United States
         Environmental Protection
         Agency
Environmental Sciences Research
Laboratory
Research Triangle Park NC 27711
EPA-600/8-79-008c
April 1979
         Research and Development
         Plan for Air Pollution
         Research in the Texas
         Gulf Coast Area
         Volume III.  Summary of
         Previous Air Quality
         Studies and Data
   	
EPA/600/8-79/008c

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                 RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES


Research reports of the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate-
gories  were established to facilitate  further development and application of
environmental technology. Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously
planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.
The nine series are:

     1.  Environmental Health Effects Research

     2.  Environmental Protection Technology

     3.  Ecological Research

     4.  Environmental Monitoring

     5.  Socioeconomic Environmental Studies

     6.  Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports (STAR)

     7.  Interagency Enefgy-Em/ironnient Research and Development

     8.  "Special" Reports

     9.  Miscellaneous Reports

This report has been assigned to the SPECIAL REPORTS series. This series is
reserved for reports which are intended to meet the technical  information needs
of specifically targeted user groups. Reports in this series include Problem Orient-
ed Reports, Research Application Reports, and Executive Summary Documents.
Typical of these reports include state-of-the-art analyses, technology assess-
ments, reports on the  results of major research and development efforts, design
manuals, and user manuals.
This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa-
tion Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

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                                           EPA-600/8-79-008C
                                           April  1979
       PLAN FOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH

        IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST AREA


       Volume III.  Summary of Previous
        Air Quality Studies and Data
                     by
     Bryan W. Lambeth, Barbara J. Maxey
            and William P. Stadig

             Radian Corporation
            8500 Shoal Creek Blvd.
             Austin, Texas  78766
         EPA Contract No. 68-02-2955
               Project Officer

              Basil Dimitriades
 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Division
 Environmental Science Research Laboratories
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORIES
     OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NORTH CAROLINA 27711

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                                 DISCLAIMER
     This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Sciences Research
Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication.
Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views
and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of
trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation
for use.
                                       ii

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                                 ABSTRACT
     This document contains a summary of all available air pollution re-
lated information concerning air pollution - emissions, measurements, and
meteorology - for the Texas Gulf Coast Area (Houston area).  Included is a
summary of major reports and studies covering air quality in the Houston
area, with conclusions and recommendations, as well as air pollution emis-
sions data summaries, air quality monitoring site information,  air quality
data summaries, and additional meteorological information.  Finally,
a bibliography with abstracts is provided for the topics of emissions,
monitoring, meteorology, and control, which are relevant to the Texas
Gulf Coast Study.
                                     iii

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                                  CONTENTS


Abstract	  iii
Figures	   vi
Tables	  vii
Acknowledgements	viii

1    Introduction and Summary	    1

2    Conclusion and Recommendations from Major Reports and Studies	    5

3    Emissions Data	   28

4    Monitoring Data	   41
        Site information	   41
        Air quality data summaries	   77
5    Additional Meteorological Data	  178
        Description	  178
        Summary of meteorological conditions in the Houston 4rea	  178
6    Bibliography with Abstracts	  185

Appendix A.  Summary of emissions from area type sources in the
             Houston area	  283

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                                 FIGURES
Figure                                                               Page
  1-1  Texas Gulf Coast Study Area	   2
  1-2  Immediate Houston vicinity	   3
  3-1  Texas Air Control Board emission inventory data format	  29
  3-2  Annual emissions of hydrocarbons from point sources in
       Houston area for 1975	  32
  3-3  Annual emissions of NO  from point sources in Houston area
       for 1975	*	  33
  3-4  Annual emissions of SO  from point sources in Houston area
       for 1975	*	  34
  3-5  Annual emissions of particulates from point sources in Houston
       area for 1975	  35
  3-6  Annual emissions from area sources in 1975 for counties in
       Houston-Galveston area	  38
  4-1  Existing continuous criteria sites in the Houston area	  43
  4-2  Existing continuous criteria sites in the Houston area	  44
  4-3  Temporary continuous criteria sites in the Houston area	  71
  4-4  Temporary continuous criteria sites in the Houston area	  72
  4-5  Non-continuous criteria, existing monitoring sites, at
       starred locations, open stars are private sites	  74
  4-6  Non-continuous criteria, existing monitoring sites, at
       starred location	  75
  5-1  Houston area weather reporting stations	180
  5-2  Wind Rose for Houston Intercontinental Airport (NWS) for the
       years 1970-1976	183
  5-3  Wind Rose for Houston Hobby Airport (NWS) for the years
       1959-1969

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                                 TABLES
                                                                    Page
       Annual Emissions from Stationary Sources in Houston-Galves-
       ton SMSA, 1975	   30
3-2    Point Source SIP Emissions Inventory  Non-Methane Volatile
       Organic Compounds	   31
3-3    1975 Area Sources Emissions in Houston and Galveston SMSA's
       by County	   37
3-4    Total Annual Emissions (Non-Methane) for the Houston and
       Galveston SMA	   39
3-5    Area Source SIP Emissions Inventory Non-Methane Volatile
       Organic Compounds	   40
4-1    Houston Air Quality Studies with Temporary Continuous Cri-
       teria Monitoring	   65
4-2    Temporary Continuous Criteria Monitoring Sites	   68
4-3    TSP Parameters in the TACB Data File	   76
5-1    Houston Area Weather Reporting Stations	  179
5-2    Houston Weather Summary - Normals, Means,  and Extremes	181
5-3    Galveston Weather Summary - Normal, Mean,  and Extremes	  182
A-l    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	  284
A-2    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	  285
A-3    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	  286
A-4    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources 	  287
A-5    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	288
A-6    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	289
A-7    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	290
A-8    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	291
A-9    Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	292
A-10   Summary of Emissions from Area Type Sources	293

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                            ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
     The authors would like to thank Gary K. Tannahill and Dr. John C. Terry
for their advice, and Ken K.  DeBower and J. Rees Haley for their assistance
in computer operations.  Finally,  we would like to  thank Karin S. Weidemann
for the typing of this report.
                                   viii

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                                  SECTION 1

                          INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY


     The Texas Gulf Coast Area is the largest urban and industrial area in
the southern United States.  Local citizens, governmental agencies and
corporations have a longstanding interest and concern with the quality of
life in this area.  Many groups have sponsored and/or performed research and
monitoring of air quality and environmental health in the greater Houston
area since the 1960's.  The results of the studies have identified several
outstanding questions that need resolution.  The U.S. Congress mandated that
the Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with local groups, plan
and execute a program to define the health problems resulting from air
pollutions in the Gulf Coast Area.

     Additional information concerning the Texas Gulf Coast Planning Study,
of which this document is a part, are provided in the following:

     •  Volume I.  Plan for Air Quality Studies

     •  Volume II.  Plan for Health Effects Studies

     •  Volume IV.  Summary of Previous Health Effects
        Studies and Data

     •  Volume V.  Local Viewpoints on Research
        Needs

     The objective of Volume III is to collect, catalogue, and summarize
all available air pollution related information relevant to the Houston area,
including:

     •  air pollutant emissions data,

     •  air quality measurements,
     •  meteorological data, and
     •  pertinent aerometric research studies.

A map of the Texas Gulf Coast area is provided in Figure 1-1.  Included
in the study area are all of the counties in the Houston and Galveston
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (Brazoria, Fort Bend, Galveston,
Harris, Liberty,  Montgomery, and Waller Counties), with the addition of

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	Montgomery
                                                      GALVESTON





                                                      ; Field





                                          Galveston County
                             •rreeport
             Figure 1-1.  Texas Gulf Coast Study Area.

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Chambers County.  A close-up map of the immediate Houston vicinity is shown
in Figure 1-2.

     Conclusions and recommendations from major reports and studies are pre-
sented in Section 2 to provide a foundation of information about aerometric
research studies which are pertinent to the Texas Gulf Coast Study.  A
summary of available emissions data is given in Section 3, and information
about air quality measurements, including site descriptions and data sum-
maries, are provided in Section 4.  Section 5 describes additional meteoro-
logical data, and Section 6 lists a bibliography with abstracts covering air
pollution related topics relevant to the Texas Gulf Coast Study.  Entries
in the bibliography are arranged in alphabetical order by title within each
of the following categories:

     •  Emissions,
     •  Monitoring,

     •  Meteorology, and
     •  Control.

Additional emissions data for area sources is provided in Appendix A, and
additional air quality data summaries will be included in Appendix B (to
be issued separately at a later date).

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                                  SECTION 2

           CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM MAJOR REPORTS AND STUDIES
     Included in this section are summaries, conclusions, and recommendations
from important studies that are relevant to the Texas Gulf Coast Study.
Nine reports and studies sponsored by the EPA,  NASA,  Texas Air Control Board,
and Houston Chamber of Commerce are described.   The summaries, conclusions,
and recommendations have been presented directly from the source documents
where possible.   Entries are arranged in chronological order, according to
the period of most intensive study.

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TITLE:



PERIOD OF STUDY:

SPONSORING AGENCY:


PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:
Respirable Particulate Monitoring with Re-
mote Sensors, Public Health Ecology:
Air Pollution

July 1, 1971 - October 31, 1973

National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
tion

The University of Texas, Institute of
Environmental Health, Health Sciences
Center at Houston
SUMMARY:  The feasibility of monitoring atmospheric aerosol characteristics
in the respirable range from air or space platforms was explored and demonstra-
ted.  The research plan included elements from contrast theory,  Mie aerosol
characteristics, and a vertical path length,  limited by the altitude of  the
remote sensor platform, an aircraft, or the height of the inversion layer.

     Secondary reflectance targets were located in the industrial area and
near Galveston Bay.  These approximated areas of high and low ambient air
aerosol loadings.  Film/filter channels were used to limit bandwidths.  Multi-
channel remote sensor data was processed and utilized to calculate the
aerosol extinction coefficient, and thus determine the aerosol size distribu-
tion.

     Houston and Texas air sampling network high-volume suspended particu-
late data were utilized to generate computer isopleth maps (SYMAPS) of sus-
pended particulates over the test site areas.  On-site 5-hour high-volume
measurements were also conducted to establish the mass loading of the at-
mosphere.  In addition, a 5-channel nephelometer, and a multi-stage parti-
culate air sampler were used to collect data at the site.  After demonstra-
ting the data best fit the Junge distribution, linear regression analyses
were used to calculate the extinction coefficient.

     The empirical models in the literature were utilized to predict ambient
air mass loadings.  The extinction coefficient determined from remote sensor
data proved more representative of wide areal phenomena than that calculated
from on-site measurements.  It was also demonstrated that a significant
reduction in the standard deviation of the extinction coefficient could  be
achieved by reduction in the size of the bandwidths used in remote sensors.
This technology and software may be transferable to use with satellite in-
formation.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:  The results of this study are not conclusive
but do  indicate that some of the characteristics of the ambient respirable
aerosol concentration can be monitored with remote sensors from high air-space
platforms.  Most easily measured is the extinction coefficient q, of the
aerosol size distribution.  This then can be used to predict the mass loading
on a time averaged basis.  Thus far the prediction of mass loading has not

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been highly successful but several characteristics have emerged.   A 24-hour
mass  loading^ of the ambient atmosphere representative of large areas is
more likely to be predicted successfully utilizing q than anything representa-
tive of purely local ground conditions.  The extinction coefficient q can
itself be shown to distinguish between aerosols which have sorbed moisture
and those that are relatively dry.  In fact, the extinction coefficient q
calculated from remote sensor data is far more closely related to relative
humidity than that  q calculated from nephelometric ground truth measurements.

     Recommendations for future research include the following:

1.  ERTS or other satellite frequency band data should be utilized to calcula-
te extinction coefficients for the aerosol size distribution contained under
the temperature inversion.

2.  These techniques should be utilized with active remote sensors.  The
Environmental Protection Agency Remote Sensing Laboratory at Las Vegas,
Nevada has developed the capability to determine inversion altitudes with
lasers mounted in airplanes. A joint program should be explored.

3.  Passive or active remote sensors should be used which have well known,
narrow, frequency bandwidths.   The multi-band spectral analyzer is an example
of one such preferred sensor.

4.  New contrast targets should be chosen that can be resolved (defined)
with multichannel analyzers or other narrow multi-band frequency  sensors.
A new black secondary reflectance target would be most useful since it would
also eliminate some difficulties in the analyses.  The shadow limb of the
white tank used in these studies as the black secondary reference standard
was thought to be too narrow to be resolved with present multichannel ana-
lyzer capability.

5.  Gaseous air pollutants which cause degradation of health in humans
should be monitored by remote sensors by utilizing the spectral qualities
of these pollutants, e.g., organic gases, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide,
ozone, and exploiting the concepts and techniques herein developed.

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TITLE:                              Particulate Attainment Analysis

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    1971-1975

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:            Texas Air Control Board

SUMMARY:  Section 110 of the Federal Clean Air Act requires that each State
Implementation Plan be revised whenever it is determined that the plan is
substantially inadequate to achieve the national ambient air quality stan-
dards.  The FY 76 State Program Grant from the Environmental Protection
Agency to the Texas Air Control Board required that the Board conduct attain-
ment analyses for primary suspended particulate standards in several air quality
control regions in Texas.  These attainment analyses were to include as a
minimum:

     •  a detailed evaluation of the status of air quality,

     •  an evaluation of the restrictiveness of existing regulations,
        and

     •  an evaluation of the status of major compliance programs.


CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:  As a result of  this analysis of major
compliance programs,  the following  conclusions have been reached:

1.   Ninety-seven  of  the 103 major  sources  located in Harris  County  are  in
substantial compliance  with Regulation I.   Of the six remaining  sources
not  yet  in compliance,  two are  in  some phase of legal action while  the other
four are implementing control programs to  reduce  emissions  to comply with  the
regulation.

2.   Future reductions in excess of  96  tons per year of  particulate  matter
are  anticipated by the  end of  1977  for major  source abatement programs.
Additional reductions totaling  over 800  tons per  year are  anticipated  in
the  next few  years.

3.   Only one  minor source of  the 47 identified within the  area of study  is
not  in substantial compliance with Regulation I.   The City of Houston Air
Pollution Control Program  is working with this  company  to  solve  its emissions
problems.

4.   Area sources  within the study  area were determined  to  be in  substantial
compliance with Regulation I.

 5.   Emissions from major sources do not  exceed  the allowables a  significant
amount of time due to upset and maintenance activities. The amount of

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particulate emissions exceeding the allowables during these upset and main-
tenance operations is significant.

6.  No trends in complaints could be identified.   Correlations analysis
revealed poor correlation between time and the number of complains received
during the 23 month study period.

7.  The intent of Rule 104 is being complied with  by most affected sources
with the exception of several large unpaved public commercial parking lots
which may product substantial amounts of airborne particulates especially
during employee shift changes.

     This report on the status of major compliance programs in Harris County
has been as extensive and complete as possible given the short time available
for the study.  Recommendations on additional work necessary are listed
below:

1.  A comprehensive review of Rule 104 should be  undertaken  to  determine if
its clarity can be improved.

2.  Additional study beyond the scope of this report is desirable to deter-
mine the impact on ambient air quality of upset and maintenance activities
in the area.

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TITLE:                              Urban and Industrial Air Pollution in
                                    Houston,  Texas - I.   Hydrocarbons.

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    July 1973 and July-August 1974.

SPONSORING AGENCY:                  Environmental Protection Agency

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:            University of Houston, Department of
                                    Chemical Engineering, Air Quality Manage-
                                    ment Program

SUMMARY:  During the Summer of 1973 and 1974, ambient air samples were collec-
ted at sites in downtown Houston and the nearby Pasadena and LaPorte industrial
complex to determine the hydrocarbon composition in relation to emission
sources.  Ground level samples were collected at one hour intervals and
analyzed for Ci - Ce hydrocarbons without delay in order to avoid any
sample deterioration due to storage.  In addition at selected times, heli-
copters were used to sample at 500 and 1000 ft elevation.  Meteorological
conditions were recorded and their effects on the hydrocarbon composition
evaluated.  As expected, the hydrocarbon spectrum of downtown Houston air
resembled that of auto exhaust and showed a strong dependence on traffic
density and local meteorology.  The hydrocarbon composition at the industrial
sites largely depended  on the wind direction and magnitude, (i.e.,  local
point sources) . This study has also indicated removal of some of the
hydrocarbons by the photochemical reactions.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:  This study has provided, for the first
time, a picture of the hydrocarbon composition and temporal variation of
Greater Houston's ambient air in relation to emission sources.  The study
has indicated that both automobile and industrial processes are important
to the hydrocarbon problem in Houston.  In the downtown area automobiles do
contribute more to the pollution burden as the frequency of olefins has been
found greater in downtown than the other two sites.  It has also been shown
that  these hydrocarbons do undergo photochemical reactions.

     A summary of non-methane hydrocarbon levels at all sites is shown below.
It is apparent that 1974 non-methane hydrocarbon concentration in Pasadena
decreased as compared to 1973.  The decrease in hydrocarbon concentration in
Pasadena can be attributed to the implementation of the Regulation V
(Control on volatile carbon compounds) of Texas Air Control Board.  Regu-
lation V required industries to control hydrocarbons from a variety of
sources (e.g., floating roofs for storage tanks, better maintenance of
pumps and valve leaks, etc.) and, as expected, these activities have  re-
sulted in reducing the concentration of non-methane hydrocarbons in air.

      The decrease in the levels of airborne hydrocarbons is in line with
the 46% reduction in the stationary source emissions which has been achieved
because of the Regulation V of the Texas Air Control Board.
                                     10

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     Hydrocarbon composition has shown a strong dependence on the wind
direction at Pasadena and La Porte sites.  This would indeed be expected
as these sites are surrounded by a. variety of manufacturing operations
(hydrocarbon sources).

           COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF NON-METHANE HYDROCARBONS IN 1973 AND
                                    1974


                               Downtown               Pasadena       La Porte
	1973	1974	1973	1974     1974

Total No of Samples        79          298          102        278     108

% of Samples               12.7          4.4         32.3       16.5     4.6
>0.24 ppm

% of Samples               87.4         95.6         67.6       83.5    95.4
<0.24 ppm

% of Samples               27.8         30.2         22.5       52.9    75.9
<0.05 ppm

% of Samples containing    80.0         61.0         21.0       10.0     4.0
olefins
                                      11

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TITLE:                              Hydrocarbon Analysis of Houston Air

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    September 1, 1973,  January 30,  1974,  and
                                    April 2,  1974.

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:            U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency

SUMMARY:  A total of 21 air samples were collected  at various urban, indus-
trial, and rural locations in the Houston area and  these samples were
analyzed by gas chromatograph to determine individual hydrocarbons. Esti-
mates of vehicular hydrocarbons at the different sites  were made by comparing
certain hydrocarbon/acetylene ratios with those collected in a tunnel under
the Houston ship channel.  The tunnel samples were  assumed to be representa-
tive of pure automobile emissions.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

     A significant contribution from non-vehicular  hydrocarbon sources
was observed at most of the sampling sites.  At some of the loeafcionsj as
little as 10-15% of the hydrocarbon burden could be attributed to vehicular
sources.  For samples considered to be most representative of vehicular
and industrial emissions, approximately 50% of the total hydrocarbons could
be attributed to vehicular sources.  Also, ratios of non-methane hydro-
carbons to oxides of nitrogen were found to be typical  of such ratios in
other large urban areas, ranging from about 10/1 to 20/1.
                                       12

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TITLE:                               Light Hydrocarbon Measurements at Houston



PERIOD OF STUDY:                    October 8-19, 1973



SPONSORING AGENCY:                  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency



PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:            Washington State University



SUMMARY:  Light hydrocarbons (Ci - Cs) were monitored, as well as total

non-methane hydrocarbons, NO , and Os.  Also, Os was measured by aircraft.
                            X
                                      13

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TITLE:                              Houston Urban Plume Study - 1974.
                                    Description and Summary of Results.

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    July 15-24, 1974

SPONSORING AGENCY:                  Environmental Protection Agency, En-
                                    vironmental Sciences Research Laboratory

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:            University of Texas at Austin

SUMMARY:  The 1974 Houston Urban Plume Study (HUPS) was undertaken as a pre-
liminary investigation of some of the unresolved features of Houston's air
pollution problem.  HUPS was intended specifically to gain limited informa-
tion on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollutants — particu-
larly, primary and secondary aerosols — in the Houston area as an aid should
a later intensive investigation of aerosol character and transport be needed.

     Aerial measurments were made of the principal pollutants (SOa, NO ,
Oa, CO, aerosol) of the Houston area.  Wind-field measurements were also
made.  These data were used to estimate pollutant budgets.  Values for
and NO  (14 metric tons/hr and 40 metric tons/hr, respectively) were
reasonably comparable with values derived from emissions inventories of the
Texas Air Control Board (13 and 24 metric tons/hr, respectively) .   On the
basis of the limited sampling period, the industrial area (east of down-
town Houston) apparently is the major contributor of primary air pollutants
in the Houston area.  In the morning hours above the mixed layer,  relatively
large ozone concentrations (max. 0.2 ppm) — almost certainly of photo-
chemical origin — were found that correlated closely with light scattering
aerosol, thus indicating the existence above the mixed layer of strong
secondary aerosol sources .

     Appendices containing all the data are not included in this report.
A complete, unabridged report is available from the National Technical
Information Service (NTIS) as EPA-600/3-78-048a, May 1978.

     This report was submitted in partial fulfillment of Grant No. R800871
by the University of Texas, Austin, under the sponsorship of the Environ-
mental Protection Agency.  This work was completed as of March 31, 1976.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

     The 1974 Houston Urban Plume Study  (15-24 July, 1974) had as its objec-
tive a preliminary investigation of some of the unresolved features of
Houston's air pollution problem.  The principal tool in this investigation
was an instrumented fixed wing aircraft.  The following conclusions de-
rived from  the study are based on limited data representing seven days
(18-24 July, 1974) of actual operation.

1.  Pollutant budgets for the Houston area for SOa and NO  (14 metric tons/hr
and 40 metric tons/hr, respectively) were found to be in reasonable compari-
                                      14

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son with values derived from emissions inventories of the Texas Air Control
Board (13 and 24 metric tons/hr, respectively).

2.  On the basis of the limited sampling period, it appears that the indus-
trial area (east of downtown Houston) is the major contributor of primary
air pollutants in the Houston area.

3.  During the period of the study, in the morning hours above the mixed
layer, relatively large ozone concentrations (max. 0.2 ppm) - almost cer-
tainly of photochemical origin - were found which were correlated closely
with light scattering aerosol.  This correlation indicated the existence
above the mixed layer of strong secondary aerosol sources, possibly asso-
ciated with the oxidation of SOa.

This preliminary study has served to indicate more clearly what additional
studies are needed to delineate the aerosol character and transport in the
Houston area.  The most important recommendations are:

1.  Future field studies in the Houston area should be preceded, planned,
and carried out adaptively with an adequate air pollution model for the
Houston area.

2.  These studies should integrate ground based and aircraft measurements,
preferably involving two or more aircraft.  At least one helicopter would
be desirable to permit sampling below 1000 feet (304.8 m.) owing to frequent
low level nighttime inversions in the Houston area.

3.  The studies should be of sufficient duration to permit an adequate
sampling of meteorological conditions and diurnal and seasonal variations.

4.  Special attention should be given to characterization of primary sources
and background values for the principal air pollutants - particularly for
particulate matter.

5.  The test of an adequate delineation of the aerosol transport and charac-
ter for the Houston area can only be in the form of predictive success of
an air pollution model developed previously and adapted extensively from
field results.

It is safe to say that studies in the Houston area which proceed without
these elements cannot be decisive in resolving the nature of Houston's air
pollution problem.
                                      15

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TITLE:                              Photochemical  Oxidant Attainment Analysis.
                                    Summary  and Analysis of  Ozone  Data.

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    1974-1976

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:            Texas Air Control Board

SUMMARY:  Texas Air Control Board (TACB) data have shown that the national
ambient air quality standard for photochemical oxidants (ozone) has not
been attained in nine of the twelve air quality control regions (AQCRs)
in Texas.  As part of the Environmental Protection Agency's Requirement
for submittal of revisions to the State Implementation Plan, statistical
data on ambient ozone levels were produced for each AQCR.   The data are
summarized and presented in this report for the Austin-Waco, Corpus Christi-
Victoria, Houston-Galveston, Dallas-ForthWorth, San Antonio, Beaumont-Port
Arthur, El Paso, Midland-Odessa-San Angelo and Texarkana-Tyler AQCRs.  This
report does not address the complex relationship between hydrocarbons, oxides
of nitrogen and ozone in the ambient atmosphere nor is there an in-depth
examination of the ozone-forming potential of typical weather systems occur-
ring in Texas.  This-additional analysis will be  essential  in order to
determine if the oxidant standard is attainable in any of these nine air
quality control regions.

     Examination of ozone data collected through the Texas Air Control
Board's continuous ambient monitoring network shows that:

1.  The photochemical oxidant standard has been exceeded at each of the 20
TACB continuous monitoring stations currently operating in nine AQCRs in
the state.

2.  The highest ozone concentrations and the greatest frequency of values
over the standard occur at stations in the Houston-Galveston and Beaumont-
Port Arthur AQCRs.

3.  Other statistical measures, in addition to the annual second highs, such
as the percent of hours and days with ozone above 0.080 ppm, ninetieth
percentile values and the number of hours above higher concentration levels,
show that ozone concentrations in 1976 were significantly higher  than in
1974 and 1975.

4.  Meteorological conditions that were conducive to ozone  formation occurred
more frequently in August and September of 1976 than during the same period
in 1974 and 1975.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:  The photochemical oxidant standard has
been exceeded at every  continuous monitoring station operated by  the Texas
Air Control Board.  In  1976, the second highest one-hour concentrations
ranged  from less than twice the standard in Austin to almost  three and one-
half times the  standard in the Houston  ship channel area.  The stations
located in the upper Gulf Coast area of Texas,consistently  measure the
                                      16

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highest ozone concentrations and experience levels above the standard for
the longest durations.  The six stations in this area (Aldine, Houston,
Texas City, Nederland, West Orange and Clute) averaged levels over two and
one-half times the standard based on 1976 second high hourly values.  Central
Texas cities (Austin, Dallas, and San Antonio) averaged twice the standard
while the stations in El Paso and Corpus Christi averaged less than twice
the standard in 1976.

     Studies conducted by the Texas Air Control Board have shown that the
oxidant standard has been exceeded in rural areas of Texas which were not
directly affected by manmade precursor emissions.  High ozone concentrations
(up to 0.081 ppm) have been measured at CAMS locations when air parcels
entering the cities arrived at monitoring sites from non-urban, non-industrial
area.  This information, coupled with the results of another TACB study on
the relationship of hydrocarbon emission reductions and ambient ozone con-
centrations, casts doubt on the achievability of the oxidant standard in
Texas' major metropolitan areas.

     In addition, there is evidence that ozone concentrations in rural areas
may exceed the standard for longer durations than in urban areas.  Prelimin-
ary data from the Gregg County CAMS in the Texarkana-Tyler AQCR show that
this station may have a higher percentage of values above 0.080 ppm than
even stations in the Houston and Texas City areas.  The occurrence of this
phenomenon in rural areas may be due to the lower emissions of NO, which would
scavenge the ozone at night.

     There is not yet adequate data to determine, with any certainty, whether
the ozone levels measured in Texas are consistently increasing or decreasing.
Weather conditions in 1976, especially in the late summer months, were
sufficiently different from previous years to mask any developing oxidant
trends.

     An indication of the change in patterns of ozone behavior in 1976
was the increase in the number of long duration ozone buildups.  In 1974
there were 14 instances of daily high ozone concentrations exceeding 0.080
ppm for four or more consecutive days at single monitoring locations.  In
1975, there were 10 such instances, but in 1976 the number jumped to 39.
The longest episodes were in Aldine and Dallas in August 1976.  The ozone
reached levels above the standard for ten consecutive days at each location.

     In 1976, high pressure systems dominated the states' weather during
the late summer.  Comparisons with data for the same period in 1974 and 1975
show that in 1976 wind speeds were significantly lower and the percentages
of possible sunshine significantly higher across the state.  Ozone levels
in June and July 1976 were similar to previous years.

     The Texas Air Control Board deployed six new continuous monitoring
stations in late 1976 and early 1977.  The three remaining stations,
necessary to complete the network, will be deployed before the end of FY-77.
They will be located in Nueces County, Arlington and Bexar County.  Ozone
                                      17

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statistics from the recently deployed stations were not discussed in detail
in this report because,  traditionally,  the highest ozone levels are recorded
in the period from July  to October.
                                      18

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TITLE:                              Study of the Formation and Transport
                                    of Ambient Oxidants in the Western Gulf
                                    Coast and North Central and Northeast
                                    Regions of the United States.

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    July 1 - October 1, 1975

SPONSORING AGENCY:                  Environmental Protection Agency

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:            Research Triangle Institute

SUMMARY:  During the summer of 1975, Research Triangle Institute (RTI)
conducted a two-part field measurement program designed (1) to determine
the change in the concentration of ozone in the center of a high pressure
system,  as the system moves from an area of low population density to an
area of high population density; and (2) to determine the areal extent of
high ozone concentrations in the northern gulf coast region of Texas.

     In the Northern High Pressure System Oxidant Study, the objective was
to determine the change in the concentration of ozone near the center of
high pressure systems, as these systems traverse the northwestern, north-
central, and northeastern areas of the United States. During their passage
over the United States, these systems traverse, first, regions of low popu-
lation density and little industrial activity — that is, regions having
small emission densities of the hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide precursors
necessary for the production of the photochemical oxidants.  During this
initial period, low ozone concentrations were anticipated.  As the systems
move eastward, however, population density, industrial activity, and, con-
sequently, emissions of oxidant precursors increase.  It was anticipated
that ozone levels would increase.

     The objective of the Gulf Coast Oxidant Study was to document the areal
extent of high ozone concentrations in the northern gulf coast region of Texas,
Primary emphasis was on the roles and/or contribution of land-sea breeze
circulations, of local emissions of ozone precursors, and of transport of
ozone and ozone precursors within and downwind of the study areas.

Design of Study/Field Measurement Program

     To accomplish the objectives described above at a minimum cost, two
independent studies were designed that could be conducted concurrently and
that employed similar measurement systems.

     Based on the above considerations, two modes of measurement were
employed1:  (1) a network of five, fixed, rural sites operated by RTI plus
supplementary rural and urban ground-level sites operated by State/local/
other agencies, and (2) an instrumented aircraft flying specified patterns.
The field measurement program included continuous ozone and nitrogen dioxide
measurements, collection of grab samples for selected hydrocarbon and
                                      19

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halocarbon analyses, and 24-hour,  total suspended particulate (TSP)  samples
at four manned, rural stations located in Bradford,  Pennsylvania;  Creston,
Iowa; Wolf Point, Montana; and DeRidder,  Louisiana.   Ozone measurements
were also made at an unmanned station at Lewisburg,  West Virginia,  and at
supplementary stations located in the general study areas, which were
operated by State and local governments or by private industry.  Ozone and
oxides of nitrogen were measured and grab samples collected during aircraft
flights designed to accomplish specific objectives for each study  area.
Supplemental vertical ozone data were obtained from ozonesonde releases
at Huron, South Dakota, and DeRidder, Louisiana.   A joint RTI-EPA  quality
assurance program was designed and implemented to assure that high quality
data were obtained.

     The data acquisition program began at all stations before July 1, 1975.
Data were collected and quality assurance performance audits were  performed
at specified intervals at each of the stations included in the monitoring
network through September 30, 1975, at northern stations and through October
31, 1975, in the South.

     Since only one aircraft was utilized for both studies, the aircraft
was based in DeRidder, and flights were conducted in the gulf coast area
until an appropriate high pressure system developed in the northern study area.
A total of 111 individual aircraft flights were flown during the combined
studies.  These flights were flown under varying meteorological conditions
and included sea breeze flights, coastal areal survey flights, downwind
plume flights, vertical profile flights, double-box patterns around Nederland,
Texas, calibration and instrument checkout flights, and northern high pressure
system flights.  During the month of October, several joint RTI-EPA/Las
Vegas flights were flown  in the gulf coast area.

Principal Findings
     The data obtained during the field measurement program were summarized
statistically and segmented into four general subject areas for analysis
and^Bjterpretation. These areas are:  (1) Northern High Pressure Oxidant
Study, (2) Gulf Coast Oxidant Study, (3) Chemistry of Ozone Generation in
Rural Areas, and (4) Quality Assurance Program.  Data were analyzed and
interpreted according to  the objectives for each study and have been incor-
porated into a comprehensive section that combined both a chemical and
meteorological interpretation of the results.  Principal  findings are pre-
sented separately below.

Gulf Coast Oxidant Study

1.  Air moving slowly over areas of large hydrocarbon emissions was associated
with-upper decile ozone concentrations at urban and rural locations in the
gulf coast area.  In most cases, trajectory analysis showed air with high
ozone concentrations arrived from nonprevailing directions.     •    *
                                      20

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2.  Air that moved rapidly, showed weak anticyclonic  curvature, and  had  long
overwater fetches was associated with lower decile ozone concentrations  at
all of the ground station locations.

3.  In most cases, trajectory analysis attributed the highest ozone  con-
centrations to principal cities or areas of high precursor emissions located
in the gulf coast study area.  These observations suggest that ozone plumes
commonly develop downwind of large precursor emissions areas.

4.  Aircraft ozone measurements clearly demonstrate an ozone plume (280
yg/m , maximum) upon a low ('XLOO yg/m ) background downwind of the petro-
chemical complex at Port Arthur, Texas.  During the period observed, ground
level ozone concentrations at a continuously operating ground station near
the emission area were less than 100 yg/m3.

5.  Intercity urban plume transport of ozone or ozone precursor materials
was evident.  This was shown as a potential cause of some violations of  the
NAAQS at Austin.

6.  In the survey flights, the mean ozone concentrations over water  were
usually found to be less than those over the land, regardless of  the level
of ozone encountered.  When elevated ozone concentrations were measured  over
the water, the trajectory analyses usually showed the air parcel  had a recent
(^24 hr) history over continental areas, usually over high precursor emission
areas.

7.  When areawide ozone concentrations exceeded the NAAQS, vertical  mixing
was usually restricted by a stable layer below 2 km.

8.  Analysis of a series of ozonesonde releases at DeRidder, Louisiana,  does
not indicate ozone intrusion from the stratosphere.  Mid-to-upper tropospheric
ozone concentrations changed by 50 percent or more during a day,  but they
did not contribute to ozone changes at ground level.

9.  Anthropogenic pollutants (acetylene and selected halocarbons) were
present in all grab samples collected at the DeRidder station and during
aircraft flights.  Examination of the data indicate that hydrocarbon and
ozone concentrations are not linearly related at DeRidder.

10. Four distinct areal distributions of ozone were identified from  air-
craft flights:
     a)  area-wide low concentrations CWO yg/m3),

     b)  localized plumes downwind of precursor areas,

     c)  elevated ozone concentrations, some exceeding NAAQS
         for ozone, usually increasing from west to east,

     d)  area-wide (North Carolina to Louisiana) ozone concentra-
         tions exceeding the NAAQS for ozone.
                                     21

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

Conclusions;  Gulf Coast Oxidant  Study

1.  Ozone concentrations over the Gulf of Mexico usually were less than those
over land.  High ozone concentrations (i.e.,  XL60 Ug/m ) that were measured
over water or in air flowing off  the Gulf of  Mexico were associated with air
that had previously passed over continental sources of pollution.

2.  Changes in the vertical structure of ozone concentrations below 3 km
are parimarily controlled by boundary layer processes.

3.  Elevated ozone concentrations (i.e.,  XL60 yg/m3)  are frequently measured
in plumes downwind of potential ground sources of precursors, i.e., cities,
major refineries, and petrochemical installations.

4.  Upper decile concentrations of ozone are associated with slow moving air
that had passed over high precursor emission areas and arrived from a non-
prevailing wind direction; lower decile concentrations are associated with
faster moving air, having a long over-water fetch with a weak anticyclonic
trajectory.
                                     22

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TITLE:                              Measurement  of  Light  Hydrocarbons  and
                                    Studies of Oxidant Transport  Beyond Urban
                                    Areas,  Houston  Study  -  1976

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    1 July 1976

SPONSORING AGENCY:                  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
                                    Environmental Sciences  Research Laboratory

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION:            Washington State University,  Chemical
                                    Engineering  Department

SUMMARY:  During the month of July, 1976, Washington State  University carried
out an extensive air pollutant monitoring program in the Houston area.  This
field study involved ground sampling plus use of an instrumented aircraft.
Measurements included ozone, oxides of nitrogen, PAN, methane, carbon monoxide,
individual hydrocarbons (Ca - Cio), halocarbons, condensation nuclei and
visual distance plus numerous meteorological parameters.   Specific areas
of interest in this study included:  1) oxidant  formation and transport
within the Houston urban plume, 2) relationships between ozone layers aloft
and the vertical temperature profile, 3) composition and effects of refinery
and petrochemical emissions on the local Houston air mass,  and 4) identi-
fication and quantitation of individual Ca - Cio hydrocarbons in the Houston
atmosphere.  Results of this field program are presented with special em-
phasis placed on oxidant production and transport in the Houston area.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:  Hydrocarbon concentrations (6-9 am)  at
three ground level sites in the Houston area generally fell in the range of
200-1000 yg/m .  However, there were occasions when the hydrocarbon total
exceeded 2000 yg/m3.  The extreme hydrocarbon concentrations (> 2000 yg/m3)
were most often observed at the site in north Houston.  On  mornings when
hydrocarbon concentrations in the 2000-3000 yg/m  range were recorded,
it was common to find as much as 90% of the hydrocarbon burden comprised
of aromatic species.  Afternoon hydrocarbon levels at the WSU trailer site
in northwest Houston averaged about a factor of  three lower than those
measured during the 6-9 am period.

     Background hydrocarbon concentrations averaged about 40 yg/m3.  Samples
collected in air masses containing elevated ozone exhibited hydrocarbon
concentrations in the 200 yg/m  range and thus were considerably above the
background level.  The hydrocarbon content that  could be ascribed to auto-
motive tailpipe emissions between 6 and 9 am at  the three sampling sites
varied from 25 to 31%.  A similar vehicular content (^25%)  was determined
from hydrocarbon samples collected by aircraft in the downwind Houston plume.

     Ozone concentrations at the WSU trailer site equalled  or exceeded the
80 ppb NAAQS on seven of the 25-day sampling period.  It was not uncommon
for aircraft measured ozone concentrations to exceed 80 ppb on days when
ground level concentrations were much below the standard.  There is little
                                     23

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doubt that ozone concentrations in the region downwind of  Houston generally
exceed those monitored at ground level stations in the Houston urban-indus-
trial complex.  Between July 1 and 24, 1976 there were no  "blanket"  ozone
episodes in southern Texas.  Consequently,  we believe that oxidants  measured
in the Houston area during the July study period resulted  from precursors
emitted in the immediate Houston area.  There was no evidence of  surface
ozone enhancement due to subsiding air masses from aloft.

     The presence of PAN in the Houston atmosphere was primarily  limited to
the daylight hours.  Elevated PAN concentrations were observed to persist
into the nighttime hours only on two occasions.  The highest hourly  average
PAN concentration was 11.5 ppb; however, the average of all measurements
between 10 am and 4 pm was only 1.0 ppb.  On a daily basis there  existed
a good correlation between PAN and ozone.  On days when ozone showed high
peak values, PAN concentrations peaked as well.

     The Houston plume was detectable for long distances downwind.  Air-
craft data collected on July 12, clearly show a pronounced ozone  plume as
far as 90 miles downwind of Houston.  Ozone levels approaching 190 ppb were
recorded at that distance and they remained elevated over a cross-sectional
distance of about 45 miles.  A reduction in visual range always coincided
with elevated ozone in the downwind plume.

     Hydrocarbon - NO  ratios during the 6-9 am period generally  fell in a
range of 7.5 to 18.5 at the northwest Houston ground sampling site.   Similar
Hc/NO  ratios were observed in air masses that contained high oxidant levels.
On several occasions the ground level, diurnal, pollutant patterns in Houston
were consistent with a photochemical oxidant producing mechanism.

     Ambient fluocarbon-11 concentrations averaged between 400 and 650 ppt
in northwest Houston.  This is high when compared to average background con-
centration in upwind areas of about 140 ppt.  This difference was used as
an aide for tracing the Houston plume.' Ground level carbon tetrachloride
concentrations averaged about 300 ppt in Houston and showed little diurnal
variation.

     Samples collected in the Houston vicinity for sulfate analysis exhibi-
ted concentrations ranging from near zero to 10.8 yg/m3.  In general, highest
sulfate levels were recorded in areas downwind of the ship channel industrial
area.
                                     24

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TITLE:                              Houston Area Oxidant Study (HAOS)

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    1975-1977

SPONSORING AGENCY:                  Houston Chamber of Commerce

SUMMARY:  The Houston Area Oxidants Study (HAOS) is a technical study com-
posed of a group of separate, interrelated projects.  The study investi-
gates the causes and impacts of airborne oxidants and haze in Houston and
Southeast Texas.  It is an effort to develop a sound technical basis for
controlling haze and airborne oxidants in the area.

     At the end of 18 months of activity, the HAOS as a whole is now approxi-
mately 80 percent complete.  Ten projects have submitted draft final
reports which are currently undergoing review. Three projects are actively
reducing data and preparing draft reports. The socio-economic impact study
is in the process of refining impact models and developing analysis tech-
niques.  Four contracts have recently been awarded, three in the area of
data analysis and one in the ozone/oxidants study area.

     The HAOS is sponsored by the Houston Chamber of Commerce.  It is di-
rected by the HAOS Steering Committee, a special committee of the Chamber.
There are two sub-committees, the Technical Sub-Committee and the Advisory
Sub-Committee.  The Technical Sub-Committee is responsible for the technical
design and credibility of the study, the Advisory Sub-Committee for fi-
nancial support. A private technical consulting firm, Radian Corporation,
provides technical and fiscal management services for HAOS.  Funds for HAOS
have been generated from private sectors of the Houston community, including
individuals, business, industry, universities, labor unions, construction
firms, banks and real estate developers.

     HAOS is a cooperative effort between environmental contractors, indepen-
dent private businesses and governmental agencies.  Data obtained from some
HAOS proj ects are being augmented by data from the public and private sec-
tors. The value of this additional data, if financed by HAOS, would add
over $4 million to the $1.4 million HAOS budget.  Private sources of data
include Exxon Corporation, Celanese Chemical Company, Dow Chemical Company,
General Motors, Gulf Chemical Company, Houston Lighting and Power Company,
Monsanto, Arco Chemical, DuPont, and Shell Oil Company.  Cooperating
public agencies include the Texas Air Control Board (TACB), the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), and the City of Houston.

     HAOS has received national attention because of its unique organization
and sponsorship when the recent (1977) amendments to the Clean Air Act were
formulated.  Congress cited HAOS as an example of private initiative to study
air pollution problems.  EPA has recently provided $1 million for an initial
study of the relationship between airborne aerosols and health in the Gulf
                                     25

-------
Coast area.  Expenditure of an additional $2 million during the next two
years is being considered by EPA for subsequent studies in the area.  HAOS
cooperated with TACB in its efforts to obtain federal funds for this project,
and is providing technical data to EPA in support of these studies.

Areas of Study

     HAOS includes technical studies in four subject areas:  ozone/oxidants,
haze, health effects, and socio-economic impact of control measures.  Studies
in the ozone/oxidants and haze areas have collected and processed data which
will provide a more complete characterization of air quality in the Houston
area.  Data obtained from the health effects studies will better define
the effects of air quality on community health.  A study of the socio-
economic impact of control measures is developing a scientific methodology
for projecting impacts and analyzing the consequences of probable control
strategies.  Progress in pertinent areas of study is described below.

Air Quality Definition:  Ozone/Oxidants

     During June - October, 1977, data describing levels of ozone, nitro-
gen oxides (NO ), ultraviolet radiation, and a wide variety of specific
hydrocarbons were collected at monitoring sites throughout the Houston area.
These data were augmented by meteorological information regarding two- and
three-dimensional air movements, and by documentation of ozone episodes
during the sampling period.  In addition to these studies, a contract to
design a captive air chamber for examination of pollutant behavior in large
samples of captive air was awarded April 1, 1978.

Air Quality Definition;  Haze

     Little is known about Houston's most evident air quality problem:
reduced visibility resulting from light scattering by particles in the
atmosphere.  For this reason, three HAOS projects in the haze study area
conducted field sampling during June - October, 1977.  Visibility measurements
were made using both trained human observers and instrumental methods.  These
studies were supported by one in which visibility-reducing particles were
collected and chemically analyzed.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:  A Program Summary Report, in which all
HAOS results will be interpreted and documented, will be published by
April 1979.
                                     26

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                                    Houston Air Pollution Study (HAPS)

PERIOD OF STUDY:                    September 15 - October 15, 1978

SPONSORING AGENCY:                  Environmental Protection Agency

SUMMARY:  A one month intensive field study was conducted in the Houston
area by several public and private organizations.  In addition to routine
data from the TACB, City of Houston, and National Weather Service,  data
was gathered from nine additional stationary monitors, two mobile vans, a
twin engine airplane, helicopter, tethersonde,  acoustic sounder, two piball
sites, and four portable pairs of TSP Hi-Vol samplers.  Five of the stationary
monitors collected continuous ozone and NO  data, in addition to the TACB
and City of Houston monitors.  Continuous S02 was measured at four of the
seven additional monitors, with CO and hydrocarbons measured at two of these
sites.  Freon and PAN were also measured at two of the stationary sites.
Three hour integrated grab samples were collected at 10 sites for 6-9 am
and 1-4 pm and were analyzed for detailed hydrocarbon species.  Grab samples
for detailed hydrocarbon analysis were also collected by the two aircraft.
Dichotomous particulate samples were collected at the two TACB continuous
monitoring sites and with two mobile samplers.   Filter samples from the di-
chotomous samplers, as well as the portable Hi-Vols were analyzed by GC/MS
and microscopy.  Also, Be7 and P 2 measurements were performed.

     The airplane also measured ozone with flights conducted 6-9 am and
1-3 pm.  Most of the flights remained within about a 50 mile radius from
Houston.  The helicopter also collected aerosol samples, in addition to
grab bag samples.  Both of the mobile vans were equipped with an electrical
aerosol analyzer and an optical particle counter to measure particle size
distribution, condensation nuclei counter, nephelometer, and instruments to
measure Os, NO, NO , SO2, and in one van, THC.
                  X

     Vertical profiles of wind speed and wind direction were measured
hourly in the mornings and occasionally during the afternoons by pilot
balloons tracked by theodolite.  This wind data, as well as meteorological
forecasts were used to determine the daily direction of the urban and in-
dustrial plumes.  The mobile monitors were then directed to locations to
provide cross-sections of the plumes and upwind measurements.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:  Conclusions and recommendations will be
reported by June 1979.
                                      27

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                                  SECTION 3

                              EMISSIONS DATA
     There are two major sources of emission inventories for the Gulf Coast
Area providing both point source and area source emission data.  These are
the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) and the EPA Region VI Office in Dallas.
Other surveys and inventory updates are currently planned or are in progress
and will be available within a year.  These will be cited in the following
paragraphs.

Point or Stationary Sources
     The most recent inventory data for all pollutants from TACB is based on
1973 surveys which have been updated to 1975 and projected to reflect emis-
sions for the year 1980, 1985 and 1990.  The inventory includes detailed
information about the types of sources, the types and quantity of emissions
from each source, and the locations of each source.  The compounds inventoried
include NO ,  SO , hydrocarbons,  carbon monoxide, particulates,  and specific
carbon and nitrogen compounds.  Figure 3-1 summarizes the type  of data available
from the TACB emissions inventory questionnaires.  Table 3-1 shows the total
carbon compound and NO  emissions from stationary sources for individual
counties in the Houston and Galveston Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(SMSA).  The 1977 State Implementation Plan (SIP) inventory of  emissions of
non-methane volatile organic compounds from point sources in Harris County is
presented in Table 3-2.  It is based on the 1975 inventory and  updated with
permit data.

     The TACB emissions inventory data is also available in the NEDS (National
Emissions Data System) format from the EPA Regional Office in Dallas.  The
NEDS data has the advantage of being in computerized form but is not as
complete as the TACB emissions inventory questionnaires.

     The 1975 inventory of point source emissions prepared by TACB is
available as a listing from computer tape, giving the geographical coordina-
tes of the plants and/or stacks and the annual emissions of HC, NO , SO
and particulates.

     So that the location and magnitude of these sources may be visualized
more graphically the annual emissions of each pollutant for each industrial
plant in the Houston area have been plotted on the maps in Figures 3-2 through
3-5.
                                     28

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30

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                      TABLE  3-2
                  '  POINT SOURCE
             SIP EMISSIONS INVENTOR?
     MON-J4ETHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
                     (TONSAR)
COUNTY!    Harris          	 YEAR 	1977
Bricks and Related Products
Carbon Elack
Petroleum Refining
• Fixed Roof Liouid Storage
• Floatira Roof Liquid Storage
• Shin and borne transport of gasoline and
• yaei:uifl systems, <;opar^fprr, r prncnss unifc
• Fugitive Emissions (leaks)
Other petroleum refinery emissions
Petrochemical Manufacturing
• Process streams
• Fugitive (leaks)


crude oil
turnarounds

0
5111
10305
6688
10297
12989
7325
12393
| 18180
18384
• Storage and Handling
• Waste Disposal
Other petrochemical emissions
Asphalt batching
Asphnlt roofing
Power plants
Steel production
Foundrv
Fertilizer and Agriculture Pesticides
General Chemicals
• Paint manufacture
• Pharmaceutical manufacture
Other general cherrical emissions
Wood Products
• Surface coating of flat wood products
• Surface coating of wood furniture
Other wood products emissions
Fabricated metal products
• Larce apoliar.ce manufacture
• Ketal furniture manufacture
• Surrace coating of automobiles, cans, metal coils
• Surface coating of other iretal products -
Other fabricated metal products emissions
industrial

Oil Mills - - -
• Vegetable oil processing
Other oil mill emissions
Fabricated textile products
• Surface coatina of fabric products
Other textile products emissions
Veneer and Plywood
• Surface coating of flat wood products


Other veneer ar.d clvwood emissions
Paper, Paperboard and Paperboard Boxes
• Surface coatina of paper
Cther paper and papcrboard emissions
» Printing and Publishing



i Fabricated rubber products
Plastic Products
Electrical and Electronic
• Magnet wire insulation
• Surface coacina of othar metal prodxicts -


industrial
other electrical and electronic emissions
Refuse Systems
Federal Facilities
Natural Gas Process inc Plants (compressor s booster stations)
Crude Oil Production
Terminals, bulk hydrocarbon
• Gasoline bulk plants
• Bulk Gasoline Terminals


•
Other emissions from terminals
Plastics and rosina
Synthetic Rubber
• Decreasing


TOTAL - POINT SOURCES (T/Yr)
3497
56
78
0
0
0
1176
0
67
689
244
1573
10
0
0
0
1
2234
0
95
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
317
607
0
0
0
0
0
85
961
1284
5165
4179
15267
397
8839
L48493
                    (CTG ITF.MS)
                        31

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32

-------
33

-------
34

-------
35

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Area Sources

     Inventories of area source emissions are maintained by the TACB and the
EPA in NEDS format.  The data from the 1975 "EA.CB inventory for the Houston
area was computerized for the EPA by Engineering Science for hydrocarbons,
nitrogen oxides, SO  and particulates.  Currently,  SRI is developing an
inventory of area sources for the Houston area in a gridded format.  This
may be available at the end of this year.  The TACB will soon be submitting
questionnaires so that an updated inventory for 1978 may be prepared in 1979.
A breakdown of emissions from area type sources in 1975 prepared by TACB
for each county in the Houston-Galveston and Beaumont-Orange regions is
provided in the appendix, Tables A-l through A-10.   The pollutants inven-
toried were NO , SO , HC, CO, and particulates.  A summary of this information
is presented in Table 3-3.  It may be noted that the area source emissions
are dominated by transportation in the Houston area.

     So that the distribution of the area type emissions may be visualized
in a spacial manner, the totals for each county are indicated on a map
of the Houston-Galveston area in Figure 3-6.

     Area source emissions in the Houston-Galveston area account for about
one-third of the total emissions  (area plus stationary sources) for both
carbon compounds and oxides of nitrogen as indicated in Table 3-4.

     The area source SIP emissions inventory of non-methane volatile organic
compounds for Harris County, 1977, is shown in Table 3-5.  It is based on the
1975 inventory but updated by use of  information from permits issued since
then and with revised data on vehicle miles traveled. (VMT)
                                      36

-------
                                                            eM CN  r* CM    eN  iH M m in
                                                            \o m           m  1-1 (-1
                                                            m m
                              00 CO  O    (H  i-t 00 CN
                                           oo  r*» O iH

                                           -JT  CO
t£ O  ^T f^ i-H  CM
i
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                                                             1 O CT* CN
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                                           oo in  CM
                             ^o m o

                             CO 00
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                                                                            4J «  ft* O  3
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              g-H  fc. O     ^ H O     " !
                                                                                   -  o
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                                         37

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Waller
                                                             3,674
                                                               263
                                                             3,431
                                                            13,322
                                                             1,760
       Montgomery County
                                   91,986
                                   10,569
                                   97,671
                                  429,131
                                   19,663
                                                                                       4,242
                                                                                         650
                                                                                       3,533
                                                                                      12,816
                                                                                       1,244
                5,555
                   378
                5,315
                20,155
                3,420
                                                     Chamben County
         Fort Bend County
                                                        10,186
                                                         2,784
                                                         9,867
                                                        41,4
                                   8,461
                                     934
                                   7,716
                                  29,966
                                   2,626
                                         GULF OF MEXICO
                                                                          MILES
       *  PA = Parttculates
         Figure 3-6.
Annual emissions from area  sources  in 1975 for counties in Houston-
Gavieston area.
                                            38

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         TABLE 3-4.  TOTAL ANNUAL EMISSIONS (NON-METHANE) FOR THE

                     HOUSTON AND GAEVESTON SMA
                                                Tons
                % of Total
Total Carbon Compound Emissions



  Area



  Stationary





Total NO  Emissions
        X


  Area



  Stationary (for HC sources only)
343078



133975



209103





327094



126885



200209
39



61
39



61
Source:  TACB 1975 Emissions Inventory
                                      39

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                  TABLE 3-5

                  ASS A SOURCE
           SIP EMISSIONS INVENTORY
    NON-METHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
                   (TONS/YR)
COUNTY
          Harris
                               YEAR
1977
Fuel Combustion - Stationary
Residential Fuel
Natural Gas
Distillate Oil
Wood
Commercial/Industrial - Energy
Natural Gas
Oil
Irrigation Pumps
Natural Gas
Gasoline
Solid Waste - Commercial/Industrial Incineration
Transportation
Gasoline
Light Duty Vehicles
Light Duty Trucks.
Heavy Duty Trucks
Motorcycles
Off -Highway
Diesel
Heavy Duty Trucks
Of f-High"way
Rail
Aircraft
Military
Civil
Commercial
Vessels
Gasoline
Diesel
Residual
Fuel Handling Evaporation
Service Stations , Tank Loading
Service Stations , Vehicle Loading
Other Fuel Handling Evaporation
Miscellaneous
• Cutback Asphalt Paving
Solvent Evaporation
• Dry Cleaning
• Architectural & Miscellaneous Coating
Structural Fires
Forest Fires
%
TOTAL - AREA SOURCES
238
.54
4U4
113
147
0
0
70
66,210
18,862
3,964
3.975
2,190
282
bib
638
754
97
1.115
916
232
179
325
4,467
284
2,489
1,304
1.425
20
55
111,347
                    (CTG ITEMS)
                      40

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                                  SECTION 4

                               MONITORING DATA
     Ambient air monitoring first began in the Houston area  in the  1960's
Before 1970, both the Texas State Department of Health and the City of
Houston were monitoring total suspended particulate (TSP), and a few other
pollutants, such as total oxidants and sulfur dioxide.  During the  current
decade, much more extensive monitoring of air pollution has taken place
in the Houston area.

     Monitoring site information and data summaries are presented in this
section.  Emphasis has been placed on information and data that are rele-
vant to the Texas Gulf Coast Study.

SITE INFORMATION

     The Houston area monitoring sites have been classified into four
categories:

     •  continuous criteria-existing sites,

     •  continuous criteria - temporary sites,

     •  non-continuous criteria-existing sites, and

     •  non-continuous criteria-temporary sites.

Continuous criteria sites are sites for which most or all  of the data
is collected at periodic intervals of one hour or less (usually for
hourly averages) 24 hours each day.  Whereas, non-continuous criteria sites
sample either for long time intervals (usually one day, as for Hi-Vols),
or for intermittent instantaneous intervals (as for grab bag samples).
The existing sites are sites which will more than likely be in operation
during the next year (1979) and probably for a longer time span. Most of
the temporary sites are no longer in operation.  However,  some of the tempora-
ry sites coincide with permanent existing sites.  In these cases, certain
parameters were monitored on a temporary basis, and are not presently moni-
tored.
                                     41

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Continuous Criteria-Existing Sites

     Senarate one page detailed site descriptions are provided for eighteen
existinb continuous monitoring sites in the Texas Gulf Coast Study Area.
All of these sites (except possibly the Beasley site) will be in operation
through at least December 31, 1979.  An additional site is scheduled to be
added by the Texas Air Control Board, before the end of 1978, in the Seabrook
area.  This Seabrook site will have the same compliment of instruments as
the Texas City site.

     A map reference number is given in parentheses after each site location
address.  This number refers to the numbered location shown in Figures 4-1
and 4-2.  Abbreviations for the parameters monitored are as follows:

     Os   - ozone
     NO   - oxides of nitrogen
     NO   - nitric oxide
     THC  - total hydrocarbons
     CHi*  - methane
     TS   - total sulfur
     SOa  - sulfur dioxide
     HaS  - hydrogen sulfide
     FID  - flame ionization detector
     TSP  - total suspended particulate (non-continuous)
     Pb _ - lead  (non-continuous)
     S0if~ - sulfate (non-continuous)
     N0s~ - nitrate (non-continuous)
     WS   - wind  speed
     WD   - wind  direction
     TEM  - temperature
     DP   - dewpoint
     SR   - solar radiation
     VIS  - visibility
     RAIN - rainfall

     Following the list of site descriptions is a description of the cali-
bration and quality assurance procedures used by several monitoring agencies.
Additional abbreviations  from this section are as follows:
     NBKI - neutral buffered potassium  iodide
     NOa  - nitrogen dioxide
     NBS  - National Bureau  of Standards
                                      42

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43

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Figure 4-2.  Existing continuous criteria sites in the Houston  area.
                               44

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SITE:
Hornwood
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:

EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
6608 Hornwood, Houston (1)
Latitude 29° 42' 35"
Longitude 95° 30' 08"
UTM  Zone 15
  257.923   E
  3280.063  N

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Os - Bendix
Commercial and residential areas near-
by.  Southwest Freeway (U.S. 59)
located a few blocks west, downtown
about 9 miles east-northeast.

June 15, 1977 to present.
                                      45

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SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
Houston East (Mae Drive)
Saroad ID #2560034F01

1224 Mae Drive (2)
Latitude 29° 46'  03" N
Longitude 95° 13' 14" W
UTM Zone 15
  285.303  E
  3295.162 N

Texas Air Control Board
03
                                      CO
- McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (Chemiluminescent)
                                      NO,
                                      TS,

                                      TSP,
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
         THC - Bendix 8200 Environmental
     Gas Chromatograph (FID)
    NO  - TECO (Chemiluminescent)
    SOX, H2S - Bendix 8301 Analyzer
     (Flame Photometric)
     Pb, SOi* , NOa" - Hi-Vol
WS, WD, TEM - Climet
DP - EG&G
SR - Eppley
VIS - MRI Nephelometer

Air intake - 22 feet
Meteorological gear - 19 feet
Level terrain at southest corner of
Harris Elementary School.  Area immedi-
ately surrounding site is mostly resi-
dential with a few small commercial
businesses.  Interstate Highway 10
is about I5? blocks north of site.
Ship channel industrial area one to
five miles southwest, south, and
southeast, with oil refineries, petro-
leum processing, plants, chemical pro-
cessing plants, a paper mill, and a
steel mill.

April 12, 1973 through present.
                                      46

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SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Aldine
SAROAD ID #2330024F01

Aldine Mail Road, Harris County  (3)
Latitude 29° 54' 02"  N
Longitude 95° 21' 41" W
UTM Zone 15
  275.473  E
  3310.112 N

Texas Air Control Board

Os - McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (Chemiluminescent)
CO, CHif, THC - Bencix 8200 Environmental
  Gas Chromatograph  (FID)
NO, NO  - TECO  (Chemiluminescent)
TS, SO*, H2S - Bendix 8301 Analyzer
  (Flame Photometric)
TSP, Pb, S0*~, N03~ - Hi-Vol
WS, WD, TEM - Climet
SR - Eppley
VIS - MRI Nephelometer

Air intake - 22 feet
Meteorological gear - 19 feet
Flat terrain on grounds of Hambrick
Junior High School, 100 yards southwest
of the junior high school and 200 yards
east of McArthur High School.  No
nearby heavy industrial pollutant
sources. Eastex Freeway  (U.S. 59)
which runs north-northeast is one mile
to the east.

February 1, 1974 through present.
                                    47

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SITE:
LOCATION:
Texas City
SAROAD ID //5170002F01

2702 13th Avenue North, Texas City (4)
Latitude 29° 23' 55"  N
Longitude 94° 56' 00"  W
UTM Zone 15
  312.398  E
  3253.773 N
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED-TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Texas Air Control Board

Os - McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (Chemiluminescent)
CO, CHit, THC - Bendix 8200 Environmental
  Gas Chromatograph (FID)
NO, NO  - TECO (Chemiluminescent)
TS, SO?, H2S - Bendix 8301 Analyzer
  (Flame Photometric)
TSP, Pb, SOit , N03~ = Hi-Vol
WS, WD, TEM - Climet

Air intake - 22 feet
Meteorological gear - 19 feet
Located in grass covered parking area
on south side of Robinson Municipal
Stadium.  Area within mile of site
is mostly residential and small commer-
cial business.  Palmer Highway is 2
blocks south and Highway 146 is one
west.  Large industrial complex from
about 2 miles southeast to 2 miles
southwest of site, with several oil
refineries, a non-ferrous smelter, and
several petrochemical complexes.

June 6, 1974 through present.
                                      48

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SITE:
LOCATION:
Clute
SAROAD ID //0950003F01

Cobb Field, North Commerce Street,
  Clute (5)
Latitude 29° 00' 39"  N
Longitude 95° 23' 52" W
UTM Zone 15
  266.440  E
  3211.622 N
AGENCY:
Texas Air Control Board
PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
03 - McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (Chemiluminescent)
CO, CHif, THC - Bendix 8200 Environmental
  Gas Chromatograph (FID)
NO, NO  - TECO (Chemiluminescent)
TS, SO*, H2S - Bendix 8301 Analyzer
  (Flame Photometric)
TSP, Pb, SOiT, N03~ = Hi-Vol
WS, WD, TEM - Climet

Air intake - 22 feet
Meteorological gear - 19 feet
Generally smooth terrain at the entrance
to Cobb Field.  Grassy open areas to
south, west, and east, with residential
areas to east and north.  Large petro-
chemical complex from one mile south
to five miles southeast, including a
chemical plant.

June 25, 1974 to present.
                                     49

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SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE  OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
MacGregor
SAROAD ID //2550007H

1115 North MacGregor, Houston (6)
Latitude 29° 43' 30"
Longitude 95° 23' 32"
UTM Zone 15
  268.603  E
  3290.782 N

City of Houston Health Department

* 03 - McMillan 1100 Ozone Analyzer
  (Chemiluminescent)
* NO, NO  - MEG 1200 Analyzer
  (Chemiluminescent)
WS, WD - Teledyne Geotech

Air intake - 50 feet
Meteorological gear - 50 feet
Located on the third floor of the Health
Department Building.  Downtown Houston
is approximately 4 miles northeast,
Loop 610 is 2 miles south, and the
Southwest Freeway is 2 miles north.  The
Texas Medical Center is adjacent to the
Health Department.  Mostly residential
and business areas nearby.  Ship channel
industrial area over 10 miles east.

1974 through present with present
conf igurat ion.
1971 to 1974 with alternate configura-
tion.
*Removed during 1978.
                                     50

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SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Clinton
SAROAD ID#2560035H

9525 Clinton, Drive, Houston (7)
Latitude 29° 44' 00"  N
Longitude 95° 15' 00" W
UTM Zone 15
  282.382  E
  3291.429 N

City of Houston Health Department

Oa - McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (Chemiluminescent)
CO, CHif, THC - Beckman 6800 Gas Chroma-
  tograph (FID)
S02 - Tracer 270 HA Gas Chromatograph
  (Flame Photometric)
* NO, NO  - MEC 1200 Analyzer
  (Chemiluminescent)
TSP - Hi-Vol
WS, WD, TEM - RM Young

Air intake - 15 feet
Meteorological gear - 18 feet
Located less than one-half a mile
north of the Houston ship channel,
between industrial areas to the south
and residential and commercial areas
to the north.  The land is smooth with
no distinguishing terrain features.
A refinery lies across Clinton Drive
to the southeast.

1974 through present with present con-
figuration.
1971 to 1974 with alternate configura-
tion.
* Removed during 1978.
                                     51

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SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Crawford
SAROAD ID//2560037H

1307 Crawford, Houston (8)
Latitude 29° 45' 07"
Longitude 95° 21' 41"
UTM Zone 15
  271.648  E
  3293.708 N

City of Houston Health Department

Oa - McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (C hemilumine sc ent)
CO, CHit, THC - Beckman 6800 Gas
  Chromatographs (FID)
* NO, NO  - MEC 1200 Analyzer
  (Chemiluminescent)
TSP - Hi-Vol

Air intake - 15 feet
Meteorological gear - 18 feet
Located across the street from a fire
station building.  Commercial and
residential areas nearby.  Downtown
business district one-half mile north-
west, ship channel industrial area
starts about two miles east and ex-
tends eastward.  Major freeways exist
in all directions at distances less
than a mile.

1974 through present with present
configuration.
1971 to 1974 with alternate configura-
tion.
* Removed during 1978
                                      52

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SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTS:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Parkhurst
SAROAD ID #2560038H

8314 Parkhurst, Houston (9)
Latitude 29° 50' 15"
Longitude 95° 17' 11"
UTM Zone 15
  270.909  E
  3303.046 N

City of Houston Health Department

03 - McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (Chemiluminescent)
CO, CHi», THC - Beckman 6800 Gas
  Chromatograph  (FID)
* NO, NO  - MEG 1200 Analyzer
  (Chemiluminescent)
TSP - Hi-Vol
RAIN - MRI

Air intake - 15 feet
Meteorological gear - 18 feet
Generally smooth terrain with some
trees.  Large water tanks to south-
east.  Mostly residential areas near-
by.  Loop 610 is 2% miles south,
Eastex Freeway  (U.S. 59) is 3 miles
west.  Houston ship channel industry
is over 5 miles to the south and south-
east.

1974 to present.
* Removed during 1978.
                                     53

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SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Fuqua
SAROAD ID #2560039H

7834 Fuqua, Houston (10)
Latitude 29° 36' 45"  N
Longitude 95° 16' 45" W
UTM Zone 15
  279.296  E
  3278.089 N

City of Houston Health Department

Os - McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (Chemiluminescent)
* NO, NO  - MEC 1200 Analyzer
  (Chemiluminescent)
TS, HaS, S02 - Tracer 270 HA Gas
  Chromatograph  (Flame Photometric)
THC, CH^, CO - Beckman 6800 Gas
  Chromatograph
TSP - Hi-Vol

Air intake - 15 feet
Meteorological gear - 18 feet
Generally smooth terrain, water tank
15 to 20 feet high located 50 feet
northwest.  Ship channel industrial
area over 8 miles northeast, Bayport
industrial area about 12 miles east.

1974 through present.
* Removed during 1978
                                       54

-------
SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Lang
SAROAD ID #2560011 H

4420 Single, Houston (11)
Latitude 29° 49' 12"
Longitude 95° 29' 02"
UTM Zone 15
  259.960  E
  3301. 249 N

City of Houston Health Department

Os - McMillan 1100 Ozone Monitor
  (Chemiluminescent)
WS, WD, TEM - Climet

Air intake - 17 feet
Meteorological gear - 18 feet
Trees within 25 yards on smooth terrain.
Residential and commercial areas near-
by.  Highway 290 is one-half mile
north, downtown is about 8 miles south-
east.

1976 to present.
                                      55

-------
SITE:
LOCATION:
Croquet
SAROAD ID #unassigned

13826 Croquet at corner of Darlinghurst,
  Houston (12)
Latitude 29° 37' 25"
Longitude 95° 28' 26"
UTM Zone 15
  260.452   E
  3279.548  N
AGENCY:

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION
City of Houston Health Department

Oa - McMillan 1100 Ozone Analyzer
  (Chemiluminescent)
WS, WD, TEM - Climet
RAIN - MRI
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS;
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Flat terrain in mostly residential and
commercial area.  Highway 90 is one
mile northwest, downtown is about 11
miles northeast, and the ship channel
industrial area is about 15 miles
east-northeast.

July 1978 to present.
                                      56

-------
SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:
PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
Channelview (Trailer 008)
Private

DeZavalla between Elsbeth and Lakside,
  Harris County (13)
Latitude 29° 46' 33"
Longitude 95° 05'  48"
UTM Zone 15
  296.524  E
  3294.738 N

Houston Lighting and Power
(operated by Radian Corporation)

NO, NO  - Columbia Scientific Model
  1600X(Chemiluminescent)
S02 - Meloy Model SA-185-2A  (Flame
  Photometric)
TSP - Hi-Vol
WS - Weather Measure W 103/3L (Cup
  Anemometer)
WD - Weather Measure W 104-2 (Light
  Weight Vane)
TEM - Yellow Springs Instrument 44018
DP - Climatronics DP-10
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF RECORD:
Air intake - 15 feet
Meteorological gear - 25 feet
Generally flat terrain in residential
area adjacent to ship channel industrial
area.  Numerous trees nearby.  Ship
channel lies from WSW to S to ESE,
as close as one mile.

March 1978 to present.
                                      57

-------
SITE:
LOCATION:
North Pasadena (Trailer Oil)
Private

Ethyl Road about 3/4 mile north of
  Highway 225, Pasadena (14)
Latitude 29° 43' 53"
Longitude 95° 09' 55"
UTM Zone 15
  290.571  E
  3289.714 N
AGENCY:
PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
Houston Lighting and Power
   (operated by Radian Corporation)

NO, NO  - Columbia Scientific Model
  1600X(Chemiluminescent)
S02 - Meloy Model SA-185-2A  (Flame
  Photometric)
TSP - Hi-Vol
WS - Weather Measure W 103/3L  (Cup
  Anemometer)
WD - Weather Measure W 104-2 (Light
  Weight Vane)
TEM - Yellow Springs Instrument 44018
DP - Climatronics DP-10
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Air intake - 15 feet
Meteorological gear - 25 feet
Located just west of a power substation
on flat terrain.  Ship channel industry
from west through north to east, as
close as one mile.

March 1978 to present.
                                      58

-------
SITE:
LOCATION:
North Parish (Trailer 015)
Private

Insurance Road, 8/10 mile north of
  FM 2759, Fort Bend County (15)
                                      Latitude 29'
                                      Longitude 95'
                                      UTM Zone 15
                                        244.595  E
                                        3270.429
             32' 14"
              38' 08"
AGENCY:
PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
Houston Lighting and Power
  (operated by Radian Corporation)

NO,  NO  - Columbia Scientific Model
  1600 (Chemiluminescent)
S02  - Meloy Model SA-185-2A (Flame
  Photometric)
TSP - Hi-Vol
WS - Weather Measure W 103/3L (Cup
  Anemometer)
WD - Weather Measure W 104-2 (Light
  Weight Vane)
TEM - Yellow Springs Instrument 44018
DP - Climatronics DP-10
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS;
LENGTH OF RECORD:
Air intake - 15 feet
Meteorological gear - 25 feet
Flat terrain in rural area with 30 to
40 foot trees nearby, surrounding the
site.  Mostly forest and farmland in
the area. W. A. Parish Generating
Station about 4 miles south.

January 1978 to present.
                                      59

-------
SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:
PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF  STATION RECORD:
South Parish (Trailer (017)
Private

Rawlings Road at intersection of
  Peters Road,  Fort Bend County (16)
Latitude 29° 24' 54"  N
Longitude 95° 39' 10" W
UTM Zone 15
  242.875  E
  3256.875 N

Houston Lighting and Power
  (operated by Radian Corporation)

NO, N0x - Columbia Scientific Model
  1600 (Chemiluminescent)
S02 - Meloy Model SA-185-2A  (Flame
  Photometric)
TSP - Hi-Vol
WS - Weather Measure W 103/3L  (Cup
  Anemometer)
WD - Weather Measure W 104-2 (Light
  Weight Vane)
TEM - Yellow Springs Instrument 44018
DP - Climatronics DP-10
SR - Eppley Precision Spectral Pyrano-
  meter Model PSP
RAIN - Weather Measure Model P501-1
   (Tipping Bucket)

Air intake - 15  feet
Meteorological gear - 25 feet
Flat rural farm  area.  A few trees
with house about 70 yards  east.  W. A.
Parish Generating Station  about 4 miles
north.

January 1978 through present.
                                     60

-------
SITE:
West Parish
Private
LOCATION:
4*5 miles south at FM 762, on FM 2977,
  then ^ mile southeast, Fort Bend
  County (17)
Latitude 29° 28' 30"  N
Longitude 95° 47' 23" W
UTM Zone 15
  232.875  E
  3264.875 N
AGENCY:
PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
Houston Lighting and Power
   (operated by Radian Corporation)

NO, N0x - Columbia Scientific Model
  1600 (Chemiluminescent)
S02 - Meloy Model SA-185-2A  (Flame
  Photometric)
TSP - Hi-Vol
WS - Weather Measure W 103/3L  (Cup
  Anemometer)
WD - Weather Measure W 104-2  (Light
  Weight Vane)
TEM - Yellow Springs Instrument 44018
DP - Climatronics DP-10
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF STATION RECORD:
Air intake - 15 feet
Meteorological gear - 25 feet
Flat rural farm land.  Several oil
storage tanks about ^ mile southeast,
W. A. Parish Generating Station about
7*2 miles east.

March 1978 to present.
                                      61

-------
SITE:                                 Beasley
                                      Private

LOCATION                              Beasley, Forth Bend County  (18)
                                      Latitude 29° 31' 15"  N
                                      Longitude 95° 55' 32" W
                                      UTM Zone 15
                                        216.421  E
                                        3269.082 N

AGENCY:                               Monsanto

PARAMETERS MONITORED - TYPE OF        03
INSTRUMENTATION:

EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:            Rural area about 36 miles southwest
                                      of downtown Houston.
                                      62

-------
SITE:
LOCATION:
AGENCY:
PARAMTERS MONITORED - TYPE OF
INSTRUMENTATION:
Chocolate Bayou
SAROAD ID #0540001

5% miles southeast fron State Highway
35 on County Road 203, or four miles
southeast of Liverpool, and 12 miles
south of Alvin, Brazoria County (19)
Latitude 29° 28' 47" N
Longitude 95° 47' 23" W
UTM Zone 15
  282.875 E
  3238.395 N

University of Texas, Bureau of Economic
Geology

SO 2 - Meloy Model SA185-2A
  (Flame Photometric)
H2S - Meloy Model SA185-2
  (Flame Photometric with SO  scrubber)
CHif - Beadix Model 8200 Gas Shromato-
  graph (FID)
TSP - Hi-Vol
EXPOSURE AND SURROUNDINGS:
LENGTH OF RECORD:
Air intake - 15 feet
Flat rice fields nearby.
Chemical plant about 1 mile east to
southeast.

March 1978 to present.
                                      63

-------
Agency Calibration and Quality Assurance Procedures
Texas Air Control Board:
     Monthly Calibration
     Oa - NBKI procedure using MEC 1000 ozone generator
     NO  - NOa permeation tube checked with wet chemistry, NO cylinder
       referenced to NBS
     TS, SOa, HaS - S02 permeation tube checked with wet chemistry
     THC, CHij, CO - cylinder of CH /CO mixture referenced to NBS

     Monthly output checks are made on permeation tubes with wet chemical
methods by an Austin based audit team - data is deleted where a 20% or more
drift is observed.  A five point linearity check is performed on all analyzers
quarterly.  Laboratory audits are conducted twice yearly in Austin.
Zero/span checks are made 3 days per week.

City of Houston:
     Calibration every 45 days or sooner depending on daily zero/span results.
     Os - NBKI procedure
     NO  - NBS referenced cylinder of NO
     THC, CHij, CO - NBX referenced gas cylinder every 45 days
     TS, S02, HaS - SOa permeation tube

     Daily zero/span check
     Oa - with MEC 1000 ozone generator
     NO  - with NOa permeation tube
     THC\ CHij, CO - with NBS referenced gas cylinder
     SOa - with SOa permeation tube

Radian Corporation:
     Monthly multi-point calibrations on each analyzer
     Daily automatic calibration by computer
     NO  - NBS referenced bottled NO span gas
     SOa - SOa permeation tube

     Permeation tube oven temperatures are checked monthly.  All gas and
dilution air  flows in calibration system are checked quarterly, and all
instrument flow rates are checked monthly or whenever a problem is suspec-
ted.  Quality assurance audits are performed quarterly on all instruments.
Hi-vols are audited quarterly.  Audit and calibration control limits for
data validation are _+ 20% for SOa and NO  .

Continuous Criteria - Temporary Sites
     Several air pollution studies in the Houston area have deployed con-
tinuous criteria monitoring sites, for periods up to three years, which are
no longer in  operation.  These studies are described in Table 4-1, and
more detailed descriptions of the monitoring sites from the more recent
studies are provided in Table 4-2.  Locations of the monitoring sites de-
scribed in Table 4-2 are shown in Figures 4-3 and 4-4.
                                      64

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71

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Figure 4-4.  Temporary continuous criteria sites  in the Houston area.
                                72

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Non-Continuous Criteria - Existing Sites

     Over 50 non-continuous monitors are currently being operated by govern-
ment and private agencies in the Texas Gulf Coast Study Area.  Figures 4-5
and 4-6 show the locations of these monitors.  All of the non-continuous
sites have Hi-Vol monitors for TSP, and many also have gas bubblers
for oxides, NOa, NHs, and aldehydes.  The Hi-Vol monitors are operated
only once every six days at government operated sites.  Most Li-Vol samples
are evaluated for chemical composition.  Table 4-3 lists the chemical para-
meters analyzed from TACB Hi-Vol samples.

Non-Continuous Criteria - Temporary Sites

     Several of the studies listed in Table 4-1 have employed non-continuous
criteria monitoring on a temporary basis.  Detailed measurements of hydro-
carbons and aerosols are of particular interest for the Texas Gulf Coast
Study.  Detailed hydrocarbons (Ci - Ce) were analyzed during July 1973 and
July-August 1974 (University of Houston study), from air samples collected
at the following sites:

     •  University of Houston, Engineering Building,

     •  City of Houston trailer - Crawford,

     •  Pasadena Health Department (on Shaw Street),

     •  Washburn Tunnel,

     •  La Porte Civic Center (San Jacinto Street), and

     •  Downtown Houston and Pasadena by helicopter.

During the Houston Urban Plume Study, TEDLAR Bag samples, collected during
aircraft flights,  were analyzed for hydrocarbon, and a Minnesota Aerosol
Analyzer System was used to measure particle size distribution during the
flights.  Detailed light hydrocarbons were monitored, on a non-continuous
basis during July 1976, by Washington State University.  Air samples were
collected routinely by WSU at three ground sites (Lang, Aldine,  and Fuqua),
and periodically from aircraft flights over the Houston area. For the HAOS
study, respirable particulates were monitored by ERT at the Hornwood, Aldine,
Mae Drive, Crawford, and Fuqua sites from June 22 to November 1, 1977 (five
days per week). Also, RTI obtained about 400 samples for detailed hydro-
carbon analysis, from various sites, between June 22 and October 15, 1977.
Finally, detailed hydrocarbon analysis is planned from grab samples to be
obtained for the HAPS project during September and October 1978.  Detailed
aerosol measurements will also be performed for the HAPS project.
                                      73

-------
74

-------
Figure 4-6.  Non-continuous criteria,  existing monitoring sites,
             at starred location.
                               75

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               TABLE 4-3.   TSP  PARAMETERS  IN THE TACB DATA FILE
Parameter
Particulate

Nitrate
Sulfate
Organics
Aluminum (Al)
Silicon (Si)
Fluoride
Chloride (Cl)
Arsenic (As)
Cadmium (Cd)
Beryllium (Be)
Iron (Fe)
Lead (Pb)
Bromide (Br)
Rubidium (Rb)
Zirconium (Zr)
Iodide (I)
Boron (B)
Thallium (Tl)
Chromium (Cr)
MDL*
1.0

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.6
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.8
0.8
0.006
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.02
0.08
0.1
0.08
0.06
Parameter
Copper (Cu)
Tin (Sn)
Antimony (sb)
Manganese (Mn)
Nickel (Ni)
Molybdenum (Mo)
Vanadium (V)
Titanium (Ti)
Zinc (Zn)
Cobalt (Co)
Calcium (Ca)
Sodium (Na)
Strontium (Sr)
Potassium (K)
Magnesium (Mg)
Barium (Ba)
Phosphorus (P)
Sulfur (S)
Germanium (Ge)
Selenium (Se)

MDL*
0.02
0.08
0.04
0.06
0.02
0.02
0.004
0.006
0.02
0.04
0.01
0.1
0.02
0.01
0.1
0.1
0.06
0.04
0.06
0.04

* MDL - Minimum detectable limit in micrograms per cubic meter
                                         76

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AIR QUALITY DATA SUMMARIES

     The remainder of this section is devoted to summaries of air quality
data from Texas Air Control Board continuous criteria monitors in the Houston
area.

     Each page of the data summaries covers one year of data for one pollu-
tant at one site.  The first line on each page gives the name of the site
(refer to the continuous criteria site descriptions at the beginning of the
section for site information), the year presented, and the pollutant pre-
sented.  The number of observations (#OBS), arithmetic mean (MEAN), maxi-
mum hourly average (MAX), and the second highest hourly average (2ND MAX)
are listed by month and year.  Months for which no data is available have
been omitted, and data for each  site  extends through October 1977.  Hourly
variations of each pollutant, averaged over the year or period indicated
at the top of each page, are listed under the heading "ANNUAL DIURNAL TRENDS".
All pollutant units are parts per million (PPM) and times are Central Stan-
dard Time (GST).
                                      77

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                                 SECTION 5

                      ADDITIONAL METEOROLOGICAL DATA
     In addition to the meteorological data monitored at the sites described
in Section 4, meteorological observations are made routinely by several
governmental organizations.  This section provides a description of these
additional observations, as well as a summary of typical meteorological
conditions for the Houston area.

DESCRIPTION

     Seven weather stations in the Houston area regularly report current
weather conditions, including cloud cover, visibility, precipitation occur-
rence, temperature, dew point (no dew point at Freeport),  wind direction,  and
wind speed.  Table 5-1 lists information about the location, type of ob-
servation, and frequency of observation.  Figure 5-1 displays the location
of these stations.  Other stations reporting surface observations, surrounding
Houston, are located at Sabine Pass, Port Arthur, Lufkin, College Station,
Victoria, Palacious, and Port O'Connor.

     The upper air observations made at Alvin are from radiosonde equipped
ballons tracked by theodolite.  Temperature, dew point,  wind direction,
and wind speed are derived from the observation.  However, the wind data
cannot be obtained if the balloon passes into clouds, and observations are
not made on weekends. The nearest regularly reporting upper air stations are
located at Victoria, about 110 miles southwest of Houston, and at Lake
Charles, about 140 miles east of Houston.  These two stations report tempera-
ture, dew point, and wind profiles twice daily, at 7 am and 7 pm CDT.

SUMMARY OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE HOUSTON AREA
     Normals, means, and extremes from National Weather Service data for
Houston are provided in Table 5-3, and for Galveston in Table 5-4.  Included
are temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, sunshine, and cloud cover
information.  It should be noted that Houston data from before June 1, 1969
is from the Hobby Airport, while after that date the Houston data is from the
Intercontinental Airport.  Wind roses fbr both of these airport locations
are shown in Figures 5-2 and 5-3.  Each wind rose displays the frequency
of occurrence of wind direction and wind speed.  The wind direction points
toward the center of the wind rose diagram, with the total frequency by
direction given to the outside  (thus in Figure 5-2 the wind blows from the
north 10.21% of the time, from the north-northeast 4.79% of the time, etc.).
A scale for the wind speed frequencies is shown in the left lower corner.

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Figure 5-1.   Houston area weather'reporting stations,
                     180

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TABLE 5-2. HOUSTON WEATHER SUWiARY - NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES
tf- !
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ve are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the
Highest temperature 108 in August 1909; lowest temperature 5 in January 1940 and earlier; fastest mile of
ch 1926.
ears, through 1977, based on January data.
ord for the 1941-1970 period.
most rerent in cases of multiple occurrence.
"ION - Record through 1963.
eed is fastest observed 1-minute value when the direction is in tens of degrees.
Means and extremes abc
locality as follows:
wind 84 from NW in Mar
(a) Length of record, y
NORMALS - Based on rec
DATE OF EXTREME - The
PREVAILING WIND DIREC1
FASTEST MILE WIND - Sf
181

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based on January data.
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                      NIND  ROSE
                                              9.6M
                                                         HIND SPEED
                                                           (KNOTS)
                                              X CPLM3 - 9.1*0
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                     tox
Figure 5-2.  Wind Rose  for Houston Intercontinental Airport (NWS)  for the
            years 1970-1976.
                                183

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  N
                        WIND ROSE
                                                          WIND SPEED
                                                            (KNOTS)
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Figure 5-3.  Wind  Rose for Houston Hobby Airport (NWS)  for the years 1959-1969.
                                 184

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                                 SECTION 6

                         BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABSTRACTS


     Citations included in the bibliography which follows were identified
through an online literature search of various bibliographic data bases,
an in-house literature search and through personal contacts.  Abstracts
were included for citations when available.  The majority of these abstracts
were provided by the APTIC data base of EPA, the NTIS data base of the U.S.
Department of Commerce, and the MGA data base of the American Meteorological
Society.

     The citations were classified into the following four categories:
emissions, monitoring, meteorology and control.  Each category is arranged
alphabetically by title.

     Additions to the bibliography have been provided for inclusion of
citations identified since the publication of the draft of this report.
The arrangement of these additions is consistent with that of the bibliography,
being divided into the categories of emissions, monitoring, meteorology and
control.  Citations are arranged alphabetically by title within each cate-
gory.
                                   185

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EMISSIONS
     083035
       AIR   POLLUTION  IMPACT OF MARITIME SHIPPING OPERATIONS IN THE
     PORT OF HOUSTON.
       Cooper, Hal B.  H. , Or. and Gnassan M. Mandi
       Coastal Zone Manage. J., 1(4):415-432, 1974. 20 pefs.
       COASTAL ZONE MANAGE 0   1974
       TECH  BIB   Method of Support: NONE
       The  impact of maritime snipping operations on air- quality is
     discussed,  with  particular reference  to the port of  Houston.
     Major   air  pollutants  from  maritime shipping operations are
     sulfur  oxides,    nitrogen  oxides,    and  particulate  matter
     resulting   from   the  comDustion  of   fuel  oil during cruise,
     Derth,  and start-up  modes.    Sulfur  oxide  emissions  are
     substantial  from steamsnips burning high-sulfur .residual fuel
     oil,  and nitrogen oxide  emissions   are  significant  during
     Cruise   conditions  for  ooth  steamships  and  motor  ships.
     Particulate emissions are substantial  during start-up and tube
     cleaning.   Offshore terminals  for unloading large tanKers may
     result   in  emissions of 10-20  tons of sulfur oxides daily per
     snip and 3-5 tons of nitrogen oxides   daily  per  ship  during
     pumping operations.   Trace metal constituents present in the
     oil  may  catalyze sulfur  dioxide    and   nitrogen   dioxide
     oxidation,  resulting  in the production of sulfate and nitrate
     aerosols in tne humid Texas Gulf Coast atmosphere.    Shipping
     contributes about' 66%  of the total  sulfur dioxide emissions
     from transportation sources and almost 3%  of   the  total  for
     Harris  County, Texas.  (Author  abstract modified)
       Descriptors:     COMBUSTION    GASES;    COMBUSTION  PRODUCTS;
     POLLUTANTS; AEROSOLS; PARTICULATES;  HOUSTON;   AMERICA;  NORTH
     AMERICA;    TEXAS;  UNITED STATES;  HARBORS;  BODIES OF WATER;
     TOPOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS;   VESSELS   (MARINE);   MOBILE  EMISSION
     SOURCES;  SOURCES; TRANSPORTATION METHODS;  EMISSION FACTORS;
     CATALYSIS;  CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA; NITRATES; NITROGEN
     DIOXIDE (N025; NITROGEN OXIDES; OXIDES; SULFUR  DIOXIDE? SULFUR
     OXIDES; SULFATES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; CHLORIDES;  SULFIDES
        Identifiers: FERRIC CHLORIDE; LEAD SULFIDE
       Category: EMISSION SOURCES
      010963
         AIR POLLUTION.  LIQUID WASTE INCINERATION.
         L.W. Coleman,   L.F. Cheek
         Chem.  Eng.  Progr. . 64(9) -.84-87,  Sept.  1968.
         CHEM   ENG   PROGR  HOUSTON  TEXAS  PLANT  OF ROHM AND HAAS CO
                                       186

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS


     1968
       TECH   Vlethod of Support: FELL CRT
       The djsoosal of nonuniform liquid wastes created  a  problem
     at the Houston, Texas plant of Rohm and Haas, Co.   The wastes
     which are residues from various chemical processes  and  units
     consist  Df gummy organics,  light hydrocarbons,  waxy solids,
     and heavy,  viscous oils.   A specially designed  incinerator,
     which  was  developed  to handle this nonuniform material,  is
     described in detail.  The basic design appears applicable to a
     wide range of problems.HH  ,
       Descriptors:  POLLUTANTS;  COMBUSTION PRODUCTS;   COMBUSTION
     GASES; SOURCES; FUELS; STATIONARY EMISSION SOURCES; FUEL GASES
     5    NATURAL GAS;  FURNACES;  OIL BURNERS:  INDUSTRIAL EMISSION
     SOURCES; INCINERATORS (REFUSE);  ELECTRIC,  GAS,  AND SANITARY
     SERVICES; REFUSE SYSTEMS; SANITARY SERVICES;  STACKS;  CONTROL
     METHODS; PROCESS MODIFICATION; FIRING METHODS; COMBUSTION AIR;
     DESIGN    CRITERIA;     TEMPERATURE    SENSING    INSTRUMENTS;
     THERMOCOUPLES; MATHEMATICAL ANALYSES; COMBUSTION; CHEMICAL AND

      PHYSICAL  PHENOMENA;  PHYSICAL STATES: , LIQUIDS;  TEMPERATURE:
      CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; INCINERATORS. LIQUID
        Identifiers: LIQUID WASTE INCINERATION
        Category: EMISSION SOURCES
      046543
        AIR  POLLUTION  REPORT.    FEDERAL   FACILITIES.  METROPOLITAN
      HOUSTON- GALVESTON INTRASTATE  AIR  QUALITY CONTROL REGION.
        Orr, Franklin M.,  Or.
        Air Pollution Control   Office,   Rockville,   Md.,    Federal
      Facilities Branch, APTD-0998,  29p.,  July  1971.  7-refs.
        1971
        TECH   Vlethod of Support:  INHOUSE
        USGRDR No.:  NTIS,   PB  209704
        The   status   of   Federally  owned  facilities   within   the
      Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Air Quality  Control   Region   is
      presented  with regard to the  implementation of the objectives
      of the Clean Air Act, as amended.  Fuel  (gas,   oil,   and coal)
      usage,   refuse  disposal   practices  (incineration  and  open
      burning)  air pollution,   and  proposed abatement .measures   are
      reported  for  the 87 Federal  installations within  the  Region.
      The facilities within the Region annually emit  a  total  of   443
      tons of nitrogen oxides,   34 tons  of particulates,   27  tons of
      carbon monoxide, 11  tons of hydrocarbons, and 4 tons of sulfur
      oxides.  Federal facilities contribute substantially less than
      0.1X  -of the  particulates,   CO,    and  SOx emitted  by   all
      stationary   sources  in  the   region.   Aircraft   and other
      transportation  sources   are  not   included  in  the   report,
      although they are significant.
        Descriptors: ABATEMENT;  NATIONAL  GOVERNMENTS;  GOVERNMENTS;
      ANNUAL; HOUSTON; AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA;  TEXAS; UNITED  STATES;
      URBAN AREAS;  METROPOLITAN AREAS;   PARTICULATES;    POLLUTANTS;
      FUELS; SOURCES; STATIONARY EMISSION  SOURCES; COAL;  FUEL GASES;
      FUEL  OILS;  INCINERATORS (REFUSE);  ELECTRIC, GAS,  AND SANITARY
      SERVICES;   INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION  SOURCES;   REFUSE   SYSTEMS;
      SANITARY  SERVICES;   OPEN  BURNING;  BURNING;  NON-INDUSTRIAL
      EMISSION SOURCES  (STATIONARY);   EMISSION   INVENTORIES;    AIR
      QUALITY MEASUREMENTS; HYDROCARBONS;   CARBON MONOXIDE;  OXIDES;
      NITROGEN OXIDES;  SULFUR OXIDES; TEXAS
         Identifiers: GALVESTON
         Category: EMISSION SOURCES
                                     187

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
EMISSIONS


      074278
        AMBIENT   SAMPLING    FOR   STATIONARY   AMD    MOBILE  SOURCE
      HYDROCARBONS IN HOUSTON,  TEXAS.
        McMurry, J. R.,  R.  E.  Flannery,  L.  H.   Fowler,   and D.   U.
      Uonnson
        Preprint,   Air  Pollution Control Assoc.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,
      14p.,  1975.  6 refs.   (Presented at the Air Pollution Control
      Association, Annual Meeting,  63th, Boston,  Mass.,   Oune 15-20,
      1975, Paper 75-45.5.)
        AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ASSOC ANNU MEET 68TH BOSTON MASS  1975
      1975
        FLO   Method of  Support: NONE
        The  Texas  Air  Control  Board conducted a study  from January
      tnrough February   of   1975  to  contrast  the   industrial  and
      vehicular  C2-C5   hydrocarbon  fractions  at   an  urban and an
      industrial site in Houston,  Texas.   One-hour  integrated  bag
      samples  «/ere  collected  and analyzed for  C2-C5 hydrocarbons.
      One site  was  located  in  the  heavily  industrialized  ship
      Channel  area of Houston,   and the other in the downtown area.
      An automotive hydrocarbon signature,  normalized to acetylene,
      was obtained from  samples collected  in the  Washburn Automotive
      Tunnel.    This  sigture,    or  ratio,  was used to derive the
      vehicular contribution to the total  hydrocarbon  burden  from
      the  acetylene  measured at each site.   The findings indicate
      normal diurnal patterns of  automotive  hydrocarbons  at  each
      site.  More than 50%   of the total C2-C5 hydrocarbon burden at
      Doth sites can be  attributed to industrial  sources.     (Author
      abstract nodifled)
        Descriptors:       AIR    QUALITY    MEASUREMENT     PROGRAMS;
      ADMINISTRATION; PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  DIURNAL:  INDUSTRIAL AREAS;
      ENGINE EXHAUSTS;   ENGINE EMISSIONS;   POLLUTANTS;    COMBUSTION
      PRODUCTS;   INDUSTRIAL EMISSION SOURCES;  SOURCES;  STATIONARY
      EMISSION SOURCES;   AUTOMOBILES;  LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES;   MOBILE
      EMISSION  SOURCES;   MOTOR  VEHICLE  SOURCES;    TRANSPORTATION
      METHODS; HYDROCARBONS
        Category! EMISSION SOURCES
      Radian Corp.,
           Area and line source emission Inventories  for Houston. Texas and
      vicinity, work plan.
           EPA Contract No. 68-02-2608, Task 53.
           Austin, TX,  Aug. 1978.
                 21 The objective is to compile area and line

                  source emission inventories of the criteria
                  pollutants for grid-type AOSM's by determining

                  hourly enissions on weekdays and weekends in

                  Harris, Galveston, Brazorla, and Chambers

                  Counties, Texas, In 1975. The inventories

                  in both gridded area ^and line source format

                  will »l«o be consolidate.! into a data tape.
                                         138

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS


     076185
       AUTOMOBILE  EXHAUST  EMISSION  SURVEILLANCE  ANALYSIS OF THE
     FY73 PROGRAM.
       Bernard, Jeffrey, Paul Donovan, and H. T. McAdams
       Calspan Corp.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  Office of Air  and  Waste
     Management Contract 68-03-0486, Rept. EPA-460/3-75-007,  64p.,
     July 1975. 5 refs.
       1975
       FLO   Method of Support: CONTRACT
       USGRDR No.: NTIS,  PS 248600/AS
       Exhaust emission tests were performed on  1080  in-use  1967
     tnrougn  1974  model  year automobiles and  light trucks in six
     cities: Los Angeles, Denver, Detroit, St.  Louis, Houston,  and
     Newark.  The mean hydrocarbon,  carbon monoxide,  and nitrogen
     oxide  levels,  averaged for all cities except Denver  and  Los
     Angeles, mere: 5.78, 72.56, and 4.41 g/mi,  respectively.   The
     corresponding figures for Denver were 6.87,  108.54,  and 2.84
     g/mi,   respectively;   and  those   for Los Angeles were 5.44,
     65.21,  and 3.27 g/mi,  respectively.    Light  duty  vehicles
     snowed  a  general  downward  trend  in  hydrocaroons,  carbon
     monoxide,  and nitrogen oxide emissions from  1966-1967  model
     years  (pre-control in all cities except Los Angeles)  to model
     year 1973.   The influence of the new nitrogen oxides standard
     was especially noticeable.  (Author  summary modified)
       Descriptors:   AREA  SURVEYS;   ADMINISTRATION;  AIR QUALITY
     MEASUREMENT PROGRAMS;  PLANS AND PROGRAMS;   ENGINE  OPERATING
     CYCLES; ENGINE EXHAUSTS; ENGINE EMISSIONS;  POLLUTANTS;  URBAN
     AREAS;  METROPOLITAN  AREAS;   INSPECTION;   CONTROL  METHODS;
     LIGHT-DUTY  VEHICLES;  MOBILE EMISSION SOURCES;  MOTOR VEHICLE
     SOURCES;  SOURCES;  TRANSPORTATION METHODS;  EMISSION FACTORS;
     .HYOROCARBONS; CARBON MONOXIDE; OXIDES; NITROGEN OXIDES; TRENDS
       Category: EMISSION SOURCES
      AN   -  PB-264  381/5SL
      TI   -  Background  Information on  Hydrocarbon  Emissions  from Marine
            Terminal  Operations,  volume  I.  Discussion
      TNO  •  F1n.il rept.
      AU   -  Burkllr.  c.  E.;  Col ley.  0. D.;  Owen. M.  L.
      OS   •  Radian  Corp., Austin. Tex.*Env1ronmental Protection Agency.
            Research  Triangle  Park,  N.C.  Office  of Air Quality Planning and
            Standards.
      PD   -  Nov  76; 225p
      IS   -  U77H
      PR   -  NTIS Prices:  PC  A10/MF A01
      NO   •  See  also  Volume  2.  PB-264  382.
          -  EPA/450/3-76/038a
      CG   -  EPA-68-02-1319
      CO   -  21D: 68A;  05G:  97K
      IT   -  'Hydrocarbons;  'Marine terminals;  'Assessments:  *Air pollution
            control;  Gasoline:  Crude oils;  Cost  estimates;  Economics;
            Emission;  Safety;  Cargo  transportntton;  Loading  procedures;
            Unloading;  Vapor phases;  Refrigeration;  Absorption;  Incinerators;
            Freight terminals:  Chemical  composition; Physical properties:
            Chemical  properties:  Design  criteria:  Efficiency: Statistical
            data: Detectors; Process charting;  Chemical  analysis
                                       189

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS


     ST  - Sources: Houston(Texas); Galveston(Texas);  Los
           Angcles(Cal 1 fomla):  NT1SEPAAWM
     AB  - This report presents results of a study to develop background
           1nformatixan necessary for the accurate assessment of hydrocarbon
           emissions from ship and barge loading and  unloading of  gasoline
           and crude oil. The report assesses marine  terminal facilities,
           marine  terminal  operations,  cruise history and product  movement
           statistics, hydrocarbon emission rates and characteristics,
           control technology state of  the art.  safety considerations of
           marine  terminal  control  technology and economics of controlling*
           marine  terminal  emissions. The report also includes the results
           of a detailed cost analysis  for a refrigeration and an  absorption
           marine  terminal  vapor recovery system. Data gathering activities
           focused on the Houston--Galveston area; however, Information was
           also assembled on hydrocarbon emissions from marine terminal
           operations in the metropolitan Los Angeles area generated by
           handllrg of gasoline and crude oils.  Including Alaskan  north
           slope crude.
        AN  - PB-264 382/35L
        Tl  - Background Information on Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine
              Terminal Operations. Volume II. Appendices
        TNO - Final rept.
        AU  • Burklir. C. E. ; Col ley, J. D.; Owen, M. L.
        OS  - Radian Corp.. Austin. Tex.*Env1ronmental Protection Agency.
              Research Triangle Park, N.C. Office of A1r Quality Planning and
              Standards.
        PD  • Nov 76; 209p
        IS  - U7711
        PR  - NTIS  Prices:  PC A10/MF A01
        NO  - See also Volume 1.  PB-264 381.
            - EPA/450/3-76/038b

        CG  • EPA-68-02-1319
        CC  - 210;  68A;  850; 97K
        IT  - 'Hydrocarbons; -Marine terminals; 'Assessments: *A1r pollution
              control; Tables(Data); Loading procedures; Unloading; Gasoline;
              Crude oils; Concent rat ion(Composition); Incinerators; Absorption;
              Refrigeration; Cargo  transportation:  Emission; Vapor phases:
              Statistical data; Chemical analysis:  Detection: Graphic methods;
              Freight terminals:  Efficiency; Cost estimates; Economics
        ST  - Houstor(Texas); Galveston(Texas); Los  Angeles(Ca11fornia);
              Sources:  'Air pollution sampling; N7ISEPAAWM
        AB  - This  volume contains  the  appendices for volume one.  It includes
              Information on vessels transporting crude oil  and  gasoline  In  the
              Houstor-Galveston  area, vapor  control  system cost  data, results
              from  industry test  programs.  Industry test data;  radian emission
              testing results,  radian emission  test  data and trip  reports, and
               Independent analysis of  vapor  recovery system  costs.
               104011
                 Coatings Update Chapter 4.  Pollution and the Paint  Industry
                 Brushwel1,  Wi11 lam
                 Am. Paint  Coatings 0.    61(35):60-63, Feb.  7   1977
                 Ooc Type:  J; Reviews (Technical)
                 Air   pollution  is  considered  as  It   affects  the  paint
                                      190

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS


       Industry.  In the last few years the Industry has made  strong
       •fforts  t  accommodate  to  tn« various pollution regulations
       tnat nave been issued.  Points discussed include:  the cost  of
       inflation as it relates to the increased concern for pollution
       free  environmental   air;    the  average  cost increase due  to
       reformulation  to  meet  requirements  as  found  in  specific
       coatings  and  paints;   future  trends  relative to emissions
       regulations; technical and economic information which will aid
       tne Environmental Protection  Agency  (EPA)    in. estaolishing
       appropriate standards;  and the future of hydrocarbon emission
       regulations in the surface coatings  industry.   Other  topics
       covered  include  trie  figures  released by  the EPA for varous
       cities such as Los Angeles; San Francisco;   Houston;  New York
       City; Washington, 0.  C.;  Beaumont,   Texas;   and Phoenix-Tucson
       regarding their  air   polluting  hydrocarbon  emissions.   The
       problem  of  air  pollution  relative to the paint industry  in
       England  is mentioned.   (9 Refs)
         Descriptors:  Control Agencies;   Economics;   Costs;   Legal
       Aspects;   Regulations;   Standards;  America;  North America;
       United States; Arizona; California; Los Angeles: San Francisco
       ; New York State; New YorK City; Texas; Houston;  Washington 0
       C;   Eurooe:  Western Europe;   United Kindgom;  Great Britain;
       Sources;  Stationary  Emission   Sources;   Industrial  Emission
       Sources;    Manufacturing   Industries;    Paints  and  Allied
       Production; Surface Coating Operations; Hydrocarbons; Trends
         Category: Emission  Sources;  Emission Sources (Stationary)
       043300
          DRIVING   AND  VEHICLE   USE   PATTERNS   IN  MAJOR METROPOLITAN
       CITIES-  PHASE I.
          Lamoureux, Robert  L.
          Preprint,  Air  Pollution  Control  Assoc.,  Pittsburgh,    Pa.,
       2>5p. ,   1972.  7 refs.   (Presented  at  the  Air  Pollution  Control
       Association, Annual  Meeting,   65th,   Miami  Beach,   Fla.,   June
       18-22,  1972, Paper 72-17G.)
          AIR   POLLUTION  CONTROL ASSOC  ANNU  MEET 65TH  MIAMI  BEACH FLA
       1972
          FLD    Method  of Support:  CONTRACT
          Approximately 1000 volunteer  participants   in  six  U.    S.
       cities  (Los Angeles, California; Houston,  Texas;   Cincinnati,
       Ohio; Chicago,  Illinois;  Minneapolis  -   St.   Paul,   Minnesota;
       and New  York,   New York)   had  their automobiles  instrumented
       with recording  speedometers for  one week.  The data collected
       by  these   instruments,    supplemented   by  data,  entered into
        logbooks by  the  participating  drivers,  were   analyzed  to
        identify   significant    patterns   of   driving .behavior  and
       automobile use.   The results of the  survey  were   used  as  a
       basis-  for  subsequent   studies  directed toward developing the
       operations data  (Phase  II)   and  also  to  amend   the  1972  CBS
       Federal  Test Procedure  to provide  for cold-hot  weighting.   The
       autos   surveyed  made  over 30,000 trips covering  over  228,000
       miles.   On weekdays,  the  average driver made  four and a half
        trips/day,   spent   one  hour and  19  minutes  on the road,  and
       covered ooout  34  miles.   On weekends  he drove less, about four
        trips/day,  about an hour on the road,   and only  26 miles/day.
        Time  distribution   of   trips,  reasons for trips,   and use of
        freeways were  studied.
                                       191

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS


        Descriptors:  LOS  ANGELES; AMERICA;  CALIFORNIA; NORTH  AMERICA
      ;  UNITED STATES;  CHICAGO;  ILLINOIS; MINNESOTA;  NEW  YORK CITY:
      NEW  YORK STATE; CINCINNATI; OHIO; HOUSTON;  TEXAS; URBAN AREAS;
      METROPOLITAN  AREAS;  AUTOMOBILES;  LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES;  MOBILE
      EMISSION    SOURCES;    MOTOR   VEHICLE   SOURCES;     SOURCES;
      TRANSPORTATION  METHODS; MINNESOTA
        Identifiers:  MINNEAPOLIS-ST, PAUL
        Category: EMISSION SOURCES
      005591
        EMISSIONS  FROM  WET  PROCESS CLINKER COOLER AND FINISH MILL
      SYSTEMS AT IDEAL CEMENT  COMPANY,   HOUSTON,   TEXAS.   (FINAL
      REPORT) .
        Riley, Clyde E.
        Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,  N.
      C., Office of Air Programs, Kept.  71-MM-06,  57p.,  March 29,
      1972. 1 ref.
        1972
        FLO   Method of Support: INHOUSE
        An  Office  of Air Programs source emission test is reported
      for sampling conducted at the Houston, Texas wet process plant
      of the Ideal Cement Company.    Three  particulate  runs  were
      performed  at  each  stacK  for a total of six runs.   Clinker
      cooler emissions (based on the probe,   cyclone,   and  filter
      catches)   ranged  from  0.0253  to  0.0448  Ibs/ton  of feed.

      Emissions from the finish mill grinder baghouse  were  between
      0.0120 and 0.0201 Ib/ton of feed.  (Author summary modified)
        Descriptors:   CEMENTS;  CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS:  MATERIALS:
      STACK GASES;  POLLUTANTS;   WASTE  GASES;   COMBUSTION  GASES:
      COMBUSTION   PRODUCTS;    PARTICULATES;   MINERAL  PROCESSING:
      INDUSTRIAL EMISSION SOURCES;   SOURCES;   STATIONARY  EMISSION
      SOURCES;   PARTICULATE  SAMPLING;   SAMPLING  METHODS;   STACK
      MONITORING; MEASUREMENT METHODS: MONITORING: SOURCE MONITORING
      ; BAG FILTERS: CONTROL EQUIPMENT-GAS STREAMS:  FABRIC FILTERS:
      FILTERS; CONTROL EQUIPMENT -  GAS STREAMS;  COOLING:  CHEMICAL
      AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA; HEAT TRANSFER: COOLING
        Identifiers: CLINKER COOLER
        Category: EMISSION SOURCES
       040097
         HOUSTON-GALVESTON AIR  POLLUTION EMISSION INVENTORY.
         Mason,  David V.
         National   Air Pollution Control Administration,   Dunham,   N.
       C., Air Quality and Emission Data Div.,  Office  of  Air  Programs
       Pub-APTD-0818, 59p., July 1969.  11  refs.
         1969
         FLO   Method of  Supoort: INHOUSE
         USGROR No.:  NT IS,  PB  207691
         Estimates are provided  of  total   emissions   of  oxides   of
       sulfur, oxides of  nitrogen,  hydrocarbons,  carbon monoxide,  and
       particulate  matter.    The   emissions of  these pollutants  are
       delineated with respect  to source type,   season of  the  year,
       and  geograpnical  distriout ion.    Source categories considered
       were stationary fuel  combustion,   transportation  (vehicles,
       aircraft, trains,  and ships), solid waste  disposal, industrial
                                      192

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS

      process  losses,    and  evaporative   losses.    Facilities that
      emitted large quantities of   air   pollutants   were  considered
      individually.    In  1967  there   were  143,000 tons of  sulfur
      oxides emitted,   155,000 tons of  particulates,   1,066,400 tons
      of cart/on monoxide, 291,000  tons  of  hydrocarbons,  and 213,000
      tons of nitrogen  oxides.   Industrial  processes accounted   for
      93X  of the sulfur oxides,   84%  of  particulates,  and 62%  of
      hydrocarbons.    Road  vehicles  contributed   76%   of   carbon
      monoxide.     Nitrogen  oxides  emissions   were  fairly   evenly
      divided between  industrial  fuel use,  32X;  road vehicles,  2lXj
      industrial  processes,  21%: and steam electric  sources, 21X.
        Descriptors:    AREA   SURVEYS;    ADMINISTRATION;  AIR QUALITY
      MEASUREMENT PROGRAMS;  PLANS  AND PROGRAMS;  SEASONAL;  HOUSTON:
      AMERICA;   NORTH AMERICA; TEXAS;   UNITED STATES;  URBAN  AREAS:
      METROPOLITAN  AREAS;    FUEL   EVAPORATION;   ENGINE  EMISSIONS:
      POLLUTANTS; PARTICULATES; SOURCES; FUELS;  STATIONARY EMISSION
      SOURCES;    INDUSTRIAL   EMISSION   SOURCES;     ELECTRIC   POWER
      GENERATION;   ELECTRIC,   GAS,   AND  SANITARY  SERVICES;  STEAK
      ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION;  REFUSE SYSTEMS:  SANITARY SERVICES:
      NON-INDUSTRIAL EMISSION SOURCES  (STATIONARY);   TRANSPORTATION
      METHODS;  MOBILE EMISSION SOURCES',  AIRCRAFT:  VESSELS (MARINE):
      MOTOR VEHICLE SOURCES;  RAILROAD VEHICLES;  EMISSION INVENTORIES
      ;    AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS;   HYDROCARBONS;   CARBON MONOXIDE:
      OXIDES; NITROGEN  OXIDES; SULFUR OXIDES; TEXAS
        Identifiers: GALVESTON
        Category: EMISSION  SOURCES
            PB-279 409/7SL
            Houston Urban Plume Study - 1974, Description and Data
            Final rept.
            Brock, uarnes R.
            Texas Univ. at Austin. Dept.  of Chemical
            Engineering.* Environmental Sciences Research Lab..  Research
            Triangle Park, N.C,
      PD  • Apr 78; 259p
      IS  - U7815
      PR  - NTIS Prices: PC A12/MF A01
          • EPA/600/3-78-04et>
      CG  - EPA-RS03560
      CC  - 133; 63A; 91A
      IT  - *Air pollution; *Aeroso1s; *Plumes;  Management planning:

            Atmospheric  composition;  Sulfur  dioxide;  Nitrogen  oxides: Ozone;
            Carbon  monoxide;  Budgets;  Texas;  Wind(Meteorology ) ;
            Concent rat 1 on(Composi11on);  Industrial  wastes;  Combustion
            products;  Aerial  surveys;  Particles
      ST  -  'Houston(Texas);  NT1SEPAORD
      AB  •  Tho 1974  Houston  Urban  Plume  Study (HUPS) was  undertaken as a
            preliminary  Investigation  of  some of  the  unresolved  features of
            Houston's air pollution problem.  HUPS was Intended specifically
            to galr limited information on  the spatial  and temporal
            distribution oF air  pollutants--particular1y,  primary  and
            secondary aerosols--in  the Houston area as  an  aid  should a  later
            intensive investigation of aerosol character and  transport be
            needed.  Aerial  measurements were made of  the principal pollutants
            (S02. NOx, 03,  CO.  aerosol) of  the Houston  area. Wind-field
            measurements were also  made.  These data were used  to estimate
            pollutant budgets.  Values  for S02 and NOx (14  metric tons/hr and
                                      193

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS
             40  metric  tons/hr.  respectively) were reasonably comparable with
             values  derived from emissions  inventories of  the Texas Air
             Control  Board  (13 and  24  metric  tons/hr. respectively). On the
             basis of  the  limited sampling  period, the industrial area (east
             of  dowrtown Houston) apparently  is  the major  contributor of
             prin-ary air pollutants in the  Houston area.  In  the morning hours
             above the  mixed layer,  relatively  large o?one concentrations
             (max. 0.2  ppm ) •-aImost certainly of  photochemical --or 1 gin were
             found that correlated  closely  with  light scattering aerosol,  thus
             indicating the existence  above the  mixed layer  of  strong
             secondary  aerosol sources.
       082771
         IDLE  FUEL  CONSUMPTION  IN  PASSENGER  CARS.
         Environmental    Protection    Agency,    Ann  Arbor,   Mich.,
       Technology Assessment  and Evaluation  Brancn  (Editors)
         Preprint,  9p.,  July  1975.
         1975
         LAB   Method of Support:  INHOUSE
         Passenger  cars  (1972-1974 model years)   using  conventional
       gasoline engines  and  representative  of in-use-vehicles were
       selected from the areas  of  Denver,  Detroit,  and Houston  for
       measurements of  idle mass emissions and fuel consumption.  The
       average idle mass emissions of  hydrocarbons,  carbon monoxide,
       and  nitrogen  oxides  were  0.90,    16.4,   and  0.25  g/min,
       respectively.    Fuel consumption at  idle averaged 0.82 gal/hr.
        Diesel and  stratified cnarge  vehicles snowed  significantly
       lower Idle fuel  consumption than did  conventional vehicles.

         Oescriptors:   ENGINE  OPERATING  CYCLES;   ENGINE EXHAUSTS;
       ENGINE EMISSIONS;  POLLUTANTS;   INSPECTION;  CONTROL  METHODS;
       DIESEL ENGINES;   ENGINES;   INTERNAL COVIBUSTION ENGINES;  POWER
       SOURCES;  SOURCES;  SPARK  IGNITION  ENGINES;  STRATIFIED CHARGE
       ENGINES;   HYDROCARBONS;   CARBON MONOXIDE;  OXIDES;  NITROGEN
       OXIDES; ENGINE OPERATING CYCLES
         Identifiers: IDLE MODE
         Category:  EMISSION SOURCES
       004876
         THE NEED FOR A POLLUTION-FREE VEHICLE.
         A.  H.  S^eet,  B.  J.  Steigerwald,   and 
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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS

      exposure to pollution,   in some cases only  slowing the rate  of
      growth.    Application of  50%  control in  1968 and 80%  in  1973
      fails  to reduce emission  densities below  50%  of the  present.
      Air  quality  criteria  may demand more significant reduction.
      perhaps attainable only by the substitution of  pollution-free
      vehicles.   (Authors' abstract)**
        Descriptors:   CALIFORNIA;   AMERICA;  NORTH AMERICA;  UNITED
      STATES; LOS ANGELES; COLORADO; CONNECTICUT; GEORGIA;  ATLANTA:
      ILLINOIS;  CHICAGO;  MARYLAND;   NEW YORK STATE;  NEW YORK CITY;
      TEXAS;  HOUSTON; URBAN AREAS;   METROPOLITAN  AREAS;  POLLUTANTS:
      ENGINE  EMISSIONS;   SOURCES;   TRANSPORTATION METHODS;  YIOBILE
      EMISSION SOURCES; PO.VER SOURCES;  INTERNAL  COMBUSTION ENGINES:
      ENGINES;  MOTOR VEHICLE SOURCES;  CONTROL METHODS:  AUTOMOTIVE
      EMISSION CONTROL: CARBON  MONOXIDE: OXIDES
        Identifiers:   BALTIMORE  (MARYLAND);   DENVER.    COLORADO:
      HARTFORD,  CONN.
        Category: EMISSION SOURCES
      Littman, Fred E., Robert.W.  Griscom, and Otto Klein,
           Regional f\ir Vcillutlon f^tudy  (PsAPS) ,  point  source emission inventory.
      final~~report.
           Creve Coeur, MO, Rockwell International, Atomics International
      Division, Air Monitoring Center, July 1976.

      Air pollution-emission inventories; *Air pollution-emission factors;
      Sampling and sample handling;  Air  pollution-sources-stationary! Hydrocarboi
      air pollution; S0,-air pollution;  NO -air pollution; CO-air p.ollution; Air
      pollution-particufate emissions-measurement; Air quality-data handling;

               Emissions data from stationary point sources in the St. Louis Inter-

           state AQCR have bsen gathered during the calendar year of 1975.  Data for

           "criteria" pollutants - S02> NOX> Particulates, CO  and Hydrocarbons - will

           be available on an hourly basis.  Emissions from large sources are based

           on hourly, measured values  of pertinent operating parameters.  Those from
           smaller sources, between 10 and 1000 tons per  year  of S02, for example.

           are based on annual data modified by a detailed operating pattern.
       015388
         REPORT     FOR      CONSULTATION    ON     THE    METROPOLITAN
       HOUSTON-GALVESTON   INTRASTATE  AIR  QUALITY   CONTROL    REGION
       (TEXAS).
         Texas  Air Control  Board,  Austin (Editors)
         Washington,   National  Air Pollution Control Administration,
       1969, 27p.  5 refs.
         1969
         FLO    Method of Support:  NONE
         A proposal is presented in accordance  with the  Air   Quality
       Act  of   1967  to   abate   air  pollution  in  the metropolitan
       Houston-Galveston   area   comprising  the  following  counties:
       Harris,  Galveston,  Brazoria,  Fort Bend,   Waller,  Montgomery,
       Chambers,  and Liberty.   Regional boundary designations  include
       evaluations of topography,   meteorology,   emission   inventory,
       air quality analysis,  suspended particulate air levels,  sulfur
                                          195

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS
      oxide  levels,  and  carbon  monoxide  levels.    Urban  factors with
      respect   to  population   and   industry   are  also   taken  into
      consideration.   The  major sources  of  emission were  recorded as
      transportation,    combustion   fiels,    refuse  disposal,   and
      industrial processes,  and were  located in Harris,  Galveston,
      Brazoria,  and  Fort Bend counties.   The  proposed area  satisfies
      tne  following  criteria   for  determining area size:   A region
      Should be  self-contained  with  respect  to air pollution sources
      and receptors;   boundaries should  be  designed to .meet  not only
      present   out also  future  conditions;   and boundaries  should be
      compatible with  and  even  foster  unified and   cooperative
      governmental   administration   of   the  air resources throughout
      the region.
        Descriptors:  TEXAS;  AMERICA;   NORTH  AMERICA;  UNITED STATES;
      URBAN   AREAS;   METROPOLITAN AREAS;   PARTICULATES;   POLLUTANTS;
      FUELS;   SOURCES;    STATIONARY   EMISSION SOURCES;   INDUSTRIAL
      EMISSION  SOURCES;  SEWERAGE   SYSTEMS;   ELECTRIC,   GAS,  AND
      SANITARY SERVICES; SANITARY SERVICES;   NON-INDUSTRIAL EMISSION
      SOURCES (STATIONARY);  TRANSPORTATION  METHODS;  MOBILE EMISSION
      SOURCES;  AIR   QUALITY MEASUREMENTS;    EMISSION   INVENTORIES;
      METEOROLOGY; ATMOSPHERIC  PHENOMENA;  CARBON  MONOXIDE;  OXIDES;
      SULFUR OXIDES;  ABATEMENT;  AREA  SURVEYS;  ADMINISTRATION;  AIR
      QUALITY  MEASUREMENT  PROGRAMS;   PLANS  AND PROGRAMS;  PROPOSALS;
      AIR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT;   GOVERNMENTS;   CLEAN AIR  ACT;   LEGAL
      ASPECTS;   LEGISLATION;    PLANNING AND ZONING;  AREA EMISSION
      ALLOCATIONS
        Category: LEGAL  AND  ADMIN;  EMISSION  SOURCES; CONTROL METHODS
      041838
        SMOG SCRAMBLE SPANS NATION.
        Chem. Eng. News, 32(12):1108-1113, March 22, 1954.
        CHEM ENG NEWS   1954
        TECH   Viet hod of Support: NONE
        Contaminants,      their   sources,    climatic   conditions.
      Surrounding terrain—all make control an  enigma  peculiar  to
      each area.   Many eastern cities have good records  in reducing
      air pollution, such  as  Pittsburgh, Cleveland,  and Cincinnati.
        Pollution  sources  are   indicated  for  New  York City,  San
      Francisco, Chicago,  Houston,  Los Angeles, and several parts of
      tne South.  Official agencies responsible for air pollution in
      these areas are mentioned  as  well  as their abatement programs.
        Air  pollution   in Oregon  and  Washington  State   is  also
      considered.    Health effects of air pollution are  cited,  and
      the London  fog of  1952  is  discussed.    The  participation  of
      professional chemical organizations  in  air pollution abatement
      1s mentioned.
        Descriptors:    ABATEMENT;   CHEMISTS;   PERSONNEL;  TECHNICAL
      SOCIETIES;  HEALTH  IMPAIRMENT;   DISEASES  AND DISORDERS;   LOS
      ANGELES;  AMERICA;   CALIFORNIA;   NORTH  AMERICA;   UNITED  STATES;
      SAN  FRANCISCO;  LONDON;  EUROPE;  GREAT BRITAIN;  UNITED  KINGDOM;
      WESTERN  EUROPE;   CHICAGO;   ILLINOIS;   NEW YORK CITY;   NEW YORK
      STATE;  OREGON;  HOUSTON; TEXAS;  WASHINGTON (STATE);  URBAN AREAS
       ;  METROPOLITAN   AREAS;    SMOG;    PARTICULATES;    POLLUTANTS;
       SUSPENDED    PARTICULATES;     FOG;    ATMOSPHERIC   PHENOMENA}
      CONDENSATION  (ATMOSPHERIC);  METEOROLOGY
         Category: GENERAL
                                        196

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS
     062669
        A   STUDY  OF   EMISSIONS  FROM  LIGHT DUTY VEHICLES IN DENVER,
     HOUSTON AND CHICAGO.  FISCAL YEAR  1972.
        Liljedahl, Douglas  R.
        Automotive Testing  LaDs., Inc., Aurora, Colo., Environmental
     Protection Agency Contract 68-01-0455, Rept. APTD-1504, 1B2p.,
     July  1973.
        1973
        LAB FLO   Method of Support: CONTRACT
        USGRDR No.: NTIS,   PB 232115/AS
        Results are presented from a  laboratory study  of  emissions
     from  light duty  vehicles  (1966-1972 model years)  operating  in
     Denver,  Houston,  and Chicago.   Exhaust emission  tests  for
     hydrocarbons,  carbon monoxide,   carbon dioxide,  and nitrogen
     oxides  wore  conducted according to  the  1975  Federal  Test
     Procedures on vehicles as  received, while evaporative emission
     tests  wore  conducted using a modified version  of  the Society
     of Automotive Engineers,   SAE our 1);  wash Ingtonlcll str let of
            Columbia); automobile exhaust; Onp
      AB  - A comprehensive study of emissions  from light duty vehicles was
          i  performed in six cities of the United States to determine the
            contribution to atmospheric pollution by the vehicle population.
            Over 1.000 vehicles of  the 1957 through 1971 model years were
            tested to determine the levels of hydrocarbon,  carbon monoxide.
                                       197

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS
           carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen exhaust emissions.
           Evaporative emission tests using the Shed technique were
           performed on a subsample of vehicles 1n Los Angeles and Denver.-
           Comprehensive statistical analyses of emission results by city.
           manufacturer, make,  model year and engine class are presented.
       076088
         A   STUDY   OF  EMISSIONS  FROM  1967-1974  LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES IN
       DENVER,  HOUSTON,  AND DETROIT.
         Liljedahl,  D.  R.  and  J.  L. Terry
         Automotive Testing Laos.,  Inc., Aurora,  Colo., Office of Air
       and   Waste     Management    Contract    68-03-0388,     Rept.
       EPA-460/3-74-015,  438P-,  Oct.  1974.
         1974
         FLO   Metnod  of  Support: CONTRACT
         USGRDR No.: NTIS,   PB 24583G/AS
         Exhaust  emission  tests  were  performed   on  540   vehicles
       (1967-1974  model  year)   operating  in  Denver,   Houston,   and
       Detroit.     Each  vehicle  was  examined   in an  as-received
       condition using the 1975 Federal Test  Procedure.   Evaporative
       emission  tests  were  also  performed  on  20 1973 model-year
       venlcles in tne Denver  area.   A variety of  additional exhaust
       emission  tests  under   different vehicle  operating conditions
       were also performed. Model  emissions  data were developed  from
       75 of tne 1972,   1973,   and  1974 model-year  venicles   in   each
       state using tne Surveillance Driving Sequence and  steady state
       testing procedures.   Mean hydrocarbon,  caroon monoxide,  and
       nitrogen oxido  emissions  from  vehicles  in   the  Denver   area
       were: G.17,  99.0,   and  2.87  g/mf,  respectively.   Vehicles in
       the  Houston nrea  snowed mean values  of 5.20,  70.7,   and   5.39
       g/mi, respectively;   wnile vehicles  in the Detroit area showed
       mean levels of  5.85, 66.8, and 5.31  g/iii,  respectively.
         Descriptors:   AREA SURVEYS;   ADMINISTRATION;   AIR QUALITY
       MEASUREMENT   PROGRAMS;    PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  ENGINE  OPERATING
       CYCLES; ENGINC  EXHAUSTS;   ENGINE EMISSIONS;   POLLUTANTS;   FUEL
       EVAPORATION;  COLORADO;  AMERICA; NORTH  AMERICA;  UNITED STATES;
       DETROIT;  MICHIGAN;   HOUSTON;   TEXAS;    METROPOLITAN AREAS:
       INSPECTION;   CONTROL METHODS;  MOTOR  yEHICLE SOURCES;  MOBILE
       EMISSION SOURCES;   SOURCES;  TRANSPORTATION   METHODS;  SOURCE
       MONITORING;   MEASUREMENT METHODS;   MONITORING;  HYDROCARBONS;
       CARBON MONOXIDE;   OXIDES;  NITROGEN  OXIDES;   COLORADO;  ENGINE
       OPERATING CYCLES
         Identifiers:  DENVER;  STEADY-STATE  TEST;  SURVEILLANCE DRIVING
       SEQUENCE; 1975  FEDERAL  TEST  PROCEDURE
         Category:  EMISSION SOURCES
        AN  -  PB-274  560/2SL
        TI  •  Study of  Exhaust  Emissions  from  1965  through  1975 Model  Yean
              Light-Duty  Vehicles  In Houston.  Chicago, and  Phoenix
        AU  -  Liljedahl.  Douglas R.: Terry,  derry L.
        OS  -  Automotive  Testing Labs., Inc..  Aurora. Colo.'Environmental
              Protection  Agency. Ann Arbor.  Mich. Emission  Control  Technology
              D1v.
        PO  -  Apr  76;  639p
        IS  •  U7804
                                       198

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS


     PR  - NTIS Prices: PC A99/MF A01
         • EPA/460/3-76/001
     CG  - EPA-68-03-2183
     CC  - 13B; 68A
     IT  • »Exhaust emissions: *A1r pollution; Sources; Texas: Arizona;
           Illinois; Standards: Sampling; Concentrat1on(Compos)tIon);
           Tables!Data): Metropolitan areas
     ST  - »Llght duty vehicles; PhoenixfArizona): Ch1cago(1111no1s):
           Houstor(Texas): *Air pollution sampling: Emission factors;
           NTISEPAMAP
     AB  - Emission tests were performed on a sairple of I'ght-duty vehicles
           operating In the Chicago. Houston and Phoenix metropolitan areas.
           All vehicles were tested in the as-received condition by the
           current Federal Test Procedure. The majority of vehicles were
           tested In connection with the development of emission factors.
           Many of these were also tested using the Surveillance Driving
           Sequence and Steady State Procedures for emission factors
           development. Fifteen vehicles were additionally tested using
           these modal procedures to establish emission factors for loaded
           vehicles and vehicles towing trailers.
      TI   -  Study of Exhaust  Emissions from 1966  through  1976  Model-Year
            Light-Duty Vehicles In  Denver,  Chicago. Houston  and  Phoenix
      AU   -  LHjedahl. Douglas R. ;  Terry.  Jerry L.    -
      OS   -  Automotive Testing Labs..  Inc..  Aurora. Colo.'Environmental
            Protection Agency.  Ann  Arbor,  M1ch. Emission  Control  Technology
            Div.
      PD   •  Aug 77;  803p
      IS   -  U7817
      PR   -  NTIS Prices:  PC A99/MF  A01
          -  EPA/460/3-77/005
      CG   •  EPA-68-03-2378
      CC   -  13B:  68A
      IT   -  *Air pollution: 'Exhaust  emissions: Motor vehicles:  Tests.
            Sulfates; Fuel consumption;  Evaporation;  Data analysis:
            Tables!Data):  Hydrocarbons:  Carbon monoxide;. Carbon  dioxide;
            N1trogen oxides                                         •
      ST   •  "Light duty vehicles:  'Emission factors:  Procedures:  Fugitive
            emissions; NTISEPAIVAP
      AB   •  Emission tests were performed .on a sample of  light-duty vehicles
            operating in the  Chicago.  Houston. Phoenix  and Denver
            metropolitan areas. These tests wore  performed for the
            determination of  light-duty vehicle emission  factors. All
            vehicles were tested in the as-rcrelved condit-on  by the Federal
            Test Proceaure. Other  tests included  the  Highway Fuel Economy
            Test, Modal Emission Tests,  the Federal Short Cycle  Test,  a
            composite of the  New Jersey ACID Test and the New  York  Short
            Test, the Clayton Keymode Test,  the Two Speed Idle Test  and  the
            Federal  Three Mode Test.  A Revised Federal  Three Mode Test and
            the Sulfate Emission Test were also performed. The Phoenix sample
            Included twenty diesel-powered vehicles which were tested by  the
            dlesel version of the Federal  Test Procedure, the  Highway Fuel
            Economy Test and  Modal  Emission Tests.  Evaporative Emission  Tests
            by the SHED procedure were also conducted on  twenty  vehicles  in
            Denver.  (Portions of this document are not  fully legible)
                                       199

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS


      10 f.'O.- MJA29C30I24
       Urban aid  industrial  air pollution  in  Houston,  Texas,  Pt.  1,
      Hydrocarbons.
       SiUJiqi, Az • z
       Ail* Quality  Management  Program,  Copt,  of  Chc'in.  Engr.,  Univ.
      ofHou'oton, TX.
       Atmospheric  Environment, Oxford,  11(2):  131-143,  Feb.  1977.
      Refs. DAS, OLC (TD8S1.A8)
       CTRY OF  P'J3l:UK
       During  the  summer  of  1973  and  1974,  ambient  air samples were
      collected  at  sites  in do.M.nto.vn Houston -?nd  the nearby  Pasadena
      and   La   Po:*te industrial complex  to  determine the  hydrocarbon
      con-position  in relation  to   emission   sources-    Ground  level
      samoles   wore  collected  at one-hour  intervals  and analyzed  for
      C.SUS 1.-C.SJ3 6. hydrocarbons   without  c'elay  to   avoid   any
      sa™ I e deterioration resulting from stoiviQe.   In  addition,   at
      selected  times,  helicopters sere  us-.d to  i.;.n-ole  at  500-   and
      1000-ft   elevation.   Meteorological  conditions were recorded,
      and   their   effects  on   the  hycirccarb"n    composition   were
      evaluated.   As expected,  the hydrocarbon  spectrum  of  downtown
      Houston air  resembled  that of auto exhaust  and showed  a  strong
      cieoendence upon  traffic  density  and   local   meteorology.    The
      hydrocarbon    COICDOSI t ion  at  the  industrial   sites   largely
      depended  upon  the ,vi nd  direction and  tr.a i'i i tucie ,   i.e.,   local
      point  sources.  Tnis study  n;-is  also  inches tod removal of some
      of t!*e hyjrocai-Dons  by  the photochemical reactions.
       DESCRIPTORS:   Hydrocarbons  in   air;     Urban    atmospheric
      pollution; Industrial atmospheric  pollution; Houston,  Texas
      047602
        VEHICLE OPERATIONS SURVEY.  VOLUME II.  (FINAL REPORT).
        Scott  Research Labs.,  Inc.,  San Bernardino,  Calif.  (Editors)
        Coordinating  Research  Council,   Inc.    and  Office of Air
      Programs Proj. CAPE-10-68 (1-70), SRL 2922-13-1271, APTD-1298,
      148o.,  Dec.  17,  1971.
        1971
        THEO  LAB   Method of Support:  CONTRACT
        USGRDR No.:  NTIS,  PB 210844
        Automobile driving patterns were defined,  determined,   and
      typified in terms of operating modes.   Data were collected in
      five major metropolitan areas  and  subsequently  combined  to
      form an overall  composite of  urban driving patterns.    Traffic
      survey  routes were also constructed for Los Angeles,   Houston,
      Cincinnati,    Chicago,   and  New  York  City.   The data were
      processed  to  identify  and  summarize  the   basic   vehicle
      operating modes', acceleration, deceleration, cruise,  and  idle.
        Mode  characteristics such as frequency of occurrence,   total
      duration,  average duration,   and transition probability  were
      defined   in  matrix  form,    Supplementary   information  was
      ootained on  average  trip  speed,   acceleration-deceleration
      profiles,    and  manifold  vacuum  rates  at  various  cruise
      conditions.    Pattern   similarities   between   cities   and
      variability  within  a  city were also defined.   A road  route
      representing  the overall five-city composite   was  constructed
      in Detroit.   Detailed  information on instrumentation,  survey
      route  design,   data  processing,   and   program  results  is
      presented.  (Author summary modified)
                                       200

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS

       Descriptors:  LOS ANGELES"; AMERICA; CALIFORNIA; NORTH AMERICA
      ! UNITED STATES; CHICAGO;   ILLINOIS;  DETROIT;  MICHIGAN;  NEW
      YORK CITY; NEW  YORK STATE;  CINCINNATI; OHIO;  HOUSTON;  TEXAS;
      URBAN   AREAS;   METROPOLITAN  AREAS;  ENGINE OPERATING CYCLES;
      SOURCES; OPERATING VARIABLES; AUTOMOBILES;  LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES
      I   MOBILE   EMISSION   SOURCES;    MOTOR   VEHICLE   SOURCES;
      TRANSPORTATION  METHODS; DATA ANALYSIS;  DATA HANDLING SYSTEMS;
      INSTRUMENTATION; MAPPING; RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
       Category:  EMISSION SOURCES
      047601
        VEHICLE OPERATIONS SURVEY. VOLUME I. (FINAL REPORT).
        Scott Research Labs., Inc., San Bernadino, Calif.  (Editors)
        Coordinating  Research  Council,   Inc.   and  Office of Air
      Programs CRC-APRAC Proj. CAPE-10-68 (1-70),  SRL 2922-13-1271,
      APTD-1297, 148p., Dec. 17, 1971. 10 refs.
        1971
        THEO FLO   Method of Support: CONTRACT
        USGROR No.: NTIS,  P8 210640
        Automobile  driving  patterns are defined,  determined,  and
      typified in terms of operating modes.   Data were collected in
      five  major  metropolitan  areas  and subsequently combined to
      form an overall composite of urban driving patterns.   Traffic
      survey routes were also constructed for Los Angeles,  Houston,
      Cincinnati,  Chicago,  and New  York  City.    The  data  were
      processed   to   identify  and  summarize  the  basic  vehicle
      operating modes: acceleration, deceleration, cruise, and Idle.
        Modo characteristics such as fpequency of occurrence,  total
      duration,   average duration,  and transition probability were
      defined  in  matrix  form.    Supplementary  information   was
      obtained  on  average  trip  speed,  acceleration-deceleration
      profiles,   and  manifold  vacuum  rates  at  various   cruise
      conditions.     Pattern   similarities   between   cities  and
      variability within a city were also defined.    A  road  route
      representing  the  overall five-city composite was constructed
      in Detroit.  Program objectives,  procedures,  and analysis of
      results are presented.  (Author summary modified)
        Descriptors: LOS ANGELES; AMERICA; CALIFORNIA; NORTH AMERICA
      ; UNITED STATES; CHICAGO;  ILLINOIS;  DETROIT;  MICHIGAN;  NEW
      YORK CITY; NEW YORK STATE; CINCINNATI; .OHIO;  HOUSTON;  TEXAS;
      URBAN  AREAS;   METROPOLITAN  AREAS;  E.NGINE OPERATING CYCLES!
      SOURCES; OPERATING VARIABLES; AUTOMOBILES; LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES
      ;   MOBILE   EMISSION   SOURCES;    MOTOR   VEHICLE   SOURCES:
      TRANSPORTATION METHODS; MAPPING; DATA ANALYSIS;  DATA HANDLING
      SYSTEMS; RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
        Category: EM1SSION SOURCES
                                      201

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


      Texas Air Control Board, Data Listing,
          Aldehydes  in Houston's Air  1973-1976.
          Austin, 1'X, Jan. 1977.


      •Aldehydes-air  pollution} Texas-air pollution;
      Houston, TX-air pollution;
      Radian Corp.,
           Air quality monitoring resources identification and evaluation North-
      ««st corridor  and Texas Gulf Coast Regions,  final report. 2 vols.
           DCN 78-100-153-03, API Contract.
           Austin, TX, Jan. 1978.

       *Air pollution-monitoring; Air quality-data; Monitoring-instrumentation;
       Sampling and sample handling;
       Radian Corp. ,
            Aldehydes monitoring, draft report.
            DCN 78-100-169-01, HOAS Contract.
            Austin, TX, Jan. 1978.

        *Aldehydes-monitoring;  Aldehydes-sampling;  Formaldehyde-monitoring;
        Gas chromatography-applications; Houston,  TX-air pollution;  Haze;  Sampling
        and sample handling;

                    One-hour samples were collected for total aldehydes  and

          formaldehyde analysis at two sites  in Houston from 5 a.m.  to 5 p.m.

          (CUT) during the period from August 3 to October  13, 1977.  Addi-

          tionally,  four 3-hour samples were  taken for a  ten day period at
          each  site and analyzed for Ci-Cs  aldehydes  on a gas chromatograph.


                     A considerable number of  the one-hour sanples were below

          the miniiaum detectable limit of the total aldehydes and formalde-
          hyde  analytical procedures.  For  the detailed sampling for C»-C»
          aldehydes,  all samples were below the miniiaum detectable.




          Texas Air Control Board, Technical Support Program, Air Quality Evaluation
          Division,
                Ambient air quality survey Kountze,  Beaumont. Port Arthur, and McFaadin
          Beach,  Texas.
                Austin,  TX, April 1974.

           Air pollution-monitoring; Monitoring; *Texas-air  pollution; Air pollution-
           meteorological factors; Air pollution-particulate emissions-meteorological
           factors;  Air pollution-particulate emissions-monitoring; CO-monitoringj
           Methane-monitoring;  Hydrocarbons-monitorinjs;  SO?-monitoring; N02-
                                            202

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING


      Monitoring;  Ozone-monitoring; Photochemical pollutants-monitoring; Wind
      direction;
            An ambient air quality survey was conducted from April 12 through

            October 2, 1973> in the Southeast Texas Air Quality Control Region.

            The mobile monitoring station used to conduct the study was equipped

            to monitor continuously levels of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur

            dioxide, total hydrocarbons, methane, and carbon monoxide. Twenty-

            four-hour suspended particulate samples collected at the station
            throughout the study were analyzed for 31 elements. Recording or

            wind  speed and direction allowed analysis of pollution levels to

            be performed as a function of wind direction.


      070471
         ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE  ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
         ZlatKis, Albert
         Houston    Univ.,   Tex.,    National  Aeronautics   and  Space
      Administration Contract  NAS9-  82SO,  NASA  Case  MSC-14428-1,
      44p.,  1974 (?). 1 ref.
         1974
         LAB  FLO    Method of Support: NONE
         USGROR No.:  NTIS,  N74-19776
         A  system for gas chromatograpnic analysis of a  wide  range of
      volatile   organic   compounds   in  air  and  water  smaplest
      biological samples,  body  fluids  and  petroleum  samples  is
      described   which  permits  greater  speed,   reproducibility,   and
      composition discrimination  tnan prior art devices.   A  oorous
      polymer  of  2,6-dipheny1-p-phenylene  oxide  is  used  as the
      adsorbent.    The  system  includes  a sample trap  for  capturing
      and  enriching  the  organic   volatiles.  an injector  port  for
      directly injecting the  entrapped  organic  volatiles   into  a
      cryogenic  precolumn.  and a capillary separating  column.    The
      solid adsorbent used in  the   sample   trap  has  the  following
      properties:   high  affinity   for  volatile organic  compounds,
      hydrophobicity,   temperature  stability  up  to  400  C,    good
      desorption  capability,    and  relative inertness to  the sample.
      The  injector port is formed of  a  hollow body having  inlet   and
      outlet   ports.     The sample  trap is inserted into  the body of
      the  injector port and maintained  in  sealed engagement  with the
      outlet port.   The injector port  is  placed  onto  an  injector
      heater   of  a  gas  chromatograph  to effect desorption of the
      entrapped  volatiles.   Helium gas is introduced at   the  inlet
      port   to  carry  the  volatiles  directly  into   the cryogenic
      precolumn.     The  gas  chromatographic  capillary   separating
      column   is  formed  of  etched nickel   which  facilitates the
      separation of  a large number   of   specific  organic  comoounds
      from a very small amount  of organic  volatiles.    Approximately
      100  substances,    almost  exclusively   hydrocarbons,     were
      identified  with   the   system  suing  air samples from various
      locations  in the  Houston  area.
         Descriptors: BODY FLUIDS; BIOLOGICAL CONSTITUENTS  AND PARTS;
      FUEL OILS; FUELS;  SOURCES;   STATIONARY EMISSION  SOURCES;   GAS
      CHROMATOGRAPHY;  ANALYTICAL  METHODS;   CHROMATOGRAPHY;   TRAPPING
      (SAMPLING); GAS SAMPLING;   SAMPLING METHODS:  DESIGN CRITERIA;
      HYDROCARBONS;     VAPORS;    CHEMICAL  AND  PHYSICAL   PHENOMENA;
      PHYSICAL STATES
         Category: MEASUREMENT METH
                                       203

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


     AN   - PB-264 590/1SL
     TI   - Analytical and Experimental Assessment of Highway Impact on Air
           Qua I(ty
     TNO  • Research rept.
     AU   • Bullin. u. A.; PolaseK. 
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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


      investigated.     Secondary  reflectance  targets  (bulk storage
      tanks)  were  located  in  tne  industrial area of Houston and near
      Galveston  Bay.    These  areas experienced high and  low  ambient
      air  aerosol  mass  loadings.   Film/filter channels  were used  to
      define  frequency  bandwidtns.  Multi-channel  remote sensor data
      were obtained by  microdensitometry and used  to  calculate  the
      aerosol  extinction   coefficient.    These were 3.583 and 3.853
      respectively.   Houston and Texas air  sampling  .network  high
      volume   suspended particulate  data were   used   to  generate
      computer isopleth maps  of suspended  particulates  over the test
      site areas.   On-site 5 hr  high-volume measurements were  also
      conducted  to establish  the  mass loading of the atmosphere,   70
      micrograms/cu m in the  industrial section.   In   addition,    a
      5-channel  nephelometer was used to collect data  at the site.
      After demonstrating  that the data best fit the  Junge  aerosol
      distribution,     linear  regression analyses  were  used   to
      calculcte  the scattering coefficients,  whicn were 1.997  and
      1.422 resoectively.   (Author abstract modified)
        Descriptors:    SURVEY METHODS;  ADMINISTRATION;  AIR QUALITY
      MEASUREMENT  PROGRAMS; PLANS AND PROGRAMS; FEASIBILITY STUDIES;
      HOUSTON;  AMERICA;   NORTH   AMERICA;   TEXAS;   UNITED  STATES;
      INDUSTRIAL  AREAS;     AEROSOLS;   PARTICULATES;   POLLUTANTS;
      SUSPENDED  PARTICULATES; MISSILE AND  SPACECRAFT LAUNCH VEHICLES
      J  MOBILE EMISSION SOURCES;  SOURCES;  AIR QUALITY  MEASUREMENTS;
      MONITORING;    MEASUREMENT   METHODS;    COMPUTERS;  . MAPPING;
      MATHEMATICAL ANALYSES;  STATISTICAL ANALYSES
        Category:  MEASUREMENT METH
      016875
        ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS.
        McCaldin, R. 0., L. W. Johnson,  and N.  T.  Stephens
        Science, 166(37031:381-382. Oct. 17. 1969.  3 nefs.
        SCIENCE   1969
        TECH   Method of Support: NONE
        Measurements  of  particle  counts and  size distributions of
      atmospheric aerosols have been made of various  locations  by
      use  of  an instrumented aircraft.   The  number of atmosoheMc
      particulates  is  related  to  the   visibility.      (Author's
      Abstract)
        Descriptors: ARIZONA; AMERICA: NORTH AMERICA; UNITED STATES:
      FLORIDA; NEW MEXICO: TEXAS; HOUSTON; URBAN AREAS:  METROPOLITAN
      AREAS; FORESTS;  TOPOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS; OCEANS: BODIES OF WATER
      -,  POLLUTANTS;  PARTICULATES;  AEROSOLS;   SOURCES:  INDUSTRIAL
      EMISSION  SOURCES;   STATIONARY  EMISSION  SOURCES;   CHEMICAL
      PROCESSES; KRAFT (SULFATE) PULPING;  MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
      PAPER AND ALLIED MANUFACTURING;  PULP" \ULLS:    ELECTRIC  POWER
      GENERATION;    ELECTRIC,    GAS.    AND   SANITARY   SERVICES:
      NON-INDUSTRIAL EMISSION SOURCES (STATIONARY):   OPEN  BURNING:
      BURNING:   TRANSPORTATION  METHODS;   \JOBILE  EMISSION SOURCES:
      AIRCRAFT;  MEASUREMENT METHODS;  PARTICLE COUNTING;   PARTICLE
      INVESTIGATION  METHODS;   PARTICULATE  CLASSIFICATION METHODS:
      PARTICLE SIZE; AEROSOL PHENOMENA;   PARTICLE SIZE.   SHAPE,   AND
      STRUCTURE;    PARTICULATE   PROPERTIES;    SAMPLING   METHODSl
      PARTICULATE SAMPLING
        Category: MEASUREMENT METH
                                      205

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING


      Radian Corp.,
          Carbon monoxide field survey In downtown Houston. Texas,  revised
      draft report."
          DCN 77-100-044-16-03, EPA Contract No. 68-02-1383, Task 16.
          Austin, TX,  Radian Corp., Hay 1977.

      •Carbon monoxide-air  pollution;  Houston, TX-air pollution; Air pollution
      monitoring;

                   Carbon  monoxide concentrations  in urban areas are
          affected by several factors.  Because motor vehicles are the

          major source of CO emissions, traffic volume, vehicle speed

          and the condition (or absence) of vehicle emission control       :
      "   devices all affect CO levels.  The dispersion of CO emissions

          is  determined by  air transport (ventilation) which can'be severe-

          ly  restricted in. downtown "street canyons."  In a major metro-
          politan area such as Houston, Texas, high traffic volumes mov-

          ing at slow speeds, through downtown streets bounded by tall

          buildings could produce high CO concentrations.
          037683
            THE C(12)/C(13)  RATIO AS AN INDICATOR OF AIR  POLLUTION.
            Atkins,  Patrick  R.
            Isotop.    Radiat.   Technol.,  8(4)'.381-385,   1971.   15 refs.
          (Presented at  the   International  Clean  Air  Congress,    2nd.
          Washington,  D.  C.,  Dec. 1970, Paper  CP 37C.)
            ISOTOP  RADIAT THECHNOL   1971
            LAB FLO   Method of Support: NONE
            The   use  of   stable isotopes of atmospheric  constituents as
          natural tracers of pollutants and  as  indicators  of  general
          levels  of  pollution was investigated.   Carbon  dioxide samples
          were collected t>y  freeze-out and precipitation  procedures  anci
          the  C(12)/C(13)  ratios of the samples were  determined.   The
          ratio in  atmospheric C02 was calculated in several  field tests
          and provided information about both  the degree  and  influences
          of major  sources of pollution in specified areas.   Freeze-out
          sampling  was less  convenient but more  reliable  and  probably
          more  accurate  than  precipitation.   The results of tests in
          Austin  and  Houston,    Tex.,   on  samples   taken  in  traffic
          conditions and in  a brewery, oil refinery,   and steel mill are
          tabulated.   Similar studies of nitrogen,  oxygen,  and sulfur
          could   give information about the sources of  sulfur oxides and
          nitrogen  oxides present in polluted  air.     (Author  abstract
          mod i f i ed)
            Descriptors: CARBON BLACK; CARBON; MATERIALS; FUELS; SOURCES
          ; STATIONARY EMISSION SOURCES;  MEASUREMENT  METHODS;  SAMPLING
          METHODS;    TRACERS;    ATMOSPHERIC   PHENOMENA;    DISPERSION:
          PRECIPITATION; METEOROLOGY; CARBON DIOXIDE;  OXIDES;  FREEZING:
          CHEMICAL  AND PHYSICAL  PHENOMENA;    COOLING:    HEAT  TRANSFER:
          ISOTOPES
            Category: MEASUREMENT METH
                                        206

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


      026263
        A  CENTRALIZED  INCINERATION   FACILITY   FOR  INDUSTRIAL WASTE
      DISPOSAL.
        Faatz, Albert C.
        Water Sewage Works,   116(R.N.):R-197-R199.   R201-R202.   Nov.
      20, 1969.  1  ref.  (Presented at  the National  Pollution Control
      Conference and Exposition.  2nd  Annual.  Houston.   Tex.,  April
      22-24, 1969.)
        WATER SEWAGE WORKS   1969
        TECH   Method of Support:  NONE
        An  incineration  facility  to be constructed on the Houston
      Ship Channel will have a capacity of 15,000 tons of waste   per
      month, representing about 20-25% of the quantity of waste  from
      the  area  chemical  plants  available   for  treatment.     The
      facility's  location will make it available by barge,  truck,  or
      rail car.    Incoming  receipts   will  be   divided  into  three
      categories.   Those that can be  atomized or otherwise converted
      into small particles will be treate in  a  'liquid'  furnace  that
      is  basically  an  adiabatic  combustion   chamber.   Materials
      having large contents of ash or  inorganic noncondensibles  will
      be incinerated  in  a  rotary  hearth.     Materials  that   are
      relatively  large  in  size and  those that burn slowly will  be
      incinerated in a rotary kiln.  Combustion gases from the  three
      incinerators will be combined,    then  taken   to  a  secondary
      combustion  furnace where oxidation of  potential  or actual gas
      pollutants will be completed.   This chamber   is  designed  to
      combine  the  three  essential   elements   of  combustion—time,
      temperature,  and turbu 1 ence--in such a manner as to  complete
      burning  of   soot,   hydrocarbon vapors,   of  sulfur-containing
      materials,  and of odor or  smog-producing compounds.    Before
      passing to  the stack,   the  combustion gases will  be treated in
      a wet scrubber for the simultaneous removal  of  particulates.
      sulfur oxides, and hydrogen chloride.   As pressures to conform
      to  pollution  control  regulations  become  more  severe,   a
      centralized facility such as that described may  be  the   only
      alternative to plant shut-down.
        Descriptors:    STACK   GASES:   POLLUTANTS;   WASTE GASES:
      COMBUSTION GASES;  COMBUSTION PRODUCT'S;  SOOT;   PARTICULATES:
      SETTLING  PARTICLES;  FURNACES;   SOURCES;  STATIONARY  EMISSION
      SOURCES;  CHEMICAL PROCESSES;   INDUSTRIAL EMISSION  SOURCES:
      INCINERATORS (REFUSE); ELECTRIC.  GAS.  AND SANITARY SERVICES:
      REFUSE SYSTEMS;  SANITARY  SERVICES;  ,KILNS:    NON-INDUSTRIAL
      EMISSION    SOURCES    (STATIONARY);     SCRUBBERS;    CONTROL
      EQUIPMENT-GAS STREAMS;  CONTROL  EQUIPMENT -  GAS STREAMS;   SOX
      CONTROL; CONTROL METHODS; WASTE  GAS CONTROL;   DESIGN CRITERIA:
      HYDROCHLORIC ACID;  ACIDS;    INORGANIC  ACIDS!   HYDROCARBONS:
      SULFUR COMPOUNDS; OXIDATION;  CHEMICAL  AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA:
      CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION
        Category:  CONTROL METHODS; EMISSION SOURCES
      003477
        CHARACTERISTICS   AND   DISTRIBUTIONS OF  ORGANIC  SUBSTANCES IN
      THE AIR OF  SOME AMERICAN CITIES.
        L. A. Chambers,   E. C.  Tabor,   and M. J .Foter
        A.M.A. Arch. Ind. Health  16,  17-26,  July  1957.  (Presented at
      the 48th Annual Meeting,  Air  Pollution   Control   Association,
      Detroit, Ylich., May 23-26,  1955.)                        anon,
        AMA ARCH  IND HEALTH    1957
        FLO   Method of Supoort:  FELL CRT
                                        207

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING

      A   broad  trend  toward  correlation  between  the  average
    concentration of participates and  the size of  population  has
    been  noted.    In  addition,    seasonal  loading distributions
    indicate that relatively high concentrations  of  participates
    occur  predominantly  in the fall  and winter seasons in cities
    throughout  the  nation,    in  spite   of  wide  differences  in
    household  fuel  use  and  winter  heating requirements.   The
    variations  encountered with  respect   to   the  acetone-soluble
    fraction  and preliminary efforts  at  analysis of these organic
    substances  are discussed.   The  sampling   program  at  present
    includes  more  than  30  metropolitan complexes in the United
    States and  Alaska and 1  in  England.    Areas  involved  are:
    Anchorage,    Alaska:  Atlanta;   Boston;  Charleston,  W.  Va.;
    Chattanooga, Term.; Chicago; Cincinnati;  Denver; -Detroit; East
    Chicago, Ind. ; Fort Worth,  Texas;   Frederick,  Md. ;  Houston,
    Texas: Kansas City, Kan.; Kansas City, Mo.;  London,  England;
    Los Angeles; Louisville; Minneapolis; New Jersey (11 towns and
    cities); New Orleans; New York;  Philadelphia; Portland,  Ore.;
    Providence, R. I . ; Salt Lake City;  San Francisco; Tampa,  Fla.;
    Washington, D.C.; Waterbury, Conn.;  Windsor, Ontario. Hit
      Descriptors: ALASKA; AMERICA;  NORTH AMERICA;  UNITED STATES;
    CALIFORNIA; LOS ANGELES; SAN FRANCISCO; COLORADO;  CONNECTICUT;
    EUROPE; GREAT BRITAIN; UNITED KINGDOM; WESTERN EUROPE; LONDON;
    FLORIDA; GEORGIA; ATLANTA;  ILLINOIS;  CHICAGO; INDIANA; KANSAS;
    KENTUCKY;  LOUISIANA;  NEW ORLEANS:   MARYLAND;  MASSACHUSETTS;
    MICHIGAN; DETROIT;  MISSOURI; NEW JERSEY;   NEW YORK  STATE;  NEW
    YORK   CITY:    OHIO;    CINCINNATI;    OREGON;   PENNSYLVANIA;
    PHILADELPHIA;  RHODE  ISLAND;  TENNESSEE;   TEXAS;  URSAN AREAS;
    METROPOLITAN  AREAS;   UTAH;    WASHINGTON D C: ' WEST VIRGINIA;
    POLLUTANTS; PARTICULATES;  DERYLLIOSIS: DISEASES AND DISORDERS;
    AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS;  CARCINOGENS;  MEASUREMENT  METHODS;
    SAMPLING   METHODS;   PARTICULATE  SAMPLING;   CZECHOSLOVAKIA;
    EASTERN EUROPE; MATHEMATICAL ANALYSES
      Category: AIR QUALITY  MEAS
     Hidy,  6.M.,  et al.,
         Characterization of aerosols in California, final  report,
     vol. 1,  revised.
         Rockwell International  Scidnce Cntr., April 1975.

     •Aerosols-properties; aerosols-analysis; aerosols  formation; air
     pollution-monitoring;

    .  •  This report  discusses the results of a major field study aimed at

      characterizing suspended particles (aerosols) in California air.  Particular

      emphasis was placed on the haze  identified with air pollution in the South

      Coast  Air Basin.  The program, named the ACHEX, was sponsored under

      California Legislative Bill No.  848.

         The Investigations were designed to use the newest techniques of

      measurement to characterize the  aerosols in considerable detail.  Several

      nethods involving the determination of physical  and chemical properties

      were developed and implemented during the course of the ACHEX.
                                        208

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING


     Hidy, G.M.,  et al.,
          Characterization of aerosols in California, final report,
     vols. 2,3,  and 4.
          Rockwell International Science Cntr., Sept. 1974.

     *Aerosols-properties;  aerosols-analysis; aerosols-formation;
     aerosols-monitoring; air pollution;


          Some of  the more  pressing questions of air pollution requiring improved

      knowledge are  those dealing with aerosols.  Although airborne particles repre-

      sent a small  fraction  of the trace constituent loading  in air, they con;:.';hute

      significantly  to environmental degradation as  a potential hazard to healtS,

      a visibility  reducer,  and a possible agent of  weather modification.  Despite

      many years of  investigation, the origins and evolution  of atmospheric aerosols

      remain poorly understood  quantitatively, compared with  trace gases.  Recognizinc

      this, the California Air  Resources Board (ARB)  sponsored the California Aerosol

      Characterization Experiment (ACHEX), a major experiment in air chemistry

      devoted  to a detailed study of aerosols in urban and remote sites of California
       005574
         A  COMPARISON   OF  PARTICULATE LOAOINQS IN THE  ATMOSPHERES OF
       CERTAIN AMERICAN  CITIES.
         I. A. Chambers,  M.  J.  Fote.r,  and J. Cholak
         Proc.  Nat I.  Air  Pollution Symp.,  3rd.  Pasadena,   Calif..
       1955. pp. 24-32.
         PROC NATL  AIR POLLUTION SYMP 3RD PASADENA CALIF  1955   1955
         FLD PROC   Method  of Support: FELL CRT
         A  program  of   high-volume  air  sa-nplinq  and   analysis of
       particulars material  was  undertaKen in a total of  more than 30
       cities.   Each sampling  site  was  chosen  to   represent  the
       Composite  of air pollutants characteristic of an  area.   Each
       sample for analysis  represents the total of particulate matter
       1n sizes down to  0.3 micron removed from  approximately  2.000
       Cubic  meters of  air  during a 24 hour period.    The results of
       particulate analyses  are  grouped in tables according to  urban
       and nonurban areas,   population,  and size of city.    Seasonal
       distribution   in   major   cities   is    also     graphically
       illustrated.**
         Descriptors: ALASKA; AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA;   UNITED STATES:
       CALIFORNIA;  LOS  ANGELES;  SAN FRANCISCO;  GEORGIA:    ATLANTA;
       ILLINOIS; CHICAGO; KANSAS;  KENTUCKY; MAINE: MARYLAND;  MICHIGAN
       ; DETROIT;  MISSISSIPPI;   MISSOURI:  NEW YORK STATE;   NEW YORK
       CITY; OHIO; 'CINCINNATI;   PENNSYLVANIA;  PHILADELPHIA;   TEXAS:
       HOUSTON; UTAH;  WEST  VIRGINIA;  NON-METROPOLITAN AREAS:  URBAN
       AREAS; METROPOLITAN  AREAS:  POLLUTANTS:  PARTICULATES;   ARSENIC
       COMPOUNDS;   CHLORINE  COMPOUNDS;    FLUORINE COMPOUNDS;  METAL
       COMPOUNDS;   BERYLLIUVI COMPOUNDS:  CHROV1IUM COMPOUNDS:    COPPER
       COMPOUNDS; IRON COMPOUNDS:  LEAD COMPOUNDS: MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS
       J   MANGANESE COMPOUNDS;   SILVER COMPOUNDS:  SODIUM COMPOUNDS:
       STRONTIUM COMPOUNDS:   TITANIUM COMPOUNDS;  VANADIUM COMPOUNDS:
       ZINC   COMPOUNDS;    NITRATES;    POTASSIUM  COMPOUNDS:    SULFUR
       COMPOUNDS; SULFATES;  ADMINISTRATION;  PLANS AND  PROGRAMS;   AIR
       QUALITY  MEASUREMENT   PROGRAMS;   AREA  SURVEYS;    AIR QUALITY
       MEASUREMENTS
         Category: AIR QUALITY MEAS
                                       209

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING


      Texas Air Control Board,
           Continuous Monitoring Network Data Summary,  annual reports
      for 1974 through 1977.  Austin, TX.
      Kamens, Richard M. and  Harvey E. Jeffries,
         A critical review of ambient air  aldehyde measurement methods and an
      analysis  of Houston aldehyde data, part 1, review  of measurement
      methods.
         Chapel Hill, NC, University 6f North Carolina,  Dept.  of Environmental
      Sciences  and Engineering,  undated.

     Air quality data;  Photochemical  pollutants-monitoring; *Aldehydes-air
     pollution; Houston,  Tx.-air pollution; Texas-air pollution;

                Aldehydes are a  group of compounds which have double bonded oxygen
            atoms on a  terminal carbon atom of an organic molecule.   They are often
            represented chemically as R-CMO, where R  is either a hydrocarbon atom or   ,
            a saturated or unsaturated organic group.  Formaldehyde, the first-member
            of the aliphatic (saturated) homologous  group, has the chemical formula
            of H-CHO.  Acetaldehyde, the next member, has the  formula CHj-CHO and
            propionaldehyde, the  third, CH3-CH2-CHO.  Acrolein, the smallest unsatu-
            rated aldehyde, has a structure similar to propionaldehyde except that a
            double bond appears between the first and second carbon atoms, CH2=CH-CHO.
            A 11st of saturated and  unsaturated aldehydes along with boiling points,
            toxicities, and uses  1s  given  1n Appendix A (Stahl, 1969).
       044234
         DIFFERENCES    IN    METAL  AREAL  DISTRIBUTION  DISPLAYED   BY
       TREND-SURFACE  ANALYSIS.
         Severs, Richard K.  and Leslie A. Chambers
         Arcn  Environ.  Health,  25(2):139-145, Aug. 1972. 8 refs.
         ARCH  ENVIRON HEALTH   1972
         FLO   Mothod of Support: NONE
         Trend-surface computer maps were prepared  to  estimate   the
       areal concentration isopleths of cadmium,  copper,  magnesium,
       manganese,   lead,  and zinc,  suspended particulates,   and  the
       associated   benzene-  soluble concentrations which occurred on
       April  13,  1970.   The samples were collected from a  17-station
       ambient air  surveillance network  in Houston and  then  analyzed.
         A  comparison  of maps  indicates important areal differences
       in the  distribution of all pollutants.    Suggestions  are  made
       as   to  how  these maps could be used  for  further studies based
       on areal  data.  (Author abstract modified)
         Descriptors:  AREA SURVEYS;   ADMINISTRATION;    AIR  QUALITY
       MEASUREMENT  PROGRAMS;  PLANS AND  PROGRAMS;  HOUSTON;   AMERICA;
       NORTH  AMERICA; TEXAS; UNITED STATES;  URBAN  AREAS;  METROPOLITAN
                                        210

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING

      AREAS;  SUSPENDED   PARTICIPATES;    PARTICIPATES;   POLLUTANTS;
      BENZENE-SOLUBLE  ORGANIC  MATTER;   CHEMICAL COMPOSITION;  AIR
      QUALITY MEASUREMENTS;  COMPUTERS;   MAPPING;  METAL  COMPOUNDS;
      CADMIUM COMPOUNDS:  COPPER COMPOUNDS;  LEAD COMPOUNDS; MAGNESIUM
      COMPOUNDS; MANGANESE COMPOUNDS; ZINC  COMPOUNDS
       Category: AIR QUALITY MEAS
      024227
        THE  DISTRIBUTION  OF MN AND BR IN AN URBAN AREA AS REVEALED
      THROUGH ACTIVATION ANALYSIS.
        Randerson, Darryl
        Atmos. Environ., 4(3):249-257, May 1970. 8 refs.
        ATMOS ENVIRON   1970
        FLO   Method of Support: RES CRT
        In an attempt to identify some  of  the  components  of  air
      pollution   in  Houston,   fifteen  high-volume  samplers  were
      operated continuously for 24-hr periods.  The major industries
      in Houston consist of oil refineries and petrochemical  plants
      as  well  as  secondary  manufacturers  such  as  steel mills,
      fertilizer companies, and paper mills.  Filter papers from one
      day of sampling were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux  and
      the resulting radio- nuclides were identified.   Manganese and
      Dromine were detected.   The primary source  of  Mn  compounds
      probably  would  be  process  losses  from  cement  companies,
      Chemical companies,  and a steel mill located upwind from  the
      sampling stations,  while it is proposed that the Br compounds
      may have originated from ethyl fuel combustion.    During  one
      24-hr- period,   the  concentrations of Mn ranged from 0.02 to
      0.56 micrograms  inverse cu m while those  of  Br  ranged  from
      0.04   to   1.09   micrograms  inverse  cu  m.    The  spatial
      distributions of  these  two  elements  were  related  to  the
      meteorological conditions.  Patterns of concentration appeared
      to be related to the predominant direction of wind.  Depending
      on the elements  to be detected, the average cost .per sample is
      estimated   to  be  between  $50  and  $100.   (Author abstract
      modi f i ed)
        Descriptors:   COSTS;   ECONOMICS;   CEMENTS;   CONSTRUCTION
      MATERIALS;  MATERIALS; STEEL; IRON; METALS;  HOUSTON;  AMERICA;
      NORTH AMERICA;   TEXAS;   UNITED  STATES;   ENGINE  EMISSIONS;
      POLLUTANTS:  CHEMICAL PROCESSES;  INDUSTRIAL EMISSION SOURCES:
      SOURCES;  STATIONARY EMISSION  SOURCES;   PETROLEUM  REFINING;
      MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES; PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS INDUSTRY
      J    AGRICULTURAL   CHEMICAL  PLANTS;   CHEMICALS  AND  ALLIED
      MANUFACTURING;   PAPER MILLS;  PAPER AND ALLIED  MANUFACTURING;
      PETROLEUM   PRODUCTION;   MINING;   AIR  QUALITY  MEASUREMENTS;
      NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS;  ANALYTICAL METHODS;   CONTINUOUS
      MONITORING; MEASUREMENT METHODS; MONITORING;  HI-VOL SAMPLERS;
      SAMPLERS; SAMPLING METHODS; METEOROLOGY; ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA
      J  WINDS;   ATMOSPHERIC  MOVEMENTS;   BROMINE;   HALOGEN  GASES;
      MANGANESE COMPOUNDS; METAL COMPOUNDS
        Category:  MEASUREMENT METH;  EMISSION SOURCES;  AIR QUALITY
      MEAS
                                       211

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


     055165
        EVALUATION  OF  MEASUREMENT  METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR
     ODOROUS COMPOUNDS IN STATIONARY  SOURCES.   VOL.   II,   FIELD
     TESTING. (FINAL REPORT  JUNE  1971 TO DEC 31, 1972).
        Hal 1, H.  U.
        Esso  Research  and   Engineering  Company,  Linden,  N.  J.,
     Government  Research  Lab.,   Environmental  Protection  Agency
     Contract 68-02-0219, EPA-R2-  73-180,  Program Element 1A1010,
     GRU.2DJAB.73, 161p., March 1973. 7 refs.
        1973
        FLD   Metnod of Support: CONTRACT
        USGROR No.: NTIS,  PB 223654/AS
        Various  instruments wnicn  are commercially available for the
     measurement of hydrogen sulfide and reduced-sulfur odorants  in
     StacK emissions were evaluated under  field conditions.    None
     of  the  instruments tested  was  able   to  provide a routine
     analysis for H2S/TRS or for  individual S  compounds at emission
     levels  in  both the refinery  and pulp  mill tests.   The  Barton
     coulometer  nas given satisfactory  field service for years in a
     number  of  Kraft paper  mills.   It cannot give absolute values
     and readings are directly proportional to sample  flow  rate;
     tne  addition  of a  flow  rate controller  is recommended.   The
     system  cannot be depended on to define the amount  or  absence
     of  either  H2S  or  sulfur  dioxide  at  1 ppm or less in the
     presence of 10 ppm of the other,   nor can It  measure  either
     total S or  total reduced  S compounds  correctly  in the presence
     of  S02  and  COS or CS2.    The Bendix gas Chromatograph/Flame
     photometric detector has  a  more  stable zero  and  superior
     stability  compared with tne  Barton.   With a 1 cc sample,  the
     upper  limit of  linearity  'S  30 to  50  ppm  for carbonyl  sulfide
     and  80 to 120 ppm for  H2S,  S02,  and methyl mercaptan.   The
      instrument  requires  skilled  maintenance.   The  Houston  Atlas
     system  for sample pyrolysis and catalytic reduction to H2S  is
     promising  for further development  and suitable  for use with  a
     simple  taoe sensor;   its  operation was basically satisfactory.
       Minimum requirements for future  instruments are specified.
        Descriptors:   STACK  GASES;   POLLUTANTS;    WASTE   GASES;
     COMBUSTION GASES;   COMBUSTION PRODUCTS;  PETROLEUM REFINING;
      INDUSTRIAL EMISSION   SOURCES;    MANUFACTURING   INDUSTRIES;
     PETROLEUM   AND  COAL PRODUCTS INDUSTRY;  SOURCES;  STATIONARY
     EMISSION SOURCES; CHEYIICAL PROCESSES; KRAFT (SULFATE) PULPING;
     PAPER AND  ALLIED MANUFACTURING;  PULP MILLS;   POTENTIOMETRIC
     METHODS; ANALYTICAL  METHODS; CHEMICAL METHODS;  ELECTROCHEMICAL
     METHODS; FLAME  IONIZATION DETECTOR (CO);  CHROMATOGRAPHY;  GAS
     CHRQMATOGRAPHY; MONITORING;  MEASUREMENT  METHODS;  PHOTOMETRIC
     METHODS;   GAS SAMPLING;  SAMPLING  METHODS;  SOURCE MONITORING;
      FIELD TESTS;   INSTRUMENTATION;   MERCAPTANS;    SULFUR  ORGANIC
     COMPOUNDS;  SULFUR DIOXIDE;  OXIDES;  SULFUR OXIDES;  HYDROGEN
     SULFIDE; SULFIOES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS;  POTENTIOMETRIC METHODS
        Identifiers:  COULOMETRY
        Category: MEASUREMENT METH
                                      212

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING

      Radian  Corp.,
           HAOS  aldehydes monitoring program.
           DCN 78-100-169-02,  HAOS Contract  No.  Ox-6,
           Austin,  TX, April  1978.
      Houston, Texas-air pollution; Texas-air  pollution; *Aldehydes~sampling;
     3as chromatography-applications; Air pollution-monitoring;
               One-hour samples were collected for total aldehydes
      and formaldehyde analysis at two sites in Houston from 5 a.m. to
      5 p.m. (CDT) during the period from August 3 to  October 13,  1977.
      Additionally, 3-hour samples were taken four times a day for a
      ten-day period at  each site and analyzed for Cj-Ct aldehydes on
      a gas chroaatograph.

               Of the 295 samples analyzed for total  aldehydes at
      Aldine, 65 percent were below the minimum detectable levels
      (Table V-l), while 94 percent of the formaldehyde samples at
      Aldine were  below  the minimum detectable levels  (Table V-2).
      Of the 353 samples from Fuqua analyzed for total aldehydes,  58
      percent were below the minimum detectable levels .(Table V-3),
      and 96 percent of  the 255 samples analyzed for formaldehyde at
      Fuqua were below the minimum detectable levels (Table V-4).
      The maximum value  reported for total aldehydes is 63 wg/m* mea-
      sured at Aldine.   The highest formaldehyde value reported is
      16 vg/m* at  Aldine.

               For the  detailed sampling for Cz-Ct  aldehydes, all
      samples were below the minimum detectable level  for the chro-
      matographic  analysis.

               From Tables  V-l through V-4, it appears  that total
      aldehydes were present,  but in low concentrations.  Formaldehyde
     was the major constituent of the total aldehydes  on some occa-
      sions,  but not always.
     Jones, B.C.,
          Hydrocarbon sampling, final  report.
          DCN  78-100-171-01,  HAOS Contracttfo.
          Austin,  TX, Radian  Corp., Feb.  1978.

     Hydrocarbons-sampling;  Texas-air  pollution;  *Houston, Texas-air pollution;
     Sampling  and sample  handling;
                  Hydrocarbon  samples were collected  in stainless  steel "
       cans by Radian Corporation.  Clean, evacuated cans were supplied
                                         213

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


     by Research Triangle Institute.  After sampling the cans were
     returned to Research Triangle Institute for detailed hydrocarbon
     analysis.


                Samples were collected daily from 6:00 to 9:00 a.m.
     on a daily basis at one of three primary sampling sites.  Special

     samples also were collected.  During pollution episodes, upwind-
     downwind and/or areawide samples were collected.  In addition,
     special samples were collected in a forest and at an offshore
     oil well platform.  Samples also were collected from an air-
     craft.
       057195
         IMPROVED  TITRILOG SENSITIVITY.   PART  II.  FIELD PERFORMANCE
       AND EVALUATION.
         McKee,  Herbert  C.  and  William  L.  RoUwitz
         \i. Air  Pollution Control  Assoc.,  8(4):338-340, .Feb. 1959.  1
       ref.
         d AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  ASSOC '   1959
         LAB FLO   Method of Support: NONE
         Since  sulfur   dioxide  was  considered to be the best single
       indicator of  overall air-pollution   levels  in  Houston,   a
       Titrilog   was modified   for actual field use in.recording the
       variation in the  S02 concentrations in different  sections  of
       tne city.  Increasing the  instrument  s sensitivity by a factor
       of 10 introduced  noise and drift  problems,  the first of which
       was corrected by  reducing  the  bandwidth  of the  input  circuit
       with a sinple BC  low-pass  filter.   To correct the drift,  th«
       zero-suppression  of the  Titrilog was  adjusted so tnat pure air
       on the reading was 20 to 30.   In  actual operation,  drift  of
       the  zero point beyond the lower  end  of  the scale was the most
       serious difficulty,   and the instrument  was set  to  record  a
       zero  reading once an hour.    For  field  use,  the Titrilog was
       installed in a small  trailer readily  moved to  wherever  110-v
       power  was  available.    The  instrument required a minimum of
       maintenance.  Inspection can be  limited  to twice a week.
         Descriptors: PORTABLE;   HOUSTON;   AMERICA;  NORTH  AMERICA:
       TEXAS;  UNITED STATES;  URBAN  AREAS;  \1ETROPOLI TAN AREAS;  AIR
       QUALITY MEASUREMENTS; ANALYTICAL  METHODS;   DESIGN  CRITERIA:
       FIELD  TESTS;   INSTRUMENTATION;    RECORDING  METHODS;  SULFUR
       DIOXIDE;  OXIDES;  SULFUR  OXIDES;  RECORDING METHODS
         Identifiers: YEAR 1959;  TITRILOG
         Category:  MEASUREMENT  METH
                                      214

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING

      Ltaderer, Brian P.,  et al.,
            "Light, scattering measurements  of the  New York Summer Aerosol",
            Presented at  the American Industrial Hygiene  Conference, New
      Orleans, LA,  May 1977.
            Continuous hourly lighc scattering measurements  taken during July and
       August 1976 as part of the New York Summer Aerosol Study (NTSAS) are presented.
       long-path light extinction measurements were taken at 0.4416um utilizing a laser
       transmissometer system employing a He-Cd laser.  The  extinction coefficient for
       scattered light, as an index  for visibility, was measured and the hourly total
       volume of particles between  O.lum and 1.3ym Cthe size range associate with
      .visible light scattering) were calculated from number size distribution measurements.
            A strong relationship was observed between light scattering and water
       soluble sulfates indicating  that sulfates dominated light scattering in- the New
       York summer aerosol.
       Westberg,  H.,  K. Allwine  and E. Robinson,
             Measurement of light hydrocarbons and  studies  of oxidant transport
       beyond urban areas,  Houston Study  - 1976^final report.
             EPA  Contract  No. 68-02-2298.
             Pullman,  WA,  Washington State University, Chemical  Engineering
       Dept., May 1978.
               During the month of July,  1976, Washington  State University carried
          out an extensive air pollutant  monitoring program  in the Houston area.  This
          field study involved ground sampling plus use of an instrumented aircraft.
          Measurements  included ozone, oxides of nitrogen, PAN, methane,  carbon mon-
          oxide. Individual  hydrocarbons  (Cj-C^), halocarbons, condensation nuclei
          and visual  distance plus numerous meteorological parameters.  Specific areas
          of Interest in this study included; 1) oxidant formation and transport with-
          in the Houston urban plume, 2)  relationships  between ozone layers aloft and
          the vertical  temperature profile, 3) composition and effects of refinery and
          petrochemical emissions on the  local Houston  air mass, and 4) identification
          and quantisation of individual  C2-C]0 hydrocarbons in the Houston atmos-
          phere.   Results of this field program are presented with special  emphasis
          placed on oxidant  production and transport In the  Houston area.
                                            215

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


      102709
       Measurements   of   Photodegraded  C2-C5  Hydrocarbons  from
      Aerosol Participates Collected  in Houston. Texas
       Nahm, James J. W.
      ' Ozone/Oxidants  Interactions  with  Total  Environ.       pp.
      157-165   Pittsburgh,  Pa..  Air  Pollution Control Assoc.    1978
       Ooc Type:  C: ORIGINAL  (LABORATORY)
       CAS Registry No:  74-85-1  115-07-1 624-64-6 106-98-9  115-11-7
       The  photodogradation  of  aerosol particulates by ultraviolet
      radiation   was   investigated    in   conjunction   with   the
      measurements of desorbed C2-C5  hydrocarbons (HO  from aerosol
      particulntes.  Particulates containing  adsorbed  hydrocarbons
      were  irradiated  in  an ultrapure  nitrogen environment  with
      artificial UV radiation  sources,  having maximum  emission  at
      3550  A  and  2535   A.    After  irradiation.  the particulates
      released hydrocarbons  with  compositions quite, different  from
      hydrocarbons   desorbed   under   similar  conditions   without
      irradiation.  A 30-min irradiation of  particulates with   two
      15-W  black  lamps yielded 60 nl/gm total hydrocarbons  with 50%
      olefins and  a two-hour irradiation with two 15-W mercury lamps
      yields 11.000 nl/gm with 70% olefins. A nine-month measurement
      of atmospheric hydrocarbons in  the Houston area indicates  that
      an average value of the  olefin  content  is  23%.   The major
      products from the photodegradation are ethylene and propylene.
      Small amounts of C4 olefins such as 1-butene. isobutylene and
      t-butene-2 are also present in  the photodegraded hydrocarbons.
        (16 Refs)
       Descriptors: AEROSOLS:  PARTICULATES;  POLLUTANTS;  BUTENES:
      ETHYLENE:   OLEFINS;   ALIPHATIC  HYDROCARBONS:   HYDROCARBONS;
      PHOTOCHEMICAL  REACTIONS;   CHEMICAL  REACTIONS;  CHEMICAL AND
      PHYSICAL PHENOMENA; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION;  LIGHT  RADIATION:
      CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL  PHENOMENA
       Category:  BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
      Radian Corp.,
           Monthly air monitoring  report Houston Lighting and Power Company
      •twelve station network July  1974,  report No.  1.
           Radian Project No.  100-047, Houston Lighting and Power Contract.
           Austin, TX, Oct. 1974.
               pollution; Air pollution-particulate emissions-monitoring; NOx-
       air pollution; Air pollution -monitoring;  *Houston, Texas -air pollution;
       Air pollution-meteorological factors;

                  Radian Corporation is  under contract to Houston Lighting

       and Power Company to provide ambient  air quality monitoring at

       twelve  locations in the Houston  metropolitan area.  Each monitoring

       station senses and records  concentrations for particulates, nitro-

       gen oxides,  and sulfur dioxide.   Various meteorological  parameters

       such as wind speed, wind direction,  temperature and relative

       humidity are monitored also.   The data provides useful information

       regarding pollution concentration and their correlation  to vary-
       ing meteorological conditions.
                                       216

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING


      104336
        A  Hew  Adsorbent   for  the  Concentration   and  Analysis of
      Volatile Organic  Compounds in the Environment
        ZlatKis, Albert; Bertsch,  Wolfgang
        Public Health Service, Washington, D. C., National  Inst. for
      Occupational Safety  and Health
        N10SH Solid Sorbents  Roundtable, Second,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,
      1973   pp. 107-120,  July   1976
        Note: (Dec. 5-6.)  (E.  Vernon Ballou, ed.)
        Doc Type'- U; Original  (Laboratory)
        Report No.: Rept.  HEW (NIOSH) 76-193
        A new adsorbent,   Tenax GC (2,6-dipheny1-p-phenyiene oxide),
      for  the  concentration  and  analysis  of  volatile   organic
      compounds in the  environment, is described.  Experimental worK
      on the analysis of flavors utilizing Tenax  GC  revealed  that
      Tenax GC fulfilled both requirements of efficient adsorptivity
      and   desorptivity,     as   it  can  sustain   relatively  high
      temperatures (375 C  limit).  Samples were desorbed at  200-300 C
      with good reproducibi1ity,  and regeneration was> effected  at
      375  C.   Tenax   GC   was  evaluated for air analysis.   Samples
      considered to be  representative of  urban,   industrial,   and
      agricultural  environments  were  taken  at  various locations
      around Houston,   Texas.  Approximately 100 substances,  almost
      exclusively    hydrocarbons,     were   identified   by   mass
      spectrometry.  Alkanes  represented the major part,  especially
      at  the   low  molecular  weight  end of the  spectrum,  whereas
      substituted  aromatics   were  more  abundant   for   the   high
      molecular weiqht  end.   As expected,  automobiles are the major
      source of volatiles  in  the air.  This work  is  being  continued
      and   the  principles  of  selective  detection  and  selective
      adsorption will be   applied  to  substances  of  physiological
      interest.    (7 Refs)
        Descriptors: Pollutants: Air Quality Measurements;   Chemical
      Composition;  Combustibles and Volatiles:   Analytical  Methods:
      Spectrometry; Mass  Spectrometry;  Sampling Methods:  Samplers:
      Chemical  'and  Physical  Phenomena;    Adsorption   Phenomena:
      Chemical  and  Physical  Properties;  Temperture;  Volatility:
      Weight;   Sources;  Mobile  Emission  Sources!     Transportation
      Methods;     Motor   Vehicle    Sources;,   Liqht-Duty  Vehicles:
      Automobiles;  America;   North  America:  United States:   Texas:
      Houston;   Industrial Areas;  Metropolitan  Areas:  Urban  Areas:
      Non-Metropolitan   Areas;   Farms;   Hydrocarbons;    Aliphatic
      Hydrocarbons; Cyclic Alkanes;  Aromatic Hydrocarbons
        Category:   Measurement  Methods  (Categorical);  Measurement
      Methods  (Ambient  Air and Emissions)
       Laird, A.R.  and R.W. Miksad,
            "Observations on the particulate chlorine distribution  in the
       Houston-Galvaston area",
            Atmoa.  Env.  12. 1537-42  (1978).

       Abstract—The chlorine  component of tout  suspended particulate  (TSP)  measured  in the
       Houjton-Galveston area during 10 days in June and September, 1975 has been examined  for spatial
       variation and correlation with wind speed. The background concentrations of chlorine vary over an order of
       magnitude (from 0.2 to 6.6 pgm"3), and are found to depend on wind speed  and direction. Higher
       background concentrations are associated with inland penetration of fresh marine air from the Gulf of
       Mexico. These background [Cl] variations are taken into account in order to identify anthropogenic [Cl]
       sources. Significant non-marine sources of [Cl], located in the industrialized Pasadena-Houston Ship
       Channel area, are evident in our data.
                                        217

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING


      Wbrley,  F.L.,  Jr., A.A.  Siddiqi,  an'd L.R. LaMotte,
           Ozone episode documentation project report.
           Houston, TX,  University of Houston, April 1977.

       Air quality data;  *Houstort,  TX-air  pollution;  Air pollution-sources-
       mobile;  Ozone-air pollution;

              Manual and computer aided analysis of the Texas Air Control Board  (TACB)

          continuous isonitoring station data (1975) plus selected City of Houston data

          has been carried out.  This report describes data handling procedures,

          statistical methods employed and presents observations and correlations

          developed using the data. Problems related to completeness of data sets and

          inadequate meteorological data are discussed.

              The more significant findings center around the apparent major role

          played by non-stationary sources in determining the  maximum daily ozone

          concentration.  This effect was observed time and again and gives strong

           emphasis to the impact of vehicular sources  in this state.  Analysis of

           episode periods does not provide any verification that  frontal passage has

           a major role.   The dominant meterological  variable appears to be local wind

           speed, i.e.  extended periods  of low wind speed are necessary for-high ozone

           levels.  A secondary observation involves  subsidence of stratospheric air

           and appears  to preceed episodes.

                Caution is recommended in using the above correlations and observations

           because the  sample size is quite small and as a result  statistically not

           reliable.
           Johnson, Carl E.,  et al.,  Ozone  Concentrations  Along
           the  Upper Texas Gulf Coast April.  May.  June 1972,  2nd
           ed.,  Austin,  Tx.,  Texas  State Department of Health,
           Air  Pollution Control Services,  Air Quality Evaluation
           Program, Aug. 1972.
                                             218

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING

     Wallis, Roger  R.,  et  al.,  Ozone Concentrations in Rural
     and Industrial-Urban  Centers in Texas,1 Austin,! Tx.,
     Texas Air Control  Board, March 1975:  '     '   ' ••. •< > •
      Johnson, Carl E., Duane J. Johnson,  and Roger R.  Wallis,
      Ozone Concentrations on the Upper  Texas Gulf Coast
      July, August, September, 1972, Austin,  Tx.,  Texas State
      Department of Health, Air Pollution  Control  Services,
      Air Quality Evaluation Program, March 1973.
      Radian Corp.,
           Ozone/ultraviolet radiation monitoring,  final  report.
           't>CS' 78-100-170-03,  HAOS Contract No.  UX-4B.
           Austin,  TX,  June 1978.
      Air pollution-monitoring; Ozone-monitoring; Radiation-monitoring; *Houston,
      TX-air pollution;

                       As  part of  the Houston Area  Oxidant Study, Radian Cor-
             poration monitored ambient  levels of ozone and ultraviolet radia-
             tion at a  site northwest of Houston, Texas.  The monitoring was
             performed  from June 15, 1977  to October 31,  1977.

                       The monitoring site  was graciously supplied by the
             Houston Lighting  and  Power  Company  for whom  Radian had been op-
             erating a  monitoring  station at the site.  A modified ambient air"
             quality monitoring station  with the added capabilities for ozone
             and  ultraviolet radiation was  deployed to replace the existing
             station.
        058386
          PARTICULAT6  MASS  AS  A  PREDICTOR OF NUMBERS OF RESPIRABLE
        PARTiqULATES.
          Severs, R. K. and C.  T.  Chen
          Chemosphere, 2(5) : 199-200,  1973.  4 refs.
          CHEMGSPHERE   1973
          THEO FUD   Method of  Support!  NONE
          The mass of suspended participates in air  was  investigated
        as  a  predictor  of  the  number   of respirable particulates.
        Nephelometric measurements  were made  at  several  sites  in
        Houston,   Tex.,   on  Aug.  23,   25,  28,  1972 and 24-hour
        high-volume air samples of suspended particulates  were  taKen
        Aug. 19, 25, 31 at the  same sites.  A linear regressions model
        was  assumed  with  the  number  of  respirabl* particulates per
                                        219

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING

      volume   of   atr   the dependent   variable,    and   susoendeti
      particulate   mass  per   volume  of  air  the regressor variable.
      The correlation  efficient  (c)  between  suspended  participate
      mass  and   the   number  of  respirable particulates found at  the
      various sites on Aug.   25   was  0.87  and  the   least  squares
      estimate (s)  was 1.79.    For the 12-day average period.  Aug.
      19-31 at the same sites (r) was 0.90 and (s)  was much smaller
      at  0.57.     Suspended  particulate  mass is a.good predictor of
      the number  of respirable   particulates  over  a  fairly  long
      period,  however,   daily variance  is  too  large  to allow
      prediction  of the number of particulates at any one site on  a
      daily basis.
       Descriptors:    DUSTS;    PARTICULATES:  POLLUTANTS;  SETTLING
      PARTICLES;   SUSPENDED PARTICULATES;  AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS;
      STATISTICAL  ANALYSES;   AIR POLLUTION FORECASTING;  ATMOSPHERIC
      PHENOMENA
       Category:  AIR  QUALITY MEAS
       080563
         PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS, AEROSOL, AND OPTICAL DEPTH.
         Severs,  R.  K. and  J. C. Peng
         Chemosphere, 4(5):265-270, Oct.  1975.  12  refs.
         CHEMOSPHERE  1975
         FLO    Method of  Support: NONE
         The   relationship   between  optical  depth and photochemical
       oxidants  and aerosols   was    investigated.      Simultaneous
       measurements  of   ground  level ozone  concentration and optical
       depth due  to  light scattering by aerosols  (T  P)   at  various
       wavelengths   indicated  a distinct relationship between  levels
       of 03 greater than 0.1 ppm by volume  and the difference  in the
       optical  depth profile between 0.3800  and 0.5000 micron,  when T
       P is greater  than  some predetermined  value1 characteristic  of
       the area  or region.    This   relationship  is attributed to
       aerosol  growth which accompanies photochemical smog  formation.
         Optical  depth   measurements   at  various wavelengths  are
       proposed  as  a  unique   method  to   indicate the  intensity of
       photochemical smog.   Comparison' of the  T  P data collected  in
       Houston with the  standard  background aerosol optical depth
      data indicate  that  the  probability   of  photochemical   smog
       formation  is  quite low when T  P (.5000)   less  than  .20  since
       the characteristic shape of  the  function   is  still  conserved
      with  the  recognizable minimum  at  0.6000 micron.    A positive
      Change between T P (.3800)  and  T P (.5000)  indicates  a  low
      probability   for  the  presence   of  a  photochemical  aerosol
       formation.    Criteria were established which may indicate  the
      degree of photochemical  aerosol  formation.
         Descriptors: OXIDANTS; POLLUTANTS;   AEROSOLS;   PARTICULATES;
       SMOG;   SUSPENDED PARTICULATES;  OPTICAL METHODS:   MEASUREMENT
      METHODS:   OZONE;    LIGHT  SCATTERING;   CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL
       PHENOMENA;    OPTICAL  PROPERTIES;    CH.EMICAL   AND   PHYSICAL
       PROPERTIES
         Category: MEASUREMENT METH
                                         220

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING

     Houston -  Galveston Area Council,
           Regional  Atlas,  1972.
           Houston,  TX,  1972.

     Houston, TX;
     Houston  - Galveston  Area Council,
            Regional data book.   Vol.  1.
            Houston, TX,  1972.

     Houston,  TX;
     102738
       A   Review   of    the  Relationship  between  Ambient  Total
     Non-Methane  Hydrocarbon  Concentrations   and  Ambient   Ozone
     Levels in Houston
       MacKenrie, Kenneth; wenzel,  Lawrence
       Ozone/Oxidants Interactions with Total  Environ.   pp.  38-49
     Pittsburgh, Pa., Air Pollution Control Assoc.   1976
       Doc Type: C;  REVIEWS (TECHNICAL)
       CAS Registry  No:  10028-15-G
       Measurements  of  ozone (03)  and non-methane hydrocarbons are
     reviewed  from   May through  October  1975.   This period was
     selected oecause the photochemical oxidant  standard  of  O.OB
     ppm  was  often exceeded.  Correlation coefficients between 03
     and non-methane hydrocarbons were determined,  and  no  direct
     relationship was found.  Much more air quality information and
     air quality analysis needs to be performed in the Houston area
     in order to better  develop realistic  control  strategies  for
     reducing 03 levels.  A review of the measurement limitations of
     both  the non-methane hydrocarbon and 03  equipment needs to be
     Conducted to ensure that the values reported are .reliable.   A
     photochemical   oxidant model needs to be  developed for Houston
     so that strategies  can oe tested prior to  application.     (8
     Refs)
       Descriptors:     AIR   QUALITY  MEASUREMENTS;   HYDROCARBONS;
     NON-METHANE HYDROCARBONS;   CHEMICAL  COMPOSITION;   OXIDANTS;
     POLLUTANTS;  OZONE;   TEXAS;    UNITED STATES;  NORTH AMERICA;
     AMERICA
       Category: ATMOSPHERIC INTERACTION (METEOROL AND CLIMATOL AND
     TOPOGR); ATMOSPHERIC INTERACTION;  POLLUTION DATA (AIR QUALITY
     MEASUREMENTS);  POLLUTION DATA
                                      221

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


      065595
        SIMULTANEOUS   TOTAL   OX1DANT  AND  CHEMILUMINESCENT   OZONE
      MEASUREMENTS  IN AMBIENT AIR.
        Severs, Richard K.
        Preprint,   Air Pollution Control Assoc.,   Pittsburgh,    Pa.,
      16p., 1974.   15 refs.  (Presented at the Air Pollution Control
      Association Annual Meeting, 67th,  Denver,   Colo.,   dune 9-13,
      1974, Paper 35.1.)
        AIR   POLLUTION CONTROL ASSOC ANNU MEET 67TH DENVER COLO 1974
      1974
        FLO   Method of Support: RES CRT
        Ambient air quality measurements taken by the total   oxidant
      method  and   the  chemiluminescent  method are compared.   The
      buffered potassium iodide method fof measuring total  oxldants
     and   the   chemiluminescent   method   for    ozone  were   run
     simultaneously from August  through December  1973, side by  side
     at a site on the  Houston  ship  channel.    They  were   calibrated
     daily.  Hourly averages were analyzed by linear  regression  and
     the   confidence    intervals  were  calculated,   as  well  as
     confidence intervals for  point estimates.    These methods  were
     used  with  all   data sets  with values  greater than  10 pob and
     again with values greater than 30 ppb.    A  regression  line was
     also  calculated   for  another  set   of  data for the preceding
     year.   These data were generated before a   chromium  trioxide
     scrubber   wns   installed    to  eliminate   possible  chemical
      interferences with the KI method.   The  chemiluminescent  method
      tends to produce  values as  much as two  times higher   than   the
     simultaneous total  oxidant  values.   An  80 ppb  chemiluminescent
     ozone  value  predicted a value of 78 ppb  total  oxidant  with 0
     95%  confidence  interval  of   0.4  to 156  ppb.    Statistical
     analyses  confirmed  that  either  measurement was a very  poor
     predictor of the  other.    Enforcement of primary  air  quality
     standards  with  a reference method different than that used to
     establish the standard is thus questioned.
       Descriptors: EFFICIENCY;   AIR QUALITY  STANDARDS;   STANDARDS:
     OXIDANTS;   POLLUTANTS;   AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS?   IODIWETRIC
     METHODS;  ANALYTICAL METHODS;   CHEMICAL  METHODS;   MONITORING!
     MEASUREMENT METHODS;  STATISTICAL ANALYSES; OZONE
       Category: MEASUREMENT METH
     Llppmann, Morton,  et al.,
           "Size-mass  distributions  of  the  New York Summer  Aerosol",
           Presented at  the American Industrial Hygiene  Conference, New
     Orleans, LA, May 1977.

               Size-mass distributions and overall mass concentrations
           of the New  York City  summer  ambient aerosol were determined
           by a variety  of sampling  and analytical techniques.  For
           gravimetric analyses,  24-hour samples were collected daily
           with high-volume cascade  impactors and constant-flow
           single stage  high-volume  filters.  Seven-day samples were
           collected with a high-volume parallel, flow particle size
           classifier, which  contains four cyclone-filter  2-stage
           samplers and  a total  mass filter.  One-hour total mass
           concentration determinations were made with a 6-attenuation
           mass monitor, and  one-minute determinations were made
           with a quartz-crystal microbalance mass monitor.  The
           results of  all of  the various size-mass distribution
                                        222

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


        and mass  concentration measurements are summarized and
        intercompared with each other and with estimates  based
        on the measurement of other parameters; particle  volume
        distributions obtained from an electric aerosol analyzer
        and optical  particle counter, and b-scat values obtained
        with a nephelometer.
      006422
        A   STUDY   OF   AIR   POLLUTION  SOURCES  AS  VIEWED  BY  EARTH
      SATELLITES.
        Randenson,  Darryl
        U.  Air  Pollution Control Assoc.,  18(4)5249-253.  Ap-il 1968.
      (Presented   at  the 60th  Annual Meeting.  Air Pollution Control
      Association.  Cleveland.  Ohio, dune  11-16. 1967, Paper 67-129.)
        J  AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ASSOC   1967
        TECH   Method of Support:  FELL  CRT
        Several Gemini photographs of smoke plumes were analyzed and
      related to  the  local  weather conditions.   A space craft  view
      of  a forest  fire in  the Apalachicola National Forest revealed
      a rather  large  smoke  plume.  Geometrically scaled measurements
      indicated the plume was  approximately 4 miles wide  and  about
      G5  miles  long.    Trapped  under  a frontal inversion located
      between 2,500 and 3.000  feet above  ground level,   this  plume
      was  being advected south-southwestward into the Gulf of Mexico
      by-  the local wind flow  pattern.    Several pictures containing
      examples  of  industrial  smoke   plumes  in  the  vicinity  of
      Houston,    Texas,   are  discussed  in  relation  to the local
      Synoptic  situation.     A  picture  of  industrial  haze  over
      Houston.     Texas,     is presented  to  illustrate  an  areal
      distribution  of  atmospheric pollutants  covering  an  area  of
      about  2.600  square   miles.    Satellite  photographs  of air
      pollution   are   helpful  in  determining  a  pollutant  source
      region.     Such  pictures could be used to determine whether or
      not   the  pollution   is  interstate  or   intrastate.      This
      information   might  be   useful  for enforcing future clean air
      legislation.  (Author's  abstract, modified)**
        Descriptors:  ALABAVIA;  AMERICA:  NORTH AMERICA;  UNITED STATES:
      FLORIDA;  LOUISIANA;   TEXAS;  HOUSTON;   FORESTS;    TOPOGRAPHIC
      LOCATIONS;  POLLUTANTS;   PART1CULATES:   SUSPENDED PARTICULATES:
      SMOKES;   SOURCES;  INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION  SOURCES;    STATIONARY
      EMISSION    SOURCES;     SPACECRAFT   ATY10SPHERES;     CONTROLLED
      ATMOSPHERES;  CAMERAS;  RECORDING METHODS;  PHOTOGRAPHIC  METHODS:
      ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA; ALTITUDE;  LOWER ATMOSPHERE: DISPERSION:
      PLUME BEHAVIOR;  METEOROLOGY; ATMOSPHERIC MOVEMENTS;  ADVECTION:
      WINDS;  CAMERAS;   SPACECRAFT
        Identifiers: SATELLITES:  PHOTOGRAPHS:  GEMINI  XI. VII
        Category:  ATMOS INTERACT;  MEASUREMENT  METH
      English,  Glenn  H.,                                              .            T—-
         Study  of carbon monoxide exceedance levels in Houston during 1972-1973
      calendar  years  and January-April 1974.
         Houston,  Tx.,  Texas  Highway Dept.,  Houston Urban Office, Feb.  1975.

      Carbon monoxide-air  pollution; *Houston, Tx.-air polluton; Texas-air pollutic
      Highways-air pollution;
                                        223

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MONITORING


      This report covers a study of  Carbon Monoxide(CO) concent ration*
      in the atmosphere of Houston from January,  1972  through  '
      April, 197't at  the only three-  continuously  monitoring sites
      the City had  at  that time.  The  study was made  for the one-
      hour average  standard^ level exceeded only once)  and the
      eight-hour average standard2(level exceeded 15  times).  These
      periods were  examined for relationship to'traffic volume,
      natural gas consumption rate,  wind speed and  ambient temper-
      ature.  A related study was also .made comparing  the mortality
      rates of Houston,  Texas and other states, and the United
      States.
      Texas, State  of,  Department of Health, Air Control Section,
           Study  of suspended particulate measurements  at varying heights
      above"~ground.
           Austin,  TX,  \°C10.

      *Air pollution-particulate emissions-monitoring;


         Statistical  analysis  of the data described revealed that concentrations of
         suspended  particulate did decrease with height above ground level and that
         this decrease is both significant and predictable  (See Table 5).  Measured
         3' hsigtt  concentrations vrere found to have a high degree of relationship
         with values  obtained  at both 17 and 29 feet.  The  decreases in concentrations
         of suspended particulate with increased height of  samplers may be partially
         attributable to variances in high volume sampler performance.  Table 6 is a
         resurae of  results from a test to compare measurements of high volume samplers.
         Tha variation obtained in concentrations measured  with different high volume
         samplers during this  test closely approximated the amount of change associated
         with height  increases for the height study.  It should be kept in mind however,
         that in all  cases, the changes  in concentration obtained by varying sampler
         height showed decreases with height.  While the number of samples used in
         this study was not large, it was sufficient to provide a reasonable assurance
         that -variances between samplers would tend to cancel out.
       080838
         A   STUDY   ON  THE  DETERMINATION   OF  THE ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL
       CONTENT  USING ERTS DATA (FINAL REPORT).
         Griggs, M.
         Science Applications,  Inc.,  La  
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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)

MONITORING


      turbidity   data.    Twenty  four  coincidences  of  ERTS  and
      turbidity data were  found;  of these,  four were high  aerosol
      contents.    Examination of the ERTS black and white prints of
      these 4 days revealed that two of them will  aid   in  checking
      the  relationship  between  radiance and aerosol content where
      data points are presently sparse.   The lower turbidity values
      are  useful  for providing statistical support of  the existing
      data.   (Author abstract modified)
       Descriptors: SATELLITES (ARTIFICIAL); AEROSOLS;  PARTICIPATES
      ;   POLLUTANTS;   BODIES  OF  WATER;   TOPOGRAPHIC  LOCATIONS;
      ATMOSPHERIC  PHENOMENA;  TURBIDIMETRY;  PARTICLE INVESTIGATION
      METHODS;.  SOLAR RADIATION;  CHEMICAL AND  PHYSICAL  PHENOMENA;
      LIGHT RADIATION
       Category: MEASUREMENT METH
     074231
        A   STUDY  OF   THE  GASEOUS POLLUTANTS  IN  THE HOUSTON,  TEXAS
     AREA.
        Gordon, S.  J.  and  S.  A. Meeks
        A-nerican  Inst.  of  Chemical Engineers,  New York, 33p. ,  March
     1975. 4  refs.  (Presented at the  American Institute of  Chemical
     Engineers,    National Meeting,   79th and the 8th-Petrochemical
     and  Refining  Exposition, Houston,  Tex.,  March 16-20, 1975.)
        AM INST CHEM  ENGRS NATL MEET   79TH   8TH  PETROCHEM   REFINING
     EXPO   1975
        FLO   Method  of Support: CONTRACT
        Field  data  obtained  from  an  8-week  sampling of  ambient
     gaseous  pollutants in the Houston,  Texas area during  June and
     July of  1974  are reported.  Over 100 samples were collected  in
     Tedlar    bags     and   analyzed  by    flame-ionizatIon   gas
     cnromatograpny   and  long-path   infrared   Fourier   transform
     absorption     spectroscopy.      Concentrations   of    various
     hydrocarbons  (saturated and  unsaturated),   vinyl  chloride,
     carbon monoxide,  vinyl  acetate,  and anvnonia are given.  Hourly
     averages are  given in  monthly  sunvnaries,   and  quarterly
     summaries   are   compiled  to  give  the   high,   second  high,
     arithmetic  mean,  and standard deviation  of  the hourly  averages
     for   the previous   3   mo.    Also  given  are  the number and
     percentage  of hours  during  which  the   ambient  air  quality
     standard is exceeded.
        Descriptors:    AREA   SURVEYS;    ADMINISTRATION;  AIR QUALITY
     MEASUREMENT PROGRAMS;   PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  HOUSTON;   AMERICA;
     NORTH AMERICA;  TEXAS; UNITED STATES; URBAN  AREAS! METROPOLITAN
     AREAS; AIR  QUALITY MEASUREMENTS; AMMONIA;   AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS;
     ESTERS;  CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS;  HALOGENATED  HYDROCARBONS;
     HYDROCARBONS;      CARBON   MONOXIDE?     OXIDES;    CHLORINATED
     HYDROCARBONS; ESTERS
        Identifiers:  VINYL CHLORIDE; VINYL ACETATE
        Category: AIR  QUALITY MEAS
                                         225

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING

      Radian  Corp. ,
           Summary of the city of Houston  1972 annual report on air pollution
      control^                                     "                           -
           Technical  Note 100-027-01,  A«^r*~ 't&'yte** i
                                                         '
           Austin, TX,  undated.                      r

       Air pollution-source  sampling; *Houston, TX-air pollution; Air pollution-
       particulate emissions -monitor ing;  Sampling and sample handling;  *Texas-air
       pollution; Texas -electric utilities;  Electric power generation-air
       pollution;

                   The City ot HouStdiTmairitains twenty-seven air quality
       monitoring sites.  Two of  these sites  are  equipped for continuous
       monitoring and  24-hour samples  are taken at  the other  twenty-five
       sites.   Figure  1 is  a map  of Houston showing the  monitoring  site
       •locations and the locations of  Houston Lighting and Power generat-
       ing stations.   Note  that the largest concentration of  air sampling
       sites  is along  the ship channel and that  there are relatively
       few monitoring  points near the  power stations.
         Leaderer,  Brian P.,  et al.,
              "Summary of the New York  Summer Aerosol  Study (NYSAS)".
              Reprint.   APCA  J.  28(4).  (1978).
                             The ambient particle aerosol is of great interest due to its
                             •uipected role in producing adverse health effects and its
                             known effects on visibility degradation and weather modifi-
                             cation. A detailed knowledge of the chemical and physical
                             nature of the urban aerosol, and the relative contribution by
                             different sources is needed before effective control measures
                             Can be established. Intensive studies examining the nature and
                             sources of urban aerosols have been conducted in Los Angeles
                             (ACHEX)1 and St. Louis (RAPS).-1 The results of these two
                             Studies,  however, may not be applicable to the New York
                             metropolitan area because of several factors discussed by
                             Kneip, et al.3 Recognizing the need tor the information that
                             luch a study would produce, and mutally shared research in-
                             terests led participants Iron seven organizations to develop
                             a collaborative study of the New York metropolitan aero-
                             aoL
                                            226

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ccont timed)

MONITORING


       •44540

       Tews"*060  P*RTICULATE  "*"«°S  TO HUMAN HEALTH  IN HOUSTON,

         Seven, Richard Keith
         T«xasUnlv.,   Houston  School  of  Public  Health,   Thesis
       IPh.O.J,  Ann APOOP,  Hlch,, Univ. Microfilms. Inc.,  1971, I59p.
         1971                                                   :
         THEO FLO BIB   Method of Support: NONE                ' '
       |  TIM  suspended  partlculate   hazards   to  human  health  In
       Houston,   Texas  were assessed after  a study of  data related to
       the-  following   aspects   of  suspended  partlculates:   a time
       series! probability of occurrence  at hazardous  concentrations.
       •eta Is constituent, and  reported hazardous conditions.   Metal
       urban concentrations  of copper.    zinc.   lead,  manganese.
       •agneslum,   cadmium,  chromium,  aluminum,   cobalt,   ntcKel.
       vanadium,  potassium, calcium, and  sodium were measured.   Maps
       •ere  utilized   to  display  the  geographic distribution  of
       factors of  Interest.   A time-series study of data gathered by
       the National  Air Surveillance Network was conducted, and trend
       lines were  calculated by four methods.    A five  year  running
       •ean,     semi-average,    linear  regression.   and  polynomial
       regression   methods  all  revealed  a decline   in   susoended
       particulate  concentration  during  1953-1963.    Criteria were
       developed for comparison of  the  geographic distribution  of
       suspended  participates   In different years.   The comparative
       studies   employed   probability  statistics   based   on   a
       logar I thmica I normal transformation  of the data.   The study of
       geographic  distributions  of the  several  metallic components of
       suspended participates was based on  several  hundred analytical
       determinations  of  the   metals  by  means of atomic absorption
       spectroscopy.   Suspended participates,   sulfur  oxides.   ana
       cadmium   were found in some areas  of  Houston in concentrations
       which have  been associated with  morbidity  and  mortality  In
       other cities.  (Author abstract  modified)
         Descriptors:   AREA  SURVEYS:    ADMINISTRATION:   AIR QUALITY
       MEASUREMENT  PROGRAMS;    PLANS   AND   PROGRAMS:    NATIONAL   AIR
       SAMPLING  NETWORK (NASN);  CRITERIA;   HOUSTON:   AMERICA;  NORTH
       AMERICA;    TEXAS;   UNITED  STATES:   SUSPENDED  PARTICULATES:
       PARTICULATES:     POLLUTANTS:     AIR   QUALITY    MEASUREMENTS:
       SPECTROPHOTOMETRY; ANALYTICAL METHODS: TRACE ANALYSIS;  M&PPING
       ; STATISTICAL ANALYSES:  METAL COMPOUNDS:   ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS:
       CADMIUM   COMPOUNDS;   CALCIUM  COMPOUNDS:   CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS:
       MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS; COBALT COMPOUNDS: LEAD  COMPOUNDS:   NICKEL
       COMPOUNDS:   POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS;  SODIUM  COMPOUNDS;   VANADIUM
       COMPOUNDS;  ZINC COMPOUNDS: SULFUR OXIDES;  OXIDES
         Category:  AIR QUALITY MEAS



       Liu,  Benjamin  Y.H.,  ed. ,
              Symposium on fine particles.  Aerosol generation,  measurement,  sausplinc
       and  analysis.
              Proceedings  of an EPA Symposium,  Minneapolis,  May  1975.
              N.Y., Academic, 197 6.


       Fine particulate  collection;  Air pollution-particulate  emissions-analysis;
       •Aerosols-analysis; Aerosols-formation;  Aerosols-collection;  Proceedings;


                        This volume contains the technical papers presented at the Symposium on Fine Particles
                      held in Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 28-30, 1975. In addition, several papers (hat were not
                      presented at the symposium, due to  the lack of time, are also included.
                        The purpose of the symposium was to review the state of art and recent developments in
                      instrumentation and experimental techniques for aerosols studies. The focus, was on fine
                      particles below about 3.5 f/ni in diameter. The topics covered include aerosol generation,
                      measurement, sampling, and analysis.
                        The importance of Tine  particles to air pollution control is well known: Many of the
                      undesirable effects of paniculate  air pollutants, such as  those on human health and
                      atmospheric visibility, are due to fine particles. However, the control of fine particles is
                      considerably more difficult than the control of coarse particles. In industrial hygiene, mining
                      safety, fire detection, and  other related areas, fine particles have  also been found to play
                      an important role.
                        In a rapidly growing field of science where  there is a diversity of workers, there is a need
                      foe > periodic review of the subject and a convenient source of reference. It a hoped that
                      this symposium volunjt will help in part to meet that need.
                                                227

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
MONITORING


     Texas Air Control Board,

          Texas air sampling network, annual surveillance reports for
     1971 and 1972, 1976  and 1977.  Austin,  XX.
      Harper, David and Bryan Lambeth,
           Trajectory analysis.
           DCS  78-200-24V--01, HAOS Contract.
           Austin, TX, Radian Corp., March 1978.


      ^Trajectories;   Houston,  Texas-air pollution; Ozone-analysis;  Air pollution
      •aonitoring;


                       Tfte Houston 'Area uxiaaats Study (HAOS) sponsored
             airbona measurement of ozpne and other pollutants in 1976

             and 1977.  To support the interpretation of the data obtained,
             air parcel trajectory analyses were performed for HAOS by

             the Radian Corporation.  This Technical Note describes the
             method of analysis and documents the  cases studied.  Working
             doc\=iants showing additional details  are contained in the     	
             project files at Radian.                                          '
        Texas, State of, Air Control Board,
           ' Urban visibility assessment  (UVA).
            Austin, TX, Aug. 1976.

        Visibility; Air pollution-monitoring; Air pollution-regional; Houston,
        Texas-air pollution;

              The Urban Visibility Assessment project was designed to fill
              Zn one of the  gaps  in data collection by the Texas Air Control
             /Bohrd.  As  an  example of  these gaps in coverage, up to this time
             /estimates of visibility for the Houston area have been furnished
             /only by wether observers at the Hobby and Houston Interconti-
              nental airpdrts,  augmented by readings from the integrating
              nephelometei;s  at  our Aldine and Mae Drive continuous monitoring
              stations. 
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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


      035911
        USE   OF   STATISTICAL   TECHNIQUES  TO ASSESS PROGRESS TOWARD A
      CLEAN AIR  ENVIRONMENT:  HOUSTON, TEXAS.
        Severs,  R.  K.
        Atmos. Environ.,  5(10):853-861, Oct.  1971. 9 refs.
        ATMOS ENVIRON    1971
        THEO   Method  of  Support:  NONE
        Computer trend-surface mapping   techniques  in  conjunction
      with  a statistical  evaluation of suspended particulate data
      from  Houston,  Texas  for 1968-19C9  are   examined   as  a  basic
      method   for   evaluation  of   progress  toward  a clean  air
      environment.   Assessment was  accomplished  via  comparison  of
      current levels of  pollution with those  previously  experienced,
      a   determination   of  the   changes  in  levels  of  pollution
      experienced through representative   parts  of  the geographic
      area  under  consideration,    and   a comparison of the current
      pollution  levels in terms of occurrence with those of   stated
      desirable  levels,   e.g.. ambient air quality goals.   (Author
      abstract -nodified)
        Descriptors:   AIR QUALITY STANDARDS;    STANDARDS;   HOUSTON;
      AMERICA;  NORTH  AMERICA; TEXAS;  UNITED STATES;   URBAN  AREAS;
      METROPOLITAN  AREAS;  SUSPENDED PARTICULATES;   PARTICULATES;
      POLLUTANTS;   AIR   QUALITY  MEASUREMENTS;  MEASUREMENT METHODS;
      COMPUTERS;  DATA HANDLING SYSTEMS;   COMPUTER  PROGRAMS;   DATA
      ANALYSIS;     MAPPING;    STATISTICAL   ANALYSES;   TOPOGRAPHIC
      INTERACTIONS;  ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA
        Category: MEASUREMENT METH
       022485
         USE  OF VEGETATION  TO MEASURE  AIR  POLLUTION.
         McKee,  Herbert  C.
         Preprint,  Inst.  Mexicano  de Ingenieros  Quimicos,  10p., 1961.
       (Presented   at   the  Institute Mexicano  de Ingenieros Quimicos,
       Annual  Technical  Meeting,   Mexico City,   Mexico,  Oct.  19-21,
       1961.)
         INST MEXICANO  DE INGENIEROS QUIMICOS    1961
         TECH   Method of Support: NONE
         The  sequence of  procedure in  the  conduct of an air pollution
       survey based on plant  damage is delineated.  The first step is
       field   inspection  of   all vegetation in  the area by a trained
       plant  scientist to determine damage caused  by  pollution  vs.
       damage  from other factors,  and possibly to locate sources of
       local  pollution.   Samples are then  collected and analyzed,  by
       prescribed methods to  identify  the  atmospheric pollutants that
       have   caused the  damage.    The importance of having control
       samples is stressed.    An example of  the  use  of  vegetation
       techniques   in  an air pollution survey  is given for Houston.
       Tex.    The area was divided into sectors  and samples  obtained
       for  analyses  from  each  section  throughout the year;  these
       values were  then  used  in computing  a pollution index based  on
       vegetation   damage.     Native   elm  and   the  Arizona ash were
       studied as indicators  of sulfur dioxide pollution.  Vegetation
       symptoms  could  be used  readily   to  obtain  information  on
       general   pollution conditions  in  the Houston area,  and that
       despite the  limitations of the method,  the pollution  indexes
       thus   derived  provided  data  which could only be obtained at
       great  expense using atmospheric analysis  techniques.   A table
       Is included  on the use  of plants in determining pollution, via
                                      229

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING


      visible damage  and  chemical analysis,  for 10 general types of
      phytotoxic  air  pollutants.
        Descriptors:   AREA SURVEYS;   ADMINISTRATION;   AIR  QUALITY
      MEASUREMENT   PROGRAMS;    PLANS  AND  PROGRAMS;  SURVEY METHODS:
      PLANT DAMAGE; PLANT INDICATORS; SMOG; PARTICULATES; POLLUTANTS
      ;   SUSPENDED  PARTICULATES:  PHYTOTOXICANTS;   SULFUR  DlOXlDEt
      OXIDES; SULFUR  OXIDES
        Category: EFFECTS-PLANTS. LIVEST
      017784
        VEGETATION SYMPTOMS AS A MEASURE OF AIR POLLUTION.
        McKee, Herbert C. and Frederick W. Bieberdorf
        0. Air Pollution Control Assoc., 10(3):222-225, June 1960. 7
      refs. (Presented at the Air Pollution Control Association 52nd
      Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, Calif., June 21-26, 1959.)
        d AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ASSOC   1950
        FLO   Method of Support: NONE
        A  study  was  made  of  the  use  of  ash  and elm trees as
      indicators of relative pollution  levels.   Sulfate content  of
      vegetation  samples  can be used  to obtain a semi-quantitative
      measure of long-term exposure  to  sulfur  dioxide.    To  the
      extent  that SQ2 is a'so related  to over-all pollution levels.
      this can be used as general indicator of pollution.    In  the
      study  made  in  the  Houston  area,    these data were used to
      calculate pollution  indexes  in  different  areas  of  Harris
      County,   in  order  to determine relative pollution loadings.
      These data provide the best means of maMng such  comparisons.
      and   are  much  better  than  data  obtained  with  a  mobile
      laboratory.   Permanent sampling  stations might  offer a  means
      of  obtaining  more accurate results if a sufficient number of
      stations could be operated,  but  for a  survey   in  which  only
      limited financial resources are available,  this-method offers
      the best oossibil'ty where applicable.   The comparative  ease
      and  economy  of  obtaining  data are  major advantages.   The
      results  represent  the  cumulative  effects   of   continuous
      exposure over a known period of time,   with a continuity which
      can only oe approached  with  continuous  recording  equipment
      subject  to   interruptions by breakdown,  power  failure,  etc.
      The major disadvantage  is the  fact  that  cumulative  results
      give no indication of short time  peak values that occur during
      the sampling period.  (Author conclusions modified)
        Descriptors:   TREES;   PLANTS   (BOTANY);  PLANT INDICATORS;
      CONTINUOUS MONITORING;  MEASUREMENT METHODS; MONITORING; SULFUR
      DIOXIDE; OXIDES; SULFUR OXIDES
        Category: EFFECTS-PLANTS, LIVEST
                                       230

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      AN   -  PB-269  592/2SL
      Tl   -  Air Pollution Meteorology During the Houston Urban  Plume Study.
            duly 1974
      TNO •  Final  rept.  1 Jul  74-1 Jul 75
      AU   -  Hoffnagle. Gale F.
      OS   •  INTERA  Environmental Consultants Ltd.. Houston.
            Tex.•Ervironmental Sciences Research Lab.,  Research Triangle
            Park.  N.C.
      PO   •  Jul 77; 66p
      IS   -  U7721
      PR   -  NTIS Prices:- PC A04/MF A01
          -  EPA/600/3-77/073
      CC   •  13B: 4B;  68A: 55C
      IT   -  *Air pollution: -Meteorological data:  *Urban areas; Wind
            velocity; Atmospheric sounding: Temperature Inversions:
            FrontsfMeteorology); Meteorological balloons;  Radiosondes:  Upper
            atmosphere;  Tables!Data): Texas
      ST   -  Houston(Texas); NTISEPAORD
      AB   -  Meteorological parameters were measured during an EPA sponsored
            air sampling program from 15-24 July.  1974,  In Houston.  Texas.
            The data collected are primarily r.urface anemometer data and
            pilot-balloon soundings  to 1830 motors above ground. These
            measured data, along wfth plots from  the National Weather
            Service,  were used to provide an overall meteorological  analysis
            of  conditions during the sampling program.  Because the air
            sampllrg was performed primarily from  a fixed-wind aircraft,
            emphasis was given to the ambient environment  aloft.
      Griffiths,  J.F.,  R.C.  Runnels, and C.L. Norton,
           Air stagnation advisory evaluation for Texas.
           Project E/S-4A
      *Air pollution-meteorological factors;
       Texas-air pollution;
               The Texas Air  Control Board (TACB) was awarded a contract from

          Governor's Energy Advisory Council under the Environmental and Social (E/S)

          program.  The contract (E/S4) is to evaluate the potential'for selective

          standards of pollution control based on an analysis of meteorological

          conditions in Texas.  The TACB awarded the Texan A&M University Meteor-

          ology Department a contract to carry out an Air Stagnation Advisory

          •valuation (sub-project of project E/SA).   A nine point  work plan and
                                      231

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY
      program was also submitted as a guideline for the progress of the sub-
      project E/S4.

          the purpose of the Air Stagnation Advisory evaluation will be to
      assess thoroughly the National Weather Service model as it applies to
     Texas.
         16.1-270                                        551.551.8(764} :551.5U.6
        *\VaMron, Albert \V.. Jr. il)u;iMiy Proving Ground. Utah). Application of an elevated
      line source diffusion  formula.  Journal of Applied Meteorology. Boston,  2(6) 740-740.
      Dec. 1963.  8 figs., 5 tables, 2 refs. DWB, DLC—A series of nighttime elevated hue M-ina-
      diffusion trials conducted in Texas during 1961 is used to evaluate the adequacy of a current
      diffusion equation model and to define the turbulent layer within which such a model c;«n be
      applied with any degree of success.  The turbulent layer is defined in terms of Richardson
      number and the vertical intensity of turbulence.  Subjfd Headings: 1. Diffusion formulai
      2. Line source diffusion  3. Texas, United States.—Auth.
      Texas Air Control Board,
           Attainment analysis,  vol.  1, Causes of non-attainment.
           Austin,  XX,  Jan. 1977.

       Air  quality-data; *Texas-air pollution;  Texas-air pollution-meteorological
       factors;  Texas-air  pollution-monitoring;  *Texas-air pollution-particulate
       emissions; Texas-air pollution-standards  and criteria; Texas-air pollution-
       implementation plants;  Texas-air pollution-particulate emissions-control
       methods;  Texas-air  pollution-source sampling; Air pollution-fugitive dust;
                National ambient air  quality  standards for suspended
                particulates were  promulgated in the Federal Register
                on April 30, 1971. The Texas State Implementation
                Plan  includes a  particulate control strategy designed
                to attain the primary standards  by May 31, 1975:  The
                control strategy for  particulates was approved on
                May 31, 1972 by  the U. S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency
                (EPA)...  Sufficient data are now  available to determine
                whether or not the particulate  standards have been
                attained in Texas as planned. Where the standards
                have  not been attained, the Implementation Plan needs
                to be examined to determine what revisions, if any,
                are necessary to achieve  the  standards.   This report
                is  part of the current effort to examine the Texas
                Implementation Plan to decide what revision of the
                                        232

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY
            particulate control  strategy  is  necessary.   Although

            there are also  secondary particulate standards,  this
           _report considers only  the primary  standards, which

                set to protect public health.   The standards are
            ..1) a 24-hour average of  260 micrograms  per cubic meter
            _ (ug/m  ) not to be  exceeded more  than  once a year and
            .2) an  annual geometric mean of 75  micrograms per
            .cubic  meter, not to be exceeded.
      Texas Air Control Board,
            Attainment Status of the Total Suspended Particulate Air Quality
      Standards in the Houston/Galveston and Dallas/Fort Worth Areas.
            Austin, Texas, May 1976.

      •Texas-air pollution; Air pollution-particulate emissions-standards and
      Criteria; Air pollution-implementation plans;

          National Ambient Air Quality Standards  for suspended particulates
          were promulgated by federal regulations on April  30,  1971.   The

          Texas State Implementation Plan, designed in part to attain these
          standards by May 31, 1975, was approved with exceptions  on May 31,
          1972 by the Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA).   Sufficient

          data are now available to determine if  the particulate standards

          have been attained-in Texas as planned.  If the standards have
          not been attained, then the Implementation Plan should be examined

          to determine if revisions are necessary to achieve the standards.
          This report is part of an effort'to so examine the Texas Imple-

          mentation Plan.            !        ;  i   !       ;       ,"   , '
        100872
         Chemical   and  Meteorological   Analysis   of   the  Mesoscale
        Variability of Ozone Concentrations over  a  Six-Day Period
         Bacn, w. D., Jr.; Sickles, d.  E., II;  Denyszyn,  R.;  Eaton,
        W. C.
         Environnental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,  N.
        C.,  Environmental Sciences Research Lab.
         Int. Photochem. Oxidant Pollut.  Control Conf.  ProC., Vol. I,
        Raleigh, N. C., 1976   pp. 197-210   1977
         Note: (Sept. 12.) (Rept. EPA-600/3-77-001a.)
         Doc Type: U; Original (Field)
         CAS Registry No'- 10028-15-6
         The  Research  Triangle  Institute  conducted   low  altitude
        aircraft   flights  over  east  Texas,  most of  Louisiana,  and
        adjacent areas of the Gulf of Mexico to investigate the  area)
        extent of  high ozone concentrations. Ozone  concentrations were
        continuously  measured  along  the  flight  paths and at ground
        stations at Corpus r.hr.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      and Port  Arthur,  Texas and at DeRidder, Louisiana.  On October
      19,   1975,   a high  pressure system developed over the area  and
      subsiding motion  began to develop a stable  layer of air  aloft.
       Ozone  concentrations  in  excess  of 160  microgram/cu  m were
      found over east Texas and  over   western  Louisiana.   As  the
      pressure  system developed and moved eastward  the .next day,  the
      highest     ozone    was   measured   over    Louisiana.     Ozone
      concentrations remained above 160 microgram/cu m at  300 over
      the    Gulf  of  Mexico  and   inland,   but  decreased  to  100
      microgram/cu m above the stable  layer.  Ozone  measurements   at
      the   ground monitoring locations agreed with  the trends  of  the
      airborne   measurements.   Time-altitude  cross   .sections   of
      potential  temperature  at Lake  Charles,  Louisiana,  showed a
      dynamic  atmospheric boundary  layer.  Ozone  precursor emissions
      in  the   study  area  and  limited  ventilation  are primarily
      responsible for   maintaining  the  high  ozone  concentrations
      until  cleaner  air  is  transported into the  region.   (Author
      abstract  -nodi fled)    (9 Refs)
        Descriptors:  Pollutants;   Pollutant  Precursors;   Oxidant
      Precursors; America; North America; United  States;   Louisiana;
      Texas;   Airports;     Sources;     Mobile    Emission   Sources;
      Transportation  Methods;   Aircraft;   Atmospheric   Phenomena;
      Altitude; Ground  Level; Lower Atmosphere;   Ozone;  Air Quality
      Measurements
        Category:   pollution  Data;    Pollution   Data   (Air Quality
      Measurements)
          16.3-12                                             551.582.1 (263H764>
        •fOrton, Robert B. (Weather Bureau State Clinialriloiiist, Austin,  7V.r.), Climate of
       Texas and the adjacent Gulf waters.  Wash., D. C, U. S. Weather Bureau, 1964.  105 i>.
       N'umerous figs., tables, 11+60 rets.  Price: $1.00 from U. S.  Govt.  Pri-.it.  Off. DWB
       (M82.2/764 U5S7cL) Provides meteorological information and data necessary for the teMiiiR
       of certain spaceflight apparatus and for the selection of possible spacecraft landing sites.
       Kmpliasis is  placed on presentation and analysis  of data pertaining to sky cover, ceiling
       height, xisihility, and wind;  to  the local physiography; and the synoptic weather systems
       that influence or control these factors.  South Texas, adjacent Ciulf \\.iters, and north  Ti'\ is
       are treated separately. The length of data record, vary from  6 to 18 yrs,  except Hondo AAK
       which has only ,? yrs data. Inform.ition on severe storms, turbulence inversion, sea ami land
       breezes, air pollution and dnst devils is included.  Forecasting rules of thumb arc also gi\cn.
       Siii'ii-fi //iWi'»n;.v: 1. Climate of Texas 2. Climate of Texas coastal  waters  3. Climate
       of western Gulf of Mexico 4. Texas, United States 5.  Gulf of Mexico.—/.~./T..S'.
         CLIMATOLOGICAL  ASSESSMENT OF  URBAN EFFECTS  ON PRECIPITATION.
       (FINAL  REPORT).    PART  II.    DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL  URBAN
       STUDIES.
         Huff,  F. A. and S.  A. Changnon,  Jr.
         Illinois State   Water  Survey,    Urbana,    National   Selene*
       Foundation Grant  GA-18781, 241p.,  May 1972. 55 refs.
         1972
         FLO BIB   Method of Support:  NONE
         Urban   effects   on   precipitation  at  St.   Louis,   Chicago.
       Indianapolis,  Cleveland,  Washington,  D.  C.,  Houston,   New
       Orleans,   and  Tulsa were investigated.   The relationship of
       thunder  and hail  increases to urban size and  pollution factors
       was   studied;   the  hydrologic  implications  of   inadvertent
       weather    modifications  were   also  studied.     Data   on  the
       Individual urban  studies are presented,  including  analytical
                                          234

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      procedures,  data  analysis  techniques,  spatial and  time charts
      of   rainfall  patterns,    diurnal,   monthly.   and   seasonal
      variations.   topographic  interaction parameters,   particulat*
      and thermal  emission data, and meteorological functions.
       Descriptors:  DIURNAL: MONTHLY; SEASONAL:  CHICAGO:   AMERICA;
      ILLINOIS;  NORTH AMERICA; UNITED STATES;  INDIANA:  NEW  ORLEANS:
      LOUISIANA:  ST LOUIS; MISSOURI; OHIO: OKLAHOMA; HOUSTON; TEXAS:
      WASHINGTON D C; URBAN AREAS; METROPOLITAN AREAS: PARTICULATES:
      POLLUTANTS;  AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS; ANALYTICAL METHODS: DATA
      ANALYSIS;    DATA   HANDLING SYSTEMS;   MAPPING;   METEOROLOGY:
      ATMOSPHERIC  PHENOMENA; MICROMETEOROLOGY; PRECIPITATION;  RAIN:
      THUNDERSTORMS;  WEATHER MODIFICATION; TOPOGRAPHIC INTERACTIONS:
      PARTICLE GROWTH;   CHEMICAL AND  PHYSICAL  PHENOMENA;   THERMAL
      RADIATION;  INDIANA; OHIO;.OKLAHOMA
       Identifiers:  INDIANAPOLIS; CLEVELAND; TULSA
       Category:  ATMOS  INTERACT
      022339
        A COMPARISON OF THE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR RADIATION
      IN A POLLUTED AND A CLEAN AIR MASS.
        Randerson, Darryl
        d. Air Pollution Control Assoc.,  20(8):546-547,  Aug.  1970.  9
      refs.
        J AIR POLLUTION ASSOC   1970
        FLO   Method of Support: NONE
        Two   spectroradiometer   measurements    are   presented  to
      Illustrate differences in the  spectrum  of  sunlight  in  the
      0.45-0.7  micron band.   Measurements were taken on a November
      day at about 1800 GMT, west of polluted downtown Houston,  and
      at   another   site  located  approximately  15  miles  NW  In
      apparently pollution-free air.  A 23-24%   loss in the 0.45-0.7
      micron   oand   is  attributed  to  attentuation  by  airborne
      particulates in the polluted air mass.  The loss is wavelength
      dependent,  with the short wavelengths  being  scattered  more
      than  the long wavelengths.   Absorption  by ozone was probably
      occurring in the Chaoouis bands, between  0.45 and 0.65 micron;
      however,  03  absorption  in  these  bands  is  weaX.    Large
      quantities  of  hydrocarbons  emitted by  oil refineries in the
      Houston-Galveston area are noted  to  combine  with  rush-hour
      automotive  exhaust  emissions  to  create  a potential for 03
      formation when  the  sunlight   is  intense  enough  for  rapid
      photochemical  reactions.   Consequently,  some of the loss in
      radiant energy may be due to absorption through  photochemical
      losses  in  the  polluted  air  mass.    When  light depletion
      persists for two or  three  days,    -a  physiological  response
      probably occurs in plants and animals.
        .Descriptors: HOUSTON; AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA; TEXAS;   UNITED
      STATES;  URBAN AREAS;  METROPOLITAN AREAS;  FUEL OILS;   FUELS;
      SOURCES;   STATIONARY  EMISSION  SOURCES;  INDUSTRIAL EMISSION
      SOURCES; SPECTROMETRY; ANALYTICAL METHODS: HYDROCARBONS; OZONE
      J   PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS;  CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL  PHENOMENA;
      CHEMICAL REACTIONS;  SOLAR RADIATION;  LIGHT RADIATION;  LIGHT
      SCATTERING
        Category:  ATMOS INTERACT; AIR QUALITY MEAS
                                      235

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      100878
        Oevelopnent  of   a   MarKov  Cnafn   Mode)   for  Photochemical
      Oxidant Prediction
        Martinez, 0. R.
        Environnental Protection Agency, Research Triangle  PanK,  N.
      C.t  Environmental Sciences Research  Lao.
        Int. Pnotocnem. Oxidant Pollut.  Control  Conf.   Proc.,   Vol.
      II,  Raleigh, N. C.,  1976   pp. 827-835   1977
        'Note: (Sept. 12.)  (Rept. EPA-600/3-77-001O.)
        Ooc  Type: 0; Original  (Theoretical)
        A  method Is described whereby   the  time  series of  Hourly

      photochemical  oxidant is modeled by  a Ylarkov chain.   The model
      s output  is  the probability of exceeding  0.08   ppm   during   0
      year   In   a   given   geographical  region.  The forecast of such
      Statistical  data  complements  results  of  other  models  which
      predict absolute  concentration  levels. The Markovian  structure
      Of   the   time series is  tested using data for Houston,  Texas.
      The output of  the Markov model  is related to  the   statistical
      criterion  imposed by the National  Ambient Air Quality Standard
      for  photochemical   oxidants.    A  technique  to  estimate  the
      parameters of  the Markov chain   is  briefly  discussed.      (7
      Refs)
         Descriptors:  Standards; Air Quality Standards:   Mathematical
      Analyses;  Mathematical Modeling;  Pollutants; Oxidants; America
       ; North America;  United  States;   Texas;  Houston;   Atmospheric
      Phenomena; Air  Pollution Forecasting
         Category:   Atmospheric  Interaction;  Atmospheric Interaction
       (Chemical  and^hysical)
       ID No. - MGA22030415
          Diurnal variation of kinetic and internal energy in onshore
       winds along the  upper Texas Gulf  Coast

          Yu, Tsann Wang,
          Texas, Univ., Austin.  College of Engineering.   Atmospheric
       Science Group.   Report No. 19, Jan.  1970.  42 p.   Refs. DAS
          DESCRIPTORS:  Sea breeze energetics;  Texas.  United States
       Mahrer,  Ytzhaq and Roger A.  Pielke,
            "The effects of  topography on sea and land breezes in a two-
       dimensional numerical model" ,
            Month. Weather Rev.  105. 1151 (1977).
         A mathematical two-dimensional hydrostatic model has been employed for the study of
        circulations which develop over a mountain barrier, a flat coastline and a mountainous coastline when
        the prevailing flow is zero. One of the main features of the model is the inclusion of the parameterization
        of the surface heat budget, and shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. Results show  that the com-
        bined sea breeze and mountain circulations produce a more intense circulation during both day and night
        than when they act separately. The mountainous coastline case generates an inland penetrating sea breeze
        which develops a leeside cell of upward vertical velocity. The predictions are in qualitative agreement
        with the observed phenomenon.
                                        236

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY

        Schmidt,  F.H.,
               "An elementary  theory of  the  land- and  sea-breeze circulation"
               J.  Meteor.  4.  9-15  (1947).


           As physically more or loss exact theories of ihc land and sea breezes lead to results that are not correct
        in every respect, an attempt is nude here  to liml an elementary solution for  the problem. The solution is
        called an clu;nvnury one Ivecause the mutual intiuence of temperature distribution and velocity is not taken
        into account. A rather simple tenifxTature  distribution h adopted a priori, and the velocity distribution is
        calculated from it. In section 3 ai'ixmiit is taken of the deflecting force of the earth's rotation; the result is
        found thai in temperate latitudes the >ca breeze when at full strength docs not blow perpendicular to the coast.
            IZL-319                                                           551.509.318:681.177
          •tFrsnceschim, Guy A., Forecasting micrometeorological variables.  Texas A. & M College
         n^. ef  Oceanography  and  Meteorology, Contract  AF  19(604)-2250, Final  Report, Dec.  1939.
         »$ p.  20 figs., 21 tables, 4  refs.   DWB— An  objective evaluation was conducted on the  utility
         4 a specialized analogue computer for micrometeorology.  Values  of  parameters simulated by
         fit computer are compared \vith values observed.  Parameters  of  concern were: air  temperature
         tf» height equal to the roughness parameter (a0) ; air temperature  at 2 m ; temperature  difference
         ^ten 1 m and 4 m ; wind  speed at 2 m ; vapor pressure at 2 in ; and relative humidity at 2 m
         |0otti are  shown m graphs of simulated and observed values as a  function of time, and tables of
           statistical parameters of the verification.  Comparisons were made for five different periods tafti
           ing  four locations.  The  locations,  all in Texas,  represented appreciably different surftt*
           Meteorological conditions were varied and included the following air mass types: arctic, marfcfc
           polar,  continental polar and maritime tropical.   A brief description  of each site with a sumatf
           of its  attendant meteorological conditions is given.  Although appreciable difficulty was  expff
           enced  in keeping the computer in operation, in general the simulated results were  good.  H*
           ever, the computer  tends to minimize the diurnal amplitude of  the variables.  Weakest areas f
           the  computer were: temperature lapse  rate when strong  stability was observed;  vapor preM*
           when  high values existed ;  and wind speed generally. Suggestions for  future work  are git#
           Subject  Headings:  1.  Micrometeorological  variables   2.  Analog  computers  3.  Texafc*
           Author's abstract.
           An thes,  Richard A.,                                                        '
                  "The  height  of  the planetary boundary layer  and  the  production
           of  circulation  in a  sea breeze model",
                  J.  Atmos.  Sci.  35(7).  1231  (1978).

             A two-dimensional mesoscale model is applied to study the evolution of a strong sea breeze on a stagnant
           base state. In contrast to previous studies, this paper considers the relationship of the planetary boundary
           layer  (PBL), the thermodynamic structure and the vertical circulation associated with the sea breeze in
           detail.
             The development of the sea breeze circulation is studied quantitatively using the circulation theorem. The
           circulation in the vertical plane normal to the coast develops as a result of the solenoid term. The vertical
           diffusion of momentum acts as the most important brake on the developing circulation in agreement with
           previous theoretical  results. The Coriolis term is small until 6 h after the heating cycle. Late in the cycle,
           however, it reaches a value of  45% that of the solenoid term. Horizontal and vertical advective effects are
           small.
             Under zero  geostrophic wind conditions,  the  return flow occurs entirely above the PBL. Therefore,
           neutrally buoyant pollutants emitted at the surface  can only enter the return flow through the narrow zone
           of upward motion at the sea breeze front. Trajectories indicate that considerable recirculation  toward the
           shore of these pollutants as well as pollutants left over in the previous day's mixed layer may occur. For the
           time and space scale of the sea breeze considered here, Coriolis forces are important in causing significant
           transports along the coast.
             The depth of the  circulation and the trajectories are  sensitive to the rate of heating over land and the
           initial static stability. For strong heating in a relatively unstable environment, a significant component to
           the return circulation exists up to 5 km. For moderate heating in a more stable environment, there is very
           little return circulation above  3 km.
                                                    237

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY


     Radian Corp.,
          Houston Lighting and Power Company ambient air impact parametric stint;

        ° Technical Note 100-027-04^ X^"**-" -ty*^ f&aj«s dit*W^       :
          Austin, TX, Aug. 1974.


      Texas-electric utilities;  Texas-air pollution;  *Houston,  TX-air pollution
      S02-air pollution; Air pollution-particulate emissions; Air pollution-
      meteorological factors; N0x-air pollution;  Fuel oil-use;  Atmospheric
      dispersion; Plumes-mathematical models;  Computer models;  Electric power
      generation-air pollution;

                 This report documents a parametric  study Radian per-

       formed to determine the ambient air  quality impact of various

       electrical generating stations in'the  Houston Lighting  and Power

       Company system.  The purpose  of this study was to provide HL&P

       with data concerning various  conceivable  alternate expansion/

       conversion plans.  Radian's  task  was to estimate through computer

       simulation the potential ambient  air impact in the vicinity of

       thft stations under consideration.  Those  stations were  Cedar
        Bayou, Deepwater, Greens Bayou,  W. A. Parish,  P.  H.  Robinson,

        Sam Bertron, Webster, and T. H.  Hharton.   Each station was con-

        sidered individually.  The main  criteria  tested in this study

        were 30-minute average S0a concentrations  as  predicted by Radian's

        plume dispersion model.   Annual  averages  for  SO., t  particulates,
        and NOX  were also estimated for many  of the cases  modeled.   The
        primary fuel considered was fuel oil.
        ID NO.- MGA25030458
         Hurricane  ourge  frequency   estimated  for the Gulf Coast of
        Texas.
         Eodine, B. R.
         U.  5.  Con-jtal Engineering Research Center,  Wash.,  0.   C..
        technical i.'o.norandum No.  20,  Feb.  1969. 32 p.  Figs.,  tables.
        ref s., eqs.
         DESCRIPTORS: Hurricane surge;  Gulf of Mexico.-Auth.
        051043
          INADVERTENT  PRECIPITATION MODIFICATION BY MAJOR URBAN  AREAS*
          Huff,  F.  A.  and  S.  A. Changnon, Or.
          Preprint,  American  Meteorological Society, Boston,  Mass., p.
        73-78, 1972.  4 refs.   (Presented at the Conference on Weather
        Modification,  3rd,  Rapid City, S. DaK., June 26-29, 1972.)
          CONF WEATHER MOD 3RD  RAPID CITY S DAK 1972   1972
          FLO   Method of  Support: NONE
                                     238

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


         Urban effects on  precipitat(on  in  and around  major  U.    S.
      cities, including St.  Louis,  Chicago,  Cleveland,  Indianapolis,
      Washington,   0.  C.,  Houston,  New  Orleans,   and  Tulsa,  were
      analyzed.    Daily and  seasonal   precipitation  distributions,
      frequency   of  heavy  rainstorms,    and hail-  and thunder-day
      occurrences were tabulated.    In  general.    relatively  strong
      evidence   of  urban effects  was determined  in tne  daily and/or
      seasonal precipitation distributions for St.   Louis,   Chicago,
      Cleveland,    and  Washington,   D.    C.   Evidence was weak  or
      nonexistent at Indianapolis,  Urbana,  Tulsa,   and  New Orleans.
      Urban   effects    in  Houston  could  be  identified   only   in
      May-Septeuber rainfall of  air mass origin.    The  urban  effect
      was  more   pronounced  in   the  summer  than in winter and was
      •usually maximized  10-35  mi   downwind  of   the  central  city.
      Effects    within    the  cities  were  identified   at   Chicago,
      Washington,  0. C.,   Houston,   and New Orleans.    Thunder-  and
      nail-day   frequency   increases  were  established   in  the six
       largest cities and  were greatest  in  the warm season,  generally
      tne summer.
         Descriptors: DIURNAL; SEASONAL; CHICAGO:  AMERICA;   ILLINOIS;
      NORTH AMERICA; UNITED STATES; NEW ORLEANS;  LOUISIANA; ST LOUIS
       ;  MISSOURI; OKLAHOMA; HOUSTON;  TEXAS;  WASHINGTON D  C;  URBAN
      AREAS;   METROPOLITAN  AREAS;     PRECIPITATION;     ATMOSPHERIC
      PHENOMENA;     METEOROLOGY;    RAIN;    THUNDERSTORMS;    WEATHER
      MODIFICATION;    TOPOGRAPHIC    INTERACTIONS;    INDIANA;    OHIO;
      OKLAHOMA;  PRECIPITATION
         Identifiers: INDIANAPOLIS;  CLEVELAND; TULSA; HAIL
         Category: ATMOS  INTERACT
          19-5-24S                                     551.553.11(261.64) (764) :551.501
          Instrumenting the Sea Breeze Project.  Facilities \or Atmospheric Research, Boulder,
        fob, No. 4:2-5,  Summer, 1967.  Figs., photo.  DAS, DLC—The scope and aims of the'
        zing daily ozone isoplcth maps and comparing ihem to meteorological traps and air parcel
        trajectories for the period April 12-23. 1976. This period was characterized b> the presence of a large
        high pressure system which produced widespread ozone concemrauons of greater than 0.08 ppm as
        well as record-breaking maximum springtime temperatures over much « the stud> area. Daily  maxi-
        mum ozone values from the state nstv-orks were used  to produce the daily  ozone maps. Movement
        of areas of high ozone concentrations corresponded to the movement ol the hiih pressure system.
        Actual transport across these areas is supported by trajectory aaalysi. Daily visibility maps were
        also prepared and they suggest that areas of low visibility  generally coincide with areas of elevated
        ozone under certain conditions>
                                            239

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


          17.6-13                                        551.577.2(764) :551.577J:519.2
          Tucker, Joseph E., Investigation of the precipitation distribution and probability of
       receiving selected amounts over Texas.  May 1965.  Thesis  (M.Sc.)— Texas A&M Univ.
       113 p.  Numerous fi«s., tallies, rcfs.  DWB (M77.2 T892in)—The distributions of monthly
       and animal precipitation amounts for 34 selected Texas  stations have been investigated in an
       effort to determine the fit of monthly \alues to a square-root  normal distribution and that
       of annual amount* to a normal distribution.  Forty years of data from each of the 34 stations
       were processed statistically using the IBM 7090/70V4  Programming  System.  A series of
       significance tests lias been used to determine if the assumption of the  respective normal «ti>"
       tributions is justified.  These tests show that 88% of the monthly data and 71% of the annual
       data arc not significantly different from normal.  From data which were determined to lit
       the individual normal distributions, maps of the annual mean and standard deviation and mar*
       of the monthly" M|uare-root mean and standard deviation  have been prepared.  These map*
       were used  to interpolate for additional  values  of  the two statistical  parameters.   These
       parameters, in conjunction with ladles of the normal distribution, were then used to obtain
       probabilities  of a real observation exceeding selected amounts of precipitation  and  to cal-
       culate  the amounts of precipitation associated with a selected probability.  A series of nup»
       of isolincs of probability  for selected monthly and annual  precipitation amounts and a ma?
       of contours of precipitation have lx.cn introduced to characterize  the regional and anniul
       patterns of precipitation and to demonstrate the  realistic  advantages of the study. SiiftKC'
       flciuiiiins:  I.  Precipitation distribution  2.  Precipitation  probabilities  3.  Statistical
       analysis of piectpitation  4. Texas, United States.—Antli.
        100859
          A  J Relationship for  Texas
          Walker,  H.  M.
          Envirormental  Protection Agency,  Research Triangle Park,  H.
        C.,  Environmental  Sciences Research  Lab.
          Int. Photochem.  Oxidant Pollut.   Control  Conf.   Proc.,   Vol.
        II,  Raleigh,  N.  C.,  1976    pp.  851-869    1977
          Note: (Sept. 12.)  (Rept. EPA-600/3-77-001D.)
          Ooc Type:  U; Original  (Theoretical)
          CAS  Registry No'. 10028-15-6
          An   upper   limit  curve  relationship has been contracted  for
       more   than  900  ozone-non-methane  hydrocarbon   data   pairs
       obtained  by   the  Texas   Air Control Board monitoring network
       since  1973.   unlike the AP-84 curve,  the  Texas  Air  Control
       Board   curve   interests   the .0  6-9 am non-methane  hydrocarbon
       axis  at .125  ppm ozone.   It  also reaches a maximum  at 1.1   ppm
       6-9   am  non-methane  hydrocarbon.   and  then descends to values
       below  the National Ambient  Air Standard  for   ozone   at  levels
       above   5.0 ppm non-methane hydrocarbon.   Fifty-nine data pairs
       from  the Houston Air  Pollution Control District  network   move
       the maximum out to 2.4 ppm,  but  do not change the shape of  the
       curve.    The   possible  implications  of the  Texas  J curve are
       discussed."(Author abstract)    (9 Refs)
          Descriptors: America; North America:   United States:  Texas:
       Houston;   Hydrocarbons;    Ozone;    Air   Quality Measurements:
       Non-Methane Hydrocarbons
          Category*.   Atmospheric  Interaction;   Atmospheric  Interaction
        (Chemical and Physical)
                                              240

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY

      Radian Corporation,
            M-l Meteorological  Data Needs and  Characterization, draft report.
            tXJN 77-100-144-02.,  Radian Project No.  100-144.
            Austin, Tx,  Jan.  1977.

      *Eouston,  Texas-air pollution;  Photochemical  pollutants;

                     The  purpose of this  investigation  is Co  determine and
           recommend the additional meteorological monitoring and models
           needed to characterize  three-dimensional air movement, oxidants,
           and haze in the  Houston area.   The  project  is divided into three
           tasks:

                  •  Task I:  The Location,  Documentation, and Display of
                     Continuous Meteorological  Monitoring Stations ia the
                     Houston District.


                  •  Task II:  The Determination of Data Needs and Methods
                     for  Characterizing Air Movement Below the 500-
                     Millibar (13.000 - 20,000  Feet) Level.
                  •  Task III: Recommendations  for Characterizations of
                     Three-Dimensional  Air Movement,  Oxidants, and  Haze
                     in Che Houston Area.


                     Task III incorporates the  results  of Tasks I and II
           co derive several alternative plans of monitoring and modeling.
           The approximate costs  of these options are also  presented.
           Experts in Che  modeling of  three-dimensional air movement and
           photochemistry  are also identified  for possible  use as  consul-
           Canes  in future phases  of Che HAOS.
               20.9-205                                                   551.510.42(764)
               Orton, Robert, Meteorological potential for air pollution in Texas.  1968. 6 p.  Fig*.
            tables.  Reprinted from Texas Business Review, 42(10), Oct. 1968.  DAS (M 10.42 078n*l
            —Assesses the meteorological parameters of air pollution for the  state: the  ro!e of wind
            stability of the air (including inversion), precipitation and thunderstorms, and other atm*
            spheric  properties important to  pollution, such as humidity, cloudiness, and  radiation, art
            discussed.  Topographic effects on the transport and diffusion of pollutants in Texas are con-
            sidered, with special reference to the generally flat terrain, and the significance of the adjacefl*
            Gulf of Mexico.  The climatology of the state is reviewed, noting the transitory  nature o<
            most anticyclones crossing its borders.  The air pollution potential is calculated on the basis
            of a combination of low wind speeds and limited vertical mixing.  Estimated mean maxinuns
            mixing depths for 22 major localities  are tabulated.  It is concluded that although sta^natioo
            of air masses and the threat of  air pollution are more likely to occur over the East TcxM
            Pine Belt than elsewhere, the "restless"  climate of the state does not favor objectionable con-
            centration of air pollutants during much of the time. For the whole state, the most  seriow
            pollution episodes are likely to occur  in Dec. and Jan. Subject Headings: 1.  Atmospheric
            pollution potentials  2. Atmospheric pollution meteorology  3.  Weather effects  on at-
            mospheric pollution  4. Texas, United States.—J.P.D.
                                             241

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      046514
        A   NUMERICAL  STUDY OF CONVECTIVE  TRANSPORT OF  A  GASEOUS AIR
      POLLUTANT  IN THE VICINITY OF TALL  BUILDINGS.
        DjuMc,  D. and 0. C.  Thomas
        New Mexico State  Univ., Las Cruces,  Proc. Symp. Air Pollut.,
      Turbul.  Diffus., Las  Cruces, N. Mex.,  1971, p. 27-34. 12 refs.
      (Dec.  7-10.)
        PROC SYV1P AIR POLLUT TURBUL DIFFUS LAS  CRUCES  N  MEX  1971
      1971
        THEO LAB   Method of Support: NONE
        USGRDR No.: NTIS,   CONF-711210
        With  the  advent  of  larger  and  faster  computers  it  is
      Becoming feasible  to  solve transport and  diffusion  equations
      under  more  complicated  conditions than previously attained.
      The  flow around buildings of various shapes   is  .geometrically
      complicated,   but  can  be  simulated  in a  three-dimensional
      model*   A numerical  model which simulated  fluid  motion  and
      pollutant   diffusion  for the region  of downtown Houston during
      36 minutes of actual  time is considered.
        Descriptors: FEASIBILITY STUDIES;   HOUSTON;  AMERICA:  NORTH
      AMERICA; TEXAS; UNITED STATES;  BUILDINGS;  STRUCTURES:  URBAN
      AREAS;  METROPOLITAN  AREAS;   COMPUTER PROGRAMS;   DATA HAMDLING
      SYSTEMS; SIMULATION;  DIFFUSION MODELS;  ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA:
      DIFFUSION  (ATMOSPHERIC); DISPERSION;  DIFFUSION  (ATMOSPHERIC)J
      CONVECTION (ATMOSPHERIC)! ATMOSPHERIC MOVEMENTS;  METEOROLOGY:
      TOPOGRAPHIC INTERACTIONS; AERODYNAMICS;   CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL
      PHENOMENA; FLUID FLOW
        Category: ATMOS  INTERACT
       McPhcrson, Ronald D.,
            "A numerical study of Che effect of  a coastal irregularity on  the
       sea breeze",
            J. Appl.  Meteor. 9.  767 (1970).


         The modification of the sea breeze circulation by irregular coastline* n examined by integrating a three-
       dimensional nonlinear numerical sea brecv.e model with a l.ir^c hay incorporated into the surface boundary
       conditions. The results show th:it the presence of a bay produces a landward distortion of the sea breeze Con-
       vergence zone and that within the zone there develop definite extrema of vertical motion, the positions of
       which are closely related to the bay. Furthermore, the intensity of convergence and upward motion within
       the zone arc distributed asymmetrically with respect to the bay This is a result of the Coriolis acceleration
       and the bay-induced comjionent of the pressure-gradient force acting in concert on one side of the bay and in
       opposition on the other.
        ID NO.- M3A23120315
          Observational study  of  winter temperatures in  the  urban area
        of Houston,  TOXJS.
          Runnels,  R.  C.; Randerson,  D.; Griffiths,  J.  F.
          Dept. of  Vtft., Texas ASM Univ.,  Co! ley-'? Station
          International   Journal    of   Bi o;reteo"ology,     Amsterdam,
        16(2):119-129, Apr i 1  1972.
          CTRY  OF  F'JSirNL
          DOC  TYPE:  j
          DESCRIPTORS: Urban  temperatures;  Houston,  Texas
          UCD  NOT.-551  .524:551.568.7
                                           242

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      Texas Air Control Board,
           Particulate attainment analysis,  vol. 2, Status of major compliance
      programs in the Brownsville-Laredo, Corpus Christi, Houston/Galveston,
      Dallas,  San Antonio/Eagle Pass, and El Paso air quality control regions.
           Austin, TX, Dec.  1976.

      Air pollution-particulate emissions-standards and criteria; *Texas-
      air pollution; Air  pollution-air quality maintenance plans; Air pollution-
      inplttnentation plans;  Houston, Texas-air pollution;
      Texas Air Control Board, Standards and Regulations Program, Abatement
      Requirements and Analysis Division,
          Photochemical oxldant attainment analysis, summary and analysis of ozone
      data.
          Austin, TX, July 1977.


       *Texas-air pollution; Ozone-standards; Photochemical  pollutants-standards;
       Ozone-monitoring;

            As part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's)

            requirement for  submittal  of revisions to the State Imple-

            mentation Plan  (SIP), the  Texas Air Control Board (TACB)

            must examine the available ozone data from nine air quality

            control regions  (AQCRs)  within the state.    This report pro-

            vides the base statistical data for photochemical oxidants

            (measured as ozone) required for the determination of the
            attainment status of the photochemical  oxidant (ozone)

            standard in each of the nine AQCRs.
       057747
         PRECIPITATION MODIFICATION BY MAJOR URBAN AREAS.
         Huff, F. A. and  S.  A.  Changnon, Or.
         Bull. An. Meteorol.  Soc.,  54(12):1220-1232,   Dec.   1973.   29
       refs.
         BULL AM METEOROL SOC   1973
         FLO BIB   Method of  Support: NONE
         Historical weather  records at eight American  uroan areas   of
       varying type,  size,   and climate were studied  for  indications
       of inadvertent precipitation modification.   The  cities were
       St.   Louis,  Chicago,   Indianapolis,  Cleveland,   Washington,
       Houston, New Orleans,   and Tulsa.   The six largest  cities  all
       experienced  warm  seasonal  rainfall increases of 9-17%  during
       the 1955-1970 period.    Tne increases in  the   Midwest  cities
       occurred  largely  with cold fronts,  out  in the coastal  cities
       tney were largely  during air  mass  (nonfrontal)    conditions.
       Tne  Midwest  increases   also  occurred   as  enhancement,   not
       initiation,  of moderate to  heavy  rain  days.     Significant
                                         243

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      Increases  in  summer  tnunder-day  frequencies  (13-41%)   and
      nail-day  frequencies (90-450%)   were found  at  the six   largest
      cities,    and  the   increases   occurred  largely in the  morning
      hours.    The typical locations  of maxima  in the Midwest cities
      were   thunder over  and near  the city,  and  rain and hail  25-55
      Km downwind.   The  maxima of all events  in  coastal cities were
      in or  near the city.  Overall,  urban precipitation enhancement
      was  related to city size,   industrial nuclei  generation,   and
      uroan  thermal effects.    The   alterations   have  considerable
      relevance to urban  design,  local area  forecasting, local  water
      supplies,   agricultural  production,  hydrologic design,   and
      planned weather modification.   (Author abstract modified)
        Descriptors: DIURNAL;   SEASONAL:  URBAN AREAS;  METROPOLITAN
      AREAS;     ATMOSPHERIC   MOVEMENTS;     ATMOSPHERIC   PHENOMENA;
      METEOROLOGY;  WINDS-.   PRECIPITATION;    RAIN;    THUNDERSTORMS;
      WEATHER MODIFICATION; ATMOSPHERIC MOVEMENTS; PRECIPITATION
        Identifiers: FRONTS; HAIL
        Category: ATMOS INTERACT
      Severs,  Richard K.,                                                            ',
          Respirable particulate monitoring with remote  sensors, public health ,
      ecology:  air pollution, final report.
          NAS  9-12041.
          Houston, TX,  University  of Texas Health Sciences Center,  Institute of
      Environmental Health, Jan. 1974.


      Air pollution-particulate emissions-monitoring;  Aerosols-properties;  Remote
      sensing;

                       The feasibility of monitoring atmospheric aerosol characteristics

                  in the respirable range from air or space platforms was explored and demon-

                 strated.  The research plan included elements from contrast theory. Hie

                 aerosol characteristics, end a vertical path length, limited by the

                 altitude  of the remote sensor platform, an aircraft, or the height of the

                 inversion layer.

                       Secondary reflectance targets were located in the industrial area

                 and near  Galveston Bay.  These approximated areas of high and low ambient

                 air.aerosol loadings.  Film/filter channels were used to limit bandwidths.

                  Multi-channel remote sensor data was processed and utilized to calculate

                  the aerosol extinction coefficient, and thus determine the aerosol size

                  distribution.

                       Houston and Texas air sampling network hi£.v-volume suspended

                  participate data were utilized to generate computer isopleth maps (SYMAPS)

                  of suspended participates over the test site areas.  On-site 5-hour high-

                  volume measurement* were also conducted to establish the mass loading of
                                           244

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY
                 the atmosphere. .In addition a 5-ch«nn«l neph«loa*ter,  and a multi-stage

                 participate air sampler were used to collect data at the site.  After

                 demonstrating the data best fit the Junge I'.istributicn, lin-sar regression

                 analyses were used to calculate the extinction coefficient.         —•—'
           20.10-326                                              551.553.11 (261.64) (704)
           Sea breeze 1968.  l-'afilitics for Aluwsphcric  Research,  Boulder,  Colo.,  \o.  7:24-25,
        Pec. 1968.  Figs.  DAS—Describes and illustrates  the network and procedures used  in the
        continuing study of the sea and land bretve cycles on the Texas Gulf Coast conducted by the
        Univ. of Texas Atmospheric Science Group.  The data-gathering effort  was concentrated in
        June l'H>8 when special attention uas given to 1) energy tran>fcrs contributing to the overall
        "brat budget, and 2) a better definition of the  land brecre.  The network  extended in a  roiurh
        line perpendicular to the  shore, from ~14 mi offshore to 11  mi inland.  Brief reference »
        nude to the assistance of  NCAK: tit Id and (light staff, sensing and power generating  equip-
        ment, and a yueen Air 80 aircraft.  Subject Headings; 1. Sea breeze investigations  I
        Land and tea breezes  3. Gulf of Mexico   4. Texas, United States.—D.BJC.
         Walsh, John  E.,
               "Sea breeze  theory and applications",
               J. Atmos. Sci.  31. 2012  (1974).


          The linearized Bouninesq equations with rotation, viscosity, conduction, and a mean stratification are
         used to model the sea breeze in two dimensions. The motion is forced by a prescribed surface temperature
         function.
          The linear model produces a sea breeze with realistic velocities and spatial dimensions. Hydrostatic solu-
         tions are found to differ very little from nonhydrostatic solutions. The only distinguishing feature of the
         solution at the inertial latitude is an amplitude maximum far from the coastline. Both the phase and the
         amplitude depend on the mean atmospheric stability. The computed vertical heat fluxes, when summed
         along the coastlines of the principal land masses, indicate that the sea breeze effect can account for several
         percent of the globally averaged vertical flux of sensible heat .it a height of several hundred meters.
          The land-sea tem|>erature difference required by the model to create a net onshore flow in opposition to
         a basic current agrees well with the empirical criterion defined by Big«s and Graves.
          The nonlinear advection process is studied with a finite-difference model liased on  a series of overlapping
         grids. The principal effect of the nonlinear terms is a landward advertion of the sea breeze circulation.
         102700
           Some  Considerations Regarding Rural  Ozone
           WalKer,  H.  M.
           Ozone/Oxidants     Interactions  with   Total   Environ.      pp.
         268-281    Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  Air  Pollution Control  Assoc.    1976
           Ooc Type:  C; ORIGINAL,  (THEORETICAL)
           CAS Registry No:  10028-15-6
           Three local  air pollution situations are  analyzed,     tending
         to   confirm   that the transport of  urDan pollutants  can result
         In  the  generation of  orone  (03).    The  Houston  plume,    the
         Wniteface  Mountain  Freon-11 preturbation,   and  the  St.   Louis
         pluiie were studied.   Quantitative  results  indicate  that If   03
         generation      is      being   caused    Dy    hydrocarbons    (HC),
         concentrations of at  most 20 ppo and perhaps considerably loss
         must oe responsible.   Twenty ppo is less than 10%  of the  old
         240  POD  HC  guideline   which   was once supposed to lead to a
                                              245

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      maximum of 80 ppb of 03.   If  20 ppb or   less  HC   can  take   a
      background of 58  ppo of 03  up to 84 ppb witnin three hours and
      78 km  as observed,  the possible effects of twice  as much at  25
      Km   in the suburbs  of any major Urban area on a  less windy day
      must De considered  in the  formation  of  future   HC  abatement
      policies.   Hydrocarbon   levels of an order of magnitude below
      those   previously   deemed    necessary    must    be   seriously
      considered.   (10 Refs)
        Descriptors:    ABATEMENT;    AIR QUALITY CRITERIA;  CRITERIA;
      HYDROCARBONS; OXIDANTS; POLLUTANTS; OZONE; REACTION MECHANISMS
      J    CHEMICAL    AND   PHYSICAL   PHENOMENA;    RURAL    AREAS;
      NON-METROPOLITAN  AREAS; TEXAS; ST LOUIS;  TRANSPORT; DISPERSION
      J ATMOSPHURIC PHENOMENA
        Category:   ATMOSPHERIC  INTERACTION  (CHEMICAL  AND PHYSICAL);
      ATMOSPHERIC  INTERACTION;  ATMOSPHERIC  INTERACTION (METEOROL AND
      CLIMATOL AND  TOPOGR); ATMOSPHERIC INTERACTION
          14.7-703                                 551.575.1:551.575.5:551.515.83(76*)
          Stevenson, Robert E.  (A. and M. College of Texas), Steam fog at Galveston, Texu.
       Weatherwisc, Boston, 15(5):188-191, 213, Oct., 1962.  3 figs., 2 refa.—The terms "norther."
       "blue norther," "creeping norther," "wet norther" and "smoking norther" as used hy the
       coastal Texas fishermen are defined.  The article describes a "smoking norther" observed at
       Galveston, Texas, on 27 1'eb., 1962, when a rapidly moving cold front crossed the crust at
       noon.  The formation of steam fogs in general and the fog at Galveston is discussed and il-
       lustrated in graphs for O'XK) hrs Feb. 25 to 1200 hrs March 2, 1962 of air temperature and dew
       point at Galveston Airport and surface water temperatures at the Pleasure  Pier on Soaw.ill
       Drive, Galveston; differences between  the vapor pressure of the air and the saturation vapor
       pressure at the water surface; and differences between the vapor pressure of the air and the
       saturation vapor pressure at the water surface at 3-hr intervals plotted against the wind ve-
       locity measured at the same time.  It is concluded that the formation of the steam fog follow-
       ing the frontal crossing was possible only because of a preceding period of warm temperature*.
       It was the result of a fortuitous sequence of weather and water conditions.  Subject Headings:
       1. Steam fog  2. Galveston, Tex.—D.B.K.
        0ZT3BG
          STUDIES OF  CARBON MONOXIDE DIFFUSION IN AN URBAN AREA.
          Thomas, John Charles
          Texas  Agricultural  and Mechanical  Univ.,   College Station,
        Dept.  of Vleteorology, Thesis (M.   S.),  Jan.   1970,  166p.   28
        ref s.
          1970
          FLO BIB   Method of Support: NONE
          Carbon -nonoxide as affected by  traffic, wind speed, and wind
        direction   near a freeway interchange  and in a downtown  region
        was studied.    A wide variation was  found in the .relationships
        of  CO  and meteorological conditions  from  sampler to sampler.
        Vertical -neasurements  exhibited   similar   CO   concentrations.
        Rainfall  had  little  effect  on   reducing CO concentrations.
        Reasonable  results were  obtained  using an   analytic  solution,
        suggesting  that  CO concentrations  close to the source  can be

        determined  with   a  mathematical   model.    Carbon   monoxide
        concentrations  were  affected  differently  by  meteorological
        conditions  in a downtown  region than  in   a  freeway  location.
        There   was  a positive correlation between  CO  and traffic.    A
        negative correlation existed between CO  and wind speed,   while
        an  almost  zero  correlation  was   found   between CO and wind
        direction.  (Author conclusions modified)
                                           246

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY

          Descriptors:  HOUSTON;  AMERICA;  NORTH AMERICA; TEXAS;   UNITED
       STATES;     HIGHWAYS;   ROADS;   URBAN AREAS;   METROPOLITAN AREAS:
       ENGINE EXHAUSTS;  ENGINE  EMISSIONS;'   POLLUTANTS;   MOTOR  VEHICLE
       SOURCES;    MOOILE   EMISSION  SOURCES;   SOURCES;   TRANSPORTATION
       METHODS;   GAS  SAMPLING;   SAMPLING METHODS:    FILTERS;    CONTROL
       EQUIPMENT-GAS   STREAMS;    CONTROL  EQUIPMENT   -    GAS  STREAMS:
       MATHEMATICAL ANALYSES;   MATHEMATICAL   MODELING;    ANEMOMETERS:
       METEOROLOGICAL  INSTRUMENTS;   STATISTICAL  ANALYSES;   DIFFUSION
       (ATMOSPHERIC):  ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA:  DISPERSION:  METEOROLOGY:
       WINDS; ATMOSPHERIC  MOVEMENTS;  HUMIDITY;  RAIN;   PRECIPITATION:
       THUNDERSTORMS:       TEMPERATURE     (ATMOSPHERIC):     TURBULENCE
       (ATMOSPHERIC):  CARBON MONOXIDE: OXIDES
          Category:  ATMOS INTERACT
             20.1-177                                    551.510.42:551.551.8:620.78:770(764^
             Randerson, Parry!  (Tf.ras AfrM Univ.), A study of air pollution sources as viewed
          by Earth satellites. Air  Pollution Control Association.  Journal. Pittsburgh,  Pa.. 18(4):
          249-253, April  1968. Figs.  DAS, DLC—Several photographs are  presented  which  illus-

          trate llic large scale dis|>ciMon of atmospheric pollutants.  These photographs were  taken by
          aeronauts on various manned spacecraft (lights.  A spacecraft view  of a forest fire in the
          Apalachicola Natl. Forest revealed a rather large smoke plume. Geometrically scaled  niea-
          turcmcnts indicated the  plume \\ns approximately 4 mi wide and about 65 mi long.  Trapixxl
          i-iuliT a frontal inversion located between 2500 and 3000 ft above  ground  level, this plume
          was being transported south-soutlnvestward into the Gulf of Mexico  by the local wind flow
          jutUTii.  Several  pictures containing examples of industrial smoke  plumes in the vicinity of
          lIiHi'ton, Tex., are discussed in  relation to the local synoptic situation.  A  picture of indus-
          •ii.il h:\re over  Houston, Tex., is presented to illustrate an arcal distribution  of atmospheric
          .tilliii.mts covering an area  of about 2
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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      102699
        A    Study  of  Factors   Associated  with  High  Urban  Ozone
      Concentrations in Texas
        Price,  James H.
        Ozone/Oxidants  Interactions  with  Total   Environ.      pp.
      282-292    Pittsburgh, Pa.,  Air Pollution Control  Assoc.   1976
        Ooc  Type: C; ORIGINAL  (FIELD)
        CAS  Registry No: 10028-15-6
        The   results of a study  of  the meteorology  and the pollution
      levels associated with high uroan ozone  (03)   (at  least  0.15
      ppm)   are presented.  In  1975,  over 80%  of  the days  in Texas
      with at  least 0.15 ppm 03  was monitored  in  the Houston  region
      and  the  Southwest Texas  region,   although only one-half of the
      Texas  Air Control Board  03 monitors are  in  these two  regions.
      On five  of  tne six occurrences outside these  two.regions,  the
      concurrent  visibility was  12  mi  or greater.   Twenty-six of the
      31  occurrences   in the  two upper coast  regions had visibility
      less tnan 10 mi.  Tne one distinguishing  meteorological feature
      common to almost all high  03   occurrences   was  weak  pressure
      gradients.    Tnese results give some support  to the hypothesis
      tnat tne presence of  dotn old  photochemical  pollution  and
      fresh   emissions  is  normally  required  to   produce  nigh 03
      concentrations in Texas,   but the relationship  is  still  not
      well established.   (11  Refs)
        Descriptors: AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS; OXIDANTS; POLLUTANTS;
      OZONE; PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS;   CHEMICAL REACTIONS;  CHEMICAL
      AND  PHYSICAL PHENOMENA;   PRESSURE (ATMOSPHERIC);   METEOROLOGY;
      ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA;   TEXAS;  UNITED STATES;  NORTH AMERICA;
      AMERICA;  URBAN AREAS; METROPOLITAN AREAS; VISIBILITY
        Category: ATMOSPHERIC  INTERACTION (METEOROL. AND CLIMATOU AND
      TOPOGR);  ATMOSPHERIC INTERACTION
          18.6-391                                              551.553.11(764)
          George, David H., Study of the diurnal summer wind system at Galveston, Texas.
       U. S. Weather Bureau, Sniithcrn Rcqion Technical Memorandum No. 30, Dec. 1966. lip.
       Figs., refs., eqs.  DAS  (M(055) U587sot)—An investigation of 30 clays hourly wind ob-
       servations at Galveston  Is., Tex. revealed  a complex land-sea breeze system. The system
       is obscured by fairly constant oil-shore winds resulting (rum the western extension of the
       Bermuda High as well as local effects such as the presence of water on all side of the land
       area.  The large differences in wind direction on the island are theorized to be due  to sole-
       noidal effects. Subject Headings: 1. Land and  sea breezes 2. Galveston, Texas.—AutH.
       ID NO.-  MjA27020147
         Study   of  the effects  of  the urban itK.-r.od imate on local and
       regional  oollution pott.-ntial  in southeast.  Texas.
         Pendergnst, Malcolm Man ley
         Gi',>d.  Col 1 . .  TX. ASM  Univ.
         Thesis iPh.D., met.),  Aug.  1974. Ann Aroor,  MI.,  University
       MiCr-of i 1ms, 1975. 208 p.  Sofs.
         CTrtY  OF P'J-3i.:US
         The  extent  of influence  of  the pollution plu'ne of Houston,
       TX. ,   vas ootc-r-nined for   winter  and  soring  1972,   thruugh
       several  techniques based  upon routin_- motoc^ulogical data. One
       method   involved  the use of  9-hr traje<. torios of hypothetical
       air  parcels calculated  from  adjusted  surface  winds  at   3-hr
                                          248

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      intervals,  wind soeed.  stability,   and mixing depths obtained
      from  environmental   rreteorological    r-upper t   unit    IEMSU)
      soundings  n>aue at Houston  '.-.ere used to determine  the dilution
      factor (OF)  along each trajectory.   Another  method  used   to
      depict  the  areal   extent   of  the  Houston pollution plume  was
      called pollution effect on  plants,  PEP. This method determined
      the offect  of the Houston pollution plu<»e-  on  a   hypothetical
      Diotic  plant  as  a function   of  DF,  temperature,  relative
      hu'n i cl i t •/,   and   intensity    of   sunliyht.    This   research
      demonstrated   an   inexpensive   technique,   nt  Bryan-College
      Station,  v.nich can  be used to  acquire i nf ot-n at ion  concerning
      the  horizontal  and vertical   extent  of   t"£ urban boundary
      layer. The technique uses  instrument pi atforms-of-opportunity,
      and the data are collected  during  the  course  of  automobile
      transects.    Results of   the  urban  surve/ indicate that  the
      vertical profiles  of  temperature   and  humidity  within  the
      suburban  a-ea  are  of   the same form as profiles measured by
      other investigators  for rural  areas.   Average  lapse  rates   of
      temperature-  at 2300 hr 1ST for six different  locations  within
      the Bryan-College Station  urban area show that,    during both
      high  and  low  wind speed  conditions,,  the central business
      district  has  a  destaolizing   influence  upon  the    thermal
      structure of the urban atmosphere.   Vertical cross sections of
      temperature  and  humidity   obtained  through  use  of    tower
      observations were show:-, to  be helpful for the determination of
      the  extent  of influence  of the urban area.  Results  indicate
      that  when  the  uroan  area  is  under  tne   influence   of  a
      continental polar  (cP)  or  maritime oolar (mP)  air mass,  the
      effect of  the urban  area  is in  the  form of   an  unstable heat
      p I u.ne usually confined within the lowest GO  m.  When the urban
      area is under the  influence of  a returning polar   (RP)    or  a
      tropical Gulf (TG)   air mass,   the  effect of the urban  area is
      observed to be above 110  in.
        DESCRIPTORS:  Atmospheric pollution potent'n1s;  Atmospheric
      pollution dispersal; Urban influences on atmospheric pollution
      ; Houston, Texas
      Decker, C.E., et  al. ,
           Study of the formation and transport of ambient  oxidants In the Western
      Gulf toast and North-Central and Nortneast regions of the United States.
           EPA Contract No.  68-02-2048.
           Research Triangle Park, NC, Research Triangle Institute, Aug. 1976.

     Air pollution-transport mechanisms; Ozone-monitoring; Photochemical
     pollutants-ground  level concentrations; *Photochemical pollutants-monitoring;
     Air quality-data handling;  Air quality-instruments; Air pollution-monitoring;
     Air pollution-instruments;
          17.10-346                                             551.553.11(760
          Kddy, Amos (Tex. Univ.), The Texas coast sea-breeze: a pilot study. H'father.
       London, 21(5): 162-170, May 1966.  FIRS., rcfs. DAS, DLC— An account of a pilot study
       of the sea breeze phenomenon on the coast of Texas (Gulf of Mexico) undertaken during the
       week of June 13-20, 1065.  The object was to determine whether or not a sea breeze of
       sufficient intensity rutild In; found to he distinguishable from the normal on-shore How prev-
       alent along this particular stretch of coast.  Surface and 700 mb  charts for June 5, showed
       that the circulation of that day was such as to provide optimum conditions for the formation
                                        249

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


       of a sea breeze.  Time cross sections of the wind speed perpendicular to the beach up to
       heights of 8000 ft proved  the exigence of a sea breeze circulation ami was confirmed by the
       diurnal pattern of tiic variation of the  low-level wind direction.   The  differences in the
       diurnal temperature curves inland and at the coast, and the effects of the night-time inversion
       on the wind direction.  Other studies  were: latent heat produced by lines of heavy Cu in the
       upward moving .section of  the  circulation  may play a  significant  part  in the circulation;
       sensible-heat profile along a sea-land  cross section may not he even close to the  space sine
       wave,  temperature gradients could  be very sharp along  the coast line and very small else-
       where ; the  role of the sea  breeze in the distribution of hygroscopic nuclei  may be <(itite
        pronounced; and a complete energy-balance picture of the sea breeze, from microscalc energy
        input to mcsoscalc conversion  ami transport and then to  microscale momentum  and kinetic
        energy loss is a reasonable result to exi>cct from future studies of this  phenomenon on the
        coast of Texas.  Subject Headings:  I. Sea breeze investigations  2. Sea breeze circulation
        3. Texas. United States.—K.U.
        Estoque, M.A.,
               "A theoretical  investigation  of  the  sea breeze",
               Quart.  J.  Roy.  Meteor.  Soc.  87.  136  (1961).

             A primitive equation model is formulated and integrated numerically to study the tern breeze. The
          formulation is an extension of an atmospheric boundary-layer model previously developed for a homogeneous
          terrain. External gravity-wave type solutions are suppressed by a modelling assumption involving the equation
          of continuity. The results of an integration showing the evolution of the sea breeze under conditions of no
          large-scale synoptic motion are presented.
          Fisher,  Edwin L.,
                 "A  theoretical study of the sea  breeze  ,
                 J.  Meteor.  18. 216  (1961).

             A series of observations of the sea breeze has been made along a portion of the New England coast near
           Block Island, Rhode Island. These observations were presented in an earlier paper (Fisher, 1900).
             With these data as a b;i=is, a dynamical theory of the sea breeze is described and a numerical solution of
           these sea-breeze equations is obtained. The solution shows the sea breeze in the stapes of development and
           decay and succeeds in reproducing not only the gross features of the wind system but many of its small de-
           tails as well. The model sea brce/.c develops a cellular structure similar to the observed system. The depth
           of the landward branch of the current, its velocity, the velocity of the return current aloft, the elevation,
           location, and timing  of the maximum flow, agree closely with observations. The model also reproduces the
           rotational effects due to the Coriotis force. The accumulation of error in the model causes its behavior to
           become irregular by  evening  (14 hr from its start) so that the development of the low-level jet and other
           features of the dying system can only be poorly evaluated in the model.
           Wexler, Raymond,
                  "Theory  and observations of land  and  sea breezes",
                  Bull.  Amer.  Meteor.  Soc.  27, 272  (1946).
                  THE LOCAL muRN&L WINDS induced by
                   temperature difference between land
                   and sea are defined as land and sea
             breezes; the wind that blows from land to
             sea  by night is the land breeze; the wind
             that blows from sea to  land by day is the
             wa  breeze.
                                                    250

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


          With the possible exception of some Are-
        tie and sub-Arctic regions, land  and  sea
        breezes ooour  in coastal  regions of  conti-
        nents, islands, or inland lakes.   Their fre-
        quency on yoast8 depends essentially upon
        the latitude,  season, cloudiness, and gradient
        wind.   With  hilly  or  mountainous terrain
        adjacent to the r.liore, tlio lu, al winds arc a
        combination  of land and sea treezi'a  with
        viilli-y  or  slope  winds  and are  thereby
       •trongcr and more frequent.



        Pielke,  Roger A.,
               "A three-dimensional  numerical model  of  the sea  breezes  over
        South Florida",
               Month. Weather  Rev.   102.   115  (1974).

           An eight-level three-dimensional primitive equation model which includes a  detailed boundary layer
         parameterization scheme has been used to describe the initiation and evolution of sea-breeze convenience
         patterns over south Florida as a function of the surface heat and momentum (luxes and of the large-scale
         synoptic forcing. A minimum grid spacing of 11 km was used. Model results are presented for several different
         initial conditions and the results, when compared against cumulus cloud and shower patterns, demonstrate
         that the dry sea-breeze circulations are the dominant control on the locations of thunderstorm complexes
         over south Florida on undisturbed days.
           It is also shown that, in contrast to the differential roughness, the differential heating between land and
         •water over  south Florida  is the primary determinant of  the magnitudes of convergence. The values of
         surface roughness, however,  indirectly influence convergence patterns by affecting the intensity of the ver-
         tical turbulent trans|x>rt of heat and momentum.
           It is found that the sea breeze over south Florida accumulates synoptic-scale moisture in the convergence
         zones, since the magnitudes of moisture convergence are relatively unaffected by evaporation from the
         ocean at least for a period of 10 hours or so.
           The results of the numerical experiments suggest that, in order to pro|>erly interpret the results of the
         Experimental Meteorology Laboratory's cloud-merger seeding experiments over south Florida, an apprecia-
         tion and understanding of the sea-breeze circulations are required.
             20.2-9                                           ,           551.553.11 (261.64) (764)
             McPherson, Ronald D., Three-dimension  numerical study of the Texas  coast sea
         breeze.  Texas.  Univ., Austin.  College  of  Engineering.   Atmospheric  Science  Crcnf,
         Report No. 15, Aug. 1968.  252 p.   Figs., charts, tables, rets., eqs.  DAS (if (051) T3553rc)
         —Tlie effect  on  the Texas coast sea brce/e of irregularities  in the coastline, specifically tlte
         effect of Galvcston  Bay, is  examined by means of a 3-dimen.sionaI mathematical model which
         is essentially an extension of an earlier 2-dimcnsional model developed by ESTOQI.-E.  The
         theory of Kstoquc's model  is examined in detail.  A 2-dinicnsional test version of  the model
         is then subjected to an extensive series  of  numerical experiments  in  order  to gain some
         insight into  the  characteristics of  the model and into  its  response to variations in some of
         tlic modeling assumptions.   It is demonstrated that computationally stable solutions  can be
         obtained for periods up to  72 hrs.   It is also shown that the  model is extremely sensitive to
         variations in the matliematical paramctrization  of  tlw eddy exchange  processes  above tlw
                                                    251

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY


      boundary layer, and that the formulation of the eddy exchange processes in the boundary
      layer under stable  temperature stratification is inadequate. However, the model simulates
      many of the observed features of the sea breeze, including intensity and discussions, the sea
      lircezc convergence line, and the clockwise rotation of  the  horizontal winds with  time.
      Kstoquc's nioilcl is modified on the basis of the experimental evaluation and is extended to
      three space dimensions.  An application to the problem of the effect of Galveston  Bay on
      the sea breeze is undertaken, in which the bay is simulated by a square indentation of an
      otherwise straight  coastline.  The results of this application  indicate that  the  presence of
      Galveston Ray creates a distortion in the sea breeze convergence zone and an asymmetry in
      tlic vertical motion field associated with the zone. This asymmetric distribution of vertical
      motion around the  hay is such that the greatest upward motion initially develops northwest
      of the bay and shifts later to the northeast of the hay.  Subject llcatJimjs: 1.  Sea breeze
      regimes at the coast  2. Sea breeze models 3. Estoque's model  4. Galveston Bay  5.
      Texas.—Aulh.
        028852
          A TIME AND  SPACE STUDY  OF POLLUTANTS.  (FINAL REPORT).
          Griffiths,  John F., Malcolm M. Pendergast, D. Randerson,  R.
        C.  Runnels,   R.   Michael  Ryan,  John  C.   Thomas,  and  James T.
        ZumwaIt
          Texas  Agricultural  and Mechanical  Univ.,  College  Station,
        Proj. AP-00611,  144p., Feb. 26, 1971.  33 refs.
          1971
          FLO BIB   Method of Support: RES CRT
          A series of  papers  are  presented   constituting   the   final
        report  on  an  investigation  of  air  pollution  and related
        meteorological   parameters  in   selected   urban    industrial
        complexes.  A  technique was developed  for estimating the lower
        winds  (winds   up to about 2000 meters)   over Houston,   Texas,
        from the currently existing upper air  station at Lake  Charles,
        Louisiana.     Spatial  vector  regression,    a   -seldom    used
        Statistical technique,  was employed.    The area I and  temporal
        distribution  of  pollutant  emissions from vehicles  in   Houston
        were estimated.   A numerical  model was proposed for  predicting
        the  dispersion   of sulfur dioxide over  Nashville,   Tennessee,
        during  the  winter.    Tne  model  includes  the  effects  of
        three-dimensional  advection,  diffusion,   and variations  in the
        topography,  as  well as the effects of chemical decay,   source
        strength,   and   a  correction  term  for the truncation  error.
        Carbon monoxide  measurements were made In the  vicinity   of  a
        freeway interchange in Houston and in  a  downtown .region  of the

        same  city.     Activation  analysis   was  used  to   reveal the
        distribution  of  manganes  and bromine  in  an urban  area.     The
        spectral   distribution  of solar radiation  in a polluted and a
        Clean air  mass was compared.   Some   preliminary  results  are
        presented  of  an investigation of the  dispersion of atmosoheric
        pollutants and  the associated pattern  of temperatures within
        the urban  area of Houston.   An airborne survey was  made  over
        Houston  to obtain  infrared pictures,  ultraviolet measurements.
        infrared   data,    and   temperature  profiles.    A   number  of
        pollutants were tabulated for 55 cities.
          Descriptors: SEASONAL;   NASHVILLE;   AMERICA;  NORTH  AMERICA;
        TENNESSEE; UNITED STATES;  HOUSTON;   TEXAS;   HIGHWAYS;  ROADS;
        URBAN AREAS;  METROPOLITAN AREAS;  ENGINE  EMISSIONS:  POLLUTANTS;
        MATHEMATICAL  MODELING;    MATHEMATICAL  ANALYSES;    STATISTICAL
        ANALYSES;  LOWER ATMOSPHERE;  ALTITUDE;  ATMOSPHERIC  PHENOMENA:
                                           252

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY

     DISPERSION:  METEOROLOGY;   AOVECTION:  ATMOSPHERIC   MOVEMENTS:
     WINDS;   TEMPERATURE  (ATMOSPHERIC):   TOPOGRAPHIC  INTERACTIONS:
     BROMINE: HALOGEN GASES; MANGANESE COMPOUNDS:  METAL  COMPOUNDS:
     CARBON MONOXIDE; OXIDES; SULFUR DIOXIDE:  SULFUR OXIDES:   SOLAR
     RADIATION; CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA:  LIGHT RADIATION
       Category! ATMOS  INTERACT; MEASUREMENT METH
       ID NO.- MSA24010353
        Turbulent   fluxes  and  associated  spectra   in a sea breeze
       boundary  layer.
        Hembreo,  LOUIS A., Jr.
        Texas.  Univ., Austin. Atmospheric Science Group.  Report No.
       29,  Aug.  197!.  90 p.
        CTRY OF  PUCI_:US
        DOC TYPE:  o
        During   three  days   in  July   1963.   wind   and temperature
       fluctuation  d,;ta were  taken  for the calculation  of  turoulent
       fluxes  of   momentum and sensible heat  in a sea breeze regime.
       The  experimental site  was located  on   the  upper  Texas  Gulf
       coast  e-"ir>t  of Gatveston,  Texas-   The data were taken with a
       bivane ansynomoter and  thermocouple  mounted  at  a  heignt  of
       approximately  8  m  on  a   tower located 90 m  inland from the
       shore.    The eddy-correlation  technique was used to  calculate
       the   turbulent  fluxes  of   sensible  heat  and momentum.   In
       addition,  a  spectral analysis  was performed on  the data.
        DESCRIPTORS: Heat flux; Momentum flux; Turbulent exchange in
       lower-atir.osnnore; Sea  oreeze turbulence; Galveston, Texas
        UCD NOT:S51.551.8:551.553.11
       050657
         URBAN  EFFECTS  ON  THUNDERSTORM  AND  HAILSTORM  FREQUENCIES.
         Changnon,  Stanley A..  Or.
         Preprint,  American Meteorological  Society, Boston, Mass., p.
      .177-184,  1972.   8  refs.   (Presented  at  the  Conference  on Urban
       Environment    and    Second   Conference  on    Biometeorology,
       Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Oct.  31-Nov.  2,  1972.)
         CONF   URBAN   ENVIRON SECOND CONF  BIOMETEOROL PHILADELPHIA PA
       1972
         FLO   Method of  Support: NONE
         The effects  of aerosols,  heat,   moisture,    and mechanical
       turbulence  on convective  processes   over   and   immediately
       downwind  of   urban-industrial   areas  were   investigated.
       Historical   (1901-1969)    thunder-day and hail-day records  for
       regions  in and around eight cities  were used to establish   the
       existence of alterations in their frequencies,  and to  identify
       the   causes.    The  cities  investigated   Included   Chicago,
       Indianapolis,  St.  Louis, Cleveland.  Washington, D. C.,  Tulsa.
       Houston, and New Orleans.   The investigation  was based on  all
       available Weather  Bureau station records in and within  60  ml
       of  each  city.     The basic analytical approach involved both
       spatial  and   temporal  analyses  of  the  frequencies   of   the
       events.   The data,  the changes (increase)   found in each city,
       the  geographical   distributions of  the    areas   with   the
       increases,   the  periods  when  the increases began,   and  the
       possible relationships of the  increase  to various  synoptic
       conditions  and  urban  factors  were evaluated.   Thunder  ana
                                       253

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
METEOROLOGY

      haiI-day frequency increases were found  in  the  six  largest
      cities  investigated.     The results suggested that a critical
      sire  of urban area (over 900.000 population)  must be  reached
      before  an urban area  can affect severe storm frequency.   The
      results  also  suggested  that  local  increases  in   thunder
      frequencies will increase 30% as the city population exceeds 3
      mi 1 Ii on.
        Descriptors:   CHICAGO;  AMERICA;   ILLINOIS;  NORTH AMERICA:
      UNITED STATES;  INDIANA;  NEW ORLEANS:   LOUISIANA:  ST  LOUIS:
      MISSOURI;  OHIO;  OKLAHOMA;   HOUSTON;  TEXAS;  WASHINGTON D C:
      URBAN AREAS; METROPOLITAN AREAS;  INDUSTRIAL AREAS;  AEROSOLS:
      PARTICULATES;  POLLUTANTS;  MATHEMATICAL ANALYSES:  CONVECTION
      (ATMOSPHERIC);  ATMOSPHERIC MOVEMENTS;   ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA:
      METEOROLOGY; WINDS;  HUMIDITY;  THUNDERSTORMS:  PRECIPITATION:
      TEMPERATURE (ATMOSPHERIC):  WEATHER MODIFICATION;  TOPOGRAPHIC
      INTERACTIONS;    TURBULENCE  (ATMOSPHERIC);   INDIANA:   OHIO:
      OKLAHOMA; PRECIPITATION
        Identifiers: INDIANAPOLIS: CLEVELAND; TULSAJ HAILSTORMS
        Category: ATMOS INTERACT
       ID NO.- M312S10C517
         UV:;.in i z.it ion ^vid climatic change.
         Go! cliiian,  Ooi-.-ph L.
         Intl. Clr.  for Solution of Environ. Problems. Houston, TX.
         .   Urb.m  costs  of clin-atc modification.  Ed.  by Terry A.
       Ferrar. N.Y., John Wiley & Sons, 1976. p. 43-101. Refs. DAS (A
       QC. 9?'"> U7)
         CTSY OF PUBL:US
         Tho ive 1 I  Xnu.vn effects of urbanization upon tho  climate  of
       cities anJ of cur^ountimg a"ens are di s':u •->£'.-d by •ixamlnlng the
       : nf i UCMCO  of tho city structure upon r-. t ooroloy ' cal vartabl'es
       and jjrooer.ses ana considering   in  particular  tha  effect  on
       p'-ecipitat ion  and  the  verification  of   this  effect.   The
       importance of the urban influence  as  a  factor  in  climatic
       change  is   investigated  by  examining  in  detail the climatic
       effoc'.s in Houston and comparing   th'.-se  effects  by  relating
       thc'ii to similarities of cliw.it ic CMjngo  in  uroan Sc~oth African
       ai'eis. Extensive- data on the climatic viriaOlos  in Houston are
       given  in  q>-.Tphs.   Tho   interaction  of   climatic  Change by
       urbani?ation ond natural climatic  chr.ngo is discussed.
         DESCRIPTORS: Urban climatology;  Houston,  Texas
                                        254

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
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     010083
       AIR POLLUTION AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS: HOUSTON. DALLAS.  AND
     WASH- INGTON.
       Fiero, George W.
       J. Paint Technol
       J PAINT TECHNOL
       TECH   Method of
       In general
     combust ion.
     .  40 (520): 222-228,  Ylay 1968.  18 refs.
      1968
     Support:  FELL CRT
 man-made air  pollutants are largely products of
and  solvents   from  protective coatings are not
     major air pollutants.  Photochemical  smog  prevalent  in  Los
     Angeles results fro  inter-reaction between oxides of nitrogen.
     reactive hydrocarbons, a oxygen.  Hydrocarbons vary greatly in
     their  reactivity;   hydrocarbo  found  in  solvents  are less
     reactive than auto exhaust.   Data are provided on common  air
     pollutants  in Houston, Dallas, Ft. Worth,  an Washington.   Rule
     66 and its  definition of photochemically reactive solvents are
     examined  with respect to the use of protective coating in the
     San Francisco Bay Area.  Where federal  specifications  apply.
     the Bay Area Air Pollution Control District has agreed to draw
     up  a  variance  to  January 24.  1969.   So far.  Rule 66-type
     regulations  hav  not  been  adopted   anywhere   other   than
     California.    The   New  York,   New  Jersey  and Pennsylvania
     regulations and proposed  rules  are  discusse  Industry  must
     cooperate   with   local   authorities  to  reduce  general   a
     pollution.    The  National  Paint,    Varnish   and   Lacauer
     Association  smo  chamber at Batelle Memorial Institute should
     provide data relative the extent solvents add to photochemical
     smog.
       Descriptors: SURFACE COATINGS: MATERIALS: LACQUERS:  PAINTS:
     VARNISHES   AND SHELLAC;  CALIFORNIA;  AMERICA;  NORTH AMERICA:
     UNITED STATES:  LOS  ANGELES;  SAN FRANCISCO:  NEW JERSEY;   NEW
     YORK  STATE:   NEW YORK CITY;  PENNSYLVANIA;  TEXAS!  HOUSTON:
     POLLUTANTS;  SOLVENTS;  SOURCES:  INDUSTRIAL EMISSION SOURCES:
     STATIONARY  EMISSION  SOURCES;   PAINTS AND ALLIED PRODUCTION:
     CHEMICALS AND ALLIED MANUFACTURING;  MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
     SURFACE COATING OPERATIONS; ALCOHOLS; HYDROCARBONS;   ALIPHATIC
     HYDROCARBONS;  AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS;  LEGAL ASPECTS?   CODES:
     REGULATIONS
       Category: LEGAL AND ADMIN
     008062
       AIR   POLLUTION   CONTROL ACTIVITIES  ARE NOTED FOR 23  INDUSTRY
     AREAS.
       SchiIdhammer, Allen
       Air  Eng.,  9(6):28-34,  37,  June  1967.
       AIR  ENG    1967
       TECH   Vlethod of Support:  FELL  CRT
       A  spot check of  air  pollution   control   activities   in  key
     industrial areas  throughout  the United  States and Canada shows
     that  industry, by  and  large,   is  cooperating to a great extent
     in  investing in abatement devices.    The survey also  indicates
     that   Air  Pollution   Control  Authorities  are  .becoming more
     active  and vigorous in  their  activities   to  evaluate  theif
     local   and regional air  pollution problems.   On the whole the
     budgets for  the Authorities  are on the  increase,  and  this   is
     coupled with increases in Federal  grants.   Also,  many states,
     regions,  and cities which did not  have adequate air pollution
     control laws and  regulations are  updating those already on the
     books,   and  passing new  ones to keep  abreast of new technology
                                       255

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL


     and current developments  in  this  field.    The  industrial areas
     included   in   this   second   annual   survey are  :   Little Rock,
     Arkansas,  Seattle-King County,   Washington,  Houston,  Texas,
     Miani  (Dade County),   Florida,  Chicago,   Illinois,  Portland,
     Oregon, Vancouver,  British Columbia,  Cincinnati,   Ohio,  Gary,
     Indiana, St.  Louis,  Missouri, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Oklahoma
     City,  Oklahoma.n#
        Descriptors:   CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS;   MATERIALS;  ASPHALT;
     CEMENTS; V1ETALS; ALUMINUM; IRON;  STEEL;   PAPER  CHROMATOGRAPHY;
     ANALYTICAL METHODS;   CHROMATOGRAPHY;   REFRACTORIES;   RUBBER;
     ARKANSAS;  AMERICA;   NORTH   AMERICA;   UNITED   STATES;   OHIO;
     CINCINNATI; OKLAHOMA;  OREGON;   RHODE ISLAND;  TEXAS;  HOUSTON;
     WASHINGTON (STATE);  WISCONSIN;  URBAN AREAS; METROPOLITAN AREAS
     J  INDUSTRIAL  AREAS;   POLLUTANTS;   COMBUSTION PRODUCTS;  ASHES;
     CINDERS;    COMBUSTION GASES;    STACK   GASES;   WASTE  GASES;
     PARTICULATE CLASSIFICATION METHODS;   PARTICIPATES;   SETTLING
     PARTICLES;  DUSTS;   SUSPENDED PARTICULATES;  SMOKES;  SOURCES;
     FURNACES;  STATIONARY EMISSION  SOURCES;    INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION
     SOURCES;    CHEMICAL  PROCESSES;    KRAFT   (SULFATE)   PULPING;
     MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES; PAPER AND ALLIED MANUFACTURING;  PULP
     MILLS;  RENDERING  PLANTS,  GREASE AND TALLOW;   FAT  AND  OIL
     PRODUCTION;   FOOD  AND KINDRED PRODUCTS INDUSTRY;   INCINERATORS
     (REFUSE);  ELECTRIC,  GAS,  AND SANITARY SERVICES;  REFUSE  SYSTEMS
     ;  SANITARY SERVICES;  ODORS;  ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION;  STEAM
     ELECTRIC   POWER GENERATION:    NON-INOUSTRIAL  EMISSION  SOURCES
     (STATIONARY); DOMESTIC HEATING; DUMPS; TRANSPORTATION METHODS;
     MOBILE EMISSION SOURCES;  MOTOR VEHICLE  SOURCES;   AUTOMOBILES;
     LIGHT-DUTY   VEHICLES;   CONTROL   EQUIPMENT  -   GAS  STREAMS;
     INCINERATORS  (WASTE GASES);   CONTROL EOUIPMENT-GAS  STREAMS;
     COLLECTORS (MECHANICAL);  ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS; FILTERS;
     BAG   FILTERS;   FABRIC FILTERS;   SCRUBBERS:  CARBON MONOXIDE;
     OXIDES;    SULFUR    OXIDES;     SULFUR   DIOXIDE:    ABATEMENT;
     ADMINISTRATION;  BUDGETING; GRANTS;  PLANS  AND PROGRAMS;  CONTROL
     PROGRAMS;  COSTS;   ECONOMICS;   GOVERNMENTS;  CITY  GOVERNMENTS;
     COUNTY GOVERNMENTS;  NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS;  REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS
     ;  STATE GOVERNMENTS;  LEGAL ASPECTS;  LEGISLATION; CLEAN  AIR ACT
     ;  ARKANSAS: CALIFORNIA; CANADA;  COLORADO;  FLORIDA;  INDIANA;

     MINNESOTA;   OHIO?    OKLAHOMA;  OREGON;   RHODE  ISLAND;  TEXAS:
     WASHINGTON (STATE);  WISCONSIN
        Identifiers: LITTLE ROCK;  SAN  BERNARDINO COUNTY;  MONTREAL:
     TORONTO,  ONTARIO;  VANCOUVER. BRITISH COLUMBIA;   DENVER:  MIAMI
      (DADE  COUNTY):     EAST   CHICAGO;      GARY;      MINNEAPOLIS:
     AKRON-BARBERTON;  COLUMBUS:   DAYTON;   OKLAHOMA CITY;'  PORTLAND:
     PROVIDENCE:  FORT WORTH;  SEATTLE-KING COUNTY: MILWAUKEE  COUNTY.
     MILWAUKEE
        Category:  LEGAL  AND ADMIN
      Randall,  Albert G.,
           Air Pollution Control,  annual report for 1974.
           Houston,  Tx.,  City of Houston,  Health Department,  1975.

      Texas-air pollution;  Air pollution-control methods;  *Houston,  Texas-
      air pollution;

      Houston's Division of Air Pollution Control has changed radically
      since its initiation in 1968,  however,  its main objective of en-
      hancing Houston's air quality has remained foremost  in its activities.
      From a wet chemical analysis which required 48 hours to a real-
                                       256

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
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     tine system involving sophisticated instrumentation, our ability
     to analyze Houston's air quality has advanced to a point of on-the-
     spot knowledge of air pollutant levels.

     Seven years of growth have taken us from a fledgling operation to
     an agency unrivaled by any local Air Pollution Control Program in
     the nation.  Money and manpower increases have aided in our attempts
     to achieve cleaner air for Houston's citizenry.

     Our tasks are tremendous.  The number of stationary sources which
     contribute to air pollution are in the tens of thousands, however,
     the solutions and technology for reduction of contaminants are
     available and time, money, and enforcement of our air pollution
     laws will achieve for Houston the air quality desired.
      103415                        .  . ,
        Air Pollution Control  in the Chemistry Industry
        Rickles,  Robert N.
        Air  Pollut.    Control   GuideD.   for Manage.     pp.   151-156
      Stamford,  Conn., E.R.A.  Inc.    1969
        Note:  (A.  T.  Rossano,  Jr.,  ed.)
        Ooc Type:  C;  Reviews (Technical)
        In order to indicate all possible aspects of   air  pollution
      control  in tne  chemical  industry,   several  examples are cited,
      and the control requirements  in  specific  industrial   problem
      areas  are  given.   In   the   planned  construction of a large
      petrochemical complex near a   major  Gulf  Coast  metropolitan
      areas,    preconstruction   survey    and  review  results  are
      presented. Another power plant was  creating a nuisance problem
      among its residential neighbors through its particulate matter
      emissions.  The problem of solvent   recovery  occurs  in  many
      industrial  operations  which  use   large  amounts of solvents
      which create difficult  local  air   pollution  and  industrial
      nyglene  problems.   An  additional problem is  presented which
      occurred at a petrochemical plant along th« Texas Gulf  Coast.
      Mist  fro-n  the  cooling tower blew over a public highway,  in
      violation of the State Code,  and created a traffic hazard. The
      solution to the problem involved the use  of  gas  burners  to
      heat the exiting gas at  the cowls.  This increased the exit gas
      temperature and gas dispersion,  thus eliminating the problem.
      The problem of  odor is  highlighted  by  a  chemical  facility
      which produced a large number of odorous chemicals,  and these
      produced a serious odor  problem..  Sulfur oxides  problems  are
      highlighted in a study from a plant ,poi«/er facility utilizing e
      1.5%+   sulfur containing fuel oil.  Other industrial problems
      discussed specifically include phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid.
      nitric acid, and kraft mill production.
        Descriptors:    Safety;   Pollutants;   Odorous   Pollutants;
      Parttculates; Suspended Particulates; VHsts; Solvents; America
      !   North America;  United States;   Texas;  Metropolitan Areas;
      Residential  Areas;   Roads;    Highways;    Control   Methods;
      By-Product  Recovery;   Sources;  Stationary Emission Sources;
      Cooling Towers?  Fuel Characteristics;  Fuel  Sulfur  Content;
      Fuels; Fuel  Oils; Industrial  Emission Sources;  Electric,  Gas,
      and   Sanitary    Services;    Electric    Power    Generation;
      Manufacturing Industries;  Chemicals and Allied Manufacturing;
                                      257

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
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     Agricultural  Chemical  Plants;   Nitrogeneous Fertilizer Plants;
     Nitric  Acid  Plants;   Phosphatic Fertilizer Plants;  Phosphorus
     Acid  Plants;   Industrial  Inorganic Chenical Plants;   Sulfuric
     Acid  Plants;  Paper  and Allied  Manufacturing;  Pulp Mills; Kraft
     (Sulfate)    Pulping;    Petroleum  and  Coal Products Industry;
     Atmospheric  Phenomena;  Dispersion; Oxides; Sulfur Oxides
        Category:   Control  Methods (Categorical);   Control  Methods
     (General  Stationary Source)
      Houston,  City of, Texas, Dept.  of Public Health,
         Air filiation Control ftrogram, CHAMPS CAMS, draft report.
         undated.


      Houston,  Texas-air pollution;

         .  The continuous monitoring program o£ the Air Pollution  Control Div-

      ision is primarily responsible for the city-wide determination of ambient

      air concentrations.  Such determination of ambient data, is an essential

      j>art of any reasonable and effective air .pollution control program.  This

      jr.tornation is required for planning and decision making within every phase'

      o- the control program.
     Randall,  Albert G.,                 *
          Air Pollution Control  Program for 1975.
          Houston, Tx., City of  Houston, Health  Dept.,  undated.

     '•\Texas-air pollution; Air  pollution-control methods; Houston,  TX-air
      pollution;
       Houston,  City of ,\ Dapt. of Public Health, Pollution
       Control Division,
          Air Pollution Control Program, second quarter report,  1975.
          undated.

      *Houston, Tx.--air pollution; Texas-air  pollution;
       Houston, City of Texas, Health Dept., Air Pollution  Control Program,
            Air Pollution Control Program,  fourth quarter report,  1976.
            Houston, TX, undated.

       Houston, TX-air pollution;
                                        258

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL


     Houston, City of, Texas, Dept.  Public Health,  Pollution Control  Division,
          Air Pollution Control Program first quarter report,  1977.

     *Houston, Texas-air pollution;  Texas-air pollution-transportation
     control plans; Texas-air pollution-regulations;
      Houston,  City of,  Department  of Public Health,
           Air Pollution Control  Program  1977, second quarter report,
           Houston, 1977.

      *Houston,  Texas-air pollution; Air  pollution-health effects; Texas-
      air pollution;
      Houston, City of, Texas, Department of Public Health,
          Air Pollution Control Program, third quarter report.
           Houston, TX, 1977.

      *Houston, Texas-air pollution; Air pollution-monitoring; Air quality-
      data; Air pollution-control methods;
       Houston, City of, Department of Public Health,  Pollution Control
            Division,
            Air Pollution Control Program 1977,  fourth quarter report.
            Houston, TX, undated.

       *Houston, Texas-air pollution;  Texas-air  pollution;  Air pollution-
       air quality maintenance plans;
        Houston, City of, Dept.  of Public Health,
        Pollution Control Division,
             Air Pollution Control Program. 1978.
        first quarter report.
             Houston, TX, 1978.
                                        259

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL
     078786
       APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS.  SHIP AND
     BARGE VAPOR RECOVERY.
       Train, Russel1  E.
       Federal Register, 40(82):18437-18438, April 28, 1975.
       FEDERAL REGISTER   1975
       TECH   Vletnod of Support: INHOUSE
       The susoension of interim compliance dates  for  regulations
     on   snip   and  barge  vapor  recovery  is  announced.    The
     regulations require recovery of vapors emitted during  loading
     and  unloading  of  gasoline and other volatile compounds from
     snips and  barges  in  the  Houston-Galveston  Intrastate  Air
     Quality Control region.   The purpose  is to reduce hydrocarbon
     emissions and  to assist In the attainment and  maintenance  of
     tne  national  ambient  air quality standard foi^ photochemical
     oxidants in that region.   Interim dates  for  compliance  are
     suspended,   but   the  final   compliance date of May 31,  1975
     remains  in effect.
      Descriptors:  COMPLIANCE SCHEDULES;   ADMINISTRATION;  CONTROL
    PROGRAMS; PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  REGULATIONS;  LEGAL ASPECTS;   AIR
    QUALITY STANDARDS;  STANDARDS;  OXIDANTS;   POLLUTANTS;   HOUSTON;
    AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA;  TEXAS;  UNITED STATES;  VESSELS (MARINE)
    J  MOBILE EMISSION SOURCES;   SOURCES;  TRANSPORTATION METHODS;
    GASOLINES;  FUELS;   STATIONARY  EMISSION  SOURCES:   PETROLEUM
    DISTRIBUTION;    INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION  SOURCES;   HYDROCARBONS?
    VAPORS; CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL  PHENOMENA; PHYSICAL STATES
      Category:  LEGAL AND  ADMIN
     080099
       APPROVAL
     SS-TEXAS.
     COMPLIANCE
       Train. Russel1  E
       Federal Register
       FEDERAL REGISTER
       TECH   Method of
       The   compliance
     recovery of vapors
     gasoline and other
 AND PROMULGATION
SHIP  AND  BARGE
DATE.
                             OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS.   SUBPART
                             VAPOR  RECOVERY.    SUSPENSION  OF
                        Oct.  10.  1975.
                  ,  40(198):47765,
                     1975
                   Support:  INHOUSE
                    date  for  a  final   regulation  requirino
                   emitted during  loading  and  unloading  of
                   volatile compounds from ships and barges in
the Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control region is
suspended.    The  final  compliance date is suspended pending
proposal and final  publication of  amendments.     This  action
does  not  relieve  those  subject   to the regulation from the
Obligation to continue to make maximum good faith  efforts  to
comply with the substantive portions of  the regulation.    This
suspension is in effect until March 1.  1976.   or until   final
publication  of  amendments  to  the regulation,  whichever is
earli er.
  Descriptors:  COMPLIANCE SCHEDULES;  ADMINISTRATION;  CONTROL
PROGRAMS;   PLANS  AND PROGRAMS:  REGULATIONS;   LEGAL ASPECTS;
HOUSTON; AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA: TEXAS;   UNITED STATES;   VAPOR
RECOVERY  SYSTEMS;    CONTROL  EQUIPMENT-GAS  STREAMS;  VESSELS
(MARINE);  MOBILE EMISSION SOURCES;  SOURCES;    TRANSPORTATION
METHODS:   GASOLINES;   FUELS;   STATIONARY  EMISSION SOURCES:
MATERIALS HANDLING;   VAPORS;  CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA;
PHYSICAL STATES
  Category: LEGAL AND ADMIN
                                        260

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL


      005347
       CO  BOILER   AND   FLUIOIZEO-BED STEAM SUPERHEATER ON SINCLAIR
      REFINING COMPANY'S  NEW  FLUID UNIT AT THE HOUSTON REFINERY.
       CampDell, 0.  F.   and  Pennels, N. E.
       American  Soc-   iety of Mechanical Engineers,  New  York  77,
      927-38  (Aug.  1955),  (Presented at the Annual Meeting, American
      Society of  Mechan-  ical Engineers, New York City, Nov. 28-Dec.
      3,  1954, Paper  No.  54-A-20.)
       1955
       TECH •  Vlethod of  Support: FELL CRT
       Approximately  400,000   Ib  per hr of 550-psig,  750 F total
      temperature steam production is a unique feature  of  Sinclair
    s Refining  Company's new   fluid catalytic-cracking unit at its
      Houston, Texas, Refinery.   Over 300,000 Ib per hr of 700-psig
      saturated   steam  are   produced  on  the  oil  industry's first
      direct-  fired unit to  recover both the sensible .heat and  the
      heat  of combustion from the high-temperature  regenerator-exit
      flue  gas.   The  heat of  combustion of the regenerator-exit  flue
      gas is derived  from its CO content.  Saturated steam  produced
      on   the  ooiler   is superheated to 750 F total temperature  in
      industry's  first  f1uidized-bed respray steam superheater.  The
      superheater-respray feature produces approximately 100,000   It)
      per  hr of  additional steam and allows simultaneous control  of
      Doth  the regenerator-bed temperature and the steam  superheat.
      Other  advantages   are:  prevents the CO gas from escaping and
      possible  pollution of   the   atmosphere;    precludes   the
      possibility  of unburned hydrocarbons or malodorous gases,   or
      other gasss that may cause air pollution, from escaping to the
      atmosphere;   and conditions  the  flue  gases  for  subsequent
      removal of  particulate  matter.
       Descriptors:  TEXAS; AMERICA;  NORTH AMERICA;  UNITED STATES;
      HOUSTON;  SOURCES;   BOILERS;   STATIONARY  EMISSION  SOURCES;
      INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION SOURCES;  CHEMICAL PROCESSES;  PETROLEUM
      REFINING;   MANUFACTURING  INDUSTRIES;   PETROLEUM  AND    COAL
      PRODUCTS  INDUSTRY;   PILOT  PLANTS;  CONTROL  METHODS;  CARBON
      MONOXIDE; OXIDES
       Category: CONTROL METHODS
     017614
       CITY PLANNING, INDUSTRIAL-PLANT LOCATION, AND AIR POLLUTION.
       Katz, Morris
       In: Air Pollution Handbook. P. L. Magi 1, F. R.  Holden,  and
     C. Ackley (eds.), New York, McGra* Hill, 1956, Sect.  2,  53p.
     68 refs.
       AIR POLLUTION HANDBOOK   1956
       TECH BIB   Method of Support: NONE
       Detroit, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles,  and Houston
     are cited as examples  of  cities  that  have  made  extensive
     improvements  through  city  planning.   In 1953 there were 75
     people in New York City employed by Air Pollution Control, and
     the budget was about  $375,000.    The  history  of  pollution
     control  efforts  is described for Great Britain,  St.  Louis,
     Pittsburgh,  Los Angeles,  and Detroit-Windsor.   The role  of
     meteorological factors is considered, with an enumeration of 6
     basic  principles  of control in the designing of smokestacks.
     Topographical influence is discussed for Trail.  B.  C.   and Los
     Angeles.     Figures  are  given  on  fallout   of  dust and gas
     concentrations for  various  ubran  areas.     Gases  discussed
                                      261

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL

      Include sulfur dioxide,  hydrogen sutfide.  hydrooen fluoride.
      hydrogen chloride, organic sulfides, aldehydes, and smog.
       Descriptors: LOS ANGELES; AMERICA; CALIFORNIA: NORTH AMERICA
      J UNITED STATES; CANADA; GREAT BRITAIN; EUROPE; UNITED KINGDOM
      ; WESTERN  EUROPE; DETROIT; MICHIGAN;  NEW YORK CITY;  NEW YORK
      STATE; PHILADELPHIA; PENNSYLVANIA;  PITTSBURGH; HOUSTON: TEXAS:
      INDUSTRIAL  AREAS;   URBAN AREAS;   METROPOLITAN AREAS:  DUSTS:
      PARTICULATES; POLLUTANTS; SETTLING  PARTICLES; SMOG;  SUSPENDED
      PARTICULATES;    STACKS;   SOURCES;   DUST  FALL:   AIR QUALITY
      MEASUREMENTS;    SOOT   FALL;   DESIGN  CRITERIA;   METEOROLOGY:
      ATMOSPHERIC  PHENOMENA; TOPOGRAPHIC  INTERACTIONS:  HYDROCHLORIC
      ACID;  ACIDS;  INORGANIC ACIDS;  HYDROFLUORIC ACID:  ALDEHYDES:
      SULFUR ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS;   SULFUR 'DIOXIDE;  OXIDES:  SULFUR
      OXIDES; HYDROGEN SULFIDE;  SULFIDES:  SULFUR COMPOUNDS:  PLANS
      AND  PROGRAMS; ADMINISTRATION;  CONTROL AGENCIES:  PLANNING AND
      ZONING; LEGAL ASPECTS
       Category:  LEGAL AND  ADMIN
       015237
         THE CONTROL  OF  AIR  POLLUTION  IN  TEXAS.
         Paganini,  Otto
         Texas  Business  Rev.,  43(3): 6p., March  1969. 3-refs.
         TEXAS  BUSINESS  REV    1969
         TECH    VIetnod of  Support:  NONE
         Because the  state has an abundance  of combustible gas  fuels,
       Texas does  not have the degree  of  air pollution  found  in solid
       and  liquid fuel   Burning   areas  of the country.    However,
       photochemical  smog  is beginning to develop in major population
       centers.  An example  is the  Houston-Harris County area,  where
       pollutant   buildup  occurs   during   low-level  temperature
       inversions from October through March.  The  Fort Worth-Tarrant
       County  and D.illas City-County areas  are  also experiencing  some
       pollution problems.  Local air  pollution  control programs,   as
       we'l   as  state   programs directed   by   the Texas Air Control
       Board,  are maintaining  surveillance  in these areas and working
       to reduce emissions from major  sources such   as   cotton gins.
       smelters, foundries,  petroleum refineries,   and petrochemical
       industry,  refuse  burning   at  public  disposal  sites,   and
       automobile exhausts.  Activities  of  local  programs include the
       operation  of  high-volume   and 'effect-package'  types of air
       sampling stations which collect samples  on a weekly,  biweekly.
       and monthly basis.  The Air  Control  Board,   established by the
       Clean  Air Act of Texas (1965),  is  empowered to establish air
       quality criteria  and  to determine levels  and  emission  limits
       for  pollutants.    The  Board must  support local  governments in
       all suits against violators  of  emission  standards.
         Descriptors: TEXAS; AMERICA;  NORTH AMERICA;   UNITED STATES;
       CONTROL PROGRAMS; ADV1INISTRAT ION;  PLANS  AND  PROGRAMS;   CONTROL
       AGENCIES; LOCAL GOVERNMENTS;  GOVERNMENTS;   STATE GOVERNMENTS:
       CLEAN AIR ACT; LEGAL  ASPECTS; LEGISLATION
       •  Category: LEGAL AND ADMIN
                                       262

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL


      027093
       COOLING  TOWER  FOG:  CONTROL  AND  ABATEMENT.
       Veldhuizen, Hennie  and  Uoe  Ledbetter
       Preprint,   Air  Pollution Control  Assoc.,   Pittsburgh,   Pa.,
      16p., 1970.   21  refs.   (Presented at  the  Air  Pollution Control
      Association,  Annual Meeting,  63rd,  St.  Louis, Mo., June  14-18,
      1970, Paper  70-41 .)
       AIR   POLLUTION  CONTROL ASSOC ANNU MEET 63RD  ST  LOUIS  MO 197
      1970
       TECH  BIB   Method of  Support: NONE
       Cooling  towers frequently produce fogs  during near   freezing
      weather causing  visibility   and/or icing hazards on  adjacent
      streets or roads.   Records for December  1967  to  March  1969
      indicate  that  fourteen episodes  of visibility  restricting fog
      were noted for  generally  short periods  in the vicinity of   two
      cooling  towers   at   a   refinery  in Houston,  Texas.   Several
      possible methods of solving the cooling tower fog  problem   are
      discussed,  with emphasis placed  on the estimated  costs  of the
      most promising  techniques.     The  addition  of .heat  to   the
      cooling  tower   exhaust  facilitates dispersio of   the plume
      before  condensation occurs,   and  the cost for superheating the
      plume   sufficiently   to  prevent   fog formation is $40,000 for
      estimated  capital  and installation expenses  and  S16.000   for
      operating   expenses.    Heat could be transferred to  the  air by
      passing the hot  water through finned heat exchangers  replacing
      trie lattice fill within the   cooling  tower  at an   estimated
      $36,000  and  $40,000  for capital  costs  and  installation  with
      operating  costs at $100,000.    Another  design based  on  an
      externally mounted finned unit extending  along  the full  length
      of   the  towers  is   expected  to cost  $19,500  and $22,000 for
      capital and installation  expenses  with   operation   costs  at
      $3000.    Another possible method  is to  waste  26,000  gpm  of hot
      water  and  replace this  amount with 60 F makeup  water.  Several
      other  possible  but not  so probable  solutions  are   indicated.
      Rather   than evaporate  a cooling  tower  completely,   sufficient
      added  heat to elevate tne plume over an adjacent  thoroughfare
      has teen   achieved   in  a number  of   areas.     Annual costs
      estimated   for   such   a  system   are   $14,800    for   capital
      expenditures  and  $6500  for operating  costs.   Air  cleaning
      methods are also mentioned.
        Descriptors:  ABATEMENT; COSTS;  ECONOMICS;  CANADA;   AMERICA;
      NORTH  AMERICA;  STREETS; ROADS; PETROLEUM  REFINING;   INDUSTRIAL
      EMISSION SOURCES;  MANUFACTURING  INDUSTRIES; PETROLEUM  AND  COAL
      PRODUCTS INDUSTRY;   SOURCES;  STATIONARY  EMISSION   SOURCES;
      CHEMICAL  PROCESSES;    OPERATING   VARIABLES;  VISIBILITY;   AIR
      QUALITY MEASUREMENTS; CONTROL METHODS;  DESIGN CRITERIA!  PLUME
      BEHAVIOR;  ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA;  DISPERSION;  FOG;  CONDENSATION
      (ATMOSPHERIC);    METEOROLOGY; COOLING;  CHEMICAL  AND  PHYSICAL
      PHENOMENA; HEAT TRANSFER; COOLING
        Identifiers:  COOLING  TOWER
                                       263

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL


      Radian Corporation,
          DM-1 Uniform Data Bas Design,  draft reoort.
          DCN 77-100-144-03, Radian Project No.  100-144.
          Austin, ' Tx., Jan. 1977.

      Photochemical pollutants; *Houston, Tx.  air pollution;
                The Houston Chamber of  Coheres has initiated che
      Houston Area Oxidants Scudy  (HAOS)  to  evaluate Che Impact of air-
      borne oxidants on the social, economic,  and environmental conmur.-
      ities in the Houston area.  This  study will involve the collec-
      tion of a diverse and extensive set of air quality and meteorologies
      data for the Houston area.  To provide for efficient analysis of
      this extensive data base, this report  describes the structure
      and organization of the data to be  utilized for computer storage
      and processing.
      "Formation and Transport of Secondary Air Pollutants:
      Ozone and Aerosols  in the St. Louis Urban Plume," Science
      194. 187 1976,
      102717
        Fuel   Conversion   Strategy   Impacts  on  Compliance with.
      Photochemical Oxidant Standards
        Gautam, SulaKsh R.; Cooper. Ha]  B.  H.,  Jr.
        Ozone/Oxidants Interactions with Total  Environ.    pp.  63-76
      Pittsburgh, Pa., Air Pollution Control  Assoc.    1976
        Doc Type: C; ORIGINAL (THEORETICAL)
        CAS Registry No: 10028-15-6
        Fuel  conversion  impacts  on photochemical  oxidant  standard
      compliance were projected  for  Los  Angeles  and   Houston   by
      switching from natural gas to fuel oil  and coal, .respectively.
        Increased fuel oil comDustion in the South Coast  Air  Basin  of
      California   could  simultaneously  increase  sulfate   aerosol
      concentrations and photochemical  oxidant levels in the absence
      of greater fuel oil or stack  gas  desulfurization  processes,
      because   of   predominance   of    the  photochemical   oxidant
      mechanism.  Increased coal and oil combustion  in   Houston  may
      result   in increased sulfate aerosol  levels but also decreased
      oxidant  levels because of the  probable  predominant  chemical
      oxidation  in  the  humid atmospheres to result in a net ozone
      (03) consumption.  Extensive transportation electrification  in
      the  South  Coast  Air Basin of California could  substantially
      reduce photochemical oxidant  levels,   but would  have  less
       impact   in  Houston  because  of  the greater relative  emission
      contributions of transportation with  the  greater  industrial
      base.    (12 Refs)
                                       264

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
CONTROL

       Descriptors:   AIR QUALITY STANDARDS;   STANDARDS:  COMBUSTION
      PRODUCTS;  FUEL  OILS;   FUELS;   STATIONARY   EMISSION  SOURCES;
      SOURCES:    FUEL  SUBSTITUTION;    FIRING   METHODS;   PROCESS
      MODIFICATION;     CONTROL    METHODS;   ,   IMPACT    STATEMENTS;
      ADMINISTRATION;  LOS ANGELES; CALIFORNIA;  UNITED STATES;  NORTH
      AMERICA;  AMERICA;  OXIDANTS;  POLLUTANTS;   OZONE:   SULFATESj
      SULFUR COMPOUNDS;  TEXAS
       Category:    CONTROL   METHODS   (FUEL TREATMENT  AND  FUEL
      CONVERSION)! CONTROL METHODS (CATEGORICAL)
      Houston Chamber of Commerce,
           Houston  Area Oxidants Study, Six Month Status Report.
           DCN 77-100-144-05.
           Houston,  TX,  May 1977.


      Photochemical  oxidants; Photochemical oxidants-control strategies;
      *Houston-air  oollution:

                        The Houston Area  Oxidants Study (HAOS) is a technical

              study composed of a group of separate,  interrelated projects.

              The study investigates  the  causes and impacts of airborne  oxi-

              dants and haze in Houston and  Southeast Texas.  It is an effort

              to develop a sound technical basis for controlling haze and  air

              borne oxidants in the area;


                        The two-year  study has progressed through the tasks c

              planning and organization and  into execution of technical  pro-

              jects.  This report describes  the status of the HAOS at the  enc

              of six months of activity.
       Houston,  City of.  Chamber of Commerce,           .    '    •
            Houston 4rea  obcidants Sfcudy twelve month status report.
            DCN 77-100-144-11,  HAOS Contract.
            Houston, Nov.  1977.  •

       *Houston, Texas-air  pollution;  Texas-air pollution;  Air pollution-health
       effects; Air pollution-social and economic  effects;  Haze;  Photochemical
       pollutants-control strategies;  Ozone-control strategies;
        Houston, City of, Texas, Chamber of Commerce,
             Houston P\rea Oxidants Study, eighteen
        month status report .
             Houston, Hay 1978.
                                     265

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
CONTROL


      041673
        HUMBLE  S APPROACH TO POLLUTION CONTROL.
        Ferguson, H.  W.
        Proc. An. Petrol. Inst., Sect. Ill,  vol.  36:304-305,  1956.
        PROC AM PETROL INST SECT III   1956
        FLO   Method of Support: NONE
        Air   pollution  problems  at  a 280,000  bbl/day oil  refinery
      located  in  the  Houston  Ship  Channel   are   corrected   by
      Installing alternate processes which eliminate  contaminants at
      the  source  whenever sucn measures are economically justified
      Dy  otherwise  needed  modernization.    This   has   included
      construction  of  a hydrogen sulfide-to-sulfur  conversion unit
      which  in  1954  recovered  12,000  long tons  of  sulfur  from
      refinery  gases.   Waste disposal facilities  are  included in the
      Oase  plans/for  all  new plant units.   A  Pollution Abatement
      Comnittee reviews all new process and  modernization  plans  to
      insure  that  adequate waste disposal  facilities are provided,
      coordinates  pollution  control  efforts,   and   disseminates
      information   on  new  abatement  techniques.     An  Operating
      Committee maintains close supervision  of all  waste-   disposal
      operations.     Employees,     the  public,    and  the  control
      authorities are kept informed  of the abatement   program,   and
      all  complaints are analyzed thoroughly.    In  the past  7 years,
      $4 million for  air pollution control and S5 million for  water
      pollution  control  has  been  spent   at this plant.   (Author
      abstract  modified)
        Descriptors:   CONTROL PROGRAMS.;  ADMINISTRATION:  PLANS  AND
      PROGRAMS;  COMMERCIAL FIRMS;   COSTS;   ECONOMICS;  STACK GASES;
      POLLUTANTS; WASTE GASES; COMBUSTION GASES;  COMBUSTION PRODUCTS
      ;     PETROLEUM   REFINING;     INDUSTRIAL    EMISSION   SOURCES:
      MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES; PETROLEUM AND COAL  PRODUCTS INDUSTRY
      !   SOURCES;  STATIONARY EMISSION SOURCES;   CHEMICAL PROCESSES:
      CONTROL  METHODS;   BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY;   HYDROGEN  SULFIDEJ
      SULFIDES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS
        Category: CONTROL METHODS
      Wmitriades, Basil,  ed.,
          International  Conference on Photochemical  Oxidant Pollution and
      Its Control, proceedings,  2 vols.
          EPA 600/3-77-001 a,b.
          Research Triangle Park, N.C., EPA, Environmental Sciences Research Lab.,
      Jan. 1977.

       Proceedings; *Photochemical pollutants; Photochemical pollutants-control
       strategies;  Photochemical pollutants-standards; Air pollution-health
       effects;

             Intensive studies conducted in the past 3-4 years have resulted in an
         abundance of suggestive evidence that in part supported and in part refuted
         the earlier understanding, but did not resolve all existing issues.  Thus  the
         International scientific community is still divided on the  issue of the justi-
      „  flcation of the 0.08-ppm ambient air quality standard for oxidant, one objection
         arising from the questionable achievability of such a standard.  A newly revived
         Issue of major importance pertains to the relative roles of the hydrocarbon
         and nitrogen oxide precursors in the urban and rural oxidant formation processes
         The viewpoint of the U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency supporting maximum
                                       266

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
CONTROL
     control of the.hydrocarbon and  limited control of the NO  emissions is challenged
     1n several Conference  papers.   More specific issues raised by the new evidence,
     and debated in the Conference,  are the achievability of the ambient oxidant
     standard, the role of  stratospheric ozone, the role of the natural ozone
     precursors, the utility of current air quality simulation models, and the
     significance of short- and long-range photochemical pollution transport.        —
     lass, Glen  R.,
          Methods  for sulfate air quality management with  applications to
     Los Angeles,  2  vols.
          Pn.D.  Thesis.  Pasadena, CA,  California Institute of Technology,
     1978.

     Air  pollution-particulate  emissions-biomedical  effects; Visibility;  Air
     pollution-particulate emissions-control methods;   S0x-air pollution;
     *Sulfates-air pollution;   Air  pollution-mathematical  models;  Air pollu-
     tion-emission inventories:  California-air pollution;  Light scattering;
               Particulate sulfate air pollutants contribute  to visibility

           deterioration and are of current public health concern.   This study

           develops the technical understanding needed for Sulfate air quality

           control strategy design.  Methods which link sulfate air quality

           and air quality impacts  on visibility to the cost, of controlling

           sulfur oxides air pollutant emissions are presentedr  These techniques

           are tested by application to the Los Angeles Basin! over the years

           1972 through 1974.
       Eexas Air Control Board,
            fficroscppic analysis of suspended particulate matter.
            Aus tin,  TX, Aug. 19 7 7.


         *Texas-air  pollution;  Houston,  TX-air pollution;  Air pollution-particular
         emissions-analysis;  Air pollution-particulate  emissions-standards  and
         criteria; Air  pollution-particulate emissions-sources; Air pollution-
         particulate emissions-meteorological factors;

                                      The  Texas State implementation Plan,

               designed  in part to  attain these  standards by  May 31,

               1975, was approved with  exceptions on May 31,  1972 by

               the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).   Under the  '"'.'.

               conditions  of the FY-1976.federal grant from EPA to  -«
                   '  'A'    	'. v. -.''*~            . •' •'    ."   -  . •"•» .-/
               the,Texas Air Control,Board, analysis of,-all. available

               data, pertaining to-the attainment status of.the parti- .

               culate  standards in  Texas has been conducted.   .  . .T , '.
                                        267

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL
                                     PLANTS  FOR  EVALUATION OF  IMPACT
                                      METROPOLITAN HOUSTQN-GALVESTON
                                      Mass.
,   Walden  .Research Div.

 Contract,    32p.,   Feb.
075505
  MODELING  ANALYSIS  OF POWER
OF AMBIENT S02 CONCENTRATIONS.
AQCR 216.
  Abcor,    Inc.,   Cambridge,
(Editors)
  Office of Air and waste Management
1975. 3 refs.
  1975
  TECH   Yetnod of Support:  CONTRACT
  Diffusion modeling analyses  of sulfur dioxide emissions  from
10  tnermal  power plants located in the Metropolitan Houston-
Galveston Air Quality Control  Region (Texas)   are presented  as
part  of an effort to determine the air quality impact of  such
operations in the face of possible changes  in  fuel   use  and
compliance schedule extensions.   Emissions under both nominal
and maximum  load operations  from each of the  10 plants  result
in  contributions  to  amoient  air  concentrations  which  by
tnemselves do not exceed tne primary 24-hour   and  annual  S02
air   quality  standards.    Tne  ratio  of  the  ambient
concentration to the  emission  rate  for  a  given  plant
micrograms/cu   m   per   g/sec  ranges  from  0.043-1-04
0.043-0.59 for nominal and maximum loads,   respectively,
maximum  concentration  days  and  from  0.0048-0.13   for
maximum annual  concentration.    These  values  indicate
relative oollution potential for eacn plant which is  primarily
a  function  of  stack  design  as well as surrounding terrain
features.
  Descriptors:  AREA SURVEYS:    ADMINISTRATION;   AIR  QUALITY
MEASUREMENT  PROGRAMS;  PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  CONTROL  PROGRAMS;
FUEL CRITERIA;  CRITERIA;  OPERATING  CRITERIA;   AIR  QUALITY
STANDARDS; STANDARDS; TEXAS;  AMERICA";  NORTH AMERICA;  UNITED
STATES; STACK GASES; POLLUTANTS; WASTE GASES; FUELS;   SOURCES;
STATIONARY EMISSION SOURCES;  STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION;
ELECTRIC POWER  GENERATION;    ELECTRIC,   GAS,   AND   SANITARY
SERVICES;    INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION  SOURCES;   DIFFUSION MODELS;
ATMOSPHERIC  PHENOMENA;  DIFFUSION (ATMOSPHERIC);   DISPERSION;
SULFUR DIOXIDE; OXIDES; SULFUR OXIDES; CONTROL PROGRAMS
  Identifiers: EMISSION FACTORS; COMPLIANCE SCHEDULES
  Category:  LEGAL AND ADMIN
                                                                 502
                                                                  in
                                                                 and
                                                                  on
                                                                 the
                                                                 the
       Air Pollution Control  Association, eds., Ozone/Oxidants-
       Interactions With  The  Total Environment, Proceedings of
       Specialty Conference,  Dallas,  Tx., March 1976.
       Pollution Control Assn.,  1976..
             Air
       006408
         PERFORMANCE   OF  EXHAUST  CONTROL  DEVICES  ON  1966  MODEL
       PASSENGER CARS.
         W. F. McMichael, R. E. Kruse,   D. M. Hill
         J. Air Pollution Control Assoc.,  18(4):246 -248,  April  1968.
       3 refs.  (Presented at the 60th Annual Meeting,  Air Pollution
       Control Association, Cleveland,  Ohio, June 11-16, 1967,  Paper
       67-7.)
         J AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ASSOC   1967
         LAB   Metnod of Support: INHOUSE
         Road tests were carried out in five different cities with  a
                                        268

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
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      fleet  of  300  passenger  cars  consisting of  three different
      makes,  half of which were  equipped  with   the  1966  exhaust
      control  devices  required  by  the State of California.   The
      performance of these devices during the first series of   tests
      was  evaluated.   In the first test series,   mass emissions of
      hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide  from  equipped   cars,   were
      Significantly  lower  than  the  1962-1963   baseline   emission
      values;  except for the Chevrolets in the  low-altitude cities,
      oxides   of   nitrogen   levels   from  equipped  cars  were
      significantly higher than the baseline.  Measurements of both
      mass  emissions  and  concentratrations showed no consistent,
      significant differences among  the  three   makes   of   equipped
      cars.   All three makes of equipped cars showed the effects of
      enrichment due to altitude in Denver.**
       Descriptors: ARIZONA; AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA; UNITED STATES;
      COLORADO;  MINNESOTA;  OHIO;   CINCINNATI;    TEXAS;    HOUSTON;
      POLLUTANTS;   ENGINE  EMISSIONS;   ENGINE   EXHAUSTS;   SOURCES;
      NON-INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION  SOURCES  (STATIONARY);    STATIONARY
      EMISSION  SOURCES;   MOTOR  VEHICLE  SOURCES;  MOBILE  EMISSION
      SOURCES;  TRANSPORTATION  METHODS;   AUTOMOBILES;  LIGHT-DUTY
      VEHICLES;  CONTROL EQUIPMENT -  GAS STREAMS;  CONTROL  METHODS;
      AUTOMOTIVE EMISSION CONTROL; ALTITUDE;  ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA;
      HYDROCARBONS;   OXIDES;   CARBON  MONOXIDE;   NITROGEN OXIDES!
      ARIZONA; COLORADO; MINNESOTA
        Identifiers: PHOENIX; DENVER; MINNEAPOLIS
       Category: CONTROL METHODS
     Houston,  City  of,  Texas,  Health Department, Air Pollution Control  Program,
          1975 Annual Statistical Report, Air Pollution Control Program.
          Houston,  Tx.,  undated.

      Houston, TX-air pollution;
         Houston,  City of /Health Department,
              Petition for review and revision of ambient air quality standard
         for photochemical oxidants and requirements for control.
              Houston,  TX,  July 1977.

          Houston, TX-air pollution; *Photochemical pollutants-standards; Photo-
          chemical pollutants-monitoring; Photochemical pollutants-control
          strategies; Haze; Ozone-reactions; Hydrocarbons-analysis;  Hydrocarbons-
          regulations; Hydrocarbons-oxidation; Air pollution-health  effects;
          Automobile emissions-air pollution; Air pollution-biological effects;
          Air pollution-control methods;          -  • .
                                        269

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
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     043008
        POLLUTION  CONTROL IN HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS.
        Quebedeaux,  W.  A.
        Oklahoma  Eng.  Exp. Sta. Publ.,  no.  97,  23(1)t63-73,   Dec.
     1955.
        OKLAHOMA  ENG EXP STA PUBL   1955
        TECH    Method of Support: NONE
        Instead of  setting definite limits on  the  concentration  of
     noxious   contaminants  in  industrial  stacks,    Harris County
     decided to al  ow  n y that am  unt  which  did  not   materially
     affect the residents in close proximity  to a given  plant.    To
     promote   air-pollution  abatement,   the  Texas   State  Health
     Department and the Harris County Health Unit evolved a  program
     including open hearings,  meetings with  industrial  committees
     of the Houston Chamber of Commerce,  and  conferences  between
     health  department personnel and representatives  of  industries
     producing considerable  pollution.    By   cooperation   with
     industry  and interested citizen groups, much of  the Industrial
     air  pollution  was  eliminated by the end of  1953.    In  1954.
     laboratory  facilities were enlarged so that all  air and  water
     samples   collected could be handled and personnel combined for
     better organization.   Financial id was given  to  the plan on a
     per capita basis  by 17 municipalities in  Harris  County.   Some
     specific  conditions which have been remedied by  actions of the
     Stream and  Air Pollution Control Se tion  and/or   with  the  co
     peravtivo  efforts  of  the  plants  responsible  are  listed.
     Incidences  of  legal prosecution,  including  civil   and  penal
     cases arc summarized.
        Descriptors:   PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  ADMINISTRATION;  CONTROL
     AGENCIES;   TEXAS;  AMERICA;  NORTH  AMERICA;   UNITED  STATES;
     HOUSTON;    INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION SOURCES;  SOURCES:   STATIONARY
     EMISSION  SOURCES;  WATER POLLUTION;   NON-INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION
     SOURCES  (NEC): WATER BODIES
        Category!  LEGAL AND ADMIN
      Houston, City of,  Chamber of Commerce,
            Program description of the  Houston area oxidants study
       (The HAOS Blue Book).
            Houston, Tx.,  June 1976.

      Houston, Tx.,. Texas-air pollution;  photochemical  pollutants;
      *Air pollution-social  and environmental effects;

         This document is the Program Description of the Houston Area Oxidants
     Study  (referred to as the HAOS "Blus Book").It presents a discussion of
     the program that the Houston Chamber of  Ccrnnerce, its associated members,
     and 50BiB_.citize_ns_ of Southeast Texas are sponsoring to evaluate the impact
     of the "airborne photochemical oxidants (and haze) on the socoii, economic
     end environmental coiraunities in the Houston area.  The sponsors recognize
     that Houston's projected economic growth could affect its air quality; how-
     ever,  the extent of this effect is unknown.  To quantify the unknown, several
     projects, having both socio-economic and environmental aspects, have been
     grouped into an overall study (the Houston Area Oxidants Study).
                                        270

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                 APPROVAL  AND PROMULGATION OF STATE IMPLEMENTATION

       PLANS. NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA. TEXAS.
         Fr i, Robert W.
         Federal Register, 38(127): 17782-17811, July 3, 1973.
         FEDERAL REGISTER   1973
         TECH   Method of Support: INHOUSE
         New Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  and Texas  state   Implementation
       plans  of  the  national  ambient  air  quality  standards are
       presented.   Pollution in the New Jersey portions of  the  Nev»
       Jersey-New  York-   Connecticut  region  and  the Philadelphia
       metropolitan  region  are  reviewed,    along   with   control
       methodology, current studies,  proposed controls on stationary
       and  mobile sources,  and the economic and social impact of the
       New   Jersey  transportation  control  plan.   A compilation of
       control  strategy effects is presented:  and daylight  delivery
       ban   regulations,   a  motorcycle  limitation  program,   gas
       limitation regulations,  the control of dry  cleaning  solvent
       evaporation, storage of petroleum products,  paint and varnish
       operations,  and Federal compliance schedules  are  discussed.
       The    Pennsylvania    implementation   plan   is   presented.
       Transportation  control  alternatives,    additional   control
       strategies,    control   of  mobile  sources,    implementation
       procedures,  the economic and social impact,  direct costs  to
       automobile  owners,   tax  revenue  imolicat ions,  and various
       studies  and guidelines are reviewed.  The Texas  implementation
       program  is presented,   along with various  control  strategies
       for   stationnry   and   mobile   sources   in   the  areas  of
       Houston-Galveston, Austin.  Dallas-Fort Worth, San Antonio, and
       El Paso.   The socio-economic impact and efforts  to  mitigate
       the  effects of proposed regulations are reviewed.
         Descriptors:   PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  ADMINISTRATION;   CONTROL
       PROGRAMS; COSTS; ECONOMICS; NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS: GOVERNMENTS;
       STATE GOVERNMENTS; REGULATIONS; LEGAL ASPECTS;  SOCIO-ECONOMIC
       FACTORS;    AIR  QUALITY  STANDARDS!   STANDARDS;   COMPLIANCE
       (RESPIRATORY); BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND FUNCTIONS: RESPIRATORY
       FUNCTIONS; NEW JERSEY; AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA;  UNITED STATES:
       PENNSYLVANIA;   TEXAS;  INDUSTRIAL EMISSION SOURCES;  SOURCES:
       STATIONARY EMISSION SOURCES; DRY CLEANING PLANTS (EXCEPT RUG):
       SERVICE  INDUSTRIES;  PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTION:  SURFACE  COATING
       OPERATIONS;  TRANSPORTATION METHODS;  tyOBILE EMISSION SOURCES:
       PLANS AND PROGRAMS
         Identifiers: IMPLEMENTATION PLANS
         Category! LEGAL AND ADMIN
        079189
          PUBLIC  ATTIDUTE SURVEY ON AUTO AIR POLLUTION IN THE GREATER
        HOUSTON AREA.
          Subcommittee on Environmental  Pollution (Editors)
          In:  Implementation of  Transportation Controls.  93rd Congress
        (Senate),  Second Session, Serial  93-H29,  p.  98-113,   May 1  and
        2, 1974. (Hearings before the Committee on Public Works.)
          1974
          FLO    Method of Support: NONE
          The   results  of  a  survey of  public opinion in the Houston
        area regarding air pollution are  presented.   More than 93/4   of
        the  respondents  felt  that air  pollution was a problem in  the
        area.    Some 71%  of 163 households questioned indicated  that
        they favored a retrofit  program  costing about $50.00; only  35X
                                       271

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
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      supported   a   retrofit   program   costing   $200.00.     An
      inspection/maintenance program was  favored  by  82%   of   the
      respondents.     Reaction  to  all  types of travel restrictive
      controls was  strongly negative.   Response to transit  related
      questions  generally indicated the area s current  low reliance
      on public transit.  About 37%  of the respondents  indicated an
      Interest in car pooling for worK commute trips.  An additional
      9.5X   were currently car-pooling.   Staggered work hours were
      favored by 71%  of the respondents  as  a  means   of  reducing
      congestion and pollution.   Only 7.5%  of the respondents were
      willing to consider disposal of a family car if better  public
      transit service were available.
        Descriptors:   RETROFIT  PROGRAMS;  ADMINISTRATION;  CONTROL
      PROGRAMS;  PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  TRANSPORTATION CONTROL  PLANS;
      COSTS;     ECONOMICS;    OPINION   SURVEYS;    PUBLIC  AFFAIRS;
      SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS;  ENGINE EXHAUSTS;   ENGINE  EMISSIONS;
      POLLUTANTS;  HOUSTON;  AMERICA;  NORTH AMERICA;  TEXAS;  UNITED
      STATES; INSPECTION; CONTROL METHODS; MAINTENANCE;  AUTOMOBILES;
      LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES;  MOBILE EMISSION SOURCES;  MOTOR  VEHICLE
      SOURCES; SOURCES;  TRANSPORTATION METHODS
        Category:  SOCIAL ASPECTS
       Gise, James P.,
           "Recent ozone trends in Texas,"
            Presented  at the 83rd AIChE National Meeting, Houston
       March 1977.
       University of Texas at Austin, Atmospheric Science Group,
            Scientific Report Series.  Report Nos.  6, 15, 16, 18,  19,
       22, 23, 24, 29, 35, 36, 37,  38, 40 and 48 are meteorological  studies
       pertaining to the Texas Gulf Coast.
            Austin,  TX, various dates.
       040913
         SIMULATION  OF  ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

         Preprint,   American Meteorological Society,  Boston,  Mass.,
       12p.,   1971.   4  refs.  (Presented at the American  Meteorology
       Society Meeting,  51st,   San Francisco,  Calif.,  Jan.  11-14,

         AM'METEOROL soc  MEET 51ST SAN FRANCISCO CALIF  1971    1971
         THEO    Method  of Support: NONE
         A  computer  simulation  model  representing   a    mesoscale
       ecosystem  was designed to study the evolution of an  ecosystem
       of  a period of 25  yr.   Interest centers  on  the  statistical
       properties  of  a   field  of  variables.    Interaction  between
       variables is primarily governed by  conditional   probabilities.
         So-ne   d°terministic   components   are  used   but   they  are
       controlled by the environment in which  they are  imbedded.  The
        environment  modeled   is   the    Houston-Dallas-San    Antonio
        ecosystem.    The variety of possible  futures which  can evolve
        from particular sets of management  policies  is  -demonstrated.
                                        272

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)
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     Trie  system   is   structured witn submodels for atmospheric and
     Hydro logic behavior, population dynamicSi  and decision making
     routines.     A  clear   application  of the model is to provide
     optimal resource  management practices.
       Descriptors:    PLANS   AND  PROGRAMS;   ADMINISTRATION;   AIR
     RESOURCE   MANAGEMENT;     URBAN  AREAS;   METROPOLITAN  AREAS;
     COMPUTERS; SIMULATION
       Category:  LEGAL AND ADMIN
      Worth, James J. B. and Robert E.  Neligan,  The Sources

      and Long Distance Transport of Ozone, Research Triangle
      Park, N.C.,  Research Triangle Inst.
      Texas Air Control Board,
           Status of major compliance programs in the Brownsville-Laredo, Corpus
      Christi, Houston/Galveston. Dallas,  San Antonio/Eagle Pass, and El Paso
      air quality control regions.
           Austin, TX, Dec. 19>6.


       Air pollution-particulate emissions-standards and criteria; *Texas-
       air pollution; Air pollution-air quality maintenance plans; Air pollution-
       implementation plans; Houston, Texas-air pollution;N
        078337
          TEXAS: STATUS OF OXIDANT CONTROL STRATEGY  PLAN.
          Strelow,  Roger
          Federal Register, 40(57):13025-13026, March  24,  1975.
          FEDERAL REGISTER   1975
          TECH   Method of Support: INHOUSE
          The  status  of  various  regulations   for attainment  of the
        primary  standard  for  photochemical  oxidants   in  Texas  is
        discussed.   Tne U.  S.  Circuit Court of  Appeals.required that
        the Environmental Protection Agency defer regulations  in  the
        Houston-Galveston  Region  that  account   for  at   least  0.9%
        reductions   in  hydrocarpon  emissions  because   of  Questions
        concerning  emission data.  The Court pointed out  that the 0.9%
        could  be  supplied,   for  the  time being,   by-deferral of a
        regulation  on stage II  vapor  recovery,   because  the   Court
        required  the  Agency  to reconsider that regulation for other
        reasons.    The  EPA  has  taken  no  steps  to   enforce   the
        regulation.   The Court stated that,  unless  the Agency decided
        to defer one of them in place of the stage II  vapor  recovery
        regulation,    regulations  on  degreasing operations, state I
        vapor -recovery during the filling of storage tanks,  ship  and
        oarge  controls,   vehicle  inspection  and  maintenance,  and
        retrofit of  pre-1968 automobiles are valid and enforceable for
        the Houston-Galveston Air Quality Control  Region.   Motions for
        renearing on ship and barge controls  were   denied.   Shortly
        after  the   decision,  the Environmental  Protection Agency and
        the Texas Air Control Board began  a  joint  study  that  will
        satisfy the  requirement of the court to reexamine  the accuracy
        of  certain  technical data relating to emission reductions and
        the   consequent   need   for   various    emission   reduction
        regulations.    The  study  suggests  the need for additional
                                      273

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
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      controls  in  most  regions  if  tie  oxidant  standard  Is  to be met.
       Descriptors:    DECISIONS;    LEGAL   ASPECTS;     HYDROCARBONS;
      PHOTOOXIDATION;    CHEMICAL   AND   PHYSICAL  PHENOMENA;  CHEMICAL
      REACTIONS; PHOTOCHEMICAL  REACTIONS;   VAPORS;  PHYSICAL STATES;
      REGULATIONS;  STANDARDS; OXIDANTS;  POLLUTANTS; HOUSTON; AMERICA
      ; NORTH AMERICA;  TEXAS; UNITED STATES; VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEMS;
      CONTROL   EQUIPMENT-GAS  STREAMS;   AUTOMOTIVE EMISSION CONTROL;
      CONTROL   METHODS;    INSPECTION;    MAINTENANCE;    AUTOMOBILES?
      LIGHT-DUTY   VEHICLES;  MOBILE  EMISSION SOURCES;   MOTOR VEHICLE
      SOURCES;  SOURCES;   TRANSPORTATION METHODS;  VESSELS  (MARINE);
      DECREASING;    STATIONARY  EMISSION SOURCES;  STORAGE  FACILITIES
      (BULK  LIQUID);  INDUSTRIAL EMISSION SOURCES
       Category:  LEGAL  AND ADMIN
      060756
        TRANSPORTATION  CONTROL STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE GREATER
      HOUSTON AREA. (FINAL REPORT).
        TRW Transportation and  Environmental  Operations!   Redondo
      Beach, Calif., Land Use Planning Branch (Editors)
        Office  of  Air  Quality  Planning  and  Standards  Contract
      68-02-0041. Proj- DU-72-B895,  RePt.  APTD-1373,  I88p.,  Dec.
      1972. 50 refs.
        1972
        THEO BIB   Method of Support: CONTRACT
        Control  measures are presented that,  if fully implemented,
      win allo*r achievement of ambient air quality standards in the
      Greater Houston Area by 1977;  the measures pertain to control
      of  photochemical  oxidants  and  carbon  monoxide.    Phase I
      measures include:  continued evaluation  of  control  measures
      with expansion of the air monitoring program and  initiation of
      a  regular  review of air quality and emission  inventory data;
      tightening and expanding of the Regulation V stationary source
      controls  with  inclusion  of  all  counties  in  the  region;
      implementation of an annual inspection/maintenance program for
      in-use  vehicles;   substantial  improvement  in mass transit;
      institution of parking measures In  all  high  density  areas;
      initiation  of  car  pool  incentives;   and  promulgation  of
      regulations to control fugitive  and  evaporative  hydrocarbon
      emissions.    Implementation of catalytic converter retrofit on
      all  1960-1974 automobiles  and/or  reduction  in  the  vehicle
      miles traveled during the summer and fall  is recommended if at
      the  end  of  the   initial  evaluation  period   in  1974 it is
      determined that additional hydrocarbon emission  reductions are
      requ i red.
        Descriptors:  AREA SURVEYS;   ADMINISTRATION;   AIR  QUALITY
      MEASUREMENT   PROGRAMS;   PLANS  AND  PROGRAMS;    AIR  RESOURCE
      MANAGEMENT; HOUSTON;  AMERICA;  NORTH AMERICA;   TEXAS;  UNITED
      STATES;   URBAN AREAS;  METROPOLITAN AREAS;  FUEL EVAPORATION;
      ENGINE EMISSIONS; POLLUTANTS;  OXIDANTS;   MASS  TRANSPORTATION;
      MOBILE   EMISSION  SOURCES;   SOURCES;  TRANSPORTATION METHODS;
      AUTOMOBILES;  LIGHT-DUTY  VEHICLES;   MOTOR  VEHICLE  SOURCES;
      MONITORING;   MEASUREMENT  METHODS;   CATALYTIC   AFTERBURNERS;
      CONTROL  EQUIPMENT-GAS STREAMS;    INCINERATORS   (WASTE  GASES);
      CONTROL  METHODS;   AUTOMOTIVE  EMISSION CONTROL:   INSPECTION;
      MAINTENANCE:  CARBON MONOXIDE; OXIDES; HYDROCARBONS
        rof *>n,-.~.. •  rnnrnni Mcrurinc
                                       274

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
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     050629
       TRANSPORTATION CONTROLS TO REDUCE MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS IN
     MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREAS.
       GCA Corp., Bedford, Mass.,  Technology Div.  and TRW Systems
     Group,   VIcLean,   Va. ,   Transportation   and   Environmental
     Operations  (Editors)
       Office  of  Air  and  Water Programs Contract 68-02-0041 and
     Contract 68-02-0048, PuO-APTD-1462, Proj.  DLJ-72-B895,  137p.,
     Dec.  1972.  7 refs.
       1972
       THEO  FLO   Method of Support: CONTRACT
       USGRDR No.: NTIS,  PB 218938
       Transportation  control  strategies  to reduce motor vehicle
     emissions in fourteen major metropolitan areas  were  studied.
     Implementation  plans  were  reviewed to verify and assess the
     severity of the carbon monoxide and oxidant pollutant problem.
       Control strategies  were  identified  and  their  impact  on
     emissions,  as well as the feasibility of achieving control was
     considered.    The   likely impact anticipated from each of the
     control techniques was estimated using established rollback or
     modelvng nethods;  obstacles to  the  implementation  programs
     were    documented;    and  surveillance  programs  to  monitor
     Implementation progress were developed.   The  fourteen  areas
     studied included  Dayton,   Denver,   Houston/Galveston,  Los
     Angeles,    New  York  City,   Philadelphia,    Phoenix/Tucson,
     Baltimore,   Boston,   Pittsburgh,   Salt Lake City,  Spokane,
     Seattle,  Minneapolis/St.  Paul.   The  air  quality  problems
     encountered in  each  of  these areas are discussed,  and the
     recommended strategies for encn city are  given.    Strategies
     include inspection,   maintenance,  gaseous fuel use,  engine
     operation modifications,  traffic  flow  improvements,  and mass
     transi t.
       Descriptors:   PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  ADMINISTRATION;  CONTROL
     PROGRAMS;   FEASIBILITY  STUDIES;   AIR   QUALITY   STANDARDS;
     STANDARDS:  EMISSION  STANDARDS: PERFORMANCE STANDARDS; ARIZONA;
     AMERICA; MORTH AMERICA; UNITED STATES; LOS ANGELES; CALIFORNIA
     J COLORADO; MARYLAND; MASSACHUSETTS; MINNESOTA; NEW YORK CITY;
     NEW YORK STATE; OHIO; PHILADELPHIA; PENNSYLVANIA;  PITTSBURGH;
     HOUSTON;  TEXAS;  UTAH;   WASHINGTON  (STATE);   URBAN  AREAS;
   .  METROPOLITAN AREAS;  ENGINE EMISSIONS;  POLLUTANTS;  OXIDANTS;
     FUEL  GASES;  FUELS;  SOURCES;   STATIONARY  EMISSION  SOURCES;
     TRANSPORTATION   METHODS;    MOBILE  EMISSION  SOURCES;   MASS
     TRANSPORTATION; MOTOR VEHICLE SOURCES; MONITORING; MEASUREMENT
     METHODS; AUTOMOTIVE  EMISSION CONTROL; CONTROL METHODS;  ENGINE
     OPERATION MODIFICATION;  INSPECTION; MAINTENANCE;  MATHEMATICAL
     ANALYSES; CARBON MONOXIDE; OXIDES; ARIZONA; COLORADO; MARYLAND
     ; MASSACHUSETTS; MINNESOTA;  OHIO;  PLANS AND PROGRAMS;  UTAH;
     WASHINGTON  (STATE)
       Identifiers: PHOENIX; DENVER; BALTIMORE; BOSTON; MINNEAPOLIS
     5   DAYTON;   IMPLEMENTATION PLANS;  SALT LAKE CITY;  SEATTLE;
     SPOKANE
       Category: LEGAL ANO ADMIN
                                       275

-------
BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL
                                      to
                                      Texas.
progress toward a
ID NO.- MJA23C50169
  Use  of statistical tecnniques
clean air  environment:  Houston,
  Severs, R.  K.
  School of Public Health,
  A tmoaohor i c Env i ronmon t,
  CTRY OF PU3L:UK
  DOC TYPE: j
  DESCRIPTORS:  Atmospheric  pollution control  studies;  Houston.
I GX** j
  UCD NOT:551 .5l0.42:62rj.5
                                Univ. of Tox.,  Houston
                                Oxford, 5(10)=853-001,  Oct
          1971
      039888
        WE  DON T HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS.
        Air Repair, 2(2):52-58, Nov. 1952.
        AIR REPAIR   1952
      /  GEN   Method of Support: NONE
      >  Efforts  by  industry  to  reduce  air  pollution
      County, Tex.,  especially in the Ship Channel area,
      by   industry representatives at a public hearing in
      excerpts from their testimony.   Statements by local
                                                      in Harris
                                                      are ci tec!
                                                     Houston  in
                                                      officials
       are  also given.   Specific problems discussed include odors and
       fly   ash   from  a  pulp  mill,  dust and odors from a chemical
       plant, dusts and  smoke from a  fertilizer plant,  odors from an
       alkali plant, and  refinery emissions.
         Descriptors:  ABATEMENT;  COMMERCIAL FIRMS;  HEARINGS;  LEGAL
       ASPECTS; HOUSTON;  AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA; TEXAS; UNITED STATES
       !  URBAN AREAS;  METROPOLITAN AREAS;  PARTICULATE CLASSIFICATION
       METHODS; POLLUTANTS; DUSTS', PARTICULARS;  SETTLING ' PARTICLES;
       FLY  ASH; SUSPENDED PARTICULATES;  SMOKES;  CHEMICAL PROCESSES:
       INDUSTRIAL  EMISSION  SOURCES;   SOURCES;  STATIONARY EMISSION
       SOURCES;    PETROLEUM  REFINING;    MANUFACTURING    INDUSTRIES:
       PETROLEUM   AND  COAL PRODUCTS  INDUSTRY;  AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL
       PLANTS; CHEMICALS  AND ALLIED MANUFACTURING; PAPER MILLS} PAPER
       AND  ALLIED MANUFACTURING
         Category:  CONTROL METHODS
                                      276

-------
ADDITIONS TO BIBLIOGRAPHY
          277

-------
ADDITIONS TO BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
EMISSIONS

          Kaiser, William R. et al.,
               "The impact of coal utilization in Texas under the National
          Energy Plan", Paper No. 78-13.3.
               Presented at the 71st Annual APCA Meeting, Houston, TX,
          June 25-30, 1978.

          Dakik, Ghazi A.,
               Radioactive isotope  emissions from coal and lignite combus-
          tion to the atmosphere, MS thesis.
               Austin, TX, University of Texas, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
          1977.
                                    278

-------
ADDITIONS TO BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING
          McDaniel, Willard Rich,
               Analysis of the methods of predicting high concentrations of
          air pollutants, Master's Thesis.
               College Station, TX, Texas A&M University, Dept. of Meteoro-
          logy, 1967.

          Mayberger, Thomas Allan,
               An appraisal of the aerodynamic and morphological characteris-
          tics of ambient air particulates in relation to pulmonary de-
          position in Houston, TX, Master's Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, The University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1971.

          Woods, Philip H.,
               Comparative air pollution conditions in 241 metropolitan
          areas:  a physician's desk reference^ Master's Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1974.

          Neal, Robert Michael,
               Comparative analyses of total oxidant and ozone ambient air
          quality data, Master's Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1975.

          Peng, Chi-Ping Jack,
               A comparative study of the air pollution problem between
          city of Taipei and city of Houston, M.S. Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1974.

          Owens, Sheryl,
               Lead Poisoning of children in the slums;  a comparison of
          two different environments — St. Louis, Missouri and Houston,
          Texas, Master's Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1972.

          Rawlings, G.D. and H.B.H. Cooper,
               "Organic, elemental and particulate mercury in urban at-
          mospheres,"
               in Proceedings of  the Speciality Conference on Air Quality
          Measurements, Southwest Section of the Air Pollution Control Associa-
          tion, Austin, TX, March 10-11, 1975
                                   279

-------
ADDITIONS TO BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
MONITORING

          Nahm, James Jang Woo,
               Photochemical alteration of hydrocarbons adsorbed on aerosols
          in the Houston area, Ph.D. Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1976.

          Turpin, Anita Jane Beasley,
               Rainfall scavenging of four major pollutants in a large
          industrial-metropolitan area, MS Thesis.
               Austin, TX, University of Texas, Dept. of Environmental
          Health Engineering, Aug. 1973.

          Perkins, Jimmie,
               Spanish mass as an indicator of metal contamination in the
          Houston, Texas air environment, Master's Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1975.

          Chen, Chia Ting,
               Suspended particulate size distribution in Houston, Master's
          Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1973.
                                    280

-------
ADDITIONS TO BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
METEOROLOGY

          Norton, Colburn Lee,
               An atmospheric mixing index for Houston, Texas,  Master's
          Thesis.
               College Station, TX, Texas A&M University, Dept. of
          Meteorology, 1975.

          Nicknish, Christine A.,
               A model of photochemical smog including gas to particle
          conversion for humid and dry climates, MS Thesis.
               Houston, TX, University of Houston, 1978.

          Miksad, R. W. and A. R. Laird,
               A note on the correlation of total suspended particulates
          with wind speed and mixing height in the Houston-Galveston Area.
               Austin, TX, Texas Air Control Board, 1976.

          Randerson, Darrell,
               A numerical model for predicting the diffusion of sulfur
          dioxide in the atmosphere, Master's Thesis
               College Station, TX, Texas A&M University, Dept. of Meteo-
          rology, 1968.

          Thomas, John Charles,
               On airflow in the vicinity of tall buildings in downtown
          Houston, Texas, Master's Thesis.
               College Station, TX, Texas A&M University, Dept. of Meteo-
          rology, 1971.

          Johnson, James Ray,
               The origin, structure and modification of return flow over
          the Gulf of Mexico, Master's Thesis.
               College Station, TX, Texas A&M University, Dept. of Meteo-
          rology, 1976.
                                    281

-------
ADDITIONS TO BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued)
CONTROL

          Diamond, Roger,
               Air Pollution Control Agency organization:  a regional ap-
          proach, Masters' Thesis.
               Houston, TX, School of Public Health, University of Texas
          Health Sciences Center, 1973.

          Michalak, R. W.,
               Air pollution control in Texas, Master's Thesis.
               Houston, TX, University of Houston, Dept. of Civil Engine-
          ering, 1975.

          Cooper, H. B. H.,
               Detailed Comments on Hydrocarbon Controls for Texas, Houston-
          Galveston Air Quality Control Region 7, Transportation Control
          Implementation Plan, Special Report for Sea Grant Project No.
          53368.
               Environmental Quality Advisory Service, Environmental
          Engineering Division, Texas A&M University, College Station,
          Texas, July 25, 1973.

          Dimitriades, Basil,
               "EPA's View of the Oxidant Problem in Houston,"
          Environmental Science and Technology, 12(6), 642-43 (1978).

          Magee, Michael L.,
               An evaluation of the restrictiveness of Texas Air Control
          Board Regulation V on control of volatile carbon compounds, MS
          Thesis.
               Austin, TX, University of Texas, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
          1978.

          Wyatt, Robert Christopher,
               Exploring  organizational attempts to affect environmental
          policy in an urban area:  an analysis of the bases for success
          or failure, Master's Thesis.
               Austin, TX, University of Texas, 1976.

          Files, John T.,
               "Houston area oxidants study,"
          Environmental Science and Technology, 12(6), 638-41 (1978).
                                     282

-------
                         APPENDIX A




SUMMARY OF EMISSIONS FROM AREA TYPE SOURCES IN THE HOUSTON AREA
                            283

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                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                           (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing]
 RE°ORT NO.
  EPA-600/8-79-008C
                                                           3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION«NO.
 TITLE AND SUBTITLE
  PLAN FOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH  IN  THE TEXAS GULF
  COAST AREA
  Volume III.  Summary of Previous Air  Quality Studies
            5. REPORT DATE
               April  1979
            6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
                and  Data
  B. Lambeth,  B.  Maxey and W. Stadig
            8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
  Radian Corporation
  P. 0. Box  9948
  8500 Shoal Creek Boulevard
  Austin,  TX  78758
             10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
               1AA603   AH-12  (FY-79)
             11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
               68-02-2955
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
  Environmental  Sciences Research  Laboratory-RTF, NC
  Office of Research and Development
  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
  Research Triangle Park, NC  27711
             13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
               Final
             14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
               EPA/600/09
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
16. ABSTRACT

       In response to Congressional mandates, the U.  S.  Environmental  Protection
  Agency will  conduct an extensive study of air pollution related problems in the
  Texas Gulf Coast Area.  As an  initial effort, EPA awarded a contract to review
  the existing technical information and record the local viewpoint on air
  pollution problems in the area,  define research needs, and design experimental
  studies addressed to these needs.  Results are presented in 5 volumes.   Volume III
  summarizes previous air quality  studies and presents technical data.
17.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
                                              b.IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
                           c. COSATI Field/Group
  *  Air  pollution
  *  Planning
  *  Research
  Texas Gulf Coast
   13B
   05A
   14F
18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  RELEASE  TO PUBLIC
19. SECURITY CLASS (ThisReport)
 UNCLASSIFIED
21. NO. OF PAGES
    302
                                               20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage)
                                               UNCLASSIFIED
                                                                          22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)
                                            294

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