




         exceed l/3o of the appropriate maximum permissible concentra-




         tion for the 168-hour week given in the Report of the Inter-




         national Commission on Radiological Protection and the National




         Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements.  Limiting




         concentrations of Radium-226 and Strontium-90 are those set forth




         in the Public Health Service "Drinking Water Standards'"  3




         and 10 picocurie per liter, respectively.




         c.  It may be necessary to limit the concentration of radio-




         activity in the water to a value substantially less than that




         permitted by the criteria of paragraph (a).  It would appear




         likely that the average daily intake from air, food, and water




         of an exposed population would otherwise exceed the permissible.




         Because any human exposure to ionizing radiation is undesirable,




         the concentration of radioactivity in natural water should be




         maintained at the lowest practicable level.




     B.  Waste Treatment Schedule (Implementation Plan)




     Refer to Table 11 of the Iowa Standards, dated May 1967.  The words




"expansion," "replacement," "additions," "new plant" should be more
                              VI-3

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102
   exactly defined.  These terms in themselves are not explicit as to




   exactly what  type of treatment is proposed.  It is suggested that words




   be used such  as:  Expand present plant to include secondary treatment;




   Replace existing facility with new facility which includes secondary




   treatment; Add  secondary treatment; New plant to include secondary



   treatment  for a municipality or industry not providing any treatment at




   present.
                                  VI-4

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                                                                      103





VII.  APPENDIX








A.  Report on Baseline Survey - October 1968 and January 1969.




B.  Report on Biological Investigation of Missouri River, October 1968.




C.  Outdoor Recreation and Water Pollution in Western Iowa and




    along the Missouri Riveir




0.  Water Quality Monitoring Stations on Interstate Streams, Iowa,




    1969




.  U.S. Geological Survey Temperature Stations on Interstate Streams




    of Iowa




F.  Graphs of Surveillance Data from St. Joseph, Missouri; Omaha,




    Nebraska; and Yankton, South Dakota



G.  Water Uses - Recognized by the State of Iowa
                             VII - 1

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104






                             GLOSSARY OF TERMS






         Adsorption.  The adherence of dissolved, colloidal, or finely




    divided solids on the surfaces of solid bodies with which they are




    brought into contact.




         Algae.  Primitive plants, on; or many-celled, usually aquatic




    and capable of elaborating their  roodstuffs by photosynthesis.




         Bacteria.  Primitive plants, generally free of pigment, which




    reproduce by dividing in one, two, or three planes.  They occur as




    single cells, groups, chains, or filaments, and do not require




    light for their life processes.  They may be grown by special cultur-




    ing out of their native habitat.




            Aerobic.  Bacteria which require free (elementary) oxygen




         for their growth.




            Anaerobic.  Bacteria which grow in the absence of free oxygen




         and derive oxygen from breaking down complex substances.




            Coli-Aerogenes.  See Bacteria, Coliform Group.




            Colifonn Group.  A group of bacteria, predominantly inhabi-




         tants of the intestine of man but also  found on vegetation,




         including all aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative,




         non-spore-forming bacilli that fenr.ent  lactose with gas  formation.




         This group includes five  tribes of which the very  great  majority




         are Eschericheae.  The Eschericheae  tribe comprises three genera




         and ten  species, of which Escherichia Coli and Aerobacter Aero-




         genes are dominant.  The  Escherichia Coli are normal  inhabitants




         of  the  intestine of man  and  all vertebrates whereas Aerobacter

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                                                                      105
      Aerogenes normally are found on grain and plants,  and only




     to a varying degree in the intestine of man and animals.




     Formerly referred to as B.Coli, B.Coli group, Coli-Aerogenes




     Group.




        Facultative Anerobic.  Bacteria which can adapt themselves




     to growth in the presence, as well as in the absence, of




     uncombined oxygen.




        Parasitic.  Bacteria which thrive on other living organisms.




        Pathogenic.  Bacteria which can cause disease.




        Saprophytic.  Bacteria which thrive upon dead organic matter.




        Total Coliforms.  "The total coliform group includes all of




     the aerobic and facultative anerobic, Gram-negative, nonspore-




     forming, rod shaped bacteria which ferment lactose with gas




     formation within 48 hours at 35C."  (Standards Methods, 12




     ed., pg. 594)




        Fecal Coliforms.  The portion of the coliform groups which




     is present in the gut or the feces of warmblooded animals which




     are capable of producing gas from lactose in a suitable culture




     medium at 44.5C.  (Standard Methods, 12 ed., pg. 568)




     Bio-Assay.  A determination of the concentration of a given




material by comparison with a standard preparation; on the determi-




nation of the quantity necessary to affect a test animal under stated




laboratory conditions




     Biochemical.  Resulting from biologic growth or activity, and




measured by or expressed in terms of the ensuing chemical change.
                                ii

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106
         Biochemical Action.   Chemical  changes  resulting from the




    metabolism of living organisms.




         Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).   The  quantity of oxygen  utilized




    in the biochemical oxidation of  organic matter in a specified  time




    and at a specific! temperature.   It is not  related to the oxygen




    requirements in chemical  combustion,  being  determined entirely by




    the availability of the material as a biological food and by the




    amount of oxygen utilized by the microorganisms during oxidation.




         Biochemical Oxygen Demand,  Standard.   Biochemical oxygen  demand




    as determined under standard laboratory procedure for five days at




    20 C, usually expressed in parts per million or milligrams per liter.




         Chlorination.  The application of chlorine for disinfection.




            Break-Point.  The application of chlorine to water, sewage




         or industrial wastes containing free ammonia to provide free




         residual chlorination.




            Post.  The application of chlorine  to water, sewage, or




         industrial wastes subsequent to any treatment.  The term refers




         only to a point of application.




            Pre.  The application of chlorine to water, sewage, or




         industrial wastes prior to  any treatment.  This term refers only




         to a point of application.




         Coarse or Rough Fish.  Those species of fish considered to be




    of poor fighting quality when taken on tackle and of poor food




    quality.  These fish may be undersirable in a given situation, but
                                    iii

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                                                                      10?
at times may be classified differently,  depending upon their




usefulness.  Examples include carp, goldfish, gar, sucker, bowfin,




gizzard shad, goldeneye, mooneye, and certain kinds of catfish.




     Cubic Foot per Second.  A unit of discharge for measurement of




flowing liquid, equal to a flow of one cubic foot per second past




a given section.  Also called Second-Foot.




     Disinfection.  A method of reducing the pathogenic or objectionable




microorganisms by means of chemicals or other acceptable means.




     Eutrophication.  The intentional or unintentional enrichment




of water.




     Eutrophic Waters.  Waters with a good supply of nutrients.




There waters may support rich organic productions, such as algal




blooms.




     Effluent.  (1)  A liquid which flows out of a containing space.




(2) Sewage, water, or other liquid, partially or completely treated,




or in its natural state, as the case may be, flowing out of a




reservoir, basin, or treatment plant, or part thereof.




        Final.  The effluent from the final unit of a sewage treatment




     plant.




        Stable.  A treated sewage which contains enough oxygen to




     satisfy its oxygen demand.




     Game Fish.  Those species of fish considered to possess sporting




qualities on fishing tackle.  These fish may be classified as




undesirable, depending upon their usefulness.  Examples of fresh




water game fish are salmon, trout, grayling, black bass, muskellunge,




walleye, northern pike, and lake trout.







                                    iv

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108
         Grease.  In sewage, grease including fats,  waxes,  free fatty




    aci^s, calcium and magnesium soaps,  mineral oils,  and other non-




    fatty materials.  The type of solvent used for its extraction should




    be stated.




         Influent.  Sewage, water, or other liquid,  raw or partly treated,




    flowing into a reservoir, basin, or treatment plant, or part thereof.




         Membrane Filter (MF) - A technique of bacteriological analysis.




    This technique involves the running of a certain volume of water




    through a cellulose ester wafer which is then impregnated with growth




    media for bacteria.




         Milligrams per Liter (mg/1) - Milligrams of solute per liter of




    solution.  Equivalent to parts per million assuming unit density.




         Micrograro per Liter = 0.001 Milligrams per Liter




         "Most Probable Number" (MPN) - A test of bacterial density




    expressed as a number of organisms per hundred milliliters.  It is




    a number most likely to occur, using statistical methods, under the




    given circumstances or  conditions of the test.




         Oxygen.  A chemical element.




            Available.  The quantity of uncombined or free oxygen dissolved




         in the water of a  stream.




            Balance.  The relation between the biochemical oxygen demand




         of a sewage or treatm nt plait effluent and  the oxygen available




         in the diluting water.




            Comsumed.  The  quantity of oxygen  taken from potassium  per-




         manganate  in solution by a liquid containing organic matter.




         Commonly regarded  as an  index of th<2  carbonaceous matter present.

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                                                                       109
     Time and temperature must be specified.  The chemical oxygen




     demand (COD) uses potassium dichromate.




        Deficiency.  The additional quantity of oxygen required to




     satisfy the biochemical oxygen demand in a given liquid.




     Usually expressed in parts per million.




        Dissolved.  Usually designated as DO.  The oxygen dissolved




     in sewage, water or other liquid usually expressed in parts per




     million or percent of saturation.




        Residual.  The dissolved oxygen content of a stream after




     deoxygenation has begun.




        Sag.  A curve that represents the profile of dissolved oxygen




     content along the course of a stream, resulting from deoxygenation




     associated with biochemical oxidation of organic matter, and




     reoxygenation through the absorption of atmospheric oxygen and




     through biological photosynthesis.




     garts Per Million.  Milligrams per liter expressing the concen-




tration of a specified component in a dilute sewage.  A ratio of




pounds per million povnds, grams per million grams, etc.




     Pollution.  The addition of sewage, industrial wastes, or other




harmful or objectionable material to water.




     pH.  The logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen-ion concen-




tration.  The pH value indicates the relative intensity of acidity




or Alkalinity of water with the neutral point at 7.0.




     Population Equivalent.  (1)  The calculated population which




would normally contribute the same amount of biochemical oxygen




demand (BOD) per day.  A common base is 0.167 Ib. of 5-day BOD per
                                VI

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110
    capita per day.   (2)   For an industrial  waste,  the  estimated  number




    of people contributing sewage equal  in strength to  a unit  volume of




    the waste or to  some  other unit  involved in producing or manufacturing




    a particular commodity.




         Purification.   The  removal,  by  natural or  artificial  methods,




    or objectiolable matter from water.




         Sewage.  Largely the water  supply of a community after it has




    been fouled by various uses.  From the standpoint of source it may




    be a combination of the  liquid or water-carried wastes from residences,




    business buildings, and  institutions,  together  with those  from indus-




    trial establishments, and with such  ground water, surface  water, and




    storm water as may be present.




            Domestic.  Sewage derived principally from dwellings, business




         buildings,  institutions, and the like.  (It may or may not contain




         ground water,  surface w
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                                                                      Ill
     a community after It has been used and discharged into a




     sewer.




        Septic.  Sewage undergoing putrefaction under anaerobic




     conditions.




        Settled.  Sewage from which most of the settleable solids




     have been removed by sedimentation.




        Stale.  A sewage containing little or no oxygen, but as




     yet free from putrefaction.




     Treatment.  Any definite process for modifying the state of




matter.




        Preliminary.  The conditioning of an industrial waste at




     its source prior to discharge, to remove or to neutralize




     substances injurious to sewers and treatment processes or to




     effect a partial reduction in load on the treatment process.




     In the treatment process, unit operations which prepare the




     liquor for subsequent major operations.




PRIMARY TREATMENT




     By this treatment most of the settleable solids or about 40 to




60 percent of the suspended solid:; are separated or removed from




the sewage by the physical process of sedimentation in settling tanks.




When certain chemicals are used with primary tanks much of the




colloidal as well as the settleable solids or a total of 80 to 90




percent of the suspended solids are removed.  Biological activity




in the sewage is of negligible importance to the process.




SECONDARY TREATMENT




     Secondary treatment depends primarily upon biological aerobic
                               viii

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112
    organisms for the biochemical decomposition of organic solids to




    inorganic or stable organic solids.  It is comparable to the zone




    of recovery in the self-purification of a stream.




         The devices used in secondary treatment may be divided into




    four groups.




         (1)  Trickling filters with secondary settling tanks




         (2)  Aeration tanks--(a) activated sludge with final settling




              tanks, and, (b) contact aeration




         (3)  Intermittent sand filters




         (4)  Stabilization ponds




    CHLORINATION




         This is a method of treatment which may be employed for many




    purposes in all stages in sewage treatment, and even prior to prelimi-




    nary treatment.  It involves the application of chlorine to the




    sewage  for the following purposes.




         (1)  Disinfection or destruction of pathogenic organisms




         (2)  Prevention of sewage decomposition--(a) odor control,  (b)




              protection of plant structures




         (3)  Aid in plant operation--(a) sedimentation,  (b) trickling




              filters, (c) activated sludge bulking




         (4)  Reduction or delay of biochemical oxygen demand




         Water, Potab1e.  Water which does not contain objectionable




    pollution, contamination, minerals, or infection agents, and is  con-




    sidered  satisfactory for domestic consumption.




         Warm and Cold-Water Fish.  Warm-water fish include black bass,

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                                                                     113
sunfish,  catfish,  gar,  and others;  whereas  cold-water fish include




salmon and trout,  whitefish,  miller's  thumb,  and  blackfish.   The




temperature factor determining distribution is  set  by adaptation




of the eggs to warm or  cold water.

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114
                               APPENDIX A
                  PHYSICAL,  CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL
                              WATER  QUALITY
                                 of  the
                             MISSOURI RIVER
                              October 1968
                                  and
                              January
                              Prepared by
                       POLLUTION EVALUATION SECTION
                TECHNICAL ADVISORY & INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
              FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                              Cincinnati, Ohio

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                                                                   115
                           SUMMARY
1.     This report covers the 360-mile reach of the Missouri



       River from Gavins Point Dam near Yankton, South Dakota,



       to St. Joseph, Missouri



2.     Two surveys were conducted in this reach.  The first



       occurred from October 7 to October 18, 1968; the second



       from January 20 to January 31* 19&9-



3.     Thirty-seven separate chemical, biochemical, and bac-



       teriological examinations were made on the various



       samples from twenty-eight locations for the October



       1968 survey and fourteen sampling locations for the



       January 1969 survey.  Main stem, tributary and waste



       source stations were included in the surveys.



k.     Three hydrologic conditions were encountered during the



       two surveys:



       a.  Normal fall weather and navigation flows for the



           first eight sampling days of the October 7-18,



           1968 survey with stream temperatures ranging from



           14C. to 16C. and flows of 36,650 cfs at St. Jos-



           eph, Missouri.



       b.  Two days o' a general, inter-se rainfall causing



           nearly double normal navigation flows in the St.



           Joseph, Missouri, part of tifi study reach for
                               A-l

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116
                 these last two  days  of the  October 7-18,  1968




                 survey with stream temperatures  decreasing to



                 10C. to l6C.  and flows increasing  to 70,^50



                 cfs at St. Joseph, Mitssouri.



             c.   Winter weather  and no.Tnal non-navigation flows



                 with stages affected >y ice jams occurring for



                 the January 20-31, 19(>9 survey with  stream



                 temperatures ranging ::rom -OAC. to 1.6C.  and



                 flows at 19,920 cfs  at St.  Joseph, Missouri.



      5.      Dissolved oxygen concentrations were equal to,  or  exceeded,



             8.3 mg/1 at all main stem Missouri River stations  during



             the 8-day normal weather period of the October 1968 sur-



             vey.  The Icwest average dissolved oxygen concentrations



             for the 2-day rain-affected period was 5.2 mg/1 upstream



             from St. Joseph, Missouri.   Dissolved oxygen concentra-



             tions exceed 9-0 mg/1 at all main stem stations during



             the January 1969 survey.



      6.      For the 8-day normal weather period  in the October 1968



             survey:



             a.   The highest geometric mean  coliform  densities  down-



                 stream from Sioux City, Iowa were 62,800 MPN/100 ml



                 total coliforms and  26,600  MPN/100 ml fecal coli-



                 forms.  Downstream from Omaha, Nebraska-Council



                 Bluffs, Iowa, the highest geometric  mean densities



                 were 256,000 MPN/100 ml total conforms and 6l,200



                 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.






                                     A-2

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                                                                     117
       b.  For the 2-day rain-affected period in October 1968,
           both total and fecal coliforms exceeded 100,000 MPN/
           100 ml at 19 of the 21 river stations.  The  highest
           2-day densities vere 1,440,000 MPN/100 ml total con-
           forms and 1,120,000 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.
       c.  For the January 19^9 survey, coliform densities were
           much lover than those observed during the 8-day normal
           period in October 1968.  Downstream from Sioux City,
           Iowa, densities were 45,000 MPN/100 ml total coliforms
           and 11,000 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.  Downstream from
           Omaha-Council Bluffs, densities were 54,000  MPN/100  ml
           total colifcnas and 14,000 MPN/100 ml fecal  coliforms.
7.     Total suspended solids for the 8-day normal period in
       October 1968 increased from 45 mg/1 at Gavins Point Dam  to
       the highest average concentration of 278 mg/1.  Fourteen
       of the twenty main stem stations averaged over 700 mg/1
       during the 2-day rain-affected period in the October  1968
       survey.  The highest concentration during this period was
       2,780 mg/1.  Total suspended solids concentrations were
       greatly reduced during the January 1969 survey,  when  con-
       centrations ranged between 48 mg/1 and 2 mg/1.
8.     Total phosphorus (as P) concentrations for the 8-day normal
       period in October 1968 increased from 0.04 mg/1  in releases
       from Gavins Point Dam to 0.30 mg/1 downstream from Omaha-
       Council Bluffs.  Concentrations increased during the  rain-
       affected period in October.  Aw rage concentrations reached
       0.92 mg/1 upstream from St  Jostph, Missouri.
                               A-3

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118
      9.      Total Nitrogen (ammonia,  nitrate and total organic nitro-



             gen; all as N) ranged from 0.7 mg/1 to 2.9 mg/1 during



             the normal veather period.  The highest concentration for



             the rain-affected period vaa k.l mg/1.



     10.      Cyanide concentrations ragged from less than 1.0 to 6.2



             ^ig/1 in the samples from six of seven stations selected



             for analysis in October 1968 and all five stations selected



             for the January 1969 survey.  During the October 1968 rain-



             affected period, concentrations exceeded 10 ^ig/1 at four



             of the seven stations and reached a maximum of 15-2 ug/1



             downstream from Sioux City, I ova.
                                     A-4

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                                                                     119
EXISTING WATER QUAUTY



Survey De acription



    Survey Periods



       Two stream surveys were conducted to determine the present



day (1968-69) Missouri River water quality along the 700-mile reach



from Gavins Point Dam near Yankton, South Dakota, to Hermann, Mis-



souri.



       The first survey was conducted during the high flow naviga-



tion season when the river discharge was regulated to maintain navi-



gation channel depths.  This survey was conducted in two phases.  The



upper reach, extending from Gavins Point Dam to St. Joseph, Missouri,



was sampled from October 7 to October 18, 1968.  The lower reach, ex-



tending from St. Joseph to Hermann, Missouri, was sampled from Oct-



ober 28 to November 8, 1968.



       The entire 700-mile reach was sampled in a single phase dur-



ing the second survey.  Sampling was conducted from January 20 to



January 31* 19&9> to determine water quality during the winter, low



flow, non-navigation season.



  Station Locations



       The coverage included in this report will be limited to the



reach from Gavins Point Dan to St. Joseph, Missouri (Figure A-l).



Sampling periods of interest are the October 7-l8, 1968 period and



the January 20-31, 1969 period.  This river reach encompasses the



Iowa borders along the Missouri River and includes parts of the



borders of South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, and Kansas.
                               A-5

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120
          Planning of the two surveys vas designed to give more exten-



   sive river coverage during the October survey when the river vas



   readily accessible, and when sampling could be accomplished from boats.



   The January survey was designed to re-examine water quality near urban



   areas with less extensive coverage at intervening, less accessible



   areas.  Because of reduced flows and ice in the river, sampling during



   the January survey was conducted from automobiles.



          Twenty-eight sampling stations were selected in the Gavins Point



   Dam to St. Joseph, Missouri, river reach for the October 1968 survey



   (Figure A-l and Table A-7).  Twenty stations were located on the main



   stem of the Missouri River, five stations were on tributary streams,



   and three stations were waste sources.



          Fourteen sampling stations were used in this same reach during



   the reduced January 1969 survey (Figure A-l and Table A-7).  Ten sta-



   tions were on the main stem at, or near, the earlier survey stations,



   two stations were on tributary streams, and three stations were waste



   sources.



          Stations sampled during the January 1969 survey were located



   as closely as possible to the October 1968 locations.  Where locations



   were not identical, a letter symbol was added to the station number to



   distinguish this difference.



        Analyses



          Many analyses were necessary to determine the existing, present



   day water quality in the Missouri River.  Excluding biological exami-



   nations (covered separately), 37 separate chemical, biochemical, and



   bacteriological constituents were included in the laboratory analysis




   series.  Some analyses were performed on daily discrete samples from

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                                                                       121




each station.  Five-day composite samples were made and preserved for




analysis of other constituents at selected stations.  Sample composit-




ing was used to keep the required number of analyses within manage-




able limits.  Unfortunately, several analyses on preserved and/or




composited samples from the January 19^9 survey were not completed in




time for inclusion in this report.




       Analyses performed daily were dene in mobile laboratories.  Two




mobile laboratories were located at the Florence Pumping Station of the




Omaiaa, Nebraska, Metropolitan Utilitier District Water Plant.  These




two laboratories performed all field analyses for the Gavins Point Dam -




St. Joseph, Missouri, reach during the October 1968 survey and all but




the two lower stations in this same resch during the January 1969 sur-




vey   The lower two stations were handled by laboratories of the FWPCA




Missouri Basin Region in Kansas City, Kissouri.




       Analyses performed daily at every station in the reach included:




       1.   Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.).




       2.   2- and 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).




       3-   pH.



       k.   Alkalinity.



       5-   Specific Conductance.



       6.   Turbidity.




       7-   Total and Fecal Coliforms.



       8.   Fecal Streptococci (January only).




       9-   Chlorides (3 times per week in October).




      10.   Sulfates (3 times per week in October).




      11.   Totax Dissolved Solids (3 times per week in October).




      12.   Total Suspended Solids (3 times per week in October).
                               A-7

-------
122
           Weekly composites from five samples were made and preserved

    for every statioi  in the reach for the following determinations:

           1.   Calcium.

           2.   Magnesium.

           3.   Organic Carbon.

           I*.   Total Phosphorus.

           5.   Nitrogen Series  (ammonia, nitrates and total organic
                                 nitrogen).

           For the study reach, nine stations for the October 1968 sur-

    vey and four of these stations for the reduced January 1969 survey

    were selected for the following determinations:

           1.   Sodium.

           2.   Potassium.

           3.   Fluoride.

           k.   Boron.

           Samples were also filtered with the filtrate being composited

    for determination of soluble heavy metals.  Eight stations were se-

    lected for the October 1968  survey, with six of these also being

    sampled during the reduced January 19^9 survey.  Metal analyses were:

           1.   Arsenic.                      6.   Chromium.

           2.   Iron.                         7-   Copper.

           3.   Barium.                       8.   Lead.

           k.   Manganese.                    9.   Nickel.

           5.   Cadmium.                     10.   Zinc.

           Samples at selected stations were collected for phenol analysis

    on two occasions during the October 1968 survey and on four occasions

    during the January 1969 survey.  Samples for cyanide analysis were


                                   A-8

-------
                                                                       123
collected on four occasions during each survey.  Seven stations were



selected for these analyses during the October 1968 survey with five



of these stations being repeated during the January 19&9 survey.



       Separate samples for organic chlorine analysis and for a chloro-



form extract analysis were collected at the same six stations during



both the October 1968 and January 1969 surveys.



       Long-term (20-day) biochemical oxygen demands (BOD) were run



twice at eight stations during the October 1968 survey, and once at



five of these same stations during the January 1969 survey.



       Five-day composite samples from waste source stations for each



sampling week were analyzed for grease content.  This analysis was



in addition to the other analyses performed on the samples.  Samples



from the Monroe Street and South Omaha sewers containing the meat-



packing wastes from Omaha, Nebraska, and the effluent from the Sioux



City, Iowa, sewage treatment plant were collected during the October



1968 survey.  Effluent samples from the Omaha, Nebraska-Missouri River



sewage treatment plant, Council Bluffs, Iowa sewage treatment plant,



and the Sioux City, Iowa sewage treatment plant were collected during



the January 1969 survey.



       Five-day composites for radioactivity analysis were made at



two main stem stations and at four tributary stations during the



October ^.968 survey.   Only results foi uranium (U-235 and U-238) and



radium-226 are available   Thorium-232 and strontium-90 analyses are



still in progrets.



     Analytical Methods




       All chemical analyses conformed to "FVPCA Official Interim
                               A-9

-------
124
     Methods for Chemical Analysis of Surface Waters."^    Except for


     modifications required for automated chemistry, methods contained in


     this volume are  essentially the same as those contained in the 12th


     Edition of "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-

            (2)
     water.       Most meta_s vere analyzed by atomic absorption spectro-


     scopy.


            Bacterial exar inations were performed in accordance with Stand-


     ard Methods.  In this  report, the term, "total coliforms," refers to


     bacteria identified as the "Coliform Group" in Standard Methods.


     "Fecal coliforms"  refer to the "Section I Coliform Group" in Standard


     Methods.


            Total and fecal coliforms were enumerated by the multiple tube,


     fermentation test  which yields a density as a most probable number


     (MTU).   Bacterial  densities are reported as a number per 100 milli-


     liters (ml) of water.



     Survey Results


          Missouri River and Tributary Flows


            Water released  from Gavins Point Dam is the major controlling


     factor affecting Missouri River flows during dry weather conditions


     in the Gavins Point Dam - St. Joseph, Missouri river reach.  During


     periods of heavy rainfall the hydrology of tributary streams greatly


     affects discharges in  the main  stem Missouri River.  Ice Jams  in the
     ' ' Anon., "FWPCA Official Interim Methods for Chemical Analysis of

         Surface Waters," Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,

         September 1968.
     fo\
      "' Anon., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-

         vater," 12th .".dit ion, APHA, 1965.



                                    A-iO

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                                                                       125
river during cold, winter veather can also interfere with normal stages



and discharge rates.



       For the period October 7-16, 1968,  which included the  first 8



sampling days, river discharges reflected normal weather conditions



with an average of 31>200 cubic feet per second (cfs) being released



from Gavins Point Dam (Table A-l).   Tributary inflows increased the



flow to an average of 36,650 cfs at St. Joseph, Missouri, 360 miles



downstream.  Rainfall for this period was recorded as O.k6 inches in



Omaha, Nebraska.  This time period will be referred to as the "8-day



average" in figures, tables and text of this report.



       Beginning October 16, 1968 a general, heavy rainfall occurred



in the basin.  During the period of October 16-17, 1968, Sioux City,



Iowa, recorded k.63 inches of rain; Omaha, Nebraska recorded  3.6l



inches and St. Joseph, Missouri, recorded 1.32 inches.  Average water



released from Gavins Point Dam of 28,500 cfs for the period October



17-18, 1968 was slightly less than the average of the 10 previous days,



being only 91 percent of the earlier flows.  However, flows increased



to 105 percent of the earlier period flows, or 3^,050 cfs, at Sioux



City, Iowa; increased to 139 percent, or ^5,900 cfs at Omaha, Nebras-



ka; and increased to 192 percent  or 70,^50 cfs at St. Joseph, Missouri,



(Table A-l).  The ratio of rain-affected flows to dry weather flows



increased in the downstream direction.  This period will be referred



to as the "2-day average" in figures, tables and text of this report.



       Tributary streams exhibited even greater percentage flow in-



creases between the normal weather period and the rain-affected period.



The Big Sioux River increased to kl$ percent of the 8-day period
                                A-ll

-------
126
    (169 cfs  vs 701  cfs); the Boyer River increased to 563 percent (270 cfs



   vs 17,100 cfs).  The October 1968 survey, therefore, reflects two



   distinctly different river conditions.  Samples from the October 7-l6,



   1968 period reflect river conditions during "normal" weather; samples



   from the  October 17-18, 1968 period reflect river conditions warped



   by extremely hea/y rains.



          Flows during the January 1969 study were affected by ice Jams



   in the river.  F:>r much of the survey period, river stages were higher



   than normal summer navigation levels upstream from St. Joseph, Missouri.



   Flow rates were  also affected by the damming effect of the ice Jams.



   Flows at  Omaha,  Nebraska, averaged about 1,800 cfs (16,925 cfs to



   15,080 cfs) less than that released from Gavins Point Dam (Table A-l).



   Flow at St. Joseph, Missouri, downstream from the ice jams averaged



   19,920 cfs.



         Dissolved Oxygen



          For the f:trst 8 sampling days in the October 1968 survey, aver-



   age  dissolved ox;'gen (D.O.) concentrations were 8.3 mg/1 or greater



   in the main stem Missouri River (Figure A-2 and Table A-2).  The high-



   est  average D.O. concentration was 9.5 mg/1 and occurred at Station



   M-52 (RM-736) upstream from Sioux City, Iowa.



          Downstreai from Station M-52, significant quantities of wastes



   were discharged  rom the Sioux City area.  D.O. concentrations de-



   creased slightly in the reach from Sioux City, Iowa to Omaha, Nebras-



   ka.   The  average D.O. concentration at the Omaha, Nebraska, Metro-



   politan Utilities District  (M.U.D.) water works intake at Station



   MA2 (RM-626.2)  vas 9.1 mg/1.  Downstream from the water works, wastes




                                  A-12

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                                                                     127
from Omaha, Nebraska-Council Bluffs, Iowa enter the Missouri River.



D.O. concentrations decreased to 8A mg/1 approximately one day's



time-of-water travel downstream at Station M-36 (RM-591.2).  D.O.



concentrations improved slightly during the remainder of reach aver-



aging 8.6 mg/1 at M-28 (RM-14-52.3) at the St. Joseph Water Company



intake.



       The rain-affected 2-day average D.O. concentrations general-



ly decreased from Sioux City, Iowa to St. Joseph, Missouri (Figure



A-2).  D.O. concentrations varied inversely with river flows; as the



ratio of wet weather flows to dry weather flows increased, D.O. con-



centrations tended to decrease.



       Two-day average D.O. concentrations of 10.0 mg/1 at Station



M-52, 9-7 mg/1 at Station M-50, and 9.k mg/1 at Station M-48 were



greater than corresponding 8-day averages.  Two-day and 8-day average



D.O. concentraticns were both 9-2 mg/1 at Station M-Vf near Whiting,



Iowa.



       Downstream from Whiting, Iowa, 2-day average D.O. concentra-



tions were less than corresponding 8-day averages.  Two-day averages



decreased from 9.0 mg/1 at Station M-46 (RM-676.5) to 8.0 mg/1 at



Station M-M (RM-65U.6) with the Little Sioux and Soldier Rivers



entering between these two stations.



       Two-day average D.O. concentrations were 8.0 mg/1 at Station



MA2 (RM-626.2) at the Omaha, M.U.D. water intake.  A further D.O.



concentration decrease to 7.6 mg/1 at Station M-38 (RM-601.3) near



Bellevue, Nebraska, was observed followed by a slight increase to



7.8 mg/1 at Station M-36 (RM-571.2) downstream from the Platte River.




D.O. concentrations downstream had a downward trend until the lowest
                               A-13

-------
128




     two-day average  of 5.2 mg/1 occurred at Station M-29 (RM-469.0) up-



     stream from St.  Joseph, Missouri.  The two-day average at the St.



     Joseph Water Company intake was  5.6 mg/1.



            January 19^9 survey results show the effects of an ice cover



     which extended from a point upstream from St. Joseph to upstream



     from Omaha, Nebraska,  during  the second week of the survey.  Upstream



     from the ice cover D.O. concentrations exceeded 12.5 mg/1 with a



     conceatration of 13.2 mg/1 occurring at Station M-^2 (RM-626.2) at



     the Omaha M.U.D. water works  intake.



            With the  introduction  of  wastes from the Omaha-Council Bluffs



     area and the ice cover eliminating reaeration, D.O. concentrations



     decreased steadily to the lowest average of 9-1 mg/1 at Station M-30



     (RM-488.3) near  White Cloud,  Kansas  (Figure A-2).  Downstream from



     the ice jam, the D.O.  concentration increased to 9.6 mg/1 at the



     St. Joseph water works intake (RM-452.3).



          5-Day, 20C. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD,.)



            The BOD^  for the 8-day normal weather period in October 1968



     reflected the waste discharges from tte Sioux City, Iowa and the



     Omaha, Nebraska-Council Bluffs,  Iowa metropolitan areas (Figure A-3



     and Table A-2).



            From background concentrations of 0.9 mg/1 at Station M-52



     (RM-736.0) upstream from Sioux City, the BOD,, was increased to 1.6



     mg/1 at Station M-Vf (RM-699.5)  by waste from the Sioux City area.



            The BOD5 concentration was 1.9 mg/1 at Station M-42 (RM-626.2)



     at the Oaaha M.U.D. water intake. Downstream waste discharges from



     the Omaha-Council Bluffs area increased the BOD  to  5.8 mg/1 at




     Station M-39 (RM-610.5).




                                   A-14

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                                                                      129
       The average BOD  concentrations for the 2-day rain-affected

period increased substantially throughout the entire survey reach.

In addition to waste being added from the Sioux City and the Omaha-

Council Bluffs areas, significant BOD,, loads from tributary streams,

including the Little Sioux River, Soldier River and Boyer River are

evident (Figure A-3).  For example, the 2-day average for BOD,- was

three times the dry weather concentration (6.9 ng/1 vs 2.3 mg/l) in

the Soldier River and increased from 9.2 mg/1 to 14.0 mg/1 in the

Boyer River.

       The January 1969 survey data indicate concentration increases

similar to the 8-day average of the October 1968 survey.  BOD,, con-

centrations in the Sioux City area increased from 1.1 mg/1 at Station

M-52A. (RM-732.8) to 2.0 mg/1 at Station M-47 (RM-699.5).  The increase

in Omaha was from a BOD- of l.U mg/1 at Station M-^2 (RM-626.2) to

3.6 mg/1 ,it Station M-38 (RM-601.3).

     Coliform Bacteria

       Water released from Gavins Point Dam contained low densities

of coliform bacteria during the October 1968 and January 1969 sur-

veys (Table A-4 and Figures A-1* and A-5).  Total coliforms occurred at

mean^ 'densities of 250 MPH/100 ml and fecal coliforms at less than

120 MPN/100 ml during the October 1968 survey.  There were less than

30 MPN/100 ml total coliforms and less than 20 MPN/100 ml fecal coli-

forms during the January 1969 survey.

       Mean coliform densities for the 3-day normal weather October

1968 period at Station M-52 (RM-736.0) were 1,380 MPN/100 ml total
      In discussion of coliforms and fe^al coliforms, mean refers to
      geometric mean throughout this re.port section.

                               A-15

-------
130
   coliforms and 220 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.  Wastes from the Sioux



   City, Iowa, area increased total coliforms to 62,800 MPN/100 ml and




   fecal coliforms to 14,300 MPN/100 ml of Station M-48 (RM-717.^).  An



   increase in fecal coliforms density to 26,600 MPN/100 ml occurred at




   Station M-Vf (RM-699-5).



         A major cause of this increase in bacterial densities was the



   unchlorinated discharge from the Sioux City, Iowa, sewage treatment



   plant.  Eight-day average mean densities in this waste discharge were



   75,000,000 MPN/100 ml total coliforms and 20,000,000 MPN/100 ml fecal



   coliforms.



         Coliform densities at the Omaha M.U.D. water intake (Station



   M-42, RM-626.2) were less than those at Station M-Vf (RM-717.4) even



   though the Boyer River contributed mean densities of 110,000 MPN/100 ml



   total coliforms and 15,000 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.  Eight-day



   normal weather mean densities at Station M-42 were 52,300 MPN/100 ml



   total coliforms and 8,300 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.



         Wastes from Omaha, Nebraska-Council Bluffs, Iowa increased



   mean coliform densities at Station M-39 (RM-610-5) to 256,000 MPN/100 ml



   total coliforms and 6l,200 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.  The major cause



   of  this increase was unchlorinated vates from Omaha, Nebraska and



   Council Bluffs, Iowa.




         Downstream from Omaha, Nebraska-Council Bluffs, Iowa, & decreas-



   ing pattern in c >liform densities occurred.  At the St. Joseph, Missou-



   ri, Water Company intake, densities bad decreased to 57,700 MPN/100 ml



   total conforms  tnd 6,500 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.




         During th  2-day rain-affected period, coliform bacteria in-




   creased to very  dgh densities throughout the entire reach.  Nineteen



                                 A-16

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                                                                      131
of the twenty-one sampling stations bad both total fecal coliform



densities that exceeded 100,000 MPN/100 ml.   The highest densities



were at Station M-3^ (KM-559-7) where densities were 1,^0,000 MPN/



100 ml total coliforms and 1,120,000 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.



       Tributary streams also exhibited increases to very high dens-



ities during the 2-day wet-weather period.  The Soldier River had



mean densities of 2,^00,000 MPN/100 ml total coliforms and 2,000,000



MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.  The Boyer River had densities of



2,000,000 MPN/100 ml total coliforms and 1,1*00,000 MPN/100 ml fecal



coliforms.  The Platte River also increased to densities of 620,000



MPN/100 ml total coliforms and 290,000 MPN/100 ml fecal coliforms.



Much of the increases observed during this wet period is due to run-



off from the large number of feedlots in the basin.



       Coliform bacteria densities for the January 1969 survey were



less than the 8-day normal-weather period in October 1968.  Total



coliform densities at Station M-U8A, for example, were ^5,000 MPN/



100 ml which is 72 percent of the October 1968 density; fecal coli-



forms were 11,000 MPN/100 ml which is 77 percent of the October 1968



density.  Downstream at the Omaha M.U.D. water intake (Station M-42,



RM-626.2), total coliform densities were approximately 6,000 MPN/



100 ml which is 11 percent of the October 1968 survey; fecal coli-



forms were 4,900 MPN/100 ml which is 59 percent of the October 1968



densities.



       The decrease in the January 1969 densities within the Sioux



City-Omaha reach is caused principally by the reduced densities in



the waste flows from the Sioux City Sewage Treatment Plant between the
                               A-L7

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132
    January 1969 and October 1968 surveys (Total conforms:  19,000,000


    MPN/100 m3 vs 75,000,000 MPN/100 ml;  fecal colifoms:  5,200,000 MPN/


    100 ml vs 30,000,000 MPN/100 ml).


           A pattern similar to the reach downstream from Sioux City, lova


    occurred downstream from Omaha, Nebraska.   For example,  the January


    1969 total coliform density at Station M-38 (RM-601.3) vas  5^,000 MPN/


    100 ml whi2h was 33 percent of the October 1968 density.  Similarly
                                   *

    the January 1969 fecal coliform density was lU,000 MPN/100  ml which


    was 31 percent of the October 1968 density.
                                    A-18

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                                                                       133
    Total Suspended Solids




       The total suspended solids concentration for the October 1968




survey for water released from Gavins  Point Dam (RM-811.0)  averaged




^5 mg/1 (Table A-2 and Figure A-6).   Data at this station were not




separated into "normal" and "wet-weather" periods since the rain did




not affect water quality at this station.




       For the normal weather 8-day period, the total suspended solids




increased to 55 mg/1 downstream from the dam at Station M-52 (RM-736.0)




The concentration remained relatively uniform at this level for 60




miles downstream to Station M-46 (RM-676.5).




       Downstream from Station M~k6 (RM-676.5), the total suspended




solids increased until the highest average concentration of 278 mg/1




occurred at Station M-32 (RM-525.1).  The total suspended solids




decreased downstream from Station M-32 to a concentration of 142 mg/1




at Station M-31 (RM-507. 5).  The concentration averaged 131 mg/1 at




the St. Joseph Water Company intake at Station M-28 (RM-V?2.3).




       The rain-affected two-day average total suspended solids con-




centrations were several times greater than the 8-day normal weather




concentrations.  Upstream from the Soldier River, which includes




stations M-52 (RM-736.0) to M-k6 (RM-676.5), total suspended solids




concentrations ranged from 87 mg/  at Station M-50 (RM-730) to 1^7




mg/1 at Station JA-^Q.  Total suspended solids increased to 3,530 mg/1




in the Soldier River (S-^5, RM-664.0) which contributed to an increase




to 715 mg/1 in the Missouri River at Station M-kk (RM-65^.6).




       Total suspended solids concentrations followed an irregular,




although generally upward trend for the remaining stations in the






                                A-19

-------
reach during the two-day rain-affected period.  Downstream from



and including the Omaha M.U.D. water intake (Station M-lt-2, RM-626.2),



all of the remaining 13 main stem stations exceeded TOO mg/1 total



suspended solids, 10 stations exceeded 1,000 mg/1 and two stations



exceeded 2,000 mg/1.  The highest average for the 2-day period was



2,78^ mg/1 at the St. Joseph Water Company intake (Station M-28,




RM-U52.3).



       Total suspended solids concentrations during the January 1969



survey were quite low when compared with results from the October 1968



survey.  The highest average concentration was kQ mg/1 at Station M-52A



(RM-732.8) upstream from Sioux City, Iowa.  The nine remaining main



stem stations downstream from Sioux City had concentrations between



9 and 28 mg/1.  The water released from Gavins  Point Dam (RM-811.0)



contained only 2 mg/1 total suspended solids concentrations.



       The clarity  of the Missouri River in January 1969, as compared



with October 1968,  is attributed to the frozen condition of the



drainage basin.  Tributary runoff carrying clay and silt particles



was small.



       The damming  effect of  the ice jams reduced water velocity,



which allowed sedimentation and contributed to water clarity.
                                A-20

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                                                                      135
    Nitrogen and Phosphorus



       Total nitrogen,  which consists of ammonia,  nitrates and total




organic nitrogen forms, and total phosphorus were  determined for two



separate 5-day composites for all stations vrithin  the survey reach.



Results for the first composite were collected during normal weather



conditions while the second composite included the rain-affected



period (Figures A-7 and A-8).



       Phosphorus



       Average total phosphorus concentrations were 0.04 mg/1 in



water released from Gavins  Point Dam (RM-811.0) during the October



1968 survey.  Concentrations during the 8-day normal weather period



increased to 0.0? mg/1 at Station M-U8 (RM-71?.k)  downstream from



the Sioux City, Iowa, area.  Total phosphorus concentrations generally



increased downstream and were 0.12 mg/1 at the Omaha M.U.D. water



intake (Station M-te, RM-626.2).



       Downstream from the Omaha-Council Bluffs area, the total



phosphorus increased to 0.2^ mg/1 at Station M-39 (RM-610.5) during



the normal weather period.  The concentration again increased to



0.30 mg/1 at Station M-36  (RM-591.2) downstream from Papillion Creek



and the Platte River.  The total -phosphorus concentration remained



essentially unchanged during the remainder of the reach.  The concen-



tration at the St. Joseph Water Company intake  (Station M-28, RM-452.3)



was 0.26 mg/1.




       Total phosphorus concentrations increased greatly  in the



rain-affected composite samples reflecting the agricultural land use



of the drainage ";>asin.  For example, concentrations  in the  Soldier





                               A-21

-------
136
    River increased .'rom 0.17 mg/1 to 3-00 mg/1-   Total phosphorus  con-



    centrations inert ased irregularly downstream from Gavins Point  Dam



    reaching the big) est average concentration of 0.92 mg/1 at Station




    M-29 (RM-469.0).



           Nitrogen



           Normal weather total nitrogen concentration increased from



    0.7 mg/1 at Gavins Point Dam (RM-811.0) to 1.5 mg/1 at Station M-52



    (RM-736.0) upstream from Sioux City.  A general decreasing trend in



    total nitrogen concentration occurred downstream from Sioux City to



    a concentration of 1.1 mg/1 at Station M-4U (RM-65*-.6).  Total nitro-



    gen concentrations increased downstream from the Boyer River, which



    had a concentration of 9.31*- ng/l (Station B-4-3, RM-635.1), to 1.3



    mg/1 at the Omaha M.U.D. water intake  (Station M-^4-2, RM-626.2).



    Concentrations exhibited a generally increasing trend downstream



    from the Platte River reaching a concentration of 2.3 mg/1 at



    Station M-32  (RM-525.1).  The highest  concentration in the reach



    occurred at the St. Joseph Water Company  intake  (Station M-28,



    RM-452.3) and was 2.9 mg/1.



           The rain-affecte i  composite  samples had an  irregular  trend



    although generally  increasing downstream.  Concentrations were  less



    than the normal-weather data  for the  Gavins  Point  Dam (RM-811.0)  to



    Sioux City, Iowa, reach;  approximately the  same  from  Sioux City to the



    Soldier River (RM-664.0); and greater than the normal-weather  concen-



    trations downstream from  the  Soldier  River.   The highest total nitro-




    gen concentration was  k.I mg/1 at Station M-29 (RM-1*69.0).   Five  of



    the main  stem  stations had total nitrogen  concentrations of 3-0  mg/1



    or greater.




                                    A-22

-------
                                                                       137
       Nitrogen and phosphorus analyses are not presently avail-




able for the January 1969 survey.




    Cyanide




       Positive cyanide results were obtained for samples from




six of seven stations selected for analysis in October 1968 and all




five stations selected for the January 1969 survey (Table A-5).




Average concentrations which indicate a "lees than (<)" average had




at least one analysis less than 1 microgram per liter (fig/l), which




is the sensitivity of the analysis method.




       The highest single result of 15.2/ug/l occurred during the




October 1968 rain-affected period at Station M-33 (RM-5^.7).  Four




of the seven stations had concentrations greater than 10 /ug/1.  The




highest average concentration during the October 1968 survey was 6.2




/ug/1 at Station M-W (RM-717A) downstream from Sioux City, Iowa.




       The highest average cyanide concentration during the January




1969 survey was < 3.6 /ug/1 at the Omaha M.U.D. water intake (Station




M-k2, RM-626.2).




    Water Temperature




       Average water temperatures during the 8-day normal period




ranged from l6C. at the St. Joseph Water Company intake to ll*C. at




Station M-52 (RM-736.0) upstream from Sioux City, Iowa (Table A-2).




Average temperatures decreased during the two-day rain-affected period




in the upper reaches.  Temperatures remained unchanged at Station M-28




at l6C. but decreased to 10C. at Station M-52.




       Average water temperature during the January 1969 survey




ranged from 1.6C. at the St. Joseph Water Company intake to  -OAC.  at




Station 52 upstream from Sioux City.



                               A-23

-------
138
        pH




           The pH of Missouri River water was about 8.3  for  most




    stations during the October 1968 normal-weather period (Table  A-5).




    The highest average was 8.6 at Station M-38 (RM-601.3),.   The lowest




    average was 8.1 at Station M-35 (RM-580.9).




           The pH decreased slightly at several stations during the




    2-day r?\ in-affected period.  The lowest average pH during this




    period in the main stem Missouri River was 7.8 at Station M-30




    (RM-^88.3).




           The average pH was lower during the January 1969 survey than




    the 8-day normal period in October 1968.  The pH ranged from 7.8




    at the 3t. Joseph Water Company intake (M-28, RM-V?2.3) to 8.1 at




    Station M-52  (RM-736.0) upstream from Sioux City, Iowa.




        Alkalinity




           The October 1968 survey normal-weather 8-day average alka-




    linity  (Table A-2) of the Missouri River  ranged from a  low of 160 mg/1




    (as CaCO  ) at Station M-46  (RM-676.5) to  the highest average of 197



    mg/1  (as  CaCO )  at Station M-M*  (RM-65^.6).  The 2-day  rain-affected




    period  averages  ranged from 11^ mg/1 (as  CaCO  ) at  Station M-39




    (RM-610.5) to 180 mg/1  (as  CaCO  ) at Station M-35 (RM-580.9).  Rainfall




    reduced alkalinity slightly.




            Alkalinities  during the January 1969 survey  were approximately




    the same.  Concentrations ranged from  165 mg/1 (as  CaCO ) at  Station




    M-30  (RM-^88.3)  to 191 mg/1 (as  CaCO )  at the  Omaha M.U.D. water




    intake (M~k2, RM-626,2).





                                  A-24

-------
                                                                      139
    Total Dissolved Solids



       The total dissolved solids (Table A-2)  of the water released



from Gavins Point Dam averaged k"lk mg/1 during the October 1968



survey.  Averages for the 8-day normal-weather period for the remain-



der of the reach ranged between a high of 6^5 mg/1 at Station M-32



(Rfc-525.1) to 468 mg/1 at Station M-29 (RM-469.0).  Nineteen of the



20 stations averaged less than 552 mg/1.



       Total dissolved solids concentrations were higher during the



January 1969 survey than during October 1968.   The water released



from Gavins Point Dam (RM-811.0) averaged 5l8 mg/1.  The highest



average concentration was 629 rag/1 at the Omaha M.U.D. water intake



(Station M-42, RM-626.2).  The lowest average of U86 mg/1 occurred



at Station M-30 (RM-488.3).  Ten of the 11 main stem stations



exceeded 500 mg/1 total dissolved solids.



    Sulfates




       Average sulfate concentrations (Table A-2) for the 8-day



normal-weather October 1968 survey ranged between 166 mg/1 at Station



M-29 (RM-469.0) and 220 m*;/l at Station M-32 (RM-525.1).  Water re-



leased from Gavins Point lam (RM-811.0) averaged 208 mg/1.



       The sulfate concentrations for the January 1969 survey were



similar to the October 1968 results.  Concentrations ranged from 170



mg/1 at Station M-30 (RM-488.3) to 22^ mg/1 at the Omaha M.U.D. water



intake (Station M-^2, RM-626.2).
                               A-25

-------
    Soluble Heavy Metals



       A soluble iron concentration of 0.60 mg/1 for the second



5-day composite at station M-39 (RM-610.5) was the only heavy metal



concentration found within detectable limits of analytical methods



for the October 1968 survey (Table A-3).   Other metals were either



absent or present in minute quantities.




       Analyses for the January 1969 survey were not completed in



time for inclusion in this report.



    Grease



       The concentration of grease from the daily composite from the



Monroe Street ani South Omaha sewers averaged 299 mg/1 during the



October 1968 survey.  The actual amount of grease reaching the



Missouri River following a privately operated recovery operation at



the Monroe Street sewer was not determined.



       The grease concentration in the effluent from the Sioxuc City,



Iowa, sewage treatment plant during the October 1968 survey averaged



17 mg/1.  The amount of grease removed through the  sewage treatment



plant was not determined.



       Grease results from the January 1969  survey  were not avail-



able for inclusion  in this report.
                               A-26

-------
                                                   TABLE NO.  A-l



                                            SUMMARY OP AVERAGE DISCHARGES



                                                    MISSOURI RIVER



                                        OCTOBER 1968 and JANUARY 1969 SURVEYS
STATION
MISSOURI RIVER:
Bavin1 s ft. Dam,
South Dakota
Sioux City, Iowa
Omaha, Nebraska
Nebraska City, Nebraska
Rulo, Nebraska
St. Joseph, Missouri
TRIBUTARIES:
Big Sioux River
at Akron, Iowa
Boyer River
at Logan, Iowa
Platte River near
South Bend, Nebraska
1968 DISCHARGES^/
eta
Oct. 7-16
Normal Fall
31,200
32,400
33,100
35,600
36,300
36,600

170
270
3,450
Oct. 17-18
Extremely Wet
26,500
34,000
1*5,900
57,300
70,600
70,400

7OO
1,520
17,100
Flow Ratio:
Wet/Normal
0.91
1.05
1.39
1.61
1.94
1.92

4.15
5.63
4.96
1969 DISCHARGES^/
cf
Jan. 20-31
Ron-Havigatiou
16,900
16,700
15,100
17,600
18,700
19,900

-
-
3,350
Flow Ratio:
1969/1968 Normal
0.54
0.5?
0.1*6
0.1*9
0.52
0.51*

-
-
0.97
WASTE SOURCES :-



Sioux City, Iowa - STP



Council Bluffs, Iowa - STP



Omaha, Nebraska

   Missouri R.  STP



Monroe St. Sewer

   Omaha, Nebraska
25.1 (=16.2 mgd)



 7.7 (=5.0 mgd)^/
64. 4(=4l. 6 mgd)
22.6 (=14.6 mgd)



 8.0 (5-2 mgd)





24.8 (>16 mgd)
' Average flows based on provisional U.S. Geological Survey data, except for wate sources



2/
' Average flows estimated by U.S  Corps of Engrs., except for waste sources.




" Waste source flows are averages for sample days only and may be raid-affected.



4/
' Flow estimated from information provided by Plant Personnel.




2/ No flow due to shutdown for system repairs.  All sewage was bypassed raw from many outfalls along the waterfront.

-------
142

































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    -------
    146
                                                       TABLE NO.  A-4
    
                                                     Coliform Bacteria
                                 Sunmary of 8-and 2-Day Geometric  Means for Discrete Samples
                                                      Missouri  River
                                                   October  1968  Survey
    Station
    Desig- River
    nation Mileage
    Total Coliforms
    MPH/100 ml
    8 -Day 2 -Day
    Fecal Coliforms
    MPN/100 ml
    8 -Day 2 -Day
    MISSOURI RIVER:
    Gavins
    Pt. Dam
    M-52
    M-50
    M-i*8
    M-l*7
    M-l*6
    M-l*l*
    M-U2
    M-l*l
    M-39
    M-38
    M-3^
    M-35
    M-3li
    M-33
    M-32
    M-31
    M-30
    M-?9
    M-28
    TRIBUTARIES
    BS-51
    3-1*5
    B-i*3
    PA-37A
    P-37
    811.0
    736.0
    730.0
    717.1*
    699.5
    676.5
    651*. 6
    626.2
    618.3
    610.5
    601.3
    591.3
    580.9
    559.7
    5^.7
    525.1
    507.5
    1*88.3
    1*69.0
    1*52.3
    y
    73>*.0
    66i*.0
    635-1
    596.5
    59l*.8
    250 i/
    1,380
    2,1*00
    62,800
    57,100
    53,000
    39,500
    52,300
    1*6,600
    256,000
    165,000
    17"*, 000
    130,000
    167,000
    189,000
    100,000
    131*, ooo
    151*, ooo
    11+8,000
    57,700
    
    1,100
    15,000
    110,000
    -
    27,700
    
    7!*, 800
    7>*,800
    265,000
    230,000
    213,000
    852,000
    1*11*, 000
    802,000
    330,000
    1*60,000
    790,000
    790,000
    1,1*1+0,000
    > 727,000
    767,000
    838,000
    -
    -
    852,000
    
    17,000
    2,1+00,000
    2,000,000
    16,000,000 2/
    620,000
    <125i/
    225
    2l*0
    l!*,300
    26,600
    18,900
    9,000
    8,300
    11,200
    61,000
    1*5,000
    53,500
    38,000
    50,800
    38,500
    18,900
    28,100
    28,1*00
    ll*,600
    6,500
    
    110
    3,900
    15,000
    -
    11,100
    
    30,300
    1+7,000
    116,000
    108,000
    11*9,000
    278,000
    207,000
    207,000
    230,000
    330,000
    1*90,000
    330,000
    1,120,000
    1*60,000
    352,000
    1*35,000
    280,000
    -
    232,000
    
    1*,000
    2,000,000
    1,1*00,000
    11,000,000 t-J
    290,000
    WASTE SOURCES ^
    SC-l*9
    OM-1*0 A
    729.0
    611.5
    75,000,000
    19,000,000
    1*9,000,000
    30,000,000
    20,000,000
    7,800,000
    1*9,000,000
    11,000,000
                                    160,000,000
                                                3/
    35,000,000
               3/
            I/  Average of two grab samples.
            2/  Average for 3 days influenced by extremely wet weather.
            3/  Single grab sample during typical Fill weather.
            I*/  River Mileage refers to point where tributary or waste source enters Missouri  River.
            ~  Samples were collected on tributary or waste source upstream from confluence.
    

    -------
                                                       TABI NO. A-5
    
                                                          Summary of
                                                      Other Constituents
                                                        Missouri River
                                                     October, 1968 Survey
          Station
       Desig-     River
       nation    Mileage
                               Cyanide, ug/1
    
                                  '  Maximum
                              Avg.
                                               Total-2/              ,,
                           Rienol, M/l       Organic     Chloroform^           , /          . ,
                             2 ,               Chlorine     Extract       Uranium-/    Ra226  -J
                         fiVg.'  Maximum	ne/1	mg/1	pg/1	pc/1
    MISSOURI RIVER:
       Gavins
       Pt. Dam
                  811.0
    
                  736.0
    
                  717.1*
    
                  626.2
    
                  610.5
    
                  601.3
       M-52
    
       M-U8
    
       M-l*2
    
       M-39
    
       M-38
    
       M-36
    
       M-33       51*6.7
    
       M-28       1*52.3
    
    TRIBUTARIES:^/
    
      BS-51       73't.O
    
       S-l*5       661*.0
    
       B-l3       635.1
    
       P-37       591*.8
    
    WASTE SOURCES 4/
    
      OM-1*0 A     611.5
    < 1*.3     12.2
    
      6.2     ll*.0
    
    < 2.7      5.1*
    
    < 5-1      8.1*
    
    < 1.0    < 1.0
      U.7
                                      15.2
    
                                      11.2
    < 1.5
    
    < 1.5
    < 1.5
    
    
    
    < 1.5
    
    < 1.5
    2.0
    
    2.0
               2,0
    
               2.0
    2.0
    
    2.0
    126.0
    
    
    
     56.5
    
    138.2
    
    
    
    261*. 3
     5.5
    
    
    
     0.0
    
    26.1
    
    
    
     9.1*
    
    
    
    
    
     3-7
                                                                                                   U.3
                                                                                                  2.5
                                                                                                  i*.3
    
                                                                                                  3.9
    
                                                                                                  i*.l
    
                                                                                                  6.U
                                                                                                              0.02
                                                                                                              0.07
                                                                                     0.07
    
                                                                                     0.07
    
                                                                                     0.19
    
                                                                                     0.12
                                                                                  133.5
    I/  Average of 3 to 1* grab  samples during typical Fall and wet weather.
    
    2j  Average of 2 grab samples during  typical Fall weather.
    
    3_/  Single grab sample during typical Fall weather.
    
    4/  Composite for 10 samples collected both during typical
          Fall and extremely wet weather.
    -'
        Includes a maximum discrete value  of 15-2  ug/1.
    
        River Mileage refers to point where tributary or waste source enters Missouri River.
        Samples were collected on tributary or waste source upstream from confluence.
    

    -------
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      H M  ' '        H* H   J-H   u\ \t\ u\
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
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    -------
    149
                                         TABLE Ho. A-7
                                       STATION DESCRIPTIONS
                                   Missouri River Basin Surrey
    149
    Station
    N-28
    M-29
    M-30
    M-31
    M-32
    M-33
    M-3U
    M-35
    M-36
    P-37
    M-38
    M-39
    OM-40
    M-Ul
    M-U2
    B-U3
    M-UU
    S-1.5
    M-46
    M-47
    M-48
    SC-49
    M-50
    BS-51
    M-52
    Gavins
    Dam
    PA-37A
    OM-4QA
    CB-toB
    M-48A
    M-52A
    River Mile
    l52.3
    1*69.0
    1*88.3
    507.5
    525.1
    5W.7
    559.7
    580.9
    591.2
    59^.8
    601.3
    610.5
    611.5
    618.3
    626.2
    635.1
    651*. 6
    661* .0
    676.5
    699.5
    717.U
    729.0
    730.0
    73|t.O
    736.0
    Point 811.0
    596.5
    611.5
    61U.O
    n8.3
    732.8
    Description
    Missouri R. at St. Joseph Waterworks Intake (0.3 ml. belov Daymark
    right bank).
    Missouri R. 0.5 ml. above Charleston landing (Daymark - left
    bank).
    Missouri R. at White Cloud, Kan. (at power cable X-lng).
    Missouri R. 9-5 ml. above Rulo, Heb. (at landing 0.2 ml. belov
    light - left bank).
    Missouri R. at boat landing (at Morgan Bend, upper light - left
    bank).
    Missouri R. at Peru Sportsman's Club ramp (0.2 ml. above Barney
    Bend light - right bank).
    Missouri R. below Nebraska City (0.2 mi. above Frazlers light -
    left bank).
    Missouri R. at Bartlett, Iowa (at Shenandoab Boat Club ramp).
    Missouri R. at Plattsnouth, Neb. (0.2 ml. belov Pollock light -
    right bank).
    Platte R. at U. S. Hwy. 75 bridge, Nebraska
    Missouri R. at Bellevue, Heb. (0.1 ml. belov St. Hvy. 370
    bridge).
    Missouri R. belov Omaha STP outfall (at power cable X-lng).
    Composite sample of 7 parts Monroe St. Sever effluent and 1 part
    South Omaha Sever, Omaha, Hebr. (approx. river mileage)
    Missouri R. at I. C. RR bridge.
    Missouri R. at Omaha Waterworks Intake (0.3 ml. belov Hvy.
    36 bridge).
    Boyer R. at 1-29 Hvy. bridge, Iowa.
    Missouri R. above Blair, Reb. (at Tyson Boat Marina 0.2 ml.
    above light - right bank).
    Soldier R. at 1-29 Hwy. bridge, Iowa.
    Missouri R. (at Upper Sioux Reach upper light - left bank).
    Missouri R. at Lighthouse Marina (also called Don Ruth Marina,
    6 ml. from Whiting, Iowa).
    Missouri R. below Sioux City STP outfall (at power cable X-lng) .
    Sioux City Sewage Treatment Plant effluent (approx. river mileage).
    Missouri R. below Floyd R. confluence - Sioux City, Iowa (at power
    cable X-lng).
    Big Sioux R. above confluence.
    Missouri R. 2 ml. above confluence (at 1-29 Hwy. bridge).
    Dam above Yank ton, S. D. (Corps of Engr.).
    Big Papllllon Creek at Offut Air Force Base Road to Capehart,
    Nebraska - off U. S. Hvy. 75.
    Omaha Missouri River Sewage Treatment Plant effluent (approx.
    river ml.).
    Council Bluffs Sevage Treatment Plant effluent (approx. river
    ml.).
    Iowa Power and Light Co. Power Plant - left bank.
    Missouri River 0.5 Bile above U. S. 73 Hy. bridge.
    

    -------
    150
                                       GAVINS  POINT  DAM    
               FIGURE  A-l
             LOCATION  MAP
           MISSOURI RIVER
    October,  1968 - January,  1969
                           736.0 (M-32)
                           730.0 (M-SO)
                           718.3  (M-46A)
                           717.4  (M-4)
                           699.3   (M-47)
                           676.5  (M-46)
                           6S4.6   (M-44)
                         946.7  (M-33)
                          32S.I  (M-32)
                          S07.3  
    -------
                        III
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                                                                                                     151
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    -------
    152
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    -------
    156
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    -------
    158
                                   APPENDIX B
    
    
    
    
                       BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF WATER QUALITY
    
    
    
    
                      IN IOWA REACHES OF THE MISSOURI RIVER
    

    -------
                                                                        159
                               CONCLUSIONS
    
    
    
    
    
    
            The 286 miles of the Missouri River downstream from
    
    
    
    
    Sioux City, Iowa, reflected different degrees  of water quality
    
    
    
    
    degradation.  At least 54 miles were severely  degraded by
    
    
    
    
    pollution.  The remaining approximately 232 miles were good
    
    
    
    
    water quality.
    
    
    
    
            1.  From Sioux City, Iowa to Omaha, Nebraska and
    
    
    
    
                Council Bluffs, Iowa, stream bed animals re-
    
    
    
    
                flected unpolluted conditions with the exception
    
    
    
    
                of localized degradation in the Sioux City area.
    
    
    
    
            2.  Wastes discharged from the Omaha and Council
    
    
    
    
                Bluffs area polluted the river, both aesthetically
    
    
    
    
                and biologically.  Severe degradation of the bottom
    
    
    
    
                associated organisms occurred for  5^ miles downstream.
    
    
    
    
                Objectionable floating solids (grease and chunks of
    
    
    
    
                animal fat) were observed from the Omaha and Council
    
    
    
    
                Bluffs area downstream past the St. Joseph, Mo. water
    
    
    
    
                supply intake, a distance of approximately 166 miles.
    
    
    
    
            3-  Severely degraded waters were found in tributaries of
    
    
    
    
                the Missouri River; tributaries with polluted water
    
    
    
    
                were the Big Sioux River, Floyd River, Soldier Creek
    
    
    
    
                and Boyer River.
                                   B-l
    

    -------
    l6o
                  A.  Big Sioux River  (lowa and South Dakota) bottom
    
    
    
                      organisms indicated unsuitable conditions for
    
    
    
                      sensitive forms.  The presence of  organic sludge
    
    
    
                      results from inadequately treated  wastewaters.
    
    
    
                  B.  The Floyd River  (Iowa) bottom vas  composed  of
    
    
    
                      paunch manure and organic sludge,  and supported
    
    
    
                      only the most tolerant bottom organisms.
    
    
    
                  C.  Water quality in both the Soldier  Creek and
    
    
    
                      Boyer River vas  degraded.  However,  water flow
    
    
    
                      from each stream vas low in volume and the
    
    
    
                      streams had no observable effect on  the Missouri
    
    
    
                      River.
    
    
    
                  Suspended algae in the Missouri River  increased in
    
    
    
                  numbers from 1,000 cells per ml to 6,000 cells  per
    
    
    
                  ml downstream from Omaha, Nebraska and Council
    
    
    
                  Bluffs, Iowa.  However, the algal population created
    
    
    
                  no known nuisances or problems.
                                      B-
    

    -------
    161
                               INTRODUCTION
    
    
    
    
    
            Requested by the Regional Director of the Missouri Basin
    
    
    
    Region, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, a bio-
    
    
    
    logical survey to determine vater quality of the Missouri River
    
    
    
    fron Sioux City, leva, downstream to Hermann, Missouri, was
    
    
    
    conducted from October 7 to October 16, 1968.  Results of the
    
    
    
    survey from Sioux City, Iowa, to St. Joseph, Missouri, are
    
    
    
    presented in this report.
    
    
    
            The Missouri River included in this survey flows southeast
    
    
    
    from South Dakota and is the boundary between Nebraska and Iowa,
    
    
    
    and a portion of Kansas and Missouri (Figure Bl). This stream
    
    
    
    reach is 286 miles long and drains approximately 14-24,500 square
    
    
    
    miles.  Major tributaries entering this reach are the Big Sioux
    
    
    
    River, Floyd River, Soldier Creek, Boyer River, and Platte River.
    
    
    
            This reach is bordered by agricultural lands and has
    
    
    
    industrial complexes located in the larger cities.  Major cities are
    
    
    
    Sioux City, Iowa; Council Bluffs, Iowa; Omaha, Nebraska and St. Joseph,
    
    
    
    Missouri.  The river is used mainly for water supply, transportation
    
    
    
    and irrigation.  Water-associated sports such as fishing and boating
    
    
    
    are not fully developed.
                                   B-3
    

    -------
    162
                The river's high velocity of three miles per hour con-
    
    
    
    
        tinually erodes unprotected banks and constantly shifts  the  sandy
    
    
    
    
        bottom.  The water is turbid.   To limit floods, bank erosion, and
    
    
    
    
        to stabilize the channel, the  U.  S.  Army Corps of  Engineers  con-
    
    
    
    
        structed six main stem impoundments  upstream from  Sioux:  City and
    
    
    
    
        channelized the river downstream from Sioux City.   Flows are
    
    
    
    
        controlled by the release of water from upstream  impoundments.
    
    
    
    
        The channel has been stabilized and erosion has been controlled by
    
    
    
    
        placing pile dikes (rock braced with piling) parallel  or perpendicular
    
    
    
    
        to river flow.
    
    
    
    
                Biological features studied were bottom inhabiting inverte-
    
    
    
    
        brate organisms and suspended algae (phytoplankton).   Sampling was
    
    
    
    
        at approximately ;>0 river mile intervals except  in areas affected by
    
    
    
    
        waste discharges vhere additional stations were established.  Twenty
    
    
    
    
        stations on the M ssouri River and one station on each of the major
    
    
    
    
        tributaries were sampled.  Stations are designated as  river miles
    
    
    
    
        measured upstream from the Missouri River confluence with the
    
    
    
    
        Mississippi River  (Table Bl).
    
    
    
                Channelization and a shifting sand bottom have restricted
    
    
    
    
        bottom animals to pile dikes and adjacent backwater areas.  Pile
    
    
    
    
        dikes were examined to determine the representative kinds of benthic
                                       B-4
    

    -------
                                                                         163
    animals inhabiting a reach of river.   Backwater areas were
    
    
    
    
    sampled for bottom organisms with either a Petersen or Ekman
    
    
    
    
    dredge.  Dredgings were washed and strained through a U.  S.
    
    
    
    
    Standard No. $0 sieve, and organisms  remaining in the sieve
    
    
    
    
    were preserved for laboratory identification.
    
    
    
    
            Suspended algal (phytoplankton) samples of one liter
    
    
    
    
    were collected at pre-determined sampling stations and were
    
    
    
    
    preserved with five percent formalin  f< r later identification.
    
    
    
    
            This survey vas conducted by  aruatic biologists from
    
    
    
    
    the Missouri River Basin and Technical Advisory and Investigations
    
    
    
    
    Branch, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.  The report
    
    
    
    
    was written by Messrs. Delbert Hicks, Loys Parrish and Steve Bugbee.
    

    -------
                                BOTTOM ANIMALS
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
           Many invertebrate animals are found living on the beds
    
    
    
    
    of rivers.  In a clean water environment, this community includes
    
    
    
    
    numerous kinds of pollution sensitive animals which serve as food
    
    
    
    
    organisms for desirable game fish.  Pollution tolerant organisms
    
    
    
    
    are present but are few in number.  As the environment receives
    
    
    
    
    increasing amounts of organic wastes, clean water animals are
    
    
    
    
    reduced or eliminated from the community in the order of their
    
    
    
    
    sensitivity to resultant water quality.  This adverse change in
    
    
    
    
    the bottom associated community is indicative of the extent of
    
    
    
    
    pollution.  Further evidence of organic pollution is indicated by
    
    
    
    
    increases in floating solids and in formation of sludge deposits
    
    
    
    
    that may undergo rapid decomposition that produces sulfide, methane
    
    
    
    
    and other gases, and reduces disso?ved oxygen in the water.
    
    
    
    
           The river upstream from Sioux City (river mile 736) and
    
    
    
    downstream to Omaha City (river mile 601) supported a stream bed
    
    
    
    
    animal community indicative of unpolluted water.  Clean-water
    
    
    
    
    stoneflies, mayflies, and caddisflies were the predominant kinds
    
    
    
    
    of bottom organisms throughout most of this reach.  The number of
                                     B-6
    

    -------
                                                                          165
    pollution tolerant forms remained proportionately lower than
    
    
    
    
    sensitive kinds except in the reach bordered by Sioux City,
    
    
    
    
    Iowa, and Dakota City, Nebraska, river mile 730 (Figures B2 & B3).
    
    
    
    
    Here degradation was from inadequately treated wastewater.  Float-
    
    
    
    
    ing solids consisting of manure, chopped garbage and similar
    
    
    
    
    materials were observed.  These were found upstream from the
    
    
    
    
    municipal waste treatment plants, thus, they originate from un-
    
    
    
    
    treated wastes.  The Big Sioux River contained k kinds of pollu-
    
    
    
    
    tion tolerant animals, but only 1 sensitive form, and the bottom
    
    
    
    
    contained deposits of organic material and oil thus typifying
    
    
    
    
    water of poor quality.
    
    
    
    
           The bottom of the FloyI River was covered with organic
    
    
    
    
    solids and -nanure that exuded the rotten egg odor of hydrogen
    
    
    
    
    sulfide.  Vater quality was degraded so severely that most
    
    
    
    
    tolerant bettom animals could not inhabit these waters.  Down-
    
    
    
    
    stream at river mile 66k, Soldier Creek (lowa) discharged degraded
    
    
    
    
    water to tha Missouri River.  The creek supported ? kinds of pollu-
    
    
    
    
    tion tolerant bottom organisms and no clean water kinds (Table B?)
    
    
    
    
    an indication that the creek was polluted.  The. sandy bottom of
    
    
    
    
    the Boyer River (lowa), river mile 635 supported only one kind
    
    
    
    
    of sensitive clean-water bottom organism and three kinds of tolerant
                                    R-7
    

    -------
    166
         bottom organisms (Table B2).  Water from this stream was moderately
    
    
    
         degraded.   Flows from both streams were low in volume and degraded
    
    
    
         water discharging from these  streams had no observable effect on
    
    
    
         the Missouri.
    
    
    
                Downstream from Omaha, Nebraska, and Council Bluffs,  Iowa,
    
    
    
         adverse effects of discharged wastes were discernible for more
    
    
    
         than 166 miles.  Floating solids were evident; unsightly globular
    
    
    
         masses of grease, chunks of animal fat, and paunch manure accumulated
    
    
    
         in eddy areas.  Grease-balls  were observed in the reach of river
    
    
    
         extending from downstream of Omaha, Nebraska, and Council Bluffs,
    
    
    
         Iowa, to past the St. Joseph, Missouri, water supply intake.   Clean-
    
    
    
         water animals were destroyed for a distance of 5k miles downstream
    
    
    
         to river mile 5^7, except at  Bartlett, Iowa (river mile 58l)  where
    
    
    
         an aberrant increase in kinds of sensitive and tolerant forms
    
    
    
         occurred (Figure B3). Available information indicates that the
    
    
    
         animals found here were temporary inhabitants of this reach of river.
    
    
    
         The Platte River enters upstream and during the survey was swollen
    
    
    
         by rains that washed Platte River invertebrates into the Missouri
    
    
    
         River.  The community found at river mile 581 was composed of
    
    
    
         nearly the same kinds as found in the Platte River.  These particular
    
    
    
         forms found in the Missouri River would be temporary inhabitants
                                         B-8
    

    -------
                                                                         16?
    until sufficient time had passed for the pollutants to destroy
    
    
    
    
    or drive them fron the area.
    
    
    
    
           Downstream from Brownville, Nebraska (river mile 525), the
    
    
    
    
    number of sensitr\e kinds of bottom animals were proportionately
    
    
    
    
    greater than pollution tolerant animals (Figure B2).  This increase
    
    
    
    
    resulted from water quality improvement through natural purification
    
    
    
    
    of the wastes from the vicinity of Omaha, Nebraska.  The river
    
    
    
    
    continued to support a community of benthic animals indicative of
    
    
    
    
    good quality water downstream to St. Joseph, Missouri.  The slowly
    
    
    
    
    decomposing grease globs remaining in these waters did not induce
    
    
    
    
    changes sufficient to affect the aquatic life but they were
    
    
    
    
    aesthetically objectionable for recreation and in community water
    
    
    
    
    supplies.
                                    B-9
    

    -------
    168
                                     SUSPENDED ALGAE
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   The phytoplankton (suspended algal community) in large
    
    
    
           flowing streams originates in lakes and backwaters associated
    
    
    
           with the streams.  This community is affected by environmental
    
    
    
           factors characteristic to each stream such as:  turbidity,  water
    
    
    
           velocity, and available nutrients.  Turbidity restricts the
    
    
    
           amount of light that penetrates the water and thus restricts
    
    
    
           algal photosynthesis, which is necessary for food production.
    
    
    
                   Water velocity affects suspended algae (phytoplankton).
    
    
    
           Phytoplankton are principally static water organisms and their
    
    
    
           presence in flowing water results from facultative adaptations.
    
    
    
           Swift turbulent currents are detrimental to many of these fragile
    
    
    
           organisms because of molar action from suspended solids and by
    
    
    
           preventing the organism from maintaining a position for optimum
    
    
    
           light.  In the Missouri River, a swift current, high turbidity,
    
    
    
           and lack of adjoining still water environments (due to channeli-
    
    
    
           zation of the river) tend to limit the phytoplankton community to
    
    
    
           low numbers except when nutrients are discharged to the river.
    
    
    
                   Nutrients produce changes in numbers and kinds of algae.
    
    
    
           Increased quantities of nutrients discharged to a stream produce
    
    
    
           an increase in numbers of algal cells unless physical factors are
    
    
    
           limiting.
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                         B-10
    

    -------
                                                                         169
            Suspended algae ranged in numbers from 870 cells per
    
    
    
    milliliter (ml) to 1,000 cells per ml in the river reach from
    
    
    
    Sioux City, Iowa to Omaha, Nebraska and Council Bluffs, Iowa
    
    
    
    (Figure B^ Table BJ5).  Downstream from Omaha and Council Bluffs
    
    
    
    (river mile 60l), the algal population increased almost six
    
    
    
    fold to a high of 6,000 cells per ml at river mile 560.  This
    
    
    
    was the result of nutrients being discharged to the river.
    
    
    
    Downstream from this point to St. Joseph, Mo. (river mile 1*50),
    
    
    
    the population of algae gradually declined.
    
    
    
            Most of the tributary streams contained high populations
    
    
    
    of phytoplankton but the stream flows were to) small to contribute
    
    
    
    significant quantities of algae to Missouri River algal populations.
    
    
    
            In the reach of the Missouri River surveyed, there were no
    
    
    
    nuisance conditions or problems created by algae.  The algal popu-
    
    
    
    lation downstream from Omaha, Nebraska, was predominately diatoms
    
    
    
    which in some waters have been known to contribute to water supply
    
    
    
    filter clogging problems.  However, in the Missouri River, the
    
    
    
    high concentrations of suspended solids and resultant filtering
    
    
    
    problems minimize effects from the algal population.
                                  B-ll
    

    -------
    170
    
                           Table 31-  Station Descriptions
    
                            Missouri River Basin Survey
       Missouri
       Riv. Mi.	Description	
       736.0            Missouri R.  2 mi.  above confluence (at  1-29 Hwy. bridge)
    
       73^.0-1.0        Big Sioux River.
       731.0-0.01       Floyd River
       730.0            Missouri R.  below Floyd R.  confluenceSioux  Oity,  la.
                            (at power cable X-ing).
       717.k            Missouri R.  below Sioux City STP outfall (at  power
                            cable X-ing).
       699.5            Missouri R.  at Lighthouse Marina (also  called Don Ruth
                            Marina,  6 mi.  from Whiting,  la.)
       676.5            Missouri R.  (at Upper Sioux Reach upper light - left bank).
       66>4..0-1.0        Soldier R.
    
       65^.6            Missouri R.  above Blair, Neb. (at Tyson Boat  Marina
                            0.2 mi.  above light - right  bank).
       635.1-3.0        Boyer River.
       626.2            Missouri R.  at Omaha Waterworks  intake  (0.3 mi. below
                            Hwy. 36 bridge).
       618.3            Missouri R. at I.  C. RR bridge.
       610.5            Missouri R.  below Omaha STP outfall (at power cable X-ing).
       601.3            Missouri R.  at Bellevue, Neb. (0.1 mi.  below  St. Hwy. 370
                            bridge).
       59^.8-0.5        Platte R.
       591.2            Missouri R. at Plattsmouth, Neb. (0.2 mi. below Pollock
                            light - right bank).
       580.9            Missouri R. at Bartlett, Iowa (at Shenandoah  Boat Club  ramp).
       559.7            Missouri R. below Nebraska City (0.2 mi. above Fraziers
                            light - left bank).
       5^6.7            Missouri R. at Peru Sportsman's  Club ramp (0.2 mi.  above
                            Barney Bend light - right bank).
       525.1            Missouri R. at boat landing (at  Morgan  Bend,  upper  light  -
                            left bank).
       507.5            Missouri R. 9.5 mi. above Rulo,  Neb. (at landing 0.2 mi.
                            below light - left bank).
    
       14.88.3            Missouri R. at White Cloud, Kan. (at power cable X-ing).
    
       14-69.0            Missouri R. 0.5 mi. above Charleston landing (Baymark -
                            left bank).
    
       14.52.5            Missouri R. at St. Joseph Waterworks intake (0.3 mi.
                            below Baymark - right bank).
    

    -------
               Table B2-   Bottom Associated Animals Collected from
                             Missouri River, October 1968
                                                                                                         171
    
    
    Organism g
    
    Stoneflies
    Perlodidae
    Acroneuria
    Mayflies
    Ameletus
    Caen Is
    Heptagenia
    Hexagenia
    Isonychia Q
    Stenonema Q
    Tricorythodes
    Caddlsflles
    Cheumatopsyche
    Hydropsyche Q
    Neureollpsis Q
    Potamyla
    Psychomyia
    bubtotal/sq . ft . ^
    Subtotal/kinds It
    
    Midges
    Cricotopus
    Glyptotendipes Q
    Orthocladius
    Polypedilum
    Proc ladlus
    Psectrocladius
    Pseudochironomus
    Tanytarsus
    Craneflies
    Erioptera
    BlacKflies
    Simulium
    Damselflies
    Amphiagrlon
    Argia
    Scuds
    Ganraarub
    Hyalella Q
    Lj?ylldae
    Clams
    Spbaeriidae
    Sow Bugs
    Asellus
    Subtotal/sq. ft. 2
    Subtotal/kinds 2
    
    Snails
    Physa
    Leeches
    Hirudidae Q
    Bloodworms
    Chlronomus Q
    Sludgevorms
    Tubificidae Q
    Subtotal/sq. ft. 3
    Subtotal/kinds 3
    Grand Total/sq. ft. 9
    Number of Kinds 9
    
    Station (River Mile)
    730 717 69 j^ 676 655 626
    Sensitive Organisms
    
    Q - -
    Q - Q -
    
    Q Q
    ......
    - Q Q - Q Q
    Q
    Q Q Q Q Q
    Q Q Q Q -
    - - - - -
    
    Q
    Q Q Q Q Q Q
    Q <3  - Q 
    Q - -
    Q
    * 5 7 6 8 It
    3 5 7 6 8 It
    Intermediate Organisms
    
    Q - Q - - Q
    Q - - - -
    Q
    Q Q
    	 Q
    a 	
    ._--..
    -
    
    ------
    
    - - - - -
    
    ......
    
    
    Q 	
    Q Q -
    	
    
    ------
    
    e e Q Q Q -
    It 2 2 2 5 3
    It 2 2 2 5 3
    Tolerant Organisms
    
    Q Q Q  - -
    
    Q Q  Q Q
    
    Q Q Q Q - Q
    
    It - Q
    6 3 ! 3 l 2
    33^312
    13 10 13 11 l!t 9
    10 10 13 11 lit 9
    Big
    Sioux
    River
    618 TJtTT
    
    
    -
    -
    
    -
    e
    Q
    -
    -
    Q
    Q
    
    -
    Q Q
    Q
    -
    -
    6 l
    6 1
    
    
    Q
    Q
    -
    Q
    -
    Q
    -
    Q
    
    -
    
    -
    
    -
    -
    
    .
     Q
    -
    
    -
    
    -
    5 2
    5 2
    
    
    Q Q
    
    Q
    
    
    
    Q 280
    2 28}
    2 It
    13 286
    13 7
    
    Floyd
    River
    731-.01
    
    
    -
    -
    
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    0
    0
    
    
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    
    -
    
    -
    
    -
    -
    
    -
    -
    -
    
    -
    
    -
    0
    0
    
    
    -
    
    -
    
    -
    
    6
    6
    1
    6
    1
    
    Soldier
    Creek
    
    
    -
    -
    
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    0
    s
    
    
    -
    Q
    -
    8
    .
    Q
    Q
    -
    
    -
    
    Q
    
    Q
    Q
    
    .
    -
    Q
    
    It
    
    ~
    19
    9
    
    
    -
    
    -
    
    It
    
    8
    12
    2
    31
    11
    
    Boyer
    River
    6J5-3
    
    
    -
    -
    
    It
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    k
    1
    
    
    -
    -
    -
    Q
    -
    -
    -
    -
    
    Q
    
    -
    
    -
    -
    
    Q
    Q
    Q
    
    -
    
    -
    5
    5
    
    
    -
    
    Q
    
    Q
    
    3*
    306
    3
    315
    9
    Organisms  collected qualitatively,  arbitrarily given value of one for
    computing  numbers per square foot.
    

    -------
    172
                                          Table B2Cont.  Bottom Associated  Animals Collected from
    
    
    
                                                         Missouri River, October 1968
    Station (River Mile)
    Organisms 6lO 601 59!
    
    Mayflies
    Ameletus Q
    Heptagenia -
    Isonychia -
    Stenonema q
    Caddisflies
    Cheimatopsyche Q Q -
    Hydropsyche -
    Ileureclipsls -
    Suototal/sq. ft. 3 1 0
    Subtotal Kinds 310
    581 56) 5^7
    Sensitive
    
    Q - -
    Q
    Q
    Q Q -
    
    _
    Q - -
    -
    510
    510
    525 507
    Organisms
    
    -
    Q
    -
    Q Q
    
    Q
    Q
    Q
    3 3
    3 3
    Platte
    - -"- - 	 _. _ i _. River
    488 469 452 595-. 5
    
    
    Q Q
    Q 0, Q
    ...
    Q Q Q Q
    
    2 Q Q
    q - Q
    q Q
    364 4
    264 4
    Intermediate Organisms
    Beetles
    Cymbiodyta Q
    Madges
    Cardlocladius Q
    Chironcmus -
    Clinotanypus Q
    Cricotopus q q -
    Glyptotendipes -
    Pentaneura ...
    Polypedilum Q, 4 Q
    Procladius Q
    Fsectrocladius q
    'Spaniotoma Q Q -
    Tanypus ...
    Psectrotanypus -
    Craneflies
    Erioptera -
    Limonia -
    Blackflies
    Damselflies
    Amphiagrion -
    Argia -
    Gcuds
    Crangonys -
    Gammarus -
    Hyalella Q
    Sow Bugs
    Asellus Q
    Limpet
    cy
    Subtotal/sq. ft. 1* 12 3
    Subtotal Kinds 493
    
    -
    
    -
    -
    -
    ...
    ...
    Q
    0. 3 Q
    Q - -
    o .
    Q
    ...
    Q
    
    ...
    . . -
    
    
    Q - -
    Q - -
    
    Q
    Q - -
    Q Q
    
    -
    
    
    1 5 2
    7 5 2
    
    -
    
    -
    .
    -
    -
    Q
    .
    q Q
    .
    Q
    Q
    0
    *i
    U
    -
    
    -
    Q
    
    
    -
    Q
    
    Q
    -,
    Q
    
    Q
    
    
    6 9
    6 6
    
    .
    
    q Q
    2
    ...
    Q Q
    -
    q q
    Q q q q
    q
    .
    q q q
    - 3 Q
    ot *i
    -
    
    q
    .
    
    
    .
    q
    
    q 5 -
    ...
    q q
    
    q -
    
    
    598 9
    498 4
    Tolerant Organisms
    Snails
    Physa Q q
    Leeches
    Hirudidae Q Q -
    Bloodworms
    Chironomus -
    Sludgeworms
    Tubificidae Q 190 100
    Subtotal/sq. ft. 2 192 101
    Subtotal Kinds 2 3 2
    Grand Total/so.. ft. 9 ^ 204 1C*
    Nuuber of Kinds 9 15 5
    
    Q Q
    
    Q - -
    
    Q - -
    
    Q 2OO 180
    It 201 180
    ^ 2 1
    16 207 182
    16 8 J
    
    -
    
    Q
    
    Q
    
    320 120
    321 121
    2 S
    550 133
    11 11
    
    Q
    
    q - q
    
    8
    
    90 580 Q q
    90 589 2 2
    132 2
    98 604 12 10
    7 18 14 10
                         Organisms collected qualitatively, arbitrarily given value of one for
    
    
    
    
                         computing numbers per square foot.
    

    -------
                                                              173
    Table BJ.  Suspended Algae, Missouri River Survey,
    
    
    
                 October - November, 1968
    River Mile
    756
    754-1.0
    750
    717
    699
    676
    664-1.0
    655
    655-5.0
    626
    618
    610
    601
    595-0.5
    591
    581
    560
    547
    525
    507
    488
    1*69
    1*52
    Number/ml
    872
    11,655
    728
    559
    749
    687
    644
    895
    961
    966
    996
    453
    817
    9,236
    947
    1,654
    5,995
    5,791
    2,584
    5,046
    1,769
    1,905
    1,566
    Volume (ppm)
    0.84
    11.75
    1.54
    1.01
    1.24
    0.95
    0.61
    1.54
    0.88
    1.85
    2.28
    0.65
    5.44
    15.04
    1.92
    2.17
    5.82
    5-55
    2.51
    2.95
    2.65
    5-51
    1.85
    

    -------
    S. DAKOTA
       NEB
                            MINN.
                            IOWA
    
                           FLOYD R.
                       '/ 731 -0.01
                       SIOUX CITY
                        729
                       -717
                               626
                               618
                      OMAHAQfh COUNCIL BLUFFS
     * SAMPLING STATIONS
                                                   t
                                                   N
                                                 ST. JOSEPH
     10 5 0  10  20  30  40 miles
     iii   i   i    ii
          Scale
    FIGURE Bl
                 SAMPLING  STATIONS, MISSOURI RIVER, SIOUX
                 CITY, IOWA  TO ST. JOSEPH, MO. .(RIVER MILES
                 UPSTREAM FROM  CONFLUENCE WITH MISSISSIPPI
                 RIVER.)
    

    -------
                                                                175
     en
     Q
     2
     u.
     o
    60
    
    50
    
    40
    
    30
    
    20
    
    10
        60
     en
     Q
        50
     <  40
     o
        30
     u.
     o
        20
    
        10
            750
            600
                                     SENSITIVE KINDS
                                     TOLERANT KINDS
                 SIOUX CITY,
                   IOWA
                                                    COUNCIL BLUFFS,
                                                        IOWA
                                                       OMAHA,
                                                        NEB.
                         700
                     650
    600
                                   RIVER MILE
                                                        ST. JOSEPH,
                                                           MO.
    550              500
    
         RIVER MILE
                                                            450
    FIGURE  B2.
              RELATIVE NUMBER OF  POLLUTION SENSITIVE AND
              TOLERANT KINDS OF ORGANISMS IN THE MISSOURI
              RIVER  SURVEY, SIOUX  CITY, IOWA  TO ST. JOSEPH,
              MO., OCTOBER, 1968 .
    

    -------
    176
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    CO 8
    0
    5 6
    LL
    O
    4
    a: H
    UJ
    00
    5 2
    r>
    -
    -
    
    _
    
    
    
    750
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    7
    ;
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    >
    1-
    o <
    ^f
    5 o
    o
    to
    I
    
    
    
    
    D
    /
    /
    /
    /
    i
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    -
    
    
    
    
    
    ?
    /
    *
    s
    /
    /
    /
    ^
    d
    
    
    
    
    \
    \
    
    
    
    
    
    
    > TOLERANT
    
    
    /
    /
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    __
    
    
    
    /
    ;
    /
    70
    /
    /
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    0
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    ^
    ^
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    RIVER
    8
    CO
    0
    z 6
    0 4
    U
    1 2
    ~ ^
    z
    
    
    
    
    ~
    -
    
    - n
    Pi
    ft
    
    600
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    >
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    R
    w
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    p
    u
    m a_ fe
    
    
    1
    
    -
    F
    
    ^
    /
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    |\
    \
    \
    > SENSITIVE
    /
    /
    /
    /
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    _E
    
    
    
    
    
    
    1
    650
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    ^
    
    ^
    O
    
    05 ^
    u.
    " (-t^
    QD ^^
    UJ _|
    Z QQ
    " -1
    *t (J
    5
    2 O
    0 0
    I
    
    
    
    
    
    [
    -
    
    
    
    n P
    \ h
    600
    MILE
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    550
    
    
    
    
    
    
    p
    ^
    ^
    -
    n
    j
    m
    I
    500
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    ST. JOSEPH
    MO.
    
    
    
    ;
    t
    /
    ^
    1
    P
    
    P
    ^
    ^
    
    450
                              RIVER MILE
       FIGURE B3. NUMBER OF KINDS OF BOTTOM ORGANISMS, MISSOURI
                 RIVER  SURVEY , SIOUX CITY , IOWA - ST. JOSEPH , MO.
                 OCTOBER, 1968 .
    

    -------
                                                                     177
                BIG SIOUX RIVER
              *  (11,653)
                                    PLATTE RIVER
                                  *  (9,236)
    o
    c
    UJ
       7000-
       6000-
       5000-
       4000-
    g  3000-
    o
    z
    UJ
    Q.
    C/)
        1000-
              SIOUX CITY,
                IOWA
    COUNCIL BLUFFS,
         IOWA
       OMAHA,
         NEB.
                       SOLDIER    
                        RIVER
                      ST. JOSEPH
                          MO.
                   700
            * TRIBUTARY RIVER
    600
                         500
    400
                                      RIVER MILE
       FIGURE  B4. SUSPENDED  ALGAE  (number/ml.), MISSOURI  RIVER,
                   OCTOBER - NOVEMBER , 1968 .
    

    -------
    178
                                    APPENDIX C
    
                              OUTDOOR RECREATION AND
                          WATER POLLUTION IN WESTERN IOWA
                           AND ALONG THE MISSOURI RIVER
    

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                                                                             179
                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
    
    
    
    
                                                                          Page
    
    
    
    
    SUMMARY	    I
    
    
    
    
    INTRODUCTION	    2
    
    
    
    
    THE OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES REVIEW COMMISSION REPORT	    5
    
    
    
    
    OUTDOOR RECREATION TRENDS	    8
    
    
    
    
    LEWIS AND CLARK TRAIL	    9
    
    
    
    
    MISSOURI BASIN INTER-AGENCY COMPREHENSIVE BASIN PLANNING	   12
    
    
    
    
    OUTDOOR RECREATION IN IOWA	   17
    
    
    
    
    THE MIDDLE MISSOURI	   23
    
    
    
    
    CONCLUSION	   24
    
    
    
    
         APPENDIX A
    
    
    
    
         APPENDIX B
    
    
    
    
         APPENDIX C
    
    
    
    
         APPENDIX D
    

    -------
    180
    
    
    
    
    
    
     SUMMARY
    
    
    
    
          Both the Federal and State Governments concur that western Iowa and
    
    
    
    
     the Missouri River have existing recreation deficiencies, much of which
    
    
    
    
     is associated with water-oriented activities.  This is documented in the
    
    
    
    
     recreation plans, studies, and reports which were reviewed in the prepara-
    
    
    
    
     tion of this statement.
    
    
    
    
          Because of projected increases in population, leisure time, disposable
    
    
    
    
     income and mobility, and a greater interest in outdoor recreation, the
    
    
    
    
     demand for recreation resources and facilities is expected to surge upward.
    
    
    
    
          While the area under review is not richly endowed with pristine wilder-
    
    
    
    
     ness conditions, extensive forests, mountains, clear trout streams, or other
    
    
    
    
     outstanding scenic attractions, there are opportunities available to satis-
    
    
    
    
     fy this latent recreation demand.
    
    
    
    
          Among the key recreation potentials in proximity to the population
    
    
    
    
     concentration is the Missouri River, its Oxbow Lakes, and the lands immedi-
    
    
    
    
     ately adjoining them.
    
    
    
    
          Outdoor recreational opportunities along the Missouri River are now
    
    
    
     recognized as a national resource worthy of development to a far greater
    
    
    
    
     degree than heretofore.  This gained national significance in 1964 when
    
    
    
     Congress established the Lewis and Clark Trail Commission.  The Commission's
    
    
    
    
     purpose was to advise and stimulate the activities of all levels of govern-
    
    
    
    
     ment and the private sector to create an appreciation of the resources,
    
    
    
    
     encourage their conservation, and to promote the protection and development
    
    
    
    
     of outdoor recreation resources along the route for public use and enjoyment.
    
    
    
    
          The National Commission, in association with the Iowa State Lewis and
    
    
    
    
     Clark Trail Committee, is now implementing the recommendations contained
                                       -Cl-
    

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                                                                              181
     in the  Commission's  interim report.   Among the problems confronting full
    
    
    
    
     attainment  of the  recognized goals  is water pollution.   The Commission
    
    
    
    
     specifically recommends  that the  FWPCA and HEW should give  continuing
    
    
    
    
     attention to the abatement  and control of water pollution along the trail
    
    
    
    
     route.   Also,  that States  take steps  to strengthen measures to reduce
    
    
    
    
     water and air pollution  along the trail.
    
    
    
    
         Raw  or  treated wastes which are discharged into  these waters which
    
    
    
    
    will produce putrescent or otherwise objectionable sludge deposits,
    
    
    
    
    floating  debris, scum, odors, color, chemical concentrations, etc., are
    
    
    
    
    detrimental  to outdoor recreation use and enjoyment.  This is true whether
    
    
    
    
    it  involves  a direct contact sport like fishing, boating, or water skiing,
    
    
    
    
    or  a secondary activity like sightseeing, camping, or picnicking.
    
    
    
    
         The  Nation, Iowa, or parts thereof do not have unlimited recreation
    
    
    
    
    resources.   Each segment of real estate is at a premium and must be managed
    
    
    
    
    under the highest conservation principles attainable.  Thus, each contribu-
    
    
    
    
    tion, whether it be large or small--such as secondary waste treatment instead
    
    
    
    
    of  primary,  is important to satisfying recreational demands in a quality
    
    
    
    
    environment.  It would be inimical to the development of effective pollution
    
    
    
    
    abatement goals and water quality enhancement measures if the only course
    
    
    
    
    of  action to be taken is no action at all.
    
    
    
    
    INTRODUCTION
    
    
    
    
         Demands for outdoor recreation  are increasing throughout the Nation
    
    
    
    
    due in large measure  to the population explosion,  more leisure time,
    
    
    
    
    greater disposable  incomes,  and a highly improved mobility.   Thus, as never
    
    
    
    
    before,  people are  taking to the out-of-doors in numbers that far exceed
    
    
    
    
    any previous estimates.   The Bureau  of Outdoor Recreation has stated in its
                                     -C2-
    

    -------
     182
    Outdoor Recreation trends report of April 1967 that--our steadily increas-
    
    
    
    
    ing participation in outdoor activities has amazed observers for the past
    
    
    
    
    25 years, and never more so than now.  It further adds that--our outdoor
    
    
    
    
    recreation demands have become imperative.
    
    
    
    
         Unfortunately, the places to go, or the supply of recreation opportuni-
    
    
    
    
    ties, are not keeping pace with the snowballing demand.  It must be said
    
    
    
    
    that this situation exist;, today in Iowa as well as in other portions of
    
    
    
    
    the country.  But, in this context, Iowa is somewhat unique in that it
    
    
    
    
    has been less favorably endowed with an abundance of natural resources.
    
    
    
    
    AJSO, percentagewise, the-e is less area owned in Iowa by the State and
    
    
    
    
    Federal Governments than any State in the Union,  Space, then becomes a
    
    
    
    
    major problem.  Thus, it finds itself less able to cope with the imbalance
    
    
    
    
    of supply and demand.  This is especially true for the western portion of
    
    
    
    
    Iowa.  This area  lacks the pristine wilderness conditions, mountains, ex-
    
    
    
    
    tensive forests,  clear trout streams, and the outstanding scenic attrac-
    
    
    
    
    tions found elsewhere in the Nation.  To be sure, this western portion of
    
    
    
    
    Iowa is not, at present, especially conducive to participating in outdoor
    
    
    
    
    recreation activities.  Basically, it is farm country where the greatest:
    
    
    
    
    percentage of outdoor recreation opportunities are man-made, i.e., resi-r-
    
    
    
    
    voirs, swimming pools, golf courses, city park facilities, etc.
    
    
    
    
         Inasmuch as  the supply of recreation lands and facilities are limited,
    
    
    
    
    and natural resources are at a premium,  it is paramount that every effort
    
    
    
    
    be made to capitalize on the remaining opportunities available and to sustain
    
    
    
    
    them at the highest degree of quality attainable.  This includes the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    River, its tributaries, and the immediate environment.
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                     -C?
    

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                                                                           183
         In focusing on the supply of existing facilities and the recreational
    
    
    
    
    potential, perhaps it would be best to do so by briefly summarizing per-
    
    
    
    
    tinent conclusions and recommendations from various reports,  studies,  and
    
    
    
    
    plans having implications on the area under review.  For recreation
    
    
    
    
    purposes, the "area under review" is limited to those Iowa counties which
    
    
    
    
    drain into the Missouri River.
                                      -C4-
    

    -------
    THE. OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES REVIEW COMMISSION REPORT
    
    
    
    
    
    
         First, the bipartisan "bible of outdoor recreation" prepared in 1962
    
    
    
    
    by the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, entitled Outdoor
    
    
    
    
    Recreation for America, clearly portrayed the intimate relationship of
    
    
    
    
    water and water pollution to outdoor recreation.  Following are some key
    
    
    
    
    quotes which depict t conservation philosphy for managing water for recrea-
    
    
    
    
    tion.  A philosphy which is still considered accurate, and the underlying
    
    
    
    
    factor for many of the programs taken and/or proposed in the country today--
    
    
    
    
    Federal, State, local, and private.
    
    
    
    
         Page  4 - Water  is a focal point of outdoor recreation--"Most people
    
    
    
    
    seeking outdoor recreation want water--to sit by, to  swim and  fish  in,
    
    
    
    
    to ski across, to dive under, and  to run their boats  over.  Swimming is
    
    
    
    
    now  one of the most  popular outdoor activities and  is likely  to be  the
    
    
    
    
    most popular of all  by the turn of  the century.  Boating and  fishing are
    
    
    
    
    among  the  top  10 activities.  Camping, picnicking,  and  hiking, also are
    
    
    
    
    high on the list and are more attractive near water sites."
    
    
    
    
         Page  87  - "Urban or rural, water  is a  magnet.   Wherever  they  live,
    
    
    
    
    people  show a  strong urge  for water-oriented recreation.   There  are many
    
    
    
    
    other  reasons  for water  resource  programs,  and  recreation  use often is
    
    
    
    
     incidental or  unplanned.   To  say  this, however,  is  to note how great  are
    
    
    
    
     the  opportunities."   ....   In  most  major cities, pollution has  destroyed
    
    
    
    
     valuable  recreation  opportunities,  just  where  they  are  needed most. As  a
    
    
    
    
     sanitation measure alone,  the  abatement  of  pollution is a  necessity;  inher-
    
    
    
    
    ently,  it  is  also  one of the best means  of  increasing recreation opportunities."
    
    
    
    
         The  ORRRC report also described  the importance and key  role of the
    
    
    
    
     state  governments.   On Page  137  it was stated  that--In  a national  effort
                                      -C5-
    

    -------
                                                                               185
    to  improve outdoor recreation opportunities, state governments should play
    
    
    
    
    the pivotal role.  They are more advantageously situated than either local
    
    
    
    
    units or the Federal Government to deal with many current recreation
    
    
    
    
    problems.  States have direct experience in shaping programs to meet
    
    
    
    
    varying conditions and particular needs of their citizens.  And, they
    
    
    
    
    have the necessary legal authority.  Moreover, the States occupy a key
    
    
    
    
    positionthe middle level in our complex system of government.  They deal
    
    
    
    
    with other States, work with a great variety of agencies at the national
    
    
    
    
    level, and are responsible for guiding and assisting all the political
    
    
    
    
    subdivisions within the State-villages, cities, towns, counties, and
    
    
    
    
    metropolitan regions.  Since other responsibilities that affect outdoor
    
    
    
    
    recreation opportunities, such as highway construction and the management
    
    
    
    
    of  forest, wildlife, and water resources, are also generally focused at
    
    
    
    
    this level, the State government can make sure that these programs are in
    
    
    
    
    harmony with its recreation objectives.
    
    
    
    
         On Page 173, the importance of water itself was discussed as well
    
    
    
    
    as  its relationship to recreation.  The following three paragraphs state
    
    
    
    
    thatWater is a prime factor in most outdoor recreation activities.  The
    
    
    
    
    Commission's National Recreation Survey reports that 44 percent of the
    
    
    
    
    population prefer water-based recreation activities over any others.  Water
    
    
    
    
    also enhances recreation on land.  Choice camping sites and picnic areas
    
    
    
    
    are usually those adjacent to or within sight of a lake or stream, and the
    
    
    
    
    touch of variety added by a pond or marsh enriches the pleasures of hiking
    
    
    
    
    or nature study.
    
    
    
    
         Recreation on the water is increasing.   This trend is likely to continue
    
    
    
    
    as more young people acquire an interest in water sports, new reservoirs are
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                      -Cb-
    

    -------
    186
      constructed, the boating industry wins new converts,  and relatively new
    
    
    
    
      forms of water-based recreation,  such as skindiving and water skiing,
    
    
    
    
      become increasingly popular.   The trend will be greatly accelerated if
    
    
    
    
      pollution control programs are successful in cleaning up streams,  lakes,
    
    
    
    
      and seashore areas that are presently off limits for recreation,  or are
    
    
    
    
      now so unattractive as to preclude many activities.
    
    
    
    
           As the population grows and  interest in water-based recreation
    
    
    
    
      increases, the already heavy recreation pressures on water resourses
    
    
    
    
      will reach critical proportions.   The problems stemming from this pressure.
    
    
    
    
      are among the most difficult in the entire outdoor recreation field.
    
    
    
    
           On Page 174, the importance  of water suitability for recreational
    
    
    
    
      purposes was again mentioned.  It stated that--Limitat ions upon public
    
    
    
    
      access and poor quality are serious problems in many places.  Public
    
    
    
    
      policy at all levels of government, should be directed toward eliminating
    
    
    
    
      these barriers to outdoor recreation.
    
    
    
    
           Page 176 states that.Existing treatment facilities and practices
    
    
    
    
      are often inadequate to maintain the quality of water for recreation
    
    
    
    
      purposes	Recreation should be recognized as a motivating purpose
    
    
    
    
      in programs and projects for pollution control and as a necessary objective
    
    
    
    
      in the allocation of funds therefore!
                                          C7
    

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                                                                            18?
    OUTDOOR RECREATION TRENDS
    
    
    
    
         The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation updated the ORRRC's recreation demand
    
    
    
    
    study and published its findings in Outdoor Recreation Trends.   Basically,
    
    
    
    
    it reiterated and emphasized the fact that every recreation activity
    
    
    
    
    involving water will be sought in ever-increasing quantities in future
    
    
    
    
    years.  The following table demonstrates this point quite vividly:
    
    
    
    
                        THE MOST POPULAR WATER RELATED
    RECREATION ACTIVITIES IN AMERICA
    
    Major Type
    Swimming
    Fishing
    Boating*
    Water Skiing
    1965
    Overall
    Ranking
    2nd
    8th
    10th
    14th
    1965 Occasions
    of Participation
    (Millions)
    970
    322
    220
    56
    1980
    Overall
    Ranking
    1st
    8th
    9th
    13th
    1980 Occasions
    of Participation
    (Millions)
    1,671
    422
    387
    124
    1980
    Percent
    Increase
    72
    31
    76
    121
                      *0ther than canoeing and sailing
                                      -C8-
    

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    188
      LEWIS AND CLARK TRAIL
    
    
    
    
           One of the most noteworthy events along the Missouri River  is the
    
    
    
    
      reconstruction of Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804-06.   It  has been
    
    
    
    
      stated that historians have since come to consider this Expedition as
    
    
    
    
      one of the most important events in the development of the western United
    
    
    
    
      States.   Economically, it provided the first knowledge of the vast
    
    
    
    
      resources and eventually led to the opening of the western lands for
    
    
    
    
      development and settlement.  Politically,  it secured the  1803 American
    
    
    
    
      purchase of the Louisiana Territory and extended American claims to the
    
    
    
    
      Pacific.
    
    
    
    
           On October 6, 1964, the 28-member Lewis and Clark Trail  Commission
    
    
    
    
      (L&CC) was established for the promotion and development  in reconstructing
    
    
    
    
      the Lewis and Clark Trail.  Included in the membership was Iowa's Governor,
    
    
    
    
      Harold E. Hughes.  Congress directed the Commission to--promote  public
    
    
    
    
      awareness of the historic significance of the Expedition,  to  create an
    
    
    
    
      appreciation of the resources of the regions through which the Expedition
    
    
    
    
      passed,  to encourage the conservation of natural resources, and  to promote
    
    
    
    
      the protection and development of outdoor recreation resources along the
    
    
    
    
      route for public use and enjoyment.
    
    
    
    
           The Act Itself (PL 88-630) reads in partthat the route traversed by
    
    
    
    
      Captains Meriwtther Lewis and William Clark ... be kept available for
    
    
    
    
      the inspiration and enjoyment of the American people . .  .  and thereby to
    
    
    
    
      encourage desirable long-term conservation objectives in  the  public interest
    
    
    
    
      of the people of that region and the Nation as well as the public use and
    
    
    
    
      outdoor recreation benefits therefrom.
    
    
    
    
           The following are a number of excerpts taken from the Lewis and Clark
    
    
    
    
      Trail-Interim Report of October 1966:
    
    
    
    
                                        -C9-
    

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                                                                              189
         Page 1 - The Lewis and Clark Trail Commission's program for development
    
    
    
    
    of the Trail proposes that many and varied resources be linked in several
    
    
    
    
    ways for public use and enjoyment.  Visitors may travel by boat on natural
    
    
    
    
    water courses or on man-made lakes along a portion of the route on the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri and its tributaries.  Listed among the purposes of the Commission
    
    
    
    
    were to (1) create an appreciation of the resources of the regions through
    
    
    
    
    which the expedition passed; (2) encourage the conservation of natural
    
    
    
    
    resource; and (3) promote the protection and development of outdoor recrea-
    
    
    
    
    tion resources along the route for public use and enjoyment.
    
    
    
    
         Page 5 - Among the problems confronting the L&CC were (1)  growing
    
    
    
    
    population is using up areas of natural beauty for living space and demanding
    
    
    
    
    more areas of natural beauty for playing space; and  (2) uncontrolled dump-
    
    
    
    
    ing of waste products is polluting streams and making natural resources
    
    
    
    
    unusable.
    
    
    
    
         Page 5 - The L&CC makes a recommendation that the FWPCA and HEW should
    
    
    
    
    give continuing attention to the abatement and control of air and water
    
    
    
    
    pollution along the Lewis and Clark Trail.
    
    
    
    
         Page 6 - The L&CC makes a recommendation that where needed State legis-
    
    
    
    
    lation should be enacted and enforced to control water pollution along the
    
    
    
    
    Lewis and Clark Trail.
    
    
    
    
         Page 8 - Resolutions adopted by the L&CC direct the Secretaries of
    
    
    
    
    Health, Education, and Welfare and HUD accelerate measures to control
    
    
    
    
    pollution of the Missouri.  Also, that BOR encourage States along the Lewis
    
    
    
    
    and Clark Trail to include in Statewide outdoor recreation plans required
    
    
    
    
    by the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 suitable  outdoor
                                     -CIO-
    

    -------
    190
    
    
    
    
    
    
     recreation  developments as  recommended by  the LC  study  report.   Further
    
    
    
    
     it recommended  that  States  appoint Lewis and Clark Trail Committees  to
    
    
    
    
     carry  out the purposes of the National Commission.  Among  other  things
    
    
    
    
     it encourages States to take steps to strengthen  State  measures  to
    
    
    
    
     reduce water pollution along the Missouri  trail.  In  Iowa,  a  7-man
    
    
    
    
     State  committee was  created by Governor Hughes  on February  3,  1966.   This
    
    
    
    
     Committee is working with all governmental agencies involved  to  plan
    
    
    
    
     development for the  Trail.  Apparently, location  of the trail  has been
    
    
    
    
     identified  and  marked to date.
    
    
    
    
          Page 12 -  It  proposed  that 35 recreation sites be  built  by  the  Corps
    
    
    
    
     of Engineers along the Missouri River from Sioux  City,  Iowa,  to  Rulo,
    
    
    
    
     Nebraska.   (The Iowa L&CC concurred  in this recommendation.)
    
    
    
    
          Page 13 -  PLimer cu-vi ijp: nt or caainir.c facilities a.'id  d^ht river
    
    
    
    
     accesses on the Missouri to accommodate large pleasure  boats.
    
    
    
    
          It  should  be  pointed out that the Commission's resolutions  for  recrea-
    
    
    
    
     tional development of the Missouri River were adopted after the  Commission
    
    
    
    
     accepted a  detailed  plan for the protection and development of the Lewis
    
    
    
    
     and  Clark Trail which had been prepared by the  Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.
    
    
    
    
     The  BOR's plan  is  entitled  'The Lewis and  Clark Trail - A  Proposal for
    
    
    
    
     Development."   In  addition, it should be pointed  out  that  the  Corps  of
    
    
    
    
     Engineers prepared a publication entitled  Recreation  Aspects  of  the  Lower
    
    
    
    
     Missouri River  in  conjunction with the Lewis and  Clark  Trail  in  January 1968.
    
    
    
    
     This document lists  the major historic, wildlife, and recreational areas,
    
    
    
    
     both existing and  proposed  along the Missouri River in  Iowa.   Maps are
    
    
    
    
     utilized in identifying the locations of these  recreation  resources.
                                         -Cll-
    

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                                                                              191
    
    
    
    
    MISSOURI BASIN INTER-AGENCY COMPREHENSIVE BASIN PLANNING
    
    
    
         The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation prepared a preliminary report entitled
    
    
    
    
    Outdoor Recreation in the Middle Missouri Tributaries Subregion as part of
    
    
    
    
    its contribution to the Missouri River Basin Comprehensive Framework Study.
    
    
    
    
    This report which centers on western Iowa provides one of the best analysis
    
    
    
    
    of recreation needs and potential in the area under review.  The major
    
    
    
    
    conclusions and recommendations are extracted as follows:
    
    
    
    
         Page 17 - Other factors expected to influence and increase future
    
    
    
    
    recreation demand includes:  (1) greater interest in the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
    as a play area as pollution and siltation control result in clearer and
    
    
    
    
    cleaner waters and (2) greater interest in and use of the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
    as the Lewis and Clark Trail plans are completed.
    
    
    
    
         On Page 23, it is stated that--the needs for additional water now and
    
    
    
    
    in the future appear to be greatest in the area influenced by Omaha, Council
    
    
    
    
    Bluffs, Lincoln, and Des Moines.
    
    
    
    
         On Page 25, the problem or need of the current shortage of scenic
    
    
    
    
    drives, overlooks, trails, interpretive points, and parks along the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    River is discussed,  it goes on to say that the problem--varies with loca-
    
    
    
    
    tions and river bank topography, but a shortage of access combined with the
    
    
    
    
    presence of agricultural areas, industrial developments and other competi-
    
    
    
    
    tive land uses along the shores of the Missouri have tended to limit both
    
    
    
    
    use  and view-ability  of  the  river.  This  in  turn has made it difficult
    
    
    
    
    for  Lewis and Clark Trail buffs,  for example,  to follow  the river and
    
    
    
    
    make any kind of meaningful  on-the-ground  tie-in between themselves,
    
    
    
    
    as modern day "adventurers," and  those explorers of an earlier day.
                                        -C12-
    

    -------
    192
         It was found and stated on Page 27 that the most pressing current
    
    needs are for (1) development of planned boat access points on and access
    
    to the Missouri Rivera and (2)  mprovement and development of the Missouri
    
    River oxbow lakes.
    
         Later on Page 29, under opportunities for additional recreation
    
    development, it stated that--the most important and widely mentioned Typg I
    
    potential (scenic, historic^ and natural areas) is the promotion and develop-
    
    ment of recreation sites, roads, trails, signs, interpretive facilities.
    
    and other improvements in connection with the Lewis and Clark Trail.
    
         Page 31 contained the more outstanding State park, recreation area
                                        in Iowa
    and program plans and possibilities/(listed below).  It stated--a total
    
    of 4,800 acres or about 40 percent of the land area in State parks and
    
    recreation areas  is  intensively developed.  There is very little- expansion
    
    room left within  existing areas, so virtually all future needs must be met
    
    at new areas or within acquired expansion areas.
    
    
    
         1.  Possible State parks or recreation areas at the following
    
    proposed projects =  1,000-acre lake near Sioux City, Boyer River Project,
    
    Little Sioux Project, Nishnabota Project (all under study), and the four
    
    oxbow lake complexes  (all authorized or under construction).
    
         2.  Continued development of the 15 authorized Corps of Engineers
    
    Missouri River access points  in Iowa.   (The Corps Recreation Aspects  of
    
    the Lower Missouri proposes  Cfce developewet of  19 sites on or near  the
    
    Missouri River.   See Appendix D for listing.)
                                        -C13-
    

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                                                                               193
         3.  Complete development of the new Lake Anita State Park in Cass
    
    
    
    
    County.
    
    
    
    
         4.  Continuing acquisition of stream fishing accesses; acquisition
    
    
    
    
    of new and recreational development of existing fish and game areas;
    
    
    
    
    development of boat marinas in the natural lakes area of northwestern
    
    
    
    
    Iowa; acquisition and development of expansion lands at existing State
    
    
    
    
    parks.
    
    
    
    
         In addition, the bottom of Page 32, in talking of State and local
    
    
    
    
    fishing and hunting areas, states that--there are good potentials both
    
    
    
    
    for acquiring additional hunting and fishing areas and for developing
    
    
    
    
    existing areas with recreation facilities.  Less than one-half percent
    
    
    
    
    of the land acreage in these areas is now intensively developed.  In
    
    
    
    
    addition to facilities for camping, picnicking, and water sports, there are
    
    
    
    
    excellent possibilities at many areas for adding nature study-oriented
    
    
    
    
    trails, signs, view points and exhibits, or visitor center-museums.
    
    
    
    
         Finally, on Pages 34 and 35, in reference to the private sector, it
    
    
    
    
    is stated that  the opportunities for development and improvement of recrea-
    
    
    
    
    tion areas and facilities on private land are good.  Hunting and fishing can
    
    
    
    
    be greatly improved in both quality and quantity on privately owned lands.
    
    
    
    
    There are opportunities for developing summer home sites and other facilities
    
    
    
    
    on natural waterways and around natural and artificially created bodies of
    
    
    
    
    water.  Good opportunities exist for providing a wide variety of the
    
    
    
    
    "service" type facilities that are expected to be needed.  The private
    
    
    
    
    sector can also provide service type facilities frequently needed in con-
    
    
    
    
    nection with public developments.  In addition, there are growing opportunities
                                       -CM-
    

    -------
    in some areas for the establishment of industrial parks and other industry-
    
    
    
    
    provided recreation areas, vacation farms or ranches,  sandpit lake swim-
    
    
    
    
    ming beaches, scenically located lodges and resorts, restful cabin developments,
    
    
    
    
    and boat cruises on the Missouri River.
    
    
    
    
         In addition to the private sector, other opportunities include one or
    
    
    
    
    both of the unchannelized reaches of the Missouri River that may have the
    
    
    
    
    necessary attributes to warrant classification as a National or State
    
    
    
    
    scenic river or State waterway.  Finally, the Mormon Trail carries suffi-
    
    
    
    
    cient potential and historic value to be classified as a National scenic
    
    
    
    
    trail.
    
    
    
    
         Speaking at the December 5, 1964 Missouri Basin Inter-Agency Committee
    
    
    
    
    Meeting in Sioux City, Iowa, Mr. Glen Powers, Planning Director, Iowa State
    
    
    
    
    Conservation Commission, presented a paper on Iowa's Long Range Recreation
    
    
    
    
    Plans.  This was presented as Appendix D in the meetings minutes.  Of
    
    
    
    
    importance is this statement, '"The Missouri, on our western boundary,
    
    
    
    
    probably has the greatest potential for recreational development of any
    
    
    
    
    one area that we could mention.  With flood control a reality, a stable
    
    
    
    
    river channel, navigation and other factors of progress, we suspect a
    
    
    
    
    major buildup of people along the Missouri."
    
    
    
    
          In May  1968  the MBIAC  produced a  report entitled,  Tentative Needs  and
    
    
    
    
    Problems -Missouri River Basin, as part of the  Comprehensive  Framework
    
    
    
    
    Study.  This report deals with  the main stem of  the Missouri River,  including
    
    
    
    
    those  lands  lying within a  quarter mile depth on each  side.  This  report
    
    
    
    
    further emphasizes the existing use and potential of the Missouri  River.
                                        -CIS-
    

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                                                                               195
         In Calking of the entire main stem on page 3, this statement is made:
    
    
    
    "All of the Missouri has great historical and/or aesthetic value and most
    
    
    
    
    of the main stem offers good to excellent boating, water skiing, fishing,
    
    
    
    and sightseeing opportunities."
    
    
    
    
         On page 11, it is pointed out that 33 percent of the recreation water
    
    
    
    
    needs in the subarea (which includes western Iowa, parts of eastern Nebraska,
    
    
    
    Minnesota, Missouri, and Kansas - known as subregion 6B in the MBLAC frame-
    
    
    
    
    work study) might be met by the Missouri main stem by 1980.  If this
    
    
    
    thought could be followed for any individual State, then 33 percent of
    
    
    
    western Iowa's water-oriented needs could be met by the main stem of the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri in 1980.
    
    
    
    
         Recreation demand in 1980 on the main stem in the 6B subarea, which
    
    
    
    
    includes the Missouri in Iowa,is estimated at 10,520,000 activity-days.
    
    
    
    This does not include fishing and hunting.  Sightseeing is the most popular
    
    
    
    activity accounting for about 40 percent of the estimated use.
    
    
    
    
         In discussing specific problems and needs on page 14, this statement
    
    
    
    is made:  "Water Pollution:  Primarily a problem below Sioux City; limits
    
    
    
    
    recreation use and enjoyment of river.''
    
    
    
         In addition, on page 20,  "Continued elimination of municipal and
    
    
    
    industrial pollution in the Missouri River, especially that from the Great
    
    
    
    Falls,  Sioux City,  Omaha, and Kansas City areas, so as to increase the
    
    
    
    attractiveness and usability of the river for all types of recreation.''
                                       -CI6-
    

    -------
    OUTDOOR RECREATION IN IOWA
    
    
         The Statewide comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP)
    
    provides another basic source of information into the supply, demand
    
    and needs for outdoor recreation in western Iowa and along the Missouri
    
    River.  It should be pointed out that Iowa's population is increasing,
    
    there are more visitors, there is more leisure time, more disposable
    
    income, and a highly intricate highway system which are indicative
    
    that the deiiand for recreation is on the upswing.  Although demand  is
    
    high for such activities as driving and walking for pleasure, sight-
    
    seeing and bicycling, the need for facilities is apparently greatest
    
    for such activities as outdoor games and sports, swimming, picnicing,
    
    camping and boating.  Multiple use recreation areas located adjacent
    
    to or around quality water bodies are highly desirable.
    
         The tables below were derived from data supplied in the Iowa
    
    Recreation Survey of 1966 and depicts what the people of Iowa like  to
    
    do as well as when.  (Also on p. 118 and 121-123 in Outdoor Recreation
    
    in Iowa.)
    
            Most Popular Outdoor Activities
           (in 7 participating during entire yr.)
    
     1.  Driving for pleasure               78.TL
    
     2.  Picnicking                         77.7%
    
     3.  Sightseeing                        58.81
    
     4.  Walking for pleasure               58.6%
    
     5.  Attend ng outdoor sports events    48.37
    
     6.  Fishing                            40.77,
    
     7.  Games (outdoor)                    38.27o
    
     8.  Swimming                            3 7.97
    
                                   -C17-
    

    -------
                                                                            197
    
     9.   Boating                            35.07=,
    
    10.   Bicycling                          21.7%
    
           Most Popular Summertime Activities
                     (June-August 1966)
    
     1.   Picnicking                         75.8%
    
     2.   Driving                            74.1%
    
     3.   Walking                            54.9%
    
     4.   Sightseeing                        53.7%
    
     5.   Attending outdoor sports events    38,7%
    
     6.   Fishing                            37.8%
    
     7.   Swimming                           36.9%
    
     8.   Playing outdoor games              36.8%
    
     9.   Boating                            33.1%
    
    10.   Bicycling                          19.0%
    
         The State, for planning purposes, divided up the land area  into
    
    geographical planning regions.  Then based on supply and demand, and
    
    recreation standards, recreation acres needed were projected to 1985.
    
    The  southwest ar 1 northwest regions generally overlap the arsa under
    
    rev tew.  Thus, tie following table illustrates a latent demand ior
    
    rec -eation.  (Paj.e 138 of the SCORP)
    
                          Gross-Area Recreation Needs by Region
    Category
    REGION IV
    Municipal
    County
    State
    Federal
    REGION V -
    Municipal
    County
    State
    Federal
    Existing
    Acres Ac
    - SOUTHWEST
    770
    13,063
    3,749
    NORTHWEST
    2,612
    32,774
    none
    Supply
    ./1000
    2.8
    47.8
    13.7
    7.3
    92.2
    none
    Mi niini im N p
    Acres
    5,361
    21,445
    26,806
    7,928
    31,712
    39,640
    fdpd f].985x>
    Ac./ 1000
    15.0
    20.0
    80.0
    100.0
    15.0
    20.0
    80.0
    100.0
    Do/iciency (11>S J
    Acres
    A, 591
    o,382
    23,057
    5,316
    none
    39,640
                                   -CIS-
    

    -------
    198
           As can be seen,  a deficiency of approximately 81,000 acres will be
      apparent in 1985 in the two planning regions which coincide with the area
      under review.
           The proposed land acquisition as expressed in the capital improvement
      program (Appendix A of the report) for these two planning regions show that
      28,280 acres will be  acquired between 1968-1985 by the Iowa State Conserva-
      tion Commission.  While this does not include municipal,  county, or Federal
      proposed acquisitions, an outstanding deficiency of almost 58,000 acres
      would remain.
           The total public inventory of existing recreation resources within
      the area under review can be found in the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation's
      MBIAC report.   As noted in these tables,  total recreation visitation figures
      are not available for the area under review.  The only figures tabulated
      involve use at 18 State parks and recreation areas.  The  total use amounted
      to 2,074,000 visitations.
           The private sector inventory of recreation enterprises in the area
      of review, as  taken from the Iowa plan,  is contained in Appendix B.
           Appendix C shows the participation of lowans, 12 years and older,  in
      away-from-home activities for the years 1965 to 1985.  The basic data for
      these projections were also taken from the Iowa plan and  relate speci-
      fically to planning Sections 4 and 5 (northwest and southwest portions  of
      Iowa).  A relative percentage of Iowa's total population  was used in com-
      parison with the population of Sections 4 and 5.  The number of participants
      was then reduced by this percentage and total days computed.  Total  days
      of use in 1965 were 52,371,000, while in 1985 it increased to 54,132,000.
      Note the increase of nearly 2 million total days of participation in these
      two regions by 1985 and in particular note the significant rise in the
      water-related activities.
                                        -C19-
    

    -------
                                                                               199
         In addition, it is important to note that the percent participating
    
    as well as the mean days per participant were not increased for the 1985
    projections.  Due to more leisure time, and the ever-expanding population,
    
    these factors would increase the overall total quite drastically.  Similar-
    
    ily, studies now show that a greater percentage of persons under 12 years
    
    of age participate in outdoor activities more frequently than previously
    
    thought.  Also, these projections of use do not consider non-resident
    
    use which could be as much as the resident use.  (See Page 12 of the MBIAC
    
    Report.)
    
         Finally, the Lewis and Clark Trail development in western Iowa is
    sure to expand the role now played by out-of-state tourists.   By 1985,
    
    the number of out-of-state recreationists visiting the various sites and
    
    locations along the Missouri River will add immeasurably to the percent
    
    participating as well as the total number participating.  All of the above
    factors clearly spell out a rising demand and need.
    
         Perhaps, the best composite of existing and proposed, public and private
    
    recreational developments on or near the Missouri River comes from the
    
    Corps of Engineer's Report on the Recreation Aspects of the Lower Missouri
    
    River.  This listing is found in Appendix D.
         It should be pointed out that the visitation projections accumulated
    by the Corps with respect to their proposed developments indicates the
    following recreational use.   Based on available data,  the Corps estimates
    that some 250,000 visitor-days presently occur between Rulo,  Nebraska and
    
    Sioux City (the Iowa stretch of the Missouri River is  situated within this
    
    area).  After Corps development use is expected to increase to 500,000
    
    visitor-days annually.  After 50 years the annual visitation  will reach
    
    1 million.
                                       -C20-
    

    -------
    200
           In defining the roles and responsibilities of the various agencies
    
    
    
    
      having an interest in recreation, the State plan outlines the following
    
    
    
    
      purpose for the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission.
    
    
    
    
           The Water Pollution Control Commission was established in 1965 by the
    
    
    
    
      61st General Assembly in an attempt "to conserve the waters of the State
    
    
    
    
      and to protect, maintain, and improve the quality thereof for public water
    
    
    
    
      supplies, for the propagation of wildlife, fish, and aquatic life, and
    
    
    
    
      for domestic, agricultural, industrial, recreational, and other legitimate
    
    
    
    
      (beneficial) uses; to provide that no waste be discharged into any waters
    
    
    
    
      of the State without first being given the degree of treatment necessary
    
    
    
    
      to protect the legitimate (beneficial) uses of such waters; to provide
    
    
    
    
      for the prevention, abatement and control of new, increasing, potential,
    
    
    
    
      or existing water pollution; and to cooperate with other agencies of the
    
    
    
    
      State, agencies of other States and the Federal Government in carrying
    
    
    
    
      out these objectives.
    
    
    
    
           In addition to an earlier section on the Lewis and Clark Trail, the
    
    
    
    
      following is found on p. 195 of the "Outdoor Recreation in Iowa" report.
    
    
    
    
      The concept of the Lewis and Clark Trail system is to preserve and/or
    
    
    
    
      develop the scenic, historic, recreational, and cultural significance of
    
    
    
    
      the route and adjacent areas.  The program below was recommended for the
    
    
    
    
      Iowa portion:
    
    
    
    
           a.  Designate a Lewis and Clark Trail Highway connecting with com-
    
    
    
    
      parably designated highways in Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota.  This
    
    
    
    
      route has been established as part of the scenic roads system in Iowa.
                                         -C ? 1 -
    

    -------
                                                                              201
         b.  Develop a uniform system of information and directional signs
    
    
    
    
    and markers along this highway.
    
    
    
    
         c.  Acquire and develop additional public recreation areas, including
    
    
    
    
    a system of hiking and horseback trails.
    
    
    
    
         d.  Take corrective action to eliminate pollution in the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    River.
    
    
    
    
         e.  Assist and cooperate with private recreation enterprise interested
    
    
    
    
    in providing food, lodging, and other facilities associated with recreation
    
    
    
    
    and travel use.
    
    
    
    
         f.  Enhance the scenic nature of the Lewis and Clark Highway by the
    
    
    
    
    use of scenic easements.
    
    
    
    
         g.  Develop an extensive State campaign to promote the Trail.
    
    
    
    
         The State Conservation Commission is assuming a leading role in
    
    
    
    
    encouraging development of the Iowa portion of the Lewis and Clark Trail.
    
    
    
    
    The plans call for a long range program of preservation and development
    
    
    
    
    of the area affected, and immediate efforts should be directed toward
    
    
    
    
    instituting initial phases of the proposal.
    
    
    
    
         Finally on page 196 - Some interest has recently been indicated in
    
    
    
    
    marking and developing the Mormon Trail route across southern Iowa  used
    
    
    
    
    by the Mormons in their march to the Salt Lake region of Utah.  The Con-
    
    
    
    
    servation Commission has begun preliminary investigation of this route  and
    
    
    
    
    should expand its efforts to include other interested agencies and  organi-
    
    
    
    
    zations in marking the route and encouraging and directing the preservation
    
    
    
    
    and development of significant sites and areas adjacent to the Mormon Trail.
    

    -------
    202
     THE MIDDLE MISSOURI
    
    
    
          The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation's study report entitled, The Middle
    
    
    
    
     Missouri proposes many actions for a 1,265-mile stretch of the Missouri
    
    
    
    
     River upstream from Iowa.  It is worth mentioning that one of the recom-
    
    
    
    
     mendations is that "the States should enforce high standards of water
    
    
    
    
     quality."  The actions required include:
    
    
    
    
          1.  Early State action to reduce pollution threat.
    
    
    
    
          2.  Implementation and enforcement of 1965 Water Quality Act
    
    
    
    
              (PL-89-234).
    
    
    
    
          3.  Expand education and control programs.
    
    
    
    
          From this brief statement, it can be seen that Iowa's upstream neighbors
    
    
    
    
     will be called upon to provide its downstream users with the good water
    
    
    
    
     quality-the same as Iowa's downstream users have the right to expect.
    
    
    
    
          It is understood that Governor Hughes requested the Lewis and Clark
    
    
    
    
     Trail Commission to promote a similar "Lower Missouri" study by the BOR.
    
    
    
    
     At their June 28, 1968, Meeting the L&CC resolved to petition the Senators
    
    
    
    
     of Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa to use their offices to secure a
    
    
    
     study by the Department of the Interior.
                                        -C23-
    

    -------
                                                                           203
    COMCLUSIOH
    
    
    
    
         In the foregoing summaries an attempt has been made to show the
    
    
    
    
    relative significance of recreational benefits in a water-oriented
    
    
    
    
    environment.  The key role of state governments, the tremendous
    
    
    
    
    recreational potential of the Lewis and Clark Trail, the detrimental
    
    
    
    
    effects of any and all levels of water pollution, the surge and
    
    
    
    
    importance of water related recreation activities--all of these tell
    
    
    
    
    a story and it is one of an overwhelming need.
    
    
    
    
         As seen in the preceding pages a general concensus exists con-
    
    
    
    
    cerning the development and potential of outdoor recreation in
    
    
    
    
    western Iowa.  The concensus is two-fold.  It is simply that (1) a
    
    
    
    
    huge latent demand for water-oriented outdoor recreation opportunities
    
    
    
    
    and facilities exists and that (2) full satisfaction of this demand
    
    
    
    
    can manifest itself only if a massive and intensified effort be made
    
    
    
    
    to capitalize on the existing available opportunities.  This concensus
    
    
    
    
    is shared by both the Federal and State establishments.
    
    
    
    
         Inherent is the fact that secondary treatment along the main
    
    
    
    
    stem of the Missouri River will ameliorate the river's present con-
    
    
    
    
    dition.  As we have seen, the future benefits to be gained are numerous.
    
    
    
    
         In addition to the recreation activities in western Iowa, the
    
    
    
    
    downstream reaches of the Missouri River adjacent to Kansas and down
    
    
    
    
    into Missouri may well experience desirable effects.  By enhancing
    
    
    
    
    water  quality in the upper portions of the Missouri River, the
    
    
    
    
    recreational needs of those downstream will be better served.
                                    -C2A-
    

    -------
    204
             Of tantamount  importance  is  the value of intangible benefits
    
    
    
    
        to  be had through improving the land and water resources.   These
    
    
    
    
        benefits cannot  be  measured in numbers--they can only be measured
    
    
    
    
        in  words.  All the  splendor and beauty of a natural setting has
    
    
    
    
        overwhelming value  to many rural  and city dwellers alike.   The
    
    
    
    
        quality of the experience is a direct reflection on the quality of
    
    
    
    
        the environment.  To improve the  environment is to elevate the
    
    
    
    
        quality of the recreational experience many times over.  The experi-
    
    
    
    
        ence is, for thousands of Americans, a sort of self-realization and
    
    
    
    
        at  its most basic level--a certain oneness with nature.  The unique-
    
    
    
    
        ness, the natural beauty, the  quality and aesthetic values that could
    
    
    
    
        be  preserved and improved along the Missouri are indeed worth the
    
    
    
    
        effort.
    
    
    
    
             Similarly,  the forces acting on the recreation demand cannot be
    
    
    
    
        understated.  Take the expanding mobility of today's vacationists
    
    
    
    
        and travelers, the rising amounts of money available for fun as well
    
    
    
    
        as  the ever increasing time for leisure.  Then add to these a
    
    
    
    
        mushrooming population and the overall situation suddenly becomes urgent,
    
    
    
    
             In conclusion, the recreational demands have been identified and
    
    
    
    
        the supply has been found deficient.  The resulting needs dictate
    
    
    
    
        that  further  enhancement of the quality  of  the Missouri River  is highly
    
    
    
    
        desirable.
    
    
    
    
             Yes,  the outdoor recreation demands have becottie imperative- -and so
    
    
    
    
        also have  the needs.  It would be inimical  to the development of
    
    
    
    
        effective pollution abatement goals and water quality enhancement
    
    
    
    
        measures  if the only course of action to be taken is no action at all.
                                        -C25-
    

    -------
                                                                          205
    Enhancement of the Missouri River is necessary.  It will ultimately
    
    
    
    
    improve water quality, it will yield more tangible as well as intangi-
    
    
    
    
    ble benefits, it will provide the groundworks for satisfying quality
    
    
    
    
    recreational needs, and it will do so for generations to come.
    
    
    
    
         And in the last analysis, who will benefit the most?  It is sure
    
    
    
    
    to be the people of this land--the Kansans, the Nebraskans, the
    
    
    
    
    Missourlans--and most of all, the lowans themselves.
                                    C26-
    

    -------
    206
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
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    -------
    208
            From;   Outdoor Recreation in Iowa,  pp.  283-305
                           PRIVATE JECTOR RECREATION  ENTERPRISES
                                    (on or near Mo. River)
    
                                            Iowa
    County
    Fremont
    
    
    
    
    
    Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Lyon
    Mills
    Konona
    
    
    
    
    
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    8.
    
    
    T
    1. .
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    Enterprise
    Knox Basin
    Webb Foot Haven
    Stanley Boat Landing
    Hamburg Boat Landing
    American Legion
    Shall Faria
    Missouri Valley Boy Scouts
    Boy of Craft
    Western Iowa Fish and Wildlife Club
    Kor.k and Quack Lodge
    Logan-Missouri Valley Country Club
    
    Horseshoe Lake
    Lir.n Lake
    (none)
    (none)
    Killaday Farm
    Onaw,i Country Club
    Ruth's Marina
    Whitir-s Gun Club
    MoAor..; Councy Rural Electric Co-op
    Locaticr.
    Hamburg
    Barclett
    Thunaaii
    Hamburg
    Sidr.ey
    Riverton
    Missouri Valley
    it
    it
    M
    n
    Modal e
    ii
    Mondauin
    
    
    Whiting
    Onawa
    Whiting
    "
    Onawa
                                 Roadside Park
    

    -------
                                                                                          209-A
    ? lymouth
    
    Pottavattamic
     1OUX
    Woodbury
     6.  Christian Church Camp,  First Christian.
            Cr.-rch
    
           (r.or.3)
    
     1.  I-Iiildan Valley Shooting  Preserve
    
     2.  Crescent Ski Kills
    
     3.  1C.  G.  Rar.ch
    
     4.  7c~.aa'j  Goose Haven
    
     5.  i\iif.bow  Ilanch
    
     6.  Cou.-._ii  Bluffs Archery  Range
    
     7.  Jllcj Country Club
    
     8.  ?isl\ and Gar.;2 Protective Association
                          9.
                     Boat Livery
    
                         Boat Club
                         10.  Cour.cil Bluffs
    
                         11.  Hl-Y Car:.?
    
                         12.  Chalet Club
    
                         13.  Ca..vj Uaconda (Boy Scouts)
    14.  r\.cc.cir.^  Chair i^anch
    
    15.  1\;1;-. City  ?lazc Swindling
    
    16.  Dol_;".-.in  \?ia Club
    
    17.  Cab~~ S-^ir..v.ivi3 Club
    
           \,-;i ar.a1 Cour.ury Acua Club
                                                        Pool
    18.  7
    
     1.  Kc.',/\.rder. Country Cl
                       try Club
                          3.  Lake Vio'.j Report
                                                                             Onawa
                                                        Honey Creek
                                                                             Council Bluffs
                                                       Lake Mancwc.
    
                                                       Council Bluffs
    
    
                                                       Lake Manawa
    
                                                       Council Bluffs
    Hawarden  (Big Sioux
      River)
    
    Salix
    
    Sioux City
    
    Salix
    

    -------
    209-B
               4.  Sgt. ?ioyd Monu.vior. - Sport lend
    
    
    
    
               5.  Tercet Rcnge
    
    
    
    
               6.  Sioux City Gun Club
    
    
    
    
               7.  Hawkeys Gun Club
    
    
    
    
               S.  South Siou:-: '-'.arina
    
    
    
    
               9.  Buiwon Willows
    Sioux Ci;y
    
    
    
    
    Sst. Bluff;
    
    
    
    
    Sioux City
    

    -------
                                                                     210
                            APPENDIX C
    
    
    
    
    PARTICIPATION OF IOWANS 12 YEARS &  OLDER  IN AWAY-FROM-HOME
    ACTIVITIES (SEPTEMBER 1965
    - SEPTEMBER
    1966) FOR REGIONS 4 & 5
    
    Activity
    Bicycling
    Horseback riding
    Playing outdoor games
    Golf, regular
    Golf, miniature
    Tennis
    Badminton
    Basketball
    Baseball, softball
    Archery
    Horseshoes, croquet
    Football, etc.
    Fishing
    Trout
    Other
    Canoeing
    Sailing
    Other boating
    Swimming
    Ocean
    Lake
    Stream
    Pool
    Water skiing
    Hunting
    Small game
    Big game
    Waterfowl
    Camping
    Developed (trailer)
    Developed (tent)
    Wilderness
    Mountain-rock climbing
    Hiking
    Walking for pleasure
    Bird watching
    Wildlife photography
    Nature walks
    Picnics
    Driving for pleasure
    Sightseeing
    Attend outdoor sports
    1
    Part.
    21.7
    11. 9
    38.2
    9.4
    10.0
    6.5
    9.6
    8.2
    21.7
    3.6
    7.9
    11.6
    40.7
    2.0
    40.4
    4.6
    1.6
    35.0
    37.9
    3.0
    24.5
    5.4
    22.4
    5.9
    18.5
    17.2
    0.7
    0.9
    15.1
    6.6
    7.4
    2.2
    0.7
    3.2
    58.6
    9.8
    3.3
    15.3
    77.7
    78.7
    58.8
    48.3
    No. Part.
    120,365
    66,006
    211,887
    52,139
    55,467
    36,054
    53,249
    45,483
    120,365
    19,968
    43,819
    64,342
    225,754
    11,093
    224,090
    25,515
    8,874
    194,137
    210,223
    16,640
    135,896
    29,952
    124,247
    32,726
    102,615
    95,404
    3,882
    4,992
    83,756
    36,608
    41,046
    12,202
    3,882
    17,749
    325,041
    54,358
    18,304
    84,865
    430,985
    436,531
    326,151
    267,909
    Mean Days
    Per Part.
    27.9
    9.6
    15.7
    19.8
    4.5
    7.0
    5.7
    9.6
    12.4
    4.1
    6.1
    7.8
    10.4
    3.9
    10.2
    4.6
    2.1
    6.7
    13.3
    3.8
    6.5
    4.1
    13.9
    5.2
    8.7
    7.0
    4.7
    7.3
    7.3
    9.2
    5.4
    3.2
    3.3
    4.2
    15.3
    7.3
    4.0
    5.5
    7.4
    17.8
    7.5
    9.0
    Total Days
    3,358,183
    633,657
    3,326,625
    1,032,352
    249,601
    252,378
    303,519
    436,636
    1,492,526
    81,868
    267,295
    501,867
    2,347,841
    43,262
    2,285,718
    117,369
    18,635
    1 , 300 , 7 1 7
    2,795,965
    63,232
    883,324
    122,803
    1,727,033
    170,175
    892,750
    667,828
    18,240
    364,416
    611,418
    336,793
    221,648
    39,046
    12,810
    74,545
    4,973,127
    396,813
    73,216
    466,757
    3,189,289
    7,770,251
    2,446,132
    2,411,181
    

    -------
    211
    Activity
    Attend outdoor plays
    Target -trap shooting
    Motorcycling
    Gardening
    Ice skating
    Snow skiing
    Sledding
    County fair
    Sunbathing -re lax ing
    Trampoline
    Hayrides, etc.
    Marching band, etc.
    Kite flying, etc.
    Mushroom-berry picking
    
    %
    Part.
    18.7
    6.2
    9.0
    9.5
    8.4
    1.6
    16.5
    10.7
    5.0
    0.4
    0.7
    2.0
    2.3
    3.1
    
    No. Part.
    103,725
    34,390
    49,920
    52,694
    46,593
    8,874
    91,494
    59,350
    27,733
    2,218
    3,882
    11,093
    12,757
    17,194
    
    Mean Days
    Per Part.
    4.2
    7.5
    19.2
    12.2
    5.0
    3.9
    5.4
    2.3
    2.9
    5.3
    3.5
    13.3
    3.5
    5.9
    GRAND TOTAL
    Total Days
    435,645
    257,925
    958,464
    642,866
    232,965
    34,608
    494,067
    136,505
    80,425
    11,755
    13,587
    147,536
    44,649
    101,444
    52,371,000
    

    -------
                                                                    212
    
    
    
    
    
    
    PARTICIPATION OF IOWANS 12  YEARS & OLDER IN AWAY-FROM-HOME
    ACTIVITIES (12 -MONTH
    PERIOD 1985)
    FOR REGIONS 4 & 5
    
    Activity
    Bicycling
    Horseback riding
    Playing outdoor games
    Golf, regular
    Golf, miniature
    Tennis
    Badminton
    Basketball
    Baseball, softball
    Archery
    Horseshoes, croquet
    Football, etc.
    Fishing
    Trout
    Other
    Canoeing
    Sailing
    Other boating
    Swimming
    Ocean
    Lake
    Stream
    Pool
    Water skiing
    Hunt ing
    Small game
    Big game
    Waterfowl
    Camping
    Developed (trailer)
    Developed (tent)
    Wilderness
    Mountain-rock climbing
    Hiking
    Walking for pleasure
    Bird watching
    Wildlife photography
    Nature walks
    Picnics
    Driving for pleasure
    Sightseeing
    Attend outdoor sports
    Attend outdoor plays
    Target -trap shooting
    Motorcycling
    1
    Part.
    21.7
    11.9
    38.2
    9.4
    10.0
    6.5
    9.6
    8.2
    21.7
    3.6
    7.9
    11.6
    40.7
    2.0
    40.4
    4.6
    1.6
    35.0
    37.9
    3.0
    24.5
    5.4
    22.4
    5.9
    18.5
    17.2
    0.7
    0.9
    15.1
    6.6
    7.4
    2.2
    0.7
    3.2
    58.6
    9.8
    3.3
    15.3
    77.7
    78.7
    58.8
    48.3
    18.7
    6.2
    9.0
    No. Part.
    128,200
    70,303
    225,088
    55,533
    59,078
    38,400
    56,715
    48,444
    128,200
    21,268
    46,671
    69,121
    240,449
    11,815
    238,676
    27,176
    9,452
    206,774
    223,907
    17,723
    144,742
    31,902
    132,335
    34,856
    109,295
    101,614
    4,135
    5,317
    89,208
    38,991
    43,717
    12,997
    4,135
    18,905
    346,199
    57,896
    19,495
    90,389
    259,039
    464,947
    347,381
    285,348
    110,476
    36,628
    53,170
    Mean Days
    Per Part.
    27.9
    9.6
    15.7
    19.8
    4.5
    7.0
    5.7
    9.6
    12.4
    4.1
    6.1
    7.8
    10.4
    3.9
    10.2
    4.6
    2.1
    6.7
    13.3
    3.8
    6.5
    4.1
    13.9
    5.2
    8.7
    7.0
    4.7
    7.3
    7.3
    9.2
    5.4
    3.2
    3.3
    4.2
    15.3
    7.3
    4.0
    5.5
    7.4
    17.8
    7.5
    9.0
    4.2
    7.5
    19.2
    Total Days
    3,576,780
    674,908
    3,533,881
    1,099,553
    265,851
    268,800
    323,275
    465,062
    1,589,680
    87,198
    284,693
    539,143
    2,500,669
    46,078
    2,434,495
    125,009
    19,849
    1,385,385
    2,977,963
    67,347
    940,823
    130,798
    1,839,456
    181,251
    950,866
    711,298
    194,345
    38,814
    651,218
    358,717
    236,071
    41,590
    13,645
    79,401
    5,296,844
    422,640
    77,980
    497,139
    1,916,888
    8,276,056
    2,605,357
    2,568,132
    463,999
    274,710
    1,020,864
    

    -------
    213
    Activity
    Gardening
    Ice skating
    Snow skiing
    Sledding
    County fair
    Sunbathing-relaxing
    Travpoline
    Hay rides, etc.
    Marching band, etc.
    Kite flying, etc.
    Mushroom-berry picking
    
    %
    Part.
    9.5
    8.4
    1.6
    16.5
    10.7
    5.0
    0.4
    0.7
    2.0
    2.3
    3.1
    
    No. Part.
    56,124
    49,625
    9,452
    97,479
    63,213
    29,539
    2,363
    4,135
    11,815
    13,588
    18,314
    
    Mean Days
    Per Part.
    12.2
    5.0
    3.9
    5.4
    2.3
    2.9
    5.3
    3.5
    13.3
    3.5
    5.9
    GRAND TOTAL
    Total Days
    684,712
    248,125
    36,862
    526,386
    145,389
    85,663
    12,523
    14,472
    157,139
    47,558
    108.052
    54,132,000
    

    -------
                                                                     214
                              IOWA  - LEWIS AND CLARK
                     HISTORIC, WILDLIFE AND RECREATION AREAS
                            (on or  near Missouri River)
                            Existing  (private and public)
    
      1.  Hamburg Boat and Gun Club  -  Ramp
    
      2.  Auldon Bar  Island  - State  Recreation Area
    
      3.  Slienandoah  Boat Club - Dock
    
      4.  Nottleman Island - State Recreation Area
    
      5.  Tri-County  Boat Dock
    
      6.  Lake Manawa State Park
    
      7.  Twin City Boat Marina
    
      8.  Council Bluffs Boat Club - Dock
    
      9.  Council Bluffs Historic Sites
    
    10.  Wilson Island State Park
    
    11.  DeSoto Bend National Wildlife Refuse
    
    12.  H. A. Peterson Boat Marina
    
    13.  S. Peterson Boat Marina
    
    14.  Onawa Access Recreation Area
    
    15.  Don Ruth Marina
    
    16.  1-Ionona County Recreation Area
    
    17.  Sergeant Floyd Monument
    
    18.  Sioux City Historic Sites
    
    19.  Gifford Wildlife Sanctuary - State
    
    20.  Smith State Wildlife Refuge
    
    
                          Proposed (private and  public)
    
     1.  State Line Island - State Recreation Area
    
     2.  Otoe Bend  Island -  State  Recreation Area
    

    -------
    215-A
             3.   Copeland  Bend  Island  -  State Recreation Area
    
    
    
    
             4.   Percival  Area  (Corps  of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
             5.   Glenwood  Area  (Corps  of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
             6.   Gifford Area (Corps of  Engineers)
    
    
    
    
             7.   Narrows Area (Corps of  Engineers)
    
    
    
    
             o.   Rend  Bar  -  State Recreation Area
    
    
    
    
             9.   Wilson Island  (State  and Corps of Engineers River Access)
    
    
    
    
            10.   California  Bend - State Recreation Area
    
    
    
    
            11.   Oxbow Lakes (Corps of Engineers and State)
    
    
    
    
            12.   Tyson Bend  - State Recreation Area
    
    
    
    
            13.   Sandy Point Area (Corps of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            14.   River Stone Area (Corps of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            15.   River Stone State Recreation Area
    
    
    
    
            16.   Pickle City Area (Corps of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            17.   Blackbird Area (Corps of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            IS.   Oxbow Lakes (Corps of Engineers and State)
    
    
    
    
            19.   Rabbit Island  - State Recreation Area
    
    
    
    
            20.   Ocaha Mission  Bend Area (Corps of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            21.   Oxbow Lake  (Corps of  Engineers and State)
    
    
    
    
            22.   Snyder Bend Area (Corps of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            23.   Dakota Bend State Wildlife Refuge
    
    
    
    
            24.   Floyd Bend  Area (Corps  of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            25.   Marina (Sioux  City and  Corps of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            26.   Hamburg Landing (Corps  of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            27.   Bartlett  Landing (Corps of Engineers)
    
    
    
    
            23.   Dodge Park  (Corps of  Engineers and City of Council Bluffs)
    

    -------
                                                  215-B
               APPENDIX  D
    WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS
          ON INTERSTATE  STREAMS
                   IOWA
                   1969
    

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    217-B
                                       APPENDIX  E
                        U.  S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TEMPERATURE STATIONS
                                           on
                               INTERSTATE STREAMS OF IOWA
    

    -------
                                                                        218
    APPENDIX E
              U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TEMPERATURE STATIONS
                                  on
                       INTERSTATE STREAMS OF IOWA
                                                    Haxinua Recorded
           Streaa  and  Station                         Teperture F
    
           Rock River
                at Rock Rapidi, Iowa                       79
                near  Rock Valley, Iowa                     92
    
           Little  Sioux River
                at Gillett  Grove, Iowa                    88
                at Correctionville, Iowa                   90
                near  Kennebec, Iowa                        89
                near  Turin, Iowa                           90
    
           West Niahnabotna River*
                at Hancock, Iowa                           82
                at Randolph,  Iowa                          91
    
           East Nishnabotna River*
                near  Atlantic, Iowa                        82
                at Red Oak, Iowa                           95
    
           Nishnabotna River
                above Hamburg, Iowa                        90
    
           Tarkio  River
                at Stanton, Iowa                           91
    
           Nodaway River
                at Clarinda,  Iowa                          94
    
           East Fork of 102 River
                at Bedford, Iowa                           88
    
           Thompson River
                at Davis  City, Iowa                        88
    
           Weldon  River
                near  Leon, Iowa                            94
    
           Chariton River
                near  Chariton, Iowa                        87
                near  Rathbun, Iowa                         87
      *Intrastate
    

    -------
    219-A
                                          APPENDIX  F
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
              GRAPHS OF SURVEILLANCE DATA FROM ST.  JOSEPH,  MISSOURI,  OMAHA,
    
    
    
    
              NEBRASKA, AND YANKTON, SOUTH DAKOTA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                             TEMPERATURE, MAXIMUM C             F-l
    
    
    
    
                             MEAN FLOW,  CUBIC FEET PER SECOND    F-2
    
    
    
    
                             DISSOLVED OXYGEN,                   1
    
    
    
    
                                       MINIMUM, MG/L             F-3
    
    
    
    
                                       MEAN,  MG/L                F-4
    
    
    
    
                             B.O.D.
    
    
    
    
                                       MAXIMUM, MG/L             F-5
    
    
    
    
                                       MEAN,  MG/L                F-6
    
    
    
    
                             COLIFORM,
    
    
    
    
                                       MAXIMUM, MP/100 ML        F-7
    
    
    
    
                                       MEAN,  MF/100 ML           F-8
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
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                     OMAHA OR YANKTON DATA.  STATIONS ARE ALSO NUMBERED
    
    
    
    
                     30-31-32 AS PART OF THE WATER QUALITY  SURVEILLANCE NETWORK
    
    
    
    
                     IDENTIFICATION.
    

    -------
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    -------
    239
    

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                                                                                             241
    
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     242
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    -------
            APPENDIX  G
    WATER USES - RECOGNIZED BY
         THE STATE OF IOWA
    

    -------
    244
                             G.   Water Uses - Recognized By
                                      The State of Iowa
                            (Missouri River--bordering Iowa)
    
     Uses
    
     1.  Public Water Supply (Council Bluffs only)
    
     2.  Aquatic Life--warm water area (full length of River)
    
    
     Criteria
    
         General Criteria.  The following criteria are applicable to ail surface
         waters at all places and at all times:
    
         a.  Free from substances attributable to municipal, industrial or other
             discharges that will settle to form putrescent or otherwise objection-
             able sludge deposits;
    
         b.  Free from floating debris, oil, scum and other floating materials
             attributable to municipal, industrial or other discharges in amounts
             sufficient to be unsightly or deleterious;
    
         c.  Free from materials attributable to municipal, industrial or other
             discharges producing color, odor or other conditions in such degree
             as to be detrimental to legitimate uses of water;
    
         d.  Free from substances attributable to municipal, industrial or other
             discharges in concentrations or combinations which are detrimental to
             human, animal, industrial, agricultural, recreational, aquatic or
             other legitimate uses of the water.
    
         Public Water Supply--Specific Criteria.  The following criteria for
         surface water quality apply to the point at which water is withdrawn
         for treatment and distribution as a potable supply (Council Bluffs
         water intake):
    
         1.  Bacteria;  Waters shall be considered to be of unsatisfactory
             bacteriological quality as a source when:
    
             A sanitary survey indicates the presence or probability of the
             presence of sewage or other objectionable bacteria-bearing wastes or
    
             A bacteriological survey using coliform or other appropriate indices
             indicates bacteriological concentrations significantly higher than
             those normally found or expected in these waters when free from
             pollution by sewage.
    
         2.  Radioactive substances:  Gross beta activity (in the known absence of
             strontium - 90 and alpha emitters) not to exceed 1000 micro-micro-
             curies per liter.
                                        G-l
    

    -------
                                                                         245-A
    3.  Chemical constituents:  Not to exceed the following concentrations:
    
                        Specific Constituents (rag/1)
    
        Arsenic                0.05        Cyanide           0.025
        Barium                 1.0         Fluoride          1.5
        Cadmium                0.01        Lead              0.05
        Chromium (hexavalent)  0.05        Phenols           0.02
    
        All substances toxic or detrimental to humans or detrimental to
        treatment processes shall be limited to nontoxic or nondetrimental
        concentrations in the surface water.
    
    Aquatic Life--Sgecific Criteria.  The following criteria are designed
    for the maintenance and propagation of a well-balanced fish population.
    They are applicable to any place in surface waters but cognizance will
    be given to opportunities for admixture of waste effluents with such
    waters.
    
    1.  Warm water areas.  Dissolved oxygen:  Not less than 5.0 mg/1
        during at least 16 hours of any 24-hour period and not less than
        4.0 mg/1 at any time during the 24-hour period.
    
            pH:  Not less than 6.8 nor above 9.0.
    
            Temperature:  Not to exceed 93 F during the months of May
            through November, and not to exceed 73 F during the months
            of December through April.
    
        Chemical constituents:  Not to exceed the following concentrations:
    
                        Specific constituents (mg/1)
    
        Ammonia Nitrogen (N)  2.0         *Copper            0.02
       *Arsenic               1.0          Cyanide           0.025
       *Barium                5.0         *Lead              0.10
       *Cadium                0.05         Phenols           0.20
       *Chromium (hexavalent) 0.05        *Zinc              1.0
       *Chromium (trivalent)  100
    
       *A maximum of 5.0 mg/1 for the entire heavy metal group shall not be
        exceeded.
    
        All substances toxic or detrimental to aquatic life shall be limited
        to nontoxic or nondetrimental concentrations in the surface water.
                                  G-2
    

    -------
    245-B
                                   APPENDIX  H
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY
    
    
    
    
                      OF THE MISSOURI RIVER IN OCTOBER 1968
    

    -------
                                                                                    246
     I.   INTRODUCTION
    
    
    
    
              The following analysis was made on the 8-day, dry weather, navigation
    
    
    
    
         flow, data presented in Table A-I and Table A-4 of this report.  The effort
    
    
    
    
         was directed at determining the sources of bacteriological contamination
    
    
    
    
         to the Missouri River and at predicting the effect of treatment on these
    
    
    
    
         sources.  Figure H-l shows the coliform concentrations.
    
    
    
    II.   METHOD OF ANALYSIS
    
    
    
    
              The coliform data on the Missouri River from Gavins Point to St.
    
    
    
    
         Jospeh were evaluated in terms of a coliform mass (i.e., the data were
    
    
    
    
         evaluated from a total number per day approach rather than a concentration
    
    
    
    
         approach).  The coliform masses were calculated for the various sources
    
    
    
    
         along the reach of the Missouri River from Gavins Point to St. Joseph.
    
    
    
    
         These coliform source data included measurements of the waste effluents at
    
    
    
    
         the Sioux City Sewage Treatment Plant, the Council Bluffs Sewage Treatment
    
    
    
    
         Plant, the Monroe Street Sewer at Omaha, Nebraska, and estimates of the
    
    
    
    
         densities in the remaining outfalls from Omaha and Papillion Creek.  Also
    
    
    
         included were the measurements of coliform densities from the major tributaries,
    
    
    
    
              A mass diagram of the data is shown in Figure H-2.  The mass diagram
    
    
    
    
         indicated that the major sources of coliforms in the Missouri during the
    
    
    
    
         dry weather  period of the October survey were contributed by major cities.
    
    
    
         The coliform contribution to the Missouri River from the Big Sioux River,
    
    
    
    
         the Soldier River, and the Boyer River was negligible during the normal
    
    
    
    
         flow period of the October survey.  These observations led to the next
    
    
    
    
         portion of the analysis.
    
    
    
    
              Based on the field observations, the major source of coliforms are
    
    
    
    
         from the wastewater effluents.  Consequently, an analysis was made to
    
    
    
    
    
                                             H-l
    

    -------
    24?
          determine the effect of treatment on reducing the quantity of coliforus in
    
    
    
    
          the Missouri River.  This analysis was based on the work of Imhoff and
    
    
    
    
          Fair (1) and Kittrell and Furfari (2).  A 93 per cent reduction of coliform
    
    
    
    
          was assumed with secondary treatment and a 98.5 per cent reduction of coliform
    
    
    
    
          was assumed with secondary treatment and chlorinatlon.  The predicted effects
    
    
    
    
          of these types of treatment on river coliform concentrations are shown in
    
    
    
    
          Figure H-3 and are tabulated in Table H-I.
    
    
    
    
    III.  OTHER ANALYSES MADE
    
    
    
    
               A mass balance was also made on the fecal coliform organisms.  The
    
    
    
    
          results showed that approximately 50 per cent of the fecal coliforms in the
    
    
    
    
          river could be accounted for in the reach from Sioux City to Omaha.  This
    
    
    
    
          includes only those fecal coliforms measured at the Sioux City Sewage Treat-
    
    
    
    
          ment Plant.  It does not include coliform organisms that may have been con-
    
    
    
    
          tributed from the other waste sources in the Sioux City area.  Greater than
    
    
    
    
          75 per cent of the fecal coliform organisms could be accounted for in the
    
    
    
    
          reach of the river from Omaha to St. Joseph.
    
    
    
    
               The effect of two stage chlorination with primary treatment on coliform
    
    
    
    
          densities was also calculated.  Pierce  (3) concluded that with two stage
    
    
    
    
          chlorination, coliform densities in a plant effluent could be reduced con-
    
    
    
    
          sistently  to a concentration of 500 MPN/100 ml or lower.  This reduction is
    
    
    
    
          far  in excess of the 98.5 per cent reduction assumed for secondary treatment
    
    
    
    
          with chlorination.  This effluent concentration would virtually eliminate
    
    
    
    
          the effect of the major cities on the river coliform concentration.  If this
    
    
    
    
          reduction were realized, the major sources of bacterial contamination would
    
    
    
    
          have been  the Boyer River and the Platte River.  This conclusion is baaed on
    
    
    
    
          conditions existing in the river that were similiar to those in the October
                                              H-2
    

    -------
        1968 survey.  The maximum value of coliform concentration in the river
    
    
    
    
        assuming two stage chlorination and primary treatment was estimated to be
    
    
    
    
        4250 MPN/100 ml.
    
    
    
    
    IV. CONCLUSIONS
    
    
    
    
             The following conclusions are based on the above analyses and apply
    
    
    
    
        to the Missouri River conditions that existed during the dry weather
    
    
    
    
        period of the October 1968 survey.
    
    
    
    
             1.  Greater than 85 per cent of the total coliforms measured in the
    
    
    
    
                 Missouri River were contributed by the major waste sources along
    
    
    
    
                 the stream.
    
    
    
    
             2.  Approximately 50 per cent of the fecal coliforms measured in the
    
    
    
    
                 Missouri River were contributed by the major waste sources that
    
    
    
    
                 were measured during the October 1968 survey.
    
    
    
    
             3.  The total and fecal coliform contribution to the Missouri River
    
    
    
                 from the Big Sioux River, the Soldier River and the Boyer River
    
    
    
    
                 wer negligible during the dry weather period of the October
    
    
    
    
                 survey.
    
    
    
    
             4.  Secondary treatment alone would not be adequate to provide reduction
    
    
    
                 of coliforms to meet the National Technical Advisory Committee's
    
    
    
                 standard for public water supplies based on the analysis outlined
    
    
    
    
                 above.
    
    
    
             5.  Chlorination following secondary treatment would be adequate to
    
    
    
    
                 provide reduction of coliforms to meet the National Technical
    
    
    
    
                 Advisory Committee's standard for public water supplies based on
    
    
    
    
                 the analysis outlined above.
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                           H-3
    

    -------
    6.  Primary treatment with two stage chlorination would be adequate
    
    
    
        to provide reduction of coliforms to meet the National Technical
    
    
    
        Advisory Committee's standard for public water supplies based on
    
    
    
        the analysis outlined above.
                                   H-4
    

    -------
                                 BIBLIOGRAPHY
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    1.  Irahoff, K. and G.M. Fair, Sewage Treatment.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
    
    
    
    
    New York (1956).
    
    
    
    
    
    
    2.  Kittrell, F.W. and S.A. Furfari, "Observations of Coliform Bacteria
    
    
    
    
    in Streams."  Journal Water Pollution Control Federation,  pp. 1361-1385,
    
    
    
    
    (November 1963).
    
    
    
    
    
    
    3.  Pierce, D.M.  "Two-Stage Chlorination - An Effective and Practical
    
    
    
    
    Method of Sewage Disinfection."  Sewage and Industrial Wastes.  Vol.  24, No.  8,
    
    
    
    
    pp. 929-961, (August 1952).
                                       H-5
    

    -------
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    -------
    	 	254
    
    
    
    
    
                          G.  V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BLOMGREN:   This  conference  was  called
    
    
    
    
     by  notice  of  March  5j  19&9, by the  Secretary of  the
    
    
    
    
     Interior.   The  purpose  of  the  conference  is to resolve
    
    
    
    
     those  excepted  portions  of  the Iowa  Water Quality  Stan-
    
    
    
    
     dards.  The main exceptions  are as follows:  (1)  The
    
    
    
    
     establishment of treatment  requirements and an implemen-
    
    
    
    
     tation  plan for waste  discharges to  the Missouri and
    
    
    
    
     Mississippi Rivers;  (2)  The specification of requirements
    
    
    
    
     for disinfection of  controllable discharges which  may  be
    
    
    
    
     sources  of bacteriological  pollution;  and (3)  The  develop
    
    
    
    
     ment of  water temperature  criteria  for the interstate
    
    
    
    
     waters  of  the State  other  than the  Missouri and  Mississippi
    
    
    
    
     Rivers.  The  questions  on  phenols,  radioactivity and non-
    
    
    
    
     degradation were adequately discussed  in  the Davenport
    
    
    
    
     session  on April 8  and  9?  19&9.
    
    
    
    
                    This  session of the  conference  is specif-
    
    
    
     ically  aimed  at those  interstate waters draining into  the
    
    
    
    
     Missouri River  and  the  main stem of  the Missouri itself.
    
    
    
    
     We  have  demonstrated in  our report  .lust reasons  for the
    
    
    
    
     exceptions taken by  the  Secretary of the  Interior.  Clean
    
    
    
    
     water is no longer  a free  resource  in  unlimited  quantitie
    
    
    
    
     that is  readily available  at our doorstep.  The  Water
    

    -------
    	255
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Quality  Act  of  1965  was based  on  public  recognition  of
    
    
    
    
     this  fact  and  clean  water  is the  primary reason  we are
    
    
    
    
     here  today.
    
    
    
    
                    The Federal  Water  Pollution  Control
    
    
    
    
     Administration  is dedicated to the cooperation with  the
    
    
    
    
     States in  protecting and enhancing the water  quality for
    
    
    
    
     the present  and future generations.
    
    
    
    
                    In summarizing  our report, I want to  dwell
    
    
    
    
     on three major  topics.  These  are:   (1)  The recognized
    
    
    
    
     water uses;  (2)  The  present water quality and waste
    
    
    
    
     disposal practices;  and (3) The damages  to  or impairment
    
    
    
    
     of both  present and  future  uses due  to the  water quality
    
    
    
    
     degradation.
    
    
    
    
                    The State of Iowa  has  identified  in its
    
    
    
    
     water quality  standards only two  beneficial uses for the
    
    
    
     Missouri River.  These uses are public water  supply  sourc(s
    
    
    
     for Council  Bluffs and support of aquatic life for the
    
    
    
    
     full  length  of  the river.   The Department of  the Interior
    
    
    
    
     believes that from Sioux City  to  the  Iowa-Missouri border
    
    
    
    
     there are  at least six principal  categories of water use.
    
    
    
    
     Our personnel have made water  c[uality studies and on-site
    
    
    
    
     surveys.
    

    -------
    	256
    
    
    
    
    
                          G. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    The  primary  use  is  public  water  supply.
    
    
    
    
     The  Missouri  River  is  the water supply  source for  over
    
    
    
    
     3,000,000  people  in 11  separate communities  in  the reach
    
    
    
    
     between  Sioux City  and  St.  Louis.  Council Bluffs,  Omaha
    
    
    
    
     and  St.  Joseph  alone use over 62 million  gallons of water
    
    
    
    
     per  day  for municipal  water supply.
    
    
    
    
                    Recreation on the Missouri is a  reality.
    
    
    
    
     Figures  compiled  from  Iowa's outdoor  recreation  plan
    
    
    
    
     indicate that 52  million days of recreation  use  occurred
    
    
    
    
     in the western  region  of Iowa in 1965.  In Iowa  alone,
    
    
    
    
     our  survey personnel identified 27 public access sites
    
    
    
    
     for  the  Missouri  River.  Iowa has  over  75,000 power boats
    
    
    
    
     registered, many  of which are used on the Missouri. There
    
    
    
    
     are  numerous  private recreational  developments  on  the
    
    
    
     river bank.   The  potential  for  further  water-based
    
    
    
    
     recreation is emphasized by the statement presented by
    
    
    
    
     Mr.  Glen Powers,  Planning Director of the Iowa  State
    
    
    
    
     Conservation  Commission, in which  he  stated, and I quote:
    
    
    
    
     "The Missouri,  on our  western boundary, probably has the
    
    
    
    
     greatest potential  for  recreational development  of any
    
    
    
    
     one  area that we  could  mention."
    
    
    
    
                    Perhaps  the  best way to  depict the  recreation
    

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    	257
    
    
    
    
    
                          C.  V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     potential  of  the  Missouri  River  is  to  outline  the  more
    
    
    
    
     significant actions  proposed and express  some  of the
    
    
    
    
     pertinent  extracts from  the reference  material.  Foremost
    
    
    
    
     is  the  establishment of  the Lewis  and  Clark  Trail  along
    
    
    
    
     the full route  of the Missouri River.   Since Congress
    
    
    
    
     established the Lewis and  Clark  Trail  Commission in 1964
    
    
    
    
     the Missouri  River has been recognized as a  national
    
    
    
    
     resource worthy of development to  a far greater  degree
    
    
    
    
     than heretofore.   The purpose of this  act was  to create
    
    
    
    
     an  appreciation of the resources,  encourage  their  con-
    
    
    
    
     servation, and  to promote  the protection  and development
    
    
    
    
     of  outdoor recreation resources  along  the route  for publi
    
    
    
    
     use and enjoyment.   The  development plan  prepared  by  the
    
    
    
    
     Bureau  of  Outdoor Recreation provides  for many and varied
    
    
    
    
     resources  linked  along the  entire  route to satisfy the
    
    
    
     full spectrum of  recreation activities from  the  most
    
    
    
    
     active  to  the most passive.   Some  35 recreation  sites
    
    
    
    
     were identified for  construction by the Corps  of Engineer
    
    
    
    
     between Sioux City and Rulo,  Nebraska.
    
    
    
    
                    The National  Commission, in association
    
    
    
    
     with all of the affected States  including the  Iowa State
    
    
    
    
     Lewis and  Clark Trail Committee,  is now implementing
    

    -------
    	 ___	25 8
    
    
    
    
    
                          C.  V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     those  actions  necessary  to  achieve the national objectives
    
    
    
    
     To  date,  one  of  the  principal  tasks has been accomplished
    
    
    
    
     that is,  the  marking and historical interpretation of the
    
    
    
    
     route  on  the  roads which parallel, adjoin,  and otherwise
    
    
    
    
     provide access to the river.   Among the problems  mentioned
    
    
    
    
     as  confronting full  attainment of  the  recognized  goals is
    
    
    
    
     water  pollution.   The Commission specifically recommended
    
    
    
    
     that the  FWPCA give  continuing attention to the abatement
    
    
    
    
     and control of water pollution and that States also take
    
    
    
    
     steps  to  strengthen  measures to reduce water pollution
    
    
    
    
     along  the Trail  route.
    
    
    
    
                   Commercial fishing  is another category of
    
    
    
    
     use which we  recognize on the  river.   In the State of
    
    
    
    
     Iowa alone 17  commercial  fishing activities were  identi-
    
    
    
     fied by interview.
    
    
    
    
                   The Missouri River  is an integral  part of
    
    
    
    
     the Mississippi  flyway for migrating waterfowl.   As such,
    
    
    
    
     it  affords an intermediate resting a.nd feeding area for
    
    
    
    
     the waterfowl.   It is important to protect  the water
    
    
    
    
     quality to sustain the food supply and resting areas.   In
    
    
    
    
     addition,  the area caters to thousands of duck and goose
    
    
    
    
     hunters each year with the associated  esthetic and economic
    

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    	,	259
    
    
    
    
    
                          G. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     benefits.   Eleven  refuge or hunting  sites were  identified
    
    
    
    
     e  believe  that many  more  exist.
    
    
    
    
                   The  river is used  as  a  source of  industrial.
    
    
    
    
     water  supply,  primarily cooling water,  by two separate
    
    
    
    
     power  generation facilities in Iowa.
    
    
    
    
                   The  navigation activities carry  considerable
    
    
    
    
     tonnage  of  agricultural and industrial  materials.   These
    
    
    
     materials are  transhipped  each year  from the five  commer-
    
    
    
    
     cial docking and loading facilities  located in  Iowa.  Per-
     sonnel  on these  craft are  subject to  contact with  potenti
    
    
    
    
     disease producing agents found in the river.
    
    
    
    
                   We have  shown in our report  specific docu-
    
    
    
    
     mentation to support the six categories of  use that must
    
    
    
    
     be  recognized.   This expanded scope of uses^when compared
    
    
    
    
     to  the  two recognized in Iowa's water quality standards,
    
    
    
    
     serves  to emphasize the necessity for resolving the
    
    
    
    
     exceptions taken by the Secretary of  the Interior.  The
    
    
    
    
     purpose and intent of these standards are to protect and
    
    
    
    
     enhance quality  for all beneficial uses.
    
    
    
    
                   Having documented the uses,  I now want to
    
    
    
    
     summarize the cause-effect aspects of existing water
    
    
    
    
     quality and waste disposal practices.  The  data contained
    il
    

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    		260
    
    
    
    
    
                          G.  V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     in  the  report to  support this analysis are from baseline
    
    
    
    
     surveys  of  the Missouri  River conducted in October 1968
    
    
    
     and January 19^9;  the  Construction Grants Program; and
    
    
    
     from  our three surveillance  stations located at Yankton,
    
    
    
     South Dakota, Omaha, Nebraska, and St. Joseph, Missouri.
    
    
    
                   In the  Iowa portion of the Missouri drain-
    
    
    
     age basin,  there  are  a total of  146 municipal waste treat
    
    
    
     ment  facilities.   One  hundred eighteen of these plants
    
    
    
     are located on intrastate waters, twenty-six are  on inter
    
    
    
     state waters, and two  discharge  directly into the Missour
    
    
    
     River.   In  addition,  there are 12 industrial or other
    
    
    
     separate waste sources in the Iowa drainage area.  To com
    
    
    
     plete the waste source inventory, the 12 municipal waste
    
    
    
     discharges  and 1  industrial  source located on the main st^m
    
    
    
     of  the  Missouri River  in Nebraska and South Dakota are ciped
    
    
    
     in  our  report.  These  States are committed to secondary
    
    
    
     treatment.
    
    
    
                   A  further breakdown of the municipal waste
    
    
    
     inventory shows that  of  the  146  plants discharging to
    
    
    
    
     interstate  and intrastate streams in Iowa,112 provide
    
    
    
     secondary treatment,  23  primary  treatment, and 11 have no
    
    
    
     treatment.   The results  of our survey shows the primary
    

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    	261
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     plant  at  Sioux  City  discharges wastes  equivalent  to  a
    
    
    
    
     population  of 250,000,while  there  are  only  120,000 resi-
    
    
    
    
     dents.  Council  Bluffs  shows  the same  picture.  The
    
    
    
    
     population  equivalent of  their waste discharges after
    
    
    
    
     primary treatment is  134,000, while the  population is
    
    
    
    
     only 60,000. The load from  Council Bluffs will increase
    
    
    
    
     significantly with the  addition of the new  packing plant.
    
    
    
    
                    The impact of  these waste sources  on  the
    
    
    
    
     quality of  the  Missouri is  clearly demonstrated by the
    
    
    
    
     data contained  in Appendix  A, B, and F of our report.
    
    
    
    
     The majority of  these data  were collected during  our
    
    
    
    
     baseline  survey  of the  Missouri River  between Gavins
    
    
    
    
     Point  Dam and St. Joseph, Missouri.
    
    
    
                    Three  different hydrologic conditions
    
    
    
    
     were encountered during this  survey.   The first was  the
    
    
    
     dry weather normal autumn navigation flows, the second
    
    
    
    
     was wet weather  autumn  flows  as influenced  by rainfall
    
    
    
    
     runoff, and the  third the winter flow  conditions  with
    
    
    
    
     extensive ice coverage.   In  general, the results  of  the
    
    
    
    
     surveys demonstrated  increasing water  quality degradation
    
    
    
    
     progressing in  the downstream direction.
    
    
    
    
                    Starting at  Gavins  Point  Dam, the  data
    

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    	_	262
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     demonstrate  a  relatively high  quality water  suitable  for
    
    
    
    
     all beneficial uses.   Indices  of  pollution such  as  sus-
    
    
    
    
     pended  solids, nutrients,  dissolved  organics  and bacteria!.
    
    
    
    
     indicator  organisms are present in extremely  low concen-
    
    
    
    
     trations.  The biological  habitat reflects essentially
    
    
    
    
     nonpolluted  conditions.
    
    
    
    
                   Downstream  from the Sioux  City area, the
    
    
    
    
     effects  of waste  discharges  are immediately  reflected by
    
    
    
    
     the water  quality changes.   Densities of  bacterial  indi-
    
    
    
    
     cator organisms increase significantly.   Increased  con-
    
    
    
    
     centrations  of quality parameters indicative  of  recent
    
    
    
    
     pollution  such as nutrients  (nitrogen and phosphorus)
    
    
    
     and dissolved  organics are  found.  There  is  also serious
    
    
    
    
     destruction  of the aquatic  habitat in the Sioux  City  area
    
    
    
     We know  of no  other factor  affecting water quality  that
    
    
    
    
     is not  man instigated.
    
    
    
    
                   Below  the Omaha-Council  Bluffs metropolitai}i
    
    
    
    
     area, the  river quality again  reflects  the impact of  wast
    
    
    
    
     discharges.  The  aquatic habitat  for a  distance  of  54
    
    
    
    
     miles downstream  indicated  a zone of water quality  degrad^i
    
    
    
    
     tion.   Large numbers  of the  same  pollution tolerant
    
    
    
    
     organisms  were observed in  contrast  to  the clean water
    

    -------
    	263
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     forms.   Densities  of  "bacterial  indicator  organisms
    
    
    
    
     increase sharply.   The  concentrations  of  dissolved
    
    
    
    
     organics as  measured  by BOD and the nutrient  concen-
    
    
    
    
     trations are significantly  higher.
    
    
    
    
                    During the periods of high  rainfall  run-
    
    
    
    
     off,  the quality problems are heightened.   The  suspended
    
    
    
    
     load  carried by the river is increased  by  a factor  of  20.
    
    
    
    
     The bacterial indicator organisms and  nutrient  concen-
    
    
    
    
     trations are more  than  doubled..  This  indicates  a need
    
    
    
    
     for extending pollution control practices  beyond the
    
    
    
    
     sewer and treatment plant systems.
    
    
    
    
                    I have briefly summarized  the  waste
    
    
    
    
     sources  and  the resulting water quality.   Now consider
    
    
    
    
     the impact of quality degradation on water uses.
    
    
    
                    First, let us examine the  public  water
    
    
    
    
     supply use.   Large metropolitan areas  are  using  millions
    
    
    
     of gallons per  day for human consumption.   In sport or
    
    
    
    
     industrial contact with raw water, effort  must  be made
    
    
    
    
     to eliminate the possibilities  of contact  or  ingestion
    
    
    
    
     of pathogenic organisms.  The Missouri  River  carries as
    
    
    
    
     many  as  1,100 fecal coliform organisms  per droo, as shown
    
    
    
    
     by our data.  During the normal  fall navigation flows,
    

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    	264
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    which  are  similar  to  summer flows, we have  demonstrated
    
    
    
    that municipal waste  effluents  are responsible  for  over
    
    
    
    85  percent of the  total coliform bacteria contained in
    
    
    
    the river.   These  can be  controlled  at  the  source.
    
    
    
    
                   The  presence of  grease balls  and other  noxlLous
    
    
    
    materials  cause  problems  with physical  operation of water
    
    
    
    treatment  facilities.
    
    
    
                   High ammonia concentrations  in the water
    
    
    
    prior  to treatment  add considerably  to  the  cost of  water
    
    
    
    treatment  by increasing the chlorine demand.  Effluents
    
    
    
    from agricultural  products  companies, if untreated,  can
    
    
    
    greatly increase the  amount of  ammonia  in the water, the
    
    
    
    need for higher  amounts of  chlorine  and an  increase in
    
    
    
    the cost of water.
    
    
    
                   Another consideration is the  nitrogen and
    
    
    
    phosphorus in the  river.  These materials are necessary
    
    
    
    to  support the aquatic biota.   If they  are  present  in
    
    
    
    excess and other conditions are proper, they can stimu-
    
    
    
    late growths of  aquatic organisms which may  be  toxic,
    
    
    
    cause  taste and  odor  problems and greatly increase  the
    
    
    
    operational costs  of  water  treatment facilities.
    
    
    
                   The  impact of quality on recreational uses
    

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    	__	265
    
    
    
    
    
                          C.  V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     involves  three  separate  considerations,  one  for esthetics
    
    
    
    
     and one  for water  contact  situations,  and one  for physi-
    
    
    
    
     cal damage.   Recreational  use  involves esthetic apprecia-
    
    
    
    
     tion of  the environment,  possible  contact with the water
    
    
    
    
     through  wading,  swimming or skiing,  and  hunting or fish-
    
    
    
    
     ing.  Poor  water quality in the  Missouri has resulted  in
    
    
    
    
     such things as  slime  and grease  on the lines of sports
    
    
    
    
     fishermen,  the  hazard of contact with  disease  producing
    
    
    
    
     agents by boat  operators,  fishermen, water skiers,  and
    
    
    
    
     swimmers.   The  fouling of  the  river  bottom with sludge
    
    
    
    
     deposits  and the grease  and oil.  rings  on the boat hulls
    
    
    
    
     and shore appurtenances  are evidence of  inadequate treat-
    
    
    
     ment .
    
    
    
    
                    Primary treatment will  remove only the
    
    
    
    
     larger lumps.   Floating  grease can be  removed  by skimming
    
    
    
    
     but the  emulsified  forms, which  are  too  often  the case,
    
    
    
    
     pass through the plant readily.  The dissolved fractions,
    
    
    
    
     the finely  suspended  materials,  and  organics of an  ever-
    
    
    
    
     increasing  variation  and sophistication  are  still present
    
    
    
    
     and still persist in  the effluent  from the primary plants
    
    
    
    
     Sioux City  and  Council Bluffs are  prime  examples.
    
    
    
    
                    But  even  more important,  billions  of fecal
    

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    	__	266
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     bacteria  are  discharged in  every  gallon  of  waste  processe
    
    
    
    
     These  residuals,  the  bacteria,  the suspended  solids  and
    
    
    
    
     dissolved fractions,  singly and in combination, impair
    
    
    
    
     the  full  and  safe use of  the water for recreation today  a
    
    
    
    
     will restrict optimum development for the future.  The
    
    
    
    
     Lewis  and Clark Trail Development for the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
     could  ill afford  to advertise the wonders of  that stream
    
    
    
    
     having the knowledge  of its quality hazards to the mil-
    
    
    
    
     lions  of  people expected  to en.loy it.
    
    
    
    
                   Recreation usage is here  today and expecte
    
    
    
    
     to increase tomorrow.  Sioux City is proud  of its  annual
    
    
    
    
     aquacade.  The numerous marinas,  park developments,  and
    
    
    
     recreation sites  give promise of more extensive use^pro-
    
    
    
    
     viding the water  quality  can support such activity.
    
    
    
    
                   If you were  to make a boat trip on  the
    
    
    
    
     Missouri  River, you would have  the same  experience as  our
    
    
    
    
     investigators.  Putting in  at Sioux City, they waded in
    
    
    
    
     the  water to  get  into the boat  and received splashes in
    
    
    
    
     their  faces,  each drop containing 14 bacteria of  fecal
    
    
    
    
     origin.   As they  progressed downstream,  the fecal  bacterial
    
    
    
    
     become more numeroussreaching as high as 1100 per  drop.
    
    
    
    
     Grease balls  the  size of  oranges bounced off  their craft.
    

    -------
    	26?
    
    
    
    
    
                          C.  V.  Bloragren
    
    
    
    
    
                    Animal parts were  seen  in  the  stream.
    
    
    
     Human  refuse  of all  types were  apparent.   Pleasure  boat-
    
    
    
     ing  certainly is affected by  these conditions.
    
    
    
                    The quality  degradation has  impact on  the
    
    
    
     other  recognized uses,  too.   Commercial fishermen,  Phil
    
    
    
     Randall  and Roy Auckenback, have  found nets clogged with
    
    
    
     grease and sewage solids along  with  a  declining  catch.
    
    
    
     Customers  who find  the  fish  flesh tainted  and unpala-
    
    
    
     table  want their money  back.   For fishermen  and others
    
    
    
     who  work on the River  the  potential contact  with disease
    
    
    
     producing agents is  ever present.  This water use needs
    
    
    
     protecting, too.
    
    
    
                    Severe degradation of stretches of the
    
    
    
     river  was indicated  by the  changes in  populations of  the
    
    
    
     river  bottom  dwelling organisms.  This affects the  food
    
    
    
     chain  for some types  of  fish  and  further  reflects the
    
    
    
     need to  protect the  aquatic habitat.
    
    
    
                    We have  detailed in our report the  impact
    
    
    
     of quality on  the other  uses  and  shown quality criteria
    
    
    
     necessary to  support  these  uses.  These all lead us to
    
    
    
     the  conclusion that  we must begin now  to  protect and
    
    
    
     enhance  the quality  to  support  these uses.
    

    -------
    	268
    
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
                   The State of  Iowa has exhibited  concern
    
    
    
    for the  protection of the quality of the interior  inter-
    
    
    
    state  streams  through waste  treatment  requirements.   In
    
    
    
    the approved sections of the Water Quality Standards, the
    
    
    
    State  has  shown an implementation plan to achieve  secon-
    
    
    
    dary treatment by July 1, 1972.  However, this  does not
    
    
    
    apply  to the Missouri River.  Pollution from  the primary
    
    
    
    plants is  not  masked by dilution.  The preservation of
    
    
    
    the river  front environment  for the citizens  of Iowa  and
    
    
    
    for the Lewis  and Clark Trail will result in  benefits tha
    
    
    
    extend well beyond the boundaries of the State.
    
    
    
                   Mr. Chairman, at this time I would  like to
    
    
    
    introduce  some of the technical people who will elabora.t'e
    
    
    
    on our summary statement and bring out necessary points
    
    
    
    concerning the establishment of water  quality standards.
    
    
    
                   The first of  these that I would  like to
    
    
    
    introduce  is Mr. Ed Geldreich, microbiologist,  Public
    
    
    
    Health Service, Bureau of Water Hygiene, Cincinnati,  Ohio
    
    
    
    who will discuss the bacteriological criteria and  the
    
    
    
    need for protection of uses  through the control of
    
    
    
    bacterial  discharges.
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  While Mr. Geldreich  comes  up,
    

    -------
    	269
    
    
    
    
    
                          E. E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
     let's go  off the  record a minute.
    
    
    
    
                    (Off  the record.)
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:   Mr.  Geldreich.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   STATEMENT BY  E.  E.  GELDREICH
    
    
    
    
                    RESEARCH MICROBIOLOGIST
    
    
    
    
               BUREAU  OF  WATER HYGIENE,  U.  S.  PUBLIC
    
    
    
    
                 HEALTH  SERVICE,  CINCINNATI,  OHIO
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR. GELDREICH:   Mr.  Chairman, ladies and
    
    
    
    
     gentlemen.
    
    
    
                    My name is Edwin  E.  Geldreich,  Research
    
    
    
    
     Microbiologist, Bureau of Water  Hygiene,  Public  Health
    
    
    
    
     Service,  located  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio.
    
    
    
                    At this time  I  would like  to  discuss some
    
    
    
    
     of  the  magnitude  of  our concern  with  pathogens in
    
    
    
    
     recreational waters.
    
    
    
                    Our concern  about fecal contamination
    
    
    
    
     should  not be  limited to that  portion associated with
    
    
    
    
     human pollution alone.  Microorganisms pathogenic  to man
    
    
    
    
     may also  be found in  the excreta of farm  animals,  wild
    
    
    
    
     animals and animal pets.  Apparently  Salmonella  are
    

    -------
    __ 270
    
    
    
    
    
                         E. E. Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
    frequently found in clinically healthy farm animals.
    
    
    
    
    Studies on large groups of cattle indicate the percentage
    
    
    
    
    of such latent infections is about 13 percent in the
    
    
    
    
    United States and about 14 percent in the Netherlands.
    
    
    
    
    (Rothenbacker, J. H., Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1_47: 1211-1214,
    
    
    
    
    1965.)  Between 3-7 to 15 percent of clinically healthy
    
    
    
    
    sheep have been reported to also be carriers.  With
    
    
    
    
    respect to pigs, the percentage of symptomless carriers
    
    
    
    
    has been reported to range from 15 to 20 percent in the
    
    
    
    
    Netherlands; 7 percent in France; 12 percent in England;
    
    
    
    
    13-4 percent in Norway and 22 percent in Belgium. (Prost,
    
    
    
    
    E. and Riemann, H. Food-Borne Salmonellosis , Ann. Rev.
    
    
    
    
    Microbiol. 21; 495-528, 1967.)
    
    
    
    
                   The Salmonella strains most frequently
    
    
    
    isolated from both diseased and healthy farm animals
    
    
    
    
    include the follox^ing 13 serotypes:  S. typhimurium, S.
    
    
    
    derby, S. dublin, S. oranienburg, S. .lava, S. choleraesuii ,
    
    
    
    
    S. anatum, S. newington, S. infantis, S. Stanley, S. abon;
    
    
    
    
    S. Chester, and S. meleagridis.
                   Nottingham, P.M. and Wiselmann, A. J.,
    
    
    
    
    Salmonella infection in calves and other animals. New
    

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                             	271
    
    
    
    
    
                         E. E. Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Zealand J. Agri. Res. 4: 449-460  (1961).
    
    
    
    
                    Pollach, W. , Investigations on Salmonella
    
    
    
    
    in Slaughterhouse Waste Waters in Vienna.  Wien. Tierarztif.,
    
    
    
    
    Mschr. (Germany) 51_: 161-164 (1964).
    
    
    
    
                    Miner, J. R., Fina, L. R., and Piatt,  C.,
    
    
    
    
    Salmonella infantis in cattle feedlot runoff.  Appl.
    
    
    
    
    Microbiol. 15:  627-628 (1967).
    
    
    
    
                    Peterson, K. J. and Coon, R. E., Salmonella,
    
    
    
    
    typhimurium Infection in Dairy Cows, Jour. Amer. Vet.  Med
    
    
    
    
    Assoc. 151_: 344-350 (1967).
    
    
    
    
                    In man, typhoid salmonellosis is specific,
    
    
    
    
    that is,  it does not occur in farm animals.  This disease
    
    
    
    
    is produced by  S_. typhi and the paratyphi strains A,  B
    
    
    
    
    and C.  However, Salmonella species frequently found  in
    
    
    
    
    farm animals do cause gastrointestinal disturbances in mar
    
    
    
    
    and have  been observed to be the infective organism in a
    
    
    
    
    number of epidemics.  Of the 13 Salmonellae serotypes
    
    
    
    
    reported  above  to be frequently found in farm animals, 4
    
    
    
    
    of these  serotypes were among the 10 most common Salmonel3ls
    
    
    
    
    listed in 196"5 by the National Communicable Disease Centei
    
    
    
    
    to be isolated from humans in the United States (Figure 1)
    
    
    
    
    In recent years, a number of epidemics have been observed
    

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    		2J72
    
    
    
    
    
                         E.  E.  Geldrelch
    
    
    
    
    
    
    in  the human  population  which  were  caused  by 6  of  these
    
    
    
    13  Salmonella strains  frequently  found  in  farm  animals.
    

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                                                                    273
         ISOLATIONS OF SALMONELLAE SEROTYPES  FROM HUMANS
    
                      IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1965
    Reference:
    Bureau of Disease Prevention and Environmental Control
    National Ccronunicaole Disease Center
    Atlanta, Georgia  30333
    

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    ISOLATIONS OF SALMONELLAE SEROTYPES FROM NOW-HUMAN SOURCES
    
                      IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1965
     Reference;
     Bureau of Disease Prevention and Environmental Control
     National Ccranunicable Disease Center
     Atlanta, Georgia  30333
    

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                                                                 275
    NUMBER AMD PERCENT OF NON-HUMAN SALMONELLA ISOLATIONS
    
         FROM THE INDICATED SOURCES IN THE UNITED STATES
                              1965
    
         Reference:
         Bureau of Disease Prevention and Environmental Control
         National Communicable Disease Center
         Atlanta, GeorSia  30333
    

    -------
                         E. E. Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   Recreational waters in Iowa have been reports
    
    
    
    
    on occasion to be contaminated with pathogenic leptospires
    
    
    
    
    which gain access to the blood stream through skin
    
    
    
    
    abrasions or mucus membranes to produce severe infections
    
    
    
    
    involving the kidneys, liver, and the central nervous
    
    
    
    
    system.  The organism enters the bathing waters from the
    
    
    
    
    direct urination of infected cattle, swine, and wild
    
    
    
    
    animals that had access to the stream or from drainage of
    
    
    
    
    adjacent livestock pastureland.  Although transmission
    
    
    
    
    of leptospires from infected reservoir hosts does  occur
    
    
    
    
    throughout the year, epidemics in the United States have
    
    
    
    
    occurred almost exclusively during the summer months.
    
    
    
    
         Pathogenic leptospires have been isolated on
    
    
    
    
    occasions in the following Iowa streams:  Shellbrock
    
    
    
    
    River, Winnebago River, Mississippi River, Iowa River,
    
    
    
    
    and the Cedar River.  They have also been isolated from
    
    
    
    
    streams in the States of Washington and Pennsylvania,
    
    
    
    
    which were frequented by infected cattle.
    
    
    
    
                   Waterborne epidemics due to pathogenic
    
    
    
    
    leptospires do occur.  One outbreak of leptospirosis was
    
    
    
    
    reported from Philadelphia in 19^-1 in which seven  persons
    
    
    
    
    contracted the disease by bathing in polluted water.
    

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    	_	277
    
    
    
    
    
                          E.  E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Leptospires  were  Isolated  in  the  urine  of  two persons
    
    
    
    
    and  five  cattle who  had  access  to the same stream  and
    
    
    
    
    had  been  used  for swimming by these two individuals.
    
    
    
    
                   In another  study,  50 cases  of leotospiro-
    
    
    
    
    sis  were  reported from persons  who had  become ill  after
    
    
    
    
    swimming  in  a  slow-moving  stream  alongside a field where
    
    
    
    
    cattle  and swine  were pastured.   This pathogen has also
    
    
    
    
    been the  cause of various  epidemics involving groups of
    
    
    
    
    persons who  swam  in  farm ponds  and streams in California,
    
    
    
    
    from polluted  canals  in  Europe, especially in Holland
    
    
    
    
    where the pathogenic  leptospires  were the  source of water
    
    
    
    
    borne outbreaks chiefly  among the bathers  i.n these canals
    
    
    
    
                   Survival  of leptospires  in  the water environ
    
    
    
    
    ment depend  upon  the  same  numerous factors that have been
    
    
    
    
    established  for bacterial  indicator systems and for Sal-
    
    
    
    monella.  However, because of the more  difficult culturin
    
    
    
    
    procedures now available for  leptospires,  many of  the  intfcr-
    
    
    
    
    related influences in the  water environment are only
    
    
    
    
    partially evaluated.  Survival  in natural  waters at five
    
    
    
    
    to six  degrees Centigrade  has been reported to be  eight t
    
    
    
    
    nine days and  five to six  days  at twenty-five to twenty-
    
    
    
    
    seven degrees  Centigrade.   Leptospires  were reported in
    

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                                                          278
    
    
    
                         E.  E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
    another study on the survival which indicated that in
    
    
    
    lake water with low salinity survival time was more than
    
    
    
    ten days.  In lake and river water with a salinity of
    
    
    
    from 70 to 6,350 parts per million as chloride, leptospires
    
    
    
    survived for less than a week.  During the summer months
    
    
    
    in the East Indies pathogenic leptospires were noted to
    
    
    
    survive in water for at least 22 days without apparent
    
    
    
    loss of virulence.  Finally, in culture infected soil,
    
    
    
    leptospires survived for 43 days and in urine infected
    
    
    
    soils for 15 days.  Simulated studies using stormwater
    
    
    
    runoff with the addition of rain water to dosed soil
    
    
    
    indicated the recovery in the water at intervals ranged
    
    
    
    up to 24 days after that soil had been flooded.
    
    
    
                   Other pathogens have been found in fecal
    
    
    
    pollution from farm animals, including Shigella, bovine
    
    
    
    tubercle bacillus and the round worm ascuris  lumbricoides
    
    
    
    which is pathogenic to man  and hog.  These studies on
    
    
    
    pathogenic organisms illustrate and add  support to our
    
    
    
    concern  about fecal pollution from all warm-blooded
    
    
    
    
    animals, not just from man  alone.
    
    
    
                   Let  me now briefly talk to you a little
    
    
    
    
    bit  about  pathogen  occurrence in  raw sewage  and sewage
    

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                            	279
                          E. E.  Geldreich
    
    treatment effluents.
                   Pathogenic  organisms occur in polluted
    streams and lakes  as  a  result of contamination by fecal
    discharges from warm-blooded animals.   The access of
    fecal pollution to water may add a variety of intestinal
    pathogens at any time,  and  at one time or another enteric
    pathogenic bacteria will be present.  The most common
    genera of pathogenic  bacteria found in water are:  _aJL.~
    E^BJLiL-L?!' L!liJLii.a-9- enteropathogenic Es_c_h_e_ri_c_h_i_a coli,
    te_PJL2.:lP_i.!.a_ anc* Myc^obacterium.
                   There  is sufficient evidence from the
    literature to indicate  pathogenic organisms can be
    present in the excreta  of  poultry, livestock, cats,  dogs
    wild animals.  Such microorganisms, which are equally
    pathogenic to man  and other animals, may be acquired from
    contaminated food  or  water.   Even fresh water fish may
    become actively infected with human pathogens after
    exposure to contaminated water and carry these organisms
    to clean stream recreational areas somewhat removed in
    time and distance.
    Pathogenic Conveyance to the S^tream
         Raw Sewage
    

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    	280
    
    
    
    
    
                          E. E. Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    Municipal sewage contaj ns  the  ma.lor  domes-
    
    
    
    
     tic  input of human fecal discharges plus  other  domestic
    
    
    
    
     additions of laundry wastes and food refuse.  In  some
    
    
    
    
     cities,  wastes from meat packing and dairy  plant  opera-
    
    
    
    
     tions  may also be mixed in the domestic sewage  collection
    
    
    
    
                    .5.i.5..0.5.1.;La_ and JlL&.!_!.: have frequently
    
    
    
     been detected in sewage.  Haw wastes frum institutions
    
    
    
    
     treating  tuberculosis patients will almost always  con-
    
    
    
    
     tain large numbers of tubercle baclll.i.   Sewage from four
    
    
    
    
     sanJtoria showed from 425 to 10,000 tubercle  bacilli per
    
    
    
    
     m].   Municioal sewage containing wastes from  dairies and
    
    
    
    
     slaughterhouses may also be expected to discharge M.
    
    
    
    
     ^.H.^L^.El.^.^.L^ ^n "fc'ner'-r wastes.
    
    
    
                    Enteric viruses which are  capable  of
    
    
    
     producing diseases in humans are excreted by  infected
    
    
    
    
     individuals into domestic sewage in large quantities.
    
    
    
    
     These  viruses include those of the enterovirus  group
    
    
    
    
     (polioviruses, coxsackieviruses A and B,  and  echoviruses)
    
    
    
    
     the  adenoviruses,  reoviruses, and the infectious  hepa-
    
    
    
    
     titis  virus.   The peak incidence of isolation of  enteric
    
    
    
    
     viruses  in sewage occurs duVing the warmer months of the
    
    
    
    
     year and during periods of epidemic with fluctuations  in
    

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    _ ___________ ___ _ __       281
    
    
    
    
    
                           E.  E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
     the  predominant type  being  related to what  Is  prevalent
    
    
    
    
     in  the community at a given time.  Kelly  and  Sanderson
    
    
    
    
     found 115 strains of Coxsaoliie,  ECHO and oolloviruses
    
    
    
    
     present in raw sewage.   Of  150  viruses  Isolated bv Bloom
    
    
    
    
     et  al . ,  from sewage samples,  31  were identified as ECHO
    
    
    
    
     viruses, '<- as poliovlruses  and  76 as coxsackie.  Many
    
    
    
    
     septic tank effluents  have  been found to  contain entero-
    
    
    
    
     vi ruses.  In one instance,  septic tank  effluent still-
    
    
    
    
     contained viable poliovirus six months  after  a  child from
    
    
    
    
     that home had contracted  pel iomyeli ties .
                    Sewage  treatment by the trickling filter
    
    
    
    
     process  has been found to  reduce 3_al_mo_n_e_l_l_a  s_c_h_o_t_tmu_]_l_er_i._
    
    
    
    
     densities from 84 to 99  percent, tubercle  bacill"'
    
    
    
    
     ( H-Z. _L?._L*L_LI.LH.:!1 ~ll?._L_li.2.i.. ^Populations by -36  o e r c e n t ,
    
    
    
     enteric  viruses in a range  from Ho to 60 percent,  taoewoi-
    
    
    
    
     ova by values ranging  from  18 to 70 oercent, arid cysts
    
    
    
    
     ^  HO.^:!!0-.^.?: ll-L^^.LX.ti.^.iiL ^y ^^ ^ ^9 oercent.   Total
    
    
    
     coliform reductions v/ere reported in various investiga-
    
    
    
    
     tions  to range from 8?  to 97 percent.
    
    
    
    
         Ac t i vat e d S 1 u d g e  S y s t e m s
    
    
    
    
                    In activated sludge systems,  coliform
    

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    _ _ _ _ 282
    
    
    
    
                          E.  E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
     organisms,  S_al_mon_e_l_l_ae_,  S_h_i_ge_l_l_ae_, and M.  tu_ b e r cu_loj5i _s_ ,
    
    
    
     were  reduced in amounts  ranging from 88 to  99  percent,
    
    
    
     poliovirus, type I, by 90  percent, and coxsackie A9
    
    
    
     virus  by 98 percent.
                    Removal  or  S_.  ^yj^h._s_a in anaerobic
    
    
    
    
     digestion was reported  to  range from 2$ to  9'^  '* percent
    
    
    
    
     depending upon retention  time.   M. t_u_;b_e_r_c_u_l_o_s_i_s_ reduction
    
    
    
    
     after anaerobic digestion  was reported to  be  69 or 90
    
    
    
    
     percent,  depending upon whose work you are  citing.
    
    
    
    
     Although  this sewage treatment method was  quite effective
    
    
    
    
     in  reducing cysts of E_. h_ij>_t_oj^yt_i_c_a_5 Cram  found anaerobic
    
    
    
    
     digestion comparatively ineffective in the  inactivation of
    
    
    
    
     parasitic ova.
    
    
    
          Was it e 5ta b il ia 1 3o nP o n d s
                    The  treatment of sev;age  in  v/aste stabili-
    
    
    
    
     zation ponds will generally produce total  colaform reduc
    
    
    
    
     tions  ranging from  ^0  to 99-9 percent.   Studies on the
    
    
    
    
     fate of S_almon_e_l_]^a  in  stabilization ponds  indicate a
    
    
    
    
     similar high order  of  destruction.
    
    
    
    
          ChJ^o ; r i ^n a t_i_o n o f E f f 1 u e n t s
    
    
    
    
                    In a review of the literature on removal
    

    -------
    	28 3
    
    
    
    
    
                          E.  S,  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
     of  pathogenic  microorganisms  by trickling filters,
    
    
    
    
     activated  sludge,  anaerobic digestion  and stabilization
    
    
    
    
     ponds,  Kabler  concluded  that  these  treatment orocesses
    
    
    
    
     will  markedly  reduce  the number of  pathogenic organisms
    
    
    
    
     present.   However,  the  resulting effluents will  contain
    
    
    
    
     a  portion  of each  kind  of microorganism originally
    
    
    
    
     present in the raw sewage.   Those pathogenic bacteria,
    
    
    
    
     V-1 rus  and  paras:! tes  that do remain  in  the treated efflu-
    
    
    
    
     ents  constitute  potential health hazards to persons  using
    
    
    
    
     the receiving  waters  for recreational  purposes.   Where
    
    
    
    
     these  waters are used as a source of -raw water supply,
    
    
    
    
     any accidental break  In  treatment could qir.1 ckl v br'ng
    
    
    
    
     pathogens  to our nubile  water supply systems.   Apolica-
    
    
    
    
     tion  of appropriate  chlorination procedures to effluents
    
    
    
    
     from  secondary treatment of sewage  w:i 11 further reduce th
    
    
    
    
     pathogenic bacterial  populations to below demonstrable
    
    
    
    
     densities.
    
    
    
    
                    Many  factors are involved in sewage
    
    
    
    
     chlorination,  including  organic residuals,  effluent  pH
    
    
    
    
     and temperature, chlorine contact time,  uniformity of
    
    
    
    
     effluent-disinfectant mixing,  among others.   Primary
    
    
    
    
     sewage  effluents are  more difficult to chlorinate to a
    

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    	284
    
    
    
    
    
                          E.  E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
     specific coliform content  than are  secondary effluents.
    
    
    
    
     Chlorination of primary  effluents  should not,  under  any
    
    
    
    
     circumstances,  be considered a substitute for  secondary
    
    
    
    
     treatment.   The primary  measurement for  the  adequacy of
    
    
    
    
     chlorine disinfection of treated sewage  must be  based
    
    
    
    
     on the  coliform count since  methods for  pathogens  remain
    
    
    
    
     too complicated for  routine  monitoring.   Finally,  addi-
    
    
    
    
     tional  advanced waste treatment by  chemical  flocculation
    
    
    
    
     with sedimentation may be necessary in special problems
    
    
    
    
     involving re-use water for  complete removal  of parasitic
    
    
    
     ova and virus.
    
    
    
    
                    Finally a brief statement here  about  the
    
    
    
     bacterial survivals  in streams.
    
    
    
    
                    Survival  of bacterial indicators  and  any
    
    
    
     pathogens present in  a pollutional  discharge to  the
    
    
    
     receiving stream are  going  to  be influenced  by many
    
    
    
    
     interrelated environmental factors.  These factors includ
    
    
    
    
     available nutrients,  water  temperature,  water  pH,  turbidi
    
    
    
    
     and sedimentation, chemical  constituents  of  the  receiving
    
    
    
    
     stream,  chemical pollutants  discharged,  antagonistic  actj<
    
    
    
    
     of  associated bacterial  species and phage  types  and
    
    
    
     exposure  to  the  ultraviolet  action  of sunlight.
     y
    >n
    

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                             ^	285
    
    
    
    
    
                         E. E. Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   Research studies on bacterial survival
    
    
    
    
    in streams indicate that bacterial nutrients in terms of
    
    
    
    
    a nitrogen source and a carbon source and winter stream
    
    
    
    
    temperature plus a source of fecal pollution can extend
    
    
    
    
    the survival of this hazardous pollution many miles down-
    
    
    
    
    stream.  With summer stream temperatures and bacterial
    
    
    
    
    nutrients, some multiplication of pathogens is oossible.
    
    
    
    
    In either case, the public health hazard has increased.
    
    
    
    
    This deterioration in water quality should not be tolerat
    
    
    
    
    from a public health viewpoint, either for recreation wat
    
    
    
    
    quality or for a raw water source to be processed into a
    
    
    
    
    public water supply.
    
    
    
    
                   Bacterial nutrients are derived from raw
    
    
    
    
    sewage, food processing wastes, and poor quality sewage
    
    
    
    
    treatment involving low BOD removal.  Practical removal
    
    
    
    
    figures for primary treatment range from 40-60 percent
    
    
    
    
    BOD removals;  secondary treatment 80-90 percent BOD
    
    
    
    
    removal;  and tertiary treatment 95-98$ BOD removal.   Thus
    
    
    
    the natural stream purification rate can be greatly
    
    
    
    
    modified  by this type of discharge.
    
    
    
    
                   Frequently,  chlorination of primary
    
    
    
    
    effluent  is attempted to further reduce the bacterial
    

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         .	286
    
    
    
    
    
                         E. E. Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
    discharge.  This creates another bacterial problem down-
    
    
    
    
    stream known as aftergrowth.  Aftergrowth is a product
    
    
    
    
    of many interrelated factors associated with bacteria
    
    
    
    
    and their environment.  Because disinfection by chlorina-
    
    
    
    
    tion rarely is comolete, some organisms survive to become
    
    
    
    
    the inoculum that utilizes the available nutrients. These
    
    
    
    
    organisms include strains which are protected from contac'
    
    
    
    
    with chlorination by aggregates of suspended matter.  As
    
    
    
    
    the aggregates disintegrate, viable cells are released
    
    
    
    
    into the partially treated primary effluent.  Proper
    
    
    
    
    environmental conditions for this specialized type of
    
    
    
    
    bacterial regrowth occur with water temperature above 15
    
    
    
    
    degrees Centigrade,  a source of bacterial nutrients above
    
    
    
    
    a critical level, adequate flow time between entry of
    
    
    
    
    chlorinated effluent into the receiving stream and some
    
    
    
    
    location downstream, plus other interrelated factors
    
    
    
    
    associated with the  bacterial flora and its water environ-
    
    
    
    
    ment.  With reference to required flow time downstream,,
    
    
    
    
    most regrowth problems occur between a one- to  two-day
    
    
    
    
    flow from the entry of chlorinated effluent.  This time is
    
    
    
    
    needed to permit organism  recovery from chlorination
    
    
    
    
    damage and subsequent multiplication of the bacterial
    

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    	28?
    
    
    
    
    
                          E.  E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
     population.
    
    
    
    
                    With  respect to  chlorinate on  of  effluent
    
    
    
    
     from  sewage  that  has received secondary treatment,  avail-
    
    
    
    
     able  research  data  demonstrates  no  evidence  of  after-
    
    
    
    
     growth  even  though  stream temperature  was  22 degrees
    
    
    
    
     Centigrade,  during  a study on a  small  stream in Californi
    
    
    
    
     This  result  reflects the excellent  nutrient  reduction  in
    
    
    
    
     the secondary  treatment  of  sewage by this  activated sludg
    
    
    
    
     process  and  the effect of blocking  a key requirement
    
    
    
    
     essential  to aftergrowth development.
    
    
    
    
                    It has been  my observation  that  most
    
    
    
    
     aftergrowth  problems occur  as a  result of  either ooor
    
    
    
    
     sewage  treatment  for BOD removal or as a result of
    
    
    
    
     nutrient waste  additions downstream from the chlorinated
    
    
    
    
     effluent discharge.
    
    
    
                    Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:   Thank you,,  Mr.  Geldreich.
    
    
    
    
                    We will now  call  on  General C. Craig
    
    
    
    
     Cannon,  Missouri  River DivJsion  Engineer,  Corps of
    
    
    
    
     Engineers, Omaha.
    
    
    
    
                    Gen.  Cannon.
    

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    	288
    
    
    
    
    
                         Gen.  C.  C.  Cannon
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                STATEMENT BY  GENERAL C.  CRAIG  CANNON
    
    
    
    
                 MISSOURI RIVER  DIVISION ENGINEER
    
    
    
    
                 CORPS  OF ENGINEERS,  OMAHA,  NEBRASKA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    GEN.  CANNON:   Thank  you, Mr,  Chairman.
    
    
    
    
                    I don't know  whether any of  you are  from
    
    
    
    
     Sioux  City,  "but the  Sioux City  Chamber  of Commerce  has a
    
    
    
    
     tradition  of each  summer having a steak fry on a sand
    
    
    
    
     bar  in the  upper Missouri.   Part of that  tradition  is  to
    
    
    
    
     invite the  Army Division Engineer up there  and forcefully
    
    
    
    
     throw  him  into  the river.  Of course he is  expected to
    
    
    
    
     put  up a fight  and take  as many with him  as possible.
    
    
    
    
     After  hearing the  previous speaker, I  can assure Sioux
    
    
    
     City that  I am  going to  put  up  more of  a  fight this year
    
    
    
    
     than last  year.
    
    
    
    
                    (Laughter.)
    
    
    
                    Ladies and gentlemen, while  my  division
    
    
    
    
     of the Corps of Army Engineers  is interested in  all the
    
    
    
    
     uses of the Missouri River and  its  tributaries,  this
    
    
    
    
     morning I  will  comment primarily on our work below  Sioux
    
    
    
    
     City.   However, we must  continue to recognize  that  the
    

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    	__	289
    
    
    
    
    
                         Gen,  C,  C.  Cannon
    
    
    
    
    
    
     chain  of  reservoirs  extending  from Montana  across  the
    
    
    
    
     Dakotas exerts  a  profound influence upon  the  flow  of
    
    
    
    
     the  Missouri.   In contrast to  flood and drought  periods
    
    
    
    
     of the past, we now  have  a pattern of  discharge  much
    
    
    
    
     better suited for utilization  of  the river.   In  years
    
    
    
    
     of normal runoff  we  are able to control the Missouri  to
    
    
    
    
     about  35,000 cubic feet per  second at  Sioux City through
    
    
    
    
     the  navigation  season,  and to  about 15 to 20  thousand
    
    
    
    
     cubic  feet per  second  during the  remainder  of the  year.
    
    
    
    
                    Of course  in  abnormally wet  years,  such
    
    
    
    
     as the present  one,  or  in the  unhaopy  event of a drought
    
    
    
    
     year,  these manifestations will affect the  degree  of  our
    
    
    
    
     control:  for example,  on  recent days we have  been  limit-
    
    
    
    
     ing  the releases  from  Gavins Point to  6,000 second feet.
    
    
    
    
                    Increased  upstream uses of water  for irri-
    
    
    
     gation, municipal and  industrial  water supply, agricul-
    
    
    
    
     tural  and other purposes  will  eventually  deplete the
    
    
    
    
     available water supply  so much  that minimum releases  at
    
    
    
    
     Gavins Point Dam  may be as low  as 3,000 cubic feet per
    
    
    
    
     second during the non-navigation  season for  extended
    
    
    
    
     drought periods.
    
    
    
    
                    In a  1951  report of the Missouri  Basin
    

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    	290
    
    
    
    
    
                         Gen.  C.  C.  Cannon
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Interagency  Committee  on "Adequacy  of Flows  in  the  Missour
    
    
    
    
     River"  a  minimum  release  of  35000  cubic  feet per second
    
    
    
    
     was  stated to  be  necessary to maintain a dissolved oxygen
    
    
    
    
     level of  5 parts  per million in the stream.  And remember
    
    
    
    
     that that was  speaking of conditions as  they existed  in
    
    
    
    
     the  early 1950's.
    
    
    
    
                    Below Sioux City our basic  functions are
    
    
    
    
     flood control,  bank  stabilization  and navigation.   The
    
    
    
    
     reservoirs play a ma.lor part in these functions, but  in
    
    
    
    
     addition  we  have  municipal and  agricultural levee systems
    
    
    
    
     and  numerous dikes and revetments.  Our  work on  the river
    
    
    
    
     has  resulted in more intensive  use of the  banks  for
    
    
    
    
     agricultural,  residential, commercial and  industrial
    
    
    
    
     purposes.  The Corps has  recognized the   beneficial effecfts
    
    
    
    
     of reduction in the  silt  load and  in uniformity  of flow
    
    
    
    
     on water  supply and  sewage dilution functions  of the
    
    
    
    
     river.  However,  the Congress originally considered these
    
    
    
    
     effects of the reservoirs as bonus benefits and  no mone-
    
    
    
    
     tary value,  therefore,  was credited to the  projects.
    
    
    
    
                    Subsequent to 19&1  and the  amending legis-
     lation  of  Public  Law  87-88,  the  Corps  has  had  the  authori
    
    
    
    
     to  assume  a  more  specific  role  in  water  quality control
    ty
    

    -------
    		291
    
    
    
    
    
                         Gen.  C. C. Cannon
    
    
    
    
    
    
     and to utilize resulting benefits as orolect ourposes.
    
    
    
    
     In general the Corps' function in regulatory control of
    
    
    
    
     water pollution is limited.  However, we do have certain
    
    
    
    
     responsibilities regarding the discharge of oollutants
    
    
    
    
     from floating or fixed .installations when the discharges
    
    
    
    
     are detrimental :,o the operation of the project.
    
    
    
    
                    The past 20 years have seen a tremendous
    
    
    
    
     increase in water-based recreation, boating, swimming
    
    
    
    
     fishing, and general shoreline recreation.  The Corns has
    
    
    
    
     for many years been authorized to provide facilities for
    
    
    
    
     recreation at reservoirs in cooperation with local and
    
    
    
    
     State agencies.  Utilization of  these facilities has been
    
    
    
    
     phenomenol and continues to increase.
    
    
    
    
                    The general improvement of water condition
    
    
    
    
     on the lower Missouri has also resulted in increasing
    
    
    
    
     public use of the river.  In response to this trend, and
    
    
    
    
     in the interest of public safety and convenience,  the
    
    
    
    
     Corps was authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1962
    
    
    
    
     to extend its recreational development to all water
    1
    
    
    
     resource oroiects.  The present  oolicy is to cooperate
    
    
    
    
     with local interests and the State agencies in the
    
    
    !
    
     development of boat ramos. parking and picnic areas and
    

    -------
    	292
    
    
    
    
    
                         Gen.  C.  G.  Cannon
    
    
    
    
    
    
     similar facilities  along  the  Missouri  from Sioux  City
    
    
    
    
     to  the  mouth  of  the r.iver near  St.  Louis.
    
    
    
    
                   Some of  these  facilities  have  been built.
    
    
    
    
     Others  are  under construction or  scheduled for  early
    
    
    
    
     construction  and many more are  planned for the  future  as
    
    
    
    
     the need develops and as  the  necessary participation by
    
    
    
    
     local interests  is  negotiated and funds  become  available.
    
    
    
    
                   It does  not require  a  sanitary specialist
    
    
    
    
     to  see  that water pollution  is  inimical   to recreational
    
    
    
    
     use of  a river.   I shall leave to  those specialists the
    
    
    
    
     problem of  determining  what  levels  of  pollution are tol-
    
    
    
    
     erable  and  consistent with intensive  recreational use.
    
    
    
    
     Esthetic enjoyment  of a river environment  is  adversely
    
    
    
    
     affected by obnoxious odors,  by floating matter and by
    
    
    
    
     suspended or  dissolved  materials  affecting water  clarity.
    
    
    
    
     Fishing success  and the edibility of  fish  caught  are
    
    
    
    
     definitely  related  to water quality.
    
    
    
    
                   Again, emphasizing that water  quality
    
    
    
    
     standards are  not a malor function  of  the  Corps of Engi-
    
    
    
    
     neers,  I can  and do state that  we as  an  agency  of the
    
    
    
    
     Federal Government  charged with providing  certain recre-
    
    
    
    
     ation factilities are interested  in and  support the
    

    -------
    	293
    
    
    
    
    
                        Gen. G. C. Cannon
    
    
    
    
    
    
    adoption and maintenance of standards which are conducive
    
    
    
    
    to and consistent with intensive and jncreasing public
    
    
    
    
    use of the Missouri River.  The Corps would certainly
    
    
    
    
    dislike seeing a reduction in the recreational utiliza-
    
    
    
    
    tion of the river and a resulting loss of recreation
    
    
    
    
    development due to pollution.  It appears that such a
    
    
    
    
    reduction might come about as a, result of public dis-
    
    
    
    
    inclination to use a polluted river for either esthetic
    
    
    
    
    or sanitary reasons or by regulation which would prohibit
    
    
    
    
    or limit certain public uses in the interest of health
    
    
    
    
    and safety.  In either event, non-use of the river for
    
    
    
    
    recreational purposes would have an adverse effect upon
    
    
    
    
    plans for the construction of facilities intended for
    
    
    
    
    increased recreational use.
    
    
    
    
                   I realize that my statement does
    
    
    
    not provide any quantitative basis for pollution stan-
    
    
    
    
    dards.  That is not my intent or purpose.  I hope I
    
    
    
    
    have made it clear that the Corps of Engineers supports
    
    
    
    
    wholeheartedly those antipollution programs and controls
    
    
    
    
    which are conducive to true multi-purpose use of the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River, not only for flood control and navigation
    
    
    
    
    but also for general recreational use by the people of
    

    -------
    	__	294
    
    
    
    
    
                        Gen.  C.  C.  Cannon
    
    
    
    
    
    
     our Nation.
    
    
    
    
                    Thank you  very  much.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:   Thank  you,  Gen.  Cannon.
    
    
    
    
                    At this  point we will take  our  morning
    
    
    
    
     recess  for  10 minutes.  Please  come back.
    
    
    
    
                            (RECESS)
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:   May  we reconvene.
    
    
    
    
                    We will  continue with the Federal  presen-
    
    
    
    
     tation.  To  give you a  notion  of  what  we are going  to  try
    
    
    
    
     to do,  we will  recess for  lunch at 12  o'clock  for about
    
    
    
    
     an hour and  a half, and then we will have,  presumably,
    
    
    
    
     an afternoon session with,  hopefully,  one  recess,and we
    
    
    
    
     will  conclude the day's session at 5 o'clock.   The  way
    
    
    
    
     it looks, this  will go  into tomorrow.
    
    
    
                    Mr.  Blomgren.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BLOMGREN:   Mr.  Chairman, we have with
    
    
    
    
     us Mr.  Ted  Ferris,  Water  Hygiene  Representative,  Environ-
    
    
    
    
     mental  Control  Administration,  Department  of Health,
    
    
    
    
     Education,  and  Welfare, Kansas  City, Region VI, who will
    
    
    
    
     discuss the  public  health  aspects.
    

    -------
                          	29 5
    
    
    
    
    
                          T. G. Ferris
                    STATEMENT OF T. G. FERRIS
    
    
    
    
                   WATER HYGIENE REPRESENTATIVE
    
    
    
    
               ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
    
    
    
    
                 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
    
    
    
    
           AND WELFARE, REGION VI, KANSAS  CITY,  MISSOURI
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. FERRIS:  Mr,. Chairman,  ladies  and
    
    
    
    
    gentlemen.
    
    
    
    
                   My name is T. C. Ferris.  I am  the Water
    
    
    
    
    Hygiene Representative of the Environmental  Control
    
    
    
    
    Administration of the Deoartment of Health,  Educat-'on,
    
    
    
    
    and Welfare, the Region VI office in Kansas  City, Missour
    
    
    
    
                   The Department of Health. Education, and
    
    
    
    
    Welfare, acting under the Public Health Service Act has
    
    
    
    
    primary Federal responsibility for protecting  the health
    
    
    
    
    of the people.  The Public Health Service  has  strong
    
    
    
    
    interest in the protection and enhancement of  community
    
    
    
    
    water supplies, both as to adequacy and ourjty for water
    
    
    
    
    reaching the ultimate consumer.  Water as  it is delivered
    
    
    
    
    at the tap should be potable and should meet the  recom-
    
    
    
    
    mended Public Health Service drinking water  standards.
    

    -------
    	296
    
    
    
    
    
                          T.  C. Ferris
    
    
    
    
    
    
     The  discharge of  pollutants and wastewaters to  rivers
    
    
    
    
     constitutes a threat to the health of  people living in
    
    
    
    
     these watersheds  and utilizing these waters for  domestic
    
    
    
    
     supply,  commercial and sports fishing,  recreation, and
    
    
    
    
     other purposes.   The health threat associated with water
    
    
    
    
     is of three types: chemical, biological and radiological.
    
    
    
    
                   The Public Health Service has long been
    
    
    
    
     concerned about the quality of water.   The discharge of
    
    
    
    
     inadequately treated municipal and industrial wastes can
    
    
    
    
     cause impairment  of water quality in the interstate river
    
    
    
    
     covered  by this conference.  The findings of the conferen
    
    
    
    
     report indicate that untreated and/or  inadequately treate
    
    
    
    
     municipal and industrial  wastes are being discharged to
    
    
    
     these waters and  that they could endanger the health and
    
    
    
    
     welfare  of persons, not only in the State of Iowa, but in
    
    
    
    
     some of  the adjoining States.  While the conventional
    
    
    
    
     water supply treatment processes are capable of  removing
    
    
    
    
     or destroying pathogenic  organisms, the presence of patho
    
    
    
    
     gens in  raw water supplies constitutes  a hazard  potential
    
    
    
    
     which is dependent upon human or mechanical failure. Also
    
    
    
    
     polluted discharges constitute a direct hazard  to those
    
    
    
    
     using the waters  for contact recreational purposes.
    J
    
    

    -------
    	297
    
    
    
    
    
                           T.  C,  Ferris
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    In 1914,  the  Public Health Service
    
    
    
    
     established and,  with periodic revisions, the last in
    
    
    
    
     1962,  has maintained and published drinking water stan-
    
    
    
    
     dards  for water supplies  used on interstate carriers  and
    
    
    
    
     has  responsibility for the certification of such  water
    
    
    
    
     supplies.  These  standards have been adopted or are used
    
    
    
    
     as  the guidelines for drinking water quality in nearly
    
    
    
    
     all of the States.  The Publjc Health Service has  also
    
    
    
    
     served as consultant and  technical assistant to State
    
    
    
    
     and  local health  departments  in their orograms  for safe-
    
    
    
    
     guarding  the quality of  community water suoplies.
    
    
    
    
                    There are  several surface water  supplies
    
    
    
    
     in Iowa as well as a considerable number of surface water
    
    
    
    
     supplies  in other States  which have their intakes  below
    
    
    
    
     the  waste discharges from municipalities and industries
    
    
    
     in Iowa.   It is also interesting to note that there are
    
    
    
    
     more cattle and hogs in  the  State of Iowa than  there  are
    
    
    
    
     people, and thi.s  source  of pollution must also  be  recog-
    
    
    
    
     nized  in  control  measures.   The bacterial pollution from
    
    
    
    
     cattle and hogs cannot be ignored.
    
    
    
    
                    The Iowa  surface water quality criteria
    
    
    
    
     were submitted  to our agency  for comments,  and  on
    

    -------
    __ 298
    
    
    
    
    
                          T.  C. Ferris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    September 27,  19&8,,  the following letter was transmitted
    
    
    
    
    to  the Federal Water Pollution  Control Administration:
    
    
    
    
                   "Under the  provisions of the Interdepart-
    
    
    
    
    mental Agreement of  September 2, 19^6, we offer for your
    
    
    
    
    consideration  the following comments on the oublic health
    
    
    
    
    aspects  of  the Iowa  Surface Water Quality Criteria.
    
    
    
    
                   "These comments  are  limited to  those
    
    
    
    
    criteria considered  important to protection of the public
    
    
    
    
    health and  are primarily  concerned  with the following
    
    
    
    
    subjects:   Discussion of  Criteria and Surface  Water
    
    
    
    
    Quality  Criteria, relating to Public Water Supply and
    
    
    
    
    Recreation.
    
    
    
    
                 o f C r i t e r i a
                    "The  discussion  of  the  General  Criteria
    
    
    
    
     Section  notes,  'Treatment  less  than  secondary  will not
    
    
    
     be  accepted unless it  can  be  shown that  the  legitimate
    
    
    
    
     uses  can be protected  with a  lesser  degree of  treatment.1
    
    
    
    
     Where  legitimate  uses  of affected  waters  include  public
    
    
    
    
     water  supply  or whole  body contact recreation,  the Public
    
    
    
    
     Health Service  does  not consider as  satisfactory  any
    
    
    
    
     degree of treatment  less than secondary.
    
    
    
                    "Although no bacteriological  criteria  have
    

    -------
     	299
    
    
                           T. C. Ferris
    
    
    
     been adopted in the Specific Criteria for the Designated
    
     Water Uses Section, the discussion includes definition of
    
     bacteriological guidelines for optional application to
    
     situations where known  controllable sources of coliform
    
     bearing wastes are affecting the suitability  of a water
    
     source for public water supply or recreational use.
    
     While the variability of total coliform levels with
    
     runoff is recognized, the specification of a sanitary
    
     survey backed by a guideline to be used optionally is not
    
     considered an adequate  criterion.  The fact that zoonoses
    
    
     as well as human carried diseases are transmittable to
    
     man through fecal matter should be recognized.  Adoption
    
     of fecal coliform criteria as an acceptable indicator of
    
     fecal pollution :' s appropriate where total coliform con-
    
     centrations are known to be greatly affected by soil and
    
     plant coliform.  The Iowa criteria should provide for
    
     such criteria as are recommended in Section I of the
    
     Public Health Service 'Health Guidelines for Raw Water
    
    ! Quality,' previously submitted to your office for review.
    I
    j                The next section of the letter:
    
    !
    I "Surface _Water Quality  Criteria
    
                    "The water quality criteria in the section
    

    -------
    	300
    
    
    
    
    
                          T. C. Ferris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    on Public Water Supoly should also be made applicable to
    
    
    
    
    waters used in the processing of food.
    
    
    
    
                   "Limiting concentrations for the specific
    
    
    
    
    constituents arsenic, barium, cadmium, hexavalent chromiuifi,
    
    
    
    
    cyanide, fluoride, lead, and phenols are included in the
    
    
    
    
    section on Public Water Supply.  The concentrations speci
    
    
    
    
    fied for arsenic, cyanide, and phenols exceed those speci
    
    
    
    
    fled by the Public Health Service 'Health Guidelines for
    
    
    
    
    Raw Water Quality1 and should be changed to conform to
    
    
    
    
    the health guidelines.  In addition, a number of the
    
    
    
    
    chemical constituents specified by the Public Health
    
    
    
    
    Service 'Health Guidelines for Raw Water Quality' have
    
    
    
    
    been omitted in the specific constituents limited by the
    
    
    
    Iowa Surface Water Quality Criteria.  These constituent
    
    
    
    limits including those for Radium 226 and Strontium 90
    
    
    
    
    should be included in the Iowa Criteria.
    
    
    
                   "As has been stated under Discussion of
    
    
    
    
    Criteria, fecal coliform criteria for public water supply
    
    
    
    
    and recreational uses should be added to the Iowa Criteri
    
    
    
    
    The minimum degree of public water supply treatment
    
    
    
    
    necessary to produce potable water from water meeting such
    
    
    
    
    criteria should also be stated.
    

    -------
     	301
    
                           T. C. Ferris
    
                    "The opportunity to present this review
     is aporeclated."
                    That is the end of the letter, quoting.
                    You will note in this letter that we do
     not consider any degree of waste treatment less than
     secondary including disinfection to be adequate where the
     downstream waters are to be used for public water supply
     or whole body contact recreation.  In our opinion,  fecal
     coliform criteria are appropriate; these criteria should
     not be modified  even on the basis of findings from a
     sanitary survey.  The criteria to be used in Iowa should
     be no less stringent than the limits olaced in our oubli-
     cation,  "Health  Guidelines for Raw Water Quality."   These
     guidelines provide standards for water to be used for
     domestic and food processing uses, recreation, shellfish,
     agriculture, as  well as for control measures when conside
     ing vectors or the disposal of solid wastes.  To cite a
     few of the standards, we would like to emphasize that the
     total coliform density shall not exceed 20,000 oer  100
     milliliters as measured by monthly geometric mean or that
     the fecal coliform density shall not exceed 4.000 per 100
    i
     milliliters as measured by monthly geometric mean for
    

    -------
    	302
    
    
    
    
    
                           T.  C. Ferris
    
    
    
    
    
    
     intake water  to  a water  treatment  olant  providing
    
    
    
    
     coagulation,  sedimentation, filtration.,  and  disinfection.
    
    
    
    
     For water  contact recreational  uses,  the fecal  coliform
    
    
    
    
     density  should not  exceed the geometric  mean of 200  per
    
    
    
    
     100 milliliters  with  a sampling frequency of 5  samples
    
    
    
    
     per 30-day period taken  during  peak  recreational use.
    
    
    
    
     Not more than 10 percent  of the samples'  fecal  coliform
    
    
    
    
     densities  during any  30-day period should exceed 400 per
    
    
    
    
     100 milliliters.
    
    
    
    
                   I am pleased to  represent the Department
    
    
    
    
     of Health,  Education,  and Welfare  at  this meeting.   We in
    
    
    
    
     the Public Health Service are ready  to do whatever we  can
    
    
    
    
     to cooperate  and assist  in the  lob of safeguarding and
    
    
    
    
     improving  the quality of  these  waters.
    
    
    
                   Thank  you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  STEIN:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  BLOMGREN:  Mr.  Chairman,  at  this  time
    
    
    
    
     I would  like  to  introduce Dr. Graham  Walton,  Chief of
    
    
    
    
     Technical  Services, Bureau of Water  Hygiene,  Public  Healt
    
    
    
    
     Service, Cincinnati.,  Ohio.
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  STEIN:  There is  one  thing these
    
    
    
    
     conferences accomplish:   I get  to  see people I  haven't
    

    -------
     	,	,	303
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. G. Walton
    
    
    
    
    
    
     seen for a long time.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   STATEMENT BY DR. GRAHAM WALTON
    
    
    
    
                CHIEF, TECHNICAL SERVICES, BUREAU OF
    
    
    
    
             WATER HYGIENE, U. S. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
    
    
    
    
                         CINCINNATI, OHIO
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    DR. WALTON:  Thank you, Carl.
    
    
    
    
                    I am Graham Walton, Chief, Technical
    
    
    
    
     Services, Bureau of Water Hygjene, U. S. Public Health
    
    
    
    
     Service, Cincinnati., Ohio.
    
    
    
    
                    In the manual "Public Drinking Water
    
    
    
    
     Supply Evaluation" now in press, which will renlace  the
    
    
    
    
     1946 "Manual of Water Sanitation Practice," the Public
    
    
    
    
     Health Service recommends permissible bacteriological
    
    
    
    
     quality for surface waters receiving "Complete Conven-
    
    
    
    
     tional Treatment" to produce a oublic wacer supply.
    
    
    
    
     This publication defines "Complete Conventional Treatment
    
    
    
    
    i as consisting of chemical coagulation, sedimentation,
    
    
    
    
     rapid granular bed filtration, and pre- and post-chlori-
    
    
    
    
     nation.  It specifies that the total collform density
    
    
    
    
     of the intake water, as measured by the monthly Geometric
    

    -------
                          Dr. G, Walton
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Mean, shall not exceed 20,000 per 100 millillters unless
    
    
    
    
    fecal coliform examinations are made and their density
    
    
    
    
    as measured by the monthly Geometric Mean does not exceed
    
    
    
    
    4,000 per 100 milliliters.
    
    
    
    
                   The Subcommittee for Public Water Supplies
    
    
    
    
    National Technical Advisory Committee on Water Quality
    
    
    
    
    Criteria, in their 1968 report, proposed permissible
    
    
    
    
    criteria for intake waters  receiving treatment by "the
    
    
    
    
    most common processes in use in this country in their
    
    
    
    
    simplest form" for production of waters for public use,
    
    
    
    
    The defined conventional treatment included chemical
    
    
    
    
    coagulation, sedimentation, rapid sand filtration, and
    
    
    
    
    chlorination.  This subcommittee recognized that many
    
    
    
    
    small surface water treatment plants were operated
    
    
    
    
    without sophisticated technical control.  Starting with
    
    
    
    
    these assumptions, this committee recommended that the
    
    
    
    coliform density, as determined by the monthly arithmetic
    
    
    
    
    average of an adequate number of samples, should not
    
    
    
    
    exceed 10,000 per 100 milliliters.  This limitation,
    
    
    
    
    however, may be relaxed provided fecal coliform exami-
    
    
    
    
    nations are made and their monthly average does not exceep.
    
    
    
    
    2,000 per 100 milliliters.
    

    -------
     	__	30 5
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. G. Walton
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    Many State water pollution control agenciejs
    
    
    
    
     have adopted bacteriological standards for surface waters
    
    
    
    
     for use in the production of public supplies.  Such stan-
    
    
    
    
     dards may specify the following:
    
    
    
    
                    The monthly average coliform density shall
    
    
    
    
     not exceed 5,000 per 100 milliliters nor shall the coli-
    
    
    
    
     form density exceed 5,000 per 100 milliliters in more  thaji
    
    
    
    
     20 percent, nor shall it exceed 20,000 in more than 5
    
    
    
    
     percent, of all samples examined during each month.
    
    
    
    
                    Although we have the technical knowledge,
    
    
    
    
     as demonstrated by equipment developed by the"Space
    
    
    
    
     Program,"to produce drinking water from sewage,  it is
    
    
    
    
     neither desirable nor economically feasible.   Those con-
    
    
    
    
     cerned with the production of "Biologically Safe"oublic
    
    
    
    
     water supplies generally accent the desirability of
    
    
    
    
     erecting multiple barriers against waterborne disease-
    
    
    
    
     producing organisms.   Such barriers include:
    
    
    
    
                    1.   Effective treatment of sewage and
    i
    
    
    
    1 other wastewaters.
    
    
    
    
                    2.   Natural purification processes which
    
    
    
    
     are active in the surface waters receiving the wastes.
    
    
    
    
                    3.   Water treatment processes,  such  as
    

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    	306
    
    
    
    
    
                          Dr.  G. Walton
    
    
    
    
    
    
     clarification  and  disinfection.
    
    
    
                    The Public  Health  Service  recommends  that
    
    
    
     every  practical effort  should  be  made  to  secure  intake
    
    
    
     water  from  the  best  available  source and  to  reduce
    
    
    
     existing  and control future  pollution  of  those waters.
    
    
    
                    The recommended maximum acceptable coliforfn
    
    
    
     density,  a  monthly geometric mean of 20,000  total coliforn
    
    
    
     bacteria  per 100 milliliters,  or  of 4,000  fecal  coliform
    
    
    
     bacteria  per 100 milliliters,  should not  be  taken as
    
    
    
     poetic license  to unnecessarily permit maximum acceptable
    
    
    
     bacterial levels in  intake waters to water treatment  olan|b
    
    
    
                    In  summary, intake water bacteriological
    
    
    
     standards have  been  established to permit  water  treatment
    
    
    
     plants with rather mediocre  facilities  and unsophisti-
    
    
    
     cated  technical control to produce biologically  safe
    
    
    
     water. Moreover,  improvement  in  the bacteriological
    
    
    
     quality of  the  intake water  frequently results in
    
    
    
     improvement of  other intake  water characteristics that
    
    
    
     may  enhance the overall quality of the public water
    
    
    
     supply.
    
    
    
                    Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:  Thank  you,  Dr.  Walton.
    

    -------
                                                          307
    
    
    
    
    
                         Dr. A. A. Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   May we go on?
    
    
    
    
                   e don't often get Dr. Walton, and I say
    
    
    
    
    this to the Interior people and anyone else, if you have
    
    
    
    
    some questions on water supply, you may find It convenien
    
    
    
    
    to take it up with him while he is here.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN: Mr. Chairman, at this time
    
    
    
    
    I would like to Introduce Dr. Aaron Rosen, Chief, Waste
    
    
    
    
    Identification and Analysis Activities, Advanced Waste
    
    
    
    
    Treatment Research Laboratory, Federal Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
    Control Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT BY DR. A. A. ROSEN
    
    
    
    
            CHIEF, WASTE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS
    
    
    
    
              ACTIVITIES, ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT
    
    
    
    
          RESEARCH LABORATORY, FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION
    
    
    
    
            CONTROL ADMINISTRATION, CINCINNATI, OHIO
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   DR. ROSEN:  It was suggested I tip this
    
    
    
    
    microphone up so I will be talking into it, but I pointed
    
    
    
    
    out that for me the microphone doesn't need to be tipped
    
    
    
    
    up.
    
    
    
    
                   At the meeting last week I made some "
    

    -------
    	_	308
    
    
    
    
    
                         Dr. A. A. Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
    comments on the subject of specific trace organics in
    
    
    
    
    water and the relationship to municipal waste treatment.
    
    
    
    
    I have now prepared this in the form of a written state-
    
    
    
    
    ment, which I have presented to the recorder, with your
    
    
    
    
    permission, Mr. Chairman, and, therefore, at this time
    
    
    
    
    I would like to only very briefly summarize the contents
    
    
    
    
    of that statement in order to save time, but at the same
    
    
    
    
    time to put on record the gist of this point so that
    
    
    
    
    subsequent people who may wish to will have the oppor-
    
    
    
    
    tunity to refer to it.
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Without objection, your full
    
    
    
    
    statement will appear as if read.  There are no substan-
    
    
    
    
    tial departures in that  from what you said last week?
    
    
    
    
                   DR. ROSEN:  No, there are not.  It is
    
    
    
    
    essentially what I said  last week.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Right.
    
    
    
                   DR. ROSEN:  The essential point of that
    
    
    
    
    statement is that municipal wastes include substances not
    
    
    
    
    ordinarily considered as sewage materials.  They are
    
    
    
    
    chemicals that find their way into the wastes from house-
    
    
    
    
    hold uses, such as detergents and disinfectants, from
    
    
    
    
    industries and from commercial enterprises.  An example
    

    -------
     		39
    
    
    
    
    
                          Dr. A.  A.  Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
     of the  commercial  enterprise would  be  automobile  servi ce
    
    
    
    
     stations that dump  large quantities of used  oil into  city]
    
    
    
    
     sewers.
    
    
    
    
                    The  question  then  that  comes  at issue  is
    
    
    
    
     what does secondary treatment or  its equivalent accomolis
    
    
    
    
     in removing these  materials  and what effect  does  that
    
    
    
    
     have on streams?   It is pointed out that  many of  these
    
    
    
    
     chemicals have specific adverse effects.   The grouo at
    
    
    
    
     Washington University in St.  Louis  making studies  with
    
    
    
    
     speci.fic reference  to the Mi.ssouri  River  have oointed out
    
    
    
    
     that such trace organics can have effects on humans eithe
    
    
    
    
     consuming or making recreational  use of water, on  the
    
    
    
    
     aquatic organisms  in the river, and on industries  making
    
    
    
    
     use of  this water.
    
    
    
    
                    Many of these chemicals  are readily
    
    
    
    
     removed in secondary treatment.   Examples would be
    
    
    
     certain phenols that affect  drinking water,  certain
    
    
    
    
     industrial chemicals that are  picked UD and  accumulated
    
    
    
    I in the  tissues of fish and,  therefore, make  them  inedible
    
    
    
    
     among these being things like  waste oil material  that
    
    
    
    
     gives an oily taste  to fish.   Many  of  these  are removable
    
    
    
    
     because they are readily oxidized,  others because  they
    

    -------
    	310
    
    
    
    
                         Dr. A. A. Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
     combine with  the  activated  sludge  flock  and  are  physi-
    
    
    
    
     cally  removed.
    
    
    
    
                    Certain others  are  not  readily  oxidized
    
    
    
    
     but  are reduced markedly.   When  they are reduced by  this
    
    
    
    
     kind of treatment,  the stretch of  river  that they would
    
    
    
    
     pollute is  also then proportionately markedly  reduced.
    
    
    
    
     Instead of  50 miles downstream affected,  perhaps 25  miles
    
    
    
    
     is affected and,  therefore, there  is a gain  of 25 miles
    
    
    
    
     of river  that is  improved.
    
    
    
    
                    Now, not all harmful chemicals  in sewage
    
    
    
    
     are  removed by  secondary biological treatment.   Many such
    
    
    
    
     compounds are discharged directly  to the streams and thes
    
    
    
    
     primarily arise in  industrial  operations.  The problems
    
    
    
    
     that they cause are combatted by  applying appropriate
    
    
    
     industrial  waste  treatment  methods that  are  equivalent in
    
    
    
    
     effectiveness to  secondary  treatment of  municipal wastes
    
    
    
     but  are not necessarily based  on biological  process.   The
    
    
    
    
     combination,  then,  of secondary  treatment  of municipal
    
    
    
    
     wastes and  the  equivalent of industrial  will remove  a
    
    
    
    
     large  part  of the organic material which constitutes the
    
    
    
    
     trace  organic content of surface waters,  that  these
    
    
    
    
     materials have  adverse effects on  many uses  and  are
    

    -------
    	311
    
    
    
    
                         Dr. A. A. Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
    harmful in a number of ways, even including potential
    
    
    
    
    effect on the health of users, and for this reason
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment is advantageous to the uses of
    
    
    
    
    surface waters apart and completely separate from the
    
    
    
    
    question of the amount of bacteria, the amount of BOD
    
    
    
    
    which may, as we heard earlier, support further growth
    
    
    
    
    of bacteria, and apart from the actual discharge of
    
    
    
    
    pathogenic organisms themselves.
    
    
    
    
                   That is all I have to say now.
    
    
    
    
                   (Dr. Rosen's written statement is as
    
    
    
    
    follows:)
    
    
    
    
           SUMMARY OF STATEMENT BY DR. A. A. ROSEN AT
    
    
    
    
             CONFERENCE ON WATER QUALITY STANDARDS,
    
    
    
    
      IOWA - MISSOURI BASIN, COUNCIL BLUFFS, APRIL 15, 1969
    
    
    
                   I am Aaron A. Rosen.  My position 5s:
    
    
    
    
    Chief, Waste Identification and Analysis Activities,
    
    
    
    
    Advanced Waste Treatment Research Laboratory, Federal
    
    
    
    
    Water Pollution Control Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    
    
    
    
    My principal research activity at this time deals with
    
    
    
    
    the identification of the many organic chemical substance
    
    
    
    
    in municipal waste and with how they affect and are
    
    
    
    
    affected by various waste treatment processes.
    

    -------
    	312
    
    
    
    
    
                         Dr. A. A. Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   At the outset, let us underline the
    
    
    
    
    fallacy of considering municipal wastes as simply a
    
    
    
    
    water dispersion of human wastes.  Most sewer systems
    
    
    
    
    also collect the wastes of many of the city's industries
    
    
    
    
    and businesses.  Auto service stations dump large quan-
    
    
    
    
    tities of used oil into city sewers.  Even households
    
    
    
    
    discharge many chemicals of industrial origin  detergents
    
    
    
    
    disinfectants, dyes, bleaches, paint solvents, etc.
    
    
    
    
                   These industrial or commercial chemicals
    
    
    
    
    can damage the quality of a receiving stream in soecific
    
    
    
    
    ways not related to their aggregate BOD values or their
    
    
    
    
    effect on dissolved oxygen.  These effects can be serious
    
    
    
    
    at concentrations so slight that they do not appear in
    
    
    
    
    the figures fpr overall dissolved matter.  Some of the
    
    
    
    
    adverse effects that can arise or may be suspected are:
    
    
    
    
    foaming, taste in drinking water (alone or with chlorine1)
    
    
    
    
    tainting the flesh of fish, toxicity to aquatic life,
    
    
    
    
    and even possibly toxic or mutagenic effects on humans
    
    
    
    
    engaged in water sports or drinking water drawn from the
    
    
    
    
    affected stream.  These effects are completely apart from
    
    
    
    
    BOD and similar effects of waste.
    
    
    
                   One of the desirable results of secondary
    

    -------
    	,	313
    
    
    
    
                         Dr. A. A. Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
     treatment  of municipal wastes, as by the  activated  sludge
    
    
    
    
     process or equivalent, 1s to destroy by oxidation many of
    
    
    
    
     the  chemical compounds responsible for the kinds of harm
    
    
    
    
     mentioned.  The  compounds destroyed are biodegradable and
    
    
    
    
     therefore would  ultimately be destroyed In the stream
    
    
    
    
     also, if discharged in primary effluents.  But meanwhile,
    
    
    
    
     there will be stretches of stream damaged for some valu-
    
    
    
    
     able uses, that  would not be damaged in this way if
    
    
    
    
     secondary treatment had been carried out.  Many factors,
    
    
    
    
     both chemical and hydrologic, act to determine how long
    
    
    
    
     the  affected stretch may be.
    
    
    
    
                   Not all harmful chemicals  in sewage are
    
    
    
    
     removed by secondary biological treatment, and many such
    
    
    
    
     compounds are discharged directly to streams.  These
    
    
    
    
     primarily arise  in industrial operations.  Therefore the
    
    
    
    
     problems they cause must be combatted by applying aporo-
    
    
    
    
     priate industrial waste treatment methods, equivalent in
    
    
    
    
     effectiveness to secondary treatment of municipal  wastes,
    
    
    
    
     but not necessarily based on a biological process.
    
    
    
    
                   Some of the specific chemicals that are
    
    
    
    
     known to or can  reasonably be suspected of adversely
    
    
    
    
     affecting the receiving stream and that are effectively
    

    -------
                         Dr. A. A. Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
    removed by secondary biological treatment are listed belov
    
    
    
    
                                  s^that . May Caus^e Tas te^
                   Phenols:  phenol, cresols, o -chlorophenol,
    
    
    
    1-naphthol, p-chlorophenol
    
    
    
                   Alcohols:  amyl ,  butyl, most aliphatic
    
    
    
                   Aldehydes:  formaldehyde, furfural
    
    
    
                   Acids:  formic, valeric
    
    
    
                   Ketones:  most aliphatic (used in paint
    
    
    
    solvents), acetophenone
    
    
    
                   N-compounds :   pyridine, picolines
    
    
    
                   Petroleum and hydrocarbons (trapped in
    
    
    
    sludge, not oxidized).
                   Detergents:  Especially LAS, causes pro-
    
    
    
    
    nounced foam, affects fish
    
    
    
    
                   Cyanides:  NaCN, acetonitrile ,  benzonitrile ,
    
    
    
    
    adiponitrile, lactonitrile
    
    
    
    
                   N-compounds:  acrylamide, diethanolamine
    
    
    
    
                   Natural hormones:  progesterone, estrone,
    
    
    
    
    17-B-estradiol, androsterone, 17- 
    -------
    	315
    
    
    
    
    
                          Dr.  A.  A.  Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    Synthetic  (contraceptive) hormones:
    
    
    
    
     ethynyl  estradiol,  mestranol (ethynyl estradiol-3-methyl
    
    
    
    
     ether),  ethynodiol  diacetate,  chlormad:i none,  etc.
    
    
    
    
                    Detergent  builders:   nitrilotriacetic acid
    
    
    
    
     (NTA)  (this  substance chelates  heavy metals and can cause
    
    
    
    
     their  carry  over  in primary  effluents)
    
    
    
    
                    Carcinogens:   Polynuclear hydrocarbons,
    
    
    
    
     aromatic amines,  dioxane.
    
    
    
    
                    Jl:L!i_:L!l:   The above lists show that
    
    
    
     there  are many  specific  chemical substances,  occurring mofe
    
    
    
    
     than rarely  in  municipal  wastes, that have serious observec
    
    
    
    
     or  potential  effects,  too  serious to be  tolerated,  when
    
    
    
    
     discharged into receiving  waters in the  form of primary
    
    
    
    
     effluent.  These  substances  are very greatly reduced In
    
    
    
    
     abundance during  secondary biological treatment.   The
    
    
    
     removal  of such substances  -justifies secondary  treatment
    
    
    
     apart  from the  basic  objectives of  removing BOD and
    
    
    
    
     eliminating  microbiological  pathogens.
    

    -------
    	316
    
    
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Dr. Rosen.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  Our next statement,  Mr.
    
    
    
    
    Chairman, will be given by Robert . Sharp, Regional
    
    
    
    
    Supervisor for the Division of Fishery Services, Bureau
    
    
    
    
    of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT BY ROBERT W. SHARP
    
    
    
    
          REGIONAL SUPERVISOR, DIVISION OF FISHERY SERVICES
    
    
    
    
                BUREAU OF SPORT FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE
    
    
    
    
                        MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SHARP:  Mr. Chairman, ladies and
    
    
    
    
    gentlemen.
    
    
    
    
                   My name is Robert W. Sharp, representing
    
    
    
    the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife of the  Depart-
    
    
    
    
    ment of the Interior.  To those of you unfamiliar  with
    
    
    
    
    our activities, we are the Federal fish and wildlife
    
    
    
    
    agency, in close cooperation with the Iowa Conservation
    
    
    
    
    Commission.
    
    
    
    
                   The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
    
    
    
    
    has a ma.jor interest in *the fish and wildlife resources of
    Iowa
    and the water quality necessary for the well being of  these
    

    -------
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    resources. The Bureau operates four national wildlife
    
    
    
    
    refuges and three national fish hatcheries within the
    
    
    
    
    State.  For many years, the Bureau has worked closely
    
    
    
    
    with the Iowa Conservation Commission in cooperative
    
    
    
    
    ventures in fish and wildlife management.  As the Federal
    
    
    
    
    fish and wildlife agency, our interest in these proceed-
    
    
    
    
    ings is to see that the waters of Iowa are maintained at
    
    
    
    
    such quality to provide maximum fishing and hunting
    
    
    
    
    opportunities for the people of the State.
    
    
    
    
                   To further clarify our stand on the matters
    
    
    
    
    before this hearing, it is the position of the Bureau of
    
    
    
    
    Sport Fisheries and Wildlife that the ultimate goal of the
    
    
    
    
    clean waters program of this Nation should be to maintain
    
    
    
    
    or achieve such quality In every stream, lake, estuary,
    
    
    
    
    bay or other water as will support the full potential of
    
    
    
    that water for production and human use of aquatic life
    
    
    
    and water-dependent wildlife resources.  To the extent
    
    
    
    
    that a State standard or classification of waters as to
    
    
    
    
    use falls short of this goal, this Bureau disapproves of
    
    
    
    
    that standard and that classification.
    
    
    
    
                   The 1,600 miles of meandered Iowa rivers
    
    
    
    
    represent a ma.lor aquatic resource, the basis for much of
    

    -------
    	318
    
    
                           R. W.  Sharp
    
    
     the water-based  recreation  of the State,  fishing, hunting
    
     boating,  water skiing, swimming, as well  as  an  important
    
     source of domestic  and industrial water.
    
                   Iowa lists 52,353 acres  of  surface waters
    
     in its interior  streams  (National Survey  of  Hatchery Fish
    
     Needs, 1969), plus  an additional 190,000  acres  in Missis-
    
     sippi River  boundary waters and 13,500  acres  in  Missouri
    
     River boundary waters.   The 414,921 fishermen listed for
    
     the State (1967)  exerted 3,456,000 man-days  of  angling
    
     pressure,  53 percent of  this  on the rivers of the State.
    
     Total man-days of angling are expected  to  increase  to
    
     3-1/2 million in 1973 and 3-3/4 million in 1980.
    
                   Due  to markedly different  physical
    
     characteristics,  the Missouri River provides  a  less
    
     varied aquatic habitat than the Mississippi  River,  and
    
     it lacks  the wide range  of  species found  in  the  Uoper
    
     Mississippi  River.  Nevertheless, it  supports a rather
    
     varied fish  population of interest to sport  and  commercia
    
     fishermen.   The  principal species are:
    
                   White crappie
                   Black crappie
                   Channel catfish
                   Flathead  catfish
                   Paddlefish
    

    -------
    	319
    
    
                            R.  W.  Sharp
    
    
                    White  bass
                    Walleye
                    Sauger
                    Largemouth  bass
                    Bluegill
                    Bullhead, several  species
                    Yellow perch
                    Northern pike
                    Green  sunfish
                    Freshwater  drum, or  sheepshead  as  they
                        are  known
                    Gar
                    Carp
                    Buffalofish, two species
                    Goldeye
                    Redhorse
                    And  many small species  of  forage minnows
                        that the fishermen  people call  the
                        Cyprinids.
    
                    Many of  these  species are  found in  the
    
     interstate  streams  of western Iowa, tributary  to  the
    
     Missouri  River.   The  Rock  River is  a unique stream, some-
    
     what  atypical  of  western Iowa, its  good quality water
    
     supporting  smallmouth bass, channel catfish, sauger, and
    
     walleye.  The  Little  Sioux and the  Big Sioux Rivers suppo
    
     a  sport fishery for channel catfish, smallmouth bass,
    
     sauger, northern  pike,  walleye, and secondary  species.
    
     Stream channelization in the  lower  reaches of  some of
    
     these streams  has reduced  the quality  of  the habitat.
    
     Pollution is a limiting factor in others, particularly
    
     in the Big  Sioux  and  originating, I might say, in  the
    rt
    

    -------
                                                          320
    
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    State of South Dakota. In the better quality reaches of
    
    
    
    
    these streams, the catch rate compares favorably with
    
    
    
    
    that of similar warm-water fish habitats elsewhere, 0.4
    
    
    
    
    to 1.8 fish per hour.  The smaller streams crossing the
    
    
    
    
    Iowa line, such as the Tarkio and the Nodaway, are mainly
    
    
    
    
    bullhead-channel catfish waters.
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Chairman, at the Davenport hearing the
    
    
    
    
    Bureau presented a considerable volume of material on the
    
    
    
    
    temperature requirements of fishes.  In the interest of
    
    
    
    
    saving time, I will attempt to paraphrase and condense
    
    
    
    
    this material.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  But your statement will appear
    
    
    
    
    in full as if read.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SHARP:  Very well, sir.
    
    
    
    
                   In summary, temperature is the most
    
    
    
    
    important but least discussed parameter in determining
    
    
    
    water quality.  A stream or lake may thrive or die because
    
    
    
    
    of water temperature factors.
    
    
    
    
                   The rapidly expanding use of streams for
    
    
    
    
    industrial and domestic purposes is artificially warming
    
    
    
    
    the surface waters of the United States.  As an example,
    
    
    
    
    the mean annual temperature of the Mississippi River at
    

    -------
    		321
    
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    St. Paul, Minnesota,  rose three  degrees  from  1923  to  1962
    
    
    
    
    from 51 degrees in that year to  5^-  degrees  in  1962.   This
    
    
    
    
    rise in water temperature occurred  in  the face  of  a four
    
    
    
    
    degree drop in the mean air temperature  over  the same
    
    
    
    
    p e r i o d .
    
    
    
    
                   The water temperature is  a critical factor
    
    
    
    
    in the life of fish and other water organisms  and  conse-
    
    
    
    
    quently in fish production.  It  affects  to  a  considerable
    
    
    
    
    degree respiration,, growth, and  reproduction  of fish.
    
    
    
    
                   Each species of fish has  a thermal  tolerancje
    
    
    
    
    zone in which it behaves in a normal manner;  also  there
    
    
    
    
    is a zone of higher temperature  and one  of  lower tempera-
    
    
    
    
    ture in which the species can survive  for a certain length
    
    
    
    
    of time.  A gradual and regular  acclimation allows certair
    
    
    
    
    species to survive in temoeratures  that  would  be fatal if
    
    
    
    
    they occurred suddenly.  Fish adapt themselves quickly to
    
    
    
    
    a rise in temperature, but less  easily to a drop in tem-
    
    
    
    
    perature .
    
    
    
                   A distinction must be made between  tolerabl
    
    
    
    
    environmental conditions determined experimentally in the
    
    
    
    
    laboratory and those conditions  under which fish can be
    
    
    
    
    expected to occur and thrive in  nature.  Their ability
    

    -------
    	322
    
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    merely to survive under unnatural experimental conditions
    
    
    
    
    requiring no sustained activity obviously is not a reli-
    
    
    
    
    able indication that the quality of the medium is satis-
    
    
    
    
    factory.  The optimum temperature for activity of a
    
    
    
    
    species does not necessarily bear any relationship to
    
    
    
    
    its lethal temperature.  Temperature extremes or sudden
    
    
    
    
    changes are often lethal.  Elevated sub-lethal tempera-
    
    
    
    
    tures may induce estivation and a depressed one - hiber-
    
    
    
    
    nation.
    
    
    
    
                   In general, the upper limits are more
    
    
    
    
    quickly critical than the lower limits, despite the fact
    
    
    
    
    that many organisms appear to function more efficiently
    
    
    
    
    toward the upper limits of their tolerance ranges.
    
    
    
    
                   The preferred temperature range of some of
    
    
    
    the common fishes of Iowa may be of interest.  Preferred
    
    
    
    
    temperatures, again, I repeat, of the blue gill, 90.2
    
    
    
    
    degrees--all of these in Fahrenheitthe largemouth bass
    
    
    
    
    86 to 89.6, the carp 89.6, the pumpkinseed sunfish 88.7,
    
    
    
    
    smallmouth bass, 82.M-, yellow perch, 75-6, the green
    
    
    
    
    sunfish 8l.2.
    
    
    
    
                   The preferred temperature and temperature
    
    
    
    
    for optimum activity and growth in warm-water species of
    

    -------
    	323
    
    
    
    
    
                            R.  W.  Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
     interest are,  for the  most part,  considerably below the
    
    
    
    
     maximum allowable limit of 93P.  (33.9 C.)  which  is
    
    
    
    
     recommended in many water  quality standards.   Although
    
    
    
    
     probably not lethal to most warm-water species,  a tem-
    
    
    
    
     perature of 93 F.,  if  maintained  for  a long period.,
    
    
    
    
     would probably reduce  activity and growth  and ultimately
    
    
    
    
     be  detrimental to many of  the warm-water  soecies.
    
    
    
    
                    A  93 upper temperature limit  is  con-
    
    
    
     sidered unacceptably high  for most of the  year.   This
    
    
    
    
     upper limit,  being  above the  median tolerance limit for
    
    
    
    
     many  aquatic  organisms,  does  not  begin to  consider the
    
    
    
    
     synergistic effects of temperature and other  pollutant
    
    
    
    
     conditions  which  might be  present in  given  situations.
    
    
    
    
     The fact that  90F.  may be approached and/or  exceeded
    
    
    
    
     under natural  conditions does not justify  allowing
    
    
    
    
     thermal wastes to duplicate  or aggravate  an unhealthy
    
    
    
     aquatic condition.
    
    
    
    
                    Equally important,  from the  aquatic life
    
    
    
    
     standpoint,  is the  fact that  any  single upper temperature
    
    
    
    
     limit (even one lower  than 90 ) represents  a  very  unsatis
    
    
    
    
     factory solution  to the  problem of establishing tempera-
    
    
    
    
     ture  standards.   Such  a  single  upper  limit  does not'take
    

    -------
     	324
    
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    into consideration normal, subtle aquatic life patterns,
    
    
    
    
    which involve gradual warming periods, and temperature
    
    
    
    
    plateaus.  In other words, an upper limit that would be
    
    
    
    
    perfectly satisfactory in July or August would reoresent
    
    
    
    
    a wide-open license for thermal pollution during the rest
    
    
    
    of the year.
    
    
    
    
                   The effects of temperature on reproduction
    
    
    
    of fishes is of interest here.
    
    
    
    
                   Many  temperate  zone fishes take  their
    
    
    
    
    seasonal cues for specific behavioral sequences from the
    
    
    
    
    length of the dally photo period acting jn conlunction
    
    
    
    
    with the temperature.   In addition to maximum temperature
    
    
    
    
    in summer,  many water quality standards also state a
    
    
    
    
    limit on winter maximum or a maximum rise above ambient.
    
    
    
    
    While the evidence is limited, low temperatures do appear
    
    
    
    
    necessary,  in some species at least,  for normal developmen
    
    
    
    
    of the germ cells.  Available evidence suggests that winte
    
    
    
    
    temperatures should not rise above 60,  while 50 is more
    
    
    
    
    preferable  in northern latitudes.
    
    
    
    
                   The winter maximum is  apparently the most
    
    
    
    
     ritical temperature and must be sufficiently low to permi
    
    
    
    
    ronad maturation.   While-specific data are lacking, winter
                                                              .
    

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    	323
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    tolerance limits for game fish species apparently do exist
    
    
    
    
                   The egg temperature tolerance of some warm-
    
    
    
    
    water fishes in Iowa may be of interest.
    
    
    
    
                   For the wall  eye, the optimum range
    
    
    
    
    62 degrees to 67 degrees Fahrenheit.  Larvae die at 75
    
    
    
    
    degrees.
    
    
    
    
                   The northern pike, optimum hatching tem-
    
    
    
    
    perature, 54 degrees to 56 degrees Fahrenheit.
    
    
    
    
                   The smallmouth bass, no hatch at all above
    
    
    
    
    80 degrees Fahrenheit.
    
    
    
    
                   The largemouth bass, complete egg mortality
    
    
    
    
    at 90 degrees.
    
    
    
                   For northern pike--excuse me, this is
    
    
    
    
    repetition.
    
    
    
    
                   For white bass,  normal hatch at 60 degrees
    
    
    
    to 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
    
    
    
    
                   Channel catfish, optimum spawning tempera-
    
    
    
    
    ture 80 degrees Fahrenheit.   Temperatures above 85 degrees
    
    
    
    lethal to eggs.
    
    
    
    
                   It is notable that in the rivers of England
    
    
    
    
    fish populations, including rough fish,  were reduced when
    
    
    
    
    temperatures reached 86 degrees Fahrenheit, supporting
    

    -------
    	326
    
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
     observations  in  this  country that this temperature  is
    
    
    
    
     close  to  the  incipient lethal  level for many warm-water
    
    
    
    
     fish and  their associated biota.
    
    
    
    
                   Direct thermal  death of fish is not
    
    
    
    
     believed  to be significant  ecologically.  Except  in
    
    
    
    
     unusual cases of  rapid temperature rise, gradual  increase
    
    
    
    
     apparently result  in  avoidance  of lethal temperatures
    
    
    
    
     by fish.  The effect  of  temperature on growth, develop-
    
    
    
    
     ment and  activity  is  usually more significant because if
    
    
    
    
     the sub-lethal temperature  is  too high for the fish to
    
    
    
    
     successfully  reproduce,  be  active and grow, the ultimate
    
    
    
    
     failure of the population is as decisive as a lethal
    
    
    
    
     temperature.
    
    
    
    
                   The  effects  of  temperature on fish food
    
    
    
    
     organisms should  be considered  in these circumstances.
    
    
    
    
     There  is  some evidence that plankton production,  the
    
    
    
     basis  for most fish food, may  be disrupted or altered
    
    
    
    
     in normal cycle  "by higher than  normal late winter,  spring
    
    
    
    
     or early  summer  water temperatures.  Low winter tempera-
    
    
    
    
     tures  are apparently  necessary to complete the resting
    
    
    
    
     stage  of  autumn  Daphnia  eggs;  thus species composition
    
    
    
    
     of zoo plankton  may change  under conditions of higher
    

    -------
    	327
    
    
    
    
    
                            R. W.  Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
     winter  temperature.
    
    
    
    
                    Bottom  fauna  organisms,  another  maior
    
    
    
    
     component  of  fish  food,  may  suffer  from unusually  high
    
    
    
    
     temperatures.   Tremblyfs I960 work  in Pennsylvania
    
    
    
    
     indicated  that  90  degrees Fahrenheit was a  maximum
    
    
    
    
     tolerance  limit at which a normal  population structure of rijffle
    
    
    
    
     macroinvertebrates could be  maintained.   An extensive
    
    
    
    
     loss  in numbers, diversity   and  biomass  occurred at a
    
    
    
    
     temperature greater  than 90  degrees F.
    
    
    
    
                    Insects in deeper waters  cannot  emerge
    
    
    
    
     through heated  surface waters in most cases, and snails
    
    
    
    
     and other  animals  that must  come to the  surface to
    
    
    
    
     breathe are either eliminated or have their life history
    
    
    
    
     interrupted.
    
    
    
    
                    Research  results  to  date  suggest that
    
    
    
     species of fish food organisms in  general are less
    
    
    
     tolerant of high temperatures than  most  species of fish.
    
    
    
    
                    A brief comment on  the need  for  secondary
    
    
    
    
     treatment.
    
    
    
    
                    Increasing pollution loads resulting from
    
    
    
    
     burgeoning human populations  and expanding  industrial
    
    
    
    
     development will impose mounting pollution  loads on Iowa
    

    -------
                                                          328
    
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    rivers.  If these waters are to make their expected
    
    
    
    
    contribution to the future recreational needs of the
    
    
    
    
    State they should be maintained in the best possible
    
    
    
    
    condition.  Since there will continue to be uncontrolled
    
    
    
    
    pollution sources, principally from agriculture, it is
    
    
    
    
    important that full control be exercised over pollution
    
    
    
    
    loadings originating from population centers.  Where
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment is not provided in plants, it will
    
    
    
    
    take place within the stream, with the resultant accumu-
    
    
    
    
    lation of sludge beds, production of hydrogen sulfide,
    
    
    
    
    and a general habitat degradation.
    
    
    
    
                   In summary, then, Mr. Chairman, the Bureau
    
    
    
    
    of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife endorses the requirement
    
    
    
    for secondary treatment or the equivalent for all domes-
    
    
    
    
    tic and industrial wastes discharged into the interstate
    
    
    
    
    waters of Iowa.
    
    
    
                   The Bureau endorses the standards for the
    
    
    
    
    control of added heat as set forth by the Federal Water
    
    
    
    
    IPollution Control Administration.
    
    
    
    
                   Third, many chemical compounds cause
    
    
    
    
    objectionable tastes and odors in fish flesh, resulting
    
    
    
    
    in their reiection by the fishermen.  Standards should be
    

    -------
    _ _____ __ 329
    
    
    
    
                           R. .  Sharo
    
    
    
    
    
    
    adopted  for  Iowa  interstate  waters  which  will  limit the
    
    
    
    
    concentration  of  these compounds  to levels  which  will
    
    
    
    
    not  impart unpalatable flavors  or undesirable  odors to
    
    
    
    
    fish.
    
    
    
    
                    And  fourth and last,  the  Bureau endorses
    
    
    
    
    the  principle  of  nondegradation of  streams;  that  is,  thos
    
    
    
    
    waters higher  in  quality  than established by the  stan-
    
    
    
    
    dards  should not  be permitted to  decline  in quality to
    
    
    
    
    the  level of the  standards.
    
    
    
    
                    Mr.  Chairman,  that concludes our statement
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    (The following is  the report submitted by
    
    
    
    
    Mr.  Sharp:)
    
    
    
    
                         PRESENTATION BY
    
    
    
    
             BUREAU OF  SPORT  FISHERIES  AND WILDLIFE
    
    
    
    
       DEPARTMENT  OF  THE INTERIOR,  MINNEAPOLIS,  MINNESOTA
               Council  Bluffs,  Iowa,  April 1.5,  19^9
                    The  Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
    
    
    
    
     has  a maior interest in the fish and wildlife resources
    

    -------
    	330
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    of Towa and the water quality necessary for the well
    
    
    
    be:ng of these resources.  The Bureau operates four
    
    
    
    national wildlife refuges and three national fish
    
    
    
    hatcheries within the State.  For many years, the Bureau
    
    
    
    has worked closely with the Iowa Conservation Commission
    
    
    
    in cooperative ventures in fish and wildlife management.
    
    
    
    As the Federal fish and wildlife agency, our interest in
    
    
    
    these proceedings is to see that the waters of Iowa are
    
    
    
    maintained at such quality to provide maximum fishing and
    
    
    
    hunting opportunities for the people of the State.
    
    
    
                   To further clarify our stand on the matters
    
    
    
    before this hearing:  It is the position of the Bureau of
    
    
    
    Sport Fisheries and Wildlife that the ultimate goal of the
    
    
    
    clean waters program of this Nation should be to maintain
    
    
    
    or achieve such quality in every stream, lake, estuary,
    
    
    
    bay or other water as will support the full potential of
    
    
    
    that water for production and human use of aquatic life
    
    
    
    and water-dependent wildlife resources.  To the extent
    
    
    
    
    that a State standard or classification of waters as to
    
    
    
    use falls short of this goal,this Bureau disapproves of
    
    
    
    
    that standard and that classification.
    
    
    
                   The 1,600 miles of meandered Iowa rivers
    

    -------
                             	,	331
    
    
    
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    represent a major aquatic resource, the basis for much
    
    
    
    
    of the water-based recreation of the State, fishing,
    
    
    
    
    hunting, boating, water skiing, swimming, as well as an
    
    
    
    
    important source of domestic and industrial water.
    
    
    
    
                   Iowa lists 52,353 acres of surface waters
    
    
    
    
    in its interior streams (National Survey of Hatchery
    
    
    
    
    Fish Needs, 1969), plus an additional 190,000 acres in
    
    
    
    
    Mississippi River boundary waters and 13,500 acres in
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River boundary waters.  The 414,921 fishermen
    
    
    
    
    listed for the State (1967) exerted 3,456,000 man-days
    
    
    
    
    of angling pressure, 53 percent of this on the rivers of
    
    
    
    
    the State.  A seven-mile reach of the Des Moines River,
    
    
    
    
    west of Ames, has supported 10,000 to 13,000 fishermen
    
    
    
    
    hours per mile per year.  Total man-days of angling are
    
    
    
    
    expected to increase to 3-1/2 million in 1973 and 3-3/4
    
    
    
    
    million in 1980.
    
    
    
    
                   Due to markedly different physical
    
    
    
    
    characteristics, the Missouri River provides a less
    
    
    
    
    varied aquatic habitat than the Mississippi River, and
    
    
    
    
    it lacks the wide range of species found in the Upper
    
    
    
    
    Mississippi River.  Nevertheless, it supports a rather
    
    
    
    
    varied fish population of interest to sport and commerciajl
    

    -------
    	__	332
    
    
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    fishermen.  The  principal species are:
    
                   White crappie
                   Black crappie
                   Channel catfish
                   Flathead catfish
                   Paddlefish
                   White bass
                   Walleye
                   Sauger
                   Largemouth bass
                   Bluegill
                   Bullhead
                   Yellow perch
                   Northern pike
                   Green sunfish
                   Freshwater drum
                   Gar
                   Carp
                   Buffalofish  - two  species
                   Goldeye
                   Redhorse
                   Small Cyprinids  -  Minnows  -  Several
                                                species
                   Many of these species  are  found  in the
    
    interstate  streams of western Iowa, tributary to the
    
    Missouri  River.   The Rock River  is  a  unique stream,
    
    somewhat  atypical of western Iowa,  its  good quality
    
    water  supporting smallmouth bass,  channel catfish,
    
    sauger and  walleye.  The  Little  Sioux and the Big Sioux
    
    Rivers support a sport fishery  for  channel  catfish,  small
    
    mouth  bass,  sauger, northern pike,  walleye, and secondary
    
    species.  Stream channelization  in  the  lower reaches  of
    
    some  of these  streams has reduced the quality of the
    

    -------
    	_	333
    
    
    
    
    
                            R.  .  Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
     habitat.   Pollution is a limiting factor in others,
    
    
    
    
     particularly in the Big Sioux.  In the better quality
    
    
    
    
     reaches of these streams,  the catch rate compares
    
    
    
    
     favorably with that of similar  warm-water fish habitats
    
    
    
    
     elsewhere, 0.4 to 1.8 fish per  hour.  The smaller streams
    
    
    
    
     crossing the Iowa line, such  as the Tarkio and the Noda-
    
    
    
    
     way,  are  mainly bullhead-channel catfish waters.
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Tejm p_e^ra tu r e Factors^
    
    
    
    
                    Since temperature criteria are at issue,
    
    
    
    
     several factors should be  considered  in  this connection.
    
    
    
    
                    Temperature is probably the most important
    
    
    
    
     but least discussed parameter in determining water quaint
    
    
    
    
     a  stream  or lake may thrive or  die because of water  tem-
    
    
    
    
     perature  factors.
    
    
    
    
                    The  rapidly expanding  use of streams  for
    
    
    
     domestic  and industrial purposes is artificially warming
    
    
    
    
     the surface water of the United States.   The mean annual
    
    
    
    
     temperature of  the  Mississippi  River  at  St.  Paul  rose
    
    
    
    
     3  from 1923 to 1962 (51  in  1923  to  54 in 1962).   This
    
    
    
    
     occurred  in the face of a  4  drop  in  mean air temoerature
    
    
    
    
     over  this  period.
    

    -------
    	334
    
    
    
    
    
                            R.  W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    The water temperature is a critical
    
    
    
    
     factor in the life of fish and other water organ:! sms and
    
    
    
    
     consequently in fish production.   It affects to a con-
    
    
    
    
     siderable degree respiration,  growth and reproduction of
    
    
    
     fish.
    
    
    
    
                    Each species of fish has a thermal
    
    
    
    
     tolerance zone in which  it behaves in a normal  manner;
    
    
    
    
     also there is a zone of  higher temperature and  one of
    
    
    
    
     lower  temperature in which the species can survive for
    
    
    
    
     a certain length of time.   A gradual and regular acclima-
    
    
    
    
     tion allows  certain species to survive in temperatures
    
    
    
    
     that would be fatal if they occurred suddenly.   Pish
    
    
    
    
     adapt  themselves quickly to a  rise in temperature,  but
    
    
    
     less easily  to a drop in temperature.
    
    
    
    
                    A distinction must  be made between  tolerab
    
    
    
    
     environmental conditions determined experimentally in the
    
    
    
     laboratory and those conditions under which  fish  can be
    
    
    
    
     expected  to  occur and thrive in nature.   Their  ability
    
    
    
    
     merely to survive under  unnatural  experimental  conditions
    
    
    
    
     requiring no  sustained activity  obviously is not  a reli-
    
    
    
    
     able indication  that the quality of the  medium  is  satis-
    
    
    
    
     factory.   The optimum temperature  for  activity  of  a speci
    Le
    

    -------
    _ _____ ___ 335
    
    
    
                            R. W.  Sharp
    
    
    
    does not necessarily bear any relation  to  its  lethal
    
    
    temperature.  Temperature extremes  or sudden  changes  are
    
    
    often  lethal.  Elevated sub-lethal  temperatures  may
    
    
    induce estivation and  a depressed one - hibernation.
    
    
                   The  growth rate normally increases  with
    
    
    temperature  to a maximum and  then decreases,  perhaps
    
    
    becoming negative at temperatures approaching  the  lethal
    
    
    level.
    
    
                   In general, the upper limits are  more
    
    
    quickly critical than  the lower  limits, despite  the fact
    
    
    that many organisms appear to function  more efficiently
    
    
    toward the upper limits  of their tolerance ranges.
                      ....-....--..-.
                (Optimum temperature for activity^
    
    
                                 ____ F ._ ____      ____ C_. _____
    
    
         Bluegill                   90.2            32.3
    
    
         LM bass                  86-89.6        30,0-32.0
    
    
         Carp                       89.6            32.0
    
    
         Pumpkinseed                88.7            31. "5
         * Median tolerance limit  for 50  percent  of  the
    
    
    population.
    

    -------
     		336
    
    
    
    
    
                            R.  W.  Share
    
    
    
    
    
    
                                  	F_.	     	C.	
    
    
    
    
          Goldfish                   82.6           28.1
    
    
    
    
          Smallmouth bass            82.4           28.0
    
    
    
    
          Yellow oerch               75.b           24.2
    
    
    
    
          Muskellunge                75-3           24.0
    
    
    
    
          Green sunfish              8l.2           27-3
    
    
    
    
          Fathead minnow             74.0           23-4
    
    
    
    
                    It is generally accepted that fish are
    
    
    
    
     sensitive to temperature;  can recognize a change as
    
    
    
    
     little as 0.05 C. and readily select preferred tempera-
    
    
    
    
     tures .
    
    
    
                    The preferred temperature and temperature
    
    
    
    
     for optimum activity and growth in warm-water species of
    
    
    
    
     interest are, for the most part, considerably below the
    
    
    
    
     maximum allowable limit of 93F. (33-9 C.) which is
    
    
    
    
     recommended in many water quality standards.  Although
    
    
    
    
     probably not lethal to most warm-water species, a tempera
    
    
    
    
     ture of 93F., if maintained for a long period, would
    
    
    
    
     orobably reduce activity and growth and ultimately be
    
    
    
    
    [ detrimental to many of the warm-water species.
    
    
    
                    A 93 upper temperature limit is considerefi
    
    
    
    
     unacceptably high for most of the year.  This upper limit
    

    -------
    	337
    
    
                           R. . Sharp
    
    
    being above the ^PLM for many aquatic organisms, does not
    
    begin to consider the synergistic effects of temoerature
    
    and other pollutant conditions which might be present in
    
    given situations.  The fact that 90F- niay be approached
    
    and/or exceeded under natural conditions does not .justify
    
    allowing thermal wastes to duplicate or aggravate an
    
    unhealthy aquatic condition.
    
                   Equally important, from the aquatic life
    
    standpoint, is the fact that any single upper temperature
    
    limit (even one lower than 90) represents a very unsatisj
    
    factory solution to the problem of establishing tempera-
    
    ture standards.  Such a single upper limit does not take
    
    into consideration normal, subtle aquatic life patterns.
    
    which involve gradual warming periods, temperature plateai
    
    etc.  In other words, an upper limit that would be per-
    
    fectly satisfactory in July or August would represent a
    
    wide-open license for thermal pollution during the rest
    
    of the year.
    
    
    Ejects of JTej^
    
                   Many temoerate zone fishes take their
    
    seasonal cues for specific behavioral sequences from the
        *  Median tolerance limit for 50 percent of the
           population.
    s ,
    

    -------
    _ _ __ 138
    
    
                            R.  W.  Sharp
    
    
     length  of  the  daily  photo  period  acting  in  conjunction
    
     with  the  temperature.   In  addition  to  maximum temperature
    
     in  summer,  many  water  quality standards  also  state a limi
    
     on  winter  maximum  or a maximum rise above  ambient. While
    
     the evidence is  limited, low  temperatures  do  appear neces
    
     sary, in  some  species  at least, for normal  development of
    
     the germ  cells.  Available evidence suggests  that winter
    
     temperatures should  not rise  above  60,  with  50 being
    
     more  preferable  in northern latitudes.
    
                   The winter  maximum is apparently the most
    
     critical  temperature and must be  sufficiently low to
    
     permit  goriad maturation.   While specific data are lacking
    
     winter  tolerance limits for game  fish  species apparently
    
     do  exist.
                            rat u r e  T o 1 e_r an c e __g_f_
                   S  m e  G o mm o n  W a r m - W a ter
          Walleye                 Optimum 62 - 67F.   Larvae
                                 die at 75.
    
          Northern pike           Optimum hatching temperature
                                     to 56F.
          Smallmouth bass        No hatch above 8oF .
    

    -------
                                                           339
                           R. W. Sharp
         Largemouth bass
         White h
         Channel o a t f1sh
            Complete mortality at 90F.
            Survival best at 60.5F.
    
            Normal hatch at 60 to 70F
    
            Optimum s pawning temoerature
            80F.  Temperatures above
            85F. apparently lethal to
            eggs .
    Lethal Temperature Data
    S D e c .L e s
    *Upper Incipient
     Lethal Tempera-
     ture
    **Lethal
      Temperature
                         F.      C.
    Channel catfish      90.0    32.5
    LM bass
    Bluegill
    Fathead minnow
    Brovm bullhead
    R o c k b a s s
    Common white sucker  84.7    29-3
    Western blacknose
    dace                 84.7    29.3
                         F.
                         92.3
                         97.5
                         92.8
                         91.8
                         97.7
                         98.0
              C.
              33.5
              36.4
              33.8
              33.2
              36.5
              36.7
         *  Where a lethal effect is first noticed.
    
        **  Some of these appear high and are apparently based
    on short exposure times.
    

    -------
                           	3^0
    
                           R. . Sharp
                        *Upper Incipient
                         Lethal Tempera-   **Lethal
    Species              ture                Temperature
                         F.      C.          F.      C.
    
    Northern creek chub  86.5    30.3
    
    Bluntnose minnow     91.9    33-3
    
    Common shiner        87.8    31.0
    
    Lake Emerald shiner  87.3    30.7
    
    Yellow perch         85.5    29.7
    
    Pumpkinseed sunfish   --      --        102.0    38.9
    
                   The tolerance of Centrarchid fishes
    
    (sunfish group) is apparent; the Cyprinids (minnows)
    
    less tolerant, with the catfish group between these two.
    
                   It is notable that in the rivers of England
    
    fish populations including rough fish were reduced when
    
    temperature reached 86 F., supporting observations in thi
    
    country that this temperature is close to the incipient
    
    lethal level for many warm-water fish and their associated
    
    biota .
    
                   There are four indices that determine the
    
    tolerance of a fish species to raised temperatures:
    
                   1.  The upper lethal temperature
    
         for adults.
    

    -------
                           R. . Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   2.  Temperatures (the range) that
    
    
    
    
         will allow satisfactory growth to maturity
    
    
    
    
         and spawning.
    
    
    
    
                   3.  Temperature (range) for satis-
    
    
    
    
         factory development of eggs and fry.
    
    
    
    
                   4.  Temperatures that permit normal
    
    
    
    
         development of fish food organisms.
    
    
    
    
    Ef f e_c_t_of__He_at_Barri^e_rs_ - Migratory species may be halted
    
    
    
    
    by an unfavorable "barrier in a stream, a possible factor
    
    
    
    
    in walleye and sauger management.
    
    
    
    
                   Thermal death of fish is not believed to
    
    
    
    
    be significant ecologically.  Except in unusual cases of
    
    
    
    
    rapid temperature rise, gradual increases apparently
    
    
    
    
    result in avoidance of lethal temperatures by fish.  The
    
    
    
    
    effect of temperature on growth,  development, and activit
    
    
    
    
    is usually more significant because if the sub-lethal
    
    
    
    
    temperature is too high for the fish to successfully
    
    
    
    
    reproduce, be active and grow,  the ultimate failure of th
    
    
    
    
    population is as decisive as a lethal temperature.
                   There is some evidence that olankton
    

    -------
                           R.  W.  Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    production, the basis for  most fish food,  may be dis-
    
    
    
    
    rupted or altered in normal cycle by higher than normal
    
    
    
    
    late winter, spring, or early summer water temperatures.
    
    
    
    
    Low winter temperatures are apparently necessary to com-
    
    
    
    
    plete the resting stage of autumn Daphnia eggs,  thus
    
    
    
    
    species composition of zoo plankton may change under con-
    
    
    
    
    ditions of higher winter temperature.
    
    
    
                   Bottom fauna organisms, another major com-
    
    
    
    
    ponent of fish food, may suffer from unusually high
    
    
    
    
    temperatures.  Trembly's 1960 work in Pennsylvania indi-
    
    
    
    
    cated that 90 F. was a maximum tolerance limit at which
    
    
    
    
    a normal population structure of riffle macroinvertebrate
    
    
    
    
    could be maintained.  An extensive loss in numbers, diver
    
    
    
    
    sity, and biomass occurred at temperatures greater than
    
    
    
    
    QOP. (32.2 C.)
    
    
    
                   Insects in deeper water cannot emerge
    
    
    
    
    through heated surface waters in most cases, and snails
    
    
    
    
    and other animals that must come to the surface to
    
    
    
    
    breathe are either  eliminated or have their life history
    
    
    
    
    interrupted.
    
    
    
                   Research results to date suggest that
    
    
    
    
    species of  fish-food organisms, in general, are less
    

    -------
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    tolerant of high temperatures than most  species  of  fish
    D i s_e_a s_e__a n_d__P a_& s_i^t i_s_m _a t^
    
    
                   Evidence would suggest  that  disease  and
    
    
    parasitism of fish may be a greater factor  at  higher
    
    
    temperatures, but data on the sub.lect  remains  scattered
    
    
    and inconclusive at the oresent time.
    
    
    
    Ne_e_d_f or^ec_ondar_y_Tre_atment
    
    
                   Increasing pollution loads resulting from
    
    
    burgeoning human populations and expanding  industrial-
    
    
    development will impose mounting pollution  loads  in Iowa
    
    
    rivers.  If these waters are to make their  expected con-
    
    
    tribution to the future recreational needs  of  the State.
    
    
    they should be maintained in the best  possible condition
    
    
    Since there will continue to be uncontrolled pollution
    
    
    sources, principally from agriculture, it is important
    
    
    that full control be exercised over pollution  loadings
    
    
    originating from population centers.   Where secondary
    
    
    treatment is not provided, it will take  place  within the
    
    
    stream, with the resultant accumulation  of  sludge beds,
    
    
    production of H S, and habitat degradation.
                   2
    
                   The effectiveness of the  three  phases of
    

    -------
                           R.  W.  Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    sewage treatment are listed below:
    
    
    
         Primary:
    
    
    
    
                   BOD - 20*
    
    
    
                   Suspended Solids - 60
    
    
    
    
                   Nitrogen - 15
    
    
    
    
                   Phosphorus - 15
                   BOD - 95
    
    
    
    
                   Suspended Solids - 95
    
    
    
    
                   Nitrogen -
    
    
    
    
                   Phosphorus -
    
    
    
    
         Tertiary:
    
    
    
                   BOD - 99
    
    
    
    
                   Suspended Solids - 99
    
    
    
                   Nitrogen - 99
    
    
    
    
                   Phosphorus - 99-
    
    
    
                   In summary,  the Bureau of Sport Fisheries
    
    
    
    
    and Wildlife endorses the requirement for secondary
         * Percent of waste removed.  Source - Walter K.
    
    
    
    
    Johnson, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Uni
    
    
    
    
    versity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    

    -------
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
    treatment or the equivalent of all domestic and indus-
    
    
    
    
    trial wastes discharged into the Interstate waters of
    
    
    
    
    Iowa.
    
    
    
    
                   The Bureau endorses the standards for the
    
    
    
    
    control of added heat as set forth by the Federal Water
    
    
    
    
    Pollution Control Administration.
    
    
    
    
                   Many chemical compounds cause objection-
    
    
    
    
    able tastes and odors in fish flesh, phenolic compounds,
    
    
    
    
    hydrocarbons, gas wastes, alcohols, and petroleum
    
    
    
    
    refinery wastes are the worst offenders, sometimes to
    
    
    
    
    the point of causing rejection of the fish by the angler,
    
    
    
    
    Standards should be adopted for Iowa interstate waters
    
    
    
    
    which will limit the concentration of these compounds to
    
    
    
    
    levels which will not impart unpalatable flavors or
    
    
    
    
    undesirable odors to fish.
    
    
    
    
                   The Bureau endorses the principle of non-
    
    
    
    
    degradation of streamsthat Is,  those waters higher in
    
    
    
    
    quality than established by the standards should not be
    
    
    
    
    permitted to decline in quality to the level of the stan-
    
    
    
    
    dards .
    

    -------
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
                Re fere nc e s - Temp e r a t ur e Ma t e r I al_
    
    
    
    
                   Brown.  1957.  Physiology of Fishes.
    
    
    
    
    Volumes 1 and 2.
    
    
    
                   Lagler,"-Bardach and Miller.  19&3 '
    
    
    
    
    Icthyology.
    
    
    
                   Odum.  1964.  Fundamentals of Ecology.
    
    
    
    
                   Storer.  1951.  General Zoology.
    
    
    
    
                   Tarzwell, C. M.  1962.  Biological Problem;
    
    
    
    
    in Water Pollution.  3rd Seminar.  1962.  Department of
    
    
    
    
    Health, Education, and Welfare.  U. S. Public Health
    
    
    
    
    Service .
    
    
    
                   Calhoun,  Alex.  1966.  Inland Fisheries
    
    
    
    
    Management.   California Department of Fish and Game.
    
    
    
                   UMRCC.  1967.  Fisheries Compendium -
    
    
    
    
    Upper Mississippi River.
    
    
    
                   Welch, E. B. and T. A. Wojtalik.  1968.
    
    
    
    
    Some Effects of Increased Water Temperature on Aquatic
    
    
    
    
    Life T.V.A.   Division of Health and Safety - Water Qualit
    
    
    
    
    Branch.  Chattanooga, Tenn.
    
    
    
                   Blakely, J. F.  1966.  Temperature  of
    
    
    
    
    Surface Waters in  Conterminous U. S.  U.  S. Geological
    
    
    
    
    Survey.
    

    -------
                           R. W. Sharp
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.
    
    
    
    
    1969.   National Survey of Hatchery Fish Needs.
    
    
    
    
                   F.W.P.C.A.  1968.  Industrial Waste Guide
    
    
    
    
    on Thermal Pollution.
                   MR. STEIN:   Thank you, Mr. Sharp.  At
    
    
    
    
    this point we will recess  for lunch and reconvene promptl
    
    
    
    
    at 1:30.
    
    
    
    
                          (NOON RECESS)
    

    -------
    	348
    
    
    
    
    
    
                        AFTERNOON  SESSION
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Let's  reconvene.
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Blomgren.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:   Mr.  Chairman,  at  this  time
    
    
    
    
     I will  introduce  our  next  person  presenting  a  statement.
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Kenneth Roberts,  Fishery  Biologist,
    
    
    
    
     Bureau  of  Commercial  Fisheries, Ann  Arbor, Michigan.
    
    
    
    
                   Kenneth.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   STATEMENT  BY KENNETH ROBERTS
    
    
    
    
             FISHERY  BIOLOGIST,  BUREAU OF  COMMERCIAL
    
    
    
    
            FISHERIES,  U.  S.  DEPARTMENT OF  THE INTERIOR
    
    
    
    
                       ANN ARBOR,  MICHIGAN
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. ROBERTS:   Mr.  Chairman,  ladies and
    
    
    
    
     gentlemen.
    
    
    
    
                   I  am Kenneth  R. Roberts,  representing the
    
    
    
    
     U.  S.  Bureau  of  Commercial Fisheries.   I have  a prepared
    
    
    
    
     statement  for the record,  from which I am going to read
    
    
    
    
     excerpts.   However, Mr.  Chairman, I  would like the entire
    
    
    
    
     statement  in  the  record.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:   Without objection,  that will
    
    
    
    
     be  done as if read.
    

    -------
    	3^9
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. ROBERTS:  Iowa lies In the center of
    
    
    
    
    the traditional Mississippi-Missouri River commercial
    
    
    
    
    fishery.  During the late 1890's Iowa was one of the
    
    
    
    
    foremost States of the interior United States in commercial
    
    
    
    
    fish production.  Both the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers;
    
    
    
    
    and certain tributaries were fished extensively.  Records
    
    
    
    
    indicate the waters in 1901 were well supplied with fish
    
    
    
    
    in great variety and abundance.
    
    
    
    
                   On the Missouri River as it flows through
    
    
    
    
    or by Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska and Missouri, the outstanding
    
    
    
    
    trend has been a progressive decline in annual production
    
    
    
    
    from 1908 to the present.  This trend is readily observablji
    
    
    
    
    in Table 1, whjch summarizes commercial catch for these
    
    
    
    
    States.  In 1963 total production was 12 percent that
    
    
    
    
    of the 1908 catch, although showing roughly constant per-
    
    
    
    
    centages of the three primary groups--carp, catfish and
    
    
    
    
    buffalofish. Over the period 195^W63, Iowa landings from
    
    
    
    
    the Missouri River, although somewhat fluctuating, have
    
    
    
    
    averaged only 66,000 pounds, valued at roughly $9,000.
    
    
    
    
                   There has been extensive reduction of rivei
    
    
    
    
    surface area as a result of channel development as well as
    
    
    
    
    a progressive degradation of Missouri water quality.
    

    -------
    	350
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Primary  pollutants include:   sewage  discharges,  rendering
    
    
    
    
     plant wastes,  animal wastes,  accidental  spalls  and  dis-
    
    
    
    
     charges  of  oil,  gasoline, grease and other  chemicals  and
    
    
    
    
     compounds and  fertilizer runoff.  Although  economic and
    
    
    
    
     institutional  factors have played an important  role in
    
    
    
    
     the  generally  downward trend  of commercial  fishery  pro-
    
    
    
    
     duction, water quality problems have further aggravated
    
    
    
    
     an already  difficult situation.  At  various places  and
    
    
    
    
     times the introduction of waste materials which  directly
    
    
    
    
     or indirectly  impart undesirable taste and  odor  character
    
    
    
    
     istics to fish has seriously  limited the marketability of
    
    
    
    
     the  catch.  Under such circumstances, one more  element of
    
    
    
    
     risk is  added  to the commercial fishing  operation as
    
    
    
    
     markets  are lost and fishing  is temporarily halted  in  the
    
    
    
    
     affected stream  stretch.  This is a  serious problem for
    
    
    
    
     an industry whose products are sold  for  human consumption
    
    
    
    
                   Iowa's Missouri River commercial  fishing
    
    
    
    
     industry has clearly been vulnerable to  a progressive
    
    
    
    
     trend of river habitat degradation and will continue  to
    
    
    
    
     be sensitive to  fluctuations  in water quality.   The effec
    
    
    
    
     of increased water temperature, overenrichment,  and indus
    
    
    
    
     trial wastes which are lethal to aquatic organisms  or  whi
    ts
    

    -------
    	___	351
    
    
    
    
    
                           K.  R.  Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
     cause  undesirable  taste and  odor in food fishes are of
    
    
    
    
     particular significance.  Thus,  it is important that ade-
    
    
    
    
     quate  standards  be  defined and  adopted for application
    
    
    
    
     to  .interstate  waters  of Towa.
    
    
    
    
                   With respect  to  temperature:   Perhaps more
    
    
    
    
     than  any other environmental factor, temperature has
    
    
    
    
     multiple and diverse  effects on aquatic organisms.   It
    
    
    
    
     limits the distribution of aquatic organisms  and at the
    
    
    
    
     same  time determines  their level of activity.   Sharp or
    
    
    
    
     long-lasting temperature  changes cause new biological
    
    
    
    
     systems  to appear,  and old ones to vanish.
    
    
    
    
                   e need not ordinarily be concerned  so
    
    
    
    
     much  about high  (or low)  temperatures that are immediate!;
    
    
    
    
     lethal as about  the effects  of  chronically sublethal
    
    
    
    
     temperatures whose  effects are  delayed but ultimately
    
    
    
    
     Just  as  dramatic.   In the long  run,  temperature levels
    
    
    
    
     that  adversely affect the animals'  metabolism,  feeding,
    
    
    
    
     growth,  reproduction,  and other vital functions are just
    
    
    
    
     as  harmful as  rapid heat  death.
    
    
    
    
                   Occasionally  the question of potential
    
    
    
    
     beneficial side  effects  on fishery resources  from heated
    
    
    
    
     water  effluents  is  raised.   For example,  it is  often
    

    -------
    	352
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    pointed out that heated effluents do at certain times
    
    
    
    
    attract fish, and they may become more available for
    
    
    
    
    angler harvest.  But looking beyond this seeming benefit,
    
    
    
    
    what harmful effects are at the same time imparted to the
    
    
    
    
    river?  The same heated water may disrupt important life
    
    
    
    
    history patterns and create a net negative ecological
    
    
    
    
    effect upon the river.  What good is fish attraction
    
    
    
    
    under these circumstances?  With all due respect to the
    
    
    
    
    eventual beneficial uses of heated effluents, one is hard
    
    
    
    
    pressed to find one such use which is sufficiently well
    
    
    
    
    developed or defined to be useful in making a midwestern
    
    
    
    
    water area ecologically more desirable within the next
    
    
    
    
    20 years.  In other words, harnessing of benefits is year
    
    
    
    
    off, while the potential damages of these effluents are
    
    
    
    
    here now.  As with badly needed studies of potential
    
    
    
    
    dangers, constructive use of potential benefits will
    
    
    
    
    require research and investigation.  Thus, it is necessar
    
    
    
    
    that realistic temperature standards be set at this time
    
    
    
    
    which will protect aquatic life.
    
    
    
    
                   With respect to nutrients:  The more
    
    
    
    
    abundant the nutrient supply, the more dense the aquatic
    
    
    
    
    vegetative growth, provided other environmental factors
    

    -------
    	353
    
    
    
    
    
                           K.  R.  Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
     are  favorable.   Substances  involved  are  nitrogen,  phos-
    
    
    
    
     phorus,  carbon,  vitamins  and other  compounds  and  elements
    
    
    
    
     In aquatic  habitat,  such  substances  stimulate growth  of
    
    
    
    
     bacteria, fungi,  phytoplankton,  filamentous  algae,  and
    
    
    
    
     submerged,  submersed,  floating,  and  marginal  water  plants
    
    
    
    
     Excess  nutrients  readily  create  conditions undesirable
    
    
    
    
     from the fishery  standpoint.   Resulting  growths can
    
    
    
    
     interfere with  commercial fishing by fouling  lines  and
    
    
    
    
     clogging nets.   Excess  metabolic demands  of  such  plants
    
    
    
    
     while they  are  living  and their  decomposition after death
    
    
    
    
     impose  a high BOD load  on the  streams  and are capable  of
    
    
    
    
     severely reducing and  even  depleting dissolved oxygen.
    
    
    
    
     Dense growths of  filamentous  algae and other  plants can
    
    
    
    
     seriously reduce  total  fish  production,  as well as  inter-
    
    
    
    
     fere with harvest of fish.
    
    
    
    
                    Available  information shows that excess
    
    
    
    
     amounts of  nutrients and  other wastes  a-re entering  the
    
    
    
    
     Missouri River  and its  tributaries and causing substantia
    
    
    
    
     degradation of  water quality.  The FWPCA's 1967 biologi-
    
    
    
    
     cal  survey  of the Missouri  River from  Sioux City, Iowa,
    
    
    
    
     to Herman,  Missouri, showed  that at  least 54  of the 286
    
    
    
    
     river miles  were  severely degraded by  pollution.  Severel
    

    -------
    	354
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
     degraded  waters were  also found  in the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
     tributaries  of the  Big Sioux, Floyd, Soldier and Boyer
    
    
    
    
     Rivers.
    
    
    
    
                   Reduction of nutrient levels in the
    
    
    
    
     affected  stretches  and tributaries of the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
     can provide  considerable benefits to the commercial
    
    
    
    
     fishery.  Quantitatively, fish production may increase.
    
    
    
    
     Qualitatively, a  large measure of stability would be
    
    
    
    
     added  to  the  commercial fishery  as periodic fish kills
    
    
    
    
     and cases of  tainting are reduced or limited.  The
    
    
    
    
     capability exists within reach of present technology to
    
    
    
    
     greatly eliminate inputs of nitrogen, phosphorus, organic
    
    
    
    
     residues  and  suspended solids from sewage and industrial
    
    
    
    
     effluents.  From  the  standpoint  of the fishery resource
    
    
    
    
     it is  desirable and necessary that such elimination be
    
    
    
    
     effected.
    
    
    
    
                   With respect to taste-and odor-inducing
    
    
    
    
     substances:   A large  number of compounds can impart ob-
    
    
    
    
     jectionable  tastes  and odors to  fish flesh.  These com-
    
    
    
    
     pounds include:   hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, coal
    
    
    
    
     tar wastes,  gas wastes, sewage containing phenols, and
    
    
    
    
     petroleum refinery  wastes.  It has been found that
    

    -------
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    chlorophenol could produce unpleasant flavor in fish at
    
    
    
    
    a water concentration of one part per billion.  Apparentl
    
    
    
    
    certain algaes are also capable of imparting taste and
    
    
    
    
    odor to fish flesh.
    
    
    
    
                   Occasional spills of chemicals and other
    
    
    
    
    substances on the Missouri River and its tributaries
    
    
    
    
    have rendered commercial catches unsaleable due to taste
    
    
    
    
    and odor problems.  Certain reaches of the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
    and its tributaries are from time to time unsuitable for
    
    
    
    
    commercial production because fish present have been
    
    
    
    
    rendered unmarketable.  Taste and odor problems are
    
    
    
    
    serious problems to the commercial fisherman.  Since
    
    
    
    
    phenols, oil and other taste-inducing compounds are
    
    
    
    
    potential destructive contributors, it is desirable that
    
    
    
    
    standards be adopted for Iowa interstate waters which
    
    
    
    
    will limit the concentrations of these substances to
    
    
    
    
    levels which will not impart unpalatable flavors or
    
    
    
    
    undesirable odors to fish.
    
    
    
    
                   In conclusion j on August 7, 19^7., a memo-
    
    
    
    
    randum summarizing the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries'
    
    
    
    
    comments on Iowa's proposed criteria were forwarded to
    
    
    
    
    the Regional Director of the Missouri Basin Region,
    

    -------
    	356
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.  The
    
    
    
    
    subjects of criteria for temperature and undesirable
    
    
    
    
    tastes in edible aquatic organisms are covered in the
    
    
    
    
    memorandum.  Since these aspects are of prime importance
    
    
    
    
    at this hearing, we wish to emphasize that our present
    
    
    
    
    views are basically the same as those advanced on
    
    
    
    
    August 7, 1967.  We wish to emphasize further that our
    
    
    
    
    views past and present are essentially identical to those
    
    
    
    
    being advanced for secondary treatment, temperature, phenc
    
    
    
    
    and protection of high quality waters by the FWPCA at this
    
    
    
    
    hearing.  Therefore, we firmly endorse and support the
    
    
    
    
    FWPCA recommendations as they will soon be presented by
    
    
    
    
    Mr. Blomgren.
    
    
    
    
                   A great deal has yet to be learned about
    
    
    
    
    adequate aquatic life criteria, and additional research
    
    
    
    
    may demonstrate the need for redefinition and refinement
    
    
    
    
    of the standards to meet fishery requirements.  Until
    
    
    
    
    careful research demonstrates beyond a reasonable doubt
    
    
    
    
    that degradation of existing water quality to the level
    
    
    
    
    of the finally approved standards will not result in
    
    
    
    
    harmful effects upon fish and aquatic life resources, it
    
    
    
    
    is the position of the BCF that the goal of pollution
    Is
    

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                                                           357
                          K. R. Roberts
    abatement should be maintenance or improvement  of  water
    
    
    
    
    quality in the waters under consideration a,t  this  hearing
    
    
    
    
    Therefore, BCF also endorses the Federal Water  Pollution CJontrol
    
    
    
    
    Administration   recommendation for an anti-degradation
    
    
    
    
    clause in the final Iowa standards.
    
    
    
    
                   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Roberts.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   (The following is the report submitted
    
    
    
    
    by Mr. Roberts:)
    
    
    
    
         STATEMENT PRESENTED BY THE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL
    
    
    
    
         FISHERIES,  U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,  5
    
    
    
    
         RESEARCH DRIVE, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, AT  THE
    
    
    
    
         DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
    
    
    
    
         CONFERENCE ON IOWA INTERSTATE WATERS OF  THE
    
    
    
    
         MISSOURI RIVER, APRIL 15, 19^9, COUNCIL  BLUFFS, IOWA
    
    
    
    
                   Iowa lies in the center of the traditional
    
    
    
    
    Mississippi-Missouri Rjver commercial fishery.  During
    
    
    
    
    the late 1890' s  Iowa was one of the foremost  States of
    
    
    
    
    the interior United States in commercial fish production.
    
    
    
    
    Both the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers and  certain
    
    
    
    
    tributaries were fished extensively.  Records indicate
    

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    	358
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    the waters in 1901 were well supplied with fish in great
    
    
    
    
    variety and abundance.
    
    
    
    
                   On the Missouri River as it flows through
    
    
    
    
    or by Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska  and Missouri, the outstand-
    
    
    
    
    ing trend has been a progressive decline in annual produc-
    
    
    
    
    tion from 1908 to the present.  This trend is readily
    
    
    
    
    observable in Table 1, which summarizes commercial catch
    
    
    
    
    for these States.  In 19^3 total production was 12 percen"
    
    
    
    
    that of the 1908 catch, although showing roughly constant
    
    
    
    
    percentages of the three primary groups--carp, catfish an
    
    
    
    
    buffalofish.  Over the period 1954  &3> Iowa landings froi
    
    
    
    
    the Missouri River, although somewhat fluctuating, have
    
    
    
    
    averaged 66,000 pounds, valued at $9^000.
    
    
    
    
                   There has been extensive reduction of
    
    
    
    river surface area as a result of channel development
    
    
    
    
    as well as progressive degradation of Missouri water
    
    
    
    
    quality.  Primary pollutants include:  sewage discharges,
    
    
    
    
    rendering plant wastes, animal wastes, accidental spills
    
    
    
    
    and discharges of oil, gasoline, grease, and other chemi-
    
    
    
    
    cals and compounds and fertilizer runoff.  Although
    
    
    
    
    economic and institutional factors have played an importar
    
    
    
    
    role in the generally downward trend of commercial fishery
    

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                                                                             359
                                    -2-
    TABLE 1.MISSOURI RIVER COMMERCIAL FISH PRODUCTION IN THOUSANDS OF
    POUNDS FOR THE STATES OF IOWA, KANSAS,  NEBRASKA,  AND MISSOURI  (1894-1965)*
    YEAR
    1894
    1898
    1908
    1922
    1931
    1954
    1955
    1956
    1958
    1959
    1960
    1962
    1963
    1964**
    1965**
    
    IOWA
    564
    257
    144
    167
    132
    13
    30
    16
    143
    141
    136
    36
    11
    321
    42
    
    KANSAS
    134
    107
    431
    54
    143
    112
    145
    115
    78
    63
    60
    52
    44
    38
    42
    STATE
    NEBRASKA
    311
    309
    399
    136
    145
    212
    194
    268
    127
    151
    123
    129
    131
    281
    422
    
    MISSOURI
    570
    712
    1,302
    314
    169
    163
    166
    138
    151
    152
    154
    98
    86
    105
    106
    TOTAL
    1,579
    1,385
    2,276
    671
    583
    500
    535
    536
    499
    507
    473
    315
    272
    745
    612
    *Taken from Fishery Statistics of the  U.S.,  U.S.  Bureau  of Commercial
    Fisheries, 1894-1965.
    
    **Production data for certain inland waters  hav^  been  included  in
    these data.
    

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    	360
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R, Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    production, water quality problems have further aggra-
    
    
    
    
    vated an already difficult situation.  At various places
    
    
    
    
    and times the introduction of waste materials which
    
    
    
    
    directly or indirectly Impart undesirable taste and odor
    
    
    
    
    characteristics to fish has seriously limited the market-
    
    
    
    
    ability of the catch.  Under such circumstances, one more
    
    
    
    
    element of risk is added to the commercial fishing opera-
    
    
    
    
    tion as markets are lost and fishing is temporarily
    
    
    
    
    halted in the affected stream stretch.  This is a serious
    
    
    
    
    problem for an industry whose products are sold for human
    
    
    
    
    consumption.
    
    
    
    
                   Iowa's Missouri River commercial fishing
    
    
    
    
    industry has  clearly been vulnerable to a progressive
    
    
    
    
    trend of river habitat degradation and will continue to
    
    
    
    be sensitive  to fluctuations in water quality. . The
    
    
    
    
    effects of increased water temperature, overenrichment
    
    
    
    
    and industrial wastes which are lethal to aquatic organises
    
    
    
    
    or which cause undesirable taste and odor in food fishes
    
    
    
    
    are of particular significance.  Thus, it is important
    
    
    
    
    that adequate standards be defined and adopted for appli-
    
    
    
    
    cation to Interstate waters of Iowa.
    

    -------
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
                           TEMPERATURE
    
    
    
    
                   Temperature,, perhaps more than any other
    
    
    
    
    environmental factor, has multiple and diverse effects on
    
    
    
    
    aquatic organisms.  It limits the distribution of aquatic
    
    
    
    
    organisms and at the same time determines their level of
    
    
    
    
    activity.  Sharp or long-lasting temperature changes
    
    
    
    
    cause new biological systems to appear, and old ones to
    
    
    
    
    vani sh.
    
    
    
    
                   We need not ordinarily be concerned so
    
    
    
    
    much about high (or low) temperatures that are immediately
    
    
    
    
    lethal as about the effects of chronically sublethal tem-
    
    
    
    
    peratures whose effects are delayed but ultimately just
    
    
    
    
    as dramatic.  In the long run, temperature levels that
    
    
    
    
    adversely affect the animals' metabolism, feeding, growth,
    
    
    
    
    reproduction, and other vital functions are just as harm-
    
    
    
    ful as rapid heat death.
    
    
    
    
                   There is a lack of specific information
    
    
    
    required to determine the total effects of heated effluent
    
    
    
    
    on aquatic ecology.  However, a good deal is known about
    
    
    
    
    the effects of temperature changes on aquatic organisms.
    
    
    
    
    Basically, water temperature influences the rate of all
    
    
    
    
    biochemical reactions,  the solubility and rate of oxygen
    

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    	.	362
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R.  Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    uptake,  metabolism,  the heart  beat, viscosity  of body
    
    
    
    
    fluids,  permeability of membranes, and  even  the volume
    
    
    
    
    of  gas  in  the  swim bladder of  fishes.   Besides acting
    
    
    
    
    as  a  lethal  factor,  increased  temperatures have been
    
    
    
    
    demonstrated to:  interfere with  normal  incubation  periods
    
    
    
    
    of  fish  eggs;  disrupt reproductive cycles; accelerate
    
    
    
    
    weight  loss; inhibit maturation  of fish  and  other  organisi
    
    
    
    
    aggravate  parasitic  infections;  induce  bacterial epidemic
    
    
    
    
    disrupt  normal  activity patterns; decrease appetite,
    
    
    
    
    digestion  rate, and  growth;  induce respiratory difficul-
    
    
    
    
    ties; and  increase oxygen consumption.  In addition, tem-
    
    
    
    
    perature increases can: synergize effects of pesticides,
    
    
    
    
    heavy metals,  dissolved gases, detergents, sulfite waste
    
    
    
    
    liquors, and other toxic or  debilitating pollutants;
    
    
    
    decrease dissolved oxygen content of \vater;  and under
    
    
    
    
    certain  conditions may also  accentuate  development of
    
    
    
    
    algal blooms,  particularly bluegreen species.
    
    
    
    
                    Occasionally  the  question of  potential
    
    
    
    
    beneficial side effects on fishery resources from  heated
    
    
    
    
    water effluents is raised. For example,  it is  often
    
    
    
    
    pointed  out  that  heated effluents do at  certain times
    
    
    
    
    attract  fish,  and they may become more  available for
    is ;
    

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    	363
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    angler harvest.  But  looking  beyond  this  seeming benefit,
    
    
    
    
    what harmful  effects  are at the  same  time  imparted  to  the
    
    
    
    
    river?   The same heated water may  disrupt  important life
    
    
    
    
    history  patterns and  create a net  negative ecological
    
    
    
    
    effect upon the river.  What  good  is  fish  attraction
    
    
    
    
    under these circumstances?  With all  due  respect to the
    
    
    
    
    eventual beneficial uses of heated effluents,  one is
    
    
    
    
    hard pressed  to find  one such use  which is sufficiently
    
    
    
    
    well developed to  be  useful in making a midwestern  water
    
    
    
    
    area ecologically  more desirable within the  next 20 years
    
    
    
    
    In  other words, harnessing of benefits is  years off,
    
    
    
    
    while the  potential damages of these  effluents are  here
    
    
    
    
    now.  As with badly needed studies of potential dangers,
    
    
    
    
    constructive  use of potential benefits will  require
    
    
    
    
    research and  investigation.   Thus, it is  necessary  that
    
    
    
    
    realistic  temperature standards  be set which will protect
    
    
    
    
    aquatic  life.
    
    
    
                            NUTRI_ENTS_
    
    
    
                   The more abundant the  nutrient  supply,
    
    
    
    
    the more dense the aquatic vegetative growth,  provided
    
    
    
    
    other environmental factors are  favorable.  Substances
    
    
    
    
    involved are  nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, vitamins and
    

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    	.	364
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    other compounds and elements.  In aquatic habitat, such
    
    
    
    
    substances stimulate growth of bacteria, fungi, phyto-
    
    
    
    
    plankton, filamentous algae, and submerged, submersed,
    
    
    
    
    floating, and marginal water plants.  Excess nutrients
    
    
    
    
    readily create conditions undesirable from the fishery
    
    
    
    
    standpoint.  Resulting growths can interfere with com-
    
    
    
    
    mercial fishing by fouling lines and clogging nets.
    
    
    
    
    Excess metabolic demands of such plants while they are
    
    
    
    
    living and their decomposition after death impose a high
    
    
    
    
    BOD load on the streams and are capable of severely
    
    
    
    
    reducing and even depleting dissolved oxygen.  Dense
    
    
    
    
    growths of filamentous algae and other plants can serious!
    
    
    
    
    reduce total fish production, as well as interfere with
    
    
    
    
    harvest of fish.
    
    
    
                   Available information shows that excess
    
    
    
    
    amounts of nutrients and other wastes are entering the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River and its tributaries and causing substantial
    
    
    
    
    degradation of water quality.  The FWPCA   19&7 biological
    
    
    
    
    survey of the Missouri River from Sioux City, Iowa, to
    
    
    
    
    Herman, Missouri, showed that at least 5^ of the 286 rivei
    
    
    
    
    miles were severly degraded by pollution.  Severely
    
    
    
    
    degraded waters were also found in the Missouri River
    y
    

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    	,	365
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    tributaries of the Big Sioux, Floyd, Soldier and Boyer
    
    
    
    
    Rivers.  In the areas of severe biological habitat
    
    
    
    
    degradation, most benthic organisms found were those
    
    
    
    
    associated with polluted waters.  Nutrient levels adequate
    
    
    
    
    to support undesirable biological growths as well as
    
    
    
    
    excessive numbers of coliform bacteria were found down-
    
    
    
    
    stream from Sioux City, Iowa.  Available data show the
    
    
    
    
    Nebraska-Iowa-Missouri reach of the Missouri River at
    
    
    
    
    times carries an organic pollution load which exceeds by
    
    
    
    
    10 times the human population of the entire basin.  The
    
    
    
    
    balance is caused by agricultural and natural sources.
    
    
    
    
    The main agricultural sources of pollution are: (1) sedi-
    
    
    
    
    ments; (2) nutrients; (3) chemicals; and (4) animal wastes
    
    
    
    
                   Reduction of nutrient levels in the affecte
    
    
    
    
    stretches and tributaries of the Missouri River can provic
    
    
    
    
    considerable benefits to the commercial fishery.  Quan-
    
    
    
    titatively, fish production may increase.  Qualitatively,
    
    
    
    
    a large measure of stability would be added to the com-
    
    
    
    
    mercial fishery as periodic fish kills and cases of
    
    
    
    
    tainting are reduced or limited.  The capability exists
    
    
    
    
    within reach of present technology to greatly eliminate
    
    
    
    
    inputs of nitrogen, phosphorus, organic residues and
    

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                                                          366
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    suspended solids from sewage and industrial effluents.
    
    
    
    
    From the standpoint of the fishery resource it is desirable
    
    
    
    
    and necessary that such elimination be effected.
                   A large number of compounds can impart
    
    
    
    
    objectionable tastes and odors to fish flesh.  These
    
    
    
    
    compounds include: hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds,
    
    
    
    
    coal tar wastes, gas wastes, sewage containing phenols,
    
    
    
    
    and petroleum refinery wastes.  It has been found that
    
    
    
    
    chlorophenol could produce unpleasant flavor in fish at
    
    
    
    
    a water concentration of only 0.0001.  Apparently certain
    
    
    
    
    algaes are also capable of imparting taste and odor to
    
    
    
    
    fish flesh.
    
    
    
    
                   Occasional spills of chemicals and other
    
    
    
    substances on the Missouri River and its tributaries
    
    
    
    
    have rendered commercial catches unsaleable due to taste
    
    
    
    
    and odor problems.  Certain reaches of the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
    and its tributaries are from time to time unsuitable for
    
    
    
    
    commercial production because fish present have been
    
    
    
    
    rendered unmarketable.  Taste and odor problems are
    
    
    
    
    serious problems to the commercial fisherman.  Since phenols
    
    
    
    
    oil, and other taste-inducing compounds are destructive
    

    -------
    ______ _ 36?
    
    
    
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
    
    
    
    
    contributors, it is desirable that standards be adopted
    
    
    
    
    for Iowa interstate waters which will limit the concen-
    
    
    
    
    trations of these substances to levels which will not
    
    
    
    
    impart unpalatable flavors or undesirable odors to fish.
                   The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has
    
    
    
    
    been involved for many years with the water quality
    
    
    
    
    aspects of fishery research through its Biological Labora-
    
    
    
    
    tories.  We are, therefore, very concerned with the impac
    
    
    
    
    of pollution on the total fishery environment.
    
    
    
    
                   As a result of the Water Quality Act of
    
    
    
    
    1965, the Bureau and a number of other Federal water
    
    
    
    
    resources agencies were called upon to review and comment
    
    
    
    
    upon Iowa's proposed Water Quality Criteria and Plan of
    
    
    
    
    Implementation,, May 1967.  On August 7, 19&7, a raemcrandur
    
    
    
    summarizing BCF's comments on Iowa's proposed criteria
    
    
    
    
    was forwarded to the Regional Directors of the Great
    
    
    
    
    Lakes and Missouri Basin Regions, Federal Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
    Control Administration.  A copy of that memorandum is
    
    
    
    
    attached as Appendix A.
    
    
    
    
                   The subjects of criteria for temperature
    
    
    
    
    and undesirable tastes in edible aquatic organisms are
    

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     	368
    
    
                          K. R. Roberts
    
    
     overed in the memorandum.  Since  these  aspects  are of
    
    prime importance at this hearing,  we  wish  to  emphasize
    
    that our present views are basically  the same as those
    
    advanced on August 7, 19^7.  We wish  to  emphasize further
    
    that our views past and present are essentially  identical
    
    to those being advanced for ,^9_o^ndary_Tre_atme_nt, Te_mp_e_ra-
    
    tu_r_e_, Phe_no_3^s_, and Po.^^^9i^_2ll_^^S^_Q'lifi^i.^.y!._^ite_.. ^y
    
    the FWPCA at this hearing.  Therefore, we  firmly endorse
    
    and support the FWPCA recommendations  as they are proposed
    
    for this conference.
    
                   A great deal has yet to be  learned about
    
    adequate aquatic life criteria, and additional research
    
    may demonstrate the need for redefinition  and refinement
    
    of the standards to meet fishery  requirements.  Until
    
     areful research demonstrates  beyond  a reasonable doubt
    
    that degradation of existing water quality to the level
    
    of the finally approved standards  will not result in
    
    harmful effects upon fish  and  aquatic  life resources, it
    
    is the position of the BCF that the goal of pollution
    
    abatement should be maintenance or improvement of water
    
    quality in the waters under consideration  at  this hearing.
    
    Therefore, BCF also endorses the  FWPCA ~ recommendation
    for an anti-degradation clause in the final Iowa standards
    

    -------
             O^TlGKAU FORM f"( 10
             MAY mi CO:'.ON
             CSA CtJ-i nr-G NO. J
             UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT
    
             Memorandum
                                             359
    Appendix A.   BCF Cotr.rccnts  to FWPCA on the 'V/iter
    Quality Criteria and Plan  of Implementation for
    Iowa 196V.
    TO     :  Regional Directors,  FWPCA,  Great Lakes Region,    DATE:  August 7, 1967
             Chicago, Illinois and  Missouri Basin Region,
             Kansas City,  Missouri
    FROM   :  Regional Director, BCF, Ann Arbor, Michigan
             (Acting)
    
    SUBJECT:  BCF Comments  on The Water Quality Criteria and Plan of Implementation
             for Iowa, May,  1967.
             We have reviewed the  subject submittal which you have forwarded with a
             request for our comments.  Since the standards advanced in the submittal
             are common to appropriate interstate waters for both your regions, we
             have combined our formal response into this one memo.
    
                  1.  General Cerement.--Water quality standards required to maintain
             "healthy aquatic life"  conditions in Iowa are far more complex than can
             be covered on one single spaced typewritten page.  This fact becomes
             apparent after review of the ten page "...incomplete, tentative..."
             summary of key criteria for fresh water organisms advanced in the
             excellent interim report of the FWPCA's National Technological Advisory
             Committee on Water Quality Requirements for Fishes (hereafter referred
             to as the N.T.A.C.  interim report).  The treatment given to aquatic
             life criteria in the  present submittal is considered inadequate, and
             ve recommend that a more thorough aquatic life treatment be prepared
             and included, at least  for the areas covered by the following comments,
             before final approval is made on the Iowa submittal.
    
                  2.  Updating.--The Iowa submittal contains no formal indication that
             the standards specified are susceptible to future changes, when warranted
             by experience and future research findings.  We recommend that a detailed
             procedure for enacting  such updating be prepared and included in the
             submittal.
    
                  3.  Definition of  Terms.--The submittal includes a number of very
             important key words and phrases which are not adequately defined.
             Among these are:   fish  propagation (p. ^); sufficient distance downstream
             and adequate mixing (p. 7; also see Comment 4 of this memo); detrimental,
             harmful (p. 8);  permanent fish population (p. 11); unsightly, deleterious
             (p. 13); aquatic ...  use of the water (p. 14); and well balanced fish
             population (p.  15).   We recommend that these terms, as well as other
             significant terms,  be clearly defined and the definitions be. included
             in an appropriate section of the submittal.
                      Buy US. Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan
    

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                                                                             370
    
    Reg.Dirs.,FWPCA,GLR,MBR           -2-                 August 7, 1967
    
        4. Zones of Admixture.--Item 2 of Section 2.1 on page 7 indicates
    aquatic life criteria would apply at, "All points in the stream from
    the mouth up to the designated cutoff point...".  The first sentence
    of page 7's last paragraph states that sampling would occur after
    "adequate mixing" of effluents, thus indicating aquatic life criteria
    are not intended to apply at all points as stated Item 2.1.  These
    two statements of the submittal conflict literally,  and involve at
    least in Iowa streams designated for aquatic life the difficult subject
    of effluent mixture areas.
    
        As treated in the submittal, the designation of  Iowa zones of admix-
    ture are arbitrary and not well defined.  The terms  sufficient distance
    downstreari! and adequate mixing are open to unreasonably broad interpre-
    tation.  A license exists within the present wording which would permit
    legal use of Iowa streams for further indiscriminate disposal of
    wastes with resultant destruction of fishery habitat and migration
    patterns.
    
        We are of the opinion that admixture.of effluents in aquatic life
    zones can be regulated effectively using the approach advanced in ZONES
    OF PASSAGE AND MIXING (pages 31, 32) of the N.T.A.C. interim report.
    We consider this to be the most reasonable and realistic approach
    available and recommend its adoption in toto into the submittal.
    
        5.  Undesirable Tastes in Edible Aquatic Organisms.--Section 2.2
    presently has no reference tc regulation of substances in the water
    which will impart undesirable tastes to the flesh of fish and other
    edible aquatic organisms.  We recommend that wording to the following
    extent be worked into the first paragraph of Section 2.2:
    
            "Taste and odor producing substances shall be limited to
            concentrations in the stream that will not impart unpalat-
            able flavor to fish or other edible aquatic  organisms."
    
        6.  Temperature.--The proposed 93 F upper temperature limit is
    considered unacceptably high for most of the year.  This upper limit,
    being above the TLm for rr.any aquatic organisms, does not begin to
    consider synergistic effects of temperature and other pollutant condi-
    tions which might be present in given situations. The fact that 93 F
    may be approached, and/or exceeded under thoroughly  natural conditions
    does not justify allowing thermal wastes to duplicate or aggravate
    such an unhealthy aquatic life condition.
    
        Equally important, from the aquatic life standpoint, is the fact
    that any single upper temperature limit (even one lower than 93 F)
    represents a very unsatisfactory solution to the problem of establishing
    temperature standards.  Such a single upper limit does not take into
    consideration normal subtle aquatic life patterns, which involve
    gradual warming periods, temperature plateaus, etc.   In other words,
    an upper limit that would be perfectly satisfactory  in July or August
    would represent a wide open license for thermal pollution during the
    
    rest of the year.
    

    -------
                                                                              371
    Reg.Dirs.,FWPCA,GLR,MBR            -3-             August 7, 1967
    
         We recommend that the water temperature criteria presented in the
    N.T.A.C. interim report (pages 4-6) and utilizing a standard 5 F above
    the monthly average of the natural maximum daily water temperatures be
    adopted for Iowa aquatic life zones.  Maximum surface water temperatures
    should range between 86-90 F, depending on local stream characteristics
    and biota.
    
         7.  Toxic Substances.--The existing portion of the subraittal
    concerning toxic substances is considered abbreviated and inadequate.
    We recommend that the standards for toxic substances advanced in the
    N.T.A.C. interim report (pages 11-13) be adopted in toto for the Iowa
    standards.
    
         8.  Oil and Grease.--The aspect of oil and grease pollution is
    not even broached in the Aquatic Life standards on page 15, although
    this is an extremely significant and common source of pollution.  We
    recommend that the standards advanced in the N.T.A.C. interim report
    on oil (p. 8) be adopted  i n to to for Iowa waters.
    We appreciate the opportunity to review and comment on the Iowa
    submittal.  If any questions should arise concerning our comments,
    don't hesitate to call upon us.  We would like to be advised as soon
    as possible on the disposition of our comments (i.e. We would like  to
    know which are acceptable in your judgement).
                                       Sincerely,
                                       Ernest D.  Premet
    

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                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Mr. Blomgren.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  One additional statement
    
    
    
    
    to "be made by Dr. Clarence Tarzwell, Director of National
    
    
    
    
    Water Quality, Marine Laboratory, West Kingston, Rhode
    
    
    
    
    Island.
    
    
    
    
                   Dr. Tarzwell.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                 STATEMENT BY DR. C. M. TARZWELL
    
    
    
    
             DIRECTOR, NATIONAL MARINE WATER QUALITY
    
    
    
    
           LABORATORY, FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
    
    
    
    
           ADMINISTRATION, WEST KINGSTON, RHODE ISLAND
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   DR. TARZWELL:  Mr. Chairman, conferees,
    
    
    
    
    ladies and gentlemen.
    
    
    
    
                   I am Clarence M. Tarzwell, Director  of
    
    
    
    
    the National Marine Water Quality Laboratory, which  is
    
    
    
    
    the laboratory of the FWPCA  at West Kingston, Rhode
    
    
    
    
    Island.  I have a prepared statement, Mr. Chairman,
    
    
    
    
    which I would like to submit for the record.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Without objection, this  will
    
    
    
    
    be done.
    
    
    
    
                   DR. TARZWELL:  However,  I  shall  not  read
    

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                    	373
    
    
    
    
                        Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    it.  I shall summarize it and also emphasize some of the
    
    
    
    
    basic considerations which have been brought out by some
    
    
    
    
    of the other speakers.
    
    
    
    
                   Among these, I have listed eight:
    
    
    
    
                   No. 1.  We should realize that the con-
    
    
    
    
    ditions to which organisms have become adapted over geo-
    
    
    
    
    logical time have now become their environmental require-
    
    
    
    
    ments and any change introduced by man in comparison to
    
    
    
    
    geological time is a raoid change and when these are
    
    
    
    
    sudden or large, they are significantly harmful or can be
    
    
    
    
    to the aquatic life.
    
    
    
    
                   2.  I think it is basic that we must
    
    
    
    
    realize that dissolved oxygen and temperature must be
    
    
    
    
    considered together as they are interrelated.  In other
    
    
    
    
    words,  when there is a high temperature you need a. high
    
    
    
    
    dissolved oxygen.  When the dissolved oxygen is low you
    
    
    
    
    must also have a low temperature if you are to provide
    
    
    
    
    conditions which allow full activity for the aquatic
    
    
    
    
    organisms.
    
    
    
    
                   Carbon dioxide also has some influences on
    
    
    
    
    oxygen  requirements and in turn on the effects of tempera-
    
    
    
    
    ture from the standpoint of the amount of oxygen required
    

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    	374
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    for activity of the organisms.
    
    
    
    
                   No. 3-  In establishing water quality
    
    
    
    
    standards we must consider the most sensitive species
    
    
    
    
    in the "biota, that is the most sensitive important
    
    
    
    
    species.  If we do not do this, the whole biota can be
    
    
    
    
    disrupted.  In other words, the chain of life is no
    
    
    
    
    stronger than its weakest link, and in establishing water
    
    
    
    
    temperatures which are conducive to the survival, growth,
    
    
    
    
    reproduction, general well being, and the production of
    
    
    
    
    a crop, we must consider the species that are most
    
    
    
    
    sensitive to temperature changes and especially high
    
    
    
    
    temperatures.  The criteria cannot be based upon the
    
    
    
    
    most tolerant species.
    
    
    
    
                   No. 4.  In considering water quality
    
    
    
    
    requirements, we must consider the most sensitive life
    
    
    
    
    stages.  These must be protected if an organism  is to
    
    
    
    
    complete its life history.  In other words, we must con-
    
    
    
    
    sider the temperatures for the maturation of the sex
    
    
    
    
    products, the spawning act, the develooment of the eggs,
    
    
    
    
    the development of the larvae or fry or nymphisms, what-
    
    
    
    
    ever it might be.  And in this regard, seasonal varia-
    
    
    
    
    tions to which the organisms have become accustomed are
    

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                        Dr.  C.  M.  Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
     very important.  We  cannot  depart  greatly from  these  and
    
    
    
    
     expect  to  have  a well balanced  biota.
    
    
    
    
                    No.  5-   Peak  temperatures observed  in
    
    
    
    
     nature  cannot  be endured for  long periods.   Sometimes  we
    
    
    
    
     have natural kills  of aquatic organisms  due  to unusual
    
    
    
    
     heat.   Peak  temperatures which  are  observed  in nature
    
    
    
    
     occur for  only  short  periods  and  very  often  they are very
    
    
    
    
     near to lethal  temperatures.  Considering these peak
    
    
    
    
     temperatures as  favorable  is  a  mistake that  non-biolo-
    
    
    
    
     gists very often make.  In the  setting of peak tempera-
    
    
    
    
     tures,  of  course, you have to be  realistic.  You cannot
    
    
    
    
     say that aquatic organisms cannot withstand  temperatures
    
    
    
    
     that occur naturally  just  because they are very close  to
    
    
    
    
     lethal  temperatures.  However,  it seems  that many  people
    
    
    
    
     do  not  realize  that these  peak  temperatures  cannot be
    
    
    
    
     withstood  for  considerable periods. Further, temperatures
    
    
    
    
     which can  be resisted for  even  considerable  periods  by
    
    
    
    
     adults  may be unsuited  for the  young and are no measure
    
    
    
    
     of  temperatures  which are  favorable and  necessary  for
    
    
    
    
     the survival of  the species.
    
    
    
    
                    Also it  must be  realized  that in nature
    
    
    
    
     there are  daily  variations in temperature which are -now
    

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                        Dr.  C.  M.  Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
     environmental  requirements.   There is naturally a  cool-
    
    
    
    
     ing  off  period at night.   We  have observed in our  fishery
    
    
    
    
     studies  that while  water temperatures may be unfavorably
    
    
    
    
     high  during the  day, they  can be endured if there  is a
    
    
    
    
     cooling  off period  during  the 24-hour cycle.  Without
    
    
    
    
     this  cooling off period, serious harm can be caused
    
    
    
    
     either directly  or  from weakening of a species so  that
    
    
    
    
     its  competitors  can take over and produce an undesirable
    
    
    
    
     change in the  fish  population.
    
    
    
    
                   6. High  temperatures in the transition
    
    
    
    
     periods  from winter to  spring can be critical and  detri-
    
    
    
    
     mental.  A 10-degree increase in temperature in March
    
    
    
    
     and April or early  May, depending on the part of the
    
    
    
    
     country  that you are in, will convert temperatures which
    
    
    
     are normally in  the 40's and  50's to temperatures  which
    
    
    
    
     are in the 50's  and 60's.  This change can be very
    
    
    
     important from the  standpoint of the bass which spawn
    
    
    
    
     after the temperatures  reach  60 and are maintained at
    
    
    
    
     that  level or  above for a  few days.  For example,  when
    
    
    
    
     the temperatures are in the 50's they don't spawn  and if
    
    
    
    
     a  cold spell comes  and  temperatures drop back down into
    
    
    
    
     the 40's there is no direct harm because the eggs  haven't
    

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                        Dr.  C.  M.  Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
     yet  been  laid.   However,  if  the  water  temperatures  are
    
    
    
    
     raised  10 degrees  Fahrenheit  into  the  60' s- and then drop
    
    
    
    
     back into the  50fs,  due to the  cold spell  the  spawn for
    
    
    
    
     the  year  would  be  wiped out,because, as you know,  the
    
    
    
    
     daddy bass  leaves  the nest when  water  temperatures  drop
    
    
    
    
     below 60  degrees Fahrenheit.   When this  occurs, the eggs
    
    
    
    
     either  fungus up,  are eaten  by  other organisms or  they
    
    
    
    
     die  from  lack  of oxygen because  the daddy  bass is  no
    
    
    
    
     longer  there to keep the  water  circulating so  they  have
    
    
    
    
     an oxygen supply.
    
    
    
                    No.  ?.   In  warm  streams an  increase  of
    
    
    
    
     10 degrees  Fahrenheit with a  93  degree maximum can  result
    
    
    
    
     in significant  harm.  If  all  temperatures  are  raised 10
    
    
    
    
     degrees Fahrenheit,the  minimum  daily temperature will
    
    
    
    
     approach  90 or  be  in the  area of 90 to 93  degrees  during
    
    
    
    
     considerable periods in the  summer.  Then  if the maximum
    
    
    
    
     temperature of  93  degrees  Fahrenheit is  met by the use
    
    
    
    
     of cooling  towers,  temperatures may be  in  the vicinity of
    
    
    
    
     93 around the clock  for several  days or .more in successio
    
    
    
    
     From the  evidence  that  has been  presented  by the Fish and
    
    
    
    
     Wildlife  Service representatives,  it is evident that thes
    
    
    
    
     continued high  temperatures are  harmful and may be  lethal
    

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                   	378
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   No. 8.  A rise of 10 degrees above natural
    
    
    
    
    temperature lengthens the hot water period and increases
    
    
    
    
    stress which can change the qualitative and quantitative
    
    
    
    
    makeup  of the aquatic population.  I would like to list
    
    
    
    
    briefly some of the effects of increased temperatures.
    
    
    
    
                   (a)  Increased temperature speeds up
    
    
    
    
    metabolism and increases the need for higher dissolved
    
    
    
    
    oxygen concentrations.  Temperature influences growth
    
    
    
    
    and if a temperature increase is not too great growth
    
    
    
    
    is more rapid. After a certain point is passed, growth
    
    
    
    
    is actually retarded and detrimental effects are produced
    
    
    
    
    Water temperature influences the development of sex
    
    
    
    
    products and the time of spawning or it can inhibit
    
    
    
    spawning.
    
    
    
    
                   (b)  High temperatures can limit the
    
    
    
    ability of water to hold dissolved oxygen.  At the
    
    
    
    
    higher temperatures oxygen is less soluble and less
    
    
    
    
    oxygen is available at the time when more oxygen is
    
    
    
    
    needed.
    
    
    
    
                   (c)  The higher temperatures generally
    
    
    
    
    favor coarse or less desirable species, dogfish, gar,
    
    
    
    
    shad, suckers, carp, and so forth, such as you see in
    

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    	:	379
    
    
    
    
                       Dr.  C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    many of  our  southern  streams.
    
    
    
                    (d)  High  temperatures favor dense  growths
    
    
    
    
    of  undesirable  algae,  such as  the bluegreen algae.  With
    
    
    
    
    increase in  temperatures  algal  growth increases up  to  a
    
    
    
    
    certain  point and  then with  further  increases  in tempera-
    
    
    
    
    tures  there  is  a succession  of  species,  the diatoms,  the
    
    
    
    
    greens and the  bluegreens.   The bluegreens are somewhat
    
    
    
    
    undesirable, sometimes  very  undesirable,  from  the  stand-
    
    
    
    
    point  of the fishermen for the  use of the water and the
    
    
    
    
    fishes themselves.
    
    
    
                    (e) Increased temperatures bring about
    
    
    
    
    unseasonal emergence  of some of the  food organisms  and
    
    
    
    
    can cause a  decrease  in food through limiting  important
    
    
    
    
    species .
    
    
    
                    (f)  Increased  temperatures increase acute
    
    
    
    
    toxicity.
    
    
    
                    (g)  Increased  temperatures require  more
    
    
    
    
    stringent quality  standards  for the  other parameters.
    
    
    
    
                    (h)  Temperature changes  may produce
    
    
    
    
    temperature  blocks to migration.
    
    
    
                    (i)  High  temperatures encourage most
    
    
    
    
    parasites and disease.   Parasites and disease  generally
    

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                                                         380
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    are most severe in their action when the organisms are
    
    
    
    
    under stress at the higher temperatures. They disrupt
    
    
    
    
    the delicate biological cycles in several ways.
    
    
    
    
                   (J)  Temperatures above a certain level,
    
    
    
    
    depending on the species, produce sub-lethal undesirable
    
    
    
    
    physiological results.
    
    
    
    
                   (k)  Temperature changes cause shifts in
    
    
    
    
    species and the qualitative and quantitative makeup of
    
    
    
    
    the biota.
    
    
    
    
                   In summary, I think that it is evident
    
    
    
    
    that in our research and investigation programs  and in
    
    
    
    
    the setting of water quality standards for temperature
    
    
    
    
    it is essential to consider not only lethal but  all sub-
    
    
    
    
    lethal and other effects.  Because temperature has both
    
    
    
    
    direct and indirect effects,it can influence in  several
    
    
    
    
    ways many of the other environmental requirements
    
    
    
    
    required for the well being and the production of aquatic
    
    
    
    
    life.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN: Thank you, Dr. Tarzwell.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   (The following is the report submitted by
    
    
    
    
    Dr. Tarzwell:)
    

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                                                         381
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
                   Some 17 years ago, I proposed a classi-
    
    
    
    
    fication of pollutants in six groups as follows:  ( 1 1
    
    
    
    
    inert, inorganic and organic wastes; (2} putrescible
    
    
    
    
    wastes; (3) toxic wastes; (4) wastes of a significant
    
    
    
    
    heat content; (5) radioactive wastes; and (6) contami-
    
    
    
    
    nants.  In the first group,  silt and other materials
    
    
    
    
    brought into streams and lakes by land erosion are the
    
    
    
    
    most important.  In fact, not many years ago, eroded
    
    
    
    
    materials were the most important pollutant in our
    
    
    
    
    streams.  In recent years, toxic materials an industrial
    
    
    
    
    wastes have increased greatly and are now very important.
    
    
    
    
    However, settleable and suspended solids and turbidity
    
    
    
    
    are still outstanding pollutants in our waters.   These
    
    
    
    materials influence productivity in a variety of ways.
    
    
    
    
    Settleable solids blanket the bottom, rendering it much
    
    
    
    
    less productive of those organisms essential as  food for
    
    
    
    the fish;  shifting sand bottoms are virtual aquatic
    
    
    
    
    deserts; materials which settle out on sand or gravel-
    
    
    
    
    rubble bottoms cover and destroy spawning beds and greatl;
    
    
    
    
    reduce productivity by filling up the spaces between the
    

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    _ 382
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
     rocks.  Turbidity  reduces light  penetration and adversely
    
    
    
    
     influences  the  photosynthetic activity  of  phytoplankton.
    
    
    
    
     Thus,  increases  in turbidity can  constitute pollution
    
    
    
    
     and a  decrease  in  turbidity is an important means  of
    
    
    
    
     improving stream conditions .
    
    
    
    
                    Control of land erosion  is  a difficult
    
    
    
    
     problem, the attainment  of which  is largely dependent
    
    
    
    
     upon those  agencies having to do  with road building,
    
    
    
    
     housing developments, placer and  strip  mining, agricul-
    
    
    
    
     ture,  grazing,  forestry, fire control and  coal and
    
    
    
    
     gravel washing.  If we are to decrease  this tyoe of
    
    
    
    
     pollutant in our streams, we will have  to  initiate a
    
    
    
    
     multiple agency, multiple discipline program.  There  can
    
    
    
    
     be little plant  life and bottom  fauna where turbidity  is
    
    
    
    
     maintained  continuously  above 200 Jackson  Turbidity Units
                   The addition  of  putrescible wastes  to  a
    
    
    
     stream  may  result in minor enrichment,  in enrichment
    
    
    
     which produces excessive growths and  growths  of  undesir-
    
    
    
     able organisms or blooms or  the enrichment may be  so
    
    
    
     great that  the breakdown of  the organic  material by
    
    
    
     bacteria  results in the depletion  of  oxygen and  fish
    
    
    
    
     kills.
    

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                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   Organic enrichment which encourages the
    
    
    
    
    excessive growth of filamentous algae and rooted aquatics
    
    
    
    
    can be detrimental from the standpoint of interfering
    
    
    
    
    with other uses of the water such as fishing or boating,
    
    
    
    
    swimming and water skiing. Algal growths may become so
    
    
    
    
    dense that during the day they supersaturate the water
    
    
    
    
    with oxygen due to photosynthetic action and at night
    
    
    
    
    their respiration and that of the bacteria depletes the
    
    
    
    
    oxygen.  Wide fluctuations in oxygen levels with super-
    
    
    
    
    saturation due to photosynthetic action is a mark of
    
    
    
    
    organic enrichment and often an indication of pollution.
    
    
    
    
                   Dissolved oxygen levels are of outstand-
    
    
    
    
    ing importance for aquatic life. In the determination of
    
    
    
    
    water quality requirements for aquatic life, special
    
    
    
    
    attention must be given to dissolved oxygen concentra-
    
    
    
    
    tions and their variations. When minimum concentrations
    
    
    
    
    of dissolved oxygen are listed as water quality require-
    
    
    
    
    ments,  these minimums represent the lowest desirable
    
    
    
    
    concentrations and daily and seasonal fluctuations must b
    
    
    
    
    above these concentrations.  The amount of oxygen present
    
    
    
    
    largely determines temperatures which may be harmful or
    
    
    
    
    which ma.y be survived by the aquatic biota.  As the
    

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                   	384
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    temperatures rise, more and more oxygen Is required.   If
    
    
    
    
    oxygen levels are low, temperature levels must be kept
    
    
    
    
    low.  In the setting of water quality criteria, there-
    
    
    
    
    fore, temperature and oxygen levels must be interrelated.
    
    
    
    
    T.eJ^^LL^L^J^eJ3^LL5^Q.5.._?.2^1 Aquatic Life
    
    
    
                   Temperature is a very important factor
    
    
    
    
    in the aquatic environment.  Because the fishes and the
    
    
    
    
    lower aquatic organisms are all cold-blooded, metabolism
    
    
    
    
    in these organisms is largely dependent upon temperature.
    
    
    
    
    Therefore, in the aquatic environment temperature and
    
    
    
    
    dissolved oxygen must be considered together. As tempera-
    
    
    
    
    ture rises to the upper levels of normal temperatures, th
    
    
    
    
    dissolved oxygen must be near to or at saturation in orde
    
    
    
    
    to insure full activity.  Temperature influences aquatic
    
    
    
    life in a number of ways.  It may be lethal, it may
    
    
    
    
    initiate or prevent migration, and it triggers or retards
    
    
    
    spawning activities.  It controls to a certain extent the
    
    
    
    
    metabolism, activity, feeding and growth of organisms.
    
    
    
    
    It is important in the governing of productivity.  It is
    
    
    
    
    very important in determining the qualitative and quan-
    
    
    
    
    titative makeup of the aquatic biota.  Even small changes
    
    
    
    
    in temperature can make the environment more favorable
    

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                    	385
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    for one species and less favorable for another with the
    
    
    
    
    result one species decreases while another becomes domi-
    
    
    
    
    nant. Temperature influences the digestion of food and
    
    
    
    
    certain enzymatic and physiological processes.
    
    
    
    
                    During geological time, the organisms
    
    
    
    
    present in a given region gradually adapted to the envi-
    
    
    
    
    ronmental conditions in that region or perished.  In  time
    
    
    
    
    therefore, the  environmental conditions to which these
    
    
    
    
    organisms have  adapted have now become their environ-
    
    
    
    
    mental requirements.  Sudden or large changes in the
    
    
    
    
    environmental conditions due to man's activities can  be
    
    
    
    
    very destructive to the aquatic biota.  Aquatic organisms
    
    
    
    
    have become adapted to seasonal temperature patterns
    
    
    
    
    which are essential for their physiological activities
    
    
    
    
    and those of the organisms on which they deoend as food.
    
    
    
    
    Aquatic organisms have also adapted to daily fluctuations
    
    
    
    in temperature which in some instances are quite wide.
    
    
    
    
    In the setting of temperature standards, attention must
    
    
    
    
    be paid to maintaining daily and seasonal patterns of
    
    
    
    
    temperature fluctuation.   Excessive warming of the water
    
    
    
    
    during the winter,  early spring or late fall months can
    
    
    
    
    have disastrous  effects from the standpoint of spawning,
    
    
    
    
    emergence or food production. While aquatic organisms
    

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                       Dr.  C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    may  resist high temperature for  short  periods, a  cooling
    
    
    
    
    off  at  night  is essential.  They cannot withstand high
    
    
    
    
    temperatures  around  the  clock. Daily variations must,,
    
    
    
    
    therefore, be maintained. When heat is added artificially
    
    
    
    
    to the  environment,  it  should be added at a constant rate
    
    
    
    
    so that it is superimposed on natural  temperatures and
    
    
    
    
    the  normal daily  and seasonal variations are maintained.
    
    
    
    
                   Increasing water  temperatures is equiva-
    
    
    
    
    lent to moving the whole stream  further south.  Observa-
    
    
    
    
    tions of the  aquatic environment over  a number of years
    
    
    
    
    have led us to the conclusion that certain rises  in
    
    
    
    
    temperature may be allowed.  However,  in selecting the
    
    
    
    
    allowable increases  in  temperature, it must be kept in
    
    
    
    
    mind that these increases must not be  harmful under those
    
    
    
    
    conditions during which  the rises of temperature  are most
    
    
    
    
    significant;  i.e., during low water flows in the  summer
    
    
    
    
    months. In determining  safe conditions, we must deal with
    
    
    
    
    extremes as it is the extremes which are governing and
    
    
    
    
    are  most important in determining adverse effects.  Thus,
    
    
    
    
    allowable increases  in  temperature are governed by the
    
    
    
    
    increase which is not significantly harmful during the
    
    
    
    
    time of peak  temperatures and the low  flow and during
    

    -------
                    	^587
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    winter months when low temperatures are required.  In
    
    
    
    
    order that this temperature increase may be as large  as
    
    
    
    
    possible without significant harm, it is essential to
    
    
    
    
    definitely limit its duration and to determine its
    
    
    
    
    effects during  periods when temperature may become
    
    
    
    
    critical.
    
    
    
    
                   For freshwaters, the National Technical
    
    
    
    
    Advisory Committee judged that an amount of heat may  be
    
    
    
    
    added which will raise the average minimum daily low
    
    
    
    
    flow for the month 5P; except daily maximum temperatures
    
    
    
    
    shall not exceed the maximum allowable temperature for
    
    
    
    
    the locally desired biota.  With this suggested approach,
    
    
    
    
    the amount of heat expressed as BTU's which could be
    
    
    
    
    added to any stream during any given month would be
    
    
    
    
    determined as follows:  The average of daily low flows
    
    
    
    
    for the month in question when expressed in pounds of
    
    
    
    
    water is multiplied by the allowed increase in tempera-
    
    
    
    
    ture in degrees Fahrenheit,  namely 5.  By the addition
    
    
    
    
    of this constant amount of heat in BTU's per second on
    
    
    
    
    existing temperatures, we will automatically obtain
    
    
    
    
    temperatures  which  follow the normal seasonal and daily
    
    
    
    
    temperature fluctuations  characteristic of that stream.
    

    -------
    	388
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Peak  allowable  temperatures for  certain fish associations
    
    
    
    
     for both  summer and winter have  been listed in the Nationp.1
    
    
    
    
     Technical Advisory Committee Report on Water Quality
    
    
    
    
     Criteria.
    
    
    
    
                   As has been indicated previously, high
    
    
    
    
     allowable temperatures must be of only short duration.
    
    
    
    
     Temperatures which adult fish can withstand for short
    
    
    
    
     periods are entirely unsatisfactory for long-term
    
    
    
    
     exposures.  Further, temperatures which may be resisted
    
    
    
    
     by adults for considerable periods can be entirely
    
    
    
    
     unsatisfactory  for the survival  of the species. When
    
    
    
    
     fish  and  other  aquatic organisms are subjected to the
    
    
    
    
     stress  of high  temperatures, they require periods of
    
    
    
    
     cooler  water such as naturally occur at night.  High
    
    
    
     temperatures must not be maintained around the clock.
    
    
    
    
                    Seasonal variations are also of outstand-
    
    
    
    
     ing importance.  There must be a gradual acclimatization
    
    
    
    
     to summer and winter temperatures, with a gradual warming
    
    
    
    
     up in the spring and a gradual cooling off in the fall.
    
    
    
    
     Temperatures which would be normal and favorable in the
    
    
    
    
     summer  would be rapidly lethal under winter conditions;
    
    
    
    
     conversely, temperatures which would be entirely favorabl
    

    -------
                    	389
    
    
    
    
                       Dr. C. M. Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    in the winter season would be rapidly lethal after the
    
    
    
    
    fish have become acclimated to the higher summer tempera-
    
    
    
    
    tures.  In most of the warm water fishes, spawning is
    
    
    
    
    induced by a rising temperature and an increasing day
    
    
    
    
    length.  If temperatures are artificially raised before
    
    
    
    
    the increase in day length, harmful effects can occur.
    
    
    
    
    The food of many fishes, or their young, consists of
    
    
    
    
    phytoplankton or those organisms that directly feed on
    
    
    
    
    phytoplankton.  Since the phytoplankton development is
    
    
    
    
    influenced by the length of day as well as temperature,
    
    
    
    
    with artificial temperature rises, it is possible to have
    
    
    
    
    the young produced before their customary food is avail-
    
    
    
    
    able.  The same principle applies to the emergence of
    
    
    
    
    aquatic insects. The higher temperatures may speed UD
    
    
    
    
    their life process such that they emerge into a cold and
    
    
    
    
    uninviting climate.
    
    
    
    
                   An allowable artificial temperature increa
    
    
    
    
    of 10F in those streams having natural temperatures whic!
    
    
    
    
    range from the  mid to upper eighties during July and
    
    
    
    
    August can have very harmful effects even though a maxi-
    
    
    
    
    mum temperature of 93 F is imposed.   This is because with
    
    
    
    
    an increase of  10F  the minimum daily temperatures become
    

    -------
    	390
    
    
    
    
                        Dr.  C.  M.  Tarzwell
    
    
    
    
    
    
     93F  or  more  and  if cooling  towers  are  used  to  .just  meet
    
    
    
    
     the maximum allowable,  temperatures  at  or  near  93  F  will
    
    
    
    
     be maintained around the  clock.   Such  prolonged high
    
    
    
    
     temperatures  have  been  demonstrated  to  be  harmful  to
    
    
    
    
     many  fishes.
    
    
    
    
                   A  study  of  temperature  records of some
    
    
    
    
     Iowa  streams  for  March, April,  May  and  June  indicates
    
    
    
    
     that  temperatures  range in the  40-'s  and 50's during
    
    
    
    
     March  and April and even  into May,  but  the range in  May
    
    
    
    
     is usually in the  upper kO's  and  in  the 50's. In June,
    
    
    
    
     temperatures  are  more stable  and  in  the 60's and above.
    
    
    
    
     A rise of 10  P will push  temperatures  normally  in  the
    
    
    
    
     40's  and 50's into the  50's  and 60's   with resultant
    
    
    
    
     damage to the black bass  reoroduction.  A rise of 10  P
    
    
    
    
     will  lengthen the  summer  season and  may result  in  a
    
    
    
    
     change in the biota.
    

    -------
    	39Q-A
    
    
    
    
    
                           C.  V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BLOMGREN:   Since  our reoort was
    
    
    
    
     prepared,  Mr.  Chairman, and  transmitted to the Iowa
    
    
    
    
     Pollution  Control  Commission,  we  have  done some
    
    
    
    
     additional analysis  on  bacterial  loadings  to the
    
    
    
    
     Missouri River.  We  have  a young  engineer  in our
    
    
    
    
     office,  Bob Hegg,  who will paraphrase  and  discuss
    
    
    
    
     the  material in  Appendix  H which  we  transmitted to
    
    
    
    
     the  Commission by  Air Mail Special  last weekend and
    
    
    
    
     we have  made a distribution  to the  staff members  of
    
    
    
    
     the  Iowa Water Pollution  Control  Commission.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:  All right,  we will accept
    
    
    
    
     that.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  SAMSON:   Mr. Blomgren,  will that
    
    
    
    
     be an  Appendix to  the Water  Quality  Standards Con-
    
    
    
    
     ference  for the  State of  Iowa?
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BLOMGREN:   Yes,  Mr.  Samson, we
    
    
    
    
     have a supply  of the appendix  out in the hall.
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:  They will be distributed.
    

    -------
    	391
    
    
    
    
    
                            B.  A.  Hegg
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    (Appendix H appears  herein  at  pages  245-B
    
    
    
    
     to  253-)
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   STATEMENT BY BOB A.  HEGG
    
    
    
    
             SANITARY  ENGINEER,  MISSOURI BASIN  REGION
    
    
    
    
          FEDERAL  WATER  POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
    
    
    
    
                       KANSAS CITY,  MISSOURI
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR. HEGG:   Mr.  Chairman,,  my name  is  Bob
    
    
    
    
     Hegg.   I  am  a  Sanitary  Engineer with  the Missouri  Basin
    
    
    
    
     Region  of the  Federal Water Pollution Control Administra-
    
    
    
    
     tion.
    
    
    
    
                    An analysis was  made on the eight-day dry
    
    
    
    
     weather navigation flow data,  which is presented in table
    
    
    
    
     in  this  appendix.  This data  is taken from the October
    
    
    
    
     1968  survey  conducted by the  FWPCA.  The effort  of  this
    
    
    
    
     analysis  was directed at determining  the effect  of  treat-
    
    
    
    
     ment  on removing  the bacterial  contamination  in  the
    
    
    
    
     Missouri  River.
    
    
    
    
                    The coliform data on the  Missouri River
    
    
    
    
     from  Gavins  Point to St. Joseph were  evaluated in  terms
    
    
    
    
     of  a  coliform  mass.  For example, the data were  evaluated
    

    -------
                             	392
    
    
    
    
    
                           B. A. Hegg
    
    
    
    
    
    
    from a total number per day approach rather than a con-
    
    
    
    
    centration approach.  The coliform masses were calculated
    
    
    
    
    for the various sources along the reach of the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    River from Gavins Point to St. Joseph.  These coliform
    
    
    
    
    source data included measurements of the waste effluents
    
    
    
    
    at the Sioux City Sewage Treatment Plant, the Council
    
    
    
    
    Bluffs Sewage Treatment Plant, the Monroe Street Sewer
    
    
    
    
    at Omaha, Nebraska, and estimates of the densities in
    
    
    
    
    the remaining outfalls from Omaha and Papillion Creek.
    
    
    
    
    Also included were the measurements of coliform densities
    
    
    
    
    from the major tributaries.
    
    
    
    
                   A mass diagram of this data is presented
    
    
    
    
    in the appendix.  The mass diagram indicated that the
    
    
    
    
    major sources of coliforms in the Missouri River during
    
    
    
    the dry weather period of the October survey were contrib-
    
    
    
    
    uted  by the major cities.  The coliform contribution to
    
    
    
    
    the Missouri River from the Big Sioux River, the Soldier
    
    
    
    
    River, and the Boyer River was negligible during the
    
    
    
    
    normal flow period of the October survey.  These observa-
    
    
    
    
    tions led to the next portion of the analysis.
    
    
    
    
                   The major source of coliforms are from the
    
    
    
    
    wastewater effluents.  Consequently, an analysis was made
    

    -------
    	393
    
    
    
    
                           B. A. Hegg
    
    
    
    
    
    
     to  determine the effect of treatment on  reducing the
    
    
    
    
     quantity of coliforms in the Missouri River.  A 93 percen
    
    
    
    
     reduction of coliform was assumed with secondary treat-
    
    
    
    
     ment and a 98.5 percent reduction of coliform was assumed
    
    
    
    
     with secondary treatment and chlorination.  The estimated
    
    
    
    
     effects of these types of treatment on river coliform
    
    
    
    
     concentrations are also shown in a graph  in the appendix.
    
    
    
    
                   Other analyses were made  also.  A mass
    
    
    
    
     balance was also made on the fecal coliform organisms.
    
    
    
    
     The results showed that approximately 50  percent of the
    
    
    
    
     fecal coliforms in the river could be accounted for in
    
    
    
    
     the reach from Sioux City to Omaha.  This includes only
    
    
    
    
     those fecal coliforms measured at the Sioux City Sewage
    
    
    
    
     Treatment Plant.  It does not include coliform organisms
    
    
    
    
     that may have been contributed from the  other waste
    
    
    
    
     sources in the Sioux City area.  Greater  than 75 percent
    
    
    
    
     of the fecal coliform organisms could be  accounted for
    
    
    
    
     in the reach of the river from Omaha to St. Joseph.
    
    
    
    
                   The effect of two stage chlorination
    
    
    
    
     was also evaluated.  It was assumed that with two stage
    
    
    
    
     chlorination,  a concentration of 500 MPN/100 ml could be
    
    
    
    
     attained in effluent.  This reduction is far in excess of
    

    -------
                           B. A. Hegg
    
    
    
    
    
    
    the 98.5 percent reduction assumed for secondary treatment
    
    
    
    
    with chlorination.  This effluent concentration would
    
    
    
    
    virtually eliminate the effect of the major cities on the
    
    
    
    
    river coliform concentration.  If this reduction were
    
    
    
    
    realized, the major sources of bacterial contamination
    
    
    
    
    would have "been the Boyer River and the Platte River.
    
    
    
    
    This conclusion is based on conditions existing in the
    
    
    
    
    river that were similar to those in the October 1968
    
    
    
    
    survey conducted by the FWPGA.  The maximum value of
    
    
    
    
    coliform concentration in the river, assuming two stage
    
    
    
    
    chlorination and primary treatment, was estimated to be
    
    
    
    
    4250 MPN/100 ml.
    
    
    
                   The following conclusions are based on
    
    
    
    
    the above analyses and apply to the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
    conditions that existed during the dry weather period
    
    
    
    
    of the October 1968 survey.
    
    
    
                   1.  Greater than 85 percent of the
    
    
    
    
         total coliforms measured in the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
         were contributed by the major waste sources
    
    
    
    
         along the stream.
    
    
    
    
                   2.  Approximately 50 percent of the
    
    
    
    
         fecal coliforms measured in the Missouri River-
    

    -------
    	395
    
    
    
    
    
                       B.  A.  Hegg
    
    
    
    
    
    
     were contributed by the  major waste sources
    
    
    
    
     that were measured during the October 1968
    
    
    
    
     survey.
    
    
    
    
               3.   The total  and fecal coliform
    
    
    
    
     contribution  to the Missouri River from the
    
    
    
    
     Big Sioux River, the  Soldier River and the
    
    
    
    
     Boyer River were negligible during the dry
    
    
    
    
     weather  period of the October survey.
    
    
    
    
               4.   Secondary  treatment alone would
    
    
    
    
     not be adequate to provide  reduction of coli-
    
    
    
    
     forms to meet the National  Technical Advisory
    
    
    
    
     Committee's standard  for public  drinking
    
    
    
    
     water supplies based  on  the analysis outlined
    
    
    
    
     above.   And that standard is 10,000 MPN/100 ml.
    
    
    
    
               5.   Chlorination  following secondary
    
    
    
     treatment would be adequate to provide reduc-
    
    
    
    
     tion of  coliforms  to  meet the National Techni-
    
    
    
    
     cal Advisory  Committee's  standard for  public
    
    
    
    
     water supplies  based  on  this analysis.
    
    
    
    
               6.   Primary treatment  with two stage
    
    
    
    
     chlorination  would be adequate to provide
    
    
    
    
     reduction of  coliforms to meet the  National
    

    -------
                                                          396
                           B. A. Hegg
    
    
    
    
    
    
         Technical Advisory Committee   standard for
    
    
    
    
         public water supplies also based on this
    
    
    
    
         analysis.
    
    
    
    
                   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Mr. Stein, I would ask you,on
    
    
    
    
    this analysis made on the eight-day dry weather period,
    
    
    
    
    was there any correlation by the Federal Government on
    
    
    
    
    this analysis with either the authorities in Nebraska
    
    
    
    
    or Iowa?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Can you answer that, Mr. Hegg?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  I am asking you that as
    
    
    
    
    Chairman, was any correlation on this work as set out
    
    
    
    
    here in the--
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  What do you mean by correla-
    
    
    
    
    tion?
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Did they correlate work with
    
    
    
    
    the State authorities on this investigation?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Do you mean is this a coopera-
    
    
    
    
    tive study?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Yes.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Again you are going to have to
    
    
    
    
    ask the technical staff.  I am not any more familiar with
    

    -------
    	397
    
    
    
    
                           B. A. Hegg
    
    
    
    
    
    
     this  than  you  are.
    
    
    
                    Mr. Hegg  or  anyone?
    
    
    
    
                    MR. HEGG:  I  can't answer  that.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. BLOMGREN:  You  weren't  running  any
    
    
    
    
     concurrent studies of  that  nature, were  you, Mr. Schlieke^man?
    
    
    
    
                    MR. SCHLIEKELMAN:   No.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. BLOMGREN:  This was data  collected  by
    
    
    
    
     the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.
    
    
    
    
                MR. RADEMACHER:  Both States  were invited to
    
    
    
    
     cooperate  with  us on this.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. BLOMGREN:  Certainly.   They  partici-
    
    
    
    
     pated in the survey from the standpoint  of-~
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:   Let  me  try to get this  ques-
    
    
    
    
     tion.   Mr.  Samson of Nebraska asked a question.  As I
    
    
    
    
     understand it,  your answer  was  yes?
    
    
    
    
                    MR. RADEMACHER:  Yes.
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:   All  right.
    
    
    
    
                    DR. MORRIS:   Mr. Stein.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:   Yes.
    
    
    
    
                    DR. MORRIS:   I am Dr. Morris  from the Iowa
    
    
    
    
     Water Pollution Commission.
    
    
    
    
                    I did visit  the  installation  which
    

    -------
    	,	,	398
    
    
    
    
    
                           B. A. Hegg
    
    
    
    
    
    
    included the mobile laboratory for chemical work and the
    
    
    
    
    bacteriological work on the upper part of the river.  I
    
    
    
    
    visited out here in October and again in January.  So I
    
    
    
    
    saw the operation, discussed what was going on, but we
    
    
    
    
    had no data collection process going from the State of
    
    
    
    
    Iowa, at least.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   Thanks, Mr. Stein.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Blomgren, do you have any more?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  This next statement is
    
    
    
    
    addressed to the "Chairman, Water Quality Standards
    
    
    
    
    Conference, State of Iowa, Convening April 15, 19^9^
    
    
    
    
    Council Bluffs, Iowa.
    
    
    
    
                   "Dear sir:
    
    
    
    
                   "The Missouri River Public Water Supplies
    
    
    
    
    Association represents all of the major public irater
    
    
    
    
    utilities using the Missouri River as a source of supply,
    
    
    
    
    except Kansas City, Kansas.  This statement is the
    
    
    
    
    collective judgment of the utilities comprising the
    
    
    
    
    association.
    
    
    
    
                   "The Missouri River Public Water Supplies
    

    -------
     	_	399
    
    
    
    
                            H.  0.  Hartung
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Association is concerned that the present Missouri River
    
    
    
    
     raw water quality does not further deteriorate and that the
    
    
    
    
     Missouri River shall remain a suitable and desired source
    
    
    
    
     of drinking water for the  3,000,000 to 4,000,000 persons
    
    
    
    
     supplied by the utilities  of  the association.
    
    
    
    
                    "The water  treatment plants of  the Asso-
    
    
    
    
     ciation's members are designed and operated to  produce a
    
    
    
    
     quality water for drinking and other uses, from the
    
    
    
    
     present normal quality Missouri River water.  If the
    
    
    
    
     Missouri River water quality  is additionally polluted,
    
    
    
    
     existing water treatment may  no longer be adequate for
    
    
    
    
     the production of a quality drinking water.   Taste and
    
    
    
    
     odor,  disinfection and coagulation problems  which have
    
    
    
    
     already occurred at all of the water treatment plants on
    
    
    
    
     the Missouri River because of ammonia, oil and fertilizer
    
    
    
     spills  into the Missouri River, and because  of unusual
    
    
    
    
     runoffs from agricultural  lands,  clearly show  that there
    
    
    
    
     is a definite limit to the amount of pollution which
    
    
    
    
    jean be  removed in existing water treatment plants.
    
    
    
    
                    "The Missouri  River Public Water Supplies
    
    
    
    
     Association supports the FWPCA statement to  the Water
    
    
    
    
     Quality Standards Conference  - State of Iowa,  convening
    

    -------
                          H. 0. Hartung
    
    
    
    
    
    
    April 15, 1969, at Council Bluffs, Iowa, in all matters
    
    
    
    
    which can be demonstrated to result in Missouri River
    
    
    
    
    water quality improvement."
    
    
    
    
                   This letter is signed "Very truly yours,
    
    
    
    
    H. 0. Hartung,  President, Missouri River Public Water
    
    
    
    
    Supplies Association."
    
    
    
    
                   I ask that that be placed in the record,
    
    
    
    
    Mr. Chairman.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  It has been when you read it
    
    
    
    
    in the record.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  That is the copy in the
    
    
    
    
    transcript.
    
    
    
    
                   (Which said letter is as follows:)
    

    -------
    **^*^ ** * * * "/ j  ST. LOUIS COUNTY WATER CO.  8390 Delmor Blvd.   University C,ty, Mo. 63124 & (314)091-3404
      vlatei
        Chairman
        Water Quality Standards conference
        State of Iowa, Convening April 15, 19&9
        Council Bluffs, Iowa
    
        Dear Sir:
    
        The Missouri River Public Water Supplies Association represents  all
        of the major public water utilities using the Missouri  River as  a
        source of supply,  except Kansas City,  Kansas.  This statement is the
        collective judgment of the utilities comprising the Association.
    
        The Missouri River Public Water Supplies Association is concerned  that
        the present Missouri River raw water quality does  not further deterio-
        rate and that the  Missouri River shall remain a suitable and desired
        source of drinking water for the 3,000,000 to ^,000,000 persons  sup-
        plied by the utilities of the Association.
    
        The water treatment plants of the Association's members are  designed
        and operated to produce a quality water for drinking and other uses,
        from the present normal quality Missouri River  water.   If the Missouri
        River water quality is additionally polluted, existing  water treatment
        may no longer be adequate for the production of a  quality drinking
        water.  Taste and  odor, disinfection and coagulation problems which
        have already occurred at all of the water treatment plants on the
        Missouri River because of ammonia,  oil and fertilizer spills into  the
        Missouri River, and because of unusual run-offs from agricultural
        lands, clearly show that there is a definite limit to the amount of
        pollution which can be removed in existing water treatment plants.
    
        The Missouri River Public Water Supplies Association supports the
        FWPCA statement to the Water Quality Standards  Conference -  State  of
        Iowa, convening April 15, 19^9,  at Council Bluffs,  Iowa,  in  all  matters
        which can be demonstrated to result in Missouri River water  quality
        improvement.
                                                   Very truly yours,
                                                   H. 0. Hartung, President
                                                   Missouri River Public Water
                                                   Supplies Association
        HOH:rb
    

    -------
    		402
    
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  Mr. Chairman, as our con-
    
    
    
    
    clusions in this matter, we again site the water uses
    
    
    
    
    detailed in our report, the need for quality criteria
    
    
    
    
    to support those uses, and the necessary changes in Iowa'
    
    
    
    
    water quality standards to achieve conformance with the
    
    
    
    
    Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  The following
    
    
    
    
    recommendations are made for addition to the Iowa water
    
    
    
    
    quality standards to insure that we fulfill our legal
    
    
    
    
    responsibilities.  These recommendations are consistent
    
    
    
    
    with those items  contained in the Secretary's conference
    
    
    
    
    notice and are based on the best information available at
    
    
    
    
    this time.  I will repeat the three major  recommendations
    
    
    
    
    in total for the  benefit of those not present at the
    
    
    
    
    Davenport  session on April 8th.
    
    
    
                   The three which I mentioned in my summary
    
    
    
    
    statement, radiological,  phenol  and non-degradation,  I
    
    
    
    
    believe have been resolved by your  counterstatement  there,
    
    
    
    
    at least there was some  measure  of  agreement, and  it  woul 1
    
    
    
    
    serve  no purpose  for me  to  repeat those  recommendations.
    
    
    
    
                   Recommendation No. 1.  All  significant
    
    
    
    
    municipal  wastes  discharged into the  interstate waters
    
    
    
    
    of Iowa  shall  receive  a minimum  of  secondary  treatment
    

    -------
    	  	403
    
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    prior to discharge.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  What page are you on there.
    
    
    
    
    Carl?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  Page VI-1, Mr. Samson.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  All significant industrial
    
    
    
    
    wastes shall receive an equivalent of secondary treatment
    
    
    
    
    prior to discharge into any interstate stream. For the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River, a timetable of compliance shall be sub-
    
    
    
    
    mitted no later than December 31> 1969*  In no case shall
    
    
    
    
    the compliance date be any later than December 31, 1977.
    
    
    
    
                   Recommendation No. 2.  Control of bacterio-
    
    
    
    
    logical pollution by continuous disinfection shall be
    
    
    
    
    implemented.  A timetable for implementation shall be
    
    
    
    
    established by September 30, 19&9-   In no case shall the
    
    
    
    
    compliance date for the installation and operation of
    
    
    
    
    continuous disinfection facilities  extend beyond Decem-
    
    
    
    ber 31,  1970.
    
    
    
    
                   No. 3.  For the production and well being
    
    
    
    
    of locally occurring desirable stream fish populations,
    
    
    
    
    heat additions should be limited as follows.
    
    
    
    
                   At no time shall the addition of heat be
    

    -------
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    authorized which will raise the water temperature more
    
    
    
    
    than 5 degrees Fahrenheit; but in any event the addition
    
    
    
    
    of heat shall not raise water temperatures above a
    
    
    
    
    maximum tailored for each individual lake or stream and
    
    
    
    
    necessary to protect the production of locally occurring
    
    
    
    
    desirable fish populations and their associated biota.
    
    
    
    
                   That completes the Federal Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
    Control Administration   presentation.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Let me just ask a question
    
    
    
    
    here for clarification.
    
    
    
                   You say that all significant municipal
    
    
    
    
    wastes discharged into the interstate waters of Iowa
    
    
    
    
    shall receive a minimum of secondary treatment prior to
    
    
    
    
    discharge, all significant industrial wastes receive an
    
    
    
    
    equivalent to secondary treatment prior to discharge
    
    
    
    into any interstate stream.  Then the next sentence says,
    
    
    
    
    "For the Missouri River" and talks about a timetable to b
    
    
    
    
    completed not later than December 31, 19&9., compliance
    
    
    
    
    December 31, 1977.
    
    
    
                   The question I have is the interstate
    
    
    
    
    rivers, as I read it in the call of the conference, go
    
    
    
    
    beyond the Missouri River?'  Do you mean this timetable
    

    -------
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    to include those streams or just those discharging to
    
    
    
    
    the Missouri River?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  In our summary statement,
    
    
    
    
    Mr. Chairman, we recognize that Iowa has designated
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment for those interstate streams tributary
    
    
    
    
    to the Missouri and established a timetable which will
    
    
    
    
    secure this secondary treatment for all those wastes prioi
    
    
    
    
    to July 31, 1972.
    
    
    
                   Is that correct, Mr. Buckmaster?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUOKMASTER:  I am Robert Buckmaster,
    
    
    
    
    Chairman of the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission.
    
    
    
    
                   Let me just clarify one thing.  The dates
    
    
    
    
    are not wrong, but you have assumed at Davenport and you
    
    
    
    
    have assumed here something which is erroneous.
    
    
    
    
                   We have never required secondary treatment
    
    
    
    
    as such on the interior streams.  What we have required
    
    
    
    
    is whatever treatment is necessary to maintain the water
    
    
    
    
    quality standards, and there isn't an interior stream in
    
    
    
    
    the State, because of the volume of flow, that doesn't
    
    
    
    
    require secondary treatment in order to meet those
    
    
    
    
    standards.
    
    
    
    
                   But you misstate our position when you
    

    -------
    	406
    
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    state that we require secondary treatment.  We require
    
    
    
    
    whatever it takes, as we do also on the interstate stream
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Yes.  I think his point is
    
    
    
    
    well taken.  All I am doing is trying to clarify this
    
    
    
    
    and make the issue.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Yes.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  I don't want anything to fall
    
    
    
    
    within the cracks., so to speak.
    
    
    
    
                   The point is, if you mean to say that we
    
    
    
    
    can strike that phrase  "for the Missouri River" and if
    
    
    
    
    this is your recommendation that we should have a time-
    
    
    
    
    table of compliance to  meet these dates for all the
    
    
    
    
    internal streamsfor all the interstate streams, do you
    
    
    
    
    mean that?
    
    
    
                   MR. RADEMACHER:  No, sir, just the Missour
    
    
    
    
    River.
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  How about  those other rivers?
    
    
    
    
    What do you mean for them?
    
    
    
                   MR. RADEMAGHER:  It again refers, sir,
    
    
    
    
    to the charge of the Secretary in terms of what was to be
    
    
    
    
    considered.  This  is the Missouri River that we are talk-
    
    
    
    
    ing about  in setting this particular  standard.
    

    -------
                         C.  V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  STEIN:   No,  no,  no,  no,  no.
    
    
    
    
                   Let  me stay with this.   This is  not a
    
    
    
    
    question of argument.  This is  a question of trying to
    
    
    
    
    join the issues so  we know what the situation is.
    
    
    
    
                   Let  me say in all candor,  I  think I under-
    
    
    
    
    stand Mr. Buckmaster's position.  I am not  sure that the
    
    
    
    
    position of the Federal  people, as  I find it now,  joins
    
    
    
    
    with it and makes the issue.
    
    
    
    
                   The  point is you have asked  for  secondary
    
    
    
    
    treatment on the Missouri  River in  this case, a time-
    
    
    
    
    table of compliance to be  submitted no later than
    
    
    
    
    December 31, 1969.   In no  case  shall the  compliance
    
    
    
    
    date be any later than December 31* 1977.
    
    
    
                   I can understand your position on that,
    
    
    
    
    I can understand Mr. Buckmaster's position  on that.
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  SAMSON:   Mr. Chairman--
    
    
    
                   MR.  STEIN:   Just a moment, Mr. Samson.
    
    
    
    
                   Now  let's come to the streams, the  inter-
    
    
    
    
    state streams in the notice, which  have been covered by
    
    
    
    
    the Secretary's call.  As  I understand it,  Mr.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    says his State's position  is they do not  require secondar^
    
    
    
    
    treatment or any other necessary form of  treatment except
    

    -------
    	408
    
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    what is  required by the facts of  the  case.  As I under-
    
    
    
    
    stand  it,  in here, since we  say "for the Missouri River,"
    
    
    
    
    the Federal Government is not making  any  recommendations
    
    
    
    
    for a  timetable or a degree  of treatment  for the wastes
    
    
    
    
    in those  streams.  Is that the way?   This is the way  this
    
    
    
    
    reads  to  me.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  You are referring  to  the
    
    
    
    
    interior  streams here?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Yes.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  But interstate?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  But which  the  Secretary calls
    
    
    
    
    interstate.
    
    
    
                   Now, if it is your  judgment  that we are
    
    
    
    
    supposed  to have secondary treatment  for  those streams,
    
    
    
    
    then we  have an issue joined.  But the difficulty  is  I
    
    
    
    
    don't  get a Federal recommendation on those streams.
    
    
    
                   The point is, to say that  you agree with
    
    
    
    
    what Iowa has  done on these  streams,  I am not sure you
    
    
    
    
    and I  are saying the same thing.   Therefore, I think  we
    
    
    
    
    have to  really zero in on this.
    
    
    
                   Do you mean that for all the interstate
    
    
    
    
    streams  covered you want secondary treatment?
    

    -------
    __	409
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. RADEMACHER:  Mr. Stein, I think  that
    
    
    
    
    the approval of the standards for the State of Iowa, with
    
    
    
    
    the exceptions cited, the three conditions that were set,
    
    
    
    
    and I will repeat them: The treatment requirements  and
    
    
    
    
    implementation plan for waste discharges to the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    and Mississippi Rivers;  2 ,  the requirements for disin-
    
    
    
    
    fection of all discharges which may be sources of bacter-
    
    
    
    
    iological pollution; and  3, the temperature criteria for
    
    
    
    
    the interstate waters of  the State other than the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    and Mississippi Rivers.
    
    
    
                   I will defer to Mr. Burd to comment  about
    
    
    
    
    approval of standards for the interior streams, the inter
    
    
    
    
    state waters.
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Do you want to answer that,
    
    
    
    
    Bob?
    
    
    
                   You see, I want to be sure--this is  not an
    
    
    
    
    argument here--but I want to be sure that the Federal
    
    
    
    
    people and Iowa understand each other and you are saying
    
    
    
    
    the same thing.  In other words, we can't come back and
    
    
    
    
    say--I guess we can come back if we want to, but I  think
    
    
    
    
    it would be a fruitless thing to come back and say  we
    
    
    
    
    haven't understood each other on the interior streams of
    Phe
    

    -------
                             	410
    
    
    
    
    
                         C.  V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    the State, that we meant one thing and Iowa meant another
    
    
    
    
    when  we were together.   As far as I can see,  I am
    
    
    
    
    not sure we mean the same thing.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER: I will state it again
    
    
    
    
    and make sure if they have  any argument about it.
    
    
    
    
                   Our position is basically no different on
    
    
    
    
    the Mississippi and Missouri than it is on the interstate
    
    
    
    
    streams that feed these streams or, for that matter, on
    
    
    
    
    our interstate streams ourselves.  e apply the same
    
    
    
    
    policy to all of them.  I am just citing from memory,
    
    
    
    
    but I believe this is accurate.
    
    
    
                   Out of almost 500 treatment plants, and
    
    
    
    
    I am not differentiating between intra and interstate
    
    
    
    
    waters, but of almost 500 plants on the interior of Iowa
    
    
    
    
    there are four or five that we have determined or may
    
    
    
    
    determine do not require secondary treatment to meet the
    
    
    
    
    water quality standards.  These are small cities, in the
    
    
    
    
    area, as I recall, of two or three hundred, most of them.
    
    
    
    
    But our tests and our philosophy are the same all the
    
    
    
    
    way through.  We require whatever treatment it takes to
    
    
    
    
    meet the water quality standards, and in roughly 500
    
    
    
    
    interior treatment plants there may be four or five in
    

    -------
    	411
    
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    small cities that we would not require secondary treatmenl
    
    
    
    
    of because in our judgment it wasn't necessary to maintair
    
    
    
    
    the water quality standards.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Does that explain our
    
    
    
    
    position?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  I think I understand your
    
    
    
    
    position.  What I want to know is if the Federal Govern-
    
    
    
    
    ment wants to make a recommendation on that, are they
    
    
    
    
    satisfied with that position, or whether we have an
    
    
    
    
    is sue.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BURD:  My name is Bob Burd, Deputy
    
    
    
    
    Assistant Commissioner for--
    
    
    
                   FROM THE FLOOR:  We can't hear him.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:    Come up here.  I do think
    
    
    
    
    this is a key question that we can zero in on now because
    
    
    
    
    it might give us a lot of trouble later.
    

    -------
                             	412
    
    
    
    
    
                             B. Burd
                    STATEMENT BY ROBERT BURD
    
    
    
    
                DEPUTY ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR
    
    
    
    
           OPERATIONS, FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BURD:  My name is Bob Burd, Deputy
    
    
    
    Assistant Commissioner for Operations, FWPCA.
    
    
    
    
                   The Secretary of the Interior approved the
    
    
    
    
    standards for the interior interstate streams of Iowa,
    
    
    
    
    that is those streams other than the Missouri and Missis-
    
    
    
    
    sippi Rivers, with the exception of the temperature cri-
    
    
    
    
    teria and the bacteriological criteria.  He did approve
    
    
    
    
    the implementation plan which relates to waste treatment
    
    
    
    
    requirements and  time schedules.
    
    
    
    
                   The recommendation that FWPCA is making
    
    
    
    
    at this time is that all significant wastes discharged
    
    
    
    
    into the Missouri River shall receive a minimum of
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment prior to discharge.  All significant
    
    
    
    
    industrial wastes will receive an equivalent of secondary
    
    
    
    
    treatment prior to discharge into the Missouri River.
    
    
    
    
                   So when we talk about treatment require-
    
    
    
    
    ments and the recommendation, we are talking about  dis-
    
    
    
    
    charging to  the Missouri River.
    

    -------
    	413
    
    
    
    
    
                          E. Lightfoot
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  That is my understanding
    
    
    
    
    of the posture of both of us, with one exception.   I
    
    
    
    
    thought we had agreed on disinfection because of  the
    
    
    
    
    letter you sent me and I didn't think that was  any  longer
    
    
    
    
    an argument either.
    
    
    
    
                   But other than that I agree with you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Edward Lightfoot, Missouri
    
    
    
    
    Water Pollution Control Board.
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Lightfoot.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT BY EDWARD LIGHTFOOT
    
    
    
    
         ON BEHALF OF JACK K. SMITH, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
    
    
    
    
                  MISSOURI WATER POLLUTION BOARD
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. LIGHTFOOT:  My name is Edward  Lightfoot
    
    
    
    and I am presenting this statement on behalf of Mr. Jack Y
    
    
    
    
    Smith, Executive Secretary of the Missouri Water  Pollutior
    
    
    
    
    Board.
    
    
    
                   Staff members of the Missouri Water  Pol-
    
    
    
    
    lution Board have reviewed the "Water Quality Standards
    
    
    
    
    Conference, State of Iowa," a document published by  the
    
    
    
    
    U. S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution
    

    -------
                          E.  Lightfoot
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Control Administration,  Missouri Basin Region.   We offer
    
    
    
    
    the following comments:
    
    
    
    
                   The interstate waters common to Missouri
    
    
    
    
    and Iowa of concern to Missouri at this hearing are the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River, Nishnabotna River, Tarkio River, Nodaway
    
    
    
    
    River, Platte River, West Tarkio River, One Hundred and
    
    
    
    
    Two River, Grand River,  East Fork of the Grand River,
    
    
    
    
    Thompson River, Little River, Weldon River, and the
    
    
    
    
    Chariton River.  We have attached a table of the estab-
    
    
    
    
    lished water uses in Missouri for waters of these streams
    
    
    
    
                   The Missouri Water Pollution Board sub-
    
    
    
    
    mitted a statement in letter form at the original water
    
    
    
    
    quality hearing held at Council Bluffs, December 2, 1966;
    
    
    
    
    at Ottumwa on December 5> 19^6; and at Muscatine on
    
    
    
    December 6, 1966.  Then on December 16, 1966, the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri Water Pollution Board submitted an attachment
    
    
    
    
    which pointed out the minor differences between Missouri
    
    
    
    
    and Iowa   criteria.
    
    
    
    
                   The recommendation for secondary treatment
    
    
    
    
    and disinfection are effluent regulations, a part of the
    
    
    
    
    plan for implementation.  We are concerned that the
    
    
    
    
    quality of the interstate waters from Iowa does not
    

    -------
    		415
    
    
    
    
    
                          E. Lightfoot
    
    
    
    
    
    
    interfere with the legitimate water uses established for
    
    
    
    
    waters in Missouri, not the degree of treatment to be
    
    
    
    
    provided.
    
    
    
                   Temperature requirements in Missouri
    
    
    
    
    interstate waters is a maximum of 90 degrees Fahrenheit
    
    
    
    
    with a maximum of 5 degrees Fahrenheit cross sectional
    
    
    
    
    change.  We now have data available indicating that the
    
    
    
    
    water temperature of the shallow, flat north Missouri
    
    
    
    
    streams  approaches the ambient air temperature.  High
    
    
    
    
    temperature measured in the north Missouri streams to
    
    
    
    
    date is  97 degrees Fahrenheit.  On other occasions the
    
    
    
    
    temperature had exceeded the 90 degrees Fahrenheit in
    
    
    
    
    our standards.  We have attached water quality data col-
    
    
    
    
    lected to date on the Iowa-Missouri interstate streams
    
    
    
    
    in the Missouri River Basin.
    
    
    
                   Recommendations for phenol concentration
    
    
    
    
    in Iowa's streams is proposed at one microgram per liter.
    
    
    
    
    Missouri, in cooperation with Illinois, has collected
    
    
    
    
    one grab sample per month from the Mississippi River at
    
    
    
    
    Canton,  Quincy, and other downstream water plant intakes
    
    
    
    
    over the past five years.  Concentrations of phenol or
    
    
    
    
    phenolic like compounds have been measured at Canton
    

    -------
    	4l6
    
    
    
    
    
                          E. Lightfoot
    
    
    
    
    
    
    from 0 to 50 micrograms per liter.  From July 1964, to
    
    
    
    
    June 1968, 15 out of 46 samples measured 2 micrograms
    
    
    
    
    per liter to 50 micrograms per liter with a medium value
    
    
    
    
    of 7 micrograms per liter and an average value of 11.4
    
    
    
    
    micrograms per liter.
    
    
    
    
                   No taste or odor problems have been asso-
    
    
    
    
    ciated with these concentrations of phenol or phenolic-
    
    
    
    
    like compounds in the Canton water supply or the downstre4tfi
    
    
    
    
    water supplies on the Mississippi River.  Furthermore, we
    
    
    
    
    do not know of any taste and odor problems due to phenolic
    
    
    
    
    compounds at Missouri cities using the Missouri River as
    
    
    
    
    a water supply.
    
    
    
    
                   We have "been informed by Dr. Louis Hemphil]
    
    
    
    
    University of Missouri, Sanitary Engineering Department,
    
    
    
    that "The quantitative specificity of the present standard
    
    
    
    
    methods 4-Aminoantipyrine is insufficient to determine the
    
    
    
    
    specific nature of phenolic materials.  Experimental
    
    
    
    
    laboratory work has shown that this test has high quanti-
    
    
    
    
    tative response for phenol and enolic materials.  However,
    
    
    
    
    the nature of phenol and creosol ortho, meta and para
    
    
    
    
    isomers gives a confused value."
    
    
    
                   Therefore we do not believe that one
    

    -------
    	  	417
    
    
    
    
    
                          E. Lightfoot
    
    
    
    
    
    
    microgram per liter is a realistic value for the criteria,
    
    
    
    
    If a taste and/or odor problem occurs in- a water supply,
    
    
    
    
    we will take necessary steps to identify the source and
    
    
    
    
    to correct the problem regardless of the measured con-
    
    
    
    
    centration of phenols.
    
    
    
    
                   (The following tables were submitted by
    
    
    
    
    Mr. Lightfoot:)
    

    -------
                                    II. WATER USES
                                       TABLE 2
                                    MISSOURI RIVER
                                                                                 4l8
    Name of stream
    Future | Present
    Irrigation
    Livestock watering
    Propagation of
    commercial fish
    Propagation of warir.
    water sport fish
    Propagation of cold
    water sport fish
    60
    a
    r-l
    (-1
    
    -------
                                     II.  WATER USES
                                        TABLE 3
                               LOWER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN
                                   Interstate Streams
    Name of stream
    Future | Present
    Irrigation
    Livestock watering
    Propagation of
    commercial fish
    Propagation of warm
    water sport fish
    Propagation of cold
    water sport fish
    60
    f.
    H
    M
    0)
    J
    n)
    >
    0)
    U-l
    H
    .H
    -d
    ! 1
    H
    S
    Industrial cooling
    water
    Industrial process
    water
    Drinking water
    supply
    Hydroelectric
    power
    Boating and
    canoeing
    Fishing
    Whole body water
    contact recreation
    r'
    Aesthetic .value
    Receive effluents
    Navigation
    Receive surface
    runoff
    NISHNABOTNA RIVER
    Nishnabotna
    River'
    P
    F
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    Tarkio River
    West Tarkio
    River
    P
    F
    P
    F
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    TARKIO RIVER
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    NODAWAY RIVER
    Nodaway River
    P
    F
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    X
    X
    
    
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    X
    X
    PLATTE RIVER
    Platte River
    One Hundred
    and Two River
    
    P
    F
    P
    F
    P
    F
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    X
    X'
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    X
    X
    X
    X
    
    
         The future use of the Tarkio, West Tarkio,  Nodaway,  and Platte Rivers for
    drinking water supply is the only future use listed above which is not also a
    present use of these streams.  It is necessary to set aside now the future use
    of these waters for drinking water supplies so that the water quality will be
    suitable when the need for additional supplies of water arises.  It is not
    possible at this time to estimate when the Tarkio, West Tarkio, Nodaway and
    Platte Rivers will be used for public water supply; however, it is clear that
    public water supply would be a logical future use of these streams.
         Future uses not herein specified are not expressively excluded; however,
    such future uses are not anticipated.
    

    -------
                                                                                  420
                                        TABLE   5
                                LOW FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
                                           FOR
                                GRAND-CHARITON RIVER  BASIN
                                    Interstate Streams
    
    Cf-v^'i T - *
    
    GRAND
    Grand River near Grant City
    Grand River near Stanberry
    Grand River near Darlington
    Grand River near Pattonsburg
    Grand River near Gallatin
    Grand River at Chillicothe
    Grand River near Sumner
    Annual 7 day low flow, in cubic feet
    per second, for indicated recurrence
    interval in years.
    2 5
    RIVER
    1.7
    3.3
    8.2
    11
    20
    78
    105
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    6
    
    
    41
    10
    20
    
    eo-i
    e
    _ o-i
    el-3
    el-3
    3.6
    
    17
    
    25
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    2.7
    
    
    17
    30
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    2.4
    
    
    13
    EAST FORK OF GRAND RIVER
    East Fork Grand River at Albany
    1.9
    
    
    THOMPSON RIVER
    Thompson River near Mt. Moriah
    Thompson River at Trenton
    11
    16
    
    
    5.4
    LITTLE RIVER
    eo-i_
    d
    3.2
    _==
    
    _ __
    
    
    
    
    
    2.0
    
    
    1.6
    
    The U.S. Geological Survey has insufficient flow data for the Little Rive on which
    to base a flow analysis.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    d-Insufficient data for estimate
    e-Range in discharge estimated on basis of frequency curve slopes at nearby
      continuous-record stations and extension of regression curves
    f-Short-time continuous-record station which was analyzed as a partial-record
      station due to scant data
    

    -------
                                                                                  421
                                         TABLE 5
                                LOW FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
                                           FOR
                         GRAND-CHARITON RIVER."BASIN (continued)
                                   Interstate Streams
    
    
    Annual 7 day low flow, in cubic feet
    per second, for indicated recurrence
    interval in years.
    2 5 10
    20
    30
    WELDON RIVER
    Weldon River near Mercer
    Weldon River at Mill Grove
    feldon River near Trenton
    0.3
    2.2
    6.2
    0
    	 o.i
    
    
    0
    0
    (d)
    CHARITON RIVER
    3hariton River at Novinger
    ^hariton River near Prairie Hill
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    7.4
    21
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    2.1
    9.5
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    1.0
    
    6.5
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    0
    0
    	
    0
    0
    	
    
    0.5
    5.0
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    0.3
    4.6
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    b-Discontinued continuous-record station
    d-Insufficient data for estimate
    

    -------
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    -------
                          E.  Lightfoot
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  LIGHTFOOT:   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  STEIN:   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   Let  me indicate what we may have on the
    
    
    
    
    program for the rest of the day.
    
    
    
                   By the way,  does anyone from Nebraska want
    
    
    
    
    to speak or not?
    
    
    
    
                   If not--
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  SAMSON:   Mr. Chairman,  I have indicatec
    
    
    
    
    that I didn't have  any remarks to make, and I am accom-
    
    
    
    
    panied here by our  Executive Secretary, Mr. Filipi, who
    
    
    
    
    I know loves to make a speech.
    
    
    
                   But  I am somewhat confused, which isn't
    
    
    
    
    unusual.  In your Water Quality Standards  Conference,
    
    
    
    
    State of Iowa, you  made a requirement here or a recom-
    
    
    
    
    mendation that all  significant municipal wastes dischargee
    
    
    
    
    into the interstate waters  of Iowa shall receive a mini-
    
    
    
    mum of secondary treatment  prior to discharge, and then
    
    
    
    
    you have a timetable there  that compliance shall be sub-
    
    
    
    
    mitted not later than December 31* 1969* and tne compli-
    
    
    
    
    ance date of not later than December 31* 1977-
    
    
    
    
                   Now, if my memory serves me correctly,
    

    -------
    	435.
    
    
    
    
                             J.  Samson
    
    
    
    
    
    
    and you can correct me if I am wrong, I think  there  is
    
    
    
    
    a provision in the Federal Act that requires some  con-
    
    
    
    
    sistency between areas.  Isn't there some provision  like
    
    
    
    
    that?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  I  don't know about  it.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  I thought that  there was  some,
    
    
    
    
    generally areas that were neighbors, that there should be
    
    
    
    
    some consistency.
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  I  think we try to be consistent
    
    
    
    
    Of course we are from the east, and you know Emerson  was
    
    
    
    
    from the east too and he is the man who said, "Consistency
    
    
    
    
    is the hobgoblin of mediocre  minds."
    
    
    
    
                   (Laughter.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Well, aside from that, our
    
    
    
    
    provisions in Nebraska,  the water quality standards  which
    
    
    
    
    were approved by the Secretary of the Interior sometime
    
    
    
    
    ago, in connection with  the Missouri River  provides  that;
    
    
    
    
                    The date for  compliance with the standards
    
    
    
    
    on all municipal and industrial wastes, except for those
    
    
    
    
    facilities located on the main stem of the  Missouri  River,
    
    
    
    
    shall be by 1972.  A special  timetable for  facilities  dis-
    
    
    
    
    charging into the Missouri River will be developed- by
    

    -------
                            J. Samson
    
    
    
    
    
    
    December 31, 1969.  A continuing program of waste treat-
    
    
    
    
    ment plant construction will go forward with the assistan
    
    
    
    
    of the grants.
    
    
    
                   I wonder if there isn't some inconsistency
    
    
    
    
    here on the position of the Federal authorities on what
    
    
    
    
    is required here in Iowa and what we have done in Nebraskfi
    
    
    
    
                   And the second point I wanted to raise is
    
    
    
    
    on this continuous disinfection shall be implemented as a
    
    
    
    
    control of bacteriological pollution.   I don't recall
    
    
    
    
    as far as Nebraska was concerned that there was ever any
    
    
    
    
    problem raised by you folks on the Federal level involvin
    
    
    
    
    the control of the bacteriological pollution and we are
    
    
    
    
    going to run into this question of continuous disinfectio^i
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  We will throw all those ques-
    
    
    
    
    tions up to our staff.  I think you have a point on several
    
    
    
    
    of those.
    
    
    
                   One, let me indicate that as far as I see
    
    
    
    
    the standards program, and the staff can check me, dealing
    
    
    
    
    with 53 jurisdictions and in dealing with Federal-State
    
    
    
    
    relations,  I don't think you are going to have complete
    
    
    
    
    uniformity  or it may depend on your definition of con-
    
    
    
    
    sistency.   Every State program is not going to be the
    

    -------
    	437
    
    
    
    
    
                             J. Samson
    
    
    
    
    
    same and I don't think the Congress or anyone contemplated
    
    
    
    
    if you are going to have 53 different programs that they
    
    
    
    
    would be the same.
    
    
    
    
                   The point is, I think that they would be
    
    
    
    
    compatible.  Now, let's get to one step at a time.  As I
    
    
    
    
    understood the colloquy before between Mr. Buckmaster and
    
    
    
    
    Mr. Burd, and without drawing any conclusions I can put
    
    
    
    
    this together, I think, in a logical package.
    
    
    
    
                   Taking what Mr. Buckmaster said, I think
    
    
    
    
    we might say that all significant wastes in the feeder
    
    
    
    
    streams to the Missouri are receiving secondary treatment.
    
    
    
    
    If the judgment is that these are not significant wastes,
    
    
    
    
    then I can see how they could approve a program that didn't
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment for all.  And the difference here may
    
    
    
    
    come about as to the degree of treatment required on the
    
    
    
    discharges directly to the Missouri River.  I don't know
    
    
    
    
    that we can try to put a program like that together.
    
    
    
    
                   Now, we have several other problems.  I
    
    
    
    
    don't know whether you have a heat requirement in Nebraska
    
    
    
    
    either,  do you, like this?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  You raise an interesting ques-
    
    
    
    
    tion.  We have two atomic-powered plants putting into the
    

    -------
    	__	438
    
    
    
    
    
                             J.  Samson
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River, and I think what we worked out on thermal
    
    
    
    
    pollution was approved by your agency.
    
    
    
    
                   Isn't that right, Mr. Rademacher, on the
    
    
    
    
    thermal pollution, that is at Desoto--and if there is
    
    
    
    
    such a thingat Desoto and at Falls City?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. RADEMACHER:  Again I think that the
    
    
    
    
    question of thermal standards on the Missouri River is
    
    
    
    
    not an issue.  It is on the interior streams of Iowa that
    
    
    
    
    this question arises.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  I agree.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Well, this still raises a
    
    
    
    
    question, you see, if you are going to look for consistenc
    
    
    
    
    I am not sure that there was any requirement on--is there
    
    
    
    
    a thermal requirement on the interior streams in Nebraska?
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Will you restate that?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Is there a requirement on the
    
    
    
    
    thermal pollution?  Is it about the same  as this that you
    
    
    
    
    are recommending here?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BURD:  Yes.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  All  right.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  What is it?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  I don't  know.
    

    -------
                            J. Samson
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Let's have somebody tell
    
    
    
    
    us who does know.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Does anyone remember this?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  I think it is important
    
    
    
    
    that we know because we have spent almost a total day
    
    
    
    
    in Davenport and here by people who have been pulled in
    
    
    
    
    all over the United States talking about a difference of
    
    
    
    
    three degress, and if it didn't require any for Nebraska
    
    
    
    
    it would be interesting to Iowa to know why, although we
    
    
    
    
    don't claim that would be any defense for us, but it
    
    
    
    
    would be an interesting exercise in how the Federal mind
    
    
    
    
    works.
    
    
    
    
                   (Laughter.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you for a double compli-
    
    
    
    
    ment, that we have a. raind and it works.
    
    
    
    
                   (Laughter.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Now show us how, Mr. Stei
    
    
    
    
                   (Laughter.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Well, I think we can produce
    
    
    
    
    that, but let's not hold up the proceedings for that.
    
    
    
    
                   Let's move on.  Can we answer that second
    
    
    
    
    question that Mr. Samson raised on disinfection?  Do we
    

    -------
                                                          Uo
                             J.  Samson
    have a requirement for disinfection in Nebraska?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  No.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  We don't?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  None.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  All right.  We don't have a
    
    
    
    
    requirement in the internal streams or in the Missouri?
    
    
    
    
                   All right.
    
    
    
                   I suggest we go on and we will give you
    
    
    
    
    an opportunity later when we find the temperature, if
    
    
    
    
    there is a temperature requirement, to get that informa-
    
    
    
    
    tion in the record.  0. K.?
    
    
    
                   Let me indicate the people we have left
    
    
    
    
    this afternoon.
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Mr. Stein, may I inquire,
    
    
    
    what is the response from the government on that bacteriO'
    
    
    
    
    logical disinfection, what is the position of the govern-
    
    
    
    
    ment?
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  You heard the recommendation
    
    
    
    
    here.  They said they had none for Nebraska.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  I mean  inasfar  as Iowa is
    
    
    
    
    concerned.
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  I think  they agree.  It says
    

    -------
                             J.  Samson
    
    
    
    
    
    
    controlunless I am mi s taken  control of bacteriological
    
    
    
    
    pollution by continuous  disinfection shall be implemented
    
    
    
    
    A timetable for implementation shall be established by
    
    
    
    
    September 30, 19^9- In no case shall the compliance date
    
    
    
    
    for the installation and operation of continuous disin-
    
    
    
    
    fection facilities extend beyond December 30, 1970.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  All right.  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  And that is the position as
    
    
    
    
    far as I know of the people preparing this report for
    
    
    
    
    Iowa.  As far as I can see, and check my recollection
    
    
    
    
    if this isn't correct, I think the regionthis is not the
    
    
    
    
    Kansas City region,, but the region in Chicago made the
    
    
    
    
    same recommendation in Davenport last week or essentially
    
    
    
    
    the same recommendation.
    
    
    
    
                   What we do have is a list of three more
    
    
    
    
    participants this afternoon.  One is W.  W.  Amundson of
    
    
    
    Sioux City,  second is Mrs. Koerber of the League of Women
    
    
    
    
    Voters, and the third is Dr. Morris.  Is there anyone
    
    
    
    
    else?  Because we are going to recess -before we hear
    
    
    
    
    these three.
    
    
    
    
                   Is there anyone else who  would want to be
    
    
    
    
    heard this afternoon?   If you do,  would  you come up to me
    

    -------
                           W. Amundson
    
    
    
    
    
    
    during recess.  We will stand recessed for 10 minutes.
    
    
    
    
                            (RECESS)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  May we reconvene.
    
    
    
    
                   May we have Mr. Amundson, please, of
    
    
    
    Sioux City.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT BY WILLIAM AMUNDSON
    
    
    
    
                          CITY ENGINEER
    
    
    
    
                         SIOUX CITY, IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. AMUNDSON:  Mr. Chairman and conferees,
    
    
    
    
    I am Bill Amundson, City Engineer for Sioux City.  I have
    
    
    
    
    no written statement.  I merely want to reiterate the
    
    
    
    
    position of Sioux City in this matter.
    
    
    
    
                   I would like, in speaking for Sioux City,
    
    
    
    
    to take the position of thanking the Iowa Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
    Control Commission for the stand that they have taken in
    
    
    
    
    this matter and to indicate that the city of Sioux City
    
    
    
    
    is in full agreement with it.
    
    
    
    
                   Sioux City, as many of you know, holds the
    
    
    
    
    unfavorable and unpopular and dubious distinction of
    
    
    
    
    having been one of the few cities put under Federal order
    

    -------
                           . Amundson
    
    
    
    
    
    
    to cease and desist polluting the Missouri River prior to
    
    
    
    
    the construction of our primary treatment plant.  We have
    
    
    
    
    constructed this primary treatment plant and we feel that
    
    
    
    
    we have probably as tight a rein on our situation and the
    
    
    
    
    packing industry in our city as anyone on the river.  We
    
    
    
    
    deplore the situation that goes on in other areas on the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River, particularly on the other side with our
    
    
    
    
    adjacent State Nebraska.
    
    
    
    
                   We feel that we wonder whether the measure-
    
    
    
    
    ments that have been taken by the Federal Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
    Control Administration were taken specifically from the
    
    
    
    
    Sioux Cityour name has been bandied around here today
    
    
    
    
    as being a serious contributor to this pollution; we
    
    
    
    
    wonder whether these measurements were taken as repre-
    
    
    
    
    senting Sioux City's outfalls rather than the many, many
    
    
    
    
    other outfalls that contribute to the downstream areas
    
    
    
    
    just beloxtf Sioux City.
    
    
    
    
                   I would repeat again that the city of
    
    
    
    
    Sioux City takes the stand of supporting the position of
    
    
    
    
    the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Mr. Amundson.
    
    
    
    
                   You know, we were up in Sioux City ma'ny
    

    -------
                       Mrs. G. G. Koerber
    
    
    
    
    
    
    years, and I will say after they got the plant in it was
    
    
    
    
    very nice up there because they used to invite me to that
    
    
    
    
    annual steak dinner they had in Washington.
    
    
    
    
                   Let's go off the record for a minute.
    
    
    
    
                   (Off the record.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:   May we have Mrs. Koerber, of
    
    
    
    
    the League of Women Voters.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
              STATEMENT BY MRS. GEORGE G. KOERBER
    
    
    
        DIRECTOR AND STATE CHAIRMAN FOR WATER RESOURCES
    
    
    
    
                LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS OF IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MRS. KOERBER:  I am Mrs. George G. Koerber,
    
    
    
    
    an elected Director of the League of Women Voters of Iowa
    
    
    
    
    and State Chairman for Water Resources.  The League of
    
    
    
    
    Women Voters is a volunteer, non-partisan group working
    
    
    
    
    to promote informed and active participation of citizens
    
    
    
    
    in government.  I am grateful for this opportunity to
    
    
    
    
    present the views of Iowa League members regarding surfac<
    
    
    
    
    water quality standards.
    
    
    
    
                   For many years, the League in Iowa and in
    
    
    
    
    the United States has been concerned with water resources
    

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                       Mrs .  G. G. Koerber
    
    
    
    
    
    
    We have expressed our concern by supporting measures to
    
    
    
    
    encourage coordinated planning and management of water
    
    
    
    
    resources on a river basin or regional basis.  At the
    
    
    
    
    same time, we have worked for enactment and enforcement
    
    
    
    
    of pollution abatement legislation as well as for State
    
    
    
    
    and Federal appropriations and local bond issues to con-
    
    
    
    
    struct treatment facilities.  In 1965, the League with
    
    
    
    
    other interested groups  supported the formation of the
    
    
    
    
    Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission.
    
    
    
                   We were particularly pleased that the
    
    
    
    
    statute establishing the Commission declared that the
    
    
    
    
    public policy of Iowa is "to conserve the waters of the
    
    
    
    
    State and to protect,maintain, and improve the quality
    
    
    
    
    thereof for public water supplies, for the propagation of
    
    
    
    
    wildlife, fish and aquatic life, and for domestic, agri-
    
    
    
    cultural, industrial, recreational and other legitimate
    
    
    
    
    uses of such waters; to  provide that no waste be discharg
    into any waters of the State without first being given th
    
    
    
    
    degree of treatment necessary to protect the legitimate
    
    
    
    
    uses of such waters; to provide for the prevention, abate
    
    
    
    
    ment, and control of new, increasing, potential, or exist
    
    
    
    
    ing water pollution."  The statute, in addition, specifically
    d
    

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                       Mrs. G. G. Koerber
    
    
    
    
    
    
    empowers the Commission "to develop comprehensive plans
    
    
    
    
    and programs for the prevention, control and abatement
    
    
    
    
    of new, increasing, potential, or existing pollution of
    
    
    
    
    the waters of the State."
    
    
    
    
                   Acting under this authority, the Iowa
    
    
    
    
    Water Pollution Control Commission has made Iowa a
    
    
    
    
    leader in pollution control.  Iowa has the highest
    
    
    
    
    percentage of its urban population served by sewage
    
    
    
    
    treatment facilities.  The Commission has proposed
    
    
    
    
    regulations to prevent and control water pollution by
    
    
    
    
    cattle feedlots.  Thus Iowa is among the first group of
    
    
    
    
    States to deal constructively with this problem.  For
    
    
    
    
    providing this leadership, the Commission deserves wider
    
    
    
    
    recognition of its achievements than it has received.
    
    
    
                   In addition, the Commission should be com-
    
    
    
    
    mended for adopting a preventive policy toward water
    
    
    
    
    quality standards for low flow streams.  This policy is
    
    
    
    
    stated on page 8 of the Water Quality Criteria and Plan
    
    
    
    
    for Implementation and Enforcement as revised  June 1968.
    
    
    
    
    It reads "to protect legitimate uses on low flow streams,
    
    
    
    
    the wastes will be given the highest practicable degree
    
    
    
    
    of treatment without respect to dilution in order to
    

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                       Mrs. G. G. Koerber
    
    
    
    
    
    
    prevent the development of nuisance or health problems
    
    
    
    
    below discharge.  Treatment less than secondary treatment
    
    
    
    
    will not be accepted unless it can be shown that the
    
    
    
    
    legitimate uses can be protected with a lesser degree of
    
    
    
    
    treatment."
    
    
    
    
                   Now, if this means what I think it means,
    
    
    
    
    I ask these questions:  If it is possible to require
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment on low flow streams without proof by
    
    
    
    
    the Commission that water quality has been affected
    
    
    
    
    adversely, is it not possible to require the same degree
    
    
    
    
    of treatment on high flow streams as well?  Is it not
    
    
    
    
    equally valid to place the burden of proof that primary
    
    
    
    
    treatment is not detrimental on those discharging into
    
    
    
    
    high flow streams as well as those on low flow ones?
    
    
    
    
    After all, a high flow has at least one disadvantageeven
    
    
    
    
    though it provides greater dilution, it has the effect of
    
    
    
    
    decreasing the distance between communities so that the
    
    
    
    
    stream has less time between communities to cleanse itsel:
    
    
    
    
                   The League of Women Voters of Iowa believe
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment or its equivalent by municipalities
    
    
    
    
    and industries along the Missouri River is necessary to
    
    
    
    
    prevent and control new,  increasing, or potential pollutic
    

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    	448
    
    
    
    
    
                       Mrs. G. G. Koerber
    
    
    
    
    
    
    if not existing pollution.  We ask the Iowa Water Pollu-
    
    
    
    
    tion Control Commission to continue to look ahead, to
    
    
    
    
    anticipate problems and to adopt measures to prevent the
    
    
    
    
    development of nuisance or health problems.
    
    
    
    
                   With our present population, let's assume
    
    
    
    
    for a moment that primary treatment is adequate, what
    
    
    
    
    happens if we wait to require secondary treatment?  Even
    
    
    
    
    with the best monitoring system possible, water quality
    
    
    
    
    would be lowered unless we can install treatment facilities
    
    
    
    
    on an overnight basis.
    
    
    
    
                   We urge the Iowa Water Pollution Control
    
    
    
    
    Commission to adopt a requirement for secondary treatment
    
    
    
    
    or its equivalent along the Missouri River and to initiat(
    
    
    
    plans for implementation and enforcement now.  Action now
    
    
    
    
    will prevent pollution from accompanying the predicted
    
    
    
    
    increase in population for the urban areas along this
    
    
    
    
    river, because action now means the necessary treatment
    
    
    
    
    facilities will be in operation when the increase occurs- 
    
    
    
    
    not five or more years later.  Action now will save the
    
    
    
    
    public money.  It costs less to treat the wastes entering
    
    
    
    
    the river than it does to treat the water to make it
    
    
    
    
    potable or usable by industry.  Action now will avoid
    

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    	449
    
    
    
    
    
                        Mrs.  G.  G.  Koerber
    
    
    
    
    
    
     some  of  the  annual  increase In cost  of  constructing
    
    
    
    
     facilities.
    
    
    
                    On the  remaining matters  under  discussion
    
    
    
    
     here,,  the  League as a  lay  group cannot  speak on  the
    
    
    
    
     technical  points involved.   We can,  however, speak to  the
    
    
    
    
     policy that  will govern  the technical decisions.  The
    
    
    
    
     League "believes the Commission when  setting quality
    
    
    
    
     standards  should abide by  policy which  gives greater
    
    
    
    
     weight to  protecting the public and  to  protecting the
    
    
    
    
     environment  than to other  factors.
    
    
    
                    We know that other areas  of the Nation
    
    
    
    
     have  greater pollution problems.  This  fact, however,
    
    
    
    
     does  not remove the need to prevent  or  control pollution
    
    
    
    
     in  this  basin.  On  the contrary,  the severe problems
    
    
    
     elsewhere  should be justification for preventive action
    
    
    
    
     here  because it demonstrates  so well the result  of pro-
    
    
    
     crastination and undue reliance upon dilution  as a means
    
    
    
    
     of  water quality control.   We  must learn from  experience
    
    
    
    
     and take this opportunity  to  keep history from being
    
    
    
    
     repeated.  As taxpayers  and consumers,  League  members
    
    
    
    
     are willing  to  pay  their share of the cost to  conserve
    
    
    
    
     water  quality for succeeding  generations.
    

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                            C.  Noren
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you, Mrs. Koerber.
    
    
    
    
                   I will put this in next because it comes
    
    
    
    
    from an official State agency.
    
    
    
    
                   "This telegram is to emphasize the concern
    
    
    
    
    of the Missouri Department of Conservation regarding the
    
    
    
    
    detrimental effects of pollution on the fish, wildlife,
    
    
    
    
    and recreation resources of the Missouri River and its
    
    
    
    
    tributaries.  We believe that a high degree of waste
    
    
    
    
    treatment is necessary to improve the condition of the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River and that a non-degradation policy is
    
    
    
    
    essential to prevent further damage to the aquatic
    
    
    
    
    resources of waste, heat or other pollutants unforeseen
    
    
    
    
    at this time.
    
    
    
                   "Sincerely,
    
    
    
                   "Carl R. Noren, Director
    
    
    
                   "Missouri Department of Conservation."
    
    
    
    
                   Now, Mr. Bob Russell.
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Russell.
    

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                                                          451
                          R. C. Russell
                 STATEMENT BY ROBERT C. RUSSELL
    
    
    
    
               EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, IOWA DIVISION
    
    
    
    
                 IZAAK WALTON LEAGUE OF AMERICA
    
    
    
    
                        IOWA CITY, IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. RUSSELL:  Mr. Chairman,, as Chairman
    
    
    
    
    of this conference, we thank you for allowing us to
    
    
    
    
    present the following.  My name is Robert C. Russell,
    
    
    
    
    and I am the Executive Secretary for the Iowa Division
    
    
    
    
    of The Izaak Walton League of America (I.W.L.A.).  As
    
    
    
    
    such, and having received a copy of the March 5* 19^9,
    
    
    
    
    notice by Secretary of the Interior Walter J. Hickel
    
    
    
    
    setting this conference, I brought it to the attention
    
    
    
    
    of the Iowa Division I.W.L.A. State Board of Directors at
    
    
    
    
    their meeting of March 15,  1969. After discussing the
    
    
    
    
    content of the notice and how it related to our interest
    
    
    
    
    in water pollution abatement, I was delegated to prepare
    
    
    
    
    and present a statement that would contain the sentiments
    
    
    
    
    of the Board's discussion and other pertinent commentary.
    
    
    
    
    The following is that statement.
    
    
    
    
                   It has  been  the policy and indeed the
    

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    	452
    
    
    
    
    
                          R. C. Russell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    history of the Iowa Division of the I.W.L.A. to have a
    
    
    
    
    strong interest in and to support a strong water pollutioj
    
    
    
    
    abatement program.  Our effort and support in the estab-
    
    
    
    
    lishment of the present Iowa Water Pollution Control Law;
    
    
    
    
    our statements presented at the November-December,1966,
    
    
    
    
    hearings on water quality criteria for all Iowa waters;
    
    
    
    
    and our statement given at the four April,1968,public
    
    
    
    
    hearings on the subject of cattle feedlot waste disposal
    
    
    
    
    all bear this out.
    
    
    
                   Because of these involvements and our
    
    
    
    
    knowledge of the program and actions of the Iowa Water
    
    
    
    
    Pollution Control Commission, we would be remiss at this
    
    
    
    
    time if we did not publicly thank them for the work that
    
    
    
    
    they have done.  It should also be noted that many of
    
    
    
    
    their accomplishments have been made to date in spite of
    
    
    
    inadequate financing, lack of departmental personnel, and
    
    
    
    
    perhaps even the very Iowa laws under which they administ
    
    
    
    
    and operate.
    
    
    
                   Now to grips with the purpose of this
    
    
    
    
    conference, as we understand it:  Namely, resolving the
    
    
    
    
    differences between the water quality standards of the
    
    
    
    
    State of Iowa and the Fede'ral Water Pollution  Control
    

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    	453.
    
    
    
    
                           R.  C.  Russell
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Administration regarding  the interstate waters of Iowa,
    
    
    
    
     as noted in the conference notice and determined in part
    
    
    
    
     not to be consistent with the protection of the public
    
    
    
    
     health and welfare,  the enhancement of the quality of
    
    
    
    
     the water, and the purposes  of the Federal Water Pollutio
    
    
    
    
     Control Act with particular  reference to:
    
    
    
    
                    1.   The treatment requirements  and
    
    
    
          implementation  plan  for waste discharges  to the
    
    
    
    
          Mississippi and Missouri Rivers;
    
    
    
    
                    2.   The requirements for disinfection
    
    
    
    
          of controllable waste discharges which may be
    
    
    
    
          sources  of bacteriological  pollution;
    
    
    
    
                    3.   The temperature criteria for the
    
    
    
    
          interstate waters of the State other  than the
    
    
    
    
          Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.
    
    
    
                    First it is important to point  out that ou
    
    
    
    
     views  on  these  points  are from a non-technical standpoint
    
    
    
    
     and to note  that we  believe  the  following  to be relevant
    
    
    
    
     to  this  conference:
    
    
    
    
                    1.  From the  FEDERAL WATER  POLLUTION
    
    
    
    
          CONTROL  ACT,  AS AMENDED,  "DECLARATION  OF  POLICY,
    
    
    
    
          Section  1.  (a)   The  purpose  of this Act is  to
    

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                     R. C. Russell
    
    
    
    
    
    
    enhance the quality and value of our water
    
    
    
    
    resources and to establish a national policy
    
    
    
    
    for the prevention,, control and abatement of
    
    
    
    
    water pollution."
    
    
    
              2.  Prom the IOWA WATER POLLUTION
    
    
    
    
    CONTROL LAW, CHAPTER 455B.1, Statement of
    
    
    
    
    policy, excerpt, "...it is hereby declared
    
    
    
    
    to be the public policy of this State to
    
    
    
    
    conserve the waters of the State and to
    
    
    
    
    protect, maintain and improve the quality
    
    
    
    
    thereof..."
    
    
    
              3.  From the CONSERVATION POLICIES
    
    
    
    
    OF THE IZAAK WALTON LEAGUE OF AMERICA in the
    
    
    
    
    section on WATER POLLUTION, No. 6.  "Since
    
    
    
    
    water courses know no political boundaries,
    
    
    
    
    pollution control is rightfully a Federal as
    
    
    
    well as a local, State, and interstate re-
    
    
    
    
    sponsibility.  Although control measures should
    
    
    
    
    be initiated at the lowest effective level,
    
    
    
    
    the Federal Government should have clear
    
    
    
    
    authority to strongly enforce pollution
    
    
    
    
    abatement .and prevention  in cases when lower
    

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    	455
    
    
    
    
    
                           R.  G.  Russell
    
    
    
    
    
    
          authority proves  ineffectual  or  inadequate."
    
    
    
    
                    If  these  stated  Federal  and  State  policies
    
    
    
    
     of  water  quality enhancement and improvement  are  to  have
    
    
    
    
     any meaning,  for the  reasons which this  conference was
    
    
    
     called, and  because  this  organization historically has
    
    
    
    
     supported an enhancing clean waters program,  we urge the
    
    
    
    
     Iowa Water Pollution  Control Commission  to  resolve the
    
    
    
    
     issues  upon  which  this conference  was called  and  thereby
    
    
    
    
     qualify the  Iowa Water Quality  Standards  with a program
    
    
    
    
     acceptable to the  Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis
    
    
    
    
     tration.
    
    
    
    
                    Should  the Iowa  Water  Pollution Control
    
    
    
    
     Commission feel  the  need  for changes  or  additional Iowa
    
    
    
    
     legislation  that affects  its ability  to  comply with  the
    
    
    
    
     Federal Water Pollution  Control Act,  it  is  suggested that
    
    
    
    
     they immediately petition the Iowa Legislature for such
    
    
    
    
     authority.
    
    
    
    
                    In  closing we would like  to  note the
    
    
    
    
     splendid  example set  by  the  City of Dubuque,  Iowa, in its
    
    
    
    
     recent  move  to  improve its sewage  treatment program.
    
    
    
    
     Perhaps their action will set a pattern  for other cities
    
    
    
    
     on  Iowa's  border streams.  It could hopefully be ind'icati'
    /e
    

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    	456
    
                            D.  F.  Beam
    
     that cities,  industries and agriculture are seeing the
     "light" towards a better environment.  It is also hoped
     that the Federal and State water pollution control agencies
     involved with this conference can show a good example of
     cooperation.
                    Thank you.
                    MR. STEIN:   Thank you, Mr. Russell.
                    Now, before we call on Dr. Morris, is
     there anyone  else from other than the Iowa official
     agencies who  wishes to make a statement?
                    Yes, come on up here, please.
                    MR. BEAM:  Did you want me to follow Docto|?
                    MR. STEIN:   No.  Come on up here.
    
                      STATEMENT OF D. F. BEAM
               VICE CHAIRMAN, NEBRASKA COMMITTEE FOR
             PURE  AIR AND WATER, INC., OMAHA, NEBRASKA
    
    
                    MR. BEAM:  I am Mr. Beam and I am from
    i
    ' Nebraska, from Omaha.  I am Vice Chairman of the Nebraska
             J
    ' Committee for Pure Air and Water, Inc.  We, too, thank
     the Secretary of the Interior and Mr. Stein as his
    

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                           D. F. Beam
    
    
    
    
    
    
    representative for having this regional hearing.  I do
    
    
    
    
    not have a prepared statement except that I jotted down
    
    
    
    
    some notes from attending the meeting this morning.
    
    
    
    
                   It seemed to me that the concern seems to
    
    
    
    
    be on aquatic life in the streams, and my thought and my
    
    
    
    
    question was because we are humans perhaps maybe I missed
    
    
    
    
    the point of the whole study, "but I think that part of
    
    
    
    
    it was brought out when food processing was mentioned,
    
    
    
    
    and so forth, when foods are prepared from this water
    
    
    
    
    after it is treated.  But if we are concerned about the
    
    
    
    
    fish life, I think the Federal Government as well as the
    
    
    
    
    Iowa Water Pollution Commission needs to be concerned
    
    
    
    
    about such matters as toxicity as far as the human being
    
    
    
    
    is concerned and I think that the public hearing is
    
    
    
    
    threshing out some of the solutions and controls.  I
    
    
    
    think to report back to the public, the taxpayer, that is
    
    
    
    
    you and I, you also, myself included, I think this needs
    
    
    
    
    to be done, because we need to be made aware of how our
    
    
    
    money is being spent and if it is being spent wisely.
    
    
    
    
                   And then also I am wondering about the
    
    
    
    
    Commission staffs, if there is enough public represen-
    
    
    
    
    tation on these councils.  Nebraska,  I understand,  has a
    

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    	    458
    
    
    
    
    
                           D. F. Beam
    
    
    
    
    
    
    council, Nebraska Water Pollution Council.  I am wondering
    
    
    
    
    if there is enough representatives.  I think there is one
    
    
    
    
    representative to represent the public in Iowa, but I am
    
    
    
    
    not too sure about Nebraska.  That is one of the question?
    
    
    
    
    that I noted down.
    
    
    
                   Now, one of the other things that I didn't
    
    
    
    
    have too much time to delve into was the possibility of
    
    
    
    
    the recent heavy construction of nuclear  powerplants. I
    
    
    
    
    think the Federal Government has adequate technical staff
    
    
    
    
    to delve into this and I don't know whether the Federal
    
    
    
    
    water pollution council has included this in their
    
    
    
    
    studies.  This would be a radioactive waste byproduct
    
    
    
    
    accident, possibly, and this was just recently brought
    
    
    
    
    to the attention of the public through the Des Moines
    
    
    
    Register of this past Sunday which was summarized from
    
    
    
    
    the national history publication about the increase in
    
    
    
    numbers of nuclear  powerplants  throughout the country.
    
    
    
    
                   I think that your publicity that you have
    
    
    
    
    received  locally is very  good.  As far  as a  lay person,
    
    
    
    
    I  would like to see more publicity  ahead  of the conferenc^,
    
    
    
    
    although maybe this conference was  really earmarked for
    
    
    
    
    the people  that are concerned, such  as the water  treatmen
    

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                           D. F. Beam
    
    
    
    
    
    
    and sanitation engineers.
    
    
    
    
                   Is that true, Mr. Stein?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  No, no, no.  Let me
    
    
    
    
    interrupt since you have paused.  Don't go away; I
    
    
    
    
    don't want to cut you off.
    
    
    
    
                   These are always delicate issues, I
    
    
    
    
    think you have raised some good questions and we
    
    
    
    
    are going to let Nebraska, hopefully, answer you.
    
    
    
    
    However, I will give you my philosophy on this.
    
    
    
    
                   In dealing with publicity before the
    
    
    
    
    conference vie have certain enforcement actions under
    
    
    
    
    the law.  One runs the risk of using v;hatever the
    
    
    
    
    forum is--newspapers, radio and T.V.--to try a case
    
    
    
    
    or wait until you come before a forum such as this
    
    
    
    
    where all sides can be represented.  With the best
    
    
    
    
    of intentions, when you put all this material out
    
    
    
    
    in advance you don't have the traditional face-to-
    
    
    
    
    face confrontation that we like in our society, which
    
    
    
    
    seems to be the best way of getting at the truth.
    
    
    
    
                   We follow the law strictly.  First
    
    
    
    
    we prepare our reports.   I hope they got them out
    
    
    
    
    in advance so everyone could see them.  We made a
    

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                           D. P. Beam
    
    
    
    
    
    
    distribution to the appropriate congressional members,
    
    
    
    
    to the appropriate State agencies, to everyone else we
    
    
    
    
    thought would be interested in a technical report.  We
    
    
    
    
    sent out notices of the conferences, and I like to use
    
    
    
    
    the phrase "deadpan notices."  I know one mailing from
    
    
    
    
    the Kansas City office alone was, what, 800 names, wasn't
    
    
    
    
    it?  How many names did we get from the Chicago office
    
    
    
    
    on the other side?  Perhaps a like number.
    
    
    
    
                   In other words, we sent out over 1,500
    
    
    
    
    notices.  Anyone who received those notices could have
    
    
    
    
    come in and asked for the information.  The information
    
    
    
    
    is all public.
    
    
    
    
                   However, as you see, with issues such as
    
    
    
    
    we have here--and again trying to have an even-handed
    
    
    
    
    administration of the lav;--I believe that is about as
    
    
    
    
    far as an agency can reasonably go before a conference
    
    
    
    
    to distribute or disseminate the information and  put out
    
    
    
    
    what you might call, in quotes, "publicity."  The reason
    
    
    
    
    for that is apparent.  We are trying to set up a  forum
    
    
    
    
    or a procedure where we have all the points of view and
    
    
    
    
    are able to make a judgment.  In other words, we  wouldn't
    
    
    
    
    be calling a conference of this type if we didn't have
    

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                           D. F. Beam
    
    
    
    
    
    
    questions like that and we didn't recognize there might
    
    
    
    
    be differing points of view that are to be aired and
    
    
    
    
    adjudicated.
    
    
    
    
                   I know how much you are interested and
    
    
    
    
    I am just as muchin the widest dissemination of informa
    
    
    
    
    tion.  But under the American system of government, the
    
    
    
    
    jurisprudence, and in the interest of fair play, every
    
    
    
    
    governmental agency--! don't care whether it is State,
    
    
    
    
    Federal or localwhen you have a situation of this type,
    
    
    
    
    has to exercise a reasonable amount of restraint in the
    
    
    
    
    kind of, again, "publicity" engaged in before the con-
    
    
    
    
    ference.  This is the avenue by which we get all the
    
    
    
    
    various views, some agreeing, some opposing, so we can
    
    
    
    
    try to arrive at truth, if we can, and agreements if at
    
    
    
    
    all possible.  But this does not mean that we by the use
    
    
    
    
    of any term have a closed society or we have any secret
    
    
    
    
    information.   It is just that we make the information
    
    
    
    
    available through normal channels and do not try to push
    
    
    
    
    this too far before we have the conference.
    
    
    
    
                   By the way, this is the essence of the
    
    
    
    
    Federal-State relations. Where a lot of the problems come
    
    
    
    
    upagain let me give you my experience--! would say that
    

    -------
                                                         462
                           D. P. Beam
    70 percent or 80 percent of the problems that I have
    
    
    
    
    found in Federal and State relations, Federal-State-local
    
    
    
    
    industrial relations, emanate from someone reading a story
    
    
    
    
    or an alleged quote or a release in a newspaper or in a
    
    
    
    
    magazine and going back.  Again, as you know, they always
    
    
    
    
    come to me.   I have never felt that I have ever had to tell
    
    
    
    
    a magazine or a newspaper to change a story.  They do the
    
    
    
    
    best they can and we are dealing with very technical
    
    
    
    
    matters.  By and large, I would say they have been pretty
    
    
    
    
    accurate and they generally get the main point of the
    
    
    
    
    story across, which is all you can expect.  I certainly
    
    
    
    
    have never had a complaint.
    
    
    
    
                   But this is the kind of thing we all have
    
    
    
    
    to watch.  I believe we have struck a balance and we come
    
    
    
    
    to this as fast as we can.  I know the conservation group
    
    
    
    
    and a lot of the public groups would like to see some-
    
    
    
    
    thing different, but again I really do not think there is
    
    
    
    
    a substitute for face-to-face confrontation.
    
    
    
    
                   Peel free to comment on that, or we can
    
    
    
    
    ask the Nebraska people to talk first if you want to.
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Samson.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SAMSON:  Mr. Beam, I think it is very
    

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                                                          463
    
    
    
    
    
                           D.  F.  Beam
    
    
    
    
    
    
    gratifying that you as a citizen take the time to come
    
    
    
    
    over and attend this conference.
    
    
    
    
                   I just want to call your attention to our
    
    
    
    
    statute in Nebraska provides  for a membership of 10, and
    
    
    
    
    of those 10 members on the Nebraska Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
    Control Council 4 of them are ex officio members of the
    
    
    
    
    official bodies in the State  House, that is the Director
    
    
    
    
    of Fish and Game, Director of Health, Director of Soil
    
    
    
    
    and Conservation.  And then there are six who were
    
    
    
    
    appointed by the Governor, citizens over the State, and
    
    
    
    
    they are divided two representing municipalities, I mean
    
    
    
    
    citizens such as you and others that the Governor picks
    
    
    
    
    out who are interested in water pollution,  one represents
    
    
    
    
    agriculture and three represent industry.  So that is the
    
    
    
    
    way the Nebraska Water Pollution Control Council is
    
    
    
    
    constituted.
    
    
    
                   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BEAK:  Yes, that is very good.  That
    
    
    
    
    is what I was waiting to hear.  I had not seen, you know,
    
    
    
    
    a regulation or statute which shows how it is composed.
    
    
    
    
    I appreciate that.
    
    
    
    
                   I think that is all.
    

    -------
    	464
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr.  Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                    Is  there  anyone  e.ise?
    
    
    
    
                    If  not, may  we have  Dr.  Morris.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                 STATEMENT  BY DR. ROBERT L.  MORRIS
    
    
    
    
              ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, IOWA STATE HYGIENIC
    
    
    
                      LABORATORY, AMES,  IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    DR.  MORRIS:   I do not have  a  prepared
    
    
    
    
     paper.
    
    
    
    
                    I  would like  to  make a few  comments  on  som
    
    
    
    
     of  the  things  that  were  in  the  basic initial report from
    
    
    
    
     the Federal  Government.   Some things I  do  not feel  quite
    
    
    
    
     represent  the  feeling  of technical  people  and I  would
    
    
    
     like to point  them  out.   I  had  planned  one of them  before
    
    
    
    
     this last  gentleman  talked, but because of his  comment
    
    
    
     I doubly  want  to  discuss it.
    
    
    
    
                    I want  to talk for a moment about radio-
    
    
    
    
     activity.  It  says  in  the basic report  in  the blue  cover
    
    
    
    
     on  V-3, section E  under  "Radioactivity":
    
    
    
    
                    "Water  treatment plants  remove little
    
    
    
    
     radioactive  pollution  from  raw  water supply."
    

    -------
    	465
    
    
    
    
    
                            Dr.  Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    I hope this  isn't true,  because at reactor
    
    
    
    
     sites  we  use  rather conventional water  treatment processe
    
    
    
    
     to remove many kinds of radioisotopes.   We precipitate
    
    
    
    
     and filter them off to concentrate the  waste,  they are
    
    
    
    
     passed through ion  exchange  materials and the  cations,
    
    
    
    
     many of them  are the isotopes  of interest, are taken out
    
    
    
    
     in ion exchange and either  eluted or taken away from
    
    
    
    
     those  resins  and concentrated  in other  kinds of fluids
    
    
    
    
     so that they  can be disposed of  in a variety of manners.
    
    
    
    
                    And  if this  statement is  true,  we are in
    
    
    
    
     a very difficult position in  handling  radioactive
    
    
    
    
     wastes.   The  division of radiological health of the
    
    
    
    
     Public Health Service has for  many years  done  very
    
    
    
    
     excellent research  and given us  techniques and procedures
    
    
    
    
     to handle these kinds of wastes.   They  are classical
    
    
    
    
     water  treatment plant procedures.
    
    
    
    
                    Also,the research  done by  the State
    
    
    
    
     Hygiene Laboratory  in Iowa has indicated  at times  follow-
    
    
    
    
     ing weapon detonations, at least,  and this is  where  our
    
    
    
    
     experience has  been gained because we really have  no
    
    
    
    
     industrial radiation industry  in  Iowa of  any size,   we
    
    
    
    
     have found time and time again in  our national  rivers,
    

    -------
    	466
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    especially the Mississippi, the Iowa and the Cedar,
    
    
    
    
    where we have worked primarily, that 50 to 75 percent
    
    
    
    
    of the radioactivity in our streams is in suspended
    
    
    
    
    material.
    
    
    
    
                   Well, the purpose of a water treatment
    
    
    
    
    plant in the first step of surface water treatment is
    
    
    
    
    to remove suspended material, and many of our plants
    
    
    
    
    are highly efficient at this, either in just simple
    
    
    
    
    sedimentation or chemically-produced coagulation and
    
    
    
    
    then sedimentation, and it is a demonstrated fact that
    
    
    
    
    this significantly reduces the concentration of radio-
    
    
    
    
    isotopes .
    
    
    
    
                   If we go through classical lime softening,
    
    
    
    which is quite common in surface water supplies as well
    
    
    
    
    as some ground water supplies in Iowa, these are the
    
    
    
    
    materials that are taken out.  Strontium, for instance,
    
    
    
    
    which is a well-known isotope, reacts to softening
    
    
    
    
    processes just like calcium and magnesium and iron and
    
    
    
    
    manganese, which are the things we are taking out.  So
    
    
    
    
    that this again is effective as a removal technique.
    
    
    
    
                   I am not going to get complicated and
    
    
    
    
    talk about percentage removals and some of the variables
    

    -------
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    in it, but nevertheless I think that statement shoul^
    
    
    
    
    be understood.
    
    
    
    
                  In Iowa it is not uncommon fco zeoV? be
    
    
    
    
    soften municipal supplies, some of them even surface
    
    
    
    
    waters.  And we know for a fact that radium 226, which
    
    
    
    
    is a common natural  isotope in ground water supplies
    
    
    
    in southeastern Iowa, is removed to some place around the
    
    
    
    
    97 to 98 percent removal level by passage through zeo-
    
    
    
    
    lite.
    
    
    
                   The Public Health Service for about three
    
    
    
    
    years had xvhat they called the midwest environmental
    
    
    
    
    study based out of our laboratory in Iowa City where
    
    
    
    
    hundreds of samples naturally coming from the wells and
    
    
    
    
    those which had been passed through zeolite softeners
    
    
    
    
    were shown to have reduced this isotope to a very sig-
    
    
    
    nificant extent.
    
    
    
                   I think because of the comment that this
    
    
    
    
    last gentleman made about the concern about reactors,
    
    
    
    
    nuclear  powerplants, someone should at least comment on
    
    
    
    
    this statement.
    
    
    
    
                   In addition to the radioisotope idea of
    
    
    
    
    removal, I would like to state that our standards, such
    

    -------
    	468
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr.  Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
     as  existed  the  last time we  considered  it,  are  in
    
    
    
    
     essential  conformance with  what  the Water  Pollution
    
    
    
    
     Control Administration is recommending  and I  think they
    
    
    
    
     are non-controversial and I  think  they  are very  adequate.
    
    
    
    
     Our research  in  the Iowa environment  during the  time  when
    
    
    
    
     we were getting  fallout materials  indicated that we never
    
    
    
    
     came  anywhere  near the limit of  1,000 micro-microcuries
    
    
    
    
     or picocuries.   This  is a value  that  I  think  we  can live
    
    
    
    
     with  and it is certainly our intent to  do  what we can
    
    
    
    
     from  a State  level to see that the nuclear installations
    
    
    
    
     meet  these standards.
    
    
    
    
                      So,  I don't think  there is  any reason
    
    
    
    
     for concern in this respect.  I think  the Federal Govern-
    
    
    
    
     ment   requirements or philosophy  on  this  is  sound and
    
    
    
    
     we have no argument with it.
    
    
    
                   The second item I would  like to discuss
    
    
    
    
     a little bit  is  bacteria.   Mr. Buckmaster  mentioned that
    
    
    
    
     we had a letter  from  an FWPCA official  talking about
    
    
    
    
     bacteriological  standards and essentially  accepting our
    
    
    
    
     attitude on this.  We feel  that  in this  environment the
    
    
    
    
     highest coliform organism density, which is the  parameter
    
    
    
    
     that  practically everyone uses,  at least in part, in  thei
    

    -------
    	46Q
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    evaluation of water quality, is at an extremely high
    
    
    
    
    level in the early stages of runoff which  reaches  or
    
    
    
    
    cleanses the upper surface of our soil.  Thousands  of
    
    
    
    
    acres, maybe hundreds of thousandsr-I have never tried
    
    
    
    
    to figure it out--in a broad Statewide rain of a sig-
    
    
    
    
    nificant amount, in our experience a half  inch to  an
    
    
    
    
    inch normally is sufficient to do this, pollute  our
    
    
    
    streams with agricultural land runoff of which the
    
    
    
    
    coliform organism group is a major constituent to  a very
    
    
    
    
    extensive degree. And after many conferences with  the
    
    
    
    
    Federal people we finally hammered out an  agreement,which
    
    
    
    
    we thought was permanent,that we would evaluate the
    
    
    
    
    quality of our waters at what was termed low flow.
    
    
    
    
                   Now, there are many waters  in the State
    
    
    
    
    where we can meet the levels which the Federal Government
    
    
    
    
    has established and that we have agreed with, and  I will
    
    
    
    only quote one of them for recreation, which seems to be
    
    
    
    
    the guiding impetus of these conferences, 200 fecal colif
    
    
    
    
    organisms per 100 milliliters.  We can meet this in a
    
    
    
    
    geometric mean in many of the recreational waters  in
    
    
    
    
    Iowa.  We can't meet these levels at periods of high flow
    
    
    
    
    We exceed them many, many times and I don't quite  see how
    prm
    

    -------
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
      we can arraign   150,000 farmers from the State of Iowa
    
    
    
    
    to change their agricultural practices.
    
    
    
    
                   By that I do not mean to infer  and I
    
    
    
    
    think the whole Commission agrees with thisthat the
    
    
    
    
    Iowa Water Pollution Commission is not going to exert
    
    
    
    
    every possible effort we can to produce better soil
    
    
    
    
    conservation conditions so that the water is held on
    
    
    
    
    the individual farm where it falls.  What we are really
    
    
    
    
    trying to do, and there is some argument against this,
    
    
    
    
    but it is the best way we know how to go about it, is
    
    
    
    
    to force the water into the ground water aquifer rather
    
    
    
    
    than force it into the streams.  We are limited to some
    
    
    
    
    extent by this because we don't want to have all the
    
    
    
    
    water flowing down our streams coming from ground water
    
    
    
    
    to a river watershed recharge.  We wouldn't have enough
    
    
    
    
    to dilute some of the products that get into the river,
    
    
    
    
    including effluents from secondary or tertiary treatment.
    
    
    
    
    It still needs dilution.
    
    
    
    
                   So we are going to try and do what we  can
    
    
    
    
    to hold the water where it is.  Until we do this to an
    
    
    
    
    adequate extent, we are only going to meet these standards
    
    
    
    
    or any  conceivable bacteriological level, at the low  flow
    

    -------
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    periods in our State, and I strongly suspect many of the
    
    
    
    
    States in the midwest are in exactly the same position
    
    
    
    
    whether they know it or not as yet.  If they look, they
    
    
    
    
    will see that it is something logical and we don't know
    
    
    
    
    how to reverse it except by holding water where it falls.
    
    
    
    
                   Actually, the Federal Government survey
    
    
    
    
    that was performed, I think  in October last year, at
    
    
    
    
    least in part brings this out.  If you look on page A-2
    
    
    
    
    you can see that the geometric mean below Sioux City was
    
    
    
    
    62,800 total coliforms and 26,600 fecal coliforms, and
    
    
    
    
    this was by their description of the hydrology of the
    
    
    
    
    period a relatively dry or low flow period.
    
    
    
    
                   Over on the top of the next page, A-3, the;
    
    
    
    make a statement that a two-day rain-affected period at
    
    
    
    
    19 of the 21 stations showed the total coliforms at
    
    
    
    
    1.44 million, and the fecal coliforms, which is an
    
    
    
    
    important point,were 1.12 million.  This is a vast
    
    
    
    
    increase, but there is one other salient point here.
    
    
    
    
    If you calculate percentages, and I didn't bring ray
    
    
    
    
    slide rule along and I make all kinds of mistakes with a
    
    
    
    
    pencil and paper, fewer with a slide rule, it looks to me
    
    
    
    
    like about 77 percent of the total coliforms were fecal
    

    -------
    	472
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    in nature, meaning that they came from the intestinal
    
    
    
    
    tract of warm-blooded animals.  We are quite inadequate
    
    
    
    
    to determine whether the fecal coliforms are coming from
    
    
    
    
    human beings or from livestock, but we can separate
    
    
    
    
    those   which   are of intestinal origin and, there-
    
    
    
    
    fore, possible disease transmitters from those which are
    
    
    
    
    of natural soil forms which normally have less important
    
    
    
    
    effect as far as disease transmission.
    
    
    
                   So the data which the people fro.m the
    
    
    
    
    Federal Government produced here corresponds with what
    
    
    
    
    we have found in Iowa on the internal streams, what we
    
    
    
    
    have found on the Mississippi, and what we have found
    
    
    
    
    with some of the work we have done on the Missouri.  And
    
    
    
    
    as Mr. Stein so aptly stated, when we get together and
    
    
    
    
    talk with each other, we reach some conclusions while we
    
    
    
    
    are looking each other in the eye that you don't always
    
    
    
    
    bring out in reports that are flown back and forth.  This
    
    
    
    
    is one of the points. I think we must recognize that we
    
    
    
    
    can set any bacteriological standard we want and the
    
    
    
    
    environment in this situation doesn't make it possible
    
    
    
    
    to meet a number.  You have to live with the environmenta
    
    
    
    
    condition.  I think we should understand this about
    

    -------
    	473
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morri s
    
    
    
    
    
    
    bacteriological levels.
    
    
    
    
                   I think there  is  some question  as  to  wheth^:
    
    
    
    
    we can meet this on the Missouri, and  anybody  who looks
    
    
    
    
    at the data which was  collected  by  this  study  in  October
    
    
    
    
    has to ask himself this question.   To  make  the  decision
    
    
    
    
    that you can't meet it is one  thing.   To  decide what you
    
    
    
    
    should do about it is  another, and  there  is more  than
    
    
    
    
    just secondary treatment involved.  Disinfection  of  waste:
    
    
    
    
    can reduce the bacteriological load. This gets, in my
    
    
    
    opinion, to be an engineering  decision and  an  economic
    
    
    
    
    one. which way you want to approach the  problem?
    
    
    
    
                   The third thing I would like to  discuss
    
    
    
    
    is phenols.  We had a  discussion of this  in Davenport, and
    
    
    
    
    I am not going to spend the time on it here that  I did
    
    
    
    
    there, except to say that the  commonly accepted and  agreec
    
    
    
    
    to level of phenols pretty much  around the  country is  one
    
    
    
    part per billion.  Again I lean  on  our environment and
    
    
    
    
    the monitoring data which we have and  on  some  theory which
    
    
    
    
    I think supports what we find.   The State of Missouri
    
    
    
    
    made the comment that they can't meet  the one  part per
    
    
    
    
    billion.  e can't meet it either.  The State  of  Illinois
    
    
    
    
    has signified that they can't meet  the one  part per  billidn
    

    -------
                                                          474
                           Dr. Morris
    maximum permissible concentration of phenols in the
    
    
    
    
    Mississippi River and other of their internal streams,
    
    
    
    
    and the question becomes why.
    
    
    
    
                   It is a quite well documented fact that
    
    
    
    
    phenolic compounds can result from nature herself.  Many
    
    
    
    
    natural materials can degrade into phenolic compounds
    
    
    
    
    by a variety of pathways, and if people will read the
    
    
    
    
    California Water Standards in the section for phenols,
    
    
    
    
    this is so stated in here with bibliographies that can
    
    
    
    
    be looked up to at least show you where these materials
    
    
    
    
    come from.
    
    
    
    
                   The best article on this I have read any
    
    
    
    
    place in a single spot is an article in Air and Water
    
    
    
    
    Pollution Journal, which happens to be a British journal,
    
    
    
    but it is an extremely well done article.  It is entitled
    
    
    
    
    "Recovery and Identification of Organics  in Water" by
    
    
    
    
    Richard D. Hoak.  He was working at the Mellon Institute
    
    
    
    
    in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.  This documents, in my
    
    
    
    
    opinion, in a very well done fashion, some of the sources
    
    
    
    
    of these materials naturally.
    
    
    
    
                   We have noticed the same phenomenon
    
    
    
    
    in the phenol, problem that we have just been discussing
    

    -------
                            	4?_c
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    in the bacteriological densities at dry periods and high
    
    
    
    runoff periods.  We find in our work on the streams in
    
    
    
    
    Iowa that the phenol concentrations are higher in early
    
    
    
    
    stages of runoff.  This confirms the fact or at least make
    
    
    
    
    it logical to assume that these are of natural origin,
    
    
    
    
    because their increase fits with this kind of a cleansing
    
    
    
    
    action on the soil.
    
    
    
                   Actually, from my own experience and from
    
    
    
    
    discussions with the engineers in the State Health Depart
    
    
    
    
    ment, we have very little industrial input of phenols
    
    
    
    
    into our environment.  We are recording quite significant
    
    
    
    
    levels in our streams. On the Mississippi we record an
    
    
    
    
    average of about 10 parts per billion, we have recorded
    
    
    
    
    levels as high as 18.  This is the reason why our standard
    
    
    
    
    is not one part per billion.   It isn't consistent with
    
    
    
    
    our environment.
    
    
    
                   And the other  salient point on this, and 1
    
    
    
    
    reason why the one part per billion was chosen, is that
    
    
    
    
    there is a lot of work which  shows that certain phenols
    
    
    
    
    at the one part per billion level can produce compounds
    
    
    
    
    when chlorinatedjthat do produce measurable tastes.  And
    
    
    
    
    I am not here to argue with this.  It has been done by
    

    -------
                                                         476
                           Dr. Morris
    some very competent researchers.
    
    
    
    
                   But I think it is reasonable to assume
    
    
    
    
    that the types of phenolic compounds that are in out-
    
    
    
    
    natural environment are not producing the same levels
    
    
    
    
    of taste and odor when they are chlorinated in our
    
    
    
    
    natural water supplies.  Constitutuents entering a mole-
    
    
    
    
    cule can change these taste levels and I think most
    
    
    
    
    people working in this field realize this.  So that I
    
    
    
    
    think we have to take a look at the natural input of
    
    
    
    
    phenols into our environment.
    
    
    
    
                   There was a discussion of this by the
    
    
    
    
    State of Missouri,, and I don't recall having heard, and
    
    
    
    
    1 would like to be informed if it exists, an actual
    
    
    
    
    standard for phenols in the State of Missouri. I have
    
    
    
    
    heard it stated twice that they concur with our level of
    
    
    
    20 parts per billion, but I am not in possession of what
    
    
    
    
    level they have actually accepted and, unless I misunder-
    
    
    
    
    stood the statements, their standards have been approved
    
    
    
    
    by the Federal Government.  I would like to know whether
    
    
    
    
    they are higher than ours or loiter than ours.
    
    
    
    
                   I also, in my ignorance, do not know what
    
    
    
    
    the standards for Nebraska are with respect to phenols.
    

    -------
    	477
    
    
    
    
    
                            Dr.  Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
     If  it  is  one  part  per  billion,  we  are  going  to  have  to
    
    
    
    
     sample  on the  other  side  of  the river,  I-guess,  because
    
    
    
    
     the  part  that  we sample in  Iowa is not  going to  meet
    
    
    
    
     that one  part  per  billion level.   I  have no  information
    
    
    
    
     to  indicate that the other  side of the  river is  really
    
    
    
    
     any  better than ours with respect  to this  type  of  runoff.
    
    
    
    
                   Fourthly,  I  am deeply disturbed,  because
    
    
    
    
     it  is a responsibility which at least  in part would be
    
    
    
    
     directed  to me arid the State Hygienic  Laboratory and  the
    
    
    
    
     Water Pollution Commission  and  the State Department of
    
    
    
    
     Health, over a statement  on  IV-42 which talks about a
    
    
    
    
     matter very dear to my heart, monitoring of  water  quality
    
    
    
    
     or surveillance, and it says:
    
    
    
    
                   "The scheduled sampling  frequencies of
    
    
    
    
     existing  and proposed  monitoring stations  operated by
    
    
    
    
     the  Iowa  Water Pollution  Control Commission  are  on a
    
    
    
    
     quarterly basis for physical, chemical  and bacteriological
    
    
    
    
     parameters."
    
    
    
                   Now, I  have in front of  me  a  cooperatively
    
    
    
    
     worked out agreement or suggestion, I guess, proposal,
    
    
    
    
     by the, I think it is,  Region V group out  of Chicago,
    
    
    
    
     a Mr.  Risley came to  Des Moines and worked  with Mr.
    

    -------
                                                          478
                           Dr. Morris
    Schliekelman and myself and Dr. Gakstatter from our
    
    
    
    
    staff, discussing proposed sampling points in Iowa, and
    
    
    
    
    we worked out, after a full day of going over our data
    
    
    
    
    and what the Federal people had, what I believe to be a very
    
    
    
    
    adequate surveillance program for Iowa streams.  A certair
    
    
    
    
    class of surveillance is done quarterly, some things
    
    
    
    
    semi-annually, by the way this includes phenols, pesti-
    
    
    
    
    cides, radioactivity, which happen  to be monthly, and
    
    
    
    
    detergents, which is on a quarterly basis.  We sat down
    
    
    
    
    and tried to work out with reason and judgment, as engi-
    
    
    
    
    neers and chemists and liranologists, what it would take
    
    
    
    
    to evaluate our environment, and we came up with a
    
    
    
    
    detailed but variable type program.
    
    
    
                   The statement goes on in the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
    re port:
    
    
    
                   "The  sampling frequencies for these
    
    
    
    
    parameters should be increased to at least weekly
    
    
    
    
    intervals" on a group of streams.  Some of these are
    
    
    
    
    those on which we have worked out these sampling
    
    
    
    
    frequencies .
    
    
    
                   If I  may be permitted a  probably prejudiced
    
    
    
    
    statement, one. which I mean to put  politely, I don't know
    

    -------
                                                           479
                           Dr. Morris
    whether any chemists were involved in making  that  state-
    
    
    
    
    ment, but there is a whale of a lot of work and a  lot of
    
    
    
    
    money and an enormous amount of leg work in the field to
    
    
    
    
    collect a broad spectrum of samples like this on at  least
    
    
    
    
    a weekly basis.  I can assure you the State Hygienic
    
    
    
    
    Laboratory, plus the Health Department in Iowa,doesn't have
    
    
    
    
    this kind of manpower muscle, nor do I see where we will
    
    
    
    
    get it,nor do I see the necessity for it.
    
    
    
    
                   I would like to ask that that  statement be
    
    
    
    
    looked at again in a little more realistic manner.  Some
    
    
    
    
    of our streams deserve daily analytical control, others
    
    
    
    
    of them weekly, others monthly, some quarterly, and we
    
    
    
    
    have tried to work this out.
    
    
    
    
                   Now, I was very pleased when Mr. Risley
    
    
    
    
    representing the Federal Government,  came out and sat
    
    
    
    
    down in what I considered to be a very fine technical
    
    
    
    
    fashion and worked this program out.   I would hope that
    
    
    
    
    we would get the same sort of a cooperative attempt from
    
    
    
    
    the Missouri Basin Region
    
    
    
    
                   I want to assure you that we will make
    
    
    
    
    available any of the experience our laboratory has and I
    
    
    
    
    am sure the  Health Department staff will do exactly the
    

    -------
    	480
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    same thing, but I don't like to see someone from outside
    
    
    
    
    tell us what our sampling frequency should be on an
    
    
    
    
    internal stream without at least discussing the problem
    
    
    
    
    with us.  I can't say whether they have discussed it with
    
    
    
    
    the Health Department or not, but they certainly didn't
    
    
    
    
    discuss it with me and I am, with tax money and some
    
    
    
    
    Federal funds and some State funds with some private fund
    
    
    
    
    footing the bill, and I would like to be consulted when
    
    
    
    
    we decide what the monitoring frequency should be.  I
    
    
    
    
    think that is a reasonable request.
    
    
    
    
                   These are basically the things that I
    
    
    
    
    wanted to read into the record.  Thank you.
    
    
    
                   I have one other comment.  Maybe I
    
    
    
    
    shouldn't say this, and Mr. Stein can strike it all from
    
    
    
    the record if he wants to.  I am not ashamed of saying
    
    
    
    
    it because I sincerely mean it.
    
    
    
                   The Iowa Water Pollution Control Commissior
    
    
    
    
    has had some very sincere and excellent statements of
    
    
    
    
    support and understanding from a number of  the critical
    
    
    
    
    groups  in  our State.  I hesitate to name any of them
    
    
    
    
    because I will probably delete some of the  important
    
    
    
    
    ones.   But for myself as  one member, I appreciate  the
    

    -------
                                                          481
                           Dr. Morris
    understanding that has been shown in the statements from phe
    
    
    
    
    League of Women Voters, from the Izaak Walton League,
    
    
    
    
    and especially because I have been close to some of the
    
    
    
    
    conferences that preceded this out-in-the-open statement
    
    
    
    
    at both Davenport and Council Bluffs. I think the stano
    
    
    
    
    of Iowa industry  and you people can't know this, but I
    
    
    
    
    think a lot of you technical people on the Federal level,
    
    
    
    
    just as much as those of us on the State level,would be impressed
    
    
    
    
    with the sincerity of the large number of industrial
    
    
    
    
    people representing many of our big companies,and some
    
    
    
    
    of the small ones^ in trying to understand their involve-
    
    
    
    
    ment and responsibility in this kind of a program.  We
    
    
    
    
    have had some statements, although not as many as I think
    
    
    
    
    we should have, from the municipalities involved.
    
    
    
    
                   And finally, I know I probably shouldn't
    
    
    
    
    say this because this is Mr. Buckmaster's forte, but I
    
    
    
    appreciate the opportunity that Mr. Stein has given us
    
    
    
    
    to state our case without closing down on time for people
    
    
    
    
    like me who tend to talk too much.  I have appreciated
    
    
    
    
    the way in which he has operated these conferences.  I
    
    
    
    
    don't know if anybody else agrees with me or not, but
    
    
    
    
    that is the way I feel.
    

    -------
    	482
    
    
    
    
    
                            Dr.  Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    Thank  you  very much.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                    I  have one  comment.   You  had  better
    
    
    
    
     listen  to  this,  because you may want to  strike  it
    
    
    
    
     yourself.   I  direct this  comment not only to the
    
    
    
    
     Iowa  people but  to  the  Federal people.   Over and
    
    
    
    
     over  again I  have heard in  both reports  whether we
    
    
    
    
     can tell whether  a  coliform or some  kind of  patho-
    
    
    
    
     gen,,  fecal coll,  fecal  strep,  what-have-you, is
    
    
    
    
     coming  from field runoff,  from a plant,  from a
    
    
    
    
     packing house,  etc.
    
    
    
    
                    Now,  if  my  recollection  is correct,
    
    
    
    
     and I think it  is,  there  are still  two  people in  the
    
    
    
    
     room  who started  on this  case  on the Missouri River--
    
    
    
     Virginia Rankin,  whose  name used to  be  Hough then,
    
    
    
    
     and myself.   We were  much  younger  then.   Paul Houser
    
    
    
    
     is here too.  At  any  rate, as I recall  Harold Clark's
    
    
    
    
     work  during the 1950's, he  was subjected to  the most
    
    
    
    
     piercing cross  examination  by  top notch  attorneys
    
    
    
    
     who were hired  by the packing  house  plants and  municipal.!
    
    
    
    
     ties,  the  attorneys  on  the  staff  some  of them  have gone
    
    
    
    
     up to be judges since thenbut I think  this was  subject
    

    -------
    	         483
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    to  too cross  examination.  As  I understood  Mr.  Clark's
    
    
    
    
    testimony in  the late  1950's,  it was  this:
    
    
    
    
                   He  could  determine whether that  bug
    
    
    
    
    came  from a field  runoff  or  from a  waste  discharge
    
    
    
    
    ana could distinguish  between  them.   I  believe  I
    
    
    
    
    recognize another  face in  the  room;  I think Mr.
    
    
    
    
    Saras on was involved  as a  member of  the  Hearing  Board.
    
    
    
    
    Harold Clark  could distinguish whether  the  bug  came
    
    
    
    
    from  a packing house or  from human  wastes.   He  also
    
    
    
    
    c^uld distinguish  by the  viability  in the length
    
    
    
    
    of  flow,  if he p.'eked  it  up, say, below Omaha and
    
    
    
    
    Dounc'l  Bluffs,  whether  it carne from Sioux  City or
    
    
    
    
    from  Cmaha.
    
    
    
    
                   I am  not  arguing  the facts one way
    
    
    
    
    or  the other.  But if  we  are talking in terms of what
    
    
    
    
    kind  of  treatment  exists  and where  the  flow is  coming
    
    
    
    
    from, it  seems to  me,  gentlemen--and vie will check  this
    
    
    
    
    until tomorrow,  although  Mr. Geldreich  is in the room
    
    
    
    
    who works  in  the same  techniqueit seems to me,  sir, if
    
    
    
    
    we  had these  techniques  in the 1950's and they were em-
    
    
    
    
    ployed then  to give  us the information  and  we have  the
    
    
    
    
    same  questions today,  I  just wonder why we  shouldn't be ajble
    

    -------
                           Dr.  Morri s
    
    
    
     to  use  that  methodology, if  it  is valid,to  give  us  the
    
    
     same  results  now  as  we had  then.   And  I  just  raise that.
    
    
                    May I call Mr.  Geldreich  for a moment.
    
    
     Is  what I  said  substantially correct?
    
    
                    MR. GELDREICH:   That  is  correct.
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:   All right.   I would  just ask
    
    
     this--
    
    
                    Go ahead.
    
    
                    DR. MORRIS:  May I speak  to  that  just a
    
    
     minute?
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:   Surely.  By the way, it  should
    
    
     be  clear,  I  have  drawn no conclusions,  you know,  but it
    
    
     just  seems to me  that we have  a method  to  get the  answers.
    
    
                    DR. MORRIS:  I see Mr. Geldreich  back there
    
    
     and I know that Mr.  Clark,  Dr. Kabler,  Mr. Geldreich,  and
    
    
     a lot of people at the Robert  A. Taft  Sanitary  Engineering
    
    
     Center  did an enormous amount  of work  on this.     On the
    
    
     surface of things I  too  have read  and  talked  with  Harold
    
    
    !Clark a number  of times  about  this.  The only hooker to
    i
    
     this  system  as  you described it is that  they  don't use
    
    
     the standard coliform test  in  making this  differentiation
    !
    
     They  go into more sophisticated bacteriology, into the
    

    -------
    	483
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
     streptococci, and  so  forth, and these not  only  can
    
    
    
    
     differentiate whether it came from one kind of  animal,
    
    
    
    
     a cow, a sheep, a  pig, but the sad part of it is, unless
    
    
    
    
     I read the articles wrong--and I hope Mr.  Geldreich will
    
    
    
    
     clarify this because  I know he was in on italso these
    
    
    
    
     same kinds of organisms have origin in the soil and
    
    
    
    
     plants also and this  muddies the water, so  to speak; so
    
    
    
    
     that even with this ability to differentiate above and
    
    
    
    
     beyond what the coliforms permit you to do, there have
    
    
    
    
     been a lot of scientists--and I think this includes the
    
    
    
    
     articles that Clark and Kabler and Geldreich have pub-
    
    
    
    
     lishedare not absolutely certain in this differentiatior
    
    
    
    
     There are breakouts where these organisms are not absolute
    
    
    
    
     identified with that  single source.
    
    
    
    
                   A lot of bacteriologists have taken rather
    
    
    
    
     vigorous exceptions.  Now, I don't know about Mr. Geldreic
    
    
    
    
    He may believe very firmly in the differentiation cap-
    
    
    
    
     ability.  But a lot of people don't quite accept it 100
    
    
    
    
     percent.  I am not one of them.   I am not as developed in
    
    
    
    
     this field, but I have read the articles and there are a
    
    
    
    
    lot of people that don't accept that in total.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:   Why don't you--
    iy
    h .
    

    -------
                             _ _ 486
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr.
                   I defer to Mr. Geldreich.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Why don't you come up, Ed.
    
    
    
    
                   Here is what I am trying to get at.  If
    
    
    
    
    this is a crucial issue --and as far as I know, ever since
    
    
    
    
    I have been on the Missouri, certainly, and I think on
    
    
    
    
    the Mississippi too, but certainly on the Missouri, this
    
    
    
    is the crucial issue.  Let me just give it in the terms
    
    
    
    
    that everyone can understand.
    
    
    
    
                   Where do the bugs come from?  Do they come
    
    
    
    
    from human wastes, do they come from a packing house or
    
    
    
    
    did they run off from the land?  And you may have
    
    
    
    
    different effects.  And also once you differentiate
    
    
    
    
    that, what city do they come from or what industrial
    
    
    
    outfall do they come from so we can pinpoint the source?
    
    
    
    
                   Now, unless we can provide these answers,
    
    
    
    
    we are going to find ourselves wallowing around through
    
    
    
    
    the years, and I don't care what we do here in the dis-
    
    
    
    
    position of this, just the equities of the situation are
    
    
    
    
    going to require you to have these kinds of answers.  I
    
    
    
    
    think we will make a great advance if we can agree on
    
    
    
    
    the methodology.
    
    
    
                   Not intending to preempt Ed, I used to
    

    -------
                              	48?
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    think that Harold Clark had this down to such a fine
    
    
    
    
    point that I used to ask him what the sex of the animal
    
    
    
    
    was .
    
    
    
                   (Laughter.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  Thank you, Mr. Stein.
    
    
    
    
                   e have spent about 15 years working on
    
    
    
    
    this  particular problem, that is finding a better
    
    
    
    
    indicator of fecal pollution, and we believe we have it,
    
    
    
    
    in fact, I will go so far as to say I know we have it,
    
    
    
    
    in the fecal coliform group.
    
    
    
    
                   First of all, we have looked at the
    
    
    
    
    environment in every aspect, we have looked at warm-
    
    
    
    
    blooded animals, be !~-hey  vian or animals other than man.
    
    
    
    
    We have looked at t'ne soil, we have looked at fish, we
    
    
    
    
    have  looked at water, we have looked at plants, we have
    
    
    
    
    looked at insects, we have looked at everything that
    
    
    
    
    would somehow or other contribute possible pollution to
    
    
    
    
    our water environment that we are concerned with and
    
    
    
    
    we have concluded and have published in probably about
    
    
    
    
    25 papers and 1 book our findings over this period of
    
    
    
    
    time.  We believe that the fecal coliform test is
    
    
    
    
    measuring the fecal coliforms from all of these animals,
    

    -------
    	,	_	488
    
    
    
    
                           Dr.  Mo r r i s
    
    
    
    
    
    
     be they  men  or  be  they some other  animals  that  is  warm-
    
    
    
    
     blooded.   We  find  these  organisms  only  in  the contami-
    
    
    
    
     nated  environment  when man  or these  animals  are  the
    
    
    
    
     contaminaters.  They  are  not in soils  remote  from man's
    
    
    
    
     habitation.   In fish they are not  a  normal inhabitant
    
    
    
    
     of the intestinal  tract, and when  fish  do  have  them  it
    
    
    
    
     is a reflection of the food they eat, the  water  they
    
    
    
    
     swim in.
    
    
    
    
                    In  plants this is a reflection--and this
    
    
    
    
     has been reported  by others also besides ourselves--this
    
    
    
    
     is a reflection of contamination from fertilizers, from
    
    
    
    
     contaminated  soil  and from  insect  pollinators.  Insect
    
    
    
    
     polliners  quite frequently  spent part of their  lii"e
    
    
    
    
     cycle  in manure piles and other areas where  they do
    
    
    
    
     pick up  the  contamination.
    
    
    
                    The fecal coliform  test  is  in standard
    
    
    
    
     methods,  it  is  in  the current edition.  I am  on  the
    
    
    
    
     methods  committee  for the next edition, the  thirteenth
    
    
    
    
     edition,  and  we have further refined it to put  in  a
    
    
    
    
     fecal  coliform  membrane  filter media in addition to  the
    
    
    
    
     multiple tubes procedure which is in the  current  edition.
    
    
    
    
     We have  the  me t h odologics,they are  standardized, they
    

    -------
    	__	489
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    have been recognized in the hearings in Sioux City and
    
    
    
    
    Kansas City in the 1950's that we spoke of before.
    
    
    
    
                   As far as fecal strep are concerned, this
    
    
    
    
    particular indicator does have some room for an improve-
    
    
    
    
    ment in methodology before it is as precise as the fecal
    
    
    
    
    coliform procedure.  By the way, the fecal coliform
    
    
    
    
    procedure will detect 93 percent of all of the fecal
    
    
    
    
    coliforms found in warm-blooded animals feces of one
    
    
    
    
    sort or another.
    
    
    
                   The fecal strep in conjunction with the
    
    
    
    
    fecal coliform in the development of a relationship or
    
    
    
    
    a ratio has been used and we do use it in our stream
    
    
    
    
    pollution investigations to pinpoint sources of pollution
    
    
    
    
    We have found repeatedly that in domestic sewage there
    
    
    
    
    are more fecal coliforms than there are fecal strep, in
    
    
    
    the order of a ratio 4 to 1 or higher.  In cattle feedlot
    
    
    
    
    wastes, slaughterhouse wastes, we find this ratio is
    
    
    
    
    reversed from this.  There are more fecal streptococci,
    
    
    
    
    a tremendously greater number, than t-here are fecal
    
    
    
    
    coliforms and, therefore,  our ratio instead of being
    
    
    
    
    4 to 1 is very frequently less than 0.6 to 1.  This is
    
    
    
    
    the way we can quickly differentiate the two.
    

    -------
    		490
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   Yes, sir.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  I am a layman, most of
    
    
    
    
    the people here area and I don't understand it.  I think
    
    
    
    
    you and Dr. Morris are having fun talking this way.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  Talking shop.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  The question is can you
    
    
    
    
    distinguish between coliform out of warm-blooded animals
    
    
    
    
    and man?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  No, sir.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Well, we are dancing,
    
    
    
    
    then, on the head of a pin, because--
    
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  No, let me--
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Let me finish.  It will
    
    
    
    
    take you a couple of minutes.  It won't take me a fractior
    
    
    
    
    of that time.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  0. K.
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Our contention is that
    
    
    
    
    the runoff of animal manure from the large number of
    
    
    
    
    animals we have, warm-blooded animals, cannot be dis-
    
    
    
    
    tinguished from that of a human being.  There is no
    
    
    
    
    quarrel, I believe, with the question of that that comes
    
    
    
    
    from plants and other forms.  It is tftis differentiation
    

    -------
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    between all warm-blooded animals, man being one of  them.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREIGH:  Right.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER: Can you differentiate
    
    
    
    
    between man and cows?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Just a moment, please.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Yes.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Save the question, because if
    
    
    
    
    we go back and forth it gets confused.
    
    
    
    
                   I think the answer is that as far as I
    
    
    
    
    can understand, although I know he answered no, the answei
    
    
    
    
    as I understood they gave me was yes.  In other words,
    
    
    
    
    if they take the coliform and check,they will be able  to
    
    
    
    
    tell you if this came from a feedlot or whether this
    
    
    
    
    came from a sewage treatment plant by checking the  ratio
    
    
    
    
    of the fecal eoliform--
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  Only if we do it in  con-
    
    
    
    
    junction with a fecal strep test.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  We are not talking  about
    
    
    
    
    a feedlot.  We have thousands of acres with cattle  and
    
    
    
    
    hogs on pasture, so it doesn't come from one source, it
    
    
    
    
    comes from individual animals.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Yes.  Let me rephrase the
    

    -------
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    question.
    
    
    
    
                   When you ask an expert a question, you
    
    
    
    
    know, he answers with a question.
    
    
    
                   You said can you distinguish fecal coli-
    
    
    
    
    form; the answer is no.  What you do is to put the
    
    
    
    
    question this way:
    
    
    
                   Can you take the fecal coliform plus the
    
    
    
    
    fecal strep test, do a test on both, put those together
    
    
    
    
    and distinguish?
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  Very good, that is correct,
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Then the answer is yes, you
    
    
    
    
    see.  All right.
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  What we are trying to say--
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Do you get indication
    
    
    
    
    or do you prove it?
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  We prove it.
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  All right, I understand.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  I am not trying to argue.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  I am not either.  I was
    
    
    
    
    just trying to find out what he is saying.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Yes, sir.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  We lawyers can finally
    

    -------
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    work it out, Mr. Stein.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Right.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  It may be difficult, but
    
    
    
    
    we finally get it.
    
    
    
    
                   DR. SPEERS:  I am Dr. Speers from the
    
    
    
    
    State Department of Health.
    
    
    
    
                   Let me ask another question now.  Supposing
    
    
    
    
    you have two sources upstream, one of which is of animal
    
    
    
    
    origin and one of which is of human origin.  Can you take
    
    
    
    
    this ratio then and make any meaning out of it and say
    
    
    
    
    from that result that we have two sources, one of human
    
    
    
    
    and one of animal origin and how much of each?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. GELDREICH:  If they are mixed, I
    
    
    
    
    assume that somewhere,at this point where you are sampling,
    
    
    
    
    both the fecal coliforms from the domestic sewage and
    
    
    
    
    the fecal coliforms from the cattle feedlot are mixed
    
    
    
    in the stream and now we have this mixture, can we sort
    
    
    
    
    this out?  This becomes somewhat difficult because you
    
    
    
    get into a ratio which is meaningless in an area between
    
    
    
    
    the high one and the low one.  It is in these dramatic
    
    
    
    
    areas near the runoff and within 24 hours downstream that
    
    
    
    
    we can use this material successfully in interpreting.
    

    -------
                           Dr.  Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Beyond that I would not want to venture an answer.
    
    
    
    
                   DR. SPEERS:   The reason I asked this ques-
    
    
    
    
    tion, because it seems to me that many of the points of
    
    
    
    
    controversy on the Missouri River are exactly this kind
    
    
    
    
    of situation where you have got several sources and they
    
    
    
    
    are going to be mixed and it is going to be hard to sepa-
    
    
    
    
    rate .
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Let me try to get at that.
    
    
    
    
                   Just look at the record.  I am not trying
    
    
    
    
    to draw a conclusion.  But when we went up and down the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri in the late 1950's with Harold Clark,we in a
    
    
    
    
    sense--and I am just talking from a legal evidentiary
    
    
    
    
    sense--were lucky that we didn't have these masses of
    
    
    
    
    pollution.  e had separate sources.  In other words, you
    
    
    
    
    had a concentration.  You know them as well as I do.  e
    
    
    
    
    had Yankton and Vermillion, then we had Sioux City, then
    
    
    
    
    we had Omaha and Council Bluffs, you moved down to St.
    
    
    
    
    Joseph, Atchison, Leavenworth, Kansas City, Independence,
    
    
    
    
    Columbia, and so forth.  And in between those it was
    
    
    
    
    relatively clear.
    
    
    
                   Now, what Harold Clark did wag use a third
    
    
    
    
    variable, as I recall the testimony, and I think I recall
    

    -------
    	    ,	495
    
    
    
    
    
                            Dr.  Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
     It because it made  a  tremendous  impression  on  me  at  that
    
    
    
    
     time.  What he  did  was  he took the  fecal  coliform, the
    
    
    
    
     fecal strep, used them  together  in  a  ratio,  and he also
    
    
    
    
     took the point  of discharge  at which he  could figure  what ',
    
    
    
    
     coming out from the point of discharge  and  traced the
    
    
    
    
     flow down the river;and he  got what to  him  was a  pretty
    
    
    
    
     accurate picture of where the bugs  came from at all  these
    
    
    
    
     points down the river.
    
    
    
    
                    The  thing that I  am  saying as we are
    
    
    
    
     standing here 10 years liater is: either  we find  defects  in
    
    
    
    
     the method that we  can't go along with, or if someone
    
    
    
    
     could do this 10 years  ago^why can't  they do it now?
    
    
    
    
     Again,! don't know what the results are going  to be  if
    
    
    
    
     they do it, but this  is the issue.
    
    
    
    
                    Yes .
    
    
    
                    DR. MORRIS:  I think we  do that, Mr.  Stein,
    
    
    
     when we ask to  do our bacteriological work,  fecal coli-
    
    
    
    
     forms,  at low flow. We essentially  are  evaluting the
    
    
    
    
     input of municipal and industrial wastes, and  I know they
    
    
    
    
     both exist, in  the stream when we have  cancelled out a
    
    
    
    
     variable.  Now,  any mathematician knows that one way to
    
    
    
    
     simplify the solution to an equation  is to  cast a variable
    as
    

    -------
                                  496
    Dr. Morris
    and that is all x^e have done, cast a variable.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  That is very reasonable.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  That is right.  Again, and as
    
    
    
    
    I understood from Mr. Hegg's statement this morning, I
    
    
    
    
    understand substantially that this is what they did.
    
    
    
    
    Again I have no brief with the figures because that
    
    
    
    
    you arc going to have to do.  They found that 50 percent
    
    
    
    
    of the loadings, at least in dry flow, below the big
    
    
    
    
    city centers of Omaha and Sioux City came from the muni-
    
    
    
    
    cipal waste sources,  which included the industries.  Now,
    
    
    
    
    this j.s as I understood it and as I understood the thesis
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  You are right, you are
    
    
    
    
    right, and we have agreed to disinfection of those areas.
    
    
    
    
    Our only quarrel comes on the recreational areas other
    
    
    
    
    than seasonal.  We have no quarrel with this.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  But what we should do between
    
    
    
    
    State and Federal people is that if we have the
    
    
    
    
    methodology--and as far as I can sense we do--we
    
    
    
    
    should be able to come up with some reasonable state-
    
    
    
    
    ment that all hands can agree on just about how much is
    
    
    
    
    corning from the industrial sources; how much is coming o
    
    
    
    
    from the municipal sources; how much is coming off the
                                      t
    

    -------
    	497
    
    
    
    
    
                            Dr.  Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
     land, and proceed from there.
    
    
    
    
                   The  only point  I  am  making, is--
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  BUCKMASTER:   I don't  think we have any
    
    
    
    
     quarrel on it.
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  STEIN:   All right,  I  think this  will
    
    
    
    
     put us ahead if we  have that.
    
    
    
    
                   Is  there anything else?
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  GELDREICH:  I would like  to  add  one
    
    
    
    
     more comment.
    
    
    
    
                   Dr.  Morris,  the fecal strep procedure  will
    
    
    
    
     be in the next edition  of Standard  Methods,  the one which
    
    
    
    
     we used.  There are some methods currently used in  the
    
    
    
    
     book.  The methods, as  I say,  in all cases are  available.
    
    
    
    
                   DR.  MORRIS:  We have been  using  them for
    
    
    
    
     years .
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  GELDREICH:  Yes, I  know.   I  have
    
    
    
    
     evaluated your laboratory in the past.  I know  you  do it.
    
    
    
    
                   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR.  STEIN:   Let me again make  this point.
    
    
    
    
    We have a lot of experts in the  room here and Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
     and company are familiar with them.  I have  always  pushed
    
    
    
    
     for the notion,  and I hope  Iowa  and the other States  will
    

    -------
                             	498
    
    
    
    
    
                           Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
    join me in  thisI think they have in the pastthat
    
    
    
    
    If a n y of the bright young people wherever they are
    
    
    
    
    located come up with a method and it looks like it is goi4g
    
    
    
    
    to work that we use it and we not wait until one of these
    
    
    
    
    committees, which gets encrusted like any bureaucracies,
    
    
    
    
    including ours, puts it in one of their books and enshrines
    
    
    
    
    it in a method book.  In other words, if the technique
    
    
    
    
    works, we use it as fast as we can.
    
    
    
    
                   I think this,what Mr. Geldreich has been
    
    
    
    
    talking about is a case in point.  As far as I can see,
    
    
    
    
    this thing on the fecal coliform has been percolating
    
    
    
    
    through their committee for about 10 years now before
    
    
    
    
    it has finally made it.    I think 10 years is a long
    
    
    
    
    time to wait in the pollution business.  If you have a
    
    
    
    
    method, let's use it for those 10 years and not wait
    
    
    
    
    until it gets into Standard Methods.
    
    
    
    
                   Does anyone have anything more to say?
    
    
    
    
                   With that we will be recessed until 9:30
    
    
    
    
    tomorrow.  I think we can finish this tomorrow.
    
    
    
    
                   (Whereupon, an adjournment was taken
    
    
    
    
    until 9:30 o'clock a.m, April l6, 1969.)
    

    -------
                                                         499
                                         (9:30 a.m. )
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  May we reconvene.
    
    
    
    
                   I have here a letter from Roger Bachmann
    
    
    
    
    of Ames,  Iowa, which we will put in the record.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  I didn't hear you, Mr.
    
    
    
    
    Stein .
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  This is a letter from Roger
    
    
    
    
    Bachmann,  which we showed to the technical staff, and
    
    
    
    
    there was  no objection from either side that this be put
    
    
    
    
    into the  record.
    
    
    
    
                   (Which said letter is as follows:)
    

    -------
                                                                              500
    
                                            April  ]k,  1969
    Mr. Murray Stein
    Assistant Commissioner for Enforcement
    Federal Water Pollution Control  Commission
    
    Dear Mr. Stein,
    
         I would like to enter the following into the proceedings  of the
    Iowa water quality hearings held in Oubuque, Iowa on April  8 and 9>  1969.
    
         On page 15 of the April  1969 statement of the Iowa Water  Pollution
    Control Commission in support of the Iowa water quality standards and
    plan for implementation and enforcement reference is made to my communi-
    cation of November 22, 1966 with regard to temperature criteria.  This
    was presented to the public hearing on proposed water quality  criteria
    held by the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission at For.t Dodge, Iowa
    on November 30, 1966.  Since this statement is being used as a justification
    for the Iowa temperature criteria,  I would like to quote that  portion
    of the communication that dealt with temperature criteria.
    
         "I do not believe that the proposed water temperature  criteria  will
    adequately protect aquatic life.  While many Iowa fishes may withstand
    temperatures as high as 95  F for a few days at a time during  the summer,
    the normal temperatures for these species are 10 to 20 degrees lower.
    Furthermore, many species need periods of cold and seasonal changes  in order
    to complete their life cycles.  For more adequate protection of aquatic
    life I would recommend that water temperatures not be more  than 10  F
    above  the normal or upstream temperatures and in no case exceed 95  F."
    
         I would like to point out that the proposed criteria to which I
    was referring in the above quotation was:  "Temperature;  Not  to exceed
    95  F at any time."  as listed in the hearing notice of the Iowa
    Water Pollution Control Commission of 28 October 1966.  My main concern
    at that time was that the proposed criteria allow for a seasonal temperature
    cycle as well as specifying a maximum temperature.  The use of a temperature
    differential appears to be a practical way to meet this objective and is
    commonly used in water quality criteria recommendations.
    
         With our present state of knowledge about the complex relationships
    between stream organisms and water temperature I feel that  the choice
    between a 5  F and a 10  F differential is arbitrary and that  I cannot
    presently provide objective support for either one over the other for
    the Iowa standards.
                                            Sincerel y,
                                            Roger W. Bachmann, PhD
                                            R. R. #3
                                            Ames, Iowa
    RWBtrh
    

    -------
                                                         501
                            Mr. Stein
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  I think it behooves us all
    
    
    
    
    
    
    to get this record completed as soon as possible.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    However, I would like anyone here to think about how
    
    
    
    
    
    
    long he would like to keep the record open if he wants
    
    
    
    
    
    
    to put in additional material.  I would like a sug-
    
    
    
    
    
    
    gestion toward the end of this.  I would not like to
    
    
    
    
    
    
    keep this open too long, because the longer we keen
    
    
    
    
    
    
    the record open the longer the issue is going to be
    
    
    
    
    
    
    pending and we are not going to be able to come to a
    
    
    
    
    
    
    conclusion.
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   We will now continue with Iowa.  Mr.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Buckmaster.
    

    -------
    	502
    
    
    
    
    
    
                           R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT BY ROBERT BUCKMASTER
    
    
    
    
              CHAIRMAN,  IOWA WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
    
    
    
    
                   COMMISSION,  DES MOINES,  IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BUCKMASTER:   Mr. Stein, Dr. Morris is
    
    
    
    
    
    
     not  able  to  be with us today, but he called me this
    
    
    
    
    
    
     morning and  wanted  me  to  put something in the record
    
    
    
    
    
    
     before we  started in response to the colloquy we had at
    
    
    
    
    
    
     the  close  yesterday between Mr.  Geldreich and Dr. Morris
    
    
    
    
    
    
     in connection  with  fecal  coliforms.
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    I make  reference  now to the report of the
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Committee  on Water  Quality Criteria,  which was the officia
    
    
    
    
    
    
     advisory  committee  established by the  Department of the
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Interior  on  water quality and was submitted to the Sec-
    
    
    
    
    
    
     retary of  the  Interior, at that  time Mr.  Udall,  by Mr.
    

    -------
    	___	503
    
    
    
    
    
                           R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Moore,  which  contained the  recommendations  of  the  Nationa
    
    
    
    
     Advisory  Committee.
    
    
    
    
                    I  am  going to  quote from page 12  of that
    
    
    
    
     report:
    
    
    
    
                    "Fecal  streptococci in  combination  with
    
    
    
    
     total  coliforms are  being used  in sanitary  evaluation.
    
    
    
    
     Selection of  techniques  to  be applied  and the  interpre-
    
    
    
    
     tation  of results  are  in  a  state of  flux   and
    
    
    
    
     uncertainty.   Problems include  the unresolved  question of
    
    
    
    
     whether or not all types  of fecal streptococci found  in
    
    
    
    
     warm-blooded  animals are  revealed by the tests,  the fact
    
    
    
    
     that appreciable  numbers  of streptococci from  other
    
    
    
    
     sources (plants and  insects)  yield positive test results,
    
    
    
    
     and added time and manpower requirements for monitoring
    
    
    
    
     agencies.   Fecal  streptococci should not be used as pri-
    
    
    
    
     mary criteria,but  are  useful  as a supplement to  fecal
    
    
    
    
     coliforms  where more precise  determination  of  sources of
    
    
    
    
     contamination  is  necessary."
    
    
    
    
                   Which,  as  Dr.  Morris understands  it,
    
    
    
    
     supports  the  statements he  made yesterday in connection
    
    
    
    
     with that  subject.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:   I  see Mr. Geldreich.  I don't
    

    -------
    	                              504
    
    
    
    
    
                          R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
     want  to  interrupt.
    
    
    
    
                    Does  this  substantially support  your
    
    
    
    
     position too?
    
    
    
    
                    MR. GELDREIGH:   That  is exactly  what  I  am
    
    
    
    
     trying  to say.   I want  you  to  use  fecal coliform,period.
    
    
    
    
     We  went  off  on  a tangent  yesterday.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. BUCKMASTER:   At long last  we got  what
    
    
    
    
     you were trying to say.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:   I think we  have  agreement,  at
    
    
    
    
     least in one area.   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                    Mr. Buckmaster,  will  you continue.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. BUCKMASTER:   Mr.  Schliekelman  will be
    
    
    
    
     the first one to present  a  matter  he would  like to bring
    
    
    
    
     before  this  conference.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT  BY R. J.  SCHLIEKELMAN
    
    
    
              TECHNICAL SECRETARY,  IOWA WATER POLLUTION
    
    
    
    
                CONTROL COMMISSION,  DBS MOINES,  IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR. SCHLIEKELMAN:   My name is  R. J.
    
    
    
    
     Schliekelman.   I am  the Technical  Secretary for the  Iowa
    
    
    
    
     Water Pollution Control Commission.
    

    -------
    	505
    
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   The statement which we will enter into
    
    
    
    the record has been given to the recorder, and I will try
    
    
    
    to summarize a portion of this for the sake of saving
    
    
    
    time and may also add a few additional statements that
    
    
    
    do not completely follow the statement itself.
    
    
    
    
                   (Which said statement is as follows:)
    

    -------
                       STATEMENT
    IN SUPPORT OF THE IOWA WATER QUALITY  STANDARDS
      AND PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION AND  ENFORCEMENT
                 MISSOURI RIVER BASIN
        IOWA WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION
    
                      APRIL 1969
    

    -------
                        507
    O I   
    

    -------
                                                                              508
    
    A.  INTRODUCTION
    
    By notice of March 5, 1969, the Secretary of Interior called a conference
    to consider water quality standards for the interstate waters of Iowa.
    This is a statement of the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission's
    position on the matters to be considered at the April 15, 1969 Council
    Bluffs, Iowa session of the conference.  A similar statement, with emphasis
    on Iowa waters of the Mississippi River basin, was presented at the Davenport,
    Iowa session of the conference which convened on April 8, 1969.  The Iowa
    Standards apply to all waters of the state and much of the Mississippi
    statement is repeated herein.  However, this statement will discuss matters
    more specifically pertaining to waters of the Missouri River basin.
    
    The Iowa Waf.sr Pollution Control Law, enacted in 1965, created the Iowa
    Water Pollution Control Commission and charged the Commission, through  the
    administrative and technical staff of the State Health Department, with
    the general supervision, administration, and enforcement of all laws relat-
    ing to pollution of the waters of the state.  Among the powers and duties
    of the Commission are those of prescribing rules and regulations, adopting
    reasonable water quality standards, and developing comprehensive plans
    and programs for the prevention, control, and abatement of pollution.
    
    The Water Quality Act of 1965, amending the Federal Water Pollution Control
    Act, provided for establishment of water quality standards for interstate
    waters.  The Act requires the states to adopt such standards which ultimately
    become Federal standards, after approval by the Secretary of the Interior.
    With that authority, the State of Iowa ahead of the schedule specified by
    the Federal Act, filed a letter of latent to adopt standards, held public
    hearings on the proposed criteria, and adopted the standards which include
    the water quality criteria and a plan for implementation.  The standards
    were submitted to the Secretary, and after close liason between state and
    Federal representatives and after numerous conferences and correspondence
    attempting to agree on a mutually acceptable document, the Secretary
    determined that certain of the provisions were not anprovable as Federal
    standards, and called a standards setting conference.
    
    The purpose of this statement is to set out the State of Iowa's position
    on the matters of disagreement.  The Federal position is outlined in a
    report prepared by the Missouri Basin Region of the Federal Water Pollution
    Control Administration, for the Water Quality Standards Conference convening
    April  15, 1969.  The report is comprehensive and contains a wealth of detailed
    background information arid technical discucsion, so no attempt will be made
    to duplicate or enlarge on that aspect.  However, as with the Federal Water
    Pollution Control Administration report on the Mississippi River basin,
    there  is considerable discussion of such aspects as turbidity and bacterial
    and nutrient loa.Hng from agricultural  land runoff, and also of conditions
    resulting in lar^e part from waote discharges from Nebraska.  Such aspects,
    while  appearing to discredit the water  quality and the state's pollution
    control efforts, but being actually outside the scone of Iowa Water Pollution
    Control. Commission control, are not at  all at issue in the matters being
    considered by  the conference.  To the casual reader,  such discussion tends
    to create false impressions of wide spread pollution  and ineffective control.
    This  statement  therefore,  is an attempt to put the issues in context, to
    clarify  the Iowa position  on matters actually in controversy, and to present
    the positive aspects of the Iowa program.
                                      -1-
    

    -------
                                                                              509
    Part B will outline the Iowa policy and review past  and present  pollution
    control in the state.  Parts C and D will comment  on the background  inform-
    ation and summary and conclusions and recommendations  presented  in the
    Federal report.   Finally,  the Iowa Water Pollution Control  Commission has
    during past months of negotiation agreed on certain  revisions  of the standards
    and implementation plan,  and these are summarized  in Section E.
    

    -------
                                                                              510
    B .  STATEMENT OF POLICY AND THE PAST AND PRESENT IOWA WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
        PROGRAM
    
    The present authority for stream pollution control in the State of Iowa is
    embodied in Chapter 455B of the state code, the "Iowa Water Pollution Control
    Law".  Enacted in 1965, it created the Iowa Water Pollution Control  Commission.
    
    The conduct of the program, as intended by the legislature and as actually
    being implemented by the Commission and the State Health Department, can
    best be expressed by the statement of policy as written into the law;
               1_. Statement of Policy.  Whereas the pollution of the waters of
         this state constitutes a menace to public health and welfare, creates
         public nuisances, is harmful  to wildlife, fish and aquatic life, and
         impairs domestic, agricultural, industrial, recreational and other
         legitimate beneficial uses of water, and whereas the, problem of water
         pollution in this state is closely related to the problem of water
         pollution in adjoining states, it is hereby declared to be the public
         policy of this state to conserve the waters of the state and to protect,
         maintain and improve the quality thereof for public water supplies,
         for the propogation of wildlife, fish and aquatic life, and for domestic
         agricultural, industrial, recreational and other legitimate (beneficial)
         uses; to provide that no waste be discharged into any waters of the
         state without first being given the degree of treatment necessary to
         protect the legitimate (beneficial) uses of such waters; to provide for
         the prevention, abatement and control of new, increasing, potential,
         or existing water pollution;  and to co-operate with other agencies of
         the state, agencies of other  states and the federal government in
         carrying out these objectives. (61GA, ch 375, 1)"
    
    This policy, not in the least inconsistent with the present Federal Act, was
    enacted prior to approval of the amendments in the Water Quality Act of 1965.
    
    As present policy, it evolves from and reflects long and continued progress
    of stream pollution control in Iowa.  The progress can be seen in a brief
    history of stream pollution control accomplishments.
    
    The first law, passed in 1923, gave the State Department of Health regulatory
    and enforcement authority.  Even before that, Iowa was "ahead of the program".
    The Department of Health working under legislative authority for supervision
    over the installation and operation of sewerage works and control of nuisances,
    and towns recognizing the public health and clean streams need for sewage
    treatment, had already begun stream pollution control.  At the time the 1923
    law was passed, nearly 200 municipal sewage treatment plants were already
    in operation.  These being in the smaller towns, only 350,000 some persons
    were being served by the plants, and this represented only 30% of the
    population being served by municipal sewer systems.  However, this was a
    good start.
    
    The program operated under the same authority for many years.  Then in 1949,
    the law was changed, among" other things, adding a sexrage disposal permit
    feature.  By reviewing treatment plant construction plans and specifications
    required to obtain a permit, the State Health Department could "insure that
    any proposed plant xjas capable of producing an effluent of sufficiently high
    
                                       -3-
    

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                                                                              511
    quality to protect the receiving stream.  Essentially no sanitary sewer
    permits have been granted unless served by a treatment plant, and in
    particular, a treatment plant operating satisfactorily.  Although this
    philosophy had been in effect as a matter of policy for many years, the
    permit feature formalized the policy.
    
    No combined sewers have been approved in Iowa for the last 40 years.
    
    At the time of the 1949 legislation, some 230 municipal treatment plants
    were in operation.  Some of the new plants were constructed by the larger
    municipalities, so the capacity of the 200 plants was almost three times
    that of 1923, and the plants were serving approximately 70% of the sewered
    population.
    
    In recognition of the fact that treatment plant construction is effective
    only if operation is efficient and competent, an operator training and
    voluntary certification program was implemented in 1952.  In 1965, legis-
    lation was passed and implemented, and Iowa is now one of only 17 states
    with a mandatory operator certification law.  The operator training program
    has expanded and thrived.  Under the cooperative effort of the State Health
    Department, the Iowa Water Pollution Control Association, and the State
    Universities, laboratory courses are conducted at the Universities and
    regional basic and. advanced operation courses are conducted throughout the
    state.
    
    From 1949, plant construction steadily and dramatically progressed, and in
    1965 some 400 plants were in operation.  This represented an increase in
    population served by treatment to approximately 97.5% of the sewered popula-
    tion.
    
    The 1949 law lifted a previous restriction, so that effective in 1951,
    Mississippi and Missouri River cities and towns were subject to all provis-
    ions of the stream pollution control law.  In recognition of common interests
    in water quality, Iowa in 1952 entered into a tri-state agreement with
    Illinois and Wisconsin, resolving to require any such corrections of
    pollution conditions needed to render Mississippi River waters suitable for
    all purposes.
    
    On the Missouri River also, loxja as a member of the Missouri Basin Health
    Council, agreed to and participated in adoption of a similar "Guide for
    Water Pollution Control Activities."  The several states of the Council in
    1952 agreed to a program for elimination of toxic substances and settleable
    and floatable solids, and treatment of industrial wastes as necespary to
    prevent deterioration cf water quality, and to provide treatment over and
    above removal of settleable and floatable solids as necessary to protect
    doxrastream water uses.  The Guide also provided for future programs for
    legislation, construction of treatment plants, improvement of plant opera-
    tion and maintenance and stream surveillance.
    
    1965 was the year of enactment of the present pollution control law and
    formation of the Commission.  In addition to retention of the perrait feature,
    the new law provided improved enforcement provisions, and authorization for
    rules and regulations and water qurJ.:;:y standards.  It should be noted that
    this Iowa requirement for water quality standards, proven to be consistent
    with the Federal act, was imposed prior to the water quality amendments of
    the Federal act.
    
                                       -4-
    

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                                                                               512
    
    Since the current law was passed, the Commission has  adopted three regulations
    to aid in surveillance and enforcement.   The  first  is a regulation relating
    to the General Crite_ri of the water quality  standards, which makes
    mandatory the effective removal of  settleable and floatable solids from
    municipal waste water discharges.   The water  quality  criteria which apply
    to all surface waters at all times  and places,  require that the surface
    waters be free from floatable and settleable  solids xtfhich could form
    putrescent and objectionable sludge deposits  and be otherwise unsightly
    and deleterious.  This general criteria  has been effective in demonstrat-
    ing conditions of pollution and has been used as the  basis for ordering
    corrections.  However, removal of settleable  and floatable solids in most
    cases does not satisfactorily meet  the standards, and the public water
    supply, aquatic life and recreation criteria  have necessitated secondary
    treatment on Virtually all interior streams.
    
    Rules and regulations also require  submission of monthly treatment plant
    operation reports.  By specifying format and  content, the Department can
    require reporting of sufficient flow and laboratory testing data to evaluate
    plant effectiveness, and thereby obtain  an indication of the plant's affect
    on receiving stream water quality.  To aid in more  efficient and effective
    use of the repotts, a program for computer scanning of the reports is in
    the final stage of development.
    
    The Iowa "Mail Order BOD" program has also proven effective in surveillance
    of treatment plants.  This program, which utilizes  a  technique for fixing
    samples in tha field in preparation for  BOD determination in the State
    Laboratory, eliminates the need for refrigeration and enables transportation
    to the laboratory by ordinary mail. It  is a  unique procedure and was
    developed in the State Hygienic Laboratory.
    
    Although net yet having legislative approval, a third regulation has been
    adopted by the Ccmnission requiring control of feedlot runoff.  Feedlot
    pollution is being effectively controlled through the present enforcement
    provisions of the Law, utilizing the water quality standards and definition
    of stream pollution, but approval of the regulation x^ill hopefully reduce
    staff time required and prove to be a more efficient  and effective means
    cf control.
    
    Using the various regulations and enforcement provisions, the Commission
    since its inception in 1955 has issued  114 ordr.,:s for correction of pollution
    ccTiaitions.  The point ic t'uat 'J,c  orders, along with more informal education
    and persuasion efforts ourjv;~ rcol-itie plant inspections and contacts with
    municipal and industrial o'f.!-.:!-:i c, arid  more  import r:xi<.ly with the understand-
    ing ct;;} cooperation of lcr.;:I  r'.'/.I-M^ls,  are ;7.-t?:ir<^ w.aste treatment facilities
    built and efficiently  oi.r.rato/.'.,  As of  January 1, 1969 ("."is:;e were 510 munici-
    p;1.' ;.\! "nts in operation or  u;p:lir ecu: tructiou, ard the r-opul .rtio-i served by
    ti-juctricnt bas increased to  99.1'Vi (,' tbc  sewered population.  Hi-;: 13,000
    population in municipalities  not yet treacing, represent plants in the
    engineering planning stage  or actually  under  orders to be under construction
    in 1970 or before.  Municipalities  not  presently treating are smller
    c  :: cities, aO.d 100%  of the med'v" r.:>.a and  lar^c. ^r.. mm:!, ties rL- have
    s"-';.;. treatir.r.-t.  Thiu rcccrd rar.I  'Lth the hi^Iioot La the uutioi...
                                       -5-
    

    -------
                                                                              513
    
    Of the industries, the Iowa Meat Packing Plants are the largest potential
    sources o pollution.  Every meat packing plant in the state has a treatment
    plant in operation or under construction, and this represents some 3.5
    million population equivalent being treated.  Some of the plants are realiz-
    ing as much as 98 or 99% BCD removal, due in significant part to pioneering
    and development of anaerobic/aerobic lagoon treatment in Iowa.  With the
    exception of those on border streams, all packing plant wastes receive at
    least secondary treatment.
    
    Other wst process industries, though not producing the magnitude of waste
    produced in meat packing, are subject to and complying with treatment
    requirements (or if more appropriate, oorae type of inplant control), to
    meet Iowa water quality standards.  Iowa has no provision for untreated
    waste discharge permits.
    
    It is significant that Iowa docs not have stream classification.  Although
    the standards do specify recreation, fishing, and public water supply uses,
    and areas of applicability have been defined, minimum defined standards of
    high quality apply to all waters of the state.
    
    In summary, Iowa has through the years recognized the need for clean streams
    and continued and expanded its programs to meet the need.  The regulatory
    agency has exercised it's authority to abate pollution and maintain and
    improve x^ater quality, and municipalities and industries have complied with
    tha requirements.  The accomplishments shown by the record can be compared
    with the best in the nation.  Despite the adverse impressions created by
    the Federal reports and the Secretary's decision to except certain provisions
    of the Standards, Iowa has in the past and will in the future exercise it's
    regulatory authority to the fullest legal extent.
    

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                                                                                                                       514
                IOWA  LEADS  NATION  IN,SEWAGE  TREATMENT
    
                No  Urban  Population  Without  Treatment
    
           TABLE 3. URBAN POPULATION SERVED BY ADEQUATE AND LESS THAN ADEQUATE
                     MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT FACILITIES AND URBAN POPULATION
                     NOT SERVED, BY STATEi  FY 1968
                                      (In thousands, except percent)
                     Total          Population Served By (Facilities)!
    ****           Urban Population    Adequate  Leu than Adequate  None
                                                                               of Pop. with lea than
                                                                               Adequate or None
          U.s	;.     145,602
    Ala...4)	       2,140
    Alaska-	_        121
    Aril	       1,411
    Ark...y	        937
    Calif-.	      17,651
    Colo	       1,602
    Conn	       2, 342
    Del	        356
    D. C.	        832
    Fla -.	       4, 860
    Ga	        2, 727
    Hawaii?/	        S91
    Idaho	        349
    111	       8,923
    Ind	       3, 182  ,
    lowaL/2-'	       1,5261-/
    Kans?-'	       1,475
    Ky	       1, 539
    La	       2,479
    Maine	        509
    Md	       2, 785
    Mass?-'.	       4,563
    Mich	       6, 377
    Minn	       2, 370
    Miss	        988
    Mo^l	       3,141
    Monti/	        379i/
    NebrL/ ZJ	        846
    Nev	        376
    
    N.H	        414
    N.J	       6,444
    N. Mex	        764
    N. Y	      16, 003
    N. C	       2,138
    N. DakL/	        2S41-'
    Ohio	       7, 870
    Okla	       1, 694
    Oreg	       1, 320
    Pa	       8,428
    R.1	        793
    S.C	       1,134
    S. Daki-/	         287/
    Tenn	       2, 214
    Tex	       8, 874
    Utah	        825
    Vt	        162
    Va	       2,756
    Wash?-/	       2,139
    W.  Va	         710
    Wis	       2, 804
    WyoL/i/	        1981-7
                                    81,703
                                      819
                                       19
                                      711
                                      684
                                    12, 766
                                       854
                                       312
                                         9
                                       832
                                     1,741
                                      1,081
                                       162
                                       160
                                      7,410
                                     2,286
                                      1,590
                                      1,267
                                        536
                                        81B
                                         37
                                      2,119
                                      1,729
                                      1,340
                                        769
                                       460
                                     2,522
                                       123
                                       833
                                       366
    
                                        43
                                     1,629
                                       671
                                     8,017
                                     1,447
                                      278
                                     4,591
                                    1,332
                                      552
                                     5,325
                                      395
                                      540
                                      290
                                      750
                                     6,819
                                      500
                                         9
                                     1,092
                                      681
                                      149
                                    2,049
                                      189
    31, 865
       678
    
        34
       156
        36
       593
     1,286
       267
    
       864
     1,003
    
       134
       586
       529
    
       192
       792
       SIS
        60
       162
     1,173
     4,223
     1,324
        23
       183
       263
       100
         6
    
       102
     3, 179
         5
     3,733
       12S
        IS
     2,071
       199
       504
     2,916
       190
       178
        39
       319
       130
        19
       121
     1,328
       444
       348
       689
        29
    32,293
       643
       102
       666
       97
     4,849
       155
       744
        80
    
     2,255
       643
       429
        55
       927
       367
         I/
        16"
       211
     1, 146
       412
       504
     1,661
       814
       277
       505
       436
        _y
      269
     1,636
        88
     4,253
       566
        _y
     1,208
       163
       264
       187
       208
      416
        J/
     1, 145
     1,925
      306
       32
      336
     1,014
       213
       66
        V
    44.1
    61.7
    84.2
    49.6
    27.0
    27.7
    46.7
    86.7
    97.5
    
    64.2
    60.4
    72.6
    54.2
    17.0
    28.2
    
     14.1
    65.2
    67.0
    92.7
    23.9
    62.1
    79.0
    67.6
    53.4
    19.7
    69.4
    11.8
      2.7
    89.6
    74.7
    12.2
    49.9
    32.3
     5.9
    41.7
    21.4
    58.2
    36.8
    50.2
    52.4
    13.6
    66.1
    23.2
    39.4
    94.4
    60.4
    68.2
    79.0
    26.9
    14.6
      No  population
    without  treatment
    !_/  Population served by treatment facilities exceeds total urban population of these States by 2S9,000 persons.
        Thus the detail adds to 259, 000 more than the total U.  S. urban population.
    2_/  Water quality standards adopted call for primary waste treatment in some urban areas of this State.
        Standards adopted for other States call for at least secondary waste treatment.
    
    Source:  1962 Inventory, Municipal Waste Facilities in the United States, updated by FWPCA Construction Grants
            Awards; urban population estimates based on U. S.  Census of Population, 1960; Bureau of Census
            Population Estimates, Series P-2S.
    
                           Fromi  THE COST OF CLEAR UATB  - Volume I Summary Report,
                  0 3 Department ot Interior, Federal  Water  Pollution Control Administration
                                           January 10, 1969
    

    -------
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                                                                              517
    
    C.  COMMENTS ON SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS OF THS FEDERAL REPORT
    
    The extensive text is summarized in Section II of the Missouri River Basin
    Water Quality Standards Conference report.  Several of the items deserve
    comment and are discussed below.  The parenthesis indicates material quoted
    or paraphrased from the Federal report.
    
    Agricultural Runoff Effects
    
    Items E, G, and K on pages II-2 and II-3 deal generally with agricultural
    runoff effects.  While of interest, this particular aspect is actually
    outside the scope of controllable standards, and the manner of the statements
    could lead the less than totally informed ceader to unwarranted conclusions.
    
    E.  (It is estimated that at least 3,300,000 cattle and calves and 6,100,000
    hogs and pigs were on farms.  These animal wastes have a population equivalent
    of 65,000,000 and can cause several conditions of stream degradation.',)
    There is no particular problem,  from animal waste until such time as rain-
    fall, snoxtf melt or water passes through the feed lot dissolving material
    from the manure and carrying it to the stream.  Since the load of dissolved
    and suspended material water carried to the stream is only a fraction of
    that on the feed lot, the 65,000,000 population equivalent of animal waste
    on the feed lots should not at all be interpreted as the load on the stream.
    
    (There are approximately 46,000 feeder lots in the state - page IV-234)
    This statement is misleading in that a feeder lot could be defined as an
    area from which one or more grain-fed beef was marketed during  the year.
    This could not be much of a pollution problem, and certainly not one over
    which control could be exercised.  Iowa does however, effectively control
    large confinement feed lot runoff pollution.
    
    G.  (Sediment from uncontrolled runoff is a major pollutant of the Missouri
    River.).     The reference to low turbidity of water discharged from Gavins
    Point Dam, compared to the turbid condition through Iowa is understandable.
    The effect of settling of sediment in the pool above the dam is not avail-
    able in the lower reaches.  Again, this aspect is outside the scope of
    controllable standards and is not an issue of the Standards conference.
    
    K. (High densities of bacteria and high concentrations of nitrogen and
    phosphorus are found in Iowa tributaries  to the Missouri River, especially
    during periods of stormwater runoff.)    This statement could be expanded to
    include the agricultural land and streams in all states.  Furthermore,
    while some control may be imposed, the bacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus
    in stormwater runoff can never be fully abated.  Stcrawater runoff effects
    negate at  least in part, the desirable effect of continuous disinfection
    of treatment plant effluents.
    
    Recreational Uses
    
    Items P, Q, and S deal generally with recreational uses and give emphasis
    to impairment of use by grease.
    
    P.  (Recreational activities on the main  stem include boating, water skiing,
    swimming and wading.  These activities are directly affected by presence of
    floating material and grease balls, high  bacterial densities, dissolved
    organics and turbidity.  Samples of water taken in the survey had as high
    as 2000 bacteria per drop.)
                                      -7-
    

    -------
                                                                              518
    
    Q.  (Esthetic values of the waters in this area are reduced due to turbidity,
    floating materials, and other effects which reduce or eliminate the oppor-
    tunity for development of spectator oriented activities, e.g.,  boat or canoe
    races, etc.)
    
    S.  (Fouling of fishnets and lines with grease is common below major municipal
    and industrial waste outlets.  Similarly, boat hulls of recreational water-
    craft are fouled with grease and scum.)
    
    The lox^a Water Pollution Control Commission has not designated the main
    stem of the Missouri as a recreation stream involving whole body contact
    sports (svrirnming and water skiing) .  The Iowa Health Department has for
    many years recommended that Iowa streams not be used for this purpose
    because of the injury and drowning hazards involved.  Secticn IV of the
    Federal report contains the following statements which would appear to bear
    out this position.
    
    Second paragraph, page IV-7 (Present recreation use along the Missouri River
    in Iowa has not met its potential for the amount of land and water acreage
    involved.  While being light, hoxjever, it appears that most recreation
    activities are participated in with sightseeing, boating, picnicking and
    fishing as the most popular.)     Last paragraph, page IV-7(Water skiing,
    surprisingly is enjoyed even though the river contains a high silt load.
    Swimming is not considered a common activity due in large measure to the
    dangerous water conditions and high turbidity.)     Third paragraph, page
    IV-ll-(It can be expected that  use on the waters of the Missouri will prin-
    cipally be in the form of fishing, and boating, and on the adjoining lands
    in the form of sightseeing, picnicking, hiking, driving and walking for
    pleasure, and in historical interpretation.)
    
    From  this, it would appear that there is general agreement that the value
    of the Missouri River for whole body sports is dictated principally by
    factors other than  controllable water quality criteria, and that maintenance
    of the general criteria and the criteria for public water supply and aquatic
    life  should adequately protect recreational uses.
    
    The grease ball,  grease and scum  problems mentioned in  items P and S have
    not been  shown to  be  attributable  to  the Sioux City or  Council Bluffs
    municipal sewage  plant discharges.  The  discharges which xrould be most
    suspected of  containing  large amounts of grease would be the Iowa Beef
    Packers discharge  at  Dakota City, Nebraska, the municipal sewage  treatment
    plant effluent at  Sioux  City, loxja, and  the City of Omaha discharges.  Grease
    is discussed  on  page  A-26 of the  Federal report  and  this discussion  is
    quoted  in its  entirety as follows:
    
     (The  concentration of grease from the  daily composite  from  the Konroer Street
    and  South Omaha  sewers  averaged 299 mg/1 during  the October  19C8  survey.
    The  actual  amount of  grease  reaching  the Missouri  River  following a  privately
    operated  recovery operation  at  the Monroe  Street  sewer  was  not determined.)
    
     (The  grease concentration  in the  effluent  from the  Sioux City, Iowa,  sewage
     treatment plant  during the  October 1968  survey averaged  17  mg/1.   The  amount
    of grease removed through  the  sewage  treatment plant was not determined.)
    
    
                                       -8-
    

    -------
                                                                              519
    
    (Grease results from the January 1969 survey were not available for inclusion
    in this report.)
    
    The amount of grease being discharged (in the Monroe Street sewer) to the
    private recovery operation, using a total daily flow of 40 million gallons
    per day as shown in Table A-l, is fifty (50) tons per day.  In comparison,
    the 17 mg/1 of grease found in the Sioux City effluent is not significant.
    The Iowa State Department of Health has found that this amount of grease
    is not visible in effluents or in the receiving stream.  The 17 mg/1 of
    grease amounts to a little over one (1) ton in the Sioux City effluent, as
    compared to fifty (50) tons being discharged in the Omaha Monroe Street
    sewer.
    
    The Federal report speaks of grease balls as big as oranges, but does not
    say where these were observed.  Nor does it contain information concerning
    the grease content of the Iowa Beef Packers effluent at Dakota City,
    Nebraska.   The waste being discharged from Iowa Beef Packers is not treated
    in a municipal plant and can be expected to contain appreciable amounts of
    grease.  The x-iaste treatment facility consists of an air flotation grease
    removal unit, the type of which past Health Department observations have
    shown, present operator  problems and  is subject to operational outages.
    
    The Iowa State Department of Health has information that the State of
    Nebraska permitted Iowa Beef Packers at Dakota City to discharge wastes
    which may be over 200,000 population equivalent, compared to 195,000
    population equivalent listed in the Federal report for the Sioux City
    sewage treatment plant effluent.  Grease removals in the Sioux City plant
    would be much more effective than the IBP industrial unit, so that the
    grease observation should not be attributed to Sioux City.
    
    Water Quality Effects.
    
    Items L, 0, and R on pages II-3, and II-4, discuss certain other vater quality
    effects.
    
    L.  (Survey results from the main stream of the Missouri River in Iowa identi-
    fied adverse changes in water quality.  Turbidity increased four-fold in the
    length of reach surveyed and cyanide and phenols were found)     It is true
    that phenols were found in the Missouri River, however, the Federal report
    failed to mention in the summary that the maximum observed phenol concentra-
    tions (Table No. A-5) did not change from station M-52, which is located
    above Sioux City, to station M-38, which is located below the Omaha-Council
    Bluffs area.  These maximum levels, which showed no.relation to waste dis-
    charges, were 2 parts per billion (ppb), which is twice as high as the
    suggested FWPCA standard of 1 PPb.  These data further substantiate Iowa's
    position that phenol concentrations resulting from natural degradation pro-
    ducts often exceed the FWPCA standard of 1 ppb, and that this standard is
    therefore unreasonable.
    
    During the January, 1969 FWPCA survey, turbidity values were shown to decrease
    from 19 units above Sioux City to 8 units below Omaha-Council Bluffs.  During
    this period storm water runoff was minimal and these data show that sewage
    treatment plant discharges had no effect on the turbidity of the Missouri
    River.  High turbidity in the Missouri is caused exclusively by land drainage
    and that subject is not relevant to the conference.
    
                                      -9-
    

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                                                                              520
    
    Cyanide concentrations up to 15.2 ppb were measured in the Missouri River.
    These concentrations given in Table A-5 bear no apparent relationship to
    municipal or industrial discharges.  12.2 ppb of cyanide were found above
    Sioux City while less than 1 ppb was found below the Omaha-Council Bluffs
    area.  In no case was the Iowa aquatic life standard of 25 ppb of cyanide
    violated.
    
    0.  Public water uses relying on the Missouri River as a source of supply
    report problems associated with turBi'dit.y,ammonia, coagulation, taste and
    odors.)     These are common problems of most surface water treatment plants,
    whether or not being affected by upstream waste discharges.  We have already
    established that turbidity problems in the Missouri are not caused by waste
    discharges but by land runoff over which we have no control.
    
    Sewage treatment plants are designed to eliminate settleable materials and
    organic carbon, not ammonia.  Waste effluents from secondary treatment
    plants contain concentrations of ammonia that are many times greater than
    concentrations in the average receiving waters.  Nevertheless, increased
    ammonia concentrations in the Missouri and other Iowa streams are generally
    the result of agricultural land drainage and not sewage treatment plant
    discharges.  This is substantiated by the fact that 85% of the Missouri
    River stations had greater ammonia concentrations during the runoff period
    than during the normal period of flow (see Table A-3, Federal report).
    
    It has been widely recognized by Iowa that taste and odor problems frequently
    are encountered during periods of surface runoff, particularly in the late
    winter and spring.  However, this is not related to sewage treatment plant
    discharges.
    
    R.  (Tainting of ish flesh has been reported by commercial and sport
    fishermen in many areas of the main stem of the Missouri river.)     The
    State Conservation Commission reports no such complaints in the Iox
    -------
                                                                              521
    
    Failure of the Omaha meat packing plants to remove paunch manure and other
    solids in pre-treattnent produced such severe plant operation problems that
    the packing plant wastes and the south half of the City of Omaha still
    remain untreated.  Four additional conference sessions ending March 1966
    produced an agreement between the packers and the City of Omaha for construct-
    ion of packing plant waste pre-treatment facilities, scheduled for completion
    in 1969.
    
    FWFCA Biological Study
    
    The manner in which the biological data was presented did not deviate from
    the rest of the Federal report.  Conclusions were "not objective" and
    pertinent facts were buried which tended to create the illusion that Iowa is
    a major polluter of the Missouri River.
    
    The FUPCA summary (part M, page II-3) regarding the biological study states
    the following.  (Biological investigations revealed predominately clean water
    organisms and associated aquatic life above Sioux City.  However a consistent
    increase in pollution tolerant organisms and biota were observed in many
    stretches of the river between Sioux City and St. Joseph.)     This statement
    leads one to believe that all is well above Sioux City, whereas the Missouri
    downstream from Sioux City is polluted.  If the data (Table B2-Federal Report)
    is examined objectively, it is obvious that this statement is misleading.
    
    The fact is that the study showed little difference in the biological quality
    between station 736 and 730 above the Sioux City sewage treatment plant
    discharge, whereas every sample taken in the first 74 miles below the Sioux
    City discharge definitely demonstrated a biological fauna which was superior
    in quality to that observed upstream from Sioux City.  Stoneflies, which are
    noted for being extremely pollution intolerant, were found at three stations
    downstream from Sioux City, while the data indicate that no stoneflies were
    found above Sioux City.  Likewise there was a greater diversity of mayflies
    in the first 74 railes below the Sioux City discharge than there was above
    Sioux City.  Mayflies are also pollution intolerant organisms which require
    high water quality.  The FUPCA data (Table B-2) demonstrate that pollution
    intolerant forms were present in greater diversity in the first 74 miles
    below the Sioux City discharge than above it.  This not a claim that the
    treated waste discharge from Sioux City enhances biological quality in the
    Missouri River, but merely points out that the biological quality was not
    deteriorated at these stations by the Sioux City discharge.
    
    It is stated in the Federal report (page B-l) that severe degradation of
    the bottom associated organisms occurred for 54 miles dox
    -------
                                                                              522
    
    Eighty-eight percent of Omaha's raw waste load receives no treatment or,
    in other words, is discharged directly to the Missouri River.  All of the
    Council Bluffs waste receives ^primary treatment.
    
    It is therefore not all surprising that the Missouri is biologically degraded
    for 54 miles beloxj Omaha, nor is it surprising that grease balls are found
    as far as 166 miles downstream.  However, these conditions can hardly be
    attributed to Council Bluffs, Iowa.
    
    Water Quality Monitoring
    
    (Pages IV -41, IV-42 and IV-43 of the Federal report contain discussion of
    the^need for water quality monitoring and recommendations that Iowa establish
    additional monitoring stations and increase sampling frequency.)
    The lox'ja l?ater Pollution Control Commission agrees that an adequate water
    quality monitoring program is necessary and that this program should fit the
    needs of all the agencies involved in water pollution control.  This is
    further emphasized by sections of this statement recommending additional
    study of parameters at issue in the Standards Conference.  However, the
    extent of monitoring is directly dictated by staff manpower capability.
    This, being an extremely small staff agency, priorities must be established.
    
    Iowa has recently expanded its limnology program, which is a direct increase
    in monitoring effort.  Iowa has also moved forward by development of the
    mandatory treatment plant operation report program.  This, together with
    automatic data processing, mandatory operator certification, and mail order
    EOD, is a form of monitoring, but monitoring of sources of waste discharge
    rather than stream xjater quality.  However, priority must be given to
    correction of poor effluent discharges rather than stream sampling, and
    this effort is a more efficient utilization of staff resources.  Such
    sampling as is now possible is being carried out, and every effort will
    be made to expand the monitoring station network and increase sampling
    frequency as manpower increases permit.
                                       -12-
    

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                                                                              523
    
    D.  COMMENTS ON FEDERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
    
    The recommendations of the Department of the Interior are set out,  starting
    on page VI-1 of the Water Quality Standards Conference Report-Missouri
    River Basin.  The Iowa position on each of the recommendations is outlined
    below, in the same order as it appears in the Federal Report.
    
    Secondary Treatment
    
    The Department of Interior blanket requirement for secondary treatment of
    all municipal and biodegradable wastes cannot be justified on the basis
    of Congressional intent, nor can such a requirement be adopted by the
    Commission under present Iowa statutory authority.  An effluent standards
    provision, such as this secondary treatment requirement, was rejected during
    early Congressional hearings, and the standards provision reported out of
    Committee contemplated the setting of water quality standards for receiving
    waters only.  However, on the basis of Guideline 8, the Department of
    Interior has attempted to impose a uniform requirement of secondary treat-
    ment or the equivalent, in all State water quality standards.
    
    The Commission, under Icwa law, has no direct statutory authority to establish
    or enforce effluent standards.  There is no authority to specify a type
    of treatment, except that based on the water quality criteria of the receiving
    stream.  Treatment can be regul -ted only to the extent that it will produce
    an effluent that will protect the stream and meet the water quality criteria.
    
    On the basis of stream water quality requirements, secondary treatment will
    be needed, and therefore has or will be required for all but 4 or 5 of the
    490 municipal sewage treatment plants located on interior streams.  However,
    the Mississippi and Missouri rivers have very high stream flows furnishing
    very high assimilative capacity, and the need for a degree of treatment
    higher than primary is difficult and in most places impossible to demonstrate.
    Extensive Mississippi River water quality studies during the middle 1950fs
    and a 1950 pollution investigation on the Missouri River, demonstrated
    relatively little effect of even untreated wastes on these border streams.
    But as the result of water pollution hearings and voluntary compliance, all
    cities and towns, with the exception of the small Mississippi River towns
    of Marquotte and Lansing, completed primary or secondary treatment during
    the 1950 to 1966 period.
    
    The dissolved oxygen values presented in Figure A-2 of the Federal report
    indicate no significant decrease in dissolved oxygen during the October 1968
    survey period, and an actual increase progressing downstream to the Omaha
    area during the January 1969 period.
    
    The principal oxygen demanding sources now existing in the Sioux City area
    are the primary treated effluent of the City of Sioux City and the relatively
    untreated waste from the Iowa Beef Packers plant at Dakota City, Nebraska,
    approximately 4 miles downstream from the Sioux City municipal sewage
    treatment outfall.  As determieed from samples collected by FWPCA and from
    composite plant operation reports submitted to the State Department of
    Health, the Sioux City plant effluent has a population equivalent waste
    loading in the range of 200,000.  No similar composite samples were collected
    by the FWPCA from the effluent of the Iowa Beef Packers plant at Dakota
    City, but information available to this Department indicates that the State
    
                                      -13-
    

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                                                                              524-
    of Nebraska has permitted the Iowa Beef Packers plant to discharge an organ-
    ic load of over 200,000 population equivalent to the Missouri river.  It
    can be seen that this oxygen demanding waste load figure may be equal to
    that contributed by the entire domestic population of Sioux City and its
    packing plant waste load combined.
    
    The table of municipal discharges to the Missouri river on page IV-24 of
    the Federal report lists a plant discharge population of 39,000 for Council
    Bluffs, Iowa and over 1,801,000 for Omaha, Nebraska.  The oxygen demanding
    wastes for Omaha are thus 46 times that of Council Bluffs.  Some oxygen
    depression was created by the discharge of primarily untreated wastes in
    this area but could not be declared to have a serious detrimental effect.
    
    These water quality studies have shown no significant reduction in dissolved
    oxygen levels below sources of oxygen demanding wastes, even prior to
    primary treatment.  This is a fortunate condition, and fares well compared
    to others of the nation's major streams where secondary treatment is needed.
    For instance, the 1968 report of the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation
    Commission showed that dissolved oxygen levels of below 4 ppm occurred
    33% of the time in the lower reaches of the Ohio River.  Likewise, the lower
    reaches of the Delaware River now have very low oxygen levels, and hundreds
    of millions of dollars must be expended for secondary treatment, simply to
    maintain 3.5 ppm dissolved oxygen.
    
    It also deserves comment that most of the larger border cities proceeded
    with primary treatment in the early years of the Federal construction grant
    program, and did not enjoy the degree of financial assistance that will be
    available to cities in other States that have delayed any plant construction
    to this point.
    
    Using cost figures compiled by Smith and published in the JWPCF, it has
    been estimated that construction of secondary treatment facilities for
    all waste discharges to the Mississippi and "Missouri Rivers would cost
    over $25 million.  Furthermore, according to figures published in a 1969
    FUPCA report, the cost of operation and maintenance of these secondary
    plants would be approximately $1.7 million per year more than for primary
    treatment.
    
    The Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission has no hesitancy to require
    secondary treatment of any waste discharge to either the Mississippi or
    Missouri Rivers, when the need to satisfy water quality requirements is
    shown.  However,  it is the Iowa position that a need for uniforn secondary
    treatment of all waste discharges has not been shown, and there is no
    scientific reason to believe that secondary treatment of every waste
    discharge on the border streams will enhance the water quality.
    
    Some degradation of water quality was evident below the Omaha-Council Bluffs
    area due to the low percentage of wastes receiving treatment.  It is
    suggested additional water quality studies be conducted following completion
    of meat packing plant pretreatment facilities to permit evaluation of
    Missouri river water quality when receiving full primary treated effluents
    from the City of Omaha.
                                      -14-
    

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                                                                              525
    
    Pisinfection
    
    At a meeting on February 9, 1968 with Robert S. Burd, Director of the FWPCA
    Water Quality Standards Staff, Iowa agreed to adopt definite numerical
    bacteriological limits compatible with National Technical Advisory Committee
    recommendations for waters used for public water supplies 'and primary contact
    recreation (swimming and water skiing).  Interior further agreed that the
    standards would recognize these values as applying during dry weather, but
    will state that all reasonable efforts will be made to reduce bacteria
    concentration increases during periods of storm water runoff.
    
    The Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission at its April 4, 1968 meeting
    approved a motion accepting these provisions, and the Iowa water quality
    standards have been revised to include the following numerical bacteriologic-
    al limits:
    
              Public water supply
    
              Numerical bacteriological limits of 2000 fecal coliforms
              per 100 ml for public water supply raw water sources will
              be applicable during low floxv periods x^hen such bacteria
              can be demonstrated to be attributed to pollution by
              sewage.
    
              Recreation
    
              Numerical bacteriological limits of 200 fecal coliformc
              per 100 ml for primary contact recreational waters will
              be applicable during low flow periods when such bacteria can
              be demonstrated to be attributable to pollution by sewage.
    
    The water quality criteria and plan for implementation and enforcement tor
    the surface waters of Iowa, adopted by the Iowa Water Pollution Control
    Commission in May 1967, designated the surface waters to be protected for
    public water supply use as well as the recreation use areas on lakes,
    impoundments and rivers.  The treatment needs in the plan have specified
    coliform reduction or effluent disinfection by the municipalities to protect
    this use during the recreational season.  Information provided by other
    state agencies and presentations at the public water quality hearings were
    used to designate interior stream recreation areas, and coliform reduction
    has been specified for interior municipalities where necessary to protect
    recreational uses.
    
    The State of Iowa therefore feels that acceptable bacterial criteria have
    been established for interstate streams in Iowa.  These criteria are
    compatible with criteria of adjoining states established for public
    water supply and for recreation.  Other state bacterial criteria generally
    take into consideration the effect of land runoff, and are applied when
    necessary to protect specified uses.  Disinfection of treatment plant
    effluents is required by states adjoining Iowa, generally where  public
    water supplies are involved and where, necessary to protect public health
    for recreational waters during the recreational season.  The State of Iowa
    had previously gone on record in its implementation plan as requiring
    effluent disinfection where necessary to protect downstream water uses.
    
                                        -15-
    

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                                                                              526
    
    Land runoff contributes high bacterial densities and bacterial studies in
    the State of Iowa and elsewhere have shown that commonly acceptable coli-
    form levels have been greatly exceeded even in the absence of wastes
    attributable to human sources.  The following is quoted from a long term
    study (1) of total coliforms in the Iowa River at Iowa City.
    
              "If a stream contains coliform organisms that are of domestic
    sewage origin, one might expect the MPN to vary inversely with the dilution
    capacity of the stream.  High MPN values would be expected during the dry
    seasons.  On the other hand, high turbidities would be expected with high
    water conditions due to increased erosion and scour.
    
              "In the Iowa River, increases in stream flow are accompanied by
    increases in both turbidity and coliforra organisms.  This pattern has
    been apparent over the entire 1950-64 period and is true v^hether one
    examines daily or monthly average data.
    
              "Apparently, large numbers of coliform organisms are carried
    into the river after each rainfall and snow melt.  The increase in turbiuity
    also indicates the agricultural land adjacent to the river as the source
    of many of these coliform organisms.  Storm sewer overflow is not considered
    a significant factor because the nearest upstream city is 30 mi. above Iowa
    City, and above the impoundment.
    
              "In view of the apparently high numbers of nonfecal coliform
    organisims, and the correlation of high coliform densities with high flow,
    one might question the significance of such MPN data as related to the
    bacterial safety of the Iowa River Water.  Does a high MPN, expecially a
    high monthly average, which may be caused by runoff from a single rainfall,
    mean that this water is an undesirable source?  Probably not."
    
    Among his conclusions Professor Pox^ell states:  "There are considerable
    seasonal differences in water quality.  The impoundment has tended to reduce
    this variation, for example, by distributing the poor water from spring
    runoff over a longer period of time.
    
              "Stream flow, turbidity, and bacterial density follow the same
    seasonal pattern.  Increases in flow are accompanied by increases in the
    other two.  During high flows the extremely high coliform densities are
    due to agricultural land drainage.
    
              "Improved methods of evaluating bacterial quality and recommend-
    ing treatment are greatly needed.  In view of present day treatment capabilit-
    ies, the worst  rivers  in the country can probably be purified with relative
    ease."
     (1)  Water Quality Changes Due to Impoundment, Marcus P. Powell &
         P. M. Berthouex, JAWWA July 1967
                                       16-
    

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                                                                              527
    Figure 1 illustrates the pattern, on a monthly average basis, of the direct
    relationship of increasing stream flows accompanied by increases in both
    turbidity and total coliform density.  Figure 2 indicates that the monthly
    coliform MPN average is less than 5000 per 100 tn/1 about 46?0 of the months
    both before and after impoundment above the supply in 1958.  Figure 3
    illustrates coliform variations with flow and turbidity on the Raccoon
    River at Des Moines.
    
    Tables 2 and 3 contain total coliform data for the years 1964 & 1965
    raw water at the University of Iowa water treatment plant intake at Iowa
    City, Iowa.  This data indicates that commonly accepted total coliform
    criteria both for public water supply and recreation uses are exceeded
    due to land runoff a high percentage of the time.
    
    The following are estimates of the costs for continuous disinfection
    (chlorinatiori) of municipal waste treatment plant effluents, including
    effluents from industrial wastes which may contain pathogenic agents as
    recommended by the Department of Interior.
    
                          Estimated Chlorination Costs
                 Iowa Cities and Towns on Interstate Streams
                                                     Construct.        Annual
                                   Raw      Eff.     & Equip.          Chlorine
                                   PE       PE        costs              cost
    
    Major Mississippi River cities 1,029,000  700,000 $   642,000     $390,000
    Major Missouri River cities      447,000  295,000     307,000      176,000
    Interior Interstate Streams                         1,400,000      291,000
    
                   Total Chlorination Costs            $2,394,000     $857,000
    The expenditure annually of the large suras of money required for year-
    round disinfection of municipal and industrial wastes as recommended by
    FWPCA, will not improve the bacterial quality of interstate waters during
    periods of run-off, and these are the periods when high bacterial levels
    have been found.  The Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission has agreed
    to disinfection of waste discharges where these discharges can be expected
    to affect recreational or public water supply uses.  Primary body contact
    (swimming and x7ater skiing) recreational uses of Iowa streams is limited
    by nature to summer months.  It has not been demonstrated to the Iowa Water
    Pollution Control Commission that year round Chlorination is required to
    protect secondary contact (boating and fishing) recreational uses.
    
    The Missouri River being unsuitable for whole body contact recreational
    sports (swimming and water skiing), precludes the need for disinfection
    to protect this use.  The one possible need for disinfection would be at
    the Sioux City area to protect the downstream water supplies.  However,
    that nsed, as demonstrated by the FWPCA x^ater quality study, appears to be
    rather borderline, and the study was relatively brief.  Therefore before
    definitely establishing a compliance requirement and making the large expendi-
    ture that will be required, additional study should be undertaken to more
    accurately determine the coliform densities and sources.
                                      -17-
    

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                                                                                  531
                                     TABLE  	2_
    
                                    IOWA RIVER
                                WATER PLANT INTAKE
                                UNIVERSITY  OF IOWA
                            TOTAL COLIFORM  M.P.N. DATA
                                       1964
                            Public Water Supply          Recreation
    Month  Number   Ave.      % > MPN  % > MPN    % > KPN	% > MPN
    of MPN per
    Samples 100 ml
    Jan.
    Feb.
    March
    April
    May
    June
    July
    Aug.
    Sept.
    Oct.
    Nov.
    Dec.
    17
    19
    20
    22
    19
    22
    22
    21
    21
    21
    20
    21
    2,780
    1,335
    5,890
    478
    10,240
    22,980
    2,240
    1,450
    3,700
    4,970
    206
    51
    5,000
    per
    100 ml
    11
    05
    20
    0
    31
    50
    18
    04
    14
    14
    0
    0
    20,000
    per
    100 ml
    05
    0
    10
    0
    05
    22
    0
    0
    04
    09
    0
    0
    1,000
    per
    100 ml
    41
    31
    55
    09
    78
    81
    63
    14
    61
    38
    0
    0
    2,000
    per
    100 ml
    41
    21
    45
    09
    78
    77
    45
    14
    52
    38
    05
    0
    2,400
    per
    100 ml
    23
    15
    45
    09
    78
    77
    36
    14
    52
    33
    0
    0
    5 , 000 Mean
    per Flow
    100 oil cfs
    11
    05
    20
    0
    31
    50
    18
    04
    14
    V'r
    0
    0
    187
    655
    467
    803
    1,391
    1,040
    1,355
    452
    637
    213
    294
    419
          *When averaging MPN values all values less  than 30 were  considered 30.
    

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                                                                                  532
                                     TABLE  _3	
    
                                     IOWA RIVER
                                 UNIVERSITY  OF IOWA
                                 WATER PLANT INTAKE
                               TOTAL  COLIFORM MPN DATA
                                        1965
                            Public Water  Supply           Recreation
    Month  Number   Ave.      % > MPN   % > MPN     % > MPN     	 % >_MPN
    of MPN per
    Samples 100 ml
    Jan.
    Feb.
    March
    April
    May
    June
    July
    Aug.
    Sept.
    Oct.
    Nov.
    Dec.
    20
    20
    23
    27
    20
    22
    21
    22
    21
    20
    21
    20
    37
    46,000
    15,000
    32,000
    17,000
    5,100
    6,100
    27,000
    38,000
    2,100
    670
    12,000
    5,000
    per
    100 ml
    0
    30
    48
    52
    65
    18
    29
    41
    77
    5
    0
    15
    20,000
    per
    100 ml
    0
    30
    13
    33
    20
    9
    14
    27
    53
    0
    0
    10
    1,000
    per
    100 ml
    0
    35
    96
    78
    85
    46
    62
    77
    90
    40
    14
    30
    2,000
    per
    100 ml
    0
    35
    87
    74
    85
    41
    57
    77
    90
    30
    5
    25
    2,400
    per
    100 ml
    0
    30
    70
    59
    80
    32
    48
    59
    86
    15
    0
    20
    5,000 Mean
    per Flow
    100 ml cfs
    0
    30
    48
    52
    65
    18
    29
    41
    77
    5
    0
    15
    1,282
    2,039
    3,388
    6,257
    4,989
    5,633
    2,661
    513
    2,651
    3,593
    4,025
    3,807
          *When averaging MPN values all values less than 30 were  considered
           30 and all values greater than 110,000 were considered  110,000
    

    -------
                                                                              533
    
    Temperature
    
    The temperature criteria for interior streams was excepted from approval by
    Secretary of Interior.  During the lengthy negotiations, the temperature
    criteria has been the subject of wide variation and inconsistency in the
    Department of Interior's position.  In five separate expressions, for
    instance, Interior has gequested different maximum temperature requirements,
    ranging from 86F to 93 F.
    
    Agreement was reached on the 93F maximum on interior streams but not on
    permitting a differential of 10F above the natural background.  Interior
    has insisted that this follow the pattern of the larger streams, like the
    Mississippi and the Missouri, dictating a differential of 5F above natural
    background from May 1 through October 1, and then 10F October 1 through
    May 1.  This issue is unwarranted and would seriously add to the expense of
    power plane operations where applicable.
    
    The thermal loading in Iowa is primarily from electrical power generation.
    Other industries using river water for heat exchange work are not believed
    to be of such magnitude as to exceed the lower limit proposed when operating
    plants on respective streams at low flow conditions.  This leaves then,
    only those power plants which can properly and economically use this re-
    source when able to stay below the maximum stream temperature set forth
    by the criteria.
    
    The trend in this area should be noted.  Older power plants are being closed
    rather than expend funds for modernization of air and water pollution
    control facilities and for other operational reasons.  These services are
    being replaced by transmission of electrical currents from other larger and
    more modern plants.  With the forthcoming of the atomic power plants in
    this region, increases in the thermal loading at these smaller local points
    on the interior streams, does not appear to be a problem for the near future.
    
    The several guidelines issued by the National Technical Advisory Committee,
    describing considerations for setting temperature limits, frequently refer
    to the need for local study and for specific analysis of each habitat at
    the zone in question.  Iowa believes this to be a most valid consideration
    and submits to the expert opinions of those professional authorities who
    have conducted investigations and have knoxvledge of the aquatic life on the
    streams where such concern may exist.
    
    The temperature limits in the standards were not finally established until
    after the seven hearings conducted throughout the state.  The final criteria
    were considered to be a fair representation of values recommended by and
    acceptable to various biologists who testified at the hearings.  The views
    of the Superintendent of the Biology Section of the State Conservation
    Commission and the Principal Limnologist of the State Hygienic Laboratory
    are also firm in the contention that the temperature maximums and the 10F
    temperature rise on interior streams are acceptable standards for aquatic
    life.
                                       -18-
    

    -------
                                                                              534
    
    The recommendations of the Federal Report on the Missouri Basin water are
    quite vague in regard to temperature maximums,  but a February 21,  1968
    letter from Robert S. Burd, director of the FWPCA Water Quality Standards
    Staff, definitely stated that the maximums then proposed in the Iowa Standards
    were acceptable, and indicated that the 10F rise on interior streams was
    the only point at issue.
    
    Iowa believes however, that the first hand knowledge of the problems involved
    and the subsequent testimonies of the professional authorities who counseled
    in preparation of the temperature standards, are logical and valid reasons
    for retaining the 10 tolerance above natural temperatures on interior
    streams.  The 93 maximum temperature should also be retained.
    
    Further, it should be recorded that all industry sharing this thermal
    pollution problem has cooperated with the Iowa Water Pollution Control
    Commission and adjusted its agreements to assure compliance within the
    parameters desired by the Commission.  Industry is seriously concerned when
    reviewing the various thinking, and changes in position expressed in letters
    coming from the FWPCA, each adding to and further restricting their right
    for using this resource.  Iowa believes the balance it has recommended to
    be both reasonable and valid for water quality temperature criteria in Iowa.
                                        -19-
    

    -------
                                                                              535
    
    Protection of High Quality Waters
    
    The October 2, 1968 minutes of the Iowa Water Pollution Control  Commission
    state that the language of the non-degradation clause  which was  accepted
    by the state of Colorado and adjacent states is acceptable to the Water
    Pollution Control Commission.  This action is considered firm, and  the
    following non-degradation statement is incorporated as a part of the  water
    quality standards:
    
              Waters whose existing quality is better than the established
              standards as of the date on which such standards become effect-
              ive will  be maintained at high quality unless it has been
              affirmatively demonstrated to the State that a change  is
              justifiable as a result of necessary economic or social
              development and will not preclude present and anticipated use
              of such waters.  Any industrial, public or private project  or
              development which would constitute a new source of pollution
              or an increased source of pollution to high  quality waters  will
              be required to provide the necessary degree  of waste treatment
              to maintain high x^ater quality.   In implementing this  policy,
              the Secretary of the Interior will be kept advised and will
              be provided with such information as he will need to discharge
              his responsibilities under the Federal Water Pollution Control
              Act, as amended.
                                      -20
    

    -------
                                                                              536
    
    Phenols
    
    Phenol concentrations in Iowa streams are highly variable ranging from less
    than one part per billion to a maximum of 20 ppb.  This variation occurs at
    given sampling points at different times of the year being a function of
    hydrologic flow, climatic conditions and other factors.
    
    Experience indicates that the highest phenolic compound concentrations occur
    at the early stages of high flow conditions rather than at low flows.  This
    phenomenon causes us to discount the significance of industrial or municipal
    input as this type source would tend to produce the highest phenol levels
    during low flow-low dilution conditions.
    
    Aromatic ring compounds abound in nature and bacterial and fungal organisms
    are well known producers of hydroxylated ring metabolites.  The probability
    is high that phenolic type compounds reactive to 4-aminaontipyrine could
    have a potential metabolic pathway resulting from such natural materials as
    wood tars, plant proteins, tannins, etc.  Since Iowa waters at times are
    loaded with natural soluble organics due to soil surface leaching, the
    correlation with early stage run-off and elevated phenol concentrations is
    logical.
    
    Iowa data bears this postulation out and some typical data illustrating
    phenol levels are delineated in tabular form attached.
    
    The summary data (Table A-5) in the Federal report shox^s maximum phenol
    concentrations of 2 ppb did not change from above Sioux City to below
    the Omaha Council Bluffs area.  These maximum levels which showed no
    relation to x^aste discharges are twice as high as the suggested FWPCA
    standard of 1 ppb and again indicate  phenol concentrations resulting from
    natural degredation products often exceed the suggested standard.
    
              Iowa river cities using surface water showing phenol levels
              in the 10-20 range have not experienced taste and odor episodes
              attributable to phenol concentrations subsequent to normal
              chlorination for disinfection purposes.
    
              In view of the high and variable levels of phenolic compounds
              found in Iowa surface waters not traceable to industrial or
              municipal sources, it is the recommendation of the Iowa Water
              Pollution Commission that the maximum permissible concentration
              of phenolic type compounds be retained at 0.020 parts per
              million in all waters.
    
              There is no evidence or logic to suggest the pertinency of an
              individual standard for aquatic use specifically as most of our
              streams are multiple use including public water supply.  While
              aquatic life is far less affected by phenols, it is realistic
              to provide the single standard at 0.020 parts per million
              on the basis of the most critical potential use.
                                       -21-
    

    -------
                                                                              537
    10/9/68
    10/24/68
    
    2/12/69
    ii
    
    2/13/59
    2/8/69
    it
                                     TABLE  4
    
                            PHENOL CONCENTRATION IN
                                  IOWA STREAMS
    DATE
    1-24/25-67
    it
    i r
    M
    it
    n
    ii
    n
    n
    n
    RIVER
    Des Moines-Euclid
    " Ipalco
    " Ottumwa
    Raccoon
    Missouri-Co Bluffs
    Cedar- Cedar Rapids
    Iowa River-Iowa City
    Mississippi-Davenport
    " Burlington
    " Keokuk
    PHENOL ppb
    2
    18
    3
    2
    < 1
    5
    5
    11
    11
    11
    Mississippi-Upstream from
                Des Moines River
    "           Keokuk
    Des Moines-Keokuk
    
    Mississippi-Lansing
    
    11           Davenport
    
    
    "           Burlington
    n           n
    
    "           Keokuk
     l(Iowa Side)
     2(Channel)
     2(Illinois  Side)
    
     2
    
     1
    
     9(481.3 channel)
     0(480.1 channel)
    
     8(404.1 channel)
    12(400.3 channel)
    
    10(363.6 channel)
     9(359.1 channel)
                          Des Moines-Keokuk
    

    -------
                                                                              538
    
    Ra d i oa c t ivi ty
    
    The original brief criteria on radioactive substances had been acceptable
    to the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration during earlier
    discussions.  There was no indication of any disagreement on this criteria
    until the Federal reports were prepared for the conference,  and there is
    no particular disagreement now.  The State of Icx^a has an adequate radio-
    activity sampling program and will accept the more detailed  radiological
    limits now suggested by the FWPCA.  The following limits on  radioactive
    substances have now been adopted by the Iowa Water Pollution Control
    Commission:
    
              Gross beta activity (in the known absence of 90 strontium and
              alpha emitters) shall not exceed 1000 picocuries per liter.
    
              The concentration of 226 radium and 90 strontium shall not
              exceed 3 and 10 picocuries per liter respectively.
    
              The annual average concentration of specific radionuclides,
              other than 226 radium and 90 strontium, should not exceed
              1/30 of the appropriate maximum permissible concentration for
              the 168 hour week as set forth by the International Commission
              on Radiological Protection and the National Committee on
              Radiation Protection.
    
              Because any human exposure to unnecessary ionizing radiation is
              undesirable, the concentrations of radioisotopes in natural
              waters should be maintained at the lowest practicable level.
                                       -22-
    

    -------
                                                                              539
    
    E.  SUMMARY OF ACCEPTABLE WATER QUALITY STANPAFxDS REVISIONS AND ADDITIONS.
    
    The following are the various revisions or additions to the surface water
    quality criteria and plan of implementation which have been adopted by the
    Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission:
    
    Section 1.2(455B) Surface water quality criteria
         1.2(3)
             a.  Public Water Supply
               (1)  Bacteria:  Numerical bacteriological limits of 2000 fecal coli-
                    forms per 100 ml for public water supply raw water sources  will
                    be applicable during the low flow periods when such bacteria
                    can be demonstrated to be attributed to pollution by sewage.
    
               (2)  Radioactive Substances:
    
                    Gross beta activity (in the known absence of 90 strontium
                    and alpha emitters) shall not exceed 1000 picocuries per
                    liter.
    
                    The concentration of 226 radium and 90 strontium shall not
                    exceed 3 and 10 picocuries per liter respectively.
    
                    The annual average concentration of specific radionuclides,
                    other than 226 radium and 90 strontium, should not exceed
                    1/30 of the appropriate maximum permissible concentration
                    for the 168 hour week as set forth by the International
                    Commission on Radiological Protection and the National
                    Committee on Radiation Protection.
    
                    Because any human exposure to unnecessary ionizing radiation
                    is undesirable, the concentrations of radioisotopes in
                    natural waters should be maintained at the lowest practic-
                    able level.
    
             b.  Aquatic life
               (1)  Warm water areas.
    
                    Temperature:
                        Mississippi River-Not to exceed an 89F maximum
                    temperature from the Minnesota border to the Wisconsin
                    border and a 90F maximum temperature from the Wisconsin
                    border to the Missouri border nor a 5F change from back-
                    ground or natural temperature in the Mississippi River.
    
                        Missouri River-Not to exceed a 90F maximum
                    daily temperature nor a 5 F change from background or natural
                    temperature during the months of May through October and a
                    10 F change during the months of November through April.
    
                        Interior streams-Not to exceed a 93 F maximum temperature
                    nor a maximum 10F increase over background or natural temper-
                    ature.
    
                        Heat should not be added tc any water in such a manner
                    that the rate of change exceeds 2F per hour.
                                      -23-
    

    -------
                                                                              5-4-0
    
    
               (2)  Cold water areas.
    
                    Temperature:
    
                    Not to exceed a 70F maximum temperature.   The rate of change
                    due to added heat shall not exceed 2F per hour with a 5F
                    maximum increase from background temperature.
    
             c<  Recreation
               (1)  Bacteria:
    
                    Numerical bacteriological limits of 200 fecal coliforms per
                    100 ml for primary contact recreational waters will be applic-
                    able during low flow periods when such bacteria can be
                    demonstrated to be attributable to pollution by sewage.
    
    Non-degradation statement
    
         Waters whose existing quality is better than the established standards
         as of the date on which such standards become effective will be main-
         tained at high quality unless it has been affirmatively demonstrated
         to the State that a change is justifiable as a result of necessary
         economic or social development and will not preclude present and antici-
         pated use of such waters.  Any industrial, public or private project
         or development which would constitute a new source of pollution or an
         increased source of pollution to high quality waters will be required
         to provide the necessary degree of waste treatment to maintain high
         water quality.  In implementing this policy, the Secretary of the
         Interior will be kept advised and will be provided with such information
         as he will need to discharge his responsibilities under the Federal
         Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.
                                      -24-
    

    -------
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   (See also Appendix A and B.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SCHLIEKELMAN:  The purpose of the
    
    
    
    
    statement is to set out the State of Iowa's position on
    
    
    
    
    the matters of disagreement with the FWPCA.  The Federal
    
    
    
    
    position is outlined in the report which was presented
    
    
    
    
    yesterday.  e feel, however, that there has been con-
    
    
    
    
    siderable discussion of some aspects, such as turbidity,
    
    
    
    
    bacterial loading, nutrient loading, agricultural land
    
    
    
    
    runoff  and other conditions which may not be entirely
    
    
    
    
    accurate.  Some of these aspects do actually appear to
    
    
    
    
    discredit the water quality and the State's water pol-
    
    
    
    
    lution control efforts.  In addition to that,  some of
    
    
    
    
    these items are outside, really, the scope of the Iowa
    
    
    
    
    Water Pollution Commission control.
    
    
    
    
                   To the casual reader some of the discussion
    
    
    
    tends to create false impressions of widespread pollution
    
    
    
    
    and ineffective control.  This statement,  therefore,  is
    
    
    
    
    an attempt to put the issues in context to clarify the
    
    
    
    Iowa position on matters actually in controversy and to
    
    
    
    
    present the positive side of the Iowa program.
    
    
    
    
                   I might get a little bit into the history
    
    
    
    
    of the Iowa water pollution control program from actually
    

    -------
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    a long ways back.
    
    
    
    
                   The first Iowa water pollution control law
    
    
    
    
    was passed in 1923* and I think even at that time Iowa
    
    
    
    
    was considerably ahead of a lot of the other States as
    
    
    
    
    far as water pollution control program is concerned. At
    
    
    
    
    the time this law was passed we had nearly 200 municipal
    
    
    
    
    sewage treatment plants in operation in the State of Iowa.
    
    
    
    
                   In recognition of the fact that treatment
    
    
    
    
    plant construction is effective only if operation is
    
    
    
    
    efficient and competent, an operator training and volun-
    
    
    
    
    tary certification program was implemented in 1952.  In
    
    
    
    
    1965 the Legislature passed and implemented a mandatory
    
    
    
    
    certification law, and Iowa is now one of 17 States which
    
    
    
    
    has such a mandatory certification law.
    
    
    
                   Also in 19^9 the law at that time lifted
    
    
    
    
    a previous restriction so that effective in 1951 the
    
    
    
    
    Mississippi and Missouri River cities and towns were sub-
    
    
    
    
    jected to all provisions of the stream pollution control law1
    
    
    
    
    which was in effect at that time.
    
    
    
                   On the Missouri River, Iowa is a member of
    
    
    
    
    the Missouri River Basin Health Council.  They agreed in
    
    
    
    
    1952 to participate in the adoption of a guide for water
    

    -------
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    pollution control activities.  The several States of the
    
    
    
    
    Council at that time agreed to a program for elimination
    
    
    
    
    of toxic substances and settleable solids, and treatment
    
    
    
    
    of industrial wastes as necessary to prevent deterioratior
    
    
    
    
    of water quality.
    
    
    
    
                   In 1965 we did have the enactment of the
    
    
    
    
    present water pollution control law which did create the
    
    
    
    
    Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission.  Since this law
    
    
    
    
    was passed, the Commission has adopted three regulations
    
    
    
    
    to aid in surveillance and enforcement.  The first is a
    
    
    
    
    regulation relating to the general criteria of water
    
    
    
    
    quality standards, which makes mandatory the effective
    
    
    
    
    removal of settleable and floatable solids from municipal
    
    
    
    
    wastewater discharges.
    
    
    
    
                   The second regulation requires submission
    
    
    
    of monthly operation reports from treatment plants.   By
    
    
    
    
    specifying the format and content, the department can
    
    
    
    
    actually evaluate the plant effectiveness and obtain an
    
    
    
    
    indication of the plant's effect on the receiving stream
    
    
    
    
    water quality.
    
    
    
                   Also a couple of years ago Iowa adopted
    
    
    
    
    what they call an Iowa--or rather we adopted a mail  order
    

    -------
                       R.  J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    BOD program, which also has proven effective in surveil-
    
    
    
    
    lance of treatment plants.   This program utilizes a
    
    
    
    
    technique for fixing samples in the field in preparation
    
    
    
    
    for a BOD determination in the State laboratory.
    
    
    
    
                   The third regulation, which has not yet
    
    
    
    
    received legislative approval, has been adopted by the
    
    
    
    
    Commission requiring control of feedlot runoff.  Actually,
    
    
    
    
    at the present time feedlot pollution is being effectively
    
    
    
    
    controlled through the present enforcement provisions of
    
    
    
    
    the law.
    
    
    
    
                   Under various provisions in enforcement
    
    
    
    
    procedures, the Commission since its inception in 19&5
    
    
    
    
    has actually issued 114 consent orders for correction of
    
    
    
    
    pollution conditions.
    
    
    
                   Iowa is one of the large meat packing
    
    
    
    
    States in the Union, and the meat packing plants  do con-
    
    
    
    
    stitute one of the largest potential sources of pollution.
    
    
    
    
    Every meat packing plant in the State has a treatment
    
    
    
    
    plant in operation or under construction, and this
    
    
    
    
    represents some three and one-half million population
    
    
    
    
    equivalent.  We feel that some of the plants are  getting
    
    
    
    
    really good removal, up to 98 and 99 percent BOD removal,
    

    -------
    	545
    
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    and I think a lot of this has been due in  part to  the
    
    
    
    
    pioneering of the anaeboric/aerobic lago.on treatment proc
    by the State of Iowa.
    
    
    
    
                   e think it is significant  that Iowa does
    
    
    
    
    not have stream classification.  We have all streams
    
    
    
    
    classified to the highest extent.  Although the standards
    
    
    
    
    do specify recreation,, fishing, and water  supply uses,
    
    
    
    
    and the areas of applicability have been defined, minimum
    
    
    
    
    defined standards of high quality apply to all waters of
    
    
    
    
    the State.
    
    
    
    
                   In summary, Iowa has through the years
    
    
    
    
    recognized the need for clean water and continued its
    
    
    
    
    expansion of the program to meet needs.  The regulatory
    
    
    
    
    agency has exercised its authority to abate pollution and
    
    
    
    
    to maintain and improve water quality, and municipalities
    
    
    
    
    and industries have complied with the requirements.  The
    
    
    
    accomplishments shown by the record can be compared with
    
    
    
    
    the best in the Nation.  Despite the adverse impressions
    
    
    
    created by the Federal report, and the Secretary's decision
    
    
    
    
    to except certain provisions of the standards, Iowa in th<
    
    
    
    
    past and will in the future exercise its regulatory
    
    
    
    
    authority to the fullest extent.
    ss
    

    -------
    	546
    
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelraan
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   I might make a little comparison with
    
    
    
    some of the other States as far as the percent of treat-
    
    
    
    ment of urban population is concerned.  The State of
    
    
    
    California at the present time has about 4.8 million of
    
    
    
    its urban population without treatment out of a total
    
    
    
    
    urban population of 17 million.  The State of Florida
    
    
    
    has 2.2 million urban population without treatment as
    
    
    
    compared with 4.8 million total urban population.  The
    
    
    
    State of Maine has 412,000 population without treatment
    
    
    
    out of a total population of 509,000.
    
    
    
                   Now we will try to get a little bit into
    
    
    
    the discussion of the summary and conclusions made in the
    
    
    
    Federal report.  We feel that some of these items do
    
    
    
    deserve comment and they will be discussed to some extent
    
    
    
    We have a section here which we have entitled "Agricul-
    
    
    
    tural Runoff Effects. "
    
    
    
                   Items E, G and K of the Federal report
    
    
    
    deal generally with agricultural runoff effects.  While
    
    
    
    of interest, this particular aspect is actually outside
    
    
    
    the scope of controllable standards, and the manner of
    
    
    
    the statements as they have been presented in the report
    
    
    
    could lead the less than totally informed reader to
    

    -------
                       R. J. Schliekelraan
    
    
    
    
    
    
    unwarranted conclusions.
    
    
    
    
                   To take up section E, this is a quote from
    
    
    
    
    the report:
    
    
    
    
                   "it is estimated that at least 3,300,000
    
    
    
    
    cattle and calves and 6,100,000 hogs and pigs are on
    
    
    
    
    farms.  These animal wastes have a population equivalent
    
    
    
    
    of 65,000,000 and can cause several conditions of stream
    
    
    
    
    degradation."
    
    
    
    
                   There is no particular problem from animal
    
    
    
    
    waste until such time as rainfall, snow melt or water
    
    
    
    
    passes through the feedlot dissolving material from the
    
    
    
    
    manure and carrying it to the stream.  Since the load of
    
    
    
    
    dissolved and suspended matter carried by the water to
    
    
    
    
    the stream is actually only a fraction of that on the
    
    
    
    feedlot,  therefore the 65,000,000 population equivalent of animal
    
    
    
    
    waste on the feedlot should not be interpreted as a load
    
    
    
    
    on the stream.
    
    
    
    
                   There is another comment quoted:
    
    
    
    
                   "Sediment from uncontrolled runoff is a
    
    
    
    
    major pollutant of the Missouri River."
    
    
    
    
                   This reference to low turbidity water dis-
    
    
    
    
    charged from Gavins Point compared to the turbidity
    

    -------
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    conditions through Iowa is understandable.  The effect
    
    
    
    
    of settling of sediment in the pool above the dam at
    
    
    
    
    Gavins Point is not available in the lower reaches.  Agaiji
    
    
    
    
    this aspect is outside of controllable standards and is
    
    
    
    
    not an issue at the present time.
    
    
    
    
                   Item K from the Federal report.  This is
    
    
    
    
    quoted as follows:
    
    
    
    
                   "High densities of bacteria and high
    
    
    
    
    concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are found in
    
    
    
    
    Iowa tributaries to the Missouri River, especially during
    
    
    
    
    periods of stormwater runoff."
    
    
    
    
                   This statement could be expanded to includ
    
    
    
    
    the agricultural land and streams in all States.  Further
    
    
    
    
    more, while some control can be imposed, the bacteria,
    
    
    
    
    nitrogen and phosphorus in stormwater runoff can never be
    
    
    
    fully abated.Stormwater runoff effects negate at least in part
    
    
    
    
    the desirable effect  of continuous disinfection of treat
    
    
    
    
    ment effluents.
    
    
    
    
                   We will have a few comments also on
    
    
    
    
    recreational uses.  This is covered in one section,
    
    
    
    
    Item P of the Federal r-eport.  This is quoted as follows:
                   "Recreational uses on the main stream incl
    ide
    

    -------
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    boating, water skiing, swimming and wading.  These
    
    
    
    
    activities are directly affected by the presence of
    
    
    
    
    floating material and grease balls, hjgh bacterial
    
    
    
    
    densities, dissolved organics and turbidity.  Samples
    
    
    
    
    of water taken in the survey had as high as 2,000
    
    
    
    
    bacteria per drop."
    
    
    
    
                   Another quote from the report states:
    
    
    
    
                   "Fouling of fish nets and lines with
    
    
    
    
    grease is common below major municipal and industrial
    
    
    
    
    waste outlets.  Similarly, boat hulls of recreational
    
    
    
    
    watercraft are fouled with grease and scum."
    
    
    
    
                   The position of the Iowa Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
    Control Commission has been that we have not designated
    
    
    
    
    the main stem of the Missouri as a recreation stream
    
    
    
    
    involving whole-body contact, namely swimming and water
    
    
    
    skiing.  The Iowa Health Department also has for many
    
    
    
    
    years recommended Iowa streams not be used for this
    
    
    
    
    purpose because of the injury and drowning hazards
    
    
    
    
    involved.  Actually, section IV of the Federal report
    
    
    
    
    contains the following statements which appear to bear out
    
    
    
    
    this position:   The second paragraph on page IV-7 of the
    
    
    
    
    report is quoted as follows:
    

    -------
    	__.	,	350
    
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    "Present recreation use along the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    River  in  Iowa has not met its  potential for  the amount  of
    
    
    
    
    land and  water  acreage  involved.  While being light, how-
    
    
    
    
    ever,  it  appears that most  recreation activities are
    
    
    
    
    participated in with sightseeing, "boating, picnicking
    
    
    
    
    and fishing as  the most popular."
    
    
    
    
                    We have  another quote that  says as  follows
    
    
    
    
                    "Water skiing,  surprisingly,  is enjoyed
    
    
    
    
    even though the river contains a high silt load.   Swim-
    
    
    
    
    ming is not considered  a common activity due in large
    
    
    
    
    measure to the  dangerous water conditions  and high
    
    
    
    
    turbidity."
    
    
    
    
                    This is  quoted  from the Federal report.
    
    
    
    
                    Another  quote is as follows:
    
    
    
                    "it can  be expected that use  on the  waters
    
    
    
    
    of  the Missouri will principally be in the form of  fish-
    
    
    
    
    ing and boating, and on the adjoining lands  in the  form
    
    
    
    
    of  sightseeing, picnicking, hiking, driving  and walking
    
    
    
    
    for pleasure, and in historical interpretation."
    
    
    
    
                    These are the end of the quotes.
    
    
    
    
                    From this we believe that it  would  appear
    
    
    
    
    that there is general agreement that the value of  the
    

    -------
    		551
    
    
    
    
    
                       R. J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River for whole  body  sports is  dictated  prin-
    
    
    
    
    cipally "by factors other  than  controllable water  quality
    
    
    
    
    criteria and that maintenance  of  the general  criteria  and
    
    
    
    
    the  criteria for public  water  supply use  and  aquatic life
    
    
    
    
    should adequately protect recreational uses.
    
    
    
    
                   We also  wish  to comment on  some  of the
    
    
    
    
    discussion regarding  the  grease balls, grease and other
    
    
    
    
    problems mentioned in items  P  and S of the Federal report
    
    
    
    
    The  discharges which  would  be  most suspected  of containing;
    
    
    
    
    large amounts  of grease would  be  the Iowa  Beef  Packers
    
    
    
    discharge at Dakota City, Nebraska, the  municipal sewage
    
    
    
    
    treatment plant at Sioux  City,  Iowa, and the  city of
    
    
    
    
    Omaha, Nebraska.  Grease  is  discussed  on page A-26 of  the
    
    
    
    
    Federal report, and this  discussion is quoted as  follows:
    
    
    
                    "The concentration of grease from the
    
    
    
    
    daily composite from  the  Monroe Street and South  Omaha
    
    
    
    
    sewers averaged 299 milligrams per liter during the
    
    
    
    
    October 1968 survey.  The actual  amount  of grease reach-
    
    
    
    
    ing  the Missouri River  following  a privately-operated
    
    
    
    
    recovery operation at the Monroe  Street  sewer was not
     determined."
                    Another  quote  continues  as  follows:
    

    -------
    	552
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   "The grease concentration in the effluent
    
    
    
    
    from the Sioux City, Iowa, sewage treatment plant during
    
    
    
    
    the October 1968 survey averaged 17 milligrams per liter.
    
    
    
    
    The amount of grease removed through the sewage treatment
    
    
    
    
    plant was not determined."
    
    
    
    
                   That is the end of the quote.
    
    
    
    
                   Actually, the amount of grease discharged
    
    
    
    
    to the Monroe Street sewer in Omaha can be computed to
    
    
    
    
    be about 50 tons per day.  In comparison, the 17 milligran
    
    
    
    
    of grease found in the Sioux City effluent is not sig-
    
    
    
    
    nificant.  The 17 milligrams of grease amounts to a little
    
    
    
    
    over 1 ton in the Sioux City effluent as compared to the
    
    
    
    
    50 tons being discharged to the Omaha Monroe Street sewer.
    
    
    
    
                   Studies conducted by the Public Health
    
    
    
    
    Service, I believe, in 19^5 at the time of reconvened
    
    
    
    session of the Omaha conference on the Missouri River
    
    
    
    also came up with the conclusion that there were about
    
    
    
    
    100,000 pounds of grease discharged from the Omaha area.
    
    
    
    
    That is, I think, really from the Omaha sewers, not the
    
    
    
    
    Omaha area.
    
    
    
    
                   The Federal report also speaks of grease
    
    
    
    
    balls as big as oranges, but does not say where these
    

    -------
     	.	553
    
    
    
    
                        R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     were observed.  Nor does it contain information concernin
    
    
    
    
     the grease content of the Iowa Beef Packers' effluent at
    
    
    
    
     Dakota City, Nebraska.  This particular effluent is
    
    
    
    
     located about four miles downstream from the effluent
    
    
    
    
     of the Sioux City sewage treatment plant.  We don't want
    
    
    
    
     to appear to be actually putting the Iowa Beef Packers
    
    
    
    
     Company in a bad light.  Our relations actually in the
    
    
    
    
     State of Iowa have been very good, they have had a very
    
    
    
    
     good record on the two plants that they have at Denison,
    
    
    
    
     Iowa, and also Fort Dodge,  Iowa, so actually they are doi
    
    
    
    
     a good job as far as the Iowa side of the stream is con-
    
    
    
    
     cerned.  But we do not have information as to what is
    
    
    
    
     being done at Dakota City.
    
    
    
                    The Iowa Department of Health has informa-
    
    
    
    
     tion that the State of Nebraska has permitted Iowa Beef
    
    
    
    
     Packers at Dakota City to discharge wastes which may be
    
    
    
    
     over 200,000 population equivalent compared to 195,000
    
    
    
    
     population equivalent listed in the Federal report for
    
    
    
    
     the city of Sioux City sewage treatment plant effluent.
    
    
    
    
    I Grease removals in the Sioux City plant we feel would
    
    
    
    
     be much more effective than the Iowa Beef Packers indus-
    
    
    
    
     trial unit, so that the grease observation should probabl
    

    -------
    	551
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     not  be  attributed  to the city of Sioux  City.
    
    
    
    
                   We  have a section on water quality effects
    
    
    
    
     which will be  discussed further by Dr.  Gakstatter of the
    
    
    
    
     State Hygienic Laboratory.
    
    
    
    
                   We  also have  a section on fish tainting
    
    
    
    
     which will be  discussed by Mr. Harry Harrison of the
    
    
    
    
     Iowa State Conservation Commission.
    
    
    
    
                   We  do have a  comment regarding treatment
    
    
    
    
     requirements in other States as described in item T of
    
    
    
    
     the  Federal  report.  This states as follows:
    
    
    
    
                   "Every State  which borders the Missouri
    
    
    
    
     River,  except  for  Iowa, has  adopted as  part of its stan-
    
    
    
    
     dards a minimum requirement  for secondary treatment or
    
    
    
    
     its  equivalent for wastes discharged into the Missouri
    
    
    
    
     River."
    
    
    
                   This department has been informed by the
    
    
    
    
     State of Kansas that Kansas, which borders on the Missour:.
    
    
    
    
     River,  has not agreed to a blanket requirement for secon-
    
    
    
    
     dary treatment without such  need being  demonstrated.
    
    
    
    
     Kansas  standards have not been approved by the Secretary
    
    
    
    
     of  the  Interior.
    
    
    
                   We  have a section in our statement regarding
    

    -------
    	553
    
    
    
    
    
                        R.  J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     the Federal Water  Pollution  Control  Administration  bio-
    
    
    
    
     logical  study  which  will  also be  discussed by  Dr. Jack
    
    
    
    
     Gakstatter of  the  State Hygienic  Laboratory.
    
    
    
    
                    In  our  next section we wish to  comment  on
    
    
    
    
     some  of  the recommendations  that  have been made  by  the
    
    
    
    
     Department of  the  Interior for  the Missouri River Basin.
    
    
    
    
     The Iowa position  on each of the  recommendations is  out-
    
    
    
    
     lined in the same  order as they appear  in the  Federal
    
    
    
     report.
    
    
    
    
                    Secondary  treatment.
    
    
    
    
                    The  Department of  Interior blanket require
    
    
    
    
     ment  for secondary  treatment of all  municipal  and bio-
    
    
    
    
     degradable wastes  cannot  be  justified on the basis  of
    
    
    
    
     Congressional  intent,  nor can such a requirement be
    
    
    
    
     adopted  by the  Iowa Water Pollution  Control Commission
    
    
    
    
     under present  Iowa  statutory authority.
    
    
    
    
                    The  Commission,  under Iowa law, has  no
    
    
    
    
     direct statutory authority to establish or enforce
    
    
    
    
     effluent standards.  There is no  authority to  specify
    
    
    
    
     type  of  treatment  except  that based  on water quality
    
    
    
    
     criteria of the receiving stream.  Treatment can be
    
    
    
    
     regulated only  to  the  extent that it will produce an
    

    -------
    	356
    
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    effluent that will protect the stream and meet the water
    
    
    
    
    quality criteria.
    
    
    
    
                   On the basis of stream water quality
    
    
    
    
    requirements, secondary treatment will be needed and,
    
    
    
    
    therefore, has or will be required for all but four or
    
    
    
    
    five of the 490 municipal sewage treatment plants
    
    
    
    
    located on interior streams.  However, the Mississippi
    
    
    
    
    and Missouri Rivers have very high assimilative capacity,
    
    
    
    
    and, therefore, we did not feel that there should be
    
    
    
    
    treatment applied without a necessity being actually
    
    
    
    
    demonstrated.  Extensive studies made during the 1950's
    
    
    
    
    on the Mississippi River and also a 1950 pollution
    
    
    
    
    investigation on the Missouri River demonstrated a
    
    
    
    
    relatively low effect of even untreated wastes on these
    
    
    
    
    border streams.  However, as a result of water pollution
    
    
    
    
    investigations and voluntary compliance, all cities and
    
    
    
    
    towns, with the exception of the small Mississippi River
    
    
    
    
    towns of Marquette and Lansing, completed primary or
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment during the 1950 to 1966 period.
    
    
    
    
                   The dissolved oxygen values actually
    
    
    
    
    presented in figure A-2 of the Federal report indicate
    
    
    
    
    no significant decrease in dissolved oxygen during the
    

    -------
                       R.  J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     October  1968  survey  period,  and  there was  an  actual
    
    
    
    
     increase  progressing downstream  to  the Omaha  area  during
    
    
    
    
     the January 19&9  period.
    
    
    
    
                   The principal  oxygen  demanding sources
    
    
    
    
     now existing  in the  Sioux City area  are the primary
    
    
    
    
     treated  effluent  of  the city  of  Sioux City and the
    
    
    
    
     relatively untreated waste from  the  Iowa Beef Packers
    
    
    
    
     plant at  Dakota City,  Nebraska.  As  determined from
    
    
    
    
     samples  collected by FWPCA and from  composite plant
    
    
    
    
     operation reports submitted  to the State Department of
    
    
    
    
     Health,  the Sioux City effluent  has  a population
    
    
    
    
     equivalent waste  loading in the  range of 200,000.  No
    
    
    
    
     similar  plant composites were collected by the FWPCA
    
    
    
    
     from the effluent of the Iowa Beef Packers plant at
    
    
    
    
     Dakota City,  but  actually the information available does
    
    
    
     indicate that the Iowa Beef Packers  plant may be dis-
    
    
    
    
     charging a load of approximately 200,000 to the Missouri
    
    
    
     River.
    
    
    
    
                   The oxygen demanding wastes for Omaha as
    
    
    
    
     given on page IV-2^1- of the Federal report is  1.8 hundred
    
    
    
    
     thousand, which is ^-6 times that of  the city  of Council
    
    
    
    
    Bluffs.  Some oxygen depreciation was created by the
    

    -------
    	558
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    discharge of this primarily untreated effluent in the
    
    
    
    
    Omaha area.
    
    
    
    
                   These water quality studies which have
    
    
    
    
    been made show that there has been little significant
    
    
    
    
    reduction of dissolved oxygen levels below sources of
    
    
    
    
    oxygen demanding wastes, even prior to primary treatment.
    
    
    
    
    This is a fortunate condition., and actually fairs well
    
    
    
    
    as compared with some of the other major streams where
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment is needed.  For instance, the 1968
    
    
    
    
    report of the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commissic|n
    
    
    
    
    showed dissolved oxygen levels of below 4 parts per
    
    
    
    
    million occurred about 33 percent of the time in the lowei
    
    
    
    
    reaches of the Ohio River.  Likewise, the lower reaches
    
    
    
    
    of the Delaware River have had  very low oxygen levels
    
    
    
    
    and hundreds of millions of dollars must be expended
    
    
    
    
    by communities and industries along this stream for
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment simply to maintain three and a half
    
    
    
    
    parts per million of dissolved oxygen.
    
    
    
    
                   Using cost figures published in the Journa]
    
    
    
    
    of the Water Pollution Control Federation, it has been
    
    
    
    
    estimated that construction of secondary treatment
    
    
    
    
    facilities for all waste discharges to the Missouri and
    

    -------
    	559
    
    
    
    
    
                        R.  J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Mississippi  Rivers  would  cost  over  25  million  dollars.
    
    
    
    
     Furthermore,  according to figures published  in the  1969
    
    
    
    
     Federal Water Pollution Control  Report,  the  cost  of
    
    
    
    
     maintenance  and  operation of these  secondary plants would
    
    
    
    
     be  approximately 1.7 million dollars  per year  more  than
    
    
    
    
     for the existing primary  treatment.
    
    
    
    
                   The  Iowa Water  Pollution  Control Commission
    
    
    
    
     has had no hesitancy to require  secondary treatment of  an;
    
    
    
    
    waste discharge to either the Mississippi  or Missouri River;
    
    
    
    
     when the  need to satisfy  water quality requirements is
    
    
    
    
     shown.  However,  it is the Iowa  position that areed for uniform
    
    
    
    
     secondary treatment of all waste discharges  has not been
    
    
    
    
     shown and that there is no scientific  reason to believe
    
    
    
    
     that secondary treatment  of every waste  discharge on the
    
    
    
    
     border streams will enhance the  water  quality.
    
    
    
    
                   Some degradation  of  water quality  is
    
    
    
    
     evident below the Omaha-Council  Bluffs area  due to  the
    
    
    
    
     low percentage of wastes  actually receiving  treatment
    
    
    
    
     during this  particular period.   It  is, therefore, sug-
    
    
    
    
     gested that  additional water quality  studies be conducted
    
    
    
    
     following completion of the meat packing plant pretreatmeAt
    
    
    
    
     facilities to permit evaluation  of  Missouri  River w&tdtf qu&litjr
    

    -------
    		56
    
    
    
    
    
                        R.  J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     when receiving primary treated effluents from the city
    
    
    
     of Omaha.
    
    
    
    
                    The next section is on disinfection.
    
    
    
    
                    At a meeting on February 9,  1968, with Rob
    
    
    
    
     S. Burd,  Director of the  Federal Water Pollution Control
    
    
    
    
     Administration Water Quality Standards Staff,  Iowa agreed
    
    
    
    
     to adopt  definite numerical bacteriological limits compatible
    
    
    
    
     with the  National Technical Advisory Committee recommen-
    
    
    
    
     dations for  waters used for public water supplies and
    
    
    
    
     primary contact recreation, namely swimming and water
    
    
    
    
     skiing.   The Department of  the Interior further agreed
    
    
    
    
     that the  standards would  recognize these values as
    
    
    
    
     applying  during dry weather,  but will state that all
    
    
    
    
     reasonable efforts will be  made to reduce bacteria con-
    
    
    
    
     centration increases during periods  of stormwater runoff.
    
    
    
    
                    The Iowa Water Pollution Control Commissio
    
    
    
     at its April ^,  1968,  meeting adopted a motion accepting
    
    
    
    
     these  provisions,  and  the Iowa water quality standards
    
    
    
    
     have been revised to include  the following  numerical
    
    
    
    
     ^bacteriological limits:
    
    
    
    
                    Public  water supply.   Numerical bacterio-
    
    
    
    
     logical limits  of 2,000 fecal coliforms per 100 ml for
    irt
    

    -------
    	56l
    
    
    
    
    
                        R.  J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     public  water  supply raw water  sources  will  be
    
    
    
    
     applicable  during  low  flow  periods  when  such bacteria
    
    
    
    
     can  be  demonstrated to be attributed to  pollution  by
    
    
    
    
     sewage.
    
    
    
    
                    The  same terminology applies to recreation
    
    
    
    
     use,  except the  bacteriological  limit  is  specified as
    
    
    
    
     200  fecal coliforms per 100 ml.
    
    
    
    
                    The  water  quality criteria and  plan for
    
    
    
    
     implementation  and  enforcement for  the  surface waters  of
    
    
    
    
     Iowa  was adopted by the Iowa Water  Pollution Control Com-
    
    
    
    
     mission in  May  196? and this plan did  designate the
    
    
    
    
     surface waters  to  be protected for  public water supply
    
    
    
    
     use  as  well as  the  recreational  use areas on lakes,
    
    
    
    
     impoundments  and rivers.  The treatment  needs  in the
    
    
    
    
     plan  specified  coliform reduction or effluent  disinfec-
    
    
    
    
     tion  by the municipalities  to protect  this use during
    
    
    
    
     the  recreational season.  Information  obtained from other
    
    
    
    
     State agencies  and  information at the  public water
    
    
    
    
     quality hearings were  used  to designate  these  recreational.
    
    
    
    
     areas,  and  the  plan does  specify for interior  municipalises
    
    
    
    
     chlorination  where  necessary to  protect  these  uses.
    
    
    
    
                    The  State  of Iowa therefore feels that
    

    -------
    	562
    
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    acceptable "bacteriological criteria have been established
    
    
    
    
    for interstate waters in Iowa.  These criteria are com-
    
    
    
    
    patible with criteria from adjoining States which have
    
    
    
    
    been  established for public water supply and recreation.
    
    
    
    
    These  other States also generally specify or take into
    
    
    
    
    consideration the effective land runoff and are also
    
    
    
    
    applied when necessary to protect specific water uses.
    
    
    
    
                   Land runoff does contribute high bacterio-
    
    
    
    
    logical densitieSj and bacterial studies in the State of
    
    
    
    
    Iowa  and  elsewhere have shown that commonly acceptable
    
    
    
    
    coliform  levels have been greatly exceeded even in the
    
    
    
    
    absence of wastes attributable to human sources. The
    
    
    
    
    following is quoted from a long term study of total
    
    
    
    
    coliforms in the Iowa River at Iowa City, Iowa:
    
    
    
                  "if a stream contains coliform organisms
    
    
    
    
    that  are  of domestic sewage origin, one might expect
    
    
    
    
    the MPN to vary inversely with the dilution capacity of
    
    
    
    
    the stream.  High MPN values would be expected during
    
    
    
    
    the dry seasons."
    
    
    
    
                   Quoting further:
    
    
    
    
                    "in the Iowa River, increases in stream
    
    
    
    
    flow  are  accompanied by increases in both turbidity and
    

    -------
    	563.
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
    coliform organisms.  This pattern has been apparent over
    
    
    
    
    the entire 1950-1964 period and is true xvhether one
    
    
    
    
    examines daily or monthly average data.
    
    
    
    
                   "Apparently, large numbers of coliform
    
    
    
    
    organisms are carried into the river after each rainfull
    
    
    
    
    and snow melt.  The increase in turbidity also indicates
    
    
    
    
    the agricultural land adjacent to the river as the source
    
    
    
    
    of many of these coliform organisms.  Storm sewer overflow
    
    
    
    
    is not considered a significant factor, because the
    
    
    
    
    nearest upstream city is 30 miles above Iowa City and
    
    
    
    
    above the impoundment.
    
    
    
    
                   "in view of the apparently high numbers
    
    
    
    
    of nonfecal coliform organisms and the correlation of
    
    
    
    
    high coliform densities with high flow, one might questior
    
    
    
    
    the significance of such MPN data as related to the
    
    
    
    
    bacterial safety of the Iowa River water.  Does a high
    
    
    
    
    MPN, especially a high monthly average which may be
    
    
    
    
    caused by runoff from a single rainfall, mean that this
    
    
    
    
    water is an undesirable source?  Probably not."
    
    
    
    
                   We have made some estimates on the cost of
    
    
    
    
    continuous disinfection or chlorination of municipal
    
    
    
    
    treatment plant effluents of 77 municipalities which are
    

    -------
    	564
    
    
    
    
    
                        R.  J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     located  on  interstate  streams  in  Iowa.   It  is  estimated
    
    
    
    
     that  the  construction  and equipment  costs for  these  77
    
    
    
    
     municipalities,which are  located  on  both the Missouri  and
    
    
    
    
     Mississippi Rivers  as  well  as  interstate streams,  would
    
    
    
    
     cost  approximately  2.4 million dollars  and  the annual
    
    
    
    
     chlorine  cost  would be in the  neighborhood  of  about
    
    
    
    
     $850,000.
    
    
    
    
                   The  expenditure annually of  these  large
    
    
    
    
     sums  of  money  required for  year-round disinfection of
    
    
    
    
     municipal and  industrial  wastes as recommended by  FWPCA
    
    
    
    
     will  not  improve  the bacteriological quality of inter-
    
    
    
    
     state  waters during periods  of runoff,  and  these  are the
    
    
    
    
     periods  when high bacterial  levels have been found.  The
    
    
    
    
     Iowa  Water  Pollution Control Commission has agreed to
    
    
    
    
     disinfection of these  waste  discharges,ones that  can be
    
    
    
    
     expected  to affect  recreational or public water supply
    
    
    
    
     uses .
    
    
    
    
                   The  Missouri  River is considered as being
    
    
    
    
     unsuitable  for whole body contact recreation,  and  this
    
    
    
    
     precludes the  need  for disinfection  to  protect this
    
    
    
    
     particular  use.   The one  possible need  for  disinfection
    
    
    
    
     would  be  in the Sioux  City  area to protect  downstream
    

    -------
    	      363
    
    
    
    
    
                       R. J. Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     water  supplies.  However,  that need, as  demonstrated  by
    
    
    
    
     the Federal Water  Pollution  Control Administration  water
    
    
    
    
     quality  report,  appears  to be rather borderline  and the
    
    
    
    
     study  covered  a  relatively brief  period  of  time.  There-
    
    
    
    
     fore,  before definitely  establishing a compliance require
    
    
    
    
     ment and making  the  large  expenditures that will be
    
    
    
    
     required,  additional  study should be undertaken  to  more
    
    
    
    
     accurately determine  the coliform densities and  sources.
    
    
    
                   Temperature requirements  will be  covered
    
    
    
    
     rather briefly by  Mr. Harrison of the State Conservation
    
    
    
    
     Commission.
    
    
    
                   We  apparently are  in agreement on the  non-
    
    
    
    
     degradation  clause and this  will  not be  covered  this
    
    
    
    
     morning.
    
    
    
                   Phenols were  also  discussed  yesterday  by
    
    
    
    
     Dr. Morris.  I don't  know  if Dr.  Gakstatter will comment
    
    
    
    
     a little bit more  fully  on this or not this morning.
    
    
    
                   Radioactivity was  also described  yesterday
    
    
    
    
     and I  think  our  position is  that  we are  acceptable  to the
    
    
    
    
     Federal  requirements  on  this particular  phase of the
    
    
    
    
     recommendations.
    
    
    
                   I believe that is  our summary, then, of
    

    -------
    	566
    
    
    
    
    
                        Dr. J. Gakstatter
    
    
    
    
    
    
    the position.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Do you want to introduce your
    
    
    
    
    next speaker?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. SCHLIEKELMAN:  Dr. Gakstatter, would
    
    
    
    
    you want to present your portion of the statement?
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT BY JACK GAKSTATTER
    
    
    
    
              PRINCIPAL LIMNOLOGIST, STATE HYGIENIC
    
    
    
    
                  LABORATORY, DES MOINES, IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   DR. GAKSTATTER:  Mr. Chairman, ladies and
    
    
    
    
    gentlemen.
    
    
    
                   My name is Jack Gakstatter and I am Prin-
    
    
    
    
    cipal Limnologist for the Des Moines Branch of the State
    
    
    
    
    Hygienic Laboratory.  I would like to "begin with  some
    
    
    
    
    comments of the FWPCA biological study.
    
    
    
                   The manner in which the biological data
    
    
    
    
    was presented did not deviate from the rest of the Federa
    
    
    
    
    report.  Conclusions were not objective and pertinent
    
    
    
    
    facts were buried which tended to create the illusion
    
    
    
    
    that Iowa is a major polluter of the Missouri River.
    
    
    
    
                   The FWPCA summary, and this in part M
    

    -------
            	56.7
    
    
    
    
    
                        Dr. J. Gakstatter
    
    
    
    
    
    
    on page II-33 regarding the biological study states  the
    
    
    
    
    following, and I quote:
    
    
    
    
                   "Biological investigations revealed pre-
    
    
    
    
    dominately clean water organisms and associated aquatic
    
    
    
    
    life above Sioux City.  However a consistent increase  in
    
    
    
    
    pollution tolerant organisms and biota were observed in
    
    
    
    
    many stretches of the river between Sioux City and St.
    
    
    
    Joseph . "
    
    
    
    
                   This statement leads one to believe that
    
    
    
    
    all is well above Sioux City, whereas the Missouri down-
    
    
    
    
    stream from Sioux City is polluted.  if the data, and
    
    
    
    
    this is on Table B-2 of the Federal report, is examined
    
    
    
    
    objectively, it is obvious that this statement is mis-
    
    
    
    
    leading,.
    
    
    
    
                   The fact is that the study showed little
    
    
    
    
    difference in the biological quality between station 736
    
    
    
    
    and 730"these are river mileages, station numbers are
    
    
    
    
    M-52 and M~50--above the Sioux City sewage 'treatment
    
    
    
    
    plant discharge,  whereas every sample taken in the first
    
    
    
    
    7^- miles below the Sioux City discharge definitely
    
    
    
    
    demonstrated a biological fauna which was superior in
    
    
    
    
    quality to that observed upstream from Sioux City.
    

    -------
    	368
    
    
    
    
    
                        Dr. J.  Gakstatter
    
    
    
    
    
    
     stoneflies, which are noted for being  extremely  pollution
    
    
    
    
     intolerant, were found  at  three stations  downstream  from
    
    
    
    
     Sioux  City., while data  indicate that no  stoneflies were
    
    
    
    
     found  above Sioux City. Likewise  there was  a  greater dive
    
    
    
    
     of mayflies in  the  first 7-' miles  below  the Sioux  City di
    
    
    
    
     charge  than there was above Sioux  City.   Mayflies  are als
    
    
    
    
     pollution  intolerant  organisms which require  high  water
    
    
    
    
     quality.   The FWPCA data,  also on  Table  B-2,  demonstrate
    
    
    
    
     that  pollution  intolerant  forms were present  in  greater
    
    
    
    
     diversity  in the first  7^  miles below  the Sioux  CJty dis-
    
    
    
    
     charge  than above it.   This Is not a claim that  the  treat
    
    
    
    
     waste  discharge from  Sioux City enhances  biological  quali
    
    
    
    
     in the  Missouri River,  but merely points  out  that  the bio
    
    
    
    
     logical quality was not deteriorated at  these stations
    
    
    
    
     by the  Sioux City discharge.
    
    
    
                    It is  stated in the Federal report.,  oage
    
    
    
    
     3-1,  th'at  severe degradation of the bottom associated
    
    
    
    
     organisms  occurred  for  5^  miles downstream from  the  Omah
    
    
    
    
     Council Bluffs  area,  and that floating solids,  this  refer
    
    
    
    
     to grease  and chunks  of animal fat, were observed  for
    
    
    
    
     166 miles  downstream.
    
    
    
                    It is  interesting  to compare the  waste
    
    
    
    
     contribution of Omaha,  Nebraska,  and  Council  Bluffs, Iowa
    ed
    

    -------
    	569
    
    
    
    
    
                         Dr.  J.  Gakstatter
    
    
    
    
    
    
     This  can  be  readily done by a few  simple  calculations
    
    
    
    
     using the data  given on  page IV-24 of  the Federal  report.
    
    
    
    
     Omaha,  Nebraska,  discharges 1,801,640  population equiva-
    
    
    
    
     lents to  the  river,  or 46 times  as much as the  Council
    
    
    
    
     Bluffs  39,000 population equivalent discharge.   Omaha's
    
    
    
    
     waste load to the  river  thus exceeds the  sum total waste
    
    
    
    
     load  discharged by the 20 Iowa municipalities  (including
    
    
    
    
     industries) which  are located on the Mississippi River.
    
    
    
    
                    Eighty-eight percent of Omaha's  raw waste
    
    
    
    
     load  receives no  treatment  or,  in  other words,  is  discharged
    
    
    
    
     directly  to  the Missouri River.  All of the  Council Bluff
    
    
    
    
     waste receives  primary treatment.
    
    
    
                    It  is therefore not at  all surprising that
    
    
    
    
     the Missouri is biologically degraded  for 54 miles below
    
    
    
    
     Omaha,  nor is it  surprising that grease balls are  found i
    
    
    
     far as  166 miles  downstream.   However, these conditions
    
    
    
     can hardly be attributed to Council Bulffs.
    
    
    
    
                    Now I have some comments regarding  parts
    
    
    
     L and 0 in the  Federal summary,  which  are found  on page
    
    
    
    
     II-3.   Part L states, and I quote:
    
    
    
    
                    "Survey results  from the main stream of th
    
    
    
    
     Missouri  River  in  Iowa identified  adverse changes  in water
    

    -------
                                                          570
    
    
    
    
    
                        Dr. J. Gakstatter
    
    
    
    
    
    
    quality.  Turbidity increased fourfold in the length of
    
    
    
    
    reach surveyed and cyanide and phenols were found."
    
    
    
    
                   It is true that phenols were found in the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River.  However, the Federal report failed to
    
    
    
    
    mention in the summary that the maximum observed phenol
    
    
    
    
    concentrations in table number A-5 did not change from
    
    
    
    
    station M-52, which is located above Sioux City, and
    
    
    
    
    station M-38, which is located below the Omaha-Council
    
    
    
    
    Bluffs area.  These maximum levels, which showed no
    
    
    
    
    relation to waste discharges, were two parts per billion,
    
    
    
    
    which is twice as high as the suggested FWPCA standard
    
    
    
    
    one part per billion.  These data further substantiate
    
    
    
    
    Iowa's position that the phenol concentrations resulting frjm
    
    
    
    
    natural degradation products often exceeded the FWPCA
    
    
    
    standard of one part per billion, and that this standard
    
    
    
    
    is therefore unreasonable.
    
    
    
                   During the January 1969 FWPCA survey,
    
    
    
    
    turbidity values were shown to decrease from 19 units
    
    
    
    
    above Sioux City to 8 units below the Omaha-Council
    
    
    
    
    Bluffs area.  During this period stornrwater runoff was
    
    
    
    
    minimal and these data show that the sewage treatment
    
    
    
    
    plant discharges had no effect on the turbidity of the
    

    -------
    	.	571
    
    
    
    
    
                        Dr. J. Gakstatter
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River.  High turbidity in the Missouri is caused
    
    
    
    
    exclusively by land drainage and that subject is not
    
    
    
    
    relevant to this conference.
    
    
    
                   Cyanide concentrations up to 15.2 parts
    
    
    
    
    per billion were measured in the Missouri River.  These
    
    
    
    
    concentrations given in Table A-5 of the Federal report
    
    
    
    
    bear no apparent relationship to municipal or industrial
    
    
    
    
    discharges.  12.2 parts per billion of cyanide were found
    
    
    
    
    above Sioux City while less than one part per billion was
    
    
    
    
    found below the Omaha-Council Bluffs area.  In no case
    
    
    
    
    was the Iowa aquatic life standard of 25 parts per billion
    
    
    
    
    of cyanide violated.
    
    
    
                   Part 0 of the report states, and I quote:
    
    
    
    
                   "Public water uses relying on the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    River as a source of supply report problems associated
    
    
    
    with turbidity, ammonia, coagulation, taste and odors."
    
    
    
    
                   These are common problems of most surface
    
    
    
    
    water treatment plants, whether or not being affected by
    
    
    
    
    upstream waste discharges.  We have already established
    
    
    
    
    that turbidity problems in the Missouri are not caused
    
    
    
    
    by waste discharges but by land runoff over which we have
    
    
    
    
    no control.
    

    -------
    	^	372
    
    
    
    
    
                        Dr. J. Gakstatter
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   Sewage treatment plants are designed to
    
    
    
    
    eliminate settleable materials and organic carbon, not
    
    
    
    
    ammonia.  Waste effluents from secondary treatment plants
    
    
    
    
    contain concentrations of ammonia which are many times
    
    
    
    
    greater than concentrations in the average receiving
    
    
    
    
    waters.  Nevertheless, increased ammonia concentrations
    
    
    
    
    in the Missouri and in other Iowa streams are generally
    
    
    
    
    the result of agricultural land drainage and not sewage
    
    
    
    
    treatment plant discharges.  This is substantiated by the
    
    
    
    
    fact that 85 percent of the Missouri River stations had
    
    
    
    
    greater ammonia concentrations during the runoff period
    
    
    
    
    than during the period of normal flow, and this could be
    
    
    
    
    verified in Table A-3 of the FWPCA report.
    
    
    
    
                   Finally, in conclusion,, it has been widely
    
    
    
    recognized by Iowa that taste and odor problems frequently
    
    
    
    
    are encountered during periods of surface runoff, particu-
    
    
    
    larly in late winter and spring.  However, again this is
    
    
    
    
    something which isn't related to sewage treatment plant
    
    
    
    
    discharges.
    
    
    
    
                   That is the end of my statement.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   Who is next from Iowa?
    

    -------
    	,	573
    
    
    
    
    
                          H.  M.  Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BUCKMASTER:   Mr.  Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT BY HARRY M. HARRISON
    
    
    
    
                IOWA STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION
    
    
    
    
                        DES  MOINES,  IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  HARRISON:  My name  is  Harry  M.  Harri-
    
    
    
    
     son.   I  work  for the  Iowa State  Conservation Commission.
    
    
    
    
     I  have been employed  by  that  agency  for 23  years.   Seven-
    
    
    
    
     teen  years  of that  time  was spent in the  field  as  a field
    
    
    
    
     biologist.
    
    
    
    
                    I would like to  say to  begin with,  ladies
    
    
    
    
     and gentlemen,  that I  am very,  very  happy to be  here  this
    
    
    
    
     morning.  My  interest  in wildlife and  fisheries  goes  way
    
    
    
    
     back  to  my  youth, and  in this time I have spent  a  lot of
    
    
    
    
     time  in  the rivers  of  this  State, much of it without  the
    
    
    
    
     protection  of a bathing  suit.  After -listening  to  Mr.
    
    
    
    
     Geldreich's  report  yesterday, and considering the  exposure
    
    
    
    
     that  I have had to  pathogens, added  to the  good  will  that
    
    
    
    
     I  heaped on myself  over  at  Davenport last week,  I  should
    
    
    
    
     say that I  am happy to be any place  today.
    
    
    
    
                    (Laughter.)
    

    -------
                                                          574
                         H. M. Harrison
                   I heard a talk Monday of this week by a
    
    
    
    
    reputable sanitarian, and he mentioned that the big prob-
    
    
    
    
    lems in this day are really caused by very little things,
    
    
    
    
    and then he went on to mention the ovum, the atom, a
    
    
    
    
    little bit of skin pigment, and to that list I would
    
    
    
    
    like to add one more thing, pathogenic organisms in flow-
    
    
    
    ing water.
    
    
    
    
                   Over at Davenport I began my remarks with
    
    
    
    
    words to the effect that I was accusing FPCA of practic-
    
    
    
    
    ing legerdemain with biological facts and statistics to
    
    
    
    
    create some illusions that were misleading, confusing,
    
    
    
    
    had very little basis in fact, and not germane to the
    
    
    
    
    conference. This about sums up my impression of the
    
    
    
    
    present conference.
    
    
    
    
                   With that, I would like to wade inexcuse
    
    
    
    me, discuss with yoUf  I don't want to wade into anything
    
    
    
    
    any more (laughter)--discuss with you some of the dis-
    
    
    
    
    cussion here that we had with temperature.
    
    
    
    
                   I am not sure that the people that dis-
    
    
    
    
    cussed temperature were familiar with the facts as they
    
    
    
    
    are in this day.  We have no dispute with FWPCA on tem-
    
    
    
    
    peratures in the Missouri River.  This was settled before
    

    -------
                                                          575
                         H.  M.  Harrison
    the time of the conference.   e have no dispute with the
    
    
    
    
    maximum temperature.   This was decided before the con-
    
    
    
    
    ference.  The dispute that we have involves whether or
    
    
    
    
    not we should permit  or whether or not a difference or
    
    
    
    
    an increase in 5 degrees or 10 degrees will protect
    
    
    
    
    aquatic life in Iowa.
    
    
    
                   It is  my considered opinion that 10 degree
    
    
    
    
    will protect aquatic  life.  I would, therefore, point out
    
    
    
    
    again that the other  discussions are really not germane,
    
    
    
    
    but there is one thing that I would like to call atten-
    
    
    
    
    tion to. The data was cited that the preferred tempera-
    
    
    
    
    ture of smallmouth bass was  82.4,  for the yellow perch
    
    
    
    
    it was 75.6 and for the green sunfish it was 81.2.  I
    
    
    
    
    guess I kind of favor the green sunfish.  My preferred
    
    
    
    
    temperature is 81.3-   How about that?
    
    
    
                   (Laughter.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Mine is 96.8.
    
    
    
    
                   (Laughter.)
    
    
    
    
                   MR. HARRISON:   Now there have been some
    
    
    
    
    other illusions that  our fisheries populations in Iowa
    
    
    
    
    are suffering from pollution  and probably in jeopardy,
    
    
    
    
    and I would like to clarify some of my remarks or some
    

    -------
    	,	576
    
    
    
    
    
                         H. M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
     of  the  things  that  I think were  misinterpreted  over  at
    
    
    
    
     Davenport  by citing a  little  history.
    
    
    
    
                   Back in 1886 to 188?  a  gentleman by the
    
    
    
    
     name  of Seth Meek traveled through Iowa  and collected
    
    
    
    
     fishes  at  various places in the  State  of Iowa.   I have
    
    
    
    
     his publication  and have looked  at it  many, many times.
    
    
    
    
     In  19^-0 Dr. Reeve Bailey, a fishery  scientist of great
    
    
    
    
     renown,  retraced Mr. Meek's steps and  collected in the
    
    
    
    
     same  area.  I  followed Dr. Bailey with my collections
    
    
    
    
     in  1950, and I have people assigned  to me today that
    
    
    
    
     will  do this work again in 19^9  and  1970.  So we have
    
    
    
    
     some  idea  of what the  fisheries  picture  is in the whole
    
    
    
    
     State of Iowa.
    
    
    
    
                   I might point  out that  my own collections
    
    
    
    
     in  the  1950's, .1951 and 1952, amounted to about 1,000
    
    
    
    
     collections in various places in the State of Iowa.
    
    
    
                   We know pretty well what  the distribution
    
    
    
    
     by  species  is, and  some of the facts that were  stated
    
    
    
    
     here  yesterday were facts, but they  were not complete.
    
    
    
    
     We  know, for instance,  that in the Missouri side of  the
    
    
    
    
     State of Iowa  that  there are  probably  in the order of
    
    
    
    
     75  different kinds  of  fish.   In  the  whole State there  are
    

    -------
                                                    	577
    
    
    
    
                         H. M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
    140.  It depends upon the taxonomist how they want to
    
    
    
    
    split them up.  It may be 1^1 or 142, "but to come to
    
    
    
    
    some of the differences you have to count the number of
    
    
    
    
    scales that go around the body and if it is 13 it is
    
    
    
    
    one fish and if it is 14 it is another.  I could never
    
    
    
    
    figure out myself what difference that made to anything
    
    
    
    
    except another fish of the same kind.
    
    
    
    
                   But I did point out over at Davenport
    
    
    
    
    that this was a channel catfish and carp State.  I assume
    
    
    
    
    that the people in the audience knew that I was referring
    
    
    
    
    to the species of fish that are of importance to the Iowa
    
    
    
    angler.  The Iowa angler doesn't care anything about a
    
    
    
    
    brassy minnow or a golden shiner.  These are of interest
    
    
    
    
    only to me and a few other people.
    
    
    
    
                   Dr. Tarzwell yesterday made a statement,
    
    
    
    and I don't think that we can really argue with it too
    
    
    
    
    much, that evolution has set the stage for the present
    
    
    
    
    fish populations.   To a degree this is true.  However,
    
    
    
    
    the fish populations that were in Iowa at the turn of
    
    
    
    
    the century must have received a shock when the white
    
    
    
    
    man started plowing the ground,  straightening the rivers,
    
    
    
    
    and so forth,  and although evolution may have set the
    i
    

    -------
    	578
    
    
    
    
    
                         H. M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
     scene,  the fish populations that exist in Iowa today are
    
    
    
    
     here because  of habitat and habitat alone.
    
    
    
    
                   The habitat in western Iowa has been
    
    
    
    
     destroyed, particularly in the Missouri River, by
    
    
    
    
     channeling, straightening, and so forth.  We do not have
    
    
    
    
     a  species, to my knowledge, in our State that is adapted
    
    
    
    
     to  life  in the Missouri River.  Now, that does not say
    
    
    
    
     that some fish don't get by and that some fish do not
    
    
    
    
     reach fair numbers there.  But the Missouri River in
    
    
    
     this day is a millrace.  Now, there may be a fish some
    
    
    
    
     place in the  world, a  species, that we could import and
    
    
    
    
     put into the  Missouri  River that would make a good
    
    
    
    
     species  for that river.  I don't know what it is.  If
    
    
    
    
     anybody does, why, we  would be glad to know about it.
    
    
    
                   The streams in southwestern Iowa, starting
    
    
    
    
     with the lower reaches of the Little Sioux, the Maple
    
    
    
    
     River,  the Boyer, Nishnabotna, the Nodaway, the Tarkio,
    
    
    
    
     and other streams that were named, have all been straightened
    
    
    
    
     betweenwell, before  1920.  Fish populations in those
    
    
    
    
     areas are really not too good.
    
    
    
                   Now, we do have good fish populations in
    
    
    
    
     some of our artificial impoundsments and some of the othe
    

    -------
    	___	379
    
    
    
    
    
                          H.  M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
     streams  in  the  slope  that  drains  to  the  Missouri  River.
    
    
    
    
     I would  call your  attention  to  some  of the  work that  is
    
    
    
    
     carried  on  by my department  on  the Little Sioux River.
    
    
    
    
     This is  considered one of  the better catfish  streams  in
    
    
    
    
     the United  States.  We have  done  life history studies  out
    
    
    
    
     there on the channel  catfish, population estimates, and
    
    
    
    
     so forth, and in some of our tagging experiments  one  of
    
    
    
    
     our biologists  was able  to capture about 5*000 channel
    
    
    
    
     catfish  one summer, tag  those fish and release them to
    
    
    
    
     study their movements.
    
    
    
    
                    Our fish hatchery  that specializes in  the
    
    
    
    
     production  of channel catfish goes to the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
     or did for  three years in a row to get the  brood  fish for
    
    
    
    
     the hatchery.   They take about  1,000 brood  fish per year
    
    
    
    
     from the river--they took these out  of about  a three-mile
    
    
    
    
     stretch  of the  river--to our hatchery to propagate channel
    
    
    
    
     catfish.  I think this indicates  something  of the quality
    
    
    
    
     of the fish there that they could go in and take  brood fis-h
    
    
    
    
     numbering nearly a thousand out of perhaps  three  miles of
    
    
    
    
     stream.
    
    
    
    
                    In another study that we conducted over
    
    
    
    
     there with respect to movement,  we transported channel
    

    -------
    	380
    
    
    
    
    
    
                         H. M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
    catfish from one area to another to see what would happen
    
    
    
    
    to them.  In this project we were able to capture "below
    
    
    
    
    a little stabiljzer, which is another way of saying a
    
    
    
    
    low head dam, I guess,  10,000  channel catfish in less
    
    
    
    
    than a month's time.  We moved those fish upstream in the
    
    
    
    
    Maple River to a little town of Ida Grove and released
    
    
    
    them to see what would happen. It might be of interest
    
    
    
    
    to you to know that the returns that we got were right
    
    
    
    
    back to where we picked them up in the first place, and
    
    
    
    
    it points out the fact that habitat is very important in
    
    
    
    
    fish  life.  They Just didn't have the habitat up there
    
    
    
    
    where we stocked them, so they turned on their tails and
    
    
    
    
    returned to where they could find habitat.
    
    
    
    
                   There has been some thought, I think, or
    
    
    
    
    some illusions that secondary treatment might enhance
    
    
    
    fishery populations in western Iowa.  I doubt very
    
    
    
    
    seriously that secondary treatment would do anything for
    
    
    
    
    the fish populations out there.  Again you have the prob-
    
    
    
    
    lem of habitat and it just won't get the job done.
    
    
    
    
                   I scribbled these notes down this morning
    
    
    
    and I want to make sure that I get everything.
    
    
    
    
                   I would like now to go to the discussion
    

    -------
    	58l
    
    
    
    
    
                          H.  M.  Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
     on  commercial  fisheries.  Some  mention was  made  about  the
    
    
    
    
     catches  of  1901  as  compared with  1969.  .1 don't  believe
    
    
    
    
     this  can be  a  valid comparison  for a  couple  of reasons.
    
    
    
    
     We  have  had  lots  of changes since 1901 to   1969.
    
    
    
    
                   I  would also point out to you that the
    
    
    
    
     catch  statistics  reported upon  are collected by  people
    
    
    
    
     that work for  me, and the reason  that we collect these
    
    
    
    
     statistics  is  because the code  of Iowa requires  us to.
    
    
    
    
     e  have  absolutely  no confidence  in the data that we get,
    
    
    
    
     and the  reason is that commercial fishermen  just do not
    
    
    
    
     report their catches.  They operate out of  their hind
    
    
    
    
     pocket,  and  if they can  pick up $10 here and $10 there
    
    
    
    
     and do not have  to  report it as an income, why,  that is
    
    
    
    
     just a little  more  for them.
    
    
    
    
                   To offer  a simple  answer to a complex
    
    
    
     question, I  discussed this  last week and I don't think
    
    
    
    
     there is such  a thing as a  simple answer to a complex
    
    
    
    
     question.  It  has been suggested that pollution is the
    
    
    
    
     reason for the drop  in the  catch of commercial fish.  I
    
    
    
    
     submit another simple answer now.  I think that the
    
    
    
    
     reduction in commercial fisheries catch in the Missouri
    
    
    
    
    River is inversely  proportional to the income tax schedul4s
    

    -------
    	582
    
    
    
    
    
                         H. M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    Taste and odors.  I am not aware that we
    
    
    
    
    have  a  real  significant problem  with taste  and odors  in
    
    
    
    
    fish  populations  in the Missouri River, and I do not
    
    
    
    
    wish  to  discount  the testimony that was offered here
    
    
    
    
    yesterday.   Some  gentleman named two fishermen, I believe
    
    
    
    
    that  had to  throw away fish because of taste and odor
    
    
    
    
    problems.  I can  understand and  believe this, and I am
    
    
    
    
    sure  that it does happen from time to time.  However,  if
    
    
    
    
    taste and odors was a very, very significant problem  in
    
    
    
    
    the fish flesh, I am sure that I would be aware of this.
    
    
    
    
    This  sort of thing comes directly to my desk, and in  the
    
    
    
    
    time  that I  have  been in the Des Moines office, five  and
    
    
    
    
    a  half  years,  I don't believe that I have ever had a
    
    
    
    
    complaint, at least a written complaint, of the problem
    
    
    
    
    of taste and odors in fishes from the Missouri River.
    
    
    
                    Our department is also concerned somewhat
    
    
    
    
    with  water-based  recreation, not my department in particu
    
    
    
    
    lar,  but our Commission, and I would like to call your
    
    
    
    
    attention to one  other thing that has been  touched on by
    
    
    
    
    Mr. Schliekelman. I don't believe that if  you had dis-
    
    
    
    
    tilled  water running down the Missouri River it would be
    
    
    
    
    much  of a place for outdoor  recreation.  The Missouri Rivler
    

    -------
                         H. M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
    is a hazardous body of water, and most certainly I
    
    
    
    
    wouldn't put my small children out there with a pair of
    
    
    
    
    water wings and tell them to go swimming.  It just doesn'*'
    
    
    
    
    lend itself to this type of recreation.  We will hope tha
    
    
    
    
    some things that the Corps of Army Engineers have in
    
    
    
    
    mind will become a reality some day and we will have
    
    
    
    
    some impounded waters beside the Missouri River, and this
    
    
    
    
    is where we will send our people to water ski and swim,
    
    
    
    
    and so forth.
    
    
    
                   In closing, I would like to repeat pretty
    
    
    
    
    much something that I said over at Davenport and point
    
    
    
    
    out to those of you who were not over there last week
    
    
    
    
    that I am not a member of the Iowa Water Pollution Gontro
    
    
    
    
    Commission.  I have had the privilege to keep a watchful
    
    
    
    
    eye on them to see what they are doing, and I have come tJ3
    
    
    
    some conclusions about them that I think everybody ought
    
    
    
    
    to be aware of.
    
    
    
                   This is not a troop of boy scouts nor is
    
    
    
    
    it a fraternity of do-gooders.  These are dedicated men,
    
    
    
    
    they come from a broad spectrum of our society, they are
    
    
    
    
    competent and they are aggressive.  I have seen them take
    
    
    
    
    on many, many problems of pollution in the State of Iowa
    

    -------
    	584
    
    
    
    
    
                         H. M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
    and work them out and correct the situation.
    
    
    
    
                   I would like to mention something about
    
    
    
    
    the competence and dedication of these men.  You heard
    
    
    
    
    Dr. Morris yesterday.  He is a very, very fine scientist.
    
    
    
    
    The State of Iowa employs him to head up their State
    
    
    
    
    Hygienic Laboratory.
    
    
    
    
                   This is no small responsible job.
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Buckmaster is a successful businessman
    
    
    
    
    an attorney, and he has taken a lot of his time to serve
    
    
    
    
    on this board.  And for those of you that are concerned
    
    
    
    
    about conservation, I don't think that Mr. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    really got into pollution first and foremost because of
    
    
    
    
    pollution but because he was a smallmouth bass fisherman
    
    
    
    
    and he thought maybe something is happening to the waters
    
    
    
    
    of Iowa that he could correct.
    
    
    
                   These other gentlemen represent State
    
    
    
    
    agencies. They head up State agencies. They are success-
    
    
    
    
    ful farmers and businessmen. They represent cities and
    
    
    
    
    towns, and so this organization is taking care of pollu-
    
    
    
    
    tion in Iowa.
    
    
    
    
                   Now, if the Great White Father in Washing-
    
    
    
    
    ton isn't resting easy because he thinks the people in lov
    a
    

    -------
                   	585
    
    
    
    
                         H. M. Harrison
    
    
    
    
    
    
    are wallowing in some squalor  out here, you people when
    
    
    
    
    you go back tell them it isn't so, that these people take
    
    
    
    
    care of pollution in Iowa and I am sure we will all get
    
    
    
    
    along fine.
    
    
    
    
                   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   Is there anyone else from Iowa?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  I might make a few remark
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  This is off the record.
    
    
    
    
                   (Off the record.)
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                 STATEMENT BY ROBERT BUCKMASTER
    
    
    
    
             CHAIRMAN, IOWA WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
    
    
    
    
                  COMMISSION, DBS MOINES, IOWA
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Mr. Stein, ladies and
    
    
    
    
    gentlemen.
    
    
    
                   I will jump around and cover some things
    
    
    
    
    and try to sum up Iowa's position.  I always talk extem-
    
    
    
    
    poraneously and sometimes worse, and I will probably do
    
    
    
    
    that on this occasion.
    
    
    
                   As I indicated in Davenport, Mr. Stein,  I
    

    -------
    	586
    
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    am deeply appreciative of the many courtesies that you
    
    
    
    
    as hearing examiner have extended to us in Iowa in pre-
    
    
    
    
    senting our views.
    
    
    
    
                   I am, as indicated there, deeply concerned
    
    
    
    
    about  the public's reaction as a result of press stories-
    
    
    
    
    I am not critical of the press for this--of what it has
    
    
    
    
    done to Iowa's position nationally and in the State of
    
    
    
    
    Iowa.  Some of us who worked most of our lives fighting
    
    
    
    
    pollution are now being attacked by former friends who ar
    
    
    
    
    quoting from the New York Times, other periodicals and
    
    
    
    
    Iowa periodicals, saying that Iowa has the worst pollu-
    
    
    
    
    tion situation in the United States.  You know and I know
    
    
    
    
    it isn't true.
    
    
    
                   What this conference is about is a differe
    
    
    
    
    of opinion on the matter of attacking the problem, but it
    
    
    
    has resulted in putting us in the position of being the
    
    
    
    
    fellows with the black hats and you are the great white
    
    
    
    
    knights in Washington who are saving Iowa for posterity.
    
    
    
    
                   I think the people of Iowa should know, an
    
    
    
    
    I think some of them do, that we need no experts from any
    
    
    
    
    place  to come out and lecture or instruct us on the value
    
    
    
    
    of the Mississippi and the Missouri River to this State.
    ce
    

    -------
    	587
    
    
    
    
                           R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Nor  do  we  need  any  instruction  on  the  values  of  wildlife
    
    
    
     or the  necessity  of maintaining our  environment.   Nor  do
    
    
    
     we need any  instruction  on  the  fact  that  pollution
    
    
    
     destroys these  values.   We  have no difference of  opinion
    
    
    
    
     on this.
    
    
    
                    I  think our  record  in Iowa,  going  back
    
    
    
     for  a good many years, indicates that  lowans  are  deeply
    
    
    
     concerned  about this  and have expressed their concern  in
    
    
    
     having  adequate treatment of industrial and municipal
    
    
    
     wastes, and  as  your own  figures show,  Iowa  leads  all the
    
    
    
     States  in  the United  States in  the percentage of  people
    
    
    
     having  treatment  of municipal wastes.
    
    
    
                    As a matter  of fact,  just  so we get the
    
    
    
     record  straight,  your figures,  in  which you use  the term
    
    
    
     urban population, show that there  are  approximately
    
    
    
     1,500,000  people  in Iowa who live  in urban  areas  with
    
    
    
     sewage  treatment.   Now,  I don't recall presently  whether
    
    
    
     you  use the  figure  2,000  or 2,500  in defining an  urban
    
    
    
     area.   Your  figures show that in every one  of those we
    
    
    
     have treatment.   We are  the only State that has  100 per-
    
    
    
     cent treatment  of urban  sewage,
    
    
    
                    Let  me add to that  some other  figures.
    

    -------
    	388
    
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    We have a number of small towns in the State of Iowa
    
    
    
    
    that are under 2,000 or under 2,500, a large number.
    
    
    
    
    As a matter of fact, another 400,000 people in Iowa live
    
    
    
    
    in towns that are not called urban in your figures.  Of
    
    
    
    
    those 400,000 people that live in cities and towns with
    
    
    
    
    sewers, and these go down to even a couple of hundred
    
    
    
    
    people, all but 13,000 have at the present time sewage
    
    
    
    
    treatment, and that other 13,000 that live  in small town
    
    
    
    
    are now under orders from our Commission to have treat-
    
    
    
    
    ment and are either in the planning process or the con-
    
    
    
    
    struction process.
    
    
    
                   So you can say that every town, every city
    
    
    
    
    whatever population, in the State of Iowa, with the
    
    
    
    
    exception of the total of 13,000, now has treatment and
    
    
    
    
    they are now under  construction, which gives us 100 per-
    
    
    
    
    cent.  There is no  other State that I know of that can
    
    
    
    
    boast this kind of  a record.
    
    
    
                   Let  me give you something else about that.
    
    
    
    
    Iowa has no State aid to cities, towns and municipalities
    
    
    
    
    for the construction of treatment plants.  The only aid
    
    
    
    
    that they have received is the 30 percent from the Federa
    
    
    
    
    Government, and I know of small towns in Iowa who have
    

    -------
    	589
    
    
    
    
                           R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
     voted  bonded  indebtedness  in  the  area  of  $2,000  per  home
    
    
    
    
     in  order  to have  treatment, and many of them  run in  the
    
    
    
    
     area of $900  to $1,200 per home.
    
    
    
    
                   Yes,  I  am  a little  emotional that we  are
    
    
    
    
     selected,  Iowa, as  the culprits and when  we have been
    
    
    
    
     given  national and  local  publicity so  the people think
    
    
    
    
     we  are not doing  the job  in Iowa.
    
    
    
    
                   I  don't want to give the impression that
    
    
    
    
     we  don't  have problems.   Some plants are  not  properly
    
    
    
    
     operated,  some need  additions, some need  new  plants.
    
    
    
    
     But we understand this.   It will  be taken care of.   And
    
    
    
    
     I don't mean  to imply  that we don't have  problems on
    
    
    
    
     both the  Mississippi and  on the Missouri  River,  although
    
    
    
    
     I think the Missouri is minor compared to our others.  Bu
    
    
    
    
     if  we  are  talking about the main  thrust,  I feel  very
    
    
    
    
     proud  of  the  job  that  Iowa has done and is doing.
    
    
    
                   Let  me  jump around  to a couple of other
    
    
    
    
     things.   One  thing  I want  to mention.  Mrs. Koerber
    
    
    
     yesterday  from the  League  of Women Voters, I  am  sorry
    
    
    
    
     she is not here today,  asked a very penetrating  question,
    
    
    
    
     and she is entitled  to an  answer.  As  a matter of fact,
    
    
    
    
     I thought  she asked  a  more penetrating question  and  made
    

    -------
                   	590
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckraaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    a more penetrating point than all the staffs of Chicago
    
    
    
    
    and Kansas City and Washington with the engineers, the
    
    
    
    
    sanitation people, the scientists and the lawyers.  In
    
    
    
    
    fact she, I think, deserves an answer.
    
    
    
    
                   Her point was, in looking at our total pro 
    
    
    
    
    gram for water quality criteria and its implementation,wh
    
    
    
    
    is the provision under General Criteria.  Now, we said:
    
    
    
    
                   "in general, those small intermittent
    
    
    
    
    streams experiencing low or zero flows or which cannot
    
    
    
    
    under natural conditions support a permanent fish popu-
    
    
    
    
    lation, will have their quality governed by the General
    
    
    
    
    Criteria.  It is the intent of the General Criteria to
    
    
    
    
    protect the water quality in these areas for the legiti-
    
    
    
    
    mate uses to which they are presently being used."
    
    
    
    
                   I don't believe in her statement she gave
    
    
    
    the first sentence that starts out what streams we are
    
    
    
    talking about.
    
    
    
    
                   "Legitimate  uses in this category are
    
    
    
    
    those such as: irrigation,  livestock watering, wildlife
    
    
    
    
    propagation,  etc.  To protect these uses on low flow
    
    
    
    
    streams,  the wastes will be given the highest prac-
    
    
    
    
    ticable degree of treatment without respect to dilution
    

    -------
                            	591
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    in order to prevent the development of nuisance or
    
    
    
    
    health problems below the discharge.  The requirements
    
    
    
    
    are such that the effluent will be suitable for limited
    
    
    
    
    downstream use.  Treatment less than secondary will not
    
    
    
    
    be accepted unless it can be shown that the legitimate
    
    
    
    
    uses can be protected with a lesser degree of treatment."
    
    
    
    
                   Her point was if you can require in that
    
    
    
    
    case secondary treatment,  and the proof has to be on the
    
    
    
    
    other people (it isn't required), why can't you do the same
    
    
    
    
    thing generally.  And on the face of it this is a legiti-
    
    
    
    
    mate thrust.
    
    
    
    
                   But what we were covering there and which
    
    
    
    
    is clear, I think, to anybody that has gone into this,
    
    
    
    
    we were talking about streams, and there are about--!
    
    
    
    
    think out of 510 treatment plants in the State of Iowa
    
    
    
    
    there are about 160 treatment plants on areas that can
    
    
    
    
    support warm-water aquatic life.  These are the larger
    
    
    
    
    streams.
    
    
    
                   Now., the balance of these are on inter-
    
    
    
    
    mittent streams, and at low flow there may not be any
    
    
    
    
    water in them at all.  In fact, the only flow may be the
    
    
    
    
    sewage effluent.  And, therefore, it was our judgment
    

    -------
    	__	592
    
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    that on the basis of nuisance conditions, as a matter of
    
    
    
    
    public health, on that type of stream we could require
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment to meet the criteria of nuisance and
    
    
    
    
    health requirements, not to support  because they couldn'
    
    
    
    
    meet the water quality standards no matter what they did.
    
    
    
    
    It doesn't change our basic jurisdictional requirement
    
    
    
    
    that treatment has to be such as to protect the water
    
    
    
    
    quality criteria.
    
    
    
                   Again, just to summarize, as I understand
    
    
    
    
    the Secretary of the Interior's order of January which
    
    
    
    
    approved our standards, which was 99-99/100'th of what we
    
    
    
    
    did and accepted certain areas, I just want to go back
    
    
    
    
    again and get it focused what we are talking about here a
    
    
    
    
    I understand it. I won't get into radioactive, phenols,
    
    
    
    
    and so on.  We all understand that.
    
    
    
                   There are two areas in addition to the
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment matter.  One is the area of disin-
    
    
    
    
    fection.  We stated our  position in Davenport, state it
    
    
    
    
    again. On those interior streams that we are talking
    
    
    
    
    about in this hearing, and regardless of interstate or
    
    
    
    
    intrastate, we will require disinfection by chlorine the
    
    
    
    
    year round where it is used for public water supply.
    

    -------
                           	593
    
    
    
    
                          R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    In those areas defined as recreational area we will do
    
    
    
    
    it seasonal.
    
    
    
                   Again because there are some people here
    
    
    
    
    locally that  didn't hear  the presentation at Davenport,
    
    
    
    
    it is the Judgment of the Iowa Water Pollution Control
    
    
    
    
    Commission that in the months other than May through
    
    
    
    
    October there is no water contact sport in Iowa. Again
    
    
    
    
    as I stated in Davenport, if you will check with the
    
    
    
    
    Federal meteorologist you will find that in those months
    
    
    
    
    in Iowa we do very little swimming, water skiing or
    
    
    
    
    anything else that has to do with body contact in water.
    
    
    
    
                   This is not Florida, and as you indicated,
    
    
    
    
    consistency is the hobgoblin of mediocre minds.  The way
    
    
    
    
    I heard it was it is the  hobgoblin of little minds, but
    
    
    
    
    I guess we are talking about the same thing.  Consistency
    
    
    
    
    in this, it seems to me,  is a hobgoblin and the condition
    
    
    
    
    are different.  We do not propose to protect for recrea-
    
    
    
    
    tional uses while the streams are frozen.
    
    
    
                   Now, on the Missouri River on disinfection
    
    
    
    
    we have a different position.  We are not convinced that
    
    
    
    
    disinfection  is required  on the Missouri River.  We don't
    
    
    
    
    think that your studies show it, because they are
    

    -------
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    non-selective.  I don't want to get into this whole thick
    
    
    
    
    other than I think that if there are means,  as your exper
    
    
    
    
    indicate, to differentiate and determine the source of
    
    
    
    
    these, then why in the hell don't we do it.   Base the
    
    
    
    
    judgment on what that study shows, and on that you will
    
    
    
    
    have no problem with us.  We will meet the water quality
    
    
    
    
    standards if the area in which we control is what is
    
    
    
    
    causing them.  We do not believe from an examination of
    
    
    
    
    the preliminary data collected by your people this
    
    
    
    
    establishes that.  This in general is our position on
    
    
    
    
    disinfection.
    
    
    
    
                   Let's go back to temperature.  We have
    
    
    
    
    no quarrel--! believe it has been adopted in Missouri,
    
    
    
    
    I think we have the same question involved here as we
    
    
    
    
    did in Davenport--of the interior streams.  Our standard
    
    
    
    
    provides for 90 degrees and a 10 degree range.  As
    
    
    
    indicated by Missouri, and we have got the same area,
    
    
    
    
    the same type of streams, their experience shows that
    
    
    
    
    these extreme temperatures are pretty much the ambient
    
    
    
    
    air temperature.
    
    
    
    
                   Again a cursory check with any meteorolo-
    
    
    
    
    gist will indicate that we have temperatures consistently
    

    -------
    	___	593
    
    
    
    
    
                          R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    above  95  degrees up  to  100  degrees over  this area all
    
    
    
    
    during the  summer months.   Therefore, it seems  to us that
    
    
    
    
    90  degrees  as  a maximum is  unrealistic,  and for these
    
    
    
    
    reasons,  our own studies  show  the same thing in the
    
    
    
    
    water  temperature, that perhaps 93 is even too  low, but
    
    
    
    
    we  go  along.
    
    
    
    
                   All right, so much now, as far as I am
    
    
    
    
    concerned that covers our position on the areas  having
    
    
    
    
    to  do  strictly with  water quality criteria.  Now we talk
    
    
    
    
    about  secondary treatment,  and this is our difference
    
    
    
    
    of  opinion  and I think  it is our really  only major area
    
    
    
    
    of  disagreement.
    
    
    
    
                   I saw some statement from somebody, from
    
    
    
    
    the Federal pollution people back along  before  these
    
    
    
    
    hearings, about he gave  the  impression that the  States
    
    
    
    
    surrounding us adopted  something different and  were
    
    
    
    
    pretty  irritated with Iowa  because we were fouling up
    
    
    
    
    the whole mess.  But I  have noticed, and I am sure you
    
    
    
    
    have,  that  the people who have given formal statements
    
    
    
    
    from other  States haven't taken that position in regard
    
    
    
    
    to  secondary treatment.     I recall for your considera-
    
    
    
    
    tion the statement from the State of Illinois,  with whom
    

    -------
    	_	596
    
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    we share a good many miles of stream, the Mississippi
    
    
    
    
    River.  And they indicated, just as we have indicated,
    
    
    
    
    that they didn't have any interest in what the type of
    
    
    
    
    treatment was.  They were interested, as we were, in
    
    
    
    
    maintaining the water quality standards.
    
    
    
    
                   I think it is interesting to note the
    
    
    
    
    statement given by the gentleman from Missouri yesterday
    
    
    
    
    on those streams which are interstate in that they
    
    
    
    
    originate in lowa and are shown on the map and go into
    
    
    
    
    Missouri, that again Missouri did not care about what
    
    
    
    
    theoretical requirement was made on treatment, but they
    
    
    
    
    were interested that the quality of the water be main-
    
    
    
    
    tained.  So the States that have testified in both of
    
    
    
    
    these hearings that are our neighbors we find have taken
    
    
    
    the same position that we have.
    
    
    
    
                   Because there are some people at this
    
    
    
    
    hearing that weren't at the other. That is the reason
    
    
    
    
    I am covering some of these things even though they are
    
    
    
    
    in the record, and I guess your people have done the
    
    
    
    
    same thing --we have plowed some of the same ground in
    
    
    
    
    both hearings. Our position on secondary treatment is
    
    
    
    
    this :
    

    -------
    	397
    
    
    
    
    
                           R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    No.  1.  It  is  our judgment that the
    
    
    
    
     Federal Water Pollution Control Act does not  give  the
    
    
    
    
     Federal Government  oov/er  to  require secondary treatment.
    
    
    
    
     In other words,  our position there  is  that their juris-
    
    
    
    
     dictional basis  is  in  fact no different  than  ours,  both
    
    
    
    
     by the  language  and by the intent  of Congress and  by,  in
    
    
    
    
     my judgment,  the historical  common  law basis  for it.
    
    
    
    
     Let's touch on that for just a minute  because I didn't
    
    
    
    
     talk  about it at the other hearing.
    
    
    
    
                    Any  lawyer who has  made any research
    
    
    
    
     into  the history of water pollution control knows  that
    
    
    
    
     the  common lav; base of riparian rights to water was based
    
    
    
    
     on--and 1 am  putting it generally  the right  to reasonabl
    
    
    
    
     use  of  water  so  long as he did not  adversely  affect other
    
    
    
    
     riparian owners.  And  I think this  was adopted in  most
    
    
    
    
     States  and in our State as the basic jurisdiction  for
    
    
    
    
     control of pollution.   The reasonable  use doctrine  could
    
    
    
    
     be maintained in  private  action in  a case at  common
    
    
    
    
     law.  In the  case where you  have adopted pollution  control
    
    
    
    
     that  the State could enforce,  where  the  action is  not  a
    
    
    
    
     private controversy between  two individuals,  the statutes
    
    
    
    
     hold  that any user  of  a stream had  a right to reason-
    
    
    
    
     able use of that  stream so long as  he  did not adversely
    

    -------
                          R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    affect other users.
    
    
    
    
                   Now,  this  is what the whole basis  of water
    
    
    
    
    quality standards is based on.   You scientifically
    
    
    
    
    establish what pollution  is.  As far as I am concerned,
    
    
    
    
    when you have established the standards you have  said on
    
    
    
    
    the basis of valid research that these values do  not
    
    
    
    
    adversely affect any of the other uses  recreation,
    
    
    
    
    aquatic life, public water supply, industrial, agricul-
    
    
    
    
    tural.  I think that about covers the gamut of it.  And
    
    
    
    
    you are required to do whatever is necessary so that
    
    
    
    
    what you introduce into a stream does not exceed these
    
    
    
    
    water quality standards which have been determined to
    
    
    
    
    protect these uses.
    
    
    
                   Now, it has never been the philosophy of
    
    
    
    
    the law so far as I Know in this country-~it hasn't been
    
    
    
    
    in Iowa as far as I know--where we take the other standar
    
    
    
    
    or at least one other test philosophically and say, we
    
    
    
    
    are going to require everyone to give any waste fche
    
    
    
    
    highest possible degree of treatment regardless of
    
    
    
    
    whether we can show it is required to protect other users
    
    
    
    
    and regardless of the economic  cost. It seems to me that
    
    
    
    
    the water oollutlon control people have somewhat adopted
    d
    

    -------
     	599
    
    
                           R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
     this philosophy, that regardless of whether or not we
    
    
     can show an adverse  effect on users and irregardless of
    
    
     the economic balance of interests, this is going to be
    
    
     our test. And I think this is where we are in conflict
    
    
     on these two basic philosophies.
    
    
                    There is no question about the Iowa law,
    
    
     in my  judgment, as I stated before, I drew the Iowa law.
    
    
     I was  on the Governor's committee that studied what Iowa
    
    
     needed in the way of pollution laws and it came out of
    
    
     our study.  Our Commission has submitted this matter to
    
    
     the Attorney General of Iowa.    He has stated to us in
    
    
     writing that in his  judgment our jurisdictional base is ojn
    
    
     preventing pollution, which means maintaining water
    
    
     quality standards and that we have no power to require
    
    
     any specific type of treatment other than our ability  to
    
    
     show that that is required to maintain those standards.
    
    
     This is the legal base for our judgment.
    
    
                    Now,  the basis for our judgment on the
    
    
    I merits is that neither our studies, which admittedly are
    
    I
     sketchy, nor your studies, which on the Mississippi
    
    
     River  are no better  in some cases not as good because
    
    
     we have some d&ta in 1950  better on the Missouri Riverr-
    

    -------
    	6oo
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    but neither established a case for secondary treatment
    
    
    
    on its merits  that that would enhance the water quality,
    
    
    
    or that it is required to mean the Iowa water quality
    
    
    
    standards which you accept.
    
    
    
                   You have put people on the stand here who
    
    
    
    have stated, and I will summarize them  this is what I
    
    
    
    think they stated--secondary treatment is better than
    
    
    
    primary.  Well, there wasn't any reason to come all the
    
    
    
    ivay from Washington to say that. I think we would have
    
    
    
    accepted that.  It takes out more things than primary
    
    
    
    treatment does.  Tertiary takes out more than secondary.
    
    
    
    And if you don't have any effluent at all, it takes it
    
    
    
    all out.  I think you can start with that as a premise
    
    
    
    and we won't quarrel with that.
    
    
    
                   You have also brought people in to say
    
    
    
    that certain things can cause taste and odors in drinking
    
    
    
    water and fish.  Well, this didn't come as any great news
    
    
    
    to us either.  We are familiar with that.
    
    
    
                      Itfhat we have talked about is general
    
    
    
    things as  "could" or "might" or "possibly1 or "have"  but very
    
    
    
    little has been said about'Will!' or "do."
    
    
    
                   As I indicated at Davenport and I indicate
    

    -------
    	601
    
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    today, we will join with you in studies, we will do it
    
    
    
    
    any way it can be done.  We don't have the people; you
    
    
    
    
    have got a lot of them.  They tell me you have got 75 in
    
    
    
    
    the Kansas City office and I don't know how many in
    
    
    
    
    Chicago, and I have been falling all over them at both
    
    
    
    
    of these hearings.  Actually,if we had spent just about
    
    
    
    
    a third as much t:ime surveying the Missouri and Mississipi
    
    
    
    
    Rivers as we have running around having conferences and
    
    
    
    
    writing letters and doing all the folderol that has kept
    
    
    
    
    us really from the pollution jobs for the last two years,
    
    
    
    
    we might have some facts on which we could--
    
    
    
    
                   Would you pardon me while I take this phom
    
    
    
    
    call?
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Do you want to recess now?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Yes, five minutes and ther
    
    
    
    
    I will go another ten minutes.
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Yes.  We will have to recess
    
    
    
    
    anyway, because we have to have rebuttal and then we will
    
    
    
    
    run through it without a recess after that.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  All right.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  May we recess now for ten
    
    
    
    
    minutes.  When we come back, Mr. Buckmaster will complete
    

    -------
    	602
    
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    his  statement,  then we will have  rebuttal  and  comments,
    
    
    
    
    and  we  will  try to go right through with it.
    
    
    
    
                             (RECESS)
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:  May we  reconvene.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. BUCKMASTER:  Mr. Stein, I omitted  one
    
    
    
    
    thing in  connection with disinfection  on the interior str
    
    
    
    
    We are  at a loss to  understand--I indicated  this  at
    
    
    
    
    Davenport and I indicate it herethat  the standard which
    
    
    
    
    we adopted for  year-round treatment of  public  water
    
    
    
    
    supplies  and seasonal treatment of recreational  areas
    
    
    
    
    was  accepted, we thought, by the  Federal Government,
    
    
    
    
    because I had a letter,  I referred to  today, from Ilr.
    
    
    
    
    Burd in September of 1968 where he said that this criteri
    
    
    
    
    was  acceptable.  Yet we  have spent, both here  and at
    
    
    
    
    Davenport, a good many manhours talking about  something
    
    
    
    
    which we  thought was all over with.
    
    
    
    
                    It seems  to me that the  Federal people
    
    
    
    
    here have overlooked one requirement entirely  of the
    
    
    
    
    Federal Act.   I refer to the portion on what  happens
    
    
    
    
    after the standards improve and we get  to  enforcement.
    
    
    
    
    The,  act  itself provides what  the Secretary has  to
    
    
    
    
    show in order to enforce either water  quality  or the
    

    -------
    	603
    
    
    
    
    
                           R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Implementation  of  the  program.   And again I  want to
    
    
    
    
     quote  from  the  Act itself.
    
    
    
    
                    "in any suit  brought under the  provisions
    
    
    
    
     of  this  subsection  the court  shall receive  in evidence
    
    
    
    
     a transscript of the proceedings of the  conference and
    
    
    
    
     hearing  provided for in this  subsection,  together with
    
    
    
    
     the  recommendations  of the  conference  and Hearing Board
    
    
    
    
     and  the  recommendations and  standards  promulgated by the
    
    
    
    
     Secretary,and such additional  evidence,  including that
    
    
    
    
     relating to  the alleged violation of the  standards, as
    
    
    
    
     it  deems necessary to  a complete review  of the standards
    
    
    
    
     and  to a determination of all other is sues  relating to the
    
    
    
    
     alleged  violation.   The court,  giving  due consideration
    
    
    
    
     to  the practicability  and to  the  physical  and  economic
    
    
    
    
     feasibility  of  complying  with  such  standards,shall have
    
    
    
    
     jurisdiction to enter  such  judgment  and  orders enforcing
    
    
    
     such judgment   as  the  public  interest  and the  equities
    
    
    
    
     of  the case  may require."
    
    
    
                    So  ultimately when the  Federal  Government
    
    
    
    
     gets all through,  both in meetings  and  confrontations,
    
    
    
    
     and  the  gold stars  are put behind the  States  that said,
    
    
    
    
     "Yes,  I  will sometime  in  the  future,"  not one  bit of wate
    

    -------
    	60*1
    
    
    
    
    
                           R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
     has  been  improved  at  that point.   Now comes  the  question
    
    
    
    
     of improving  it, and  when we  come  to  improve it,  the
    
    
    
    
     Act  sets  out  what  the standard  has to be.
    
    
    
    
                    It  would  seem  to me, it doesn't make  any
    
    
    
    
     difference  what standards you adopt or what  plan of
    
    
    
    
     implementation,  you are  ultimately going  to  face the
    
    
    
    
     fact that it  has got  to  be proven  in  court,  with the
    
    
    
    
     Act  giving  what the criteria  are for  the  court to take
    
    
    
    
     into consideration.   Where in this hearing,  either at
    
    
    
    
     Davenport or  Council  Bluffs,  has the  Federal Government
    
    
    
    
     introduced  one  iota of evidence about the  economic feas-
    
    
    
    
     ibility or  the  practicability of  what it proposes?   It
    
    
    
    
     seems  to  me that is a part of your burden  of proof.  I
    
    
    
    
     knew very well  it  is  going to be when you  attempt to
    
    
    
     enforce it.  It seems to  me it  is  a part  of  your burden
    
    
    
     and  you haven't introduced any  evidence on it.
    
    
    
    
                    It  is  a great  thing to sit  in an  ivory
    
    
    
    
     tower  and dream up water  quality standards without any
    
    
    
    
     consideration to other matters  that have  to  be taken
    
    
    
    
     into consideration by a  responsible public official
    
    
    
    
     charged with  the responsibility of making  orders  that
    
    
    
    
     people have to  reach  down in  their pockets and pay for.
    

    -------
    .	6o 5
    
    
    
    
    
                          R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   And  if we  forget  .just  a  minute  and  concede
    
    
    
    
    which I don't, that we  legally could  require  secondary
    
    
    
    
    treatment^ and, number  two,  that  we should,  right  across
    
    
    
    
    the board, as a responsible  public official  let  me tell
    
    
    
    
    you what I would be facing as a matter  of  judgment.   Cur
    
    
    
    
    projections show that on  the interior streams  of the
    
    
    
    
    State of Iowa in the next four years  expenditures  will
    
    
    
    
    be required in a magnitude that will  require  a Federal su
    
    
    
    
    sidization,  based  on the 30 percent, of about $13
    
    
    
    
    million.  In other words, the program on the  interior
    
    
    
    
    streams, which we consider in many areas will  present us
    
    
    
    
    with a problem in the next four years and  a  real problem,
    
    
    
    
    and I am talking about  a problem  of meeting  our  water
    
    
    
    
    quality standards, the  Federal contribution  of 30  percent
    
    
    
    
    will be all eaten up for the next four  years because  we
    
    
    
    get, $3.4 million a year.
    
    
    
    
                   If you take the figures, which  are  $25
    
    
    
    
    rnillior; --and my experience with these type of  figures
    
    
    
    
    in an inflationary era  is before  you.have  got  the  figures
    
    
    
    
    put down they have increased--and if we say$25 million
    
    
    
    
    today, which is the educated guess is the  cost of  going
    
    
    
    
    to secondary treatment  on the Missouri  and Mississippi
    

    -------
    	6o6
    
    
    
    
    
                           R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Rivers,  we  are  probably talking  something more in  the
    
    
    
    
     area  of  $30 million,  this would  take  all of  the Federal
    
    
    
    
     contribution for  the  next 4  years  and we would do  nothing
    
    
    
    
     on  the interior streams.
    
    
    
    
                    As  a public official in  the State of  Iowa
    
    
    
    
     charged  with the  responsibility  of doing the most  with
    
    
    
    
     the dollars available  to us  to protect  water quality
    
    
    
    
     standards,  I couldn't  justify spending  one dime on the
    
    
    
    
     basis of the record that you have  shown or what we know
    
    
    
    
     to  be on either the Missouri or  the Mississippi River if
    
    
    
    
     it  meant depleting or  cutting out  the work that we think
    
    
    
    
     is  necessary to protect water quality on the interior
    
    
    
    
     streams.
    
    
    
    
                    Let me  point  out  again that Iowa does not
    
    
    
    
     have  any State  participation in  the construction of  these
    
    
    
    
     facilities.   The  70 percent  comes  from  the city or town
    
    
    
     itself .
    
    
    
    
                    I  would consider  it to be irresponsible
    
    
    
    
     action on the part of  our Commission  to give a priority
    
    
    
    
     to  secondary treatment on the Mississippi or Missouri ove
    
    
    
    
     the demonstrated  need  on the interior streams, and this
    
    
    
    
     is  entirely independent of the question of either  our
    

    -------
                                                          607
    
    
    
    
    
                          R.  Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
    legal right to do it or the merits  of whether or not it
    
    
    
    
    should be done.
    
    
    
                   So I say in conclusion that in our judgmem
    
    
    
    
    the testimony and evidence that you have adduced here
    
    
    
    
    does not, or even approach  showing a requirement of
    
    
    
    
    general across-the-board secondary treatment.  I am also
    
    
    
    
    going to concede that very well if such proper evidence
    
    
    
    
    were adduced that we may have some areas on both streams
    
    
    
    
    that might require it.
    
    
    
                   So there isn't any question again about
    
    
    
    
    our position. I now state that the Iowa Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
    Control Commission is ready and willing to engage with
    
    
    
    
    your Department on definitive studies of both streams.
    
    
    
    
    We are willing to Jointly agree on setting up the
    
    
    
    
    parameters and agree to be bound and require whatever
    
    
    
    treatment is required to protect the water quality in
    
    
    
    
    both these streams, but we do not intend to require
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment without such scientific basis, and
    
    
    
    
    I think I have to say in all fairness that we intend to
    
    
    
    
    pursue that position just as far as it is required.
    
    
    
    
                   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you.
    

    -------
     	608
    
    
    
    
    
                          R. Buckmaster
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   Does that conclude the Iowa presentation?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  I believe it does.  You
    
    
    
    
    and I will now get into nits and lice, and scientists
    
    
    
    
    will come UP and say this and that, and so forth, and
    
    
    
    
    we will go through that, but as far as I know, except
    
    
    
    
    for answering some of that, we are through.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  All right.  Thank you very
    
    
    
    
    much, Mr. Buckmaster.
    
    
    
    
                   As you know, the regulations require that
    
    
    
    
    we have an opportunity for comment and rebuttal, and we
    
    
    
    
    intend to follow the conference requirements and regu-
    
    
    
    
    lations, of course, to the letter.
    
    
    
                   Is there anyone here now that wishes to
    
    
    
    
    make a comment, have rebuttal or make a recommendation as
    
    
    
    
    to standards in water quality? I Just ask you to do one
    
    
    
    
    thing.  I think we aired this quite a bit in Davenport
    
    
    
    
    and in here.  I would hope that this would really be a
    
    
    
    
    rebuttal statement and we do not bring in new material
    
    
    
    
    at this stage unless you really feel compelled to do so.
    
    
    
    
                   Yes.  Mr. Blomgren.
    

    -------
                                                          609
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
                      REBUTTAL STATEMENT OF
    
    
    
    
                        CARL V. BLOMGREN
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:  Mr. Chairman, we have
    
    
    
    
    listened with interest to the comments presented by the
    
    
    
    
    State representatives.  We respect their dedication,
    
    
    
    
    professional integrity and technical competency.  We
    
    
    
    
    feel there are several statements in their report that
    
    
    
    
    need clarification.
    
    
    
    
                   We have presented documentation which
    
    
    
    
    shows a greatly expanded scope of water uses when com-
    
    
    
    
    pared to the two shown in Iowa's standards for the
    
    
    
    
    Missouri River.  These uses must be recognized and
    
    
    
    
    protected.   Nonrecognition does not reduce the hazard
    
    
    
    
    to the user nor can the assumption be made that it makes
    
    
    
    
    it an illegal activity.
    
    
    
    
                   Recreational use of the Missouri River
    
    
    
    
    is a reality.  The State of Nebraska recognizes this
    
    
    
    
    use.  The Corps of Engineers projects more intensified
    
    
    
    
    recreational use of the river and is planning consider-
    
    
    
    
    able expenditures in the development of recreational
    

    -------
                              	6io
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    access sites.  This fact was highlighted by the statement
    
    
    
    
    of Gen. Cannon of the Corps of Engineers.  The Lewis and
    
    
    
    
    Clark Trail development will intensify the recreational
    
    
    
    
    use by focusing national attention on the Missouri River,
    
    
    
    
    emphasizing the historical significance of the river
    
    
    
    
    system.  And we cannot overlook that today the States
    
    
    
    
    of Iowa and Nebraska have 66 developed access sites for
    
    
    
    
    recreation.
    
    
    
    
                   Iowa recognizes water supply use only at
    
    
    
    
    the water intake for Council Bluffs.  Yet Omaha, Nebraska
    
    
    
    
    on the opposite bank from Council Bluffs uses the river
    
    
    
    
    as a water supply source,, and St. Joseph, Missouri, l6o
    
    
    
    
    miles downstream also depends on the river for water
    
    
    
    
    supply.  Full consideration must be given to these other
    
    
    
    water users through full protection of the river quality.
    
    
    
    
                   Over 85 percent of the coliform bacteria
    
    
    
    
    in the river during dry weather flow studies were con-
    
    
    
    
    tributed by municipal waste discharges.
    
    
    
    
                   The material presented by Mr. Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    establishes the high degree of control of the bacterial
    
    
    
    
    densities that can be obtained from properly operated
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment with disinfection. Dr. Walton
    

    -------
    	611
    
    
    
    
    
                          C.  V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     emphasized the importance of this control in his
    
    
    
    
     description of the multiple barrier concept for the
    
    
    
    
     protection of the water  users.   The waste treatment
    
    
    
    
     plant is the first line  of  defense between the wastes
    
    
    
    
     of a community or industry  and  the downstream water
    
    
    
    
     users.   This concept is  further supported by the state-
    
    
    
    
     ments submitted by the Missouri River Public Water
    
    
    
    
     Supplies Association.  The  protection of the health and
    
    
    
    
     well being of their consumers is dependent on the pro-
    
    
    
    
     duction  of high quality  drinking water.   With only men
    
    
    
    
     and machines standing  between the river  and the consumer,
    
    
    
    
     the river must be of the highest possible quality.
    
    
    
    
                    Disinfection is  required  on a year-round
    
    
    
    
     basis.   During the warmer seasons,  disinfection is
    
    
    
    
     necessary to reduce the  hazard  of contact with disease-
    
    
    
    
     producing agents  by recreational and  other users and to
    
    
    
    
     provide  a more acceptable source for  domestic supplies.
    
    
    
    
     During the cold weather  periods,  disinfection is equally
    
    
    
    
     important.   Mr.  Geldreich discussed the  bacterial per-
    
    
    
    
     sistence  at lower  temperatures fully supporting the  need
    
    
    
    
     to  provide all possible  protection  for the downstreajn
    
    
    
    
     user.
    
    
    
    
                    Wet weather  flows  do not  negate the
    

    -------
    		612
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     effect  of  disinfection of waste  effluents.  Elimination
    
    
    
    
     of  potential  sources  of pathogenic organisms before they
    
    
    
    
     reach the  river  is  common sense.  The  control of bypassing
    
    
    
    
     because  of  storm flows or mechanical failure is an
    
    
    
    
     objective  of  all water pollution  control agencies.
    
    
    
    
                   The  State of Nebraska has adopted criteria
    
    
    
    
     for  coliform  organisms.  These criteria were set to pro-
    
    
    
    
     tect the river for  domestic water supply and for partial
    
    
    
    
     body contact, fishery propagation,  agricultural, indus-
    
    
    
    
     trial uses  and others.  Basically, the coliform group
    
    
    
    
     shall not  exceed a  geometric mean of 10,000 total or
    
    
    
    
     2,000 fecal coliform  bacteria per 100  ml, based on at
    
    
    
    
     least 5  samples  per 30~day  period.  These stream criteria
    
    
    
    
     can be  achieved  only  through disinfection of waste effluents
    
    
    
     I believe  this question arose yesterday, Mr. Chairman.
    
    
    
    
     You will recall  that  specific treatment requirements
    
    
    
    
     calling  for disinfection on the  Missouri River were not
    
    
    
    
     spelled  out in the  Nebraska standards  for the Missouri.
    
    
    
    
     However, the  stream quality criteria dictate that dis-
    
    
    
    
     infection  is  essential.
    
    
    
    
                   Agriculture  runoff effects on the quality
    
    
    
    
     of  the  Missouri  River are now outside  the scope of
    

    -------
    	613
    
    
    
    
                          0.  V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
     controllable  standards.   The  farm animal  population with
    
    
    
    
     an  estimated  65  million  population equivalent  of  waste
    
    
    
    
     products  presents  a  real threat,  at least in part if not
    
    
    
    
     in  total,  to  the water quality  of the  basin.   Mr. Geld-
    
    
    
    
     reich's  statement  concerning  the  pathogenic organisms
    
    
    
    
     present  in the excreta of animals emphasizes the  disease
    
    
    
    
     potential.  There  are about il-6,000 feedlots within the
    
    
    
    
     State  of  Iowa, but only  the larger control facilities  are
    
    
    
    
     State  regulated.   If  the larger ones can  be controlled,
    
    
    
    
     the  smaller ones can  too.
    
    
    
    
                   Yesterday at the close  of  the FWPCA
    
    
    
    
     summary  statement, a  question arose about the  Department
    
    
    
    
     of  Interior'.^ interpretation  of the requirements  for
    
    
    
     secondary  treatment  on the  interior interstate streams
    
    
    
    
     of  Iowa, and  at  this  time  I would like  to again bring
    
    
    
     Bob  Burd forward for  a clarification of that point,  Mr.
    
    
    
    
     Chairman.
    

    -------
    	614
    
    
    
    
    
                             R. Burd
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                      REBUTTAL STATEMENT OP
    
    
    
    
                           ROBERT BURD
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BURD:  Mr. Chairman.
    
    
    
    
                   I would like to make a brief statement
    
    
    
    
     to  clarify a point raised yesterday concerning the Federal
    
    
    
    
     approval of water quality standards for Iowa's interior
    
    
    
    
     interstate streams.
    
    
    
    
                   It was the Secretary of the Interior's
    
    
    
    
     understanding that the standards he approved as Federal
    
    
    
    
     standards, standards applicable to the interior streams
    
    
    
    
     of  Iowa, included a general requirement of secondary
    
    
    
    
     treatment for municipal and industrial wastes discharged
    
    
    
     to  these streams.  Why did he reach this conclusion?
    
    
    
    
     The  Iowa standards include the following statements:
    
    
    
    
                   "All municipalities on interior streams
    
    
    
    
     will  generally need secondary treatment and some already
    
    
    
    
     have  two stage filtration or other tertiary treatment
    
    
    
    
     furnishing up to 96 percent BOD removal.
    
    
    
    
                   "All industries will be required to
    
    
    
    
     provide the same degree of treatment or control that
    

    -------
    	6l5
    
    
    
    
    
                              R.  Burd
    
    
    
    
    
    
     is  required of municipalities  on the same reach of
    
    
    
    
     stream.   This  degree  of  treatment will  generally be the
    
    
    
    
     equivalent of  secondary  treatment" as a quote from the
    
    
    
    
     Iowa standards.
    
    
    
    
                    Furthermore,  the  Iowa implementation
    
    
    
    
     plan,  what we  consider to be the action part of the
    
    
    
    
     standards,  supports  these two  statements.  It shows
    
    
    
    
     that secondary waste  treatment has been installed or
    
    
    
    
     will be  installed  by  all but a very few dischargers.  I
    
    
    
    
     v/ould  like  to  quote  Iowa's  statement prepared for this
    
    
    
    
     conference:
    
    
    
    
                    "Secondary treatment will be needed, and
    
    
    
    
     therefore  has  or will  be required for all but four or
    
    
    
    
     five of  the  490 municipal sewage treatment plants located
    
    
    
    
     on  interior  streams."
    
    
    
                   We  were impressed with this record;  99.2
    
    
    
    
     percent  of  the municipal facilities discharging to
    
    
    
    
     interior  streams to provide  a  minimum of secondary
    
    
    
    
     treatment.
    
    
    
    
                   On  the  basis  of this admirable record and
    
    
    
    
     the  general  policy statements  on secondary waste  treat-
    
    
    
    
     ment,  the  Secretary approved the standards of the
    

    -------
    	6l6
    
    
    
    
    
                             R. Burd
    
    
    
    
    
    
    interior streams, with exceptions for temperature and
    
    
    
    
    the approach to disinfection.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  Gould I answer one state-
    
    
    
    
    ment he made before we get on this other subject?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Yes, go right ahead, sir.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BUCKMASTER:  I don't think I need to
    
    
    
    
    come up there.  I think you can hear me.
    
    
    
    
                   I am disturbed by the statement about agri-
    
    
    
    
    cultural and animal wastes that you mentioned.  Now, we
    
    
    
    
    all recognize that a great deal of the coliform bacteria
    
    
    
    
    come from animal wastes.  But it seems to me you indi-
    
    
    
    
    cate a real lack of knowledge about the agricultural
    
    
    
    
    industry in the State.
    
    
    
                   You keep talking about feedlots and you
    
    
    
    
    give the assumption to somebody that doesn't know about
    
    
    
    
    it that a great part or all of animals in the State are
    
    
    
    
    in feedlots.  Well, this is absolutely not true. The
    
    
    
    
    vast majority of the swine and cattle in the State of
    
    
    
    
    Iowa are on open pasture and in fields, are not confined,
    
    
    
    
    and the coliform come not from feedlot sources but from
    
    
    
    
    animals all over our terrain.
    

    -------
    	61?
    
    
    
    
    
                              R.  Burd
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    And  you  make  the  statement if  we  could
    
    
    
    
     control  large  feedlots  we can  control  small  ones.
    
    
    
    
     Explain  to  me  how over  the whole State of Iowa,  which
    
    
    
    
     is  all  agriculture  and  which has cattle and  swine  on
    
    
    
    
     pretty  nearly  every acre  of  it,  the  Iowa Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
     Control  Commission  is going  to control runoff from those
    
    
    
    
     fields .
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:  Do  you want to address  your-
    
    
    
    
     self  to  that or does  someone else want to answer that or
    
    
    
    
     do  you  want to continue?
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BLOMGREN:   I  want to continue.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:  All right.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BLOMGREN:   Now, Dr.  Morris,  although
    
    
    
    
     we  have  requested that  the phenol question on criteria
    
    
    
    
     will  not be discussed because  we felt  we had  some  agree-
    
    
    
    
     ment, there was a question from  Dr.  Morris and I would
    
    
    
    
     like  to  call on our technical  consultant,  Dr.  Aaron
    
    
    
    
     Rosen,  at this time to  speak to  some of the  points that
    
    
    
    
     Dr. Morris  brought  up.
    

    -------
                         	6l8
    
    
    
    
    
                          Dr.  A.  Rosen
                      REBUTTAL STATEMENT OF
    
    
    
    
                         DR.  AARON ROSEN
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   DR. ROSEN:  I understand that yesterday
    
    
    
    
    it was stated that the question of a standard on phenols
    
    
    
    
    is not an issue and,  therefore, I am not going to say
    
    
    
    
    anything as to what modification of the original pro-
    
    
    
    
    posed standard has been arrived at, but rather I am
    
    
    
    
    under the understanding that it includes a terminology
    
    
    
    
    relating to phenols of municipal and industrial origin
    
    
    
    
    as opposed to the natural ones that Dr. Morris spoke
    
    
    
    
    about.  Let me point out that Dr. Morris and I are on
    
    
    
    
    a number of committees in this field of organic material
    
    
    
    
    in water, including especially those relating to taste
    
    
    
    
    and odors, and we have no conflict at all on a scientific
    
    
    
    
    basis.
    
    
    
                   We can distinguish between those materials
    
    
    
    
    of natural origin of the type that he mentioned, and I
    
    
    
    
    agree that what he said was a proper statement of the
    
    
    
    
    source of many such materials and their occurrence in
    
    
    
    
    streams.  e can distinguish between these which, as he
    

    -------
                                                           6i9
                           Dr. A. Rosen
    
    
    
    
    
    
     said, have, at least so far, not been reported to be
    
    
    
    
     causes of taste and odor from those which he agrees are
    
    
    
    
     causes of taste and odor, that is those materials of
    
    
    
    
     waste origin.  Analytical means are available and they
    
    
    
    
     are sensitive enough for the purpose of determining and
    
    
    
    
     identifying quantities as low as one microgram per liter,
    
    
    
    
     or in the engineers' terms, which are the ones most of
    
    
    
    
     us use, one part per billion.
    
    
    
    
                    There are several approaches to these, to
    
    
    
    
     doing this.  I don't want to enumerate all the different
    
    
    
    
     analytical methods.  I just want to mention that there
    
    
    
    
     was a recent publication specifically directed to this
    
    
    
    
     and specifically stating that sensitivities for the
    
    
    
    
     identification and determination of phenols, by this we
    
    
    
    
     mean the kind of phenols that do chlorinate and do produc
    
    
    
    
     a problem, that these sensitivities range as low as one-
    
    
    
     tenth part per billion.  So that from the viewpoint of
    
    
    
    
     the chemist^a viewpoint which says we apply these criteria
    
    
    
    
    | to the kind of phenols that produce the specific adverse
    
    
    
    
     effect, that such a criteria can be implemented in terms
    
    
    
    
     of the analytical capability.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. BLOMGREN:  Mr. Chairman, in response
    

    -------
                                                          620
    
    
    
    
    
    
                         C. V. Bloragren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    to Dr. Morris's question about monitoring, I will ask
    
    
    
    
    that this be placed in the record in response to Dr.
    
    
    
    
    Morris and offers cooperation in setting up a joint
    
    
    
    
    monitoring system and program.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  That will be done.
    
    
    
    
                   (Which said document is as follows:)
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                           MONITORING
    
    
    
    
                   Although monitoring is not an issue at
    
    
    
    
    this hearing, we believe the record should show FWPCA's
    
    
    
    
    position on this matter.  e feel that it is unfortunate
    
    
    
    
    that Section IV-D of the FWPCA report, dealing with
    
    
    
    
    monitoring, was interpreted by Dr. Morris as a criticism
    
    
    
    
    of Iowa's monitoring program.
    
    
    
    
                   The monitoring section of the report was
    
    
    
    
    intended to support current and future monitoring efforts
    
    
    
    
    of the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission.  The
    
    
    
    
    recommended increases in sampling frequencies for chemicajl
    
    
    
    
    physical and bacteriological parameters at stations located
    
    
    
    
    on the ten streams cited in the report represent our
    
    
    
    
    current thinking on optimum surveillance needs on streams
    
    
    
    
    receiving significant amounts of wastes.
    

    -------
    	621
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Blomgren
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    The  FWPCA  Missouri  Basin  Region  is
    
    
    
    
     actively  engaged  in coordinating the  development  of  a
    
    
    
    
     cooperative  Federal-State-local monitoring  plan.   One of
    
    
    
    
     the  principal  benefits  of such a cooperative  approach
    
    
    
    
     would  be  the elimination  of duplication  of  monitoring
    
    
    
    
     efforts and  would permit  greater numbers of sampling
    
    
    
    
     stations  to  be operated as  well as increased  sampling
    
    
    
    
     frequency.   e have discussed monitoring with all  of the
    
    
    
    
     Missouri  Basin States except Iowa.  Hopefully,  we  can
    
    
    
    
     meet with the  technical staff of the  Iowa Water Pollution
    
    
    
    
     Control Commission  in the near future to discuss  monitor-
    
    
    
    
     ing  needs and  determine the technical and financial
    
    
    
    
     resources required  to carry out an effective  monitoring
    
    
    
    
     program.                  -  _ _
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  BLOMGREN:  Relative to Kansas  water
    
    
    
    
     quality standards,  which  was brought  up  yesterday and oart
    
    
    
    
     o f  this   morning by reference, we do have  a  commitment
    
    
    
    
     from the  State of Kansas,  and I will  quote  from their
    
    
    
    
     treatment requirements, a commitment  for secondary treat-
    
    
    
    
     ment.  I  can't inform you of the status  of  the  approval
    
    
    
    
     or disapproval of those standards, but based  on a  letter
     from  the  Governor  of  January  16,  19^9}  we  have  a  commitme
    nt
    

    -------
    	622
    
    
    
    
    
                          C. V.  Bloragren
    
    
    
    
    
    
    for  secondary  treatment from  the  State  of  Kansas.
    
    
    
    
                    Under  treatment  requirements  in  their
    
    
    
    
    standards,  the  objective  of treatment or  control will
    
    
    
    
    be to  reduce the  organic  levels,  oil, grease, solids,
    
    
    
    
    alkali,  acids,  toxic  materials,  color and  turbidity,
    
    
    
    
    taste  and odor  products,  and  other deleterious  materials
    
    
    
    
    to the lowest  practicable  level.
    
    
    
    
                    Mr.  Schliekelman's reference  to  the  cost
    
    
    
    
    of clean waters,  a  sheet  taken  from  our publication, was,
    
    
    
    
    we believe, adequately covered  by Mr. Frank  Hall's  state-
    
    
    
    
    ment which  went Into  the  Davenport record.
    
    
    
    
                    There  were  some  questions  that arose
    
    
    
    
    yesterday with  reference  to bacteriological  pollution,
    
    
    
    
    differentiation,  and  Mr.  Buckmaster  brought  them up again
    
    
    
    
    this morning.   Ed Geldreich,  our  last technical consultan
    
    
    
    
    would  like  to  make  just a  few brief  remarks  on  that and
    
    
    
    
    that will be our  closing.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                      REBUTTAL  STATEMENT OF
    
    
    
    
                          E.  GELDREICH
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  GELDREICH:   Mr. Chairman, as I  did  in
    

    -------
    	623
    
    
    
    
                           E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Davenport,  I  would  like  for  the  record  to  comment  on  the
    
    
    
    
     Iowa statement, on page 15 under  Public  water  supply and
    
    
    
    
     recreation,the  suggested  numerical  bacteriological limits
    
    
    
    
     They state  that  their  bacteriological limits  are  com-
    
    
    
    
     patible  with  the National Technical Advisory  Committee's
    
    
    
    
     recommendation,  and the  values,  as  I said  at  that  time,
    
    
    
    
     now  are  compatible,  but  there  was one phrase  in there
    
    
    
    
     that I would  like to comment on:  "when such  bacteria
    
    
    
    
     can  be demonstrated to be attributable  to  pollution by
    
    
    
    
     sewage."
    
    
    
    
                    There is nowhere  in  the  recommendations of
    
    
    
    
     the  water quality criteria book  that was put  out by the
    
    
    
    
     committee that  so specifies  or selectively narrows  in  on
    
    
    
    
     the  fecal coliform  population  that  we are  concerned with.
    
    
    
    
     Just as  an  illustration,  I would like to quote that
    
    
    
     particular  recommendation as it  is  on page 12 of the
    
    
    
    
     water quality criteria book:
    
    
    
    
                    "Fecal  coliforms  should  be  used as  the
    
    
    
     indicator organism  for evaluating the microbiological
    
    
    
    
     suitability of  recreational  waters."
    
    
    
    
                   There is no mention  here in any of  the
    
    
    
    
     phraseology that it  is to be specific for  pollution,
    

    -------
    	624
    
    
    
    
    
                          E.  Geldreich
    
    
    
    
    
    
     fecal  pollution,  from sewage  only,  and  I would  like  to
    
    
    
    
     make that  comment.
    
    
    
    
                   And as we  have  said  yesterday morning
    
    
    
    
     and this morning  again it was  reiterated, we are  con-
    
    
    
    
     cerned with all fecal pollution.  There is no need to
    
    
    
    
     go into the differentiation of  the  types of fecal
    
    
    
    
     pollution, because we are concerned with a hazard from
    
    
    
    
     all.   The  fecal coliform  test  is all we need to do.
    
    
    
    
     You don't  need all the supplemental tools that  we have
    
    
    
    
     available  for this particular  problem.
    
    
    
    
                   Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                   Are there  any  other  comments?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. BLOMGREN:   Yes,  I would like to speak
    
    
    
     to Mr. Buckmaster's question  concerning feedlots  and
    
    
    
     particularly his  expression of  some doubt about the  size
    
    
    
    
     of the number of  feedlots we had in our statement.
    
    
    
    
                   This is certainly a  problem and  I won't
    
    
    
    
     pretend to set up a criteria  for the control of all
    
    
    
    
     feedlots regardless of size at  this time, but it  will
    
    
    
    
     take a lot of cooperative effort, undoubtedly some re-
    
    
    
    
     search and demonstration  grants could be used to  achieve
    

    -------
    	 	62;
    
    
    
    
    
                        R.  J. Schliekelraan
    
    
    
    
    
    
     this  purpose.   Certainly we  stand ready to assist the
    
    
    
    
     State of  Io\va  in  this.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:  Are  there  any other comments
    
    
    
    
     or  statements?
    
    
    
    
                    Mr.  Schliekelman.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                      REBUTTAL STATEMENT  OF
    
    
    
    
                        R.  J. SCHLIEKELMAN
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  SCHLIEKELMAN:   I might add,  sir,  Mr.
    
    
    
    
     Geldreich's  comment on  this  public water supply and
    
    
    
    
     recreational use  limits  that  was  set  up here,  this
    
    
    
    
     actually  should follow  the portion of the criteria
    
    
    
    
     which we  have  dealing  with bacteria,  which is  as  follows:
    
    
    
    
                    "Water  shall  be  considered to  be of
    
    
    
    
     unsatisfactory bacteriological  quality as a source when:
    
    
    
    
                    "A sanitary survey indicates the presence
    
    
    
    
     or  probability of the  presence  of sewage or other
    
    
    
    
     objectional  bacteria-bearing  wastes or
    
    
    
    
                    "A bacteriological survey using  coliform
    
    
    
    
     or  other  appropriate indices  indicates bacteriological
    
    
    
    
     concentrations  significantly  higher than those  normally
    

    -------
    	.	626
    
    
    
    
    
                       R.  J.  Schliekelman
    
    
    
    
    
    
     found  or  suspected in  these waters when free from  pol-
    
    
    
    
     lution by sewage."
    
    
    
    
                    Actually  this  phrase  that we have at  the
    
    
    
    
     end  of this  addition does not particularly apply or  is
    
    
    
    
     not  intended to  actually  demonstrate in our testing
    
    
    
    
     sewage bacteria. We are  talking  about  sources where
    
    
    
    
     these  bacteria  might be  coming from. I think you have
    
    
    
    
     got  to read  everything together.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:  Thank you.
    
    
    
    
                    Are there  any  other comments?
    
    
    
    
                    Mr. Buckmaster.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. BUCKMASTER:   Since  there has been
    
    
    
    
     some controversy about what Kansas has done and since
    
    
    
    
     a  representative of Kansas is  here,  I would like to
    
    
    
    
     have him  state  what their position is  at this time.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:  We  will be  delighted.
    
    
    
    
                    MR. GRAY:  Would you  like to hear from  me
    
    
    
    
     with a few comments?
    
    
    
    
                    MR. STEIN:  Yes,  sure.
    

    -------
                              	62 7
    
    
                            M. W.  Gray
                   STATEMENT BY MELVILLE W.  GRAY
    
                ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF  ENVIRONMENTAL
    
              HEALTH SERVICES, KANSAS  STATE  DEPARTMENT
    
                     OF HEALTH,, TOPEKA, KANSAS
    
    
    
    
                    MR. GRAY:  I am Melville W. Gray,
    
     Assistant Director of Environmental Health Services,
    
     Kansas State Department of Health.
    
                    As a result of passage of the Water
    
     Quality Act of 1965, Kansas submitted proposed water
    
     quality standards to the Department of  the Interior.
    
     At that time Kansas had 3^- primary treatment plants
    
     throughout the entire State.  The remainder were secondar
    
     treatment plants.  Since that time, through routine
    
     programming, these have been reduced to 28 primary
    
     treatment plants.
    
                    The Department of  the Interior requested
    
     the State of Kansas to require secondary treatment from
    i
    ] all facilities and later amended  this to include sig-
    
     nificant sources and listed 16 municipalities which shoul
    
     be providing the secondary treatment.   The Governor of
    y
    

    -------
    	628
    
    
    
    
    
                           M. W. Gray
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Kansas submitted a letter to the Secretary of the
    
    
    
    
    Interior indicating that with considerable reluctance
    
    
    
    
    and against the advice of his technical staff he would
    
    
    
    
    agree to a date of 1985 ,as a goal for the provision of
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment from these 16 plants.
    
    
    
    
                   The Kansas State Board of Health, which
    
    
    
    
    is by law the official water quality regulatory agency,
    
    
    
    
    accepted the Governor's letter and attached it as an
    
    
    
    
    appendage to the plan of implementation with no further
    
    
    
    
    action.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN: Are there any further comments
    
    
    
    
    or questions?
    
    
    
    
                   Mr. Rademacher.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                      REBUTTAL STATEMENT OF
    
    
    
                       JOHN M. RADEMACHER
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. RADEMACHER: I am John M. Rademacher,
    
    
    
    
    Regional Director for the Missouri Basin Region, FWPCA.
    
    
    
    
                   I believe that there is one significant
    
    
    
    
    point that has to be made in response to Mr. Gray's
    
    
    
    
    comment that the date of 1985 was a goal.  I believe as
    

    -------
    	629
    
    
    
    
    
                         J.  M.  Rademacher
    
    
    
    
    
    
     submitted  by  the  Governor  and  also  accepted  by the
    
    
    
    
     Department of Health  or the  Board of  Health  in Kansas
    
    
    
    
     on  February 7th,  and  I  quote the submissionnow, I
    
    
    
    
     don't  know what the  status of  approval  or  disapproval  is,
    
    
    
    
     but our  understanding as we  read this is a commitment
    
    
    
    
     to  secondary  treatment:
    
    
    
    
                   "This  policy  shall be  applicable to all
    
    
    
    
     interstate waters  in  the State with the provision that
    
    
    
    
     an  abatement  timetable  will  be submitted to  the Depart-
    
    
    
    
     ment of  the Interior  by or before December 31,  19^9,
    
    
    
     for the  significant municipal  and industrial  waste
    
    
    
    
     sources  and further that all facilities shall  be in
    
    
    
    
     operation  prior to completion  of equivalent  Missouri
    
    
    
    
     River  downstream  facilities  but in  no case later than
    
    
    
    
     1985."
    
    
    
                   And, of  course,  the  comment that Mr.
    
    
    
    
     Blomgren made earlier about  "The objective of  treatment
    
    
    
    
     or  control will be to reduce the organic levels, oil,
    
    
    
    
     grease,  solids, alkali,  acids,  toxic  materials,  color
    
    
    
    
     and turbidity, taste  and odor  products, and  other
    
    
    
    
     deleterious materials to the lowest practicable level."
    
    
    
    
                   In  our view,  this is a commitment to
    

    -------
    	630
    
    
    
    
    
                        J. M. Rademacher
    
    
    
    
    
    
    secondary treatment and a tjme schedule to it.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:  Are there any further  comments
    
    
    
    
    or questions?
    
    
    
    
                   Maybe we had "better cover this.  There  is
    
    
    
    
    one advantage to this comment period. What we eventually
    
    
    
    
    do is get Gray and Rademacher up to the stand and  I am
    
    
    
    
    glad to see you both.
    
    
    
    
                   Are there any others?  Mr. Carlson, did
    
    
    
    you have something?
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                  STATEMENT BY PRANK L. CARLSON
    
    
    
    
                ENGINEER, GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN
    
    
    
    
                DRAIN COMMISSION POLLUTION CONTROL
    
    
    
    
                         FLINT, MICHIGAN
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
                   MR. CARLSON:  I am Carlson and I am from
    
    
    
    Genesee County in Michigan.
    
    
    
    
                   I am one of the Indians that has to do
    
    
    
    
    the work of producing these pollution control sewage
    
    
    
    
    disposal plants, etc. like that.  We are the Genesee
    
    
    
    
    County Drainage Commission.  We put in the sewer pipes,
    
    
    
    
    we build the disposal plants, and we think we could make
    

    -------
                              	631
    
    
    
    
    
                          F. L.  Carlson
    
    
    
    
    
    
    some recommendations to you  chiefs on how maybe  this
    
    
    
    
    could be done a little bit better and we could suggest
    
    
    
    
    that you integrate a little  bit with your air pollution
    
    
    
    
    and land pollution and water pollution.  If this was
    
    
    
    
    integrated in one big program, perhaps it would  work
    
    
    
    
    for the betterment of the whole solution, the whole
    
    
    
    
    problem.
    
    
    
    
                   I would like  to make a couple of  drawings
    
    
    
    
    on your board here for just  a suggestion on how  to contro"
    
    
    
    
    pollution, water,  air,  and so forth.
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:   You know, what we are intereste
    
    
    
    
    in, really, is the record.   Now,  I have no objection to
    
    
    
    
    you drawing it on the board,  but we have no way  of intro-
    
    
    
    
    ducing that in the record.   0. K.?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. CARLSON:   I don't want to take too
    
    
    
    much of your time.  I know  this is probably not relative
    
    
    
    
    to your particular problem  here,  but I was just passing
    
    
    
    
    through and I felt obliged  to make a comment on it. Add
    
    
    
    anything that you  might--
    
    
    
    
                   MR. STEIN:   Did you want this material
    
    
    
    in the  record?
    
    
    
    
                   MR. CARLSON:   No,  I have nothing to put
    

    -------
     	632
    
    
    
    
                           F.  L.  Carlson
    
    
    
    
    
    
     in  the  record.
    
    
    
    
                    MR.  STEIN:   0.  K.   Thank  you.
    
    
    
    
                    Are  there  any other comments  or statements
    
    
    
    
     any at  all?
    
    
    
    
                    (No  response . )
    
    
    
    
                    I think we  are  about  to the  point where
    
    
    
    
     we  are  going to close.
    
    
    
    
                    Let  me  make  one observation  from sitting
    
    
    
    
     up  here for  a couple  of  days.   You know,  when you look
    
    
    
    
     at  things  carefully you  see  things that  possibly you
    
    
    
    
     don't expect in a situation.
    
    
    
    
                    For  example,  when  I got into  this hotel
    
    
    
    
     I thought  that  I was  in  a  traditional hotel  public room
    
    
    
     that is repeated over  and  over again through the United
    
    
    
    
     States. For example,  if  you look at the decorations
    
    
    
    
     on  the  wall, they all  seem to  be  derived architecturally
    
    
    
    
     from the late Roman period.   I think the one there over
    
    
    
    
     the door,  they  seem to have  replaced the medallion in
    
    
    
    
     the middle with the seal  of  Iowa.  But if you look very,
    
    
    
    
    |very carefully  at this and look at that  place where they
    
    
    
    
     have the seal of Iowa, you see those two figures, and
    
    
    
    
     what do we have?   The  legs on  the two figures and the
    

    -------
    	633
    
    
    
    
    
                            M. Stein
    
    
    
    
    
    
     feet  extend  outside  the frame  and  outside  the  panel,  and
    
    
    
    
     this  is  something  that obviously you  would never  get  jn
    
    
    
    
     the pure Roman  form.
    
    
    
    
                    So  I  think  if you look hard enough,  you
    
    
    
    
     may find things  that  ordinarily are not  apparent  and
    
    
    
    
     maybe  we can do  that  here  too.
    
    
    
                    I would like to thank  both  the  represen-
    
    
    
    
     tatives  from the Federal Water Pollution Control  Adminis-
    
    
    
    
     tration  in Iowa  and  all the other  people who have
    
    
    
    
     participated in  Davenport  and  in Council Bluffs in  these
    
    
    
    
     conferences.
    
    
    
                    I think the conferences have been
    
    
    
    
     characterized by a clear statement of the  problem.  Some
    
    
    
    
     of you who have  sat  through both may  not think it is  so
    
    
    
    
     clear, but I think everybody has to use  Mis   own mode
    
    
    
    
     of expression in getting  his  point   of view  across.
    
    
    
    
     Obviously, a representative of a women's organization  or
    
    
    
    
     citizens' group  is going to put its view forward  in one
    
    
    
    
     way,  a State  or  Federal administrative official is  going
    
    
    
    
     to say it in another  way,  the  biologists and the  chemists
    
    
    
    
     and the  microbiologists all have their way of  putting
    
    
    
    
     what  they think  their views are on the record.  What  thisj
    

    -------
    	  	634
    
    
    
    
    
                            M. Stein
    
    
    
    
    
    
    has  done  is  provide a forum where we have  been able to
    
    
    
    
    get  these views .
    
    
    
    
                   At  least I have a clear understanding
    
    
    
    
    of where  we  are  going^ not necessarily where we  are
    
    
    
    
    going  but what everyone wants to say.  There may be
    
    
    
    
    certain points on  which the technical people in  a
    
    
    
    
    particular specialty may not have resolved every last
    
    
    
    
    little issue.  However., I am riot overstating this when
    
    
    
    
    I say  Iowa and we  probably can arrive at  a judgment
    
    
    
    
    without resolving  all these minutia.  We  have  enough
    
    
    
    
    of the views  from  all the parties concerned and  they
    
    
    
    
    are  really set forward  on the record.
    
    
    
    
                   I know both we and Iowa have a  formidable
    
    
    
    
    task ahead.   I would like to give a  personal opinion on
    
    
    
    
    one.   It  is  abundantly  clear that the officials  in  Iowa
    
    
    
    
    and  the officials  in the Federal Government both want
    
    
    
    
    to get an equitable and an expeditious program going
    
    
    
    
    forward to assure  that  we will control and prevent  water
    
    
    
    
    pollution and have clean' waters in  the Missouri  and
    
    
    
    
    Mississippi  Basin. I don't  think there  is any question
    
    
    
    
    about  that.
    
    
    
    
                       There  is  another point that   we
    

    -------
    	.	635
    
    
    
    
                            M. Stein
    
    
    
    
    
    
     should recognize before this gets out of perspective.
    
    
    
    
     Setting  the  standards, like any other one of the aspects
    
    
    
    
     of  the program we have, is just a tool toward achieving
    
    
    
    
     these objectives.  One thing about the setting of stan-
    
    
    
    
     dards, and I  think this is clear, no matter how much you
    
    
    
    
     refine them  or how much you set the standards, by Iowa,
    
    
    
    
     by  the Federal Government, by any other instrumentality
    
    
    
    
     of  government or jurisdiction, I don't think just the
    
    
    
    
     setting  of standards is going to clean up water one bit.
    
    
    
    
                   This is a  method whereby we get to the
    
    
    
    
     real problem  of cleaning  up water.  If we are going to
    
    
    
    
     clean up water, what is necessary, and I say where it
    
    
    
    
     is  appropriate, is for the wastewater sources to be
    
    
    
    
     gathered together in a place where they can be treated
    
    
    
     or  diverted  and the water be kept clean.  What I would
    
    
    
    
     hope is  that  the governmental agencies do not spend all
    
    
    
    
     their time in this preliminary area when we have the hard
    
    
    
    
     job of going  out and controlling pollution.  We don't
    
    
    
    
     want to  get  the methodology to exceed the aims of the
    
    
    
    
     program.  And I think it  behooves us all not to get
    
    
    
    
     caught up in  a proceeding, however entertaining you
    
    
    
    
     might think  this is, without keeping the idea that the
    

    -------
    	             636
    
                            M. Stein
    
     real  objective  that we have  is  the  preservation  of  the
     water  quality in  the Mississippi  and  Missouri  Basin  in
     this  area.   This  is the job  on  which  we  have to  move
     forward.
                    I  would hope  that  wo would be able to  not
     only  come to a  full agreement with  Iowa, but with all the
     States in the basin so that  the Federal  Government  and
     the various  States can move  on  in concert to get the  job
     done.  In addition to that,  as  we well realize,  unless  we
     have  the real cooperation  of the  municipalities, counties
     and the cities, the job is going  to be that much harder.
     Let us not get  on a sidetrack or  a  siding, let's not, I
     hope,  get into  a  cul-de-sac  xvhere we  can't find  our  way
     out,  but let's  get on with the  job  of providing  the
     cleanest possible water for  the maximum  number of water
     uses  in an equitable way so  that  the  municipalities,  the
     industries,  the States, and  the Federal  Government  can
     all live with that.
                    With that,  we will stand  adjourned and
    
     I  would hope that a resolution  of this problem which  is
     satisfactory to all parties  can be  forthcoming.
                   "Thank you all for  your participation.
                           (ADJOURNMENT)
    

    -------
                                                                      637
                             UNITED STATES
                      DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
               FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                            MISSOURI BASIN REGION
                            911 Walnut Street, Room 702
                            Kansas City, Missouri 64106
    IN REPLY REFER TO:
                             April 28, 1969
    TO:
    Commissioner, Federal Water  Pollution Control Administration
    Attn:  Assistant Commissioner,   Office of Enforcement
    FROM:       Regional  Director,  FWPCA
    
    SUBJECT:    Water Quality Standards Conference, State of Iowa
    
    Attached are  additional statements which we desire to have
    included in the  official record of the Water Quality Standards
    Conference, State of Iowa,  Council Bluffs session.
    
    Copies are  being provided to the conference recorder and the
    Iowa State  Water Pollution Control Commission.
    Attachment
    Iowa Beef Packers' Report
    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation's  Statement
    Nebraska Water Quality  Criteria
    

    -------
                                                                      638
                              UNITED STATES
                      DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                            MISSOURI BASIN REGION
                           911 Walnut Street, Room 702
                            Kansas City, Missouri 64106
     IN REPLY REFER TO:
                  April 28, 1969
    TO:
     Record
    FROM:      Regional Director,  FWPCA
    
    SUBJECT:   Nebraska Water Quality  Criteria
    
    The following is a verbatim  extract  from  the  "Water  Quality Standards
    Applicable to Nebraska Waters," adopted by Water Pollution Control
    Council, State Department of Health, Lincoln,  Nebraska,  and dated
    January 1969.
    
    Waste water shall not degrade  the  receiving waters below the follow-
    ing criteria.  These criteria  ....
    
    5.  Temperature
    
    For Class "A" Use - (Domestic  Water  Supply)
    And Class "B" Use - (Full Body Contact Sports)
    
    The temperature of the receiving water shall  not be  increased by
    a total of more than 5 F from May through October and not more
    than a total of 10 F from November  through April.   Maximum rate
    of change limited to 2 F per  hour.
    For Class
    "C" Use - (Agricultural uses including irrigation and
               Partial body contact sports.
    livestock watering.  Partial body contact  sports.  Growth  and
    propagation of fish, waterfowl, fur bearers and other aquatic  and
    semi-aquatic life and wildlife.  Industrial.)
    
    Trout Streams
    
    Allowable change 5 F - Maximum limit 65  F.
    
    Warm Water Streams
    Allowable change 5  F May through October;  10 F November  through
    April.  Maximum limit 90  F - maximum rate  of change  -  limited  to
    2 per hour.  For Missouri River from Gavins Point Dam  to  Sioux
    City, Iowa - maximum temperature 85 F, allowable change 4 F.
    
    The classification of waters of the State is covered  in detail
    in Appendix XI of the Nebraska Standards.
                                          JOHN M. llADEMACHER
    

    -------
    TO
            OPTIONAL FORM NO. 10
            MAY 1062 COITION
                                                                                   639
            GSA FPMR (41 CFft) |OI-ti.
            UNITED  STATES GOVERNMENT
    
            Memorandum
    C. V. Blomgren
    Director, Technical  Support
                                                              DATE:  April 24,  1969
    FROM
               Sanitary Engineer
    SUBJECT:    Report on Iowa Beef Packers  -  Sampling and Plant Inspection Trip,
               March 26-28, 1969
    
               During the three day trip, the following persons were contacted at  the
               Iowa Beef Packers'  Dakota City, Nebraska, installation:
    
               Henry Blumm, Nebraska Department of Health
               James Chittenden, Technical  Director, Iowa Beef Packers
               David Osborn, Chemist, Iowa  Beef Packers
    
               Pertinent details of plant facilities and operations are listed below:
    
               1.  Kill period - 16 hours - 2-8 hour shifts
               2.  Cleanup - 8 hours
               3.  Kill - 2000 to  2500 head
               4.  Total employees - 1100
               S.  Average water usage - 1650 gpm from a well system through pressure
                   sand filters
               6.  Waste treatment
    
               Domestic Treatment  - Pacific Industrial Engineering
    
               This plant at the time of inspection has suspended solids of 10 mg/1
               in the contact tank.  There  was no recirculation,  no skimming on the
               final tanks and no  indication  that the plant was receiving  any  maintenance
               at all.
    
               Process  Wastes
    
               All process wastes  go through  an air flotation tank for  grease  and
               grit removal.   At the time of  the visit, no air was being supplied
               and no suction on the grease removal trough.   A four-inch layer of
               grease covered the  flotation tank.
    
               Stockyard Wastes
    
               Wastes from the stockyard area are washed into two settling basins
               designed to remove  settleable solids with a 30 minute minimum detention.
               At the time of the  visit, both tanks were full of  wastes  and short-
               circuiting directly to the outlet.
                     Buy U.S. Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan
    

    -------
                                                                              640
    
                                    - 2 -
    
    Mr.  Blomgren- 4/24/69
    
    
    There are no BOD data available for the combined wastes from this
    plant.  A year ago, the Nebraska Department of Health ran one set
    of samples and lost all BOD's because of insufficient dilution.
    At that time, the effluent's suspended solids ranged from 800 mg/1
    during cleanup to 1500 mg/1 during kill periods and grease concen-
    trations were approximately 550 mg/1.
    
    At the Dakota City plant, all wastes are combined into one main
    sewer.  Analytical values for comparable wastes at the company's
    West Point Nebraska plant are:
    
    Operation Period          Kill        Cleanup #1           Cleanup #2
    
    Grease ppm                364         370                  161
    Susp. Solids ppm          404         506
    Total Solids 7.            0.261       0.298
    Volume of Water (gal)     476,200     132,000              95,000
    BOD5                      1175        1375                 900
    
      Total kill for the West Point plant is 1050 to 1100 head.
    
    At the Dakota City plant, 11 samples were collected at two-hour
    intervals during the operational period on March 27, 1969, and pictures
    were taken of the outfall and plant waste treatment devices.
    
    Plant Operation
    
    During the survey period, the plant was operating on a 13 hour kill.
    On March 27 and 28, a perfect kill (no stoppages during kill period)
    was obtained and with a chain speed of 163 animals per hour, this
    amounts to 2,119 head per day.  Water use during the two days varied
    from 2.5 to 2.75 million gallons per day based on pumping records on
    the company-owned water supply.  Operations during the sampling period
    were as follows:
    
    Start Kill                            05:25
    15 Minute Break & Cleanup             08:30 to 08:45
    30 Minute Lunch & Cleanup             10:30 to 11:00
    15 Minute Shift Change & Cleanup      14:15 to 14:30
    15 Minute Break & Cleanup             17:30 to 17:45
    30 Minute Shift Change & Cleanup      19:30 to 20:00
    Peak Cleanup Flow, Approximately      22:30
    
    Sampling Operations
    
    During the period from 5:00 a.m.,  March 27 to 1:00 a.m., March 28,
    samples were collected from the combined waste line from the Iowa
    Beef Packers plant.  These samples were air lifted to the interim
    laboratory of FWPCA in Kansas City and analysed for BOD and solids
    

    -------
                                                                                   641
                                              - 3 -
                Mr. Blomgren	4/24/69
                according to the standard methods.  Data for the samples listed as
                3:00 a.m., March 28, were estimated to provide a complete 24-hour
                sequence.
    
    Date
    3/27
    3/27
    3/27
    3/27
    3/27
    3/27
    3/27
    3/27
    3/27
    3/27
    3/28
    3/28
    Total
    Avg.
    
    Time
    0500
    0700
    0900
    1100
    1300
    1500
    1700
    1900
    2100
    2300
    0100
    0300
    
    
    Estimated .
    Flow (mg)-'
    0.154
    0.228
    0.247
    0.247
    0.228
    0.214
    0.247
    0.228
    0.214
    0.228
    0.294
    0.214
    2.75 mgd
    
    Temp.
    C
    25
    26.5
    25.5
    26.0
    26.5
    27.0
    26.0
    26.5
    25.5
    26.0
    25.5
    
    
    26.0
    BODs
    mz/l
    386
    812
    1500
    1285
    1489
    1895
    1676
    1616
    2481
    1399
    1636
    950
    
    1427
    Calculated
    Ibs.of BOD5
    495
    1544
    3089
    2647
    2831
    3382
    3452
    3072
    4428
    2660
    4071
    1693
    33363
    
    TSS
    TOK/1
    165
    530
    1180
    1400
    1300
    1760
    1160
    860
    1080
    740
    1240
    
    
    1038
    SS
    mj?/l
    2.5
    3.0
    8.0
    7.0
    4.0
    7.5
    5.0
    7.0
    6.0
    8.5
    3.5
    
    
    
    Grease
    ppm
    188
    
    297
    
    
    305
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    \l  Flows were estimated for each two-hour period  from invert  elevations  on
        discharge line at the sampling location.   Total  flow of  2.75 mgd agrees with
        the figure furnished by IBP officials.  The  0300 sample  is extrapolated data.
    
                Settleable solids were also  run in the field using an Imhoff  Cone.
                Results of these tests are:
    
                0800     3/27/69    Combined Wastes                14 ml
                1000     3/27/69    Domestic Waste Effluent       10 ml
                1200     3/27/69    Combined Wastes                 9 ml
    
                At several times during the  day's  sampling,  excessive floating
                solids (meat scraps and grease) were observed in the samples
                collected at the combined waste sampling point.
    
                Remarks
    
                We can assume that a representative  raw  domestic sewage would
                contain approximately 0.167  pounds 5-day BOD/P.E./day.  On this
                basis,  the IBP effluent represents an  organic load  as listed
                below:
    
                1.   Equivalent to 200,000 population community raw  discharge.
    
                2.   Assuming 35 percent BOD  removal  equivalent  to  300,000  population
                    primary discharge.
    

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                                                                 642
    
                               - 4 -
    Mr. Blomgren	2/24/69
    3.  Assuming 85 percent BOD removal  equivalent  to 1,250,000
        population secondary discharge.
                                      WILLIAM J. KEFFER
    

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                                                                               643
    IN REPLY REFER TOl
                                     UNITED STATES
    
                             DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
    
                             BUREAU OF OUTDOOR RECREATION
                                     MID-CONTINENT REGION
                                BUILDING 41, DENVER FEDERAL CENTER
                                    DENVER. COLORADO 8O225
           D 6431
                                                                      APR 11 1969
           Memorandum
           To:        Regional Director, Federal Water Pollution
                        Control Administration, Kansas City, Missouri
    
           From:      Regional Director, Mid-Continent Region
    
           Subject:   Bureau of Outdoor Recreation Statement - Water Quality Setting
                      Conference - Iowa Interstate Waters of Missouri River Basin
                      Council Bluffs, Iowa - April 15, 1969
           Enclosed are five copies of the subject statement.  Since we do not
           propose to have a representative at the Council Bluffs Conference it
           is requested that the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation statement be read
           and entered into the record of the hearing.  We would appreciate
           receiving a copy of the hearing minutes or summary when complete.
                                         Maurice D. Arnold
           Enclosures
    

    -------
                                                                              644
                    Water Quality Standards Conference
            Iowa Interstate Waters of the Missouri River Basin
                           Council Bluffs, Iowa
                              April 15, 1969
    
                                Statement
    
                      U.S. Department of the Interior
                        Bureau of Outdoor Recreation
                           Mid-Continent Region
                             Denver, Colorado
    
    
    During the last decade, the people of this country have become increasingly
    
    conscious of the current and potential values of outdoor recreation, and much
    
    of this interest has been centered around the use and enjoyment of our water
    
    resources.  All indications point toward a future need to provide not only
    
    more but a wider variety of outdoor recreation opportunities.
    
    
    Recent trends indicate a rapidly increasing interest and participation in
    
    water-based recreation activities, especially in swimming, boating, water-
    
    skiing, and skin diving.  There is also a growing interest in nature photog-
    
    raphy and study, often involving the aquatic environment.
    
    
    We estimate that the number of occasions in which people will engage in water-
    
    oriented recreation activities will increase about 160 percent during the
    
    next 40 years.  In the Missouri River Basin, a portion of which is the sub-
    
    ject of this conference, our studies indicate that there is a large demand
    
    for outdoor recreation opportunities which remains unsatisfied.  Obviously,
    
    any factor which tends to endanger or reduce the amount or number of clean
    
    water areas, and aesthetically attractive streams, lakes, or shore areas
    
    suitable for recreation purposes should be of great concern to everyone
    
    involved in managing our natural resources for public benefit.
    
    
    Water serves three basic needs of recreationists:  consumptive, i.e. drinking
    
    and cooking supplies; surface and volume for water contact activities, fishing
    

    -------
                                                                              645
    and boating; and for aesthetic enjoyment.  Water areas also are vital to
    
    
    
    
    the preservation of fish and wildlife, unique biotic communities and, in
    
    
    
    
    combination with adjacent lands, the highly valued scenic natural character
    
    
    
    
    of certain areas.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation is interested in seeing quality recreational
    
    
    
    
    opportunities provided,  polluted water is not compatible with this goal.
    
    
    
    
    It is not only undesirable for boating, water-skiing, and swimming, but is
    
    
    
    
    unattractive for camping, picnicking and may be a health hazard in connection
    
    
    
    
    with these and other water contact uses.  The polluting of recreational
    
    
    
    
    waters results in decreased use and can render areas totally unsuitable for
    
    
    
    
    such use.  Although progress in the abatement of pollution is considerable,
    
    
    
    
    large amounts of pollutants still are being discharged into our water courses.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    We are vitally concerned about the maintenance of good water quality in all
    
    
    
    
    streams in the State of Iowa, and we have specific concerns about the water
    
    
    
    
    quality of the Missouri River Basin and especially in the Floyd, Nishnabotna,
    
    
    
    
    Big Sioux and Little Sioux River.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Surveys have revealed that the Missouri River Basin, including a portion of
    
    
    
    
    Iowa, is endowed with a wide variety of recreation, scenic, historic, and
    
    
    
    
    natural values.  Many of these values depend upon the quality of water avail-
    
    
    
    
    able.  Interest has been shown for development of state parks and recreation
    
    
    
    
    areas including a 1,000 surface acre lake near Sioux City, Iowa.  Corps of
    
    
    
    
    Engineers' projects involving approximately 18 reservoirs in the Boyer,  Big
    
    
    
    
    Sioux, Nishnabotna and Little Sioux River Basins are presently under study.
    

    -------
                                                                              646
    Also being considered is the development of Oxbow Lake projects which will
    
    
    
    
    provide approximately 2,400 acres of water valuable for recreation and fish
    
    
    
    
    and wildlife uses.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    It is clear then that national goals as well as local and State interests
    
    
    
    
    in outdoor recreation and environmental quality are effected by the
    
    
    
    
    availability of clean water.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    In regard to the water quality standards in the State of Iowa, the Bureau
    
    
    
    
    of Outdoor Recreation recommends that all interstate waters be designated
    
    
    
    
    for outdoor recreation use and be maintained at a quality which will support
    
    
    
    
    primary or secondary contact recreation use.  Specific water quality for
    
    
    
    
    these uses are set forth in the April 1, 1968 Water Quality Criteria, Report
    
    
    
    
    of the National Technical Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the Interior.
    

    -------
                                    UNITED STATES
                            DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                      FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                                  MISSOURI BASIN REGION
                                 911 Walnut Street, Room 702
                                  Kansas City, Missouri 64106
          IN REPLY REFER TO:
                                                                             64?
                                                                       ~'
    TO:
               Commissioner, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
               Attn:   Assistant Commissioner, Office of Enforcement
    FROM:      Regional  Director, FWPCA
    
    SUBJECT:   Water Quality Standards Conference, State of Iowa
    
    Attached is an additional statement which we desire to have included
    in the official record of the Water Quality Standards Conference,
    State of Iowa, Council Bluffs session.
    
    Copies are being provided to the conference recorder and  the Iowa
    State Water Pollution  Control Commission.
    Attachment
                                         ,fa
                                             JOHN M.'RADEMACHER
    

    -------
                                                                          648
                CONTINUATION OF MISSOURI BASIN REGION,  FWPCA,
    
                             REBUTTAL STATEMENT
         In deference  to  the statement (Iowa Water Pollution Control
    
    
    
    Commission's  statement, 1969, page 11, paragraph 3, line 4), that the
    
    
    
    first 74 miles downstream from Sioux City discharges reflect water
    
    
    
    quality conditions "superior" to those upstream from Sioux City is
    
    
    
    not entirely  correct.  The basis for this statement results from the
    
    
    
    comparison of types of bottom assoicated organisms and their relative
    
    
    
    numbers.  It  must be  remembered that the majority of collections were
    
    
    
    of a qualitative nature and can, therefore, be misleading in terms of
    
    
    
    relative numbers and  the presence or absence of a particular species
    
    
    
    of benthos.   In many  instances, a qualitative collection may miss
    
    
    
    certain individuals because of habitat restrictions, etc.  When this
    
    
    
    happens, the  total evaluation of an area may be biased in terms of
    
    
    
    the numbers of different kinds found.  Benthic sampling of large
    
    
    
    streams or rivers is  difficult due, in part, to the variety of natural
    
    
    
    substrates encountered.  It is impossible to obtain representative
    
    
    
    fauna, even within a  limited area, becsuse of shifting substrates,
    
    
    
    variable or high streanflows and a host of other physical factors.
    
    
    
         A number of artificial substrate samplers have been built by
    
    
    
    investigators to facilitate or improve benthic sampling, Scott;
    
    
                    2/
    Hester and Dandy-.  During the Missouri River Survey (October 1968),
    
    
    
    the biology unit utilized artificial substrate samplers described by
    
    
                  3/
    Mason, et. al. , to monitor water quality in the Sioux City area.
    
    
    
    The samplers were installed on the Iowa side of the river and remained
    
    
    
    submerged for a period of 40 days (10/11-11/19/68).
    

    -------
                                                                          649
                                    - 2 -
    
    
     Results and Discussion
         Station  737, approximately 3 miles upstream from the Big Sioux
     River confluence, reflected a diverse and clean water assemblage of
     benthos.  The total number of organisms numbered 396.  Of this number,
     97 percent was pollution sensitive, 3 percent intermediate forms,
     and no pollution tolerant forms recorded.
         Station  730, approximately 1 mile downstream from the Floyd
     River confluence exhibited a considerable reduction in total numbers
     and pollution sensitive forms, while there was an increase in inter-
    mediate and pollution tolerant forms.  Of the 131 organisms collected,
    only 59 percent of the benthos was pollution sensitive,  while 40
    percent was intermediate forms and 1 percent was pollution tolerant.
         Station  723, approximately 6 miles downstream from the Sioux
    City STP reflected severe degradation of water quality.   From
    the 133 organisms collected, 45 percent was pollution tolerant,
    29 percent intermediate forms and 26 percent was of the  pollution
    sensitive type.
         The artificial substrate sampling in the Sioux City area clearly
    defines an abrupt change in water quality affecting the  benthic
    community.  It is interesting to note that the stonefly  which Iowa
    based much of their rebuttal on was absent from all of the samples,
    and the diversity of mayflies in this case was restricted  to one
    genera.   However, the number of mayflies  encountered at  each station
    is significant.  Iowa states that  "mayflies are also pollution
    intolerant organisms which  require high water quality."  The mraber
    

    -------
                                                                          650
                                    - 3 -
    
    of mayflies was reduced from 65 (Station 737) to only 1 individual
    (Station 723).  Caddisflies not mentioned by Iowa, but which are In
    the pollution sensitive group, were reduced in numbers from 320
    (Station 737) to 33 individuals (Station 723).
         Also of considerable importance is the occurrence o'f tubificidae
    in large numbers (60) at Station 723.  The tubificidae commonly
    termed "sludgeworms" prefer and thrive in a highly organic environment.
    The sampler at Station 723 was suspended off the bottom but nevertheless
    collected large amounts of drift organic material creating a favorable
    environment for the sludgeworms.
         The results from the artificial substrate program reflect water
    quality degradation of a high degree downstream from the Sioux City
    area.  This Is contradictory to Iowa's statement (page 11,  paragraph 4,
    line 15) that the biological quality was not "deteriorated" by the
    Sioux City discharge.
    

    -------
                                                                         651
                                 REFERENCES
    
    
    
    
    
    
    1.  Scott, D.C., 1958.   Biological  Balance  in  Streams.  Sewage and
    
    
    
    
        Industrial Wastes,  30(9):1169-1173.
    
    
    
    
    2.  Hester, F.E. and J.S.  Dendy,  1962.  A Multiple-Plate Sampler
    
    
    
    
        for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates, Trans.  Amer. Fish. Soc.,
    
    
    
    
        91(4):420-421.
    
    
    
    
    3.  Mason, Wm.T., Jr.,  J.B.  Anderson, and George E. Morrison, 1967.
    
    
    
    
        A Limestone-Filled  Artificial Substrate Sampler for the Collection
    
    
    
    
        of Macroinvertebrates  from Large Streams.  Prog. Fish Cult.
    

    -------
                                                                            652
    STATION 737
    
    POLLUTION SENSITIVE
    
    Hydropsyche     149
    Cheumatopsyche   75
    Neureclipis      96
    Stenonema        65
                    385
                    INTERMEDIATE
    
                    Hyella         2
                    Asellus        5
                    Erioptera      1
                    Polypedilum    1
                    Conchapelopia  2
                                  11
                             POLLUTION TOLERANT
    STATION 730
    
    POLLUTION SENSITIVE
    Hydropsyche
    Cheuma top syche
    Neureclipts
    Stenonema
     5
     4
    67
    _2
    78
    INTERMEDIATE
    
    Hyella       46
    Orthocladius  4
    Cricotopus    1
    Polypedilum  _JL
                 52
    POLLUTION TOLERANT
    
    Tublflcidae   1
    STATION 723
    
    POLLUTION SENSITIVE
    
    Hydropsyche      6
    Cheumatopsyche  17
    Neureclipio     10
    Stenonema       _ 1
                    34
                    INTERMEDIATE
    
                    Cricotopus
                    Polypedilum
                    Orthocladius
                    Glyptotendipes
                    Conchapelopia
                    Asellus
                     2
                     1
                     1
                     1
                     1
                    J33
                    39
    POLLUTION TOLERANT
    
    Tubificidae   60
                                                                           60
    

    -------
                                                                              653
                                        3(otoa
                                 Bepartment of
                                 LUCAS STATE OFFICE BUILDING
                                   DES MOINES, IOWA 5O319
    JAMES F 5PEERs,MD..M.P.H.                            Environiuenta 1 Engineering  Service
    COMMISSIONER OF PUBUC HEALTH
                                                P. J. Houser, M.S., P.E.,  Chief
    
                                  15 May 1969
    
               David D.  Dominick
               Commissioner,  Federal Water Pollution
               Control Administration
               Washington,  D.C. 20242
    
               Attention:   Murray Stein, Assistant Commissioner,
                           Office of Enforcement
    
               RE:   WATER  QUALITY STANDARDS CONFERENCE, COUNCIL BLUFFS,  IOWA
                    SESSION
               Enclosed is an answer to the Federal Water Pollution Control
               Administration rebuttal of the Iowa Water Pollution Control
               Commission Statement, page 11 (Missouri Basin) which we wish
               to have included in the official record of the Water Quality
               Standards Conference, State of Iowa, Council Bluffs Session.
    
               The FWPCA biological data referred to had been collected  in
               October and November 1968 but was not included in the Standards
               Conference Report.
    
               Copies have been provided to the Regional Director, FWPCA,
               Missouri Basin Region.
                     Schliekelman, Director
                     Pollution Division
               RJS/ab
               Enclosure
    

    -------
                                                                   654
         ANSWER TO CONTINUATION OP FWPCA REBUTTAL OF IOWA WATER
         POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION'S STATEMENT, 1969, page 11.
                          (Missouri Basin)
    Iowa's initial statement regarding the biological quality of the
    
    Missouri River was based exclusively on the biological data which
    
    was presented in Appendix B of the FWPCA's Missouri River Basin
    
    Report.
    
    
    Since the data presented in the FWPCA rebuttal statement of
    
    April 30 was not included in the original report, it is obvious
    
    that the remarks in the initial Iowa statement were not directed
    
    toward the newly presented data and should not be interpreted as
    
    such.
    
    
    It is recognized that quantitative biological sampling in a large
    
    river is difficult because of the habitat variety and that the
    
    shifting substrate which is typical of a large portion of the
    
    Missouri River, is unproductive biologically.  The value of an
    
    artificial substrate sampler is also recognized as providing a
    
    quantitative estimate of numbers and kinds of biota.
    
    
    Assuming that the numbers of organisms found at each of the three
    
    stations in the Sioux City area were obtained from equal numbers
    
    of substrate samplers, we would be in agreement that there is some
    
    evidence of biological degradation below the Sioux City discharge.
    

    -------
                                                                   655
                                -2-
    Whether this degradation at Station 723 is "severe" as stated by
    
    the FWPCA is debatable because species diversity in addition to
    
    total numbers of organisms is important as an indicator of biologi-
    
    cal quality.  Although the number of pollution sensitive organisms
    
    was considerably decreased at station 723, the diversity or kinds
    
    of pollution sensitive organisms had not changed.
    

    -------
    APPENDIX A
    

    -------
                                                   APPENDIX A
            WATER QUALITY CRITERIA
    
                       AND
    
    PLAN FOR  IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT
    
                    FOR  THE
    
            SURFACE WATERS OF IOWA
                  ADOPTED  BY
                       THE
    IOWA WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION
          STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
                  DES  MOINES
                   MAY  1967
            (Revised June  1,  1968)
    

    -------
                      FOREWORD
    The Water Quality Criteria and Plan for Implemen-
    tation and Enforcement for the Surface Waters of
    Iowa was originally prepared for and submitted to
    the Department of the Interior in May, 1967.
    
    Since that time, the numerous requests received
    from consulting engineers, educators and the
    general public have necessitated the publication
    of this revised edition.
    
    The Criteria and Plan have been left unchanged.
    However, Table 11 has been updated to June 1, 1968,
    

    -------
    The Federal Water Quality Act of 1965, signed into
    law on October 2, 1965, required all states to de*
    velop water quality standards for the interstate
    streams within their state boundaries.
    
    Revisions to the Iowa Water Pollution Control Law
    effective July 1965 established the Iowa Water
    Pollution Control Commission and the authority for
    adoption of water quality standards.  The law pro-
    vided the Commission with the authority to adopt,
    "such reasonable quality standards for any waters
    of the state	," and to "develop comprehensive
    plans and programs for the prevention, control and
    abatement of new, increasing, potential or existing
    pollution of the waters of the state."
    
    After conducting seven public hearings throughout
    the state, the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission
    adopted the Iowa Surface Water Quality Criteria Rules
    and Regulations on February 28, 1967.  The Rules and
    Regulations were approved by the Attorney General
    of the State of Iowa on March 6, 1967 and by the
    Legislative Departmental Rules Review Committee on
    March 17, 1967.  They were filed with the Secretary
    of State on March 20, 1967, and as provided by law,
    became effective 30 days thereafter.
    
    The Implementation and Enforcement Plan for the
    Surface Water Quality Criteria was adopted by the
    Commission on May 26, 1967.  The Surface Water
    Quality Criteria and the Implementation and
    Enforcement Plan have been combined and are called
    the Iowa Surface Water Quality Standards.  The
    Standards as presented are the result of a joint
    effort of the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission
    and the Iowa State Department of Health to abate
    pollution of the waters of the State of Iowa
    

    -------
                    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    
    Introduction
    
    Section I-General 	   1
       A. Topography	   1
       B. Hydrology   	   1
       C. Flow Regulation & Augmentation  	   2
       D. Present & Future Uses - Iowa Waters	   4
       E. Population	   5
    Section II - Surface Water Criteria 	   7
       A. Discussion of Criteria  	   7
           1.  General Policy Considerations  	   7
           2.  General Criteria 	   8
           3.  Specific Criteria  	   9
               a.  Public Water Supply  	   9
               b.  Aquatic Life	11
               c.  Recreation	  11
       B. Surface Water Quality Criteria  	  13
       C. CGmpatability with adjoining states 	  17
    Section III Implementation & Enforcement Plans  ....  19
       A. Statutory Autority  	  19
           1.  Statutes	19
           2.  Rules & Regulations	21
       B. Enforcement Procedures  	  22
       C. Surveillance Program  	  23
           1.  Operation reports  	  23
           2.  Plant & operation surviellance 	  25
           3.  Stream Surviellance  	  27
               a.  Existing program   	  27
               b.  Proposed program   	  28
           4.  Existing water quality 	  29
       D. Pollution Control Programs  	  30
           1.  Municipal & Industrial Waste Treatment ...  30
               a.  Significant pollution sources  	  30
               b.  Compliance with water quality  	  30
               c.  Construction schedules 	  32
           2.  Combined Sewer Overflow  	  33
           3.  Agricultural waste waters  	  33
           4.  Waste from boats and marinas	36
    Section IV Public Hearings  	  37
    Tables
       1.  Low-Flow-10 year Recurrence  	  39
       2.  Public Water Supplies	41
       3.  Streams-Aquatic Life..Warm Water Areas 	  43
       4.  Natural Lakes-Aquatic Life Warm Water Area ...  45
       5.  Artifical Lakes-Aquatic Life Warm Water Area .  .  47
       6.  Aquatic Life - Cold Water Areas	49
    

    -------
                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
                            (continued)
    Tables...continued..
         7.  Recreation Areas-Streams Impoundments & Lakes  ..51
         8.  Surface Water Sampling Stations-ABS-Pesticides-
             Radioactivity	53
         9.  Surface Water Sampling Stations-Public Water
             Supplies-Major Cities	55
        10.  Chemical Quality - Iowa Streams	57
        11.  Status Waste Treatment Facilities	59
             Mississippi River Basin
             Missouri River Basin
        12.  Municipal Sewerage Systems	83
    
    Figures
         1.  Monthly Coliform Average - Iowa River	85
         2.  MPN Frequency Distribution - Iowa River	87
         3.  Raccoon River Coliform Study	89
    

    -------
                         SECTION I
                          GENERAL
    A.  TOPOGRAPHY OF IOWA
    
    Iowa is situated in the Upper Mississippi River drainage
    basin,  bounded on the east by the Mississippi River and on
    the west by the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers.  In general
    the surface shows but slight relief with the highest point
    in the northwest corner (1,675 feet) and the lowest point
    in the southeast corner (480 feet).
    
    The entire state is drained by either the Mississippi
    River or its tributary, the Missouri River.  The drainage
    areas are 38,860 and 17,379 square miles respectively.
    
    Iowa streams entering the Mississippi River flow in a
    general course from northwest to southeast.  The major
    drainage basins are long and narrow and have fairly regular
    outlines with the lateral boundaries tending to be parallel.
    
    The stream drainage basins which drain into the Missouri
    River are also relatively long and narrow and extend from
    the northeast to the southwest.  They lie nearly perpendicular
    to those streams tributary to the Mississippi River.
    
    B.  HYDROLOGY
    A seven-day, ten-year low flow has been selected to
    recognize the variability of Iowa stream flows in the
    aoplication of water quality criteria and in the economic
    analysis and evaluation of treatment requirements.  There
    also exists a tremendous variability in Iowa streams with
    reasonably well sustained low flows, from ground water,
    in northeast Iowa and decreasing progressively to the
    south and west portions of Iowa.  A review of Table 1,
    taken from Low Flow Characteristics of Iowa Streams,
    Bulletin No. 9, Iowa Natural Resources Council 1958, shows
    this variation quite clearly.
    

    -------
                            -2-
    
    HYDROLOGY..-.continued
    
    With the exception of upland portions and minor trib-
    utaries the  northeast Iowa basins including the Iowa-
    Cedar basins have seven-day, ten-year low flow values
    in the range of 0.04 to 0.08 cubic feet per second  (cfs)
    per square mile.  The remainder of the streams in the
    state, south and west of the Iowa-Cedar basins, have
    very poor low flow characteristics.  No stream in this
    area of the  state has a flow above 0.01 cfs per square
    mile, for the seven-day, ten-year low flow magnitude.
    Many streams have less than one-half this value.
    
    For a specific example, the seven-day, ten-year low
    flow for the Cedar River at Cedar Rapids is compared
    in the following table, to the Des Moines River at
    Boone which  has a comparable drainage area.
    Drainage
    Area
    Sq. Miles
    Yield
    cf s/sq.
    mile
    10 year-
    7-day
    Flow-cf s
    Cedar River at Cedar Rapids       6510    0.047       306
    Des Moines River at Boone         5511    0.0065       36
    
    For an equivalent drainage of 6510 square miles, the
    Des Moines River basin would yield 42 cfs as compared
    to 306 cfs for the Cedar River or only one-seventh of
    the comparable flow of the Cedar River.  A similar
    comparison indicates that the Upper Iowa River has a
    seven-day ten-year low flow approximately 200 times
    that of the Skunk River at Ames, with somewhat compar-
    able drainage areas.
    
    C.  FLOW REGULATION AND AUGMENTATION
    
    The Surface Water Quality Criteria for the waters of
    the State of Iowa are related to and affected by the
    existing flows in the streams.  It is, therefore,
    important that governmental controls be exercised
    where applicable to maintain adequate flows in these
    streams.
    
    The Iowa Natural Resources Council, the state agency
    responsible for administering the water use permit
    system, has adopted a policy that water use permits
    

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                              -3-
    
    FLOW REGULATION AND AUGMENTATION...continued
    
    will not be granted for the withdrawal of water for
    consumptive use which will reduce the flow in the stream
    below a given amount.  The cut-off point below which no
    consumptive withdrawals can be made is generally much
    higher than the seven-day, ten-year low flow used as a
    basis for the Water Quality Criteria application.
    
    The principal consumptive uses from streams that are
    being regulated are withdrawals for supplemental irri-
    gation and for filling of off-stream reservoirs.
    
    When deemed necessary to protect downstream uses, storage
    permits require the release of that portion of the natural
    flow into the reservoir that is required to prevent material
    damage to downstream uses.  In special circumstances,
    installation of facilities for the release of certain
    minimum flow is included in the storage permit.
    
    Soil conservation and soil management programs controlling
    farmland runoff tend to increase ground water reserves,
    thereby augmenting low flow when the main source of flow
    is ground water.  With increasing soil management programs
    this effect might be further realized in the future.
    
    The Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission endorses the
    flow regulation policies of the Natural Resources Council
    and all other programs designed to prevent soil erosion
    and retain farmland runoff and therefore maintain a greater
    flow in the state streams.  Maintenance of higher flows
    in streams will provide for additional beneficial uses
    to be supplied by these streams.
    
    A number of multiple purpose reservoirs have been construct-
    ed or authorized in Iowa.  These will generally provide
    benefits for flood control, water quality control, water
    supply, recreation, and fish and wild life.  Reservoirs
    presently constructed or planned with storage for water
    quality control will benefit only four major cities.
    

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                             -4-
    D.  PRESENT AND JPTJTUREUSES OF IOWA WATERS
    
    The surface waters of the state are currently being used
    in the following ways?  municipal water supply,  indust-
    rial water supply, livestock watering, fish propogation,
    recreation, wildlife habitat and. .irrigation.
    
    These uses are relatively uniform throughout the state.
    The use of these stream resources or their full poten-
    tial is hampered raainly because of the great variability
    of flow and high turbidities occuring in these streams
    during certain times of the year.
    
    Currently there are 39 municipalities using surface
    water sources for public water supply use.  It is not
    anticipated that new surface water supplies will be
    developed in the near future although it is expected
    that eventually sctse municipalities may need to change
    from underground source,? to more adequate surface
    supplies.
    
    The demand for increasing the fishery resources through-
    out the state will be constantly enlarged due to the
    emphasis put on outdoor recreation and also the increas-
    ing amount of leisure time available.  Fisheries in Iowa
    have been considerably restricted due to heavy siltation
    and variable flows in the majority of Iowa streams.
    Enhancement of the fishery resources by stream and land
    management will, in itself, increase the demand for this
    resource.
    
    Activities enhanced by water are camping, hiking and
    picnicking.  The principal water based recreational
    activities are fishing and boating.  Water skiing and
    swimming is generally limited to natural lakes and
    impoundments created by dams, including the Mississippi
    River and swimming is generally limited to the artificial
    lakes,  The demand for recreational use of surface
    water is increasing and it is anticipated that the
    demand will be met by construction of artificial impound-
    ments.
    
    All surface waters of the state are used at least to a
    limited extent for livestock watering and wildlife pro-
    pogation.  Presently agricultural use is basically live-
    stock watering with limited supplemental irrigation
    practiced.
    

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    E.  POPULATION
    
    Iowa's population has been increasing at a substantially
    slower tate than the national population since 1900.
    Because of farm consolidation and mechanization, many
    rural trade centers have lost population and trade
    volume, and the larger urban centers have experienced
    growth in population and in service and manufacturing
    employment.  Population and employment projections
    indicate eastern Iowa will experience the greatest
    growth in these areas.
    

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                             -7-
                          SECTiON II
    
              IOWA SURFACE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA
    
    A.  DISCUSSION OF CRITERIA
    
    The Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission, pursuant
    to authority granted in Section 455B.9 and 455B.13, Code
    of Iowa 1966, has adopted Rules and Regulations govern-
    ing Surface Water Quality Criteria for the State of Iowa.
    These criteria of water quality are intended as guides
    for determining the suitability of surface waters in
    the State of Iowa for various uses, and to aid decision
    making in the establishment of waste control measures.
    
    Following is a discussion of the Water Quality Criteria
    which is presented in paragraph B of this Section.  The
    discussion is divided into sections corresponding to
    those of the Rules and Regulations.
    
    1-Sec. 2.1 General Policy Considerations
    
    The surface waters of Iowa have been classified as to
    designated legitimate uses by the Water Pollution Control
    Commission.  The classifications of Iowa Waters are found
    in tables 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 listing the public surface
    water supplies, streams and lakes, designated as fishing
    areas, and lakes and impoundments designated as recreation
    areas.  Table 11 in Section III enumerates the water use
    criteria at the municipal and industrial waste discharge
    points.
    
    The water quality for the designated uses will comply with
    the criteria at:
    
          1.  The raw water intake for Public Water Supply Use.
          2.  All points in the stream from the mouth up to
              the designated cutoff point as well as all
              artificial and natural lakes for Aquatic Life Use.
          3.  All points in the recreation pool for Recreation
              Use.
    
    Sampling to determine conformance to these criteria shall
    be done at sufficient distances downstream from waste dis-
    charge points to permit adequate mixing of waste effluents
    with the surface waters.  In the performance of tests or
    analytical determinations to determine compliance with  the
    established surface water criteria, samples will be collected
    at such locations, times, frequencies, and in such a manner
    as approved by the Commission.
    

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                              -8-
    
    l-Sec.2.1 General Policy Considerations..continued
    
    The collection, preservation, and testing of samples
    will be made in conformance with the methods given in
    the latest edition of "Standard Methods of the Examin-
    ation of Water and Sewage."  Where more than one method
    is prescribed, that method designated by the Commission
    shall be used.  Any methods deviating from those pre-
    scribed must be approved by the Commission.
    
    2.^ Sec._2.2 General Criteria
    
    The General Criteria shall apply to all water courses
    and lakes at all times.  For designated water use areas,
    the General Criteria will be supportive to the specific
    criteria applicable to these areas.  Where a surface
    water has not been designated for a specific water use,
    these criteria will govern.  The General Criteria shall
    be interpreted to mean that no raw or treated wastes,
    attributable to municipal, industrial or other sources,
    shall be discharged into any waters of the state which
    will produce putrescent or otherwise objectionable sludge
    deposits, floating debris, oil slicks, scum, odors, color,
    chemical  concentrations or combinations to such a degree
    as to be detrimental or harmful to legitimate downstream
    water uses.
    
    In general, those small intermittent streams experienc-
    ing low or zero flows or which cannot under natural
    conditions support a permanent fish population, will
    have their quality governed by the General Criteria.
    It is the intent of the General Criteria to protect the
    water quality in these areas for the letitimate uses
    to which they are presently being used.  Legitimate uses
    in this category are those such as: irrigation, live-
    stock watering, wildlife propogation, etc.  To protect
    these uses on low flow streams, the wastes will be
    given the highest practicable degree of treatment with-
    out respect to dilution in order to prevent the develop-
    ment of nuisance or health problems below the discharge.
    The requirements are such that the effluent will be
    suitable for limited downstream use.  Treatment leas
    than secondary will not be accepted unless  it can be
    shown that the legitimate uses can be protected with
    a lesser degree of treatment.
    

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                              -9-
    
    3. Sec. 2.3 Specific Criteria for Designated Water Uses
    
    The criteria in this subsection apply to the water use
    areas designated by the Water Pollution Control Commission.
    The designation has been made by the Commission with the
    advice and assistance of the Iowa Natural Resources Council,
    State Conservation Commission, State Department of Health,
    public hearing testimony, the faculties of the three state
    universities and other interested parties.  The designation
    does not limit beneficial uses or prohibit beneficial uses
    other than those listed.
    
    The minimum weekly flow which occurs once in ten years
    shall be used as the design parameter to determine the
    degree of treatment necessary to protect the specific
    water use.  Flow will be based on a statistical analysis
    of existing flow data, if such data are available.  This
    specific surface water criteria shall be met at all times
    when the flow exceeds the ten year low flow.  When the
    flow is less, the municipality or industry shall not be
    held responsible for lower stream quality when their
    waste effluent is receiving the necessary degree of treat-
    ment or control to comply with criteria at the ten-year
    low flow.
    
    The extreme variability of low flow at the seven-day
    ten-year magnitudes in Iowa streams has been given
    consideration in the application of the criteria to
    designated water areas.  The natural water quality may
    be degraded naturally by the aquatic environment at these
    low flows.  It must be recognized that at the selected
    low flow probability, many municipalities in central,
    southern and western Iowa will be discharging treated
    municipal waste water into essentially dry streams.
    
    a.  Public Water Supply
    
    This criteria has been developed to protect the quality of
    the influent raw water for the 39 existing surface water
    supplies and will be applied to any future supplies.  The
    designated surface waters where the Public Water Supply
    Criteria apply are listed in Table 2.
    

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                             -10-
    a. Public Water Supply...continued....
    
    Numerical bacterial limits have not been specified
    because of the following reasons:
    
    1.  The Standard Coliform organisms found in streams
    are not specific for human sources but members of this
    group are found in enteric discharges of warm-blooded
    animals, and in the guts of cold-blooded animals, in
    soils and in many plants.
    
    2.  Bacterial studies have shown that commonly accept-
    able coliform levels have been greatly exceeded in
    the absence of wastes attributable to human sources.
    
    If a stream contains coliforms that are of a domestic
    sewage origin one might expect the most probable number
    (MPN) to vary inversely with the dilution capacity of
    the stream and that high MPN values would be expected
    during the dry seasons.  A long term coliform study on
    the Iowa River at Iowa City, beginning in 1950, indi-
    cates high bacterial densities are associated with
    high stream flows and turbidity.  Due to intense farm-
    ing in the drainage basin, each snow melt or rainfall
    carries into the river large quantities of silt and
    apparently large number of coliform organisms from the
    agricultural land.  Sanitary sewage is not considered
    a significant factor since the nearest town is approx-
    imately 30 miles upstream.
    
    Figure 1 illustrates the pattern, on a monthly average
    basis, of the direct relationship of increasing stream
    flows accompanied by increases in both turbidity and
    coliform density.  Figure 2 indicates that the monthly
    coliform MPN average is less than 5000 per 100 m/1 about
    46% of the months samples, both before and after impound-
    ment above the supply in 1958.
    
    Much data are available from other studies and sources
    to substantiate the influence of land runoff on coliform
    densities.  Figure 3 includes additional data.
    
    For the above reasons, the Commission has specified that
    a sanitary survey be conducted with the results being*
    evaluated according to the particular situation  investi-
    gated.
    

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                             -11-
    
    a. Public Water Supply...continued
    
    When a source of coliform bearing waste which can be
    feasibly controlled is  affecting the suitability of a
    water supply the Commission may use the following values
    as a guide: Coliform organisms are not to exceed a MPN
    or MF of 5000/100 ml as a monthly average value/ nor to
    exceed this value in more than 20% of the samples examined
    during any one month nor to exceed 20,000/100 ml in more
    than 5% of the samples  examined in any one month.  This
    value may be ueed as a  guide until suitable indices can
    be developed.
    
    b.  Aquatic Life
    
    In the classification of surface waters, all lakes and
    perennial streams capable of supporting a permanent fish
    population have Been designated for Aquatic Life Use.
    
    These areas have been designated by the Water Pollution
    Control Commission with the advice and assistance of the
    Iowa State Conservation Commission and others.  The warm
    water areas are those streams and stream reaches delineated
    in Table 3 and the natural and artificial lakes listed
    in Tables 4 and 5.
    
    The cold water areas are those waters designated by the
    Commission as trout streams and are those which are annual-
    ly stocked with trout on a "put and take" basis, by the
    State Conservation Commission.  These areas are listed in
    Table 6 which is a summary of the current "Guide to Iowa
    Trout Waters" published by the State Conservation Commission.
    
    The criteria list only those factors which appear to be of
    utmost importance to the preservation of a well-balanced
    fish population.  However,  all other waste constituents
    that are determined harmful to the stream aquatic life
    will also be subject to control by the Commission.
    
    c.  Recreation
    
    The recreational use criteria are designed to reasonably
    protect surface waters where the whole body contact sports
    of swimming and water skiing are concentrated during the
    recreational season.
    

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                             -12-
    
    c.  Recreation...continued
    
    Use of lakes and streams constitute a much greater
    drowning hazard to the swimmer than the supervised
    swimming pool due to the lack of water clarity,
    presence of hidden obstructions or strong currents,
    but it is the intent to provide a reasonable bacterial
    water quality for the natural bathing areas.
    
    Information provided from other state agencies, present-
    ations at the public hearings, etc., was used by the
    Commission to designate the Recreation Use areas on
    lakes and Federal impoundments.  These areas are listed
    in Table 7.  The Recreational Use areas have also been
    classified for Aquatic Life Use since these two uses
    are closely related to each other and require a high
    quality of water.
    
    No numerical values have been specified for bacterial
    limits since studies have shown high bacterial concentra-
    tions associated with land runoff, and public health
    studies to date have shown little direct correlation
    between coliform concentrations and water-borne diseases.
    Supportive data collected from Iowa streams showing high
    background coliform counts are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
    
    Where a controllable waste discharge is the proven source
    of increased bacterial concentrations, the Commission may
    use the following as a guide:  The arithmetical mean
    coliform density is not to exceed 1,000 per 100 ml as
    a monthly average nor exceed this value in more than 20%
    of the samples in any one month nor exceed 2,400/100 ml
    in any one sample.  This value will be used as a guide
    until suitable indices can be developed.
    
    Where a significant coliforra or other bacterial increase
    in a designated Recreation Use Area can be identified
    with a controllable waste discharge, chlorination or
    other control procedures to reduce the bacterial concen-
    tration below the guide limits may be required.
    

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    B. SURFACE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA
    
    The following rule and regulation was adopted by the Iowa
    Water Pollution Control Commission on February 28, 1967.
    
           IOWA WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION
                    RULES AND REGULATIONS
                   WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
    
    Pursuant to the authority of sections 455B.9 and 455B.13,
    Code of Iowa, 1966, the water quality standards found in
    the July, 1966, Supplement, Iowa Departmental Rules, page
    70, are hereby amended by adding the following to Chapter 1.
    
       Section 1.2.  (455B) Surface water quality criteria.
    
         1.2(1) General policy considerations.  Surface waters
    are to be evaluated according to their ability to support
    the legitimate (beneficial) uses to which they can feasibly
    be adapted, and this specific designation of quality areas
    shall be done by the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission.
    
           Sampling to determine conformance to these criteria
    shall be done at sufficient distances downstream from waste
    discharge points to permit adequate mixing of waste effluents
    with the surface waters.
    
         1.2(2)  General criteria. The following criteria are
    applicable to all surface waters at all places and at all
    times:
    
         a.  Free from substances attributable to municipal,
    industrial or other discharges that will settle to form
    putrescent or otherwise objectionable sludge deposits;
    
         b.  Free from floating debris, oil, scum and other
    floating materials attributable to municipal, industrial
    or other discharges in amounts sufficient to be unsightly
    or deleterious;
    
         c.  Free from materials attributable to municipal,
    industrial or other discharges producing color, odor or
    other conditions in such degree as to be detrimental to
    legitimate uses of water;
    
         d.  Free from substances attributable to municipal,
    industrial or other discharges in concentrations or
    combinations which are detrimental to human, animal,
    

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                              -14-
    
    B. Surface Water Quality Criteria....continued
    
    industrial, agricultural, recreational, aquatic or other
    legitimate uses of the water.
    
        1.2(3)  Specific Criteria for designated water uses.
    The following criteria are applicable at flows greater
    than the lowest flow for seven consecutive days which
    can be expected to occur at a frequency of once every
    ten years.
    
          a.  Public water supply.  The following criteria
    for surface water quality apply to the point at which
    water is withdrawn for treatment and distribution as
    a potable supply:
    
             (1)  Bacteria:  Waters shall be considered to
    be of unsatisfactory bacteriological quality as a source
    when:
    
          A sanitary survey indicates the presence or
    probability of the presence of sewage or other object-
    ionable bacteria-bearing wastes or
    
          A bacteriological survey using coliform or other
    appropriate indices indicates bacteriological concentra-
    tions significantly higher than those normally found or
    expected in these waters when free from pollution
    by. sewage,
    
             (2)  Radioactive substances:  Gross beta activity
    (in the known absence of strontium - 90 and alpha emitters)
    not to exceed 1000 micro-micro-curies per liter.
    
             (3)  Chemical constituents:  Not to exceed the
    following concentrations:
    
                  Specific Constituents (mg/1)
    
    Arsenic                0.05        Cyanide       0.025
    Barium                 1.0         Fluoride      1.5
    Cadmium                0.01        Lead          0.05
    Chromium(hexavalent)   0.05        Phenols       0.02
    
          All substances toxic or detrimental to humans or
    detrimental to treatment processes shall be limited to
    nontoxic or nondetrimental concentrations in the surface
    water.
    

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                             -15-
    
          b.  Aquatic life.  The following criteria are
    designed for the maintenance and propagation of a well-
    balanced fish population.  They are applicable to any
    place in surface waters but cognizance will be given to
    opportunities for admixture of waste effluents with
    such waters.
    
             (1)  Warm water areas.  Dissolved oxygen:  Not
    less than 5.0 mg/1 during at least 16 hours of any 24-
    hour period and not less than 4.0 mg/1 at any time during
    the 24-hour period.
    
             pH:  Not less than 6.8 nor above 9.0.
    
             Temperature:  Not to exceed 93F during the months
    of May through November, and not to exceed 73F during the
    months of December through April.
    
             Chemical constituents: Not to exceed the follow-
    ing concentrations:
    
                 Specific constituents (mg/1)
    
        Ammonia Nitrogen (N)     2.0   *Copper       0.02
        *Arsenic                 1.0    Cyanide      0.025
        *Barium                  5.0   *Lead         0.10
        *Cadium                  0.05   Phenols      0.20
        *Chromium(hexavalent)    0.05  *2inc         1.0
        *Chromium(trivalent)     1.00
    
        *A maximum of 5.0 mg/1 for the entire heavy metal
    group shall not be exceeded.
    
        All substances toxic or detrimental to aquatic life
    shall be limited to nontoxic or non-detrimental concen-
    trations in the surface water.
    
             (2)  Cold water areas.  All criteria stated for
    warm water areas apply to cold water areas except as
    follows:
    
             Dissolved oxygen:  Not less than 7.0 mg/1 during
    at least 16 hours of any 24-hour period nor less than 5.0
    mg/1 at any time during the 24-hour period.
    
             Temperature;  No greater than 70F.
    

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                             -16-
    
          c-  Recreation.  The following criteria are appli-
    cable to any waters used for recreational activities
    involving whole body contact such as swimming and water
    skiing:
    
             (1)  Bacteria:  Waters shall be considered to be
    of unsatisfactory bacteriological quality for the above
    recreational use when:
    
             A sanitary survey indicates the presence or
    probability of the presence of sewage or other objection-
    able bacteria-bearing wastes or
    
          A bacteriological survey using coliform or other
    appropriate indices indicates bacteriological concentra-
    tions significantly higher than those normally found or
    expected in these waters when free from pollution by
    sewage.
    
    These rules are intended to implement sections 455B.9 and
    455B.13, Code of Iowa, 1966.
    
    These rules shall become effective as provided in Chapter
    17A of the Code after filing in the office of the Secretary
    of State after review by the Departmental Rules Review
    Committee.
    
    EXAMINED AND APPROVED
    
    DATE     March 6, 1967       DATE ADOPTED  February 28. 1967
    /s/  Fred Henderickson       /s/  Robert Buckmaster	
    ATTORNEY GENERAL             DEPARTMENT HEAD
    REVIEWED AND APPROVED
    
    DA TE     March 17.1967
    
    /s/  Adolph W,Elvers
    CHAIRMAN, DEPARTMENTAL RULES
    REVIEW COMMITTEE
    

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    C.  COMPATABILITY WITH ADJOINING STATES
    
    Notices of public hearings and proposed water quality
    data for Iowa streams were submitted to the adjoining
    states of Nebraska, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin,
    Illinois arid Missouri.  Representatives from Minnesota
    attended one hearing, Illinois - two hearings, and
    Missouri - two hearings.  Oral and written statements
    were presented at the hearings.
    
    The content and general requirements of the standards
    were discussed at specific meetings with the states
    of Illinois and Missouri as early as December 1965.
    Correspondence and discussion have been carried on with
    all adjoining states.
    
    Iowa representatives attended one hearing in Wisconsin,
    two in Illinois and two in Missouri and oral and written
    statements regarding general consistency and compatability
    of the criteria were submitted.  The water quality criteria
    and uses for the common waters between Illinois and Iowa
    are identical.  The entire Iowa Water Pollution Control
    Commission attended one hearing in Illinois.
    
    Reasonable agreement has also been reached with all
    states as to the water uses to be made of common inter-
    state waters.
    
    Following study of the testimony submitted at the public
    hearing the Commission ammended a number of the water
    quality criteria parameters.  The phenol concentration
    was increased to a more attainable and realistic figure
    and the cyanide concentration for the public water
    supply used was reduced to correspond to the aquatic
    life concentration.  The temperature limit for the
    warm water areas was reduced slightly to 93 as a more
    generally accepted figure and provision was made to
    prevent extreme temperature changes.
    

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                             -19-
    
                          SECTION III
    
             IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT PLAN
    Objective
    
    The purpose of the plan is to provide a means by which
    the water quality criteria can be enforced and the quality
    of surface waters protected and enhanced for beneficial
    uses.  The plan has been developed to protect all surface
    waters and not only interstate waters as required by the
    Federal Water Quality Act of 1965.
    
    A.  STATUTORY AUTHORITY
    
    The Water Pollution Control Commission and the State
    Department of Health make use of the following authority
    to control or abate pollution of the surface waters of
    the state.
    
    1.  STATUTES
    
    Iowa JWa ter Pt.n  ontrol  ommission
    Specific statutory authority for the Iowa Water Pollution
    Control Commission for adoption and enforcement of water
    quality criteria is found in Chapter 455B, Code of Iowa,
    1966.  Exerpts of the law pertaining to the authority
    follow:
    
    45SB.J3  There is hereby created and established the Iowa
    Water Pollution Control Commission.  The Commission is
    established as an agency of the state government to
    prevent, abate, or control the pollution of the waters
    of the state.
    
    455BJ9  The Commission is hereby given and charged with
    the following powers and duties:
    
         I.  The Commission through the State Department of
    Health shall have general supervision over administration
    and enforcement of all laws relating to the pollution of
    any water of the state, except as provided in Section 135.11
    of the Code.
    

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                             -20-
    
    1.  Statutes...continued
    
         2.  To develop a comprehensive plan and program
    for the prevention, control and abatement of new,
    increasing, potential or existing pollution of the
    waters of the state.
    
         3.  The Commission may cause the State Department
    of Health to conduct investigations....
    
         4.  To adopt, modify, or repeal such reasonable
    quality standards for any waters of the state in re-
    lation to the public use to which they are or may be
    put as it shall deem necessary for the purposes of
    this Act.
    
         6.  To direct the State Department of Health to
    issue, revoke or modify permits	.for the discharge
    of sewage, .... or for the installation or operation
    of disposal systems....
    
         8.  To prescribe rules and regulations....
    
         9.  The Commission shall cooperate with other
    state or interstate water pollution control agencies
    in establishing standards, objectives, or criteria
    for quality of interstate waters. . . .
    
    455B.10.  The State Department of Health shall conduct
    such investigations as may be necessary to carry out
    the provisions of the Act.
    
    455B.11  The State Department of Health in accordance
    with the direction and policies of the Commission may
    issue, modify, or revoke such orders as may be required
    for the prevention or discontinuance of the discharge
    of sewage,industrial waste or other waste in any waters
    of the state resulting in pollution in excess of the
    applicable quality standard....
    
    Iowa State Department of Health
    
    Section 135.11, paragraph 7, Code of Iowa, requires that
    the State Department of Health shall "make inspections
    of ...., sewer systems, sewage treatment plants,....
    and direct the method of installation and operation
    of the same."
    

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                               -21-
    Mandatorv Certification
    
    Chapter 136A, Code of Iowa, 1966, is an act to certify all
    public Water Supply Systems and Waste Water Treatment
    Systems and require the examination of operators and cert-
    ification of their competency to supervise the operation
    of these facilities.
    
    Miscellaneous Statutory Provisions
    
    Section 732.3 declares that it is unlawful to throw any
    dead animal, night soil, or garbage into any river, well,
    spring, cistern, reservoir, stream or pond or in or upon
    any land adjoining which is subject to overflow.
    
    Section 657.2(4) declares it is a nuisance to corrupt or
    render unwholesome or impure the water of any stream,
    river or pond,
    
    2.  RULES AND REGULATIONS
    
    Rules and Regulations have been approved as authorized by
    the statutes and have the full effect of law.
    
    Municipal Effluent Standard
    
    This rule requires that no municipality shall discharge
    any sewage to the waters of the state without effective
    removal of floatable and settleable solids as the minimum
    degree of treatment.
    
    Surface Water Quality Criteria
    
    This rule and regulation is discussed and given in
    Section II,  Paragraphs A and B.
    
    Records of Operation of Waste Disposal Systems
    
    This joint rule of the Water Pollution Control Commission
    and State Department of Health requires all owners of
    waste disposal systems to submit monthly operation reports
    to the State Department of Health.
    
    Certification of Water Supply System and Waste Water
    Treatment Plant Operators
    
    This rule of the State Department of Health classifies waste
    water treatment plants and establishes operator education and
    experience qualifications.
    

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                             -22-
    
    B.  ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES
    
    To accomplish pollution abatement four different methods
    of action can be instigated by the Iowa Water Pollution
    Control Commission to abate pollutional conditions:
    
    1.  The Commission may direct the State Department of
    Health to conduct an investigation of alleged pollution.
    If the Commission finds that pollution exists, a
    negotiation meeting is arranged between the Commission
    and the alleged polluter.  If agreeable to both parties,
    a time schedule of pollution abatement is arranged and
    a consent order is drawn by the Commission and signed
    by both parties.
    
    If a satisfactory agreement as to a construction time
    schedule cannot be reached between the Commission and
    the alleged polluter, a hearing is ordered by the
    Commission as provided by law.  If the evidence presented
    indicates that pollution does exist,  the Commission
    issues an order to abate the pollution within a reason-
    able period of time.
    
    2.  If a municipality is discharging raw or inadequately
    treated wastes to a state water,  the Commission notifies
    the municipality that they are in violation of the state
    effluent standard requiring a minimum removal of settle-
    able and floatable solids.   A negotiation proceeding or
    hearing follows as in the first method except that an
    investigation is not required.
    
    3.  If a municipality or industry is operating a waste
    treatment plant which is in violation of a permit issued
    by the Health Department for its installation, the State
    Department of Health initiates legal action through the
    Attorney General's Office.   The Attorney General notifies
    the municipality or industry to take appropriate action
    to comply with the stipulations of the permit.
    
    4.  The permit provision of the law provides that permits
    for extensions to existing sewer systems can also be
    denied where a condition of pollution already exists
    below the outlet, unless active planning is underway
    for the installation of treatment facilities.
    

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                             -21-
    
    C.  SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMS
    
    Routine monitoring of waste discharges will be accomp-
    lished in three ways: (1) operation reports,  (2) plant
    and operation surveillance, (3) stream surveillance.
    
    1.  Operation Reports;  Rules and Begulations have been
    adopted which require monthly submittal of operation
    reports by all owners of waste disposal systems which
    discharge sewage or wastes into any waters of the state.
    Where practicable the Commission will require the larger
    treatment facilities to initiate a downstream sampling
    program.
    
    Five different operation report forms are now being used.
    These are differentiated according to the type of waste
    disposal system:
    
                   WWTR I     Waste Stabilization Lagoon
                   WWTR II    Imhoff and Trickling Filter
                   WWTR III   Trickling Filter..Separate
                              Sludge Digestion
                   WWTR IV    Extended Aeration
                   WWTR V     Industrial Lagoon
    
    Checking the data and actual monitoring of the waste
    disposal plant will be done by data processing equip-
    ment.  The equipment to be used is the state's IBM 360-40
    computer, which is to be replaced by a 360-65 in the
    future.  On order, but not yet received, is an IBM 360-20
    computer which will be used more directly by the Health
    Department.
    
    A description of the computer monitoring process follows:
    
    Each incorporated city or town has been given a code
    number according to alphabetical listing.  All waste
    producers in the locale of a municipality have been
    given the town number.  The waste producers are further
    classified as to type:
    
         1.  Municipality       5.  Recreational
         2.  Industry           6.  Commercial
         3.  Mobile Home        7.  Sanitary District
         4.  School
    

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                             -24-
    
    1.  Operation Reports...continued
    
    The discharge of the waste is further classified as to:
    
       1.  Treated to City Sewer       5.  Raw to Another
       2.  Untreated to City Sewer         Municipality
       3.  Treated to State Waters     6.  Raw to a Sanitary
       4.  Untreated to State Waters       District
                                       7.  No recognized
                                           Sewer System
    
    Explanation of Card injEorrnation:
    
       Card 1.  Plant location information and design data.
       Card 2.  Operator in direct responsibility number,
                type of treatment and construction and
                improvement data.
       Card 3.  Status of the plant according to Commission
                actions with orders and time schedule for
                pollution abatement.
       Card 4.  Permits for sewer extensions with sizes and
                lengths.
       Card 5.  Operational data required and limits set
                on parameters.
    
    The computer will check on each plant according to:
    
         1.  Receipt of operation report.
         2.  Compliance of submitting required <3ai;a.
         3.  Data complying with loading or effluent limits
             established.
    
    Eeery treatment plant requiring operation reports will
    receive a monthly statement acknowledging receipt of
    the report and compliance or ommission of required data.
    It is felt that monthly communication with the operator
    is of prime importance to insure adequate report sub-
    mittal.  The statement will also indicate if any of the
    parameters have exceeded the limits established.
    
    Periodically, the computer will check on the plants to
    determine if the design parameters are being exceeded.
    Action will be initiated to update the waste treatment
    plant with overloaded facilities.  The computer system
    will, therefore,  be able to determine current pollution
    conditions and future pollution due to overloading of
    the plant facilities.  The waste treatment plant owners
    will be notified that plant improvements are needed and
    encouraged to take appropriate corrective action.
    

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                             -25-
    
    The base files in the storage system will be continually
    updated to provide more adequate information on which
    to judge operation and facility adequacy.
    
    2.  Plant and Operation Surveillance;
    
    The plant and operator surveillance programs of the
    state are aimed to check the operation, maintenance and
    efficiency of the treatment plants and to increase the
    competency of the operators in charge of these plants.
    To achieve these goals the State Department of Health
    has in effect the following programs:
    
    a.  Treatment Plant Inspection
    
    The State Health Department field engineers located in
    seven regional offices situated throughout the state
    periodically inspect all the waste treatment plants in
    the state.  Reports stating the condition of the receiving
    stream, plant operation, performance and recommendations
    for improvements are transmitted to the responsible muni-
    cipal or industry officials.  Pertinent data from this
    report will also be used to update the computer records
    on each treatment plant.  The regional engineers also
    offer advice and assistance to the treatment plant operators
    on plant operation procedures, report completion, laboratory
    procedures or other problems concerning their plant.
    
    b.  BOD Mailing Program
    
    In May of 1967 the State Hygienic Laboratory, in conjunction
    with the State Department of Health, began the BOD Mailing
    Program.  This program enables BOD samples to be collected
    in the field and mailed to the State Hygienic Laboratory
    without refrigeration.  To facilitate this procedure
    samples are acid fixed directly upon collection and then
    neutralized and seeded following return shipment to the
    laboratory.  Laboratory studies showed that results were
    reproducible  with sufficient accuracy to use the field
    BOD samples as a check on the plant effluent strength.
    
    Initally,  the BOD samples will be collected by the treat-
    ment plant operators upon receipt of request from the
    State Hygienic Laboratory.  Each plant effluent will be
    sampled at least four times yearly.  As the program
    develops,  the regional engineers will also be equipped to
    collect additional samples during their plant surveys to
    gain additional data concerning the treatment facilities
    and final plant effluent.  A future possibility of the
    

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                             -26-
    BOD Mailing Program if additional personnel and equip-
    ment are available, might be to permit treatment plants
    to submit BOD samples for analysis on a fee basis.
    
    The laboratory BOD results will be tabulated on a computer
    coded card and then stored in the data storage record for
    each plant.  The results will be analyzed by the computer
    and results compared to previous samples and any limits
    placed on the effluent.  The BOD results will be included
    in the monthly operation report analysis sent to the
    plant operator.  The BOD Mailing program will thus facil-
    tate the continual monitoring of the waste treatment
    plant effluents and check the operational report data
    submitted.
    
    c.  Operator Competence
    
    MandatoryCertification - To support the plant operation
    surveillance the General Assembly enacted a Mandatory
    Certification Law, effective in July 1965.  Operators
    in direct responsibility of public waste water treat-
    ment plants must be certified.  Education and operation-
    al experience and a comprehensive examination are graded
    according to the classification of the certificate.
    Certificates are classified as to complexity, type and
    size of plant.  All municipalities have complied.
    
    Operator Basic^Training Courses - Basic training courses
    have been conducted since 1952 when a Voluntary Certifi-
    cation Program was initiated.  With the enactment of
    the Mandatory Certification Law six courses for approxi-
    mately 30 persons each, (3 hours per week for 9 weeks)
    have been held annually with instruction furnished prim-
    arily by the two Universities.  Plans are being developed
    for an advanced course for the larger and more complex
    plants.
    
    Labor a tor v Course, - Currently a laboratory course for
    treatment plant operators is being conducted yearly at
    Iowa State University in Ames.  This program will need
    expansion and plans are being made to arrange funds
    and facilities to meet this need.  Advanced laboratory
    control courses and seminar are being planned at the
    University of Iowa and the State Hygienic Laboratory.
    

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                             -27-
    Laboratory Course..continued
    
    It is felt that through the mandatory certification
    program and the operator training couses, the overall
    competence of the operators throughout the state will
    be greatly increased.  Increased operational efficiency,
    accomplished by operator training will greatly benefit
    the State surface waters.
    
    3.  STREAM SURVEILLANCE
    
    a.  Existing program
    
    The State of Iowa is currently carrying on the following
    surface water surveillance programs:
    
    Municipal Water Supplies - Currently 29 surface water
    sources of municipal water supplies are being surveyed
    of which 15 are located on interstate streams.  Samples
    are being collected semi-annually by local officials
    and the following analyses are made by the State Hygienic
    Laboratory.
    
         COD                  NA                 Cl
         Nitrogen cycle       K                  SO4
         Solids               CA                 HCO3-CO
         pH                   Mg                 Silica
         Hardness             Pe                 Specific conduct-
         PC^ (Soluble)         Mn                 ance
         P04(Total)           F
    
    ABS  Six stream locations are under surveillance for ABS.
    
    Pesticides  Pesticide surveillance began in 1965 and is
    presently being expanded to include smaller streams in
    the state.  Currently chlorinated hydrocarbons are being
    analyzed at six stream locations.
    
    Radioactivity  Alpha and beta-gamma activity are being
    determined on the total, dissolved and suspended solids
    of the surface waters at 15 stream locations, 2 lake
    locations and 3 impoundments.  These samples are collected
    on a monthly schedule.
    

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                            -28-
    W.P.C. Surveillance Network  River stations are being
    sampled generally on a monthly basis for the Water
    Quality Surveillance System at Dubuque, Burlington
    and Omaha.  Sample Analyses include:  plankton, radio-
    activity, delayed incubation membrane coliform tests,
    and extensive elemental and compound determinations.
    
    Taste and Odor,  The Missouri River Public Water Supply
    Association has furnished data on extensive taste and
    odor studies relative to the Missouri River.  Studies
    were conducted on the Boyer, Soldier, Maple and Missouri
    Rivers.
    
    Cedar River research studies on biological precursors of
    oderiferous compounds have been in progress since 1961.
    The Des Moinss River is also receiving similar surveill-
    ance because of "fish taints".  The State Hygienic
    Laboratory is conducting the research in conjunction with
    the State Conservation Commission, the Iowa State Depart-
    ment of Health and the Water Pollution Control Commission.
    
    b.  Proposed program
    
    In addition to the current surveillance programs, the
    Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission plans the addition
    of 66 new surface water sampling stations.  The initiation
    of these new stations and the frequency of sampling de-
    pends upon financing and facilities being made available.
      These proposed stations will survey additional reaches
    of streams and the downstream conditions below waste water
    treatment plant outlets.  Initially it is proposed that
    samples be collected semi-annually with the following
    analyses being made:
    
       BOD       Turbidity    Heavy metals*     *Analysis at
       COD       Temp         F*                 less frequent
       NH-jCycle  pH           Phenols*           intervals
       D. 0.     PO (Total)    Cyanide*
    Solids       PO4(Soluble)
    
    The designated recreational and water supply areas which
    are downstream from a significant bacterial waste discharge
    will be sampled with the Etelp of local participation.
    

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                            -29-
    
    b.  Proposed program.... continued
    Coordination of the Stream Surveillance Program will be
    accomplished with other agencies also concerned with
    stream quality.  Those agencies are:
    
                1.  U. S. Geological Survey
                2.  Corps of Engineers
                3.  State Conservation Commission
                4.  State Universities
                5.  Bordering states
                6.  Public water supplies
    
    By law the State Hygienic Laboratory provides laboratory
    services for the Commission and the Health Department.
    The Laboratory has the facilities and qualified personnel
    to perform the necessary analyses required by the state
    in its current surface water surveillance program.  How-
    ever, expansion of the Laboratory staff and facilities
    will most likely be necessary when the proposed surveill-
    ance program is initiated.
    
    The locations of the existing and proposed sampling
    stations for the various parameters involved in the
    surveillance of waters of the state are tabulated in
    Tables 8 and 9.
    
    4.  Existing Water Quality
    
    The existing quality of a major portionof Iowa surface
    waters is considered satisfactory for the present and
    future water uses.  It is the opinion of the Water
    Pollution Control Commission that as a minimum effect
    the Surface Water Quality Criteria will maintain the
    quality of those waters currently in satisfactory condi-
    tion and upgrade those waters of lower quality to support
    the designated legitimate beneficial uses.
    
    Table 10 is a tabulation of the data from one of the exist-
    ing water quality surveillance programs collected over
    the past five (5)  years.
    

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                           -30-
    
    4.  Existing Water Quality....continued
    
    In addition to the regular sampling stations, there has
    been extensive miscellaneous  sampling in routine pollution
    investigations below municipalities and also entire
    stream reaches.  These samplings have generally included
    pH, DO, BOD and Coliform MPN.  These data are not pre-
    sented since they are not easily retrievable and because the
    pollutional conditions have since been or are in the process
    of being corrected.
    
    D.  WATER POLLUTION CONTROL PROGRAMS
    
    The following is a summary of the Water Pollution Control
    Commission policies and programs to control and abate
    pollution:
    
    1.  Municipal and Industrial Waste Treatment
    
    a.  Significant Pollution Sources
    
    A listing of the significant pollution sources to surface
    waters is shown in Table 11.  This table divided into
    the Mississippi and Missouri River Basins lists the
    municipalities and major industries, the type of treatment
    provided, the treatment needs and a time schedule for
    construction of needed facilities.  These listings will
    change as new facilities are provided and existing facili-
    ties depreciate or become overloaded.
    
    This table also lists the downstream water uses which have
    been categorized in the water quality criteria.  Any
    reach of stream not designated for a specific water use
    will have its water quality governed by the general
    criteria.  The numerical listings represent the follow-
    ing specific water use criteria:
    
                1.  Public water supply (point of withdrawal)
                2.  Aquatic life - Warm water area
                2a. Aquatic life - Cold water area
                3.  Recreation
                4.  General Criteria
    
    b.  Compliance with Water Quality Criteria
    
    Table 11 also presents the best estimate of treatment