EPA Tribal News
                                Fall 2003-Winter 20(K
                       A Special Word
                       from AIEO's Carol
                       page 5
                       A Trail for Protecting
                       Traditional and Tribal
                       page 8

                       A Decade of Tribal
                       and EPA Partnerships
                       page 60

                       Announcing the
                       Winners of NTEC's
                       and EPA's Design the
                       Kid's Page Contest
                       page 34

Table of Contents
               "The drum
From the Editor	3
OPPTS Welcomes New EPA Administrator	4
                                                       henrthent nfthe
A Special Word from AIEO's Carol Jorgensen	5    '^U' LU^Ul UJ  tftc
A Note from OPPTS	6
                                                       Peovle and Mother
A Trail for Protecting Traditional and Tribal Lifeways	8        •*
Considering Gender Roles in Environmental Policy and Management	17    ,_    T   T>ir«J7
                                                       Earth.  Without
Air	19
Communities and Ecosystems	23    .77     .7    ,   _/*
                                                       the heartbeat of
Compliance and Environmental Stewardship	28

Land	30    the drum there
Award Winners of EPA's Design the Kid's Page Contest	34
Land	36    is no pow wow.
Science	39
Water	50    The  drum sets
Regional Updates	54
A Decade of Tribal and EPA Partnerships	60    flip Yh'\}i~ll'WI  flf ~tVl f
News and Events	60
Web Sites and  Hot Lines	67    Anv\ r*P CLYld til P
Calendar of Events	67
                                                       tempo  of the song.

                                                       The  Indian drum

                                                       has  two beats—

                                                       the single beat

                                                       represents Mother

                                                       Earth,  and the

                                                       double beat stands

                                                       for humans."
                                                       Manataka American
                                                       Indian Council
 EWHfr CpWR: R«a ;B«ys Pmio Oupog, Cm Mafion, .Wpe Nfttiofi* §0$
       rfaK^-i^                      2003
  $t •fcfcst "Coiaaton G«i             '
             is a
  also was
  Rife Navman, Ptscataway
   ne powwow
tke paw wow Chairman
EPA Tribal News

Mary Lauterbach, OFF: Editor
Shanita Brackett, Editor, Writer
Brian Adams, Oraphic Design
Karen Rudek, Office of Pesticides
Claudia Walters, Office of Research and
Shakeba Carter-Jenkins, Office of Water
Frances Dresselle, Office of Water
Chad James, Office of Chief Financial Office
Jeff Tumarkin, Office of Environment
Doris Thompson, Office of Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
Darrell Harmon, Office of Air and Radiation
Beverly Updike,  Office of Enforcement and
Compliance Assistance
Pete Christich, Office of International Affairs
Glenn Langlois, Office of Administration and
Resource Management
Marlene Regeleski-Door, American Indian
Environmental Office
Frances Dresselle, Office of
Water Janice Whitney, Sub Lead Tribal
Jim Sappier, Region 1 Tribal Manager
Christine Yost, Region 2 Indian Coordinator
Mark Robertson, Region IV Indian Coordinator
William Dew, Region V Indian Coordinator
Robert Wood, Region VI Indian Coordinator
Wolfgang Brandner, Region VII Indian
Conally Mears, Region VIII Indian Coordinator
Clancy Tenley, Region IX Indian Coordinator
Sandra Johnson, Region X Indian Coordinator

With special thanks to our summer interns:
Allison Sassnet,  Virginia Tech
Andrea Hanks, Navajo Nation
Michelle Humphrey, EPA OPPT summer intern,
Pennsylvania State University
Vandessa Vandever, Navajo Nation, OPPTS
Tribal News project lead

OPPTS Tribal News requests interesting,
relevant stories about pesticide and pollution
prevention programs and projects in Indian
country from our readers. If you want to
share your experience with our readers,
please write or send an e-mail to Karen
Rudek (pesticides),  1200 Pennsylvania
Avenue (MC7506C), Washington, DC 20460,
rudek.karen@epa.gov, or Mary Lauterbach
(pollution prevention), 1200 Pennsylvania
Avenue (MC7408M), Washington, DC 20460,

To be placed on our mailing list, write to:

OPPTS Tribal News, U.S. EPA, OPPT

1200 Pennsylvania Avenue (MC7408M),
Washington, DC 20460, or send an e-mail to

OPPTS Tribal News can be viewed on the
Internet at www.epa,gov/opptintr/Tribal

OPPTS Tribal News,  Volume 4,

Number 3, EPA 745-N-00-001
From  the OPPT Editor...
   EPA is very pleased to present
this special "Pilot" issue of the
OPPTS Tribal News. This pilot
issue has allowed OPPTS to invite
various EPA media programs and
offices to share with us valuable
information regarding their programs
and activities, along with Tribal
information and perspectives
regarding a vast array of environ-
mental concerns and  issues that may
have great interest to Indian country.

   Many at EPA have heard from
Tribes that improving our ways of
communication would be greatly
beneficial to EPA and Tribal partner-
ships. It is  fairly well  known that
Tribal environmental  programs and
office staff are often overwhelmed
with information from numerous and
varied sources. Tribes have expressed
the great difficulties for their limited
Tribal staff to sort through  and select
pertinent information in a timely
fashion. Many Tribes  do not have
the size or infrastructure to deal with
the many diverse office and media
programs sources of information.
Tribal representatives have continued
to advise EPA that Tribes tend to
relate to the environment differently
as they view the world in a holistic
fashion, and would prefer the Agency
decrease its use of administrating
Tribal environmental protection
programs  through its traditional
"stove piping" approaches, such as air
and water. Since many Tribes view all
things as being inter-related, it may be
better to learn about the  environment

   This pilot issue attempts to
provide Tribes with one media
source that presents environ-
mental-related information from
all EPA media offices, Regions, and
various Tribal members. We also
hope that our readers find this pilot
issue informative and useful  in
understanding the many  EPA and
Tribal environmental protection
programs,  and prevalent  concerns. We
thank all EPA and Tribal  contribu-
tors. Their enthusiasm and willingness
to participate in this pilot issue is
commendable, encouraging, and
greatly appreciated.

   —Mary Lauterbach, OPPT Editor
       Tat Office of PreventSoB, Pesticides, and Toxic
    Substances is pleased to include the comments
    and opinions of contributors. Byline articles and
    interviews represent the opinions and views of
    CQBtiflHttofis shd not necessarily those of ttc US.
    Environmental Protection Agency.

       OPPTS Tribal titua b a jmblkatton of th* II,S.
    Environmental Protection Agency and is intended
    for noncommercial, scientific, and educational
    purposes. This publication may contain materials
    that may be subject to U.S. and foreign copyright

       For BMOT information, contact OPPT Envtoa-
    mental Assistance Division at 1200 PeansytvSHlja
    Avenue (MC7408M), Washington. DC, 20450.
 OPPTS ,W*al News Missies Statement
 OPPTS Wbtl Si?** stete to jwovWe an'
 oppottaui^r t* prtmote a, two-iway dialogue
 with EPA and American Indian Tribes, including
, Alaskan N»^e Vfflagas, itgspfbig tiigt't&tf
 of environmental issues and concerns that affect
 IndianCountry. The mission and hope of the  .
 exchange of information between the federal
 government, Tribal governments, and Tribal
 organizations. Together, we can build mutual
 to ieMsv* our common goals of protecting the
 water, air, land, and communities, now and
 m outer that Ae ciate wa continue on for '
 g«iie»tloas tp'onne.

    -OPPfS Trftal News Staff
                                                                                                                     EPA Tribal News

New EPA Administrator
Mike Leavitt's  Collaborative
Approach on  Major Environmental
Issues  and Concerns
      On November 6, 2003 former
      Utah Governor Mike Leavitt
      was sworn in as the 10th
Administrator of the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA).
Leavitt pledged to seek collaboration
in the application of a "balanced set
of environmental principles" to protect
the nation's environment.

  Prior to leading the Agency, Leavitt
served as Utah's 14th governor and
was a national leader on homeland
security, welfare reform, and environ-
mental management. As a pioneer
of collaborative environmental
management, Leavitt helped clean
the air over the Grand Canyon
as he served as Vice-Chair of the
Grand Canyon Visibility Transport
Commission and Co-Chair of the
Western Regional Air Partnership.
These efforts resulted in recommen-
dations to improve visibility on the
Colorado Plateau and regulatory
commitments and strategies to reduce
sulfur dioxide levels in 13 states.
Tribes were an important part of this

  During a recent introductory
address to EPA's staff, Leavitt stated
that he envisions a new wave of
environmental productivity in
America. This productivity will stem
from people joining together in
collaborative networks for environ-
mental teamwork.  Many of these
networks will be small and made
up of neighbors, communities, and
local governments, while others
will involve larger geographic areas
that are massive in scope and scale.
Leavitt believes that collaboration,
which exceeds national, state, and
community boundaries, is the next
great leap in environmental produc-
tivity. He has challenged EPA to lead
the way.
EPA Tribal News

 A  Special Word from
 AlEO's  Carol Jorgensen
    I'd like to take a moment and
    reflect on some of the challenges,
    experiences, and events that I've
 encountered in this past year and
 a half while working in the Tribal
 Program. I joined the EPA American
 Environmental Indian Office (AIEO) on
 May 6, 2002.1 will admit that going
 from a land management agency to
 a regulatory agency was a change,
 although I've worked in air, land,
 water, and enforcement during my 40-
Iplus years career. As I have traveled
[throughout the U.S. to visit Tribes, I
•know that a lot of work remains to  be
Idone. Some of this includes cleaning
Irivers, lakes, and water bodies, as
Iwcll as restoring contaminated fish
land food sources, that our Tribes
Idepend on throughout the coastal
land inland areas for their subsistence
(needs. I've seen areas suffering from
    i waste pollution and reservations
  everely affec||d,teiULDOlution from
A Note from the  Office of
Prevention,  Pesticides,  and
Toxic  Substances
  The United States Environ-
mental Protection Agency's Office
of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxics
Substances (OPPTS) is pleased to
provide this pilot issue, sponsored
by OPPTS Tribal News. This issue
provides a unique opportunity to
feature key environmental programs,
activities, and information from all
EPA media offices and highlights the
successes and progress to protect the
environment in  Indian country.

  EPA continues to explore ways
to achieve its goals with Indian
Tribes so that the protection of our
air, water, land and communities
and ecosystems can be successfully
sustained for future generations. EPA
is firmly committed to enhancing its
partnership with Tribes through the
development of effective relationships
and communications. This pilot is one
attempt to provide a unified source
of information that is not currently

  We hope that you will find this
pilot issue useful and full of valuable
information that will  assist you in
understanding and carrying out
environmental protection programs
and activities in your Tribal
communities and on your lands.
  OPPTS would like to thank the
EPA and Tribal contributors for their
support of this pilot issue. We, at
OPPTS, also look forward to working
with all of our EPA and Tribal partner
in ensuring a healthier and cleaner


  Susan B. Hazen, Principal Deputy
Assistant Administrator, Office of
Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic

  Marylouise Uhlig, Associate
Assistant Administrator for
Management, Office of Prevention,
Pesticides, and Toxic Substances
                                       OPPTS Tribal Strategy
                                         At the request of several Tribal representatives, OPPTS has decided
                                       to extend the time frame for Tribal review of the OPPTS Draft Tribal
                                       Strategy until February  17, 2004. This Strategy is important to many
                                       Tribal environmental programs as it contains specific long-term and short-
                                       term environmental goals and objectives regarding OPPTS environmental
                                       protection programs in Indian country.
                                         OPPTS expects to finalize this Strategy in Spring 2004. For further
                                       information and to obtain  a copy of the draft Strategy or submit Tribal
                                       comments regarding the Strategy, please contact Caren-Rothstein-Robinson,
                                       EPA OPPTS, at 202-564-0544  or rothstein-robinson.caren @epa.gov.

Bridging  the  Digital  Divide,
Improving Tribal  Access  to
Environmental  Information
Iffice of Environmental Information
Jeff Tumarkin
     There are many issues
     surrounding the Digital Divide
     that are common to every
under-represented group, including
income levels, education levels,
information, computer literacy,
 nternet access, available technology
and geographic location. However,
among the Native American people,
 here is an additional consideration of
cultural concerns and diversity among
Tribes that needs to be addressed. The
 Digital Divide among Native American
 Dejple needs  to be bridged in such a
way that it will respect and preserve
each Tribe's cultural heritage while
 Droviding improved access to relevant
environmental information.  Although
Tribal governments and Native
Americans residing  on reservations
 lave made great strides in getting
online, federal officials and Tribal
 eaders are concerned about the lack
of internet access for schools, homes,
and businesses on reservations.
  Currently, EPA's main web site
does not have a single point of
entry for Tribes to access when
seeking environmental information
or assistance. EPA's Office of
 environmental Information (OEI),
 n partnership with the American
 ndian Environmental Office (AIEO), is
developing a Tribal  Portal to facilitate
iccess to relevant environmental
information for Native Americans.
Although much of this information
nay be available on the Internet,
 t is not available via a centrally
 ocated and easily searchable web
site. Additionally, a Tutorial is being
developed to accompany the Portal
in order to assist users in locating
the information they seek. While
developing a Tribal Portal has many
merits, non Web-based methods
for disseminating relevant environ-
mental information also need to be
considered. On October 9, 2003, OEI
participated in a ceremony to kick-
off the pilot of the Public Access
Workstation and Tribal Portal at the
Salish Kootenai College in Pablo,
Montana. The Workstation, along
with the Tribal Portal and Tutorial,
will help to provide relevant environ-
mental information and encourage
Tribal feedback to the Agency.

  In order to make sure that EPA
provides relevant environmental
information  in a culturally sensitive
way, OEI and AIEO are partnering with
Tribal representatives, Tribal organiza-
tions,  other EPA Offices, EPA Regional
Tribal contacts, and other government
agencies in developing both Web and
non-Web based products and services.

  If you have any questions or
feedback regarding this project, please
contact Jeff Tumarkin, EPA Office of
Environmental Information, at 202-
566-0681 or tumarkin.jeff@epa.gov.
                                                                                               EPA Tribal News

A Trail  for  Protecting
Traditional  and  Tribal  Lifeways
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Mary Lauterbach, EPA Tribal News Editor
Fred Corey, Aroostook Band of MicMacs, Environmental Health Department
Kesner Flores, Cortina Indian Rancheria, Wintun Tribe, Environmental
Protection Agency
Andrea Hanks,  Navajo Nation
      Tribes are keenly aware of their
      environment and are equally
      observant in detecting adverse
changes that are occurring. Over
time, these changes have become
prime examples of how traditional
ways of life are being threatened or
eliminated today. The environments
of the great forests of the east and
west coasts, Great Lakes, everglades,
northern plains, southwestern deserts
and canyons, arctic, oceans, and delta
plains are being adversely impacted by
contaminants from past and present

  It may surprise some that even
native environments from as far as the
Arctic are being adversely affected by
pollutants that do not know natural or
political boundaries.

  For example, DDT, a substance
banned internationally as long as 25
years ago,  still  shows up in the tissues
of sea mammals in the Arctic.
  In many cases, Tribes know what
the  problems are  and what they
need to do in order to address these
complex issues. In other cases, they
do not know what is causing the
changes, how it is affecting their
people, and what they need to do in
order to mitigate the risks associated
with the changes.

  The continued protection of Tribal
lands and waterways where traditional
activities have taken place throughout
their history, such as gathering,
fishing, hunting, trapping, herding,
and harvesting, is at stake. This
unique way of life and the culture
associated with it need protection in
order for each Tribe to survive. These
cultural elements include, but are
not limited to, legends, ceremonies,
songs, dances, spiritual knowledge,
languages, and worldviews. So
intertwined are these cultural elements
to the natural environmental, that
many Tribes cannot exist as healthy,
vibrant communities without
practicing and sharing their cultural
heritage. It must be understood that
to have any part of their environment
contaminated or compromised affects
the whole, and  thus may not allow
some Tribes to pursue their sovereign
rights to continue on with their
traditional ways of life.
  Many Tribes will agree that in order
to enable at least
some of their
unique cultures
and traditions
to continue
the way they
have been
practiced for
thousands   ,
of years,
begin now-while others may think
that "now" might already be too late.
Tribal communities may find that the
efforts by the Tribes to protect their
traditional lifeways may be one of th<
most important environmental issues
confronting them today.

   Over the past several years, Tribal
representatives have been working
together and in partnership with
EPA on this most pressing and
fundamental environmental issue.
There has been, through a series of
discussions and meetings, an effort
to better define the issues, setting
forth an agenda, and building a solid
network of Tribal representatives to
assist EPA.

   Provided on the next few pages
are short summaries of some of the
different meetings, various perspec-
tives regarding the outcomes that hav
taken place, Tribal recommendations
that have been made,  and current
directives relating to the protection
of the Tribal traditional ways of life.
Additional meetings related to this
topic also are listed chronologically.
 EPA Tribal News

Choctaw,  Mississippi*
September 2002
**" I""Mus meeting was one ol the
  I   first that began over the last
  «.  year and half, with a total of
39 people  participating in person or
by phone.  The breakdown represented
21 Tribal and 18 EPA media office
representatives. The Tribal representa-
ti\es were from various EPA advisory
groups and Tribal  organizations
such as: National Tribal Operations
Council, Regional  Tribal  Operations
Council, Tribal Science Council,
Tribal Association on Solid Waste and
Emergency Response, Tribal Pesticides
Program Council,  Forum on State and
Tribal Toxic  Action, and  the newly
forming Tribal Air Group. There were
also Alaska Village Natives and  inter-
Tribal representatives.

  The meeting's intent was for EPA
to hear more from the Tribes on  what
the  issues  are and to establish a  better
way for EPA to work collaboratively
with Tribes to ensure that all the
efforts can make an impact.
                   Several important
      areas were discussed and several
action items were developed at the

   A major topic was the word
"Subsistence" and whether another
term should be used to improve the
understanding of the "Subsistence"
concerns of the Tribes. A need was
identified to go back to consult with
the Tribes and Villages to have a
discussion on what appropriate term
should be used that best describes
what is being referred to since it
encompasses so much. One interpre-
tation taken from a document titled
"Subsistence; A Scientific Collabora-
tion Between  Tribal Governments and
EPA" defines it as:

   Subsistence is about relation-
ships  between people and their
surrounding environment, a way
of living. Subsistence involves an
intrinsic spiritual connection to the
earth, and includes an understanding
that the earth's resources will provide
everything necessary for human
survival. People who subsist from
the earth's basic resources remain
connected to those resources, living
within the circle of life.  Subsistence
is  about living in a way that
           Environmental Voice
      According to Don Aragon, Wind River/Triba!
    Representative to TOC and Indigenous Peoples
 Subcommittee of NEJAC, "...Subsistence doesn't only
 impact Indians.  It would behoove us not to leave out
all the many people who rely on the earth's resources to
support them. We're not rich corporate executives like
  we see on the news.  In looking at these concerns,
    consider all the stakeholders and not just the
                Tribal people."
  will ensure the tntcc/riiy oj tlie earth's
  resources for the benejicial uses  of
  generations to come.

     Until further consultation with
  Tribes and Alaskan Villages, the
  term Tribal Traditional Lifeways
  may be offered in place of the term,
                                           Representatives at Choctaw,

                                        tunieatfon between a§ 8PA Tribal

                                           Tribal privacy, confidentially

                                         Jc Pltn to Include |»J9tcctipn%f:

                                                 Se-state i
                                   jiftttet ; Tribal tta$it«iial liftwafs v- '^
                                         coaeept of a gatheriag {or
                               fla  ^ Iribal Steering Committee
                                         e wnflker-ftie Ageiw^will

                                          to Washington, D.C, in
                                                                                                       EPA Tribal News

       Anchorage,  Alaska
       April 2003
       * •'"   he Subsistence Technical
         1   Planning Meeting for the
         „•"",  Protection of Traditional
       and Tribal Lifeways was hosted in
       Anchorage, Alaska. The natural state
       of the environment has always been
       a vital part of the indigenous way of
       life and culture; it has  sustained Tribes
       through the ages. A threat to  the life
       subsistence of indigenous people has
       been linked to the contamination of
       the environment; this has affected
       the health and the cultural identity of
       indigenous people.

          During the April 12-16, 2003
       meeting, environmental concerns
       affecting traditional lifeways  and
       Tribal subsistence were discussed.
       Workshop participants included
       Tribal leaders, elders, environmental
       scientists, risk assessors, environ-
       mental directors, technical advisors,
       and EPA representatives.
  assessment of subsistence contami-
• Identify scientific research and data
  gaps that exist
• Share information and knowledge
  to help develop a process and a
  structure to protect traditional ways
  of life
• Address the communication difficul-
  ties that exist between Tribes, EPA
  and other agencies

   Marylouise Uhlig, Associate
Assistant Administrator for the Office
of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic
Substances (OPPTS) said, "EPA's
relationship with Tribes has been
growing, but there is still a lot to be
done. I hope over the next few days
to listen and learn a lot more about
how we can be more effective partners
than we are today."

   Goals for participants at the
workshop were to define, understand,
and name the issues relating to Tribal
         ways of life, traditional
                     of the following
             issues were raised during this
       workshop and goals were set:

       • Defining  "subsistence" from the
         indigenous perspective compared to
         the EPA perspective and vice versa
       • Identifying a set of assessment and
         communication tools that would
         enable Tribes to develop their own
and/or subsistence.
The defined purpose was to enable
agencies to recognize the issues and
better serve Tribes.

   However, how does an indigenous
person interpret and describe the
natural expression and emotion that
is connected to the environment? It is
not something that can be easily be
Activites/Nest Steps
Suggested by Tribal
Representatives at
Anchorage, Alaska, April
• Tribal representatives want
  to maintain seed banks
• Tribal representatives see
  Indian General Assistance
  Program (GAP) grants as a
  critical need
• Tribal representatives want
  to incorporate traditional
  knowledge into hazard rating
• Tribal representatives advise
  EPA to remember the smaller
  Tribes and include their voices
• Tribes recommend that
  legislation may be enacted
  to address and protect Tribal
  traditional knowledge and
• Tribal representatives want
  to create a national database
  to track plants and the
  contaminants that they may
• Tribal representatives also
  need to have an inter-agency
  workgroup that would
  represent the U.S. Department
  of Defense, EPA, etc.
       EPA Tribal News

    Throughout the worfcdiop,
                                              W^ partWpaate agreed that

                                            AJnerican Indian Environmental Office
                   said, "I constantly get calls from EPA
                   colleagues asking how ttjey can participate
                   In working with the tribes to identify
                   these issues and find sohittans." She also
                   expressed he hepe to ftad opportuni-
                   ties for meeting with tribes to have two
                   way discussions in a respectful, non-
                   violating way. trfljal laembers kaow the
                   environmental issues on their reserva-
                   tions besfc Uterefore, sdestiftt studies of
                   contaminants doa't accessary have to
                   be conducted, and tribal people see and
                   live it everyday, they already have the
                   knowledge aad tie evidence that is need*d
                   to ide»tHy the issues. Jorgessen also said,
                   "...soMjetbaes tribes aeed to be cafefal
                   about what they share (culturally)...But on
                   ti» eftest-toutf, dtes are saying it is awe
                   to share this fix the sake of the animals,
                   plants, birds, fish, air, water and people,
                   before it's too late.

                     Further ideas for addressing these
                   issues included:

                   » Distribute information prior to meeting
                     so sew participants could call with
                     questions, and therefore, improve
                     tUe outcome of cosferejace calls ani
                   * Find economical approaches for
                                                                                       such as establishing a 1-800 number or
                                                                                       providing Tribes with calling cards.
                                                                                     *          te interwatSoft deariBgiel*,
                                                                                       perhaps a web page, where Tribes could
                                                                                       stefiar Agen<¥fMMl projects, as
                     to include contact information, as well
                     as activity descriptions, for information
                     or programs of interest.
                     Inform appropriate Tribal and federal
                     staff unable to attend meetings of
                     major meeting results and up-coming
                     opportunities to get involved with the
                                                                                                              EPA Tribal News

Pyramid  Lake,  Nevada
May 2003
   A   t Pyramid Lake, participants
  I \  gathered during May 13-15,
JL  JL2003 for the Tribal Traditional
Lifeways Health and Weil-Being
Approach Workshop. The goals of this
meeting were to:

• Share and discuss the topic of health
  and well-being and traditional
  knowledge and science in general
• Explain the health and well being
  paradigm being developed by
  members of the National EPA Tribal
  Science Council (TSC)
• Share stories about health and
  well being topics and the use of
  traditional knowledge and science
• Discuss next steps.

  Traditional knowledge and western
science can include very different
approaches and basic philosophies
when compared to one another.

  Over many generations, Tribes
have developed a holistic traditional
scientific knowledge of their lands,
natural resources, and environment.
Many have acknowledged that North
American Tribes possess the greatest
traditional scientific knowledge of
botany in the world today. However,
there have been examples where
traditional knowledge and western
science have been used together to
produce a positive outcome, such
as the discovery of the Hanta virus
(1993),  Ashkui Project, and climate
studies  of the Arctic.
                      Some Areas of Traditional Lifeways in Indian Country
                              Now Threatened  by Toxic Contaminants
EPA Tribal News

Tribal  Science  Council  (TSC)
Health and Weil-Being  Paradigm
     The current risk assessment
     methods used by EPA often
     are viewed by Tribal environ-
mental managers as not suitable for
Tribal communities. The model does
not consider the impacts to cultural
activities and ideals. The risk model
:an affect the health and vitality of
Tribal communities and their unique
dentities to carry on the traditions
and cultures for future generations.
To allow the completion of the
jaradigm, there is a need to return
Dack  to the Tribal communities to
earn how their health and well-
jeing are being determined. A useful
model, based upon the document
'Cultural Ecosystems Stories," written
}y Terry Williams, Tulalip Tribes of
Washington, includes the following:

•  A description of a community's
  historical relationship with its
  natural resources and environment,
  as related through oral and other
  traditions (e.g., stories
•  A review of a community's
  current relation-
  ship with these natural resources
  and environment, as well as their
• A strategy developed by the
  community for managing natural
  resources and the environment
  that renew and maintain the
  community's historical relationships.

  The TSC Health and Well-Being
Paradigm under development by
the EPA Tribal Science Council
includes cultural indicators, such as
communi™ gathering activities, pow

wows, ceremonies, blessings, cultural
activities, and languages. Also, the
paradigm includes health indicators,
such as trends in both physical and
mental health, as well as community
indicators, such as trends in youth
completing schools and trends within
Tribal courts.

  The paradigm also has natural
resources indicators, such as reintro-
duction of native species, tracking
of historical land uses, availability
of uncontaminated natural resources
to continue traditional practices, and
availability of traditional resources to
continue on with traditional practices
(e.g., sweet grass, berries, clays, paint,
and trees).
                                                                                                EPA Tribal News

St.  Regis Mohawk,  A  Unique
Example of a  Tribal  Community
at  Risk and Its  Solutions  for
      During *tojevi9§Q'i, the St.
      LawreneeJMvfif afea attracted
      many industries due to
the region's hydrgpow^r capabili-
ties. It was then that the $t- Regis
Mohawks began to face serious
environmental contamination issues.
Common environmental contami-
nants were PCBs, fluorides, and other
industrial pollutants, along with
their by-products. Exposure to these
contaminants resulted in adverse
impacts on the health of the Mohawk
communities. It was a decade later,
that studies indicated that the fish
were unfit for human consumption. At
that time, the Tribe thought that their
best option was to use fish advisories.
Tribal  members heeding the fish
advisories greatly reduced the amount
of fish that had been consumed
historically. From this reduction in
fish consumption, it became apparent
that unintended consequences
greatly impacted
        health and well being of the
 Tribal community and culture.

   The Tribal community, which
was largely comprised of hunters,
fishers, cattleman, and farmers, was
greatly impacted as a result of the
advisories. It was found that their
way of life and personal identity and
relationship  to their environment
quickly disappeared. This included

EPA Tribal News
                                    their language attd cultural activities
                                    tied to fishtng, the historic economic
                                    base through fish harvesting, and
                                    consumption of their traditional diet
                                    consisting mainly of fish. This led
                                    to changes in their traditions and
                                    culture. The tradition grew from a
                                    fishing-oriented culture to one that
                                    included other foreign industries and
                                    diets. These changes resulted in more
                                    cigarette shops, gas stations, and
                                    non-traditional trading enterprises.
                                    Negative health impacts, such as
                                    diabetes, upper respiratory diseases,
                                    and thyroid disorders resulting from
                                    exposures to a Western diet also
                                    became apparent. When the Tribe
                                    recognized these problems, it was able
                                    to address the issues and force the
                                    industries  affecting their community
                                    to pay $500 million in clean-up and
                                    restoration activities. These efforts
                                    included the installation of fluoride
                                                    scrubbers and
                                           ^ *•"*
                                    July 2003
                                      I'n July 2003, a briefing was
                                       provided by James Ransom,
                                      .Haudenosaunne Environmental
                                    Task Force, to 50 participants of a
                                    Tribal environmental conference
                                    at Akwesasne. The conference was
                                    hosted by the Akwesasne Community
                                    Task Force on the Environment and
                                    covered environmental issues related
                                    to the St. Lawrence River. During his
                                    presentation, Ransom highlighted
                                    all of the traditional Tribal lifeways
                                    meetings that had been held to date
                                    and addressed the future direction of
                                    this topic.
removal of the PCBs
from river sediments. Also, the Tribe
was resourceful in seeking alternative
traditional Tribal resources, such
as deer farming, aquaculture, and
restoration of native plant life. The
Tribe also made special efforts to
resume many cultural aspects, such as
basket-weaving and food preparations.

The  Next  Steps,  A  Tribal
by Kesner Flores

   In anticipation of a National
   Tribal Lifeways Summit, some
   Tribes have recommended that it
is essential to start coordinating and
planning now. Funding opportunities
must be investigated, dates and times
need to be established, and a web
site must be developed to facilitate
the process. Also, people knowing
other interested parties or organiza-
tions should submit their contacts'
information. A National Tribal
Lifeways Summit is a major endeavor
that will require huge amounts of time
and energy over the next year. In the
past, we have shared our concerns and
es1 ablished goals of communication,
development, outreach, and education.
Now is the time to raise awareness in
a broader arena.

   Our goal for the National Tribal
Lifeways Summit is to have a very
respectful gathering of all people. The
summit will not only include public
statements, but will be a place
for gathering.
                 what is said at
      a meeting is not always as
important as the number of persons
attending.  Sometimes battles were
won by show of force without a blow
Deing struck. Thus, it is important to
)e there for the opening.

Recommendations for a Successful
• Tribes, as well as national Tribal
  workgroups from all media (e.g.,
  air, water, waste, and toxics)
                                         and the federal agencies need to
                                         communicate information received
                                         at other meetings as a collective
                                         Tribes need to evaluate  the
                                         outcomes of other meetings and
                                         identify ways to  continue working
                                         on goals and initiatives. Tribes also
                                         need to identify a responsible group
                                         or party.
                                         There is no lead.  This allows for loss
                                         of momentum. Tribal participants
                                         shared and opened  the door into
                                         their culture and existence. With
                                         proper support and leadership, the
                                         outcomes from the  Summit will
                                         benefit the world.
                                         The national Tribal organizations
                                         are keeping it alive, along with
                                         EPA's media offices. However, more
                                         concerted efforts by EPA
                                         media offices
                                     • One Tribal organization could
                                       take the lead to facilitate all
                                       Tribal national and media-specific
                                       groups (e.g., TPPC, TSC, NTAA,
                                       NTEC, TASWER and Superfund
                                     • Some Tribes also have suggested
                                       that EPA's American Indian
                                       Environmental Office and the
                                       National Tribal Environmental
                                       Council forge a partnership to
                                       coordinate subsistence activities,
                                       such as planning the National Tribal
                                       Lifeways Summit for Fall 2004.

                                        If you are interested in this effort
                                     and want to assist or learn more
                                     about protecting traditional and Tribal
                                     Lifeways, please contact Kesner Flores,
                                     Wintun Environmental Protection
                                     Agency Director, P.O. Box 1839,
                                     570 Sixth  Street, Suite F, Williams,
                                     California, 95987, Tribalsub@hotmail.
                groups are needed
         in order to bring this
  effort to the level of attention
needed in the national arena.
The final results and meeting notes
(or minutes) from the Anchorage,
Alaska, April 2003 meeting
were sent to the Alaska Science
Tribes need to encourage EPA
offices to designate a single point of
contact. Communication efforts will
benefit from this, and participation
in Tribal Lifeways efforts will only
improve. With participation from
everyone, we all benefit. We are
dealing with the whole circle of life
and future generations.
                                                                                                    EPA Tribal News

Miccosukee  Resort,  Florida
November 2003
        At the first annual meeting
        with the Tribal Operations
        Committee (TOC), Regional
Tribal Operations Committee
(RTOC), and the EPA American
Indian Environmental Office (AIEO),
meeting participants were updated
on previous Tribal lifeways  meetings
and the outcomes of those meetings.
The TOC/RTOC/AIEO meeting was
held November 4-6, 2003 at the
Miccosukee Resort in Florida. During
an open discussion following the
update, participants at the TOC/RTOC/
AIEO meeting agreed that Tribal
lifeways issues are inextricably linked
to Tribal cultural and natural resource
concerns. Participants also expressed
many of the same Tribal lifeways
concerns as those expressed at the
previous meetings, including Tribal
information confidentiality, cultural
  Other Meetings That Focused
  on Traditional and Tribal
  • Reno, Nevada,June 2002,
    December 2002, Planning and
    upcoming Alaska Summit
                     May 2003
   'Summaries were based upon
written reports from official notes
taken at these meetings.
survival, and mining and contaminant
impacts on Tribal communities.

   Following the discussion, the TOC
formally expressed support for:

• A National Tribal Lifeways Summit
  to bring together Tribes and federal
  agencies to advance Tribal lifeways
• Establishment of a workgroup
  consisting of TOC, RTOC, and  Tribal
  environmental group representatives
  to begin the planning process for a
  National Tribal Lifeways Summit
• Appointment of Kesner Flores (TOC
  Region 9 Alternate) to develop and
  implement a communications policy
  to engage  the TOC, RTOC, Tribal
  environmental groups, Tribes, and
  EPA in planning for the Summit.
New Handbook on Traditional
Knowledge and Intellectual
American Association for the Advancement
of Science (AAAS)
Justin VanFleet
   Realizing that traditional knowledge
holders stand outside the foSd of intellec-
tual property (IP) rights and are most oftei
negatively affected by them, the AAAS
Science and Human Rights Program has
created a handbook that attempts to make
intellectual property issues and  protection
options more understandable and readily
available for traditional knowledge
holders, human rights NGOs, and legal
professionals. Its  ultimate goal is to help
local communities understand and identify
potential protection mechanisms already
present in the current intellectual property
rights regime that may be applied to their
knowledge.  For communities that do not
wish to participate in the IP regime, it
offers suggestions and options to avoid
inappropriate claims on their knowledge
by others. In addition to introducing
intellectual property concepts, this
handbook contains a series of exercises
to  help the user to identify and  classify
types of knowledge, cultural aspects, and
                    community goals
                    related to specific
                    knowledge  claims.
                       Through a
                   series of exercises,
                   it is possible
                   for traditional
                   knowledge holders
                   to identify whether
                   or not specific
                   intellectual property
                   protection options
                  are relevant and/or
appropriate for their knowledge.
   An electronic version of the  handbook
is now available  for download free
of charge at: http://shr.aaas.org/tek/
handbook/. Print copies will become
available in the coming weeks for a
nominal fee to cover printing and shipping
charges. Check the web site for updates
on distribution.
   For more information, contact Stephen
Hansen, American Association for the
Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1200
New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC,
20005, shansen@aaas.org.
EPA Tribal News

Considering  Gender  Roles
in  Environmental  Policy and
Management:  A  Navajo  Perspective
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Vanessa Vandever, Navajo Nation

   "Navajo interactions with [the
environment] are characterized by a
strong sense of connectedness to and
respect for all living things, including
the earth, which is personified
as the beloved deity, Changing
Woman. An important aspect of
maintaining harmonious relations
with the universe is the recognition of
humankind's place in  the web  of life
and the acceptance that nature is more
powerful than humans."
   —Trudy Griffin-Pierce
      Recognition of gender roles
      within a culture must be
      incorporated into environ-
mental policy and program
development. Women and men
have different relationships with the
environment, depending on social
and economic factors that shape
these relationships. Thus, policies and
programs may affect women and men
negatively when they do not take
into account gender roles. In order to
adopt policies that are effective and
beneficial, both  industrialized and
developing countries must work to
recognize how outside forces, such
as structures created by the market
economy, interact with cultural norms
at the macro and micro levels of a

  Many indigenous peoples have
matrilineal  (or ancestral) and
matrilocal social systems that
influence how the environment
and land are perceived, used, and
inherited. The Navajo Nation from
inside the United States borders
is a compelling example of how
traditional gender roles affect resource
management. The Navajo Nation is a
matrilineal and matrilocal society that
is currently confronted with environ-
mental management issues that stem
from outside influence on gender
roles. Although submersed within
the capitalistic patri-biased American
society, the Navajo people neverthe-
less continue to identify themselves
with their mother's clan.

   The roles of Navajo men and
women are highly dependent on
and influenced by the environment
(i.e. market systems). As with many
developing nations, the Navajo people
continue to live off and depend on
the land. Natural resource extraction
provides a source of livelihood for
many Navajos. The current conflict
and concern over natural resource
extraction is closely associated with
the differences in how Navajo women
and men relate to the environment and
the land. Navajo culture has tradition-
ally associated the environment with
female strength and differentiations
between the genders. In fact, the
Navajo people have always illustrated
the importance of gender roles and
kinship systems through their creation
stories and religious beliefs.
  Although creation stories have
depicted the struggle of power
between sexes, the fundamental
message of the stories is that both
genders are to contribute equally
to establish the harmony that is
so vital for the survival of Navajo
people.  In fact, the relationship to the
environment around Navajo people is
distinguished by associating natural
elements with gender. For example,
                                                                                              EPA Tribal News

gender distinctions in creation stories
include mother earth and father sky;
female rain and male rain; and dawn
girl and dawn boy. Furthermore,
most Navajo deities are female,
including Changing Woman, Spider
Woman, and White Shell Woman. The
female gender has great significance
within the Navajo teachings because
femaleness represents the power to
create life.

   In the contemporary world,
changing economic and social systems
have resulted in transformations
within matrilineal and matrilocal
societies. For example, on the Navajo
reservation, the economic and social
structures have come to mirror the
western structure. A tension has been
created between traditional Navajo
and western beliefs/practices, forcing
the Navajo people to live with an
irresolvable dichotomy in order to
survive in a patri-biased capitalist
structure. In the past, Navajo women
have been leaders in decision-making
and have controlled the land. Since
the women inherited the land and
had a greater vested interest, they
historically worked more closely with
their environment. Although many
Navajo people continue to value the
role of women in the decision-making
process, the current structure does not
allow for significant female participa-
tion. Furthermore, due to pressures
from outside forces, inheritance
practices have transformed by certain
degrees, depending on land use
practices in particular areas, and have
decreased  women's control of the land.
   The importance of gender roles
in environmental policy is vividly
demonstrated by the controversy
over the natural  resource extraction
of coal mining on Black Mesa in
Arizona. Coal mining on Black Mesa
has transformed  traditional Navajo
practices and lifestyles and become
one of the largest revenue bases for
the Navajo Nation. It has also become
an extremely controversial land use
issue because of the strip mining
that is transported by a slurry line,
which is depleting the N-aquifer at
an astounding rate.  Because Black
Mesa is one of the more secluded
areas on the Navajo Reservation,
the traditional gender roles are still
apparent, and the culture is primarily
matrilineal and matrilocal. The
effect of coal mining on the land is
heightened for Navajo women since
they will inherit  this land and have
a vested interest in best  land use
practices. Although  the current patri-
biased system of governance does not
acknowledge Navajo women's role as
decision-makers, the Navajo women
are fighting back and are regaining
power by forming a grassroots activist
organization against the strip mining.
As a result, Navajo women on Black
Mesa have been  the driving force
behind educating their children and
whole communities about the environ-
mental degradation caused by coal
mining. Even more  importantly, the
women are replacing the ideologies
of modern patri-biased industrialized
nations with a holistic view of the
world. Navajo women are empowering
whole communities to return to
traditional beliefs/practices.
   As is demonstrated by the Black
Mesa conflict, effective policy requires
gender role structures to be examined
at the macro and micro levels. Gender
roles are fundamentally related to
environmental issues for the Navajo
people. In order to correct the current
situation, Navajo women must not
only be given support by men at
the decision-making level, but they
must once again be full and powerful
participants in the decision-making
process. On a global level, differen-
tiations between gender roles within
many industrial and developing
cultures are associated with environ-
mental use and practices. Therefore,
strategies to revive the female
participation  (rather than patri-biased
control) within environmental policy
and program development are critical
for the world to adopt policies and
lifestyles that create a sustainable use
of resources.
 EPA Tribal News

The  Tribal  Effective  Asthma
Management  Project  (TEAM)
Office of Radiation and Indoor Air
Erin Collard
       Recent asthma prevalence
       studies have indicated that
       some Tribes within EPA Region
VIII have an asthma prevalence rate
that is up to 2.5 times higher than the
national average. Additionally these
studies have indicated a strong need
for an effective and comprehensive
approach to improve  and expand
the delivery of asthma management
programs to the Tribes of Region VIII.

   In response to these studies, the
Radiation and Indoor Environment
team of Region VIII has been collabo-
rating with the Tribal Assistance
Piogram and Indian Health Services as
well as other sister agencies to design
arid implement the Tribal Effective
Asthma Management (TEAM) Project.
Unlike past programs, TEAM is
designed to develop Tribal community
capacity in assessing, understanding,
and reducing exposure to environ-
mental triggers of asthma. The project
also outlines goals that will achieve
positive outcomes that improve the
 patient's quality of life and provide a
 culturally sensitive and coordinated
 delivery of asthma care.

    TEAM will use Tribal Community
 Health Representatives to ensure
 that the delivery of asthma care
 will be sensitive to singular Tribal
 needs. The use of Tribal CHR's
 will be instrumental in improving
 patient understanding of the disease
 process, learning to reduce exposure
 to environmental triggers, and thus
 increase patient compliance in
 following asthma management plans.

    For more information on the
 TEAM Project, please contact
 Region 8 Asthma Coordinator
 Erin Collard at 303-312-6361 or
                                         Federal Air Rules for Indian
                                         Reservations in EPA Region 10
                                         Region 10 Office of Air Quality
                                         Debora Suzuki
     EPA's Federal Air Rules for Indian
  Reservations in Idaho, Oregon, and
  Washington were proposed in the Federal
  Register on March 15, 2002. These rules,
  when finalized, will be an important step
  in ensuring basic air quality protection
  for a quarter million people on 39 Indian
  reservations in the Pacific Northwest.
  The rules range from  emission limits
  for industrial sources to a general open
  burning rule, and they are the first
  building blocks under the Clean Air Act
  to address such air quality issues. EPA
  is proceeding with final promulgation
  and anticipates finalizing the rules in the
  summer of 2004.
            Bintdme HO SCAVENGINS
         SttlCTLY EW
  EPA Office of Air and Radiation Highlights the TAMS Learning Center
  Office of Air and Radiation
  Darrel Harmon
    The Tribal Air Monitoring (TAMS)
  Learning Center serves as a training
  center that assists Tribes with a variety of
  environmental needs, including training
  for air monitoring and outdoor ambient
  air quality. The TAMS Learning Center
  is located in Flagstaff, Arizona and was
  created in partnership by the Northern
  Arizona University Institute for Tribal
  Environmental Professionals (ITEP), EPA,
  and Tribes. The Center provides about
ten, weeklong workshops per year, and it's
staff also provides training in the field for
individuals or Tribal organizations. Some of
this training includes equipment operation,
environmental program development, data
management, quality assurance and quality
control, reporting, data analysis, and data
   By providing training and assistance
in environmental work, the TAMS Center
staff participates in cross-media environ-
mental riwatcress. .issisis I PA in revising
environmental regulations, develops
new technologies in partnership with
industry, and encourages communication
and technology transfer.
   I'he fAMS Learning Center also
promotes the importance of Native
American culture and traditions as it
houses displays of Native American-
themed art. Future plans for the Center
include arts and crafts exhibits.
   More information on the TAMS
Learning Center, including conference
and meeting hosting, may be obtained
by contacting Lee Anderson at 702-798-

ITEP Director Receives Air
Quality Award for Work with
Indian Tribes
Office of Air and Radiation
Adapted from Tribal Air News, August
2003, Volume 2, Issue 3
  Virgil Masayesva, Director of the
Institute for Tribal Environmental
Professionals (ITEP), was presented
with the Mike Frost Memorial
Achievement Award on April 30,
2003. The award was given for
work in leading
ITEP in air
quality training
and support
work on behalf
of Indian Tribes
the United
States. ITEP is a
national Tribal environmental training
and support  organization based at
Northern Arizona University's Dubois
Center, in Flagstaff, Arizona. For ten
years, ITEP has trained more than 800
Tribal professionals in environmental
management and maintains a variety
of programs in specialized  support,
training, and K-12 environmental
  Masayesva received the award from
the National Tribal Environmental
Council (NTEC). During his acceptance
speech, Masayesva said, "It is
especially an honor and a privilege for
me to accept this award because Mike
Frost was a very close personal friend,
and of course he was a colleague. I
knew Mike since  1993, when he was
the first Tribal air quality professional
we recruited to help develop what is
now called our American Indian Air
Quality Training Program.  Mike was
instrumental in getting ITEP off and
  The award was created in memory
of Mike Frost, former Director of
Environmental Programs for the
Southern Ute Tribe in Colorado.
Frost was an accomplished, Tribal air
quality professional who passed in
Inter-Tribal  Council  of  Arizona's
Circuit  Rider  Responds  to  Growing
Tribal  Asthma  Issues
Office of Radiation and indoor Air
Chris Griffin
Adapted from Tribal Air News, August 2003, Volume 2, Issue 3
   A   sthma is a chronic lung
  / \  disease that affects more
JL  .mJhan 15 million people
throughout the country, particu-
larly disadvantaged populations and
low-income communities, including
some American Indians communities.
The prevalence of asthma among
American Indians has increased
severely in the past few years, and
according to reports and studies
conducted by the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC), asthma
is one of the top 10 causes of death
among American Indians/Alaskan

   To address growing trends of
asthma in Tribal homes, the Inter-
Tribal Council of Arizona (ITCA) has
collaborated with EPA and other
asthma risk reduction programs to
design a program to educate American
Indian families about indoor triggers
within homes that may worsen or
aggravate asthma. The program also
addresses school absenteeism due
to indoor air quality hazards and
respiratory illnesses.

   In July 2003, ITCA's Circuit Rider
began traveling within Arizona and
surrounding areas to conduct the
Asthma Tribal Community Training
Program. The Circuit Rider provided
asthma risk reduction training,
workshops,  materials  and technical
assistance to interested Tribes.
The Asthma Tribal Community
Training Program is comprised of
two components, the  "Asthma 101:
Introduction to Asthma and Its Indoor
Triggers" training and resource
manual and the "Asthma Program
Development" manual.

  In addition to the Asthma Tribal
Community Training Program training
manuals, ITCA also developed the
following outreach and education
materials for Tribal communities:

• Put Out Asthma Fire Poster
• Top Ten Asthma  Triggers Magnet
• My Asthma Management Memo

  All workshops and training
materials are available to all Tribal
nations. For additional questions
on training or asthma awareness
workshops, please contact Tamera
Dawes,  the ITCA Tribal Indoor Air/
Asthma Risk Reduction Program
Coordinator at 602-258-4822 or tamer
 EPA Tribal News

EPA Video  on  New Source  Review
Program  for  Indian  Country
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
Michelle Dubow
Adapted from  Tribal Air News, August 2003, Volume 2, Issue 3
   In order to communicate EPA's
   Clean Air Act New Source Review
   (NSR) program, the Agency will
produce a video to enhance outreach
to Tribes. The video will also highlight
new rules that EPA is proposing to
fill NSR regulatory gaps in Indian
Country, including a minor NSR rule.

  EPA hopes that the video will:

• Give Tribes that have not been
  involved in this rule development
  process a basic primer on NSR and
  how these  rules may affect them
• Help Tribes comment on the rules
  effectively during the official public
  comment period
• Enable Tribes to participate in
  implementation in a way that is
  right for them.

  The video may be released as early
Fall 2003. The Agency is producing
the video in partnership with Tribal air
organizations, including the Institute
for Tribal Environmental Profes-
sionals (ITEP). The video allows EPA
to be creative in its outreach efforts
to Tribes that may not have much
experience with NSR. For example,
the video will highlight  specific, NSR-
related stories of Tribes  with relevant
experiences and will feature Tribal
environmental professionals and
leaders speaking about the  benefits of
these rules, as well as their ideas and
concerns about the rules as they are
currently drafted.

  For more information about EPA's
forthcoming NSR rules for Indian
country, or to comment on the draft
rules before proposal, contact Laura
McKelvey, EPA, Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards, at 919-541-
5497 or mckelvey.Iaura@epa.gov.
For more information about the
NSR video, contact Michele Dubow,
EPA Office of Air Quality Planning
and Standards, at 919-541-3803 or
Air Quality Data Work Group
Office of Air and Radiation
Adapted from Tribal Air News, August
2003, Volume 2, issue 3
   Several Tribes have expressed concern
about how Tribal data is currently
entered and housed in EPA's Air Quality
System (AQS) database, which contains
measurements of criteria air pollutant
concentrations in the United States, as
well as Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
AQS requires Tribes to enter data under
state and county codes, but some Tribes
are concerned that this process  of data
entry does not consider Tribal sovereignty.
EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and
Standards is interested in addressing
this concern and would like to set up a
workgroup with the Tribes, Regions and
other EPA media offices to explore options
that may address this concern and modify
AQS. Readers who are interested in partici-
pating should contact Laura McKelvey at
919-541-5497 or mckelvey.laura@epa.
gov Nick Mangus at 919-541-5549 or
mangus.nick@epa.gov. Need to check for a
deadline or period for comments.
                                                                            •, August 2003, Volume 2, Issue 3
                                                                        ;,;!'."    Tribal Air News is a quarterly,
                                                                         ;;,,-•'government publication produced by
                                                                        •'• •-."EPA's Office of Air and Radiation and
                                                                        :',',;"': Office of Air Quality Planning and
                                                                        '.;'.'•• ^Standards. The newsletter publishes
                                                                        •'.- ;''< articles of interest highlighting
                                                                        .•,*':/ air-related activities in Tribal
                                                                        ,V V .-communities and
                                                                        '•' ''"organizations. The
                                                                        ',' •* * Tribal Air web
                                                                     .,' 'i l'"'f '• gov/air/Tribal also
                                                                     '''*>1 ---publishes similar
                                                                          '      items.
                                                                                                      EPA Tribal News

The  Power  of  Wind:  A  Rosebud
Reservation  Success Story
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Vanessa Vandever, Navajo
       Native American people,
       whether from the Southwest
       or the Plains, believe the
wind has great power. For this reason,
many Native American Tribes view
the wind as a holy symbol. As a result,
wind power has become an avenue
for Tribes to reclaim their sovereignty
through economic self-sufficiency.
More importantly, wind energy is a
clean and renewable energy that has
the potential to replace the Native
Reservations' dependence on natural
resource exploitation.

   The Rosebud Sioux of the Northern
Great Plains opened the first Tribally
owned wind generator in May 2003.
The unfavorable economic statistics
of the Rosebud Sioux Reservation
will be challenged with this 750-
kilowatt wind turbine, which can
produce enough electricity to serve
about 300 to 350 houses according
to the Rosebud Sioux Tribe Utility
Commission and InterTribal Council
on Utility Policy (ICOUP). The 750-
kilowatt wind turbine has been made
possible through the partnership
between the Rosebud Sioux Tribal
Utility Commission and the InterTribal
Council  on Utility Policy, as wtl\
as their collaboration with Tribal •
and non-Tribal organizations ana'.
   k Tribal News
government and non-government

  The current president of Rosebud
Sioux Tribal Utility Commission,
Ronald L. Neiss, recalls the introduc-
tion of wind development on the
Rosebud Sioux Reservation in an
interview conducted in a Green
Power Pioneer publication. Wind
development was a vision that the late
Alex "Little Soldier" Lunderman, who
served as the president of the Rosebud
Sioux Tribe Utility Commission right
up to his death, had for the Sicangu
Oyate (Burnt Thigh Lakota People)
on the Rosebud Indian Reservation.
Lunderman believed in the use
of modern technology as well as
traditional resources in a way that
was compatible with the history,
philosophy, and cultural and spiritual
values. In a vision, Lunderman saw
a long line of people behind him
walking  toward a traditional teepee.
Inside the teepee were computers and
other kinds of technologies that could
be used to protect Mother Earth. He
later stated that being able to generate
clean electricity from the Four Winds
could help the Rosebud Indian
  With the 750-kilowatt wind
turbine in only its first stages, the full
potential of wind energy on Tribal
lands is yet to be known. According to
Robert  Gough, Secretary of InterTribal
Council on Utility Policy, "the Indian
reservation wind potential  in just
North and South Dakota exceeds well
over 200,000 megawatts, which is
over 100 times the currently available
hydropower generation capacity of
the Missouri River." Furthermore,
the potential wind power on the
reservation would replace the short-
term and usually harmful economic
growth with long-term economic

  The United States is one of the
greatest energy consuming countries
in the world, which means  Americans
are one of the greatest contributors to
global climate change. At a more local
level, Native communities  are greatly
increasing energy consumption due
to casino development. To  counteract
the amount of energy being consumed
by Americans, communities, cities,
and states in the United States must
work together to decrease the rate at
which the global climate is changing.
The Rosebud Sioux Reservation has
taken a major step in the direction of
renewable energy regeneration and
reopened the doors to sustainable

States  and  Tribes Work  Together  to
Address  P2 Opportunities
Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
Harry Gregori
          Working through the
          auspices of EPA's Forum
          on State and Tribal Toxics
Action (FOSTTA), representatives from
states and Tribes met in June 2003
at the Mohegan Sun in Uncasville,
Connecticut to outline opportunities
for cooperative efforts to promote
pollution prevention for Tribal
activities. Jointly, the representatives
identified a number of priority areas,

• Lead, coordinating with Health
  Departments and the Chemical
  Information Management Project
» TMDL and Water Quality
• Air Quality, especially Ozone and
  Diesel Fuel Issues
  Waste Disposal
  Land Conservation
  Pollution Prevention (P2)
  Toxics, especially Mercury, Lead,
  Cadmium, and Selenium
• Environmental Management
  Systems (EMS).

  Funding opportunities were
identified as an item of particular
importance, and the participants
agreed to work together to coordinate
with state P2 programs to identify
funding opportunities and resource
sharing. In addition, participants
will look to coordinate grant and
funding opportunities, seek options for
changing, or meet match requirements
to improve the level of participation
by Tribes.
  The states and Tribes will work with
EPA to establish a Tribal Internet site
and provide for Tribal Peer Review of
information and selected strategies, as
well as establish regular conference
calls with representatives from the
three FOSTTA projects and EPA. In
addition, the states agreed to work
with the National Tribal Environmental
Council (NTEC)  and the Environmental
Council of States (ECOS) to coordinate
and improve effective communication
with Tribal governments.
  Representatives also focused on the
initiative to  address lead-based paint
concerns. Participants agreed to work
with EPA's Office of Research and
Development to assist in identifying
opportunities to provide Health and
Environmental Education. Partici-
pants also will coordinate with ECOS
to identify various Tribal issues and
priorities and seek opportunities
through other federal agencies, such as
the Department of Housing and Urban
Development, and State programs to
address lead abatement. Participants
will work together to connect Tribes
to the P2 Resources Exchange Centers
and seek funding to  improve access
and information sharing.

   On a larger scale, participants
will work with EPA and the National
Pollution Prevention Roundtable
(NPPR) to conduct a National Tribal
Pollution Prevention Conference.
The National Tribal Pollution
Prevention Conference may be
linked to an existing conference in
order to maximize opportunities for

   This meeting represents the
beginning of an initiative to address
pollution prevention issues with
a specific focus on Tribal issues.
This joint effort will add to existing
research and information to benefit
States and Tribes as  they carry out
their programs to protect public health
and the environment.

                                                                                                  EPA Tribal News

An  Example  of  Achieving Pollution
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Adapted from "Visionary Planning for the Seventh Generation"
      The Mohegan Sun Casino was
      created by the Mohegan Tribe
      of Connecticut in 1996. Chief
Ralph Sturges of the Mohegan Tribe
led the construction of this grand
casino with the help of Dr. Norm
Richards. His goal was to create
a building that would benefit the
members of his Tribe, yet conserve
the environment and resources
surrounding them. Chief Sturges and
Dr. Richards were able to do this by
incorporating pollution prevention
and the framework of "systems
thinking" to analyze how  different
parts of a whole are connected.
   The team focused on energy use,
transportation, and recycling. Instead
of receiving energy from coal-fired
power plants, the Mohegan Sun
relies on fuel cells fed by natural gas.
"It has to be good for the
environment, and it has to
be good for everyone."
—Chief Ralph Sturges, Mohegan
Tribe of Connecticut

Fuel cells fed by natural gas provide
electricity with more efficiency than
coal-fired power plants. "Using less
energy results in less pollution.
Using less energy also saves money."
Through an agreement with UTC Fuel
Cells, the Mohegan Sun Casino agreed
to become a test site and was granted
use of fuel cells at no cost. Also, the
hot water produced  from fuel cells
is recycled as preheated water for
the boilers,  as well as for the chillers
within the casino.
                               Mother Earth
                           Harmony with Nature

           '     State of
           ; Local Schools &
                              "Green" Energy
                            Pollution Prevention
                         Conservation of Resources
  Each guest room at the casino also
includes infrared sensors. The sensors
track whether or not a room is being
used. If no one occupies the room, air
conditioning and heating loads are
not initiated. This further decreases
energy usage at the casino. The
reduction of C02 emissions from cars
also was a priority. Therefore, Sturges
and Richards decided to use fleet
hybrid vehicles and diesel automobiles
requiring reformulated diesel fuel, and
a partnership with the local school
district allows the casino to save
money with the purchase of bulk fuel.

  Pollution prevention through
recycling was incorporated within
the casino food service division. All
employees empty their cups and
separate the waste before leaving the
cafeteria. Waste materials that can
be recycled are placed in individual
collection containers. Used cooking oil
is recycled and sold for income, while
local hog farmers receive the casino's
recycled food wastes resell their pork
to the Mohegan Sun. The casino
also hopes to install a "digester" to
generate natural gas from manure,
which can be used in the fuel cells to
generate electricity.

   For more information regarding
the Mohegan Sun Casino, readers
may contact management at 1
Mohegan Sun Boulevard, Uncasville,
Connecticut, 06382, 888-226-77H.
To share your Tribe's pollution
prevention success story, readers may
contact Mary Lauterbach, EPA, 1200
Pennsylvania Avenue (MC7408M),
Washington, DC 20460, 202-564-8821
or lauterbach.mary@epa.gov.
 EPA Tribal News

 Onjiakiing-From  the  Earth,
 Non-Medicinal Uses of  Plants
Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances
Michelle Humphrey
       OPPTS Tribal News strives to
       promote a two-way dialogue
       between EPA and the
American Indian Tribes. In keeping
with that goal, OPPTS would like to
highlight the CD-ROM Onjiakiing-
From the Earth, Non-Medicinal Uses
of Plants, produced by the Great Lakes
Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission

"Treat the earth well. It was
not given to  you by your
parents;  it was loaned to
you by your children. We do
not inherit the Earth from
our Ancestors; we borrow it
from our  Children."
(Ancient Indian Proverb)
 "Treating the Earth well..." is a
basic  principle for environmental
  Problems with the environment
and the information telling us what
is wrong can be overwhelming at
times. GLIFWC sent OPPTS this special
CD-ROM that takes an alternative
approach to communicating negative
issues of the environment. The
CD-ROM is a moving compilation,
concerned with wild plants in the
ceded territories of the Great Lakes
region and provides detailed descrip-
tions of the threats to the plants,
by way of Tribal elders, as well as
evidence from scientific studies.

  Besides results from scientific
studies of the threats to the plant life
in the Great Lakes region, GLIFWC
also has provided a detailed
listing of threatened plants
and their uses. GLIFWC
also included interview
transcripts, recipes, and
traditional stories that
stress the value of these
threatened plants.

   Men and women
shared family stories of
plant use-everything from
Dandelion recipes to dyes. Mildred
Ackley McGeshick, a Mole Lake elder,
shared a story of her mother's dye
recipe. "She mixed colors and added
apple juice and she would get old
dandelion wine from neighbors that
had turned to vinegar, add that, so
the color stayed.  She collected all year
round bark, weegup, and cedar. She
soaked the weegup in hot water and
then put it in the dye, it was also hot,
then dried it.  She rolled  it or wrapped
it. My dad would cut the cedar sticks.
They always were looking for more
supplies. She  in later years, when she
had money she would buy rit dye. But
when you don't have a car and no
money, she said in mother earth you
had everything you needed. She would
peel the weegup and dried it and
when she needed it would soak it. My
mother was artistic, she  made a lot of
crafts, canoes, teepees, beadwork, etc."

   Sylvia Cloud told a story of her
grandmdther. "When we would go
camping, we camped out at the
sloughs and we camped  out at the
sugar bush and all that when I was a
kid. My Gramma  always picked the
teas you know, late summer and that.
She always had mint. And when we
camped out she always put that mint
around...you know where we'd sleep
and that. And ah, the bugs don't like
the mint and ah, my mother didn't
have any mint and one time she went
and got some Doublemint gum and
       put that all over the ground
             so the ants don't come
               in [laughing].
                  She put that all
                  around so it
                   worked. That
                   was what they
                   used to keep
                   the bugs out."

                    This CD-
                ROM provides an
              alternative to conven-
          tional education. It is a
way to pass on the acknowledgment
of the threats and reasons for bringing
attention to this subject.

  For more information, please
contact the Great Lakes Indian Fish
and Wildlife Commission at P.O.
Box 9, 100 Maple Street, Odanah,
Wisconsin, 54861, 715 682-6619,
                                                                                               EPA Tribal News

Tribal Wind Power - A Viable
Strategy for Community Revital-
ization and Capacity

Office of Environmental Justice
Daniel Gogal

   To promote sustainable economic
development in Indian country, the Federal
Interagency Working Group (IWG) on
Environmental Justice chose the "Tribal
Wind Power"  project as one of its 2003
Revitalization Demonstration Projects.
Over the past  ten years, a confederation
of Tribes in the Northern Great Plains
brought a  visionary plan to harness wind
energy for Tribal economic development
from a dream to reality. The InterTribal
Council on Utility Policy (ICOUP), the
confederation of federally recognized
Tribes in the Northern Great Plains, has
completed the unprecedented installa-
tion of a 750 kW-wind turbine. Through
partnerships with federal agencies, ICOUP
seeks to demonstrate that the development
of wind energy can be a viable strategy
to provide for future economic, cultural,
and community revitalization through
the development of sustainable Tribal
economies. By promoting renewable
energy generation to federal and private
markets within and beyond the region, the
project also helps meet the Nation's need
for renewable, clean, and environmentally
safe energy sources. As President George
Bush stated in Executive Order 13212, "...
the increased  production and transmission
of energy  in a safe and environmentally
sound manner is essential to the well-
being of all American people."
   The wind turbine will be owned and
operated by the Rosebud Sioux Tribe.
Additional information on the project can
be found at www.epa.gov/compliance/
projects.pdf. For more information, please
contact Daniel Gogal at 202-564-2576 or
gogal.daniel ©epa.gov.
The  Indian  Program  Policy  Council,
Senior  Management  at  EPA  Steps
Up to  the  Continuing  Challenge
American Indian Environmental Office
Marlene Regelski-Reddoor

   A   t the request of Bill Muszynski,
  /\  former EPA Region 2 Deputy
-/.  ^Administrator, a memo was sent in
March 2003 convening the Indian Program
Policy Council (IPPC)1. The memo, signed
by Tracy Mehan, Assistant Adminis-
trator for Water, and Jane M. Kenny, EPA
Region 2 Administrator, highlighted the
importance of having a senior leadership
forum to discuss agency-wide issues in
Indian country.

   The mission of the IPPC is to advise
and support the Agency on major policy,
science, and implementation issues
affecting EPA programs and activities
in order to enhance protection of the
environment and human health in Indian

   The purpose of the IPPC is to ensure
early and effective involvement of EPA
senior management in the identification
and resolution of Agency-wide Indian
program policy issues:

• To create a common understanding of
  tribal activities and issues among EPA
  programs offices and Regions
• To serve as a forum for discussing
  Agency-wide issues affecting Indian
• To strengthen intra-Agency coordina-
  tion and promote cohesive, consistent
  programmatic support regarding tribal
• To promote multi-media, multi-office
  solutions to environmental problems in
  Indian country
• To discuss inter-Agency issues  of concern
  and promote inter-Agency coordination
  and solutions to environmental problems
  in Indian country
• To address specific issues identified by
  the IPPC members
• To provide for Agency-wide consid-
  eration of environmental problems
  in Indian country, development of
  an integrated approach to address
  these problems, and oversight of
  the implementation of a long-term,
  integrated Indian program plan.

   The IPPC is composed of two groups,
the Council and a Steering Committee.
The Council consists of Agency senior
management representatives to the EPA
National Tribal Operations Committee,
excluding the Administrator and Deputy
Administrator. The Council is co-chaired
by TOC representatives from the Office  of
Water and the Deputy Regional Adminis-
trator of the Lead Region for the EPA
Indian Program.

   The Council created a Steering
Committee, which consists of one represen-
tative of each member of the Council.
These representatives are selected by the
Council members to represent and speak
on behalf of a Council member's Office.
The Steering Committee is chaired by the
American Indian  Environmental Office
Director. The Steering Committee will:

• Identify cross-program, cross-media
  policy issues of major concern  to EPA
  Headquarters, Regions,  and other federal
• Elevate issues to the full Council
• Develop agendas and ensure
  development of meeting materials for
  Council meetings
• Communicate IPPC activities and
  decisions to EPA program offices and
• Monitor the status of Council decisions
  and report back to the Council
• Recommend when additional Council
  meetings may be necessary.

   The IPPC had  one organizing meeting,
and a second meeting is planned to discuss
its priorities over the next year. The goal is
to have the IPPC  meet at least  quarterly, or
more often if necessary or at the request of
the Steering Committee.
 EPA Tribal News

Consultation  on  Properties  of
Religious and  Cultural  Significance
to Tribes
Office of Environmental Justice
Daniel Gogal
  The protection of Tribal cultural
resources and sacred places is a
primary concern of many Native
Americans. In order to enhance
the protection of these resources
and places, the Federal Interagency
Working Group (IWG) on Environ-
mental Justice is working to assist
federal agencies and other interested
parties in identifying Indian Tribes
that must be consulted prior to federal
undertakings which may impact
Tribal historic or cultural properties.
"Tiese historic properties tend to have
leligious and cultural significance to
the Tribes.

  The IWG is conducting this work
through the leadership of the Advisory
Council  on Historic Preservation
(ACHP), a federal agency responsible
for overseeing the implementation of
Section  106 of the National Historic
Preservation Act. The project is one of
 the IWG's demonstration projects that
 promote interagency collaboration
 and coordination to more effectively
 provide for healthy and sustainable

    The pilot project involves Tribes in
 Colorado, New Mexico, and Louisiana.
 ACHP is seeking funding from various
 agencies to expand the project to
 include more Tribes. For additional
 information, contact Daniel Gogal,
:-. Co-Chair of IWG's  Native American
"Task Force, B^, Office of Environ-
 piental Jtoftfce, at 202-564-2576 or
 ^gal.danny@epa.gov. Readers also
 ;o^y visit
"<£' www.epa.gov/compliance/environ-
New Collaborative
Problem-Solving Grants
Program Established
Office of Environmental Justice
Daniel Gogal
   EPA's Office of Environmental Justice
Collaborative Problem-Solving Grants
Program (CPS) was established in 2003
to provide financial assistance to eligible
community-based organizations working
to address local environmental and/or
public health concerns. The grants
program is based on EPA's Environmental
Justice Collaborative Problem-solving
Model. The model was developed with
the Federal Interagency Working Group
on Environmental Justice. A report on
the model can be found at www.epa.gov/
   Only community-based, non-profit,
non-governmental organizations located
in the same vicinity as the project are
eligible to apply for a grant. Grant awards
will total $100,000 each and should be
used over a three-year period. Grant
awardees from the first set of applica-
tions, which were due September 30,
2003, will be announced by January 2004.
OEJ is hopeful that program funding will
be available again in fiscal year 2004.
Additional information on the grants
program can be found at www.epa.gov/

                                                                                                   EPA Tribal News

New Publications Available at
EPA's Agriculture Compliance
Assistance Center
Office of Enforcement and Compliance
  The agricultural community depends on
EPA's Agriculture Compliance Assistance
Center (AgCenter) for up-to-date
information on environmental regulations
affecting their industry. Currently, the
AgCenter has made available new EPA
publications for the livestock agriculture
sectors, including the beef, poultry, swine,
and dairy sectors. The four, new environ-
mental stewardship brochures focus on
best environmental management practices
for these livestock sectors.  For more
information, visit www.epa.gov/agriculture
or contact the AgCenter at 888-663-2155
or agcenter@epa.gov.
EPA's  Compliance  Assistance
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
      EPA announces new Compliance
      Assistance Centers for small-
      and medium-sized businesses
in the auto recycling and construc-
tion sectors. These new centers,
the Environmental Compliance
Automotive Recyclers Center
(ECARcenter) and Construction
Industry Compliance Assistance Center
(CICAcenter) help customers increase
their understanding and compliance
with environmental regulations.
   The ECARcenter provides
information on related, state and
federal environmental rules for
auto recycling facilities, as well as a
virtual tour covering topics that range
from handling used antifreeze to
wastewater disposal.

   The CICAcenter allows builders
and developers access to applicable
environmental regulations and to
compliance resources.
                                            more information on these new centers ;
                                                  .assistanceccntcrs.net or any of
                                           Border Center,
                                           www.borflcrccnter.org, for
                                           businesses importing hazardous
                                           waste across the U.S. - Mexico
                                           Construction Industry
                                           Compliance Assistance
                                           Center, www.cicaccntcr.ort>,
                                           CCAR-GrcenLink, www.ccar-
                                                  k.ore', for the auto service
                                           www.ECARcenter.org, for
                                           a u t o m o t i v e re cy c 1 c rs
                                           Local Government  Enviro
                                           mental Assistance Network,
                                         National Agriculture Compliance
                                         Assistance Center, www.cpa.gov/
                                         National Metal Finishina R
                                         Center, www.nmfrc.orR, for the
                                         Paints and Coatings Resource
                                         Center, www.paintcentcr.org, fo
                                         organic coating facilities
                                         Printed Wiring Board Resource
                                         Center, www.pwbrc.org, for
                                         Printers Nation
                                         Assistance Center, www.pneac.org.
                                         mental Resource Cent
                                                       .org, for the
                                                                                air, smppim
                                         FcclSite, www.cpa.gov/
                                                                                    at departments and agencies
 EPA Tribal News

LGEAN  Publishes  New Fact  Sheets
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
      The Local Government Environ-
      mental Assistance Network
      (LGEAN) has recently published
three new fact sheets on local
government environmental liability
relating to air quality, solid waste, and
wastewater. The fact sheets highlight
environmental violations that may
result in fines, criminal penalties, and

   For more information, visit www.
lgean.org or contact LGEAN at 877-
TO-LGEAN or lgean@icma.org.
Announcing Environmental
Information  Exchange Network
Grant Program for Fiscal Year

    PA announces that the Environ-
mental Information Exchange Network
Grant Program  is now soliciting pre-
proposals for the Program. The Exchange
Network is an Internet and standards-
based information systems network
among EPA and its partners in States,
Tribes, and territories. It is designed
to help integrate information, provide
secure real-time access to environmental
information, and support the electronic
storage and collection of high-quality
data and information. The Exchange
Network provides a more efficient way of
exchanging environmental information
at all levels of government and with the
public. It revolutionizes the way in which
information is sent to and received by
EPA and its State, Tribal, and territorial
partners. For examples of projects that
EPA has funded in the past, please see the
State and Tribal summaries of proposals
that are available on the Exchange
Network Grant Program Web site at www.
  Pre-proposals must be received
electronically at neengprg@epamail.epa.
gov no later than February 3, 2004.
                                                                                                   EPA Tribal News

Protecting  U.S.-Canada  and  U.S
Mexico  Border  Regions
Office of International Affairs, Western Hemisphere
Pete Christich
T I "Vie U.S. border with Canada is
  I   approximately 5,500 miles, and
 _A_  the U.S. border with Mexico
is approximately 2,000 miles. Many
Tribes live along these two long
U.S. borders within watersheds and
airsheds which require multi-year bi-
national cooperation to help ensure
that human health and ecosystems
are adequately protected. The federal
governments of Canada, the U.S.,
and Mexico carry out bi-national co-
leadership and partnership roles and
responsibilities to help ensure that
border regions are protected.

  Along both U.S. borders, many
international efforts — including a
great amount of regional and local
transborder cooperation  - monitor
and assess conditions, and prevent,
as well as control, air, water, waste,
and other pollution to ensure that
human health, wildlife, aad their
habitats are protected. In a number
of U.S. border regions, remediation
of historic pollution areas (e.g.,
contaminated land or toxic sediment
in waterways) has been completed or
is near completion to restore impaired
and adversely impacted environmental
conditions. This article highlights
human health and ecosystems
protection challenges, goals, and
unfinished agendas of Tribes and EPA,
as shared with others in  U.S. interna-
tional border regions.

  A number of major bi-national
environmental agreements between
Canada and the U.S. and between
Mexico and the U.S. serve as
important frameworks to help protect
people and ecosystems in U.S. border
regions. Many of these major bi-
national agreements are fulfilled and
assisted by use of regional agreements
and frameworks, which may include a
partnership among federal, provincial,
state, Tribal, and First Nation agencies.
A substantial amount of binational
cooperation to fulfill binational
agreements and goals on shared
watersheds includes involvement and
assistance of the U.S.-Canada Interna-
tional Joint Commission (IJC). These
bi-national agreements, frameworks,
and efforts along both U.S. borders
cover many worthy unfinished
agendas which include many health
and ecosystem protection goals.

Binational Environmental
   Major U.S.-Canada agreements
covering health and
mental ptotectic?
ittdude the !«J9O Uornidary Waters
Treaty, 1991 Air Quality Agreement,
1986 Agreement Concerning the
Transboundary Movement of
Hazardous Waste, 1994 Joint Inland
Pollution Contingency Plan, and 1978
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement,
as amended in 1987. The IJC carries
out major responsibilities assisting
the two countries with the Boundary
Waters Treaty, Air Quality Agreement,
and the Great Lakes Water Quality

   A major U.S.-Mexico border
agreement, known as the 1983
La Paz Agreement, covers air,
water, waste pollution control,
and emergency preparedness and
response along the border. Also, the
two countries are assisted by the
U.S.-Mexico International Boundary
and Water Commission, the Bi-
national Environment Cooperation
Commission, and the North American
Development Bank.

Requirements, Goals, and
Unfinished Agendas Along the U.S.-
Canada Border
  The U.S.-Canada inland border of
5,500 miles includes many bi-national
watersheds, U.S. Tribal reserva-
tions and nations, and Canadian
First Nations. Along this extensive
border, a great amount of environ-
mental protection work remains to
be completed to help ensure that
indigenous people, their lands, and
their waters are protected.

   For over 90 years, the U.S.-Canada
Boundary Waters Treaty has been in
place for the purpose of preventing
and controlling water pollution to
prevent harm to people and the
physical, chemical, and biological
integrity of boundary waters,
including ]
holistic and iritejpftitEii afjpfoatffies to
address boundary water flows, levels,
quantities, and water quality concerns
and goals, including the protection of
aquatic wildlife and their habitats.

   In 1998, the U.S. and Canadian
governments asked their Interna-
tional Joint Commission to help the
two countries explore, develop, and
implement new and improved IJC bi-
national approaches to achieve more
holistic management and protection of
U.S.-Canada watershed's ecosystems.
This long-term 1998 Canada-U.S.-
IJC Treaty initiative includes goals to
improve cooperation and strengthen
partnerships with U.S. Tribes, First
Nations, and Tribal nations and
alliances that span the border.

The Boundary Waters Treaty
focuses on the following issues and
challenges among EPA and Tribes.
• An IJC watershed board, which
  helps implement the above 1998
  Mohawk Nation, Chippewa, and
• There are
                                         -,^ttE«i0f|ai^|^is^^^e ';',-•
  on non-point sources of water
  pollution and on alewives research
  in the St. Croix River watershed.
• Federal, provincial, state, Tribal,
  and First Nation governments
  are working together in long-
  term efforts through program
  work of the Binational Executive
  Committee of the U.S.-Canada Great
  Lakes Waters Quality Agreement
  (GLWQA). Significant public and
  private sector efforts are dedicated
  to the reduction and elimination
  of persistent bioaccumulative toxic
  (PBT) pollution discharges in the
  Great Lakes-upper St. Lawrence
  River Basin ecosystem, including
  efforts to reduce various PBT
  concentrations in fish. Tribes
  involved include the St. Regis
                                          investigation process, EM Ms
                                          the Colville Confederated Tribes,
                                          Spokane Tribe, local communities,
                                          state of Washington, Canadian
                                          federal and provincial governments,
                                          and others informed of EPA

                                          There is environmental damage in
                                          the upper reaches of the Columbia
                                          River, and EPA is concerned about
                                          the possible effects of contami-
                                          nation to  human health and the
                                          environment.  EPA has determined
                                          that a remedial investigation and
                                          feasibility study  (RI/FS) of the Upper
                                          Columbia River site is necessary.
                                          The RI/FS will evaluate the effects
                                          of contamination on human health
                                          and the environment, as well as
                                          determine if any cleanup action
                                                                                  is necessary. Other projects on
                                                                                  the Upper Columbia River include
                                                                                  EPA's work with the government
                                                                                  of Canada to monitor and address
                                                                                  temperature, dissolved gas, and
                                                                                  other water quality concerns,
                                                                                  particularly those related to dam
                                                                                  management. This work helps
                                                                                  protect human and ecological
                                                                                  health, including the health of
                                                                                  migrating fish such as salmon and
                                                                                  white sturgeon. EPA will continue to
                                                                                  keep the Tribes, local communities,
                                                                                  governments, and others informed
                                                                                  of its activities at the Upper
                                                                                  Columbia River site.

                                                                                • Binational cooperation on Puget
                                                                                  Sound-Georgia Basin  ecosystem
                                                                                  protection includes U.S. Tribes,
                                                                                  First Nations, federal,  provincial,
                                                                                  state, and local agencies, and others
                                                                                  in the public and private sectors.
                                                                                  Regional cooperation to protect
                                                                                  this Basin's ecosystem includes
                                                                                  addressing expected population
                                                                                  growth, contaminants in wildlife,
                                                                                  regional management and planning
                                                                                  to control air pollution, waste
                                                                                  management, water pollution
                                        « Sfiaee tie afiA 1990s, 1PA,
                                          Department of iat«rfojr, Department
                                          of State, State of Alaska, Canadian
                                          federal and British Columbia
                                          agencies, U.S. Tlingit Tribes/
                                          Douglas Indian Association, Taku
                                          River Tlingit First Nation have
                                          been engaged in the review and
                                          assessment of proposed mining
                                          development in the Alaska-British
                                          Columbia Taku River watershed.
                                          This bi-national watershed includes
                                          hundreds of thousands of migratory
                                          salmon and wilderness along the
                                          River and its tributaries, as well
                                          as a Taku Tlingit traditional trail,
                                          all requiring long-term environ-
                                          mental protection. On the U.S.
                                          side, the Department of State,
                                          EPA, Department of Interior (DOI),

State of Alaska, and the Douglas
Indian Association (DIA) have
partnered and coordinated with
Canadian counterparts on Taku
River environment and development
issues on behalf of U.S. Taku Tlingit
Tribes. One Taku River issue of
concern is heavy metals flowing
from Canada into the U.S.
Since  1997, a number of U.S. Tribes
and First Nations together have
helped the U.S. and Canada fulfill
the Boundary Waters Treaty in the
Yukon River watershed through
work of the Yukon River Inter-Tribal
Watershed Council. This Council is
an excellent example of how Tribal
and First Nation governments can
work together to carry out efforts
without waiting for other govern-
mental jurisdictions to take the lead.
EPA has considered supporting the
development of an IJC watershed
board approach for the Yukon River.
In response to concerns of the
Chippewa Tribes in upper Michigan
regarding emissions from the
Algoma Steel Mill in Ontario,
Canadian and U.S. federal, state,
and provincial agencies,  along with
the Inter Tribal Cottactt itt 'Michigan
and Algoma Steel company fflfit '-.>•/•
in October 2001. During that
meeting, officials discussed the
emissions that crossed over the
U.S.-Canada border and initiated
bi-national cooperation to gather
air emissions and monitoring data
and assessments in response to
the Chippewa's concerns about
protecting human health. This
cooperation helps fulfill the U.S.-
Canada  Air Quality Agreement's
requirements about cross-border
notification, consultation,
cooperation, assessment, and, as
needed, mitigation of air pollution
sources  of concern along the border.
Requirements, Goals, and
Unfinished Agendas Along the U.S.-
Mexico Border
  The U.S.-Mexico Environmental
Program's Border 2012 Mission
Statement promotes partnership
among federal, state,  Tribal, and local
governments in the United States and
Mexico to protect the environment
and public health in the U.S.-Mexico
border region, consistent with the
principles of sustainable development.

  Along the U.S.-Mexico border,
EPA shares challenges and goals with
Tribes, including:

• Studies on ground-level ozone and
  air particulates in Texas with the
  Kicapoo Tribe.
• Ground-level ozone, air particulates,
  and water quantity concerns in the
  Rio Grande River in Texas with the
  Isleta Del Sol Tribe.
• Water quantity concerns in a bi-
  national aquifer,  drinking water
  needs, waste management, air
  quality protection,  hazardous
  materials preparedness, and as
  needed, response to incidents, in
  Arizona with the .£<
Summary Points
   As the public and private sectors
look back over many decades of
environmental challenges and
pollution control milestones achieved
in U.S. border regions, historical
facts indicate that many indigenous
people and Tribes have lived in U.S.
border regions for centuries during
times when border watersheds and
border ecosystems once thrived.
Today, many no longer do so, and the
traditions and wisdom of the Tribes
and First Nations can continue to help
increase awareness, educate, and lead
North America toward sustainable

   It will be very helpful if readers
of this article recommend specific
topics about Tribal issues in U.S.
border regions that could be
reported in futures issues of this
EPA newsletter, as well as those
that could be discussed in  special
meetings and teleconferences. If you
have recommendations or  questions
regarding U.S. border issues, please
• Studies on air particulates in
  Arizona with the Pasqua Yaqui
• Water quality and quantity concerns
  in the Colorado River delta,  as well
  as other pollution control concerns
  in Arizona with the Cocopah,
  Quechan, and Torres Martinez

   Along the U.S.-Mexico border,
many other U.S. Tribes and indigenous
people in Mexico  are involved in
unfinished agenda efforts to ensure
adequate supplies of safe drinking
water and waste water treatment and
collection services.

A  Look  at  OSWER's  Tribal
Waste Journal
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
          May 2002 marked the first
          publication of EPA's
          Office of Solid Waste and
Emergency Response (OSWER) Tribal
Waste Journal (TWJ). The annual
release of the news journal features
a different topic and presents related
ideas, approaches,  and activities
successfully employed by Tribes and
villages. Each edition showcases "The
Tribal Voice," an activity-packed "Kids
Page," and a section of topic-related
"Resources" and "Contacts." Since
premiering its May 2002 publication,
OSWER has focused on (1) preventing
illegal dumping and (2) transfer
stations. Some highlights of related
stories are featured below. If readers
.lave questions regarding OSWER's
TWJ, please contact Janice Johnson,
EPA, Office of Solid Waste and
Emergency Response (5306W), 1200
Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington,
DC, 20460, johnson.janice@epa.gov,
or visit www.epa.gov/Tribalmsw.

Tribal Waste Journal, May 2002
   The May 2002 edition focused on
illegal dumping within Indian country.
News and informational articles
summarized cleanup initiatives and
prevention programs related to this
lopic. Several reservations shared
success stories of alternative waste
disposal programs, partnering for
success, and multi-faceted clean up
programs. TWJ also highlighted the
San Carlos Apache reservation for
their work in collecting unwanted
and abandoned cars and white goods
and selling the scraps to a local scrap
metal vendor. The edition also targeted
articles on community outreach and
involvement, enforcement programs,
and program assessment strategies,
all related to the prevention of illegal
waste dumping.

   In May 2002, OSWER also
published an interview with a Tribal
Voice, Judy  Pratt-Shelly, Red Cliff
Band of Lake Superior Chippewa,
and her mother Grace Deragon.
Pratt-Shelly is the Treaty and
Natural Resources Division Chief and
Executive Environmental Programs
Director for  the Tribe. Deragon is
a Tribal elder. Pratt-Shelly and her
mother shared their experience with
the environmental concerns regarding
household waste and illegal dumping
within their  community.

Tribal Waste Journal, May 2003
   The May  2003 edition focused
on transfer stations. This edition
showcased a step-by-step guide for
creating a waste transfer station,
including developing a solid waste
management plan, conducting a
waste assessment, conducting site
visits, performing a  feasibility study,
and operation and maintenance.
TWJ's May 2003 edition also targeted
articles on community involvement,
the need  for Tribal councils, and
funding opportunities. The edition
also highlighted seven operating
Tribal waste  transfer stations.
Again, OSWER published an
interview with a Tribal Voice,  Kim
Clausen-Jenson,  Oglala Sioux
Environmental Protection Program
Director.  Clasuen-Jenson promoted
her reservation's landfil and
funding through partnerships with
government  agencies to support
their station's project.
Brownfields 2003,  Growing a
Greener America

Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
Response, Office of Brownfields Cleanup
and Revitalization

   The Brownfields 2003 Conference,
Growing a Greener America, took place on
October 27-29, 2003 in Portland, Oregon.
At the Oregon Convention Center, over
4,100 experts, practitioners, and other
stakeholders participated in a three-day
conference program, which included
educational sessions, mobile workshops,
general  sessions, a town  meeting plenary,
exhibits, and receptions.  Mobile workshops
offered a unique venue for examining
successful brownfields projects in and
nearby Portland. At the town meeting
plenary, participants were encouraged
to ask experts questions  related to
brownfields projects. The Phoenix Awards
Ceremony was also pan of the agenda,
where winning project participants were
honored and recognized  for excellence in
brownfields redevelopment. The conference
brought together key experts from all
levels of government, business, finance,
and local communities to share ideas and
experiences in the fields  of urban and
environmental redevelopment.
   A Native American Gathering took
place the day before the  conference where
Tribal representatives had the opportunity
to meet with EPA officials to specifically
discuss brownfileds-related issues of Tribal
   More details on this conference and
its resulting success can be obtained from
www.brownfields2003.org, and will be
featured in the next OPPTS Tribal News
issue, due Spring 2004. Brownfields 2004
Conference is scheduled to take place in Si.
Louis, Missouri, on September 20-22, 2004.
                                                                                                        EPA Tribal News

NTEC and  EPA Announce Winners
of the  OPPTS Tribal News "A
Design  the Kid's  Page Contest"
  On October 31, 2003, the National
Tribal Environmental Council (NTEC)
and EPA collected the final entries
from children in grades K.-12 for the
OPPTS Tribal News "A Design the
Kid's Page Contest." The contest began
in Spring 2003 and was extended until
October because of the great number
of interested participants. Over 80
students participated in the contest.
These intelligent students displayed
creativity and thoughtfulness as they
depicted environmental awareness of
their indigenous communities in the
form of an activity or drawing for the
Kid's Page, which is featured regularly
in OPPTS Tribal News.

  Kid's Page designs of the top three
winners are featured on the following
pages. The Grand Prize Winner,
Michael Wassily, is a 7th grader at
Clarks Point School, Clarks Point,
Alaska. Michael's Kid's Page design,
"Puzzle Code," features  a coded
message and the subsistence life of the
Alaskan community. Congratulations
Michael on your award and prizes.
What a wonderful, detailed design!
"Puzzle Code," Michael Wassily,
Grand Prize Winner
EPA Tribal News

   Ameraiah Joe, a 3rd grader in
the Kayenta Unified School District,
Kayenta, Arizona, received
the First-Place Winner
award and prize. Ameraiah's
Kid's Page design, "I Live
In A Good Home," displays
incredible detail of the culture
and lifeways in the Dine'
community. Isiah Wauneka,
a 7th grader at Tse Ho Tso
Intermediate, Window Rock,
Arizona, submitted his vision of
pollution from glass and metal
and the benefits of recycling,
titled "Keep the Rez Clean." Isiah
received the  Second-Place Winner
award and prize. All entries were
judged by Karen Ware, NTEC Office
Manager, and Jim Rivera,  Institute
of American Indian Arts Professor.
                                                       "I Live In A Good Home," Ameraiah Joe,
                                                       First-Place Prize Winner

                                                                          "Keep the Rez
                                                                          Clean," Isiah
                                                                          Wauneka, Second-
                                                                          Place Prize Winner

Tribal  Success  in  OSWER  Waste
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
Adapted from the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Environ-
mental Justice Success Stories  Report (FY 1999-2001)
    In September 2002, EPA's Office
    of Solid Waste and Emergency
    Response (OSWER) published
 the Environmental Justice Success
 Stories Report (FY  1999-2001). This
 report summarized  some of OSWER's
 efforts to incorporate environ-
 mental justice into  its programs,
 including Brownfields Training and
 Revitalization; Superfund; Resource
 Conservation and Recovery Act
 (RCRA); Environmental Justice
 Awareness Training; and Community
 Involvement, Outreach, and Planning
 programs. The following paragraphs
 summarize some of the successes that
 Tribes have had in  these programs.

   In Region 8, the Turtle Mountain
 Band of Chippewa Indians in North
 Dakota initiated the San Haven
 Redevelopment Brownfields Project.
 Under the San Haven Redevelopment
 Project, the Tribe purchased the former
 State Mental Rehabilitation Hospital,
 located near the Reservation, in 1992.
 The State conducted initial  remediation
 activities at the site, including the
 removal of asbestos contamina-
 tion, underground storage tanks, and
 contaminated soil and water. In 1998,
 the Tribe evaluated the extent of
 contamination remaining at the site,
 under a Brownfields Site Assessment
 grant from EPA. During this same
 period, Turtle Mountain Community
 College received a Brownfields Job
 Training grant, the  first to be awarded
 from EPA to a Tribe.

   A contaminant survey was
 conducted  at the site by the Bureau
 of Indian Affairs, which decided not
 to bring the property into the Tribal
Trust until contamination issues
at the site have been resolved. The
project also became part of the ten-
year strategic plan
for Roulette County,
a U.S. Department
of Agriculture
Community" and
a U.S. Department
of Commerce
Business Zone.
Multiple options
have been
discussed for
future uses of the
site, including
building for
use as Tribal youth
rehabilitation centers,  student training
for salvage and resale operations,
and the development of tours of
teepee rings, a burial site, and the
foundations of an old  Scandinavian
settlement village discovered at the
site. The Tribal Brownfields Project
Manager is currently researching and
applying for additional sources of
funding, including grants for cleanup
and redevelopment activities from the
Economic Development Administra-
tions, the U.S. Department of Housing
and Urban Development, and the U.S.
Department of Health  and  Human
Services' Administration for Native

   Benefits of the San Haven Redevel-
opment Project include: reestablishing
600 acres; creating new and
sustainable jobs for Tribal  residents;
addressing health and safety concerns
related to contamination, vandalism,
and structural issues at the site;
providing an opportunity for the Tribe
to share its cultural history and values
with a much larger population; and
establishing or improving partnerships
with a number of local, regional, and
federal agencies and organizations.

  In addition to the Brownfields
project described above, Tribal
                     groups have
                    including the
   «ntal Justice
 » Stories Report
                    • Eastern
                   Superfund Site:
                   Cleanup and
                   Cultural Resource
                   (Region 1) - A
                  major aspect in
                  the cleanup  of this
  site was the mitigation of impacts to
  cultural resources of the Passama-
  quoddy Indian Tribe more than
  9,000 years old. EPA hired profes-
  sional archaeologists to excavate a
  portion of the site and documents
  the cultural resources, funded  a
  study of the artifacts by the Passam-
  aquoddy Tribe, provided internships
  to Tribal members to participate in
  the Project, and agreed to develop
  outreach exhibits about the cleanup
  and cultural resources discovered at
  the site.
  Superfund Cleanups Conducted
  in Massena, New York, with
  Tribal Assistance (Region 2) - The
  Reynolds Metal Company and
  General Motors Superfund sites
  are located directly upstream from
  St. Regis Mohawk Tribal Lands.
  Representatives of the St. Regis
 EPA Tribal News

  Mohawk Tribe's Environment
  Division were actively involved with
  the cleanup at both sites. Through a
  Support Agency Assistance Grant,
  the Tribe monitored the PRP's
  performance during each cleanup,
  joined with EPA inspectors on  an
  inspection of dredging operations,
  using the Tribe's research and
  enforcement boat, performed a
  sampling and analysis program, and
  conducted community outreach.
• All-Indian Pueblo Council's Pueblo
  Office of Environmental Protection
  Dip Vat Bioremediation Pilot
  Project (Region 6) - EPA Region
  6 has undertaken an initiative  to
  enhance the role of states and
  Tribes in Superfund activities.  As
  part of this initiative, EPA trained
  members  of the Zuni Environmental
  Protection Office and the Acoma
  Environmental Office to bioreme-
  diate pesticide-contaminated sheep
  dipping vats. Those members can
  now  use their training to bioreme-
  diate other contaminated sheep
  dipping vats on Pueblo land.
• Dynamite Removal Near the
  Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe's
  Village in Sisseton, South Dakota
  (Region 8) - This site  consists of 146
  cases of dynamite and 40 cases of
  blasting caps buried in a field near
  the town of Agency Village, home
  to approximately 500 members of
  the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe.
  In 1999, EPA's Emergency Response
  Program directed the U.S. Army
  Corps of Engineers to evaluate the
  site. The Bureau of Indian Affairs
  interviewed witnesses, and  brought
  in the U.S. Air Force Explosives
  Detection K-9 Unit, eventually
  finding three burial areas at the site.
  The disposal method selected for the
  site was in-place detonation. For
  safety reasons, it was decided that
  the entire town would be evacuated
  prior to detonation occurring. The
  Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe was
  an active participant in meeting the
  challenges of temporarily housing
  500 Tribal members.
• Navajo Abandoned Uranium Mine
  Project, Water Data Outreach
  Effort (Region 9) - In 2001, Tribal
  and federal representatives met
  with 30 different Navajo chapters
  to provide information on the
  more than 1,150 abandoned
  uranium mine sites found on the
  Navajo Nation and their potential
  impact on water quality. This
  outreach effort involved relaying
  information regarding a sampling
  program for non-regulated water
  sources to determine if they were
  detected by mining activities, and
  was conducted in both Navajo
  and English. The team presented
  information about how to reduce
  exposure to  contaminated water
  and the abandoned uranium mine
  sites, including physical hazards and
  miner compensation claims.

   EPA OSWER environmental
justice activities also include projects
conducted under the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) program. In Region 2, the
St. Regis Mohawk Tribe used RCRA
grant money to provide training for
the Indian Nations of the Region in
the initiation and improvement of
solid waste management activities.
Specialized workshops were developed
as the result of a poll of the region's
Indian Nations. Workshops were
presented by national Tribal experts in
the areas of composting, management
and prevention of tire piles and
open dumps, waste transfer stations,
regulation writing, and program
development and resources.

   In Region 10, EPA has issued grants
of up to $220,000 over the last five
years to the Alaska Native Health
Board. These grants are used to clean
up open dumps containing shipping
materials, lubricants, and paints and
solvents from abandoned radar instal-
lations and small airports used during
the cold war by the U.S. Department
of Defense. The ANHB in turn provides
smaller grants to the individual Alaska
Tribal communities, to directly involve
the communities in education, design,
planning, and training to clean up the

   Also in Region 10, EPA and the Pt.
Gamble S'Klallam Tribe conducted and
participated in an arsenic metabolism
study. The study was conducted as
the result of contamination from the
closed Kitsap County Landfill. In 1989,
Tribal biologists discovered elevated
levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium,
and vinyl chloride  in an aquifer on
the reservation, and discovered vinyl
chloride in wetland on the reservation
and in a fish-bearing stream  near
the reservation. Over a period of
approximately ten years, investiga-
tions were conducted at the site by
the Tribe, with assistance from EPA
and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and
the Washington State Department
of Ecology, with assistance from
Parametrix, Inc. and Kitsap County.
The metabolism study is being
conducted as part of the investigation
into risks at the site.

   For more information on
Brownfields programs, as well as
RCRA,  Superfund, Environmental
Justice or Community Outreach,
readers may visit www.epa.gov/
oswer. Readers may also find contact
information for the programs/success
stories  highlighted  in this article by
ordering copies of OSWER's Environ-
mental Justice Success Stories Report
(FY 1999-2001). Request copies by
contacting Kent Benjamin, 202-566-
0185, benjamin.kent@epa.gov.
                                                                                                       EPA Tribal News

Tribes  and  the  Brownfields  Law
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response,
Office of Brownfields Cleanup and Revitalization
Rey Rivera
   In January 2002, President
   George W. Bush signed the
   Small Business Liability Relief
and Brownfields Revitalization Act
(SBLRBRA). The law expanded the
Brownfields activities EPA can support
and increased funding for grants
and other programs. Specifically, the
Act provides increased funding for
assessments and cleanups, as well as
enhances the roles of State and Tribal
programs in brownfields management.
The Act also provided targeted
liability amendments to the Compre-
hensive Environmental Reclamation
Compensation Liability Act (CERCLA).
Application guidelines for these
programs can be found at www.
epa.gov/brownfields. The deadline
for proposal submittals for fiscal
year 2004 assessments, revolving
loan fund, and cleanup grants was
December 4, 2003. The deadline
for proposal submittals for fiscal
year 2004 job training grants was
December 1, 2003. Note that the next
cycle for requests of grant proposals
is expected to be in the first quarter of
fiscal year 2005.
   For more information on
the Brownfields Program, visit
www.epa.gov/brownfields/ or call an
EPA Brownfields Contact at 202-566-
»;!»,                    .£ <;v,-
Summary of The Brownfields Law:
• Brownfields Revitalization Funding (SBLRBRA - Subtile A)
• Provides legislative authority for a Brownfields Program, including grants for
  - assessment programs up to $350,000 per site
  - cleanup programs up to $350,000 per site (nonprofit organizations are
    eligible for direct cleanup grants)
• Streamlines requirements for the Brownfields cleanup revolving loan fund
  and makes funding available to governmental units, including Tribes
• Makes funds available for technical assistance, training, and research in
  amounts that do not exceed 15% of the funding appropriated for subtitle A.*
• State And Tribal Response Program (SBLRBRA - Subtitle C)
• Provides more certainty of liability relief when certain properties are
  cleaned up under State response programs
• Supports strong State and Tribal response programs and preserves Federal
  safety net
• Authorizes $50 million per year in funding to establish and enhance States
  and Tribal response programs
• Expands activities eligible for funding of State and Tribal programs
                                       'Note that Alaskan Tribes, with the exception of the Metlakala are not eligible for Subtitle A funding.
 EPA Tribal News

A  New Gateway to  Science
from  EPA  and  American  Indians
Office of Research and Development
Claudia Walters
       Have you ever wondered
       what scientific information
       and tools are available to
address environmental issues in
Indian Country? Are you interested in
knowing more about  scientific projects
being carried out by Tribes and EPA
in your area? Would you like to learn
more about traditional ecological
knowledge? Do you have information
on scientific activities related to
Indian Country that you would like to
share with others?

  EPA worked with Tribal represen-
tatives to create a resource to help
answer these questions, the "Science
and American Indians" web site at
www.epa.gov/osp/tribes.htm. The
web site is a gateway to scientific
information from both Tribes and EPA,

• Announcements for funding
  opportunities,  events, and news
• Scientific resources including
  observational and analytical
  data, agency hotlines, environ-
  mental  projects across the country,
  technical and compliance assistance
  centers, major scientific initiatives,
  EPA laboratories, and training
• Information and Products relating to
  National EPA-Tribal Science Council

  The site is intended to be used by a
wide range of individuals, from those
who have little scientific experience
to those who are very knowledgeable
and trained. In addition to providing
scientific  information from EPA and
other Federal agencies, the "Science
and American Indians" web site is
designed to enhance the sharing of
scientific knowledge and experiences
from Tribes across Indian Country.

   The "Science and American
Indians" web site was created
through an iterative process using
multiple focus groups and one-on-
one feedback sessions with Tribal
representatives who contributed
greatly to the design, content, and
text. Key to the overall development
of the site were Veronica O'Leary
of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe
and Barbara Gray of the Haudeno-
saunee Environmental Task Force. Ms.
O'Leary was primarily responsible for
developing the graphical design of the
web site and, importantly, arranging
and conducting usability tests with
various Tribal representatives and
groups, including Tribal members
at EPA, Washington Internships for
Native Students from across the
country and Tribal representatives
from the Navajo Nation, Cherokee
Nation, and Tribal Association on
Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
Ms. Gray provided invaluable
guidance on Tribes and traditional
knowledge. She also reviewed draft
components of the web site and
offered input into the language used.
In addition, she organized a test of the
initial draft web site by Tribal elders,
community members, and environ-
mental professionals associated
with Haudenosaunee Environmental
Task Force, which provided critical
feedback during site development.
                                                                                                  EPA Tribal News

  Soliciting a wide range of input
was important in the development
process since the "Science and
American Indians" web site strives
to provide scientific information
from different perspectives thereby
highlighting the various processes
by which we explain the world
around us - representing our "Ways
of Knowing." The site aims to
demonstrate that analytically-based
science, which relies on collecting
information through a path of linear,
standardized steps, is one approach
people use to explain the world. Tribal
traditional knowledge, which
                     encompasses a range of ways that
                     people living indigenous lifestyles
                     perceive, think, act, and "come
                     to know" their world, is another
                     approach to solve environmental
                     problems. Furthermore, scientists of
                     all disciplines have begun to recognize
                     the importance of integrating the
                     information from the various scientific
                     approaches. The "Science and
                     American Indians" web site attempts
                     to provide science information from
                     these various approaches when
                     addressing environmental concerns.

                         (_V/I **—-
                          which people f              con collecting
  The "Science and American
Indians" web site will be a component
of the "Tribal Portal," which is still
under development. The "Tribal
Portal" will provide a single point of
entry for Tribes to access environ-
mental regulatory, policy and
programmatic information and
assistance. The "Science and American
Indians" site will serve as the link
to environmental science-related
information. Until the "Tribal Portal"
is operational, the AIEO web site ( can
 be used to access information on EPA
 environmental policy, regulations,
 and general funding opportunities.

    The current version of
  the "Science and American
  Indians"web site is intended to be
  a starting point. Content will be
   added to  the site on an ongoing
   basis, and efforts will be made
   to gather additional information
    from other agencies and Tribes.
    Future iterations of the site will
    broaden both the educational
    aspect  of the site and the depth
    with which particular topics are
     covered so that all users will
     find the site beneficial. You
     are encouraged to take a look
      at the "Science and American
      Indians"web site at and make
      suggestions for improvement
      or additions to Claudia
       Walters, Office of Research
       and Development, at or call
       Org.nta«to« "^^ctions.the «»— r
        ^ ^^^-eS-goppon^es,,

        • =S5Sr^^i^-1
EPA Tribal News
 information about                                          ^

 EPA  Science  Forum,  May  2003
Office of Research and Development
      EPA's Office of Research held
      its annual Science Forum in
      Washington, DC May 5-8, 2003.
The Science Forum featured a host of
speakers, exhibits, panel discussions,
and events. Several speakers from
Tribal governments and organizations
also participated, and summaries of
iheir sessions are highlighted below.
EMAP Tribal Perspectives
   The Environmental Monitoring
and Assessment Program (EMAP) is
an ongoing EPA project that supplies
scientists and researchers with tools
1o better estimate regional, environ-
mental indicators in order to assess
environmental conditions.
   Mr. Davis, Nez Perce Tribe scientist,
described the goals of the Nez Perce
Tribe and the role of Environmental
Monitoring and Assessment Program
EMAP in their local science objectives.
Nez Perce is one of the first Tribes to
adopt an EMAP approach with their
own funds.
   Nez Perce is located in north
central Idaho and includes approxi-
mately 750,000 acres. The Tribe is
split into four counties, including
Clearwater, Nez Perce, Lewis, and
Idaho. Approximately 30 percent of
the reservation is Tribally-owned. The
remainder of the reservation has been
sold to industrial companies or other
businesses. The Tribal reservation has
diverse landscapes, and therefore,
requires diverse approaches when
managing their environment. Most
of the reservation's land is used
for cultural activities, agriculture,
recreation, timber management, and
live stock management.

   Nez Perce gained interest in
the EMAP project  when Mr. Davis
attended an EMAP training in June
2001. Mr. Davis encouraged the Tribe
to fund its own EMAP program, and
in 2002, Davis and other scientists
started a training review of EMAP
field sampling protocols. In 2003, the
Tribe initiated it's  sampling for EMAP
data and will complete a final report
of its findings and results in 2005.

   The Nez Perce Tribe will use EMAP
bioassessment applications to develop
water quality standards and criteria,
complete a 303d list of impaired areas
based on the state of their aquatic
community, and create total  maximum
daily loadings, among other project
goals. EMAP will play a major role
in assessing the current condition of
streams within the reservation.
Tribal Partnerships in Pesticide
Management to Protect Human
   Ms. Ryan, Big Valley Rancheria,
explained the traditions of the Big
Valley Rancheria reservation and goals
to improve their environment. The
environmental goals of the Big Valley
Rancheria are to gather information
on possible health  hazards and
provide outreach to the community. In
order to meet traditional and environ-
mental goals, Big Valley Rancheria
uses income from its Tribal-owned
casino and also relies on grants from
the U.S. Department of Housing and
Urban Development, EPA, and U.S.
Department of Interior.

   Pesticide management and
community recycling are priority
goals. Hunting and gathering from
the lands of Big Valley Rancheria is a
long noted tradition of the community.
Big Valley is a descendent of the
Xa-ben-na-po Band of Indians, and
Xa-ben-na-po is defined as hunters
and gatherers. The Tribal members
occupy 375 acres and are committed
to protecting its lands. However,
pesticides use in Lake County has
resulted in diverse environmental
and human health effects within their

   Pesticides are used to protect pear,
walnut, and apple trees, and wine
grapes. There are residents that live as
close as 60 ft- 100ft to pear and wine
grape orchards, respectively. Tribal
schools are less than 40 feet from
pear orchards, and residents along
Soda Bay Road are less than 50 feet
      Tribal Partnerships in
                                                                                                    EPA Tribal News

from pear orchards. Elders also have
documented pesticides use outside of
their homes. These repeated exposures
have resulted in asthma in five family

   In 2001,  Big Valley Rancheria
completed a pesticides history investi-
gation and  report. In  the report, Big
Valley Rancheria focused on pesticides
2,4-D, paraquat, azinphos-methyl,
chlorpyrifos, methyl bromide,  and
petroleum oils. Big Valley Rancheria
also has investigated  2002 data on
exposure drifts of pesticides, including
chlorpyrifos (lorsban).

   It is vital that Big Valley  Rancheria
address pesticides use and pesticides
drift in the  areas lying between Lake
County and the reservation. Tribal
members use plants as foods and
medicines, baskets built with plants,
plant products used for cooking
utensils and ingredients, and even
baby rattles. These uses of plants
result in exposure to  pesticides. Other
Tribal environmental issues that
remain include native plants, repatria-
tion of items, fish warnings, mercury,
and pesticide found in Clear Lake.
Establishing Self-Sufficiency in
Alaska Native Communities to
Minimize Exposure to Environ-
mental Contaminants
   Ms. June Gologergen-Martin, St.
Lawrence Island, along with Tribal
member Viola Waghiyi, explained the
goals of the St. Lawrence Tribe and
support from the Alaska Community
Action on Toxics (ACAT) program.
There exist 229 Tribes in Alaska, and
St. Lawrence is a Tribal-owned island.
St. Lawrence has worked to address
issues of limited funding, information
gathering of nature and extent data
on island contaminants, the exclusion
of their local input into decision-
making efforts of surrounding
areas, and contaminants resulting
       Environmental Health
             and Justice
       Saint Lawrence Island,
from U.S. military sites. The island
also recognizes trends in local and
traditional knowledge and wisdom
not being adequately integrated into
younger generations. In order to
address some of these challenges,
members of the St. Lawrence island
community work with ACAT. The
initial support from ACAT resulted
from a meeting with the former Annie
Alowa with ACAT and the receipt
of a grant to help the St. Lawrence
community address the health issues
prevalent on the  island.

   With help from ACAT, St. Lawrence
partners with the communities  of
Gambell and Savoonga, Norton
Sound Health Corporation, and State
University of New York to achieve
several environmental goals, including
the following:

• Acquire more information about
  environmental health clinics
• Education and involvement of
  young people
• Develop Tribal abilities to interpret
• Arrange for advance planning and
  create information management
• Develop strategies to increase
  funding allocated to the U.S.
  Department of Defense for clean-up
  statewide and nationally
• Develop strategic partnerships for
  policy advocacy needs
• Increase elder input.

   On a project-basis, St. Lawrence
is working with other organizations
to identify sources of contamination
affecting the communities of Saint
Lawrence Island, including the military
sites and distant sources; determine
health problems that may be linked
to environmental contamination;
and develop clean up protocols for
contaminated sites. The Tribe also
hopes to create a training program
about prevention and treatment of
environmental health problems and
develop a model of communication
that might be helpful for other Alaska
Native communities in addressing
environmental contamination.

   To date, the Tribe established an
advisory committee with representa-
tion from the Tribal government, city
council, and village corporation of the
Savoonga and Gambell communities;
held leadership and community
meetings in Gambell and Savoonga;
completed portions of a pilot study to
determine environmental exposures to
contaminants, as well as other environ-
mental studies; and held planning
meetings with community leaders.
Bioaccumulative Toxics in Native
American Shellfish
   Mr. Campbell and Ms. Jamie
Donatuto of the Swinomish Indian
Tribal Community discussed
their current project of studying
bioaccumulative toxics in subsistence-
harvested shellfish on the Swinomish
reservation. Their current project is
supported by EPA ORD grant. The
Swinomish reservation is located 75
 EPA Tribal News

miles north of Seattle, Washington,
and has 750 Tribal members currently
living on the reservation. Their
reservation covers approximately
7,400 acres, and 2,900 acres are
Tribal-owned. Their reservation
is unique in that 90 percent of
their land is surrounded by water.
Therefore, shellfish are vital to their
community and is a subsistence food
of the Swinomish Tribe. Shellfish are
incorporated into the common diet
and sold to produce funding for the
Tribal families. The community has
environmental and human health
concerns because heavy metals, PCBs,
lead, mercury,  and  dioxins and furans
are common contaminants found in
Ihe nearby waters and in the shellfish.
   In order to address these concerns,
the Swinomish Tribe uses their grant
funding to achieve the following

• Determine whether Swinomish
  people who eat shellfish harvested
  from the reservation or other nearby
  areas are exposed to bioaccumula-
  tive toxics by testing sediment,
  clams, and crabs
• Effectively communicate those risks
  in a culturally appropriate manner
• Develop mitigation measures
• Confirm major health problems on
  the reservation that may be related
  to eating contaminated shellfish
• Develop hypotheses between the
  health problems and toxics found.

   Testing of the shellfish, as well
as land  involves sample collections
of sediment and clams and crabs
(shellfish) and developing additional
protocols to prevent further contami-
nation. The reservation scientist will
collect data to determine  concen-
trations and other information on
heavy metals, such as arsenic, copper,
cadmium, selenium, mercury, lead, and
nickel; PCBs; PAHs; dioxins/-furans;
chlorinated pesticides; and butyltins.
Sample  sites were chosen based on
historic  and present frequencies of
subsistence food gathering.

   The reservation also is  completing
their Tox in a Box ambassador's guide
that will educate school age children
on toxics in the community and
common health effects determined
from their studies. Tribal members also
participate in community  gatherings
where reservation scientist dissemi-
nates environmental and human
health information. Finally, the Tribe
provides public  service announcements
on the Swinomish cable channel to
communicate findings and risks.
                                                                                                        EPA Tribal News

Integrated Monitoring and
Assessment for Effective Water
Quality Management Symposium

Office of Research and Development
Brian Melzian

   EPA's Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment Program's (EMAP's) 2004
Symposium, titled "Integrated Monitoring
and Assessment for Effective Water Quality
Management"  will be held in Newport,
Rhode Island during May 3-7, 2004.
EPA's Office of Research and Development
(ORD), the Council of State Governments
(CSG), and the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
jointly sponsor the symposium. During
the symposium, experts will describe how
advances in monitoring and assessment
are targeted to meet emerging state and
Tribal needs and illustrate examples of
research and technology transfer that have
led to more efficient, less expensive, and
more scientifically rigorous monitoring
and assessment programs.
   Tribes are strongly  encouraged to
submit abstracts that relate directly
or indirectly to one of the following
symposium themes:
• Monitoring of Aquatic Resources
• Methods to Integrate Monitoring
  and Assessment for  Clean Water Act
• Monitoring to Establish Aquatic Life
  Uses, Develop Criteria, and Evaluate Use

   Please note that the deadline for
ABSTRACTS submission is January
30, 2004. The ABSTRACTS will then
be reviewed for possible inclusion as a
platform or poster presentation during the
   Complete instructions for ABSTRACTS
submissions, along with registration
information for the symposium and hotels,
are posted on the symposium web site at
www.csg.org. Once entering the web site,
readers must enter
the keyword "EMAP."
Further information
on the EMAP 2004
Symposium can be
obtained from Brian
D. Melzian, Ph.D.,
782-3188, melzian.
brian@epa.gov or
Amanda Mays, The
Council of State
Fall  2004 EPA  Minority  Academic
Institutions  Undergraduate  and
Graduate  Fellowships
Office of Research and Development
Stephanie Willett

      EPA offers Minority Academic
      Institutions Undergraduate
      Fellowships for bachelor level
students in environmentally-related
fields of study. Subject to availability
of funding, the Agency plans to award
approximately 15 new fellowships
by July 23, 2004. Eligible students
will receive support for their junior
and senior years of undergraduate
study and for an internship at an EPA
facility during the summer between
their junior and senior years. The
fellowship provides up to $17,000
per year of academic  support and up
to $7,500 of internship  support for a
three-month summer period.

  EPA also offers Minority Academic
Institutions Graduate Fellowships for
master and doctoral level students
in environmentally related fields
of study. Subject to availability of
funding, the Agency plans to award
approximately 20 new fellowships by
July  23,  2004. Master's  level students
may  receive support for a maximum
of two years. Doctoral students may
be supported for a maximum of three
years, with funding available, under
certain circumstances, over a period
        of four years. The fellowship
        program provides up to
        $37,000 per year of support.
 EPA Tribal News

Statistics  in  EPA's  STAR  Program,
Learning  Materials for Surface
Water  Monitoring
Dr. N. Scott Urquhart, Colorado State University
Dr. Jim Moore, Office of Research and Development
       Data occupies a central role
       in many of the actions taken
       by EPA and its affiliates in
the Tribes and States. For data to
provide suitable information for these
actions, it needs to be appropriate for
the situation. The scientific discipline
of statistics focuses on gathering
and analyzing data so that relevant
questions may be answered in an
unbiased  way, including environ-
mental questions. This article describes
the development of some individual-
ized materials designed to help water
quality personnel in the Tribes and
States to learn how to apply statistical
sampling and analysis to their
monitoring work.

   EPA's Office  of Research and
Development (ORD) has conducted
monitoring research through it's
Environmental  Monitoring and
Assessment Program (EMAP) since
1989. In recent years, EMAP has
focused on developing methods and
approaches for  aquatic resources.
Statistics plays  a substantial role
in these methods especially for site
seleetton and analysis. These new
approaches are  supported by the HPJjJs
Office 01sWater. They are also being
used by,»DQte States in meeting the
reporting requirements of section
403(b)*ftlMe Clean Water Act.
Severalfrittes 'lave begun usjjig
methods :to evaluate the status and •-"-..'-
trend* in their aquatic resources, and
at te3& one of EPA's regional offices
Is Strongly encouraging Tribes in that
Regioli t© use these methods.
   ORD sponsors extramural research
under the auspices of the Science to
Achieve Results (STAR) program in
the National Center for Environmental
Research. The statistical research
conducted for the STAR program
focuses on developing innovative
methods that are important for
protecting human health and the

   In 2000, STAR issued a Request
for Applications (RFA) to develop
two research programs on Statistical
Survey Design and Analysis for
Aquatic Resources. The RFA included
the specific worda^ "Proposals
should specifically £jji$||$s the
extension of expertise 
• Some of the anticipated individu-
  alizations may be executed
  more simply and accurately in a
  controlled software environment
  than in a general one.

   Using the Director's experience,
discussions with staff in the regions
who conduct monitoring, and
a limited study of Tribal needs,
researchers for STARMAP and
DAMARS began to investigate
possible content for these learning
materials by relying on the Directors'
experience in working with resource
managers  in the target organizations,
with discussions and communica-
tions with EPA regional personnel
that have monitoring responsibilities,
and by conducting a limited study of
Tribal needs by using Water Quality
Technology, Inc. (WQYI).  Steven
Johnson of WQTI, works  closely with
about  15 western Tribes, mainly in
EPA Region 9, on water quality issues,
and prepared a personal interview
form in collaboration with the
Director of STARMAP. Because a high
response rate was not expected for an
impersonal mail form, Steven filled
out the form during in conversations
with Tribal water-quality personnel as
a part  of his regular visits. His report
included these recommendations:
• Tribes need regulatory guidance to
  develop w^ler quality monitoring
  plans in the form required for
       an  30S(b) reporting which is
         y required for states only.
                ic need to have
  the IftSilttjWiitff and protection of
  cultural U$C$;o? waters  addressed in
  instruction!! materials.
  Tribes voieNl tte need  for temporal
  trend aai water-quality databaM
              : software that is user
                                          educational materials on the
                                          appropriate use of statistics in
                                          aquatic water-quality monitoring
                                        • Tribes voiced the need for a user-
                                          friendly statistical analysis program.

                                          A copy of the WQTI report is
                                        available at:

                                        starmap/wqti. final. report.pdf

                                          A first draft of the learning
                                        environment has been developed
                                        in collaboration with CSU's Office
                                        of Instructional Services. This
                                        environment implements several
                                        forms of individualization, but it is
                                        incomplete at this time. However, this
                                        first test version  has been designed
                                        to eventually support individual-
                                        ization for diversity in perspective
                                        - from the monitoring administrator,
                                        to field personnel and data analysts,
                                        geographic context of the learner
                                        - (many ecoregions), a dictionary
                                        detail, and even, if needed, different
                                        languages. If research with the
                                        intended user community reveals
                                        other needed features, flexibility for
                                        their incorporation will be included
                                        in the environment, and perhaps
                                        implemented in the test materials. The
                                        presentation environment identifies
                                        and preseats,,infQjBaatia|l for learners
                                       'based on choices they riisitij The
                                        environment also will assemble pdf
                                        files suitable for printing.   ;
              the need for geograph-
                 system (GIS)

 Tribes <^oleji the need for
   Two of six eventual learjfiig
have been drafted by Geraji Scarzella\
a graduate student in statistics at CSU
arwyj Native Alastop* A preliminary

environment ali^|fl|ftBaterials was
conducted and several state environ-
mental agencies, a sub-state regional
agency and two EPA regional offices
attended. Several people from Tribal
agencies were invited, but weren't able
to attend. All of the evaluators were
extremely supportive of the interactive
environment and the draft content.
They wrote pages of suggestions
which are being studied for future
changes in the learning environment.
They volunteered potentially valuable
material from their experience and
identified  an important new audience
- river councils. The original plan for
these new learning materials included
a few case studies but the recent
evaluation makes it clear that there
should be  perhaps 30case studies
to illustrate  a range of design and
analysis topics.

   As these new learning materials
evolve, future evaluations will be
conducted. Tribal input is critical if
the materials are to be useful  to Tribal
water quality personnel and managers.
We will  seek Tribal volunteers to
participate in future evaluations.
Contact the STARMAP Director,
Dr. N. Scott Urquhart  at nsu@stat.
colostate.edu if you have suggestions
for content or delivery methods. For
more general comments, contact
starmap @ stat.colostate.edu.

   The research described in this
article has been funded in part by
cooperative agreements between the U.
S. Environmental Protection Agency
and the Department of Statistics at
Colorado State University (CR-829095)
and the Department of Statistics at  ^
Oregon  State University (CR-  829oi|Jf:
under the auspice of ORD's STAR
Program. Further information about,;,
this research is available on the web 1
http ://oregonsttrte..edu/dept/statistics/

   Readers msy also contact N. Scott
Urquhart,  PhD, Director STARMAP,
Department of SMfetJcs^€®l»»i»»   ;
State University, Port  Collins, CO
80523 or Jim Moore, PhD, Project
Officer,  U.S. EPA National Center
for Environmental Research, 1200
Pennsylvania Ave., NW (MC8723R),
Washington, DC 20460.
EPA Tribal Nevte

   Makah  and  Shoalwater  Bay Tribes
   Experience  in EPA's  National
   Coastal Assessment Training
   David Lawes, Makah Tribe; Vince Cook, Shoalwater Bay Tribe;
   jnd Jim Harvey, Office of Research and Development
        The Makah and Shoalwater
        Bay Tribes from the Pacific
        Northwest oversee and manage
   their natural resources like forestry
   and fisheries. Three Tribal environ-
   mental professionals from the Makah
   fisheries group and one from the
   Shoalwater Bay Tribe participated in
   FPA's National Coastal Assessment
   (NCA) training. After three intensive
   days of lecture and "hands-on"
   field training at EPA's Gulf Ecology
   Division, each participant received a
   certificate of completion of training
   and returned to their respective Tribe
   with the knowledge and ability to
   collect samples. The NCA Program
   employs a probabilistic design
   and a common, core set of survey
   indicators, refined after years of use
   and validation in EPA's Environmental
   Monitoring and Assessment Program
   (EMAP). These Tribal environmental
   professionals will also
   share their knowledge and
   experience with neighboring
   Tribes. Our three-year goal
   is to provide training for a
   critical mass of tribal environ-
   mental professionals who will,
   in turn, train all coastal Tribes.
David Lawes, Water Quality/ResottKS
Specialist, from               '_
  The Makah Tribe
wanted to develop a
monitorial program
step m tiimt direction,
to have tein able to
Contact; Oaviet Lawes
at 360-645-3151
net and mtcedm@centorytel.n6t,

National  EPA  Tribal  Science
Office of Research and Development
EPA Tribal Science Council
Chris Gannon, Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Oregon
Dennis O'Connor, Office of Air and Radiation
      First convened in December
      2001, the National EPA-Tribal
      Science Council, commonly
referred to as the Tribal Science
Council or TSC, provides a forum
for Tribal and EPA representatives to
identify priority Tribal environmental
science issues and collaboratively
design effective solutions. Funded
through EPA's Office of Research
and Development, the TSC developed
out of concerns over the appropri-
ateness of EPA's science activities
in a Tribal context, specifically, the
appropriateness of science information
gathered from Tribes, the validity
of data collected about and through
traditional methods,  and the ability
of EPA programs to incorporate the
unique aspects of Tribal cultures into
models and assessment tools.

   Comprised of Tribal and EPA
Regional and Headquarters representa-
tives,  the 28-member TSC includes a
single Tribal representative from each
of the nine EPA Regions with federally
recognized Tribes as well as an
additional Region 10 Tribal represen-
tative representing Alaska Native
communities. The TSC also includes an
EPA representative from each Program
Office and one from each of the  nine
EPA Regions with federally recognized
Tribes. Agency representatives are
designated by Assistant Administra-
tors from the respective EPA Program
Offices and Regions. Tribal representa-
tives are nominated by their Regional
Tribal Operations Committees through
the National Tribal Operations

   The TSC represents a new paradigm
for how EPA works with Tribal
governments. The agenda of the TSC
is driven by Tribal priority science
issues. However, unlike other EPA
Tribal groups that are advisory in
nature, the TSC employs a collab-
orative approach, where Tribal and
EPA representatives work together
to determine the most appropriate
mechanisms to address the science
issues identified.

   Currently, the TSC is focusing
its efforts on Tribally relevant risk
assessment and development of a
health and well-being paradigm.
EPA's current risk assessment
methodology could be improved
to take into account Tribal culture,
values, and lifeways. The TSC is
working to both examine ways to
include  specific Tribal cultural and
lifeways concerns and practices
into existing risk assessment model
mechanics as well as to develop a
paradigm that shifts the focus of
risk assessment to community health
and well-being. In support of this
effort, the TSC has sponsored two
workshops on risk assessment and
Tribal health and well-being. The first,
held in Albuquerque, New Mexico
in February 2003, brought EPA staff
and Tribal representatives together
to gain  a better understanding of the
issue and better insights into the ways
in which EPA and Tribes view the
current risk assessment process. The
second workshop was hosted by the
Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe in Reno
Nevada in May 2003 and provided an
opportunity for Tribal representatives
to share stories about health and well-
being topics and the use of traditional
knowledge and science. A third TSC
workshop to continue discussion of
Tribally relevant risk assessment is
planned for early in 2004.

  In addition to these current
activities, the TSC has focused its
efforts on a number of additional
priority science initiatives, which have
• Promoting technical assistance for
  Quality Assurance Project Plan
  (QAPP) development and implemen-
  tation for Tribes through review of
  EPA's QAPP development training
  course; co-sponsorship, with EPA, of
  a course on QAPP development at
  the 2002 National Tribal Conference
  on Environmental Management; and
  coordination with EPA Region 9 to
  review and lend support to a QAPP
  development training CD for Tribes,
• Sponsoring the workshop on the
  current state-of-the-science of
  endocrine disrupter research in
  Washington, DC in September
  2002 to provide Tribes information
  about EPA science and policy
  development regarding endocrine
  disrupter research and to provide
  a forum for Tribal representatives
  to discuss their concerns about
  endocrine disrupters resulting from
  a subsistence lifestyle,
• Sponsoring presentations, posters
  and booths on a range of science
  topics at the National Tribal
  Conference on Environmental
  Management in 2002 and the EPA
  Science Forum in 2002 and 2003,
 EPA Wfjtl News

• Compiling a list of Regional projects
  across the country brief descriptions
  of projects where Tribes and EPA are
  working to enhance or restore Tribal
  traditional lifeways,
• Examining EPA's Office of Pesticide
  Programs' Lifeline risk assessment
  project to ensure relevancy to

   The TSC will continue support
of these science efforts. In addition,
the TSC has identified a  number of
additional Tribal science issues that
ii will address in the coming years.
The issues present a range of priority
environmental science concerns and
• Supporting the release and
  implementation of EPA's dioxin
  reassessment and reference dose;
• Identifying ongoing work at EPA on
  chemical mixtures and cumulative
  impacts and promoting increased
  research in this area;
• Providing input into the Persistent
  Bioaccumulative Toxins Monitoring
  Workgroup aimed at reducing
  persistent organic pollutants;
• Increasing education about
  and cleanup of toxic mold in
  Tribal communities; promoting
  more research on the human
  environmental health impacts of
  Pharmaceuticals in wastewater; and
• Increasing Tribal monitoring
  capacity to examine how accelerated
  climate change is affecting Tribal

   The TSC is conttltHally seeking
input on priority science issues that
Tribes may be facing and related
activities that are going  on across
EPA or in other federal agencies. If
you are interested in keeping up with
TSC activities or have issues that
you wish to raise, please contact the
TSC Co-chairs: TSC Tribal Co-Chair,
Chris Gannon at (541) 553-2020
or cgannon@wsTribes.org and
the TSC Agency Co-Chair, Dennis
O'Connor at (202) 564-9486 or
Oconnor.Dennis@epa.gov. Additional
information on the TSC can be found
on EPA's Tribal Science website at

EPA  Continues  Work  on  Tribal
Drinking Water Operator  Certifica
tion  Program  Draft  Guidelines
Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water
      The Environmental Protection
      Agency continues to work
      on the Tribal Drinking Water
 Operator Certification Program Draft
 Guidelines. These guidelines, once
 finalized, will establish a program
 for drinking water system operators
 in Indian Country that is flexible,
 while providing meaningful public
 health protection in Indian Country.
 This voluntary program is intended
 to provide water system operators in
 Indian country with further training
 and certification opportunities in
 addition to the existing training or
 certification programs offered by
 states, various federal agencies, and
 private organizations. The guidelines
 will establish baseline standards that
 must be met for non-state organiza-
 tions certifying operators of water
 systems in Indian Country to gain
 approval for their program from
 EPA. The guidelines also will include
 a consistent method of assessing,
 tracking, and addressing certification
 and training needs  in Indian Country.
   On March 30, 2000, EPA's Office
 of Ground Water and  Drinking Water
 (OGWDW) published a first draft
 of these guidelines in  the Federal
 Register and collected comments from
 stakeholders. The next step in this
 process is to publish a final  draft  of the
 guidelines within the Federal Register
 in February 2004 and solicit final
 comments from stakeholders. OGWDW
 then plans to publish  the Final
 Guidelines  in the Summer of 2004.

   Although certification is voluntary,
 if a system is to receive grant funds
under the Drinking Water Infrastruc-
ture Grant Tribal Set-Aside (DWIG
TSA) program, operator certifica-
tion is required in order to meet the
"technical capacity" requirements
for receiving funds. The DWIG TSA
policy is available at www.epa.
gov/safewater/tribes.html. Also, EPA
identified a goal for operator certifica-
tion in the 1998-2003 OGWDW Tribal
Strategy "Protecting Public Health and
Water Resources in Indian Country: A
Strategy for EPA/Tribal Partnership."
The goal states that by 2005, 80
percent of Tribal community and
non-transient, non-community water
systems will have a certified operator.
Establishing a final Tribal Drinking
Water Operator Certification
Program will help achieve this goal
while bringing greater public health
protection to Tribal communities.

  Readers may contact the Safe
Drinking Water Hotline at 800-
426-4791 or Jill Nogi, EPA
Office of Water, at
202-564-1721 or       *  ^
nogi.jill@epa.gov for        I
more information     ^
regarding the          -tf
Tribal Drinking
Water Operator
Certification Program
Draft Guidelines and
associated updates.
Readers  also may visit the
EPA Office of Ground Water
and Drinking Water web site
at www.epa.gov/safewater/
Tribal.html for updates.
  Finally, to help jump start the Tribal
operator certification program, EPA is
providing one-time grant funding for
one or more nonprofit organizations,
educational institutions, or public
agencies. The grant funding will assist
in developing a new (or amend an
existing) certification program that
meets the baseline standards of EPA's
Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certifi-
cation Program Final Guidelines,
once published. EPA wants to ensure
that all operators of water systems in
Indian Country have access to training
and certification programs  that
meet the particular needs of Indian
communities. The Request for Applica-
tions from nonprofit and Tribal
organizations, educational  institu-
tions, or public agencies interested
in certifying operators of Tribal
community and non-transient, non-
community drinking water systems
also may be obtained from the Safe
       Drinking Water Hotline or
          from the EPA Office of
              Ground Water and
                 Drinking Water
                 web site once the
                 guidelines are
                 final and published
                in the Fedral
           Register this Summer.

 EPA Tribal News

Tribal  Water Quality  Standards
    Indian Tribes are developing
    water quality standards to protect
    reservation lands. Tribes like the
Miccosukee in Florida, the Puyallup in
Washington, and the Pueblo of Isleta
in New Mexico have water quality
standards that are consistent with the
Clean Water Act.

   Water quality standards  are utilized
to protect and improve water quality.
Tiibes may use them to define the
use of a waterbody and address the
amount of pollutants
frum sources like
industrial facilities,
wastewater treatment
plants, and storm
sewers that may be
discharged into those
waters. Water quality
standards are defined
bv three  criteria:
• The designated use
  or the description
  of the goal for
  the waterbody
  (such as fishing,
  cultural or
  traditional uses)
• Water quality
  criteria (limits on
  pollutants and conditions that will
  protect the designated use) Antideg-
  radation policy governing changes
  in water quality.
  Today, 23 Indian Tribes have
water quality standards approved by
:PA that protect water quality on
reservation lands. A total of 22 Tribes
developed their own water quality
standards, and EPA promulgated water
quality standards for the Confeder-
ated Tribes of the Colville Reservation
in Washington. An Indian Tribe can
obtain authorization to administer
their water quality standards program
by meeting certain criteria. You may
contact EPA's Standards and Health
Protection Division at 202-566-
0400 to obtain specific information
about authorization to administer a
water quality standards program on
reservation lands and the appropriate

                     In June 2003,
                   EPA  released a
                   video, "Our Water,
                  Our Future: Saving
                  Our Tribal Life
                 Force  Together,"
                 that tells  about the
                 successful efforts
                 of two  Indian Tribes
                 - the Pueblo of
                Acoma, New Mexico,
                and the Confeder-
                ated Tribes of the
                Chehalis Reservation,
               Washington. These
               two Indian Tribes
               developed water
               quality standards for
               their reservations.
              They saw the quality
of their water deteriorating and took
positive steps to protect present and
future generations by adopting their
own water quality standards.  EPA
approved  the Pueblo of Acoma's
water quality standards in 2001, and
the water  quality standards for the
Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis
Reservation were approved in  1997.
Readers may  obtain the video by
Tribal Nonpoint Source Program
Grants and Training
Office of Water
Ed Drabkowski
   Clean Water Act (CWA) section 319
Nonpoint Source (NFS) Program grants arc
available to federally recognized Tribes
with approved NFS assessment reports
and management plans, and status under
section 518 of the CWA for establishing
treatment in a similar manner as a state.
To acquaint Tribes with the NFS program
and its purpose as a tool to improve water
quality in watersheds, the NFS Control
Branch in the EPA provides training
on developing Tribal NFS management
programs. More than 1,000 Tribal
representatives have participated in these
training workshops to understand program
requirements, how to apply for grants, and
the best management practices available
to reduce pollution along riparian areas
and erosion from grazing and farming
practices. Grant funding to Tribes with
approved programs is approximately $6
million annually. To date, 75 individual
Tribes are in the program,  accounting for
over 75% of land area in Indian country.
   EPA Region 9 has the most partici-
pating Tribes in the section 319 NFS
program. In FY 2003, Tribes in EPA Region
9 (which includes the states of AZ, CA, HI,
NV) received $4 million for implementing
on the ground improvement projects in
priority watersheds. The Region produced
a brochure to describe the  successful
projects being implemented by Tribes
such as the removal of invasive species
to improve infiltration, decommissioning
abandoned forest roads to  reduce erosion,
constructing fences to control migrating
animals from destroying vegetation, and
building water troughs for watering cattle
to prevent cattle from polluting area
streams. EPA Regions 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, and
10 also have Tribes participating in the
NFS program.
   For more information on section 319
NFS funding and training courses for
Tribes, please contact Ed Drabkowski at
202-566-1198 or drabkowski.ed@epa.gov.
                                                                                                          EPA Tribal News

   EPA's Office of Water also is
considering a potential rulemaking
that establishes federal standards
for certain waters in Indian country
where Tribal standards are not in-
place. EPA's Office of Water has
conducted outreach and discussion
sessions with Tribes and others on a
possible Advance Notice of Proposed
Rulemaking (ANPRM). The ANPRM
would discuss possible approaches
for promulgating the Federal water
quality standards, and EPA's Office of
Water would initiate an open public
comment period on the approaches.
Should you require additional
information, contact Ed Hanlon, EPA
Standards and Health Protection
Division, 202-566-0765, hanlon.
contacting Eleanor Jackson at 202-
566-0052 or jackson.eleanor@epa.

   It is EPA's intent that Tribes have
their own water quality standards. In
support of this goal, EPA's Regional
Water Quality Standards Coordina-
tors work with Tribes to review and
approve their water quality standards.
You can learn more about Tribal-
adopted and EPA-approved water
quality standards by visiting the
Agency's web site at www.epa.gov/

  You also may contact EPA's
Standards and Health Protection
Division at 202-566-0400 to obtain
information about program authoriza-
tion for the water quality standards
program and to obtain the name and
phone number of the appropriate
Regional Water Quality Standards
Coordinator in your area.
    Tribal Water Quality Standards Approved by EPA (As of
    September 2003)

    Pueblo of Isieta, New Mexico*
    Pueblo of Sandia, New Mexico
    Pueblo of San Juan, New Mexico
    Puyalhip Trfbe of tie Puyaltap Reservation, Washington
    Pueblo of Saata Gara» New Mexico
    Pueblo of Rawis, New Mexico
    Pueblo of Namee, New Mexico
    Sokaogon Chippewa Coainiufitty, Mole Wee Bf«j» "
    Confederated Salisa and Kotrttitti "Mt»t* of tfefe
    Pueblo of Pojoacpe, New Mexico
    Confederated Tribes of the ChehtSs &$eftM$aa> WaiWitgtaa
    Pueblo of Tesaqae, New Mexico
    Seminole Trfbe of Rortda,                     '      '
                                                     aad Sioux TrfiSes.o
                                            Montana    -      -      '
                                          Pueblo of ^oaa, New Mexico
                                          WMieMo«ata» Apache
 EPA Tribal News

Rulemaking on  Implementation
of  8-Hour  National  Ambient
Air  Quality  Standards  for
Ground-Level  Ozone
Adapted from EPA Office of Water Press Advisory, May 14, 2003
      On June 2, 2003, EPA took an
      important step in protecting
      the American public from
ground-level ozone pollution by
proposing a rule that outlines
s eps certain polluted areas would
have to take to clean up their air.
The proposed rule would establish
guidelines for State and Tribal
authorities to implement the 8- hour
national air quality standard for
ozone, first enacted by EPA in 1997
and upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court
in 2001. The proposal sought public
comment on options for planning
and control requirements for States
and Tribes, as well as on options for
making the transition from the 1-
hour ozone standard to the 8-hour
standard. The new 8-hour standard is
more protective of public health than
the current 1 -hour standard because
it more accurately reflects people's
exposure to ground-level ozone.

  The proposed rule describes options
for classifying nonattainment areas;
however, the proposal does not
make any attainment designations.
A nonattainment area violates the
ozone standard and/or contains areas
that contribute to violations of the
standard in a nearby area. Designa-
tions for nonattainment areas will
occur by April 15, 2004 under a
separate process. EPA took comments
on this proposed rule; the comment
period ended August 1, 2003. The
Agency also held three public hearings
across the country on the proposed
rule: Dallas, Texas on June 17, 2003;
San Francisco, California on June
19, 2003; and Alexandria, Virginia
on June 27, 2003. In addition, a
Federal Register notice was published
on August 6, 2003. Under a 30-day
comment period EPA made available
draft text that illustrates how one set
of options, which were proposed on
June 2, 2003, would be structured in
regulatory language.  Also, based on
comments received on October 21,
2003, EPA reopened the comment
period for 15 days on several
alternative approaches to classifying
nonattainment areas.

  Due to the complexity of the
rule, EPA plans to issue the final
rulemaking in two phases. The first
phase is expected to address the classi-
fication approach, the transition from
the  1-hour to the 8-hour  standard,
and anti-backsliding provisions. This
first phase is expected in  late February
2004.  The second phase rule would
contain the remainder of the require-
ments  and is expected around April

  More information is available
at www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/ozone/
                                                                                           EPA Tribal News

An  Update  with  Our  Regions
Region 1
  The Region 1 Tribal Program is
a multi-media program headed by
Jim Sappier, a former Penobscot
Tribal Governor. In the Region 1 New
England area, there are 9 federally
recognized Tribes, and the Eastern
Pequot Tribal Nation currently awaits
federal recognition. The Region 1
Tribal Program maintains a web site,
Here users can obtain profiles or the
New England Tribes, information
on Tribal environmental programs
and accomplishments, a map of the
locations of New England's Tribes,
an overview of EPA's  Indian Program
structure, a link to EPA's Indian Policy,
contacts within the region, and the
Region 1  Tribal Newsletter.

  The Region 1 Tribal newsletter,
Region 1  Indian Program Newsletter,
is published twice per year and
highlights recent regional, national,
and international news; announce-
ments; meetings; and workshops. The
Region 1  Tribal Program supports
its Tribes in several multimedia
initiatives, and funding for the
Regional Program has grown from
$55,000 to  $3 million.

Region 2
   Within EPA Region 2, there are
several Indian lands, including the
following federally recognized Indian
nations: Cayuga Nation,  Oneida Indian
Nation, Onondaga Nation,

   St. Regis Mohawk  Tribe, Seneca
Nation of Indians, Tonawanda Band of
Senecas,  and Tuscarora Nation. These
seven federally recognized Tribes are
located in the external boundaries of
New York State and are members of
the Iroquois Confederacy.
  The Region 2 Indian Program
provides outreach to these federally
recognized Indian nations and
continues building an Indian
nation environmental program
that supports grant program and
technical assistance to Indian nations.
Grants under the General Assistance
Program, as well as program specific
grants, have supported development
of environmental capabilities of
the Indian  nations. Also, Region
2 has a Regional Indian Program
Coordinator, an Indigenous Environ-
mental Affairs Specialist, and program
staff and managers who carry out
activities and  outreach. Region 2's
training program entitled "Training
on Working Effectively with Indian
Nations  and Indigenous Peoples"
provides Region 2 employees with
the necessary  knowledge and skills
to assist them in working with Indian
nations and indigenous people, while
implementing the Agency's Indian
Policy. The Region 2 Indian Program
maintains a web site, www.epa.gov/

Region 4
  Region 4's  Indian Program works
to protect human health and the
environment in Indian Country
by promoting the comprehensive
implementation of EPA's regulatory
and voluntary programs in partnership
with the federally recognized Tribes.
Specifically, Region 4's Indian
Program assists the Indian Tribes in
the region to build environmental
programs and compliance capabili-
ties and capacity. Region 4's Indian
Program provides Tribal governments
with information, training, and
grant funding and addresses Indian
issues and the impact of Region 4
activities on Native Americans. Region
4's recent Tribal Environmental
Accomplishments Report

  depicts many accomplish-
ments of the Tribal governments in
the region as a result of Region 4
support, including water and sewer
system improvements,  newly opened
recycling centers, increased environ-
mental monitoring of all media types,
and more vigorous enforcement
of media programs. The Region 4
Indian Program maintains a web site,

Region 5
  The Region 5 Indian Environ-
mental Office (IEO) serves the needs
of 35 federally recognized Indian
Tribes through grants assistance and
management, training  and technical
assistance, and coordination services
with other programs. The mission
for Region 5 is to provide leadership
for protecting public health and the
environment in Indian country, while
respecting the sovereignty of each
Tribe and recognizing  Federal trust
responsibility. The region's IEO was
established in March 2000 to provide
a "one-stop shop" for Tribal-related
issues and was formed in response to
expanding Tribal environmental needs
and to fulfill the overall commitments
to Indian Tribes found in the EPA
Indian Policy. The office serves as a
centralized point of contact for Tribal
governments, inter-Tribal organiza-
tions, other federal agencies, and EPA
staff on Tribal policies and activities.
The office also serves as the first point
of contact for Indian Tribes in Region
5 seeking federal environmental
programs, as well as financial and
technical assistance which relates to
the development and delegation of
Tribal environmental programs. The
Region 5 IEO maintains a web site,
 EPA Tribal News

Region 6
   EPA Region 6's Regional Native
American Office is located in the
region's Office of External Affairs
and was created by the EPA Regional
Administrator in late 1996. The goal of
the Regional Native American  Office
is to support Tribal self-government,
uphold federal trust responsibilities,
and firmly establishing a government-
to-government relationship between
the Tribes and the EPA regional office.
Region 6's Regional Native American
Office is committed to an intra-agency
and inter-agency Tribal advocacy
approach to environmental issues
facing Tribal lands within Region 6.
In order to create and sustain this
goal, Region 6 utilizes communi-
cation, coordination, advocacy,
strategic planning and budgeting,
policy, liaisons, training, and grants
communications. Region 6 aims to
provide general, technical, financial,
and administrative support to the
Tribes, while coordinating with the
Region's other media offices to ensure
technical assistance  and training is
provided to Tribal governments and
its employees.
                The Region 6 Regional Native
             American Office maintains a web site,

             Region 7
                Region 7 maintains a Tribal Air
             Program, as well as a solid waste
             program that assists Tribes. The air
             program in EPA Region 7 works with
             nine Tribes in their efforts to protect
             their air quality. All the Tribes in
             the region are fairly small and range
             from about 30 to 5,200 resident Tribal
             members. The Region 7 air program
             assists Tribes in their efforts to
             address air quality concerns relating
         A Early Navajo
        earth-covered hogan
    1 Southeastern woven-plastered
      walls, thatched roof house
   •^ Yukon, Oregon-California double
       lean-to, planks and bark
    • Plains large buffalo hide tipi
  # Plains large earth-covered lodje—
       Hidatsa, Arikara, Mandan
          I Central Arctic   • Plateau, northwest      H-Semlnole
           snowdome,   interior ladder-entrance      thatched
              igloo          pithouse           Chickee
               # Great Basin/
              California thatched
+ Northwest Coast
   plank house
X Northeastern
 forest longhouse
Southwestern and
The graphic above displays traditional Indian housing units noted throughout U.S. states and EPA Region. These
dwellings represent cultural, subsistence living of Tribes in varied states and EPA Regions. Note that this graphic
does not display the current living conditions of all Native Americans, as many occupy non-traditional  homes.
                                                                                                             EPA Tribal News

to particulates, diesel trucks and train
engines, road dust emissions from
upwind power plants and releases
from chemical plants. The major
sources of these air pollution concerns
in Indian country include utilities,
small manufacturing companies,  and
sand and gravel operations, as well
as service stations and automobile

  The Region 7 air program follows
its Tribal Authority Rule, which was
authorized in 1990, to grant authority
to Tribes to conduct Clean Air Act
(CAA) Programs on their land and
set forth provisions for which Tribes
can become eligible to implement
federally enforceable CAA programs.
Region 7 maintains a web site, www.
index.htm, with links to  its Tribal Air
Program, as well as information on
solid waste programs for Tribes.

Region 8
  EPA Region 8 includes 27 federally
recognized Tribal governments, and
the  mission of the EPA Region 8 Tribal
Assistance Program is to provide
leadership in  protecting  public health
and the environment within these
areas of Indian Country; respecting
the  sovereignty of each Tribe, as  well
as recognize federal trust responsi-
bilities. The EPA Region  8 Policy  for
Environmental Protection in Indian
Country was  signed by the Regional
Administrator on March 14, 1996.
This policy supports work with Tribal
governments on a government-
to-government basis, Tribal
self-governance, protection of human
health and environment in Indian
country; Tribal government agreement
before decision making,  assistance to
Tribal governments in building Tribal
capacity, cooperation between Tribal
and State governments,  cooperative
partnerships with other federal
agencies, and public participation.
   The Region 8 Tribal Assistance
Program maintains a web site, www.

Region  9
   Through collaborative efforts across
all program offices, EPA Region 9
supports the 1984 Indian Policy, with
the goal of protecting and enhancing
ecosystems, human health, and
cultural resources in Indian Country.
Region 9 ensures that its trust respon-
sibility to federally recognized Tribes
is carried out and encourages a
government-to-government relation-
ship. Region 9 envisions a partnership
and an environmental presence with
every federally recognized Tribe. EPA
Region 9 is committed to helping
build Tribal capacity to manage Indian
Country environmental programs and
to  ensure that Tribes  have a voice in
decisions that affect their land, air,
and water resources.

   The Region 9 Indian Programs
Office publishes a monthly newsletter
that is circulated among the Tribes
within EPA Region 9. The newsletter
contains the latest information
concerning Tribal meetings,
conferences, environmental training
programs, grant and  loan information,
deadline dates, and contacts for
further questions. The Region 9
Indians  Program Office maintains a
web site, www.epa.gov/Region9/cross_

Region  10
   EPA Region 10 is committed to
protecting human health and the
environment throughout the Region,
including the lands and resources of
Indian Tribes, while supporting Tribal
self-government, fulfilling the federal
trust responsibility, and strength-
ening the government-to-government
relationship between the Tribes of
Region  10 and EPA. The mission of the
Region  10 Tribal Program is to protect
and restore the lands and environ-
mental resources of Indian Tribes in
the Pacific Northwest and Alaska for
present and future generations. The
goals of the Region 10 Tribal Program
are to fully meet our responsibility
for government-to-government
relations with Tribes in all aspects
of the Region's work; accomplish all
direct implementation responsibilities;
provide full program delegation and
capacity building opportunities for
Tribes; increase permanent resource
commitments for Tribal workload
and strategy implementation; and
ensure Region 10 resources are used as
efficiently as possible.

   The Region 10 Tribal Program
maintains a web site, http://yosemite.
 EPA Tribal News

A  Look  at  the  EPA  Region  1
Tribal   Program
      EPA Region 1's Tribal Program
      is a multi-media program
      headed by Jim Sappier, a
former Penobscot Tribal Governor.
Valerie Bataille-Ferry a former Tribal
employee, with close connections to
New England's federally recognized
Tribes is the Senior Regional Indian
Program  Specialist. Jean Crocker
is the Regional Indian Program
Specialist with over 20 years of
grants experience. The Program
also receives SEE support as well as
part time legal, grants and clerical
support. Nine Region 1 staff serve as
Tribal Coordinators.

  The following federally recognized
Tribes within Region 1 are:

• Narragansett Indian Tribe
• Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians
• Passamaquoddy Tribe Indian
• Passamaquoddy Tribe Pleasant Point
• Penobscot Indian Nation
• Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head
• Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation
• Aroostook Band of Micmacs
• Mohegan Tribe
• Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation*

  'Federal recognition pending Indian
Program Structure

Structure of National and Regional
Indian Programs
  The Region 1 Indian Program is
physically located within the Office
of Ecosystems Protection (OEP),
with the Office of State and Tribal
Grants having administrative and
management responsibilities within
 he  EPA internal structure. The
 ndian Program has a direct line to
 he  Regional Administrator and the
American Indian Environmental
Office. The decision to be placed
within this system came from the
Leadership Team as advised by the
Regional Tribal Operations Committee.

   The Indian Program is called on
from time to time to represent the
programs view at the Office Director's
meetings, on an  on-call basis regarding
subject-matters affecting Tribes.

   Besides the staff of the Regional
Indian Program, there are nine EPA
Tribal Coordinators, the Regional
Indian Work Group and the technicians
and media program representatives
who support the priorities of the Tribal
program in accordance with the EPA
Indian Policy.

Regional Programs and Operations:
   Structure; Federally-recog-
nized  Tribes reside in nine of the
Agency's ten regions (Region 3 is
the exception). Each of these nine
regions has appointed a Regional
Indian Coordinator, and some of the
regions have established an Indian
program office. Most of the regions
have a Regional Indian Work Group
that acts as a regional counterpart
to the National Indian Work Group.
Some  regions have field staff to
work directly with the Tribes in their
development and implementation
of environmental programs. These
field staff are sometimes referred to
as Indian Environmental Liaisons
or Circuit Riders, depending on the
region. Most of the regions have also
established a regional counterpart
to the Tribal  Operations Committee.
Some  regions have a formal Regional
Tribal Operations Committee (RTOC)
comprised of Tribes residing within
that region, while others have
instituted regular meetings between
Tribal leaders and the region's senior
management. Some regions have
both an RTOC and regular all-Tribes
   Purpose: Regional programs and
related operations are responsible for
day-to-day interaction with Tribes
and "on-the-ground" implementa-
tion of EPA's Tribal programs based
on regional priorities. They are
responsible for meeting with and
providing support to Tribes within
their regions, getting Tribal input
on issues that impact them, and
communicating these needs and
concerns to EPA Headquarters staff.

National Indian Program Structure:
   The structure of EPA's Indian
Program involves a variety of
individuals and organizations
throughout EPA Headquarters and
Regions. Each of these individuals
and organizations is dedicated
to protecting human health and
Tribal environments, in a manner
consistent  with EPA's trust responsi-
bility to federally recognized Tribes,
the government-to-government
relationship, and the preservation of
cultural uses of natural resources. The
paragraphs below describe the various
organizations and functions for which
they are responsible.

American  Indian Environmental
Office (AIEO)
   The American Indian Environ-
mental Office, working with its
regional components, is responsible
for leading and coordinating the
Agency-wide effort to strengthen
public health and environmental
protection  in Indian country. AIEO
oversees development and implemen-
tation of the Agency's Indian  policy
and the Indian Program Strategic
Plan. The office strives to ensure that
all EPA Headquarters and regional
offices implement their parts of the
                                                                                                     EPA Tribal News

Agency's Indian Program in a manner
consistent with EPA's trust responsi-
bility regarding protection of Tribal
health and environment, administra-
tion policy to work with Tribes on
a government-to-government basis,
and support of Tribal self-governance.
The Office advises the Administrator
and headquarters offices as well as
assisting and maintaining the TOC.

Tribal Operations Committee (TOC)
   Structure: The Agency established
the Tribal Operations Committee (TOC)
in February 1994. The TOC comprises
19 Tribal leaders or their environ-
mental program managers (the Tribal
caucus)  and EPA's Senior Leadership
Team, including the Administrator,
the Deputy Administrator, and the
Assistant and Regional Administra-
tors. The TOC meets on  a regular
basis to  discuss implementation of
environmental protection programs
in Indian Country. The TOC and EPA
work closely to develop EPA's budget
and resource allocations to meet the
needs of environmental protection
throughout Indian Country.

   Purpose: The overall  purpose of
the TOC is to improve communica-
tions and build stronger partnerships
with all Tribes. The TOC provides the
Agency with valuable input on EPA
Indian Policies and various aspects
of the Indian Program. Although the
TOC is an important and effective
vehicle for enhancing communications
between EPA  and the Tribes, it is not
a substitute for Agency  consultation
with individual Tribes in accordance
with the Administration policy of
working with Indian Tribes on a
government-to-government basis.

National Indian Work  Group (NIWG)
   Structure: The NIWG is chaired by
the Director of the American Indian
Environmental Office and is composed
of representatives from  regional and
program offices, generally the Indian
Coordinator. NIWG holds regular
biweekly conference calls and usually
meets at least once each year.

   Purpose: The role of the National
Indian Work Group (NIWG) was
initially defined in the 1984 Indian
Policy Implementation Guidance.
NIWG was established to facilitate
and coordinate efforts to identify
and resolve policy and programmatic
barriers to working directly with
Indian Tribes; implement comprehen-
sive Tribal environmental programs;
identify priority Tribal projects;
perform other services in support of
the Agency managers in implementing
the Indian policy; and report progress
related to these activities.

National Indian Law Work Group
   Structure: The National  Indian
Law Work Group is composed of
lawyers from EPA's regional counsel
and program offices, the Office
of General Counsel, the Office
of Enforcement and Compliance
Assurance, and  from the Department
of Justice who work on federal Indian
law issues. The group also  includes
policy staff from AIEO and other
EPA offices.  NILWG meets  once a
month via teleconference to discuss
pressing or nationally-significant
Indian law issues related to environ-
mental protection and to exchange
information on  common issues and
problems. Also, NILWG usually meets
face-to-face once each year.

   Purpose: The NILWG is the
counterpart to the National Indian
Work Group. It addresses legal issues
that arise in the course of developing
and implementing the Agency's Indian
Program. It plays an active role in
eliminating the  legal and regulatory
barriers to implementing environ-
mental programs in Indian country.
American Indian Advisory Council
   Structure: The American Indian
Advisory Council (AIAC) is a Special
Emphasis Program Council organized
under the Office of Civil Rights.
Membership is open to all employees
of EPA. National conference calls take
place on a monthly basis.

   Purpose: The central purpose
of AIAC is to serve as an advisory
group to the Administrator of EPA
to recommend actions that address
concerns of American Indians in the
EPA workforce and of the Indian

National Environmental Justice
Advisory Council Indigenous
Peoples Subcommittee (NEJAC)
   Structure: The National Environ-
mental Justice Advisory Council
(NEJAC) was charted as a Federal
Advisory Committee in 1993. The
Council has 25 representatives from
key environmental justice constitu-
encies, including community-based
groups, business and industry,
academic and educational institutions,
Tribal governments, State and local
governments, and non-governmental
organizations. The Council has six
subcommittees, one  of which is the
Indigenous Peoples Subcommittee.
This Subcommittee has eight members
with a diversity of backgrounds, such
as Tribal government, indigenous
grassroots groups and environ-
mental organizations, Tribal business
and industry, academia, and State

   Purpose: This Subcommittee is
primarily focused on reviewing
Agency actions to address environ-
mental justice and developing
recommendations for bringing about
environmental justice in Indian
 EPA Tribal News

   The mission of the Tribal Science
Council is to provide a forum for
interaction with Tribes and Agency
representatives of mutual benefit and
responsibility to work collaboratively
on environmental scientific issues,
addressing a wide range of scientific
issues including research, monitoring,
modeling, information,  technology,
and training in Indian Country. To
support the subsistence, cultural,
and ceremonial lifestyles of Indians
and the safe use and availability of
a healthy environment for present
arid future generations,  the TSC is
committed to development of sound
lolistic, integrated and  cross-media
scientific approaches. The relation-
ship between the Tribes and EPA in
 he TSC will not substitute  for but
rather augment the government-
 o-government relationship. TSC is
composed of representatives from
3PEI and Regional Scientists, and TOC

   The purpose of the Lead Region
system is to ensure that the Agency
nakes quality decisions by providing
 he Regions with a formal opportunity
 o participate in the  decision-making
   Goals as Lead  Region:

• to impact Headquarters, Offices,
  Decision-making Processes,
• to build regional consensus views
  and represent majority and minority
  positions on significant policy,
  program or administrative activities,
• to balance national consistency and
  regional flexibility, and,
' to enhance effective communica-
  tions between the  Regional and
  HQ offices and within the Regional
  Offices  (ROs) and HQs for all
   Each RO and HQs Program Office
has a role in improving the quality
of EPA's decisions. It requires each
participant to look beyond their
individual responsibilities and to take
actions that result in environmental
benefits. HQs and the ROs work
cooperatively towards this common
goal. These roles and responsibilities
facilitate the process for the Indian
Program. Back-up Region and Sub-
Lead Region(s) to Lead Region for the
Indian Program share responsibilities.

   In order to address the large
number of individual media programs
the Regional Indian Program
Managers/Regional Indian Coordi-
nators (RICs), National Program
Manager's (NPM) representatives
and AIEO staff members have been
integrated within the National
Indian Work Group (NIWG) network.
The NIWG network is instrumental
in identifying issues, presenting
options  and recommendations and
developing consensus positions to
present  to HQs. NIWG members
participate in regular conference calls
and national meetings. Lead Region
utilizes this routine communica-
tion flow to develop or resolve  a
Lead Region issue. The RIC and HQ
members are responsible for Regional
and headquarters contacts with the
respective Office.

   Communication is key to effective-
ness. A number of methods have been
established to facilitate an on-going
dialogue between the Regions and HQs
and within the ROs and HQ's Offices
through meetings, conferences and
conference telephone calls, usually on
a bi-monthly basis.
The 7th Annual EPA Region 6
Tribal Environmental Summit
                                                                                                       EPA Tribal News

A Decade  of Tribal/EPA
Tribes and EPA Celebrate  10 Years of GAP in November 2003
American Indian Environmental Office
Rodges Ankrah
      EPA's General Assistance
      Program (GAP) was developed
      under the Indian Environmental
General Assistance Program Act of
1992 in hopes to help Tribes establish
environmental programs unique to
specific environmental and cultural
needs within Indian country. Over the
past decade, Tribes throughout the
U.S. have partnered with EPA through
GAP to protect the environment in
Indian country and have accomplished
the following:
• Tribes have received help in building
  the capacity and programs needed
  to meet their individual needs
• Nearly 500 Tribes are developing
  environmental programs
• Tribes have closed open dumps and
  implemented waste management
  and reduction programs in many
  reservation lands.

  There are over 565 federally
recognized Tribes in the U.S., and
each Tribe confronts unique environ-
mental and human health issues.
Compared with other cultures and
groups in the U.S., Tribes face serious
economic, environmental, and public
health challenges. In order to combat
some of these issues, EPA's GAP has
provided millions of dollars each year
to Tribes, and in 2003, allotted nearly
$60 million through approximately
500 GAP grants. GAP funds have been
used to identify baseline environ-
mental problems and needs; develop
appropriate environmental programs,
ordinances, and public education and
outreach efforts; ensure that Tribal
governments are informed and able to
participate in environmental decision-
making; and promote communication
and coordination between federal,
state, local, and Tribal environmental
officials. For more information
regarding EPA's GAP program, contact
the EPA American Indian Environ-
mental Office at 202-564-0303 or
 EPA Tribal News

The  DUNS  Is Upon  Us
Office of Administration and Resource Management
Glen Langlois
"Y A  TTffiN: October 1, 2003
 \/\j is a critical date that
  V   w  all Tribes along with
States, Non-profit organizations,
institutions of higher education and
hospitals must prepare for. Individuals
who personally receive assistance
agreements from the Federal
government are exempt from this

   The Office of Management and
Budget (OMB) requires all assistance
agreement applications, new award
and renewals including  applications
or plans under mandatory grant
jrograms, submitted to  any Federal
agency or Department, as of October
1,  2003, include a Dun and Bradstreet
Data Universal Numbering System
DUNS) number. The DUNS number
requirement is in addition to other
dentification numbers required by
statute or regulations, such as tax
dentification numbers.  In other words
ALL applications coming in from
"ribes, Tribal consortia,  and Tribal
arganizations MUST have a DUNS.

   WHY: A DUNS number will be
required whether the application
s submitted in paper form or the
government-wide electronic portal
Grants.gov). The reason for this
s that the OMB has determined
hat there is a need for improved
statistical reporting of all Federal
issistance agreements (grants and
:ooperative agreements). Using the
DUNS government-wide is to provide
i  better means of identifying and
racking entities receiving assistance
iward and their business relationships
ts well as validating addresses and
loints of contract information.
   HOW: Organi-
zations can
receive a DUNS
number in ONE
DAY and at NO COST to the organiza-
tion by calling the dedicated toll-free
DUNS Number request line at 1-866-
705-5711. There also is a website
where an organization can obtain
their DUNS number: http://dnb.com
you use the website and want the
same ONE DAY turnaround time that
is available through the toll-free
line you will be charged a $40 fee,
otherwise your number will be issued
within 30 BUSINESS DAYS.

   WHERE: Currently there is no
special place for the DUNS number
on the application document (SF-
424). As a temporary measure until
the new forms can be completed, the
DUNS number may be entered on the
current application document (SF-
424) address block. The new revised
version of the SF-424 will include a
DUNS number filed. This new revised
SF-424 should be available some time
between October and December, 2003.
You will be able to download the file
once it is available at the following
website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/

   More information on the announce-
ment of the DUNS requirement can be
found in the Federal Register/ Vol. 68,
No. 124 pages 38402 to  38405, Friday,
June 27, 2003 located at the following
website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/
Native Peoples Fisheries Section
of American Fisheries Society
Symposium, "Where's the fish?
Traditional and Contemporary
Indigenous Management of Wild
   The Native Peoples Fisheries Section
(NPFS) symposium was held in Quebec,
Canada on August 11, 2003. The goal
of the symposium was to compare
and contrast traditional and historical
indigenous fish management with contem-
porary and scientific methods worldwide
to showcase both variety and diversity
of geography and methodology. U.S. and
Canadian biologists and managers from
native, Tribal, or indigenous fisheries
programs participated in the symposium.
The focus of the discussion was to
examine Tribal solutions to declining wild
fish stocks and individual Tribal solutions
and strategies.
   For more  information, please contact
Mel Moon, NPFS President, Quileute
Natural Resources Director, Quileute Indian
Tribe, P.O. Box 187, LaPush, Washington
98350, 360-374-3133, 360-374-9250 (fax),
melmoon@olypen.com or Karsten Boysen,
Quileute Natural Resources Information
and Education Officer, Quileute Indian
Tribe, P.O. Box 187, LaPush, Washington
98350, 360-374-4361, 360-374-9250 (fax),
                                                                                                     EPA Tribal News

OCFO  Planning and Budget  Update
Office of Chief Financial Officer
Chad James
          While EPA waits for
          Congress to act on
          the Fiscal Year (FY)
2004 President's Budget Request,
formulation of the FY 2005 request
is well under way. The Agency's FY
2005 Budget was submitted to the
Office of Management and Budget on
September 8, 2003. In Washington,
one of the hot topics is the anticipated
federal budget deficit for FY 2003
(ending September 30). Although
times are tight, the Administration
and the Agency remain committed
to forging a budget that will help
strengthen core program performance,
achieve clear environmental results,
and empower our State and Tribal
partners in environmental protection.

Budget 101: The FY 2005 Cycle
  On any given day during the
calendar year, EPA is typically
working on budgets for three different
fiscal years. The present time is no
exception. Currently, the Agency
is preparing for the closeout of FY
2003, working with Congress on their
decisions for the FY 2004 appropria-
tion, and, of course, formulating
FY 2005. This simultaneous fiscal
year budget work can be a source of
confusion for many folks both inside
and outside the federal resource
community; a good way to  build
understanding is by isolating a fiscal
year and walking through its cycle.
There's no better example than the
current formulation year, FY 2005.

  Planning for FY 2005 began
almost immediately after the FY 2004
budget request was sent to Congress
in February 2003. During the spring
and throughout the summer, EPA's
planning and budget community
and senior management worked to
determine budget priorities, while
also revising its strategic plan (more
on that later). The Agency's FY 2005
budget was submitted to OMB on
September 8, 2003. Over the next
few months, OMB will review the
request and give a Passback (OMB's
decisions) to the Agency (most likely
in late November or early December).
EPA will have three days to appeal
the OMB Passback. Appeals will be
granted or denied rather quickly and
the Agency will use these decisions
to build a final FY 2005 President's
Budget request for submission to
Congress in February 2004.

  So what happens after the
President's FY 2005 Budget goes to
Capitol Hill? First,  there are budget
hearings with EPA's authorizing and
appropriations committees. Based
on the request and these hearings,
Congress will determine a funding
level for the Agency and pass a bill.
Theoretically, this appropriation would
be passed by October 1, 2004 (the
first day of FY 2005); however a more
likely scenario is that the Agency will
operate under a series of Continuing
Resolutions (CRs) until Congress and
the Administration can agree on
appropriated funding levels. A CR will
appropriate short term funding to EPA,
so it can continue  operations until
a bill is passed. Once EPA receives
its appropriation, the Agency will
then develop the FY 2005 Operating
Plan. The Operating Plan takes into
account the changes Congress made
to the President's Budget and makes
the necessary adjustments, so all the
programs and offices can receive the
funding they need. Upon completion,
the Operating Plan is submitted to
Congress. Around August 2005, EPA
will be preparing for the closeout of
FY 2005, which will  end on Septembei
30, 2005.

  Throughout the FY 2005 cycle,
"budgeteers" will also work on the FY
2004 Operating Plan and Closeout, as
well as FY 2006 formulation. Things
can get pretty complex, when the
Agency finds itself dealing with an
Operating Plan for one year and a
President's Budget for another year
at the same time, but somehow EPA
always manages to meet its deadlines.

EPA's New Strategic Plan
  The Agency is presently in the
home stretch of finalizing its 2003
Strategic Plan.  As you all know,
throughout the process, EPA actively
sought and received  very useful
input from Tribes. One of the positive
developments in the  new Plan is that
a number of strategic targets exist
which identify specific performance
commitments relating to Indian

  Possibly, the most noticeable
change in the new Strategic  Plan
would be the switch  from a ten to a
five goal structure. The five new goals
are titled:

• Goal 1: Clean Air and Global
  Climate Change
• Goal 2: Clean and  Safe Water
• Goal 3: Land Restoration and
• Goal 4: Healthy Communities and
• Goal 5: Compliance and Environ-
  mental Stewardship
 EPA Tribal News

  A significant aspect of this goal
estructuring relates to the Agency's
esire to highlight an integrated
ipproach in achieving a human health
irotection and a healthy environment.
Ul of EPA's programs work toward
he singular goal of environmental
trength, so this approach only makes

  So, where do the Agency's Tribal
•rograms fit into this new architec-
ure? Goal 5/Objective 3 is titled
Build Tribal Capacity." It is against
us Objective that EPA measures its
irogress in collecting Tribal environ-
nental information and developing
nvironmental programs in Indian
ountry. From a budget perspective,
le "Build Tribal Capacity" objective
houses the resources for the American
Indian Environmental Office and the
Tribal General Assistance Program
grants. Despite the fact that this is
the only Objective with "Tribal" in
the title, Tribal specific resources and
annual performance measures can be
found throughout the  FY 2005 budget
under the  new five goal structure. For
example, the Alaska Native Villages
grants are housed under the "Protect
Water Quality" objective (Goal 2/
Objective 2)  and the Agency tracks
annual progress in Tribal hazardous
waste management under the "Manage
Hazardous Waste and  Petroleum
Products Properly" objective (Goal 3/
Objective 2).
Tying it all Together
   At EPA, it is not uncommon for
the budget and the strategic plan to
be mentioned in the same sentence
... and that's the point. Planning and
budgeting are so inter-related that
the Agency has worked to make them
inseparable. This is reflected not only
in the documents, but also in the
internal processes and management
information systems. You've gotta plan
for the budget and budget for the plan!
                                                                                                        EPA Tribal News

EPA  Office  of  Pesticide  Programs
Completes  2003  Tribal  Grant
Award  Cycle
Office of Pesticide Programs
Karen Rudek

      Each year since  1997, EPAs
      Office of Pesticide Programs
      has awarded approximately
$445,500 to Tribes across the country
to support pesticide water quality and
special project work. We congratulate
the following award recipients for the
2003 fiscal cycle, and encourage all
Tribes to continue their innovative
and important environmental
protection efforts. We expect to  issue
a new request for proposals under the
           OPP Tribal grant program
f   ^^^^.  in January  2004. For
                 further information
                  contact Karen
                   Rudek, EPA,
^                 1200 Pennsyl-
      vania Avenue  NW (7506CO),
      Washington, DC 20460, 703-
305-6005, rudek.karen@epa.gov.

Tribe Name: Bad River Band of
Awarded: $49,433
  For: Assessment of Chemical
Noxious Weed Control.  Since 1999,
the Bad  River Natural resources  has,
with Council approval, been spraying
noxious invasive vegetation (Purple
Loosestrife)  with a 2% mixture of the
herbicide Rodeo. The  increased use
of this herbicide has led to  concerns
about the potential impacts it may
be having on the wetlands  complex
where Tribal members engage in
subsistence  hunting, fishing and
gathering. This proposal will fund an
assessment  of those impacts, allow a
determination as to whether current
                                     control methods create opportuni-
                                     ties for the invasion of other noxious
                                     weeds, and create public awareness
                                     programs including information
                                     on best management practices and
                                     alternative weed control methods.

                                     Tribe Name: Chickasaw
                                     Awarded: $49,750
                                        For: Assessment of Cultural
                                     Exposures to Pesticides. The project
                                     will assess pesticide accumulation in
                                     two different types of resources used
                                     to supplement food in the geographic
                                     region. It will initiate and assessment
                                     of fish in Lake Texoma and it will
                                     identify plants and related resources
                                     that are culturally significant and
                                     determine whether those resources
                                     are with pesticides. The project will
                                     also develop education and outreach
                                     materials that will be used to educate
                                     communities on the risks of pesticide
                                     contamination in local resources.
                                     Tribe Name: Eastern Band of
                                     Awarded: $30,110
                                        For: Pesticide Screening of the
                                     town of Kituwah and the Cooper's
                                     Creek Properties. Under this project,
                                     the Tribe will sample groundwater
                                     and soil from each of the newly re-
                                     acquired  properties. The screening will
                                     produce an  assessment of the effects
                                     of past use of pesticides  on these lands
                                     and enable the Tribal Environmental
                                     Office to  provide better direction to
                                     the Tribe as to the management of
                                     these lands.
Tribe Name: Fond du Lac
Awarded: $33,957
  For: Pesticide Management
Plan Development and Ground
Water Vulnerability Assessment.
This is the second phase of the
pesticide application inventory
funded by this grant program in FY
2002. In this phase of the project,
information already gathered will
be supplemented with additional
information required to
develop a ground
water pesticide
and to
conduct an
assessment.  In
the  future, the
results of these tasks
will be used to develop a Tribal FIFRA
Program for the Reservation.

Tribe Name: Houlton Band of
Awarded: $15,072
  For: Assessing Wells on Trust Land:
for Agricultural Pesticide Contami-
nation. This project will investigate
the  possibility that pesticides from
agricultural applications on  and
around Tribal lands may be  contami-
nating Tribal drinking water and pose
risks to the health of Tribal members.
Project goals include development
of a quality assurance project plan
(including sampling and analysis
protocols) to assess Tribal well water
for  pesticide contamination, collecting
verifiable data regarding this possible
contamination, and data evaluation
to determine if contaminants reach or
exceed critical levels beyond which
health effects are possible.
 EPA Tribal News

'ribe Name: Keeweenaw Bay Indian
.warded: $9,300
  For: Continuation of Surface Water
Monitoring Efforts. This project will
iddress possible water quality issues
•esulting from past and present
brestry herbicide applications  on the
eservation. It will include herbicide
ampling in conjunction with year
hree of an ongoing surface water
uality monitoring program that has
iei;n funded by the Region.
ribe Name: Poarch Band
warded: $50,000
  For: Pesticide Assessment,
iampling and Analysis. This funding
upports a written study of the historic
ise of pesticides on the Poarch Band
if Creek Indians Reservation, identi-
ication of geographic areas where
lose pesticides may pose a threat
o health and safety, development of
ampling and  quality assurance plans
nd  a final report which will pinpoint
ossible problems with residual
'csticides in ground water, soil or
urface water. The assessment will
rovide a baseline for future actions.
ribe Name: Shoalwater Bay  Indian
warded: $48,607
  For: Carbaryl Study. The study will
valuate the minimum water surface
pnlication rate needed to achieve
esired kill rates in ghost shrimp and
if rate of loss of the pesticide due  to
dal flux. It will determine whether a
ubsurface application will achieve  the
ame kill rates using lower amounts of
arbaryl and whether this application
rill reduce the loss of pesticide due
) tidal flux.
Tribe Name: Umatilla
(Confederated Tribes)
Awarded: $50,000
   For: Pesticide and Nutrient Fate
on the Umatilla River Flood Plain.
These funds will support a site-
specific monitoring program to
assess the potential influence of
increased pesticide and nutrient
loading associated with proposed
ground water supplementation
programs. Monitoring will occur
in a side channel of the Umatilla
river that flows perennially, but is
fed only by ground water via seeps
from an adjacent agricultural field
and hyporheic ground water inputs
as water moves from the main river
channel, through a gravel bar, and
into the side channel.

Tribe Name: White Mountain
Awarded: $50,000
   For: Community Education,
Monitoring and Regulation of
Pesticides on the Reservation, with
Special Concern for Surface Water
Protection. These funds will be used
to educate individual Tribal members
as well as other professionals living
and/or working on the Reservation
on the potential risks, both to the
environment and to human health,
associated with the use of pesticides.
The project will monitor
and restrict large-scale
uses of pesticides on
the Reservation and
encourage safe handling
and appropriate use of
  pesticides throughout the
Tribe Name: Ysleta Pueblo
Awarded: $49,998
   For: Developing Capacity;
Determining Existing Exposure Health
Risks. This project will help to develop
capacity for Ysleta del Sur Pueblo
to identify and address pesticide
concerns and to determine whether
Tribal health risks may exist due  to
potential pesticide exposure pathways.
Project results will assist the Tribe in
making informed decisions about the
use of pesticides on the Reservation,
and empower the community by
building knowledge and identifying
pesticide issues that must be
                                                                                                       EPA Tribal News

OECA  Publishes  Proposed  2005-
2007  National  Enforcement  and
Compliance  Assurance  Priorities  in
Federal  Register
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
Jonathan Binder
      On December 10, 2003, EPA's
      Office of Enforcement and
      Compliance Assurance (OECA)
published a list of proposed 2005-2007
National Enforcement and Compliance
Assurance Priorities in the Federal
Register to solicit comments from the
public. The following list of preliminary
priorities is divided into current
priorities and suggested new areas.
The list includes a proposed Tribal
priority to address significant human
health and environmental problems
associated with drinking water and
waste management.  For the potential
Tribal priority, the objective would be to
ensure compliance within targeted areas
and to address adjacent non-complying
facilities impacting Indian country and
Tribal areas. In considering the list,
Tribes should keep in mind that OECA is
committed to identifying a very limited
number of national priorities to retain
flexibility to address emerging problems
or issues as they arise.

Current National Priorities
• Safe Drinking Water Act - Microbials
• Clean Water Act/Wet Weather
• Clean Air Act/New Source Review/
  Prevention of Significant Deterioration
• Clean Air Act/Air Toxics

Suggested New National Priorities
• Tribal B Address significant human
  health and environmental problems
  associated with drinking water and
  waste management
• Resource Conservation and Recovery
  Act/Underground Storage Tanks
• Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response
  Act/Asbestos in Schools
• Financial Responsibility B Strengthen
  compliance with financial respon-
  sibility requirements found under
  various environmental laws
• Ports of Entry Warehousing Facilities
  B Reduce illegal handling or disposal
  of hazardous waste
• Auto Salvaging Sector B Address
  significant potential of pollutants such
  as waste oils, gas, mercury, polychlo-
  rinated biphenyls, and lead
• Resource Conservation and Recovery
  Act - Mineral  Processing Facilities
• Federal Facilities B Improve and
  better maintain compliance at Federal
  Facilities through more effective
  implementation of environmental
  management systems.
• Miscellaneous Plastics Products
  Manufacturing Sector B Reduce public
  exposure to hazardous wastes and
  pollutants released to the land, air,
  and water
• Environmental Justice B Ensure that
  no racial, ethnic or socioeconomic
  group bears a disproportionate
  share of negative environmental
  consequences resulting from
  industrial, municipal, and commercial
  activities; or from the execution
  of federal, state, local  and Tribal
  programs and policies
• Fuels Management B Ensure
  compliance to minimize releases
  of hazardous pollutants at liquid
  petroleum and natural gas handling
• Significant Noncompliance Oversight
  B Ensure proper management of the
  enforcement and compliance programs
  under the Clean Air Act, the Clean
  Water Act-National Pollutant Discharge
  Elimination System, and the Resource
  Conservation and Recovery Act.

   Prior to publishing the Federal
Register Notice, OECA asked each EPA
Regional Office to engage its Tribal and
State regulatory partners in discussions
of existing and potential national
program priorities. OECA received
comments back from all EPA Regional
Offices and six states. OECA provided
copies of the Federal Register Notice to
EPA's Tribal  Operation Committee in
December and invited the officers of
the Tribal Caucus  or their representa-
tives to a January 21, 2004 national
priorities meeting. EPA's American
Indian Environmental Office  sent a lette
to each Tribal leader requesting they
review and comment on the potential
priorities. Finally, OECA distributed thi;
list to the Tribal Association of Solid
Waste and Emergency Response, the
National Tribal Environmental Council,
and the National Congress of American

   After receiving and analyzing
comments from Tribes, States, and the
public, the Assistant Administrator
for OECA will select the National
Program Priorities for 2005-2007 using
the following criteria: (1) significant
environmental benefit; (2) serious
patterns of noncompliance; and  (3)
areas or programs are better addressed
through EPA=s federal capability in
enforcement or compliance assistance.
In February  2004, OECA will issue a
draft work planning guidance on the
selected national priorities to Regional
Offices, Tribes, and States for final

   Tribes and Tribal members
interested in obtaining further
information should contact Robert
Tolpa, OECA Planning and Analysis
Branch Chief, at 202-564B2337.
Greater detail and background
information regarding the priorities are
available at  http://cascade.epa.gov/
 EPA Tribal News

 •PA  Web  Sites  and  Hot  Lines
»  Environmental Protection Agency
  (EPA), www.epa.gov
>  American Indian Environmental Office,
•  Clean Water Indian Program,
•  Office of Air and Radiation (OAR),
•  Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) Tribal
  Program, www.epa.gov/oar/Tribal
1  Office of Enforcement and Compliance
  Assurance (OECA), www.epa.gov/
1  Office of Enforcement and Compliance
  Assurance (OECA) Tribal Program,
1  Office of Environmental Information
  (OEI), www.epa.gov/oei
1  Office of Environmental Justice
  (EJ), www.epa.gov/compliance/
•  Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP),
1  Office of Pollution Prevention and
  Toxics (OPPT), www.epa.gov/opptintr
1  Office of Research and Development
  (ORD), www.epa.gov/science
  Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
  Response (OSWER), www.epa.gov/oswer
  Office of Ground Water and Drinking
  Water (OGWDW), www.epa.gov/
  Office of Ground Water and Drinking
  Water (OGWDW), www.epa.gov/
  Science and American Indians, www.

  EPA Region 1, www.epa.gov/region01/
  EPA Region 2, www.epa.gov/Region2/
  EPA Region 4, www.epa.gov/region4/
  EPA Region 5, www.epa.gov/Region5/
  EPA Region 6, www.epa.gov/
  EPA Region 7, www.epa.gov/Region7/
  EPA Region 8, www.epa.gov/region8/
  EPA Region 9, www.epa.gov/Region9/
  EPA Region 10, http://yosemite.epa.
•  Asbestos Ombudsman Hotline,  1-800-
•  EPCRA Hotline, 1-800-535-0202
•  Lead Hotline, 1-800-532-3394
•  National Pesticide Telecommunication
   (NPTN) Hotline, www.ace.orst.edu/info/
•  TSCA Hotline, 202-554-1404

Other Tribal-specific Web Sites and
Hot Lines

•  American Indian Higher Education
   Consortia (AIHEC), Tribal Colleges,
•  American Indian Nations Cultural
   Information, www.nativeculture.com
•  American Indian Science and
   Engineering Society (AISES),
•  Indian Health Service (IHS),
•  Institute  for Tribal Environmental
   Professionals (ITEP), www4.nau.edu/
•  InterTribal Council of Arizona (ITCA),
•  The Great Lakes Indian Fish and
   Wildlife Commission, www.glifwc.org
•  National Congress of American Indians
   (NCAI), www.ncai.org
•  National Museum of the American
   Indian, www.nmai.si.edu
•  National Tribal Environmental Council
   (NTEC), www.ntec.org
•  National Tribal Environmental Research
   Institute, www.nteri.net
•  Tribal Association of Solid Waste and
   Emergency Response, www.taswer.org
•  U.S.  Department of Health and
   Human Services, Administration for
   Native Americans, www.acf.dhhs.gov/
 Calendar  of


 February 2004
 NCAI Executive Council Winter Session
 Wyndham Hotel
 Washington, DC
 202-466-7767, www.ncai.org

 March 2004
 Tribal Pesticide Program Council National
 Washington, DC
 Lillian Wilmore, 617-232-5742,

 April 2004
 NTEC 2004 Conference
 National Tribal Environmental Council,
 hosted by the Catawba Tribe of South
 SpringMaid Resort and Conference Center
 Myrtle Beach, South Carolina

 May 2004
 Integrated Monitoring and Assessment for
 Effective Water Quality Management
 EPA Office of Research and Development,
 Council of State Governments, and
 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
 Hotel Viking
 Newport, Rhode Island
 Brian Melzian, 401-782-3188, melzian.
 Amanda Hays, 859-244-8236,

 September 2004
I Tribal Pesticide Program Council National
 Hosted by Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe,
  Lillian Wilmore, 617-232-5742,
                                                                                                            EPA Tribal News

United States
Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, DC 20460

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