United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
Office Of Water
(EN-336)
EPA833-R-90-101
April1990
&EPA     /Sediment And Erosion Control
             An Inventory Of Current Practices
             April 20,1990
                                      Printed on Recycled Paper

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                                      »'Hr.',,..
                       SEDIMENT AMD EROSION CONTROL:

                                AN INVENTORY
                            OF CURRENT PRACTICES
                               APRIL 20, 1990

                                   DRAFT
S
627
.84
SA3
1990

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           •  Prepared for

          Mr. Mike Mitchell
      Work Assignment Manager
              U.S. EPA
Office of Water Enforcement and Permits
        Washington,  DC 20460
            Submitted by

         Kamber F.ngin-e^rg
   Civil - Environmental - £t.;rvevir4g
      818 West Dfenv>r.d Avenue
     Gaithersburg, Maryland 208^8
           (301) 840-1030
              DRAFT
     Sediment and Erosion Control
   An Inventory of Current Practices
    EPA Contract No. 6&-C8-OOS2
    Work Assignment 1-19.  Task 2
            April 20, 1990
           KE # 90531.02

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                                  Table  of Contents
I      Introduction	     1-1
II      Factors Influencing Erosion and Sedimentation   	    II  - l

       A.  Soil Erodibility  	    II  - 1
       B.  Vegetative Cover	    II  - 1
       C.  Topography  	    II  - 2
       D.  Climate	    II  - 2
       E.  Season	    II  - 2
III     Planning Considerations	    Ill - 1


IV     Inventory of Sediment  Control Technologies	    IV - l

       A.  Vegetative Practices (discussion) .	    IV - 1

            1.  Temporary Seeding	    IV - 3
            2.  Permanent Seeding	    IV - 4
            3.  Mulching Only Stabilization	    IV - 5
            4.  Sod Stabilization	    IV • 6
            5.  Vegetative Buffer Strip   	    IV - 7
            6.  Protection of Trees in Urbanizing Areas	    FV - 8
            7.  Dune Stabilization	    IV - 9
            8.  Dust Control	   IV - 10

       B.  Structural Practices	   IV - 11

            1.  Earth Dike	   IV - 12
            2.  Straw Bale Dike	   IV - 13
            3.  Silt Fence	   IV - 14
            4.  Brush Barrier  	   IV - 15
            5.  Drainage Swate  	   IV - 16
            6.  Check Dams	   IV - 17
          -  7.  Level Spreader	   IV - 18
            8.  Subsurface Drain  	   IV . 19
            9.  Pipe Slope Drain	   IV • 20
           10.  Temporary Storm Drain Diversion	   IV - 21
           11.  Storm Drain Inlet Protection	   IV - 22
           12.  Rock Outlet Protection   	   IV - 23
           13.  Sediment Trap	   IV - 24
           14.  Temporary Sediment Basin  	   IV . 26
           15.  Sump Pit	   IV - 27

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           16.   Flotation Silt Fence	   IV - 28
           17.   Chemical Treatment   	   IV - 29
           18.   Stabilized Construction Entrance	   IV - 30
           19.   Temporary  Access Waterway Crossing  	   IV - 31
           20.   Wind  Breaks	   IV - 33

       C.  Special  Practices   	   IV - 34

            1.   Chemical Solution Mulch and Tack Coatings	   IV - 34
            2.   Natural  Fiber Matting  	   IV - 35
            3.   Synthetic Fiber  Matting  	   IV - 35
V     Conclusions   	    V - 1


VI     References Cited    	    VI - 1


Vn    Bibliography	   VII - 1


VIE   Agencies Contacted  	    VIII - 1

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                                  I  INTRODUCTION
This report was prepared to inventory sediment  and erosion  control practices currently in use
nationwide. The inventory  represents completion of the  first of a six task project designed to
develop guidance, including  model permit language, for development of NPDES permits for the
storm water discharges  of construction sites, and for  the evaluation of municipal storm water
management and sediment  and erosion  control  programs with regard to effective control of
construction site discharges to  municipal separate  storm sewer systems.   The sediment  and
erosion control practice inventory will  be combined with information  generated under  the
remaining  tasks to assist EPA Regions and NPDES approved State in writing NPDES permits
for the storm water discharges of the construction industry, and in evaluating the NPDES permit
applications of municipal separate storm  sewer systems for effective control of construction site
storm water discharges.

The sediment  and erosion control practice inventory was developed based  upon interviews with
the State and  local Soil  Conservation  District agencies  of representative metropolitan areas from
each of the nine geographic/climatic regions established in 40 CFR, Part 122.42.  In addition to
interviews,  local manuals of practice,  regulations, handbooks and other data were evaluated to
develop the inventory.   The inventory  is organized into two categories,  1) vegetative  and 2)
structural sediment  and  erosion  control  practices. "Each practice is defined and illustrated,  and
a  discussion   is provided  regarding the   purpose,  applicability, effectiveness,   advantages,
disadvantages, and cost  of each practice.

During the course of  the  inventory development,  it became evident that a  high  degree of
variability exists among  state sediment and  erosion control laws, and many states have not ye'
passed legislation controlling construction site  soil erosion.  Among the states  with legislation,
sediment and  erosion control programs which implement the laws varied greatly in requirements.
standards  and  enforcement  The most developed programs were found in the eastern United
States.  The  Maryland  legislation and regulatory program was frequently  found to be used as
a  guide for developing  programs  in other states, such as New  York and  Florida.  In general.
implementation of sediment and erosion control programs  was limited in midwestem and western

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          FACTORS INFLUENCING  EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION
A number of east coast jurisdictions have sediment  and erosion control manuals which address
factors  influencing  erosion  and sedimentation.   The  ibUowing  is reproduced  from the "1983
Maryland Standards and Specifications  for Soil Erosion and  Sediment Control",(Reference 1).
The same  discussion can be found in numerous  manuals from Florida  to  New  York.

The erosion potential of a site is principally determined by five factors; the  credibility of the  soil,
vegetative cover,  topography,  climate and season.   Although  the  factors an interrelated as
determinants of erosion potential, they are discussed separately for ease of understanding.
A.  Soil ErodibUity

The vulnerability of a soil to erosion is known as credibility.   The soil  structure,  texture,  and
percentage of organic matter influence its credibility.

The most credible soils generally contain  high proportions of silt and very fine sand.  The presence
of clay or organic matter tends  to decrease soil credibility.  Clays are sticky and tend to bind soil
panicles  together.  Organic matter helps  to maintain stable soil structure (aggregates).
B.  Vegetative Cover

There are  everal ways in which vegetation protects soil from the erosive forces of raindrop impact
and runoff scour.  Vegetation (top growth) shields the soil surface from raindrop impact while the
root mass holds soil panicles in place.  Crass buffer strips can be used to filter sediment from the
surface runoff.  Grasses also "slow the velocity of runoff, and help maintain the infiltration capacity
of a soil.  The establishment and maintenance  of  vegetation are the most important factors m
minimizing erosion during development.

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areas of the country (with the notable exception of the state of Washington), although in several
instances, new programs were  under consideration.
 The inventory of sediment and erosion control practices provided in Section IV is of standard
practices currently being implemented in the jurisdictions contacted during this investigation which
had  active sediment  control programs.  The inventory does  not  refer to the state or local
regulations from which the practice was derived, although local regulations and standards directly
influence the  effectiveness of sediment control practices in the field.  Cost estimates provided
in the inventory were obtained from the "Means Site Work Cost Data", 9th Edition, R.S. Means
Company,  1990, or local  (Washington  D.C area) agency bond price lists.   Cost  estimates are
approximate and should be used for relative comparison purposes only.  Washington, D.C  unit
costs were  used to add  conservativeness  to  the estimates  based upon the  assumption  that
materials costs in this area are  generally higher than  other areas of the  country.  Standard
details are provided for illustrative purposes only and should not be considered for use in design
of sediment control  plans.

In  addition  to  the  inventory,  this  report  addresses  factors which  influence  erosion  and
sedimentation, effective planning of erosion control measures at construction sites, and general
criteria common to  many sediment  and erosion control programs encountered  during  this
investigation.

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C.  Topography

Slope length and steepness are key influences on both the volume and velocity of surface runoff.
Long slopes deliver more  runoff to the base of slopes and steep slopes increase runoff velocity:
both conditions enhance the potential for erosion to occur.
D.  Climate

Erosion potential  is also affected by the climate of the area.   Rainfall characteristics,  such as
frequency,  intensity,  and duration  directly influence  the  amount of runoff that  is generated.  As
the frequency of rainfall increases,  water has less chance to drain through the soil between storms.
The soil will remain saturated for longer periods of time  and stormwater runoff volume may be
potentially greater.   Therefore,  where rainfall events are frequent, intense, or lengthy, erosion risks
                                                                                   1
are high.
E.  Season

Seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall defines periods of high erosion potential during the
year.  A .high erosion potential may exist in  the spring when the surface soil first thaws and the
ground  underneath remains frozen.   A  low intensity  ninfall may cause  substantial erosion  as
infiltration is impossible because of the frozen subsoil   The erosion potential is also high during
the summer months because of more frequent,  high intensity rainfall

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                        ffl PIj\NNING CONSIDERATIONS
The planning of sediment and erosion control practices for a construction site must begin with
consideration of regional water quality concerns.  Construction site soil erosion impacts local and
regional water quality, and has regional planning implications.  For example,  uncontrolled soil
erosion at a new shopping mall site  in Northern Virginia could  degrade water quality  in the
Chesapeake Bay and impact use of the Bay's myriad natural resources.  Sediments leaving a new
subdivision project in  the Ohio Valky could result in the  the  need for intensive and costly
dredging  of the  lower  Mississippi  River  to  control flooding  impacts.   Soil  erosion  and
sedimentation,  as  with any water resources  related issue, is  a regional problem that transends
local, county, and state boundaries.

Regional  planning agencies  evaluate  the  quality and  nature of  water  resources  within  their
jurisdiction.  Often, the sensitivity of each resource to increased sediment loads is quantified, and
goals'are established to control, minimize or correct existing problems.   In certain areas and
subwatersheds  of  a given water resource,  unusual limits might  be adopted  in  response  to a
unique or highly sensitive resource.  Once these goals or limits are set, the implications of  each
land disturbance can be determined, and an effective erosion control approach can be developed.
In  many instances, existing water quality data resources such as 208 basin studies, can provide
information  on the sensitivity  of a  particular  water  resource.   Once  the sensitivity  of the
receiving stream is known, a comprehensive development plan must be developed that minimizes
the risk of  environmental damage due to  erosion and sedimentation.   Site  plans should be
designed to  minimize grading requirements, save existing  vegetation,  protect critical areas  such
and steep slopes, and erodible soils, and generally "Gt the site". Construction should be planned
to  occur in phases in order to minimize the amount of disturbed land  exposed at any one  time.
thus limiting the overall erosion potential of the site.   Once an effective, phased  development
plan has  been prepared, individual erosion control practices can  be selected and  implemented
on site.  These individual practices are inventoried and described in  the following section.

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       IV  INVENTORY OF  SEDIMENT  CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
A.  Vegetative Practices

The establishment and maintenance of vegetation are the most important factors in minimizing
erosion during development  A vegetation cover greatly reduces an area's erosion potential in
three  primary ways; 1) by absorbing the kinetic energy of raindrops  which would otherwise
impact soil and loosen it, 2) by intercepting water so it can infiltrate into the ground instead
of running off carrying surface soil and 3) by slowing the velocity of runoff promoting deposition
of water bom sediment.  (2)

Preserving existing vegetation where possible, and revegetating open areas as soon as practical
after grading or construction are very cost effective methods controlling erosion.  Seeding open
areas  is fairly inexpensive, and savings in reduced maintenance  and reduced need for structural
practices can be significant

Vegetation,  as discussed here,  refers to covering or maintaining an existing cover over the soil.
The  cover may  be grass, trees, vines, shrubs,  bark, mulch or  straw.  Grasses  are the  most
common type of vegetative cover.  Many types of grasses germinate and grow quickly providing
erosion protection within 15 days.  Grasses may be placed with straw or other  anchoring medium
which  provide temporary erosion control until  the  grasses are established.   Straw,  mulch and
other   anchoring  techniques may  be  used  for soil stabilisation during non-growing  srasons.
Maintaining existing trees and shrubs is an effective way to prevent erosion. The planting  of
new trees provides  only limited erosion control by  reducing raindrop  impact  Tree  roots grow
slowly  requiring extensive time before providing significant  anchoring of the  soil.

In each application of a vegetative practice, the soil fertility should be considered.  The use  of
fertilizers  and lime as well as the neutralizing of  harmful chemicals will greatly enhance the
growth  of vegetation.   The  primary types of vegetative  practices are:  temporary  seeding.
permanent seeding, "mulching  only" stabilization, sod stabilization,  vegetative  buffer strips,  tree

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protection and dune stabilization.  These vegetative practices  are described in  the  following
sections.

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1.   Temporary Sccdfttf

•   Definition:   Planting short-term vegetation on  critical areas.

•   Purpose:   To temporarily stabilize the  soil; to  reduce damages  from sediment  and
    runoff to downstream areas; improve wildlife habitat; enhance natural beauty.

•   Conditions  Where Practice Applies:  Graded  or cleared  areas  which are subject to
    erosion for a period of 14 days or more.

•   Effectiveness:   It  has been  determined  that  seeding practices are  the  single most
    important  factor in  reducing  erosion on  construction sites. (2)   Once established,
    properly vegetated areas will nearly duplicate  site conditions before  disturbance.   In
    fact, temporary seeding  practices have been found to be  approximately 95% effective
    in reducing erosion on-site. (3)

•   Advantages:  As mentioned above, temporary seeding is highly effective in minimizing
    erosion  once  properly  established.   Also, temporary  seeding  practices  are  very
    inexpensive.

•   Disadvantages:  To be effective, mulching of some sort is required for the temporary
    seeding to germinate and establish itself.   If the soil to be seeded is under nutriented,
    and on construction sites it usually is because the top soil has been graded' away, then
    fertilizer and or topsoil  must be added  to the area  prior to seeding.  Finally, when
    using the most common mulch,  straw, a  mulch anchoring  of some type (i.e., thermal
    tack coat,  netting,  etc.)  is generally required to hold the  mulch in place.  Obviously
    these added components of temporary seeding can increase the cost of this practice
    considerably.

•   Costs:  The cost for seed is  approximately $1.00 per square yard.   Added  to  this is
    the cost of mulching the area  which usually  consists of spreading  straw  and adds
    another S1.25/sy to the  above price.  Finally, a mulch anchor of some type  must be
    selected  and applied adding further to the cost of this practice.

•   Geographical Considerations:    Temporary seeding  is an effective  erosion control
    measure can be used in  each of the 9 regions.  However, in the northern areas its use
    is limited by the shorter growing season.

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2.    Permanent Seeding

•    Definition:  Planting vegetation such as grasses and legumes on critical areas.

•    Purpose:   To stabilize  the soil; to reduce  damages from  sediment  and runoff to
     downstream areas;  improve wildlife  habitat; enhance natural bear*y.

•    Conditions  Where  Practices Apply:   Graded  or cleared  areas subject to erosion and
     where a permanent, long-lived vegetative cover is  needed.

•    Effectiveness:  Permanent seeding has  been found to be  99% effective in controlling
     erosion on construction sites. (3)  Therefore,  it is obvious that areas on-site should be
     permanently seeded  as  soon  as possible.    To  achieve this  high  efficiency  rate,
     permanent seeding must  be properly established and maintained.

•    Advantages: As with all seeding measures, permanent seeding is inexpensive and highly
     effective.

•    Disadvantages:  To be effective,  mulching of  some sort is required for  the permanent
     seeding to germinate and establish itself.  If the soil to be seeded  is under nutriented,
     (which is common on construction sites because the top soil has often been lost during
     grading), fertilizer and or topsoil must be added to the area prior  to seeding.  Finally,
     when using the  most common mulch, straw, a mulch anchoring  of some type  (i.e.,
     thermal tack  coot, netting, etc.) is generally required  to hold the  mulch in place.
     Obviously these added components of permanent seeding  can increase the  cost of this
     practice considerably.

•    Costs:  The cost for seed  is approximately $1.00 per square yard.  Added to this is
     the  cost of mulching the  area  which usually  consists of spreading straw and  adds
     another S1.25 per  square yard to the above  price.  Finally, a mulch anchor of some
     type must  be selected and  applied adding further to the  cost of this practice.

•    Geographical Considerations:   Permanent seeding is  an  effective  erosion  control
     measure can be used in  each of the 9 regions.  However,  in the northern areas its use
     is limited by the shorter growing season.

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     3.    Mulchinf  Only Stabilization

     •    Definition: Apply plant residues or other suitable materials not  produced on  the site
          to the soil surface.

     •    Purpose:  To conserve moisture; prevent surface compaction or crusting; reduce runoff
          and  erosion; control weeds,  and help establish  plant cover.

     •    Conditions Where Practices  Applies:  Where protection of the soil surface is  desired
          and  temporary and permanent seeding is not feasible, mulching only stabilization should
          be used.

     •    Effectiveness:   Although generally not as  effective  as seeding  practices, (mulching
          ranges in effectiveness from  75 to 98%) (3), mulching does provide adequate  erosion
          control on construction  sites.   To maintain optimum effectiveness, mulches must be
          anchored to resist wind  displacement

     •    Advantages:  Mulching controls erosion as soon as it is placed, unlike seeding practices
          that take  time to grow before  stabilization  occurs.   Also  mulching  can be  used
          effectively  on  poor soils  where grasses could not survive. Finally,  the cost of mulching
          only is relatively inexpensive.

     •    Disadvantages:  The most common type of mulch, straw, needs an anchoring method
          to be held in  place on site.  These anchoring methods ranging from chemical coatings
          to netting  add to the cost of mulching.

     •    Costs:   Straw, the most common  mulch costs  approximately  Si.25 per square yard.
          Note that  the  cost of an appropriate  mulch anchor must be  added.

     •    Geographical Considerations:  Mulching  is an effective erosion control measure which
          can  be used in each region.
KE#90531.02    DRAFT                     IV  - 5

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                            STANDARD AND SPECIFICATIONS
                                               FOR
                                           MULCHING
                  Definition
Applying plant residues or other suitable materials to the soil
surface.

	Purpose	

To conserve moisture and modify surface soil temperature
fluctuations; prevent surface compaction or crusting: reduce
runoff and erosion; control weeds; and help establish plant
cover.

     Conditions Where Practice Applies

On soils subject to erosion on which low residue producing
crops, such as grapes, berries and small fruits are grown; on
critical areas; and oa sous that have a low infiltration rate.

	Design Criteria	

1. SITE PREPARATION

 A. Prior to mulching, install the necessary temporary or per*
    manent erosion control (structural) practices and
    drainage systems within or adjacent to area to be mul-
    ched.
                                                     B. Slope, grade and smooth the site if conventional equti
                                                        meat it to be used in applying and anchoring the muk
                                                     C Remove aO undesirable atones and other debris depea*
                                                        ing OB anticipated land ute.
                                                     D Conipaftfd Of mtttfii ipfl rorfacf rt*"*^ fr» loosened t
                                                        at least two inches by dasaiag or other suitable method
                                                    1 MULCHING MATERIALS

                                                     A. Select from attached Table 3.8 on page 332 the type r
                                                        mulch and application rate that will best meet the nee
                                                        and availability of material
                                                     B. If needed, select the anchorag method from Table « o
                                                        page 335 that wffl beat meet the need.
                                                     C The best combination it atraw (small grain) mulch ap
                                                        plied at 2 ton/acre (90fc*OOOOsq. ft.) and anchored wit'
                                                        wood fiber mulch (hydroojukh) at 500 - 750 IbsJaoe (1
                                                        -17ttxTLOOO sq. ft). The wood fiber mulch must be ap
                                                        plied through a hydraaeeder immediately after mulch
March 1989 (Rev.)
                                               Page 331
New York Guidelines for Urban
  Erosion and Sediment Contra'

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-------
     4.   Sod Stabilization

     *   Definition:   Stabilizing sediment producing areas by  establishing long-term stands  of
         grass with sod.

     •   Purpose:  To stabilize the soil; reduce damage from sedi  .ent and runoff to downstream
         areas; enhance natural beauty.

     •   Conditions Where Practices Applies:  On exposed soils where a quick vegetative cover
         is desired; on  sites which can be maintained with ground equipment  (2:1  or  flatter
         slopes).

     •   Effectiveness:  When installed  and maintained  properly, sodding  at  99%  efficiency
         serves as the most effective vegetation practice  available. (3)  This  extremely high
         efficiency in controlling erosion is achieved because sodding establishes an instantaneous
         permanent grass  vegetation on previously disturbed surfaces.  Careful maintenance  of
         sodded areas must be practiced  to assure optimum  efficiency.

     •   Advantages:   As mentioned above, sodding  is the most effective  sediment control
         technology available.

     •   Disadvantages:  Installation purchase costs of sodding are relatively  high thus making
         sodding undesirable for large areas.  Also, extensive maintenance including watering and
         fertilizing may  be required.

     •   Costs: Generally sodding costs $4.00 per square yard to install plus any additional costs
         associated with maintenance such as fertilizing and  watering as needed.

     •   Geographical Considerations:  Sod is very sensitive  to the climate of a  region and  is
         especially draught susceptible.   Sod can be established  anywhere  but   many require
         intensive  maintenance practices such as watering and  fertilizing.  As with any type of
         vegetative practice,  sodding  is only viable during  the growing  season  in  northern
         climates.
KE#90531.02    DRAFT                      IV - 6

-------
1980
                                                                 1.67
                                   SODDING

                                   ..« .•

                                   •»•     ...
                        I -*   *-    —
        Incorrect
                     Butting - angled ends
                     caused by the auto-
                     matic sod cutter must
                     be matched correctly.
                                            Lay sod In a staggered
                                            pattern.  Butt the
                                            strips tightly against
                                            each other.  Do not
                                            leave spaces and do not
                                            overlap.  A sharpened
                                            mason's trowel 1s a
                                            handy tool for tucking
                                            down the ends and
                                            trimming pieces.
ROLL sod Immediately
to achieve firm
contact with the soil.
   WATER to a depth
   of 4" as needed.
   Water well as soon
   as the sod 1s laid.

APPEARANCE OF GOOD SOD
                                                   MOW when the sod Is
                                                   established - In
                                                   2-3 weeks.  Set the
                                                   mower high (2"-3").
                                       Shoots or grass blades.
                                       Grass should be green and
                                      " healthy, mowed at a 2"-3"
                                       cutting height.

                                       Thatch - grass clippings and
                                       dead leaves, up to 1/2" thick.
                                       Root Zone - soil and roots.
                                       Should be l/2"-3/4*-thick, with
                                       dense root mat for strength.
Source:  Va SWCC
                                                           Plate l.STa
                               III-237

-------
5.  Vegetative Buffer Strip (4)

•   Definition:  Planting of vegetation at the top and bottom of a slope along the contour.

•   Purpose:  To slow  runoff velocity, filter sediment from runoff; reduce the volume of
    runoff on slopes.

•   Conditions Where Practice Applies:  Graded or cleared slopes wnich are subject to
    erosion for extended periods of time.

•   Effectiveness:  Buffer  strips have proven to be very effective in removing sediments
    from construction site  runoff, with efficiencies ranging from 75% and 99% depending
    on the type  and quality of ground cover. (3)

•   Advantages:   Buffer strips are easy and  inexpensive to install and once established,
    require little maintenance.

•   Disadvantages:  Vegetative buffer strips may  require large strips of land that can limit
    movement of construction equipment on site.  Also, buffer strips are ineffective until
    vegetation has been completely established.

•   Costs:  The  cost of installing a vegetative buffer strip is approximately.

»   Geographical Considerations:    Buffer  strips  can  be  installed  whenever  growing
    conditions allow  full vegetation of the area.
              •*•

-------
6.    Protection of Trtcs  IB  UrbantdBf Amc

»    Definition:   Protection  of desirable trees from mechanical  and other injury while the
     land  is being developed.

•    Purpose:  To  employ  the necessary protective measures  to  insure  the survival  of
     desirable trees  for shade, beautification and vegetative cover.
                                                       *
•    Conditions Where Practices Applies: On areas now occupied by single specimen trees
     or groups of trees.

•    Effectiveness:  Mature trees have extensive roof systems that help to hold soil in place
     thus  reducing  erosion.  Also, shade trees  help  to  keep soil from drying rapidly and
     becoming susceptible to erosion. To effectively save an existing tree, no disturbances
     of any kind should be  allowed within the drip line of the  tree.

•    Advantages:  Saving existing mature trees on site beautifies the area and saves money
     by limiting  the number of  new trees  required to be planted.   Mature trees also
     increase property values and satisfy consumer aesthetic needs.

•    Disadvantages:  For  sites with diverse topography it is often difficult and expensive  to
     save  existing trees and  grade the site satisfactorily  for  the  planned development

•    Costs:   Costs  associated with  tree  saving techniques can vary greatly.  Expensive
     structural practices such as retaining walls and tree wells may be required for sites with
     varied topography.  Ideally, the only cost associated with tree saving would be installing
     fences,(for example, snow  fence at $2.50 per  linear foot) along the  drip line to keep
     construction activities away from the tree.

•    Geographical Considerations:  Tree protection can be implemented an any construction
     project where trees  are present

-------
1980
                     Care of Seed Unas Until  Planted
                    Seedlings should be planted Immediately.   If It  is
                    necessary to store moss-packed  seedlings  for more
                    than 2 weeks, one pint of water per  pkg.  should  be
                    added.  If clay*treated,  do not add  water to pkg.
                    Packages must be separated to provide ventilation
 to prevent "heating".  Separate packages with wood strips and  store
 out of the wind in a shaded, cool  (not freezing) location.

                    Care of Seedlings During  Planting

                    When planting,  roots must be  kept moist until trees
                    are in the ground.  Do not carry seedlings  in your
                    hand exposed to the air and sun.  Keep moss-packed
  seedlings  in  a  container packed with wet moss or filled with thick
  muddy water.  Cover  clay-treated seedlings with wet burlap  only.

                              Hand  Planting
   Insert bar at
   angle shown and
   push forward to
   upright position.
Remove bar and
place seedling
at correct
depth.
Insert bar two
inches toward
planter from
seedling.
Pull bar toward
planter firming
soil at bottom
of roots.
  Push bar forward
  from planter
  firming soil at
  top of roots.
    Ri^ht    Wrong
Fill in
hole by
stamping
with heel
Don't expose
roots to air
during freeze
or plant in
frozen ground.

Do not bend
roots so that
they grow
upwards out
of the ground.
Firm soil
around seed-
ling with
feet.
                                      Plant seedlings
                                      upright - not
                                      at an angle.
Test planting
by pulling
lightly on
seedling.
                                      Always plant in
                                      soil - never
                                      loose leaves
                                      or debris. Pack-
                                      soil tightly.
               Rtoht  Wrong
             "•£    i
                     PLANTING  BARE-ROOTED SEEDLINGS
Source:  Virginia Division  of  Forestry
                                      Plate l.SOti
                                III-264

-------
                          Figure   I
A HI* system prefects • trt« fr»m • rvlsMf frvtfe.  A, Th« HI* is teirf *wt MI
  the «rif tnal grade, leading from « dry well mnvn4 m« Ira* trvnk.  •,
  Th« Ml* tyttcm is c*vw«d with  sm«H st*i*««  !• «H«w «ir f* drratel*
        Figure   2
A rttsriniitf well protects • *•• from
                                                  Figure   3
                                       Tunnel b«n««m r»«t systtmt. Draw-
                                         ings «t left sh«w twicMitf Hict
                                         w*«M  pr^Mbly kill  Hie  Ira*.
                                         Drawinf s at right stow h«w twn-
                                         nclbifl «nsi«r Hi* tr*« will p>r«s«fv«
                                         nwny  •! HM
                                         r*«ts.

-------
                                   Figure 3.5
          Combination of Sand Fence and Vegetation for Dune Building
                                     Vegetation
                                                     Peace
                     Vegetation
                                   Figure 3.6
 Typical Cross-Section Created by a Combination of Sand Fence and Vegetation
     New installation
                             M///
                                                              Vegetation
     Some  sand
     accumulation
     Additional sand
     accumulation
                                                   New Fence
     Completed dune
New York Guidelines for Urban
Erosion and Sediment Control
Page 3.48
Marcn l'"<8
                     -*."

-------
    7.   DUM StaMliatfo*  (2)

    •    Definition:  Controlling surface movement of sand dunes or shifting sand by vegetative
         means.

    •    Purpose: To stabilize frontal dunes and reduce soil blowing and the encroachment of
         shifting sands on valuable property; provide a barrier against tide  water.

    •    Conditions Where Practices Applies: On seashore areas where blowing sands, tide and
         storm water may cause damage.

    •    Effectiveness:   A well-established dune buffer  will minimize potentially severe wind
         erosion on  beachfront developments.

    •    Advantages:   Dunes  control  and  stabilize beach erosion which  often  times  saves
         valuable real  estate. Also dunes create a  permanent habitat for wildlife.

    •    Disadvantages:  Man made dunes are still  quite difficult to construct  and often  times
         do not develop as  planned.  Dune systems are very fragile and difficult to maintain
         once created.

    •    Costs:  To construct a dune, fencing (for example, snow fence at S2.50 per linear foot)
         is placed along the  beach to trap blowing sand and  begin deposition along the dune
         line.   An additional cost is associated with planting and fertilizing  dune grasses  along
         the dune once it has been created.

    •    Geographical Considerations:  Obviously, only coastal regions would have a  need  for
         dune  stabilization with  an emphasis on developing  coastal  communities  and barrier
         islands.
KE#90531.02    DRAFT                     IV - 9

-------
8.   Dust Control (5)

•    Definition:   Controlling dust  blowing and movement on construction sites and roads.

•    Purpose: To prevent blowing and movement of dust from exposed soil surfaces, reduce
     on and off-site  damage, health hazards, and* improve  traffic safety.

•    Conditions Where Practices Applies:  This practice is applicable to areas subject to dust
     blowing  and movement where on and off-site  damage is likely without  treatment

•    Effectiveness:  When  used properly, chemical  treatments to soil on  construction sites
     can minimize wind erosion.

•    Advantages:  Dust control chemical soil.treatments help  to eliminate wind erosion on
     disturbed areas  and improves health and safety aspects of the construction site.

•    Disadvantages:   Chemical dust control can also be dangerous if applied improperly due
     to  the large amounts of chemicals exposed on the site surface.

•    Costs:  Dust control costs vary due to availability and type of chemical chosen.

•    Geographical Considerations:  Chemical dust control is  best utilized in dry, arid climates
     such  as  in regions 5,  6,  8 and 9.  It is not  recommended  for cold or  wet  climate
     conditions.

-------
      IV   INVENTORY OF SEDIMENT  CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
                                       (Continued)


B.  Structural Practices

Structural practices involve the construction of devices to divert flow, trap flow or limit runoff.
Structural practices are classified  as either temporary  or  permanent.   Temporary  structural
practices are used during construction to  prevent offsite  sedimentation or to divert clean water
from a  construction  area.   Permanent structural practices  are used to convey  surface water
runoff to a safe outlet   Permanent structural practices remain in place after completion of
construction.  Structural practices should  be the first items constructed  before grading begins.
Earthen structures  should  be vegetatively  stabilized before they are considered operational (1)

Even though the specific conditions of each site determine precisely what measures are necessary
     j
to control  sedimentation,  some  general  principles apply to  the  selection and  placement of
sediment control measures.  It is  important to prevent clean  water from crossing disturbed areas
where sediment can be removed.  This can be accomplished by diverting runoff from undisturbed
upslope  areas.  Earth dikes, temporary swales, perimeter dike/swales, or  diversions that outlet
in stable areas can be used in this capacity.   Another inportant objective  is to remove sediment
from site runoff before the runoff leaves the site.  The method of sediment removal depends
upon how the runoff drains from the site.   Concentrated flow must be  diverted to  a trapping
device so that suspended sediment  can be deposited.  Dikes or swales that outlet into sediment
traps or  basins can accomplish this.  A storm drain system may be used to convey concentrated
sediment laden water only if the  system empties into a trap or basin. Otherwise, ail storm drain
inlets must be protected so that  sediment laden water cannot enter  the drainage system  before
being treated  to remove the sediment  Surface  runoff draining in sheet flow must  be filtered
before the water leaves the site.  Straw  bale dikes, silt fences, or brush barriers can be used
                           ^
to filter  sheet flow.

-------
No matter which practices are selected and implemented, they must be  properly maintained in
order to remain functional  Sediment accumulated associated with these differ nt practices must
be removed and disposed of in a manner that minimizes erosion and  sedimentation.

Descriptions of the various  structural practices in use currently follows.

-------
1.    Earth Dike

•    Definition:   A temporary berm or  ridge of compacted soil located  in such a manner
     as to channel water to a desired location.

•    Purpose:   The  purpose  of an earth dike is to direct runoff to a  sediment trapping
     device,  thereby reducing the  potential for  erosion  and jffsite sedimentation.   Earth
     dikes can also be used for diverting clean water away from disturbed areas.

•    Conditions Where Practice Applies:  Earth dikes are often constructed across disturbed
     areas and around construction sites such as graded parking lots and  subdivisions.  The
     dikes should remain in place  until  the disturbed areas are permanently  stabilized.

•    Effectiveness:  An earth  dike  itself does not control erosion or remove sediment from
     runoff,  rather it directs runoff to an erosion control device such as a sediment trap
     or directs runoff away from an erodable  area.

•    Advantages:  Earth dikes can  handle flows  from large drainage areas and are easy to
     install  Also, once  stabilized,  earth dikes require little maintenance.

•    Disadvantages:  Often times earth dikes create more disturbed area on site and become
     barriers to construction equipment  Earth dikes must be stabilized immediately which
     adds cost and maintenance concerns.
;
•    Costs: The cost associated with earth dike construction is roughly $4.50 per linear foot
     which covers the earthwork involved in preparing  the dike.  Also added  to this cost
     is approximately $1.00 per linear foot  for stabilization practices.   It should be noted
     that for most construction projects,  the cost of earth dike  construction is  insignificant
     compared to the overall  earthwork  project  costs.

•    Geographical Considerations:  Earth dikes can be constructed on any construction site,
     but need to be properly stabilized  which may be affected  by area climate.

-------
                                EAJtTM DIKE
                                  Ml MKOM
                                                   £1 SLOPE Off FuATT£ff
               MStOPCOff
                  FuATTCff
                                   CROSS SCCTWf
              cur on FILL
              SLOPE
                          POSITIVE DRAMI
                                  : SUTFCENT TO DRAM
                                                     STABILIZATION AS  ffCOUMCO.  ON
                                                     STEEP SLOPES EXCAVATE  TO PffOViDC
                                                     ffCOWfff 0 FLOW  WIDTH AT FLOW DEPTH


                                                                        OMC A     OlKC •
                                                                      (9«c«rlM)   (S-IOM.)
                                                          ••OMfNCWNT     It"        M"
                                                          »-Mt MffM      24"        34"
                                                                         4'         •
     CUT on FILL SLOPE-
                                                                                                A"
                                   A   A   A   A    A   A   A
                        v  v   v  v    Y  v

                          y           V        V  *"*    STANDARD SYMBOL
                          1            I         I            A-2     §-3
         I:


         6.
ALL DIKES SHAU BC COMPACTED BY EARTH-MOVINS EQUIPHEKT.
ALL ones SHALL HAVE POSITIVE OMAIMMK TO AM OUTLET.
TOP HIDTH MAY IE WIDER AND SIDE SLOPES MY BE FLATTER IF DESIRED TO FACILITATE
CROSSING BY CONSTRUCTION TRAFFIC,
FIELD LOCATION SHOULD BE ADJUSTED AS NEEDED TO UTILIZE A STABILIZED SAFE OUTLET.
EARTH DIKES SHALL HAVE AN OUTLET THAT FUNCTIONS WITH  A MINIM* OF EROSION,  f&w^
SHALL BE CONVEYED TO A SEDIMENT TRAPPING DEVICE SUCH  AS  A SEDIFCNT TRAP OR SEDIMENT
BASIN W€R£ EITHER THE DIME CHANNEL OR THE DRAINAGE AREA ABOVE THE DIKE ARE NOT
ADEQUATELY STABILIZED.   />%
STABILIZATION SHALL BE:  (A) IN ACCORDANCE MITH STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR SEED
AND STRAW HULCH OR STRAW MULCH IF NOT IN SEEDING SEASON, (B) FLOW CHANNEL AS PER
THE CHART BELOW,
1

2


I
                                        FLtt CHANEL STABIII7ATIHN
                                               DIKE A
                                                                  DIKES
                                          SEED AND STRAW

                                          SEED AND STRAW
                                                           SEED AND STRAW Mux
                            5.1-8.0
                                  WITH JUTE, OR Sao;
SEED USING
EXCELSIOR;

LINED RIP-RAP
                                                                                      i;'2 STONE
             4              8.1-2B       LINED RIP-RAP 
-------
2.   Straw Bak Dike

•    Definition:  A temporary barrier of straw or similar material used to intercept sediment
     laden  runoff from small drainage areas of disturbed soil

•    Purpose:   The purpose of a straw bale dike is  to  reduce runoff velocity and  effect
     deposition of the transported sediment load.  Straw bale dikes  are to be  used for no
     more  than three (3) ninths because they tend to rot and fall  apart over time.

•    Conditions Where Practice Applies:  The straw bale dike  is used where there are no
     concentrations of water in a channel  or other drainage way above the  barrier, and
     erosion would occur in  the form  of sheet erosion.

•    Effectiveness:   When  installed and  maintained  properly, straw bale dikes  remove
     approximately  67%  (6) of the sediment  transported  in construction site runoff.  This
     optimum  efficiency  can only be  achieved through  careful maintenance  with special
     attention  to  replacing rotted or broken bales.

•    Advantages:   Straw  bale pikes can be constructed from readily available materials and
     can be placed to control site runoff without major site disturbances.
     Disadvantages:  Installation of straw bale dikes is very manpower intensive Also, straw
     bales  lose  their effectiveness rapidly  due to  rotting,  thus  constant maintenance is
     required.              .^                                   Jte

     Costs:  Installation of straw bale dikes  on a construction site  costs approximately S3.00
     per linear foot

     Geographical Considerations:  Straw is a readily available throughout the country, thus
     straw  bale  dikes can be used nationwide.  However, use of straw bale dikes  may be
     limited in northern areas where long term freezing occurs.

-------
                        FLOW
                                     STRAW  IALE DIKE
                                      BEDDING  OCHML
                                                          4 VERTICAL PACE
 STANDARD SYMBOL

 L__   5*0      _l
 \mmmm mm w m*
               ANQuE FIRST STAKE TOWARD

               PREVIOUSLY LAID BALE
                                                              BOUND BACKS PLACED ON CONTOUR



                                                       2 RE-BARS.STEEL PICKETS,OR 2"t2" STAKES

                                                       11/2'  TO 2' IN GROUND, DRIVE STAKES FL.USM

                                                       WITH BALES.
                                        ANCHOffiNG  DCTAIL


                                    fTJCTHCTIQN SPEC1FICATICNS
      1.  BALES SHAU. IE PLACED AT TVC TOE OF A SLOPE c* ON T>C CONTOUR AND IN A ROM WITH
          BOS TIGKTLY ABUTTING T>C ADJACENT BALES,

      2.  EACH IALE SMLL K EMKDOED IN TVC SOIL A MINIM* Of (4) INOCS, AND PLACED  SO
          T)€ 1IND1NSS ARE HORIZONTAL.

      3,  BALES SHALL K SECURELY ANCHORED IN PLACE BY EITHER TVC STAICS OR RE-BARS DRIVEN
          THHUGH THE BALE,  TJC FIRST STAKE IN EACH BALE SHALL BE WIVEN TOHAJB THE
          PREVIOUSLY LAID BALE AT AN AMSLE TO FORCE THE BALES TOGETHER,  STAKES SHALL  PE
          DRIVEN FLUSH WITH THE BALE,

      4,  INSPECTION SHALL BE FREQUENT AND REPAIR REPLACEMENT SMLL BE HADE PROMPTLY AS
          NESfD,

      5,  BALES SHALL BE REMOVED WHEN THEY HAVE SERVED THEIR USEFULNESS so AS NOT TO BLOCK
          OR IMPEDE STORM FLOM OR DRAINAGE,
U S DCPAftTMCNT OF ACWCU.TURC

   SOIL ODNSCRVKriON  SCRVCC

   COtLCSE MAK.MAftYUAMO
STRAW  BALE DIKE
                                                                                 STANDARD OA4WNG
                                         SBD-i

-------
3.       Silt Fence

     •   Definition:   A  temporary barrier of  geotextile  fabric (filter  cloth) used  to intercept
         sediment  laden  runoff from small drainage areas of disturbed soil.

     •   Purpose:  The purpose of a silt fence is to reduce runoff velocity and effect deposition
         of transported sediment load.  Limits imposed by ultraviolet stability of the fabric will
         dictate the maximum period the silt fence may  be used.

     •   Conditions Where Practice Applies:   Silt fence is placed  along disturbed areas to
         control sheet erosion, where there  are no expected concentrations  of  runoff flow.

     •   Effectiveness: When installed  and maintained properly, silt fence  removes 97% of the
         sediment  transported in  construction  site  runoff.  (6)   Care  must be taken in
         maintaining silt  fence with  an  emphasis on removal of excessive sedimentation.

     •   Advantages:  Installation of silt fence requires minimal ground disturbance and is highly
         effective  in controlling sedimentation off site.   Silt fence is also easily adaptable to
         varied site features and can be moved easily.

     •   Disadvantages:   Silt  fence  can only be  used  in  areas of sheet  flow  and requires
         intensive  maintenance.   Additionally,  some  silt fence  fabric may  be  susceptible to
         ultraviolet deterioration, thus limiting its usefulness.

     •   Costs:  Silt fence can be installed on a construction site for approximately $6.00 per
         linear foot

     •   Geographical Considerations:  Silt  fence can be used throughout the  country  as site
         conditions permit and whenever the silt fencing material can be obtained  readily.

-------
                                        SILT  FENCE
                                        PE*«PCCT1Vt VttW
                 WOVCN WMK FfNCt (H/J** MM.. MAX.

                 •'MUM fMCMM) WITH feTC* CLOTH
                           CMKO nut* CIOTM
                           MM. •" WTO •NOUNO
                                            SECTION




                            CONSTRUCTION NOTES FOR FA8P.ICA7FD SH T FPWT
      1,   UOVEN MIRE FENCE TO K FASTENED SECURELY
          TO FENCE POSTS WITH IJIME TIES OR STAPLES.

      2, * FILTER CLOTH TO K FASTENED SECURELY TO
          WOVEN MIME FENCE WITH TIES  SPACED
          EVERY 24  AT TOP AM) MID XCTJON.

      3,   ttCN TWO SECTIONS OF FILTER CLOTH
          ADJOIN EACH OTHER THEY SHAU. K OVER-
          LAPPED IY SIX INCHES AND FOLDED.


      4.   MAINTENANCE SHALL BE PERFORMED AS
          NEEDED AND MATERIAL REMOVED *«
          BULGES  DEVELOP IN THE SILT FENCE.
                                                           POSTS:  STEEL Eii£* T OR  U
                                                                  TYPE OR

                                                           FENCE:
                                                                  6
                                                          FILTER
(KITH:
 niRAF
                                                                  LINKA
                                                                  GOUAL
     ING
 STAII-
OR APPROVED
                                                          PREFABRICATE) IHIT:  GEOFAB,
                                                                  ENVIROFENCE/ OR APPROVED
                                                                  EQUAL.  .
U.S.
ML CONSERVXnON

OOLLEQC MMK, MAKYLAND
                                                  SILT  PENCE
                                                                                   STANDAAO
                                                                                         SF-l

-------
4.    Brush Barrier (6)

•    Definition:  A temporary sediment  barrier composed of tree limbs, weeds, vines, root
     mat, soil, rock and other cleared materials placed at the toe of a slope.

•    Purpose:  The  purpose of a  brush barrier is to intercept and detain sediment and
     decrease flow velocities.

•    Conditions  Where Practice  Applies:   Brush  barriers can  be utilized on graded  or
     cleared slopes which are subject to sheet and rill erosion.

•    Effectiveness:  Brush barriers serve  as an effective means of utilizing waste vegetation
     that is normally burned on site.  However, these barriers have limited  erosion control
     potential

•    Advantages:  Brush barriers  are  possibly the  easiest of  all erosion techniques• to
     construct and have almost no cost  associated  with them.

•    Disadvantages:  Brush  barriers often contain large amounts of top soil which  adds  to
     the site  erosion potential  Also, brush  barriers are  rather unsightly.

•    Costs:   The costs of creating brush barriers  is included in the cost of clearing and
     grubbing a  construction site and is  very minimal

•    Geographical Considerations:  Brush barriers may be used in all geographic and climatic
     regions of the United  States where cleared materials can form on effective barrier.

-------
1980
                                                                       1.07
  Flow
  1.  Excavate a 4" x 4" trench along
      the uphill edge of the brush
      barrier.
                           Drape filter fabric over
                           the brush barrier and intc
                           the trench. Fabric should
                           be secured in the trench
                           with stakes set approxi-
                           mately 36" o.c.
   3.   Backfill  and
       vated  soil.
compact the exca-
Set stakes along the
downhill edge of the
brush barrier, and
anchor by tying twine
from the fabric to the
stakes.
                       CONSTRUCTION OF A BRUSH BARRIER
                          COVERED  BY FILTER FABRIC
 Source:   Adapted from Installation  of Straw and             Plate 1.07a
          Fabric FiUer Barriers  for Sediment "Control t
          Sherwood and Wyant

                                Maintenance

1.  Brush barriers shall be inspected after each rainfall and necessary
    repairs shall be made promptly.

2.  Sediment deposits must be removed when they reach approximately
    one-half the height of the barrier.

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5.   DniMft Swak

•   Definition:  A drainage way with a  lining of grass,  riprap,  asphalt, concrete, or other
    material

•   Purpose:  Drainage swales convey runoff without causing erosion.

•   Conditions Where Practice Applies:  Drainage swales are placed to divert off site flows
    away from a  disturbed area or to direct on site sediment  laden water to a trapping
    device.

•   Effectiveness:  Drainage swales will effectively convey runoff and avoid erosion only
    if the  proper  type of geometry and lining is used.  Care should be taken to assure that
    runoff leaving the swale is at  non erosive velocities.

•   Advantages:   Drainage swales  can transport large volumes of concentrated flows with
    little maintenance once established.

•   Disadvantages:  Constructing the proper swale to handle the desired runoff flows often
    requires engineering design work which can be costly. Also, depending upon the liner
    chosen, swales can be  expensive to construct.

•   Costs:  Drainage swale construction  costs can vary greatly due to different geometries
 ,   and liners chosen.   Usually, earthwork  costs associated  with swale construction are
    rather minimal unkss a very large swale is being built  Therefore, swale liner types
    usually dictate the overall cost of drainage swales.  A few  selected liner types and their
    associated costs are listed below.

                           grass • $3.00 per square yard
                            sod •  $4.00  per  square yard
                            riprap - $45 per square yard
                           asphalt • $35 per square yard
                           concrete •  $65 per square yard

Note  that  no matter which liner  type  is wed the entire swale must  be stabilized (i.e.,
seeded and mulched at a cost of about $1.25 per square yard.)

•   Geographical Considerations:  Drainage  swales can be constructed at any construction
    site with soils for a suitable embankment.

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                                          TEMPORARY   SWALE
C
0
       SWALE A
           l'
          4'
OUTLET AS ACQUIRED
SEE ITEM • BELOW
                                                                    EXSTN8 MOUND
                                            CROSS  SECTION
                                                              i    i
                                              PLAN VIEW
                                       CCNSTRUCnCN SPECIFICATIONS
                                                                          STANDARD SYMBOL-
                                                                             A-2      t-3
         1.  ALL TEMPORARY SWALES SHALL HAVE UNINTERRUPTED POSITIVE GRADE TO AN OUTLET.
         2.  DIVERTED WJNOFF nun A OISTURKD AMA swu. K CONVEYED TO A SEDUCCT TRAPPING
             DEVICE.
         3.  DIVERTED RUNOFF FROM AN UNDISTURKD AREA swu. OUTLET DIRECTLY INTO AN UNDIS-
             TURBED STABILIZED AREA AT NON-EROSIVE VELOCITY.
         4.  ALL TREES, BRUSH, STUMPS, OBSTRUCTIONS,  AND OT>CR OBJECTIONABLE MATERIAL SMLL
             BE  REMOVED AND DISPOSED OF SO AS NOT TO  INTERFERE WITH THE PROPER FUNCTIONING
             OF  THE SHALE.
         5.  T« SMILE SHALL BE EXCAVATED OR SHAPED TO LINE, OUDE, AND CROSS SECTION AS
             REQUIRED TO MEET THE CRITERIA SPECIFIED  HEREIN AND BE FREE OF BANK PROJECTIONS
             OR  OTHER IRREOULARITIES MHICH MILL IMFECE NORW. FLOW.
         6.  FILLS SHALL BE OJMFAUM) BY EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT.
         7.  Au EARTH REMDVg AND NOT NEEDED ON CONSTRUCTION SHALL BE  PLACED SO THAT IT WILL
             NOT INTERFERE WITH THE FUNCTIONING OF THE SWALE.
         8.  STABILIZATION SHALL  BE AS PER THE CHART  BELOW:
                                       BJH fflAMCL STABILIZATION
             1
             2
                                                                     B (5 AC - 10 ACl
                                                                  SEED AND STRAW toucan
                                                                  SEED USING JUTE OR
                                                                  EXCELSIOR
         9.
                        A  (5 AC c* IKS)
                       SEED AND STRAW HJLCH
                       SEED AND STRAW ULCH
                       SEED WITH JUTE OR          LINED RIP-RAP  . . „
                       EXCELSIOR; SOD            ICCYCLED CONCRETE EQUIVALENT
                       LIND ^" RIP-RAP         ENGINEERED DESIGN
INSPECTION AND REQUIRED MAINTENANCE MUST BE PROVIDED AFTER EACH RAIN EVENT.
   US. DCftMTMENT Of ACMCULTUNC
       SOH. COMBINATION SERVICE
        COLLEAE PAAK, MAftYLAMO
                                             TEMPORARY SWALE
                                                                                  STANDARD DN4WING
                                                                                            TS-i
                                                 I5.0S

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                                                              DRAFT 1/80
         105 Settlement
         0.3' Freeboard
                      Typical Parabolic  Diversion
          101 Settlement
         0.3' Freeboard	1


             Design Flow Depth
                     Typical Trapezoidal  Diversion
          101  Settlement
          0.3'  Freeboard
                      Typical  Vee-Shaped Diversion
                               DIVERSIONS
Source:  Va SHCC
Plate l.lSa
                                 111-53

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                                                 R0Uf*4.36
                                              Dfwston Detail
                                                   DIVERSION
            1.
                              Conttmctlaa i»oclflc«ttoita

    All  treea. brvah. atMa*. ebatr«ctle*a.  tut ether efcjectieaaale Material ahall be
    raaa«e4 aaa* 41a»eae4 af aa aa aat ta Utarfere with tha areper fvactlaaiag af tha.
2.  The
                                                        t* ItM,
                to M«t tba criteria •f«cif 1*4 h«r«ia, M* k« fr*« •( irragwlaritiM trtUefe will
                Fill* clMll k« MMpMf«4 •• M«4W M  ^r«v««c WM^«M! ••ctlMMat tlwt
                <•••(• la eha c«
                All Mrth rmti'it tmt MC iM«4«4 la e»Mtneti«« akall W ••r«a4 or .
                >. Far eeelf» velaciclaa af a«ra thaa  J.5 ft. »er aac.. the 41v*riien shall he ataalllset
                  with M4. with aeadiac arateete4 hy Jute ar a»eelalar •attln« ar with aeetflnt and
                  Mlehlag iMlw4i«| taaeer«rr dlvertla* af water iMtll the  vvaetatiaa ia eatabll»iir4.
                  See the Staaaartf aa4 faeclf le»tleaa far Pretectlve Nateriala.
                                       StandaH Syvhal
              o.  J. Ot'AaTMCWT Of
                SOU CONSCKVATION  SERVICE
                                                         OIVfltSION
March 1988
                                         Page 4.83
New York Guidelines tor L rban
  Erosion and Sediment L  ntrol

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                                               Rgur«4.45
                            QratMd Waterway Conrtructkm Details
                                                        S»*tttU*t
              1.  All tr**s.  brush. stusMta, akatrvctl***. ••*• *tk*r *kj*cti***kU s*caclal  sk*ll k*
                  a*4 ilaaassa* *f s* •* **t is Utarfara wltk tk* irsis« faacclaala*. *f tk* wat
              2.  Ik* watatvay shall ka axcavataa' *r skas** t* 11**, fraaa,  s*4 er*s* s**tl«* aa

                  lrrs**l*ntlM wklck will l**s*'s s*i«sl fl*w.
              3.  Fills sksll ks cs***ctH s* sssss< ts pr«r**t «*****1 s*ttl****t tk*t
                  1* tk* *s**l*t* «SC*M*T.
              4.  All asrtk r«*w«d **t **t ***4*4 1* cMStt«*tl*« sksll k* syr**4 *r 4l»f»»mt *f •• tk*c
                  It will s*t l*t*rf*r* wltk tk* (u*«cl*mt*c sf tk* w*i
              3.  SuklllMtis* shall k* •*•• ****t41a
                  fsc V*f*t*tlv* rraatla**.
                  A. F»r s*slf* «*l*cltl*s *f lass tk** 3.3 ft.
                    far tka astakliak**** af tha v«t«tatla*.  It Is r**as*M*rf*i tkat,


                   . Par aaats* valacltlaa af **ra tk** 3.3 ft. s«c as*., tk*
                    
-------
196:
             1.67
Sodded Waterways

1.  Care should be taken to prepare the soil adequately In accordance
    with this specification.  The sod type shall consist of plant materials
    able to withstand the designed velocity.  (See STOWHATER CONVEYANCE
    CHANNELS, Std. & Spec. 1.35).

2.  Sod strips In waterways shall be laid perpendicular to the direction
    of flow.  Care should be taken to butt ends of strips tightly.

3.  After rolling or tamping, sod shall be pegged or stapled to resist
    washout during the establishment period.  Chicken wire, Jute or other
    netting may be pegged over the sod for extra protection 1n critical
    areas.

4.  A11 other specifications for this practice shall be adhered to when
    sodding a waterway.
                            SOOOEO WATERWAYS

                                     Flow
                                                  sod across the
                                              direction of flow.
        Use pegs or staples to fasten sod
        firmly - at the ends of strips and
        in the center, or every 3-4 feet 1f
        the strips are long.  When ready to
        mow, drive pegs or staples flush
        with the ground.

x-Peg or
  Staple  ,

                                              In  critical areas,
                                              secure  sod with
                                              chicken wire or
                                              netting.  Use staples.
 Source:   V,  SWCC
     Plate 1.67b
    -  ;
              -4* '

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«.   Check Dams  (6)

•    Definition:  Small temporary dams constructed across a swale or drainage  ditch.

•    Purpose:  Check dams reduce the velocity of concentrated stormwacer  flows, thereby
     reducing erosion of the swale or ditch.

•    Conditions  Where  Practice Applies:  This practice  is limited to use in small open
     channels which drain  10 acres  or lest.   Check dams should not be  used in a live
     stream.

•    Effectiveness:   Check dams  only perform  their function of  reducing  velocities  of
     concentrated flows  and energy if they have been sized and constructed correctly and
     are maintained properly.

•    Advantages: Check dams reduce the need for more stringent  erosion control  practices
     in the swale due to the decreased velocity and energy of runoff.

•    Disadvantages:  Inspections must be done frequently on check dams, usually after each
     storm.

•    Costs:  The costs for the construction of check dams varies with material used. Rock
     and covered straw  bales, two of the most common ways of  construction,  cost about
 '    $100 and $50 respectively per dam.  Log check dams are  usually slightly less expensive
     than  those  of rock. Ail costs vary depending on the flow of water  to  be  checked.

•    Geographical  Considerations:   Check dams may be  constructed in all  areas where
     freezing of  the  ponded water will not occur.

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   1980
                                                                      1.38
                                 LOG  CHECK DAM
                       4"-6" Logs
 Source:   Va SHCC
                               ROCK CHECK 0AM
           VOH4T No. 1
           Coarse Aggregate
Source:  Va SMCC
                                                              Plate 1.38a
                                                             Plate 1.38b
                                III-153

-------
1980                                                                  1.38

Logs and/or brush should be placed on the downstream side of the dam
to prevent scour during high flows.

Sediment Removal

While this practice 1s not Intended to be used primarily for sediment
trapping, some sediment will accumulate behind the check dams.  Sediment
should be removed from behind the check dams when 1t has accumulated
to one half of the original height of the dam.
                          The distance such that points
                          A and B are of equal elevation
                        SPACING BETWEEN CHECK DAMS
 Source:   Va  SWCC                                             Plate  1.38c


Removal

Check dams must be removed when their useful life has been completed.
In temporary ditches and swales, check dams should be removed and the
ditch filled 1n when 1t 1s no longer needed.  In permanent structures,
check dams should be removed when a permanent lining can be Installed.
In the case of grass-lined ditches, check dams should be removed when
the grass has matured sufficiently to protect the ditch or swale.  The
area beneath the check dams should be seeded and mulcted Immediately
after they are removed.


                                Maintenance

Check dams should be checked for sediment accumulation after each signifi-
cant rainfall.  Sediment should be removed when 1t reaches one half of
the original height or before.

Regular  Inspections should be made to Insure that the center of the dam
1s lower than the edges-.  Erosion caused by high flows around the edges
of the dam should be corrected  Immediately.


                                 in-154

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     7.   Level Spreader (6)

     •   Definition:   An outlet for dikes and  diversions consisting of an excavated depression
         constructed at zero grade across a slope.

     •   Purpose:  Level spreaders convert concentrated runoff to iueet flow and release it onto
         areas stabilized by existing vegetation,

     •   Conditions Where Practice Applies:   Level spreaders are placed at  the end of dikes
         that cany sediment free storm  runoff away  from graded areas  and  outlet  onto
         undisturbed areas.

     •   Effectiveness:  A  level spreader must be maintained and kept level to work properly.

     •   Advantages:  A level spreader eliminates the need for a structural waterway below its
         outfall because it  releases water in the form of sheet flow. This water then percolates
         into the ground rather  than running off the site as concentrated flow and eroding soil.

     •   Disadvantages:    Heavy  volumes of  water  leaving  the  level   spreader  may cause
         concentrated flow and runoff.  Maintenance and inspection of the level spreader must
         be  performed often.

     *   Costs:   The estimated cost  for construction of a level spreader is  about $4.00 per
         square yard.   This is for a small amount of earthwork.  Level spreaders construed of
         concrete cost about $65 per square yard.
                                                                                 ;
     •   Geographical Considerations:  All geographic regions across the county may utilize level
         spreaders as  long  as the topography of the site allows a zero percent grade for the
         outfall.
KE#90531.02   DRAFT                     IV - 19

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1980
        1.40
2.  The grade of the level spreader shall be OX.
                              Undisturbed Soil
          2:1 or Flatter
                                Section A-A
                    OS Channel Gra
    Maximum Grade of IX for a
    Transition of 15' Minimum
         Diversion or Dike
                             LEVEL SPREADER
 Source:   Va  SWCC
Outlet
Plate 1.40a
The release of the stormwater wlllibe over the level  Up onto an undis-
turbed stabilized area.   The le/el  Up should be of uniform height and
zero grade over the length of the spreader.


                       Construction  Specifications

1.  Level spreaders must be constructed on undisturbed soil (not fill
    material)..
                   *
2.  The entrance to the spreader must be shaped 1n such a manner as to
    insure that runoff enters directly onto the OX channel.
                                 III-163

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S.    Subsurface Drain

*    Definition:  A conduit, such  as  tile,  pipe or tubing, installed beneath the ground
     surface which  intercepts, collects,  and/or  conveys  drainage water.

•    Purpose:   To transport water from an  area where it is unwanted to an area where it
     can be managed effectively.

•    Conditions Where Practice Applies:  Subsurface drains are used in areas having a high
     water table  or where subsurface  drainage is  required.   The  soil  shall have enough
     depth and permeability to permit installation of an effective system.  This standard does
     not apply to storm drainage systems or foundation drains.

•    Effectiveness:  Subsurface drains are not directly a sediment control device, but do act
     to  help reduce surface water flows which then reduces erosion potential

•    Advantages:  Subsurface drains serve to reduce the risk of slump and slope failure  by
     reducing  subsurface water pressure.

•    Disadvantages:  Subsurface  drains require soil disturbances to install and correct soil
     conditions to work properly which may require a complete  soil analysis which  could
     increase costs.

•    Costs:  The  most  common  type of subsurface drain in use  today  is PVC perforated
     pipe which costs about $2.25 per  linear foot  to install

•    Geographical Considerations:  Typically  subsurface drainage is installed in areas of high
     ground water and  needs to  be installed below the frost line in colder climates.

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9.   Pipe Slope Drmia

•    Definition:  A temporary structure  placed  from the top of a slope  to  the  bottom of
     a slope.

•    Purpose: The purpose of the structure is to convey surface runoff down slopes without
     causing erosion,

•    Conditions Where Practice Applies:  Pipe slope drains are  used where concentrated
     flow of surface  runoff must be conveyed down a slope in order to prevent  erosion.
     The maximum allowable drainage area should be 5 acres.

•    Effectiveness:    Pipe slope drains are  highly effective  in eliminating  slope  erosion
     because water is not allowed to flow directly on the slope.

•    Advantages:  Pipe slope drains allow no chance of erosion down a slope because'all
     flow is confined to an enclosed pipe.  When flexible pipe is used, slope drains are easy
     to install and  require little  maintenance.

>    Disadvantages:    During  large  storms,  pipe slope  drains may  became clogged  or
     overcharged, forcing water around the pipe and  causing extreme slope erosion.  Also,
     dissipation  of  high flow velocities at the pipe  outlet must be  constructed to avoid
     downstream erosion.                                                                v

•    Costs:   Pipe  slope  drain costs are generally  based  upon  the pipe  type  and  size,
     (generally,  flexible PVC at S5.00 per linear foot).   Also adding  to this cost  are  any
     expenses associated with inlet and outlet structures,

•    Geographical Considerations:  Pipe slope drains can be utilized throughout the  United
     States as site conditions dictate. Gimate should have little  if any affect on this erosion
     control  practice.

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10.  Temporary Storm Drain Divtnkm

•    Definition:   The  re-direction of a storm drain line  or outfall channel so that it may
     temporarily discharge  into a sediment  trapping device.

•    Purpose:   To  prevent sediment laden water  from entering a watercourse, public or
     private property through a storm drain system, or to temporarily provide underground
     conveyance of sediment laden water to a sediment trapping device.

•    Conditions  Where Practice Applies:  A  temporary storm drain diversion should only
     be used when  the off-site drainage area is less than 50 percent of the on-site drainage
     area to that system.  A special exception may be given, at  the discretion of the local
     plan approval  agency, where site conditions make this procedure  impossible.

•    Effectiveness:   A stormdrain  diversion  does not directly  control  erosion, rather it
     transports sediment laden water into a control device such as a sediment trap or basin.

•    Advantages: Temporary stormdrain diversions transport water without chance of erosion
     and do  not limit on site movement  of equipment Once  constructed, storm drain
     diversions require little maintenance.

•    Disadvantages:  To build and remove temporary stormdrain  diversions, land area must
     be disturbed thus causing the potential  for erosion.  Also, often times storm drain
     diversion  can be expensive and difficult to construct

•    Costs:  The costs associated with temporary storm drain diversions varies greatly due
     to different pipe configurations,  materials, and construction  techniques.  Specific costs
     can be obtained once those  variables have been  identified.

•    Geographical Considerations:  Temporary  storm drain diversions can be utilized  in
     situations where construction projects will impact existing storm drain systems.
                                     TV

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11.  Stora  Drain Inlet Protection

•    Definition:  A sediment  filter or an excavated impounding area around a storm drain
     drop inlet or curb inlet.

•    Purpose:   To  prevent  sediment  from  entering  storm drainage  systems  prior  to
     permanent stabilization of the disturbed area.

•    Conditions Where Practice  Applies:   Where storm drain inlets  are  to  be  made
     operational before permanent stabilization of the disturbed  drainage area.

•    Effectiveness:  Storm drain inlet protection is only as effective as the filter used around
     the  inlet such a silt fence with a 96% efficiency. (4)  Effectiveness decrease rapidly
     if the inlet protection  is not properly maintained.

•    Advantages:  Storm  drain inlet protection will reduce the amount of sediment leaving
     a  construction site.  Inlet protection  is inexpensive and easy to construct

•    Disadvantages:  Properly  maintaining inlet protection is difficult and often inlets become
     clogged causing erosion elsewhere.

»    Costs:  The cost  of storm drain inlet protection  varies dependent upon the size and
     type of inlet to be protected but generally is about $300 per inlet

•    Geographical Considerations:   Inlet  protection  can  be used whenever  inlets  are
     encountered on site.
              •*••  •

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     12.  Rock Outlet Protection

     •   Definition:  A section of rock protection placed at the outlet end of culverts, conduits
         or channels.

     •   Purpose:  The purpose of the rock outlet protection  is to reduce the depth, velocity,
         and energy  of water, such that the flow will not erode the receiving downstream reach.

     •   Conditions  Where Practice Applies:  This practice  applies where discharge velocities
         and energies at the outlets of culverts, conduits or channels are sufficient to erode the
         next downstream  reach.

     •   Effectiveness:  Rock outlet protection is only effective if the rock is sized and placed
         properly.  When  this is accomplished, rock outlets  do much to limit erosion at pipe
         outlets.

     *   Advantages: Rock outlet  protection is usually less expensive and easier to install than
         piping.  It also serves to trap sediment and reduce flow velocities.

     •   Disadvantages:  Rock  outlet protection needs continual  maintenance  because  large
         storms often wash away the stone and leave the area susceptible to erosion.

     •   Costs:  Riprap is  the most common form of rock outlet protection and generally can
     ,    be installed for about $45 per square yard.

     •   Geographical Considerations:   Riprap outlet protection can effectively control erosion
         at constructions sites throughout the United States.  Only the availability, and therefore
         the price, will  limit the use of this sediment control practice.
KE**>531.02    DRAFT                     IV - 24

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                                     Figure 4.34
                               Intat Protection Detail
                             SWALl INLET flOTtCTTflal BTtAtl.
                                                                        •( roatfvay
                                                                   t«p •* earth
                                   FllMr cloth
                                                 STANDARD  SYMBOL-E5?-
                               CUU INLET PMOnCTKW DETAIL
    /2" i ton*
                               spacers
                                                2* Minimi* length        •«,*• bat or
                                                  of T x 4 —«^      alctrnatt ««ijht
                                                                  f m. * spacer
                                                                    wire Mesh
        >•  i*   •
        2 x » vexr
                                                STANDARD  SYMBOL —P£
       U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGNlCUlTUftC
         SOIL CONSERVATION SCMVICI
INtET WOTECTION
    DETAIL
STANOAMO  OMAWINC
                                                                          —I
«-_.L tnoo
                                        Page 4.73
                      New York Guidelines for :
                       Erocioo and Sediment Coatrc

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USDA-SCS-Md
                                                                                       July 1975
   Oixe/uro* into a
   tt*bili**d vatoreour**.
   t*dim*nt erappinc  «>vie»,
   or onto a «t«*iJix«<* area
                                PIPE SLOW DRAIN (FLEXIBLE)1
                                        (nee to scale)
                                                         HOtt:
                                                                Sis*  doa.ionac.ion it
                                                                PSD~HP* Dimm.  <••*.
                                                                Hp*  slop* orajn vi th it"
                                                                di*m*t*r pipe)
                                      ^•^'•'•'•::'-^^
          to 90  thru dikt

      22  1/2* pip* 	
    I !**» tluut J*
                                     Camtruction Sgactflcacioni
                                                                  JUprae s/taJJ eon«i«t o/ <
                                                                  tfiaiwear iton* olac*d a«
                                                                          D«pth ef apron
                                                                         A« pip* di*m*t»r mn&
                                                                  riprap *h*ll b* a miai»ia>
                                                                  p/ J7" in ttuckn***.
                                                                      *IfKJU>
    Tht  Inlac  plpt  ihall  h**»  a alaya  ef  3Z or
    Tht  top  ef th«  earth  41ka  ever  the inlet plp« antf eheee  tfikea  cerrytni water  to  the
    pipe shall be at  leaat  1'  higher at all points  than  the  top of the  inlet  pipe.
    The  inlet  pipe  shall  »e c«rru|acea> sMtal pipe with watertight  connecting  bands.
    The  flexible tubing shall  be Che eaae diaaeter  aa the  inlet pip*  and  shall be constructed
    of  a durarle »atariaj with ho Id -down  groNMts spaced 10* on canters.
    The  flexible tubing shall  be securely faateaed  to the  corrugated  aatal pipe with ejetal
    ic rapping  or watertight conneetlas. collars.
    The  flexible tubing shall  be securely anchored  to the  a lope by stalling at the groanets
    provided.
    A riprap apron  shall  be provided at the outlet.  This  ahall consist of 6" diameter
    •tone placed aa shown on Standard  Drawing CSS-3.
    The  soil around and under  the inlet pipe and entrance  section  shall be hand ta«ped in
    «"  lifts to the top of  the earth dike.
9.   Follow-up  inspection  and any needed Maintenance shall  be performed  after  each storm.
                                                 Standard Symbol
• Drainage area must not exceed 5 aeraa.
  6.
  7.
  8.
     U.  S. DEPARTMENT OF A3
      SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
          Col logo Par*. vc.
                                            GRAK STABILIZATION
                                                STRUCTURE
Stanoarc
Or gw i ng
                                                                             GSS-3
                                          15.04

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                                     PIPE SLOPE DRAIN (RIGID)
                                                                         Ctrtk Wte

 NOM: Sist d«Motion «: P$0-PlM DM*.
 (•I., PSO-i2«Pift Slav* Drain wtn 12"
                                                    SPECIFICATICNS
         1,  T« PIPE SLOPE DRAIN SHALL HAVE A SLOPE OF 31 « STEEPER.
         2.  TOP OF T>€ EARTM DI* OVW T>€ INLET PIPE A« ALL DlttS CAWWIN6 HATER TO THE PIPE
             SHALL IE AT LEAST ONE FOOT HI9€R THAN THE TOP OF THE PIPE.
         3.  Att 0,3 FOOT TO DIKE H1IWT FOR SETTLWBff.
         M.  SOIL AJWUO AW UOR THE SLOPE PIPE SHALL K HAffi TATfED IN 1  INCH LIFT1.
         5.  THE PIPE SHALL K CORRUGATED METAL PIPE WITH WATERTIGHT 12 INCH CONNECTING BAfOS
             OR FLAN6E CONNECTIONS.
6,  RiP-RAP TO
    THE SOIL.
                              INCHES IN A LAYER AT LEAST 8 INCHES THICttCSS AW PRESSED INTO
          7.  PERIODIC INSPECTION AND REQUIRED MAINTENANCE MUST K PROVIDED AFTER EACH RAIN EVENT,
Moximum Droinogt Arto :  5 Aertt                                  ___
   U.S. OCPAHTMCNT Of AMICULTUMC
     SOIL COMSCRVATION  If RVICC
      COU.I6E P*MK.  HAKTLAMO
                                  QAAOC STAIILIZATIOM STRUCTVJRC
                                             15.03
                                                                              STANOAKO
                                                                              MAWINC

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1980
                    1.36
               Section A-A
          Pipe Outlet To Flat Area
           With No Defined Channel
                Section A-A

       Pipe Outlet To Well-Defined Channel
                                             3.
    Notes

Apron lining may be
riprap, grouted riprap
or concrete.

U 1s the length of
the riprap apron as
calculated using
Plates 1.36d and
1.36e.

d • 1.5 tines the
maximum stone'diameter
but not less than 6
Inches.
                           PIPE OUTLET CONDITIONS
Source:  Va SWCC
            Plate 1.36a
                                III-129

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    13.  Sediment Trap

    •    Definition:   A  temporary sediment control device  formed  by an excavation and/or
         embankment to intercept sediment laden runoff and  retain sediment

    •    Purpose:  The purpose of a sediment trap is to intercept sediment If Jen runoff and
         trap the sediment in order to protect drainafeways, properties, and rightsof-way below
         the sediment trap from sedimentation.

    •    Conditions  Where Practice  Applies:    A  sediment trap  is  usually installed in  a
         drainageway, at a storm drain inlet, or other points of discharge from a disturbed area.
         Sediment  traps should not be used to artificially break up a natural drainage area into
         smaller sections where a  larger device (sediment basin) would  be better suited.  The
         following  are types of sediment traps:

             Pipe Outlet Sediment Trap:    Consists of a  trap formed  by an embankment -or
             excavation.   The outlet for the trap is  through a perforated  riser and  a  pipe
             through the embankment

             Grass Outlet Sediment Trap:  Consists of a trap formed by excavating the earth
             to create a  holding area.  The trap has a discharge point over natural  existing
             grass.

             Storm Inlet Sediment Trap:  Consists of a basin formed by excavation on  natural
             ground that discharges through an opening in a storm drain inlet structure.  This
             opening can either be the inlet opening or a temporary opening made by omitting
             bricks or blocks  in the inlet

         •    Swale Sediment  Trap: Consists of a trap formed by over excavating a swau
             a drainage ditch. The outlet of the swale sediment trap is controlled by the invert
             of the downstream swale.

             Stone Outlet  Sediment Trap:  Consists of  a  trap  formed by an  embankment
             excavation.  The outlet of this trap is over a stone section placed on level  ground.

             Riprap Outlet Sediment Trap: Consists of a trap formed by an excavation and
             embankment  The  outlet  for this trap shall be  through a partially excavated
             channel lined with riprap.

    •    Effectiveness:  Effectiveness of sediment traps directly relate to the size of the trap.
         The current  accepted standard sediment trap  size  is  1800 cubic feet per one  acre  of
         drainage area.  Sediment traps based upon this criteria are approximately 46% effective
         in removing  sediments from construction site  runoff.  (8)

    •    Advantages:   Sediment traps  are  fairly  easy to construct and  can effectively  handle
         runoff from up  to 5  acres.  Concentrated flows can be directed into and dissipated  in
         a sediment traps.
KE**)53I.02   DRAFT                    IV - 25

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•    Disadvantages:  Sediment  traps efficiency  is less than 50% and  they require extensive
     maintenance for removal of sediment   Traps can often occupy large  areas  that then
     must be avoided during construction.

•    Costs: Many variables determine the cost of a sediment trap.  Excavation, riprap, pipes
     structures, stone, stabilization, fencing,  etc. all play a  part in determining a sediment
     trap's final cost.  Usually,  traps can he installed for $500 to $7,000.

•    Geographical  Considerations:   Sediment  traps  can  be constructed  on  most  any
     construction site with soils suitable for excavation  and embankment.

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                  PIPE  OUTLET SEDIMENT TRAP  ST-I
                                             WtM AH
                              Wt DlC- of «ttr

        EMBANKMENT SECTION THRU  RISER
        SIZES  OF PIPg NEEDED
             Barrel Diamtttr
             Ristr Diamettr
        Note:
             For Construction Specification set sheet  16.08
Max. Drainage Area:  5  Acres
 U.S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
   SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
   roi i rnr DAP« MAPYI Awn
 PIPE OUTLET
SEGMENT TRAP
STANDARD DRAwiMG
     ST-l

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                     GRASS OUTLET  SEDIMENT  TRAP  ST-II
              0..*•*-!
^I I  " ';! .I1:. "• !' I 11 11 I' -—I I  ' ' tLL1 ''t'
r,;;;,,!iiii;:rV:lii-! :•• _L irfj
        te Ol«rt WOW to Trap
Inflow Of Sttntn Lodtn Wo»f
                                                     Crtst Width (Ft) >4tOrein09f ArtotAcrn)
                            SECTION  A-A
             EXCAVATED GRASS OUTLET  SEDIMENT TRAP
                   CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION FOR ST-II
 1.  Volume of stdimtnc scoragt shall be 1800 cubic feec  per  acre  of
     contributory drainage area.

 2.  Minimus cruse width shall be 4 X Drainage Area.

 3.  Sediment shall be removed and crap restored to its original dimensions
     when the sediment has accumulated to 4 the design depth  of the  trap.
     Removed sediment shall be deposited in a suitable area and in such  a
     manner that it will not erode.

 ^  The structure shall be inspected after each rain and repairs  made as
     neeaed.

 5.  Construction operations shall be carried out in  such a manner that
     erosion and water pollution shall be minimized.

 6.  The sediment trap shall be removed and area stabilized when the
     remaining drainage area has  been properly stabilized.

 7.  All cut slopes shall be 1:1  or flatter.
Maximum Drainage Area:  5 Acrts
U. S. DEPARTMENT  OF APICULTURE
   SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
                       GRASS OUTLET
                       SEDIMENT  TRAP
        STANDARD DRAWING
              ST-H
                              16.09

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                       STORM  INLET SEDIMENT  TRAP  ST-III
             Flow
                                                  Flow
            Flow
                                                    now
                         YARD   DRAIN
          A i
            l!l or Fiattf
                                            1.1 or Flett«r
                       CROSS  SECTION
                  CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATJP*  FOR  ST-III
 1.  Sediment shell be rtaoved and the  trap restored ce its original dimenAons
     when the sediment-has accumulated  to-Hr d** Aftftlftn depth of the trap.
     Removed sedimeep shall be deposited  in a suitable area and in suc^h a
     manner that U will not .-erode.            ,.                     *"

 2.  The volume of sedimeat storage  sitall be ISCMPcubic feet per acre of
     contributory drainage.                          •                ~

 ].  The structure shall be inspected after each rain and repairs made as
     needed.

 •>.  Construction operations>shall be carried out in such a manner that
     erotio* and water pollution shall  be minimized.
     ^^              ^
 5.  The sediment trap shall be removed fad the"area stabilized when the
     constructed drainage area has been properly stabilized.

 6.  All cut slopes shall be 1:1 or  flatter.

Maximum Droinogt Area;  3-Acrtt
   U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
      SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
      COLLEGE PARK.MARYLAND
 STORM INLET
SEDIMENT  TRAP
STANDARD DRAWING
     ST-ET
                                 16.10

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                         SWALE  SEDIMENT TRAP ST-IV
                                SECTION A-A  «
                                                     Uphill Gro«*flt
                         SWALE SEDIMENT TRAP
                                  SO'- 100'
                     1 5 mo
                                 S.ow
Trap
1   •
   _J    Q*tlt _      ,

"U
                                        Tro§ nit
                                        °" '•««'•« »toroo«.
                             • To Rtm*w SiafrhiM Or
                              •" tmmf Of 2" 3«e"«

CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION FOR ST-IV
                                                                   With A
   1.  The swale sediment crap shall be conscrucced  in  accordance with the
      dimensions provided on Che design drawings  or sized  co provide Che
      minimum storage necessary 1300 cubic  feec of  storage for each acre
      of drainage area.

   2.  Sediment shall be removed and crap restored co its original dimensions
      when che sediment has accumulated co  S  the  design depth of the trap.
      Removed sediment shall be deposited in  a suitable area and in such a
      manner chat it will not erode.

   3.  The structure shall be inspected after  each rain and repairs made as
     • needed.

   4.  Construction operations shall be carried out  in  such a manner that
      erosion and water pollution shall be  minimized.

   5.  The sediment tr,ap shall be removed and  area staDiliz-;d when the
      contributory drainage area has been properly  stabilized.

   6.  The swale sediment trap will be properly backfilled  and the swale or
      ditch reconstructed.
Maximum Drainogt Arto: 2 Acrts
    U.S. DETRIMENT OF AGRICULTURE
     SQL CONSERVATION SERVICE
     COLLEGE PARK, MARYLAND
                     SWALE  SEDIMENT
                          TRAP
                STANDARD DRAWING
                     ST-iV
                                 16.11

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                      STONE OUTLET SEDIMENT TRAP IT
                             CROSS SECTION A-A
    OFTJOBt  A MM foot  layar of 2" atMM mtf ko  placo4 M cko upacraaaj ai4o of ch« ripr«p U
             rUc* of tht Mk«MMl filter «Uek.
                                             tFtciyioinoM rot  t-
    1.
     u«4«r M*uka«at vlull k
•ac.   Tha »a*i araa •«*U •• claar«4.
                                                                                        r*ec
    2.  Tha fill aucarial far cka eo»oah»o«C  akall ko froo of roota aa4 otkor «oo*> vogoeatiao, aa
        wall aa ovor-aiao4 atoMO, rookat  wgraic material or otkor objoctioMkla tutorial.  Tha
        eaftaokMBt akall ha coo*acco4 ky traveraiac with aa.«ipejot)t while ic ia beia« cevatrucce*.

    3.  All cut a*4 fill alopoa akall ko 2tl  or  flaccor.

    4.  Tha acme «ao4  ia the outlet akall ko aajoll riprap 4M-fM along wick a 1* thickaoaa of 2"
        •ISrogata p'aea4 OB Cko vav%ro4o ai4o oo cko aaull riprap Jg ooa>o44o4 filter cloth xa the
        riprap.

    5.  Setfiowat akall  ka roowo4 aa4 trap roatoro4 to ita ori|ioal tfiawoaiooa whea cko ao4ia«at
        haa ocnawlaca4 to % cko 4oaigB oopch of cko crop.

    6.  Tko atrMCvro akall ka ioapoeto4 aftar each raia ao4 rapaira ata4a aa Boo4o4.

    7.  Cooacrnacios oparatiooa akall ko «arrio4 MC is a«ch a MOMr ckn oroaion a«4 vatar
        pollutioB ia aaavauio4.

    I.  Tha aeruecvro akall ka roawvo4 a»4 cko oroa atakiliao4 whea cko 4raioaga araa kaa haea
        properly acakiliso4.
Moiimum  Droinog* Arto:  5 Acres
US DC*A*mffirrOFa«MGUtTURC
   SOIL  vONSCftWMN SCKVICC
    COLLE6C •ANK.MAffYLAMO
                                 STONE OUTLET SEOIHtNT
                                              TTTT
                                                                             SDtNOAKO DRAWING
                                                                                       ST-I

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                      RIPRAP OUTLET SEDIMENT TRAP  ST-VI
                     L
TOP or COMMCTCO CMMKMCNT
 MM. r AMM TO* or »r>«
      MWVC CUT. MMUMC AT
         MAX.
                 &F_2KH«—:
         WCW CUCST TO DC l/li«.
         KLO« wrrme MOUND
         AT ( Or CMDANKMtMT
TO* Or CMMMKMCMT

ON CWST GNOUND
                                                                             t DUALS i/t
                                                                        CNCST
                                       O.OTN
                                           7       L
                             STONC TMICKNCSS t I
                             STONC SIZE TO •( «" TO •"
                                          PHOTILE
                                          i 4'Mm i*
           CXlSTMO OMOUMO
                                     CLOTH (CMKOMOMIM.4*AT UMTMAM (NO)
                                                                               LtMOTM IS'MM.I

                                                                                 UMMTUMMO
                                       CHOSS SECTION
                COMMCTIO CMSAMMCMT
                                                                 CMAMNCL SIOC rOMMO V COM^ACTCO
                                                                 EMtANKMCNT OM CXCAVATIOM INTO
                                                                 CXISTING 6DQUNO
       AMON TO COUAL 1.91
  •till LCN«TM (») AT CNO
         •STONC UMO OUTLCT CMANNCL AS »C* TAM.C ST-VI  (CNANNCL MAT 1C
         CUNVCO TO riT CXISTMO TOPOOIUPMV i
                                                   VtlW
U.S. DCPAOTMCNT Of AQMICULTUNi

   SOIL CONSCKVHTION SCMCC
   COLLE6C MNK, MAMYLANO
            RIPRAP OUTLET SEDIMENT TRAP
                                                                                 STANDARD DMJMANO
                                                           ST -VI
                                         16.13

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    14.  Temporary StdlBeat Basil

    •    Definition:  A temporary basin with a controlled stormwater release structure, formed
         by constructing an embankment of compacted soil across a drainageway.

    •    Purpose:  The purpose of the basin is to detain seuiment-laden runoff from disturbed
         areas long enough for the majority of the sediment  to settle out

    •    Conditions Where Practice Applies:  A  temporary sediment basin can be used below
         disturbed areas greater than 5 acres, where sufficient space and appropriate topography
         allow for the construction of a  temporary impoundment

    •    Effectiveness:  As with sediment traps, basins sized at 1800 CF/acre of drainage  area
         are roughly 46%  efficient in removing sediment from construction site runoff. (8)

    •    Advantages:  Sediment  basins can handle runoff from large, up to  100 acre, drainage
         areas and handle  concentrates flows of sediment laden water.  Basins help to control
         overall  stormwater runoff for small storms thus protecting streams and rivers off site.

    •    Disadvantages:  Again,  like traps, sediment  basin efficiencies are only about  46%.
         Sediment basins are  large, requiring a good  deal  of site area and are  expensive  to
         construct

    •    Costs:  Sediment  basins vary greatly in  price based upon their size, and most basins
         are constructed for S5.000 to $50,000.

    •    Geographical Considerations:  Temporary sediment basins can be constructed on any
         construction  site as space, topography and soil  conditions permit
KE090531.02   DRAFT                    IV  - 27

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 I
   I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
 b
 I
 I
 I
 I
 I
  I
  j
 I

f
          Flood ttoroge  10 yr,  24 he  storm
                                min. l'-0'r
              Dewotertng  device,.
Detention                        \         \  ~T—
storage  2 yt,  24 hr storm         X/Q.      l^JL
    with  8  day drawdown  *  ^    i*-w-«
                                                                          10' Minimum top width

                                                                              Emergency  spillway
Sediment  storage
                   Concrete
                                          Anti-ttep!
                                          collar
                            CROSS  SECTION
                                                                        Earth,  dam
CMP OutJet
               '-•nt basin catches and stores sediment from construction
                  d keeps it out of streams.

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    15.  Sump Pit

    •    Definition:  A temporary pit which is constructed to trap and filter water for pumping
         to  a  suitable  discharge area.

    *    Purpose: To remove excessive water from excavations.

    •    Conditions  Where Practice Applies:   Sump pits are constructed  when  water collects
         during  the  excavation phase  of construction.   This practice is particularly useful  in
         urban areas during excavation for building  foundations.

    •    Effectiveness:  Generally,  sump  pits  are not as effective as sediment traps or basins
         but do serve  to remove some sediment from construction site runoff,

    •    Advantages:  Sump pits can be  located anywhere on site since they need  no outfall.
         Sump pits  are the only means of sediment trapping for excavation  in highly urban
         areas.

    •    Disadvantages:  Sump pits construction can become  costly and require the control use
         of  some type  of pump to outlet water from the pit  Also without proper maintenance,
         sump pits can easily  become  clogged and ineffective.                *

    •    Costs:  Costs  for sump pit construction are  similar to sediment trap costs ranging from
         $500 to $7,000. Added to this cost is the operational expenses of pumping water out
         of  the sump pit

    •    Geographical  Considerations:   Sump  pits can be located in any region of the United
         States but  due to the pumping requirements,  use  during freezing  weather is  rather
         limited.
KE#9053i.02   DRAFT                    IV - 28

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Maryland SCS/WRA
                            April 1993
                                                          S U fl P    PIT
                                                                         Clean Mator Dlacnatf*
                                                                                                  Ua Hop*
                                                                                                   Optional
                         13' - 24-  OlaMtOI
                       Corratata* oc fVC
                         Partorata*!
                                         12
                                                                                          2* Afftafat*
                                                   CONSTRUCTION   SPECIFICATIONS
                                      1.   »lt tflMitaion* art optional.

                                      2.   *** atantpipa  anouU M eonatructotf ay p*((ec«tln« a 12* - 24*
                                                            ot *vc
                                      1.  * MM of 2' ••trtfit* ihouid M >lac*4l in tM pit to a •••u
                                         of 12*.  Alter  inatailiin tM ttanOlpa, tM  pit (utrouMlini
                                         tM atantfpip* MKMU tMii M McKfUla* vltli  2' a*ft««aM.
                                         1M •Uirtpip*
                                                                    12*
                                                                         II*
            tM lip Of tM pit.
                                      1.   If 4iaekar«« •»!! M pnapit Uttortly to a •<**• i* haroMta clot* My M placo* arountl CM it*n*-
                                          pipe. ptioc to attaekinf tM flltacelot*.  1fei« "ill inetaaM
                                        - tM rat* of watar aaopooa into tM pip*.
                           U.i. OttAMMDIT Or ACIUCW.TUM

                              sou co!4i>vATXflM inmet

                              couia rum.
SUM*   PIT
                                                                                              STANOMD DPAHINC
                            iP - 1
                                                                          2:.02

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    16.  Flotation  Silt Ftmct  (7)

    •    Definition:  A fabric strip floating  in a body of water, floating on  top and anchored
         at  the bottom.

    •    Purpose:  To drop sediment when filling or excavating in or adjacent to a water body.

    •    Conditions Where  Practice Applies:  Can be used  in water bodies adjacent to areas
         where sediment is  deposited in the water.

    •    Effectiveness:   The effectiveness of a flotation silt fence  in  the settling out of soil
         particles in the water has the  potential to be equal to that of the filter fabric  that is
         used in its construction; however, the flotation fences are very  difficult to maintain and
         thus effectiveness is reduced considerably.

    •    Advantages:   Flotation silt fences  hasten the settling out  of soil particles in water
         bodies.  Water is filtered and  particles eliminated that might not otherwise have time
         to  settle out in a sediment basin when the fence  is not installed.  The floating boom
         also stops floating  objects such as trash, tree limbs  or other construction  debris.

    •    Disadvantages: Proper installation of the flotation silt  fence is  very difficult to achieve.
         Once installed, the fedce must be inspected frequently to check the fabric  for rips and
         holes and to assure dirty water is not bypassing the filter fence.

    *    Costs:  Costs for a flotation silt  fence vary directly with the size of the body of water
         to  be  filtered, with filter fabric  costing about $5.00 per square yard.  An anchoring
         device and floating boom usually increase the cost greatly.

    •    Geographical Considerations:  A flotation silt fence may be  constructed  in all areas
         where freezing of the body of water  is not likely to occur.
KE*90531.02   DRAFT                     IV - 29

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                        Carrier Float
       Water Surface
Anchor Cable
                       7
Steel Tension Cable
                                                    Fence Fabric
                                                                                .3
                                                                                I
                           Bottom
                                                 Fence Fabric Weight-
                                                ^^
                            Temporary Flotation Silt Fence
                                    3.14 Page 3

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    17.  Chemical  Treatment (7)

    •    Definition:  Application of • non-toxic chemical settling agent, such  as  methylene
         chloride, into a sediment trap or at the top end  of a slope rundown.

    •    Purpose:  Through the process of flocculation, smaller soil particles which are held in
         suspension are settled  out

    •    Conditions Where Practice Applies:  Chemical settling agents are only effective in the
         tranquil water of a sediment  trap.   Introduction of the chemical agent  is typically at
         the inlet to a sediment pond or at  the  top of the slope rundown.

    •    Effectiveness:  Chemical settling agents have an extremely high efficiencies for reducing
         particles held in suspension if they are added in the correct manner and quantities with
         sufficient settling  time.  This is very  difficult to achieve in the  field and thus efficiency
         is greatly  reduced.

    •    Advantages:  This process  eliminates soil particles held in  solution  which wouldn't
         otherwise  settle  out over  time.   Turbidity of the water  is  decreased,  which has  a
         beneficial  impact  on stream life and aesthetics.

    •    Disadvantages:  The introduction  of these  chemicals into the environment, although
         considered non-toxic, is not acceptable  in many jurisdictions.
Costs:  ThelUanghtfwiiiaaV^4itk)nrBadQgiyuiarf&oaqpiafa^c grcatisnfegion by region.

     •    Geographical Considerations:   Chemical settling agents  might be used wherever they
         are deemed necessary to limit stream or river turbidity.  However,  most jurisdictions
         have regulations which would restrict the use of these agents.
KE#90531.02   DRAFT                    IV - 30

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0o CO

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    18.  Stabilized Construction Eitruct

    •    Definition:  A stabilized  pad of aggregate underlain with filter cloth located at any
         point where traffic will be entering or leaving a construction site to or from  a  public
         right-of-way, street, alley,  sidewalk or parking area.

    •    Purpose:  The purpose of a .;abilized construction entrance is  to reduce or eliminate
         the tracking of sediment onto public rights-of-way or streets.

    •    Conditions Where Practice Applies:  A stabilized construction entrance should  be used
         at  all  points of construction ingress and egress.

    •    Effectiveness:   Stabilized  construction entrances  are not very effective in removing
         sediment from equipment leaving a construction site.  Efficiency is greatly increased,
         though when a washing rack is included as pan of a stabilized construction entrance.

    •    Advantages:  Does  remove some sediment from equipment  and serves  to  channel
         construction traffic in and out of the site.

    •    Disadvantages:  Stabilized  construction entrances are  rather expensive  to construct and
         when  a wash rack is included, a  sediment trap  of some kind must also be provided.

    •    Costs:  Stabilized construction entrances cost range from $1,500  to $5,000 to install but
         costs increase by roughly  $2,000  if a  wash rack is included.
    ;
    •    Geographical Considerations:  Stabilized construction entrances  can  be constructed
         anywhere  in the country.
K£#90S31.02   DRAFT                     IV - 31

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                STABILIZED  CONSTRUCTION  ENTRANCE
                             net to tcolt
    STANDARD  SYMtOL
                        SC
                             50' min.
distil*
                                                        EXISTING
                                                        PAVEMENT
                                                      MOUNTAILC BCIIM
                                                        (Ophenol)
1.
2.

3.
4,
                                                            EXISTING
                                                          PAVEMENT
               CONITKOCTIOM tMClFICATlOWf,

Stone Sise - Use  2* stone* or reclaimedm recycled concrete equivalent.
Length - Aa required* but not lets than SO feet  (except on • eingle resi-
dence lot where • 30 foot minimum length would apply).
Thickness - Mot less than six (f) inches.
Width - Ten (10)  foot minimum* but not lets than the full width at
points where ingress oc egrets occurs.
Filter Cloth • Mill be placed over the entirt trea prior to placing of  stone.
Filter will not be required on a single fasti.*y residence lot.
Surface Water  • All surface water flowing oc diverted toward construction
entrances shall be piped across the entrance. If piping it impractical,
a aountsbls ben  with Stl slopes will be permitted.
Maintenance -  The entrance shall be maintained in a condition which will
prevent tracking  oc flowing of sediment onto public rights-of-way.  Thii  may
require periodic  top dressing with additional atone as conditions demand
and repair and/or eleanout of any measures used  to trap sediment.  All
sediment spilled* dropped* washed oc tracked onto public rights-of-way must
be removed immediately.
Washing - Wheels  shall be cleaned to remove sediment prior to entrance  onto
public rights-of-way.  When washing is required* it shall be done on an area
stabilised with stone and which drains into an approved sediment trap pins
device.
Periodic inspection and needed maintenance shall  be provided after each  rain.
  U. S. DEPARTMENT Of
   SOIL CONSERVATION fttRVICC
               Firit* IK.
                              STM1LIZEO CONSTRUCTION
                                     INTMNCC
Standard
Drawing
                            14.03

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                                                                    DRAFT 1/80
                     VOH4T #1
                 Coarse Aggregate
                          GRAVEL CONSTRUCTION ENTRANCE
  Source:  Va SWCC
                                                               Plate I.Ola
                       CONSTRUCTION  ENTRANCE WITH MASH RACK
                                                      Itch to Carry
                                                    Wash Water to
                                                    Sediment Basin or
                                                    Trap


                    Reinforced  Concrete     '•Drain Space

                             Detail of Wash Rack
Source:  Smith Cattleguard Company
                                                             Plate l.Olb
                               III-3

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19.  Temporary Access Waterway Crossing

•   Definition:   A temporary  access waterway crossing  is  a structure  placed  across  a
    waterway to provide access  for construction purposes for a period of less than one
    vear.  Temporary access crossings are not  intended to be utilized  to  maintain traffic
    for the general public.

•   Purpose:  The purpose of the temporary access waterway crossing  is to provide  safe,
    pollution  free  access across  a  waterway for construction equipment by establishing
    minimum standards  and specifications for the  design, construction, maintenance, and
    removal of the  structure.   Temporary access waterway crossings  are necessary  to
    prevent construction equipment from damaging the waterway, blocking  fish migration,
    and tracking sediment and other pollutants into the waterway.

•   Conditions  Where Practice  Applies:  The following  standard  and  specifications for
    temporary access waterway crossings are applicable in non-tidal waterways.

•   Effectiveness:

         Temporary Access  Bridge:  A temporary access bridge is by far the most effective
         waterway crossing because minimal if any  disturbance occur in  the waterway  thus
         very  little  erosion can occur.

         Temporary Access  Culvert;  A  temporary  access culvert is  effective in controlling
         erosion but  will cause erosion during installation  and removal.

         Temporary Access  For* A temporary access ford offers very little sediment and
         erosion control and is  really not  very  effective in limiting  erosion in the stream
         channel.                                                             <

•   Advantages:

         Temporary Access Bridge:  A temporary bridge is  highly desirable because  it
         offeres a  non erosive means of stream crossing  and requires  little if any earth
         work and  maintenance.

    •    Temporary Access Culvert:  A temporary culvert can be  easily constructed  and
         allows  for heavy equipment loads.

    •    Temporary Access  Ford:  A  temporary  ford is the least  expensive  waterway
         crossing and allows for maximum load limits.  It also  offers  very low maintenance.

•   Disadvantages:

         Temporary Access  Bridge:  A temporary bridge can  be quite expensive and time
         consuming to build and may not  be  able  to handle large loads.

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     •   Temporary Access Cufrtrt  Temporary culverts need maintenance often and can
         cause erosion if the culvert becomes dogged.

         Temporary Access Ford: A temporary ford offers little if any erosion control and
         can often make erosion worse.

     NOTE:   Special  care  must  be  taken  for all  these  practices when  crossing  an
     environmentally sensitive waterway such as  a trout stream.

 •   Costs:

     •   Temporary Access Bridge:  Bridge cost can vary greatly depending a size and type
         of material used.

         Temporary Access Culvert:  A temporary crossing usually ranges in price for $500
         to $1,500.

     •   Temporary Access Ford: A temporary  ford crossing costs are minimal, usually less
         than $500.

>»   Geographical Considerations:  The most important thing to consider when choosing a
     temporary stream  crossing is the impact of the crossing on the stream itself.  Obviously
     a high  quality trout stream requires much more concern than a severely polluted city
     waterway.  The individual stream quality and flow  characteristics (Le., flooding) dictate
     the choice of temporary  stream crossing.

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  TEMPORARY ACCESS BRIDGE
                                      ACCEPTABLE |

                                       ANCNOft

                              SURFACE PLOW oivtirn
                                  tr SWALE
WATDI NESOUftCES

 ADMMSTIUT10M
TEMKMAKV ACCfltt
                  19.10
                   •TANBAflO PMAWMO
                                 TA11

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  TEMPORARY ACCESS CULVERT
WATfN MSOUftCM
 AOMMiTIUTION
TfMPOfUftY ACCESS POflO
                19.11
                            STANOAJIO DftAWM*
                             TAC 1

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     TEMPORARY ACCESS FORD
                                  SUHPACf FLOW OMDrTID

                                       •Y tWALJ
                                                t
                                        V
                 AOOMOATI APF4OACM
               §t1 MAXMUM, StOM ON MAD
                 •UAPACIFLOW
                    •VSWAU
WATIM MESOUMCiS
 AOMMSTKATION
T1MFOPUHY ACCfM CULVfUT
                    •TANOANO OffAWMO
                                   TAT 1
                  19.12

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    20.  Wlad Breaks (4)

    •    Definition:   A temporary structure to slow winds.

    •    Purpose:  Wind  breaks are used to lessen the surface and  air movement of soil from
         exposed -urfaces and to  reduce the presence of airborne substances by reducing  the
         velocity and energy of the winds and allowing soil particles to settle out

    •    Conditions Where  Practice Applies:  Large flat surface areas susceptible to erosion by
         winds are suitable  for wind breaks.

    •    Effectiveness:  Wind breaks are not  very effective in slowing winds across large  flat
         open $ite4 but are effective in making airborne soil particles settle out once the winds
         have reached a break.

    •    Advantages:  Wind breaks are  an  alternative  to chemicals for dust  control

    •    Disadvantages:  Wind breaks are not as effective as chemicals or mulching and seeding
         for dust control

    •    Costs:  The costs for wind breaks  are those incurred  in the establishment of fence, at
         about $2.50 per  linear foot for temporary control  Permanent controls in the  form of
         tree  rows may be  installed for  about  $200 per tree.
    •    Geographical Considerations:^
KE*90531.02   DRAFT                     IV • 34

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 IV  INVENTORY OF SEDIMENT CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CONT)
                                      (Continued)
u.  Special Practices

During  the  last  five to ten years  there  has  been rapid  advancement  in the  production and
marketing of new sediment and erosion control  technologies.   The emphasis of these new
technologies has  been on enhancing the effectiveness of vegetative practices through the use  of
new materials designed to hold soil in place, allowing vegetation to become established  Many
of the newer products have been  developed by major chemical corporations  such as  Exxon,
Dupont, and Amoco.  It should be noted that there are an immeasurable number of different
products manufactured by different companies being used over the country.  It is beyond the
scope of this report to investigate all of these new  products, but some general discussion  is
included. On the whole, new sediment and erosion control technologies can be categorized into
three  general areas:!) Chemical solution  mulch and  tack coatings,   2)  Natural  fiber erosion
control matting,  and 3) Synthetic geotextile  erosion control matting.

    1.  Chemical Solution Mulch and Tack Coatings

    The first type of new technology, chemical mulch  and  tack  coatings, are quite numerous
    and diverse.  Many different types of chemicals are used in  different solutions to best  fit
    the desired  use and site climate.  Most chemical  mulchs are water dispensable and are
    sprayed onto a site area. They immediately act to bond surface soils and mulches in order
    to  reduce erosion due to  wind or  rain.  A chemical  based mulch  and tack coat can
    eliminate the  need for separate mulch and mulch anchoring installations.   As  *ith any
    chemical, care must be exercised in handling and applying these products.  Many  chemical
    mulches can be poisonous to humans if breathed or  touched during application. Also, often
    times there  are limits on when application can occur such as  avoiding frozen  soils or rainy
    weather. Individual products must be investigated and selected based upon the site specific
    application requirements. (3) Examples  of these products  include:

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2.  Natural Fiber Mafti«f

A second type of new technology for  controlling erosion is  natural fiber matting.  Large
rolls of natural materials are applied to critical site areas such as steep slopes or channel
bottoms.  The two most common types of natural Gben  used are wood excelsior and jute.
Normally the fiber blankets must be anchored using  metal or wooden pins and trenches.
Natural fiber matting greatly reduce* erosion  by holding soil in place while vegetation is
established.   Often natural matting can be used in place of  riprap with .considerable  cost
savings.  Also, natural fiber matting a biodegradable and  non-toxic.  Therefore, after a few
years vegetation is fully established and all the matting material has degraded away with no
environmental damage.  (9)

3.  Synthetic Fiber Matting

A third new technology category is synthetic matting.  This matting acts exactly like natural
matting but  is made from chemical-based products such as fiberglass, vinyl, plastics, polyester,
etc.   Synthetic matting generally has much more strength than natural matting and can be
accurately designed and specified to fit  site specific drainage characteristics. (10) (11)  One
item to note is that most synthetic matting products do not biodegrade easily and therefore
will remain  on site indefinitely which may cause future environmental impacts.

There are many new sediment  coutrol products on the market today  and more  under
development   Their  uses are  still  limited due  to  a  lack  of  historical  data on  their
performance and governmental agencies reluctance to accept  new technologies as standard.
As time progresses and more is known and understood about sedimentation and erosion use
of these new technologies should increase.
          OR AFT                     rv

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 1980
      Flow
                            INSTALLATION OF NETTING AND MATTING

                          Anchor Slot;  Bury the up-channel end of the
                          net in a 6" deep trench.  Tamp the soil
                          firmly.  Staple at 12" Intervals across the
                          net.
                          Overlap;  Overlap edges of the  "1 3 j"
                          stHps at least 4".   Staple     ^
                          every 3 feet down the center
                          of the strip.
                          Joining Strips;   Insert the new roll of net
                          in a trench, as  with the Anchor Slot.  Over-
                          lap the up-channel  end of the previous roll
                          18" and turn the end under 6".  Staple the
                          end of the previous roll just below the
                          anchor slot and  at  the end at 12" Intervals.
                          Check Slots;   On erodlble soils  or steep
                          slopes*  check slots  should be made every
                          15 feet.  Insert a fold  of the net Into a
                          6" trench and tamp firmly.   Staple at
                          12" Intervals across the net.  Lay the net
                          smoothly on the surface  of the soil - do not
                          stretch  the net, and do  not allow wrinkles.
                          Anchoring Ends  At Structures
                          Place the end of the  net In
                          a  6"  slot on the up-channel
                          side  of the structure.
                          Fill  the trench and
                          tamp  firmly. Roll the
                          net up the channel.
                          Place staples at 12"
                          Intervals along the
                          anchor end of the net.
Source:  Adapted from Conwed Products Brochure
Plate 1.75a
                                 III-254

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1980
       1.75
    Shallow
    Slope
                                            On shallow slopes, strips
                                            of netting may be applied
                                            across the slope.
  Where there 1s a bemt at the top of the slope,
  bring the netting over the berm and anchor 1t
                             behind the bern.
   Bern
    Steep
    Slope
                                            On steep slopes, apply
                                            strips of netting parallel
                                            to the direction of flow
                                            and anchor securely.
  Bring netting down to a level area before
  terminating the Installation.  Turn the
  end under 6" and staple at 12" Intervals.
    Ditch
                                            In ditches, apply netting
                                            parallel to the direction
                                          :  of flow.  Use check slots
                                          \ every 15 feet.  Do not
                                            join strips 1n the center
                                            of the ditch.
                   ORIENTATION OF NETTING AND MATTING
 Source:  Adapted from Ludlow Products Brochure
Plate 1.75b
                                 III-255

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                                   V CONCLUSIONS
Erosion and sediment control as  a means of reducing  non-point source pollution is a concern
of jurisdictions  across  the country.  HowevtT, enabling  legislation,  regulations  and standard
practices vary greatly  among states and local jurisdictions.  Of those jurisdictions  with  active
sediment and erosion  control programs, this investigation  found a  consensus on  the  following
program elements:

A.   Vegetative  practices should be used whenever possible.  Vegetative practices cost less  and
     are easier to install and maintain.  These practices also are highly efficient in controlling
     sediment and erosion.

B.   Clean water should be diverted away from construction areas •  runoff from areas offsite or
     onsite areas not yet disturbed, should be diverted.  This additional flow, if not diverted,  can
     add volume  and  size to structural practices, requiring  more  frequent maintenance  and
     limiting the  effectiveness of vegetative practices.

C.   Concentrated flows should be controlled by structural practices • vegetative practices, are  not
     effective in controlling sediment in concentrated flows.  Concentrated flows are characterized
     by high velocities which can destroy vegetative measures.   Concentrated flows  must be
     trapped so  that water borne  sediment  can be settled  out

     During  the  study  it became  apparent  that additional research into sediment and erosion
     control legislation and regulations is necessary, particularly with regard to the  effect of local
     jurisdiction  regulations on sediment and erosion control  practices in the field. For example
     some jurisdictions  limit the amount of area disturbed at one time and how long it may be
     disturbed.    This  greatly reduces erosion  from  large construction  sites that would have
     previously been completely cleared and left unstabilized for long periods of time.  Other
     regulations  specify land  disturbance activities requiring control measures and  activities thai
     are exempt

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With retard  to vegetative practices the v*t variety of methods and products greatly effect
the efficiency of the practice especial* prior to seed germination.  TTiese technologies are
relatively new and  many jurisdictions have not yet accepted their use.

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(1)                         "1963 Maryland Standards and Specifications
                            for Soil Erosion aad Sediment Control"
                           Water Resources Administration
                           Soil Conservation Service
                           State Soil Conservation .Committee
                           April 1963
(2)                        "New York Guidelines  for Urban Erosion and Sediment Control"
                           USDA - Soil Conservation Service
                           2- Printing
                           March 1988
(3)                         "Guides for Erosion and Sediment  Control in California"
                           USDA-Soil Conservation Service
                           Davis, California
                           1977, Revised  1985
(4)                         "Michigan Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Guidebook*
                           Beckett Jackson  Raeder Inc.
                           Ann Arbor,  Michigan
                           1972
(5)                         "Standards for Soil Erosion ind Sediment Control in  New Jersey"
                           New Jersey State Soil Conservation Committee
                           Division of Rural Resources
                           New Jersey Department of Agriculture
                           April 1967
(6)                       " "Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook"
                           Virginia Department  of Conservation and Historical  Preservation
                           Division of Soil & Water Conservation
                           2" Edition
                           1980

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(7)                        "Erosion Control Manual"
                          Colorado Department of Highways
                          October 1978
(8)                        "Performance of Current Sediment Control  Measures at
                           Maryland Construction Sites"
                          Thomas R. Schueler ft Jon  Logbill
                          Department of Environment Programs
                          Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments
                          1875 Eye Street, NW
                          Washington, DC 20006
                          January 1990
(9)                        Wolbert ft Master Inc. Products Catalogue
                           Supplied by Wolbert ft Master, Inc.
    ,                                  11130 Pukxlti Highway
                                      White Marsh, Maryland 21162
(10)                       Informational Brochures on DuPont Typar" Geotextiles
                           Supplied by TEI Construction Fabrics Division
                                      P.O. Box 72010
                                      Baltimore, Maryland 21237
(11)                       Informational Brochures on Exxon Geosynthetics
                           Supplied by Exxon Chemical Company
                                      2100 River Edge  Parkway
                                      Suite  1025
                                      Atlanta, Georgia 30328

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                               VH   BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARKANSAS
                           The City of Little Rock Arkansas Ordinance No. 15,833"
                           Amending Chapter 29, Article Vi, Land Alteration Regulation'  1988
                           Draft No. 3, March 1990
CALIFORNIA
                           "A Report on Sofl Erosion Control Needs
                            and Projects in the Lake Tahoe Basin"
                           State of California
                           Tahoe Conservancy
                           March 1987
                           "Guides for Erosion and Sediment Control in California"
                           USDA-Soil Conservation Service
                           Davis, California
                           1977, Revised 1985
                           The Santa Cruz County Erosion Control Ordinance No. 2982"
                           Chapter 14.15 • Erosion Control
                           County of Santa Cruz, California
                           September 1980                                     '
                           "Specifications for a Sediment Control Plan"
                           "Considerations for Erosion Control Planning"
                           "Preparing an Erosion and Sediment Control Plan"
                           The Riverian Corridor Protection Ordinance"
                           County of Santa Cruz, California
                           "Erosion and Sediment Control Ordinance"
                           Chapter 16.12
                           County of Monterey, California
COLORADO
                           "Erosion Control Manual"
                           Colorado Department of Highways
                           October 1978

-------
GEORGIA
                           "Georgia Erosion and Sedimentation Act of 1975,
                            «j, amended through 1989"
                           Abstracted from
                            Official Code of Georgia Annotated
                            VoL 10, Title 12
                            Conservation and Natural Resources
                           "Rules of Georgia Department of Natural Resources Environmental
                            Protection Division"
                           Chapter 391-3-7
                           Erosion and Sedimentation Control
                           January 1, 1990
                           Turbidity Sampling of Surface Waters for Erosion and
                           Sedimentation Act Enforcement"
                           Georgia Department of Natural Resources
                           Environmental Protection Division
                           October 1969
                           "Erosion and Sedimentation Control Model Ordinance"
                           Georgia Department Natural Resources
                           Environmental Protection Division
                           "On Site Erosion Control • Management Practices for
                            Construction Activities"
                           State Soil and Water Conservation Committee of Georgia
                           November 1979
IOWA
                           "A Better Environment Through  Soil Erosion and Sedimentation
                            Control"
                          .Ordinance No. 9384
                           City of Des Moines, Iowa

-------
KENTUCKY
                          "Evaluation of Detention Basins for Controlling
                           Urban Runoff and Sedimentation*
                          CT. Haan & A.D. Ward
                          University of Kentucky
                          Water Resources Research Institute
                          Lexington, Kentucky
                          August 1978
MAINE
                          "Model Erosion and Sediment Control and Stormwater Management
                           Ordinance"
                          Time and Tide Resource Conservation and Development Area
                          Waldoboro, Maine
                          January 1969
MARYLAND
                          "1983  Maryland  Standards and Specifications for Soil
                           Erosion and Sediment Control"
                          Water Resources Administration
                          Soil Conservation Service
                          State Soil Conservation Committee
                          April  1983
                          "Performance of Current Sediment Control Measures at
                           Maryland Construction Sites"
                          Thomas R. Schueler & Jon LogbUl
                          Department of Environment Programs
                          Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments
                          1875 Eye Street,  NW
                          Washington, DC  20006
                          January 1990
                          "Model Erosion and Sediment Control Ordinance"
                          Maryland Department of Environment
                          Sediment and Stormwater Administration
                          2500 Broening Highway
                          Baltimore, Maryland 21224
                          April 1985

-------
                          "1963 Directory of Materials Relating to Soil Erosion,
                           Sediment Control, and Storm Water Management"
                          Maryland Department of Environment
                          Sediment and Stormwater Administration
                          2500 Broening Highway
                          Baltimore, Maryland 21224
                          April 1985
                          "Erosion and Sediment Control Guidelines of State"
                           and Federal Projects"
                          Maryland Department of Environment
                          Sediment and Stormwater Administration
                          2500 Broening Highway
                          Baltimore, Maryland 21224
                          January 1990
                          "Stormwater Pollution Central Cost-Share  Program"
                          Maryland Department of Environment
                          Sediment and Stormwater Administration
                          2500 Broening Highway
                          Baltimore, Maryland 21224
                          1990
                          Sediment • Trap Efficiency of a Multiple-Purpose Impoundment,
                          North Branch  Rock Creek Basin, Montgomery County, Maryland,
                          1968-76
                          WJ. Herb
                          Geological  Survey Water-Supply paper 2371
                          in cooperation with the  U.S. Department of Agriculture.
                           Soil Conservation Service
MICHIGAN
                          "Michigan Soil Erosion and Sediment Control  Guidebook"
                          • Beckett Jackson Raeder Inc.
                          Ann Arbor, Michigan
                          1972
                           "A Better Environment Through Soil Erosion and Sediment Control
                           Act  347 of 1972"
                           Michigan Department of Natural Resources
                           Division of Land and Water Resources
                           1972

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PENNSYLVANIA
                           "Soil  Erosion and Sedimentation Control  Manual*
                           Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
                           Department of Environmental Resources
                           Office of Resources Management
                           February  1985
VIRGINIA
WEST VIRGINIA
                           "Erosion Control Rules and Regulations"
                           Title 25.  Rules and Regulations
                           Pan L  Department of Environmental Resources
                           Subpart C  Protection of Natural Resources
                           Article IL  Water  Resources
                           Chapter  101  Erosion Control
                           September 1972
                          "Executive Summary - Department of Environmental Resources
                           Report to the Environmental Quality Board Covering Revisions
                           to 25 PA. Code, Chapter 102, Erosion and Sediment Pollution
                           Control"
                          "Agreement for Delegation Administration  Responsibility in the
                           Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control Program."
                          "Virginia Erosion  and Sediment Control Handbook"
                          Virginia Department of Conservation and Historical Preservation
                          Division of Soil & Water Conservation
                          2* Edition
                          1980
                          "Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook for Developing Areas
                           West Virginia"
                          .by USDA Soil Conservation Service
                          in Cooperation with West Virginia  Soil Conservation Districts
                          November 1981
                 J."

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MINNESOTA
                          "Ramsey County Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook"
                          Ramsey Soil and  Water Conservation District
                          Copy No. 67,  1989
NEW JERSEY
                          "Standards for Soil Erosion and Sediment  Control in New Jersey"
                          New Jersey State Soil Conservation Committee
                          Division of Rural Rf
                          New Jersey Department of Agriculture
                          April 1987
NEW YORK
                          "Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Act"
                          Chapter 251, P.L.  1975
                          State of New Jersey
                          Amended in  1977, 1979
                          "Guidelines for Preparation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Control
                           Plans"
                          Somerset - Union Soil Conservation District
                          Revised  December 1967
                          "New York Guidelines for Urban Erosion and Sediment Control"
                          USDA - Soil Conservation Service
                          2* Printing
                          March  1988
NORTH CAROLINA
                          "Soil Erosion and Sediment Control"
                          City of Greensboro, North Carolina
                          Building Inspections
                          Chapter 24

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                               AGENCIES CONTACTED
ARIZONA
                          Arizona State Land Department
                          Division of Natural Resource Conservation
                          1616 Weft Adam
                          Phoenix Ariaona 8507
                          (602) 542-4900
                          Steve Williams, (602) 542-2693
ARKANSAS
                          Flood Control District of Maricopa County
                          3335 West Duranfo Street
                          Phoenix, Ariaona 85009
                          (602) 262-1501
                          * Joe Tram
                         City of Little Rock
                         Department of Public Works
                         701 West Morkum Street
                         Little Rock, Arkansas 22201
                         (501) 371-4860
                         * Jerry Gardener, Chief of Civil Eng. Sect
                         Soil Conservation  Service
                         One Riverfront Place
                         Suite 560
                         North Little Rock. Arkansas 72114
                         (501) 374-7645
                         Bflly Shirley, Diane Bass
CALIFORNIA
                         > California Department of Conservation
                         1516 9* Street, Room 400
                         Sacramento, California 95814
                         (916) 324-0859
                         Ken Trot, Senior Land A Water Use Analyst

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GENERAL
                           "State Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Laws -
                            A Review of State Programs and their Natural Resource
                            Data Requirements*
                           Susan B. Klein
                           National Resource  Information
                           Systems  Project, National Conference of State Legislators
                           November 1980
                           Informational Brochures on DuPont Typar" Geotextiles
                           Supplied by TEI Construction Fabrics Division
                                       P.O. Box 72010
                                       Baltimore, Maryland 21237
                           Wolbert &  Master Inc. Products Catalogue
                           Supplied by Wolbert A Master, Inc.
                                      11130 Pulotki Highway
                                      White Marsh, Maryland 21162
                           Informational Brochures on Exxon Geosynthetics
                           Supplied by Exxon Chemical  Company
                                      2100 River Edge Parkway
                                      Suite 1025
                                      Atlanta, Georgia 30328
                 -*•

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                           Santa Cruz County Conservation District
                           3233 Valencia Avenue, Suite B-6
                           Attos, California 95003
                           (408) 688-1562
                           • Rich Casale, District Conservationist
                           U.S. Department of Agriculture
                           Soil Conservation Service
                           2121-C Second Street  -
                           Suite  102
                           Davis, California 95616
                           Charles K. Davis
COLORADO
                           Colorado State  Highway Department
                           Office of Environmental Review and Analysis
                           4201 East Arkansas Avenue
                           Room 284
                           Denver, Colorado 80222
                           JUl Eastey (301) 757-9174
                           • Rick Cutler (301) 757-9795,  Principle Transportation Specialist
GEORGIA
                           Georgia Department of Natural Resources
                           Environmental Protection Division
                           3420 Normon Berry Drive,  7* Floor
                           HapeviUe, Georgia 30354
                           (404) 656-7404
                           Lewis Tinley, Environmental Program Manager
                           Georgia Department of Natural Resources
                           Environmental Protection Division
                           TwLi Towers iHast
                           205 Butler Street, SE
                           Atlanta, Georgia 30334
                           (404) 656-4713
                           * Hal F. Reheis, Assistant Director

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IDAHO
IOWA
MASSACHUSETTS
                          Boise Department of Public Works
                          Building Department
                          P. O. Box 500
                          Boise, Idaho 83701
                          (206) 384-4430
                          * Ron Redman
                          City of Des Moines
                          Engineering
                          400 East  1" Street
                          Des Moines, Iowa 50307
                          (515) 283-4931
                          * Mike Gap,  Principle Civil Engineer
                          Iowa Department of Natural Resources
                          Environmental Protection Division
                          Wallace State Office Building
                          7* and Grand
                          Des Moines, Iowa 50319
                          (515) 281-6402
                          Eubbo  Agena, Environmental Engineer
                          Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
                          Technical Services Branch
                          West View Building
                          Lymon School
                          West Borough. Massachusetts 01581
                          (508) 792-7470
                          ' Eben Cheslac
MARYLAND
                          Maryland Department of the Environment
                          Sediment and Stormwater Administration
                          2500 Broening Highway
                          Baltimore, Maryland 21224
                          (301) 631-3561
                          Vincent Berg, Director

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                          Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments
                          Department of Environmental Programs
                          1875 Eye Street, NW
                          Washington, D.C 20006
                          (202) 962-3200
                          John Galli
MICHIGAN
                          Michigan Department Natural Resources
                          Land and Water Management Division
                          Stevens T. Mason Building
                          P.O. Box 30028
                          Lansing, Michigan 48909
                          (517) 335-3189
                          John H. Kennaugh, Water Quality Specialist
                          Oakland County Drainage Commission
                          1 Public Works Drive
                          Pontiac, Michigan  48054
                          (313) 858-0958
                          • George W. Kuhn, Drainage  Commissioner
                          Wayne County Health Department
                          5454 South Vcnoy
                          Wayne, Michigan 48184
                          (313)  326-4900
                          Tom McNulty
MINNESOTA
                          Ramsey County Soil & Water Conservation District
                          2015 Rice Street
                          Rweville, Minnesota 55113
                          (612) 488-1476
                          * Tom Peterson, Conservation District Manager
                          Minnesota Assoc. of Soil &  Water Conservation Districts
                          Suite 25
                          1884 Como Avenue
                          St. Paui Minnesota 55106
                          (612) 649-1440
                          D'Wayne DeZiel, Executive  Director

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MISSOURI
NEW JERSEY
NEW YORK
                          Soil Conservation Service
                          200 North 2- Street
                          SL Charles, Missouri 63301
                          (314) 724-2237
                          ROM Braun, District Conservationist
                          City of SL Charles
                          Engineering
                          200 North 2* Street
                          SL Charles, Missouri 63301
                          (314) 949-3237
                          •  Cliff Bayber, Assistant City Enfineer
                          NJ Department of Agriculture
                          State Soil Conservation Committee
                          CN 330, Room 204
                          Trenton, New Jersey 00625
                          (602) 292-5540
                          ' Sue Butch
                          Putman County Offices
                          Putman County Soil & Water Conservation  District
                          Myrtle Avenue
                          Mahopac Falls, New York 10542
                          (914) 628-1630
                          • Susan Oswald, Program Assistant
                          New York Department of Environmental Conservation
                          Regulatory Affairs
                          50 Wolf Road
                          Albany, New York 12233
                          (518) 457-2224
                          George Danskin
                  *••

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NORTH CAROLINA
PENNSYLVANIA
TENNESEE
TEXAS
WASHINGTON
                          City of Greensboro
                          Building Inspections  Department
                          P. O.  Box 3136
                          Greensboro,  North Carolina 27402
                          (919)  373-2158
                          * Johnny Pascal
                          P.A. Association of Conservation Districts
                          225 Pine Street
                          Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17101
                          (717) 236-1006
                          * Patricia W.  Devlin, Executive Director
                          Memphis City Hall
                          Environmental Engineering
                          Room 620
                          125 North Mid-American Mall
                          Memphis, Tennesee 38103
                          (901) 576-6720
                          * Jerry Collins, Administrator of Environmental Eng.
                          City of Dallas
                          Public Works Department
                          Room 108
                          320 East Jefferson Street
                          Dallas, Texas 75203
                          (214) 948-4220 Bill Jesup
                          (214) 320-6110 Leroy Walker
                         •Washington Dcpartmetn of Ecology
                          Surface Water Unit
                          Mail Stop PV-11
                          Olympia, Washington 98504
                          (206) 438-7064
                          Jerry Anderson, Supervisor  Surface Water Unit

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NORTH CAROLINA
                          City of Greensboro
                          Building Inspections Department
                          P. O. Box 3136
                          Greensboro, North Carolina 27402
                          (919) 373-2158
                          ' Johnny Pascal
PENNSYLVANIA
                          P.A. Association of Conservation Districts
                          225 Pine Street
                          Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17101
                          (717) 236-1006
                          * Patricia W. Devlin, Executive  Director
TENNESEE
TEXAS
                          Memphis City Hall
                          Environmental Engineering
                          Room 620
                          125 North  Mid-American Mall
                          Memphis, Tennesee 38103
                          (901) 576-6720
                          * Jerry Collins, Administrator of Environmental Eng.
                          City of Dallas
                          Public Works Department
                          Room 108
                          320 East Jefferson Street
                          Dallas, Texas 75203
                          (214) 948-4220 Bill Jesup
                          (214) 320-6110 Leroy Walker
WASHINGTON
                         •Washington  Depanmetn of Ecology
                          Surface Water Unit
                          Mail Stop PV-11
                          Olympia, Washington 98504
                          (206) 438-7064
                          Jerry Anderson, Supervisor Surface Water Unit

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 City of BcUeuve
 Storm & Surface Water Utility
 P. O. Box 90012
 BcUeuve, Washington 98009
 (206) 455-7818
 Dave Randstroum
King County Surface Water Management
710 2- Avenue
Suite 730
Seattle, Washington  98104
(206) 296-6519
Randall Parsons
Betsy Castle
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