5519        United States          Office of Water Program     Office of Research and
           Environmental Protection     Operations (WH-547)      Development (MERL)
           Agency            Washington DC 20460     Cincinnati OH 45268
           _ r . I
           Water                             September 1980
&EPA   Innovative
           Technology
           Meeting the
           Challenge of the  80's

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 5519        United States         Office of Water Program     Office of Research and
           Environmental Protection     Operations (WH-547)      Development (MERL)
           Agency            Washington DC 20460      Cincinnati OH 45268
           	r.t
           Water                             September 1980
&EPA   Innovative
           Technology
           Meeting the
           Challenge of the 80's

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The Honorable Don H Clausen, Representative from the 2nd District,
Crescent City, California in describing Congressional commitment to
the  Innovative  Technology  Program  during House-Senate
Conference debate-

    The advantages of innovative technology are many They include
    acceleration of efforts to meetthe long-range objectives and goals
    of  the  act, development  of simpler options to conventional
    secondary treatment with concomitant lessening  of operating
    costs and energy consumption, and the facilitation of reclamation
    and recycling  efforts.

    I am convinced that this new departure  will yield substantial
    dividends in advancing technology in the water pollution control
    field  leading  to improved  water quality at  lesser  capital  or
    operating costs, or the combination of the two

    The opportunities  are enormous, as are the benefits
              " '*?:

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        INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY
     THE CHALLENGE  OF THE 80's
  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE  OF WATER PROGRAM OPERATIONS
      WASHINGTON,  D,C,   20460
   U.3. Environmental Rrotecttoa >AgeJIC^j
   Rjjion V, Library
   230 Couth Dearborn Street
   Chicago, Illinois  60604
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U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency

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Introduction
The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the
implementing regulations encourage the use of
both innovative and alternative (I/A) technologies
as solutions to municipal wastewater and sludge
management needs Special emphasis is given to
technologies that conserve  or recover energy,
reduce total costs,  reclaim or reuse  water, recycle
wastewater constituents, or eliminate surface
discharges

This brochure disseminates recent information on
innovative technology in context of the initial three
year I/A Program  (Information concerning
alternative technology can be found  in other EPA
publications) Presented first is a brief discussion
of innovative technology and the concept  of risk
followed by a summary of the "Active" I/A
Program Finally, several selected case histories
are featured out of the over one hundred
applications received by EPA for innovative
technology funding during the first two years of
the program Innovative technologies are
classified as (1) those approved for funding by the
EPA Regional offices,  and (2) those  under
consideration as part of the Active I/A Program

Since innovative technology is determined on a
case-by-case basis by the EPA Regional offices,
this brochure does not serve as an endorsement of
any of the presented technologies  rather it is
intended to be informational in nature by
describing  representative projects that have been
submitted at this point in time

As part  of the EPA Active I/A Program, technical
and administrative assistance can be provided to
consultants and municipalities who  wish to pursue
consideration of the technologies  presented or
other emerging technologies on a case-by-case
basis National, Regional, and State  I/A contacts
and coordinators are shown on the  last page of
this brochure

Innovative Technology and the Concept
of Risk

Innovative Technology is defined as  processes and
techniques that are developed methods which have
not been fully proven  under the circumstances of
their contemplated use and which represent a
significant  advancement over the  state-of-the-art
in terms of meeting the national goals

In contrast, conventional concepts of treatment are
defined  as  biological or physical-chemical
processes with  direct  point  source discharge to
surface  waters
Innovative Technology must have some element of
increased risk and associated benefit  Traditional
engineering practice has always dictated a very
low element of risk for the construction  of full-
scale public works projects supported by federal
expenditures In passing  PL 95-217, Congress
clearly intended that a higher degree of  risk be
permitted  and  encouraged for innovative
technology High risk, high potential state-of-the-
art advancement projects may be judged
acceptable for funding where high risk, low
potential state-of-the-art advancement projects
may be deemed unacceptable  The concept of
risk vs  stage of technology advancement used in
the innovative technology program is shown in the
accompanying figure  The innovative technology
program is designed to encourage use of
technologies that are within this window of
acceptable risk.  This calls for a conscious decision
on the part of the designers to depart from
traditional practice and propose higher than normal
risk designs that have increased potential for
achieving cost,  energy, or other benefits  This is a
key element in  this new national program
Conceptual illustration showing risk versus stage of technology
development and the window of acceptable risk
In recognition of the inherent conservatism in the
design of wastewater treatment facilities EPA's
I/A Program includes a comprehensive set of
positive incentives to encourage Innovative
Design  These include increased federal
construction grant assistance for I/A technologies,
increased design fees for innovative technology,
sole source procurement and patent exemptions
for innovative technology

Also, in recognition of the risks involved in
encouraging this departure from business as usual,

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the EPA will make 700% grants to cover the total
cost of modifying  or even replacing innovative
systems that do not perform as intended

The Active I/A  Program

As a further inducement for the consideration and
use of Innovative  Technologies, on March 20, 1980
EPA's Administrator announced the formation of
an Active I/A program The Active I/A
technology program  is a joint effort of the EPA
Construction Grants and Research and
Development Programs. The overall thrust of
this program is to

  Identify recently developed emerging I/A
    technologies ready for implementation.

  Identify and recommend project sites
    throughout the country that can potentially
    benefit from emerging technologies

  Assist local communities and their consulting
    engineers with assessment and analysis of
    emerging technologies that may be applicable
    to their specific wastewater treatment control
    or  management problems

  Provide consulting engineers with detailed
    planning and  engineering assistance on a
    project-by-project basis

A special emphasis of the Active I/A technology
program is to provide direct technical and
administrative EPA  assistance to municipalities  in
the actual development of I/A projects at the local
level  The EPA is  working closely with local and
state governments, public participation groups,
consultants, and equipment manufacturers in this
new effort

Activities of the Active I/A program will include a
series of ten emerging technology seminars to be
held during  October, November, and December in
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Chicago,
Dallas, Kansas City, Denver, San Francisco, and
Seattle  The Water and Wastewater Equipment
Manufacturers Association  is sponsoring the
seminars with EPA as a cooperating agency. A
special announcement for these seminars  is
available

Also, as part of the Active I/A effort, a number of
emerging technology assessment reports (40-60
pages) are being published to disseminate
information  on recent advances in the field of
wastewater treatment that have strong potential  as
innovative technology. They will soon  be available
through state and regional I/A coordinators or
from MERL-Cmcmnati. Assessments which have
been completed include overland flow, vertical tube
reactor, anaerobic upflow expanded bed, deep
shaft technologies,  and solar  applications in the
treatment of wastewater and sludge

Innovative Technology

Presented are eight EPA approved Innovative
Technology  projects and five that are currently
under review as part of the Active I/A program.
Those under review have been
preliminarily determined to be within the window
of acceptable risk and offer a potential
advancement in the state-of-the-art. Final
classification will depend on their meeting the 15%
life cycle cost, 20% net primary energy savings or
improved application qualifying criteria in the
particular site specific application.
                                                                         EPA Regional I/A Coordinators,
                                                                         Headquarters  and  Cincinnati
                                                                         Staff meet  to  discuss  I/A
                                                                         program and visit project sites.

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                Innovative  Technology  Projects
                Approved for Funding by EPA
Hillsborough, New Hampshire
Adopts Innovative Energy
Design
The town of Hillsborough, New Hampshire is
implementing an alternate energy systems
approach in the design of their 0.45 mgd
wastewater treatment plant Many of the plant
features are similar to those found in the Wilton,
Maine wastewater treatment facility shown in the
accompanying figure. These include active and
passive solar comfort and hot water heating, active
solar heating of the anaerobic digestion, passive
solar heating of the rotating biological contactors,
recovery, storage and use of methane to run gas
generators, gas generator coolant heat recovery,
ventilation system heat recovery via air to air heat
exchangers, effluent heat recovery via heat pumps
Special architectural design features  include
underground construction where possible
Processes will be kept close together and the
facility will be completely enclosed The consultant
for the Hillsborough project is Anderson-Nichols
and Company Inc. and the consultant for Wilton is
Wright-Pierce, Architects and Engineers
View of the Wilton, Maine wastewater treatment plant looking
north
Exposure of the facility to the north was
minimized. The roof is designed to hold a heavy
load of snow, a  natural insulator Concrete block
and brick were used in conjunction with heavy
insulation to hold heat in at night A screw pump
is to be used at  the head of the plant in
conjunction with gravity flow through the plant to
minimize energy demand for pumping Covered
rotating biological contactors were selected to treat
the wastewater, in part, because the  large surface
area of the contactor is alternately exposed to
warmer air, which is passively heated by the sun,
and to the cooler wastewater This procedure adds
heat to the wastewater which is projected to
improve RBC performance, reduce sludge heating
requirements, and improve effluent heat recovery
Although many  of the design features and unit
processes mentioned above would be considered
conventional taken separately, both the
Hillsborough and Wilton designs represent a
comprehensive and conceptually innovative total
energy conserving design approach
                                                               \\\\\\\\\\\\\v

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In addition to reducing the net primary energy
requirements of the Hillsborough plant to less than
80% of a conventional design which was the  basis
for innovative technology approval by EPA Region I,
the operating costs of the facility were reduced

Other possible  innovative alternate renewable
energy source designs which can be considered
include the use of windmills which are presently
being studied for application at Livingston,
Montana, low head hydroelectric facilities, and
geothermal sources
                                                    Close-up view of solar collectors and anaerobic digesters at
                                                    Wilton, Maine

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                   WET
                   WELL   INFLUEN-
                         PUMPING
                                                  DEWATERING
                                                  BELT FILTE
                                                  PRESS
Process schematic showing Hillsborough, New Hampshire
energy saving design features

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Lackawanna, New York Uses
Dual Aerobic/Anaerobic
Sludge Digestion and  Obtains
Innovative Technology Grant
The city of Lackawanna, New York is replacing
existing anaerobic sludge digestion facilities at
their 4.5 mgd oxygen activated sludge wastewater
treatment plant with a new combined aerobic/
anaerobic digestion process  This concept first
studied at Hagerstown, Maryland has been
approved for innovative technology funding by EPA
Region II at Lackawanna, New York. The consultant
for the project is Nussbaum and Clark The
combined digestion process (CDP) receives heat
necessary for anaerobic digestion  under mesophihc
or thermophilic conditions from a preceding
oxygen-fed aerobic digestion step which oxidfzes
part of the incoming sludge

Sludge from primary clanfiers and thickened waste
activated sludge from a pure oxygen  secondary
process will be first treated in an aerobic tank with
a retention time of 1 2 days which generates
enough  heat for either mesophilic or thermophilic
anaerobic digestion in a second step In the aerobic
digester, pure oxygen will  be used to minimize
heat losses through the vent gas The vent gas,
which will contain unused oxygen will be recycled
in the secondary treatment process Additional
oxygen-generating capacity will be required as the
amount of additional oxygen required in the first
step of the sludge digestion process exceeds the
spare capacity of the secondary treatment oxygen-
generating units  Enough heat will be generated by
the process to maintain  a  1 29F temperature
where pasteurization of the sludge will occur.

The second step anaerobic digestion will take place
in two existing 50 foot diameter tanks which will
be remodeled to include fixed covers and mixing
The temperature  at this  stage is estimated to  be
122F. Digested sludge from the first of two
anaerobic tanks will be fed to the second tank for
supernatant separation and additional gas
collection  Digested sludge from the anaerobic
second stage can be recycled to the first stage. The
gas spaces between the two anaerobic tanks  will
be interconnected Total retention time in the
anaerobic digesters is eight days. Sludge will  be
dewatered by centrifugation with existing drying
beds as standby.  Supernatant and centrate will  be
treated to remove phosphorus  In this dual
digestion process, auxiliary heating of the
anaerobic digester is unnecessary because of
View of the aerobic digester portion of the dual digestion
demonstration project at Hagerstown, Maryland
exothermic first-stage oxidation due to closed tank
use of O2 This allows utilization of digester gas
energy for other than anaerobic digester heating
purposes such as mplant heating and power
generation
The combined aerobic/anaerobic digestion seeks to
incorporate advantages of each type of digestion
and minimize their drawbacks  Aerobic digestion is
inherently a  more stable  and quicker oxidation
process, but it consumes more energy Anaerobic
digestion, although a slow process and susceptible
to upset, has a low energy requirement and
produces methane Using the processes in an
improved operational sequence allows the aerobic
reactor (oxygen fed) to provide adequate heat for
improved operation of  anaerobic digestion, which
in turn frees the methane produced for other
"high" energy uses

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Utilization of aerobic followed by anaerobic sludge
digestion allows potentially more reliable and
stable sludge treatment operation. A unique  aspect
of the process is the possibility to pasteurize the
sludge because of the relatively high temperatures
and detention  times encountered in thermophilic
aerobic digestion  If properly  stabilized and
excessive heavy metals are not present, the sludge
can be disposed on land
In summary, this process proposed for use at
Lackawanna has adequately demonstrated the
potential'for increased operational stability,
additional environmental benefits, and possible
cost and/or energy savings over conventional
anaerobic digestion which  served as the basis for
approval as innovative technology by  EPA Region
Schematic showing the dual aerobic/anaerobic sludge
digestion process
                            Excess 02 to A.S



Activated
Sludge
Thickener

Primary
Wet Well


^.Supernatant
Sludge '
u
Sludge 1

l t
j
xotnermic Heat biudge bas.
i
Slud
Anaerobic
Digester

*
1
ge
H
/. Aerobic
Digester
Slu
-
dg<
> *
Supernatant
Separation
Anaerobic
Digestor
Sludge Recycle
Utilization
~!
Supernatant
Dewatermg

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Fluidized  Bed Biological
Treatment (FBBT)  is  Used in
an  Innovative Approach to
Expand  a  New York  Plant
Nassau County, New York is presently designing
additional secondary wastewater treatment
facilities to upgrade and expand their existing Bay
Park Wastewater Treatment Plant from 60 to 70
mgd Expansion facilities will utilize fluidized bed
biological treatment (FBBT) This design is another
example of an improved biological treatment
process approved by EPA for increased grant
funding under the I/A Program

The FBBT process consists of a columnar
bioreactor partially filled with fine grained media
such as carbon or sand having an effective size
approximately 0 6 mm and a uniformity coefficient
of 1 4 Primary effluent is passed up through the
bottom with enough velocity to expand or
"fluidize" the  media The media  acts  as a support
surface upon which a firmly attached biomass
eventually grows and thrives Intimate contact
between attached biomass and wastewater is
assured thereby improving treatment efficiency
Oxygen is provided  by a 200 feet deep oxygen  fed
U-tube reactor. Reactor effluent  at the Bay Park
plant passes through a conventional secondary
clanfier before discharge, even though a proposed
proprietary sand separation device may reduce
effluent SS  to acceptable levels without
clarification
View of the overflow launder on fluidized-bed reactor
                                                                View of four fluidized-bed reactors

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                  Oxygen
   Sand
Separation
  Pump
                                                                     Final Clanfier
                                                                       (Optional)
                                                                                   Effluent
                                        Fluid Bed  Bioreactor    Waste Biological
                                                                    Solids
                           U-Tube
Process diagram showing the fluidized-bed system as used at
the Nassau County Bay Park Facility
The FBBT operation is expected to meet secondary
discharge permit standards more  cost effectively
and energy efficiently than conventional activated
sludge plants. The fluidized-bed reactor allows
higher loadings, lowers  volume of sludge
production; potentially eliminates secondary
clarification requirements These  advantages can
result in fewer and smaller treatment units
performing the same degree of treatment.
Preliminary indications are that overall operation
and maintenance costs will remain approximately
the same as activated sludge

The reactor requires no  recirculation to maintain
high concentrations of biomass Furthermore, pilot
reactors have resulted in mixed liquor volatile
suspended solids (MLVSS) greater than 14,000
mg/l compared to typical conventional activated
sludge MLVSS concentrations of  1,500 mg/l As a
result,  treatment time and bioreactor volume are
reduced. Pilot plant evaluations using wastewater
from the Bay Park Wastewater Treatment Plant
                    have indicated that with a recycle ratio of 1 5,
                    satisfactory secondary treatment of primary
                    sewage is possible in as little as 15 minutes
                    detention time compared to the several hours for
                    conventional activated sludge treatment  Recycling
                    is necessary because dissolved oxygen content is
                    limiting It has not yet been possible to add
                    sufficient oxygen to the wastewater in a single
                    pass to support the biological oxidation that occurs
                    in the high MLVSS reactor This technology was
                    determined to  meet EPA's energy criteria for
                    innovative technology The consultant for this
                    project is Consoer, Townsend and Associates

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An Innovative Hybrid
Approach  Solves an Industrial
Waste Problem  in  Michigan
The city of Kalamazoo, Michigan has selected the
use of powdered activated carbon addition for
treatment of a combined industrial/domestic (53.3
mgd) waste. EPA Region V has approved the
Kalamazoo  project for innovative technology
funding. The consultant is Jones and Henry
Engineers.

The proposed single-stage biophysical system
includes screening, degrittmg, comminution,
primary sedimentation, activated carbon addition
(The PACT Process) aeration, final clarification,
effluent filtration, disinfection, and post aeration.
The treated plant effluent is discharged to the
Kalamazoo  River. Liquid alum is added before
primary and final clarification to achieve
phosphorus removal The primary sludges are
treated by gravity thickening, heat conditioning,
decanting, vacuum filtration, and incineration, with
ash disposal to landfill The secondary  sludges go
through gravity thickening, activated carbon
regeneration, wet air oxidation and  settling, with
final disposal of the residual to landfill  The design
criteria which  must be met include  a daily
maximum of 10 mg/l BOD ,  2 mg/l NHa-N, 5 mg/l
DO minimum, and a 7-day average  of 15 mg/l SS
during the period from May 1 to October  31. For
the period from November  1  to April 30, the
following limitations are required  daily maximum
of 30 mg/l  BOD , 5 mg/l DO minimum, 7-day
average of 45  mg/l SS. The  annual total
phosphorus removal requirement is 80%  with
effluent total phosphorus concentration of 1 mg/l
or less, and effluent pH to be within the range of
6 5 to 9 5
In order to accomplish these seasonal limits for a
high strength domestic/industrial waste,  the
addition of  powdered activated carbon to the
activated sludge basin with wet oxidation
regeneration will be practiced. This  project met the
15% life cycle cost saving criteria over  the most
cost effective non-innovative two-stage biological
design as the basis of innovative designation.
Advantages offered for the process in this
application include

  Ability to carry active biomass at  levels two to
   three times higher than activated sludge and
   thus reduce aeration basin size and hydraulic
   detention time.

  The massive amounts of carbon present in the
   aeration  basin tend to serve as an "organic
    sink" for shock loads of toxic  or refractory
    materials

   Oxygen transfer is improved  probably as the
    result of adsorption-desorption of gas from the
    activated carbon

   A larger  portion of marginally degradable
    organics is biologically assimilated due to the
    long sludge residence time This enables the
    carbon to carry a higher load  of truly refractory
    materral.

   Nitrification is easily achieved with the long
    sludge residence time

   Odor, color, and foaming  problems are
    reduced
                                               10

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                                                                               View of one of PACTs clarifiers (foreground)
                                                                               with aeration tanks, virgin carbon silo, and
                                                                               wet air regeneration building  in the back-
                                                                               ground
Interior view of wet regeneration buildings
showing  the  regeneration  units  steam
generators  in  the  foreground and heat
exchangers and reactor in the background

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Improved  Aeration of
Oxidation  Ditch Plants Meet
Innovative Technology
Qualifying Criteria  in Selected
Cases
The towns of Atmore, Alabama (EPA Region 4);
Santa Fe, New Mexico (EPA Region 6), and
Fairfield, Iowa (EPA Region 7) employ a new
concept of aeration of oxidation ditches in the
construction of new or expanded municipal
wastewater treatment facilities The consultants
for these cities are Goodwyn and Mills Consulting
Engineers, Scanlon and Associates, and French-
Reneker-Associates, Inc This new draft-tube
aeration method utilizes a barrier across the entire
cross-sectional area of the narrow elongated
oxidation ditch channel. One or more draft-tube
circulators are installed which circulate the entire
channel contents by pumping thru draft tubes
installed under the barrier as shown in the
accompanying figure  Air is  separately pumped via
blowers into the circulating  draft tube to provide
 process oxygen requirements. The draft-tube is
 sized such that the air is carried down with the
 wastewater  The  depth of the draft-tube increases
 dissolved oxygen due to increased hydrostatic head
 at a small energy cost. The entire flow passes
 under the dam via the draft-tube, and is aerated
 before beginning another circuit around the
 channel The use of two prime movers in this
 manner decouples oxygenation from channel
 velocity, thereby  providing greater process control
 and flexibility This process has been approved as
 innovative technology in selected applications due
 to the 20% net primary energy savings criteria.
                                                                      Turbine
                             Draft Tube
                   Barrier.   /Aerators
             'FLOW
                PLAN VIEW
         Draft Tube Aerator-
           (See Sketch)
                SECTION A-A
                                                                                   Deep Draft
                                                                                   Tube
 Use of draft tube aerators in an oxidation ditch
Blow-up sketch of a typical draft tube aerator
                                              12

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Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation
District  Uses  Upflow Packed
Tower in  Innovative  Design
for Nitrogen  Control
The Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District in
Colorado will use an upflow packed bed reactor for
nitrification to meet an effluent ammonia
requirement of 1  mg/l  The packed bed reactor
will be used in conjunction with a 3 2 mgd
activated sludge process Results from an  EPA
sponsored laboratory bench scale study at
Stanford,  a plant size demonstration study at Los
Angeles County and independent research at Iowa
State University showed that a flooded packed
tower with internal aeration could produce an
effluent with no more  than 1 mg/l of ammonia
nitrogen The reactor will be constructed partly
underground and will contain gravel and plastic
media Internal aeration will be by fine bubble
diffusers  The new process was judged to  be
developed, but to still contain sufficient risk to
qualify as innovative technology Secondary
clarification will  not be necessary The packed bed
reactor will save over 15% life cycle costs
compared to the most  cost effective conventional
alternative and was therefore approved for
innovative technology funding by EPA Region VIII
The consultant for the project is M & I,  Inc
Cut-away sketch showing the upflow packed-bed reactor
design for Upper Eagle Valley, Colorado
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Overland  Flow as  an
Innovative Land Treatment
Alternative
Overland flow is one of several types of land
treatment In general, land treatment is the
controlled application of liquid wastes onto the
land surface by spray or surface spreading to
achieve a designed degree of wastewater
renovation through natural physical, chemical, and
biological processes within the soil matrix

Land treatment systems are  designed to meet one
or more of the following objectives: wastewater
treatment as a final or intermediate process to
meet regulatory limitations, wastewater disposal
(zero discharge), water conservation;  crop or forest
growth enhancement, or landscale irrigation.

In overland flow land treatment, wastewater is
applied over the upper reaches of sloped terraces
and allowed to flow across the vegetated surface
to runoff collection ditches The wastewater is
renovated by physical, chemical, and  biological
means as it  flows in  a thin film down the relatively
impermeable slope. There is  relatively little
percolation involved either because of an
impermeable soil or a subsurface  barrier to
percolation.

The objectives of overland flow are wastewater
treatment and crop production  Treatment
objectives may be either to achieve secondary or
better effluent quality from screened  primary
treated, or lagoon treated wastewater, or to
achieve high levels of nitrogen and BOD removals
comparable to conventional advanced wastewater
treatment from  secondary treated  wastewater.
Treated water is collected at  the toe of the
overland flow slopes  and can be either reused or
discharged to surface water  Overland flow can
also be used for production of forage  grasses and
the preservation of greenbelts and open space.

Perennial grasses (Reed Canary, Bermuda, Red
Top, tall fescue and Italian Rye) with  long growing
seasons, high moisture tolerance  and extensive
root formation are best suited to overland flow.
Harvested grass is suitable for cattle  feed

Surface methods of distribution include the use of
gated pipe or bubbling orifice Gated  surface pipe,
which is attached to  aluminum hydrants, is
aluminum pipe  with  multiple outlets.  Control of
flow is accomplished with slide gates or screw
adjustable orifices at each outlet.  Bubbling orifices
View of a "typical" overland flow site at the Easley, South
Carolina demonstration project, showing the perimeter storm
water diversion ditch
are small diameter outlets from laterals used to
introduce flow Gravel may be necessary to
dissipate energy and ensure  uniform distribution
of water from these surface methods

Slopes must be steep enough to prevent ponding
of the runoff, yet mild enough to prevent erosion
and provide sufficient detention time for the
wastewater on the slopes (generally 2-8%) Slopes
must have a uniform cross slope and be free from
gullies to prevent channeling and allow uniform
distribution over the surface. The network of
slopes  and terraces that make up an overland
system may  be adapted to natural  rolling terrain
The use of this type of terrain will  minimize land
preparation costs.
                                                14

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Storage must be provided for non-operating
periods. Runoff  is collected in open ditches When
unstable soil conditions are encountered or flow
velocities are erosive, gravity pipe collection
systems  may be required

Common preapplication practices include the
following, screening or comminution for isolated
sites with no public access, screening or
comminution plus aeration to control odors during
storage or application for urban locations with no
public access

A common method of distribution is with
sprinklers Recirculation of collected effluent is
sometimes provided and/or required  Effluent
disinfection  is required where stringent fecal
cohform criteria  exist, generally, from 1 6 to 110
acres are needed for each mgd treated


Overland flow is a relatively new treatment
process for municipal wastewater in the United
States It is generally accepted  as a well developed
technology which has not been fully proven The
equipment used in overland flow systems such as
pumps, pipes, valves, gates, and farm equipment
are readily available

Overland flow is specifically defined as an
alternative technology. However, because of the
recent development of this technology, and its
environmental benefits, overland flow has been
approved as innovative technology in Lamar,
Arkansas and the following cities in Louisiana:
Castor, Estherwood,  Franklmton, Forrest Hill,
Morse, and  Spearsville
Close-up view of the raw wastewater distribution system at the
Easley. South Carolina overland flow demonstration project

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Innovative Odor  Control
Features  of  the Sacramento
Sludge Management System
The odor control elements of the Sacramento
Regional County Sanitation District Sludge
Management System were approved by the State
of California and EPA Region IX as innovative
technology in July of 1979. Since that time, the
State Water Resources Control Board and the
State Innovative/Alternative (I/A) Technology
Committee have designated individual components
of the system at a total cost of about  $10,000,000,
as eligible for the additional 10 percent I/A
funding

The Sacramento sludge management system
involves storing anaerobically digested sludge from
the regional treatment  plant in specially designed
facultative sludge lagoons (FSL's) for  up to five
years  Odor control, a major problem  in any kind of
sludge storage  system, poses  special  difficulties in
open lagoons  Brown and Caldwell, lead firm in
the Sacramento Area Consultants joint venture,
conducted and  managed over four years of field
studies to develop the special features for odor
control

An especially noteworthy innovation for reducing
odors is the vacuum deodonzation process. This
process involves vacuum stripping of anaerobically
digested sludge to remove odorous gases before
the sludge is discharged to the FSL's A blending
digester will be used upstream of the
deodonzation process to reduce short-circuiting of
raw sludge through the digestion process and
reduce odors

Light winds or calm conditions and strong near-
ground temperature inversions at the lagoons can
cause localized buildup of odors  Barrier walls and
wind machines are innovative features which are
A 12-foot high barrier has been erected around the Sacramento.
California facility FSL's to provide greater vertical mixing of
odors

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strategically placed around the lagoons to ensure
maximum dispersion of odor during these critical
periods.

Operation procedures and controls at the lagoons
are also designed to  reduce odors Innovative
features include the  control strategies and
automatic feed valves, the  mechanical surface
mixers, and on-site micrometeorological
monitoring stations which will be used to identify
critical periods when special operating procedures
will be employed  Control of basin levels and
sludge removal operations are also important for
odor control

Wind machines are strategically placed around the Sacramento,
California facility FSL 's for odor control, and are operated
during periods of calm coinciding with strong inversion
conditions
                                                    77

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                 Innovative  Technology  Projects
                 Under  Consideration by  EPA  as
                 Part of the Active  I/A  Program
Proposed Use of a Vertical
Tube Reactor  (VTR) for
Treatment of a  High  Strength
Municipal Wastewater at
Montrose, Colorado
A recent example of an active I/A project that
shows promise is the use of a Vertical Tube
Chemical Reactor as a part of an overall plant
design to provide secondary treatment for a design
flow of 3 2 mgd of high strength municipal/
industrial wastewater at Montrose, Colorado.
Region VIM EPA and MERL Active I/A Staff have
been working with the city of Montrose, Colorado,
the consulting firm  of Roy F Weston, and VTR, Inc.
to  investigate the application of the newly
developed process.  A preliminary determination
has been made based on pilot tests usmq a 1700
feet deep well and laboratory reactor studies that
the process exhibits a significant potential  for
advancement of the state-of-the-art and is within
the window of acceptable risk. Preliminary
engineering studies indicate that this process
exceeds  EPA's Innovative Technology energy
savings criteria for the Montrose or similar high
strength waste streams  The process also exhibits
significant  potential for chemical oxidation of
sludge to generate excess energy

For the  Montrose application, final qualification as
innovative technology will be made following
completion of a cost effective analysis.

The principal  feature of the VTR system  is  its use
of  an extended vertical U-tube (two concentric
tubes) reactor for achieving optimum reaction
pressures, temperatures, and retention time for
wet chemical oxidation  The tubes are suspended
from the top of a conventionally cased well and
may extend to depths over 5,000 feet The waste
fluid and air are injected into a tube at the earth's
surface. As the waste stream and air flow down
the tube, they undergo natural pressunzation due
to  hydrostatic head. Thus, water  pumps and air
compressors need only be sized to overcome
friction and gravity losses and do not need to
develop the high pressures actually experienced at
the bottom of the U-tube.

Although the thermodynamic principles involved in
wet oxidation are well established, the VTR system
is  a recent and unique engineering application of
these  principles which offers the following
advantages  First, heat losses are mmimized.once
surrounding earth is at thermodynamic equilibrium
promoting efficient heat transfer and energy
conservation This includes significant potential for
recovering and selling the energy (heat from the
hot water) gained from the exothermic reactions
for waste streams with a COD greater than 450
mg/l  Secondly,  its configuration promotes land
conservation Finally, the concept itself is
extremely efficient because it takes advantage of
natural hydrostatic head to create the pressures
desired
                                           18

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Conceptual vertical tube reactor layout
                                                         19

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Consideration of the Deep
Shaft Biological Reactor
(DSR) at Ithaca,  New  York
A DSR is basically a vertical oriented activated
sludge reactor which has the potential to reduce
land area required for treatment, life cycle costs,
and energy requirements Treatment of raw
wastewater occurs at elevated pressures with
turbulent mixing promoting efficient oxygen
dissolution and intimate contact of waste and
microorganisms This method differs from the VTR
in that it affords biological treatment rather than
chemical oxidation

Influent raw wastewater and sludge recycle are fed
to the head tank located directly above the DSR
The DSR is divided into an upflow section (called
the  riser) and a downflow section (called the
downcomer)
The initial circulation of the mixed liquor in the
shaft is induced by a simple air lift pump principle
using compressed air injected into the riser side of
the shaft Once shaft circulation is established, the
air supply is gradually transferred to the
downflowmg side. Since the velocity of the rising
bubbles injected into the downcomer is 4-7 times
less than the liquid  velocity in the downcomer,
these bubbles are carried downward to the bottom
of the shaft A  large portion of the bubbles will be
completely dissolved before they reach the bottom
of the shaft. As the liquid travels up the riser,
pressure decreases and bubbles of nitrogen,
Schematic showing the DSR demonstration treatment project
at Ithaca, New York
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                                              20

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carbon dioxide, and residual oxygen are formed
and then released to the atmosphere in the head
tank. Treated effluent then  overflows to the solids
separation system

The USEPA is supporting a municipal
demonstration project of the DSR at Ithaca, New
York.  Full-scale DSRs are being presently operated
at the 0.55 mgd Molson's brewery facility m
Barne, Canada, and at the  0 6 mgd domestic
waste facility in Virden, Manitoba (Reid Crowther
& Partners,  Ltd , were the consulting engineers)
Another DSR is presently under construction at
the city of Portage  la Prairie in Manitoba  to treat a
combined municipal food processing waste.

The Ithaca municipal demonstration DSR is 446
feet deep and has a main steel casing grouted to
the geological formation with cement The primary
downcomer is 11  75 inches outside diameter
Compressed air is added to both the downcomer
and the riser The DSR acts as a plug flow
bioreactor.  Operation is based on  an average
influent BOD of 150 mg/l.  The combination of high
intensity mixing in the shaft and elevated
pressures produce high oxygen utilization
efficiencies for influent BOD of 500 mg/l or more
With the Ithaca influent, oxygen utilization is
expected to be lower

The Ithaca municipal demonstration plant project is
providing scale-up data for building a full-scale
plant  Average flow at Ithaca is approximately 10
mgd In a full-scale facility at Ithaca, high grade
waste heat would be available from two proposed
150 HP compressors The recovered energy could
be used to heat an enclosed process facility

The full-scale design is identified as an active I/A
project and is being considered as  a potential
innovative design in the facility plan The
consultant for the project  is Stearns and Wheeler
The process has been preliminarily determined to
be within the window of acceptable risk by  EPA
Cut-away artist's rendition of the Virden, Manitoba DSR
                                                21

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Design of an Anaerobic Fixed
Film  Expanded Bed  (AFFEB)
at Hanover,  New Hampshire
In New Hampshire, as part of the Active I/A effort,
the  EPA has been working closely with the city of
Hanover, the State, and the consulting firms of
Hoyle and Tanner and J  I. Associates in the
proposed use of an anaerobic expanded bed fixed
film process to treat 2 mgd of domestic primary
effluent. In  general, anaerobic systems are
receiving renewed attention as a cost and energy
efficient method of treating domestic wastewaters
The city of Hanover is pursuing a facility planning
revision and work on a design report for this
process In  a departure from a business as usual
approach, the EPA will be one member of a joint
design review team and will provide direct aid in
the  further  development of this process as it is
undergoing full-scale design.  In the
implementation of the Hanover project, EPA will  be
encouraging sole source procurement and patent
exemptions in accordance with recently issued
policy directives in these areas.

Anaerobic biological wastewater treatment has a
number of distinct advantages which make this
method more desirable than treatment by chemical
or aerobic biological processes The principle
advantages are (1) a high degree of waste
stabilization can be obtained, (2) production of
biological solids is low, and (3) methane gas is
produced which can be used  as an on-site source
of energy  The anaerobic nature of the process
eliminates the need for aeration equipment and  its
associated  power demand, the low solids
production  reduces nutrient requirements and
minimizes the  need for sludge disposal

The AFFEB is a new development based on
anaerobic treatment that provides high biomass
population  as fixed films that can effectively
remove organics from dilute wastewaters while
operating at short  hydraulic detention times and
low operating temperatures. Under these
conditions the process is capable of high organic
removal efficiencies when treating the domestic
wastes

The ability to effectively treat dilute wastes by an
anaerobic process is a significant  development in
wastewater treatment. Previous attempts in
general, have not  been particularly successful
because of washout problems or an inability to
develop adequate  biomass to allow effective
stabilization  The low retention times and low
solids in the effluent will result in significant cost
savings Because  aeration is not required and
methane will be recovered, significant energy
savings will be realized.

The application of the  AFFEB process at Hanover
has been judged to be within the  window of
acceptable risk  Final  qualification  as innovative
technology will be determined upon EPA review of
the revised facility plan.
                                               22

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                                  Methane Gas
                                Cleaning Recovery
                                    and Reuse
                                                           Aerobic
Final Clanfier
  (Optional)
                       Anaerobic
                       Fluidized
                       Sand Bed
        Primary Effluent
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                                                                                      Secondary
                                                                                       Effluent
                                          Inter Stage
                                          Pumping or Control
Preliminary conceptual process schematic for the AFFEB
process
                                                   23

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Design of an  Anaerobic/Oxic
(A/O)  Process at Largo,
Florida for Nutrient  Removal
The city of Largo, Florida is pursuing innovative
technology funding with EPA Region IV for the
A/O Process. The city of Largo, Florida began
operating a 3 0 mgd demonstration system in
August of 1979. The A/0 system is a unique two-
stage single sludge anaerobic/aerobic treatment
system which can reliably remove phosphorus and,
if needed, denitrify without the use of a
supplementary carbon source. With the A/0
system, pilot results indicate phosphorus levels can
be reduced to less than  1  mg/l  Residence times
are low, and the  rate of reaction is high The
process uses conventional equipment in a unique
conceptual  design to achieve overall process cost
effectiveness

The mixed liquor is non-bulking since filamentous
organisms responsible for bulking do not
predominate under the normal loading, SRT and
cyclic oxic/anoxic conditions of the mixed liquor.
The waste sludge produced contains organically
bound  phosphorus and is reported to have
improved settling properties In addition, the waste
sludge can exhibit an economic benefit because
        the high phosphorus content upgrades it to a slow-
        release organic fertilizer. The sludge produced at
        Largo is dried and pelletized for sale as a fertilizer.

        In the A/0 process, a conventionally designed
        concrete tank is used as the reactor. The tank is
        divided into two sections' m one, wastewater is
        agitated and oxygen is excluded (anaerobic); in  the
        other, the liquid is vigorously mixed and air or pure
        oxygen is introduced (aerobic). The anaerobic
        section is equipped with mechanical mixers. The
        two sections  are subdivided even further into
        stages to provide plug flow through the reactor. A
        conventional  secondary clanfier follows the
        reactor. Demtrification is achieved  without external
        carbon  by recycling  mixed liquor from the aerobic
        section to the anaerobic section. The A/0 process
        has been judged to be within the window of
        acceptable risk  and was shown to  meet EPA's  1 5%
        life cycle cost saving criteria over the  most cost
        effective non-innovative alternative. The consulting
        engineer for the Largo project is Quentm Hampton
        and Associates.
The anaerobic/oxic system for BOD and phosphorus removal
                      Influent
                             u
                              V
                                                                             Effluent
                                                                              Filter
                                                                          Clanfier
               Anaerobic Section
Oxic Section
/
  Waste Sludge
                                              24

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View of covered anaerobic/aerobic reaction tanks at Largo,
Florida
                                                          25

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Paygro  Mechanical
Composting of Sludge  is to be
Used  in New York
After analyzing several sludge treatment/disposal
alternatives, New York City has selected for use a
newly developed mechanical sludge composting
system as part of its accelerated sludge
management program to cease ocean disposal of
sludge by 1981.

The process, to be used in New York, was initially
developed to compost manure from a cattle feed
lot. The Paygro Composting System was originally
developed in 1972, and has been successfully used
for composting cow  manure, bark mulch and
potting soil in a full-scale facility in South
Charleston, Ohio Recent studies have
demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for
municipal sludge

The mechanical composting system accomplishes
thermophihc aerobic composting of de-watered
sludge received from a Centnfugation Facility To
provide improved operational reliability and
increased environmental benefits, the composting
will take place in a confined reactor vessel housed
within a building  Specifically, the system consists
of grinding and screening equipment,  receiving
hoppers and metering equipment, materials
distribution conveyors, aeration equipment,
controls and instrumentation, reactors with under-
dram system and support bed, compost mixing and
transport machinery, and discharge conveyors  The
composted-matenal becomes a valuable soil
conditioner having met all applicable EPA
regulations for pathogen destruction The system
produces a finished product of sufficient dryness
that it can be recycled as "bulking  material" in the
process thereby greatly reducing operating costs


The City will be pursuing sole source  procurement
of this technology under the innovative technology
sole source procurements provisions
View of the Paygro mechanical composting facility at South
Charleston, Ohio, showing the mixing and transport machinery

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Application of composting within a vessel to
municipal sludge is a recent emerging technology
and has advantages over static pile composting
such as improved operational control  and more
reliable performance

While composting is identified as alternative
technology, this unique mechanical application is
the first of its kind to be used in the U S on a
large scale for municipal sludge This application
has been judged to contain additional risk
elements and is potentially considered innovative
technology. The city of New York engineering staff
has completed Step 2 design  Region II will make a
final innovative technology determination upon
review of final plans and specifications.
 View of the Paygro composting bed at South Charleston, Ohio
                                                 27

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                                         List of Federal and State
                               I/A Technology Coordinators and Contacts
Washington EPA
I/A Technology Contact


Alan Hais/Lam Lim/Robert Bastian/
Richard Thomas/John Walker
US EPA WH-547
Washington, DC 20460
202/426-8976


MERL EPA
I/A Technology Contact


John Smith/Gary Lubm/Bob Bowker
James Heidman/Jeremiah H McCarthy
USEPA, MERL
Cincinnati, OH 45268
513/684-761 1, 7630,  7620,
 7632, 7616


R.  S. Kerr EPA
I/A Technology Contact


Curtis Harlm
R S Kerr Environmental
 Research Laboratory
PO Box 1198
Ada, OK 74820
405/743-2212


Region I
I/A Technology Contacts


Natalie Taub
USEPA
Boston, MA 02203
617/223-5604

Charles King
Augusta, ME 04333
207/289-2591

Robert Cady
Boston, MA 02202
617/727-6587

William Brierly
Montpeher, VT 05602
802/828-3345

Robert Cruess
Concord, NH 03301
603/271-3540

James Fester
Providence, Rl 02908
401/277-2234

Merwin Hupfer
Hartford, CT 061 15
203/566-3792
Region II
I/A Technology Contacts

Steve Vida
USEPA
New York, NY 10007
212/264-9596

Joseph  R  Tuttle
Albany, NY 12233
518/457-2866
Region III
I/A Technology Contacts
James Hagan
USEPA
Philadelphia, PA 19106
215/597-9131

Brig Garg
Harnsburg, PA 17120
717/787-3481

Richard Sellers
Annapolis, MD 21401
301/383-2761

Richard Aurich
Dover, DE 19901
302/678-4761

Alan Pollack
Richmond, VA 23230
804/257-6333

Michael Johnson
Charleston, WV 2531 1
304/348-0633

Lester Slocum
Washington, DC 20032
202/767-7603
Region IV
I/A Technology Contacts
Thomas Plouff
USEPA    '
Atlanta, GA 30308
404/881-4015

Rusty Jones
Montgomery,  AL 36130
205/277-3630

Richard Smith
Tallahassee, FL  32301
904/488-8163

James Mathis
Atlanta, GA 30334
404/656-4708

Jud Cramer
Frankfort, KY 40601
502/564-7885
David C Lewis
Jackson, MS 39209
601/961-5131

Allen Wahab
Raleigh, NC 2761 1
919/733-5501

Barney Harmon
Columbia,  SC 29201
803/758-5067

Robert G Threadgill, Jr
Nashville, TN 37319
615/741-6615
Region V
I/A Technology Contacts
Steven Poloncsik/Charles Pycha
USEPA
Chicago, IL 60604
312/353-2147

Roger Kanerva
Springfield, IL 62706
216/972-1654

Steve W Kim
Indianapolis, IN 46206
317/633-0708

Brian Myers
Lansing, Ml 48909
517/373-9075

Perry Beaton
Roseville, MN 551 13
612/296-7201

Gregory A  Binder
Columbus, OH 43216
614/466-8974

Richard Schuff
Madison, Wl 53703
608/266-2304
 Region VI
 I/A Technology Contacts


 Ancil Jones
 USEPA
 Dallas, TX 75270
 214/767-2845

 Martin Roy
 Little Rock, AR 72209
 501/371-1135

 Bharat Contractor
 New Orleans, LA 70160
 504/568-5101

 Edward Stokes
 Santa Fe, NM.87501
 505/476-5271
                                                    28

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George McBryde
Oklahoma City, OK 73105
405/271-5205

Milton Rose
Austin, TX 78711
512/475-3926
Region VII
I/A Technology Contacts
Lynn Harrington/Paul Doherty
USEPA
Kansas City, MO 64106
816/374-2725

Nate Beasley
Lincoln, NE 68509
402/471-2186

Wayne Farrand
Des Momes, IA 50319
515/281-8983

Robert Reed
Jefferson City, MO 65101
314/751-3241

Karl Muldenar/Lavene Brendan
Topeka, KS 66620
913/862-9360
Region VIM
I/A Technology Contacts
Stanley Smith/Joel Webster
USEPA
Denver, CO 80203
303/837-2735

Ronald Schuyler
Denver, CO 80220
303/320-8333

Joseph Sterner
Helena, MT 59601
406/449-2406

Keith Dempke
Bismark, ND 58505
701/224-2354

Leon Schochenmaier
Pierre, SD 57501
605/782-5270

Don Ostler
Salt Lake City, UT 841 10
801/533-6146

Paul Schweiger
Cheyenne, WY 82002
307/777-7781
Region IX
I/A Technology Contacts
Irving Terzich/Jeff Fontaine
USEPA
San Francisco, CA 94105
415/556-8316

Gil Wheeler
Sacramento, CA 75801
916/552-6550

David Woodruff
Phoenix, AZ 85007
602/765-1272

Wendell McCurry
Carson City, NV 89710
702/885-4670

Ralph Yukumoto
Honolulu, HI 96801
Region X
I/A Technology Contacts


Carl Nadler
USEPA
Seattle, WA 98101
206/442-1266

Gary Rothwell
Olympia, WA 98504
206/754-2288

Robert Evans
Portland, OR 97205
503/229-5257

Robert Braum
Boise, ID 83720
208/384-4252

James Dorn
Juneau, AK 9981 1
907/465-2614

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U.3.  C.T/iror.r.rntal Protection Agency
K;j:on V, Library
23 Couth Dearborn Street
Chicago, Illinois  60604

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