101F90501
         A Study of the Relevant Incineration Technologies
                and Air Pollution Control Devices
                            for the
              Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill
                 Submitted by: Andrew Cllbanoff
          NNEMS Project Control Number: U-913442-01-0
                       September 14, 1990
EP 101/F
90-501
                                                      "A';~ Printed on Recycled Paper

-------

-------
        A Study of the Relevant Incineration Technologies
                and Air Pollution Control Devices
                             for the
                Delaware sand and Gravel Landfill
                 Submitted by:  Andrew Clibanoff
           NNEMS Project Control Number: U-913442-01-0
                            Abstract

     The Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill, located in New Castle
County, DE,  is  an NPL site in  its remediation design  phase.   A
Record of  Decision has mandated  use  of on-site  incineration to
dispose of approximately 25,000 cu. yd. of contaminated soils and
wastes.  This paper  discusses the incineration technologies that
may be applicable  to the project  and  recommends the selection of
a rotary kiln incinerator, based on the kiln's relative versatility
when compared to the other incineration technologies.  A study of
air pollution control  equipment was also  included  in  the paper.
No  special  permits  for  PCB incineration  are  required  for this
project, as PCB  concentrations are below 50  ppm,  the TSCA regulated
standard.   Emission of  dioxin and  related organic compounds can be
prevented or minimized  by maintaining a temperature above 1700°F in
the afterburner.  There is a definite need for more sampling of the
wastes and soils that  are going to be incinerated.   The majority
of sampling  to  date  has  been on  soils surrounding  the suspected
highly contaminated areas.   Further waste characterization must be
completed  before  the  final design of the  incinerator  and  air
pollution control equipment can be accomplished.
                                               ,'» .

-------
                           DISCLAIMER

This report was furnished to the  U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency by  the  graduate  student identified on the cover  page,  under
a National  Network for  Environmental  Management  Studies
fellowship.

The  contents are essentially  as  received from  the  author.  The
opinions,  findings,  and conclusions  expressed  are  those  of the  author
and  not necessarily  those of the U.S. Environmental  Protection
Agency.   Mention,  if any, of company, process, or product names is
not to be considered as an endorsement  by the  U.S.  Environmental
Protection Agency.

-------
                          Table of Contents

                                                                Page

1.0  Introduction                                                 !

2.0  Background and Site History                                I
     2.1   Disposal Areas	2
         2.1 1  Drum Disposal Area	  2
         2.1.2 Ridge Area	     3
         2.1.3 inert Area	     3
         2.1 4 Grantham South Area	A
     2 2  Nature and Extent  of Contamination	  A
         22 1  Air	5
         2.2.2 Water	5
             2.2.2.1 Surface Water and Stream Sediments	5
             2.2 2.2 Groundwater	  6
         2.2.3 Soil	  7
             2.2.3.1 Surficial Soils	7
             2.2.3.2 Formation Soils	7
     2.3  Components of the Record of Decision	7

3.0  Incineration Technology	8
     3 1   General incineration Operation	  9
     3 2  Types of Hazardous Waste Incinerators	   10
         32.1  Rotary Kiln Incinerator	    11
         3.2.2 Infrared Furnace	   12
         3.2.3 Conventional Fluidized Bed	  14
         3.2.4 Circulating Fluidized Bed	  15
         3.2.5 Advanced Electric Reactor	  16
         3.2.6 Ptesma Arc	  17
         3.2.7 Liquid Injector	17
         3.2.8 Molten Salt  Incinerator	  18
         3.2.9 Oxygen Burner	18
     3.3  Incinerator Selection	19

4.0  Incinerator Emissions	  20
     4.1   Types of Emissions	  21
         41.1  Particulate Matter	  21
         4.1 2 Gaseous Matter	  22
         4.1 3 PCBs	  23
         4.1.4 Dioxin	     24
                                  n

-------
                    Table of Contents (cont'd)
    A 2  Air Pollution Control Devices (APCD)	    25
        42.1  Electrostatic Precipitator	26
        42.2 Wet Electrostatic Precipitator	26
        42.3 Fabric Filter	  26
        42 4 Quench Chamber	       27
        425 Wet/Dry Scrubber  	  27
        42.6 Ventun Scrubber  	    27
    43  APCD Efficiency	28
    44  Selection of an APCD Series	28

5.0 Conclusion                                               29

References

Appendix A:  Analytical Data of  Water and Groundwater at
             Delaware Sand  and  Gravel Landfill

Appendix B: Analytical Data of Soils at
             Delaware Sand  and  Gravel Landfill
                                in

-------
                         List of Figures

No.                                           Following Page   No.

 1   Delaware Sand & Gravel Site Location Map	    1
 2  Waste Disposal Area Locations	     2
 3  Upper Potomac Isochlor Map. 10/74	  6
 4  Upper Potomac Isochlor Map: 10/79	  6
 5  Upper Potomac Isochlor Map: 4/84	  6
 6  In Situ Waste Treatment Technology Matrix	  8
 7  Rotary Kiln Incinerator	11
 8  Infrared Furnacer	12
 9  Conventional Fluidized Bed	14
 10 Circulating Fluidized Bed	15
 11 Dioxin and Related Compound Chemical Structures	   24
 12 Electrostatic Precipitator	26
 13 Wet Electrostatic Precipitator	26
 14 Bag Filter	  27
 15 Quench Reactor	   27
 16 Venturi Scrubber	28

-------
                         List of Tables

No.                                          Following Page   No.

 1    1984 Drum Removal Sampling Results	   A
 2   Typical Incinerator Operating Ranges	19
 3   incinerator Applicability	19
 4   APCD Efficiencies	28

-------
1.0  Introduction
     This paper is submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the
National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEM5) program
The scope of this NNEM5 project includes the assessment of the feasibility of
incineration technology as a viable alternative in the remediation effort
occurring at the Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill, New Castle County,
Delaware. The status of this site  is that it  is currently on the National
Priorities List (NPL) and is  awaiting final remediation design. A remedial
investigation report and feasibility study were completed in early 1988.  A
record of decision (ROD) has been written calling for the on-site incineration
of the contaminated materials (waste and soil) that have been linked to
groundwater degradation.
     The paper will first present a site history and background, followed  by a
section on the relevant incineration and emission control technologies

2.0  Background and Site History
     The Delaware Sand and Gravel  Landfill was an industrial waste landfill
officially operating from 1968 through 1976.  The landfill is approximately
27 acres in size and is located about two miles southwest of New Castle
County, Delaware. Directly west of the site across Army Creek lies the Army
Creek Landfill, another Superfund site.  It is believed that the environmental
degradation occurring in the vicinity can be  differentiated between the two
adjacent landfills.  Figure 1 is a site location map for the Delaware Sand  and
Gravel Landfill.  The site, as suggested  by its name, was once operated as a
sand and gravel quarry.

-------
                                                      Dobbinsville   ^.
                              DELAWARE SAND AND GRAVEL SITE
                                 REMEDIAL INVESTIGATION
                                       CERCLA 85-1
                 __ "-: ^"New Castle - New Castle  County,  Delaware
                 — — «.  U.S.G.S. 7.5 min.  quad,  Wilmington South

                                contour Interval  10 feet
                                    Scale:  1"  -  2,000'
                  Figure  1

Location map for the Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill
                    (DS&G)

-------
                                  - 2  -
     In 1968, the Delaware Water and Air Resources Commission granted
Delaware Sand and Gravel a Certificate of Approval for a sanitary landfill
One year later, an Air Pollution Control Permit allowed the disposal of
cardboard, wire, pallets, corkdust, and styrofoam.  In  1970, the Delaware
State Board of Health issued a solid waste disposal permit to the facility. A
Solid Waste Disposal Permit was issued from 1971 through 1976 by the
Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control
(DNREC)  in 1975, DNREC applied an enforcement action against the D5&G
Landfill upon observation of  improper operating procedures including poor
cover and compaction
2 1.  Disposal Areas
     Disposal of wastes at Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill took  place at
four smaller areas on the site. These areas are termed the Drum Disposal
Area, Ridge Area,  Inert Area, and Grantham South Area.  These areas, as well
as the locations of boreholes, monitoring wells, and drinking water wells are
depicted in figure 2.  A further discussion of the individual waste disposal
areas is below.
2.1.1. Drum Disposal Area
     This area,  located in the northern portion of the property, as shown in
figure 2, accepted reportedly 7,000 drums containing industrial liquids and
sludges from perfume, paint, plastics and petroleum refining processes.  The
Drum Disposal Area was reported to be a pit approximately 150 ft. x 70 ft. x
15 ft. or 0.23 acres in surface area.  However, the areal extent of the Drum
Disposal Area proper was delineated by surface geophysical data and
measured to actually be 0.42 acres.  This estimate does not include an

-------
\
                 re
                  "
                !  I  I I l_i_-i	-

                      DELAWARE SAND ft GRAVEL LANDFILL
                           AREAS OF WASTE DISPOSAL
    ciosrn wi con*
                                         IOOO
Figure   2:  Areas of Waste disposal  in the DS&G Landfill

-------
adjacent 0 25 acre area just west of the Drum Disposal Area proper where an
additional geophysical anomaly was detected
    Soil quality analyses of samples from boring DGC-06 (just east of Drum
Disposal Area proper) indicates contamination of organics in the low parts
per million range over an approximate depth interval of 5 to 30 ft. (see
appendix B). If there truly is a 25 ft.  depth of contaminated materials, tne
volume of materials requiring treatment may range from 20,000 cu yd to
over 27,000 cu. yd depending on whether the adjacent area is actually
contaminated  However, boring DGC-04, west of the adjacent area shows
little to no sign of contamination.  Boring DGC-05, north of the area adjacent
to the Drum Disposal Area proper also appears to be clean. It is quite clear
that more sampling is needed to determine more accurately the extent of
contamination in the soils of the Drum Disposal Area.
2.1.2.  Ridge Area
    This area, approximately 0.5 acres in size, is located on the western
portion of the property, just east of recovery well RW-13 (figure 2). The
Ridge Area contains scattered wastes (drums, large storage tanks, pallets,
etc.) on  the slope surfaces and ridge top. This area has been labeled as a
limited  drum and industrial waste  disposal area.
2 1.3  Inert Area
    This area, close to eleven acres in size, is located in the central
southern portion of the DS&G property.  Wastes disposed of in this area are
assumed to be, as the name implies, relatively  inert. The area is relatively
level with steep side slopes and high  vegetative growth. The surface is
heavily  littered with items such as junked cars, trucks, trailers, concrete
forms, gas cylinders, domestic trash, paper rolls and wire bundles. Waste can

-------
                                 - A -
also be seen protruding from the sides of the slopes indicating that waste had
been buried
2.1 4.  Grantham South Area
    This area, approximately 1.3 acres in size is located immediately south
of Grantham Lane, directly across the street from the Inert Disposal Area
(figure 2). It was reported that when the sand cliff remaining from quarrying
behind the landfill owner's home began to erode, the owner backfilled the area
presumably with inert waste. Reports from the owner's ex-wife as well as
visual observations indicate that chemical wastes were disposed in this area
as well.
22  Nature and Extent of Contamination
    As mentioned earlier, the Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill was
operated as a permitted facility from 1968 to 1976.  It is believed that
dumping may have begun as early as 1961 and the dumping of household and
construction wastes has continued to the present.  The wastes disposed of at
the  site were mostly construction and industrial type wastes.
    In 1984, a removal action was performed at the Drum Disposal Area.
Several hundred drums were sampled and removed from the landfill's surface
eliminating any immediate threat to human health and the environment.  576
drums were  sampled with the results shown in table 1. It is believed that the
remaining 7,000 - 100,000 drums in the Drum Disposal Area  contain similar
wastes. It is believed that the contamination at the Ridge Area is similar to
that found at the Drum Disposal Area. The Grantham South and the Inert
Disposal Areas are both believed to contain mainly inert wastes, such as
wood, wire,  hose, cardboard, styrofoam, etc.

-------
     TVDC                       * of Drums           Estimated Volume
     Organic Solids                206                   7,700 gallons
     Inorganic Solids               201                   6,900
     Base/Neutral Liquids          37*                   690
     Flammable Solids             97                    3,700
     Base/Neutral Liquids pH  12    2                     69
     Acids                        2                     27
     Organic Liquids               19                    400
     Contaminated PCB Solids       6                     200
     Contaminated PCB Liquids     2                     27
     PCB Solids                   2                     55
     PCB Liquid                  2                     40

* includes 2 drums of flammable base/neutral liquids
          1  '.  RB4  bryrvA   iW«A/a)

-------
                                  - 5  -
    There has been evidence that the waste products disposed at the
Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill, particularly from the Drum Disposal and
Ridge Areas, are leaching and causing environmental degradation of the
surrounding area  The groundwater in the Upper Potomac Hydrologic Zone and
on-site soils appear to be suffering the most. The predominant contaminants
are iron, manganese, benzene, toluene, xylene, NEK, and MIBK with maximum
concentrations of the organics in the low parts per million range.  An
overview of the air, water and soil environmental quality at the site is given
below.
2.2.1  Air
    The ambient air quality at the DS&G Landfill shows no evidence of air
contamination with respect to volatile organics above background  levels. A
soil gas survey performed at the Grantham South Area did not detect any
significant areas of volatile organic contamination. Only one sample had
significant concentrations (2-9 ppm ) of volatile organics. This probably
indicates a small,  isolated gasoline spill  since the compounds detected
strongly resembled oil or gasoline components. Therefore, the air currently
poses no threat to  the surrounding community. However, once remediation
begins to take place, efforts must be undertaken to minimize the hazards of
the potential air pollution problems associated with excavation and
incineration.
2.2.2  Water
2.2.2.1 Surface Water and Stream Sediments
     No significant degradation attributed to the Delaware Sand and Gravel
Landfill could be found in the water and sediments from Army Creek, the
Gravel Pit pond, or the intermittent stream east of DS&G.  In fact, the quality

-------
                                 - 6 -
of water in Army Creek downstream of D5&G is actually better than it is
upstream  However, even downstream, Army Creek is still polluted as there
is evidence of stress on aquatic life
22.2.2 Groundwater
     As briefly mentioned earlier, groundwater quality within the Upper
Potomac Hydrologic Zone (UPHZ) has been degraded with  respect to inorganic
and organic parameters in the D5&G vicinity  A distinct  plume of organics and
metals appears  to be emanating from the Drum Disposal  Area The
predominant contaminants identified in this plume are benzene,  toluene,
xylenes, ethyl benzene, bis (2-chloroethyl) ether, MIBK, NEK, iron and
manganese All  analytical data on water can be found in appendix A.
     Groundwater quality degradation was first noticed  in late 1971 when a
domestic well in the nearby Llangollen Estates became contaminated.
Evidence  Indicated  that the source of the contamination  was coming from the
Army Creek Landfill. In response, New Castle County installed a system of
recovery  wells in 1973 and  1974 to protect the Artesian Water  Company's
drinking water wells for Llangollen Estates by intercepting contaminated
groundwater.  As it turns out, these recovery wells are now intercepting the
wastes emanating from the D5&G Landfill.  Figures 3,4, and 5 show the
reduction of size of the chloride ion contaminant plumes over time.  Chloride
was chosen because it is generally regarded as a conservative ion which does
not readily degrade, adsorb onto aquifer materials, or precipitate under
normal groundwater conditions.  It can be said with reasonable confidence
that the recovery well system is containing the contamination in the site
vicinity .

-------

-------

-------

-------
                                 - 7 -
2.2.3  Soil
2.23 1 Surficial Soils
    The analytical results (appendix B) for the surficial soils indicate
isolated areas of contamination in both the Ridge and Grantham South Areas
One consideration that must be recognized is the fact that most of the
surficial soils on site have been reworked by man. Much of the soils
remaining on-site are the fines left over from the quarrying operation.  These
fines were used as cover material for the Inert and the Drum Disposal Areas.
Therefore, any samples collected in these areas probably do not represent
waste disposal.
22.3.2 Formation Soils
    Analytical data (appendix B) from split spooned samples have indicated a
plume of organics and metals  emanating from the Drum Disposal Area and
possibly some metal contamination emanating from the Inert Disposal Area.
Organic compounds were detected in soil boring samples collected near the
Drum Disposal Area, the base  of the Columbia Formation close to the Drum
Disposal  Area, the uppermost  Potomac silty clays beneath and adjacent to the
Drum Disposal Area, and the top portion of the upper Upper Potomac sands.
2.3 Components of the Record of Decision
    In early  1989, a Record of Decision (ROD) was drafted calling for the
following measures to be taken in the remediation effort:
    •  Excavation of wastes  and contaminated soils from the Drum Disposal
       and Ridge Areas. Treatment of these materials by on-site
       incineration to alleviate the direct contact threat and leachate
       generation from the major contamination sources on the site.
    •  Capping of  the Grantham South Area to remove the direct contact
       threat and  lessen leachate generation.

-------
                                 - 8 -
    •  Debris removal and capping of the Inert Disposal Area to remove the
       potential direct contact threat and to meet the Delaware State Solid
       Waste Regulations.
    •  Continued operation of  the in-place recovery well system to
       eliminate potential groundwater ingestion risk.
    •  Implementation of recovered contaminated groundwater treatment
       system prior to discharge to Army Creek
3.0 Incineration Technology
    Several recent laws or amendments make incineration one of the more
favorable applications for hazardous waste remediation The Superfund
Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 placed new emphasis on
the treatment of Superfund site wastes.  $8 5 billion has been authorized by
SARA for Superfund cleanup from October, 1986 through October, 1991
(Cudahy, 1989). The RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984
(HSWA) placed a land ban  on untreated hazardous wastes beyond certain dates.
The statute requires EPA  to set levels or methods of treatment, if any, which
"substantially diminish the toxicity of the waste or substantially reduce the
likelihood of migration of hazardous constituents from the waste so that
short-term and long-term threats  to human health and the environment are
minimized." (Esposito, 1988).  Figure 6 is a summary of the suitability of  the
various technologies available  for in situ waste destruction.  Incineration
technologies effectively address both of theses RCRA concerns.
     Incineration technology offers several attractive features for the
treatment of  hazardous wastes, it is immediate, requires a relatively small
area for set-up and operation, and is a proven means of destruction for many
organic wastes.  When initially compared to other treatment methods,
incineration appears to be costly.  However, incineration will permanently
destroy hazardous organics, removing the possibility of future liability for

-------
              Figure  £>  In Situ Waste Treatment Technology Matrix.
                            (Adapted From  Reference 1)
Aqueous Wastes:
  Metals
  Highly Toxic
  Organics
  Volatile
  Organics
  Toxic Organics
  Radioactive
  Corrosive
  Cyanide
  Pesticide
  Asbestos
  Explosive

Organic Liquids:
  Metals
  Highly Toxic
  Organics
  Volatile
  Organics
  Toxic Organics
  Radioactive
  Corrosive
  Cyanide
  Pesticide

Sludges/Soils:
  Metals
  Highly Toxic
  Organics
  Volatile
  Organics
  Toxic Organics
  Radioactive
  Corrosive
  Cyanide
  Pesticide
  Asbestos
  Explosive
Incineration
0
o
o
o
0
o
o
o
X
o
o
•
.
•
o
o
•
•
0
•
.
•
o
o
o
•
X
o
I \
s 1 1
|. C §
1=2
X ? Z
X X •
0 • 0
0 • 0
0 • 0
XXX
xx«
0 • 0
c • •
X X 0
XXX
0 X •
• • *
• • X
• • X
XXX
X X •
• • X
• • X
oxo
• • X
• • X
• • X
XXX
X X •
0 • X
• 0 X
XXX
oxo
I = If
1 III i
• X
o •
0 •
o •
0 X
• 0
o x
• •
0 X
• X
. .
X •
X •
X •
0 •
0 •
X •
X •
• X
X •
X •
0 O
X X
X X
0 O
• o
X X
X X
X
X
•
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
c
c c =
3 = = G
JZ u ~
n ss
~j a > % ^ £•
o
•
X
X
X
•
X
•
X
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
•
o
•
X
X
X
•
X
•
X X
X •
X •
X •
X X
X X
X X
X •
X X
o •
X •
X 0
X 0
X 0
X 0
x o
X 0
x o
• X
• •
• o
• •
• •
• X
• X
• 0
• X
• •
1 !l
c 2 •» S-g
o yj H t x
a S-5 1"
ft = X C c
C £3 S3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
X
X
X
0
X
X
X
.
•
o
•
•
•
o
•
•
•
0
o
o
o
X
X
X
0
X
o
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
.
0
o
o
X
X
X
•
X
0
o
•
X
X
X
•
o
•
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Evaporation
X
•
o
X
X
•
•
0
.
X
X
X
0
X
X
X
o
•
X
o
X
X
X
•
X
X
Filtration
X
X
•
X
X
•
*
X
.
X
X
X
o
X
X
X
X
•
X
o
X
X
X
0
X
X
•o
3
J"
>
z J
< .
X
o
o
•
X
X
0
0
X
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
c
•a
" m
X
0
o
•
X
X
X
X
X
o
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
o
•
X
X
o
o
X
0
                    Applicable
o Potentially Applicable
x Not Applicable

-------
                                  - 9 -
their disposal. Most of the other treatment methods do not completely
destroy the wastes, making future liability a distinct possibility  (Brunner,
1988)
    On-site incineration of hazardous wastes can be more appealing than
transporting material to a central processing facility. On-site incineration
avoids the high transportation costs as well as the NIMBY (not in my back
yard) philosophy that can surround a central facility  On-site treatment is
provided by situating modular-constructed facilities within the confines of
the site.
3.1. General Incinerator Operation
    Incineration is an engineered process using thermal oxidation of a waste
material to produce a less bulky, toxic, or noxious material. A waste must  be
combustible to some extent in order for incineration to be considered as a
possible treatment method. In running an efficient incineration process, the
3 T's of combustion, temperature, residence time and turbulence, must be
controlled as closely as possible. The waste characteristics are likewise
important parameters, including chemical structure and physical form, in the
combustion process, the following reactions ideally take place.
    •   All hydrogen present converts to water vapor, unless otherwise noted
        below.
    •   All chloride (or fluoride) converts to hydrogen chloride, HC1 (or
        hydrogen fluoride, HF).
    •   All carbon converts to carbon dioxide, C02.
    •   All sulfur converts to sulfur dioxide, 502.
    •   Alkali metals convert to hydroxides: sodium to sodium hydroxide (2Na
        + °2 * H2 ~-> 2 NaOH) and potassium to potassium hydroxide (2K + 02 +
        H2 —> KOH).

-------
                                 - 10-
    •  Non-alkali metals convert to oxides  copper to copper oxide (2Cu * 02
       —>2CuO), iron to iron oxide (4Fe * 302 —->2Fe203).
    •  Al! nitrogen from the waste, the fuel, or air, will take the form of  a
       diatomic molecule, i  e, nitrogen is present as  N2
    However,  incinerators are not 100% efficient, and therefore may emit
products  of incomplete combustion (PIC). These PICs may be as hazardous  or
even more hazardous than the product in the waste feed. Therefore, some
type of air pollution control device is usually required prior to discharge to
the atmosphere.
3.2. Types of Hazardous Waste Incinerators
    Currently  in the marketplace, there are many different thermal
technologies that have been recognized  as potential treatment alternatives
for hazardous wastes.  The basic operation of each of these technologies is
the application of heat (thermal) energy to the medium (soil) and contaminant.
The increase in temperature causes the  breakdown of the organic material. In
most cases, this breakdown occurs under the presence of excess oxygen, and
results in the combustion and destruction of  the organic compounds.
    The various incineration technologies may be classified as either high
temperature or low temperature processes.  High temperature processes are
those which can heat soil to  greater than 1000 T while low temperature
processes can  heat soil to a maximum of 1000 °F. Examples of low
temperature processes would be in-situ radio frequency, low temperature
thermal aeration, and low temperature thermal stripping. There will be no
further discussion of the low temperature processes in this paper as these
processes are  incapable of treating the  more difficult compounds such as
PCBs and dioxins. PCB contamination has been found at the  D5&G Landfill.

-------
The high temperature processes virtually guarantee the destruction of all
organic constituents.
     The types of high temperature hazardous waste incinerators currently
available or soon to be available are : (1) Rotary Kiln, (2) Infrared,
(3) Conventional Fiuidized Bed, (4) Circulating Fluidized Bed, (5) Advanced
Electric Reactor, (6) Plasma Arc, (7) Liquid Injection, (8) Molten Salt, and (9)
Oxygen Burner  Of the nine listed technologies, the first four are the most
applicable to the Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill remediation effort and
will be  discussed in  greater detail.
3.2.1. Rotary Kiln Incinerator
     A rotary kiln is  a cylindrical, refractory-lined shell mounted at an
incline  from the horizontal plane. Figure 7 depicts a typical rotary kiln
incinerator  A rotary kiln system includes provisions for feeding,
supplemental fuel injection, the kiln itself, an afterburner and an ash
collection system. This type of incinerator is capable of handling solids,
liquids, and sludges and would be applicable to the D5&G site.
     When operating, the cylinder (primary combustion chamber) is  rotated to
promote mixing of the  wastes with the combustion air and to aid in moving
the waste through the reactor.  Waste is deposited at one end and the waste
burns out to an ash by the time it reaches the  other end. The constant
rotation also provides  fresh surface exposure  to oxidation  which promotes
destruction.  A typical range for rotation would be from 0.75 to A rpm.
     The gas stream, upon exiting the primary combustion chamber, is
directed to an afterburner. The kiln will burn  out solids and will volatize
organics.  All the organics will generally not be incinerated in the kiln and a
high temperature must be maintained at a specific residence time for

-------
                                     Emergency
                                     Combustion
          1 Waste Feed System
          Solids
                                                                   Secondary
                                                                   Combustion
                                                                    Chamber
Shredder
                                                                           Gas
                                                                         Cleaning
                                                                          System
 Temporary
Ash Storage
    Bin
                                                                Water Treatment
                                                                                           Stack
                                                                                  Stack
                                                                                Sampling
                                                                                                 Gases
                7!
                             I

-------
                                 -  12-
destruction  This is the purpose of the secondary combustion chamber, or an

afterburner.

    The rotary kiln incinerator typically operates at temperatures between

1500 *F and 2900'F, with residence times of 0.5 - 2.0 hours for solids and

two seconds for gases. Successful operation of rotary kilns have been

demonstrated to have  a destruction and removal efficiency of 99.9999% for

wastes such as explosives, PCBs and dioxins. The rotary kiln is the most

commercially available type of incinerator on the market today.

Advantages
    •  Not dependent on feed quality
    •  Fuel requirement follows feed loading,  the less feed, the less fuel
       required
    •  Minimal waste pre-processing required
    •  Techniques exist for direct disposal of waste in metal drums
    •  Able to incinerate  variec   "ids of waste at the same time
    •  Many types of  feed mechanisms available
    •  Residence time of  waste in kiln readily controlled
    •  High turbulence and effective contact with air within kiln

Disadvantages
    •  Relatively high particulate carryover to gas stream
    •  Normally requires  a separate afterburner for destruction of volatiles
    •  Unable  to control conditions along kiln length
    •  Requires a relatively high amount of excess air ( 100-150 %  of
       stoichiometric amount)
    •  Effective kiln seal  is difficult to maintain
    •  Operation in a slagging mode to process inorganic wastes or  metal
       drums increases kiln maintenance requirements

3.2.2. Infrared Furnace

    The infrared furnace was developed and marketed by Shirco Infrared

Systems of Dallas, Texas.  The furnace consists essentially of a conveyor belt

system passing through a long refractory lined chamber as shown in  figure 8

Wastes are fed by gravity  onto the belt and are immediately leveled  to a depth

-------
                  TJ
- * u

111

sn
in
: 6 s

[§1
•) « "
       112
                                  QJ
                                  O)

                                  re
                                  .c
£    - n-=  £ C. - - 5 « J:

is|||i>=|£s||I«_   I
   ™ o
   >• —
        o »
— .^ w _>
g^ I 2^£0

5 r | « * * ~5

£• 3 "O ~ "5 °° "^ =

°fH!t~*r
£ ~ ~B £: EC ^5

c — c ^_^ "" E o —•
^. 
                                                  01)
                                                  0.01
                                             T3
                                             4)
                                             C

                                            «s
                          - ~ S -o £
                          7^ _ rs .- *-
                          "> -
                          3 «

                                j« « a c
            1) C _
            o - j,
                    5
•a c = oo
       .2 ? c
       E s i)
             -. fl H3 3 ^ ^j

             ^ImSoi^S
                      - ? 7\ -
                               iS ig
                         _- D 3 — J-
                             fo -o a>
                             c 31 u

                           ~ ^ ^1 C
                E S
*y ra
* O
m ^

D D
S 5
u —

= 5


£E
S1 o
,- u


5 9
J3 C



H
O i
5  C-5 ^£   S
E    - - -   •=
                                       .^H
                                       ai o o tS

                                       tfl^
      ll-5
                                       o 'K - i
     O 3 J — c
     322^§
     „ x CD • -
                             «J o> re _ 5
                             >, c ^ m -
                             D S ° = iC.
                                                         i) O 3
       S


      i

       
                                                                   <
                                                      r\


                                                      y
                                                      C
                                                      C




                                                   3 02
                                                                               vi

                                                                               3
                                                                               o
                                                                               fl
                                                                           i?
                                                                           3
                                                                           <3-?
                                                                         u:

-------
                                  -  13-
of two to three inches. The waste must be sized to no more than two inches
in effective diameter. The belt speed and travel  is chosen to provide burnout

of the waste with minimal agitation. This feature results in a relatively low

level of particulate emissions.
    An induced draft fan maintains a negative pressure throughout the

system. Combustion air is introduced at the discharge end of the belt so that
waste and air travel countercurrently.  Supplemental heat is provided by
electric infrared heating elements within the furnace above the belt. The
furnace is designed to provide and maintain a temperature of 1600 "F above
the traveling conveyor. An afterburner is provided for destruction of

volatiles.
    The infrared furnace is capable of  handling sludge cake, soil and other

wastes. This alternative may be applicable to the D5&G site.

Advantages
    •   Not dependent on feed quality
    •   Low level of agitation of the product on the conveyor belt results in a
        smaller fraction of ash carryover to the gas stream
    •   The use of  ceramic fiber insulation allows furnace to heat to
        operating temperature in less than two hours
    •   Furnace is  applicable for intermittent or infrequent loading
    •   Heat generated by electric elements does not produce additional flue
        gas, as the burning of fossil fuels would
    •   The fuel requirement follows the feed loading rate
    •   Electric power elements are variable within their range
    •   Only 20-30% in excess of stoichiometric air requirements needed
    •   Minimal waste processing required
    •   Control of  conditions along furnace length is readily available by
        separate control of individual heating elements and by varying air
        injection quality and location

-------
                                  - 14-
Disadvantages
     •  Electric power costs four times that of fossil fuel
     •  When tied to existing power sources, installed kilowatt charges may
        be substantial
     •  An afterburner is normally required for the destruction of volatiles
     •  The mixing of fuel oil with soil to decrease electrical costs will
        generate additional flue gases
3.2 3  Conventional  Fluidized Bed
     The conventional fluid bed incinerator, figure 9, is a cylindrical
refractory lined shell with a supporting structure above its bottom surface to
hold a sand bed (f luidized bed).  The structure has a series of tuyeres which
allow the passage of air upward into  the bed while preventing the passage of
sand.  Air, which is  usually preheated, is introduced at the fluidizing air inlet
at pressures from 3.5 to 5 psig. A high degree of turbulence is created in the
sand bed by the passage of this air stream which creates motion on the top of
the bed  with the appearance of a liquid.
     Waste is normally introduced within or just above the sand bed.  The
sizing of the furnace is a function of the moisture in the feed,  the greater the
moisture content, the larger the bed surface.  Fluidization provides maximum
contact  of air with  the waste surface to maximize the efficiency of the
burning  process.
    Maintenance of the bed integrity is a function of the waste being
combusted. The waste non-combustible content (ash) will either remain in
the bed  or become airborne and exit the furnace within the flue gas stream.
Generally, sand has  to be made up at the rate of approximately  5% of the bed
volume every 100 hours of operation.
     Because of intimate mixing of air and sludge in the fluid bed, excess air
requirements are low, from 40% to 60%. The bed is maintained in  the range of

-------
Solid Raw
Feed In   '
  Sizing                Fluidizing Air
Equipment                Blower
              From
           Atmosphere •
        Solids Feed
•-Q
                    Auxilary
                     Fuel
                 Fluidized
                   Bed
                                               Fluidizing Air
                                                      Heat
                                                      Exchanger
              Preheated
              Fluidizing
                 Air
                 I
                                                                                    To
                                                                                Atmosphere
                                                                   Wet Scrubber
1

Sand
Storage "~*"





                                                                         Spent Scrubber
                                                                           Water
                                                                       Sand Supply In
                     Spent Sand
                       Out
                     Figure  ^  Conventional Fluid Bed Incinerator System.
                 Source.:

-------
                                  -  15-
 1300 'F to 1500 'F, depending on the nature of the feed  The temperature of
the freeboard (volume above the bed) is usually no more than 100 °F higher

than the bed temperature.  The residence time of gases in the freeboard is

normally in the range of 3 to 6 seconds, usually enough time to alleviate the
need for an afterburner. For example, if an organic compound that requires

2200 'F at a residence time of 1 sec. for four nines destruction is subject to
a residence time of 5 sec., perhaps only 1600 CF may be required for the same
level of destruction

Advantages
     • Design simplicity, few moving parts
     • Excellent efficiency at rated load
     • Thermally secure, able to be taken off  line to hot standby without
       maintaining fuel feed
     • High residence time in freeboard, afterburner usually not required
     • appplicable to the incineration of solids, liquids, and gases

Disadvantages
     • Dependent on feed quality, test burns necessary to ascertain
       possibility of  bed seizure when burning the material
     • Poor efficiency at low loads
     • increase potential for air emissions compared to other systems
     • Sand make-up is required on a continual basis
     • Waste sizing is required
     • Ash is discharged wet, dry  ash discharge requires additional
       equipment
3.2.4 Circulating Fluidized Bed
     The circulating fluid bed incineration system, developed by Ogden,  Inc., is
distinct from conventional fluid beds. In this incinerator, shown  in figure 10,

combustible waste is  introduce into the bed along with recirculated bed

material  from the hot cyclone. A high air/gas velocity (from 15 to  20 ft/sec
compared  to 1.5 to 45 ft/sec in conventional systems) runs through the bed,

causing the bed to rise through the  reaction zone to the top of the combustion

-------
                                                    STACK
Figure tO   Circulating Fluid Bed Schematic.
                      j  \°\BB

-------
                                  -  16-
chamber (freeboard) and pass through a hot cyclonic collector. Hot gas rise
from the cyclone while the majority of solids drop  to the bottom and are
re-injected into the furnace bed. Flue gas exiting the cyclone passes through
a conventional exhaust gas treatment system which removes particulate and
other undesirable constituents from the gas stream.
    Feed is introduced in  the leg between the cyclone and the bed of the
reactor. Solid or sludge waste is fed from a feeding bin using augers into the
feed leg  Liquid or slurry wastes are pumped from a feed tank to the reactor
No atomizers or specialty  nozzles are required for introduction of fluid
wastes into the sand bed.
    The design operating temperature is normally  1600 °F although the
system can withstand temperatures up to 2000'F on a continuous basis. A
major feature of the  circulating fluid bed system is its ability to control  the
residence time of wastes to well over 15 seconds.
Advantages
    •  Same as conventional fluid bed plus:
    •  Can control residence time of wastes  to over  15 seconds, thereby
       decreasing the temperature required for destruction
    •  Smaller particulate air emission potential than conventional fluid bed
        incinerator
Disadvantages
    •  Same as conventional fluid bed incinerator
3.2.5 Advanced Electric Reactor
    The Advanced Electric Reactor (AER) uses intense thermal radiation to
heat wastes to between 4000 *F and 5000 "F.  The AER consists of a vertical
tubular core of porous carbon which is heated by electric heating elements.
The waste is fed through the center of the core where the heated carbon
transfers energy to the waste. This technology is not applicable because it is

-------
                                 - 17-
not available in a full-scale model and the company that developed the pilot
scale reactor, J. M. Huber Corp., has stated that their incineration services are
no longer commercially available.
3.26 Plasma Arc
     Plasma systems use the extremely high temperatures developed within
the plasma stream to destroy hazardous organic wastes.  The principle of
plasma arc technology is the breaking of the chemical bonds between the
elements of the organic  constituents. This occurs in an atomization zone
where a series of co-1 inear electrodes generate an electric arc, or plasma,
which is stabilized by field coil magnets. As a low pressure air stream
passes through  the arc, the electrical energy is converted to thermal energy
by the activation of the  molecules of oxygen and nitrogen into their ionized
atomic states.  The temperature of the plasma are will exceed 5,000 °F. When
the excited atoms and molecules relax to lower energy states intense
ultraviolet energy is emitted. This energy from the decaying plasma is
transferred to the injected waste stream.
3.2.7 Liquid Injector
     Liquid injection incinerators are one of the most commonly used
incinerators for hazardous waste disposal. A liquid injection system
contains a refractory-lined cylinder as a combustion chamber and usually
another chamber for further combustion.  Burners are normally located in the
chamber in such a manner  that the flames do not impinge on the refractory
walls  The liquid waste, which must be converted to the gas phase prior to
combustion, is  initially  atomized when it passes through the burner nozzles
while entering the combustor. As the name implies, the liquid injection
incinerator is confined to  hazardous liquids, slurries and sludges with a

-------
                                  - 18-
viscosity value of  10,000 S5U or less. Because the majority of wastes to be
treated at the D5&G Landfill are in soils, the liquid injection incinerator is
not applicable for this remediation effort.
3.2.8 Molten Salt Incinerator
    The molten salt process  is an oxidation and recombinant process where
wastes are oxidized and/or chemically altered to innocuous substances  A
salt bed (made up of either sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, sodium
phosphate, sodium carbonate, or corresponding calcium salts) is heated to
fiuidization.  Typical bed temperatures range from 1400 'F to 1600 *F.  Waste
components  dissolve within the melt, producing an off-gas containing carbon
dioxide, steam, oxygen, and nitrogen from the air supply. The off-gas will
also contain particulate matter, salt and other components generated within
the melt and elutriated into the stream. The molten salt acts as a  dispersing
medium for both the waste being processed and the air used in the reaction.
The salt acts as a catalyst for oxidation reactions and accelerates  the
destruction  of organic materials while preventing the discharge of  acidic
gases by neutralization. Ash  generated, as well as other noncombustibles are
physically retained within the melt.
3.2.9  Oxygen Burners
    Oxygen  burners or oxygen-enriched incineration are a  technology that  is
essentially an improvement over existing burner designs wherein air enriched
with oxygen is used in place of ambient combustion air. As oxygen  replaces
part of the combustion air, the nitrogen content of the gas stream through  the
incinerator is reduced accordingly. The advantage to  this is that NOX
emissions can be reduced substantially.  Other advantages  also include.
    •  Incinerator throughput,  normally limited by residence time
        requirements, blower capacity, and capacities of the off-gas

-------
                                  -  19-
       treatment units, can be increased significantly.
    •  Consumption of supplemental fuel (if required) is reduced because of
       a decrease in the sensible heat lost to the flue
    •  Improved ORE occurs as a result of longer residence times (in
       retrofitted installations) and a richer mixture.
    •  Off-gas treatment can be accomplished in smaller units and can be
       more effective.
    The only disadvantage to oxygen burners is the added cost of the oxygen.
I was unable to find any economic information regarding the cost of the
operation of an oxygen-enriched incineration process.
3.3 Incinerator Selection
    Table 2 shows the typical operating ranges of various incineration
processes  Table 3 shows the applicability of various incineration  processes
to incineration of hazardous waste by  type.
    The best choice for the  incineration of soils and wastes at  the Delaware
Sand and Gravel Landfill would be the rotary kiln incinerator.  It is  the most
proven and commercially available incinerator on the market.  The rotary kiln
incinerator has become known as the workhorse of the industry. The rotary
kiln can handle solids, sludges, and liquids all at the same time   Kilns used
for incineration  are batch fed with solids of varying shape, size, and heat
content. This provides flexibility not  available in other incinerator systems
Little to no pre-treatment of the wastes is necessary.  The afterburner can
reach temperatures up to 2900°F, more than high enough to completely
destroy the most stubborn organic compounds.  A number of transportable
rotary kilns have been successfully operated throughout the United States.
     The actual design of a rotary kiln system for the DS&G Landfill
application takes quite a bit of time.  The preparation of a detailed cost
estimate of a complete incinerator facility takes about twelve
engineer-weeks. Incinerator combustion chambers are sized on the basis of

-------
                   TABLE 2.  PERTINENT INCINERATION PROCESSES AND
                             THEIR TYPICAL OPERATING RANGES
Process

Rotar   kiln
      injection


    ized ted
Ccmcmeraticn


Starved air cornbusticn/pyrolysis
 Temperature
range, °F (8C)

1.500 to 2.900
 (820 to 1,600)

1.200 to 2.900
 (650 to 1.600)

 840 to 1.800
 (450 to 980)

 Drying zone
 600 to 1.COO
 (320 to 540)
 incineration
1.400 to 1.800
 (760 to 980)

 300 to 2.900
 (150 to 1.600)

 900 to 1.500
 (480 to 820)
      Residence time

Liquids and gases, seconds:
  solids, hours

0 1  to 2 seconds
Liquids and gases, seconds:
  solids, longer

0?5 to 1.5 hours
Seconds to hours

Tenth of a second to
  several hours
TA8LE 3 APPLICABILITY OF AVAILABLE INCINERATION PROCESSES TO
INCINERATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE BY TYPE
Rotary Liquid Fluidized Multiple air
Waste type kiln' injection bed' hearin Coincmeration
So cs
j'j^jiar no-"'ogeneous X
ca >e'S e'C 1 X
Lc.v -r>eitinr) poni
cars esc l X
'jb'Die asn constituents X
Ui-p-epareo large DuiKy
mite'iai X
Gases
0-ganic vapor laden X°
nigr rrgantc strength
aqueous wastes otten
•o.,c X'
O'fj.miC Mi|n«IS X*
'•'•aiie contams f.aiogcnatrjo
? -CO ^ T'.ni'nijrni X
Aa-cous O'^arnc siLcges X'*
• Surtdtle 'Of SyfOlys s opcfation
^"Handles large fiaieriji on j 'united b,isis
]l " .in -i.ii :.,ir '^ rri(.-it,.i) dno yum(.x.'fj
(|f yff,[ic''y p"- jC' 'IcU to tin.' incincfdicx

XX X
X

Xe X X
X X



X" Xa X" Xs


XX X
XX X

X' X
XX X
•11 equipped *>nn auxiliary liquid miection
' II liquid
vivoviocd waste does not become sticky
—
Starved
combustion/
pyrolysis

X
X"

X
X



Xs







nozzles
upon drying


-------
                                 - 20-
estimates of the flue gas volume generated by the burning of hazardous waste
and auxiliary fuel  The costs of components downstream of the combustion
chambers are a function of flue gas volumetric flowrate. Sampling and
characterization of the actual wastes and soils to be incinerated is required
(rather than the sampling of surrounding areas which is all that is currently
available) before an effective design can be developed.
    The cost for a rotary kiln incinerator may range from $ 150 to $350/ton
(Liddicoatt, 1990). Assuming that there is 25,000 yd3 (20,500 yd3 from the
Drum Disposal Area, 4,500 yd3 from the Ridge Area) of soil and wastes to be
incinerated, the total  incineration cost may be expected to range from
$8.4 million to $195 million.

4.0  Incinerator  Emissions
    The use of hazardous waste incinerators has met a substantial amount of
public opposition because people are concerned about the potential risks to
human health and the ecosystem from stack emissions.  This concern could be
avoided if the  general  public had a better understanding of  incineration
emission potentials and available control techniques.
    When hazardous wastes are burned with oxygen, they react to  form
combustion products,  such as C02, CO, H20, HC and particulate  matter.
Significant amounts of other species are also normally released during
incineration, including SOX, NOX, acids, salts, halogenated organics, free
halogen gases, and amines.  The stack gas may contain partially burned
hydrocarbons such as  benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, benezene
hexachloride, benzo-a-pyrene, and dioxins  in the stack gas. These compounds
are of concern because they are toxic and carcinogenic at low  exposure levels.

-------
                                  - 21-
Many metals are of concern in hazardous waste incineration because of the
possible adverse human health effects associated with exposure to emissions
of these elements and/or their compounds from incinerator stacks. Metals of
primary interest include arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, cadmium,
lead, mercury, antimony, silver and thallium.
4 1  Types of Emissions
41.1  Particulate Matter
    The term particulate matter, comprises a complex category of materials,
both solid and  liquid, that inhabit the atmosphere. The size range of
particulates (also known as aerosols) ranges from 0.1 micron (\i) to 500 u in
diameter.  Particles larger than 10 u can be seen with the naked eye.
Particulate matter may originate from inorganic  or organometallic
substances introduced with the waste, auxiliary fuel, combustion air, or some
combination of these materials.  Inorganic matter, such as salts and trace
metals present in the waste and fuel, are known as ash and cannot be
destroyed by incineration.  The ash content is usually much higher  in solids
and sludges than in liquid wastes. Emissions of particulate matter are
influenced by the chemical composition of the waste and the auxiliary fuel
being  incinerated, the type of incinerator and its  operating parameters, and
the air pollution control system.  Most of the pollutants of concern, such as
heavy metals and organic toxic byproducts, will condense either as fine
particles or on fine particles as the exhaust  gas stream cools.
    As the quantity of metallic constituents in the feed increases, the
quantity of metallic oxides also increases. These particulates are mostly
less than one micron in size, and they may include oxides of silicon, sodium,
calcium, zinc,  magnesium, iron and aluminum with lower percentages  of trace

-------
                                  - 22-
metals. The oxide particles reflect light and produce highly visible emissions
wnich appear worse than stack test results would indicate
    The technology for particulate control is well developed. Selection of
control equipment depends on several factors such as the inlet grain loading,
particle size distribution, acid removal devices and regulatory requirements.
Scrubbers, baghouses and wet electrostatic precipitators are currently used
on hazardous waste incinerators.  Many engineers use quenchers, which serve
both to cool  the gases and to permit particulate growth, followed by medium
to high energy venturi scrubbers for ultimate capture. Alternate designs
involve precipitators (either wet or dry) followed by absorbers  for the gas
components.
41.2 Gaseous Matter
    Flue gas will normally have components classified as either organic or
inorganic. Inorganic gases produced from the burning process normally
include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and oxides of
sulfur  (if  present).  Emission of carbon monoxide is normally very low due to
the high-level combustion and destruction efficiencies achieved in the
hazardous waste incinerators, but emissions of nitrogen oxides are usually
high due to thermal fixation of oxygen and nitrogen in the combustion air at
high temperatures.  Depending on the waste, emission of oxides of sulfur and
other various acid gases may also result from hazardous waste  incineration.
The acid gases emitted may include sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride,
hydrogen fluoride, and  hydrogen bromide. Various scrubbing technologies are
available  to control all of the above acid gases. Carbon dioxide  is currently
not considered an air pollutant.

-------
                                  - 23-
     Possible organic gas emissions may include oxygenated hydrocarbons,
halogenated hydrocarbons, olef ms, and aromatics  Emissions of any type of
hydrocarbon are normally very low because of the destruction efficiency of
the high-temperature combustion process.  Incineration of chlorinated
hydrocarbons results in the formation of hydrochloric acid and free chlorine
The chlorine results from an inadequate supply of hydrogen to convert the
chlorine in the compounds to hydrochloric acid Since many chlorinated
organics often require an auxiliary fuel for their proper destruction,  it is
advisable to use natural  gas as this will aid in the conversion of the chlorine
toHCl
4 1.3  PCBs
     Incineration of substances containing PCBs (polychlonnated biphenyls) is
covered by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Permitting under T5CA
is reserved for EPA. Under TSCA a material  containing less than 50 ppm PCBs
is not controlled.  TSCA mandates tha for destruction of PCBs, combustion at
1200 "C with a 2 second retention time and  3% oxygen  in the  exhaust gas or
1600 °C with a 1.5 second retention time and 2% oxygen in the exhaust is
required  Additionally there must be a combustion efficiency of at least
99.9%
     However, at NPL sites, such as the DS&G Landfill,  RCRA and TSCA
incineration permits are not required.  At these sites, the EPA Regional
Administrator sets the applicable standards, which may include compliance
with the provisions of incinerator permitting under TSCA without the
necessity of obtaining an actual permit.
     From  the analytical data  currently available for the DS&G Landfill, the
PCB contamination is below the 50 ppm level.  However, the need for further

-------
                                 - 24-
sampling and waste characterization is evident before any final incineration
design is implemented.
41.4  Dioxm
    Trace quantities of dioxins have been reported to have been found in the
emissions of hazardous waste incinerators.  The term dioxin is a
generalization of a family of chlorinated organic compounds consisting of two
benzene rings connected by two oxygen bridges. When chlorine atoms occupy
two or more of the eight available locations on the two benzene rings, the
resulting molecule is known as a polychlormated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), or
dioxin for short.  Of the 73 different possible varieties of dioxins,
2,3,7,8-TCDD is the most toxic found to date.  PCDDs are  thermally stable up
through 1300°F and have an extremely low vapor pressure. Figure 11  shows
dioxin and some related compound chemical structures.
    Although no cases of human death or even long-term disability have been
attributed to dioxins in the United States or elsewhere, 2,3,7,8-TCDD was
found to be extremely toxic to small animals.  It is the most toxic synthetic
chemical known, 500 times more potent  than strychnine and 10,000 times
more  potent than cyanide as determined by laboratory analysis.  Some
observations pertaining to dioxin's human health effects  are:
    • In each case of exposure a skin disorder, chloracne, has occurred.
       Chloracne is a severe facial eruption and is a severe irritant.
    • Liver damage has been reported a number of months after exposure.
       However, in each  case, signs of this damage have disappeared within a
       period of two to five years.
    • No human symptoms or reactions have been found to be permanently
       injurious to well-being
    • Although no relationship to malignancies has been found between
       dioxins and human life,  this is a fear, particularly as a long-term
       effect.

-------
            2,3,7,8-TCDD is one compound in a family
            All dibenzo-p-dioxins have a three-ring
            structure  consisting of two benzene
            rings connected by oxygen atoms:


            And 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
            is one of the 75 possible chlorinated
            dioxins:
            Related are chlorinated dibenzofurans:
            Dioxin precursors combine
            to form dioxin in the general
            reaction:
For example, 2,3,7,8-TCDD is the most
likely  result  from  the  reaction of
2,4,5-trichlorophenol:
                                                                 Cl
                                                                      -NaCI
•— /
              Source.'
                                                                                 oi
                                                                              ^fe.

-------
                                  - 25-
    There are many theories of how dioxin may form during incineration

including the following:
    •  Burning of wastes which contain trace levels of PCDD will
       necessarily produce PCDD in the exhaust stream.
    •  The presence of two or more chlorinated organics act as precursors in
       the formation of PCDD.  By a process termed dimerization these
       compounds will combine, under appropriate conditions of temperature
       and oxygen availability, to form PCDD.
    •  PCDD may be formed by  partial oxidation of single-molecule precursor
       compounds, such as the  partial oxidation of PCBs.
    •  The presence of chlorine and the chlorine (chloride) attack of basic
       aromatic hydrocarbon structures associated with lignin, such as
       wood, vegetable residues, etc., encourage PCDD formatio
    Dioxins, as it turns out, are not very difficult to destroy. There is no

unique thermal or kinetic stability attributable to dioxins that would prohibit
its efficient destruction at high temperatures.  The use of an auxiliary fuel
and the availability of molecular oxygen reduce dioxin levels substantially.

The probability of gas-phase formation of  dioxin is very low at high

temperatures, i1700°F, if mixing between fuel and air is efficient.  More
sampling and further waste characterization is required to estimate whether
dioxin  may be a problem at DS&G.


4.2 Air Pollution Control Devices
    There are numerous types and sizes of air pollution control devices

(APCDs) on the market today. They range from the unsophisticated, a series

of baffles, to the relatively complex high-energy water scrubbing devices,

utilizing alkali, to clean gas streams of solid,  liquid, and gaseous pollutants.

Below  is a description of a few of the APCDs currently available.

-------
                                  - 26-
42.1  Electrostatic Precipitator
     In an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), a negative electrical charge is
imparted on the particles in the flue gas. The negatively charged particles
are then attracted and retained by positively charged collection electrodes.
The particles are removed from the electrodes into collection hoppers by
rapping. The process  is carried out  within an enclosed chamber made of metal
or Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic.  The grounded collecting electrodes (plates)
are suspended within  the chamber.  Power input is provided by a high-voltage
transformer and a rectifier. Discharge electrodes suspended between the
plates are negatively  charged with voltages ranging from 20 to 100 Kvolts.
Figure 12 shows a typical electrostatic precipitator.
42.2  Wet Electrostatic Precipitator
    Wet Electrostatic Precipitators (WESPs) are a relatively new technology
and are generally used for applications where the potential for explosion is
high or where particulates are very sticky. Figure 13  is a cross section
through a wet  ESP  They are basically the same technology as dry ESPs with
the following two important distinctions:
    • A wet spray is included in the inlet section for cooling, gas
       adsorption, and coarse particle collection
    • The collection electrode is  wetted to flush away the collected
       particles.
42.3  Fabric Filter (Baghouse)
    Fabric filters remove dust and  particles from the flue gas by passing the
gas through a fabric bag. The cleaned gas exits from one side of the filter
while the dust is collected on the other side. Baghouses are very efficient for
gases containing small particles.  The collected dust may be removed from
the filter bag by any of three methods: mechanical shaking, reverse flow
back-flushing  at low pressure (reverse air), or reverse flow back-flushing at

-------
Figure 52    Typical electrostatic preapitator

-------
                                        t/U IhLtT
           CAS OUTLtT
HIGH-VOL TACt
 CONDUCTOR
                                                           INSULATOR COMPARTMENT
                                                             MICH-VOLTAGE SYSTEM
                                                             SUPPORT INSULATOR
                                                           ELECTRIC HEATER
                                                           •ATf « SPRATS
                                                           DISCHAICt ELECTROOt
                                                           SUPPORT FRAME
                                                             I« fOWOJ
                                                           DISCHARGE ELECTR008S
                                                           TUMJLA* COLLECTING
                                                           SURfACES
                                                           CASING
                                                           •EIGHTS
                                                           DISCHARGE SEAL
Figure
Co.)
              Tubular wet Electrostatic precipttator. (Source; Joy Manufacturing
                                              ^   118G

-------
                                 - 27-
slightly higher pressure (pulsed air)  Figure 14 is a schematic of a bag filter
with a shaker mechanism.
424  Quench Chamber
    The quench chamber operates by passing the  hot gases through a water
spray Quench chambers usually precede scrubber equipment in the pollution
control  treatment sequence, and are used to reduce the temperature of hot
gases leaving the incinerator. The chamber also serves to protect the
downstream equipment from high  temperature damage and it reduces water
evaporation in downstream scrubbing equipment.  Figure 15 depicts an upflow
quench reactor.
4.2 5  Wet/Dry Scrubber (Spray Dryer)
     In the wet/dry scrubber, hot gases are passed through a fine mist of a
dilute alkali slurry. The water in  the slurry absorbs acids from the flue gas
and the  acids react with the alkali solids in the slurry to form salts.  Water
is lost through evaporation, leaving  the salts and any unreacted alkali behind
as a dry powder. This particle-laden flow  then goes to a fabric filter or an
ESP to remove the particulates. Wet/dry scrubbers are considered cleaner
control  systems than wet scrubbers, mainly because the waste material is
dry particulates and no further liquid treatment is required, which
significantly reduces the waste volume.
4.2.6  Venturi Scrubber
     In the venturi scrubber, a liquid is introduced into a constricted area.
High velocity gas, from 200 to 600 ft/sec  at the  throat, is also introduced to
shear the  liquid into fine droplets and to allow large surface area for mass
transfer  From  the expansion section of the venturi throat the gas enters a

-------
                    Figure 14      Upflow quench reactor.
                 SHAKER   ECCErfTHIC  BAG SUSPENSION
                  MOTOR      ROD        ,.  BAR
     REVERSE-AIR      \       |        /'       ^.PARTITION
     DAMPER IN
       NORMAL  \
     POSITION  '


TO EXHAUST FAN

    COMPARTMENT
     IN SERVICE

  LEVEL INDICATOR
     FOR OUST	-
TOP OF SILO
                                                        REVERSE-AIR
                                                         CAMPER IN
                                                          CLEANING
                                                          POSITION


                                                       >   TO EXHAUST  FAN
                                                    '-FRESH-AIR QAMPER

                                                       COMPARTMENT
                                                   	BEIK3 CLEANED
                                                          MATERIAL
                                                             IN
          Flgur* IS     Bag fitter with shaker mechanism.

-------
Figure )&     Venturi scrubber.

-------
                                  - 28-
large chamber for separation of particles or for further scrubbing. Figure 16
illustrates a venturi scrubber where water is injected at its throat
43 Air Pollution Control Device Efficiency
     Table A shows conservative estimated efficiencies of APCDs for
controlling toxic metals emissions.  Most toxic metals will condense as
solids if incinerator combustion gases are cooled. As seen in the table,
mercury is the least apt to condense prior to emission from the system stack
as its degree of recovery above 400°F is generally slight.  Quench chambers
are frequently employed to cool flue gas prior to further treatment.  Venturi
scrubbers are frequently used while ESPs and WESPs are not widely used in
hazardous waste incineration applications. Fabric filters have not been
commonly used on hazardous waste incinerators as they are bulky and
expensive, and require careful operation  At most facilities where data
indicate high gas and particulate removal efficiencies, there are usually two
to four APCDs in series. The particular series will depend on the type of
incinerator and the characteristics of the wastes incinerated. A number of
typical APC series are listed below:
     •   Quench/wet scrubber
     •   Quench/spray dryer/cyclone/ESP
     •   Quench/spray dryer/cyclone/fabric filter
     •   Quench/wet scrubber/ionizing wet scrubber/mist eliminator
     •   Quench/WESP/venturi scrubber/packed tower scrubbers
     •   Quench/venturi scrubber/packed tower scrubbers; and
     •   Fabric filter/wet scrubber
4.4 Selection of an Air Pollution Control Device Series
     Further waste characterization studies and more sampling is required
before the proper selection of an APCD series can be made. However, high
levels of lead have been found in the sampling to date and it does not appear
that mercury will be a problem. Therefore, the combination of a venturi

-------
                                       TABLE  4
          Air Pollution  Control  Devices  (APCDs)  and  Their  Conservatively
                 Estimated  Efficiencies  for  Controlling  Toxic Metals
APCD
POLLUTANT

•ws
•VS-20
•VS-60
ESP-1
ESP-2
ESP-4
•WESP
•FF
•PS
SD/FF; SD/C/FF
DS/FF
•FF/WS
ESP-1AVS; ESP-1/PS
ESP-4/WS1 ESP-4/PS
•VS-20/WS
"WS/IWS
•WESP/VS-20/IWS
C/DS/ESP/FF; C/DS/GESP/FF
SD/C/ESP-1
Ba,Be
50
90
98
95
97
99
97
95
95
99
98
95
96
99
97
95
99
99
99
Ag
50
90
93
95
97
99
97
95
95
99
98
95
96
99
97
95
99
99
99
Cr
50
90
93
95
97
99
96
95
95
99
98
95
96
99
97
95
98
99
98
As.Sb.Cd,
Pb. TI
40
20
40
80
85
90
95
90
95
95
98
90
90
95
96
95
97
99
95
Hg
30
20
40
0
0
0
60
50
80
90
50
50
80
85
80
85
90
98
85
  It is assumed that flu* gases have been preceded in • quench. If gases are not cooled adequately,
mercury recoveries will diminish, as will cadmium and arsenic to, a lesser extent.
•'  An IWS is nearly always used with an upstream quench and packed horizontal scrubber

C • Cydcne
WS - Wet Scrubber including:      Sieve Tray Tower
                               Packed Tower
                               Bubble Cap Tower
PS • Proprietary Wet Scrubber Deetgn
         (A number of proprietary wet scrubbers have come on the market in recent years that are highly
efficient on both paniculate* and corrosive gases.  Two such units are offered by Carvert Environmental
Equipment Co. and by Hydro-Sonic Systems, Inc.).
VS-20 - Verfluri Scrubber, cm. 20-30 in W. G. Ap
VS-60 - Venturi Scrubber, ca. > 60 in W. G. Ap
ESP-1 - Electrostatic Preciprtaton 1 stage
ESP-2 • Electrostatic Prectpdator, 2 stages
ESP-4 - Electrostatic Precipitaton 4 stages
IWS • Ionizing Wet Scrubber
DS « Dry Scrubber
FF • Fabnc Filter (Baghouse)
SO » Spray Dryer (Wet/Dry Scrubber)

-------
                                  - 29-
scrubber in series with a wet scrubber would appear to be adequate air
pollution control for this application  Further examination of the regulatory
requirements and the waste characteristics  is needed before any official
selection and design of air pollution control  equipment  is implemented
5.0  Conclusion
     The Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill, an NPL site, is currently in the
design phase of the  remedial action  Wastes and soils from two areas, the
Drum Disposal and Ridge Areas, are to be disposed by incineration  The total
volume of material  to be  incinerated is expected to be between 25,000 yd3
and 30,000 yd3 depending on the actual boundaries and depths of wastes in the
two disposal areas  The estimated range of costs  for the incineration portion
of the project  is between $8.4 million and $19.5 million.  These  figures do not
include excavation and handling and storage costs.
     Much more sampling  and waste characterization is required before the
f inai design of the incinerator and any air pollution control equipment is
begun.  The best  incinerator for the job right now appears to be the rotary
kiln  Tnis incinerator offers the most versatility of any of the incinerators
currently on the  market.  It can handle solids, sludge and liquids at the same
time with little  or no pretreatment of the waste feed necessary It is the
only incinerator  that can  operate  in a slagging mode in which it  can reduce
steel drums to a molten slag, a glass-like  substance, when cooled.
Transportable  rotary kilns have been proven  to be effective in similar
applications throughout the country.

-------
                                  - 30-
    There are many types of air pollution control devices currently on the
market that will bring the stack emissions within any applicable regulations.
Venturi scrubbers, quench chambers and wet scrubbers are the most common
pieces of equipment used today For more complex applications, filter
baghouses and electrostatic precipitators are available.
    incineration offers a permanent solution to the contamination problem
occurring at the Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill. It provides for the
destruction of the hazardous or toxic components in the waste matrix and it
reduces or eliminates the liabilities and risks pertaining to hazardous
wastes

-------
                              References

Bonner, T s Cornell, C., Desai, B , Fullenkamp, J., Hugnes, T., Johnson, M.,
     Kennedy, E , McCormick, R., Pelers, J and Zanders, D  Engineering
     Handbook for Hazardous Wasle Incineralion  Nalional Technical
     Informalion Service, Springfield, VA.  June,  1981

Brunner, Calvin R Hazardous Air Emissions From Incineralion.  Chapman and
     Hall, New York, 1986

Brunner, Calvin R. incmeralion Syslems  Van Noslrand Reinhold Company,
     New York,  1984

Brunner, Calvin R Site Cleanup by Incineralion.  The Hazardous Malerials
     Conlrol Research Institute, Silver Springs, Maryland, 1988.

Cudahy, James, and Eicher, Anthony.  "Thermal Remedialion Industry-
     Markets, Technologies, Companies," Pollution Engineering.  November,
     1989.

Devinny, J., Everetl, L, Lu, J., and Stellar, R. Subsurface Migration of
     Hazardous Wastes, Van Noslrand Reinhold, New York,  1990.

Dunn Geoscience Corporalion, "Feasibilily Sludy for the Delaware Sand £
     Gravel Landfill - Final Report"  February, !988.

Dunn Geoscience Corporation, "Remedial Investigation Report on the
     Delaware Sand & Gravel Landfill."  December, 1987

EPA Report * 530/SW-90-04la.  Guidance on Metals and Hydrogen Chloride
     Controls for Hazardous Wasle Incinerators: Volume IV of the Hazardous
     Wasle Incineration Guidance Series. 1990.

Esposito, M., Taylor, M., Bruffey, C, and Thurnau, R.  "Incineralion of a
     Surrogate Superfund Soil Using a Pilol-Scale Rolary Kiln Incineralor,"
     Unpublished draft report, 1988.

Ives, Jim and Young, Derrell.  "Hazardous Waste Incineration  System Used on
     Alaskan Site," Oil and Gas Journal. Ocl. 30,  1989.

-------
Johnson, L, Midgett, R, James, R., Thomason, M , and Manier, M. "Screening
    Approach for Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents and Products of
    Incomplete Combustion," JAPCA. vol. 39, 1989

Johnson, Nancy, and Cosmos, Michael. "Thermal Treatment Technologies for
    Haz Waste Remediation," Pollution Engineering. October,  1989.

Kinkhabwala, Minesh, and Mehta, Ronald.  "Case  Study: Transportable
    Incineration Technologies for Permanent Superfund Remediations,"
    Hazardous Waste Management Magazine. Jan.-Feb.. 1988.

Liddicoatt, Carol.  Review of Alternative Incineration Technologies for the
    Southern Maryland Wood Preservers Superfund Site. Hollywood.
    Maryland, Unpublished Report by Dames & Moore, 1990.

Rawis, Rebecca. "Dioxin's Human Toxicity is Most Difficult Problem," C&EN.
    June 6, 1983

Santoleri, J  "Rotary Kiln Incineration Systems: Operating Techniques for
    Improved Performance,"  Hazardous and  Industrial Wastes -  Proceedings
    of the Twenty-Second Mid-Atlantic Industrial  Waste Conference. Drexel
    University, Philadelphia, PA, July 24-27,  1990.

Shacklette, H. and Boerngen, J. Element Concentrations in Soils and Other
    Surf icial Materials of the Conterminous United States. U.S.  Geological
    Survey Professional Paper 1270.  United States Government Printing
    Office, Washington,  1984

Shaub, Water and Tsang, Wing. "Dioxin Formation in Incinerators,"
    Environmental Science & Technology, vol.  17, no.  12, 1983.

Shen,  Thomas. "Hazardous Waste Incineration: Emissions and  Their Control/'
    Pollution Engineering. July.  1986.

Star, Alvin.  "Cost Estimating for Hazardous Waste  Incineration," Pollution
    Engineering. April,  1985

Timmons,  D.,  Fitzpatrick, V., and  Liikala, S.  "Vitrification Tested on
    Hazardous Wastes," Pollution Engineering. June, 1990

-------
Travis, C., Holton, 6., Etnier, E., Cook, 5., O'Donnell, F., Hetrick, D , and Dixon,
    E. "Potential Health Risk of Hazardous Waste incineration,"  Journal of
    Hazardous Materials, vol 14,1987.
Trenholm, Andrew, Lapp, Thomas, Scheil, George, Cootes, John, Klamm,
     Scott, and Cassady, Carolyn "Total Mass Emissions from a Hazardous
     Waste Incinerator," Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 18,  1988.

Vogel, Gregory, and Martin, Edward "Cost File - Waste Incineration Part 1-
     Equipment Sizes and Intergrated-Facility Costs,"  Chemical
     Engineering. September 5, 1983.

Vogel, Gregory, and Martin, Edward. "Cost File - Waste Incineration Part 2-
     Estimating Costs of Equipment and Accessories,"  Chemical
     Engineering. October 17,  1983.

Vogel, Gregory, and Martin, Edward. "Cost File - Waste Incineration Part 3:
     Estimating Capital Costs of Facility Components,"  Chemical
     Engineering. November  28,  1983

Worthy, Ward  "Both Incidence, Control  of Dioxin Are Highly Complex,"
     C&EN, June 6.  1983.

-------
              Appendix A

Analytical Data of Water and Groundwater at
     Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill

-------
   o   a»
   *   ^Jt
O   -Si
   CA
OJ  0)
.H  OS
43
CO  i—I
H  CO
   O
2Z
H
 i
C
CO
60

O
C
s
I
3
c
a
C
I
|
|
1
2
3
i
»
•
I
"5
^*
s
CJ
s.
«_»
•
9
£
5
§

£
a
>~
a
«
•
*
i_i
•3
— *
^
^
u>
•
a

t_i
s
•
•i
^"3
as
332222235
33252252S
232222332
233222252
533523522
255535555
552335323
522252222
222223533
533233333
222225332
S8SS22SSS

OOOOOOOOO
sssssssss

sssssssss
ooooooooo
sssggssss
ooooooooo
ggggggggg
S8SS8SSS8
SS88SSS88
888888888
ooooooooo
RSBSSSSSS
— . — — ^ ^nr^> — •*»
000000^049
£SS=SslSS
o«Jo— ^-We»w


s
s
•
3
i
s
s
.s
n
	 2SK2C2
SSSaSSE*«
SRS2ZZSZR
ooor-irioooo
************ *^ *° K —
aisas


                                                     i*
                                                     "1

                                                             sssssssss
                                                           — i (••* K c»i r* rt ?i rs* <5 r*
                                                           S I 000000000
                                                           — j V^^N^^^^W

                                                            I ^^^O^O^O^
                                                           = : sssssssss
                                                           =!ssslsss§g
                                                           a i OO^^^O^49O
                                                           S !
                                                           • t
                                                                  0000

                                                           = i iiiiiiiii
                                                           •S i 9SSSSS9SS
                                                           S • 5o<9<9000<=>0
                                                           |i 332255555
                                                           *<• i
                                                           CJ j

                                                           & i RRRRRRRRR
                                                           C!333352323
                                                           - !

                                                           |;iiiiiiiii
                                                           • ! OO^OOOOOO
                                                           ^ j 000000000



                                                           3;iiiiiiiii
                                                           • ! doooooooo

                                                             Si tft ft »r» «n m wn wi tn in
                                                           -1888888888
                                                              •s:;
                                                           ^!
                                                           k. I OOOOOOOOO
                                                           " > ir>in*3*2!CSI?2S2!
                                                           S!oooooooo<
                                                           « I 00000000*
                                                           s
                                                          .S;
                                                          rs i
                                                          as:

                                                                                         Si
                                                                                      s  -^^

-------
 I 222222222


 3
 | 222222222


 £ 222222222


 1 223222323

  •
  =1
  i 222222222
!  |i353332333:
  ;
  s
1 222222222

 s
 | 222222222


 ,= 222222222

 1 222223333
 u
 1i SSSSSS25S
 ^ ! ,0 «-i w» iri iri £ ^ ^ ^
 S. ' ^vv^v
 \ :
en
c
§
•o
W2
E

OJ
t-i
V3
U
O

oo
• u
in IH
01 en
.0 E£
co
H r-l
CO

4-1
>,
t— 1
to
<
u
C
60
V-.
O
C
M









^1222222222
. *i
» •=: 222222332

SS !l



?«3 fisssssssss
^w* » u i



^JS si SSS-SRS^«
•g-5 ^ 1 ooooooooo

s, s'; gssss=:*ss
g, > : "'^^ - — '"
» 3 1 S S ••> W* •*» W» •*"•*•"»
s | : sseess°se
1 ! 888S8S888
, ! SSS8-3C=5

o ! KKCSC88XS
! £ : &SS:SSSR? :
k ! 88S8S8888
I 'i SRSSSCSTSK
• u • ^ - ;
i ! SS8S8S8SS

i w* c** in o ^ w^ P1* f*. 9-
% \ ssssz^fss
x : ssz'zsszf-
'. 	 '; 	 	 «
.§ :
"5 i

3!

₯ •='.222232223

-•s 2!2222222S2



.«&. " : - *••"• ---'-

5". w : 222222332
siS. . i
sss 1:
r-^ £'.222222232
Hs si

5*~ - :
rs 1:222223322
1 ^!
| |! 222222222

|i 223222223
S 1333222223
i
! 5! 222222222!
•
1:222223222
",l i
|! 222322322 Z S
si * ?-a a
|.222333333 ~-_-S "S
1 ss:^-=i j
!|222222222 :^^fc- S
~ ; 1511151*
" 5 i E?SSSS3SKR tSSSSr= =

•« M i
•"5 : ^~-;»»; jf-'«



















•1

§
-5
=s.
•o
—
•t
5

2
l_l
ji.
ss-
M «r
« k-
Si
_B £
t = ;
i-sl1
I5S
•1 *
5i^
JAS
.2 =


-------
U1


 
  • 4J r-J fc. O cn i— i en OJ ft- en OS OJ 1— I 1— I i— I i— I C ra -H 3 ?^ CO 0) CO i-t C t-< i-i < 0) > ^ O CO QJ •HUG. C O 0013 E M C CO O CO >-c c oo I—I "O -H C iH U CO rH W t/5 -H OS E 20)^— O U CO CO rH o; o z -£. vii JU1 • ? „ # 8 a i i 3 s. • 4? I SS2SSSSSSSgSSS ssssssssssssss gggggggggggggg ss.-ssss.s-.s. ssssssssssssss SKSSSSSSSKSSSS ssssssssssssss gggggggggggggg egssssssssssss geggS-eggooooo £o ;..;.. »^ ~_ >, SK222SCE2222R2 " «-• - CCKCSSCRRCKR&S •^^•WVV> NXVW^VV> «RSRSSSeSM=3 ssss ssss ssss ,sss ssss ssss ggss gsss ssss ssss ""* 0000 " — s- **"***"* * * 00 ss S3 ss ss ss °s s* 2 S" — — ss •*•"** z« ..8S88 «« .^ . . «ssss ssss ssss ..ssss sassss $,S8§8 ««!«« s~;; ™" S22S2S ^ -w S22R2S SSKKSi ~""""~"^ !?!??? SCSSS2SRSC2 OO9OOOO9OOO sssssssssss s.««.sg.««. sssssssssss sssssssssss sssssssssss sssssssssss ggogooooooo o.oooooooog - - -^^-gjp,,.. ™* " " ~~~" SRa=,oooooog — — — ~' -—-a* S=SSK33-<— - •s^ -v s^ >^ v^ ^. ^- — lIlIilLSK= ess sss sss sss sss sss sss sss sss Ssa CSC SKJ2 v — M W»«Nt v^»v JK .2

  • -------
                                          Table  5.20
    
                            DNREC Organic Analytical Results  of  Harch 1965
                      Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill  RI/FS Broundnater Sampling
                                       (•icrograis per  liter)
    
    
    Kill I
    3a *
    3a »
    23
    24
    25
    26
    33
    34
    45
    49
    SB *
    58 t
    61
    62
    AHC-2 «
    A«C-2 *
    AKC-7
    AKC-63
    B-4
    B-5
    DEC -Old
    DSC-Ols
    D6C-02d
    DSC-025
    D6C-03d
    DSC-03S
    Rl-1
    RK-10
    flW-11
    RW-12
    RH-13
    RW-14 t
    RIM 4 *
    27
    28
    29
    31
    PK-2 »
    PN-2 *
    TIM
    1.2-
    dichloro
    ethane
    <5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    3.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    11.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    20.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    23.0
    <5.0
    93.0
    <5.0
    51.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    Ifl-
    dichloro
    ethene
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    
    
    benzene
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    <5.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    3100.0
    (3.0
    1700.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    30.0
    <3.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    130.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    
    
    toluene
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    7300.0
    (5.0
    8000.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    83.0
    <5.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    16.0
    360.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    
    ethyl
    benzene
    (3.0
    <3.0
    <5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    390.0
    (5,0
    1400.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    <3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    59.0
    24.0
    (3.0
    <5.0
    <5.0
    M-
    dichloro
    ethane
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    8.2
    (5.0
    11.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    
    
    chlorofon
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (1.0
    (5.0
    5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    tri
    chloro
    ethene
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    180.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    28.0
    (5.0
    320.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    
    chloro
    benzene
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    14.0
    (5.0
    33.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    24.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    <5.0
    (5.0
    1.2-
    dichloro
    ethene
    (3.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    <3.0
    (5.0
    28.0
    (5.0
    (1.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    (5.0
    (3.0
    * Duplicate analyses
    

    -------
                                                                       1
    
         g
           "SgS
           ill
           s 5
    
             s
           .£  S
             s
    ui
     3
    
    I;
    
    i
    *
    
    
    i
    >ood^*>oirJaoooc>o<
                      &•••&• 63 CM ^3 Gu GH &• Q&J ^u Cu
                 XX
                 XXXX    XX
                                      83
                             OlfO
    
                             o--o>
                                      K2
                                      EF5
                             II
                                          S28888R888SSSS8
                            iliiiiiiiiiliia
    
    
                            ^~~tx"xx
                                                              e
                                                              g
                                                I
                                                h  .
    
                                                i I
                                                              ?u
    

    -------
    
    llfi
      11
           1
    if!
       s
    H*
    •sesi
    -*a
    s  *
    
    «J3
    K-jg
    
     -S
     "S
     S
                  RS«g ss   s§ e  g ggs sessgS
                                $  s sss
                                               -> «• i-^ cvi
                   S8SS8833SSSS8SS SSS8R2Rf588SS
                               in o o ^ ^ ^ o
                                           SSRS
                                           S3SS
                                                      ~~23
                                           *Ǥ
    
                                           F3SS2S
    8888
    
    
    822S
                                                      =5285:
          S3
                                                            ss
                                                 SfS
                                                 S3
                                                            S*
               1
               fe
               I  1
                                                                 fe
                                                      I  £
                                                      i  b
    
                                                      111
                                                                 ll
                                                                • s . s
    

    -------
    CN
    CN
     0)
    I-l
    ^1
             60
             C
             G.
             e
             19
             l-l
         ^O  V
         00  U
         CTN  a
    
            •a
          «  c
         r-i  3
         T-i  O
         V4- U.  QJ
         C -•>.  4J
            I— t «H
         en cs ^1
     3 rH  QJ
     in -H  a.
     QJ U-i
    C£ T3  W
        C  S
    r-H  ca  ta
    
     u ""*  6C
    •H ^  O
    4J  QJ  )u
     X  >  O
    ^  CO t-l
     !9  U  E
            •o
         u  c
         •rt  C3
         C
         (9  -O
         OC C
         VJ  03
         O  W
    
         ^  0)
            Vj
            rt
    
            to
            T—I
            0)
            a
                        •^ %-J *-i ^ ^ W"» f1*
                        ^Kr-»op-5-i wa
                         S^ «• -«*"ir-- -a
                         »-«»>'^n«-
     » «r *- «n «r> ^ *
      — c«« P«i — c^t •—
    
                       as
                         C<
    
                       33  3
    SSS2SSS
    
                 32333
    
    
                 33
                                       :3  3
                 «^.
    
                            ss
                            as
                               -
                            S2
                            SS
                            5=
                                               SS
                                               dd
                                                         » *"l r"> *"-!*"*» ^•»oS«^^^P^ — «x^r^O*r^r^>«*   -O
    
                                                     ss-sssasssss
                                                                         •v^«-ci
      fO«"*
    _s
    
    333
                                                                        3    3333
    
    
    
                                                                                  ;s^^?
                                                                                                 o^r-.^r4«^a»o«>4d»o
                                                                                                 3333  3333
                                                                                    ssasses
                                                                                                LJI_)«^CJt^CJCJU»(_»lM(_l
                                                                                                                       -5
                                                                                                                       » g
                                                                                                                      II
    

    -------
               a,
    
               co
              CO
    
          vO  t-i
          oo   4J
    
          ^  §
            " T3
          rH  d
          •H  3
           (-1  O
           a  u
          < o ^
    
          uj co  ai
           0 tu  iJ
    
    CM    c/3 KH rH
      .    4J ofi
    U~l   rH      (-1
           3 rH  01
     >   1-1
           co  co  E
           e  n ^
          < u
    
           O T3
          •H  C
           C  CO
           CO
           00 "O
           1^  C
          O  co
              CO
    
               ~"S S
    5 £ *
    . if
    . 5*
    fj!
    a *
    JJS
    J*
    <: »»~e
    P-
    *
    "a
    I
    I
    
    — o.
    ,s
    is
    o
    ~$s
    s»
    IB —-
    s~
    o
    _-J£
    3
    1
    ooooooo
    -»
    NX -.- -w- V «W
    3 3
    •^ *•» m OB m «•!*•»
    3 33333
    "ccrsee
    
    
    -—I—I
    3333333
    
    2222222
    
    22 22
    
    22=22
    
    *iinn«vim
    
    
    es2=«
    
    
    33 33
    
    33 33
    ~ ~
    
    tiBR
    
    
    & o
    33
    00
    in —
    3
    9-
    
    
    33
    g
    S
    S3
    7* i
    222R . 2S3S2" 222222222222222
    
    
    
    3 333 333 5 333
    —5S-Sir-§ 5 «" — =
    ^^
    TO^CMJI^SSSWO^SSSSW^
    3333 333333 3333 33 3 3 3
    r-< «•« <•"• --...« *- «• _•*« — 1>*
    -,-. -. - -. -
    >*• -«•• <5 o^o r««««w .« ^ *^ -*s r* -~~ -v* -w- ^« NT* --^ •v ••
    — s2 sss ss~z~- — •" - — •---• —
    3 -GC C-
    3333 333333 333333a.^3333333
    3333 333333 333333 3^33333
    ~iiSi§IBi§R" "" ~s2~S - - f
    353S223S3322a222223S23S3d35a
    • •* » *
    liiliiiilis^Iiifi^sgiil^i^
    =>=>.=> •=<=«=>,=..=,-
    
    
    cecccccc^??
    3 3
    -.-,-. ^. 3
    
    «r>ir>f~nn^M«.^»
    3 3 333 3
    
    
    -,
    
    3 33333333
    -, -
    3335333333
    ^*r IB •»«••« ^- •• a** o
    S2S22SSSSSS
    --
    S2iiS8f=SR^
    
    If
    Is
    15
    s.
    ss?
    SI"
    'a -a S
    0 k. Z
    SSTi?
    1||2
    lilli
    . . -...3
    

    -------
     o
     CJ
    CM
    
    lA
    
    
     0)
               00
               C
               •H
               r— I
               O.
          vO  tJ
          00  0)
            - T3
          ^-  c
          •H  3
           VJ  O
           a  M
          < o
           O
    
           W
           tn
           OJ
             0)
             o.
        •o   M
    I-H   c   S
     CO   CO   CO
     a  hJ   1-1
    •H       60
    JJ  rH   O
    
    r-l   >   O
     (fl   cr3  *rH
     C   u   E
    <  O  ^
    
     O  13
    *^   C
     C   n3
     03
     &0 T3
     ^j   C
    O   CO
               CO
    0
    i o "3
    — o.
    ȣ g
    "It
    =lls
    .i'5*' —
    ^
    u
    .11
    -T"S S
    1
    0.
    •
    £""3
    •S ^=
    25
    u
    "3 v
    M -.•
    s s
    ^i!
    si?
    «
    •
    ,Si
    ~sS
    a •§
    g £
    "s
    A5l
    "^
    fi-=
    ~'f
    5
    -p
    I
    
    
    in m witfi n n MI
    ooooooo
    
    
    
    
    8S8SSSS
    
    *•» in «r» *nn *•» in
    
    tflm VI «*!«•) Ml VI
    OOOOOOO
    
    5SS55SS
    
    •v -«»otr»*— -<^4
    *^> r^ p«k v 5S ^i .«
    
    
    mm r^iri in
    ^^ot«oo
    
    uu£ac«
    • • •
    K>»*1«r>
    IJSSi
    
    
    •n^
    00
    
    
    
    
    S8
    
    ce
    
    mm
    049
    
    S3
    
    ^•««
    »m
    00 0 OO^^O 000000000000 0
    
     vi vi^i wvin viir>in w?r>«
    ~'x"^SC!N'SSS>'SI^'~'>'t?''>'>"'~'s'>'"^'~'^
    ~-^"-so-'sss-'5:~'--'~ 	 ~~~~~~,,~
    ^<»^^rs«^^^^^^o«^^^^o^^^^r<«
    ^^ "^
    
    CCC CCJ3J5CC CCCC^~CCs-CCCC"C
    ^ -»
    "» ~*
    S5SS2 , SSS8SZ , STKSRSSSJSRSSSSS .
    '^
    ininv>aB « «r»^^«r**^^ i m^mnv-tmvitnnmrkmtrtinin t
    «^---"^.« -^ JQ «X (S» v W» *x*r»*vw*sv**^'-v*'*S'v*->-
    y GSR c; •" ~
    oooo^oo2$SSCSSS2S2SSSSS2SS— C?
    
    2*223Z332Z*sZ2Z2223Z222223*s
    11 .•• •• -*I .. .*•
    ^22Z^^^^^22^sSgSSsssS
    
    
    ssceccseeec!
    oc»^^^4^^o^orM
    
    
    
    
    ssssssssss .
    
    •i «n wn HI ITI ir* in «n to ^* *
    -,
    r^ori«o»noir>-«r»irt*^
    0^0°^^ ^^^r^r*
    
    SdddtiSSSdSs
    .-
    rrvrvr
    SSZSiSKSRS^
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    j
    |
    •
    t
    o
    S
    1
    I not iviititli.
    ( kKuiu nullity ci
    |-r
    «>a
    S'3-
    £ S'S
    Is!
    1J2
    • » *v
                                                                                                                                                                                     f •
    

    -------
              Appendix B
    
       Analytical Data of Soils at
    Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill
    

    -------
            00
            c
            a.
        oo
            o
         •>  C/)
        i—I
        •H  0)
        ^  U
        C.  rc
        <  u_
            i-i ^-v
        OJ  D  E
        f.  w  co
        •U      t-l
                oo
        u-i fa.
    o  o ^-
    —'     I—I
        cn oi
    LPl
        i—I r-i   CO
     0)  3 iH   E
    i-i  CD 1-1   eB
    JS  0) UJ   Vj
     «  Ofi -O   OC
    H      CO
        .-i  (9   U
        re -J   u
    
        •^ rH   E
        j-l  OJ
        >^  >   c
        I—'  CO  T-I
        cfl  W  ^'
     U  C
    •H  CO
     C
     CO -o
     6C C
     l-l  CO
     O C/2
    
    M  (1)
    
        «
    
        (0
       r-4
        cy
       a
                                O> O
                               ainio
                             rv< —. ro r^ ci cvi
    
                             -o ~o-o CM r-J-o
    
                             r^ o»^- -^10 ^^
                                r^> f*< ^ c^ — *
                              - f~- ro CD f~ fo
                             O-CD(NI VO V
                             v r» <*• i-> eo <->
                             •r ca ro -o CD (••»
                             tncncncncncn
                                                •z
    
    
    
    
                                                ££££,'
                                                   Sfooeo-o
                                                   o— "Ooro
                                                V^V
    
    
                                                00<
                                                V ^ «
    
                                                oo<
    
                                                  •CX«»TM—•
    
                                                           0
                                                -or^oocf— •
                                                cnincncncn
                                                                             CM
                                                                     •
                                                                 ooooo
                                                                     -
                                                                    §OOCf--O
                                                                    ooor-
                                                                 ^jr- —t f— in
                                                                 —...^^^jro
    
                                                                 ^ o-co mr^
                                                                 ooooo
                                                                 O— -OOCD
                                                                 rO<^«O 4^ ~*
                                                                «• Of l»» Psl CO
                                                                K>U"> — *-^^r^>
    
    
                                                                ITJ-O-OO--O
                                                                o>- in rv r~. —
                                                                cncncncncn
                                                                                 m
    
                                                                                 ?
                                                                                 i/i
    
                                                                                 "3
                                                                                     OJ
                                                                                     s-
                                                                                     c <*
                                                                                     ••
                                                                                     ai a
    

    -------
        6D
        C
        E
        to
       oo
    
    00 rH
    CT> "rH
    —'  O
       oo
    
    rH  0)
    •H  U
    i-<  to
    B. vtj
    
    
    UJ W
             T
             to
             00
             o
     3 OS
     03
    OS
    .o co  TJ  cn
    to u  c  E
    H -H  (0  CO
       •u  J  W
       >,    6T
    
       CO  0) r-i
       C  > r-i
       <  CO -rl
          ^  E
       U  O ^
       •r-(
       c  -a
       to  c
       OC CO
    
       o  -a
       c  c
       M  CO
          C/!
    
          0)
    
          TO
          3
          re
    
          01
          O
    a
    
    A
    
    
    S
    
    
                                                                 OOOOOtf>OOO.aO
    
                                            nr»v>««-<«wo
                                               ;issilsillsisi"
                                                           •4 ««»onr^ «r^ o c^c^<»
                                                           ^^^>.«inA^>o^..ov
                                                           »O^^^€>ON^^^C
                                               00000«
    
                                                            :SR-
                                                               SRSSRiSS
                                                                                        s-
                                                                                            -
    S    £
    •   3k
                                                                                        *2M
                                                                                        >M
    

    -------
    
    M
    C
    •H
    a.
    6
    CO
    vO
    00 1-1
    CT^ *rH
    — 0
    C/3
    
    •H CJ
    ^" CT3
    3 B
    <— • CO CO
    c u
    CO 60
    en fcu o
    CN :: PS .*:
    — cn
    QJ rH M
    in as i— i a)
    •H G.
    r— co "O a
    J2 U C E
    r3 *r^ n3 co
    >, C03
    •- -H O
    CO 0) U
    C > 0
    OOOO«=»OOO«»«n=>
    
    
    
    
    
    -^
    
    3 3333
    
    
    
    »
    
    33333333 3 33
    3333333333333
    v
    
    
    I=ss5sslssiHs
    o «<••• 
    -------
    I
    I
    I
    I
    1
    I
    1
    1
    I
    1
    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
    00
    e
    1-
    03
        OO r-t
        ON 1-t
        —• O
           V2
    
        l-H 0)
        •H O
        iJ CO
        &. LM
        < \* /—>
           3  e
        U-l C/3  CO
        O    t-
           C/S  60
    /—v  W [fa  O
    T3   AJ -v. r—(
        ,_( I—I -H
    •u   a Pi ^
    C   W
    O   4) r-4  U
    u   aj t-i  a)
    ^     -H  c.
        I—I U-
    ts   eg -a  03
    —   u C  E
     •   -rt CO  CO
    1/1   4J J  )-l
        >>    oo
    0)   i—i ^  O
    i-i   CO   O
    CO   «C CO i-1
    H      u  e
        o a s—
        •H
        c *a
        « c
        60 CO
           c
    
           C/3
    
           0)
           M
           CO
    0)
    c
              o  •
              ts.:
              w » •
              ^  :
              Ob. — • *0
              , -s:
              =3 -s
            04^5 J= •
               ill
               '!"
               :!s
               « • r-
    
                                «»C»O^4=k^
                     SSg:
                     •— ••ri«r^pop^
                     oooooo
                     «• at «• ^ «•<• <• <»(•«• to «•«• CB
                                          ggsgsssssasssgsgsssssggfess
                                          >£0S0S00fiS^""*00000^^"'^^<
                                          »^^^«-*'*fr^^dOP^'fc-   ^. ^ r* r»- — •» r>«   ^<
                                          t K' ^ ^•V^*V VK*V*">O*V1V>Ml^VW>VOO^<
                                                                         'S^N
                                          ?g2ssasssggsggsss22gggg|;
    gg2|SagS8SSKgg5gS2Sgggf|ggg
                                            "a>
    
                                            *>
                                            "3
                                            g
                                                  *
    
                                                  —
    
    
                                                  3
                                                  a
                                                                                        f
                                                                                  ^r  *3  •»
    
                                                                                        .3
                                                                                        •r
                                             :sr
    
                                             -II:
                                                  --
    

    -------
         vc   a
         oo   B
         o\   a
         j:   c
          U  -r-t
          iJ   1-
          m   o
         1-  -H  ^N
         CB  O   E
         3  W   re
         I-       )-
        ^3  W   tC
         0)  tu   O
    iA u-i  OS
    — '  O
     0)  i— i  u-i
    rH   3  T3  03
    J2   03   C  E
     re   a)   re  n
    E-  os  J  >-.
                 oc
        i— I  i— I  «H
         SO   0)  1-1
         O   >  ^H
        •H   re  i-i
         re T3
         c  c
        <  03
    
         U "O
        •H  C
         c  re
         re w
         60
         >-i  0)
         O  l-i
         c  re
        M  ^
             re
            ^
             OJ
            Q
    
    ~
    
    
    
    5
    
    
    £
    
    —
    
    "
    ₯
    '
    
    
    
    £
    
    
    
    CJ
    
    
    
    
    
    
    •
    si
    il
    .5
    J *"
    -e
    li
    
    ?_
    i
    
    =S25-2=2
    — >^ ^
    
    
    OOOOOOOO
    *ow5co-*-«.o9O
    or*>innW)^iri-4
    
    
    ni-^r^r^n
    
    SSsSSSss
    
    
    
    ssssg-s^
    S2SSK5SK
    -,.,.,.,
    
    
    OOOOOP--O— •
    vv
    
    
    £ooK££.nS;£
    
    
    
    
    SSRSRSRS
    
    
    
    
    WWW
    *%%
    4888
    ooi^^^r.
    iiiiiiiJ,
    ssssssss
    
    2^^^ ^
    *^ "^ **** v
    ^,-»»,«
    
    SK»RS
    
    ~'-~-'-'
    c-Jc^r^r^rJ
    
    SSR?:!!:
    
    
    
    S33SS
    
    
    
    xw"
    
    
    —
    SSSSR
    
    
    
    
    CKKRR
    
    S852S
    JIRRS"
    
    
    w
    %
    r*.«-«w^
    i i i i t
    — ^ — «•
    
    en w>wi tncn
    sssss
    82222
    
    
    
    
    
    •« in m •« in -« •«
    
    
    r^r^oir^r^^N
    
    SSSSSSS
    
    
    
    5=5s'Si
    
    
    
    ssssssg
    flD ^ •« w» r— • rfl »•
    "
    
    
    KSKSSKK
    
    
    
    
    SRRSS__
    
    
    
    
    ^^^i*^
    3 3 3
    ™— — RS8S5
    o~-,r~<.
    «*> crt en i/i w» tni/>
    2S33£S£
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    nr^nc^r^
    
    sss^^
    
    
    
    gSKS-
    
    E~"~r
    
    C^4 ^
    ^ —
    
    
    KSS"K
    
    
    
    
    RRSSS
    
    p§s5
    
    
    %%
    '"
    sasscc
    „„
    intnwiwii/*
    iiiil
    
    -"~2e
    
    .n.r~a>
    
    ^^=aa =3
    ^»^»- ««tr»
    
    
    OB-dr^r^
    >,^
    SS2K5
    -~-
    
    ^0000
    SHSS"
    
    
    
    1111s
    
    
    
    assrss
    
    
    
    
    i*~c:s:
    
    §1125
    
    
    
    £
    7TTTT
    «,
    iiiiJ,
    ssssz
    2S222
    
    RS:I:
    
    O- OfODO-
    
    §5s=
    
    
    r^r^rOc-;
    
    asss
    -
    
    °«»S3
    Si"'
    
    
    
    ggss
    t^i r^ — ~r-~
    RK-*'"
    
    
    sn
    ^_r>cD
    
    
    
    
    = = ^ =
    
    ssis
    
    
    
    
    "2SS
    
    -------
      c.
      e
    v£5 W
    CO VI
    O^
    — oc
      c
    J iH
    a u
    i- o
    a sa
    2:
      o e
    n en m
    3   )-i
    v< oo oc
    J3tu O
    OJ"--<— I
    t. I-—TH
      ^ 0)
    cn-H a,
    o   = CE
    a   ^ ro 13
    
    6-1   OS  00
         r^ O
        ^-i OJ kJ
        CB > CJ
        CJ CS-H
        •H MS
     m c
     C. (3
    <
      •a
     u c
    •f-t C^
     CM
     (3
     DC 01
     >- U
    O C3
    
      (3
               1
    
    
             II
    
             u
             O '9
    
               *
                 5 .
                rsi
                  5
    
                 Is
             —
             S3
    
    
            ' S
                  S
    
              if
              ~
               =
                    33 3§3afa3fsfs3   aaaasa
                    sssfaalasilaffalailsasaaa
                    •3   3  3  33 3 33
                 aaaaasaaf alsSaIsaaaaaa
                    •    -    •     •    •
                    saassssalaiaallaaassa
                        •   -•      •
                 r~«^-i— r*.t~.r~.r~.**nrt~m»'^r-im-»'*^*~* •*^-»*1
    
    
    
    
                    5~5c5cccSccc=zas5;2S^*:~cc
    
    
                     333   333   ..    ......33
                    3333 3333333
                                             333
                               rO v«^^
                                   '%£»£%%%^S
                 ^^^m 22S3!2SRI5RS
                 «      .  .         ^
                 tn «/• «n •* 10 w*  w> wi w» «*» «* «/»«t «n «n «• m «• w* •*» 01
                 ssssss^sssssssssssssssss
    3l||S3S3§33333333
                                              3§i|i33S§33333333
    
    
    
                                               3333    3
                                              33SS833XS33333333
    
    
    
                                               3333    3
                                                 3|§f|333§33333333
    
    
    
                                                 3§§333p33333333
    
    3ii§333i33333333
                                                 3  333333*.  333 33
                                                 *j~~r^*m^+^^ ^^|«r»r*»r*jrt»>«e^^^
    
    
    
                                                 3   33333 333
                                                    • t3«-v««p.*-^«r<4».i^»*
                                                               "S"
                                                         ;RR2SCCS
                                                 SSSSSSSSSSESSSSS^
    ssaflsafaglsasggsssssss
    
    
    aaaaaaaasSSS8SSS
                                                                       33  3
                                                                                    33
                                                                   aaailaafslfssslssssasas
                                                                       aaassaa  aS
    sasfisasslfsasigsssasss
                                                                       55=S3SSKa3555S5S=5552S5
                                                                                 %   ».*•.«.**...
                         3m.m.
                         33          33   33  3    3
    
                         --sassRaar-'-ss'-^E-'^sg-
                                                                   •4 <^ ••« *M» •£ ••• v .r »-• w tfi •« ^ <> v •• *-^---• ••* ">
                                                       II
    
    
                                                       ll'
    
                                                       = S:
    
                                                       1&
    
                                                       3*
                                                       ,Si
                                                        s?
    
                                                       iP
                                                       ffi
                                                                                                 1J5
                                                                                                 .3.
    

    -------
    Table (continued)
    Organic Analytical Results of February/March 1986
    Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill RI/FS Soil Boring Sampling
    (raicrograms per kilogram)
    || ! 323§§33333333§iS3333333333332223 j 3|§§§2233§33333333332332222
    W 1 J
    |= i 323Sf3l223333if 33233333333333332 i 3f |f i3322§33333323333323333
    5 j 32a§§2Saa2222§§23333332233323322 j 2§||§3322§33323233322223332
    __5 1333 j
    iff2 | 223§§33a33333R§33333333323323332 i 3§§2~3323~32333333333332333
    __;! 33 3 33 j ---.
    !fj i 232f|2£32222aif 33333333323323332 i 3§~3S33322>22222232222232322
    -2 j i 332§f 3§333223R§33333323323323333 \ 3fj5§§3333§33333333333332333
    £|| 333§i3S»3233^233333333333222,2 j 2^53333§,,3333333333333,3
    i«2Jl I 333353S333a32KSS3333333a23333322 \ 3533R3223C33333333332333333
    'flri«'*'S i J ^^
    I ! 333§|3§322233§§33322322233333222 j 3§§§§3333§33333333333232333
    S i i
    Si i
    a 1 <
    k- ft • »
    _» i i
    ** i >*— j >w >-*
    — * ! <
    . i i " ~"
    -kl- : i
    S— ! •
    | i 333333333 333 33 3 3 3 i 33>i3^.»33.«3333333 333
    J^l •*-• M 4w> -V W V W W ^ •.— .
    S«i 33333 333 33 3333 3! 3 3 3 33 3333
    jjfl j — - - - - - c^ - - — - j ~~ - — - -«—.
    
    
    ,«, ^^^ 	 — c5"^» - | - - - — -c-c-
    
    
    
    
    « i M^^^«c.«^.^^^^^«^.aa£.tSS==:=RRSftCsi «^R^^«^^^«^.«^a>.s.^SS==aRR
    |c ; i^sisRasicRRsiiscicicgiiiijfecais;; i •"^ii^icSiea^aa^ciiicg^sijfe^S
    ! t
    || | rr.VTi?..,.TT2=s==z=2=:2::as!::sRSRaRRRa i rr,7TTVr.T2===2=2=:25:s;:KSSS!2R
    
    1 .... 1 ..
    n I iiiiiiii£iiiiii3iiiiii£&&&& i mi^»»m^H^^H^M
    * *
    — e o S e
    lilil
    o W
    ]
    M
    W
    ll
    !!
    ill
    I la
    II
    

    -------
             oc
             c
             a.
             E
        vO
        OO
        — ,   6C
             C
         u   >-
    •O   3
     V   U
     3  .0
     C   0)
    •H  fcu
    4J
     C  «-i
     O   O
     u
    ^«^  CO
         CO
         01
        Oi
    57
         CO
    CO  U
    Cn  60
    -~-  o
    I—I r-l
    OS -H
    J3  to
     flj  U
    H -H
    •H  0)
    VM  o.
    •a
     c  en
     to  e
    i-J  to
         )-
    i-l  OC
     V  O
     >  V
     CO  U
        •u  u   e
            T3
             C
             CO
            •a
         u   c
        •H   CO
         C  W
         to
         00  01
    
        O   CO
    
             CO
    
             01
            o
    U j 3§f 333333333333333*33333333333333333
    fS i 3§f 3i3333333533333s33333333333333333
    •1 t
    a:
    if f| i s|i3§3333233S33333233333333333333333
    — "*"€. ! *"" '*"' ^
    •§ i
    !|1 i 3;i5333333333323S3?33333333333333333
    •g.!
    *f I j 3;i333333333332333§33333333333333333
    • 0. ( >"""' ~" "^
    ~£S I 3;l3§3333333333333§33333333333333333
    2 a. » "^ *"" *"'
    jfli i 3|§3l3333333333333§33333333333333333
    | i £§ f 3R3333333333333233353333333333333
    0 i
    • i
    5 j
    5* |
    * *
    
    5 SE ! ^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 	 w^**^^*,
    1, \ KJ__S 	 _=,_^_.sa____s 	
    . j -. 33 33333 3-. 33 ~ 33
    Si2""""" ~~ ~ _•"•——"• "•*"••
    S-S i 3 33 3333 33 3333
    .= £ i 333^3333r.-.333.3-3-,3-:333333-3^33c.rr.r3
    
    M 1 ^^ ^^ ^^ -W S^ •— »^ ** ** ^^ »l^ *^ W ^^ N* ^ >^ ^ ^ <^  NX X«- <^ >»•
    
    
    
    .«! UUUt.UooUUUU ^U^U
    J? :
    - i «^«^«^^^.«^M^r—^r.^s.~SS===:aRSRe55!R35
    S= : -i^oigjcjsRsiSKSSSCcicgCSSSiiiaRaRSCSRSS
    1
    fl i _^«.,o^^.»2====S=2!===gSC!KSSCSftRKSsSRS
    
    _fe i SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS
    al i 222222222222222222222222222222222222
    KSS
    *""3
    1=3
    SS3
    553
    000
    000
    
    
    
    CNJ ǥ*ۥ*
    sss
    
    355
    
    vir^vi
    ™~
    
    
    „
    o«no
    
    _nn
    """•"
    ===
    222
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    000
    
    
    
    
    33
    333
    
    555
    
    • — n
    ^^~~
    
    
    „„
    -is
    
    — oin
    ••"•••
    =2=
    222
    i
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    333
    
    
    
    
    33
    
    5CSJ
    
    
    M «•
    
    
    nn_
    2SR
    
    -c.«
    
    552
    222
    5*5
    = 3?
    ^> -*
    SaS
    SaS
    
    
    
    
    sss
    ^33
    
    C55
    
    • Vo
    • "•
    
    
    ~r.^-
    ass
    
    -..-.,.
    •"•"*•
    ===
    222
    
    i I
    
    
    I i
    | |
    ~ s
    14
    ill
    II:
    t" 5^
    rit
    S2a
    
    -.5sa
    *-*2s
    -s5*ir
    •^isi=
    * *•• « B «
    5S5«2
    "JS'S " 3-2
    llj52i
    .3.3^
    

    -------