United States
        Environmental Protection
        Agency
Environmental
Research Laboratory
Athens GA 30605
EPA-600/9-81-015
February 1981
        Research and Development
f/EPA  Center for
        Water Quality
        Modeling

        User's Manual
        for
        Stream Quality
        Model (QUAL-II)
              ENVlROlNMbNIAi
               PROTECTION
                AGENCY
              DALLAS, TEXAS

               UKMV

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                                   EPA 600/9-81-015
                                   February 1981
             USER'S  MANUAL

                for  the

        STREAM QUALITY  MODEL

                QUAL-II
               Prepared by
            Larry A. Roesner
            Paul R. Giguere
            Donald E. Evenson
              Prepared  for
Southeast Michigan Council of Governments
            Detroit, Michigan
               July 1977
          (Revised January 1981)
      Environmental Research Laborabory
     Office of Research and Development
    U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency
               Athens, Georgia

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                              FOREWORD

      QUAL-II/SEMCOG version was developed by Water Resources Engineers
for the Southeast Michigan Council  of Governments (SEMCOG) under Section
208 of PL 92-500.  It represents a  substantial improvement over previous
versions of the model and is being  made available through the Center for
Water Quality Modeling as a service to interested users with the permission
of SEMCOG.  Mention of trade names  or commercial  products does not consti-
tute endorsement or recommendation  for use by the U.S.  Environmental
Protection Agency.

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                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                     Page

I.    INTRODUCTION                                                    1

      History and Acknowledgments                                     2

II.   GENERAL MODEL SPECIFICATIONS                                    4

      Prototype Representation                                        4
      Model Limitations                                               5
      Model Structure and Subroutines                                 5
      Program Language and Operating Requirements                      7
      Typical Execution Times                                         7
      Job Control Considerations                                      7

III.  PROBLEM DEFINITION                                              8

IV.   MODEL SETUP AND INPUT REQUIREMENTS                              12

      Title Data Cards (Form 1 of 19)                                 12
      Program Analysis Control Data (Form 2 of 19)                     13
      Nonspatially Variable A, N, and P Constants  (Form 2 of 19)       15
      Reach Identification and River Mile Data (Form 3 of 19)          16
      Flow Augmentation Data (Form 4 of 19)                           16
      Computational Elements Flag Field Data  (Form  5 of 19)            17
      Hydraulic Data (Form 6 of 19)                                   18
      BOD and DO Reaction Rate Constants Data (Form 7 of 19)          19
      Algae, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Constants (Form 8 of 19)          Jo
      Other Constants (Form 9 of 19)                                  21
      Initial Conditions Data (Form 10 of 19)                         22
      Initial Conditions for Algae, N, P, Coliforms, and
         Nonconservative Constituent (Form 11 of 19)                  23
      Incremental Inflow Data (Form 12 of 19)                         23
      Incremental Inflow for Algae, N, P, Coliforms and
         Nonconservative Constituent (Form 13 of 19)                  24
      Stream Junction Data (Form 14 of 19)                            25
      Headwater Sources Data (Form 15 of 19)                           27
      Headwater Sources Data for Algae, N, P, Coliforms, and
         Nonconservative Constituent (Form 16 of 19)                  28
      Point Source Inputs and Withdrawals Data (Form 17 of 19)         28
      Point Source Data for Algae, N, P, Coliforms, and
         Nonconservative Constituent (Form 18 of 19)                  29
      Local Climatological Data (Form 19 of 19)                        30

V.    EXAMPLE PROBLEM                                                 51

      Example Problem Data Listing                                    55
      Example Problem Output                                          57

VI.   APPLICATION AND CALIBRATION    .                                67

      Quantity Calibration                                            67
      Quality Calibration                                             69

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F.                       LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLE
  No.                                                                   Page
  11-1       General  Structure of QUAL-II                                 6
  III-l      A Schematic Diagram of a Hypothetical  Stream System          9
  IV-1       Stream Network Example to Illustrate Data Input             26
  V-l        Example Problem Network                                     52
 Table
  No.
  III-l      Input Parameters for QUAL-II
                                     iv

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                              I.   IIITRODUCTIO:i
          QUAL-II is a comprehensive and versatile stream water quality

model.  It can simulate up to 13 water qualify  constituents  in  any

combination desired by the user.  Constituents  which can  be  simulated  are:

          1.   Dissolved Oxygen
          2.   Biochemical  Oxygen Demand
          3.   Temperature
          4.   Algae as Chlorophyll  a_
          5.   Ammonia
          6.   Nitrite
          7.   Nitrate
          8.   Phosphate
          9.   Coliforms
         10.   Arbitrary Nonconservative Constituent
         11.   Three Conservative Constituents

The model is  applicable to dendritic streams which are well  mixed.  It

assumes that the major transport mechanisms, advection and dispersion, are

significant only along the main direction of flow (longitudinal  axis of
the stream or canal).  It allows for multiple waste discharges, withdrawals,

tributary flows, and incremental inflow.   It also has the capability to

compute required dilution flows for flow augmentation to  meet any prespecified

dissolved oxygen level.


          Hydraulically QUAL-II is  limited to the simulation of time periods

during which  the stream flows in the river basin are essentially constant.
Input waste loads must also be held constant over time.  QUAL-II can be

operated as a steady-state model or a dynamic model.  Dynamic operation  makes
it possible to study water quality (primarily dissolved oxygen  and temperature)

as it is affected by diurnal variations in meteorological data.   The basic

theory and mechanics behind the development of  QUAL-II are described in  the

Program Documentation Manual which  is intended  to supplement this User's

Manual.

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          QUAL-II  can be  very  helpful as  a water quality planning tool.  It
can be used to study the  impact  of waste  loads  (magnitude, quality and location)
on in-stream water quality.   It  could also be  used in conjunction with a field
sampling program to identify  the magnitude and  quality  characteristics of
nonpoint source waste loads.   By operating the  model dynamically, diurnal
dissolved oxygen variations due  to algae  growth and  respiration can be
studied.  Dynamic  operation also makes  it possible to trace  the waj;er quality
impact of a slug loading,  such as a  spill, or  of seasonal or periodic discharges.

HISTORY AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

          QUAL-II/SEMCOG  VERSION is  a new release of QUAL-II  which was
developed by Water Resources  Engineers, Inc.   It includes modifications and
refinements made in the model  since  its original development in 1972 and
is intended to supersede  all  prior releases of the computer  program.  The
significant differences between  this program and earlier releases are:

          1.  Option of English  or Metric units on input data.
          2.  Option for  English or  Metric output—choice is
              independent  of  input units.
          3.  Option to specify  channel hydraulic properties
              in terms of trapezoidal channels  or stage-discharge
              and  velocity discharge curves.
          4.  Option to use Tsivoglou's computational method for
              stream reaeration.
          5.  Improved output  display routines.
          6.  Improved steady-state  temperature computation  routines.

          QUAL-II  is an extension of the  stream water quality model QUAL-I
developed in 1970  by F. D.  Masch and Associates and  the Texas Water
Development Board.   The computer code was written by W. A. White.  In

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1972, WRE under contract to the U.  S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency,
modified and extended QUAL-I to produce the first version  of QUAL-II.   Over
the next three years, several  different versions  of  the model evolved  in
response to specific client needs.   In March of 1976,  the  Southeast Michigan
Council of Governments (SEMCOG) contracted with WRE  to make further modifi-
cations and to combine the best features of the existing versions  of QUAL-II
into a single model.  QUAL-II/SEMCOG VERSION is that Model.

          The authors greatly appreciate the cooperation and assistance
provided to them by members of the  SEMCOG 208 planning staff.   In  particular,
we thank Peter G.  Collins, 208 Technical Coordinator,  and  James W.  Ridqway,
Hydrologist, for their assistance in modifying the computer code and in
testing, debugging and calibrating  this prooram.

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                      II.   GENERAL MODEL SPECIFICATIONS
PROTOTYPE REPRESENTATION

          QUAL-II  permits  any  branching,  one-dimensional stream system to be
simulated.   The first step involved  in  approximating the prototype is to
subdivide the stream system into  reaches, which are stretches of stream
that have uniform hydraulic characteristics.   Each reach is  then divided
into computational  elements of equal  length so that all computational
elements in all reaches  are the same  length.   Thus, all reaches must consist
of an integer number of  computational elements.

          In total, there  are  seven  different  types of computational elements;
these are:
          1.  Headwater  element
          2.  Standard element
          3.  Element just upstream  from a junction
          4.  Junction element
          5.  Last element in  system
          6.  Input element
          7.  Withdrawal  element

Headwater elements begin  every tributary as well  as the main river system,
and as such, they must always  be  the first element in a reach.  A standard
element is one that does  not qualify as one of the remaining six element
types.  Since incremental  inflow  is  permitted  in  all element types,  the only
input permitted in a standard  element is incremental inflow.  A type 3
element is used to designate an element on the mainstem that is just
upstream from a junction  element  (type  4) which  is an element that has a
simulated tributary entering it.   Element type 5  identifies  the last
computational element in  the river system; there  should be only one  element
type 5.  Element types 6  and 7 represent elements which have inputs  (waste
loads and unsimulated tributaries) and  water withdrawals,  respectively.

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          River reaches, which are aggregates of computational  elements,
are the basis of most data input.   Hydrau/lic data, reaction rate coefficients,
initial conditions, and incremental  inflow data are constant for all
computational elements within a reach.
MODEL LIMITATIONS

          QUAL-II has been developed to be a relatively general  program;
however, certain dimensional  limitations have been imposed upon  it during
program development.   These limitations are as follows:
          Reaches:  a maximum of 75
          Computational elements:   no more than 20 per reach
                                   nor 500 in total
          Headwater elements:  a maximum of 15
          Junction elements:   a maximum of 15
          Input and withdrawal  elements:  a maximum of 90 in total
MODEL STRUCTURE AND SUBROUTINES

          QUAL-II  is structured as one main program, QUAL2, supported by 23
different subroutines.  Figure II-l graphically illustrates the functional
"elationships between the main program and the 23 subroutines.   The original
/ersion of QUAL was structured to permit the addition of parameters easily
through addition of subroutines.  This basic concept, which proved to be
in extremely valuable one, was maintained in the extension of the original
/ersion to QUAL-II.  Thus, if it becomes desirable at some later time to add
lew parameters or modify existing parameter relationships, the  changes can
DC made with a minimum of model restructuring.

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z
o
PROGRAM RETURN FOR FLOW AUGMENTATION OPTI
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ITERATIVE STEADY STATE SOLUTION
cc
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PROGRAM RETURN FOR DYNAMIC SOLUT
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12 £
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U-1
15
16 t>
17
18 t
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20 t
21 t
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23 .
U-
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25 .
26 ^
27 0
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INDATA

HYDRAU

TRIMAT

CONSVT

	 — 1>| CHANL



TEMPS/TEMPSS
— '• — > HEATEX/HEATER
t^

BODS


ALGAES


P04S


NH3S


N02S


N03S


REAERC

DOS


COLIS


RADIOS


'WRPT2

FLOAUG

WRPT3

i^

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program 2
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program
ement 8
                      calling sequence

                      in element A
— /           T
ce ^/  called by   /
  '"I *^   AI&.HA..A A
          FIGURE II-l


GENERAL STRUCTURE OF QUAL-II

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 PROGRAM LANGUAGE AND OPERATING REQUIREMENTS

          QUAL-II is written In FORTRAN IV and is compatible with the
 JNIVAC 1108, CDC 6400, and IBM 360 and 370 computer systems.  The SEMCOG
 version of QUAL-II requires an average of 51,000 words of core storage.
 3UAL-II uses the system's 80 column card reader as the only input device
 and the system's line printer as the only output device.
 TYPICAL EXECUTION TIMES

          Execution time on any particular computer system is nearly
 linearly related to:
          1.  The number of water quality parameters simulated,
          2.  The number of computational elements in the system, and
          3.  The number of time steps simulated when the dynamic
              simulation option is used.
Approximate execution times for a UNIVAC and IBM computer are shown below.
                                        	Execution Time	
                                        Steady-State        Dynamic
          Computer                       Simulation*       Simulation**
          UNIVAC 1108                       0.02              0.01
          IBM 360/40                        0.15              0.05

          * Seconds/water quality parameter/computational element
          **Seconds/water quality parameter/computational element/time step
JOB CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS

          If the system's normal FORTRAN input device unit is not unit 5
or the output unit is not unit 6, then the variables "NI" and "NJ" in the
subroutine INDATA should be changed to reflect the system's I/O unit
identifiers.

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                       III.   PROBLEM DEFINITION
          Problem definition as used in this document is the gathering
and subsequent reduction of basic data to the format required by QUAL-II.
The user is required to generate a card deck containing the definition of
the stream or channel  reach which he desires to model.

          The first step in the problem definition is to decide exactly
which segments of a stream or canal system are to be simulated.  A
schematic diagram of a stream system is laid out as shown in Figure III-l.
The next step is to decide what degree of detail is required.  If one is
familiar with the prototype system this decision should be fairly easy to
make.  It should be based on the amount and worth of the available data,
changes in stream geometry, and the number and location of waste inputs
or withdrawals.  Once the amount of detail is decided upon, the stream
can be broken down into reaches, which are portions of the stream system
with nearly uniform characteristics.  Reaches, headwaters, waste discharges
or withdrawals, and junctions are ordered sequentially from the uppermost
point of the system.  This breakdown also determines the amount of data
required by the program.

          The final step is to decide upon the degree of resolution that
is required.  Again, this decision should be based on some feeling for
how the prototype behaves.  For example, if the dissolved oxygen concentration
goes from saturated concentration to critical concentration and back to
saturated concentration over an interval of about five (5) river miles, a
degree of resolution of less than one (1) mile is appropriate.  Once this
decision has been made, each reach is then broken down into computational
elements or control volumes.

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Computational
Element
(Maximum of 20/Reach
 and 500/System)
                                       A
           —  3 Headwaters  (Maximum Allowable = 15)

           —  3 Point Source Loads          — \
     ^ _ •       (Wasteloads  or Small Streams) > (Maximum Allowable =90)
    
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          The next section describes the data preparation for QUAL-II.
A number of bio-chemical, stoichiometric, and rate parameters are required
as input.  Table III-l summarizes these parameters and indicates the range
of values typically used.
                                    10

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                                     TABLE  III-l
                            INPUT PARAMETERS FOR QUAL-II
INril-r PAIMHk'fKH
NAME NAMK
IN K(iU. IN QUAL
a, ALPIIA0
a, ALPHA 1
az ALPHA2
a, ALPHA3
a, ALPHA4
as ALPHAS
a, ALPHA6
"max *"«
p RESPRT
6, CKNH3
gj CKN02
o, ALGSET
o, SPH0S
o, SNH3
K, CK1
K, CK2
K, CK3
K% CK4
K5 CK5
K, CK6
Kfl CKN
Kp CKP
KL CKL
DKSCRiniHH
Ratio of chlorophyll a_
to algae blomass
Fraction of algae
blomass which 1s N
Fraction of alqae
blomass which is P
0, production per unit
of algae growth
02 uptake per unit of
algae respired
02 uptake per unit of
NH3 oxidation
02 uptake per unit of
N02 oxidation
Maximum specific growth
rate of algae
Algae respiration rate
Rate constant for biological
oxidation of NH3-«02
Rate constant for biological
oxidation of N02-N03
Local settling rate for
algae
Benthos source rate for
phosphorus
Benthos source rate for NH
Carbonaceous BOD decay rate
Reaeratlon rate
Carbonaceous BOD sink rate
Benthos source rate for BOD
Coliform die-off rate
Arbitrary nonconservative
decay rate
Nitrogen half-saturation
constant for alqae growth
Phosphorus half-saturation
constant for alqae growth
Light half-saturation
constant for algae growth
UNITS
ug Chl-A
mg A
mgN
mg A
mi P
mg A
mg 0
mg A
mg 0
mg A
mg 0
mg 0
mg N
1
day
1
day
1
357
1
day
ft
mg P
day-ft
mg M
day-ft
1
357
1
35y
day-ft
1
357
357
mg.
SSL
i
Langleys
min.
RANflK Of
VALUKS
50-100
0.08-0.00
0.012-0.015
1.4-1.8
1.6-2.3
3.0-4.0
1.0-1.14
1.0-3.0
0.05-0.5
0.1-0.5
0,5-2.0
0.5-6.0
*
*
0.1-2.0
0.0-100
-0.36-0.36
*
0.5-4.0
*
0.2-0.4
0.03-0.05
.03
VAHJAHLK
UY HKACH
Yes
No
No
No
No
Ho
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
iWKNijKtrr
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
HKLIAblLlTY
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Poor
Poor
Poor
Good
Poor
Poor
Fair
*
Fair to Good
Fair to Good
Good
•Highly variable
                                            11

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                IV.  MODEL SETUP AND INPUT REQUIREMENTS
          All the input data required by the program are in card form.  The
card data and input formats are itemized on the 19 input data forms attached
to the back of this section.  The following paragraphs give details of the
data required, with suggested parameter limits and explanations of program
requirements.
TITLE DATA CARDS (Form 1 of 19)

          All 16 cards are required in the order shown.  The first two
cards are title cards, and columns 37 to 80 of card 2 can be used to
describe the basin, i.e. name, date, season.  Title cards 3 through 15
require either a YES or a NO in columns 10-12, right adjusted.  The nitrogen
series NH3, N02» and NOa must be simulated as a group.
          For each conservative mineral to be simulated enter the constituent
name in columns 49-52 (e.g. IRON), enter the input data units (e.g. mg/1 or
yg/1) in columns 57-60.  For the Arbitrary Nonconservative constituent,
enter its name in columns 49-52 (e.g. FECL for fecal streptococci) and its
input data units (e.g. N/ml) in columns 57-60).

Card 16 must read ENOTITLE.

          NOTE:  QUAL-II simulates ULTIMATE BOD in the general case; however,
if the user wishes to use 5-day BOD for input and output, the program will
make the conversions to ultimate BOD internally.*  To use the 5-day BOD 1-0
option, write "5-DAYiBI0CHEMICAL2>0XYGENZ>DEMANDHN£MG/L" on the TITLE07 card
beginning in column 22.
*The 5- day BOD is divided by a factor of 0.68,  which is based on an assumed
 decay rate of 0.23 per day, base e.
                                   12

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PROGRAM ANALYSIS CONTROL DATA (Form 2 of 19)

          The first five cards control program options.   If any
characters other than those shown below are inserted in the first four
columns of these cards,  the action described will not occur.
          LIST - Card 1, list the input data
          WRIT - Card 2, write the intermediate output report,
                 WRPT2 (see SUBROUTINE WRPT2 IN THE DOCUMENTATION
                 MANUAL)
          FLOW - Card 3, use flow augmentation
          STEA - Card 4, on Form 2 shows this is a steady-state
                 simulation.  If it is not to be a steady-state,
                 write DYNAMIC SIMULATION and it is automatically
                 a dynamic simulation.
          TRAP - Card 5, cross-sectional data will be specified for
                 each reach (see form 6A).  If discharge coefficients
                 are to be used for velocity and depth computations
                 (see form 6), write DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS,
                 beginning in column 1.

          Card 6 specifies whether the user will input and/or output his
data in metric units or English units.  The value of 1 in card column
35 specifies metric input.  The value of 1 in card column 80 specifies
metric units for the output.  Any value less than or equal  to zero will
specify English units.

          The next four cards describe the stream system.  There are two
data fields per card, columns 26-35 and 7N80.

          Card 7 defines the number of reaches into which the stream is
broken down and the number of stream junctions (confluences) within the  system.

          Card 8 shows the number of headwater sources and the number of
inputs or withdrawals within the stream system.  The inputs can be small
streams, wasteloads, etc.  Withdrawals can be municipal  water supplies,
canals, etc.   NOTE:  Withdrawals must have a minus sign ahead of the flow
                                   13

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in type 11 data (see Form 17), and must be specified as withdrawals in
type 4 data (see Form 5) by setting I FLAG = 7 for that element.

          Card 9 contains the time step interval in hours and the length
of the computational element in miles (kilometers).  For steady-state
computations leave the time step interval blank.

          The maximum route time for dynamic simulations is on card 10,
and represents the approximate time in hours required for a particle of
water to travel from the most upstream point in the system to the most
downstream point.  In steady-state solutions enter the maximum number of
iterations required for convergence.  Thirty iterations should be
sufficient in most cases.  Also on card 10 is the time increment in hours
for intermediate summary reports of concentration profiles (see Subroutine
WRPT2 in the Documentation Manual).  For the steady-state solutions, leave
this blank.

          The next four cards (cards 11-14) are required only if temperature
is being simulated.  The data fields are also columns 26-35 and 71-80.  The
basin latitude and longitude are entered in card 11 and represent mean
values in degrees for the basin.  On card 12 enter the standard meridian
in degrees, and the day of the year the simulation is to begin.  The
evaporation coefficients are entered on card 13.  (Typical values are
AE = 6.8 x lO'1* ft/hour/in of Hg, and BE = 2.7 x It)-* ft/hour/in of
Hg/mph of wind.)  On data card 14, enter the mean basin elevation in
feet (meters) above MSL, and the dust attenuation coefficient (unitless)
for solar radiation.  The dust attenuation coefficient generally ranges
between zero and 0.13.

The last card must read ENDATA1.
                                    14

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NONSPATIALLY VARIABLE A, N, AND P CONSTANTS (Form 2 of 19)

          Six input data cards are required if algae,  the NH3-N02-N03
series, PCty, coliforms or the arbitrary nonconservative constituent is  to
be simulated.  Otherwise they may be deleted,  except the ENDATA1A card.
The data fields are columns 33-39 and 74-80.   Card 1 inputs data on oxygen
uptake per unit of ammonia oxidation, 3.5 mg  0/mg N, and oxygen  uptake
per unit of nitrite oxidation, 1.14 mg 0/mg N.

          The next three cards concern algae.   Card 2  contains data on
oxygen production per unit of algae growth, usually 1.6 mg  0/mg  A, with
a range of 1.4 to 1.8.  It also contains data  on  oxygen update per unit
of algae, usually 2.0 mg 0/mg A respired, with a  range of 1.6 to 2.3.
The third card concerns the nitrogen content  and  phosphorus content of
algae in mg per mg of algae.  The fraction of algae biomass which is N
is about 0.08 to 0.09, and the fraction of algae  biomass which is P is
about 0.012 to 0.015.  Card 4 inputs the maximum  specific growth rate of
algae, which has a range of 1.0 to 3.0 per day.   The respiration value
of 0.05 is for pure streams, while 0.2 is used where the NOs and P04
concentrations are greater than twice the half saturation constants.

          The nitrogen and phosphorus half saturation  constants  are
entered on card 5 in tng/1.  The range of the  values for nitrogen is
from 0.2 to 0.4 and the P value is 0.04.

          Card 6 inputs solar radiation information.  The light  half
saturation constant, in Langleys/minute, is 0.03.   The total  daily
radiation is in Langleys.

This group of cards must end with ENDATA1A, even  if no data are  entered.
                                    15

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REACH IDENTIFICATION AND RIVER MILE DATA (Form 3 of 19)

          The cards of this group identify the stream reach system by name
and river mile by listing the stream reaches from the most upstream point
in the system to the most downstream point.   When a junction is reached,
the order is continued from the upstream point of the tributary.   There
is one card per reach.  The following information is on  each card:
          Reach order or number              Columns 16-20
          Reach identification or name       Columns 26-40
          River mile at head of reach        Columns 51-60
          River mile at end of reach         Columns 71-80

          A very useful feature of QUAL-II pertaining to modifications of
reach identification once the system has been coded is:   reaches may be
subdivided (or added) without renumbering the reaches for the whole system.
If, for example, it is desired to subdivide the river reach originally
designated as REACH 3 into two reaches, the subdivision  is made by calling
the upstream portion REACH 3 and the "new reach" downstream REACH 3.1.
Up to nine such subdivisions can be made per reach (3.1-3.9); thus REACH 3
(or any other reach) can be subdivided into as many as 10 reaches numbered
3, 3.1-3.9.

This group of cards must end with ENDATA2.
FLOW AUGMENTATION DATA (Form 4 of 19)

          These cards except ENDATA 3 are required only if flow augmentation
is to be used.  The cards in this group contain data associated with
determining flow augmentation requirements and available sources of flow
augmentation.  There must be as many cards in this group as in the reach
identification group.  The following information is on each card.
                                    16

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          Reach order or number                   Columns 26-30
          Augmentation Sources (the number        Columns 36-40
            of headwater sources which are
            available for flow augmentation)
          Target Level (minimum allowable         Columns 41-50
            dissolved oxygen concentration
            (mg/1) in this reach)
          Order of Sources (order of available    Columns 51-80
            headwaters, starting at most
            upstream point)
This card group must end with ENDATA3.
COMPUTATIONAL ELEMENTS FLAG FIELD DATA (Form 5 of 19)

          This group of cards identifies each type of  computational
element in each reach.  These data allow the proper form of routing  equations
to be used by the program.   There are seven element types allowed, they are
listed below.
          IFLAG          Type
            1            Headwater source element
            2            Standard element, incremental  inflow only
            3            Element on mainstream immediately upstream
                           of a junction
            4            Junction element
            5            Most downstream element
            6            Input element
            7            Withdrawal element
Each card in this group (one for each reach), contains  the following
information:
                                    17

-------
          Reach order or number                   Columns  16-20
          Number of elements in the reach         Columns  26-30
          Element type (these are numbers         Columns  41-80
            of a set, identifying each
            element by type)

          Remember that any of these reaches can be subdivided,  if
necessary, after the data has been coded without necessitating the
renumbering of the reaches (see REACH IDENTIFICATION AND RIVER MILE DATA)

This card group must end with ENDATA4.
HYDRAULIC DATA (Form 6 of 19)

          Two options are available to describe the hydrologic character-
istics of the system.  The first option utilizes a functional  representation
while the second option utilizes a geometric representation.  The option
desired must be specified on card 5 (TYPE 1  DATA) of Form 2.

          If the first option is selected, velocity is calculated as
V = aQb and depth is found by D = aQ$.  Each card represents one reach
and contains the values of a, b, a, and 3, as described below.
          Reach order or number                   Columns 16-20
          a, coefficient for velocity             Columns 31-40
          b, exponent for velocity                Columns 41-50
          a, coefficient for depth                Columns 51-60
          3, exponent for depth                   Columns 61-70
          Mannings "n" for reach                  Columns 71-80
          (Default for Mannings "n" is 0.020)

          The coefficients should be expressed to relate velocity, depth,
and discharge units as follows:
                                   18

-------
                                       PARAMETER UNITS
          System                     £         V       D
          Metric                   m3/sec    m/sec     m
          English                 ft3/sec   ft/sec     ft

          If the second option is selected, each reach is represented as
a trapezoidal channel.  Form 6A is used to specify the trapezoidal  cross-
section (bottom width and side slope), the channel slope and the Manning's
"n" corresponding to the reach.  The program computes the velocity and
depth from this data using Manning's Equation and the Newton Raphson
(iteration) method.  One card must be prepared for each reach as follows:
          Reach order or number                   Columns 16-20
          Side slope 1(run/rise)                  Columns 31-40
          Side slope 2 (run/rise)                 Columns 41-50
          Bottom width of channel, feet (meters)  Columns 51-60
          Channel slope, ft/ft (m/m)              Columns 61-70
          Manning n (Default:  0.020)             Columns 71-80

This group of cards (TYPE 5 DATA) must end with ENDATA5.
BOD AND DO REACTION RATE CONSTANTS DATA (Form 7 of 19)

          This group of cards includes reach information on the BOD rate
coefficient and settling rate, as well as the method of computing the
reaeration coefficient.  Eight options for reaeration coefficient
calculation are available.   These are listed below.
                       Method
                       Read in values of K2
                       Churchill  (1962)
                       0'Conner and Dobbins (1968)
                       Owens and Gibbs (1964)
                                   19

-------
                                                                                    4
            5          Thackston and Krenkel  (1966)
            6          Langien and Durum (1967)
            7          Use equation K2 = aQ
            8          Tsivoglou-Mallace (1972)
One card is necessary for each reach, and contains the following information,
          Reach order or number                   Columns 16-20
          BOD rate coefficient, per day           Columns 21-30
          BOD removal rate by settling, per day   Columns 31-40
          Option for 1(2 (1 to 8, as above)        Columns 41-50
          K2 (option 1 only) reaeration           Columns 51-60
             coefficient
          a, coefficient for K2 (option 7) or     Columns 61-70
            coefficient for Tsivoglou (option 8)
          b, exponent for K2 (option 7) or slope  Columns 71-80
            of the energy gradient (option 8)

          For option 8 (Tsivoglou's option),  the energy gradient, Se need
not be specified if a Manning n value was assigned under HYDRAULIC DATA.
Se will be calculated from Manning's Equation using the wide channel
approximation for hydraulic radius; however,  it is suggested that the
slope be specified rather than calculated by the program, if possible.

This group of cards must end with ENDATA6.
ALGAE, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS CONSTANTS (Form 8 of 19)

          This group of cards is required if algae, the NH3-N02-N03 series,
P04, coliforms or the arbitrary nonconservative constituent is to be
simulated.  Otherwise, they can be omitted.  Each card of this group, one
for each reach, contains the following information:
                                   20

-------
                                                  Columns 26-30
                                                  Columns 33-40
                                                  Columns 41-48

                                                  Columns 49-56
                                                  Columns 57-64
                                                  Columns 65-72

                                                  Columns 73-80
Reach order or number
Chlorophyll a^ to algae ratio,
  (yg chl a/mg Algae
  range of 50-100)
Algae settling rate, feet/day (m/day)
  (range of 0.5 to 6.0 ft/day)
Rate coefficient for ammonia
  oxidation, per day (range of
  0.1 to 0.5, about equal to
  BOD rate coefficient)
Rate coefficient for nitrite
  oxidation, per day (range of
  0.5 to 2.0, about five times
  BOD rate coefficient)
Benthos source rate for ammonia,
  mg/foot/day (mg/meter/day)
Benthos source rate for
  phosphorus, mg/foot/day
  (mg/meter/day)
           Note  that  the benthos  source data  is expressed per unit  length
 of  stream.   Rates  per unit  area  are usually  available  (mg/ft2/day); these
 values  should be multiplied by the estimated width of  the bottom benthos
 in  each reach to determine  the rate per  unit length  of stream.

 This  card  group must end with ENDATA6A,  even if no data are entered.
 OTHER CONSTANTS  (Form 9 of  19)

           This group of cards is required if sediment oxygen demand,  algae,
the  NH3-N02-N03 series, PO^, coliform or the arbitrary nonconservative constitu-
ent is  to be simulated Otherwise, they may be deleted.   Each card of the group,
one for each reach,  contains the following information.
                                     21

-------
          Reach order or number                   Columns  26-30
          Benthos source rate for BOD,             Columns  33-40
            mg/foot/day (mg/meter/day)
          Coliform decay rate, per day             Columns  41-48
          Light extinction coefficient,  per       Columns  49-56
            foot (per meter)
          Nonconservative constituent decay       Columns  57-64
            rate, per day

This group of cards must end  with ENDATA6B, even  if no data are  entered.
INITIAL CONDITIONS DATA (Form 10 of 19)

          This card group, one card per reach, establishes the initial
conditions of the system, with respect to temperature, dissolved oxygen
concentrations, BOD concentrations, and conservative minerals.  Initial
conditions for temperature must always be specified whether it is simulated
or not.  The reason for this is:  1) if it is not simulated, the initial
condition values are used to set the value of the temperature dependent
rate constants; 2) for dynamic simulation the initial condition for
temperature, plus every other parameter to be simulated, defines the
state of the system at time zero; and 3) for steady-state simulations of
temperature, an initial estimate of the temperature between freezing and
boiling is required.  Specifying 68°F or 20°C for all reaches is a
sufficient initial condition for the steady-state temperature simulation case.
The information is contained as follows:
          Reach order or number                   Columns 26-30
          Temperature in degrees F or C           Columns 31-40
          Dissolved Oxygen, mg/1                  Columns 41-45
          BOD, mg/1                               Columns 46-50
                                    22

-------
          Conservative mineral I*                 Columns 51-60
          Conservative mineral II*                Columns 61-70
          Conservative mineral III*               Columns 71-80
          *Units are those specified on the Title Card (Form I)

This group of cards must end with ENDATA7.
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR ALGAE, N, P, COLIFORMS, AND NONCONSERVATIVE
CONSTITUENT (Form 11 of 19)

          This group of cards, one per reach, is required only if algae, the
NH3-N02-N03 series, P04, coliforms, or the nonconservative constituent is
to be simulated.  Otherwise they may be deleted.  The following information
is on each card:
          Reach order or number                   Columns 20-24
          Chlorophyll £, micrograms/1             Columns 25-32
          Ammonia as N, mg/1                      Columns 33-40
          Nitrite as N, mg/1                      Columns 41-48
          Nitrate as N, mg/1                      Columns 49-56
          Phosphate as P, mg/1                    Columns 57-64
          Coliforms, no/100 ml                    Columns 65-72
          Nonconservative Constituent             Columns 73-80

This group of cards must end with ENDATA7A, even if no data are entered.
INCREMENTAL INFLOW DATA (Form 12 of 19)

          This group of cards, one per reach, accounts for the additional
flows into the system not represented by point source inflows or headwaters.
These inflows which are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the reach
are basically groundwater inflows and/or distributed surface runoff that
                                    23

-------
can be assumed to be approximately constant  through  time.   The  flow  rate,
temperature of the flow and DO,  BOD,  and conservative  mineral concentration
of the flow is taken into account.  Each card  contains the  following
information:
          Reach order or number                    Columns 26-30
          Incremental inflow, cfs (m3/sec)         Columns 31-35
          Temperature in degrees F or C           Columns 36-40
          Dissolved Oxygen, mg/1                  Columns 41-45
          BOD, mg/1                               Columns 46-50
          Conservative I                          Columns 51-60
          Conservative II                         Columns 61-70
          Conservative III                        Columns 71-80

This group of cards must end with ENDATA8.
INCREMENTAL INFLOW FOR ALGAE, N, P, COLIFORMS AND NONCONSERVATIVE
CONSTITUENT (Form 13 of 19)

          This card group is required if algae, the NH3-N02-N03 series,
P04, coliforms or the nonconservative constituent is to be simulated.
Each card contains the following information:
          Reach order or number                   Columns 20-24
          Chlorophyll a_ concentration,            Columns 25-32
            microgram/1
          Ammonia as N, mg/1                      Columns 33-40
          Nitrite as N, mg/1                      Columns 41-48
          Nitrate as N, mg/1                      Columns 49-56
          Phosphate as P, mg/1                    Columns 57-64
          Coliforms as no/100 ml                  Columns 65-72                       J
          Nonconservative Constituent             Columns 73-80

This group of cards must end with ENDATA8A, even if no data are entered.
                                   24

-------
STREAM JUNCTION DATA (Form 14 of 19)
          This group of cards is required if there are junctions  on
confluences in the stream system being simulated.   Otherwise they may be
deleted.  The junctions are ordered starting with  the most upstream junction.
For systems containing a junction(s) on a tributary, the junctions must be
ordered in the manner indicated on Figure IV-1;  that is, the junctions must
be ordered so that the element numbers just downstream of the junction are
specified in ascending order.  In Figure IV-1,  the downstream element
numbers for Junctions 1, 2 and 3 are 29, 56, and 64, respectively.  There
is one card per junction, and the following information is on each card:
          Junction order or number
          Junction name or identification
          Order number of the last element
            in the reach immediately upstream
            of the junction (see Figure IV-1).
            In the example, for Junction 1, the
            order number of the last element
            immediately upstream of the junction
            is number 17.  For Junction 2 it is
            number 49.  For Junction 3, it is
            number 43.
          Order number of the first element
            in the reach immediately downstream
            from the junction.  It is these
            numbers that must be arranged in
            ascending order.   Thus for
            Figure IV-1 these order numbers
            are as follows:        Downstream
                    Junction        Element No.
                       1
                       2
                       3
29
56
64
           Columns 21-25
           Columns 35-50
           Columns 56-60
           Columns 66-70
                                    25

-------
               Most Upstream
                    Point
                    Junction
                        1
                    Junction
                        3
            Computational _
            Element Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
' 64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
.76
*77
78
79
1
2
5
6
10

I 4
1 1




                                    Reach
                                    Number
                   FIGURE IV-1
STREAM NETWORK EXAMPLE TO ILLUSTRATE DATA INPUT
                     26

-------
          Order number of the last element
            in the last reach of the
            tributary entering the junction.
            For Figure IV-1 these order
            numbers are Junctions 1, 2, and 3
            are 28, 55, and 63, respectively.
Columns 76-80
This group of cards must end with ENDATA9, even if there are no junctions
in the system.
HEADWATER SOURCES DATA (Form 15 of 19)
          This group of cards, one per headwater, defines the flow,
temperature, dissolved oxygen, BOD, and conservative mineral concentrations
of the headwater.  The following information is on each card:
          Headwater order or number
            starting at most upstream point
          Headwater name or identification
          Flow in cfs (m3/sec)
          Temperature in degrees, F or C
          Dissolved oxygen concentration, mg/1
          BOD concentration, mg/1
          Conservative Mineral I
          Conservative Mineral II
          Conservative Mineral III
Columns 16-20

Columns 25-40
Columns 41-50
Columns 51-55
Columns 56-60
Columns 61-65
Columns 66-70
Columns 71-75
Columns 76-80
This group of cards must end with ENDATA10.
                                    27

-------
HEADWATER SOURCES DATA FOR ALGAE,  N,  P,  COLIFORMS  AND  NONCONSERVATIVE
CONSTITUENT (Form 16 of 19)
          This group of cards, one per headwater,  is  required  only  if
algae, the NH3-N02-N03 series, P04, coliforms,  or  the nonconservative
constituent is to be simulated.   Otherwise they may be omitted.   The
following information is on each card.
          Headwater order or number               Columns  20-24
          Chlorophyll ^concentration,            Columns  25-32
            micrograms/1
          Ammonia as N, mg/1                      Columns  33-40
          Nitrite as N, mg/1                      Columns  41-48
          Nitrate as N, mg/1                      Columns  49-56
          Phosphate as P, mg/1                    Columns  57-64
          Coliforms, no/100 ml                    Columns  65-72
          Nonconservative constituent             Columns  73-80

This group of cards must end with ENDATA10A, even  if  no data are to be
entered.
POINT SOURCE INPUTS AND WITHDRAWALS DATA (Form 17 of 19)

          This group of cards is used to define point source inputs to
and point withdrawals from the stream system.   Point sources include both
wasteloads and unsirmlated tributary inflows.   One is required per inflow
or withdrawal which describes the percent of treatment (for wastewater
treatment), inflow or withdrawal, temperature, and dissolved oxygen, BOD,
and conservative mineral concentrations.  They must be ordered starting
at the most upstream point.  The following information is on each card:
          Point load order number                 Columns 11-15
          Point load identification or name       Columns 20-35
                                    28

-------
          Percent treatment (use only if          Columns 36-40
            influent BOD values are used)
          Point load inflow or withdrawal in      Columns 41-50
            cfs or m3/sec (a withdrawal  must
            have a (-) sign).
          Temperature, degrees F or C             Columns 51-55
          Dissolved oxygen concentration, mg/1     Columns 56-60
          BOD concentration, mg/1                 Columns 61-65
          Conservative Mineral I                  Columns 66-70
          Conservative Mineral II                 Columns 71-75
          Conservative Mineral III                Columns 76-80

This group of cards must end with ENDATA11.
POINT SOURCE DATA FOR ALGAE, N, P, COLI FORMS, AND NONCONSERVATIVE
CONSTITUENT (Form 18 of 19)
          This group of cards, one per wasteload, is required only if
algae, the NH3-N02-N03 series, P04, coliforms, or the nonconservative
constituent is to be simulated.  Otherwise they may be deleted.   The
following information is on each card:
          Point load order or number              Columns 20-24
          Chlorophyll ^concentration,            Columns 25-32
            microgram/1
          Ammonia concentration, mg/1             Columns 33-40
          Nitrite concentration, mg/1             Columns 41-48
          Nitrate concentration, mg/1             Columns 49-56
          Phosphate concentration, mg/1           Columns 57-64
          Coliform, no/100 ml                     Columns 65-72
          Nonconservative Constituent             Columns 73-80

This group of cards must end with ENDATA11A, even if no data are to be
entered.
                                    29

-------
LOCAL CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA (Form 19 of 19)

          Climatologic data is required for the following cases:
          1.  Temperature simulations, both steady-state and dynamic;
          2.  Dynamic simulations where algae is being simulated
              but temperature is not.
If neither temperature nor dynamic algae are being simulated, these cards
may be omitted.

          For steady-state temperature simulation, only one card  is
required, which gives average values of the climatological data.   For
dynamic simulation, each card represents readings at three hour intervals,
chronologically ordered.  There must be a sufficient number of cards to
cover the time period specified for the simulation.  The following information
is on each card:
          Month
          Day
          Year (last two digits)
          Hour of day
          Net Solar Radiation1, Langleys
            per hour
          Cloudiness2, fraction in tenths
            of cloud cover
          Dry Bulb Temperature2, degrees F or C
          Wet Bulb Temperature2, degrees F or C
          Barometric pressure2, inches Hg (mb)
          Wind speed2, ft/sec (m/sec)

There is no end card for this group.
Columns 18-19
Columns 21-22
Columns 24-25
Columns 26-30
Columns 31-40

Columns 41-48

Columns 49-56
Columns 57-64
Columns 65-72
Columns 73-80
Required only if dynamic algae is simulated and temperature is not.
2Required if temperature is simulated.
                                   30

-------
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-------
                          V.  EXAMPLE PROBLEM
          An example problem is presented here to demonstrate to the user
a typical application of QUAL-II to a stream network.  Since the preparation
of the input data has been thoroughly explained in another part of this
manual, many details of the data deck preparation are omitted in favor of
highlighting potential trouble spots in the set-up of this example.  The
program output is also reviewed to familiarize the user with the types
and formats of the output reports.

          The example problem is a steady-state simulation of a river
based on part of the River Rouge in Michigan.  Modifications of the
prototype were made so that more of the situations the user may be faced
with are illustrated.  Figure V-l shows the example problem network.
Constructing such a network representation early in the problem formulation
is recommended.  A useful exercise for the user would be to closely review
this network in conjunction with the corresponding input data listing which
follows the text of this section.

          Special attention should be paid to the numbering of elements,
particularly at junctions.  Note that this network has a tributary on a
tributary and how the number of the two junctions is by the order of the
downstream (type 4) element at the junction.  The point loads are numbered
in the order of their elements, the withdrawal counting as a point load
in the numbering scheme.  It is important that this be done correctly since
QUAL-II associates the first wasteload card with the first type 6 or 7
element in the flag field.  The same is true of the order of the headwaters
(type 1 flag).  The river mile (or kilometer) data on the stream reach
cards do not enter into any computations and may be numbered as the user
chooses to identify the reaches.  In the example, each tributary is numbered
starting with 0 at the junction and increasing upstream.
                                      51

-------
         MOST UPSTREAM POINT
               LENGTH OF
               COMPUTATIONAL
               ELEMENT 1 km
COMPUTATIONAL ELEMENT NUMBER
HEADWATER NUMBER 1 (TYPE 1)
POINT  LOAD NUMBER 1 (TYPE  6)

POINT  LOAD NUMBER 2  (TYPE 6)
                                        POINT LOAD NUMBER 3 (TYPE 6)
                                               REACH NUMBER
                                        STANDARD ELEMENT (TYPE 2)
                                        (TYPE 3)
                                        JUNCTION NUMBER 2 (TYPE 4)
       MOST DOWNSTREAM POINT
                                        POINT LOAD NUMBER 5  (TYPE 6)
                                        POINT LOAD NUMBER 6 (TYPE 6)
                                        WITHDRAWAL NUMBER 7 (TYPE 7)
                                        (TYPE 5)
                         FIGURE V-l
                  EXAMPLE  PROBLEM NETWORK
                               52

-------
          The type 1 data in the example problem includes values on the
last four cards since temperature is simulated.   The time step and time
increment for RPT2 are omitted and the maximum route time is actually the
number of iterations since this is a steady-state simulation.  The various
rate constants used are those found in common usage.  The total daily
radiation is not required or used since temperature is simulated.  Hydraulic
coefficients are used and the O'Connor and Dobbins method is employed for
reaeration computations.  Also of note is that the initial conditions of
all constituents are set at zero, which is permissible since the steady-
state conditions are independent of initial conditions.  However, initial
temperature, while it may not be necessary, is roughly estimated to avoid
any possible instability in the steady-state temperature iterative
solution.  Finally, only one local climatology card is required, representing
average steady-state conditions.  Again, solar radiation is not required
since temperature is simulated.

          Following the data listing is the output from the example problem
execution.  The first part of this output is the echo print of the data
as read by the input subroutine of QUAL-II.  This should be reviewed to
detect any keypunching or other errors in the data.  If the incorrect
number of cards of a particular card type is read, a message is printed
and the execution terminates after all the data  is echo printed.  The next
statements in the output, printed only if steady-state temperature is
simulated, give the number of nonconverged elements, MM, at iteration
number NITER.  In the example, only two iterations were required, largely
because of a good initial estimate.  (The number of iterations will normally
be a small number, and the execution is terminated if NITER reaches ten
before all elements converge.)  The next set of  output gives the results
of the algae growth rate convergence,  and is, of course, output only if
steady-state algae is simulated.  Three iterations were required, out of
a possible 30 (input by the user).
                                     53

-------
          The optional summary (requested in data type 1) follows for
each constituent.  Each row contains the results for one reach, with
element by element values from left to right.  Finally, the standard
output form is printed, given the same concentrations as the optional
summary, but in a different format as well  as additional information
relating to hydraulics and to the rates of growth and decay in each
element.  This format lists the results in one row per element, ordered
by element number.  Since there is more information to be printed than
can be fit horizontally, the form is repeated for all elements.
                                     54

-------
                                   EXAMPLE PROBLEM
                                     DATA LISTING
  I.    TITLEOl
  2.    TITLE02
  3.    TITLE03  YES
  4.    TITLE04   NO
  5.    IITLE05   NQ.
  6.    TITLE06  YES
  7.    TIILE07  YES
  8.    T1TLE08  YES
  9.    TITLE09  YES
10.    TITLE10  YES
11.    TITLEU  YES
12.    TITLE12  YES
13.    TIILE13  YES
14.    TITLE14  YES
15.    TIILElb   NO.
16.    ENDTITLE
17.    LIST DATA INPUT
18.    WRITE OPTIONAL SUMMARY
19.    NO FLOW AUGMENTATION
20.    STEADY STATE
21.    NO TRAP CHANNELS
22.    INPUT METRIC            =        1.
23.    NUMBER OF REACHES       =        5.
24.    NUM OF HEADWATERS       =        3.
25.    TIME STEP (HOURS)       =
26.    MAXIMUM ROUTE TIME (HRS)=       30.
27.    LATITUDE OF 8ASIN (DEC) =      42.5
28.    STANDARD MERIDIAN (DEC) =       75.
29.    EVAP. COEF..UE)        =  .0000062
30.    ELEV. OF BASIN (METERS) =      250.
31.    ENDATA1
32.    0 UPTAKE BY NH3 OXID(MG 0/MC N)s
33.    0 PROD. BY ALGAE (MG 0/MG A)   =
34.    N CONTENT OF ALGAE (MG N/MG A) =
35.    ALG MAX SPEC GROWTH RATE(1/DAY)=
36.    N HALF SATURATION CONST. (MG/L)=
37.    LIGHT HALF SAT CONSKLNGLY/MIN)=
38.    ENDATA1A
39.    STREAM REACH
40.    STREAM REACH
41.    STREAM REACH
42.    STREAM REACH
43.    STREAM REACH
44.    ENQATA2
45.    ENDATA3
46.    FLAG FIELD RCH=
47.    FLAG FIELD RCH=
43.    FLAG FIELD RCH
49.    FLAG FIELD RCH=
50.    FLAG FIELD RCH
51.    ENDATA4
52.    HYDRAULICS RCH=
53.    HYDRAULICS RCH=
54.    HYDRAULICS RCH=
55.    HYDRAULICS RCH*
56.    HYDRAULICS RCH
57.    ENOATA5
58.    REACT COEF RCHs
59.    REACT COEF RCH
60.    REACT COEF RCHs
61.    REACT COEF RCHs
62.    REACT COEF RCH:
63.    ENDATA6
64.    ALGAE. N AND P
65.    ALGAE. N AND P
66.    ALGAE. N AND P
STREAM DUALITY MODEL--QUAL-H SEMCOG VERSION
ROUGE RIVER REACHES FOR EXAMPLE PROBLEM
CONSERVATIVE MINERAL   I    TDS IN MG/L
CONSERVATIVE MINERAL  II
CONSERVATIVE MINERAL III
TEMPERATURE
5-DAY BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
ALGAE AS CHL.A IN UG/L
PHOSPHORUS AS P IN MG/L
AMMONIA AS N IN MG/L
NITRITE AS N IN MG/L
NITRATE AS N IN MG/L
DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN MG/L
FECAL COLIFORM IN NO./100 ML
ARBITRARY NON-CONSERVATIVE
                        OUTPUT METRIC           =        1.
                        NUMBER OF JUNCTIONS     =        2.
                        NUMBER OF POINT LOADS   =        7.
                        LNTH. COMP. ELEMENT (KM)s        1.
                        TIME INC. FOR RPT2 (HRS)s
                        LONGITUDE OF BASIN (DEG)s      83.3
                        DAY OF YEAR START TIME  =      180.
                        EVAP. COEF.,(BE)        =  .0000055
               3.5
               1.6
              .085
               2.5
                .3
              .030
    DUST ATTENUATION COEF.  =

0 UPTAKE BY N02 OXIDCMG 0/MG N)=
0 UPTAKE BY ALGAE (MG 0/MG A)  =
P CONTENT OF ALGAE (MG P/MG A) =
ALGAE RESPIRATION RATE (I/DAY) =
P HALF SATURATION CONST. (MG/L)=
TOTAL DAILY RADIATION(LANGLEYS)=
0.13

1.20
  2.
.012
  .1
 .04
400.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
RCH =
RCH=
RCHs
RCH=
RCH=
R.R.
U.R.
FICI
U.R.
R.R.
NW DETROIT
FARMINGTON
. DRAIN
FARMINGTDN
GM DIESEL
FROM
FROM
FROM
FROM
FROM
                                   46,
                                   15,
                                    2,
                                   10,
                                   30,
                       TO
                       TO
                       TO
                       TO
                       TO
30,
10,
00,
00,
18,
• 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
i 5.
: 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
COEF'
COEF
COEF
16.
5.
2.
10.
12.





0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
RCH= 1.
RCH= 2.
RCHs 3.
1
1
1
4
4
.25
.38
.28
.36
.22
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
50.
50.
50.
.6.2.6.2.
.2.2.2.3.
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.2.2.2.2.
.2.2.2.2.
.30
.37
.35
.37
.33
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
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.15
.15
2.2.6.2.2


2.2.2.6.2
6.2.2.2.6
.44
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.48
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.15
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•
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.55 .04
.61 .04
.58 .04
.61 .04
.38 .04





1.0 0. 0.
1.0 0. 0.
1.0 0. 0.
                                             55

-------
 67.
 68.
 69.
 70.
 71.
 72.
 73.
 74.
 75.
 76.
 77.
 78.
 79.
 80.
 81.
 82.
 83.
 84.
 85.
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 89.
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114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
AL3AE. N AND
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ENDATA6A
OTHER COI
OTHER COI
OTHER COI
OTHER COI
OTHER COI
ENDATA6B
INITIAL I
INITIAL I
INITIAL I
INITIAL I
INITIAL I
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INITIAL I
INITIAL I
INITIAL I
INITIAL I
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INCREMEN'
INCREMEN'
INCREMEN
INCREMEN
INCREMEN'
ENDATA8
INCR INFLOW-2
INCR INFLOW
INCR INFLOW-2
INCR INFLOW-2
INCR INFLOW
ENOATA8A
STREAM JUNCTION
STREAM JUNCTION
ENDATA9
HEADWATER
HEADWATER
HEADWATER
ENOATA10
HEAOWATER-2
HEADWATER-2
HEADWATER-2
ENOATA10A
POINT LOAD
POINT LOAD
POINT LOAD
POINT LOAD
POINT LOAD
POINT LOAD
POINT LOAD
ENQATA11
POINT LOAD-2
POINT LOAO-2
POINT LOAD-2
POINT LOAD-2
POINT LOAD-2
POINT LOAD-2
POINT LOAD-2
ENDATA1U
LOCAL CLIMATOLOGY
P COEF
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CIENTS
CIENTS
CIENTS
CIENTS
CIENTS
'ITIONS
ITIONS
'ITIONS
'ITIONS
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                                              56

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                   VI.  APPLICATION AND CALIBRATION
          This chapter outlines a general approach for calibrating QUAL-II.
The procedure has evolved from the many applications of earlier versions
of the model and, if followed, can save the user many hours and much
frustration in getting the model to satisfactorily represent his system.
QUANTITY CALIBRATION

          Once the system has been discretized into reaches, the next step
is to specify the discharge coefficients a, 3, a and b, or the channel
cross-section for each reach (see HYDRAULIC DATA input specifications).
Care should be taken here to see that the coefficients or channel section
specified are typical for the entire reach.  A mistake that is often made,
especially when discharge coefficients are used, is to use the discharge
curves, or cross-section at a gaging station to represent the reach.  The
problem with using these data is that the gaging station is generally
located at a control section in the stream and thus is atypical of the
reach.

          After the hydraulics data for the reach has been specified, a
run should be made to "rough check" the system.  All headwater sources,
and known point source inputs should be specified so that the only inflows
not simulated are incremental inflows.  The output from this simulation
can be checked quickly by hand for continuity.  If flow continuity is not
satisfied, the system is not properly specified upstream of the point
where the continuity problem occurs.  In such a case the input data should
be checked for proper ordering of reaches, tributaries and point source
loads.  Examine carefully the Flag Field Data and the Junction Data with
respect to these specifications.  Most often the problem is in one of these
two input data types.
                                   67

-------
          Once the continuity check has been made the Incremental  Inflows
to the reaches can be computed.   These inflows are generally groundwater
inflows and/or minor amounts of distributed surface runoff, which  is not
accounted for in the point source data.  In order to properly specify
these incremental inflows the flow data must be taken from a period(s)  of
record when the discharge varied less than l^ percent over a period equal
to the travel time through the stream system.  Incremental inflows are
calculated from this data as follows.  Starting with the uppermost headwater,
the difference between this flow and the flow at the first gage downstream
is due to point sources and incremental inflow (there may be another
headwater(s) contributing also if the first gage is below a junction(s)).
Once the incremental inflow is calculated, it can be apportioned over the
reaches between the flow gage and the headwater(s) on an inflow per mile
basis, or inflow per square mile of tributary area basis (better)  or some
other hydrologically defensible method.  Note:  To insure that incremental
inflows are properly distributed among the reaches, there is no substitute
for familiarity with the hydrologic characteristics of the basin.   Once the
upstream portion of the system has been balanced, the next lower portion
can be calibrated in a similar manner.  The process is continued until
the bottom of the stream system is reached.  After the incremental inflows
are calculated, a simulation run should be made.  The computed flows at
the gage locations should be the same as the recorded values.  Make
adjustments as necessary.

          When the flow balance is achieved, check the velocity and depth
in every element of every reach.  Adjust discharge coefficients or channel
cross sections as appropriate to achieve reasonable values for velocity
and depth.  This aspect of the calibration is often ignored with the result
that "strange" water quality responses are simulated on certain river
reaches.  Detailed examination of the "strange" reaches reveals simulated
velocities that are high (or low) in reaches that the user thought (or
knows) are slow (fast) in the prototype.  Similarly, shallow (deep) depths
may be computed for reaches that are actually deep (shallow).
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          Often a stream system will have a low head dam with a shallow
 (10-20 ft.) impoundment behind it.  For nonstratified impoundments these
 stream segments may be represented as follows.  The channel depth is taken
 as the average depth of the reservoir and the velocity as the flow divided
 by the average cross-sectional area.  If discharge coefficients are used,
 set 3 and b to 1.0.  Calculate a as D/Q.  Then compute a as a = V/Q =
 (Q/wD)/Q = 1/wD where w is the mean width of the reservoir.  Change thes^
 coefficients (a and &) every time the input flows (headwaters, point source?,
 or incremental inflows) are changed.

          If trapezoidal cross sections are used, select a section most
 representative of the reservoir.  Use the mean depth D that occurs for a
 flow Q through the reservoir.  Using this value of D and the specifications
 of the cross section, compute the cross sectional area A of the flow and
 the hydraulic radius R.  The energy slope, Se for the reservoir, can then
 be computed as
                              n	Q
                    S
                     e
1.486 A R2/3
                                               V-l
Use the computed slope Se as the channel slope for the reservoir reach.
This will produce a representation of the reservoir as a trapezoidal channel
with a cross section as specified and a depth D at discharge Q.

          Be sure to check the simulated depth and discharge in each reservoir
for reasonableness.  Make adjustments as necessary.
QUALITY CALIBRATION

          It is assumed here that the user has 1) a working knowledge of
water quality relationships in streams and 2) reads and understands
Chapters II and Ill—General Model Formulation, and Constituent Reactions
and Interrelationships, respectively.  The user should also be familiar
with the air-water interface energy transfer relationships in Chapter IV,
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if temperature is to be simulated.   Familiarity with the computation  of
radiation (solar, atmospheric,  and  longwave back radiation)  is  desirable
but not mandatory.

          There is no required  order in  which the water quality parameters
must be calibrated; however, if the order suggested is  followed, a  much
faster calibration of the whole model  can generally be  achieved. The
suggested order of constituent  calibration is:
          1.  Conservative Constituents
          2.  Temperature
          3.  BOD, Coliforms, and the Arbitrary Nonconservative Constituent
          4.  Algae, NH3, N02,  NOa, and  P04
          5.  DO
The rational for the order shown is that we wish to calibrate those constituents
whose concentrations are independent of  other constituent concentrations
first.  The last constituents to be simulated are the most interdependent
constituents.  The following sections provide some pointers on calibration
of these parameter groups.

ConservativeConstituents

          These parameters should be calibrated first,  especially if
constituents such as chlorides, total  dissolved solids, or heavy metal(s)
are included.  Since there is no decay rate, calibration consists only of
adjusting input loads in headwaters, from point sources and from incremental
inflows.  Thus this calibration becomes  an excellent tool for locating
previously unidentified waste sources.

Temperature

          This parameter is calibrated next because once the point waste
sources are all identified the  only factor that affects temperature is
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the heat transfer through the air-water interface.  Temperature, on the
other hand, affects the value of nearly all the rate constants.

          To calibrate temperature, first make sure that the Climatological
Data (Type 12 data) is specified as accurately as possible.  Wihdspeed
along the river—channeled by a canyon or sheltered by high vegetation
growths on the banks—may be significantly different than the value
measured at the Class A weather station.  Take this into account as much
as possible.  Secondly, cloud cover should be carefully estimated and
adjustments should be made if necessary between cloud cover at the
observation point and cloud cover over the river.  Furthermore, a tree-
lined river flowing in a North-South direction will be partially or
wholly shaded.  The only way to effectively account for this condition
is to increase the cloud cover as appropriate.

          Once the Climatological data have been adjusted to the user's
satisfaction, the remaining calibration parameters are the dust attenuation
coefficient and the evaporation coefficients a^ and b^.  Of these three
parameters, temperature is most sensitive to the coefficient b_.  It should
be possible to calibrate the temperature by varying b_ over acceptable
ranges with the dust attenuation coefficient and the evaporation coefficient
a^ set at their recommended values.  If this is not possible within accepted
ranges of coefficient b_, then recheck the meteorological input data,
i.e. the data on the last four Type 1 Data Cards.  If these data are
correct, then adjust the dust attenuation coefficient and lastly the
evaporation coefficient a^.

BOD, Coliforms, and the Arbitrary Nonconservative Constituent

          Coliforms and the arbitrary nonconservative constituent should
be calibrated next since they are affected only by waste input strength
and decay rate.  Coliform inputs will be headwaters, point sources, and
incremental inflows if it is surface runoff.  The trick here is to get
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the concentration of the incremental inflow correct.   A high incremental
inflow load plus a high decay rate will  produce the same in-stream
concentration as a low incremental inflow rate and a  low decay rate.
This relationship applies to all  three constituents.

          In the case of BOD, another parameter that  affects the concentration
is the sedimentation rate, 1(3.  When calibrating BOD, keep in mind that
d(BOD)/dt = K-BOD where K = K] + £3.  Thus for an observed in-stream loss
rate, K and an assumed BOD decay rate, KI , the value  of KS is K - KI .
Keep in mind that K-j-BOD is the oxygen uptake rate by suspended BOD.
K3-BOD is a loss of BOD to the stream, but it does not exert an oxygen
demand per se.

Algae, NHs, N02. N03, and P04
          Each of these variables are related to one or more of the others,
thus the calibration of this set of constituents can be time consuming.
The following pointers will save some time.  First, calibrate P04 as a
conservative constituent.  Do not spend too much time on this initial
calibration; keep in mind that algae takes up P04 for growth and produces
it through respiration.  Remember benthos deposits as well as wasteloads
and incremental inflows may also be a source of P04-

          Next calibrate NH3 and N03.  Don't worry about calibrating N02;
use a high decay rate that will keep concentrations low.  This is the
phenomenon that is observed in natural waters.  Nitrite serves only as
the intermediate product of the NH3-+N03 nitrification process and its
oxidation to N03 is rapid.  The process which actually controls the rate
of NH3+N03 oxidation process is the ammonia decay rate.  Calibrate NH3
and N03 initially ignoring algae.  Calibrate NH3 on the low side to account
for algae respiration and N03 a little high to provide for N03 uptake by
algae growth (keep in mind that one mg of algae growth or respiration uses
or produces only 0.12 mg of NOs or NH3 as N).  Note that the only loss of
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N03 from the system is by algae growth.  If simulated values of N03 are
too high it is probably because the ammonia decay rate is too high.
Recall that benthos deposits can be a source of ammonia to the system.

          In some river systems it may happen that simulated values of
NH3 and/or N03 and P04 are too high and cannot be reduced to observed
values through realistic adjustment of rate and uptake coefficients.
In such cases, one might suspect the presence of macrophytes and benthic
algae.  These plants can take up significant quantities of NH3 and P04
from the stream.  If such a situation appears probable a stream visit
is probably in order.

          Once P04 and the nitrogen series have been initially calibrated,
then algae may be simulated.  The primary calibration parameter here is
the algae specific growth rate which can vary from 1.0 to 3.5 per day.  The
recommended values for the nitrogen and phosphorus content of algae and
the half saturation constants (see the test problem) should not be changed
unless the user has a defendable argument for doing so.  The algae
respiration rate can also be varied.  Another factor that affects the
algae concentration is the light extinction coefficient.  The value can
be initially estimated as follows.  The 10 percent light level is about
three times the Secchi disc reading (call it Zs).  Thus we can say at the
10 percent light depth:

                        •j-  =  0.10  =  e"X(3Zs)                           (V-2a)
or
                        Ln 0.10  =  -2.3  =  - X3ZS                        (V-2b)
or
                                    ^» ^
                                                                           (V-2c)
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where A is the light extinction coefficient.  In clear water Zs could be
ten feet or more; in turbid water it would be quite small.  If algae
concentrations are around 1.0 mg/1, Zs will probably be one to two feet.

          Algae can also be lost to the system by settling.  This might
occur in a small reservoir and possibly in very sluggish  river reaches.
For velocities over 1.5 ft/sec, algae settling will probably not occur.

Dissolved Oxygen

          If everything else has been calibrated satisfactorily, the
dissolved oxygen (DO) calibration should be relatively straightforward.
Do not change the algae 02 uptake or respiration constants unless there
is a biologically defensible reason.  This leaves basically only the
reaeration constants and the benthic oxygen demand to adjust.

          If the user has no preference with respect to the reaeration
option to use, we suggest Tsivoglou's formulation be selected.  The
reaeration constant can be adjusted reach by reach.

          In some reaches the river may be fast flowing possibly with
white water resulting in high reaeration rates.  The user may wish to
specify option 1 for such reaches and enter a reaeration  rate for that
reach as input data.

          Finally, the spillway on many low head dams serves as an "in-
stfeam" aeration device causing DO levels just downstream of the spillway
to be much higher (probably near saturation) than those in the reservoir
just upstream of the spillway.  For these cases the user  may want to
define a reach, just below the spillway, that is one computational
element long and which has a high K2 value specified as input data.
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                                                US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1*1.757-009/8008

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