Guidelines FcwPPMeJoping Or
Revising Water Quality Standards
         ^*^^         ;  f    '^
Amended April 1973
                            t * I i. ' t
                          * 11 n A
                      Environmental Protection Agency
                          Water Planning Division
                       Planning and Standards Branch
                          Washington, D.C 20460
                                January 1973
                            Amended April 1973

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                                                800R73101
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                    CONTENTS
A.  WATERS COVERED BY THE ACT
B.  OBJECTIVE, GOALS AND POLICIES
    Objective 	 2
    Goals ..."	 2
    Policies 	 2

C.  POLICY GUIDELINES
    Stream Use Classification Policy	 4
      The Policy
      Exceptions
    Implementation Plan Policy	 5
icy
5oli
    water Quality Criteria Policy	 6
    Antidegradation Policy	 7
    General Policies	 8
      Minimum Acceptable Standards
      Interstate Consistency
      Revisions
      Clarification
      Format
      Other Factors

D.  LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS
    Interstate Standards 	 10
    Existing Intrastate Standards	10
    New Intrastate Standards	 n
       Promulgation Procedure
    Three Year Review Process 	 12
       Promulgation Procedure
    Submission Procedures	 14

E.  EXAMPLE WATER QUALITY STANDARD 	 16

F.  OPERATING PROCEDURES 	 32

G.  APPENDIX	 37
                         ii

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                      A.  WATERS COVERED BY THE ACT





     Water quality standards are to be established for and made applicable



to all interstate and intrastate waters under the provisions of the Water



Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (FWPCAA).  The Act contains different time



schedules for establishment and approval of intrastate standards depending



upon whether or not a State now has such standards (see page  10).  After



adoption by the State and approval by EPA, standards will apply to all navigable



waters; the terms interstate and intrastate will have no significance.

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                   B,  OBJECTIVE, GOALS AND POLICIES

Objective
     The objective of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1972 is to restore and maintain the chemical,
physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters.
[Sec. 101(a)].
Goals
     National goals established to achieve the stated objective
include: (1) that the discharge of pollutants into the navigable
waters be eliminated by 1985, [Sec. 101 (a) (1)J,  (2) that wherever
attainable, an interim goal of water quality which provides for
the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife
and provides for recreation in and on the water  be achieved by
July 1, 1983, {Sec. 101(a)(2)] and (3) that the  water quality
standards established shall be such as to protect the public
health or welfare, enhance the quality of water  and serve the
purposes of this Act, [Sec. 303(a)(b) (c)].
Policies
     The applicable policies are as follows:
     (1)  The discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts
     be prohibited. iSec. 101(a)(3)].
     (2)  Areawide waste treatment management planning processes
     be developed and implemented to assure adequate control of
     sources of pollutants in each State, [Sec. 101(a)(5)].

      (3)  EPA will recognize, preserve, and protect the primary
     responsibilities and rights of States to prevent, reduce,

                            2
  Editorial correction, April 1973

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and eliminate pollution,  to plan  the development and use  (including



restoration, preservation, and  enhancement)  of  land and water resources,



and to consult with  the Administrator  in  the exercise  of  this authority



under this Act.    [Sec. 101(b)]



(4)  That the President,  acting through the  Secretary  of  State and such



national and international organizations  as  he  determines appropriate,



shall take such action as may be  necessary to insure that to the fullest



extent possible all  foreign countries  shall  take meaningful action for



the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution in their water



and in international waters and for the achievement of goals regarding



the elimination of discharge of pollutants and  the  improvement of water



quality to at least  the same extent as the United States  does under its



laws.  [Sec. 101(c)]



(5)  Public participation in the  development, revision, and enforcement



of any regulation, standard, effluent  limitation, plan, or program



established by the Administrator  or any State under this  Act shall be



provided for, encouraged, and assisted by the Administrator and the



States.   [Sec. 101(e)]



(6)  A continuing  planning process be established  in  each State which



would provide a management plan for ensuring that effluent reduction



actions taken within the States are adequate for meeting water quality



standards and that these actions  are achieved in a timely and consistent



manner.  [Sec.  303(e)]

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                          C.  POLICY GUIDELINES





Stream Use Classification Policy



The Policy:



     It is the policy of the Environmental Protection Agency that all



waters should be protected for recreational uses in and/or on the water



and for the preservation and propagation of desirable species of aquatic



biota as part of the national water quality standards program.  Use and



value of water for public water supplies, agricultural, industrial, and



other purposes, as well as navigation, shall also be considered in setting



standards, but in no case, except as provided below, shall the criteria



supporting these uses be permitted to interfere with recreational uses and



the preservation of desirable species of aquatic biota.



     Recreational uses must be specified as either "primary contact" or



"secondary contact."  Desirable species of aquatic biota must be specified



as "fresh warm water,"  "fresh cold water," or "marine waters."  All future



designations of stream uses and their associated criteria must, at a



minimum, adhere to these classifications except as provided below.





Exceptions:



     Some waters, becaase of naturally occuring poor quality, man-made



pollution or technological limitations may qualify for an excepted classi-



fication.  This determination, however, must be made on a case by case



basis following an analysis of each such area.  The analysis should be



based on presently available information and must contain sufficient



data to support the request for exception based on natural condition of



the water or on technological limitations prohibiting improvement of



water quality to the degree necessary.  Applicable basin and/or area-



wide plans, or portions thereof may satisfy the requirements of this

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analysis.  In any case where the exception is based on technological
limitations, the exception will be temporary, i.e. the exception will be
reviewed at least every three years as required by Section 303 (c).
Application:
     In applying this policy, the terms "recreational uses" and "desirable
species of aquatic biota" must be given common sense application.  The
existence of man-made pollution should be viewed as a problem to be
solved, not as an impediment against assigning this use classification.
     "Desirable species of aquatic biota" refers to the range of aquatic
biota indigenous to an area.  For example, waters appropriate for certain
species of cold water biota should be protected for such biota rather
than being warmed, even though the waters would, if warmed, support other,
different species.  In most cases, water for support of desirable aquatic
biota and secondary contact recreation can be covered in one use
classification.
     The standards must provide that the most stringent criteria specified
for each parameter shall be applicable where waters are classified for
multiple uses.

Implementation Plan Policy
     Due to the shortness of the deadlines in which revisions to
implementation schedules must be made and the resources required to make
these revisions, it will not be agency policy to encourage extensive
implementation revisions.  In those cases where the States and/or the
Regional Administrator elect to revise implementation plans, the
revisions will be as complete as possible.

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     After the initial 180-day review period, (3 months for EPA review
plus 90 days for any necessary State action), where impiemBntation plan
schedules are not valid or do not exist, or where they have not been
recently revised for interstate as well as intrastate standards, the
following process will be followed:
     (1)  A detailed listing of poMt source dischargers, waste treatment
and control requirements and schedules of compliance will be included as
part of each State's continuing planning process under Section 303(fe)
of the new act.
     (2)  The specific compliance schedules for each discharger will be
determined as a condition ef a permit issued under Section 402.  The
mechanism for including the permit conditions in the continuing planning
process will be included in the 303 regulations which are now being
drafted.
     The dates established via this process will become the enforceable
schedule even if the date is less stringent than the date in the water
quality standards implementation plan.  Where the dates of a water
quality standard implementation plan are current and valid, the State
will be encouraged to continue using the date in their 303 plans.
Water Quality Criteria Policy
     Water quality criteria establish national water quality goals.
They must reflect levels of water quality which will protect and enhance
the quality of the waters to which they apply for all designated uses
of such water.
      Minimum criteria for specified water use classifications are the
minimum recommended levels set by the National Technical Advisory
 Editorial correction made
 2/28/73

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Committee in its report to the Secretary of the Interior on Water

Quality Criteria, April 1, 1968, and other information provided from

time to time by EPA.  The Example Water Quality Standard (page 16)

contains an interpretation of the NTAC requirements for water quality criteria

as applied to specified stream uses and illustrates the minimum acceptable

levels.  No criteria less restrictive than these minimum criteria will

be approved unless it is affirmatively demonstrated to the Regional

Administrator that the natural condition of the water or other requirements

for exceptions included in this Guideline preclude the application of

such criteria.

     The following should be stressed:

     A.  Numerical values must be states wherever possible.
     B.  Biological or bioassay parameters shall be employed where numerical
         values are not practicable,  (e.g., fish survival in zone of passage).
     C.  Narrative descriptions may be employed where other values
         cannot be established.  Such criteria shall include detail
         sufficient to show clearly the quality of water intended.

     The measure of time period and limiting values which will govern

for purposes of the criteria must be defined, e.g., annual arithmetic

mean concentration.  Where appropriate, the specified recurrence and

duration of the accepted design stream should be defined, e.g., 7-day

10-year frequency return flow.  Water quality criteria should be applied

to the stream or other receiving water or portions thereof'.

Antidegradation Policy

     The antidegradation statements previously adopted by the States

and approved by the Federal government, will remain in effect as part

of the water quality standards for all navigable waters.  Its application

will be consistent with the goals, objectives and requirements of the

various provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Aet Amendments of 1972,


Editorial correction made
2/28/73                            7

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General Policies



Minimum Acceptable Standards:



     Water quality standards should be designed to "enhance the quality



of water."  If it is not possible to provide for prompt improvement in water



quality at the time initial standards are set, the standards should be



designed to prevent any increase in pollution.  In no case will standards



providing for less than existing water quality be acceptable except those



satisfying the approved antidegradation provision.



Interstate Consistency:



     State standards will be reviewed in terms of their consistency and



comparability with those for affected waters of downstream or adjacent



States.  Coordination is encouraged among States to assure such consistency.



Water quality standards should be in conformity with any comprehensive



water pollution control program developed pursuant to the Federal Water



Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, and should be revised to reflect



any recommendations resulting as such programs and actions develop.



Revisions:



     Water quality uses and criteria may be revised from time to time in



accordance with various provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control



Act Amendments of 1972.



Clarification:



     All "understandings" or "interpretations" attached to approved standards



as conditions to their approval, prior to October 18, 1972,  (the date of



passage of the 1972 Amendments), should be incorporated into the standards



during the revision period provided by the 1972 Amendments.

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Format:



     To the degree possible, the format of State water quality standards



should adhere to that indicated by the Example Water Quality Standard-



page 16.



Other Factors:



     Guidelines for those factors which apply to water quality criteria



such as mixing zones, zones of passage, analytical testing procedures,



stream flow, units of measurement, etc., are described in the Example



Water Quality Standard, page 16.

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                         D,  LEGISLATIVE  REQUIREMENTS


Interstate Standards

     1.  The interstate water quality standards for each State, at the

         time of passage of the FWPCAA of 1972 will remain in effect.

         Section 303(a)(1).

     2.  If the Administrator determines that the water quality standards

         are not consistent with applicable requirements of this Act as

         in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of the 1972

         Amendments, he shall have 3 months to notify the State and specify

         the changes needed to meet such requirements. V  Section 303(a)(1).

     3.  The State receiving notification from the Administrator that

         standards are not acceptable has 90 days to make changes in

         standards.  The Administrator shall promulgate such changes if

         the State fails to act. Section 303(a)(1).

Existing Intrastate Standards

     4.  Each State already having intrastate standards must submit water

         quality standards applicable to intrastate waters within 30 days

         after enactment of the FWPCAA of 1972.  Each State standard will

         remain in effect unless the Administrator determines that such

         standard is inconsistent with the applicable requirements of this

         Act as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of the FWPCAA

         of 1972.  Section 303(a)(2).

     5.  The Administrator has up to 120 days to notify the State after submission

         of such standards and specify the changes needed to meet such

         requirements.  Section 303(a)(2).
I/ The EPA Administrator has delegated the authority to review and approve
   water quality standards to each EPA Regional Administrator.

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     6.  The State must adopt such changes within ninety days after such
         notification.  The Administrator shall promulgate such
         changes and publish proposed regulations if such changes are not
         adopted by the State.   Section  303(a)(2).
New Intrastate Standards
     7.  Any State which prior to the date of enactment of the FWPCAA of
         1972 has not adopted standards  applicable to intrastate waters
         shall have 180 days after the date of enactment of the FWPCAA of
         1972 to adopt and submit such standards to the  Administrator.
         Section 303(a)(3) (A).
     8.  If the intrastate water quality standards are consistent with the
         applicable requirements of this Act the Administrator
         shall approve such standards.   Section 303(a)(3)(B).
     9.  If the Administrator determines that the intrastate
         standards are not consistent with the applicable requirements of
         this Act as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment
         he shall have ninety (90) days  after the submission of such standards
         to notify the State and specify the changes to meet such require-
         ments.  If such changes are not adopted by the State within ninety
         (90) davc; after the date of notification, the  Administrator
         shall promulgate such standards.  Section 303(a)(3)(C).
Promulgation Procedure (Sec. 303(b)):
     The Administrator fehall promptly prepare  and publish proposed
regulations setting forth water quality  standards for a State in accordance
with the applicable requirements of this Act as in effect immediately prior
                                   11

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to the date of enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amend-



ments of 1972 if, (a) the State fails to submit water quality standards



within the time prescribed in Section 303(a) (paragraphs 1-9) or,(b) a



water quality standard submitted by such State under Section 303(a) is



determined by the Administrator not to be consistent with the



applicable requirements of Section 303(a).



     The Administrator shall promulgate any water quality standard published



in..a proposed regulation not later than 190 days after the date he publishes



any such proposed standard, unless prior to such promulgation such State has



adopted a water quality standard which the Administrator determines to be in



accordance with Section 303(a).



Three Year Review Process



     10.  The Governor of a State or the State water pollution control



          agency of such State shall from time to time (but at least once



          each three year period beginning with the date of enactment of



          the FWPCAA of 1972) hold public hearings for the purpose of



          reviewing applicable water quality standards and, as appropriate,



          modifying and adopting standards.  Results of such review shall



          be made available to the Administrator, Section 303(c)(l).



     11.  Whenever the State revises or adopts a new standard, such revised



          or new standards shall be submitted to the Administrator.



          Such revised or new water quality standard shall consist of the



          designated uses of the navigable waters involved and the water



          quality criteria for such waters based upon such uses.  Such stan-



          dards shall be such as to protect the public health or welfare,



          enhance the quality of water and serve the purposes of this Act.




                                     12

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          Such standards shall be established taking into consideration



          their use and value for public water supplies, propagation of



          fish and wildlife, recreational purposes, and agricultural,



          industrial, and other legitimate uses, and also taking into



          consideration their use and value for navigation. (Consistent



          with stream use classification policy on page 4 of these guide-



          lines) .  Section 303(c)(2).



     12.  The Administrator must act within sixty  (60) days after



          the date of submission of the revised or new standard to determine



          whether such standard meets the requirements of this Act. Section



          303(c)(3).



     13.  Approval by the Administrator shall thereafter be the



          water quality standard for the applicable waters of that State.



          Section 303(c)(3).



     14.  If the Administrator determines that any such revised



          or new standard is not consistent with the applicable requirements



          of this Act he shall have ninety (90) days from the date of sub-



          mission of such standard to notify the State and specify the changes



          to meet such requirements.  Section 303(c)(3).



     15.  If such changes are not adopted by the State within ninety days



          after the date of notification, the Administrator shall



          promulgate such standard.



Promulgation Procedure  (Sec. 303(c) (4):



     The Administrator shall promptly prepare and publish proposed



regulations setting forth a revised or new water quality standard for the
                                    13

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navigable waters involved -



     (A)  if a revised or new water quality standard submitted by such



          State under paragraph (3) of subsection (C) of Section 303 is



          determined by the Administrator not to be consistent with the



          applicable requirements of this Act, or



     (B)  in any case where the Administrator determines that a revised



          or new standard is necessary to meet the requirements of this



          Act.



     The Administrator shall promulgate any revised or new standard not



later than ninety days after he publishes such proposed standards, unless



prior to such promulgation, such State has adopted a revised or new water



quality standard which the Administrator determines to be in accordance



with this Act.



Submission Procedures



     Water quality standards or revisions thereto, must meet certain re-



quirements of Federal law and administrative procedures.  They also must



comply with applicable State laws and administrative procedural requirements



which vary from State to State.  Public hearings are required to be held by



the States in establishing or revising water quality standards.  Transcripts



or summaries of each hearing plus any supporting data used in formulating a



State's proposed water quality standard should be available to the EPA upon




request.




      After  adoption  by  the State,  the proposed  standards or  revisions must



be  submitted to  the Regional Administrator  accompanied  by  (1)  a  letter from



a duly  authorized  State  official  to the Regional Administrator requesting



approval  of  the  standards  and  (2)  a statement by the State Attorney  General



that the  proposed  standards  or revisions were duly  adopted and will  be en-



forceable by the State.  Submission to the  Regional Administrator  shall be




                                   14

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  accomplished by delivering three copies of the standards or revisions to

  the  appropriate Regional Office,.



               ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY - REGIONAL OFFICES
REGION I
John F. Kennedy Bldg.
Boston, Mass.  02203

REGION II
26 Federal Plaza
New York, N.Y.  10007

REGION III
6th and Walnut Street
Curtis Bldg.
Philadelphia, Pa.  19106

REGION IV
1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia  30309
REGION V
1 North Wacker Drive
Chicago, 111  60606

REGION VI
1600 Patterson Street
Dallas, Texas  75201

REGION VII
1735 Baltimore Ave.
Kansas City, Mo.  64108

REGION VIII
1860 Lincoln Street
Denver, Colo.  80203

REGION IX
100 California Street
San Francisco, Calif. 94111
REGION X
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, Washington
                    Maine
                    New Hampshire
                    Connecticut

                    New York
                    Puerto Rico
                    Pennsylvania
                    Maryland
                    West Virginia
                    Kentucky
                    North Carolina
                    South Carolina
                    Mississippi

                    Minnesota
                    Michigan
                    Indiana

                    New Mexico
                    Arkansas
                    Texas

                    Nebraska
                    Kansas
                    Montana
                    Wyoming
                    Utah

                    California
                    Arizona
                    Guam
                    American Samoa

                    Alaska
                    Idaho
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
Virgin Islands
Delaware
Virginia
Dist. of Columbia
Tennessee
Alabama
Florida
Georgia

Wisconsin
Illinois
Ohio

Oklahoma
Louisiana
Iowa
Missouri
North Dakota
South Dakota
Colorado

Hawaii
Nevada
Trust Territory
of the Pacific Islands

Oregon
Washington
98101
                                     15

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     E.   EXAMPLE WATER  QUALITY STANDARD
            WATER QUALITY STANDARD

                      FOR


                    (State)	
           Adopted  by the Environmental

           Commission 	



           Public Law 72-101  Section 12
     example. c.ontaim> numesu,c.at value*  ^on. wateA quality
         a& contained i.n the. WTAC fiepont and AubAe.que.nt
        and Au.ggutt> a ^otmat vthJich cJLwiJiy po>vtAayi>
the. &>&YitAjaJt compone.ntt> o^ AtandasicU,.   It -L& not -in-
tended that the. Statu adopt the. actual wofidinQ  tue.d
-in the. vatLiout, &e.c.tiont> o^ thu> example.   It -U>  expected
that States wWt emptily the. example, u^-ing the. &pe.Csi{,
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SECTION  I

INTRODUCTION
     It is the purpose of these rules and regulations to
designate the uses for which the various waters of the State
shall be maintained and protected; to prescribe the water
quality standards required to sustain the designated uses;
and to prescribe regulations necessary for implementing,
achieving and maintaining the prescribed water quality,
These regulations were  developed in close cooperation with
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in order that,
consistent with  (State  statute  reference) they  also  may serve
the purposes  of  the FWPCA as amended.
     Pursuant to the  authority  contained in  (State statute
reference) which authorized the  issuance of regulations  to
restore, maintain, and  enhance  the quality of the waters  of
the State in  order to protect health, welfare, property,  and
to assure that no contaminants  are discharged into the  waters
without being given the degree  of treatment or control  necessary
to prevent pollution, and to adopt water quality standards
the  (State Agency) adopts the following rules and reeulations.
                             17

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SECTION  II.   EXAMPLE LETTERS

   EXAMPLE FORMAT  OF STANDARDS APPROVAL REQUEST  LETTER


Mr. William  T.  Jackson
Regional Administrator
Environmental  Protection Agency
St. Louis, Pennsylvania

Dear Mr. Jackson:

     In  accordance with the provisions of Section  303  of
the Federal  Water  Pollution Control Act Amendments  of  1972,
I am requesting formal approval of proposed revisions  to
   (state)   's  water quality standards, three  copies of which
are enclosed.

     The revisions,  if approved, will change our standards
as follows:  	(0Jt, aA expa-tned Jin a.
&e.panate. e.ncloAu.ne.;  on,  W4.JUL e.nt-ine.ly Au.pe.nAe.de.  the. e,x.i.Ati.na
c.ni.te.n
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 EXAMPLE FORMAT OF ATTORNEY GENERAL'S DECISION LETTER
Governor John Smith
Middleville, (State)           (STATEMENT MAY BE ADDRESSED TO
                                DEPARTMENT HEAD, GOVERNOR OR
                                EPA REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR.)

Dear Governor Smith:

     I have reviewed the proposed Amendments to the Rules
and Regulations Establishing Surface Water Criteria for the
State of 	, as adopted by the  (State Agency)
on    (date)	, following a public hearing held
by the Department on    (date)      The amended rules and
regulations were duly adopted pursuant to the authority con-
tained in the (State Environmental Enhancement Act of 1969,
as revised, 71 Stat. 432).  The hearing was held in accordance
with the provisions of the (State Administrative Procedure
Act, O.S.A. 52:  14B e_t seq.)

     The proposed regulations amend the use classifications
and certain criteria assigned to protect those classifications
previously approved by the Environmental Protection Agency on
   (date)	.   These proposed regulations apply to all
navigable waters in  (state)	.

     On the basis of the above, I have concluded that the
Rules and Regulations Establishing Surface Water Criteria for
the State of	 have been promulgated in accordance
with State law and that they will be legally enforceable in
the State.
                               Signature
                            19

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SECTION  III.




ANTIPEGRADATION  STATEMENT




     Waters whose  existing quality is better than the  established




standards as of  the  date on which set standards become effective




will be maintained at  their existing high quality.  These  and other




waters of the  state  will not be lowered in quality unless  it  has been




affirmatively  demonstrated to the state water pollution  control  agency




that such a change is  justified as a result of necessary economic or




social development,  and will not interfere with or become  injurious




to any assigned  uses made of or presently possible in  such waters.




This will require  that any industrial, public or private project,




or development which would constitute a new source of  pollution  or




an increased source  of pollution to high quality waters, will be re-




quired as part of  the  initial project design to provide  the highest




and best degree  of waste treatment available under existing technology.




Since these are  also Federal standards, the waste treatment re--




quirements will  be developed cooperatively.






SECTION IV,




USE DEFINITION



    Multiple use  classifications incorporating such uses as public




water supply, agricultural, industrial, and navigation are acceptable,




as long as the waters  are protected for primary contact recreation  (Class




A, p. 21  ) or for desirable species of aquatic biota or secondary




contact recreation (Class B, p. 21), unless an excepted lower classification




is justified as specified on page 4 of these Guidelines.
                               20

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Class A: Water Contact Recreation and Other Uses.  A surface raw water
source intended for uses where the human body may come in direct contact with
the raw water to the point of complete body submergence.  The raw water may
be ingested accidentally and certain sensitive body organs such as eyes, ears,
nose, and so forth may be exposed to the water.  Although the water may be
ingested accidentally it is not intended to be used as a potable supply unless
acceptable treatment is applied.  Water may be used for swimming, water
skiiing, skin diving, other similar activities, or as a raw water source
for public water supply, !_/ support and propagation of fish and
wildlife, agricultural, industrial and navigational uses.

Class B:  Fish, Wildlife and Other Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Life and Other
Uses.
A surface raw water source, suitable for the growth and propagation of fish,
other aquatic and semi-aquatic life both marine and freshwater; waterfowl;
fur bearers; and wildlife.  This water may be used for trout habitat, warm
water fish habitat, wildlife habitat, and other similar uses.  This water is
also suitable for secondary water contact recreation such as fishing, wading,
boating or activities where ingestion of the water is not probable
or as a raw water source for public water supply, agricultural, industrial
and navigational uses.
 V Criteria for Classes A and B are equal to or more stringent than those
   applicable for public water supply use as stated in thp renort nf thp
   National Technical Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the Interior
   on Water Quality Criteria.
                                    21
Editorial correction made
5/16/73

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                    USE CLASSIFICATION
USE:
   A - Water Contact Recreation and Other Uses
   B - Fish, Wildlife and Other Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Life-
       Secondary Contact-Recreation and Other Uses
STREAM                                                 USE

Red River Basin
     Red River		--				A
     Red Run	-		 B
     Black River --	-		A
     Joseph River -				A
          Turtle Creek -			 B
          Sandy Creek					A
          Penn's Run	 B
          Clarion Creek			B

Muskingum River Basin
     Muskingum River				A
          Denison River			 B
          Muskie Creek 	 B
          Montgomery Lake			 B
          Lake Lutheran -		 A
     Mace River 	 A
          Stag Run --	-			B
          Wooster River (Rt. 197 Bridge to mouth) 	 A
          Wooster River (Douglas Bridge to Rt. 197 Bridge)B
          Wooster River (State Line to Douglas  Bridge)  A
     Cambridge River 		 A
          The Point ---		 A
          Unnamed Tributary to Cambridge River
           at Hebron 			 B
     Coshocton Creek 	 B
     Buckeye Lake 	 A
     Universal Reservoir 			B

Penn River Basin
     Penn River 	 A
          Verona Creek 	 A
          Etna Run			 B
     Oakmont River 			B
     Alcoma River (State Line to Lake Unity) --	B
     Alcoma River (Lake Unity to Rodj Bridge) 	 A
     Alcoma River (Rodi Bridge to mouth) 	 A
     Lake Unity			 A
                             22

  Editorial correction made 2/28/73

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SECTION V.

GENERAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

     All surface waters shall meet the generally accepted

aesthetic qualifications and shall be capable of supporting

desirable diversified aquatic life, and these waters shall be:

     (1)  Free from substances attributable to municipal,
          industrial or other discharges or agricultural
          practices that will settle to form objectionable
          sludge deposits.

     (2)  Free from floating debris, scum and other floating
          materials attributable to municipal, industrial or
          other discharges or agricultural practices in
          amounts sufficient to be unsightly or deleterious.

     (3)  Free from materials attributable to municipal,
          industrial or other discharges or agricultural
          practices producing color, odor or other con-
          ditions in such degree as to create a nuisance.

     (4)  Free from substances attributable to municipal,
          industrial or other discharges or agricultural
          practices in concentrations or combinations which
          are toxic or harmful to human, animal,  plant or
          aquatic life.
   NOTE:   Some  States  have  designated  certain  streams  or  portions
          thereof  where  no  discharge is  permitted.   These
          designations may  continue to be  applied using whatever
          description  the State  desires.
                               23

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Radioactivity


     Gross Beta                   1,000 picocuries per  liter

     Radium-226                       3 picocuries per  liter

     Strontium-90                    10 picocuries per  liter

Phosphorus -   Total  phosphorus  as P  shall  not  exceed  50  ug/1  in

               any  stream at  the point where  it enters  any

               reservoir  or  lake,  nor 25 ug/1  in any reservoir

               or  lake.   A desired goal in order to prevent

               plant nuisances  in streams  and  other flowing

               waters  appears to  be  100 ug/1 total P.  (*Revised

               April 1973).*

Suspended Colloidal  or Settleable Solids:  None from waste water

                                           source which  will permit

                                           objectionable deposition

                                           or  be deleterious for the

                                           designated  uses.
Oil and Floating Substances:  No  residue attributable  to waste

                              water  nor visible film oil or

                              globules of  grease.

MIXING ZONES

     The total area and/or volume of a receiving stream  assigned

to mixing zones be limited to that which will:  (1) not  interfere

with biological communities or  populations of  important  species

to a degree which  is damaging to  the  ecosystem; (2) not  diminish

other beneficial uses  disproportionately.

*  Detailed guidance for granting exceptions  to this  criterion
unique to the phosphorus situation, was provided to the
Hegd'onal Administrators on April  4,  1973.

Editorial correction made
4/14/73                            25

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ZONES OF PASSAGE
     In river systems, reservoirs, lakes, estuaries and coattal
waters, zones of passage are continuous water routes of the volume,
area and quality necessary to allow passage of free-swimming and
drifting organisms with no significant effects produced on their
populations.  These zones must be provided wherever mixing zones
are allowed.
     Because of varying local physical and chemical conditions
and biological phenomena no single value can be given on the per-
centage of river width necessary to allow passage of critical
free-swimming and drifting organisms so that negligible or no
effects are produced on their populations.  As a guideline, mixing
zones should be limited to no more than 1/4 of cross-sectional area
and/or volume of flow of stream or estuary, leaving at least 3/4
free as a zone of passage.
ANALYTICAL TESTING
     All methods of sample collection, preservation, and analysis
used in applying any of the rules and regulations in these standards
shall be in accord with those prescribed  in "Standard Methods for
the Examination of Water  and Waste Water," Thirteenth Edition,  or
any subsequent edition with other generally accepted procedures.

STREAM FLOWS
     The water quality standards shall apply at all times
except during periods  when flows are less than the average
minimum seven-day low flow which occurs  once in ten years.

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       DEFINITION OF COMMON TERMS:


                  TERM

       Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
       Coliform Group Organisms
       (Total Coliform Organisms)
       Colloidal Substances
       Combined Sewer
       Desirable Species
       Dilution Ratio
       Disinfection




       Dissolved  Oxygen  (DO)


       Effluent
       MEANING

The measure of the amount of
oxygen necessary to satisfy
the biochemical oxidation
requirements of pollutants at the
time the sample is collected;
unless otherwise specified, this
term will mean the 5 day BOD
incubated at 20C.

All of the aerobic and faculta-
tive anaerobic gram-negative,
non-spore-forming rod shaped
bacteria that ferment lactose
broth with gas formation with-
in 48 hours at 35C.

Minute clay or other substances
which do not settle out without
the use of a flocculant.

A sewer receiving both waste-
water and land run-off.

The aquatic biota indigenous
to warm or cold water fisheries.

The ratio of the seven-day once
in ten years low flow of the
receiving stream to the average
dry weather flow of the treat-
ment works for the design year.

A method of reducing the patho-
genic or objectionable micro-
organisms by means of chemicals
or other acceptable means.

A measure of the amount of  free
oxygen in the water.

Any point source wastewater
discharged,  directly or indirectly
to the waters of the State
or to any storm sewer,  and  the
runoff from land used for the
disposition of wastewater or
sludges.
                                     27
Editorial correction made 4/17/73

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          TERM

Fecal Coliform
Industrial Wastes
Interstate Waters
Intrastate Waters
Membrane Filtration
Milligrams per Liter'(mg/1)
Navigable Waters
Pollutant
      MEANING

The portion of the coliform
group which is present in the
gut or the feces of warm-blooded
animals.  It generally includes
organisms which are capable of
producing gas from lactose broth
in a suitable culture medium
within 24 hours at 44.5 +_ 0.5C.

Any solid, liquid, or gaseous
wastes resulting from any process,
or from excess energy, of in-
dustry, manufacturing, trade, or
business or from the development,
processing, or recovery, except
or agricultural crop raising,
of any natural resources.

All waters which cross or form a
part of the border between States.

All waters of the State which are
not interstate waters.

A technique of bacteriological
analysis.  This technique in-
volves the running of a certain
volume of water through a
cellulose ester wafer which is
then impregnated with growth
media for bacteria.

Milligrams of solute per liter
of solution-equivalent to parts
per million-assuming unit density.

The waters of the United States,
including the territorial seas.

Dredged spoil, solid waste,
incinerator residue, sewage,
garbage, sewage sludge, munitions,
chemical waste, biological
materials, radioactive materials,
heat, wrecked or discarded
equipment, rock, sand, celler
dirt and industrial, municipal,
and agricultural waste discharged
into water.
                              28
Editorial correction made
4/16/73

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      TERM
Pollution
Primary Contact
Public and Food Processing
 Water Supply
Schedule of Compliance
Secondary (Contact
Sewage
Stream Flow
      MEANING

The man-made or man-induced
alteration of the chemical,
physical, biological, and
radiological integrity of water.

Any recreational or other water
use in which there is prolonged
and intimate contact with the
water involving considerable
risk of ingesting water in
quantities sufficient to pose
a significant health hazard,
such as swimming and water skiing.

Any water use in which water is
withdrawn from surface waters of
the State for human consumption
or for processing of food pro-
ducts intended for human con-
sumption.

A schedule of remedial measures
including an enforceable sequence
of actions or operations leading
to compliance with an effluent
limitation, other limitation,
prohibition, or standard.

Any recreational or other water
use in which contact with the
water is either incidental or
accidental and in which the
probability of ingesting apprecia-
ble quantities of water is minimal,,
such as fishing, commercial and
recreational boating and any
limited contact incident to shore
line activity.

Water-carried human and related
wastes from any source together
with associated land runoff.

The non-tidal water movement
that occurs in a natural channel.
                               29

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TERM
Temperature
Toxic Pollutant
 (Amended, April 1973)
Treatment Works
Wastewater
Wastewater Source
Waters
           MEANING

A measure of the heat content of water.
While stream temperature is affected
naturally, man significantly affects it
through construction and operation of dams
and the discharge of cooling waters from
industrial processes, particularly power
generation.

Those pollutants or combinations of
pollutants, including disease-causing
agents, which after discharge and upon
exposure, ingestion, inhalation or
assimilation into any organism, either
directly from the environment or indirectly
by ingestion through food chains, will
cause death, disease,behavioral ,
abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations,
physiological malfunctions, in such
organisms or their offspring.

Those constructions or devices,
individually or collectively, except
sewers, used for collecting, pumping,
treatment, or disposing of wastewaters or for
the recovery of by-products from such
wastewater.

Sewage, industrial waste, or other waste,
or any combination of these, whether
treated or untreated, plus any admixed
land runoff.

Any equipment, facility, or other point
source of any type whatsoever which
discharges wastewater directly or
indirectly  (except through a sewer
tributary to a treatment works), 'to the
waters of the State.

All accumulations of water, surface and
underground, natural, and artificial,
public and private or parts thereof,
which are wholly or partially within,
flow through, or border upon the State,
except that sewers and treatment works
are not  included.
                                 30

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     TERM

Water Quality Standards
(Current, until initial
revision period under
FWPCAA of 1972 has ended)
Water Quality Standards
(Subsequent to intital
revision period under
Section 303(a) of FWPCAA
of 1972)
        MEANING

The designated stream uses or
classifications, criteria to
protect those uses, implementation
and enforcement plans, and the
antidegradation statement.

The designated uses of the
navigable waters involved, the
water quality criteria for such
waters based upon such uses, and
the antidegradation statement.
                                31

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                       F.  OPERATING PROCEDURES





STEP I



     States having intrastate standards were requested to submit them



by November 18, 1972, to the appropriate EPA Regional Office for review



and approval.  States not now having intrastate standards must adopt



and submit them to EPA by April 18, 1973.



     Submission accomplished by:



          (1)  Letter from responsible State official



               that intrastate standards are contained



               in same documents as interstate standards



               now on file with EPA, or,



          (2)  Submittal of a complete standards package



               to the Regional Administrator.










STEP 2



     The EPA Regional Administrator immediately begins to



review existing interstate and intrastate water quality standards.



He conducts the review in the following manner working closely with



the State:



     USES



     --Review each individual stream use designation for conformity with



       national policy requirements (see page 4 of these Guidelines).



       If stream designations meet requirements, no further action is



       needed.  If streams are not in conformity with the requirements,



       advise State in the manner specified in Step 3 below.
                                 32

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     CRITERIA



     --Review water quality criteria for adherence to NTAC recommended



       minimums (see pages 23-26 of these Guidelines) for interpretation



       of NTAC report.   If water quality criteria are consistent with



       national policy requirements, no further action is needed.  If



       water quality criteria need to be upgraded, advise the State in



       the manner specified in Step 3 below.



     OTHER FACTORS



     --many previously approved standards contain supplemental understandings,



       agreements, or interpretations.  These should all be reviewed, ~



       and if still applicable, made an integral part of the water



       quality standards.



     --clarity of the standards, uniformity of format, interstate and



       interregional consistency must be considered during the review



       process.



STEP 3



     After the above cooperative review, each Regional Administrator



shall, by letter, not later than January 18,  1973, officially notify States



of the revisions that are required in interstate water quality standards



which the Regional Administrator expects the State to adopt within ninety



(90) days.  The letter should be sent to the Governor of the affected



State.  If no letter is sent by January 18, 1973, the standards previously



submitted will remain in effect.



STEP 4



     The States have 90 days from notification to adopt the EPA-



recommended revisions.





                                    33

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     Water quality standards or revisions thereto, must meet certain



requirements of Federal law and administrative procedures (see page



14 of these Guidelines).   They also must comply with applicable State



laws and administrative procedural requirements which vary from State



to State.  After adoption by the State, the proposed standards or revisions



must be submitted to the Regional Administrator accompanied by (1)



a letter from an authorized official to the Regional Administrator



requesting approval of the standards, and (2) a statement by the



State Attorney General that the proposed standards or revisions were



duly adopted and will be enforceable by the State.  Submission to the



Regional Administrator shall be accomplished by delivering three



copies of the standards or revisions to the appropriate Regional Office.



(Sample letters are included, on pages 18 and 19.)



STEP 5



     The Regional Office must review each submittal to determine



compliance with national policies and goals.  A checklist to aid



in this review is included on page 500-9 of the Water Quality



Standards Regional Guide issued in September 1972.



     Regional review and approval procedures are as follows:



          A.  If the proposal conforms with national policies,



              the region should:



                   1.  Obtain the official proposal, including



                       the official request for approval and



                       State Attorney General's letter.
                                   34

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                 2.  Prepare an approval letter.  (Sample



                     enclosed on page 500-19 of the Water Quality



                     Standards Guide issued in September 1972.)



                 3.  Transmit to Headquarters:



                          a.  For the national public files,



                              i^  An official copy of the standards



                                  to be approved,



                              ii. An official copy of'the State



                                  submittal documentation.



                          b.  A draft Federal Register notice.



                              (Sample enclosed on page 500-21 of the



                              Water Quality Standards Regional Guide



                              issued in September 1972 and EPA



                              order 1390.)





STEP 6



     If the State adopted water quality standards do not meet the



requirements specified in the policy section of these Guidelines



and the suggested revisions offered by the Regional Administrator,



the EPA must promptly publish proposed water quality standards for



that State in the Federal Register.  The law does not define "promptly".



We shall consider it to mean within 30 days.



     --each Regional Office will prepare the draft Federal Register



       statement and forward same to the Branch of Planning and



       Standards for processing.

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-EPA must promulgate standards 190 days  after initial



 publication unless the State has adopted approvable standards



 in the interim.
                              36

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                        G,  APPENDIX

              ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                        WASHINGTON. D.C. 20460


                                                                  OFFICE OF THE
                                                                  ADMINISTRATOR
                                             November 8,  1972
Memorandum

To        :  All Regional Administrators

Subject   :  Water Quality Standards Review and Revision
     The enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1972 imposes several legislative mandates with
respect to the review and revision of Water Quality Standardse
These requirements include (1) the inclusion of intrastate
standards in the standards program under provisions of the prior
Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and (2) review and revision
of the interstate water quality standards as they were developed
and approved under the prior Act for adherence to the provisions
of the prior Act0

     Because of their importance in issuing municipal and industrial
permits, review and revision of the standards will be a priority
task in implementing the provisions of the 1972 Amendments0  Water
Quality Standards uses and criteria and implementation plan sections
of the standards are to be revised by EPA in conjunction with the
States in accordance with the following policy:

         (1) In reviewing and providing guidance to the States with
respect to revision of the "uses" and "criteria" EPA will require
that the goals and policies in effect prior to the 1972 Amendments
continue to apply.  Under these goals and policies, State waters
should be classified for uses that will permit "recreation in or on
the water" and "the support and propagation of desirable species of
aquatic wildlife,,"

         (2) The water quality criteria to support these uses are
those contained in the National Technical Advisory Committee's
Green Book Report, and should be uniformly applied to both interstate
and intrastate waters.

         (3) Use designations and criteria established by States
bordering interstate waters should be revised if necessary to make
them consistent.

         (4) Exceptions to classifications lower than that for
recreation and fish and wildlife should be justifiedo  If, based
upon natural conditions or upon defensible socio-economic analyses,
                                   37

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 the desired uses are not possible, exceptions can be made.  In these
 cases, the exceptions should be on specific criteria basis,  If, for
 example,  the State adequately demonstrates that natural conditions
 or man-made conditions that cannot be realistically controlled preclude
 reaching  the desired water quality criterion for turbidity, then only
 this criterion should be excepted for the body of water in question,

          (5) Note it is not Agency policy to upgrade now use designa-
 tions for all waters to meet the 1983 level.

          (6) All State standards now contain an antidegradation
 statement.  Antidegradation is compatible with the goals of the Act,
 therefore, no actions should be taken to revise such statements.
 The existing statement should be included in the revised standards.

     Under the prior FWPCA, implementation plans were an integral part
 of the standards and are therefore subject to review and revision.
 Because other programs under the 1972 Amendments affect the schedules
 as now contained in many implementation plans, we will not require an
 extensive general revision of implementation plans.  We are now
 canvassing the Regions to determine the desired extent of these
 revisions.  (. . . see page 5 of these Guidelines)

     The  schedule for completing the initial revisions of
 water quality standards under Sections 303(a), (b) is:

 	Time	         	Requirements	

 November  18, 1972          States submit existing intrastate standards.

 January 18, 1973           EPA reviews existing interstate standards;
                           notifies States of necessary revisions.

 March 18, 1973             EPA reviews existing intrastate standards;
                           notified States of necessary revisions.

 April 18, 1973             States adopt revisions to interstate
                           standards or EPA initiates promulgation
                           action.

                           States submit new intrastate standards.

 June 18,  1973              States adopt revisions to intrastate standards
                           or EPA initiates promulgation action.

 July 18,  1973              EPA reviews new intrastate standards;
                           notifies States of necessary revisions.

 October 18, 1973           States adopt revisions to new  intrastate
                           standards or EPA initiates promulgation
                           action.
                                 38
Editorial correction made 2/28/73

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      Your water quality standards Coordinators on November 9
will  be reviewing and commenting on guidance  to  carry  out  the
above policies.  Once completed, copies of the Guidelines
will  be forwarded to you

                         (ORIGINAL MEMO SIGNED BY)
                                Robert W. Fri
                            Deputy Administrator
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1973	514-154/273
                                  39

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A$, oncy

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