United States
Environmental Protection
Solid Waste
and Emergency Response
September 1996
A Financing Guide for
Recycling Businesses:
Investment Forums,
Meetings and Networks
                        Access to Capital
        Recycled/Recyclable • Printed with Vegetable Based Inks on Recycled Paper (20% Postconsumer)

A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks
(EPA 530-R-96-012) was commissioned by the Recycling Advisory Council of the National
Recycling Coalition  (NRC), sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) and prepared  by KirkWorks.  The National Recycling Coalition is a national nonprofit
organization committed to the common goal of maximizing recycling in order to achieve the
benefits of resource conservation, solid waste management, environmental protection, energy
conservation, and social and economic development. KirkWorks is an economic development
firm that conducts research and programs to foster entrepreneurial growth in the recycling and
environmental industries. David Kirkpatrick of KirkWorks is the author of this publication.

Many individuals contributed to this project.  Ken Sandier at the EPA and Edgar Miller at the
NRC provided excellent guidance for the publication. Sally Fessler and Stephanie Finn
conducted primary research and writing for the directory and were essential to the Guide's
completion.  David Buchholz of Good Works, Amy Schoch and Will  Ferretti of the New York
State Office of Recycling Market Development, Mary Ann Remolador and Ed Boisson of the
Northeast Recycling Council, Truett DeGeare at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Gregory Dean at the U.S. Small Business Administration, Walter Daniels of Daniels and Daniels,
Bill Wetzel of the Center for Venture Research at University of New Hampshire, Rollie Tillman
of the UNC Kenan Flagler School of Business, and Loch McCabe of the Environmental Capital
Network all graciously assisted with reviewing sections of the Guide. Finally, the organizations
listed in the directory in Chapter 5 provided information on their programs as well as useful
referrals and suggestions.
This publication should not be relied upon as legal, securities or accounting advice. Parts of
this guide will not apply to all recycling businesses or all economic developers. The summary
nature of this publication gives rise to many generalizations that may not be appropriate to all
business, organizational or individual circumstances. The information contained herein has
been obtained from sources believed to be accurate,  but neither the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency nor its grantees nor their subcontractors guarantees the reliability of such
information, and we do not assume any liability for any loss resulting from, or occurring in
connection with, the use of information contained, described, disclosed or referenced in this

For more information on the details of this publication, please contact:
 National Recycling Coalition                  KirkWorks
 1727 King Street                             P. O. Box 15062
 Alexandria, VA 22314                       Durham, NC  27704-0062
 Tel (703)683-9025                           Tel (919)220-8065
 Fax (703)683-9026                           Fax (919)220-9720
                                             Email: Dkirkwks@igc.apc.org

                               Table of Contents
The Value of Recycling Businesses	1
Access to Capital: A Small Business Concern	1
The Need to Finance Recycling Innovation	1
How This Guide Can Help	2
Executive Summary	4
Company Mission	5
Company Overview	6
Management Team	6
Marketing Strategy	7
Operations Design	8
Financial Overview	9
Contingency Options	11
Confidentiality	11
Conclusion	11
Business Planning Resources	13
Debt and Equity Financing—Multiple Options	14
Debt Financing Tips	15
Individual Investors—Family, Friends, and "Angels"	16
Financing Strategies	17
Legal Structures for Equity Investments	18
Equity Financing and Securities Laws	19
Regulation A Offerings	20
Private Offering under Section 4(2), Securities Act and Regulation D, Rule 506	20
Regulation D, Rule 505 Offerings	21
Regulation D, Rule 504 Offerings/Small Corporate Offering Registrations (SCORs) or U-7 Offerings	21
The Pacific Stock Exchange's SCOR Marketplace	22
SCOR Offering Limitations	23
Conclusion	23
Financing Resources	23
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                                Table of Contents (continued)
Background	25
The Potential Benefits of Recycling Investment Forums	26
Recruiting Presenting Businesses	26
Selecting "Presenting" and "Displaying" Businesses	27
Polishing Company Presentations	29
Recruiting Investor Attendees	30
Forum Agenda and Logistics	32
Forum Registration and Attendance	32
Forum Sponsorships	33
Sample Recycling Investment Forum Budget	33
Legal Precautions	33
Forum Evaluation	34
Limitations of Recycling Investment Forums	35
Conclusion	35
Investment Forums	37
Investment/Entrepreneurial Meetings	38
Investment Networks	39
National Finance and Business Development Organizations and Federal Finance Programs	40
Value to Recycling Businesses	40
Using the Directory	41

Region 1: New England	43
Region 2: New Jersey and New York	45
Region 3: Mid-Atlantic	48
Region 4: Southeast	51
Region 5: Great Lakes	55
Region 6: Southwest	60
Region 7: Midwest	63
RegionS: The Great Plains	65
Region 9: California, Nevada, Arizona, & Hawaii	66
Region 10: Northwest	70

National Finance and Business Development Organizations	72
Federal Government Business Financing Programs	74
                       A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                Chapter 1: Introduction and  Overview
Access to capital is a significant barrier to the
growth of new and expanding recycling
enterprises.  This publication is designed to make
the process of identifying and securing new
sources of capital for these ventures more

The Value of Recycling Businesses
Fostering recycling entrepreneurship can
strengthen our country's economy and
environment. New recycling companies are
inventing ways of recovering and reusing more
and more of the materials that we previously
wasted. In the process, they are creating jobs and
wealth in our communities. They are ensuring
that all of the materials collected from our homes
and businesses are productively remanufactured.
They are also making all of our industries and
nation more self-reliant and efficient.

Helping recycling ventures succeed is a worthy
goal, which can be achieved through many
different strategies.  This Guide is designed to
help these businesses identify and obtain the
capital needed for growth.

Access to Capital: A Small Business Concern
Recycling companies are not unique in having
difficulty finding the funds to start up and expand.
Indeed, "improving capital formation" is a
perennial top priority of small and entrepreneurial
business  participants in the ongoing White House
Conferences on Small Business/  The 1995
Survey of Small and Mid-Sized Businesses by
Arthur Andersen's Enterprise Group and National
Small Business United found that 23% of existing
small and mid-size companies could not obtain
adequate financing in 1995. The survey further
1 The White House Conference on Small Business—Issues
Handbook, Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business
Administration, April 1994, p. 17.
documented that new or growing companies face
financing problems at every phase of their
expansion.  The Federal Reserve Bank also has
documented that the existing financing system in
the United States ranges from limited financing
options for small businesses to a well organized
system for large businesses.2

The Need to Finance Recycling Innovation
Access to capital is often even more difficult for
small and emerging companies in the recycling
industry. Financiers are wary of any venture in a
relatively new or unfamiliar industry and for
which standardized bench marking data is not
available.  Some investors also may be concerned
about the volatility of the markets for certain
recovered materials and the ability of unproven
recycling companies to ensure reliable and
growing profitability. Finally, potential providers
of capital may assume that recycling companies
are relying for business success on governmental
regulations that may be changed or weakened at
the whim of the legislative process.

Although these concerns have been addressed by
many recycling, composting, reuse and
remanufacturing enterprises/ they still represent
obstacles to the entrepreneurial growth of this
industry. In a 1994 survey of recycling enterprises
in North Carolina, 38% of responding companies
cited "limited access to capital" and 29% listed
"cash flow problems" as their main obstacles to
growth/  Similar research in other states has
2 Smith, Brad, WBS&A, Ltd. Strategic Consulting
Services, "Capitalizing a Small Business Using SCOR
Seminar " speech, Houston, Texas, January 25, 1995.
3 Throughout this document, "recycling company" is used
to refer to a business involved with the reuse, recycling or
composting of recovered materials.
4 Kirkpatrick, David, North Carolina Business Study, NC
Office of Waste Reduction and Self-Help, 1995, p. 15.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

identified enhancing access to capital as a key to
fostering the growth of recycling companies,
especially start-up and small expanding
companies developing new products, services, and

Fostering access to capital is particularly
important for those start-up and small firms that
provide much of the innovation in the emerging
recycling industry. Raising smaller amounts of
funds for young companies is often more difficult
than raising larger amounts for more established
firms.  However, recycling innovators can take
tips from other successful business sectors on
capitalizing their businesses.

Entrepreneurs and economic developers can
utilize a portfolio of approaches to meet business
financing needs. As this Guide explains, these
can include thorough business planning, the Small
Corporate Offering Registrations (SCORs) and
other financing structures, and investment forums
and networks. Other sources not extensively
discussed in this Guide, but which have an
important role to play, include: banks, recycling
loan funds and governmental finance programs.
Together, these strategies and resources can
ensure that sufficient capital allows the recycling
industry to sustain its growth and innovation.

How This Guide Can Help
This guide was developed to be a resource for
recycling entrepreneurs and economic developers
who work to foster the recycling industry. It
presents new strategies that have been developed
to make capital markets work more efficiently for
small companies in general and recycling
companies specifically.

This publication is not intended to serve as a
stand alone business financing manual. However,
the Guide does provide references to several
excellent publications that effectively serve that
purpose, in the "Resources" section at the end of
Chapters 2 and 3. In the end of Chapter 5, the
Guide also lists associations of small business
centers, financial associations, incubators and
other service providers that can provide business
planning and financing assistance in a company's

The particular contribution of this Guide is to
highlight innovative approaches to fostering
capital formation for emerging companies that
have developed recently and are not widely
known.  These include investment forums,
meetings and networks, as profiled in Chapters 4
and 5, as well as new equity financing structures,
such as the SCORs profiled in Chapter 3.

This guide does not focus extensively on debt
financing. However, the reader is directed to
some of the U.S. Small Business Administration's
fine resources on this topic in Chapter 3.

A summary of the contents of each chapter is
provided below.

Chapter 2: Recycling Business Planning,
focuses on the building and documenting of
business strengths necessary for a recycling
enterprise to attract significant investment.  The
chapter is addressed to the entrepreneur who is
writing a business plan. Areas that should be
addressed in the plan include the company's
mission and history, the management team,
marketing, operations and financing.

Chapter 3: Business Financing Strategies
provides entrepreneurs and economic developers
ways to identify a wide range of potential
financial partners for recycling companies. The
important role that individual "angel" investors
can play in meeting the equity demands of
expanding companies is highlighted. Cost-
effective methods for capitalization are also
reviewed, including sales of company securities
complying with Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC) small business exemption
regulations. Small Corporate Offering
Registrations (SCOR offerings), in particular, are
highlighted as one increasingly popular means for
entrepreneurs raising less than one million dollars
per year to attract a broad range of smaller, private
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Chapter 4: Recycling Investment Forums
provides recommendations for economic
developers and prospective forum organizers on
the design of recycling-specific investment
forums, based on the earlier Recycling Venture
Forum Study, the Southeast Recycling Investment
Forum conducted in November 1995 and the
Northeast Recycling Investment Forum conducted
in May  1996.

Chapter 5: Investment Forum, Meeting,
Network and Association Directory provides a
listing of more than 100 investment forums,
meetings and networks that have developed across
the country to help entrepreneurs, investors and
service providers find compatible partners.
Contact information and brief descriptions are
provided for each organization. The event
descriptions help to give entrepreneurs and
economic developers an understanding of the
many strategies that have evolved for fostering
small business capital formation and
entrepreneurship across the country. The chapter
concludes with a listing of national financial and
entrepreneurial trade associations and federal
government finance agencies.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

               Chapter 2:  Recycling Business Planning
A good business plan is important to obtaining
financing for a new or growing recycling
company.  A written plan can help an
entrepreneur explain to a financier how a loan or
investment will be repaid and rewarded. In
addition, the plan can be a document that the
management team, advisers, board and staff work
together to develop.  The business plan can
continue to provide strategic focus and
coordination for the marketing, operating,
financing and staffing activities of the growing
business. While some recycling entrepreneurs
have been able to succeed while making decisions
based only on their business instincts, having a
written plan can help to ensure sustained and
continued  success.

The business' founder, owner or chief executive
should write the business plan, with input from
other company team members. Consultants,
government agencies and software programs can
provide suggested templates and advice on
different sections. However, just as the founder
"owns" the company, he or she should "own" and
take responsibility for writing and carrying out its
plan  for success. By developing the plan, the
entrepreneur can make some of the potential
mistakes on paper, instead of in practice. The
plan  and its projections can become yardsticks for
measuring the progress of the company.

Finally, the business plan should be a living
document, in a loose-leaf notebook and computer
files  that are revised annually or more frequently
as circumstances change.  Staff hiring, fixed asset
purchases, marketing activities, new facilities,
financing actions and budgets should all be
consistent with the business plan.  If the
entrepreneur is making decisions that are out of
step with the plan, he or she may indeed be on the
right track, given a change in the company's
environment.  However, the discipline of going
back and revising the plan will help to point out
unforeseen effects of a change in company

Ask for advice about your business plan from your
accountant, lawyer, business partners, board
members and consultants. Several books and
software packages have been developed to help
entrepreneurs in writing their plans.  A few are
listed in the Resources section at the end of this

Provided below is a brief overview of the
important sections of a recycling business plan
and some of the questions each section should
answer. Depending on the size, type and stage pf
a business, some sections of the plan can be more
or less extensive. Developing the business plan
should not be seen as a big task separate from
starting or running a business.  Rather, developing
the plan should involve compiling the market,
management, operational and financial
information necessary to the business into one
well-organized document.

The remainder of this chapter is written as if
addressed to an entrepreneur who is compiling
and writing the business plan for his or her
recycling company.  The business plan sections
are divided as shown in Figure 2-1.

Executive Summary
In the executive summary, you should concisely
communicate the nature of your business and why
investors or partners should want to be involved.
Investors sometimes receive stacks of business
plans each week. You have  to quickly catch their
interest and convince them that your company
deserves a second look.

Write the executive summary after all other
sections of the plan are completed, highlighting:
                       A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                  Figure 2-1
           Recycling Business Plan
           Sample Table of Contents

  Executive Summary
  Company Mission
              Mission Statement
              Goals and Objectives
  Company Overview & Management Team
              Legal Business Description
              Management Team
              Board of Directors, Strategic
              Products and Services
              Upcoming Product Developments
              Proprietary Technologies or
  Marketing Strategy
              Market Definition, Customer
              Competition, Risk Factors
                Market Research and Testing
              Sales, Distribution, Promotions
              Sales Projections
  Operations Design
              Facilities and Equipment
              Information and Quality Systems
  Financial Overview
              Historical Financial Statements
              Projected Financials and
              Capital Requirements
              Exit and Payback Strategy
  Contingency Options
              Worst Case Scenarios
              Potential Company Responses
  Supporting Documents
*  Business Mission and Description—What
    business are you in?  Why? What unique
    products or services do you offer?
»  Marketing—Who will be your customers?
    How will you increase your sales to them?
4   Operations—What facilities, equipment and
    personnel resources will allow you to fulfill
    these sales?
*   Management Team—Who are the founders
    and owners? How will this team be
    strengthened as the growing business demands
    new skills?
4   Finances—How have you and how will you
    perform financially? What do you need from
    lenders or investors  to meet your business

Company Mission
What is your business?  You should be able to
answer this question succinctly enough to pass the
"elevator test."  That is, can you tell an investor or
banker what your business is while you are riding
the elevator to his or her office?

Remember that just being in the recycling or
environmental business  is not enough. Indeed, for
some financiers, your being a recycler may
initially be a drawback.  Instead, explain why your
company is or will be successful with its
customers. For example,
*   "We supply automotive rubber product
    manufacturers with  above-spec crumb rubber
    at below market prices."
4   "We provide integrated janitorial and
    recycling services to office property managers
    that are the most cost-effective in the
    metropolitan region."
*   "We market ecological, recycled-content,
    trendy apparel to Generation X'ers through
    mall retail outlets."

Many nonprofit organizations develop a mission
statement to provide guidance for their board of
directors  and staff and to ensure that decisions are
consistent with their charitable or educational
mission.  Private businesses may not think a
mission statement is really important—after all,
isn't the real mission just to be profitable?  Yes,
but most businesses achieve profitability by
following a founding vision or mission that
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

provides a unique service to their customers and
society. Most small business owners don't put
this in writing, but they intuitively run their
business in concert with their purpose, vision or

Writing out the mission statement allows for
investors, employees and even customers to help
buy into the excitement of the founder and
entrepreneur. An example could be:

Clean and Green's mission is to provide excellent
and inexpensive janitorial and recycling services
to office property managers thoughout the New
York metropolitan region.  We make offices clean
and green by providing efficient, integrated
services that ensure that all discarded paper,
cardboard, bottle, can and organic materials are
recycled or composted. By using only nontoxic,
natural cleansers, we ensure that each morning,
our clients arrive in offices that are clean and
healthy work environments.

Company Overview
The company overview can include basic
information on:

*  Company history—founding date,
    achievements, predecessor companies

*  Company legal status—sole proprietorship,
   partnership, corporation or limited liability

*  Company founders, managers, investors and
    board of directors

*  Current and projected facility locations

*  Company products and services, including
    descriptions and diagrams, benefits, stage of
    development and patent or other proprietary
    protections (A more thorough, separate
5 For an eloquent description of mission-driven
businesses, see Growing a Business by Paul Hawken,
1987, Fireside, Simon & Schuster.
    Products and Services section can be included
    in the business plan, as well.)

Management Team
When equity investors are asked what is most
important in their decision to invest in a company,
they usually start off with the people—the owners,
founders or management team. Indeed, as noted
in Figure 2-2, some of the primary reasons that
individual investors reject deals involve
management. For bankers and lenders, also, the
company's leadership team and its track record
are critical in deciding to make a loan.
       Figure 2-2
 Deal Rejection Reasons
for Individual Investors6

1)  Venture's chances for growth seemed limited
2)  Inadequate personal knowledge of firm's
    principals or key personnel
3)  Firm's management lacked experience or
    talent necessary for success
4)  Proposed value of firm's equity was unrealistic
5)  Did not coincide with Angel's long-term
    investment objectives
6)  Venture concept needed further development
7)  Not enough time for adequate appraisal
8)  Insufficient information provided
9)  Unable to assess technological aspects
Many business plans try to address the strengths
of management by providing pages and pages of
resumes. Although resumes are important, and
can be included in an appendix, it is more vital to
give the reader a feel for yourself and your team
and your commitment to the business. Try to
6 Responses from nationwide survey of individual
investors as reported in Gaston, Robert I, Finding Private
Venture Capital For Your Firm, John Wiley & Sons,
1989, p. 91.
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

answer the following questions in a unique and
persuasive manner:
*  Who are the founders, active investors, key
    managers, directors and important advisors for
    the company?  What experience do these
    people have in starting up and expanding
    companies in your industry?

*  Why did you get into this business? What
    excites you and your team about the
    opportunities in this market?

*  How will your company be organized? What
    roles will the directors and key managers
    play? What organizational structure best
    matches the needs of the company at this stage
    of development?

*  Why is an investor likely to reap rewards and
    minimize risks by going with your company's
    team instead of somebody else's?
If you have not recruited and employed all of the
managerial talent you will need to carry out the
next immediate phase of your business plan,
explain your plan for doing so. That is, assume
that you are planning to market a recycled-content
retail product to mass merchandisers and do not
yet have experienced marketing staff. Then, lay
out a plan for hiring a marketing manager with the
appropriate experience or for contracting for these
marketing services. Similarly, demonstrate that
you have or will recruit and pay for the necessary
expertise in the finance and operations areas.

Finally, how about the CEO? Who will make
sure the business meets and exceeds business plan
and financial targets? If you are the founder,
inventor or visionary for the company, don't
necessarily assume that you should always be the
chief executive officer. Often very different
personalities and skills are needed to have the
vision to invent a unique product or service and to
manage a company's successful growth. If you
are initially successful, your company can
outgrow your talents.

Take a management and vocational aptitude test
and objectively assess whether you are the best
person to lead the company.  If not, recruit a CEO
or business manager with the requisite skills, or
show in the business plan at what stage such talent
will be recruited.  Even if it means giving up some
of your ownership stake in the company, such
humility and realism in assessing your strengths
and weaknesses can help to ensure long-term
success for a venture.

Succinctly communicating the skills, experience
and motivation of the founders and management
team does not just happen in the business plan
alone. When seeking investors or lenders, nothing
can substitute for direct personal contact. A
young entrepreneur whose experience looks thin
on paper may have such drive and determination
in person that she or he inspires an investor to
become a partner.

Referrals are essential to widening your realm of
contacts. Always try to have a referral source
when contacting a financier, rather than making a
cold call.  Venture capital partners and active
individual investors often get so many business
plans, that they do not give them a second look
unless the company has been referred to them by a
reputable attorney, accountant, entrepreneur or

Marketing Strategy
After your management team, the market for your
company's products or services is the most
important concern for many investors. You may
be tempted to focus on a unique technology or
service strategy you are using, without paying
enough attention to how you are serving your
customers. If you have invented an automated
container sorting device that is technically
elegant, but too expensive for processors to
purchase, you will not have a successful business.
Rather, the focus of your marketing and business
plan should be on the unique value you provide to
your customers, i.e., a cost-effective system for
generating marketable commodities from
commingled recyclable streams. Your marketing
and business strategy should be built around
providing your current and new customers with a
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

unique value that they cannot get from your

Some of the specific questions the marketing
section of your business plan should cover
*  How are your products and services uniquely
   suited to meet customer needs?

*  What market research or testing have you
   done to verify customer interest in buying
   your products or services? How many current
   or prospective customers have been
   interviewed? What directions did this
   research indicate for future offerings?

4  What is the strategy behind your choices of
   product or service design, pricing, locations
   and marketing activities?

*  What are your competitors' strengths and
   weaknesses vis-a-vis your company's,  and
   how will your marketing efforts exploit your
   advantages and minimize disadvantages?

*  How much are you relying on the "green" or
   "recycled" features of your products or
   services to sell them? Are your offerings
   better than those of competitors without
   considering environmental benefits?

*  What is the total market for your product and
   service? How is this total market segmented?
   Which particular market segments will your
   company pursue?
*  What are the marketing expansion plans for
   the company? Will you keep the same
   product or service and offer it to a broader
   range of customers?  Or will your company
   develop new products and services to offer to
   existing customers? Will you try to do both,
   and if so, how will you keep from becoming

*  What are the sales projections for the
   company in the coming years? That is, how
   much of which products and services will be
   sold to how many customers in each period?
   What market share does this represent and
    how does this compare to your existing share
    and those of your competitors?
*   What assumptions are your sales projections
    based on? What are worst and best case
    scenarios—i.e., if your products gain wider
    acceptance more quickly or if an unexpected,
    tough competitor enters your market?

These questions are just a few of those addressed
in thorough market analyses and marketing plans.
These sections can address more detailed issues of
marketing and sales strategies, distribution
channels, advertising and promotions, and public
relations. As the company grows, management
will need to continue to develop its marketing
expertise and planning.

Operations Design
Once you have told your reader who you are, what
you do and to whom you are going to sell, the next
question is: Can you do it?  That is, can the
company deliver the products and services to the
customer on time, at the right price, in the
quantities desired and of a quality that meets or
exceeds the customer's expectations?

Managing a growing recycling operation requires
expertise in personnel, equipment, facilities,
information systems, shipping and materials flow.
Your plan should demonstrate that your team has
thought through what will be needed to meet the
anticipated customer demands projected in the
marketing section.  If you have successfully
managed complex operations before, financiers
can be assured that you can do so again. If you
have not, your operations section must assure
them that you have anticipated the challenges, and
will be tapping into appropriate expertise to
ensure that products and services are produced
within projected budgets.

Readers will be looking for answers to the
following questions about your new or expanded
*   What facilities and equipment will be needed
    to meet your production or service schedule?
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

    Are existing buildings and equipment
    adequate, or have new sites and machinery
    been identified? Is the capital budget for
    these new fixed assets sufficient? Have
    quotations been obtained for these items?
*   What will be the staffing plan for the
    company? What skill levels, compensation
    and benefits are anticipated? How will
    employees be motivated to help provide value
    to your company's customers?

*   What management and information systems
    will be instituted? What systems will help
    assure the quality of the product or service
    provided? How will production expenses and
    components be tracked?  How will the critical
    information get back to employees and the
    management team to help inform continuous
4   What risk management and insurance plan
    does the company have in the case of a
    mishap—equipment failure, natural disaster,
    labor stoppage, shipping problem, etc.?
*   What strategies will the company use to
    manage materials and product flows!  How
    will a regular supply of feedstock or raw
    materials be obtained, transported and stored?
    Has the production flow and process been
    designed to maximize efficiency and quality?
    How will finished products inventory be
    stored and distributed on a timely basis to
*   As the company grows, how will multiple  sites
    maintain the operational procedures
    developed at the home location?  How will
    product and service consistency be maintained
    while allowing for continued innovation and

Financial Overview
Finally, you need to tell the story of your company
in numbers. Some business plans go overboard in
the financial section, printing page after page of
spreadsheets with little explanation. It is more
important that the reader understands the
assumptions behind your financial projections.
Your marketing section should explain how you
arrive at your sales projections.  Likewise, your
operations section should describe what is behind
the operating expense budget. Make sure to
reiterate key assumptions or refer the reader back
to the pages where they are explained in more

If your company has historical and current
financial statements, be sure to include them.
Note whether they have been prepared, reviewed
or audited by an outside accounting firm or
prepared internally. (If you have not yet done so,
hire  an accounting firm to assist in the preparation
of your financial section and move toward having
an annual financial audit done on the company.)
        Figure 2-3
Business Plan Sections and
 Their Relative Importance
  to Individual Investors7

   Business Plan Information:
1)  Clear description of proposed financing
    needed from start to maturity
2)  Marketing plans, including segment on market
    sought or controlled by company, data on
    market size and characteristics, present and
    potential market competition, and future
    market strategy
3)  Summary statement of the purpose and goals
    of the enterprise
4)  History of the firm, financial statements and
    backgrounds (resumes) of key personnel
5)  Clear description of the technical aspects of
    the proposed project
6)  Direct personal knowledge about firm's
    principals and key personnel
7)  Names of principal suppliers and customers
7 Gaston, Robert J., Finding Private Venture Capital For
Your Firm, John Wiley & Sons, 1989, p. 85.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

"Entrepreneurs believe that profit is what matters
most in a new enterprise.  But profit is secondary.
Cashflow matters most. Growing bodies need to
be fed, and a business that grows fast devours
cash.  You have to make constant investments just
to keep even with  it. This is totally predictable, so
getting caught in a cash crunch is totally
unnecessary. "8
Peter Drucker, Clarke Professor of Social Science
and Mgmt., Claremont Graduate School
Your projected financial statements should cover
at least the time period for which you are seeking
a loan or equity investment, and illustrate how
these capital infusions will be repaid. The
statements should include:

*  Balance sheets for the beginning of the
    company's fiscal year and the end of each year
    covered by the plan, listing all assets,
    liabilities and company equity.
»  A fixed asset budget, showing the anticipated
    schedule of investments in plants and

*  Projected income statements for each year of
    the plan, broken down on a monthly basis for
    at least the first two years.  The income
    statement should incorporate revenues
    consistent with the marketing section and
    expenses consistent with the operations,
    financing and marketing sections.
*  Cashflow statements for the same time
    periods as the income statements, showing
    how cash levels will be affected by operating
    income, interest and financing charges, fixed
    asset purchases, changes to current liabilities
    and assets, depreciation, and anticipated
    capital infusions from equity sales or loans.
    Even if the company achieves a positive
    monthly net income according to the projected
    income statements, if cash flow is not
    monitored closely according to projections, a
8 Drucker, Peter, "Flashes of Genius," Inc. Magazine,
May 21, 1996, p. 30.
   business can easily fail. This is especially true
   for recycling companies reliant on materials
   markets that are slow to pay for shipments and
   whose prices fluctuate widely with commodity

Be sure to explain how each statement is derived
such that the anticipated results will be achievable
by the company. The cash flow statement,
particularly, will be essential in predicting the
amount of outside financing you will be needing
to meet your start-up or expansion goals. Some of
the questions your financial section should answer

* When will the company first achieve a net
   monthly income and a positive cashflow?

* What are the greatest expense items for the
   company—labor, equipment or material
   supplies? How will these expenses be
   managed and minimized?
* What levels of equity investment and debt are
   needed for the company to carry out its
   business plan?  When and in what amounts
   will the financing be needed? What will the
   funds be used for—research and development,
   marketing, facilities, equipment or working
   capital? Are some of these uses more
   appropriate for debt financing and others for
   long-term equity investment?
* How much has been invested in the company
   to date and by whom?  What are the total
   assets currently? What level of sales and
   income have been already achieved? How
   will these prior results be improved?
* How will debt financing be repaid^  Is cash
   flow sufficient to more than cover anticipated
   principal and interest payments? What assets
   will collateralize the loan?  Does the company
   have a secondary source of repayment if the
   primary revenue source falls through?

4 How might new equity investors be repaid and
   what appreciation can they expect on their
   investment? Does the company anticipate
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

    repaying investors who wish to cash out in a
    few years through an internal refinancing, a
    merger with or acquisition by another
    company, an initial public offering, or a
    private equity placement of stock?

*   How will the company deal with commodity
    price fluctuations'] What recycled material
    price levels are assumed for the financial
    projections? How much would prices have to
    fall (or rise, if recovered material is used as a
    feedstock) before the business would have
    negative cash flow? How will the company
    protect itself against such commodity price

Contingency Options
For the entrepreneur and investor, it is important
to think through what may go wrong. As an
entrepreneur, you are probably by nature
optimistic about the prospects for your business
and may have been a bit generous in even your
most "conservative" projections.  The contingency
section forces you to think about the worst case
and how you would respond to save the business
and safeguard investor or creditor capital.  Some
risks you should consider include:
*   Sharp decreases in recycled commodity prices
    if you are a collector, processor or supplier of
    materials (or sharp increases if you are a buyer
    and manufacturer).

*   Price cuts or service or product expansions by
    strong competitors in your market.
*   Natural disasters, equipment breakdowns,
    employee injuries,  labor difficulties or
    working capital shortfalls.

*   Government procurement or recycling
    mandate rollbacks that reduce the demand for
    your product or service.

*   Difficulties with getting new technologies to
    operate effectively at desired production
*  Inability to penetrate markets dominated by
   established virgin materials manufacturers or
   waste management companies.
Develop creative and viable responses to the most
likely setbacks your company could face.  In so
doing, you can demonstrate that in the negative
scenarios you may be able safeguard investors'
principal, while in the positive scenarios financial
partners will share handsomely in the company's

Entrepreneurs are often concerned about giving
away proprietary information about their
companies in a business plan. Many investors
will likely be hesitant to sign a confidentiality
agreement before looking at your business plan.
Do not reveal any specific technical or
competitive information in your plan that would
weaken your business if a competitor obtained it.
If revealing such information is necessary to
persuade an interested investor to consider your
company, it can be included later in an offering
circular for which the investor must sign a
confidentiality agreement to obtain.

The title page of the business plan can state "This
document contains confidential and proprietary
information belonging exclusively to
[Company]," and the further disclaimer "This is
a business plan.  It does not imply an offering of
Securities. "9 The business plan copies should also
be numbered, so that you can track their
distribution and limit circulation.

Wrap up the business plan by reminding the
reader why your company is  a good partner for
them. Touch on all of your key competitive
strengths and invite the reader to contact you to
talk further and to arrange a meeting.
                                                    9 Franklin, Burke et. al., Write a Winning Business Plan—
                                                    Reference Guide for BizPlan Builder, 1995, JIAN Tools
                                                    for Sales, Inc., p. 1-3.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                          Figure 2-4—What Investors Look for in Companies'0

    Management team—Company management has been successful in managing other business ventures or corporate
    departments, preferably in the same industry area. In addition to a CEO or owner, the company has recruited a CFO
    or controller, a COO or operations manager, and has significant technical, engineering and marketing staff expertise
    suited to its business. If this broader management team has not been recruited, the business plan lays out a timeline
    and budget for recruiting and hiring necessary financial, operational, technical and marketing management and staff.

    Market opportunity and strategy—The company's products or services have a strategic advantage over competitors in
    the marketplace—they are of better quality, lower price, unique or proprietary design, or offer some other advantage
    to customers. The company has opportunity for expansion either geographically, through partnerships or licensing, or
    through offering a broader range of services or products to existing customers. The company is not excessively reliant
    on only one product, customer or contract.  The company has a strategy for insulating itself from commodity price risk
    fluctuations, manufactures products with significant added value or has service contract revenue.

    Current and projected financial statements—The company has kept thorough and accurate financial records since
    inception, with annual financial reports prepared and preferably audited by a reputable accounting firm.  Financial
    projections are reasonable for the company's industry segment and project investment returns for outside investors
    commensurate with the investment risk.  Margins allow for near-term profitability at realistic sales levels.

    Company stage and status—Business strengths needed at different stages of company development include:
      Start-up, needing seed financing—Strong founding management, unique and tested product or service, significant
      untapped market potential, weak or nonexistent competition.
      Early stage, needing expansion financing —Existing sales with current or near-term profitability, new capital will
      allow company to serve a larger market more efficiently; building a management team, 1+ years of operations.
      Growth company, seeking mezzanine financing—Annual sales over $3 million, current profitability, capital will
      allow far more efficient operations, expanded sales, or stronger capital structure, experienced management team,
      3+ years of operations.
      Mature company, seeking initial public stock  offering, merger,  or acquisition financing—Annual sales over $10
      million, strong sustained profitability and cashflow, strategic market advantage, proven management team, 5+
      years of operations.
10  Kirkpatrick, David, Recycling Venture Forum Study, Final Report, June 1995, KirkWorks, sponsored by U.S. EPA, the
Northeast Recycling Council, the National Recycling Coalition, and the New York State Office of Recycling Market
Development, p. 14.
                           A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Business Planning Resources
Check your community or business school library
for books on business planning and entrepre-
neurship. Some useful books to look for include:

 *  Allen, Kathleen, Launching New Ventures,
    1995, Upstart Publishing.
 *  Baty, Gordon B., Entrepreneurship for the
    Nineties, 1990, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
 *  Franklin, Burke et. al., Write a Winning
    Business Plan—Reference Guide for BizPlan
    Builder, 1995, JIAN Tools for Sales, Inc.
 *  Hawken, Paul, Growing a Business, 1987,
    Fireside, Simon & Schuster.
 *  Kotler, Phillip, Marketing Management,
    Prentice-Hall, Inc.
 *  Siegel, Eric, Brian Ford and Jay Bornstein,
    The Ernst & Young Business Plan Guide,
    1993, John Wiley &  Sons, Inc. (Many large
    accounting and law firms publish similar
    business planning and start-up guides.)
 *  State and regional recycling market
    development offices  and state recycling
    organizations  sometimes publish recycling
    business guides.  For example: A Guide to
    Starting a Recycling Business, 1994 &
    Funding Opportunities for Recycling Business
    Enterprises, 1992 [California Department of
    Conservation, (916)445-1490] and North
    Carolina Resource Guide for Recycling
    Businesses, 1994 [NC Recycling Association,
    (919)851-8444.]  For a guide to all state
    recycling market  development contacts, order
    the Market Development Directory from the
    National Recycling Coalition at (703)683-
U.S. Small Business Administration offers a
range of business and financial planning
publications, software and resources. Contact
the SBA Answer Desk at (800)8-ASK-SBA
and ask for the Resource Directory for Small
Business Management publication guide as
well as the phone number for your SBA
District Office.  The district office can put you
in touch with a local Small Business
Development Center (SBDC) or Service
Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) where
small business  counselors can help with
business planning.  If you have a computer
modem, access SBA's home page on the
world wide web at http://www.sbaonline.
sba.gov/ or dial in to their electronic bulletin
board at (800)697-4636.  Information on
SBA-guaranteed loans and local lenders,
Small Business Innovative  Research (SBIR)
grants, and Small Business Investment
Companies (SBICs) can also be obtained from
the SBA.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

              Chapter 3:  Business Financing Strategies
New and expanding recycling, reuse and
composting companies need capital to grow. New
facilities, equipment, product development and
marketing  campaigns all often demand more
funds than are available internally to the business.

A good business plan should predict the amount
of money needed for each of these specific uses
during the different stages of the business's
growth.  The next step for attaining financing is to
match each intended use of funds with the
appropriate source of financing at the different
stages of the company's development.

This chapter briefly reviews the range of financing
options and then focuses particularly on individual
"angel" investors as a source to fill the equity
financing gap faced by many recycling companies.
The chapter concludes by summarizing the range
of exempt  security offerings allowed by U.S. and
state securities regulators, especially Small
Corporate  Offering Registrations (SCORs) that
help to streamline small company equity

Debt and Equity Financing—Multiple Options
The most basic distinction between financing
sources is between debt and equity.  Debt
financing is essentially borrowing money for a
fee.  Typically, regular payments are required and
interest rates are charged based on the perceived
risk to the  lender. Often the funds are used for
fixed assets that have a collateral value that can
allow the lender to recoup losses if the business
fails. Sources of debt can include commercial
banks, governmentally guaranteed loan providers,
credit unions, suppliers, customers, factor
companies, leasing companies, credit card
companies and governmental loan funds.

Equity financing, on the other hand, involves
selling partial ownership in the company for an
investment of funds.  Typically, company
founders are the first equity investors through
their own "sweat equity" and personal savings.

Other equity sources can include friends and
family, private individual investors, venture
capital funds, corporate partners, employee stock
ownership plans or investment partnerships.
Equity sources of funds are used for purposes that
lenders will typically not finance in young
companies—including research and development,
marketing, working capital and the equity share of
fixed asset purchases.

Traditionally, banks have been viewed as the
primary source of debt financing and owners or
venture capitalists as the main sources of equity
financing. However, entrepreneurial companies
often tap into a much wider range of financing
sources during their start-up and growth. Several
of the business financing books listed in
"Resources" at the end of this chapter provide an
eye opening catalog of the types of business
financing sources and options. A sample list of
potential business funding sources is shown in
Figure 3-1. Contacts at financial trade
associations and federal government finance
programs for many of these sources are listed at
the end of the directory in Chapter 5.
                  Figure 3-1
          Business Funding Sources"

0   Personal savings and equity
0   Moonlighting
0   Home equity loans
0   Insurance policies
0   Credit cards
0   Customers
0   Trade credit with suppliers
0   Trade or barter
0   Stock purchases and options to employees
0   Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPS)
"  Franklin, p. A-l—A-45.
                       A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

             Figure 3-1 (continued)

Private resources
0   Investment from friends and family
0   Angel investors
0   Previous or present employer
0   Individual partners
0   Corporate partners
0   Strategic alliances
0   Private foundations
0   Private placements
0   Limited partnerships

Commercial funding
0   Commercial banks
0   Venture capital
0   Investment banking firms and boutiques
0   State venture capital funds
    Institutional term lenders
    Insurance companies, pension funds
    Commercial finance companies
    Credit unions, savings and loan associations
    Community development financial institutions
    Factoring companies, leasing
    Warehouse receipts financing
    Procurement assistance programs
    Surety bonding companies
Government financing programs
0   State business and industrial development
0   Veterans Administration guaranteed loans
0   Farmers Home Admininistration guaranteed
0   Small Business Administration guaranteed
0   Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR)
0   State or local recycling grants and loans
0   Community Development Block Grants
    (CDBG) & loans
Recycling companies have had success with some
of the governmental funding sources listed above.
In particular, SBA 504 and 7A loans, CDBG
loans, and state recycling loans and grants have
been tapped by reuse, composting and recycling

However, the listing of "moonlighting," "credit
cards," "trade or barter" and "home equity loans"
as business funding sources in Figure 3-1 is not
meant to be flippant.  Rather, they are realistic
ways that many new recycling ventures have been
bootstrapped into existence—through the
sacrifices and personal risks of the entrepreneurs.
Indeed, even among 500 of the fastest growing
companies in 1995, most started with capital from
nontraditional sources. The primary sources of
start-up capital for the 1995 Inc. 500 companies
were as follows: '2
4   Personal savings
4   Family members
4   Partners
4   Angels and friends
4   Bank loans
4   Personal charge cards
4   Venture capital
4   Mortgaged property
Debt Financing Tips
Although debt financing is not the primary focus
of this Guide, it is an important element to
consider as part of an overall financing strategy.
Banks remain the primary source of debt capital
for small businesses, but not every financial
institution is geared toward small business
lending, and even fewer institutions make loans to
high technology companies. Recycling businesses
are advised to target lenders who have familiarity
or expertise with that industry, where possible.

Traditionally, community bankers have played the
most important role in small business lending. As
interstate banking and branching become more
                                                   12 "The 1995 Inc. 500 Almanac," Inc. 500 1995, p. 39.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

prevalent, however, some large national and
regional financial institutions are putting more
emphasis on small business loans. The U.S.
Small Business Administration has published a
state-by-state report, Small Business Lending in
the United States, which rates banks within each
state on whether they are "small business
friendly." (See citation at the end of this

Individual Investors—Family, Friends and
Once companies have tapped internal sources for
equity financing, they often cannot meet all of
their remaining financing needs with debt. For
example, even for profitable businesses, bank and
SBA guaranteed loans often require  at least at a
25% or greater equity share in financing packages.
Additional equity investment can become critical
to pulling the total financing deal together.  New
companies often do not qualify for traditional
loans in any amount, forcing them to rely wholly
on equity or nonconventional financing.

Venture capital firms are rarely the source for this
needed equity investment.  Venture capitalists
have demonstrated minimal interest  in recycling
companies that do not often fit their  profile of
enterprises with the potential for explosive growth
and multiple returns on investment.
Entrepreneurial activity in the communications,
biotechnology, medical, information and internet
fields has captured most venture firms' interest in
recent years, leaving only a very few that may
invest in environmental, manufacturing or
recycling companies.

Fortunately, private individual investors invest
approximately three times as much as professional
venture capital firms into private U.S. companies
on an annual basis.  These "angel" investors are
estimated to invest about $3 billion or more
annually.  They are typically high net worth
13  Gregory Dean, Assistant Chief Counsel for Banking
and Finance, Office of Chief Counsel for Advocacy, U.S.
SBA, comments, August 28, 1996.
individuals who invest in private companies to
achieve investment returns and to participate in an
entrepreneurial venture.

Angel or informal individual investors have been
studied in detail by some business finance
researchers. These studies have documented
significant private equity and debt investment
activity  among a wide variety of individual
                  Figure 3-2
           "Keep Your Eye on Angels"

 ". . . We 're going to have to pay a lot more
attention to the availability of early-stage risk
capital. Entrepreneurs just don 'tflt into what
debt providers are designed to do. And venture-
capital funds have left the start-up field,
particularly when we 're talking about less than $1

 "The participation of the growing population of
 'angels' is going to become more visible.  The
market mechanism right now for deal financing is
really very inefficient and random: who knows
whom, who mentioned something on the golf
course, who talked to his or her accountant lately
about who's looking for money. The marketplace
is also horribly time-consuming.  Next to capital,
time is the scarcest resource entrepreneurs

             Dr. William Wetzel
             Director Emeritus
             Center for Venture Research
             University of New Hampshire
A nationwide survey of individual investors was
conducted in 1987 by Dr. Robert Gaston,
sponsored in part by the Office of Economic
Research of the Small Business Administration.
Based on median responses from the survey, a
14 Wetzel, Dr. William, "Keep Your Eye on Angels," Inc.
Magazine, May 21, 1996, p. 22.
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

composite profile of the U.S. angel investor was
developed, as follows:"

»   Business owner/manager is principal
*   Has professional entrepreneurial experience
*   Has a $90,000 annual income
*   Has a $750,000 net worth
*   Friends and associates are primary
    information source
*   Accepts 3 out of 10 investment opportunities
*   Rejects deals mostly due to insufficient
    growth potential
*   Invests every 18 months
*   Has 3.5 firms in portfolio
*   Two other co-investors per deal
*   $ 131,000 informal equity invested in portfolio
*   $75,000 more via loans/guarantees to portfolio
*   Minimum return on investment target
*   Active as a consultant, board member or
*   Does not seek voting control on company
*   Wants to invest 35% more than opportunity

(Note that these statistics were compiled in the
late 1980's, and the current composite profile of
individual investors is likely different, particularly
with respect to the financial information.)

In addition to objective investment criteria, angels
usually invest based on their "affinity" for a
company, its founders, its technology or business
activity.  In recycling, for example, angel
investors include recycling entrepreneurs and
managers who have been financially successful in
the industry. High net worth individuals who
support recycling for its social and environmental
values are also likely candidates. Finally,
business executives from the waste management,
commodity, and manufacturing industries provide
75 Gaston, Robert J., Finding Private Venture Capital for
Your Firm, John Wiley & Sons, 1989, p. 16.
capital and expertise to new recycling ventures
that they see as the next generation of companies
in their fields.

One report, based on a survey of 328 new firms
that achieved between one and $50 million in
sales, suggests that the affinities of private capital
sources for businesses change for different stages
of company investment. For example, for
investments up to $150,000 during the seed and
start-up stages, the investor's affinity for the
entrepreneur is most important. For investments
up to $210,000 for the business survival/
commercialization phase, the investor's affinity
for the technology or venture becomes more
critical. Finally, for investments of up to
$450,000 during the initial market growth stage,
the investor's affinity for the investment deal
becomes most vital.
The investment networks, meetings and forums as
listed in Chapter 5 provide an excellent means for
recycling entrepreneurs to contact angels and
other financing sources that they could not
identify through their own personal contacts.
These organizations are helping to make the
fragmented market for private investment in
companies operate somewhat more efficiently.

Financing Strategies
The entrepreneur's goal in securing financing
should be to identify the appropriate mix of funds
with the least cost to the business and the fewest
restrictions on business operations. The
founder(s) usually seeks to retain as large a share
of ownership in the firm as possible, so as to
realize returns on the investment and innovation
and to maintain business control.  Sometimes,
however, it is important to realize that equity
investors can contribute much more to the
business than money—including management
expertise, contacts, marketing channels, and
business partners.
  Benjamin, Gerald A., "Correlation of Stage of
Development with Private Capital Source," Earth Angels:
Finding Hard-to-Find Private Investors, Gold Rush Press,
International Capital Resources, (415)296-2519.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Debt providers can also be valuable resources to a
recycling company. For example, even before a
young company is "bankable," it can be useful to
recruit a commercial banker as a business advisor.
The banker may be interested in helping the
venture achieve a level of profitability that will
allow for bank debt to be placed in the future.

As noted in Figure 3-3, fund raising is an ongoing
process for the entrepreneur, in partnership with
his or her board members, management and
professional advisors.  No single source or amount
of capital will be appropriate for all of a
company's financing needs during its
development. Rather, the financing of the
company should be seen as an incremental
process, as with the expansion of staffing,
manufacturing or marketing efforts. At each stage
of company development, the firm only needs to
attain the funds to achieve the next milestone,
while laying the groundwork for future financing
rounds. This staged approach limits the risk for
the entrepreneur and the investor. It also ensures
that  the founder has to give up smaller shares of
his or her company's equity early on, when the
company's valuation is lower.  As success is
achieved on progressive milestones, the company
will be worth more and future equity financing
rounds will yield more dollars for each ownership
share in the company.

Legal Structures for Equity Investments
Whether identifying potential equity investors
through networks, associations, forums or other
methods, the entrepreneur needs to structure the
investment offering with assistance from
appropriate counsel. Legal, accounting and
investment banking advice should be obtained
from professional firms that have experience
working with entrepreneurial companies and
securities laws. Early  advice on structuring
financing for the start-up and growth of a
company can avoid many headaches later.  This
publication is intended to illustrate innovative
approaches for identifying and structuring
business financing, but it cannot replace direct
professional advice from qualified counsel.
                   Figure 3-3
          21 Ways to Make (or Break)
              Financing Success17

 "Most of those in search of capital mistakenly
 think 'the process is all about finding the right
 sources,' according to Bruce Blechman,  co-
 author of Guerrilla Financing and president of the
 Capital Institute based in San Mateo, Calif.
 Actually, only two steps of Blechman's 21-step
 blueprint for financing involve finding sources of
 capital. Blechman points out that his financing
 process is carefully orchestrated, and the steps
follow a logical progression. He advises
 entrepreneurs to  'take one step at a time, master it
 and then go on to the next step.' "

 1)  Business Strategy
 2)  Business Plan
 3)  Financial Projects and Modeling
 4)  Business Plan Review
 5)  Executive Summary
 6)  Valuation of Business
 7)  Financing Strategy
 8)  Guerrilla Financing Techniques
 9)  Financial Source Data  Base
 10) Target Marketing
 11) Initial Mailing of Executive Summary
 12) Investor Follow-Up
 13) Schedule Appointments
 14) Personal Introductions
 15) Face-to-Face Oral Presentation
 16) Questions and Answers
 17) Due Diligence
 18) Structure Terms
 19) Obtain a Financing Commitment
 20) Negotiation Terms
 21) Closing
 17 Ammerman, Peggy, "21 Ways to Make (or Break)
 Financing Success," Indianapolis CEO, June 1994, pp.
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Equity Financing and Securities Laws
Debt financing through banks, SBA lenders,
leasing agents or other sources are relatively
standardized transactions. However, equity
financings (or equity/debt financing
combinations) are often more customized to the
priorities of the company and the investor. When
financiers invest in a company, they are
purchasing company securities, whether shares of
common or preferred stock, warrants or notes.
Such securities transactions are regulated by
federal and state securities laws.  Public offerings
of company stock typically must be registered
with the U.S. Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC), which involves costly filing
and reporting requirements. For most small and
emerging companies, equity financing is usually
structured so as to be exempt from full SEC
registration requirements.

All securities transactions,  even those that are
exempt from registration, are subject to anti-fraud
Figure 3-4
Summary Characteristics of Types of Small Company Equity Offerings
provisions of federal law that hold issuers
responsible for false or misleading statements.
Securities laws are designed to ensure that
accurate and complete information regarding a
company and its financial status and prospects are
provided to potential investors so as to promote
efficient capital markets. A misrepresentation or
omission of a material fact regarding a security
offering is considered securities fraud.

The types of exempt securities offerings permitted
by federal securities laws vary according to the
number and sophistication of investors, the
aggregate amount allowed for the offering, how
the securities are marketed and sold, and other
factors.  Small businesses should be aware that
state securities laws may differ, and that
businesses are required to comply with both
federal and state securities laws and regulations.
SEC Regulation
Total Offering
Amount Limit:

General Solicitation
for Investors:
SEC Registration
and Reporting:

Regulation A
$5 million

No restrictions

Limited solicitation
Offering circular must
be filed with &
"qualified" by the SEC
Reg. D, Rule 506

Accredited investors and
not more than 35 non-
accredited, sophisticated
Not allowed

Form D must be filed,
SEC reports may be
Reg. D, Rule 505
$5 million

Accredited investors and
not more than 35 non-
accredited investors

Not allowed

Form D must be filed,
SEC reports may be
Reg. D, Rule 504
$1 million

No restrictions


Form D must be filed, no
reports required to SEC

18 Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Q&A: Small Business and the SEC (Washington,
DC, June 1994) 13-22 & Walter E. Daniels and Linda Markus Daniels, Legal Considerations for Start-Up Companies
(Durham, NC: Daniels & Daniels, P.A., 1995), pp. 29-33.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

This section will focus primarily on Small
Corporate Offering Registrations (SCORs) as
permitted under SEC Regulation D, Rule 504,
since they are a relatively new approach for cost-
effective small company financing. Before
covering SCORs, however, some of the other
types of exempt equity offerings allowed by SEC
regulations are reviewed below. (For more
detailed information, refer to Q&A: Small
Business and the SEC and other publications
available from the SEC at (202)942-4040 and
contact state securities administrators and a
securities attorney.)
                  Figure 3-5
     The First Digital Public Stock Offering

On February 26, 1996 the Spring Street Brewing
Company completed the first stock offering on the
internet.  The company raised $1.6 million
through a Regulation A offering. The firm also
received SEC approval in March to allow internet
trading of the stock. Wit Capital Corporation was
established to host the trading site and to provide
investment banking services for other public
offerings of securities through the World Wide
Web.  For further information, visit the WWW site
www. witcap. com/caphub. htm.'9
Regulation A Offerings
Under Regulation A, offerings are limited to $5
million within a 12-month period. However, there
are no limitations on the number of investors or
their qualifications, securities may be resold and
traded, and limited advertising is allowed.
Regulation A offerings are usually more
expensive than Regulation D offerings since an
offering circular must be prepared, filed with and
qualified by the SEC before the  sale of securities.
The circulars must be provided to purchasers.
79 Mamis, Robert A., "Andy Klein interview," Inc.
Magazine, July 1996, p. 39.
In contrast to full registration of a public offering
of stock with Form S-l, SB-1 or SB-2, however,
simpler and unaudited financial statements are
allowed and there are no periodic SEC reporting
requirements under Regulation A. Finally, a short
written statement may be distributed to potential
investors under a provision of the regulation, to
allow the issuer to assess whether the full cost of
proceeding with a securities offering is
worthwhile. This "test the water" provision is
allowed by state securities laws in some but not
all states.

Private Offering under Section 4(2), Securities
Act, and Regulation D, Rule 506
Section 4(2) provides an exemption for
"transactions by an issuer not involving any public
offering." Securities sales must be to persons who
are "sophisticated investors," that is, those who
have sufficient knowledge in financial and
business matters to evaluate business risks and
who are able to bear the economic risks of the
investment.  The offering must not be advertised
or be a general solicitation, and securities cannot
be resold or distributed.

Regulation D, Rule 506 provides more
clarification than Section 4(2) by stating  that
offerings are exempt if they are sold to only
accredited investors and not more than 35 non-
accredited but sophisticated investors.
"Accredited investors" are defined by securities
laws as financial institutions and  organizations
with assets exceeding $5  million  or natural
persons whose net worth exceeds $1 million or
who have a regular individual annual income of
$200,000 or a regular joint income of $300,000.
There is no ceiling on the aggregate amount that
can be raised through Section 4(2) or Regulation
D, Rule 506 offerings.  They are typically used for
larger equity transactions with a small number of
investors, especially when the investors are
institutional or venture capital firms.
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Regulation D, Rule 505 Offerings
Rule 505 offerings have all of the restrictions that
apply to Rule 506 except that in addition to selling
to accredited investors, the issuer can sell to up to
35 non-accredited investors who do not have to
meet the definition of a sophisticated investor. In
addition, the total offering price of the securities
during any 12-month period cannot exceed $5
million. Both Rules 505 and 506 require that
specified business and financial information be
provided to non-accredited investors. Form D
must be filed with the SEC. Most states will
accept Form D, a filing fee and an "Issuers
Statement" for Rule 505 or 506 offerings, in lieu
of a separate state registration or approval process.

Regulation D, Rule 504 Offerings/Small
Corporate Offering Registrations (SCORs) or
U-7 Offerings
All of the exempt offerings described above
involve significant legal and accounting expense
and restrictions on contacting potential investors.
There is another option for start-up or small
expanding  businesses requiring smaller amounts
of equity capital and seeking to attract investment
from a wider range of potential small-scale
investors. Regulation D, Rule 504 of the federal
securities law and companion Form U-7 state
registration filings may be better suited to these
small business financing needs. These offerings
are called Small Corporate Offering Registrations
(SCORs).  They are also called Direct Public
Offerings, since securities can be sold by the
company or its agents directly to prospective
shareholders as versus the Initial Public Offering
in which SEC-registered securities are sold
through a managing underwriter.

Regulation D, Rule 504 provides an exemption
from SEC registration for companies making
securities sales of less than $1 million in a 12-
month period.  No limitation is placed on the
number or qualifications of the persons
purchasing the  securities and the offering may be
made through a general solicitation and
advertising. The SCOR securities can be traded
and, as with all Regulation D offerings, a Form D
must be filed with the SEC within 15 days of the
first sale of securities.

These smaller offerings are not exempt from state
securities registration requirements. However,
most states have adopted a standardized Form U-7
registration statement requirement and almost all
states recognize SCOR offerings. Only Alabama,
Delaware, Florida, Hawaii and Nebraska state
securities regulators did not allow SCOR offerings
to be sold in their states as of March 1996.
Regulation D, Rule 504 / U-7 requirements

*  The company issuing the stock must be a
*  The corporation must be involved in a specific
    business activity—no "blind offerings" are
    allowed. The company must not be an
    investment company or involved in an
    extractive industry such as mining or
*  The offering price for the stock must be equal
    to or greater than $5  per share.
4  Financial statements are required. They must
    be audited unless the company has not
    previously  sold securities through a general
    solicitation, the company has not been
    previously  required to file audited statements,
    the aggregate amounts of previously sold
    securities do not exceed $1 million and the
    amount of securities  being registered does not
    exceed $500,000.
4  Either the corporate issuer or selling agents
    may sell the securities, with commissions or
    fees paid only to properly registered agents.
*  No "bad actors" may be involved with the
    company. That is the owners, management or
    brokers must not have been convicted of
    securities violations or been subject to a
    restrictive court order regarding a securities
4  Form U-7 may  not be used to register
    securities for resale by a selling security-
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

*   An attorney's opinion must be obtained on the
    validity of the securities offering and financial
    statements should be prepared and preferably
    audited by a certified public accountant.
*   Unlike purchasers of securities issued under
    Regulations 505 and 506, investors do not
    have to sign a letter demonstrating their intent
    to hold the securities as an investment and not
    to resell them.

Form U-7 is available in hard copy and on
computer disk from the North American
Securities Administrators at (202)737-0900. Send
a $10 cashier's check or money order and request
for SCOR software to: NASAA, 1 Massachusetts
Ave N.W. Suite 310, Washington, DC 20001.

Eight Western states now coordinate their U-7
filing process and provide the publication The
Western Region Issuer's Manual on How to
Complete the Question and Answer Disclosure
Document for Your SCOR or Reg. A Filing.  The
states are Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado,
Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Washington. Contact
the appropriate state securities examiner to
request the above publication, such as the
California Department of Corporations at (213)

As with any equity offering, the issuing
corporation should have a complete business plan
to  demonstrate to investors its plans for growth
and how new capital will be utilized to achieve
that growth. The business plan will be invaluable
in  completing the U-7 registration form, which
must include the following sections:

*   The Company
*   Risk Factors
*   Business and Properties
*   Offering Price Factors
*   Use of Proceeds
*   Capitalization
*   Description of Securities
*   Plan of Distribution
*  Dividends, Distributions and Redemptions
*  Officers and Key Personnel of the Company
*  Directors of the Company
*  Principal Stockholders
*  Management Relationships, Transactions and
*  Litigation
*  Federal Tax Aspects
*  Miscellaneous Factors
*  Financial Statements
*  Management Discussion and Analysis of
   Certain Relevant Factors

U-7 or SCOR offerings are particularly attractive
because they are beginning to allow capital
markets to develop for small companies in a way
that mirrors the liquidity and access of public
capital and stock markets for large companies.
The use of SCORs for business financing is
escalating rapidly.  More than one-third of all
companies registering SCOR offerings to date are
estimated to have raised more than their escrow
requirements, an indication of at least the partial
success of those offerings.

SCOR financing lends itself to raising capital
through "affinity groups" that are interested in and
supportive of the business. These can include
customers, vendors, suppliers, business associates,
friends or family. For a recycling company
making a SCOR  offering, solicitations could be
sent to individuals with a particular interest in
recycling, conservation, or environmental or
socially responsible investing.

The Pacific Stock Exchange's SCOR
In April of 1995, the Pacific Stock Exchange
(PSE) received approval from the Securities and
Exchange Commission to provide a market for
SCOR and Regulation A securities. The SCOR
Marketplace allows listed companies and current
or prospective shareholders to buy and sell
company securities in a public market. By
making these securities more liquid and tradable,
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

the marketplace makes SCOR and Regulation A
offerings more attractive to prospective investors.

To be listed on the SCOR Marketplace, a
company must meet quantitative and qualitative
criteria of the PSE. Quantitatively, the company
must have a minimum of:

*  $500,000 in net tangible assets
4  $750,000 in net worth
+   150,000 publicly held shares
*  $5 offering price per share
»  250 public beneficial holders

Qualitative requirements cover issues of financial
condition, operations, management, asset
composition, bond and credit ratings, competition,
government policies impacting the company and
the use of offering proceeds.  More rigorous
requirements must be met by companies to be
listed by the PSE as "Tier 1" and "Tier 2"
companies. The application processing fee for the
SCOR Marketplace is $500. This fee can be
applied  toward the original listing fee of $5,000.
Annual  maintenance fees for a traded SCOR stock
are $1,000. Finally, the conversion fee to Tier 1
or Tier 2 listing is $15,000.20 See the "Resources"
section for publications on SCOR offerings and
the PSE SCOR Marketplace.

SCOR Offering Limitations
SCOR offerings have several drawbacks,
however.  Separate U-7 forms must be approved
in each  state from which investors are recruited.
New capital investment is limited to $1 million
per year. If larger scale venture capital investors
will be needed at a later stage of company growth,
they may be less interested in investing in a
company that started with a large number of
individual SCOR shareholders.  As with any
equity or debt financing structure, SCOR offerings
should be pursued only after consulting
20 Pacific Stock Exchange, SCOR Marketplace brochure,
San Francisco, CA, September 1995.
appropriate legal, accounting or investment
banking counsel.

A host of alternative financing sources and
strategies are available to entrepreneurial
companies. Recycling, reuse and composting
companies must be innovative in selling their
products or services. Similarly, they must be
creative in marketing the company and its capital
demands to equity and debt partners.

Financing Resources
4  Benjamin, Gerald A., Earth Angels: Finding
    Hard-to-Find Private Investors, Gold Rush
    Press, 1995, International Capital Resources,
*  Blechman, Bruce and Levinson, Jay Conrad,
    Guerrilla Financing—Alternative Techniques
    to Finance Any Small Business, Houghton
    Mifflin Company, 1991.
*  Blum, Laurie, Free Money for Small
    Businesses and Entrepreneurs, John Wiley &
    Sons, 1995. (Information on foundation and
    government grant sources for business
*  Bridging the Valley of Death: Funding
    Technology for a Sustainable Future,
    prepared by the U.S. SBA for the U.S. EPA,
    Interagency Agreement #DW73936877-01,
    December 1994.
*  Diener, Royce, How to Finance a Growing
    Business: An Insider's Guide to Negotiating
    the Capital Markets, Merritt Publishing, 1995,
*  Financial Resources for Recycling and Waste
    Management Entrepreneurs, Resource
    Recycling Magazine, 1994, (503)227-1319.
*  Gaston, Robert J., Finding Private Venture
    Capital for Your Firm, John Wiley & Sons,
    1989, Seed Capital Network, (423)573-4655.
*  Lewis, Michael et al., Financing Recycling-
    Related Ventures, 1995 and Manufacturing
   from Recyclables: 24 Studies of Successful
    Enterprises, 1994, Institute for Local Self-
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

   Reliance, (202)232-4108. (Ask for their full
   publications list.)
   Q&A: Small Business and the SEC, Small
   Business Offering Package and other SEC
   publications, Office of Public Affairs, U.S.
   Securities and Exchange Commission,
   Washington, DC, June 1994, (202)942-4040.
   (Also contact state securities regulators and
   securities attorneys for their publications on
   capital formation.)
   SCOR Marketplace Information Packet,
   Pacific Stock Exchange, 301 Pine Street, San
   Francisco, CA 94104, (415)393-4160.
   SCOR Report—Capital Formation
   Alternatives for Small Companies and the Do
   It Yourself Capitalization Handbook, SCOR
   Report, 1996, (214)406-1838.
   Small Business Lending in the United States,
   U.S. SBA, Washington, DC, 1995 (Send
   request for a report on any state with your
name, address and phone number to (202)205-
6928; also available at http://www.sba.gov/
SmallBusinessLending 1995/)
Other SBA resources may be obtained at the
SBA's Internet site, http://www.sba.gov, or by
calling (800)8-ASKSBA.  A small business
owner can call this number to locate the
closest SBA District Office, through which the
7(a) Guaranteed Loan Program, the 504
Certified Development Program and the SBIC
programs are administered.
Other SEC resources may be obtained at the
SEC's Internet site, http://www.sec.gov.
                       A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

              Chapter 4:  Recycling Investment Forums
Recycling investment forums are events designed
to bring recycling entrepreneurs together with
investors, financiers and economic development
officials for their mutual benefit. The design can
be similar to those of the conventional investment
forums or meetings documented in Chapter 5.
Recycling investment forums, however, are
unique in their focus on recycling-related
companies—ventures that collect, process,
remanufacture, reuse or compost recovered

As of mid-1996, two such forums had been
conducted. The Southeastern Recycling
Investment Forum was organized by the South
Carolina Recycling Market Development
Advisory Council, within the state's Department
of Commerce, and KirkWorks and primarily
sponsored by U.S. EPA Region IV.2'  The forum
was held on November  15 and 16, 1995, in
Charleston, SC, immediately prior to Dare to
Deal, an annual venture capital conference. (See
Figure 4-1 below.)  The Northeast Recycling
Investment Forum was held in Boston on May 6
and 7, 1996, organized by the Northeast Recycling
Council (NERC) and primarily sponsored by  the
EPA New England regional office.22  Co-
organizers included the  Environmental Business
Association of New  York State, KirkWorks and
the Technology Capital  Network at MIT.  Future
recycling investment forums are being planned for
the Northeast in the spring of 1997, the Southeast
in February 1997 and the Midwest in early 1998.
(See Chapter 5 for contact information.)
21 Additional sponsors for the Southeastern Recycling
Investment Forum included the American Plastics
Council, the Environmental Capital Network and the
National Recycling Coalition.
22 Additional sponsors for the Northeast Recycling
Investment Forum included the American Plastics
Council, the Steel Recycling Institute, Boxborough, MA,
Waste Age's Recycling Times, Price Waterhouse LLP, the
Rhode Island Solid Waste Management Corporation and
the New York State Office of Recycling Market
This chapter provides suggestions on designing
and implementing recycling investment forums. It
is based in part on organizing experience from the
two forums noted above. The chapter also
includes sections from the Recycling Venture
Forum Study published in June of 1995 and
conducted by KirkWorks. The Study was
sponsored by the Recycling Advisory Council of
the National Recycling Coalition, the Northeast
Recycling Council, EPA New England and the
New York State Office of Recycling Market

Just as with most small and start-up businesses,
recycling entrepreneurs are discovering that the
market for private equity investment or
nontraditional debt  is inefficient. Although there
are many individual investors, investment firms,
finance companies, intermediaries or other capital
sources that are interested in financing strong
recycling ventures,  reaching these investors is a
costly and difficult  proposition.  Similarly,
investors are looking for efficient ways to find
new investment opportunities and accurate
information on companies, so as to reduce their
marketing and due diligence costs.

Recycling investment forums promise to help
make this financial  market for growing recycling
businesses more efficient. Financiers are familiar
with forums and fairs as a means of learning about
a range of selected companies in a particular
region. Numerous recycling enterprises are in the
market for new financing, ranging from a hundred
thousand to a few million dollars. Often these
companies already are generating sales but have
not yet achieved the history of profitability or
track record necessary for bank financing. They
may also be seeking equity capital for aggressive
expansion.  Forums can facilitate capital access
for recycling companies by bringing them together
with an audience of targeted investors potentially
interested in the size, stage and nature

A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                  Figure 4-1
   South Carolina Department of Commerce
           Press Release—Excerpts
              November 16,1995
Charleston, SC—More than 100 entrepreneurs,
investors, economic development officials and
other interested parties participated in the
Southeastern Recycling Investment Forum in
downtown Charleston on November 15 and 16,
1995. Nine entrepreneurial recycling companies
presented their business plans to forum attendees
and another three ventures provided displays.
Investment perspectives on the recycling industry
were provided by representatives of Edison
Venture Fund and Self-Help Ventures Fund.
Wellman, Inc. was highlighted as a plastics
recycling business success story with major
operations in the Southeast. The forum provided
opportunities for recycling entrepreneurs to meet
investors and economic development officials who
could assist the ventures with their financing and
business development needs. Forum evaluations
completed by attendees indicated that 78% found
the forum "very valuable" to them, 17% found it
"somewhat valuable" and only 5% found it "not
at all valuable."

The presenting companies, which were selected
from a larger pool of applying businesses to be
featured at the forum, were as follows: Consource
Plastic Recycling, Tampa, FL; Metretec,
Pensacola, FL; Environmental Processing
Systems, Great Neck, NY;  Recycling
Environmental Specialists, Hollywood, FL;.
Holston  Companies, Chattanooga, TN; Waste
Reduction Products Corporation, Research
Triangle Park, NC;  Filter Recall, Sanford, FL;
GreenCycle of Georgia, Atlanta,  GA; and Waste
Tire Management,  Lawrenceville, GA. Three
additional companies provided displays:
Blackbird Rubber, Lebanon, IN;  Fisher
Recycling,  Charleston, SC; and Rutech,
Sewickley,  PA.
of the investments that the enterprises are

The Potential Benefits of Recycling Investment
Recycling investment forums offer a range of
potential benefits for the recycling and financial
industries by helping to:
1)  Heighten the interest in recycling firms among
    investors and financial institutions.
2)  Educate investors on the variety of recycling
    investment opportunities, and distinguish
    these opportunities from solid waste,
    environmental and other types of ventures.
3)  Educate recycling entrepreneurs and officials
    about the priorities of investors.
4)  Highlight barriers to recycling business
    expansion  that public  and private policy or
    procedural changes could remedy.
5)  Assist participating recycling firms in raising
    capital for  business growth and expansion.

Recruiting Presenting Businesses
Most of the investment forums and meetings
described in Chapter 5 are focused in a geographic
or metropolitan region but are open to
entrepreneurial ventures from any type of
industry. By focusing on  only recycling
companies, recycling investment forums
significantly narrow the field of potential business
participants. For this reason, the recycling
investment forums that have been conducted to
date have been for regions comprising up to ten
states instead of for a single state or metropolitan
area.  By broadening the geographic range for the
company presenter applicant pool, forum
organizers can help to ensure that enough good
quality companies can be  selected to be of interest
to attending investors and economic developers.
In addition to expanding the geographic range,
forums could be organized for a  broader set of
industries including  recycling companies, such as
the manufacturing or environmental industries.
Again, this would provide a larger population of
firms from which the strongest companies seeking
new capital could be chosen.
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Recycling investment forums should recruit the
strongest recycling companies with unmet capital
demands in their geographic service area. In
particular, those states with active loan or grant
programs should have a good sense of the growing
and reputable recycling firms within their borders
that are ready for an infusion of private capital.
Promotional forum brochures and presenting
company applications can be disseminated
through a range of networks, including:

*  State and regional recycling market
    development officials.
*  State and local economic development
*  National, regional and state trade associations
    for recycling companies and related materials
*  Investor participants, sponsors and networks.
*  Business newspapers and publications in the
    targeted region.
4  Accounting and law firms that serve
    entrepreneurial companies.
4  Entrepreneurial, investor and business

In addition to mailings to these businesses and
associations, direct phone contact should be made
with the chief executive officers of those
companies identified as "hot prospects" by forum
organizers. Start-up companies in formation may
not be on existing mailing lists but may offer
exciting emerging  investment opportunities.
Some enterprises may need to be encouraged to
apply if they are already actively raising capital.
The forum should be marketed as one component
of a company's capital-raising strategy, helping to
facilitate face-to-face meetings with financiers
and providing contacts for future financing

From the experience of the first two recycling
investment forums, it appears that the company
application rate is higher if application forms are
distributed along with forum brochures, rather
than asking that companies specifically request an
application form.  By receiving the application
form, an entrepreneur can immediately see the
level of detail required of the business and
ascertain whether the forum may be an
appropriate activity for the firm.

The recruitment process for businesses and
investors, especially for a new event, will
inevitably be an iterative process. That is,
businesses will be attracted by the investors that
may be present and vice versa. As business
presenters are identified,  some anonymous
descriptions of these businesses and their capital
demands may be helpful to attract new investor
attendees interested in these business profiles.
Similarly, businesses will be encouraged to
participate if they know that the event will be
attended by the types of financiers appropriate to
their capital needs.

Selecting "Presenting" and "Displaying"
If businesses are allowed ten to fifteen minutes
each to present and four hours of business
presentations are scheduled for a one day
recycling venture forum, up to sixteen businesses
can be selected. The first Southeastern forum had
nine business presentations while the Northeast
event had twelve. Increasing the number of
presentations beyond this range could result in
less attention paid to each presentation by the

Aggressive recruitment and a rigorous selection
process are necessary to ensure that the best
quality recycling ventures are presented at the
forum.  As noted in the excerpts from the NERC
brochure in Figure 4-2, some of the initial
screening criteria for applicants can include:

1.  Do the company's activities qualify as
    "recycling" as defined by  the host
2.  Is the company located in or committed to
    opening a facility in the targeted geographic
    area for the forum?
3.  Is the enterprise seeking new outside capital
    for start up or expansion of operations?
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                                         Figure 4-2
                            Northeast Recycling Investment Forum
                                 Northeast Recycling Council
                          Business Recruitment Brochure—Excerpts
                                        January 1996

    Securing adequate capital can be difficult for both new and expanding recycling businesses.
    These difficulties are compounded by the financial community's unfamiliarity with the recycling
    industry's evolving markets and technologies.

    The goal of the Northeast Recycling Investment Forum is to assist recycling businesses in
    obtaining equity capital. The Forum is a one-day event where recycling enterprises formally
    present their business plans to an audience of prospective investors.

    Recycling businesses are invited to apply for participation in the Forum.  The most qualified
    applicants will be selected to present at the Forum by a committee of financial professionals.
    Their decisions will be based on the business' completed application forms and business plans.

    •  Exposure to a diverse  investor audience including: individual "angel" investors, venture
       capital firms, corporations, investment partnerships, government finance agencies and
       other financiers.
    •  Business plan consultation and presentation skills training from Price Waterhouse's
       Environmental Services and Technologies Groups.
    •  Enhanced understanding of how to identify, approach and market to investors.
    •  Positive media attention for your company.

    Start-up and expanding recycling businesses seeking equity capital should apply to participate
    in the Forum.  To be eligible to participate, businesses should be able to answer "YES" to the
    following questions:
    •  Does your company operate or plan to operate a facility in the Northeast?
    •  Is the primary purpose of your business to collect or process recycled materials, and/or
       manufacture or sell products incorporating recycling materials?
    •  Does your company seek equity investments between $100,000 and $5,000,000, and do you
       offer potentially strong investment returns?
    •  Does your company offer unique products or services with documented market
       opportunities and competitive advantages ?
    •  Does your company have strong, proven management or a plan for completing the
       management team?
    •  Does your company have a complete business plan ?
                       A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

4.  Has the company fully completed the
    application and attached a comprehensive
    business plan or summary?

The business presenter application form can be
provided on paper or on computer disk for the
company to return to the forum organizer with a
completed business plan. The sections of the
application for the Southeastern forum included
questions regarding:
*  Company and Management Information
+  Historical and Projected Financial and
    Employment Information
*  Company Products and Services
*  Professional Advisors

Assuming the applicants meet these initial
criteria, applications and business plans must be
reviewed to select the companies most likely to
be attractive to investor attendees. Some existing
forums have developed formalized selection
criteria. For example, the criteria and evaluation
weights by which submissions are judged for the
Utah Venture Capital Conference include:

»  Market and Marketing Strategy      35%
*  Management                      25%
*  Products and Services               15%
*  Company History and Status        15%
*  Financial Summary                10%

The selection committee should be composed of
individuals representative of the target audience,
so that the companies selected will likely be of
interest to attendees.  Candidates would include
representatives of individual investor networks,
investment partnerships, governmental finance
agencies, banks and other financiers who
regularly review business plans. Committee
members must agree to recuse themselves from
recommendations in which they have a potential
financial interest and to keep information about
company applicants confidential.

If the goal of the forum is to be successful in
fostering access to capital for the broad recycling
industry, then the potential for investment
success should be the primary selection standard.
Public policy goals, such as the need for
increased recovery of certain difficult-to-recycle
materials, should take a back seat in the selection

In addition to selecting "presenting" companies,
the selection committee may also decide to
identify other companies not ready for center
stage at the forum but with promising investment
potential. These "displaying" companies could
be allowed one page descriptions in the
conference booklet (see below) or table top
displays at the forum event. Allowing displaying
as well as presenting companies to attend
provides financiers with a wider portfolio of
ventures to review, including more early stage
and small deals.  However, it is important to give
the presenting companies the greatest focus and
access to investors.

Several important business characteristics to look
for in company applications were suggested by
the investor interviews conducted as a part of the
Recycling Venture Forum Study, as presented in
the "What Investors Look for in Companies" list
included as Figure 2-4 in Chapter 2, p. 12.

Polishing Company Presentations
Once presenting firms have been selected, forum
organizers need to work with the presenters to
ensure the quality of their presentations.
Organizers should convene a training  meeting to
preview company presentations and make
suggestions prior to the forum.

This preparation, though demanding of company
management's time, provides excellent training
for other presentations to investors, bankers, and
potential business partners. Presentations should
cover some key areas such as:

*   Business Description
*   Market Opportunity and Strategy
*   Management Team
*   New Capital Needed
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

4   Intended Use of Funds
*   Current and Projected Company Sales and

The first Northeast Recycling Investment Forum
organizers conducted a special presentation
training session for all company presenters three
weeks prior to the forum. The training session
was organized by NERC and the Environmental
Business Association of New York State and
hosted by Price Waterhouse in Boston. The
session began with a review of key business
presentation skills. Then, each company made a
trial business plan presentation. Following their
presentations, they were  critiqued by an investor
network representative, an accountant, an
investment banker and other company
participants. Feedback covered a range of areas

*   Time length of presentation
*   Contact and engagement with the audience
4   Content of the presentation—suggested
    additions and deletions
*   Improvements to the audiovisual presentation

Each  of the companies also received a videotape
of its  presentation and critique session.

By the time of the Northeast forum, companies
had significantly improved their presentations as
a result of the training session.  Indeed, several of
the entrepreneurs remarked that even if they did
not find an investment match at the event, the
training session alone made their participation in
the forum worthwhile.

Both  the forum presentations and the executive
summaries of business plans in the forum booklet
will make important first impressions on the
audience. Forum organizers and presentation
committee members should review company
materials for concerns such as the following:

*   Is the presentation overly focused on  a
    technology that will  bore or confuse
4   Is the verbal and audiovisual presentation
    concise, legible and professionally prepared?
4   Are the essential investor questions regarding
    company history, management, markets,
    financial projections and capital needs
*   Is the founder the best person to make the
    presentation?  Should another management
    member assist or conduct the presentation?

Recruiting Investor Attendees
One measure of the success of a recycling
investment forum is the number and types of
registrants. Two categories of investor invitees
are recommended. The first priority invitees are
those whose investment interests seem to most
closely match the capital demands of recycling
companies. The second priority invitees may be
more appropriate for later stage financing or are
already easily accessible to the business through
local contacts.

First Priority Invitee Categories

*   Community Development Financial
*   Corporate Joint Venture or Acquisition
*   Early Stage Venture Capital Funds
*   Economic and Recycling Market
    Development Agencies
*   Individual Investor Networks or
4   Individual Investors
*   Investment Banking Service Firms
*   Investment Partnerships

Second Priority Invitee Categories

*   Commercial Banks
*   Equipment Finance Funds
4   Later Stage Venture Capital Funds
4   Recycling and Environmental Agencies
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

+  SBA, EDA, HUD, and FHA Lenders or
4  State and Local Financing Program Officials

Contacts at targeted financial institutions can be
obtained through finance trade associations,
existing venture forum lists, investment networks
and direct referrals.

Attracting strong attendance from targeted
financial institutions and investors is a challenge.
For a new recycling investment forum, it is
important to establish credibility with investors
through the  name recognition of hosting and
sponsoring organizations, professionally printed
materials and referral from other peers in the
field. Media coverage of the upcoming forum in
recycling, finance and business periodicals can
also help to  establish credibility. Recognized
keynote speakers who can address financier
interests, perhaps in regard to recycling and
environmental industry trends, could also be
important. Finally, recruitment of top-notch
presenting businesses will help establish the
forum as the "place to be" to see the best
recycling investment opportunities in the region.

Recruitment efforts for the two recycling
investment forums conducted as of the date of
this publication included:

*  Compilation of investor and financier
    databases from multiple sources
*  Mailing  of a "Save the Date" card three or
    more months before the forum
*  Mailing  of a registration brochure two
    months prior to the forum
*  Joint mailing and publicity with companion
*  Joint mailing and distribution of the forum
    flyer through existing venture  networks and
*  Direct telephone contact to a "hot list" of
    potential investor attendees
4   Fax of selected company descriptions and
    forum information sent to a subset of the
    database two weeks prior to the forum
*   Media coverage sought and advertising
    purchased in publications read by the target

The experience of the first two recycling
investment forums indicates that attracting
sufficient investor attendance is the greatest
challenge in conducting a successful forum. The
Southeast and Northeast forums attracted 100
and 150 attendees, respectively. These attendee
totals were approximately evenly divided among
three categories:

*   "Presenting" and "displaying" company
*   Investors and financial institution
»   Recycling, governmental and economic
    development officials and service providers

In each of these first two recycling investment
forums, investor attendance was lower than
hoped for by forum organizers, but sufficient for
many fruitful contacts to be made by
entrepreneurs that may result in new investments.
In evaluations of the forums, company officials
also mentioned the benefit of the contacts they
made with state recycling and economic
development officials and the other participating

However, as new forums are organized,
particularly in regions of the country with a
lower concentration of active investors in
entrepreneurial companies, special attention
should be paid to  the target audience. If strong
attendance by investors is not anticipated, the
event can be more designed to highlight its
entrepreneurial training and economic
development educational features. With such a
design  and understanding by  all parties, a forum
can be  successful  even if no new investments are
a direct result of the event.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Forum Agenda and Logistics
The venture forums and fairs and meetings listed
in Chapter 5 vary in length from a half-day to
two days. Typically, those events with nearby
attendees have shorter schedules while the multi-
state regional forums may run longer, including
receptions and dinners.  A recycling investment
forum could be scheduled as a  one- or two-day
event, perhaps beginning with an evening
registration, reception and open display area,
followed by a full day of business presentations,
meetings and the keynote speaker, as shown in
Figure 4-3.
                   Figure 4-3
  Sample Recycling Investment Forum Agenda


  5-7 PM       Arrivals, Registration

  6-9 PM       Reception with Company Displays


  9 AM         Welcome, Sponsor Recognition,
               Business Presenter Introductions

  9:30 AM      Recycling Venture
  -12:30 PM     Presentations (12 @ 15 mm. each)

  -1:30PM     Lunch, Keynote Speaker

  1:30-4 PM     Ongoing Reception and Displays
Attendance may be enhanced if the recycling
investment forum is conducted in conjunction
with another event that investors may be
interested in attending. For example, the first
Southeastern Recycling Investment Forum was
scheduled immediately preceding the annual
Dare to Deal venture capital conference in
Charleston. Few investors ended up attending
both events, since the programs and presenting
companies were quite different.  However, the
joint publicity and mailings helped lend
credibility to the first recycling investment event
for the region.

The Northeast Recycling Investment Forum was
held in conjunction with the New England
Environmental Expo.  Forum attendees received
free passes to visit the expo's trade show with its
hundreds of environmental and recycling
companies displaying.

The space for the forum should allow for a large
enough meeting room or auditorium for company
presentations to the entire audience. A display
area, with refreshments, should allow for
attendees to examine company products and
information at their leisure. This reception area
should be near but not in the same room as the
presentation area, to allow company
representatives and attendees to talk informally at
times while other presentations are being made.

Forum Registration and Attendance
Venture forums and fairs charge between $50 and
$500 per registrant, depending on  the length of the
event and the venue. The first Southeastern Forum
charged attendees $125 while the first Northeastern
Forum charged $250.  The registration fee should
help defray costs and communicate the value of
the event, yet not be prohibitively expensive for
interested parties.

Presenting businesses could be charged an
application fee to help cover the  costs of
reviewing the application and business plan and
to help screen for serious ventures. This initial
fee can be deducted from the  registration fee if
the company is selected to present or display.

The primary attendees at the recycling forum
should be presenting company representatives
and interested investors, financing sources and
economic developers. Inevitably, other parties
will be interested in attending, including finance
intermediaries, lawyers, accountants, other
businesses and recycling officials.  Most venture
fairs do not restrict admittance. Some use color-
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

coded name tags or ribbons and conference
materials to help identify presenting companies,
sponsors, and investors. Seeking to exclude
interested observers could engender ill will and
may also reduce positive networking
opportunities for businesses and investors. An
open door policy would also help the recycling
forums to move toward sustainability based on
registration fees and sponsorships.  However,
certain securities law precautions should be taken
regarding attendees, as noted below.

A conference booklet should be printed for the
forum and given to attendees at registration. The
booklet could include recognition of forum
organizers and sponsors. Summaries of any
keynote talks could also be included. Short
business plan executive summaries for each
presenting company in a standard format should
make up the bulk of the booklet. A schedule for
presentations should be included so that investors
can easily follow the presentations  and have
further details at hand.  Short descriptions of the
displaying companies present at the forum could
also be included. Finally, general business or
investment analysis reports regarding the
recycling industry can be included. Consistent
with securities laws, after the forum the booklet
may also be made available to financiers who
could not attend the event, to widen the potential
financing impact of the forum.

Forum Sponsorships
Forum sponsors can help fund the event and
make it sustainable on an annual basis.  Well-
known sponsors can also provide credibility for a
first-time venture forum. In addition to
recognition in the forum booklet, printed
materials and at the event, sponsors at certain
donation levels can be provided with limited
complimentary registrations to the forum.
Sponsorship levels at existing forums and fairs
range from a few hundred dollars for smaller
events to $10,000 or more.  Potential recycling
investment forum sponsors would include:
*  Accounting firms
*  Economic development agencies
 *  Federal agencies
 *  Financial institutions and banks
 *  Foundations
 *  Insurance companies
 *  Law firms
 *  Nonprofit recycling organizations and
 *  Recycling and commodity trade associations
 *  Recycling corporations
 *  Recycling market development agencies
 *  Recycling trade publications
 *  Utilities

Sample Recycling Investment Forum Budget
A sample forum budget is in Figure 4-4. The
budget assumes that the forum host has access to
significant volunteer assistance through the
recycling and financial industries. Volunteers
could assist with company and investor
recruitment, business selection and presentation
training. A start-up grant is assumed for the first
year of a forum. Registration and sponsorship
revenues could  cover an increasing share of costs
in future years,  if the forum is conducted

The budget shown in Figure 4-4 is only an
estimate. Costs will vary based  on the location
for the event, its duration, staffing and contract
costs. If forum  organizers and sponsors are able
to supply significant in-kind expertise and
resources, costs can be reduced.  If a forum is the
first event of its kind for a region or a hosting
organization, expenses will likely be higher.

Legal Precautions
Federal  and state securities laws and regulations
place restrictions on individuals  or organizations
offering company securities for sale. A securities
lawyer should be consulted to provide guidelines
for the organization of any recycling investment
forum or event so as to ensure that the event is
conducted in compliance with all applicable
federal and state laws. (See Chapter 3 for some
of the restrictions placed on company's or their
agents regarding contact with investors,
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Figure 4-4
Sample Recycling Investment Forum Budget
Registration Fees

Presenter Application Fees
In-Kind Support
Start-Up Grant
Total Revenue
Postage/ Travel/ Communications
Reception/ Lunch/ Facilities
Securities Attorney
Presentation Training
Staff, Office and Contract Costs
Total Expenses

$ 70,000
$ 70,000
16 presenting or displaying businesses with two
attendees per company
100 investor and other attendees at $125/person
40 company applicants (not selected) @ $25
5 sponsors at $1,000
Forum organizer and partner in-kind services
Start-up grant

Forum brochures and booklets
Mailings, calls, faxes, speaker travel
Evening reception, lunch, conference space
Legal opinion on forum organizing guidelines
Travel and training expenses
Forum coordination, business recruitment and
selection, investor recruitment, presentation

depending upon the legal structure of the equity
investment they are seeking.) The information
provided in this publication is not meant to take
the place of appropriate legal and accounting
advice for either forum organizers or
participating companies or investors.

Several existing venture forums and fairs were
surveyed for the Recycling Venture Forum Study.
Organizers of those events that were marketed
toward professional venture capital investors had
fewer concerns about securities laws because
they expected a level of sophistication from their
accredited investors. Most had their own or a
sponsor's attorney familiar with securities law
review their event plans and  suggest safe
operating guidelines. Those forums that involved
individual investors took even greater
precautions to assure compliance with securities
laws and regulations.

The Northeast Recycling Council received pro
bono advice from a law firm specializing in
securities law for the Northeast forum. The firm
recommended that NERC include the statement
shown in Figure 4-5 in its forum booklet and
included a  similar statement in the registration
brochure. Figure 4-5 is not meant to take the
place of appropriate legal and accounting advice
for either forum organizers or participating
companies or investors.

Forum Evaluation
Recycling investment forums can be evaluated
based on the direct and indirect benefits they may
offer to participants and the recycling and
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

investment industries. Direct benefits result from
the forums if new investments are made in
presenting and displaying companies as a result
of the forum.  Organizers should make sure that
companies agree on the application form to
disclose to the host organization their financing
results for one year after the event. With these
disclosures, the direct financing benefits of the
forum can be evaluated.

Indirect benefits of the forums could occur if
financiers become more active in financing
recycling firms, in general. Business applicants
could also benefit if through the application,
presentation training and forum process they
develop a greater sense of investor priorities and
how their company can best access new capital.
Finally, all attendees and the general public, via
press coverage and publications, can achieve a
greater understanding of the opportunities in
financing innovative recycling businesses.

These direct and indirect benefits can be
measured through written surveys of forum
participants immediately at the end of the event
and telephone surveys of business presenters and
forum attendees  six months to a year after the

Limitations of Recycling Investment Forums
Recycling-specific investment forums are only
one of many strategies for fostering capital
formation and entrepreneurial development in the
recycling industry. Forums as described in this
chapter are most appropriate when conducted for
a relatively large area with significant numbers of
active recycling companies and  interested equity
investors. Prospective forum organizers should
team up with firms or organizations with
experience working with private investors, such
as some of those listed in Chapter 5.

The start-up costs of organizing a new forum for
an organization that has not conducted such an
event are significant. Significant work must go
into ensuring compliance with state and federal
securities laws, as well as into ensuring strong
recycling company and investor participation.
Recycling market development officials should
also focus on "mainstreaming" recycling
companies by connecting them with capital
sources, investment networks and events as
summarized in Chapters 3 and 5.

Finally, for the recycling entrepreneur,
participating in a recycling investment forum is
only one component of a capital-raising strategy.
Developing a complete business plan, assembling
a management team and business advisors, and
beginning to build a viable company are all
essential.  The opportunity to present at a
recycling investment forum provides the
entrepreneur with one way to contact a new
circle of potential equity investors efficiently.

Venture forums and meetings are effective means
of fostering investments in new and expanding
companies. If designed properly, recycling
investment forums promise to be  an excellent
vehicle for financing well managed recycling
companies. The forums also can  educate the
investment and economic development
communities about trends, challenges and
opportunities in the growing recycling industry.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                                        Figure 4-5
                           Northeast Recycling Investment Forum
                                Northeast Recycling Council
                                 Forum Booklet—Excerpt
                                       May 7,1996


    1. The Northeast Recycling Investment Forum is an opportunity for recycling businesses
    searching for financing to present their business plans to an audience of investors. The Northeast
    Recycling Council, its consultants and sponsors for the Forum, herein referred to as NERC, as the
    coordinators of this event, are not functioning as securities broker/dealer or investment advisers,
    and are not registered as such with the Securities & Exchange Commission.


    3. NERC has not examined and does not endorse or recommend any security which may be
    offered for sale by entrepreneurs at the Investment Forum.  NERC makes no assurances to
    companies or investors regarding financing or other outcomes of the Forum. Both entrepreneur
    and investor participants agree to assume full responsibility for their representations and actions
    in conjunction with the Forum.

    4. All investors are encouraged to seek legal and other professional counsel prior to making
    investments in the participating businesses at the Northeast Recycling Investment Forum.
    The information provided in Figure 4-5 is not meant to take the place of appropriate legal
    and accounting advice for either forum organizers or participating companies or investors.
                     A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

              Chapter 5: Investment Forum, Meeting,
                  Network and Association Directory
New strategies have been developed in the last
several years to bring entrepreneurial companies
together with prospective investors and others
who can assist in business growth. The events
and organizations listed in the directory in this
chapter can help to foster access to capital for new
and expanding recycling ventures in a variety of
ways. The directory entries can be categorized as
either investment forums, investment meetings
and investment networks, or associations, as
defined below:
Investment Forums
Investment forums tend to be annual events in
which 10 to 40 businesses selected from a larger
pool of applicants make presentations for a group
of attending investors and service providers.
Networking opportunities are often arranged for
presenting entrepreneurs and investors in these
one- to three-day events. Special keynote talks of
particular interest to private equity investors are
also often featured. The annual forums typically
select for high growth companies that may have
appeal to professional venture capital, corporate
or private individual investors. They generally
serve an entire state or a multi-state region.  Of
the  104 directory entries, the 23 events best
meeting this description, in the geographic order
in which the are listed in the directory, include:
Figure 5-1: Investment Forums
Event Citv
1) Northeast Recycling Investment Forum
2) New Jersey Venture Fair
3) The Upstate NY & Canada Inv. Conference
4) Mid-Atlantic Venture Fair
5) Pittsburgh Growth Capital Conference
6) Central Florida Venture Capital Conference
7) Florida Venture Forum
8) NC Venture Conference
9) Dare to Deal — Southeast Capital Connection
10) Southeast Recycling Investment Forum
11) Great Midwest Venture Capital Conference
12) Michigan Growth Capital Symposium
13) Innovest
14) Wisconsin Venture Fair
15) Oklahoma Investment Forum
16) Southwest Venture Forum
17) Texas Venture Capital Conference
18) Midwest Recycling Investment Forum
19) Venture Capital in the Rockies
20) Utah Venture Capital Conference
21) Arizona Venture Capital Conference
22) Bay Area Venture Forum
23) Los Angeles Technology Venture Forum
Brattleboro, VT
Princeton, NJ
Rochester, NY
Timonium, MD
Pittsburgh, PA
Orlando, FL
Coral Gables, FL
Charleston, SC
Columbia, SC
Indianapolis, IN
Ann Arbor, MI
Cleveland, OH
Madison, WI
Tulsa, OK
Dallas, TX
Austin, TX
Lincoln, NE
Denver, CO
Salt Lake City, UT
Phoenix, AZ
San Francisco, CA
Los Angeles, CA
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Investment/Entrepreneurial Meetings
Investment and entrepreneurial meetings tend to
be more frequent monthly or quarterly breakfast
or lunch meetings of investors and others
interested in new ventures with a single topic or
speaker. Often the speakers address investment
opportunities in a particular industry sector and
may themselves be entrepreneurs.  Several such
meetings have very short (one to five minute)
prepared presentations from selected
entrepreneurial ventures. The investment
meetings tend to serve smaller in-state regions and
involve fewer venture capitalists and more
individual investors than the venture forums.
Presenting companies are usually local enterprises
seeking capital and other resources for business
start-up and growth.  Some of the organizations
provide services either solely to entrepreneurs or
solely to investors. See the directory descriptions
for details on each group's mission, services and
programs. Of the 104 directory entries, the 65
organizations that conduct investment or
entrepreneurial meetings, sorted in the geographic
order in which they appear in the directory, are as
Figure 5-2: Investment/Entrepreneurial Meetings
Organization Citv
1 ) Connecticut Venture Group
2) MIT Enterprise Forum of Connecticut, Inc
3) MIT Enterprise Forum of Cambridge
4) MIT Enterprise Forums
5) Vermont Venture Network
6) New Jersey Entrepreneurial Network
7) Venture Assoc. of New Jersey
8) Long Island Venture Group
9) MIT Enterprise Forum of New York City
10) New York Venture Capital Forum
11) New York Venture Group
12) Western New York Venture Association
13) Delaware Entrepreneurs' Forum
14) Baltimore Washington Venture Group
15) Delaware Valley Venture Group
16) MIT Enterprise Forum of Pittsburgh
17) Pennsylvania Innovation Network
1 8) Pennsylvania Private Investors Group (PPIG)
19) Venture Investment Forum of Central PA
20) MIT Enterprise Forum of Wash.-Baltimore
21) Richmond Venture Capital Club
22) First Coast Venture Capital Group
23) The Founders Forum
24) Gainesville Area Innovation Network, Inc.
25) Tampa Bay Venture Forum
26) Atlanta Venture Forum
27) The Venture Club of Louisville
28) MIT Enterprise Forum of Chicago
29) Venture Club of Indiana
Fayetteville, CT
Hartford, CT
Cambridge, MA
Cambridge, MA
Burlington, VT
Princeton, NJ
Morristown, NJ
Brookville, NY
New York, NY
New York, NY
New York, NY
Amherst, NY
Wilmington, DE
College Park, MD
Philadelphia, PA
Trafford, PA
Malvern, PA
Wayne, PA
Camp Hill, PA
Arlington, VA
Midlothian, VA
Jacksonville, FL
Melbourne, FL
Gainesville, FL
Tampa, FL
Atlanta, GA
Louisville, KY
Chicago, IL
Indianapolis, IN
                         A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Figure 5-2: Investment/Entrepreneurial Meetings (cont.)
Oeanization City
30) Capital Enterprise Forum
31) Michiana Investment Network
32) Mid-Michigan Venture Capital Forum
33) New Enterprise Forum
34) The Southeastern Michigan Venture Group
35) Traverse Bay Enterprise Forum
36) West Michigan Business/Finance Forum
37) The Collaborative
38) Greater Cincinnati Venture Association
39) Miami Valley Venture Association
40) Wisconsin Venture Network
41) The Venture Network
42) Entrepreneurs of Tulsa
43) Oklahoma Venture Forum
44) Central Texas Venture Capital Group
45) Dallas Venture Capital Forum
46) Houston Venture Capital Association
47) MIT Enterprise Forum of Dallas-Fort Worth
48) MIT Enterprise Forum of Texas
49) Venture Network of Iowa
50) Missouri Innovation Center
51) Missouri Venture Forum
52) The Rockies Venture Club
53) Enterprise Network
54) California Capital Access Forum
55) Cal Tech/MIT Enterprise Forum
56) Central Coast MIT Enterprise Forum
57) Los Angeles Venture Association
58) MIT Enterprise Forum of San Diego
59) MIT Enterprise Forum of the Bay Area
60) Orange Coast Venture Group
61) San Diego Venture Group
62) Hawaii Venture Capital Association
63) Oregon Enterprise Forum
64) MIT Enterprise Forum of the Northwest
65) Northwest Venture Group
Lansing, MI
South Bend, IN
Bay City, MI
Ann Arbor, MI
Detroit, MI
Traverse City, MI
Grand Rapids, MI
Minneapolis, MN
Cincinnati, OH
Dayton, OH
Milwaukee, WI
New Orleans, LA
Tulsa, OK
Oklahoma City, OK
Waco, TX
Dallas, TX
Houston, TX
Dallas, TX
Houston, TX
Des Moines, IA
Columbia, MO
St. Louis, MO
Denver, CO
Phoenix, AZ
Santa Monica, CA
Pasadena, CA
Agoura Hills, CA
Santa Monica, CA
San Diego, CA
Santa Clara, CA
Laguna Hills, CA
San Diego, CA
Kailua, HI
Portland, OR
Seattle, WA
Seattle, WA
Investment Networks
Investment networks are services that match
investors' interests with companies seeking
additional capital.  The matchmaking process
usually has four steps:
1) Companies submit executive business
   summaries, financial projections and an
   entrepreneur's profile application. Investors
   submit an investment preference profile. Both
 A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

investors and companies typically pay a fee to
be listed on the network.
The data are entered into a computer database,
interest matches are made, and investors are
sent the summaries of those companies that
meet their requirements. At this stage, the
names of investors and companies are
The investor reviews the summaries and
contacts the network if it is interested in
meeting an entrepreneur. The network then
provides both parties with information on how
to contact one another.
Once  introductions have been made,
investment negotiations can occur directly
between the two parties.
A few of the networks, such as the Western
Investment Network and the Environmental
Capital Network, provide all business profiles to
all network investors, instead of conducting the
matchmaking service described above. Most of
the networks are statewide or regional. The
Technology Capital Network at MIT, the Seed
Capital Network, the Investors' Circle, the
Environmental Capital Network and the Capital
Network are national in scope. The 16 investment
networks identified for the directory, in the
geographic order in which they are listed, are as
Figure 5-3: Investment Networks
Network City
1) Technology Capital Network at MIT
2) Mid- Atlantic Investment Network
3) Kentucky Investment Capital Network
4) North Carolina Investor Network
5) Private Investor Network
6) Seed Capital Network
7) Investors' Circle
8) Private Investors Network
9) Environmental Capital Network
10) The Capital Network
1 1) Capital Resource Network
12) Montana Private Capital Network
13) Pacific Venture Capital Network
14) Silicon Valley Capital Network
15) Alaska InvestNet
16) Western Investment Network
Cambridge, MA
College Park, MD
Frankfort, KY
Raleigh, NC
Aiken, SC
Knoxville, TN
West Chicago, IL
Bloomington, IN
Ann Arbor, MI
Austin, TX
Kansas City, MO
Poulson, MT
Irvine, CA
Sunnyvale, CA
Juneau, AK
Seattle, WA
National Finance and Business Development
Organizations and Federal Finance Programs
At the end of the directory, a listing of national
financial and entrepreneurial associations is
provided. These associations can provide member
directories and guides to accessing financial or
business development resources.  A list of
contacts for federal financing programs is also
                                                Value to Recycling Businesses
                                                Recycling, reuse and composting entrepreneurs
                                                and the economic developers that serve them can
                                                benefit from participating in the organizations
                                                listed in this directory. A recycling venture
                                                seeking capital may want to present its business
                                                through one of the forums, meetings or networks.
                                                Even if not selected to present, involvement in
                                                these organizations will help to connect
                        A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

entrepreneurs and economic developers with
investors and resources that can benefit the
recycling industry.  Some groups, such as the MIT
Enterprise Forums, provide entrepreneurs help in
refining their business plans and presentations.
 "Networks, however, will not solve all problems...
 They have no role in quality control, nor in
 pricing, structuring or monitoring any deal, all of
 which are significant factors determining the
 ultimate success or failure of an enterprise.

 Despite these limitations, networks such as VCN
 (Venture Capital Network, Inc. now Technology
 Capital Network, Inc.) have a potentially
 important role in increasing market efficiency,
 and thus in reducing the equity financing gap.
 They provide a confidential means of drawing
from a wider geographical area to bring
 entrepreneurs and investors together,  and of
 offering investors a reasonable flow of investment
 opportunities. Further, they provide the means to
 expand the informal venture capital market by
 lowering barriers  to the entry into the market of
 potential new individual investors. "23

 John Freear, Jeffrey E. Sohl  and William E.
 Wetzel, "The Private Investor Market for Venture
However, not all of these events or organizations
will be useful to all recycling entrepreneurs in
their region.  Some of the forums, for example,
are focused exclusively on high growth and high
technology companies attractive to venture capital
firms. As such, they have rarely, if ever, featured
recycling companies. Nevertheless, participation
in innovative entrepreneurial and investment
events can help recycling business owners and
managers learn how they need to strengthen their
companies to achieve success and attract capital.
   Freear, John, Jeffrey E. Sohl and William E. Wetzel,
Jr., "The Private Investor Market for Venture Capital,"
The Financier: ACMT, Vol. 1, No. 2, May 1994, pp. 13-
Using the Directory
Note that the names of the events or organizations
do not necessarily correspond to this publication's
characterization of their activities.  For example,
some "venture forums" and "networks" conduct
investment meetings as defined above. Many of
the organizations listed conduct a range of
activities designed to foster entrepreneurial
development and private equity investing.  The
directory descriptions listed below focus primarily
on the business finance-related programs.
However, it is important to note that participating
entrepreneurs, in addition to seeking to identify
potential investors, often also benefit by finding
service providers or new management members,
receiving business and marketing plan feedback,
and learning about economic development or
governmental programs.

The directory lists organizations and events
together geographically  since several serve
adjacent multi-state areas. The directory sections
are sorted by the ten EPA-defined regions for the
United States. Within each region, entries are
sorted alphabetically by state, and then
alphabetically by name of organization or event.
The map preceding the directory entries will assist
the user in locating areas of interest.

An address and phone number are provided for all
entries with a short description.  Fax number,
email address and internet URL for WWW home
page or reference are provided where available.
This directory is not exhaustive and lists only
those organizations or events for which
information was obtained for this publication.
New organizations or entrepreneurial services in
each region can be identified by contacting the
active regional groups listed in the directory.
Descriptions in  quotes have been excerpted
directly from organization brochures or materials.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                                EPA Regional Offices
(Use this map to locate your area of interest):
Region 1: New England
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont

Region 2: New York and New Jersey
New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico

Region 3: Mid-Atlantic
Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West
Virginia, District of Columbia

Region 4: Southeast
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee

Region 5: Great Lakes
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio,
Region 6: Southwest
Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma,

Region?: Midwest
Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska

Region 8: The Plains
Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming,
Utah, Colorado

Region 9: California, Nevada, Arizona, &
Arizona,  California, Hawaii, Nevada

Region 10: Northwest
Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington
                      A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                      REGION 1:  NEW ENGLAND
Mr. Mike Roer
425 Catena Drive
Fayetteville, CT 06430
Fax (203)676-0405
The Connecticut Venture Group "is a voluntary professional
organization dedicated to the support of the venture investment
process by providing a network and forum for those directly
involved in creating new, high growth enterprises."

Hosts monthly and bimonthly meetings in Bridgeport, Hartford,
New Haven, and Stamford.  Investors, entrepreneurs, service
professional and governmental officials participate. Investment
speakers and short business presentations are featured at
Mr. Frank Marco
151 New Park Avenue
Hartford, CT 06106
Tel (860)251-5939
Fax (203)251-5900
Email: conforum@mit.edu
The MIT Enterprise Forum of Connecticut "is a non-profit
educational organization designed to service and support the
entrepreneurial community by assisting companies in key phases
of development, growth and change." See MIT Enterprise
Forum, Cambridge, MA for further information.
Mr. Jack Derby
201 Vassar Street
Building W59-219
Cambridge, MA 02139
Tel (617)253-8240
Fax (617)258-7264
Email: mitefcmb@mit.edu
"The MIT Enterprise Forum of Cambridge hosts two
monthly sessions or 'case presentations' that address the separate
needs of 'start-ups' and more established companies. In both
meetings, the company's CEO presents a twenty-minute
summary of his/her company's current business operations,
objectives, and issues." Presenters receive feedback from a
panel of experts and have exposure to entrepreneurs, managers,
technologists, investors, service providers, and students. The
Forum also organizes workshops and seminars useful to
Ms. Kathleen Hagan
201 Yasser Street
Cambridge, MA  02139-4310
Fax (617)258-0064
Email: bolton@mit.edu
Internet URL:
"The MIT Enterprise Forum promotes the formation and
growth of innovative and technologically-oriented companies
through a series of specialized executive education prbgrams.
Founded in 1978, the MIT Enterprise Forum operates through an
enterprise network of 18 chapters based in the U.S. (also listed in
this directory) and overseas."

"The typical chapter offers advice, support and educational
services for local area emerging technology-based
companies....Among the most valuable uses of the many Forum
activities is as a networking tool. Forum members have the
opportunity to meet with a broad spectrum of the local business
community, including venture capitalists, private investors,
industry experts and other successful entrepreneurs."
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Ms. Betty Kadis
290 Main Street-Building E-39
Cambridge, MA 02142
Tel (617)253-7163
Fax (617)258-9375
"Technology Capital Network at MIT (TCN) provides
entrepreneurs with cost-effective services for finding sources of
seed and start-up capital, and in turn, provides investors with
convenient, confidential methods for uncovering early stage or
high growth companies as potential investments." Investor
members are provided with profiles of ventures that match their
interests. At the investor's request, TCN introduces them to
participating entrepreneurs.

TCN was founded in 1984 and is one of the oldest investment
networks. Today it has over 90 angel investors and 170
entrepreneurs in its network. There are no geographic
restrictions on either entrepreneurs or investors.  Capital  seeking
companies which work with TCN typically come from the
computer, high technology, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and
health/medical fields.  Companies most likely to benefit from
TCN will be seeking between $50K and $1 million in equity
financing. In 1994, TCN helped 22 early stage companies
obtain $6.67 million in capital.

There is a $300 registration fee for entrepreneurs for one year.
Individual investors pay a $300 fee for one year and receive a
maximum of 100 leads. Venture capital funds, corporate inves-
tors, and institutional must pay a $600 membership fee per year
(unlimited leads).  TCN also organizes Venture Capital Forums
for the Massachusetts Office of Business Development and is a
co-organizer of the Northeast Recycling Investment Forum, q. v.
The Northeast Recycling Council
Ms. Mary Ann Remolador
139 Main Street, Suite 401
Brattleboro, VT 05301
Fax (802)254-5870
Email: NERC@sover.net
The Northeast Recycling Investment Forum is organized by
the Northeast Recycling Council (NERC) with assistance from
the Environmental Business Association of New York, TCN at
MIT, and KirkWorks. The Forum features presentations by
selected recycling companies from NERC's ten member states in
the Northeast, along with keynote speakers on investment
opportunities in the recycling industry. The May 1996 Forum
was held in Boston and sponsored by EPA New England, New
York State Office of Recycling Market Development and other
parties. The next Forum is being planned for spring of 1997.
NERC offers several other programs and services to foster
recycling market development.
c/o Merrill & Merritt
Mr. H. Kenneth Merritt
P.O. Box 5839
Burlington, VT 05402
Tel (802)658-7830
Fax (802)658-0978
"The Vermont Venture Network is a not-for-profit
organization which holds a monthly forum created to stimulate
interaction among entrepreneurs, venture investors and managers
seeking roles with new companies and professionals whose
services are available to venturers. During (monthly)
breakfast(s), attendees can introduce themselves and their
businesses to the group."
             A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Mr. Robert D. Frawley
600 College Road East
Suite 4200
Princeton, NJ 08540
Tel (609)279-0010
Fax (609)987-6651
"The New Jersey Entrepreneurial Network is a non-profit
organization providing educational and informational services to
entrepreneurs, investors, persons in related fields and the public
in general...A recent survey indicated that of the companies
which attended (NJEN) meetings for the purpose of securing
outside investment, 11% found an investor through NJEN."
New Jersey Technology Council
Ms. Maxine Ballen
500 College Road East, Suite 201
Princeton, NJ 08540
Fax (609)452-1007
"The ... Annual (New Jersey) Venture Fair is an exposition
designed to bring emerging businesses together with investors
and entrepreneurial supporters. Selected exhibitors display their
products, are judged by a distinguished panel, and gain valuable
exposure. Venture capitalists and other financing professionals
receive an opportunity to evaluate new  products and personally
meet entrepreneurs.  Many past entrepreneurs have used the
Venture Fair as a stepping stone to increase growth and new
sources of financing." In addition to sponsoring the Venture
Fair in the spring, the New Jersey Technology Council helps
organize the North Jersey Venture Fair  in the fall, the New
Jersey Capital Conference, and offer a range of services and
programs for entrepreneurs.
c/o Trien, Rosenberg, Felix
Ms. Clara Stricchiola
P.O. Box 1982
Morristown, NJ 07962-1982
Tel (201)267-4200
Fax (201)984-9634
Internet URL:
"The Venture Association of New Jersey is a monthly forum
created to stimulate interaction among business founders and
managers, equity investors and leaders, executives seeking new
positions, professionals whose services are helpful to company
managers and founders, and representatives of major
corporations.  During lunch, attendees mingle, exchange
information, and introduce themselves and their businesses to the
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

High Technology of Rochester
Ms. Cindy Garry
5 United Way
Rochester, NY  14604
Tel (716)327-7920
Fax (716)327-7931
Email: HTRgary@aol.com
The Upstate New York & Canada Investment And
Partnering Conference is held every other year to bring
western New York business ventures together with potential
investors. Typically, 30-40 venture capitalists and investors
attend the Fair and 30-40 entrepreneurs present their business
plans. The Fair promotes growth in Western New York State.
The next Fair will be held in 1997.
C.W. Post Campus/Long Island
Mr. Jeffrey Bass
Roth Hall, Room 309
Northern Blvd.
Brookville, NY 11548
Tel (516)299-3004
"The Long Island Venture Group (LIVG) provides a single
forum for all those involved in entrepreneurial pursuits to
communicate, to strategize, and to act on business opportunities
and offerings....LIVG activities center around monthly breakfast
meetings structured to encourage effective networking and
dealmaking. In addition to a full breakfast, each meeting
features a guest speaker on a topic of importance to
entrepreneurs and the One Minute Forum, during which
attendees introduce their business or service to the group."
LIVG promotes business growth on Long Island.
Mr. David Godfrey
c/o MIT Alumni/ae Center of New
505 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2500
New York, NY 10110
Fax (212)354-3688
Email: nycforum@mit.edu
The MIT Enterprise Forum of New York fosters the
entrepreneurial process by offering business plan presentations,
symposia, programs and workshops. For further information see
MIT Enterprise Forums, Cambridge, MA 02139 listing.
c/o Warburg, Pincus
Ms. Linda Bernstein
466 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10017
Tel (212)878-0618
Fax (212)878-9361
The New York Venture Capital Forum provides educational
and networking opportunities for venture capitalists in the New
York metropolitan area.
            A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Ms. Arlene West
605 Madison Ave., Suite 300
New York City, NY  10022-1901
Tel (212)832-7365
Fax (212)832-7338
Email: info-nyvg@virtual-ny.com
Internet URL: http://www.virtual-
"The New York Venture Group presents a monthly breakfast
forum for financiers and businesspeople whose common interest
is middle-market and emerging companies." Meetings feature
prominent investors or successful entrepreneurs and
announcements from attendees. Monthly attendance averages
250-400 people with meeting announcements and
entrepreneurial information circulated to 22,000 contacts.
Western NY Technology
Development Center
Mr. John A. McGowan
Baird Research Park
1576 Sweet Home Dr.
Amherst,NY  14228
Tel (716)636-3626
Fax (716)636-3630
"The Western New York Venture Association (WNYVA) is a
non-profit organization dedicated to providing a business
opportunity and investment forum to Western New York.  ...
WNYVA meetings provide entrepreneurs an opportunity to
present their business plans to interested investors." Five to six
meetings are held per year.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Mr. Richard P. Eckman
1201 Market Street, Suite 1401
Wilmington, DE  19801
Tel (302)652-4241
The Delaware Entrepreneurs' Forum conducts monthly
educational meetings and the annual fair which "features a select
group of area companies involved in new technologies, products
or services. The companies make formal presentations to the
audience and there are exhibitions and demonstrations."
Dingman Center for
Ms. Sandra Nola
The Maryland Business School
The University of Maryland
College Park, MD  20742-1815
Tel (301)405-2144
Fax (301)314-9152
The Baltimore Washington Venture Group is a membership
organization that hosts breakfast meetings six times per year.
Investment presentations are featured, along with opportunities
for investors, entrepreneurs, and service providers to introduce
themselves and their active projects. A quarterly newsletter is
published. The Group is coordinated by the staff of the
Dingman Center for Entrepreneurship which also hosts the Mid-
Atlantic Investment Network q.v.
Dingman Center for
Ms. Sandra  Nola
The Maryland Business School
The University of Maryland
College Park, MD  20742-1815
Tel (301)405-2144
Fax (301)314-9152
The Mid-Atlantic Investment Network's (MAIN) purpose "is
to facilitate the introduction of companies seeking funding with
individual, corporate, and venture capital investors interested
primarily in early-stage financing." The network currently has
54 active investors and 103 entrepreneurs. The annual
membership fee for investors is $300. Company membership is
$150 for the first year and $75 for the second year. Although
there are no geographic restrictions, most applicants come from
the Mid-Atlantic region, with a majority in the Washington-
Baltimore region. MAIN has assisted companies from a diverse
selection of industries including biotechnology, computer-
related, industrial and consumer products, communications, and
environmental services.

Member investors receive profiles of all companies listed with
MAIN and are introduced to those companies in which they
express an interest. The Dingman Center for Entrepreneurship
operates MAIN and also offers other programs to foster new
enterprise growth in the Mid-Atlantic region, including the
Baltimore Washington Venture Group q.v., mentoring programs,
seminars, and business plan reviews.
           A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                      REGION 3:  MID-ATLANTIC
Mid-Atlantic Venture Association
Ms. Mary Ann Gray
9690 Deereco Road, Suite 800
Timonium,MD 21093
Tel (410)560-5855
Fax (410)560-1910
                                  The Mid-Atlantic Venture Fair is an annual fall event in which
                                  more than 50 emerging growth companies from the mid-atlantic
                                  region make business and product plan presentations.  Early,
                                  expansion and later-stage companies from the Mid-Atlantic
                                  region are featured. Keynote speakers address entrepreneurial
                                  and technological trends. The fair is organized by the Mid-
                                  Atlantic Venture Association (MAVA), an organization of
                                  venture capital firms in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Washington,
                                  D.C. and Northern Virginia. MAVA also hosts frequent
                                  educational and  networking meetings for investors and service
                                  providers. The Delaware Valley Venture Group q.v. works with
                                  MAVA in organizing the annual venture fair.
Greater Philadelphia Chamber of
Ms. Carolyn Keim
1234 Market Street, Suite 1800
Philadelphia, PA 19107-3718
Tel (215)972-3960
Fax (215)972-3900
                                  "The Delaware Valley Venture Group is the umbrella
                                  organization for Greater Philadelphia's venture capital firms. Its
                                  primary goal is to foster the growth of entrepreneurial companies
                                  through education and networking events that help entrepreneurs
                                  obtain venture capital funding and related professional services.
                                  The DWG, whose members have $2.7 billion under
                                  management, serves Eastern PA, Southern NJ and Delaware and
                                  is a council of the Greater Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce."
                                  The DVVG is a partner in organizing the annual Mid-Atlantic
                                  Venture Fair q.v.
Mr. David Castaldo
R.J. Lee Investments Ltd.
515 Pleasant Valley Road
Trafford,PA  15085
Tel (412)744-0104
Fax (412)744-0506
Email: pitforum@mit.edu
                                  See MIT Enterprise Forum, Cambridge, MA entry.
Ms. Helen Petruska
The Farmhouse
12 Great Valley Parkway
Malvern,PA  19355
Tel (610)647-6633
Internet URL:
                                  The Pennsylvania Innovation Network's mission is to
                                  "provide information, resources, services, and networking
                                  opportunities to assist individuals and emerging companies
                                  address the challenges they encounter in our competitive global
                                  economy."  PIN  co-sponsors venture fairs and offers a range of
                                  other entrepreneurial development programs and services.
                                  Program topics include technology transfer, SBIR research
                                  funding, venture capital and marketing. PIN has published the
                                  Greater Philadelphia Financing Manual. PIN currently has 130
                                  members concentrated in Chester and Montgomery counties.
                                  Membership is $85 for individuals and $300 for companies.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Technology Council of Greater
435 Devon Park Drive, Suite 803
Wayne, PA 19087-1945
Fax (215)975-9432

The Enterprise Corp. of Pittsburgh
Ms. Dori Ortman
4516 Henry Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Tel (415)578-3481

Mr. John Lori
214 Senate Ave., Suite 605
Camp Hill, PA 17011
Tel (717)730-9818

Ms. Beth Duston
P.O. Box 26203
Arlington, VA 22215
Tel (703)741-3509
Fax (703)521-2955
Email: dcbforum@mit.edu

Mr. John Clark
1407 Huguenot Road
Midlothian, VA 23113
The Pennsylvannia Private Investors Group (PPIG) provides
a forum for entrepreneurs to present their business plans to
sophisticated individual investors interested in investing in small,
privately held companies. One or two entrepreneurs present
their business plans at breakfast meetings held on the first
Tuesday of every month. Business plans are reviewed prior to
the meeting and only select companies are allowed to present to
the full membership.
The Pittsburgh Growth Capital Conference is held every two
years to feature approximately 30 entrepreneurial ventures.
Companies are selected based on the following criteria: "sales
potential of at least $10 million in the next five years, a strong
innovative product or service versus the competion's, an
outstanding managment team, located in the tri-state area (PA,
OH, WV), and limited prior exposure to the investment
community." Venture capitalists, other financiers, entrepreneurs
and service providers participate.
"The Venture Investment Forum of Central PA consists of a
group of investors, entrepreneurs and business leaders who meet
every other month in a breakfast meeting format to hear and
consider investment opportunities by aspiring or established
See MIT Enterprise Forum, Cambridge, MA entry.
The Richmond Venture Capital Club conducts meetings every
two months to foster the interaction between entrepreneurs and
          A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                         REGION 4:  SOUTHEAST
The Central Florida Innovation
Mr. Ted Fluchradt
12424 Research Parkway, Suite 350
Orlando, FL  32826
Tel (407)277-0544
Fax (407)277-2182
The Central Florida Venture Capital Conference and
Exposition is an annual event co-hosted for the Central Florida
Innovation Corporation(CFIC) and the Small Business
Development Center of Central Florida. "The Conference ...
provide(s) both sides of the equity financing equation with a
forum in which to come together, present ideas, and investigate
opportunities for funding/investments."

CFIC is an Innovation Partnership with Enterprise Florida and
offers a range of other services to entrepreneurs in central
Mr. Paul C. Porter
2532 Park Street
Jacksonville, FL 32204
Tel (904)389-7798
Fax (904)389-9480
"First Coast Venture Capital Group is a not-for-profit
volunteer organization whose purpose is to bring together and
stimulate interaction between those interested in the venture
process.  ... The common interest (of members) is to promote a
high level of 'networking' that supports entrepreneurial ventures
with qualified funding sources and professional service
providers." The group holds monthly meetings featuring
investment and entrepreneurial  presentations and also sponsors
the First  Coast Venture Capital  Forum, "an all-day event
highlighting entrepreneurs, individual investors and venture
capital firms."
Ms. Jeanne Becker
2600 Douglas Road, Suite 311
Coral Gables, FL 33134
Tel (305)446-5060
Fax (305)443-4607
"The Florida Venture Forum holds at least nine presentations
a year attended by investors, bankers, accountants, lawyers and
entrepreneurs.  The presentations showcase a young company
which has been selected by the Executive Committee after
reviewing the company business plan."

"In addition to  the monthly presentations, since 1992, the Florida
Venture Forum has hosted the annual Ernst & Young LLP
Florida Venture Capital Conference.  The purpose of the
conference, held every year in January/February, is to showcase
high growth companies looking for equity financing before a
nationwide audience of venture capitalists and investment
The Innovation Center of Brevard
Mr. Harry Brandon
1900 S. Harbor City Blvd.
Melbourne, FL 32901
Tel (407)984-1900
Fax (407)951-4227
The Founders Forum's mission is "to provide introductions
and needed contacts to educate entrepreneurs and provide
information and guidance." Approximately six dinner meetings
are held each year at which entrepreneurs are given three
minutes to present their business plans. These meetings are
attended by 75-100 investors, service providers, and
entrepreneurs. One meeting per year is devoted to a detailed
critique of one business plan by bankers, executives, and other
professionals. The Founder's Forum serves the Central East
Coast region of Florida.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Ms. Carol Ann Dykes
P. O. Box 13442
Gainesville, FL 32604
Tel (904)455-4387

The Enterprise Corp. of Tampa Bay
Mr. Mike J. Landis
1111 N. Westshore Blvd., Suite
Tampa, FL 33607
Tel (813)288-0445

Vista Resources, Inc.
Mr. John J. Huntz, Jr.
1201 West Peachtree St., N.W.
Suite #5000
Atlanta, GA 30309
Fax (404)815-4529

Mr. Norris Christian
Capitol Plaza Tower, 23rd Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601
Tel (800)626-2930
Tel (502)564-7140
"The Gainesville Area Innovation Network is a network of
inventors, entrepreneurs, business people, professionals,
investors, professors and service providers who share ideas,
energy and talents.  GAIN was formed in 1985 to 'provide
networking and educational opportunities to assist and
encourage the entrepreneurial interests of its members.' " The
network hosts monthly meetings and other activities to foster
entrepreneurial efforts. The GAIN Venture Network "seeks to
match viable investment opportunities with interested investors;

"The Tampa Bay Venture Forum is a private not-for-profit
organization that brings together investors with selected
investment opportunities.  The Forum holds six annual dinner
meetings where selected entrepreneurs present their business
concepts to Forum members.  ...Forum members prefer deal
sizes between $350,000 and $2.5 million."  The Forum is an
affiliate organization of The Enterprise Corporation of Tampa
Bay, which offers a range of other services for entrepreneurs
The Atlanta Venture Forum provides programs for investors
geared toward issues specific to investing but does not address
specific investments or companies.
The Kentucky Investment Capital Network's purpose "is to
introduce entrepreneurs to individual investors and to investment
capital firms interested in start-up and early-stage financing.
ICN maintains a confidential database on investment opportunity
profiles submitted by entrepreneurs and investment interest
profiles submitted by investors." Through blind matching
services, entrepreneurs are introduced to investors who are
interested in their ventures.

The network seeks a diverse group of companies in the
manufacturing, service, medical/health, communications,
publishing, and computer software sectors.  Environmental
services companies are also accepted, but not classified
separately.  ICN serves Kentucky businesses but includes
investors from other regions as well. Entrepreneurs most likely
to benefit from this network will be seeking between $50K and
$750K of equity financing. The network includes some
investors willing to invest up to $1 million and venture capital
firms willing to invest more than $1 million. There is no charge
for ICN's services.
           A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                         REGION 4: SOUTHEAST
Mr. Bob Ogden
Suite 301, 304 W. Liberty Street
Louisville, KY 40202
Tel (502)583-1260
Fax (502)893-2077

P.O. Box 20161
Raleigh, NC 27619-0161
Tel (919)981-4310 (entrepreneurs)
Tel (919)755-5202 (investors)
The Venture Club of Louisville conducts regular meetings with
speakers, presentations, and networking opportunities. Special
events to assist in entrepreneurial education are conducted.
The North Carolina Investment Network utilizes the internet,
CD-ROM and VHS videotape to bring together entrepreneurs
and investors in an efficient and cost effective manner. It is
sponsored by the Council for Entrepreneurial Development,
based in the Research Triangle Park, N.C. NCIN investors must
be interested in start up and expanding, growth oriented
companies and be willing to invest $25,000 or more in high risk

Entrepreneurs must first complete an "NCIN Entrepreneur Kit"
which explains NCIN's requirements,  selection criteria and fees.
If selected, the entrepreneur will receive "The NCIN Cookbook"
which  walks the entrepreneur through all the steps necessary to
present the business plan in a multi-media format.  The investor
receives the "NCIN Investor Kit" which includes a VHS tape
with ten business plans, a CD-ROM with ten business plans and
multi-media sound and video clips, and a World Wide Web
Council for Entrepreneurial
Ms. Monica Doss
P. O. Box 13353
RTP,NC  27709-3553
Tel (919)544-4642
Fax (919)544-2341

College of Charleston
Dr. Perry Woodside
Center for Entrepreneurship
310 Meeting Street
Charleston, SC  29424-0001
Tel (803)723-7450
Fax (803)577-3480
The annual spring Venture Conference is an opportunity for up
to 15 selected high growth North Carolina businesses to make
featured presentations to an audience of venture capitalists,
financiers, and service providers. The conference is organized
by the Council for Entrepreneurial Development (CED) and co-
sponsored by the North Carolina Venture Capital Association.
The CED offers a range of other entrepreneurial development
programs for the Research Triangle region and works with
entrepreneurial council across North Carolina. The CED is also
collaborating on the development of a new investment network
for NC (see North Carolina Investment Network above).

The Dare to Deal - Annual Southeast Capital Connection is
held each fall in Charleston, SC. Investment speakers and
company presentations are featured, along with a company expo.
Entrepreneurial companies from SC and the Southeast submit
business plans which are screened to select presenters. The first
annual Southeastern Recycling Investment Forum q.v. was held
immediately preceding and in conjunction with the Dare to Deal
conference in November of 1995.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Economic Enterprise Institute
Ms. Judy Clements
University of South Carolina -
171 University Parkway
Aiken, SC  29801
Tel (803)648-6851
South Carolina Department of
Mr. Ted Campbell
P. O. Box 927
Columbia, SC  29202
Tel (803)737-0477
Fax (803)737-0418

Dr. Robert Gaston
8905 Kingston Pike, Suite 12
Knoxville, TN 37923
Tel (423)573-4655
Fax (423)577-9989
The Private Investor Network (PIN) is a nonprofit matching
service linking South Carolina companies with private investors.
Companies range from those seeking start up funds to
established companies seeking growth capital. To join PIN,
entrepreneurs are required to submit a 2-4 page summary of their
business plan with a one page pro-forma financial statement.
Investors also complete an application indicating their interests
and investment goals. PIN provides monthly and bi-monthly
reports to the entrepreneur on the status of his/her application.
Subscription fees are $100 for entrepreneurs and $200 for
investors, entitling them to 12 months and 36 months of service,

The Southeast Recycling Investment Forum features
entrepreneurial recycling companies selected from the southeast
region. Keynote speakers address investment and business
trends and opportunities in the recycling field. Financiers,
economic developers and service providers attend the event to
learn about new and expanding ventures in a variety of industry
sectors. The November 1995 Southeastern Forum, held in
Charleston, SC, included presentations by nine recycling
ventures and displays by three additional companies. More than
100 investors, entrepreneurs and other attendees participated.  A
second forum for southeastern recycling companies is planned
for February of 1997.

"Seed Capital Network is a seven year old company that
introduces entrepreneurs to wealthy, private individuals who
belong to the Network's client-investor pool. Seed Capital
Network provides a computer based screening service that
makes fast, confidential link-ups between entrepreneurs and
interested investors."  The average investment made is $600K in
loan/loan guarantees, and $400K in cash equity.  SEED investors
are looking to invest between $5,000 and $1.5 million in
companies with growth potential. Entrepreneurs can send in their
finance proposal and find out how many potential matches there
are at no charge. If the entrepreneur decides to proceed, a one
time $260 fee is charged. There is no charge to the investor for
using this service.
            A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                        REGIONS:  GREAT LAKES
Ms. Susan Davis
31W007 North Avenue, Suite 101
West Chicago, IL  60185
Tel (708)876-1101
Fax (708)876-0187
The Investors' Circle's mission "is to build an increasingly
active and committed network of investors who invest based on
a personal set of values in order to achieve a globally
accountable and sustainable economy." The Investors' Circle
operates a network through which executive summaries on
socially responsible ventures are circulated to its membership.
There is a $300 fee to companies for this service. Profiled
ventures are typically from across the U. S. and sometimes other

The Investors' Circle also hosts a semi-annual Social Venture
Fair at which about a dozen companies selected from the
network listings make featured presentations. Presenting
companies are charged  $900 for participation in the fair. The
Fairs also offer educational programs for members on value-
based private equity investing. Members include venture
capitalists and fund managers who pay annual dues of $1,500
and qualified private investors who pay $1,000 annual dues.
More than 150 investors are members of Investors' Circle.
Investment interest areas include community development,
health, international development, women and minority-led
business, consumer products, education, energy, environment
and recycling.
Mr. Jerry R. Mitchell
8 South Michigan Ave.
Suite #1000
Chicago, IL 60603
Tel (312)782-4951
Email: Chiform@mit.edu
The MIT Enterprise Forum of Chicago seeks to "promote and
strengthen the process of starting and growing companies which
have a strong technology orientation by providing services with
educate and inform entrepreneurs." Monthly meetings are held
at which "we normally use a case presentation/panel discussion
approach to focus on a single company in a critical stage of
development." Entrepreneurs are given professional feedback in
the improvement of their business plans and presentations.
Indiana Small Bus. Dev. Corp.
Mr. John Ridder
One North Capitol Avenue
Suite 1275
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Fax (317)264-2806
The Great Midwest Venture Capital Conference is a two-day
fall event presented by the Indiana Small Business Development
Corporation, Ernst & Young, and other sponsors, including
venture groups in the midwest. The conference features a
keynote investment speaker and business presentations and
displays of selected entrepreneurial companies.

The conference brochure states that "more than 25 presenting
companies are the highest caliber candidates for venture
investments in the Midwest. These companies have well-
defined market niches, experienced management teams,
potentially high returns on investment, and offer both early and
later stage deals.  Venture capitalists and private investors from
across the United States will again be in attendance."
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Indiana Small Bus. Dev. Center
Seema Pawar
216 W.Allen Street
Bloomington, IN 47403
Tel (812)339-8937
Fax (812)335-7352

Ms. Margo Jaqua
P. O. Box 40872
Indianapolis, IN 46240-0872

Ms. Patricia Cook
P. O. Box 14030
Lansing, MI 48901
Fax (517)484-6910

Center for Environmental Policy,
Economics, and Science
Mr. Loch McCabe
416 Longshore Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Tel (313)996-8387
Fax (313)996-8732
Email: ecn@bizserve.com
URL: http://bizserve.com/ecn/
The Private Investors' Network includes about 25 investors,
most of whom are located in Bloomington, Indiana. The
network has reviewed approximately 10 business plans in the
last year from entrepreneurs in Indiana. There are no fees for
participation in this network, but entrepreneurs must cover the
costs of copying and mailing their business plans to potential
"The Venture Club of Indiana creates a unique environment in
which business investors and entrepreneurs can make valuable
contacts, exchange information and create mutual business
opportunities." Monthly luncheon meetings are held which
include five-minute business presentations and guest venture
investment or entrepreneurial speakers.
The Capital Enterprise Forum meets in the evenings on the
third Monday of February, March, April, May, September,
October, and November to encourage entrepreneurship and
capital formation.
The Environmental Capital Network's mission is to "foster
economic wealth and planetary health through facilitating the
finance, development and commercialization of tomorrow's
environmental and green technologies, products and services.
The Environmental Capital Network (ECN) provides company
profiles of recycling and other environmental firms to investors
nationwide, many of whom are particularly interested in and
knowledgeable about environmental industries. Company
Profiles are sent twice per month to more than 80 individual,
professional and corporate investors. Company registration fees
are $350 per year.  Each company may revise their Company
Profile two times per year at no additional charge. Investor fees
are $250-350  per year."

"ECN also provides a specialized Business Plan Review service
for environmental companies raising capital. ECN research
shows that investors strongly consider a firm's business plan, but
that the business plans of many environmental firms do not get a
very positive response.  The  Business Plan Review service
provides firms with detailed  feedback and suggestions about
their business plan from actual investors in their industry. This
service can be particularly valuable for firms who want to
enhance their  investor response. ECN was a co-sponsor of the
Southeast and Northeast Recycling Investment Forums and is
researching the venture  capital market for the pollution
prevention industry."
           A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                      REGIONS:  GREAT LAKES
Small Business Development
Ms. Carolyn Anderson
300 N. Michigan
South Bend, IN 46601
Tel (219)282-4350
Fax (219)236-1056
The University of Michigan
Dr. David J. Brophy
3241 Business Administration Bldg.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1234
Fax (313)763-5688
Internet URL: http://www.umich.
"The Michiana Investment Network helps match
entrepreneurs with investors in the Michiana business
community." The network hosts quarterly luncheon meetings
featuring short presentations from entrepreneurs as well as
investment speakers.
"The annual Michigan Growth Capital Symposium provides
investors and companies which seek growth capital investments,
strategic alliances and joint ventures access to sources of such
transactions. The symposium has proven itself to be effective in
bringing growing companies with investors. In its 15-year
history, the Symposium has helped over 350 growing companies
raise nearly $200 million in growth capital."
Mr. Clifford Van Dyke
P. O. Box 369
Bay City, MI 48707-0369
Tel (517)893-5596
The Mid-Michigan Venture Capital Forum hosts monthly
meetings including featured company presentations, keynote
speakers, and three-minute business introductions. The Forum's
purpose is "putting people who need money and business advice
together with people who have money and business expertise."
Mr. Thomas S. Porter
912 N. Main Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
The New Enterprise Forum hosts monthly meetings to link
entrepreneurs, potential managers, joint venture partners, service
providers, and capital providers.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Greater Detroit Chamber of
Mr. Carl Meyering
600 West Lafayette Blvd.
Detroit, MI 48226
Tel (313)596-0402
The Southeastern Michigan Venture Group meets monthly to
provide networking opportunities for private and public
investors, service providers and entrepreneurs and educational
programs.  The Group is a program of the Greater Detroit
Chamber of Commerce.
c/o NW Michigan Council of
Mr. Richard Beldin
P. O. Box 506
Traverse City, MI 49685-0506
Tel (616)929-5017
"The Traverse Bay Enterprise Forum exists to bring together
entrepreneurs and investors in the northwest lower Michigan
area.  The organization's goal is the creation of new businesses
through innovative networking of area resources and expertise."
Quarterly meetings are held at which several companies present
venture opportunities.
Mr. Raymond De Winkle
17 Fountain Street, NW
Grand Rapids, MI 49500
The West Michigan Business/Finance Forum conducts semi-
annual meetings to present featured businesses.
Mr. Daniel Carr
10 South 5th Street, Suite 415
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1004
Tel (612)338-3828
Fax (612)338-1876
Mr. Charles Burkett
Enterprise Development Inc.
11000 Cedar Ave.
Cleveland, OH 44106
Tel (216)229-9445
Fax (216)229-3236
"The Collaborative is a member organization of entrepreneurs,
managers, investors, and professionals involved in developing
new and emerging companies." The organization provides
publications, workshops and monthly meetings to help build
Minnesota companies.
Innovest is an annual conference which brings together high
technology growth ventures with investors and business
development actors.
          A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                      REGIONS:  GREAT LAKES
 Greater Cincinnati Chamber of
 Ms. Rachel Ganim
 300 Carew Tower, 441 Vine Street
 Cincinnati, OH 45202-2812
 Tel (513)579-3128
 Fax (513)579-3101
The Greater Cincinnati Venture Association is a not-for-
profit corporation whose "purpose is to provide a link for
entrepreneurs seeking business assistance with sources of
capital/business expertise." The GCVA hosts monthly
luncheon meetings which include  10 minute presentations by
entrepreneurs seeking equity capital or management support,
keynote speakers, and networking opportunities.
Ms. Karrie Stock
137 North Main Street, Suite 702
Dayton, OH 45402-1729
Tel (513)228-1141
"The Miami Valley Venture Association provides a support
mechanism for entrepreneurs, raises the awareness of the
region's venture capital and promotes the interaction between
emerging businesses and financial resources." Bi-monthly
meetings are conducted and business plan review services are
Wisconsin Innovation Network
Mr. Ken Syke
P.O. Box 71
Madison, WI 53701-0071
Tel (608)256-8348
Fax (608)256-0333
"The annual Wisconsin Venture Fair showcases Wisconsin's
most promising emerging growth companies to an audience of
out-of-state and in-state venture capitalists and other investors."
The Fair is organized by the "the Wisconsin Innovation Network
(WIN) Foundation (which) supports and encourages high-tech
entrepreneurs throughout the State of Wisconsin by linking them
with the management, technical and financial assistance needed
to start and successfully operate a new enterprise."
Mr. Paul Sweeney
P.O. Box 92093
Milwaukee, WI 53202-0093
Tel (414)224-7070
Fax (414)271-4016
The Wisconsin Venture Network "actively supports both new
and established businesses by providing a means for investors,
entrepreneurs, and business advisors to make mutually beneficial
contacts and to promote and contribute to the formation and
growth of specific enterprises." Monthly luncheons with
business presentations, educational programs, and newsletters
are offered.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

The New Orleans/ New River
Region Chamber of Commerce
601 Poydras Street
New Orleans, LA  70130
Tel (504)527-6935
Fax (504)527-6950
Email: chamber@gnofn.org
Internet URL:
The Venture Network, a program of the New Orleans
Chamber, provides a forum for entrepreneurs, as well as
established companies, to present investors with the investment
needs of their business.  Approximately eight breakfast meetings
are held per year at which 12-15 entrepreneurs give one minute
summaries of their business plans. There is no prescreening of
business plans; entrepreneurs are selected on a first-come,  first-
served basis.
Ms. Margot Arnold
18th Floor, Mid Continent Tower
401 South Boston, Suite 1810
Tulsa,OK 74103-4018
Tel (918)582-6131
Fax (918)584-4213
"The mission of Entrepreneurs of Tulsa is to foster the
successful creation and growth of new and young businesses in
Northeastern Oklahoma." Monthly meetings providing
networking opportunities and entrepreneurial educational
Tulsa Chamber of Commerce
Ms. Sue Bennett
616 South Boston, Suite 100
Tulsa, OK 74119
Tel (918)585-1201
The Oklahoma Investment Forum is an annual event at which
selected high growth companies from the state make featured
presentations to a national audience of venture capitalists. In the
last three years, forum organizers estimate that entrepreneurs
have obtained $150 million as a result of the Forum.
Mr. Jim Ratchford
P.O. Box 2176
Oklahoma City, OK 73101-2176
Tel (405)636-9736
Fax (405)842-0795
"The Oklahoma Venture Forum provides a forum for the
exchange of information and ideas between entrepreneurs,
private and professional investors and other professionals
providing services to individuals and organizations in
Oklahoma." Monthly meetings and a newsletter on financing
and fostering new ventures are offered.
           A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Mr. David Gerhardt
3925 West Braker Lane, Suite 406
Austin, TX 78759-5321
Fax (512)305-0836
Email: mail@icc.utexas.edu
Internet URL: http://www.utexas.
                       REGION 6:  SOUTHWEST
The Capital Network (TCN) is a non-profit economic
development organization which operates a nationwide venture
capital network. The TCN program is "designed to introduce
investors to entrepreneurs based on their mutual business
interests...TCN's computerized networking service matches
investors and entrepreneurs based on six criteria: industry, size
of venture, age of venture, amount of funding, location of
venture and type of investment." TCN has facilitated
investments ranging from $10,000 to $4 million, with the typical
investment falling in the $100K to $1 million range. In total,
TCN has helped arrange nearly $30 million in investments. The
six month membership fee for entrepreneurs is $450.  Individual
investor membership is $450 for one year. Institutional investors
pay a $950 membership fee.
                                  TCN also coordinates the Texas Venture Capital Conference,
                                  q.v., and co-sponsors seminars in topics such as business
                                  planning and deal structuring.  TCN coordinates the "Know-
                                  How Network," a network of experienced business service
                                  providers who can assist the new venture often at a reduced rate.
c/o Waco Chamber of Commerce
Mr. Curtis Cleveland
P.O. Box 1220
Waco, TX 76703
Tel (817)752-6551
The Central Texas Venture Capital Group meets every three
months to foster entrepreneurship in the region.
Ms. Traci Levin
2121 San Jacinto, Suite 500
Dallas, TX 75201
The Dallas Venture Capital Association is an organization for
venture capital investors in the Dallas region and offers
information programs for their membership. The DVCA
provides "a forum for sharing ideas, providing updates and
fostering cooperation."  The Association meets six times per
c/o Ernst & Young Entrep. Services
Ms. Lynn Gentry
1221 McKinney, Suite 2400
Houston, TX 77010
Tel (713)750-8451
Fax (713)750-8613
The Houston Venture Capital Association "is an organization
for venture capital investors in the Houston region and offers
information programs for their membership." The Association
meets five or six times per year.  Referrals and communication
requests can be directed to: Sally I. Evans, (713)660-7990.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Rauscher Pierce Refsnes, Inc.
Mr. Joseph R. Mannes
Plaza of the America
700 North Pearl St.
Dallas, TX 75201-2859
Tel (214)978-5437
Fax (214)978-5293
Email: dalforum@mit.edu
See MIT Enterprise Forum, Cambridge MA entry.
Smith International, Inc.
Mr. Michael C. Steen
16740 Hardy Street
Houston, TX 77205
Tel (713)233-5234
Fax (713)233-5998
Email: houforum@mit.edu
                                See MIT Enterprise Forum, Cambridge MA entry.
Edwin L. Cox School of Bus., SMU
Ms. Lois Adams
P.O. Box 750333
Dallas, TX 75275-0333
Fax (214)768-3604
Email: ladams@mail.cox.smu.edu

The Capital Network
Mr. David Gerhardt
3925 West Braker Lane, Suite 406
Austin, TX 78759-5321
Tel (512)305-0826
Fax (512)305-0836
"The Southwest Venture Forum is a non-profit forum where
entrepreneurs seeking to start or build a business can meet with
sources of capital and professional services to facilitate the
acquisition of financing and to obtain advice and information.
Breakfast meetings are held every two months including short
presentations from competitively selected entrepreneurs."
The Texas Venture Capital Conference presents selected
venture investment opportunities in the state. The conference
"provides each presenting company a team of professionals to
assist them in developing, improving and honing their
presentations and business plans."
          A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                          REGION?:  MIDWEST
Iowa Department of Economic
200 E. Grand Ave.
DesMoines, IA 50309
Tel (515)242-4700

The Center for Business Innovation
Ms. Hazel Mauro
4747 Troost Avenue
Kansas City, MO 64110
Tel (816)931-6688
Fax (816)756-1530
Mr. Chip Cooper
5650 South Sinclair Road
Columbia, MO 65203-8611
Tel (573)446-3100
Fax (573)443-3748
Email:CCooper285 @aol.com
"Every other month, Venture Network of Iowa (VNI) meetings
are held to bring together entrepreneurs and investors. The
gatherings afford individual entrepreneurs a 'Two-Minute
Forum' in which they can introduce themselves and their
companies to the investors and business leaders who make up the
VNI membership."
The Capital Resource Network's mission is "to provide
entrepreneurs seeking capital from 'angel' investors with a
means to present their business ventures to potential investors.
Accordingly, the Network serves investors by providing
information on opportunities for investment, acquisition or joint
ventures." CRN uses a blind matching system in which
investors can request introductions to entrepreneurs after
screening executive summaries.

CRN serves companies in Kansas and Missouri. There are
approximately 100 investors in this network and more than 140
entrepreneurs. In 1995 participating companies received
$330,000 in known investment. CRN expects to facilitate over
$1 million in investment in 1996.  Although there are no
restrictions on industry type, CRN has noted that most of the
companies which have sought its assistance are in the
manufacturing, biotechnology, and computer technology  sectors.
There is a $250 one year membership fee for investors and
The Missouri Innovation Center (MIC) is a not-for-profit
corporation that supports entrepreneurs in the mid-Missouri
region.  MIC has developed the Missouri SCOR Market Maker
program to help educate entrepreneurs and investors in cost-
effective means of financing small, growing companies. The
Market Maker publication is distributed quarterly, listing SCOR
company stocks. (See Chapter 3 for information on SCOR
Mr. James Weber
222 S. Meramec, Suite #303
St. Louis, MO 63105
Tel (314)432-7440
Fax (314)863-6457
The Missouri Venture Forum's mission is "to facilitate
entrepreneurial activity and access to capital through
networking, education and information exchange." Monthly
meetings include featured speakers and two-minute forums in
which business venture ideas are presented to the membership.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

MIDWEST RECYCLING   ^ne Midwest Recycling Investment Forum is being organized
TNVF^TMPlVrT FOPf TlV/f     by the Nebraska Department of Economic Development in
liN VJjOllVlli,I>ll rUKUJVl     partnership with the Mid-Continent Recycling Association, nine
Ms. Kimberly Newell               Region 7 states and two Canadian provinces. The forum,
Nebraska Dept  of Econ Dev       planned for early 1998, will feature entrepreneurial recycling
P O Rmf Q4fififi                    companies from the Midwest region. The event is intended to
 '  '     ^ _  ,  „.  .,_            foster capital formation and entrepreneurial development for the
Lincoln, NE  68509-4666           recycling industry in me region
Business (402)471-3766
Fax (402)471-3788
Email: kimberly@dedl.ded.
           A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                   REGIONS:  THE GREAT PLAINS
Ms. Malta Lester
1900 East 9th Avenue, Suite 320
Denver, CO 80203
Tel (303)831-4174
The Rockies Venture Club is a volunteer, non-profit
organization that "provides a unique open forum where emerging
businesses can network with qualified funding sources and
professional service providers, and where potential investors can
learn of growing businesses through RVC's presentation series
and monthly forums."
c/p KPMG Peat Marwick LLP
Mr. Gary Powell
707 Seventeenth Street, Suite 2300
Denver, CO 80202
Venture Capital in the Rockies features presentations by
emerging growth companies from the Rocky Mountain region at
an annual conference in February. Start-up, early stage, and
expanding companies are selected to present to the audience of
investors. The conference is co-sponsored by the Venture
Capital Association of Colorado and KPMG Peat Marwick LLP.
Mr. Jon Marchi
P.O. Box 437
Poulson, MT 59860
Tel/Fax (406)883-5470
Tel/Fax (406)883-3051
"The Montana Private Capital Network is a nonprofit
organization sponsored by both public sector and private sector
donors. Managed by a state Board of Directors, the MPCN's
primary purpose is to introduce entrepreneurs to individual
investors interested in financing early stage and existing
Montana businesses."

MPCN utilizes a computerized database to match investors with
entrepreneurs.  MPCN serves a variety of businesses including
agriculture, timber, tourism, medical/health care, high
technology manufacturing, and services. MPCN has 47 active
investors, including  13 venture capitalists. 26 of these investors
have indicated that they were interested in environmental
services/waste management companies.  MPCN is targeted at
start up and growth Montana companies with investment needs
of between $100K and $1M.  Entrepreneurs can enroll in the
database for six months for $50. Investors pay a $100
membership fee good for two years.
Wayne Brown Institute
Mr. Brad Burtash
P.O. Box 2135
Salt Lake City, UT 84110-2135
Tel (801)595-1141
The Utah Venture Capital Conference is an annual event at
which high growth companies present their business plans to
venture capital investors. The Conference recruits applicants
which are start-up or early-stage companies with less than $20
million a year in sales, which are ready to expand with a strong
management team and which have expectations of achieving at
least $50 million in sales per year after 5 to 7 years. The
Conference is organized by the Wayne Brown Institute, a non-
profit educational organization.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Phoenix Chamber of Commerce
Ms. Patti Thomas
201 N. Central Ave., 27th Floor
Phoenix, AZ  85073
Tel (602)495-6461
Fax (602)495-8913
"The Arizona Venture Capital Conference is held annually in
mid-December in Phoenix. The conference includes 10-12
company presentations, investment speakers, and educational
sessions for the venture capital industry. Companies are
screened by panel of investment professionals and provided
assistance in improving business plans and presentations."
Ms. Jackie Bowers
P.O. Box 15210
Phoenix, AZ  85060-5210
Tel (602)912-5381
Fax (602)957-4828
Internet URL: http://www.en.org/
"The Enterprise Network is a non-profit corporation
established to help promote and support entrepreneurship in
Arizona.... Business Strategy Forums are presented on the third
Thursday of the month and provide contacts, ideas, education
and information to help entrepreneurs grow and prosper." Other
educational programs and services are provided to foster
Mr. Gerald A. Benjamin
International Capital Resources
388 Market Street, Suite 500
San Francisco, CA 94111
Tel (415)296-2519
Fax (415)296-2529
The Bay Area Venture Forum "produces seminars to educate
entrepreneurs to the capitalization process with presentations by
private investors, and nationally recognized experts in securities
law, business planning, financial forecasting, valuation, due
diligence, deal structuring, public  relations and alternate
financing." Monthly meetings are held with featured business
presentations. International Capital Resources also hosts a
Private Investor Network and publishes the California
Investment Review.
Mr. Clay H. Womack
350 25th Street
Santa Monica, CA 90402
Tel (310)395-1949
Fax (310)395-0458
Email: ccafi@scor-net.com
Internet URL:  http://www.scor-
"California Capital Access Forum, Inc., is a tax-exempt, non-
profit, public benefit corporation that promotes public policy
changes to remove obstacles facing entrepreneurs in their quest
for equity and long term debt capital. The Forum seeks to create
new and efficient capital markets for emerging ventures. It is a
unique organization that addresses the systemic problems
impeding access to growth and expansion capital, a major issue
with highest priority for small business legislative and policy
           A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

 Mr. Gaylord E. Nichols, Jr.
 Industrial Relations Center 1-90
 Pasadena, CA 91125
 Tel (818)395-4049
 Fax (818)795-7174
 Email: calforum@mit.edu
 Internet URL: http://www.scor-
"The mission of the Caltech/MIT Enterprise Forum is to
encourage the growth and success of technology-based
entrepreneurial ventures in Southern California. The Forum
offers CEO's of emerging technology-based companies the
opportunity to present their business plans to a panel of experts
selected by the Forum's Executive Committee. The Forum also
offers programs which focus on specific topics of critical interest
to technology entrepreneurs. Topical sessions have included
overviews of financing alternatives, sessions on making the
transition from corporate employee to entrepreneur, and sessions
on using the Internet in all aspects of business. Meetings are
held on the 3rd Tuesday of the month from 5:30 until 9:00 p.m."
 Mr. Donald J. King
 The Marden Group, Inc.
 30423 Canwood St., No. 215
 Agoura Hills, CA 91301
 Tel (818)879-2577
 Fax (818)879-1015

 Economic Development
 Ms. Judith Share Lapin
 515 S. Flower Street, 32nd Floor
 Los Angeles, CA 90071
 Tel (213)622-4300
 Fax (213)622-7100

 Ms. Christyne Buteyn
 626 Santa Monica Blvd., Suite 129
 Santa Monica, CA 90401
 Tel (310)450-9544
 Fax (310)395-0657
 Email: Cbuteyn@aol.com
 Internet URL: http://www.scor-
See MIT Enterprise Forum, Cambridge MA entry.
The Los Angeles Technology Venture Forum "is designed to
assist technology-based companies in emerging industries secure
venture capital and alternative forums of finance.  Participation
in the Forum is based upon a competitive selection process made
by the Forum Venture Capital Panel and will result in formal
presentation by early to mid-stage companies." The forum is an
annual spring event featuring about twelve companies and is
organized by the Economic Development Corporation of Los
Angeles County.

The Los Angeles Venture Association supports "emerging
growth companies by providing access to financial, professional
and educational resources." The Association organizes the
Investment Capital Conference - Sources of Capital for
Emerging Growth Companies.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Mr. Christopher Lynch
c/o BATS, Inc.
2650 San Tomas Expressway
Santa Clara, CA 95051
Tel (408)653-0201
Fax (408)654-9663
Email: bayforum@mit.edu

Mr. Kenneth P. King
Signal Consulting
12780 High Bluff Drive, Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92130
Tel (619)793-2123
Fax (619)793-2122
Email: sndforum@mit.edu

Ms. Renee Wagner
23011 Moulton Parkway, F2
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Tel (714)859-3646
Fax (714)859-1707

University of California, Irvine
P.O. Box 4949
Irvine, CA 92716
Tel (714)509-2990
See MIT Enterprise Forum, Cambridge MA entry.
See MIT Enterprise Forum, Cambridge MA entry.
The Orange Coast Venture Group sponsors luncheon
meetings featuring speakers relevant to the entrepreneurial
process. The Group serves entrepreneurs, capital providers and
advisors with educational and networking opportunities.
The Pacific Venture Capital Network (PACNET) provides a
computerized matchmaking service between entrepreneurs and
investors. PACNET is open to investors and entrepreneurs from
any part of the U.S. Currently, 30 investors and 150
entrepreneurs belong to the network. Ventures most likely to
benefit would require between $50,000 and $1 million in equity
financing for early stage opportunities with the potential for
generating substantial capital gains. Entrepreneurs pay a $250
fee for six months of membership. Investors pay $200 for a one
year of membership.

PACNET is conducted under the auspices of the ACCELERATE
Technology Small Business Development Center.
ACCELERATE also provides business counseling (business
planning, strategic planning, accounting, etc.), technical
assistance, and financial counseling.
          A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Ms. Kim Schaeffer
750 B Street, Suite 2400
San Diego, CA 92101
Tel (619)595-0284
Fax (619)231-8055
"The San Diego Venture Group is a non-profit organization
designed to bring together the people in San Diego who are
interested in new enterprise and the process of creating it."
Monthly breakfast meetings feature venture speakers and "one
minute forums" for participants to announce their plans and
Mr. Dennis Laudermilch
155A Moffert Park Drive, Ste. 104
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Tel (408)541-7627
The Silicon Valley Capital Network's (SVCN) is a networking
service that matches entrepreneurs with investors. Its mission is
to "provide San Francisco Bay area ventures seeking $100,000
to $2 million of capital a concentrated source for potential early
stage investors from around the world, and to provide these
investors with a concentrated, quality stream of Silicon Valley
deal flow..."

SVCN is a new network and has 75 investors and 85 companies
participating.  Although, technology based companies currently
dominate the network, there are no industry restrictions.
Entrepreneurs pay $300 for a six month membership. Individual
investors and institutional  investors pay $300 and $500,
respectively, for a one year membership.
Mr. Joseph Megna
805 Kainui Drive
Kailua, HI 96734
Internet URL: http://www.scor-
Email: venture@htdc.org
"The Hawaii Venture Capital Association's mission is to
assist in developing the infrastructure of service providers
necessary to support Hawaii's entrepreneurs. HVCA will provide
a service that broadens and diversifies Hawaii's economy in
recognition of the vulnerability of a state economy dependent on
tourism, military, and real estate ventures."

"HVCA's monthly meetings serve three primary functions:
education, business plan exposure and networking. A speaker or
panel, experienced in business start-ups, financing or venture
capital is featured.  Past topics have included franchising,
intellectual property rights, venture capital formation, and local
entrepreneurial success stories. After the formal presentations
are completed, members have the opportunity to introduce
themselves and develop new contacts."
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

Juneau Economic Development
Mr. Charles M. Northrip
400 Willoughby, Suite 211
Juneau, AK 99801-1724
Fax (907)463-3929
Internet URL: http://www.ptialaska.
"Alaska InvestNet is a service of J.E.D.C. providing potential
investors with a convenient, confidential mechanism for
examining opportunities to invest in entrepreneurial ventures in
Alaska. InvestNet also serves professional venture capital funds
and corporate investors. InvestNet provides entrepreneurs and
new or growing businesses with a cost-effective process for
reaching wealthy individuals and others interested in investing in
early-stage or high-growth private companies."

InvestNet currently has 12 investors and 15 entrepreneurs in its
network. Businesses seeking between $25 K and $500K in
equity will benefit most from participation in this network.
Entrepreneurs must submit an executive summary of their
business plan and P&L statement, along with a two page
application. Entrepreneur's pay a $100 fee for participation for
one year.  Investors pay a  one-time $100 membership fee.
Mr. Carl F. Flipper
2611 SW Third Ave. - Suite 200
Portland, OR 97201
Fax (503)241-0827
Email: oreforum@mit.edu

Ms. Carmen L. Smith
217 Ninth Avenue North
Seattle, WA 98109
Fax (206)340-9599
Email: seaforum@mit.edu

Mr. Mike Zahler
P.O. Box 21693
Seattle, WA 98111-3693
Tel (206)746-1973
See MIT Enterprise Forum, Cambridge MA entry.
"The MIT Enterprise Forum of the Northwest is part of an
18-chapter international network of MIT Forums that promote
technology industries in local economies.  ... Our primary focus
is on helping entrepreneurial businesses develop and refine
strategic plans through participation in our monthly Enterprise
"The Northwest Venture Group brings together entrepreneurs,
investors, and service providers; guides entrepreneurs in how to
be profitable; and provides education on how to acquire funding
and on the investment process." The group organizes monthly
breakfast meetings at which the five-minute forum allows small,
growing companies to make presentations.  Venture Advisory
Panels are also provided to review business plans and strategies
and offer recommendations. Finally, the Group also organizes
Venture Forums at which selected growing Northwest companies
make presentations to private investors. A newsletter covers a
range of issues relevant to new and expanding enterprises.
           A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                         REGION 10:  NORTHWEST

WESTERN                      ^ne Western Investment Network (WIN) provides a means for
rvrt7"i7Crnv>rirxTrr                 entrepreneurs to distribute their business plan summaries to a
1IN Vii(&lJ\lli 1                 large group of potential investors. WIN does not do any
NETWORK                     preliminary matching and distributes all summaries to all
TJ  £7     n   j                    member investors. WIN collaborates with the University of
Mr. bteven Lloyd                    ...  ,.      _   .    _ ,      ,  .  _  .          .. '
 ,,,TT .    .   _                     Washington Business School and the Institute of Applied
411 University Street                 Environmental Technology.
Suite 1200
Seattle, WA 98101                   \yiN contains approximately 760 investors and 100
Tel (206)441-3123                   entrepreneurs. The network primarily serves ventures in
Fax (206)463-6386                   Oregon, Washington, Idaho and British Columbia seeking one
                                     million dollars or less in financing. Entrepreneurs pay $650 for
                                     six months of membership.  Individual and corporate investors
                                     pay $100 and $750 respectively for one year of service.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

265 East 100 South, Suite 300
Salt Lake City, UT 84110 -3358
The Association of Venture Clubs publishes a national list of
venture clubs. This list provided some of the contacts for this
924 Cherry Street, 2nd Floor
Philadelphia, PA 19107-2405
Tel (215)923-5363
Fax (215)923-4764

444 North Capital Street NW
Washington, DC
Tel (202)393-6435

Mr. Carroll Greathouse
P.O. Box 1333
Stamford, CT 06904

1199 N. Fairfax Street, Suite 200
Alexandria, VA 22314
The CDFI Coalition promotes financial institutions that serve
community development needs. Members include the
Association for Enterprise Opportunity (415)415-2333
representing microenterprise lenders, the Community
Development Venture Capital Alliance (218)722-0861, the
National Association of Community Development Loan Funds
(215)923-4754, the National Congress for Community
Economic Development (202)234-5009, and the National
Federation of Community Development Credit Unions
The Council of State Community Development Agencies and
the National Association of State Development Agencies
(202)898-1302 provide contacts for state economic developers.
The International Venture Capital Institute offers three
- The IVCI Directory of Venture Networking Groups (Clubs) and
Other Resources (includes some of the same organizations
profiled in this directory, as well as SBA, Economic
Development and Small Business Center listings)
- The IVCI Directory of Business Incubators and University
Research and Science Parks
- The IVCI Directory of Venture Capital Seed and Early-Stage

The National Association of Small Business Investment
Companies publishes a national guide to SBICs. SBICs are
privately owned investment and venture capital firms that are
licensed, regulated, and provided supplementary financing by the
U.S. Small Business Administration.
          A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                              The National Business Incubation Association provides
                              support to business incubator and entrepreneurial groups around
                              the country.
20 East Circle Drive, Suite 190
Athens, Ohio 45701
Tel (614)593-4331

1730 K Street, NW Suite 915
Washington, DC 20006
Tel (202)223-4735

1655 North Fort Myer Drive
Suite 700
Arlington, VA 22209
Fax (703)525-8841

Ms. Lauren Valenti
P.O. Box 2234
Boston, MA 02107
Fax (617)451-3447
                              The National Council for Urban Economic Development
                              provides educational programs and publications to foster
                              economic development in U.S. cities.
                              The National Venture Capital Association provides
                              conferences and services to venture capital firms.
                              "The Social Investment Forum is a national membership
                              association dedicated to promoting the concept and practice of
                              socially and environmentally responsible investing. The Forum
                              is a not-for-profit organizations made up of over 1,000
                              professionals, individuals and institutions seeking ways to use
                              their investment dollars to encourage positive growth and change
                              in society." The Forum publishes an annual guide to its
                              members and hosts regional chapters around the country which
                              conduct conferences and educational programs. Members
                              include brokers, community development banks and loan funds,
                              financial planners, investment managers, money market funds
                              and mutual funds.
A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks

                FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
U.S. SBA, (800)8-ASKSBA (This number can direct callers to their nearest SBA District
Office, from which the 504 Loan Program, 7(a) Guaranteed Loan Program and the Small
Business Investment Company (SBIC) Program are administered.)
The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program, Office of Innovation
Research and Technology, (202)205-6540. (Research and technology development
SBA Online, Direct modem connection via (800)697-4636, or internet connection
to site http://www.sbaonline.sba.gov. (Full description of SBA programs, SBIR
solicitations, regional offices, SBA lenders.)

Intermediary Relending Program, Community Facilities Program, (202)720-1490.
Business and Industrial Loan Program, B&I Loan Program, (202)690-4100.
General FmHA information, (202)720-4323.

Section 108 Loan Guarantees, Community Development Block Grants (CDBG),
Economic Development Initiatives
Contact information: HUD Community Planning Division, (202)708-1871, General
HUD information line (202)708-1422.

Public Works and Development Facilities Program, Title IX Economic
Adjustment Program, Additional Assistance Programs, Economic Development
Administration (202)482-4067 in DC, Regional Offices: Philadelphia
(215)597-4603, Atlanta (404)730-3002, Chicago (312)353-7706,  Austin
(512)482-5461, Denver (303)844-4714, Seattle (206)220-7660, Oakland (510)637-2988.

Main information line, Securities and Exchange Commission, (800)SEC-0330.
Publications Department, (202)942-4040. (Request Small Business financing
Office of Small Business Policy, (202)942-2950.
(Also contact state Secretary of State offices for information on state
security regulations and "blue sky" laws.)
Internet site:  http://www.sec.gov
         A. Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks