f  BIOLOGICAL
ASPECTS OF LEAD
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

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      BIOLOGICAL  ASPECTS  OF LEAD:


      AN  ANNOTATED  BIBLIOGRAPHY




         Literature from 1950 through 1964




                     PART I


               FOR REFERENCE

               Do Not Take From This Room

         IRENE R. CAMPBELL AND ESTELLE G. MERGARD

           DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
                KETTERING LABORATORY
                 COLLEGE OF MEDICINE
               UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
                  CINCINNATI, OHIO

          U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
               Office of Administration
           Research Triangle Park, N.  C. 27711

                      May 1972
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $6.78 per set

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The AP series of reports is issued by the Environmental Protection Agency to report
the results of scientific and engineering studies, and information of general
interest in the field of air pollution.  Information presented in this series
includes coverage of intramural activities involving air pollution research and
control technology and of cooperative programs and studies conducted in conjunction
with state and local agencies, research institutes, and industrial organizations.
Copies of AP reports are available free of charge - as supplies permit - from the
Air Pollution Technical Information Center, Environmental Protection Agency,
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711.
This work was performed under the sponsorship of Contract No. CPA 22-69-48 with the
Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air Programs, and in part under Grant
USPHS ES 00159 to the Center for the Study of the Human Environment through the
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
                             Publication No. AP-104
                                         11

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                                                                        /2 31

                                     PREFACE
                                     rKcr«v.c
     The Kettering Laboratory of the  University of Cincinnati, where this biblio-
graphy was compiled,  was founded in the mid-1920 's by Dr. Robert A. Kehoe, a
researcher whose primary interest was the investigation of  the problems associated
with the manufacture and use of tetraethyllead.  An  essential part of Dr. Kehoe 's
program was the development of a large collection of the literature on lead and its
compounds, a collection from which most of the abstracts in this bibliography have
been prepared.  It is only fitting, therefore, that  this bibliography be dedicated
to him .

     Systematic collection of the worldwide lead-related publications was initiated
in 1932 by Nell Conway, whose background  was in scientific  literature and foreign
languages.  She also translated many  of the classic  works and other articles required
by the members of the Kettering Laboratory in the pursuit of their investigations.
In 1944, Irene R. Campbell assumed the responsibility for directing the biblio-
graphic research program, and the preparation of abstracts  - first very brief, then
more informative - began shortly thereafter.  With the help of Estelle G. Mergard,
this bibliography, covering the years 1950 through 1964, is presented as a health
information service to the scientific community.
                                         111

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                              ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     A work of this  scope  could not have been performed without the assistance  of
many individuals and the services of many libraries.   The helpfulness  and  courtesy
of the staffs of the following are deeply appreciated:  The Medical Center Library
and the other libraries of the University of Cincinnati; the Public Library of
Cincinnati and Hamilton County; Lloyd Library and Museum; the libraries  of the
Merrell Company; Procter and  Gamble Technical Information Center;  Environmental
Protection Agency National Environmental Research Center; National Institute of
Occupational Safety  and Health; Center for Research Libraries; and the Kentucky-
Ohio-Michigan Regional Medical Library.  Among the full-time staff of  the  Division
of Bibliographic Research, Evelyn M. Widner, Librarian, deserves particular acknow-
ledgment for her help in setting up references to publications other than  periodi-
cals, and in channeling requests for original material.  The contributions of other
members of the staff who assisted in this work are also acknowledged.
                                        iv

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                                    CONTENTS

PART I
        INTRODUCTION   	    1
        ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS  	    3
     I.  BOOKS, MONOGRAPHS, AND PROCEEDINGS	    5
    II.  ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEYS  	   15
   III.  PLANTS AND ANIMALS	   47
        A.   Cold-Blooded Animals, Lower Organisms, Plants, and
            In vitro  Specimens	   47
        B.   Warm-Blooded Animals	   73
    IV.  MAN	  225
        A.   Adults	  225
PART II
    IV.  MAN (continued)
        B.   Children	565
     V.  OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE  	  615
    VI.  ATMOSPHERIC  SURVEYS:   POLLUTION AND EFFECTS  	  645
        A.   Air	645
        B.   Soil and Water	690
   VII.  LEGAL ASPECTS	701
  VIII.  THERAPEUTIC  USES	713
    IX.  ANALYTICAL METHODS	717
     X.  CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY	775
        AUTHOR INDEX  	  781
        SUBJECT  INDEX 	  809

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                   BIOLOGICAL  ASPECTS OF  LEAD:


                   AN  ANNOTATED  BIBLIOGRAPHY




                                 INTRODUCTION

SCOPE  OF CONTENTS

     Lead poisoning was recognized by the  early Greeks, and, according  to  Flury,*
by 1930 the volume  of published literature on the subject exceeded 10,000  items.
As told by Flury, the physicians of ancient  times and the Middle Ages relied upon
the obvious signs of lead poisoning,  i.e., colic, paralysis, gray skin  color,
and decreased  urine volume.  Only in the past two or three centuries were  attempts
made toward a  systematic medical work-up.  The French, particularly L.  Tanquerel
des Planches,  are credited with describing,  in the first half of the 19th  century,
the complete clinical picture of this disease, although progress in diagnosis and
pathology did  not begin until about 1870.  Between 1900 and 1930, important advances
were made toward the recognition of excessive absorption of lead, toward the under-
standing of its metabolism, and toward the treatment of I poisoning; however, the
most significant contributions to the study  of the metabolism of lead and  its physio-
logical effects, particularly of the quantitative aspects, have been made  since 1930.
In view of the volume of publications since  that date, it seemed desirable to re-
strict this publication to the more recent years, 1950 through 1964.  That period
was important  because further refinements  were made in biochemical and  cytochemical
techniques. In addition, the use of the newer chelating agents was significant not
only in the treatment of poisoning by heavy  metals, but in  giving added insight
into the mechanism  of their action on the  organism.

     Although  most  of the references on file were annotated, many of the abstracts
had to be revised to give more quantitative  data with regard to conditions of
exposure, or to indicate the lack of these data in the publication. This  extensive
revision was necessary because many references attributed bizarre diseases to
exposure to, or poisoning by, lead, but provided no data to show the magnitude of
the exposure.  Although our collection of  references included a large number of
original publications, many references had to be obtained to verify information
contained in them or to prepare abstracts.  Published abstracts were used  when
original publications, particularly those  of secondary interest, were not  available.
Most of these  abstracts are from Chemical  Abstracts, Bulletin of Hygiene,  Biological
Abstracts, Excerpta Medica, and Nuclear Science Abstracts.  Use of these abstracts
was with permission of the publishers, and is acknowledged  at the end of the refer-
ence or abstract.

     The material included essentially represents  the scientific periodical  liter-
ature covered  by the principal abstracting and indexing services.  Chapters  in books
*Flury, F.:   Blei. Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie, A.  Heffter  and W.
Heubner (Eds.),  Berlin, Springer, 1934,  Vol.  Ill, Pt. 3, pp. 1575-1889.

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are not included; however, entire books devoted to lead and its compounds,  or to
proceedings of conferences and symposia,  are included.   Letters to  editors  and pub-
lished items or comments that do not contribute to scientific knowledge,  or that  are
ephemeral in nature, are excluded.  Since lead is contained in many minerals, inclu-
sion of articles on this subject has been limited to reviews, except for  those arti-
cles that refer specifically to environmental contamination.  Inclusion of  works  on
analytical methodology is limited to those concerned with the determination of lead
in air, biological materials, foods and beverages, drugs, and water, and  to those
concerned with the analysis of metabolic indicators of  adverse effects (e.g., por-
phyrins).


     The abstracts are not intended to be evaluative.  They are designed  to convey
the conditions, procedures, and findings of the investigations, as  well as  the con-
clusions of the authors.
ARRANGEMENT  OF THE MATERIAL

     A brief explanation of the contents of some of the sections may be  helpful  to
those who use this publication.  Section I includes abstracts of books,  historical
publications, proceedings of conferences, and general reviews.  Specific reviews
and discussions are included in the sections dealing with those aspects  (e.g.,  .
reviews of signs, symptoms, and cases of clinical poisoning appear in Section IV,
Man).  Section II covers lead in the environment, including contamination of food
by utensils and pesticides, and contamination of home water supplies by  lead pipes,
cisterns, etc.   Abstracts of reports on industrial atmospheres and occupational
exposure are given in Section V; related medical information (case reports,  medical
surveys, etc.)  is covered in Section IV.  Section VI includes pollution  by lead  of
air, soil, and water, and the effects of such pollution on humans, animals,  and
plants under actual (field) conditions of exposure.  Section VII covers  legal
matters, regulations, and recommendations for threshold concentrations,  maximum
allowable concentrations, drinking water standards, and tolerance limits for food
products.  Section X is confined to chemical reviews, reviews of technological
developments, and works  dealing with specific chemical properties and syntheses
of new compounds.


     The abstracts are arranged chronologically within each section by year of
original publication, and alphabetically within each year by author.


     Availability of published English  translations, even when issued in later years,
is noted together with the entry of the  original publication.  Transliteration  from
Cyrillic languages follows the form used in Chemical Abstracts.  Author and subject
indices are  provided to facilitate the  use of this bibliography.
                            BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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                         ABBREVIATIONS  AND SYMBOLS
A      Angstrom unit
av     average
°C     degree Celcius
cc     cubic centimeter
Ci     curie
cm     centimeter
°F     degree Fahrenheit
8      gram
ia     intraarterial
im     intramuscular
in.    inch
ip     intraperitoneal
iv     intravenous
kg     kilogram
km     kilometer
LC     lethal concentration (air)
LD     lethal dose
m^     square meter
m3     cubic meter
M      mole or molar
MAC    maximum allowable concentration
mCi    millicurie
meq    milliequivalent
Mev    million electron volts
mg     milligram
mg%    milligrams per 100 g, ml
mi     mile
ml     mi Hi liter
MLD    minimum lethal dose
mm     millimeter
mM       millimole
m^i       millimicron
MTD      minimum tolerated dose
nCi      nanocurie
pCi      picocurie
ppb      parts per billion
ppm      parts per million
sc       subcutaneous
SD       standard deviation
SE       standard error
TD       tolerated dose
TLV      threshold limit value
U        unit
a        alpha
P        beta
6        delta
Y        gamma
a        standard deviation
p.        micron
uCi      microcurie
peq      microequivalent
|j.g       microgram
°"        about, approximately
<        less than
£        down to or less than
>        more than
i        up to or more than
±        plus or minus
/        per or over (in equations)
:        to (in sense of ratio)
The more common abbreviations  of  lengthy biological components or substances,
if not first defined  in abstract, are  found in the Subject Index.

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                         I.   BOOKS,  MONOGRAPHS,  AND PROCEEDINGS
                       1950

1       Agricola, G.:  DE RE METALLICA.  Translated
        from the 1st Latin Edition of 1556 by H.C.
        Hoover and L.H. Hoover.  New York, Dover,
        1950, 638 pp.
As stated in the title page, the translation is
appended by Hoover with extensive annotations and
appendices on the development of mining methods,
metallurgical processes, geology, mineralogy and
mining law f^rom the earliest times to the 16th
century.  The descriptions of the various processes
and operations are accompanied by a large number
of illustrations.  The first reference to Pb in
the index (entered as "censure") states that Pb
was claimed by Horace to be a "pestilential and
noxious metal," for men were punished by means of
molten Pb.   The processes described include cupel-
lation, melting prior to liquation, refining sil-
ver, smelting, use in assaying, washing in sluices,
use of Pb ash as flux, in separating gold from
Cu; Pb baths, Pb glass and granules; Pb ore assay
and processing; Pb ochre.  One of the illustra-
tions (p. 474) shows a furnace for the extraction
of litharge, with a man tending the furnace and
another one sitting at a table.  The legend
states:   "The foreman when hungry eats butter,
that the poison which the crucible exhales may not
harm him, for this is a special remedy against
that poison."

2       Beintker, E.  (Germany):  Arbeitsraedizin
        bei Jean Paul.  (OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE, AS
        DESCRIBED BY JEAN PAUL.)  Archiv fUr Hy-
        giene und Bakteriologie 132:189-96,  1950.
Some comments to be found in the literary work of
Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825)  relating
to the sanitary working conditions of craftsmen
and laborers are summarized.   These begin with
those applying to Pb,  then extend to As and other
metals, employment of children, and other prob-
lems.  These comments give an idea of the prob-
lems which were of interest 150 yr ago.
                       1952
3
        Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhiitten- und
        Bergleute e.V.:   Vortrkge und Diskussio-
        nen bei der Informationstagung liber die
        Bleikrankheit.   (ADDRESSES AND DISCUS-
        SIONS PRESENTED  AT THE SYMPOSIUM ON LEAD
        POISONING.)  Frankfurt a.M.,  September
        12, 1952, Publication No. 3.   Clausthal-
        Zellerfeld, 1952, 121 pp.
This Symposium was sponsored jointly  by the Socie-
ty of German Metalworks  and Mine Workers and the
German Society for Work  Safety.  The  papers pre-
sented were the following:
Feiser, J.:  ErHffnung der Tagung (OPENING RE-
 MARKS), 1-2.
Fieke  (Miners Union, Clausthal-Zellerfeld):   Die
 Bleikrankheit im Spiegel der berufsgenossen-
 schaftlichen Statistik (LEAD POISONING FROM THE
 POINT OF VIEW OF TRADE UPION STATISTICS), 3-17;
 discussion, 18-22.
Heidepriem, C. (Goslar) :  Vorbeugende Untersuch-
 ungen auf Bleigefahrdung (MEDICAL PREVENTION OF
 LEAD POISONING RISK), 23-36.  (The material pre-
 sented was based on the publication by Heide-
 priem and H. Breustedt, 1952) Discussion, 37-47.
Buckup, H. (Bochum):  Prophylaktische und thera-
 peutische Massnahmen (PREVENTIVE AND THERAPEUTIC
 MEASURES). 48-58.
Holmqvist, I. (Skelleftehamn, Sweden):  Prophy-
 laktische Massnahmen zur Vorbeugung von Blei-
 krankheiten.  Einige Erfahrungen von der Hiltte
 RGnnskar der Bolidensgesellschaft in Schweden.
 (PROPHYLACTIC MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION OF
 LEAD POISONING.   EXPERIENCE IN THE RONNSKAR
 SMELTER OF BOLIDENS COMPANY IN SWEDEN), 59-69;
 discussion, including Holmqvist's paper, 70-6.
Tillmann, K.(Works Physician, North-German Re-
 finery, Hamburg):  Symptome von Bleierkrankungen
 (SYMPTOMS IN LEAD POISONING), 77-89; discussion,
 90-6.
Danielsson, A. (Skelleftehamn, Sweden):  Eine
 Methode zur Bestimmung von Blei im Blut mittels
 Spektralanalyse (A METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION
 OF LEAD IN BLOOD BY SPECTRAL ANALYSIS), 97-103;
 discussion, 104-7.
Feiser, J. (Works Director of Lead-Copper Works
 Oker):  Betriebliche Schutzmassnahmen gegen
 Bleierkrankungen (PROTECTIVE MEASURES IN INDUS-
 TRY AGAINST LEAD POISONING), 108-15; discussion,
 116-21.

4       Kirk, R.E., and Othmer, D.F., ed:  ENCY-
        CLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY.  New
        York, Interscience,  1952,  Vol. 8.
The section on Pb is reviewed as follows:
Jones, T.D. (pp 217-53):  Lead.  The review  covers
 the physical and chemical properties; analysis;
 occurrence; smelting; Pb refining;  health and
 safety.  The latter is briefly stated as to tech-
 nical measures;  reference is made to the discus-
 sion on Pb poisoning.
Hack, C.H. (pp 253-66):  Lead alloys.  This  arti-
 cle discusses the properties and uses of the
 various grades of Pb and Pb alloys and the  con-
 sumption of Pb in the US by industries in 1948
 and 1949.
Thompson, A.P. (pp 267-74):   Lead compounds  - In-
 organic lead compounds.  The compounds covered
 are:  Pb acetate, basic and basic tetraacetate;
 arsenate; azide; halides; carbonates; chromates;
 formate; nitrates; oxides;  silicates; sulfates.

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Sturgis, B.M.  (pp 274-81):  Tetraethyllead.
Princi, F.  (pp 281-88):  Lead poisoning.  The fol-
 lowing are reviewed:  history; industrial expos-
 ure; intoxication by inorganic compounds; TEL
 poisoning; engineering control; medical control.

5       Lead Industries Association:  LEAD IN
        MODERN INDUSTRY.   MANUFACTURE, APPLICA-
        TIONS AND PROPERTIES OF LEAD, LEAD ALLOYS,
        AND LEAD COMPOUNDS.  New York, Lead Indus-
        tries Association, 1952, 230 pp.
The book starts with the history of Pb and pro-
ceeds from mining to its applications in modern
society.  The manufacturing processes and the
various products in which Pb is used in, eg,  stor-
age batteries, cables, welding and soldering of Pb
are covered, and the alloys of Pb and the oxides
are described.  A chapter is devoted to the safe
handling of Pb; others give specifications for Pb,
its alloys and products; properties of Pb and al-
loys , and physical constants of inorganic and or-
ganic compounds.

                          1953

6       McCord, C.P.  (Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor):
        LEAD AND LEAD POISONING IN EARLY AMERICA.
        BENJAMIN FRANKLIN AND LEAD POISONING.  In-
        dustrial Medicine and Surgery 22:393-9
        (Sept.), 1953.
A revival in medical appreciation of Pb poisoning
began in Europe just before the American Revolu-
tion, probably through Benjamin Franklin who knew
much about Pb poisoning.  As printer, Franklin
published Cadwalader's "Dry Gripes."  In his own
writings he mentioned his knowledge as a boy in
Boston of Pb poisoning, and of the Massachusetts
Law of 1723 which regulated the still heads and
worms for rum distillation.  He may have been the
first to associate Pb poisoning with printing op-
erations.  He was mentioned by several European
writers, ie, George Baker, John Hunter, Benjamin
Vaughan.  Though not mentioned by Tanquerel des
Planches, Franklin visited La Charite Hospital in
Paris, analyzed certain hospital records as to oc-
cupations and linked  them with Pb exposure.  The
list of cases mentioned by Franklin was known to
Tanquerel, and through the latter, to Rumpelt of
Germany.

7       McCord, C.P.  (Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor):
        LEAD AND LEAD POISONING IN EARLY AMERICA.
        LEAD MINES AND LEAD POISONING.  Industrial
        Medicine and Surgery 22:534-9 (Nov.), 1953.
The history of Pb mining in America begins in 1621
when it was known that some Pb was smelted at the
Fe mine at Falling Creek near Jamestown; however,
the location of this mine was kept secret and thus
lost.  Discoveries of Pb ores were made from 1632
on in New England, specifically, in Connecticut,
New York, and Massachusetts, and in Virginia.  At
the beginning of the Revolution, a Pb refinery was
established at Sing Sing, N.Y.  As the Revolution-
ary War progressed, supplies of Pb became exhaust-
ed, the scant mines were depleted, and bullets had
to be made from Pb cooking utensils and the vari-
ous appliances made of Pb.  Concerning Pb poison-
ing, it was assumed in those days that it attacked
smelters but that miners were spared.  With the
move to the West, the following landmarks in Pb
mining are recounted:  Fever River  (later called
Galena), west of Chicago became a thriving Pb min-
ing community in 1828; the discovery in 1690 by
N. Perrot of Pb deposits (galena) in the Green Bay
area along the shores of the Mississippi and tribu-
taries, with active mining begun by P. Renault in
M720; more extensive mining during the following
century in Wisconsin,  Illinois,  Iowa, Missouri,
Arkansas.   The mines in Utah, New Mexico, Nevada,
Idaho, Arizona, made history through the overwhelm-
ing incidence of Pb poisoning from mining activi-
ties from 1870-1900, although in Illinois old med-
ical records had shown Pb poisoning among miners
(S. Skeel, 1838, 1840).  Richards of Utah described
in his book, "A History of American Mining"  (1953),
the conditions prevailing there, which led McCord
to close this phase of Pb poisoning with a quota-
tion to the effect that little Pb poisoning  is to
be expected from mining Pb sulfide, but much of it
from Pb carbonate mining, especially in the  early
days when there were no suitable protective  meas-
ures.

8       McCord, C.P. (Univ.  Michigan, Ann Arbor):
        LEAD AND LEAD POISONING IN EARLY AMERICA.
        THE PEWTER ERA.  Industrial Medicine and
        Surgery 22:573-7 (Dec.), 1953.
Pewter was commonplace in Europe and America in
the 17th and 18th centuries, both for use as cook-
ing utensils and tableware.   In those days, pewter
was either all Pb or =50% Pb was contained
in it.  Although the early colonial physicians
knew that "dry-gripes" was a common ailment, con-
nection with Pb was apparently not recognized.
The English tinsmiths were aware of the harmful
properties of the Pb content in pewter even before
the colonial period and at times demanded its
elimination not only for this reason but also be-
cause the quality of pewter decreased with in-
creased content of Pb; a =10% content was thought
to be harmless.  Benjamin Franklin's involvement
(then 16 yr old) in the dry-gripes episode in
North Carolina rum drinkers, which conjecturally
led to the 1723 enactment of the Massachusetts Bay
Colony law prohibiting the distillation of rum
through pewter stills and still heads, is recount-
ed in detail.

9       Primitive Physic:  COLIC FROM THE FUMES OF
        LEAD, WHITE LEAD, VERDIGRIS, ETC., 1947.
        Industrial Hygiene Digest 17:2 (Mar.),
        1953.
As copied from the original:  "This, some term the
dry bellyache.  It often continues several days,
with little urine and obstinate costiveness.  In
the fit, drink fresh melted butter, and then
vomit with warm water.  To prevent or cure:
Breakfast daily on fat broth, and use oil of sweet
almonds frequently and largely.  Smelters of
metals, plumbers, etc, may be, in a good measure,
preserved from the poisonous fumes that surround
them, by breathing through cloth or flannel muf-
flers twice or thrice doubled, dipped in a solu-
tion of sea-salt or salt of tarter, and then
dried.  These mufflers might also be of great use
in similar cases."
10
Richards, R.T.:  OF MEDICINE, HOSPITALS,
                                    BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        AND DOCTORS.   Salt Lake  City, University
        of Utah Press,  1953,  266 pp.
The book, which is  divided into  2 sections, pro-
vides  a clear-cut picture of  the dominant diseases
prevalent in  Salt Lake City since 1872.  Pb poison-
ing headed the list f^om 1872-1892, during the
period when western mining was so rapidly develop-
ing, and Chapter II of  the 2nd section is devoted
to Pb  poisoning.  The  discussion is based on  2
periods:  (1) 1872-1903, for  which compilation  all
the records of St. Mark's and Holy Cross Hospitals
for this period were inspected;  (2) 1904-1950,  es-
timation of this period being based on hearsay  and
the memories  of 5 smelter officials,  9 mine and
smelter physicians, and 10 mine  operators.
  To understand the Pb  poisoning,  it  was necessary
to inquire into the origin and development of
mines  and smelters  and into the  types of ore  han-
dled and the  working conditions  that  accounted  for
the morbidity among workmen.  In the  days when  Pb
poisoning was so prevalent, the  miners worked 12
hr/day underground; no  baths  were systematically
taken  for cleanliness;  there  was no forced ventila-
tion to remove Pb ore  dust; clothes were seldom
changed.  In  addition  to being exposed to dust,
smelters were also  exposed to Pb fumes.  The  symp-
toms of Pb cases treated in the  Salt  Lake City
hospitals were anemia,  paralysis of selected mus-
cle groups, delirium,  abdominal  colic, and dark
Pb line at junction of  gums and  teeth, Pb colic
being  the symptom that  brought most Pb poisoning
cases  to the  hospitals.
  A review of >20,000  diagnoses  listed in the
records of St. Mark's  and Holy Cross  Hospitals  re-
vealed >6000  cases of  Pb poisoning between 1872-
1903.  Since  records were very incomplete, both in
hospitals and in the mines and smelters, interpola-
tion placed the number  of Pb  cases during this
period at ^85,000.  For the period 1904-1950, the
estimation was 10,205.  Since it was  felt that
there were innumerable unrecorded cases, the  au-
thor estimated that there probably were >100,000
cases  of Pb poisoning  in Utah between 1872-1950.
This deplorable prevalence of Pb poisoning in Utah
was not duplicated  in  any other  region in the US.

11      Rosen, G.  (Columbia Univ., New York,
        N.Y.):  OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF
        ENGLISH PAINTERS AND  VARNISHERS IN 1825.
        British Journal of Industrial Medicine 10:
        195-9  (July),  1953.
This historic  review is devoted  to excerpts from
"The Painter's and Varnisher's Pocket Manual,"
published in London in 1825 by an  anonymous au-
thor,  in which Pb  poisoning is discussed most
fully among the different hazards.
                       1954
12
        Leeper,  R.W.,  Summers,  L.,  and Oilman, H.
        (Pineapple Res.  Inst.,  Honolulu, Hawaii):
        ORGANOLEAD COMPOUNDS.  Chemical Reviews
        54:101-67 (Feb.), 1954.
The structure, preparation, and properties of the
organo-Pb compounds are reviewed.  Tables give a
complete listing of known organo-Pb compounds, and
the poisonous nature of the alkyl-Pb compounds and
symptoms of poisoning are discussed.  Caution is
advised in handling the alkyl-Pb's.  Most of the
available data pertain to TEL, symptoms  of which
differ from those of  chronic Pb poisoning due  to
inorganic Pb and its  cumulative effect.  The aryl-
Pb compounds are less hazardous because  of their
much lower volatility.  There  is no  reason to  sup-
pose that they are  inherently  any  less toxic than
the alkyl-Pb's, and suitable precautions should be
observed.  The organo-Pb halides of  the  type
R3PbX are active sternutators.  Pb compounds have
been suggested for  pharmacological use against
cancer, and organo-Pb compounds have been tested
for this purpose.   Research along  this line is
continuing, although  the toxicity  of the Pb com-
pounds, and the relative insolubility of many  of
them in water, lead to difficulties  in such appli-
cations.  The largest use of TEL is  as an anti-
knock agent in motor  fuel.  In the laboratory  the
use of organo-Pb compounds are limited,  their
chief use here being  as a source of  alkyl or aryl
radicals.  (340 references)

13      McCord, C.P.  (Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor):
        LEAD AND LEAD POISONING IN EARLY AMERICA.
        THE LEAD PIPE PERIOD.  Industrial Medicine
        and Surgery 23:27-31 (Jan.), 1954.
The use of Pb water pipes is reviewed from its
earliest history.  Although the ancients under-
stood the poisonous nature of  Pb, kettles, buckets
and other domestic utensils made of  Pb were used
extensively in those days.  Mention  of Pb water
piping, gutters, downspouts, flashing and Pb-lined
cisterns in American  goes back to vLOO yr after
arrival of the 1st  pioneers, and reports of ill-
ness from this source began to appear v!800.   The
work of S.L. Dana in  investigating the water sup-
ply of Lowell, Mass., with reference to Pb in
1848 when a serious epidemic believed to be Pb
poisoning occurred, is reviewed.
  The author comments that in  1952 Pb water pipes
were used extensively although today it  is im-
probable that any American city now  exclusively
relies on such pipes.  However, Pb poisoning still
occasionally arises from this  source.  The comment
is made that it is  a wonder that so  few  cases  of
Pb poisoning from Pb  plumbing  are  detected and re-
ported.

14      McCord, C.P.  (Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor):
        LEAD AND LEAD POISONING IN EARLY AMERICA.
        LEAD COMPOUNDS.   Industrial Medicine and
        Surgery 23:75-80 (Feb.),  1954.
The author traces the history of the use of white
and red Pb as cosmetics (rouge, for  the removal of
skin blemishes, hair washes),  and in therapy as
ointments,  etc, from antiquity through the cen-
turies in England (where white Pb was known as
early as 1274).  Although apart from medicinal
use,  Pb compounds and the manufacture of them were
little known in Colonial life.   With time,  the use
of cosmetics became the vogue,  and although there
are no records of deaths from this source,  many
cosmetics were injurious and caused poisoning  of
some degree.   Pb therapy also  became known in
America.   Aside from this,  occupational exposure
to Pb in the glazing of pottery (one of the 1st
manufacturing enterprises in the  Colonies)  was
recognized,  as was the use of  Pb  in paint manu-
facture and in glass.   Glass,  a scarcity and lux-
ury in early American times,  usually had a Pb  ox-
                                     Books, Monographs, and Proceedings

-------
ide content up to 92% for Pb glass and 30% in
flint.  Pb poisoning in the users of both pottery
and glass was not commonplace.  Although white and
red Pb were known for at least 2 millenniums, they
were not manufactured in the US until 1804, only
imported.  After 1812 this occupational exposure
became one of the most serious.

15      McCord, C.P. (Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor):
        LEAD AND LEAD POISONING IN EARLY AMERICA;
        CLINICAL LEAD POISONING IN THE COLONIES.
        Industrial Medicine and Surgery 23:120-5
        (March), 1954.
Although there are no statistics, Pb poisoning in
early America had to be prevalent.  Over and over
in writings there is the mention of "dry-gripes"
(descriptive of all abdominal pains unaccompanied
by fever or diarrhea) but no detailed description
of it or association of its occurrence with an ex-
act exposure such as use of pewter containers or
intake of Pb medicinally.  By no means were all
dry-gripes Pb poisoning.  The Pb poisoning of our
country's 250 formative years was a "cpnsumer af-
fliction" rather than occupational.
  The country's first doctors are not to be criti-
sized for their inability to diagnose, for only
through the astuteness of modern epidemiologists
have the many diseases and illnesses of Colonial
times been segregated.  The majority of early phy-
sicians were not well-trained and, other than what
they saw, felt, heard, or smelled, they were help-
less.  The situation as to Pb poisoning was no
worse than for most other diseases that were not
obvious.  However early in the 1800's physicians
began writing about Pb poisoning in a knowing man-
ner, dispelling much of the obscurity of Pb intox-
ication.  Yet even today there are cities and
counties where records are not available in regard
to occurrence of Pb intoxication whether occupa-
tional or otherwise.  Most states have laws re-
quiring the reporting of all such occupational
diseases but mostly no compliance; in truth, the
majority of instances of mild plumbism are never
recognized by the physicians themselves.

16      McCord, C.P. (Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor):
        LEAD AND LEAD POISONING IN EARLY AMERICA;
        SHOT TOWERS.  Industrial Medicine and Sur-
        gery 23:169-72 (Apr.), 1954.
Small shot are poured, not molded, density and sur-
face tension making for almost perfect spheres and
size being determined by the mesh of the screen.
The sorting of good shot from slugs is done with a
shot tower, a sloping stairway of glass or metal
with a gap between each successive pair of steps.
Shot rolled down, if perfect, moving in a straight
line, gain such momentum that they leap the gaps
and fall into a bin at the end of the lowermost
step.  Imperfect shot roll slowly, drop into the
open slots, and are remelted.
  The first American shot-makers had no shot tow-
ers, using high bridges or cliffs and wells or
mine shafts for quenching purposes.  Nearly every
city has described  its shot towers as "the first,"
but it is beyond doubt that numerous shot towers
arose after William Watts' original  discovery in
1769 in England.  Some representative ones were
originated by Moses Austin, French exile John Nich-
olas Maclot, George Youle, and Robert HcCullogh.
  The present-day shot tower is but a moderniza-
tion of the earliest sieve, the melting pot, the
essential elevation, and the inevitable vat of wa-
ter far below.  Pouring and dropping (100 ft) are
continuous.  From the chilling process at the bot-
tom, a chain bucket system takes the shot upward
some 5 floors where after drying, polishing, siz-
ing, and sorting proceed, the action working down-
ward.  Melting temperature is maintained at ^700°F;
As and Sb content is /x/l% and 2-6%, respectively;
some of the sieving pans have as many as 2400 per-
forations, the diameter of the perforations always
being smaller than the diameter of the form shot.
Thousands of shot are formed every second.
  It can be safely concluded that in Colonial
America and early US, shot towers did not produce
any significant Pb poisoning.  With modern shot
towers, the sorting, grading, and finishing of
shot may cause accumulations of settled and float-
ing dusts, and neglect of suitable sanitary work-
ing conditions in this portion of shot towers
could lead to Pb poisoning.

17      Meiklejohn, A. (Dept. Ind. Health, Univ.
        Glasgow, Scotland):  THE MILL REEK AND THE
        DEVONSHIRE COLIC.  British Journal of In-
        dustrial Medicine 11:40-4 (Jan.), 1954.
An account is given of mining Pb ore and its smelt-
ing at Leadhills in South Scotland.  Since the
galena, sulfide of Pb, occurs in a quartz matrix,
the miners may have developed silicosis, but cer-
tainly the smelters, as well as animal and vegeta-
ble life in the neighborhood, suffered of old from
Pb poisoning.  Evidence is quoted that "fowls of
any kind do not live many days at Leadhills;
horses, cows, dogs, and cats often find ill effects
and sheep suffer from browsing off the local grass."
Fumes from smelting the ore was called mill-reek,
and the disease they caused was well described in
1754 by a local doctor whose account is quoted.  At
the same time fresh fruit juices for combating scur-
vy if kept in earthenware vessels glazed with Pb,
were found to be causing Pb poisoning.  Wedgwood,
the famous potter, set himself  (1773) to find a Pb-
free glaze.  Contemporary descriptions of Devonshire
colic identify it with mill-reek disease and with
illness seen among Derbyshire Pb-miners and smelt-
ers.  Here "belland" was described as long ago as
1678 by Dr. J. Carte.  It has been always best
known to the general practitioner.
                     1955
 18
        Anonymous:  LEAD POISONING IN HISTORICAL
        FICTION.  FROM "PUT YOURSELF IN HIS PLACE"
        (1870) BY CHARLES READE.  Industrial Medi-
        cine and Surgery 24:560-1 (Dec.), 1955.
In his novel, "Put Yourself in His Place," Charles
Reade describes the Pb hazard to file cutters of
that time.

19      Stevenson, L.G. (Univ. Western Ontario,
        Canada):  ON THE MEANING OF THE WORDS
        CERUSSA AND PSIMITHIUM (PSIMYTHION).
        Journal of the History of Medicine and
        Allied Sciences 10:109-11, 1955.
This brief historical sketch is on the history of
Pb poisoning from the manufacture of white Pb
(ceruse, blanc de plomb, Bleiweisz, or psimithium
                                    BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 in  earlier Latin)  for use  as  a pigment.   In  the
 process  Pb is  placed in  a  vessel  containing  vine-
 gar.   The objection was  been  frequently  raised
 that  Pb  acetate would have been produced instead
 of  white Pb.

                      1956

 20       Darwall, J.:  DISEASES OF ARTISANS WITH
         PARTICULAR REFERENCE  TO THE  INHABITANTS OF
         BIRMINGHAM.  British  Journal of  Industrial
         Medicine 13:143-53 (Apr.), 1956.
 John  Darwall's thesis, presented in  1821, is pub-
 lished in the original Latin, together with  a trans-
 lation by A. Meiklejohn.   Hazards to workmen en-
 gaged in processes in which white Pb is  used are
 discussed under the heading of "chemical irrita-
 tion."   Reference  is made  to  observations published
 by  Cullen, Orflla, Van Swieten, Percival, and Baker.

 20a      Japanese Association  of Industrial Medi-
         cine:  PROCEEDINGS OF THE 29th GENERAL
        MEETING OF THE JAPANESE ASSOCIATION OF
         INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE.   Journal of  Science
        of Labour  (Japan)  32:217-347 (Apr.), 1956.
 See Abstract No. 677

 21      Tara, S.:   A propos du lis&re saturnin.
         (THE LEAD LINE.)   French  translation of
        Burton, H.: Au sujet  d'un effet remarqu-
        able sur les  gencives humaines provoque  par
        1'absorption de plomb.  (REMARKABLE EFFECT
        ON HUMAN GUMS INDUCED BY  ABSORPTION OF
        LEAD.)   Me'decin d'Usine 18,  No. 5:228-30;
        233-4;  237-40,  1956.
Tara introduces a French translation of Henry Bur-
ton's classical work,  presented before the Royal
College of Physicians  in January  1840.   Tara notes
that without wishing to diminish  the merits of the
author, the gingival  Pb line   was described by the
Frenchman Grisolle  in 1836; for this reason,  it
should be designated  as the Grisolle/Burton line.

                         1957

22       Giuliano, R., and  Rafanelli, M.:  Lavora-
         zioni che espongono all'azione del piombo-
         tetraetile.  (INDUSTRIAL  EXPOSURE TO TETRA-
        ETHYLLEAD.)  Milan, Institute Nazionale per
         1'Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul
        Lavoro, 1957,  64 pp.
 General  physical and chemical properties, toxic ac-
 tion, and MAC of TEL are 1st  described:  0.2 mg/m3
 produces evident symptoms  in  1 hr; 0.1—0.14 mg/m
 is  not tolerable for repeated exposures; 0.15 mg/m3
 is  the US limit for an 8-hr working day  but must
 not be regarded as more than  the upper limit of
 tolerance.  In practice the atmospheric  concentra-
 tion  should be well below  this.  The toxicity by
 inhalation and skin application in animals is re-
 viewed.  Air saturated with TEL contains ^5 mg Pb/L,
 The symptoms and occupations  in which TEL poisoning
 may occur are described, which include its prepara-
 tion.  In the evaluation of various hazards, the
 general  principles of safe working are illustrated
 by  diagrams and photographs.   Protective measures
 are described and illustrated.  Great stress is
 laid  on  the provision of a daily meal of ^1700 cal;
 rotation of workers so that intervals of  24 hr be-
tween exposure periods are assured; routine  clini-
cal and urinary examination; immediate  treatment of
the least sign of intoxication; provision  or pro-
tective clothing and appliances, baths, showers;
washing and sterilizing work clothing;  continuous
chemical analysis of the air (with analytical meth-
ods given for air samples, biologic liquids  and
fuels).  A discussion of the theory of  antiknock
agents and of the hazards encountered in places
other than TEL factories where Pb-fuels are  used is
included.  (From review (M.W. Goldblatt) in  British
Journal of Industrial Medicine 16:177-8, 1959)
22a     Japanese Association of Industrial Medi-
        cine:  PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH  GENERAL
        MEETING OF JAPAN ASSOCIATION OF INDUSTRIAL
        HYGIENE.  Journal of Science of Labour
         (Japan) 33:451-588  (July), 1957.
See Abstract No. 732.
                     1958

23      Lead Industries Association:  PROCEEDINGS
        OF THE LEAD HYGIENE CONFERENCE.  Chicago,
        111., November 6-7, 1958, New York,  N.Y.,
        82 pp.
The Proceedings of this Conference, published
separately and distributed by the Lead  Industries
Association, was reprinted in Industrial Medicine
and Surgery 28:93-163, 1959.  R.L. Ziegfeld, Sec-
retary-Treasurer, made the introductory address,
and F.E. Wormser, Vice President of the Association
and of St. Joseph Lead Company, New York,  gave the
welcoming speech.  For the papers presented, see
Abstr. No. 27.

24      McCord,  C.P.  (Univ.  Michigan, Ann  Arbor):
        LEAD SHOT TOWERS IN AMERICA.   OLD  AND NEW.
        Industrial Medicine and Surgery 27:620-6
        (Dec.),  1958.
See also Abstr.  No. 16 for additional history.
  Of all the industries that have survived 200 yr
or more, shot pouring has changed least, basic
principles remaining the same with only refinements
in powering, sources of heating, and mechanical
handling being added.  Now as in the early days of
shot making all that is needed are high elevation,
molten Pb with added metallic As to promote  fluid-
ity, a colander, and a vat of water at  the bottom
for quenching.  Nature's physics are the real
workers.  Fourteen illustrations show the  towers
and operations of manufacture, old and  new.
  More shot than ever are poured, >40,000  tons Pb/
yr being used for this purpose.  In the early dec-
ades every region of the country was nearly  self-
sufficient in meeting its needs; but better  trans-
portation, along with the manufacture of breach-
loading guns, doomed the regional shot  tower and
old shot towers became historic monuments.   The
output of the 5 modern shot towers in the  US (New
Haven and Bridgeport, Connecticut; East Alton,
Illinois; Kings Mill, Ohio; and San Francisco,
California), operated by ammunition manufacturers
with their marvels of mechanization, can outdo in
costs, volume, and quality 100 old-time towers.
25
              1959

California State Department of Public
Health:  THE THIRD AIR POLLUTION MEDICAL
                                    Books, Monographs, and Proceedings

-------
        RESEARCH CONFERENCE, Los Angeles, December
        9-10, 1959, 230 pp.
Pb is included in J.T. Middleton's paper on "The
Impact of Air Pollution Standards on Research,"
in which he reviews the history of the air
pollution problem in California, and the study
and research on this subject by the Department
from 1955 on toward the development of standards.
The areas requiring particular study at the time
were photochemical complex, ethylene, ozone, CO,
Pb, carcinogens, and particulates.  Concerning
Pb, further work is needed to determine the
average blood levels for persons living in
places with air pollution and with known occupa-
tional exposure and smoking history.  Also, 24-
hr urine samples from these same persons should
be collected, to be compared with those of com-
parable groups living in less polluted air, as
well as the Pb content in autopsy material, eg,
liver, lung, brain, cortical and trabecular bone
(the latter to represent relatively recent ex-
posure) which should be determined continuously.
Pb balance studies are also needed and should
include sampling of the air actually breathed.
First, it would be very important to estimate
what fraction of the Pb in the air is retained
in the body.


26      Horiuchi, K., ed.:  CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE
        DEPARTMENT OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND PUB-
        LIC HEALTH, OSAKA CITY UNIVERSITY MEDICAL
        SCHOOL.  Vol. 1, April 1949-March 1959,
        298 pp.
As stated in the preface, K. Horiuchi came to the
University as executive chairman and professor of
the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public
Health in 1949.   The scientific papers and ab-
stracts published within the 10 yr are contained in
this volume.  The studies were on occupational
health, gerontology, practical and theoretical epi-
demiology, and other subjects.  The preface is
followed by a brief history of the Department.  The
abstracts of publications concerning Pb are includ-
ed in the appropriate sections under the years of
original publication:  Miki, M. (1952, 1958), Hori-
uchi, K., and Takada, I.  (1954); Horiuchi, K., and
Ida, N. (1953, 1955); Horiuchi, K., et al  (1953,
1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959); Ida, N., et
al (1954); Tamori, E., and Sueknae, M. (1955);
Owada, K., et al  (1955); Tamori, E., et al  (1955);
Nakano, M.  (1956); Imamura, Y.  (1954); Horiguchi,
S., et al  (1957); Okada, A.  (1957); Wada, N.
(1957); Fukumura, S., and Fujisawa, Y. (1952);
Yoshida, Y.  (1956); Ishikawa, I.  (1959).
27      Lead Industries Association:  THE LEAD
        HYGIENE CONFERENCE.  Chicago, 111., Nov.
        6-7, 1958.  Industrial Medicine and Sur-
        gery 28:93-163, 1959.
As stated in the introduction, Mr. Bowditch,
Director of Health and Safety, Lead Industries
Association presided at the Conference.  "Full
freedom was given to the numerous speakers as to
their presentations.  By all it was agreed that Pb
can cause catastrophe, but Pb's threat is subject
to ready control.  Clinical Pb poisoning on a com-
parative basis now has become a rarity, but the
ominousness of Pb poisoning is a reality.  The tar-
                 get of this conference, of which this is the
                 record, was the threat - the  'what might happen.'"
                   For abstracts, see Sections:  IV, Baetjer, A.M.;
                 VA, Belknap, E.L.; Byers, D.H.; Frank, R.W.;
                 Johnstone, R.T.; Kehoe, R.A.; Miller, L.H.; VB,
                 Smith, H.D.; VII, Elkins, H.B.; VIII, Foulger,
                 J.H.; Schrenk, H.H.; Waters,  T.C.
                   The overall summary and discussion was presented
                 by T.L. Shipman (pp. 162-3).  He pointed out in
                 closing that although there are areas of ignorance
                 in the field of Pb toxicology, it is hoped  that 10
                 yr from now there will be more precise laboratory
                 tests for exact determination of the degree of
                 poisoning and more will be known on the biological
                 effects of small doses of Pb.  The fact that ex-
                 posures and blood and urine levels are kept below
                 a certain point does not guarantee that damage
                 which still cannot be determined is not being done;
                 this also applies to fields other than Pb.
                   The discussions were led by W.M. Pallies, C.H.
                 Hine, M.R. Mayers, H.E. Stokinger, K.W. Nelson,
                 L.W. Spolyar, L.E. Hamlin, A.S. Johnson, J.J.
                 Chisolm, Jr., H.L. Hardy, D.J. Lauer.

                 28      Legge, R.T. (Univ. California, Berkeley):
                         L. TANQUEREL DES PLANCHES, M.D, 1809-1862.
                         A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF HIS CLASSIC MASTER-
                         PIECE ON LEAD DISEASES.  Industrial Medi-
                         cine and Surgery 28:514-6 (Nov.), 1959.
                 In closing the brief review,  the author states
                 that Tanquerel des Planches ' immortal books on Pb
                 diseases earn this clinician and investigator a
                 foremost place in industrial medical history.  Men-
                 tion is made that the books were translated by
                 S.L. Dana under the title "Lead Diseases," which
                 also includes the results of Dana's own investiga-
                 tion of Pb poisoning from Pb plumbing.

                                        1960

                 29      California State, Department of Public
                         Health:  THE FOURTH AIR POLLUTION MEDICAL
                         RESEARCH CONFERENCE,  DECEMBER 7, 8, AND 9,
                         1960.  Berkeley, California, 1960,  Pro-
                         ceedings of the Third day, 159 pp.
                 The following papers on Pb were presented in the
                 Symposium on Lead and Carbon  Monoxide:  1.  Pre-
                 liminary Reports of Field Studies of Lead, by D.H.
                 Hofreuter.  2.  Trace Metal Patterns in Health and
                 Disease, by E.M. Butt.  3.  The Comparison  of Or-
                 ganic and Inorganic Lead Poisoning, by J.C. Aub.
                 The Chairman of the Symposium was H.L. Helwig, and
                 J.R. Goldsmith led the discussion terminating the
                 session.  (See Abstracts No.  2269, 2106, 2090)

                 30       Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhiitten- und
                          Bergleute e.V.:   Vortrage und Diskussio-
                          nen bei der 2.  Informations tagung liber die
                          Bleikrankheit.   (ADDRESSES AND DISCUS-
                          SIONS PRESENTED AT THE 2nd SYMPOSIUM ON
                          LEAD POISONING.)   Bad Oeynhausen,  October
                          29-30,  1959.   Publication No.  7.   Claus-
                          thal-Zellerfeld,  1960,  188 pp.
                 At this Symposium, J. Feiser was moderator  of Part
                 I, dealing with technical aspects of work safety;
                 H. Buckup moderated the presentations on the in-
                 dustrial medical aspects; Part II.  The contents
                 of the publication are as follows:
                 Kleinert, R.:  Eroffnung der  Tagung (OPENING RE-
10
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 MARKS), 1-3.
BBrger, H. (Oker):  Stand der betrieblichen Mass-
 nahmen zur VerhUtung der Bleikrankheit  (THE STATUS
 OF INDUSTRIAL MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION OF LEAD
 POISONING), 7-25; discussion, 25-35.
NBtzold, 0. (Arnoldstein):  Erfahrungen mit Fein-
 staubmasken auf einer BleihUtte (EXPERIENCE WITH
 MICRODUST MASKS IN A LEAD WORKS), 37-52; discus-
 sion, 53-64.
Buckup, H. (Bochum):  Die Bleierkrankung, ihre
 heutige Bedeutung sowie die MBglichkeiten ihrer
 Erkennung, VerhUtung und Behandlung (LEAD POISON-
 ING, ITS PRESENT SIGNIFICANCE AND THE POSSIBILI-
 TIES OF ITS DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT),
 67-98; discussion, 99-114.
Holmqvist, I.  (Skelleftehamn,  Sweden):  Werkarztliche
 Erfahrungen auf einer BleihUtte, insbesondere mit
 der Blutbleibestimmung (MEDICAL EXPERIENCE IN A
 LEAD WORKS, ESPECIALLY BY DETERMINATION OF LEAD
 IN BLOOD), 115-44; discussion, 145-50.
Reinl, W. (DUsseldorf):  Die medikamentb'se Blei-
 therapie und -prophylaxe mit Ca-EDTA  (DRUG THERA-
 PY IN LEAD POISONING AND PROPHYLAXIS WITH Ca-
 EDTA) , 151-70.
Pott, R. (Hamburg):  WerksSrztliche Erfahrungen
 mit der medikamentbsen Bleiprophylaxe mittels
 EDTA auf einer BleihUtte (MEDICAL EXPERIENCE WITH
 EDTA PROPHYLAXIS IN A LEAD WORKS), 171-82; discus-
 sion, 183-6.

JJ       Seven,  M.J.,  and Johnson, L.A., ed.:
        METAL-BINDING IN MEDICINE.  Proceedings of
        a Symposium Sponsored by Hahnemann Medical
        College and Hospital.   Philadelphia,  Lip-
        pincott, 1960, 400 pp.
This book is a collection of formal papers and
panel discussions from a meeting held on May 6, 7,
and 8, 1959, to bring together clinicians and re-
search workers in the trace metal fields.  Since
this is one of the first comprehensive collections
of data on metal-binding agents, every effort was
made to achieve an accurate reference source.  As
decided editorially, "metal-binding" means linkage
between a binding agent and a metal; "chelation"
was reserved for the process of metal-binding in
which the metal is incorporated into a ring
structure.  There are 6 groups of papers, each
followed by discussions moderated by G.C. Cotzias,
H.A. Schroeder, H. Foreman, H. Kroll, I.H. Schein-
berg, and H.M.  Perry, Jr.; all include reference
to Pb.  Appendices include an editor's note con-
cerning identification of the forms of chelates
in the physiological pH range; formulae; periodic
chart.  An index of authors and a subject index
which includes abbreviations of compounds com-
pletes the volume.
  For papers including discussion of Pb, see:
Johnson and Seven; Weinberg, in III; Foreman;
Schubert and Lindenbaum; Shapiro, in IV; Brieger;
Butt et al; Perry and Camel; Peters; Rieders;
Schroeder;  Tipton, in V; Martell, in XI.

32       Voinar, A.O.:  Biologicheskaya Rol Mikro-
        elementov v Organizme Zhivotnykh i
        Cheloveka.  (BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF TRACE ELE-
        MENTS IN THE ORGANISM OF ANIMALS AND MAN. )
        Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo
        "Sovetskaya Nauka," 1st ed., 1953; 2nd
        ed., 1960, 544 pp.
Review of the occurrence and biological role of
Pb is included in Chapter 14.  The distribution
in the human and animal body is covered at some
length, with concentrations shown for various or-
gans and fluids.  Effects on enzymatic processes,
the metabolism of Pb, and the toxicity of Pb are
reviewed.
                     1961
33      Browning, E.  (London, England):  TOXICOL-
        OGY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS OF INDUSTRIAL IM-
        PORTANCE.  Annual Review of Pharmacology
        1:397-430, 1961.
A chapter on TEL is included.  Its properties,
hazards in manufacture, symptoms of poisoning, its
fate in the organism and treatment of poisoning
are reviewed.

34      Horiuchi, K., ed.:  CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE
        DEPARTMENT OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND PUB-
        LIC HEALTH, OSAKA CITY UNIVERSITY MEDICAL
        SCHOOL.  Vol. 2, April 1959-March 1961,
        276 pp.
As stated in the preface, this volume should be
useful in the following research fields:  (1) oc-
cupational health,  (2) gerontology, (3) theoreti-
cal epidemiology, (4) air pollutants, (5) public
health practice.  The contents are divided  into 5
categories:  (I) industrial hygiene and occupa-
tional health,  (II) gerontology, (III) environ-
mental medicine,  (IV) epidemiology, (V) others.
The abstracts of publications concerning Pb are
included in Sections  I, IV, V, VI, VIII, X  under
the years of original publication:  Tsuji,  M.
(1960); Noma, H.  (1960); Asano, I. (1960);
Hashimoto, K.  (1960); Horiuchi, K., et al (1959,
1960, 1961); Ishii, Y.  (I960); Miyaki, S. (I960);
Noma, H.,and Narita,  I.  (1961); Masuya, Y., et al
(1961); Horiuchi, K.  (1961); Nagao, Y.  (1959);
Horiguchi, S.  (1959); Horiuchi, K., and
Horiguchi, S.  (1960).

35      Johnson, L.A., and Seven, M.J., ed.:
        PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE ON BIOLOGICAL
        ASPECTS OF METAL-BINDING HELD AT THE
        PENNSYLVANIA  STATE UNIVERSITY, UNIVERSITY
        PARK, PENNSYLVANIA, SEPTEMBER 6-9,  1960.
        Federation Proceedings 20, Supplement No.
        10 (Sept.), 1961, 273 pp.
The papers presented during this conference, to-
gether with the discussions, are arranged under
the following subjects:  (1) Physical chemistry of
chelation, specifically as related to metal ions
of biological interest and their coordination com-
pounds, metal chelate compounds in biological sys-
tems and role of metal binding in enzymic reac-
tions;  (2) physiologic aspects of metals;  (3)
pharmacology and toxicology of chelating agents;
(4) applications of chelating agents in medicine.
  While all papers are pertinent to Pb, abstracts
have been prepared only of those which discuss the
role of these agents in the treatment of Pb poison-
ing or other diseases, with special emphasis on
BAL and CaEDTA.  See  Section V:  Foreman, H.;
Hardy, H.L.;  Kehoe, R.A.;  Perry, H.M., Jr.;
Peters, H.A.;  Rubin, M.
                                    Books, Monographs, and Proceedings
                                                                                                      11

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36      Passow, H., Rothstein, A., and Clarkson,
        T.W. (Univ. Hamburg, Germany;  Univ.
        Rochester, N.Y.):  THE GENERAL PHARMACOL-
        OGY OF THE HEAVY METALS.  Pharmacological
        Reviews 13:185-224 (June), 1961.
In the introduction, the author states that  the
review is devoted to a discussion of predominantly
theoretical aspects of metal poisoning; that no
attempt has been made to give an encyclopedic sur-
vey of all available knowledge, but that he  hoped
to develop a group of generalizations concerning
the biological factors that determine the main
course of events following poisoning, and that a
selected number of experiments with a few represen-
tative metals would be presented in some detail.
  The following are the main headings:  Chemical
interactions between heavy metal ions and biochem-
ical substances; the action on enzyme systems; in-
teractions with surface films; action on cells;
all-or-none responses ("indirect," as exerted by
Au on hemolysis of red cells, and "direct,"  as ex-
erted by Pb on permeability of red cells, and Hg
on permeability of yeast cells, and the mechanism
of such responses); action in the interior of the
cell; time dependence of actions; action on epi-
thelial tissues; action on animals; nature of
metal-induced responses; general discussion and
conclusions.  Pb enters into discussion under
virtually all headings, and in greater detail in
regard to permeability of erythrocytes; citing
here the work of Aub et al, 1926; Behrens et al,
1927; Clarkson et al, 1958 (2 publications);
Flury, 1934; Glynn, 1957; Grigarzik et al, 1958;
Joyce et al, 1954; Jung, 1947; Lindemann et  al,
1960; Lovelock, 1955; Maxwell et al, 1929; Morten-
sen et al, 1944; 0rskov, 1935; Passow, 1961; Pas-
sow et al, 1956 (2 articles); Paul, 1950; Reddi,
1953; Vincent, 1958, 1959; Vincent et al, 1958.
  In conclusion, the authors point out that  be-
cause of the great variability of their action, the
behavior of individual metals cannot be predicted.
As an example, Hg, Cu, Pb, and Au have high  affin-
ities for sulfhydryl groups, yet sometimes they
behave quite differently in biological systems.
Since the metals potentially can interact with
almost any accessible ligand, the location of the
various binding sites within the cell, as well as
the presence of diffusion barriers, decisively in-
fluences the nature and time course of metal action
on cells.  Thus, the structural and functional
organization of the cell is the predominant  factor
in determining the patterns of toxicity, with in-
hibition of functions associated with the outer
cell surface being of special importance.  Ad-
ditional complications arise by the nature of bio-
logical organization in tissues and whole animals,
so that analyses of chemical mechanisms are  very
difficult.  This however, is true also for other
chemical agents.  (130 references)

37      Skinner, H.L., Jr. (Staten Island, N.Y.):
        THE LEAD PROBLEM.  AN OUTLINE OF CURRENT
        KNOWLEDGE AND OPINION.  Journal of Occupa-
        tional Medicine 3:429-35 (Sept.), 1961.
The author discusses the industrial Pb problem on
the basis of exposure, the importance of air analy-
ses, quantitative and qualitative biologic studies,
metabolism of Pb, signs and symptoms of Pb intoxi-
cation, Pb palsy (various types), Pb encephalop-
                  athy, and other manifestations.  In summary, once
                  Pb  is absorbed into  the bloodstream it  is  distrib-
                  uted throughout the  entire body.  A normal person
                  takes in 0.3 mg/day  and rids himself  of the same
                  amount  per  day.  With  increased  absorption the  ex-
                  cess is mainly deposited  in  the  bones.   If this
                  deposition  process is  too slow,  toxic levels in
                  the blood and tissues  are reached resulting in
                  symptoms of intoxication.  These will occur also
                  if, over a period of time, Pb is deposited  in long
                  bones and a period of  stress occurs which  causes
                  increased quantities of Pb to be released  again in-
                  to the  circulation.  Following a brief  discussion
                  of treatment with CaEDTA, prevention  is  emphasized
                  to the  effect that no  medical measures  should be
                  recommended in lieu of "adequate engineering mea-
                  sures for control of Pb exposure."  In  conjunction
                  with these, removal from  exposure, instruction as'
                  to diet and hygiene, and  hygienic measures  are
                  suggested.  In closing, the psychologic  aspects to
                  be considered are a frank approach to the  problem
                  so as to achieve better cooperation on  the  part of
                  all personnel.

                                         1963
                   38       Union  des  Societes  de  Sciences  Medicales,
                           Societe  d'Hygiene:   Premier  Congr°es  Na-
                           tional d'Hygiene  et de Securite du Travail.
                           Rapports et  Resumes des Travaux.   (FIRST
                           NATIONAL CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL HEALTH.
                           ABSTRACTS  OF PAPERS.)   Bucarest,  1963, 304
                           pp.
                   For  papers  concerning Pb, see  Alexeieva,  Z. ;
                   Gontea,  I.;  Jaliu, A.;  Kleinstein, I.;  Mircev, M.;
                   Mutafov,  B.; Pascou,  L.;  Pislaru, V.; Preda,  N. ;
                   Prodan,  L.;  and  Stancev,  S.  (See Sections  II, V, VI)

                                        1964

                   39       California State  Department  of  Health:
                           THE  SIXTH  ANNUAL  AIR POLLUTION  MEDICAL
                           RESEARCH CONFERENCE.   Archives  of  Environ-
                           mental Health 8:1-189  (Jan.), 1964.
                   Most of  the  papers presented at this Conference in
                   San  Francisco, Jan.  28-29,  1963, together  with
                   discussions, are published  in  this issue.  Papers
                   from the 1st session were published  in  the Ameri-
                   can  Review of  Respiratory Diseases.  For papers
                   concerning Pb, see Goldsmith,  J.R.;  Sterling,
                   T.D.;  Butt,  E.M.,  et  al;  Tipton, I.H.,  and Shafer,
                   J.J.;  Rustagi, J.S.;  Bacaner,  M.; Morgan,  K. Z.,
                   and  Gofman,  J.W.,  et  al,  in sections V  and VII.

                   40       Derot, M. , Trad,  J., Rautureau,  J.,  and
                           Fournet, P.~C.  (France):  Intoxication
                           saturnine.   (LEAD POISONING.)   Gazette
                           Me"dicale de  France  71:2823-40 (Sept.  25),
                           1964.
                   This  review  covers the  available information  con-
                   cerning  Pb poisoning,  such  as  causes of intoxica-
                   tion  (criminal,  occupational and accidental,  such
                   as from  food and water),  types  of intoxication
                   (acute,  subacute,  severe, chronic) clinical  signs
                   and  symptoms,  biological  and laboratory signs,
                   organs affected, and  manifestations  of  chronic Pb
                   poisoning and  its  diagnosis  and treatment.  Pene-
                   tration  and  deposition  of Pb in the  organs,  its
                   excretion, chelation,  cellular  activity, porphyrin
12
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
metabolism in Pb poisoning and toxic effects upon
the various organs as well as other aspects such
as preventive measures, and treatment, are dis-
cussed in depth.  (31 references)

41      Gerarde, H.W. (Esso Research Eng. Co.,
        Linden, N.J.):  TOXICOLOGY: ORGANIC.  An-
        nual Review of Pharmacology 4:223-46,
        1964.
The review includes a survey of the literature on
the toxicology of organometallic compounds, among
them tri- and tetraalkyllead (pp. 240-4).  Some of
the physical properties of tetraethyllead (TEL)
and tetramethyllead (TML) are listed in a table.
As these compounds are lipid soluble, they are
concentrated in the brain, body fat and liver.
Because of this selective distribution, manifesta-
tions of poisoning are dominated by involvement of
the central nervous system and differ from those
of inorganic Pb poisoning.  Signs and symptoms of
TEL intoxication are reviewed.  Analyses of air in
many cities have shown Pb concentrations, as
judged by current hygienic criteria, to be insigni-
ficant.  Much of the Pb burned in gasoline is not
exhausted in forms which can remain suspended in
the atmosphere; about 20-30% of it is retained in
exhaust system deposits and lubricating oil, and
the balance is exhausted over 20,000 to 30,000-
mile periods of driving.  Experiments with rats
showed that TML is less toxic than trimethyllead,
the intraperitoneal LD-50 of the latter for rats
being 25.5 mg/kg.  No signs of poisoning were ob-
tained after intravenous dosing of rats with 34
mg/kg and of rabbits with 20 and 40 mg TML, while
an immediate toxic reaction was elicited in rab-
bits by intraperitoneal administration of 7.5 and
15 mg/kg of trimethyllead.  Differences in the
signs of toxic effects in rats and dogs are de-
scribed.  The comparative LD-50 for triethyllead
in rats was 11.2 mg/kg, the intravenous LD-50 for
TEL, 15.4 mg/kg.  The distribution of triethyllead
in the tissues of animals dosed with TEL was vir-
tually identical with that found after injection
of triethyllead; only small amounts of trimethyl-
lead were found in the tissues of rats dosed with
TML.  The conversion in vivo of tetraalkyllead to
trialkyllead is well established; TEL does so rap-
idly, while the conversion of TML to trimethyllead
is much slower.  The toxicity of the tetraalkyl
compounds apparently depends on the rate of con-
version to the more toxic trialkyl derivative.
(106 references)

42      Gilbert, T.W.  (Univ.  Cincinnati,  0.):
        LEAD.   In:   Kolthoff,  I.M., and Elbing,
        P.J.,  ed.,  with the assistance of Sandell,
        E.B.:   Treatise on Analytical Chemistry.
        New York, Wiley, 1964,  Vol. 6, part II,
        pp.  69-175.
In the 1st part of  this chapter,  the occurrence,
production,  and industrial products, extraction
and purification, and the toxicity of Pb and its
compounds are reviewed.   This is  followed by a
presentation of the properties, physical, chemical,
and isotopic distribution of Pb;  separation and
isolation; detection and identification;  determina-
tion by precipitation and gravimetric methods,
titrimetric, polarographic, photometric activation
analysis; determination of Pb in specific materi-
als; recommended laboratory procedures.  (426
references)

43      Kettering Laboratory in the Department of
        Preventive Medicine and Industrial Health,
        College of Medicine, University of Cincin-
        nati:  SYMPOSIUM ON LEAD.  Archives of En-
        vironmental Health 8:202-354 (Feb.), 1964.
In his introduction to the Symposium, R.A. Kehoe
states that "for more than 30 yr members of the
staff of the Kettering Laboratory have been engag-
ed in the investigation of various aspects of the
occurrence and the behavior of Pb in the external
environment and the internal milieu of man.  From
time to time various aspects of this subject have
been presented in publications.  Less frequently,
in symposia, much of the available information
derived from our investigations and those of
others has been assembled."  The symposium repre-
sents an attempt to bring together certain primary
and ancillary facets of the hygienic problem
raised many years ago by the introduction of
tetraethyllead as an antiknock additive into auto-
motive fuel.
  For abstracts, see Sections:   II, de Treville,
R.T.; VI, Schepers, G.W.H.; VA,  Fleming, A.J.;
Johnstone, R.T.; Kehoe, R.A.;  Sanders, L.W.;
Sterling, T.D.; Zavon, M.R.; VB, Smith, H.D.;
VII, Cholak, J.; Hirschler, D.A.; Kehoe, R.A.;
Larsen, R.I.; X, Cholak, J.; XI, Ziegfeld, R.L.

44      Stevenson, L.G. (Yale Univ., New Haven,
        Conn.):  HISTORY OUT OF PRINT.  WHAT THE
        HISTORIAN CANNOT LEARN FROM BOOKS.  Cin-
        cinnati Journal of Medicine 45:467-75
        (Nov.), 1964.
Among the subjects brought out by the author from
books, manuscripts and artifacts, is that of Pb
poisoning, a history of which from ancient times
to the 20th century he wrote for his doctoral dis-
sertation at Johns Hopkins.  He points out that
direct literary evidence that chronic Pb poisoning
constituted a real problem in Greece and Rome is
not plentiful, and frequently such texts as there
are often give doubtful or equivocal answers.
However, as in paleopathology, ancient bones may
be useful.  The use of ^C has been very helpful.
Several of the many uses of Pb which gave rise to
food and beverage contamination, etc, are described.
                                    Books, Monographs, and Proceedings
                                                13

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                                  I.   ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEYS
                        1950

45      Cheftel, H. (France):   Le plomb dans les
        aliments.  (LEAD IN FOODSTUFFS.)  Annales
        des Falsifications et  des Fraudes 43:230-
        8, 1950.
In presenting data to the Commission for the Study
of Foreign Substances in Foods, the author states
that in the studies that he has reviewed, Pb sol-
ders, even when they were in direct contact with
food in cans, did not constitute necessarily a
source of contamination by Pb.   For this reason,
he has reviewed the concentrations in food report-
ed in the literature, the "normal" and the "usu-
al" of various commercial products.  These are
tabulated as to Pb contents in various organs of
beef, horse, sheep, fish, mollusks; milk and other
dairy products; vegetables and fruit; sugars;
flour; bread; water and other beverages, and eggs.
The conclusion is that Pb may  be contained natur-
ally in a large number of foods, often exceeding
the maximum that is considered admissible.

46      Dick, J., and Pugsley,  L.I. (Dept. Natl.
        Health  and Welfare, Ottawa, Canada):  THE
        ARSENIC, LEAD, TIN, COPPER AND IRON CON-
        TENT OF CANNED CLAMS,  OYSTERS, CRABS, LOB-
        STERS AND SHRIMPS.  Canadian Journal of
        Research 28:Sec. F, 199-201  (June), 1950.
A survey (120 samples) of heavy metal content of
canned shellfish and crustaceans sold on the Cana-
dian  market was made.  Six cans each were taken
at random from different brands available in re-
tail stores.  Pb was determined spectrographically
(Cholak and Story, 1938).  Means, SD's and ranges
for Pb in ppm were:  clams:  0.81 ± 1.09, 0.0-5.0;
oysters:  0.83 ± 0.96, 0.0-2.5; smoked oysters:
0.33 ± 0.52, 0.0-1.0; crabs:  0.17 ± 0.24; 0.0-
0.50; lobsters:  1.03 ± 3.01,  0.0-13.0; shrimps:
0.48 ± 0.50, 0.0-1.5.  With the exception of 1
sample of clams having 5 ppm Pb and 1 sample of
lobster with 13 ppm, values found were not signifi-
cantly above the limits established for Pb content
of foods.

47      Majer, V., Werner, S.,  Hopp, K., and Mar-
        seek, V. (Tech. Univ.  Prague, Czechoslova-
        kia) :   (TRACES OF MERCURY IN SOUP SEASON-
        ING.) Chem. Obzor 25:185-7, 1950.
The spice used for soup seasoning showed 9.1 !Jg%.
The spice should be regarded as harmless.  The
concentrations at which the other heavy metals and
poisonous elements become omnipresent are higher
than that of Hg (Cu, Pb, As at 10~6, Hg at 10-8).
(From Chemical Abstracts 45:3958, 1951)
                        1951

48      Anonymous:  LEAD AS A CONTAMINANT OF FOOD
        AND DRINK.  INTRODUCTION OF STANDARD LIMITS
        PROPOSED.  Chemical Age (London)  65:827-9,
        1951.
While no formal limit for Pb in drinking  water has
been established, a recommendation by the Metallic
Content Subcommittee of Food Standards Committee
to limit the concentration of Pb in food  was ap-
proved by the Minister of Food.  It was recognized
that elimination of Pb was not immediately possi-
ble.  Evidence at the time indicated that 1-2 mg Pb
can be ingested without toxic effect, depending on
the length of time.  Since consumption of 2 lb food
containing 1 ppm would contribute 0.9 mg, limits
have to be kept low.  The recommendation  provides
for the following, in ppm:  soft drinks,  0.2; beer
and cider, 1, to be reduced to 0.5 within 12 mo;
apple juice and concentrated soft drinks, 0.5; 2
ppm for foods subject to low contamination, 0.5
lower limit for staple foods (edible fats, refined
sugar); colorings, 20; spices, 10; tea, 1.0; phos-
phates of NH^, Ca and Na, 5; edible gelatin, 7;
liquid pectin (provisional), 10; canned meats and
fish, 5.  Since the Pb content in crustaceans and
shell fish is >2, it is recommended that  any con-
tent more than the limit defined be labeled to be
due to Pb natural to fish.

49      Armour Research Foundation of Illinois In-
        stitute of Technology:  MINERAL CONTENT OF
        BEEF REPORTED BY ARMOUR FOUNDATION.  Chemi-
        cal and Engineering News 29:3868, 1951.
The ash of beef samples was analyzed spectrographi-
cally by the scientists of the Armour Research
Foundation of Illinois Institute of Technology and
assuming that the average US citizen will consume
60 lb of beef in 1951; they estimated that 0.00001
oz of Pb will be taken in, together with  varying
amounts of 18 other elements.  Among the  quantita-
tive estimations, 0.204 oz Mn, 1.6 oz P,  and 4.7
oz K will be ingested.

50      Braun, O.G. (Am. Can Co., Maywood, 111.):
        PROBLEMS OF METALS IN CANNING EQUIPMENT.
        Canner 112:13-4, 24 (June 16), 1951.
A discussion is given of the effect of contamina-
tion by Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sn, Zn, and stain-
less steel on canned foods.  Because of its toxic
effects, Pb should not be used in any form in
equipment contacting food materials.  However,
there have been reports of discoloration  of canned
foods through the inadvertent use of Pb,  ie, use
of wooden lug boxes for peas paintfed with Pb base
paint resulted in black discoloration of  the peas
where they contacted the painted surfaces and ab-
sorbed minute quantities of Pb; a pickled vegeta-
                                                   15

-------
ble product prepared for brine canning in a con-
verted Pb-glazed bath tub showed severe discolor-
ation because the Pb glaze was soluble in the acid
brine.  Cu, however, has been the most consistent
harmful ingredient and during the past 15 yr there
has been a movement to replace Cu with more cor-
rosive resistant stainless steels.  But even
stainless steel is not without hazard and it is
necessary that the proper type is chosen for the
specific purpose.

5J      Emanuele, F.,  and Ceccherelli, E. (Canned
        Food Res. Sta., Parma, Italy):  (THE LEAD
        CONTENT OF CANNED FOODS IN RELATION TO THE
        SOLDERING OF THE CONTAINERS.) Ind.  ital.
        conserve 26:69-76, 1951.
The Italian law prescribes a maximum of 10% Pb in
the alloys for soldering food cans.  Experiments
show that even with alloys containing up to 98%
Pb, the Pb content of the foods was always less
than the amounts tolerated by several foreign laws
(ie, 2-5 mg/kg), except in the case of concentra-
ted tomato juice, which, after 3 mo, contained
5.80-6.24 mg Pb/kg.  These maxima occurred with
the alloy Sn 90-Pb 10%, while with the alloy Pb
90-Sn 10%, the corresponding values were 3.24-3.70
mg/kg.  (From Chemical Abstracts 45:10413,  1951)

52      HHgl, 0., and Sulser, H. (Federal Health
        Dept., Bern, Switzerland):  Blei, Kupfer
        und Zink in Trink- und Brauchwasser. 2.
        Mitteilung. (LEAD. COPPER AND ZINC IN
        DRINKING AND SOURCE WATERS. II.)  Mittel-
        lungen aus dem Gebiete der Lebensmittelun-
        tersuchung und Hygiene 42:286-311,  1951.
The photometric method, using dithizone, as ap-
plied in this investigation, is described in de-
tail.  The concentrations found in the various wa-
ters analyzed were as follows for Pb, Cu, and Zn
(in ranges and average in ug/1), respectively:
Open springs, 0-1, <1; 0.5-5.0, 2; 0.5-4.3, 2; en-
closed springs, reservoirs, pumping stations, 1-5,
3; 0.9-4.0, 2; 3.0-10.0, 6; mineral waters, 0-14,
5; 0-272, 61; 0-28, 12; tap water (running inter-
mittently or continuously), 1-81, 11; 1-17, 7; 10-
1600, 404; stagnant tapwater, 4-260, 92; 15-340,
102; 500-5580, 2650; cistern water, 9; 18;  180;
water in boilers in several homes or apartment
houses, 1-86, 18; 9-180, 68; 105-2640, 641; bot-
tled mineral waters, 14-33; 22-67; 14-240;  river
waters, 3-20; 6-19; 22-45; waste waters in Bern,
summer and autumn, 103, 67; 7, 78; 471, 252.  The
authors conclude that while the source waters con-
tain only traces of heavy metals, the concentra-
tions in piped waters, boilers, and bottling de-
vices increase markedly.   (20  references)

53      Meinsma, J.J.  (Commodities Insp., Leeuwar-
        den, Netherlands):  (THE ACTION OF BUTTER-
        MILK ON THE LEAD-CONTAINING COATING OF
        TINNED CANS.)  Chem. Weekblad 47:85-7,
        1951.
Tinned vessels were filled daily with buttermilk
(I) .  Samples of I were destroyed with HNO^-HCIO^
and the solutions extracted with dithizone-CHCl3;
the removal of interfering metals, the titration
of Pb, and blank determinations are described.
After a few days the Pb contents of I fell to
about 100 and 300 Ug/1  with coatings containing
                1.1 and 5% Pb, respectively.  The Pb content of
                the original I was 20-58 pg/1 and its acidity 74-
                86 ml of 0.1N solution/100 ml.  (From Chemical
                Abstracts 45:5599, 1951)

                54      Mllller, J. (Dresden, Germany):  Einige
                        grundsHtzliche Betrachtungen zur Schutz-
                        schichtbildung auf Blei und zur BleilBs-
                        lichkeit im Trinkwasser.  (PROTECTIVE-
                        COATING FORMATION ON LEAD AND SOLUBILITY
                        OF LEAD IN DRINKING WATER.) Gas- und
                        Wasserfach 92:39-42 (Feb. 28), 1951.
                In different countries, widely varying limits of
                Pb in drinking water are permissible.  In  general,
                the Pb content of water is higher after standing
                in Pb pipes for 12 hr or more, and decreases with
                flow of water.  Solution of Pb from the metal it-
                self is most important with a new pipe; later, Pb
                compounds may also play a role.  Pb solution may
                be decreased by the formation of  tightly adherent
                basic Pb carbonate (PbO.2PbC03H20), but even this
                is slightly soluble.  There appears to be  no fixed
                relation between the softness of  the water and Pb
                attack.  Changes in composition of the water may
                cause solution of a previously deposited protective
                coating, and erosion of Pb compounds may also play
                a role.  Both dissolved and suspended Pb compounds
                may play a role in the toxicity of Pb to human
                beings.

                                    1952

                55      Bartlet, J.C., Coutu, C., List, E., and
                        Wood, M. (Food and Drug Lab., Dept. Natl.
                        Health, Ottawa, Canada):  THE COMPOSITION
                        OF EDIBLE BONE MEAL.  Canadian Journal of
                        Technology 30:137-42, 1952.
                Sixteen samples of bone meal from 3 processors
                were analyzed.  Average values found were:  Ca
                33.0%, P 15.4%, total ash 87.9%, moisture  1.46%.
                F content was 350-770 ppm, av 572; Zn av 129 ppm;
                Pb, with 1 exception (20 ppm) was <10 ppm  (3-8);
                Cu <10 ppm.

                55      Cannon, H.L. (US Geol. Survey, Washington,
                        D.C.):  THE EFFECT OF URANIUM-VANADIUM
                        DEPOSITS ON THE VEGETATION OF THE  COLORADO
                        PLATEAU.  American Journal of Science
                        250:735-70 (Oct.), 1952.
                The relation of plants to U deposits were  studied
                over a period of 2 yr.  The lines of investiga-
                tion pursued were:  the observable effects of
                mineralized soil on growth habits, the absorption
                of U and associated ore elements  by plants, and
                the ecologic distribution of plants around the ore
                deposits.  The physiologic signs  are limited to
                the effects of U, which were masked by excessive
                amounts of V, Se, and Mo in the ore.  Analyses of
                plants growing on U-bearing rocks and soils in-
                clude  the determination of Pb in  soil or rock and
                in the ash of various plants according to  the
                areas  studied.  Pb ranged in  the  above media from
                2-40 ppm and  from <10-110 ppm,  respectively.

                57      Collins, C.B., Farquhar,  R.M., and
                        Russell, R.D.: VARIATIONS IN THE RELATIVE
                        ABUNDANCES OF THE ISOTOPES OF COMMON LEAD.
                        Phys. Rev. 88:1275-6  (Dec. 15), 1952.
                Mass-spectrometer measurements of the relative
 16
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 isotopic  abundances  of  samples  of  Pb  ores  from
 Archean-type  rocks showed  larger variations  than
 reported  by Nier  (1952).   From  the new measure-
 ments  combined with  existing  data  estimates  of the
 time of formation of the earth's crust of  3.5
 billion yr and of a  maximum time of formation of
 the elements  of  5.5  billion yr  have been calculat-
 ed.  These values are in reasonable agreement with
 previous  estimates.   (From Nuclear Science Ab-
 stracts 7:Abstract No.  1173,  1953)

 58      Dean Guelbenzu, M. (Inst.  Physiol.,  Bio-
        chem. of  Spain, Madrid):   (DISTRIBUTION OF
        MINOR ELEMENTS  IN  THE POTATO  PLANT,  SOLA-
        NUM TUBEROSUM.)  Anales bromatol.  (Madrid)
        4:57-61,  1952.
 Using  a previously described semiquantitative
 spectrographic technique (Dean Guelbenzu et  al,
 1947), the distribution of 19 less  common  elements
 was  investigated  in  the roots, stems, leaves, tu-
 bers,  etc, of Solanum  tuberosum.   Pb was  either
 absent or  found in mere traces in  the roots,
 leaves, stems, and tubers.  Although  present in
 the  ash, Pb was not  detected in the soil in which
 the  plants were raised.  (From Chemical Abstracts
 47:3415,  1953)-

 59      Nier, A.O.:  MASS  AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE
        OF ISOTOPES.  Ann. Rev. Nuclear  Sci. 1:
        137-56, 1952.
 Isotopic masses and  abundances determined  in 1950
 by various methods are  reviewed.   Mass spectro-
 graphic and mass  spectrometric determinations of
 mass values and the  electrical method for  isotopic
 abundance  values  are discussed.  New  methods of
 mass measurement  are described, including  the
 omegatron, the chronotron, the synchrometer, and
 microwave  spectra.   (87 references) (From  Nuclear
 Science Abstracts 6:Abstract No. 5820, 1952)

 60      Viuogradov,  A.P.,  Zadorozhnyi, I.K., and
        Zykov, S.I.:   (ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION  OF
        LEAD AND AGE OF THE EARTH.)   Doklady Akad.
        Nauk S.S.S.R. 85:1107-10,  1952.
 Mass spectrographic  analysis of Pb  from  32 galena
 samples, ranging in  age from 25 x  10" to 1600 x
 lO^  yr or older, was performed, with  a probable
 accuracy of 1%.   Calculation of the results  is de-
 scribed, and the literature on the  subject is re-
 viewed briefly.   If  account is taken  of  the  lack
 of differentiation of earth matter  in early  for-
 mative stages, the least age is calculated to be
 2.1  x  109yr.  (From  Chemical Abstracts 47:456,
 1953)

                        1953

61       Allan, D.W., Farquhar, R.M., and Russell,
        R.D. (Univ. Toronto, Ontario, Canada):   A
        NOTE ON THE LEAD ISOTOPE METHOD OF AGE
        DETERMINATION.  Science 118:486-9, 1953.

 62      Bartlet,  J.C., List,  E., Page, M.,  and
        Chapman,  R.A. (Food,  Drug Lab.,  Dept. Natl.
        Health Welfare, Ottawa,  Canada):   THE
        HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF GELLING AND STABI-
        LIZING AGENTS.  Canadian Journal of Tech-
        nology 31:146-53,  1953.
The As, Pb, Zn and Cu contents,  respectively, were
(in ppm):  agar-agar <0.5-0.5, 1.5-16, <15-480,
<10-10; gelatin <0.5-1.5, 1-8, <15-125, <10; car-
rageen  (Irish mossgelose) 0.5-1, 2-15, <15-75,
<10-30; Na pectate 1, 6, 130, 10; liquid pectin
1.3, 1.1, <10, <10; locust-bean gum 2.0-6.1, 0.9-
3.2, 22-27, <10; Na carboxymethylcellulose <0.5,
1.7, 10, <10; methylcellulose <0.5, 0.9, <10, <10;
Na alginate 0.5, 4-38, 15-20, <10; algin 1.5, 3.5,
<15, <10; stabilizing mixture (agar, dextrose,
carob and karaya gums) <0.5-1.4, 2.2-25, 50-54,
<10; karaya gum <0.5, 1.3, 30, <10; gum arabic
<0.5, 1.7, <10, <10.  A sampling tool was designed
to obtain representative samples from agar bales.
(From Chemical Abstracts 47:8289, 1953)

63       Damon, P.I. (Univ.  Arkansas,  Fayetteville):
        LEAD ISOTOPIC RATIOS AND GEOLOGIC TIME.  Am.
        Geophys.  Union Trans. 34:906-14, 1953.
The consistency of recent data with Nier's (1952)
data and with the Nier-Holmes hypothesis for the
isotopic abundance of common Pb ores is examined.
It can be shown that, although individual samples
deviate markedly from expectation according to age
alone, the data taken together are in agreement
with the basic hypothesis.  The deviations tend
to be nonrandom.  Possible causes of these devia-
tions are discussed.  One consequence of the Nier-
Holmes hypothesis is that the Pb ores should have
been derived from the granitic rocks of the Earth's
crust rather than from a deep-seated source.  The
study of Pb isotopic ratios may be applied to geo-
logic problems other than that of geologic time.
(From Nuclear Science Abstracts 8:Abstract No.
4317, 1954)

64      Granottier, A.:  (THE LEAD MINE OF DJEBEL
        SEMENE.)  Regence Tunis, Protect, franc.,
        Dir. trav. publ., Ann. mines et geol.
        1953, No. 13, 49 pp.
The ores are of 2 types: replacement by galena of
clay-rich beds in marl, and  fracture-fillings by
galena and cerussite in limestone.  Reserves are
estimated to be more than 500,000 tons, averaging
5.6% Pb.   (From Chemical Abstracts 49:13034, 1955)

65      Headlee, A.J.W. , and Hunter, R.G. (W.
        Virginia Geol. Surv., Morgantown):  ELE-
        MENTS IN COAL ASH AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL
        SIGNIFICANCE.  Industrial and Engineering
        Chemistry 45:548-51  (Mar.), 1953.
Spectrographic analyses of 596 spot samples from
16 coal seams in W. Virginia were made for 38 ele-
ments,  and enrichment ratios to earth's crust were
calculated from the point of view of recovery from
coal ash.  Pb (av  0.048% in column analysis) was
among 22 elements not present in quantities to
warrant recovery; however, by comparison of cube
variance ratio with the enrichment ratio, Pb is
among those that might be recovered.  Problems of
atmospheric pollution were suggested by the find-
ing of appreciable quantities of Sr, Ba, Ag, As,
Be, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Sn in coal ash.

66       Horiuchi, K., and Tamori, E. (Osaka City
         Univ. Med. School, Japan):  INDUSTRIAL
         LEAD POISONING.  V.  THE CONTENTS OF LEAD
         IN THE ORDINARY FOODS AND BEVERAGES OF THE
         JAPANESE.  Igaku to Seibutsugaku (Med. and
         Biol.) 26:248-50, 1953.
                                          Environmental Surveys
                                                17

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 Results  are  given  for  Pb  contents,  as determined
 by  the dithizone method,  of ^80  samples  from or-
 dinary foods and beverages.   In  general,  canned
 fish  and meat products contained larger  amounts of
 Pb  than  did  other  foods.   (From  Chemical  Abstracts
 47:11308,  1953)

 67       Just,  J.,  and  Koziorowski,  B.:   (INFLUENCE
         OF MINIUM-PAINTED TANKS  ON  THE LEAD CON-
         TENT OF WATER.)   Gaz. Woda  i Tech. Sanit.
         26:315-8,  1953.
 The purpose  of the work was to establish  whether
 water kept in a minium-painted tank takes up Pb
 from  the coating,  in what degree, and for how  long
 after painting.  Experiments  were conducted in Fe
 containers of 2-6.5-1  capacity,  painted  with 2
 layers of a  minium paint  prepared by mixing 20
 parts by weight of flax oil with 80 parts of mini-
 um  (96.95% PbO).   Two  different  kinds of  oil were
 used:  a common one and one prepared in  the lab-
 oratory  by adding  to it 0.75% Mn02  and mixing  for
 7 hr  at  250°.  The experiments were done  with  2
 different  waters:  a city water  and the same city
 water to which chlorides  and nitrides were added
 in  proportions of  250-5 mg/1 Cl  and 0.3-25.0 N.
 After rinsing, every container was  filled with wa-
 ter and  left for 74 hr at room temperature (16-
 25°) and  every 24 hr  Pb,  0 consumed, and smell
 were  determined on a sample.  After 72 hr the  con-
 tainer was emptied, rinsed, and  filled up again
 for another  72-hr  cycle,  the procedure being re-
 peated 23  times for each  tank.   Results  indicated
 that  the amount of Pb  contamination depended on
 the quality  of oil used in the minium paint.   Pb
 content  in city water  fell down  to  the required
 standard (<0.05 mg/1)  after a very  long  time:  22
 cycles for containers  painted with  the coat pre-
 pared in the laboratory,  and  >23 cycles  for those
 painted  with the common coat.  The  0 consumed  in-
 creased  (up  to 2 ml or more of 0) up to 16-17
 cycles and then fell down; the paint smell disap-
 peared after 8 cycles.  (From Chemical Abstracts
 48:14054,  1954)

 68       Kulp,  J.L., Owen,  H.R. ,  Eckelmann, W.R. ,
         and  Bate,  G.L.:   ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF
         SOME SAMPLES OF COMMON LEAD.  US  Atomic
         Energy Commission Document  No. NYO-6197,
         1953,  11 pp.
 Isotopic analyses  have been made on ^24 common Pb
 samples  from various localities.   Isotopic varia-
 tions are  consistent with  those  already reported.
 The results  indicate a possible variation of 4%
 in  the 207pb/206pb ratio  for minerals from the
 same  district.  No observable differences were
 found in the isotopic  composition of the  Pb taken
 from  different locations on a single crystal of
 galena.  The 207pb/206pb ratio can  be expressed to
 a greater  degree of precision and is more relevant
 to  the history of  the mineral than  a comparison
 of  these isotopes  with 204pb=1.000.  (From Nuclear
 Science  Abstracts  7:Abstract No.  4119,  1953)
 69       Leclerc,  E.,  and Beaujean,  P.:   (GILEPPE
         WATERS.  I. THE RESERVOIR WATER AND ITS
         QUALITIES.   II. WATER AT THE CONSUMER LEV-
         EL.)   Centre Beige Etude et Document.  Eaux,
         Bull. Mens. 1953,  No.  37:128-34;  134-6.
 The water  supply of the industrial  city  of Ver-
 viers was  studied; it  consisted  of  surface waters,
                 chiefly  from peat bogs, drained by  the  Gileppe
                 river  and  12 other  streams  into a 3,438,000,000-
                 gal dammed  reservoir.  Among  the trace  elements
                 determined, <0.1 ppm Pb was found.
                  The  treatment and quality of the  drinking water
                 in the distribution system  of Verviers  is  descri-
                 bed.   Among problems discussed is the effect of
                 speed  of opening of the valves.  More violent
                 valve  openings result  in muddy waters of up to
                 700 ppm, suspended  solids and 140 ppm Fe in com-
                 plex form.  The Pb  content  can go up to 9.0 ppm
                 in new and  sometimes old house pipes and varies
                 with time  up to equilibrium 8-10 gal wash  water
                 for a  new  6-room house are  needed to eliminate Pb.
                 Corrosion  of Pb has not so  far been connected with
                 variations  in dissolved 0 and temperatures which
                 are  inimical  in  the house  networks.  (From Chem-
                 ical Abstracts 48:3597,  1954)
                70      Nagata, M.  (Osaka Univ., Japan):  SPECTRO-
                        GRAPHIC ANALVSIS OF MINOR ELEMENTS  IN TEA
                        LEAVES. II.  J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Pure
                        Chem. Sect. 74:534-8, 1953.
                Contents of metals  in old and new tea  leaves were
                determined by a semiquantitative spectrographic
                method.  K, Mg, P,  Ni, Na, and Cu were more abun-
                dant in new leaves, and Al, Sn, Pb, Be in old
                leaves.  (From Chemical Abstracts 48:2839, 1954)

                71   .  Opienska-Blauth, J., and Duhl, W. (Woj .
                        Stacia Sanitarno. Epidem., Oddz. Inz.
                        Sanit., Lublin, Poland):  (LEAD IN THE WA-
                        TERS OF THE LUBLIN DISTRICT.)  Roczniki
                        Pahstwowego Zakladu Hlg. 1953:437-45.
                Using a modified dithizone colorimetric method to
                determine the Pb content of 1400 samples of well
                waters in the Lublin district, it was  found that
                only 4% of the samples showed a Pb content  >0.09
                mg/1.  No relation was found between the increased
                Pb concentration and factors of Pb reactivity,
                such as pH, hardness of water, nitrate content,
                and oxidizability.  It is concluded that there is
                no relation between water consumption  and occur-
                rence of chronic Pb poisoning in the Lublin dis-
                trict.  (From Chemical Abstracts 48:7824, 1954)

                72      Orostica, C.G. (Univ. Chile, Santiago):
                        (DETERMINATION OF ZINC, COPPER AND LEAD IN
                        MINERAL WATERS.)  Univ. Chile, fac. farm.,
                        Tesis quim. farm 5:186-200, 1953.
                The Pb contents of  the Chilean mineral waters Pan-
                imavida, Jahuel, Cachantun, Raris, and Chanqueahue
                are respectively:   25, 83, 93.7, —, and 430 ug/1.
                The values were determined photometrically with
                diphenylthiocarbazone.   (From Chemical Abstracts
                49:14236, 1955)
                                      1954
                73
        Bertrand, D. (Inst. Pasteur, Paris,
        France):   (DETERMINATION OF METALLIC CON-
        TAMINANTS IN PRESERVED FOODS.)  10th
        Congr. Intern.  lad. Agr. y Aliment., Ma-
        drid 1954, 29-33.
Various techniques for the determination of Fe,
Sb, Al, Cu, Ni, and Pb in preserved foods are pro-
posed.  (13 references)  (From Chemical Abstracts
50:13317, 1956)
18
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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74      De Renzo, B.C.  (Lederle Lab. Div., Am.
        Cyanamid Co., Pearl River, N.Y.):  STUDIES
        ON THE NATURE OF THE XANTHINE OXIDASE FAC-
        TOR.  Annals of the New York Academy of
        Sciences 57:905-8, 1954.
Spectrographlc analysis of the ash of an active
extract of rat liver residue, source material for
xanthine oxidase factor, revealed the presence of
many.elements, including Pb (0.3%).

yc      Deschreider, A.R., and van Coillie, L.:
        (TRACE METALS IN FRESH VEGETABLES.)  10th
        Congr. Intern.  Ind. Agr. y Aliment. Madrid
        1954:390-401.   (From Chemical Abstracts
        50:14141, 1956)
See Abstr. No. 87.

76      Gehrke, C.W., Runyon, C.V., and Pickett,
        E.E.  (Missouri Agr. Exptl. Station, Colum-
        bia) :  A QUANTITATIVE SPECTROGRAPHIC METH-
        OD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TIN, COPPER,
        IRON, AND LEAD IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS.
        THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON THE CONCENTRATION
        OF THESE METALS IN EVAPORATED MILK.  Jour-
        nal of Dairy Science 37:1401-8 (Dec.),
        1954.
The spectrographic method described, claimed to
be rapid,  reliable,  and accurate, permits the
simultaneous quantitative determination of the
title elements on a single sample.  Graphite
was added to the arcing mixture to ensure a
more nearly complete volatilization of the
samples and to prevent the formation of a re-
fractory CaO bead.  The precision of the meth-
od was from ±5 to ±8%.  The concentration of Sn,
Fe, Cu, and Pb were determined in 5 cases of
evaporated milk in electrolytically plated cans
and 4 cases of milk in hot-dipped cans, stored
at room temperature and at 37°C for up to 1 yr.
The concentration of Sn increased rapidly in
milk stored in both types of cans, increasing
from 20-215 ppm after 340 days of storage.  Fe
content increased from 6.5-16.5 ppm in the same
period of time; Cu and Pb concentrations did
not increase significantly.  The mean values
were 0.68 ppm for Cu and 0.35 ppm for Pb (av for
35 cans).   (22 references)

77      Goto,  T.  (Tohoku Univ.,  Sendai, Japan):
        (FOOD ELEMENTS AND COOKING. I. SPECTRO-
        CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MICROQUANTITIES OF
        INORGANIC ELEMENTS IN ORDINARY FOODS.)
        Eiyo to Shokuryo 7:69-71, 1954-55.
Pb was widely distributed in vegetable foods, but
it was rare in animal foods.   (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 53:7448,  1959)

78      Goto,  T.  (Tohoku Univ.,  Sendai, Japan):
        MICROELEMENTS DISSOLVED FROM COOKING VES-
        SELS DURING COOKING.  Tohuku J. Agr. Re-
        search 4:263-9,  1954.
Elements dissolved from Fe, Al,  and Cu vessels
during cooking are significant in hygiene and
nutrition.   Water, NaCl, NaHC03, AcOH, tartar-
ic acid and citric acid solutions were used
as the cooking solutions.   After varying
boiling times, the solutions were analyzed for
Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb,  Co,  and Mn.   All the ele-
ments increased with length of boiling time.
Al was found in greater concentration in alka-
line solutions; all other elements were dis-
solved in acidic solutions.   (From Chemical
Abstracts 49:11907, 1955)

79      Grip, E. (Bolidens Mines, Ltd., Boliden,
        Sweden):   (THE LEAD ORE AT LAISVALL
        (NORTHERN  SWEDEN), ITS GEOLOGY, AND A
        COMPARISON WITH SOME FOREIGN DEPOSITS.)
        Geol. FHren. i Stockholm F8rh. 76:357-80
        1954.
Disseminated galena, with sphalerite, pyrite,
barite, calcite, fluorite, and sericite, occur in
Eocambrian sandstones at Laisvall.  The deposit is
compared with Pb-Zn deposits from other countries.
(15 references)  (From Chemical Abstracts 50:4730,
1956)

80      Kulp, J.L., Bate, G.L., and Broecker, W.S.
        (Lamont-Shussy Geol. Observatory, Bloem-
        fontein, South Africa):  PRESENT STATUS OF
        LEAD METHOD OF AGE DETERMINATION.  American
        Journal of Science 252:345-65, 1954.
From an evaluation of  the available  results  on  the
age  of radioactive minerals as determined by  the
various isotopic ratios, and  probable sources of
error, the authors conclude that  the 207Pb/235U
and  206pt,/210pb ages are the most reliable over
the  greater  range  of geologic  time.  The
238u age  is  generally  correct  to  5-10% and
supersedes the  207/235 age in  accuracy for young
minerals.  The  2°8pb/232Th age  is considered
usable for minerals high in Th content.  The
207/206 age  is  the least reliable of all.   (18
references)

81      Larkin, D., Page, M.,  Bartlet,  J.C., and
        Chapman, R.A. (Food and Drug Lab.,  Ottawa,
        Canada):   THE LEAD,  ZINC AND COPPER CON-
        TENT OF FOODS.   Food Research 19,  No. 2:
        211-8, 1954.
Although the above-mentioned elements occur natur-
ally in many products,  they may find their way
into food in other ways, ie, from insecticide
sprays, piping, food processing equipment.   How-
ever, since there  has been a marked change in in-
secticide sprays and processing techniques,  the
authors felt a survey of Pb, Zn,  and Cu contents
of foods under present conditions was warranted.
Food samples (171) were analyzed spectrographic-
ally.  Results were based on single determinations
except for repeated analyses because of high re-
sults,  ie, >2 ppm  Pb in solid foods or 0.2 ppm in
liquids.   Results  (ranges) for Pb in ppm were:
meat, dairy products, lard,  shortening, <0.5-4.0;
flavorings and beverage powders,  0.04-3.3;  dessert
powders and cake mixes, <0.5-2.0; cereal products,
<0.5-2.4;  spices,  condiments,  dressings, <0.5-
17.0; canned fruits, fruit juices, jams, jellies,
<0.5-2.6;  beverages, <0.01-1.6; miscellaneous
products,  <0.5-9.3.  The 4.0 found in meat was
probably due to contamination from the can since
the container was  very etched and the sample show-
ed some surface material.  Two samples of beverage
powders (lime and  lemon) showed excessive amounts
of Pb (2.7 and 3.3 ppm respectively).  A number of
spices (cinnamon  (4.5 ppm), ginger  (4.2 ppm), tu-
meric (2.4, 6.8, 2.9, 2.2 ppm) and curry powder
(17.0,  14.3, 4.3 ppm))  had high Pb contents.  The
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                19

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source of contamination in these products was not
known.  Raspberry jam with a Pb value of 2.6 was
also high as was cocoa (2.8 ppm) and dried hops
(9.3 ppm).  However, it was concluded that, in
general, the Pb content of the processed foods ex-
amined was satisfactory.

82      Szymczyk, F., and Kolankiewicz, J.:  (NAT-
        URAL ARSENIC AND LEAD CONTENT OF POLISH
        GRAINS.)  Roczniki Paiistwowego Zakladu
        Hig. 5:53-9, 1954.
No Pb was found in samples of grains harvested in
different areas in Poland.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 48:8974, 1954)

83      Truffert, L., and Jans, V. (Soc. Expert
        Chemists, France):  Les dangers de 1'eau
        de Seltz et le saturnisme hydrique.  (THE
        DANGERS OF SELTZER WATER FROM THE POINT OF
        VIEW OF LEAD POISONING.)  Archives des
        Maladies Professionnelles de Me'decine du
        Travail et de Se'curite' Sociale 15:385-9
        (June 21), 1954.
Generally, the Pb content in drinking water does
not exceed 0.1 mg/1 and Pb poisoning from drinking
water is rare.  In its last session, the Supreme
Council of Public Health in France set the maximum
allowable level at 0.05 mg/1.   The authors studied
the Pb content in various samples of Seltzer (car-
bonated) water by a combination of the dithizone
and polarographic methods in numerous areas sup-
plied by rivers, grouping the samples accord-
ing to whether the water used came from "aggres-
sive" or "non-aggressive" water regions.  Pb con-
tent of the 1st type ranged from 0.03-4.6, and of
the 2nd, from 0.03-0.20 mg/1.   The results obtain-
ed demonstrated the hazards of drinking certain
types of Seltzer water.  Spanish authors are cited
who reported Pb intoxications due to drinking
Seltzer water.
  The authors believe that the siphons, with a
high Pb level in the siphon heads, used for the
distribution of Seltzer water, are obsolete and
should be modified to prevent contact of this wa-
ter with any material containing either Pb or
other toxic metals.  The need is stressed for the
elimination of Pb from materials used for contain-
ers of food products, particularly carbonated bev-
erages, and for the replacement of the seltzer wa-
ter siphons by other, more hygienic, receptacles
such as are used for other beverages.
                       1955
84
        Chamberlain, G.T. (E. African Agr.  Forest-
        ry Res. Organ., Kikuyu, Kenya):  THE MAJOR-
        AND TRACE-ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF SOME EAST
        AFRICAN FEEDS. E. African Agr. J. 21:103-7,
        1955.
Tables are given showing the content of 21 ele- .
ments, including Pb, in barley, beans, blood meal,
bran (coarse), bran (fine),  bulrush millet, cot-
tonseed cake, groundnut cake, linseed cake, lu-
cerne, lupin seed, maize, meat meal, molasses,
oats, pollards, rumenal contents, and yeast.
(From Chemical Abstracts 50:5190, 1956)
85
        Czajka, J., and Pietrzykowa, A.:  CLASSI-
        FICATION OF FRUIT PRODUCTS IN REGARD TO
         QUANTITATIVE  CONTENT  OF ARSENIC,  LEAD,  AND
         COPPER.  Ann.  Univ. Mariae  Curie-Sklodowska
         Sect.  D,  10:345-58, 1955.
The mean values for As content were:  fruit wine
55-110 pg/1, liquid fruit products 86-208 Mg/1,
marmalades and jams 44-75 yg/kg; for Pb content:
musts 125-507 ug/1, fruit wines 125-550 yg/1, mar-
malades and jams  700-1120 ug/kg; for Cu content:
liquid fruits 1.05-3.28 mg/1,  fruit wines 0.85-
1.40 mg/1, marmalades and jams 5.0-6.0 mg/kg.
(From Chemical Abstracts 51:6905, 1957)

86      David,  D.J., Wark,  D.C.,  and Mandryk, M.
        (C.S.I.R.O., Canberra, Australia):  LEAD
        TOXICITY IN TOBACCO RESEMBLES AN EARLY
        SYMPTOM OF FRENCHING.  J.  Australian Inst.
        Agr. Sci. 21:182-5, 1955.
A comprehensive spectrochemical analysis was car-
ried out on the above-ground portions of 6 tobac-
co-plant samples.  Mn, Mo,  Al, and Pb showed con-
centration relations conforming with the state of
health of the plants.   It is suggested that Pb may
be a contributory factor in frenching of tobacco.
(From Chemical Abstracts 50:2744,  1956)

87      Deschreider, A.R.,  and van Coillie, L.:
        (THE TRACE METALS IN FRESH VEGETABLES.)
        Ministere Affaires Econ. et Classes Moy-
        ennes  (Belg.) Lab.  Central, Publ. No. 135,
        12 pp. (not dated).
The sum of the values for Fe,  Zn, Cu, Pb, and As
in fresh spinach, endives,  leeks, chicory, skirret
and sometimes tomatoes exceeded the legal maximum
of 200 mg/kg of dry matter set by some countries
for canned vegetables.   (From Chemical Abstracts
49:13547, 1955)

88      Heide,  F., and Lerz, H. (Univ. Jena, Ger-
        many):   (THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF LEAD.)  Chem.
        Erde 17:217-22, 1955.
The mean Pb content of 12 samples from Muschelkalk
and Upper RBth in Steudnitz near Jena was 7.9 g/
ton.  Only the sparry aphrite with 11.5 g/ton and
the platy limestone with 14 g/ton varied much from
the mean value.  The mean Pb content for the ar-
gillaceous rocks of R8th in GHschwitz near Jena
was 20.8 g/ton.   (From Chemical Abstracts 49:10812,
1955.

89      Kawashiro,  I., Fujii,  S.,  and  Harada,  M.:
         COMPARISON  OF THE LEAD CONTENTS OF  CANNED
         FOODS  WHEN  LOW-LEAD AND HIGH-LEAD SOLDERS
        ARE USED. Bull.  Natl. Hyg.  Lab.,  Tokyo
         1955,  No. 73:213-22.
As determined  by  the  dithizone method  (A.O.A.C.,
Methods  of Analysis,  7th ed,   1950),  in 8 Japanese
samples, the Pb  content  was usually  <1 ppm,  rarely
1-1.5 ppm.  The Pb  content was somewhat greater  in
samples preserved at  37° than  in those preserved
at room  temperature.  A  minute difference  (0-0.3
ppm) was found between samples with  low Pb  (Pb:Sn
= 60:42) and those with high Pb (Pb:Sn = 98:2) sol-
ders.   (From Chemical Abstracts 50:6697,  1956)

90      Kulp, J.L.  (Columbia Univ., New York,
        N.Y.):  ISOTOPIC DATING AND THE GEOLOGIC
        TIME SCALE. Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Paper
        62, 609-30, 1955.
A table is given of ages determined by the Pb  iso-
 20
                                     BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 tope  method.   Rb-Sr  ages  by isotope  dilution ap-
 pear  to  be  15-20%  higher  than  the  Pb ages;  the
 accepted figure  for  the half-life  of   Rb may be
 in error.  (41  references)   (From Chemical Ab-
 stracts  49:12233,  1955)

 91       Markovic,  T.:   (CORROSION  OF LEAD  IN DIS-
         TILLED WATER.) Werkstoffe  u. Korrosion  6:
         133-5, 1955.
 The effect  of  the  diffusion velocity of 0  on the
 corrosion of Pb  was  studied in distilled water  by
 means of potential-time measurements.  With in-
 creasing depth of  immersion the potential  of the
 Pb electrode becomes more noble.   By means  of
 Hickling's  method  (1937)  the origin  and nature  of
 various  Pb  hydrides, such as Pb2H, PbH, and PbH2,
 could be verified.   These compounds  are to  be ob-
 served as chemical or physical adsorption  com-
 pounds at the  Pb electrode.   (From Chemical Ab-
 stracts  49:12257,  1955)

 92       Nunes  de Oliveira,  J.:   (TRACE  ELEMENTS IN
         CORN AND FISH MEAL.) Anais da Faculdade de
         Farmacia do Porto 15:5-31, 1955.
 Trace elements in  Portuguese cornmeal and sardine
 meal  were identified spectrographically, with F
 being determined chemically in the amount of 7-9
 mg%.   The presence of B and  Co was not  determined.
 The elements identified in  the 2 meals  were Al,
 Ca, Cu,  Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo,  Na,  Ni, Pb,  Si,  and  Ti
 with  Sr  in  the cornmeal and  V  in the fishmeal.
 (From Chemical Abstracts  52:11310, 1958)

 93       Paiva  Netto, J.E. de,  and Nascimento, A.
         C.:  (SOME CLAYS  OF  SAO PAULO STATE.)
         Ceramica (Sao Paulo) 1955, No.  2:50-77.
 Chemical analyses  are given  of  representative sam-
 ples,  all of which contained Pb.   (22 references)
 (From Chemical Abstracts  54:10697, 1960)

 94       Patterson, C., Tilton,  G., and  Inghram, M.
         (California Inst. Technol.,  Pasadena; Car-
         negie  Inst., Washington, D.C.;  Univ.  Chica-
         go, 111.):  AGE OF THE  EARTH.   Science
         121:69-75  (Jan. 12), 1955.
 A  new method for estimating  the age  of  the  earth  is
 described.  It consists of  calculating  a 207pb/
 206pt  age from the observed  differences between the
 isotopic composition of recent  Pb isolated  from
 the surface of the earth  where  appreciable  concen-
 trations of U  exist and the  isotopic  composition  of
 Pb  isolated from Fe meteorites  where  insignificant
 concentrations of U are found.

95       Rankine, B.C. (Waite Agr. Res.  Inst.,
         Adelaide, S.  Australia):  THE LEAD  CONTENT
         OF SOME  AUSTRALIAN WINES.  Journal  of the
         Science  of Food and Agriculture 6:576-9,
         1955.
The Pb content of 55 Australian wines varied 0.04-
0.86 ppm, mean 0.23 ppm.   White, red, sweet, dry,
 fortified, and unfortified wines for home consump-
 tion and export were analyzed.   The results are
discussed in relation to the legal limit of 1 ppm
in wine  introduced by the British Minister  of Food.
The literature relating to the  Pb content of wines
is  reviewed.

96       Schlink, F.J. (Consumers' Res.  Inc., Wash-
                    ington, N.J.):  LEAD POISONING.  Letter
                    to the Editor.  Journal of the American
                    Medical Association 157:78, 1955.
            Prof. H.H. Uhlig, a corrosion expert at Massachu-
            setts Institute of Technology, Department of Met-
            allurgy, has reviewed the item in the Journal
            (1953).   He takes exception to the implied connec-
            tion between Pb poisoning and Cu ground wires
            stated in the review of the work of Desoille and
            Albahary.  Uhlig holds that electric current flow-
            ing through a pipe has no effect on internal cor-
            rosion of the pipe material and thus that Pb poi-
            soning can easily occur independently of any
            grounding system of which the Pb pipes are a part.
            This is  not to imply that flow of current is not
            often a  cause of corrosion on the external surface
            of pipes, but, rather, that in the circumstances
            described the current flow was not a cause of in-
            creased  corrosion of the pipe internally.  The
            ground wire may and often does cause increased
            galvanic corrosion near the external pipe area
            where it makes contact with the outside of the
            pipe.

            97      Wedepohl, K.H. (Univ. GBttingen, Germany):
                    (HEAVY-METAL CONTENTS IN THE CALCAREOUS
                    SKELETONS OF SOME MARINE ORGANISMS.)
                    Nachr. Akad. Wiss. GBttingen,  Math.-
                    physik. Kl., Ha, 1955:79-86.
            By using average limestones (93 samples) with Mn
            300, Zn  25, Pb 9, Sn 5, and Cu 2 ppm and shells of
            recent mollusks, cephalopods, and algae with about
            Mn 30, Zn 3,  Pb 1, Sn 1,  and Cu 2 ppm as a basis
            of comparison, 5 composite samples of recent for-
            aminifera are investigated.  The foraminifera sam-
            ples contain appreciable amounts of Mn, Pb, Cu and
            Sn compared with the above-mentioned recent cal-
            careous  shells.  (From Chemical Abstracts 52:
            16997, 1958)

                               1956

            98      Burger, E. (Univ. Heidelberg,  Germany):
                    (LEAD CONTENT OF TORULA DRY YEAST FROM
                    SULFITE LYE.)   Z. Lebensm.-Untersuch. u.-
                    Forsch. 104:434-6, 1956.
            The Pb content of 48 samples was 0.7-3.0 mg/kg
            yeast; av 1.2 mg/kg.  The data are discussed with
            regard to possible Pb intoxication caused by the
            use of the yeast in livestock feeds.  The results
            are well within the tolerated limits.   (From Chem-
            ical Abstracts 51:6907, 1957)

            99      Deschreider, A.R., and van Coillie, L.
                    (Ministry Econ.  Affairs,  Brussels,  Bel-
                    gium) :   Les oligoelements dans  les  feves
                    de cacao.  (TRACE ELEMENTS IN  COCOA BEANS.)
                    Revue Internationale de la Chocolaterie
                    11, No. 9:374-84, 1956.
            Cocoa beans,  such as are  used in  the manufacture
            of chocolate,  and their shells were separated,
            homogenized,  and examined for their content of
            trace elements.  Only  those elements included in
            Thatcher's classification were analyzed.   The var-
            ious types of beans examined were Kongo,  Lome,
            Carenero,  Arriba, Trinidad and Accra.   Cocoa beans
            contained no  Bi or Hg and only minute  traces of
            Pb (determined by colorimetric method), 0-0.32  ppm
            in the beans  and 0.57-1.75 ppm in the  shells.
Environmental Surveys
                                                                                                      21

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There were no differences in Pb values among the
various types of beans examined.  The average F
content (by Willard-Winter method) (beans, 0.95-
2.28 ppm; shells, 0.19-2.26 ppm) was close to that
usually found in plants, as was As (beans, 0.15-
0.46 ppm; shells, 0.47.1-1.71 ppm).  Mo content
was low, 0.1 ppm.  Al, was localized in the shells
and varied in content from sample to sample.  Fe
content in the beans was ^30 ppm, more abundant in
the shells.  Some types of beans are richer in Fe
than others.
  The authors note that the relatively high trace
element contents of the various types of cocoa
beans can contribute significantly to human nutri-
tion, especially by providing elements such as Cu,
F, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn.

100      Goto, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan):
        FOOD ELEMENTS AND COOKING.  I.  SPECTRO-
        CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MICROQUANTITIES OF
        INORGANIC ELEMENTS IN ORDINARY FOODS.
        Tohoku J. Agr. Res. 6:279-84, 1956.
Spectrochemical analyses of 30 kinds of represen-
tative Japanese foods showed the presence of 21
inorganic elements, P, Ca, Mg, K, and Na being
present in greatest amounts.  Cu, Fe, Zn, Si, Al,
and Mn are also common elements and are found in
almost all the foods.  In general, vegetable foods
contain a larger number of elements than animal
foods; Mn, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Ba are practically
limited to vegetable  foods.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 50:13317, 1956)

101      Jacquemain and Benard:   (THE PRESENCE OF
        LEAD IN CISTERN WATER.) Ann. Sci. Univ.
        Besancon Chim. (2), No. 2:3-11, 1956.
Following a case of Pb poisoning, attributed to
the drinking of cistern water, J. and B. investi-
gated various factors affecting the solution of Pb
in water.  The amount of Pb in solution was deter-
mined by the dithizone method.  In order to deter-
mine the Pb content of rain water 2 conditions
were necessary:  (1)  The unknown, as well as the
rain water used to prepare standard solutions
should be degassed.   (2)  Two standard solutions
should be used, one with a slightly higher and
the other with a slightly lower titer than that
of the unknown (after rough estimation).  Rain wa-
ter rapidly reacts with exposed Pb.  This corro-
sion is enhanced by galvanic effects but is slowed
down or stopped by the formation of a loose pro-
tective coating.  The latter becomes detached on
exposure to the air and corrosion resumes when the
water level rises.   (From Chemical Abstracts 53:
2513, 1959)

102      Koch, G.S., Jr. (Colonia San Antonio, San
        Francisco del Oro, Chihuahua, Mexico):
        THE FRISCO MINE, CHIHUAHA, MEXICO. Econ.
        Geol. 51:1-40, 1956.
The ore is polymetallic, averaging 0.5 g Au/ton,
150 g Ag/ton, 5% Pb,  8% Zn, and 0.6% Cu.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 50:13668, 1956)

103      Kunaev,  D.S.:   (GENESIS OF  LEAD-ZINC DE-
        POSITS IN THE CENTRAL  PART  OF  THE KARATAU
        RANGE.)  Vestnik Akad.  Nauk  Kazakh.  SSR 12,
        No.  6:47-60,  1956.
A detailed  account of the mineralogical  and  geo-
                logical factors which bear on Pb-Zn deposits  in
                the Karatau range in Kazakh, SSR.   (From Chemical
                Abstracts 50:15354, 1956)

                104     Lardereau, M.P., and Berthier, P.:   (QUALI-
                        TATIVE SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ROUSSIL-
                        LON GRAPE JUICE AND ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE
                        MANGANESE.)  Congr. Groupe. Avance. Meth-
                        odes Anal. Spectrog. Prod. Met. 19th Congr.
                        1956:303-7.
                Among other metals Pb was found in the ash of
                grape juice.  (From Chemical Abstracts 53:2504,
                1959)

                105     Lawrence,  L.J.  (N.S.  Wales Univ.  Technol.,
                        Sydney,  Australia):  NATIVE LEAD FROM THE
                        REDCAP MINE,  CHILLAGOE.   Proc. Roy. Soc.
                        Queensland 68:21-3, 1956.
                The Redcap Mine in North Queensland was  studied.
                The specimen  consists essentially  of  coarsely
                cleaved galena coated with earthly Mn oxide.   A
                central core  of readily identifiable  metallic Pb
                occurs in the granular cerussite of the  galena.
                Very small patches of red  and yellow  waxy  oxides
                of Pb  (minium and massicot) are also  discernable
                in the specimen.   (From Chemical Abstracts 52:
                3597, 1958)

                106     Lounamaa, J. (Finland):   (TRACE  ELEMENTS
                        IN PLANTS GROWING WILD ON  DIFFERENT ROCKS
                        IN FINLAND.  A SEMI-QUANTITATIVE SPECTRO-
                        GRAPHIC SURVEY.) Ann. Botan.  Soc.  Zool.
                        Botan. Fennicae "Vanamo" 29,  No. 4:196
                        pp.,  1956.
                The occurrence of Pb in wild plants growing on
                outcrops of different rocks as well as in  their
                substrata is  discussed.  (From Chemical  Abstracts
                53:5418, 1959)

                107     Queries and Minor  Notes:   TRACES OF LEAD
                        IN FOODS .  Journal of the  American Medi-
                        cal Association 161:1033,  1956.
                The question  of whether dry or powdered  milk  con-
                tains  enough  Pb to make it unsafe  for consumption
                is answered.  Powdered milk has been  found to con-
                tain 0.4 ppm  of Pb, which  approximates 0.18 g
                Pb/lb  of dry  milk.  This same amount  has been re-
                ported to occur in many other foods and  beverages.
                However, since  1.5 mg Pb may safely be taken  in
                daily without the  appearance of recognizable  Pb
                poisoning,  the  quantity reported  in the  powdered
                milk should not be regarded with  alarm.

                108     Rogick, F.A., Teixeira e Silva,  H.M.,  and
                        Sousa,  J. de A.  (Sao Paulo,_Brazil):
                         (LEAD IN MILK CONSUMED IN  SAO PAULO,  BRA-
                        ZIL.)   Bol.  Ind. Animal  (Sao  Paulo) 15,
                        No. 1:87-92, 1956.
                Analyses of shipped milk supplies  showed from
                0.005 to 0.4 mg% of Pb, derived from  metal cans
                that were found to have inner coatings containing
                46.5% Pb.   (From Chemical  Abstracts 52:3187,  1958)

                109     Runnels, R.T., and Schleicher, J.A. (Kan-
                        sas Geol. Survey,  Lawrence):   CHEMICAL
                        COMPOSITION OF EASTERN KANSAS LIMESTONES.
                        State Geol. Survey Kansas  Bull.  119:81-
                        103,  1956.
                Quantitative  spectrographic determinations of  288
22
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
samples are given for 13 elements, including Pb.
Trace elements were highest in the impure lime-
stones.  (From Chemical Abstracts 50:13675, 1956)

HO     Tauson, L.V., and Kravchenko, L.A.  (V.I.
        Vernadskii Inst. Geochem. Anal. Chem.,
        Acad. Sci. Moscow):  (CHARACTERISTICS OF
        DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD AND ZINC ACCORDING TO
        MINERALS OF THE CALEDONIAN GRANITOIDS OF
        THE SUSAMYRSK BATHOLITH, CENTRAL TIEN
        SHAN.)  Geokhimiya 1956, No. 1:81-9.
Study of distribution of Pb and Zn in 3 fades of
Caledonian granitoids, viz,  earliest porphyritic
granodiorites, coarse-grained biotitic granites,
and leucocratic medium-grained granites.  All de-
terminations of Pb and Zn were made by the  dithi-
zone method, with specifically purified reagents.
Mineralogical and chemical tabulations are  pro-
vided.  (From Chemical Abstracts 50:15354,  1956)

111     Turekian, K.K., and Kleinkopf, M.D.:
        ESTIMATES OF THE AVERAGE ABUNDANCE  OF Cu,
        Mn, Pb, Ti, Ni, AND Cr IN SURFACE WATERS
        OF MAINE.  Bulletin of the Geological
        Society of America 67:1129-32 (Aug.),
        1956.
A semiquantitative emission spectrographic  method
was used to analyze 439 samples of streams  and
lake waters over the State of Maine to test the
feasibility of large-scale geochemical prospecting
in unexplored areas, but the data are applicable
to basic geochemical problems.  The average abun-
dance of Cu, Mn, Pb, Ti, Ni and Cr in these sur-
face waters was found to be 1.16, 0.40, 0.26, 0.20,
0.02 and 0.02 ppb.  The fact that the dominant
crystalline rocks in Maine are granitic is  re-
flected generally in the low Ni and Cr values and
the high Pb value.

112     Vinogradov,  A.P.:   LEAD ISOTOPES AND THEIR
        GEOLOGICAL  SIGNIFICANCE.   In Conference
        of the Academy of  Sciences of the USSR on
        the Peaceful Uses  of Atomic Energy, July
        1-5, 1955.   US Atomic Energy Commission
        Document No. AEC-tr-2435 (Pt. 2),  1956,
        pp. 187-206.  (From Nuclear Science Ab-
        stracts 10:Abstract No. 4039, 1956)

                      1957

113     Anonymous:  QUALITY OF SURFACE WATER IN
        CALIFORNIA.  1955-1956.  Calif. Dept.
        Water Resources, Bull. No. 65:1-411, 1957.
Monthly analyses of water from 150 sampling points
include Pb in the list of substances investigated.
(From Chemical Abstracts 55:1971, 1961)

114      Babakhodzhaev, S.M.:  (GEOLOGY OF THE NEW
        ORE DEPOSITS IN THE TAKOB RIVER BASIN.)
        Trudy Instituta Geologii Akademiya Nauk
        Tadzhikskoi SSR 1957, No. 2:255-81.
Analyses of Pb, Zn,  Cu,  Cd, and F on 5 ore-bearing
rocks of the polymetallic Pb-hematite deposits of
Burmagol-Pshaniba and 8 modal analyses of ore-bear-
ing porphyritic biotite granites and Pb, Zn, As,
Sn, Cd, and F analyses on 9 ore samples from the
Piezdara Pb-Zn-fluorite deposits are given.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 54: 15114, I960)
115     Bergner, K.G., and Schikorr, G.  (Chem.
        Landesuntersuchungsanstalt, Stuttgart,
        Germany):   (HYGIENIC IMPORTANCE  OF WINE
        BOTTLE CAPS MADE OF TINNED LEAD.)  Zeit-
        schrift  f!lr Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-
        Forschung 106:132-41, 1957.
Pb contamination of wines in corked bottles which
were capped with tinned Pb caps was studied.  Dur-
ing aging there was corrosion of caps.   The Pb
corrosion products were found in and around the
mouths of the bottles and were soluble in wine.
It is recommended that Pb caps for beverage bot-
tles be coated to at least 3 u with Sn.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 52:649, 1958)

116     Broussy, G., and Pitet, G.:  (SPECTRO-
        GRAPHIC RESEARCH ON THE SULFUR WATERS AND
        GLAIRINS OF CAUTERETS.)  Cong. Soc. Pharm.
        France, 9e, Clermont-Ferrand 1957, 1963-6.
Pb was found in both water and bacterial glairins.
(From Chemical Abstracts 53:22627, 1959)

H7     tiugelskl, Yu.Yu.:  (SOME PECULIARITIES IN
        TriE MOVEMENT OF ZINC, LEAD, AND  COPPER IN
        THE GROUND WATERS OF THE POLYMETALLIC DE-
        POSITS OF CENTRAL KAZAKHSTAN.)   Geochem-
        istry, Moscow, 1957, 84-90.
Samples of ground water from 5 main deposit areas
of the metals indicated that Pb had traveled the
least distance in water.  (From Water Pollution
Abstracts 34:Abstr. No. 366 (Feb.), 1961)

118     Costa, R.L., and Molins, R.:  (COLORIMET-
        RIC DETERMINATION OF LEAD IN MYTILUS EDUL-
        IS AND IN THE SEA WATER OF THE VIGO ESTU-
        ARY.) Bol. Inst. Espari, Oceanog.  No. 84,
        1957, 13 pp.
Mussels taken at various stations showed a greatly
increased Pb content in comparison with  sea water.
The average factor of enrichment was 38.5.  This
increase in concentration might be an index of the
amount of water passing through the tissues of the
mussel.  (From Chemical Abstracts 53:7445, 1959)

119     Gilewska, C.:  (CONTENTS OF SOME TOXIC
        METALS IN PAPER WRAPPINGS FOR FOODS IN
        POLAND.  DETERMINATION OF LEAD,  ARSENIC,
        AND COPPER.)  Roczniki Panstwowego Zakj!adu
        Hig. 8:469-80, 1957.
Samples of wrappings used for food packaging in Po-
land contained, on the average, Pb 2, As 1, and Cu
30 mg/kg.  Polish cellophane and printed wrappings
contained, on the average, Pb 1000, Cu 62, and As
24 mg/kg.  (From Chemical Abstracts 52:7551, 1958)

120     Grazhdan, P.E.:   (SOME RESULTS OF THE
        STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE
        UNDERGROUND WATERS OF THE BALKHANY REGION
        OF SOUTHWEST TURKMENISTAN.)  Trudy Turkmen.
        Sel'skokhoz. Inst. 9:485-92, 1957.
Microquantities  of Pb were found.   (From Chemical
Abstracts 54:11341, 1960)

121     Marshall, R.R. (Univ. Chicago, 111.):
        ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF COMMON LEADS AND
        CONTINUOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF THE CRUST OF
        THE EARTH FROM THE MANTLE. Geochimica et
        Cosmochimica Acta 12:225-37, 1957.
The ratios 238U/204Pb and 232Th/238U have been
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                23

-------
calculated from 207 analyses of nonanomalous com-
mon leads.  These are the values which would be
present today in the Pb ore-producing reservoirs
in the crust, and they vary systematically with
their "model" lead-lead ages.

122     Millman, A.P. (Imperial Coll. Sci. Tech-
        nol., London, England):  BIOGEOCHEMICAL
        INVESTIGATIONS IN AREAS OF COPPER-TIN
        MINERALIZATION IN SOUTH-WEST ENGLAND.
        Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 12:85-93,
        1957.
For the determination of Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb, and Ag in
the leaves and twigs of a variety of trees growing
in an area of Cu-Sn mineralization the semiquanti-
tative methods of spectrographic analysis were em-
ployed.  An oak tree and a birch (^20 ft in height
and 8 ft apart near the Kingston Down Consols mine)
were examined for variations in metal content in
the leaves and twigs.  Three 15-25 g-samples were
obtained, and particular care was taken to avoid
contamination.  Sn, Cu, Zn, and Ag appeared to be
preferably concentrated in the leaves.  Pb showed
a 3-fold concentration in the twigs.  The author
considers these findings of great interest because
previous workers believed that Pb, entering a
plant, was concentrated in the roots, and varia-
tions of the Pb content in both twigs and leaves
were therefore considered unlikely.  The Pb values
found in the leaves, twigs and soil were for the
birch tree and the oak, respectively, in ppm in
dried sample:  5.9, 16, 20 and 3, 9.3, 10.
  The analytical results of 62 samples of Quercus
sp, 28 Betula sp, and 19 Fagus sp, showed that
the range of values, as presented in a table (for
Pb respectively, 
-------
Solders containing 60-70% Pb,  instead of 37%, are
suitable for soldering cans for corned beef or
luncheon meat.  The Pb contents of the meats
stored over 9 mo  were far below 2 mg/kg.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 53:745,.', 1959)

129     Umemoto, S.:  RELATION BETWEEN THE CON-
        TENTS OF RADON AND RADIUM B IN SEVERAL
        RADIOACTIVE MINERAL SPRINGS.   Bull. Chem.
        Soc. Japan 30:421-7 (June), 1957.
The contents of RaB (-^Ph) and other related com-
ponents were determined immediately after issue
in order to disclose the relationship between the
contents of Rn and RaB.  The measurements were
made at Hamamura (Kachimi) Hot Springs, Misasa
Hot Springs, and Sekigane Hot  Springs, Tottori
Prefecture, Japan.  (From Nuclear Science Ab-
stracts 12:Abstr. No. 2324, 1958)

130     Zyka, V.:  (DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRACE ELE-
        MENTS IN MINERAL WATERS OF MORAVIA.)  Rudy
        5, No. 11:1-6, 1957.
By spectral analyses,  trace amounts of Cu,  Mn, Pb,
among other elements,  were detected in the residue
on evaporation of the mineral  waters; their asso-
ciations are summarized.   (From Chemical Abstracts
56:1300, 1962)
                         1958
131
        Anonymous:  ARSENIC AND LEAD ON APPLES.
        Lancet 1:959  (May 3), 1958.
Public-health inspectors of Coventry found traces
of Pb and As on the skins and stems of apples from
Lebanon.  The contamination was thought to be
caused by a pesticide spray.  It is stated that
washing all fruit before eating is adequate pro-
tection from any hazard; peeling and coring pro-
vide an additional safeguard.

132     Babinets, A.E.:  (PECULIARITIES IN HYDRO-
        GEOCHEMISTRY OF UNDERGROUND WATERS OF THE
        LIMITED WATER EXCHANGE OF THE SOUTHWESTERN
        PART OF THE RUSSIAN PLATEAU. Geol. Zhur.,
        Akad. Nauk Ukr. R.S.R. Inst. Geol. Nauk
        18, No. 2:16-29, 1958.
Carboniferous waters are V bearing and contain Co,
and Pb in some cases, and show an increased I con-
tent.  (27 references)  (From Chemical Abstracts
53:1598, 1959)

133     Borozenets, A.S.:   (MINERAL COMPOSITION OF
        SCHIZANDRA CHINENSIS GROWN IN DIFFERENT
        LOCALITIES.)  Materialy k Izuchen.  Zhen'-
        shenya i Limonnika,  Leningrad,  Sbornik
        1958,  No. 3:141-4;  Referat. Zhur.  Khlm.,
        Biol.  Khim. 1958,  Abstr.  No.  30730.
Spectrographic analysis indicated the presence of
trace elements.   Cu,  Mn, Ni, Mo,  Ag,  Pb,  and Zn
were permanent components  of the fruit.   Accumula-
tion of trace  elements,  such as Cu, Mn,  Ni and Zn
predominated in the seeds,  Ti and Ag in the fruit
juice.   (From  Chemical Abstracts 53:8320,  1959)
            S
134     Duric, D.  (Inst. Medicinska Istrazivanja,
        Zagreb, Yugoslavia):  Otapanje olova iz
        glazura zemljanog posuda.  (EXTRACTION OF
        LEAD FROM LEAD-GLAZED POTTERY.)  Arhiv za
        Higijenu Rada i Toksikologizu 9:297-303,
        1958.
Pb-glazed pottery is widely used in this country,
and is responsible for numerous Pb poisonings both
among peasants and town people.  In a series of
cases the analysis of the content of Pb-glazed
pottery and the test of extraction with acetic
acid were carried out.  The results are discussed
as regards the factors influencing Pb extraction.
Special attention is paid to the influence of tem-
perature, pH, and the effect of various organic
and inorganic acids.  It is pointed out that Pb-
glazed pottery should not be used for storing any
food or drink containing organic acids, nor should
such a content be warmed up or boiled.   (From
author's  summary)

135     Fischer, H.J.:  SIXTY-FIRST REPORT ON FOOD
        PRODUCTS AND 49th REPORT ON DRUG PRODUCTS,
        1956.  Connecticut Agricultural Experiment
        Station, Bull. 617, 1958, 86 pp.
This report summarizes examination of foods, drugs,
cosmetics and miscellaneous materials submitted by
the Food and Drug Commissioner and the Commissioner
of Agriculture during the calendar year 1956, as
well as like materials analyzed for the US Geo-
logical Survey, the State Department of Health,
the State Supervisor of Purchases, local health
departments, police and others.
  On pp 64 and 65, spray residues are listed. Of 95
samples of apple bark, apple juice, apples, chrys-
anthemums, juniper branches, lettuce, maple leaves,
muck from a pond, peaches, rose bushes, shrubs,
soil, spinach, turf, wine and yew, tested for pest-
icidal residues, no residue was found on 34 sam-
ples while 61 samples gave positive reactions.
The following Pb contents were found:  7.7 ppm in
2 samples of apples and 8.9 ppm in another one.
The stem bark of juniper contained 50 and 25 ppm
Pb; shrubs, 50-100 ppm; soil, 25 ppm; turf from
13th Green, Yale Golf Course, 1-, 2-, and 3-in
depth, good  turf, 20, 50 and 15 ppm, respectively,
and wilted  turf, 50, 50 and 10 ppm, respectively.

136      Goldberg, E.D.,  Patterson,  C., and Chow,
        T.  (Scripps Inst.  Oceanography,  La Jolla,
        Calif.):  IONIUM-i'HORIUM AND LEAD ISOTOPE
        RATIOS AS INDICATORS OF OCEANIC WATER
        MASSES.  US Atomic Energy Commission Docu-
        ment No. A/Conf.15/P/1980,  1958,  7 pp.
The lo-Th ratios and isotopic composition of Pb in
Mn nodules and in deep-sea sediments from the Pa-
cific and Atlantic Oceans have been studied using
a-spectrometric and mass spectrometric techniques,
respectively.  The Mn nodules are concretionary
accumulations of oxides of Fe and Mn with appre-
ciable concentrations of such trace metals as Co,
Pb,  the rare earths,  Zn, Cu,  Ni,  and Th.   These
deposits are unique to the deep-sea floor and the
Fe-Mn phases apparently form from chemical species
in solution in oceanic waters.   The deep-sea sedi-
ments analyzed in this study had as principal con-
stituents clay minerals (mainly illites) , detrital
quartz and feldspars, oiogenous opal and phillip-
site.  Both the isotopic composition of the Pb and
the lo-Th ratios in surface samples from the sedi-
ments and nodules showed distinct variations be-
tween oceans and also possessed characteristic
values for different localities within the Pacific
Ocean.  These results can be interpreted on the
                                          Environmental Surveys
                                                                                                      25

-------
oasis that the deep oceanic water masses, which
are in contact with the sediment surfaces, furnish
these isotopes to the sediments.  The isotopic
compositions of Pb and Th in these different cir-
culating water masses probably reflect the pre-
vious histories of the waters in the accumulation
and loss of products from the major sedimentary
cycle.  Such isotopic analyses in samples from the
deep-sea floor can compliment the classical meth-
ods of study of deep-oceanic circulation which are
based on the distribution of temperature and the
concentrations of dissolved constituents in the
water under consideration or on direct measurement
of the velocities of the water masses.  Further,
the possibility of studying the character and be-
navior of deep oceanic waters in past ages presents
itself in the depth distribution of these isotopes
in deep-sea cores.  Finally, the validity of rates
of accumulation of deep-sea sediments based upon
lo-Th ratios is considered.  Two critical assump-
tions of the method are: the bulk of the lo and Th
enter the sediments from a dissolved form in oce-
anic waters, and the lo/Th ratio in seawater has
been constant over the time period that is being
studied.  Certain aspects of the latter assumption
are considered on the basis of residence times of
elements in the oceans and the chemical and miner-
alogical compositions of deep-sea sediments.
(From Nuclear Science Abstracts 12:Abstr. No.
14806, 1958)

137     HyvMrinen, L.  (Geol. Tutkimuslaitos,
        Otaniemi, Finland):   (GEOCHEMICAL PROS-
        PECTING FOR LEAD ORE IN KORSNAS  (FIN-
        LAND) .) Geol. Tutkimuslaitos, Geotekn.
        Julkaisuja 1958, No. 61:7-22.
Investigation of erratic boulders was used  to
evaluate the movements of the Pleistocene ice
shield.  Research yielded data on the CaO and Pb
content.   (From Chemical Abstracts  52:16990,  1958)

138     Kefford, J.F.  (Food Preservation Research
        Lab., Homebush, N.S.W., Australia):   THE
        LABORATORY EXAMINATION OF CANNED FOODS.
        XV.  DISSOLVED COPPER AND LEAD.  Food
        Preservation Quarterly 18:25-9, 1958.
The significance of the occurrence of Cu and Pb in
canned foods and methods for the determination of
these metals are reviewed.   (From Chemical  Ab-
stracts 52:20709, 1958)

139     Masuda, A.  (Nagoya  Univ.,  Japan):   ISO-
        TOPIC COMPOSITION  OF  PRIMEVAL LEAD  OF THE
        EARTH.)   Geochimica et  Cosmochimica Acta
        13:143-52,  1958.
Based  on  the  variation  of  isotopic  composition  of
Pb ores,  the  age  of the earth  is  estimated  to be
4.55 billion  years.  Utilizing  2  radioactive ele-
ments, Th  and U,  a  self-consistent  primeval Pb  is
obtained,  with  204Pb:  206Pb:  207pb:"208pb=l:9.05:
9.81:29.45.   These values demonstrate that  the
isotopic  composition of earth's  primeval  Pb does
not  differ essentially  from that  of meteorites  or
troilite.

140     Mucciolo, P.,  Campos,  M.M. ,  and  Buccheri,
        A.  (Inst. Nutr., Rio  de Janeiro,  Brazil):
         (PERCENTAGE OF  LEAD IN MILK STORED  IN
        METAL CONTAINERS.)  Arquiv.  Brasil.  Nutr.
                        14, No. 2:49-58, 1958.
                Milk was stored in cans lined with Sn containing
                22.2-50.2% Pb, for 5-109 hours.  Greatest contam-
                ination occurred in cans containing most Pb, but
                it was not directly proportional to the amount of
                Pb.  Increasing acidity of the milk caused greater
                contamination, particularly in cans with the high-
                er percent of Pb.  Pb in the milk ranged from
                0.032-0.280% of the milk ash.  (From Dairy Science
                Abstracts 23:238, 1961; Chemical Abstracts 57:
                11609, 1962)

                141     Nishimura, M. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo,
                        Japan):  (CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HOT
                        SPRINGS IN JAPAN.  XXXVII; XXXVIII.
                        SPECTROGRAPHIC STUDIES ON MINOR METALLIC
                        CONSTITUENTS IN HOT SPRING WATERS OF HOK-
                        KAIDO. 1; 2.) Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 79:172-
                        82; 183-7, 1958.
                Residues on evaporation from the waters of 107 hot
                springs (from 52 localities) in Hokkaido were ex-
                amined by direct current arc-spectrographic analy-
                sis.  Al, B, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, and Cu were de-
                tected in all the samples.  The following elements
                were also detected:  Li (in 86% of all the
                springs), Ti (76), Ba (72), V (69), Pb (62), Ag
                (41), Mo (33), Ge (21), Cr (19), P (14), Ni (14),
                Ga (12), As (7), W (5), Sb (5), and Zr (4).  Ap-
                proximate limits of detection of these elements
                are given.
                  Approximate contents of Ge, Pb, and Sb in resi-
                dues from hot spring waters were determined.
                Relatively high Ge is found in strongly alkaline
                and simple springs containing H2S.  Ga is found
                not only in this type of springs but in strongly
                acid waters.  Average Pb concentration is V10~3%
                with respect to residue on evaporation.  The
                spring that gives positive lines of Sb always
                shows the presence of As.  Cr and Ni are detected
                in the springs located in the circumference of the
                ultra basic rock zone of central Hokkaido.  (From
                Chemical Abstracts 52:14037, 1958)

                142      Penchev, N.P.,  Pencheva,  E.N.,  and  Bon-
                         chev,  P.R.:   (SPECTROGRAPHIC  INVESTIGA-
                         TION  OF THE  TRACE  ELEMENTS  IN  BULGARIAN
                        MINERAL WATERS.)   Compt.  Rend.  Acad.
                         Bulgare  Sci.  11:375-7,  1958.
                A table  is  presented  which  shows  the  temperature
                of the various mineral  waters,  their  pH values,
                and  the  spectrographic  analyses  for Cu,  Zn, Pb,
                Sn,  Sb,  Fe, Mn, V,  Cr,  Ni,  Co,  Mo,  W,  Ag,  Ti,  Al,
                Ga,  In,  Ge, Sr,  Ba,  Li,  As,  B,  and  Be.   (From
                Chemical  Abstracts  53:17380,  1959)

                143      Savul, M., and  Ababi, V.:   (THE  COPPER,
                         ZINC, AND LEAD  CONTENT  OF SEVERAL TYPES  OF
                        ROMANIAN COAL.) Acad. rep. populare
                         Romine, Filiala  lasi, Studii  cercetari
                         stiin^., Chim.  2:251-69,  1958.
                The  content of trace  elements in  the  coals was Cu
                1.87-14.68, Zn 1.63-48.31, and Pb 0.10-13.45  g/
                ton.  The amount increased up to  Cu 128, Zn 158,
                and  Pb 51 g/ton in the  ash.  The  amount  in  the ash
                was  comparable to that  in clays and sedimentary
                rocks.  The specific  surface and  adsorption iso-
                therms were determined  for several coals.   The
                coals had appreciable adsorptive  capacity, and the
                elements were adsorbed  if their solutions circu-
 26
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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 lated through the coal layers.   (From Chim.  et
 ind.  (Paris)  83:107,  1960;  Chemical Abstracts 55:
 15884,  1961)

 144      Szarski,  P.:   (CHANGING THE COMPOSITION OF
         SOLDER IN FOOD CANS.) PrzemysZ Spozywczy
         12:11-3,  1958.
 The amount  of Pb  penetrating  into  canned  food
 after 1 yr  of storage was  not more than 2 ppm
 irrespective  of the composition of the soldering
 material used (ratio  of Pb  to Sn varied from 70:
 30-37:67).   (From Chemical  Abstracts 52:20711,
 1958)

 145      Tarantola, C.,  and  Libero, A (Univ.  Turin,
         Italy):   (MICROELEMENTS  IN WINE.  II.
         LEAD.)  Riv.  Viticol. e  Enol.  (Conegliano)
         11:47-60,  1958.
 A Pb  content  of 0.15  mg/1  was found in white wine
 and  0.21 mg/1 in red  wine.   Six Vermouth samples
 contained 0.11-0.22 mg Pb/1.  It was found that
 during fermentation  29-67%  Pb was  eliminated from
 must, according to the various  yeasts used.   (From
 Chemical Abstracts 53:5582, 1959)

 146      Uzumasa,  Y.,  and Akaiwa, H.  (Hokkaido
         Univ.,  Sapporo, Japan):   (CHEMICAL INVES-
         TIGATIONS OF  HOT SPRINGS IN JAPAN. XL.
         FLUCTUATION OF MINOR  CONSTITUENTS OF HOT
         SPRING WATERS OF JOZANKEI, HOKKAIDO.)
         Nippon Kagaku Zasshi  79:1021-4, 1958.
 The fluctuations  of Pb were investigated  in  2 hot
 springs of  Jozankei.   (From Chemical Abstracts  53:
 1599,  1959)

 147      Vuorinen,  J.  (Agr.  Research  Center,  Hel-
         sinki,  Finland):  THE AMOUNTS  OF  MINOR
         ELEMENTS  IN FINNISH SOILS. Maataloustie-
         teellinen Aikakauskirja  30:30-5,  1958.
 The average Mn  and Pb  content of Finnish  soils,  as
 determined by spectrographic analysis  was 617 and
 16 ppm,  respectively.   (From Chemical  Abstracts
 52:14049, 1958)

 148     Williams, H.A.:  LEAD AND ARSENIC POISONING
        WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE TOXICITY OF
        LEAD ARSENATE SPRAY RESIDUES.  Royal Soci-
        ety  for the Promotion of Health Journal
        78:732-40 (Nov.-Dec.), 1958.
Analyses of  64 samples of 2 varieties of apples
imported in  London, England, showed a Pb content
of 0-31 (av  10) ppm,  and an As content of 0-16 (av
3.5)  ppm.  In contrast to popular opinion only 25%
of the total amount of spray residue was found
around the core, calyx and  stalk.  Less than  1% of
the total As and Pb was detected in the flesh from
peeled fruit while the wrapping  papers averaged
600 ppm Pb and 210 ppm As.   When the peel from some
apples bearing heavy spray  residues was digested
for 2 hr at  37°C in a solution  containing 0.13%
HC1 and some pepsin,  1/4 of the  Pb  and 2/3 of the
As dissolved,  whereby it has to  be realized  that
this  experiment reflects only part  of the digestive
system.  On  this basis the  approximate daily  intake
in vivo from 2 apples would be 0.5  mg Pb and As
each.   A review of Pb poisoning  in children and
adults is presented and permissible  limits for Pb
in food are  discussed.  There is little reliable
evidence of  a synergistic effect of Pb and As.   In
 comparing  the  toxicity  of  Pb  and As  it  appears  that
 taken  frequently over a short period the  effects  of
 As  are more harmful but if taken occasionally over
 a long period  the  effects  of  Pb are  more  serious.
 Legal  limits for the As content in food and  drinks
 are proposed.   (40 references)

 149     Young,  E.G., and Langille, W.M. (Natl.  Res.
        Council, Halifax;  Nova Scotia Agr. Coll.,
        Truro):  THE OCCURRENCE OF INORGANIC ELE-
        MENTS  IN MARINE ALGAE OF THE ATLANTIC PROV-
        INCES  OF CANADA.   Canadian Journal of Bot-
        any 36:301-10,  1958.
 Specimens  of numerous marine  species of green,  red,
 and brown  algae from the Atlantic coast of Canada
 were analyzed  for  various  inorganic  elements.   The
 ranges in  concentration were  Na 1.6-4.7,  K 2.3-
 7.1, Ca 0.9-2.3, Si 0.5-2.0%  of dry  matter;  I 20-
 2490,  Zn 35-97, Cu 6-62, Mn 20-50, As 2-75,  F 2-
 22,  Pb 0.8, Ni  0.3-2, Co 0.1-0.7, and Mo  0.2-1.4
 ppm.   No seasonal  variation was detectable in the
 concentration  of trace  elements in Chondrus  cris-
 pus.   Differences  in concentration were observed
 between frond  and  stipe in 2  species of Laminaria.
 (From  authors'  summary; 33 references)
                        1959
 150      Antonov,  Yu,  G.:   (TRACE ELEMENTS  IN THE
         SOILS  OF  THE  STANISLAV REGION OF THE USSR
         AND ENDEMIC GOITER.)  Invest.  Akad.  Nauk
         SSSR,  Ser.  Biol.  1959,  No.  2:193-205.
 The  Pb  concentrations in  the  mountainous parts,
 foothills  and  plains  were,  respectively, 100,  100,
•65 ppm.   (From Chemical Abstracts 54:11353,  1960)

 151      Borisova, E.N.:   (LEAD CONTENT OF  SOIL
         AND FOOD  PRODUCTS.)   Kazansk.  Med.  Zh.
         40, No. 4:88-90,  1959.
 Pb content of  soil and  food products  was deter-
 mined by the dithizone  complex method in those of
 Armenia and the Tartar  Republics.  In  Armenian
 Pb-bearing soils  Pb varied  from 5 x 10~3 to 2 x
 10"1 and in Tartar soils  from 4 x 10~4 to  3 x
 10~^% dry  weight.  Food products in Armenia show-
 ed 3 x  10-4 to 1  x 10-3%  dry  weight Pb, or 2-10
 times that in  Tartar  food (4  x 10~6 to 3 x 10~4%).
 Mean (mg/100 g solids) for Tartar and  Armenia,
 respectively,  were:  rye  0.0252, 0.1320; wheat
 0.0217,  0.2210; corn  0.0040,  0.0070;  potato 0.0609,
 0.3710;  carrots 0.1050, 0.4060;  onions 0.0047,
 0.0530;  onion  greens  0.1210,  1.1610;  tomatoes
 0.1250,  1.0600; beets 0.1020,  0.4810;  cabbage
 0.1000,  0.4890, and apples  0.0890,  0.1200.   Sig-
 nificant amounts  of Pb were also found in  pears
 and  peaches.  Of  patients in  a high-Pb settlement,
 21.5% exhibited nervous system disorders.   (From
 Chemical Abstracts 58:4965, 1963)

 152      Boyle, R.W. (Geol.  Surv. Canada, Ottawa):
         SOME GEOCHEMICAL  CONSIDERATIONS ON LEAD-
         ISOTOPE DATING  OF LEAD DEPOSITS.  Econ.
         Geol.  54:130-5  (Jan.-Feb.), 1959.
 The  validity of age determinations  based on the
 Pb-isotope ratios of  galena or other  Pb minerals
 in deposits is questioned.  A few simple examples
 are  given  to show that  fractionation  of Pb iso-
 topes in geochemical  processes is probable.   The
 geochemical processes through which Pb has passed
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                27

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must be considered in detail before an age can be
assigned to a Pb deposit.  (From Nuclear Science
Abstracts 13:Abstract No. 9870, 1959)

153      Chamberlain, G.T. (East African Agr.
        Forestry Res. Org.,  Kikuyu):   TRACE ELE-
        MENTS IN SOME EAST AFRICAN SOILS AND
        PLANTS. I. COBALT, BERYLIUM, LEAD, NICKEL,
        AND ZINC.  E. African Agr. J. 25:121-5,
        1959.
East African soils were found to have a Pb content
of 0.60 ppm.  (From Chemical Abstracts 54:6002,
1960)

154      Deschreider, A.R. (Ministry Econ.  Affairs,
        Brussels, Belgium):   Les oligoelements et
        1'hygiene alimentaire.  (THE OLIGOELEMENTS
        AND ALIMENTARY HYGIENE.)  Bulletin de la
        Societe Scientifique d'Hygiene Alimentaire
        et d'Alimentation rationnelle 47,  No. 4-6:
        124-36, 1959.
The author discusses the occurrence of trace ele-
ments in foods and environment and their absorption
through the alimentary canal.  The origins of con-
tamination such as fungicides and pesticides, de-
tergents, disinfectants, atmospheric pollution,
transportation and storage,  corrosion, artificial
flavoring,  coloring, and machinery, utensils and
packaging materials used in the manufacture and
processing of food products  are described in some
detail.  Among the elements  discussed are Sb, As,
Cd,  Br, F,  Pb, Se, radioactive fallout (Sr) , Ni,
Fe,  Cu, Al, Zn and Sn.  The toxicologic conditions
caused by some of these elements and their effect
upon certain enzymes and vitamins are described
from the literature.  The survey includes foods
such as fruits and vegetables (fresh and canned),
beverages (water, beer, fruit juices, wine), and
fats, oils, milk and butter.  The author concludes
that despite the progress made in the production
and processing of foods, as well as in the use of
packaging materials, pesticides, etc, the problem
of contamination of food products still exists.
To remedy the situation, the author suggests elim-
ination of inferior preservation and packaging
materials, wise and minimal use of metals or their
elimination, and education of the consumer concern-
ing the hygiene of food production and packaging
for his own protection.  (58 references)

155      Eristavi, D.I., and Salukyadze, E.D.:
         (THE LEAD CONTENT OF CARBON DIOXIDE MIN-
        ERAL WATERS OF GEORGIAN SSR.) Tr. Gruz.
        Politekhn. Inst. 1959, No. 4:11-3.
Chemical (idometric) and spectral analyses were
made for Pb content of mineral waters of the
Georgian SSR.  Pb was not found in mineral waters
of Borzhomi, Nabeglavi, and Sairme.  Traces of Pb
were found only by spectral analysis in mineral
water of the Zvare deposit.    (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 57:4479, 1962)

156      Gayun, K.G.:   (FORMATION OF SUBSURFACE WA-
        TERS IN THE REGION OF THE TRUSKAVETS
        HEALTH RESORT.) Trudy Vsesoyuz. Nauch.-
        Issledovatel. Inst.  Galurgii, Ministerstvo
        Khim. Prom. SSSR 1959, No. 35:331-9.
Waters from the Miocene formations of Truskavets
contained, among other trace elements, somewhat
                increased amounts of Pb and Mn.   (From  Chemical
                Abstracts 55:7711, 1961)

                 157      Gilbert,  E., and  Grohmann,   H.  (Chem.
                         Untersuchungsamt  Speyer/Rh,  Germany):
                         (A  SIMPLE QUANTITATIVE POLAROGRAPHIC DE-
                         TERMINATION  OF LEAD IN GRAPE JUICE AND IN
                         WINE.)   Deut.  Lebensm.-Rundschau 55:300-3,
                         1959.
                 Pb  content  of  the ash  of  wine and grape juices was
                 0.0-0.17 mg/1.   (From  Chemical Abstracts 54:10233,
                 1960)

                 158      Hem, J.D.:  STUDY AND  INTERPRETATION OF
                         ME CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS  OF NATURAL
                         WATER.  U.S. Geological Survey,  Water-
                         Supply Paper 1473,  1959,  269  pp.
                Water sampling and analysis followed  standardized
                procedure.  Traces of  Pb, along with  B, Ti,  Cr,
                Ni, Co,  Cu, Sn, Cd, and Hg, were widespread.   Many
                natural  waters were radioactive due  to  Ra and  Rn.

                159      Imanishi, N. (Univ. Kochi, Japan):   (IN-
                         ORGANIC CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF SEA FISH-
                         ES.)  Records  Oceanog. Works  Japan,  Spec.
                         No. 3:135-9, 1959.
                Pb and Mn were among the  elements detected by
                spectrographic analysis in  ashes  of  deep-sea fish-
                es.  (From  Chemical Abstracts  55:4810,  1961)

                160      Isojima,  H.:   (IDENTIFICATION OF MATCHES
                         BY  DETERMINATION  OF MANGANESE AND LEAD.
                         II.) Kagaku  to Sosa 12:170-4, 1959.
                Contents of Cr,  Fe, Pb, and Mn in 12  kinds of
                match stick heads are  listed.   (From Chemical  Ab-
                stracts  54:15083, 1960)

                161      Jones, D.J.C.  (Ministry Agr., Fisheries  &
                         Food, Trawscoed,  England):   STUDIES  OF THE
                         CHEMICAL  COMPOSITION  OF KALES AND RAPES.
                         III.  THE MINOR ELEMENTS.  Journal of  Ag-
                         ricultural Science  53:151-5,  1959.
                Pb was 1 of the  elements  determined  in  leaf, stem
                and whole plant  samples of  varieties  of marrow
                stem and thousand headed  kales and varieties of
                rapes, using the colorimetric method.   Contents  in
                 leaves ranged from 0.4-0.8  ppm dry matter; in
                stems, trace-0.4; in whole  plant, trace-0.6.

                162    Khetchikov,  L.N.,  and Konstantinov, R.M.
                         (Far Eastern Section of Siberian Branch
                       Acad.  Sci. USSR, Vladivostok):   (THE DIS-
                       TRIBUTION OF ZINC, LEAD, AND COPPER IN THE
                        COUNTRY ROCKS OF THE FAR EASTERN LEAD DE-
                        POSITS.)  Geol.  Rudn. Mestorozhdenii 1959,
                        No.  4:127-33.
                 Variations  in  Cu, Pb,  and Zn are  not regular in
                 ore bodies:  increase  in  1  element  is not neces-
                 sarily followed  by  increase of the  others.  This
                 is  almost never  true for  Pb.   (From Chemical Ab-
                 stracts  54:22188, 1960)

                163      Kittl, E.:   (NEW  GEOCHEMICAL  DATA ON
                         ZINC AND LEAD.)   Rev.  Minera, Geol.  y.
                         Mineralo., Soc. Arg.  Mineria y  Geol. 24:
                         41-8,  1959.
                Wedepohl's  theory concerning  the  concentration of
                Pb by magmatic processes  is disputed.   (From
                 Chemical Abstracts 54:11890,  1960)
28
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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164     Klose, J.  (Rudolstadt, Germany):   Uber das
        Vorkommen  von Blei im Trinkwasser,   (THE
        PRESENCE OF LEAD IN DRINKING WATER.)
        Zentralblatt flir die Gesamte Hygiene mit
        Einschluss der Bakteriologie und  Immu-
        nitatslehre  5, No. 1:58-63,  1959.
It  is demonstrated that in towns and villages the
Pb  content of drinking water is often  considerably
higher  than has been assumed heretofore.   The
hygiene of drinking water and the entire  field of
medicine may find  in these facts the basis  for ex-
plaining certain diseases the genesis  of  which is
now obscure.

165     Merkeshina, L.G.:  (COMPARATIVE MINERAL
        COMPOSITION OF MILK IN REGIONS OF ENDEMIC
        GOITER AS  DETERMINED BY SPECTRAL  ANALYSIS.)
        Sbornik Nauch, Rabot. L'vov. Med.  Inst.
        17:146-7,  1959.
In  endemic goiter  regions, the general mineral
content of milk was lower than in regions where
goiter was less prevalent: Pb was among the ele-
ments showing the  lowest values, while Mn was
found in higher than usual amounts.   (From Chem-
ical Abstracts 54:19994, 1960)

166     Milazzo, G. (Inst. superiore sanita, Rome,
        Italy):  (THE SOLUBILIZATION OF ARSENIC,
        LEAD, AND ANTIMONY CONTAINED IN TIN.)
        Chim. e Ind. (Milan) 41:128-31, 1959.
The possible toxic effect of Pb contained  in the
lining of food tins was examined by testing the
reactivity of alloys of Sn-Pb (Pb:Sn=l.87-0.50)
with 0.1N  sulfuric, tartaric,  citric  and  oxalic
acids.  Pb was found to pass into solution  under
these conditions.   (From Chemical Abstracts 53:
22551, 1959)

167     Milazzo, G.:  (SOLUBILIZATION  OF  ARSENIC,
        LEAD AND ANTIMONY ULTIMATELY DERIVED FROM
        TIN.) Rend. 1st. Super. Sanita 22:397-406,
        1959.
Alloys of Sn with  0.166% As, 0.15% Sb, and  0.50-
1.87% Pb were prepared from specially  purified Sn.
Neither As or Sb appeared to go into solution when
the Sn-As and Sn-Sb alloys were exposed to  0.IN
^2^04, tartaric acid, citric acid, oxalic  acid,
and NaOH for 30 days.  The Sn-Pb alloys,  in a mix-
ture of citric, lactic, malic, and tartaric acids
(each 0.9%) with 1% NaCl, showed an apparent ten-
dency for Pb to go into solution in proportion to
its % in the alloy.  The data are considered too
limited to allow conclusions.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 53:21523,  1959)

168     Nishida, S.:  (SPECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF
        CIGARET ASHES.) Kagaku to Sosa 12:226-7,
        1959.
Mn was found in 9 kinds of Japanese cigaret ashes
tested; only 2 of them contained Pb which was de-
rived from printing ink for printing the  name of
the cigaret on the paper.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 54:15848,  1960)

169      Ohio River  Valley Sanitation Commission:
        WATER QUALITY AND FLOW VARIATIONS.  OHIO
        RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES - 1956-57.   Cincin-
        nati,  1959, 168  pp.
The following constituents  were determined at
Monitor Stations at 44 locations  over  a  distance
of ^950 mi along the  Ohio River and  17 major
tributaries.  The Pb  concentrations  ranged  from
0.00-0.03 ppm.

170      Pelissonnier, H.:   (A  GENERAL  GEOLOGIC
        CONTROL OF LARGE STRATIFORM  DEPOSITS  OF
        LEAD, ZINC, AND  COPPER:   "PALEOINSULAR"
        STRUCTURE.)   Comptes Rendus  Hebdomadaires
        des  Stances de 1'Academie des  Sciences
        248:1691-4, 1959.
The occurrence of stratiform deposits  of Pb,  Zn,
and Cu on and around  paleoinsular or buried-hill
structures is explained  by  subterranean  leaching
by vadose water which ascends  in  artesian beds
into the buried domes.

171     Rabinovich, A.V., and Baskova, Z.A. (All
        Union Sci.-^es. Inst. Geol., Leningrad,
        USSR) :  (DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN SOME
        GRANITIC ROCKS OF EASTERN TRANSBAIKAL .)
        Geokhimiya 1959, pp. 546-9.
Rocks studied were of different ages.  Pb con-
tents were determined chemically, and results
showed that 37-70% of the Pb of the  rocks was
concentrated in the feldspars.   The  amount of Pb
decreased on passing  from granitic rocks of the
polymetallic zones to those of the Mo and Sn
zones.  The reverse was  true for  Pb  entering  into
galena.  (From Chemical Abstracts 54:7462, 1960)

172     Sudarev, P.M., Boiko, V.S.,  and  Arnautov,
        N.V.:  (THE CONTENT OF SOME  TRACE ELEMENTS
        IN THE SOILS  AND IN THE CROP ASH OF THE
        NOVOSIBIRSK REGION.) Izvest. Sibir. Otdel.
        Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1959, No. 11:93-5.
The Pb and Mn content in different types of soil
and different crops (alfalfa, maize) is  tabulated.
(From Chemical Abstracts 54:9181, 1960)

173      Sveshnikov, G.B. (Vestnik Leningrad Univ.
        USSR):  (AN EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE OXI-
        DATION-REDUCTION POTENTIALS  OF WATERS OF
        SOME POLYMETALLIC DEPOSITS OF RUDNYl'
        ALTAI.) Vestnik  Leningrad. Univ. 14,  No.
        12; Ser. Geol. i Geograf. 1959,  No. 2:59-
        67.
Pb was found in the waters from ore deposits.
(From Chemical Abstracts 53:22632, 1959)

                       1960

174      Catanzaro, E.J., and Cast, P.W.  (Columbia
        Univ., New York, N.Y.):   ISOTOPIC COMPOSI-
        TION OF LEAD  IN  PEGMATITIC FELDSPARS.
        Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta  19:113-
        26,  1960.
The concentration of  Pb  in  25 feldspars  was 20-
500 ppm, and the highest values were found in pure
white feldspar.  (From Chemical Abstracts 54:
18230, 1960)

175      Chernyakohov,  V.B.:  (BASIC  TRACE ELEMENTS
        IN SOILS AROUND THE CITY OF  NAL'CHIK.)
        Uch. Zap.,  Kabardino-Balkarsk. Cos. Univ.,
        Ser. Sel'skokhoz. 1960, No.  8:87-90.
In 2 soil samples taken  (meadow chernozem, gray
forest), it was found that  the amounts of Cu, Pb,
and Zn were many times higher than normal (in the
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                29

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Central Russian Plain).  The elements are concen-
trated in the illuvial layer and their levels were
inversely proportional to humus content.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 57:11584, 1962)

176     Dobrovol'skii, G.V., and Yakushevskaya,
        I.V. (State Univ., Moscow):  CERTAIN CHAR-
        ACTERISTICS OF TRACE ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION
        IN RIVER VALLEY SOILS.)  Vestnik Moskov.
        Univ.,  Ser. VI 15, No. 5:57-70, 1960.
The amount of Pb and Mn were determined by emis-
sion spectroscopy.  (From Chemical Abstracts 55:
14782, 1961)

177     Gilewska, C. (State Inst. Hyg., Warsaw,
        Poland) :  (INVESTIGATION OF THE CONTAMINA-
        TION OF FOODS BY TOXIC METALS (LEAD, AR-
        SENIC,  AND COPPER) FROM PAPER WRAPPINGS.)
        Roczniki Panstwowego Zak^adu Hig. 11:163-
        72, 1960.
Butter, cheese,  marmalade, and candy kept for 3-
10 mo in 22 types of paper and cellophane wrap-
pings containing up to 1300 ppm Pb showed no >2
ppm Pb which is the accepted standard in Poland.
(From Chemical Abstracts 55:5794, 1961)

178     Gillberg, M.:  (A LEAD-BEARING VARIETY OF
        PARGASITE FROM L&NGBAN, SWEDEN.) Arkiv
        Mineral. Geol. 2:425-30, 1960.
An amphibole containing 2.12% PbO has been dis-
covered from Langban.  The Pb amphibole is re-
garded as a variety of pargasite.  (From Chemical
Abstracts 54:13998, 1960)

179     Ginzburg, I.I., Mukanov, J.M., and Pol-
        uzerov,  N.P. (Inst. Geol. Ore Deposits,
        Petrog.,  Mineral,  and Geochem., Acad. Sci.,
        Moscow,  USSR):  (COPPER AND LEAD IN SOILS
        OF THE  USPENSK COPPER DEPOSIT IN CENTRAL
        KAZAKHSTAN.) Geokhimiya 1960:339-44.
A study of biogeochemical prospecting for Cu at
the Uspensk deposit revealed Pb in only 15 of the
42 soil cross sections.  Its concentration ranged
from 50-80 ppm.   (From Chemical Abstracts 55:
15239, 1961)

180     Godt, K.J., and Sommermeyer, K.  (Univ.
        Freiburg/Breisgau, Germany):   (THE RaD
        CONTENT OF PLANTS OBTAINED BY A y SPEC-
        TROSCOPIC MLTHOD.)  Atomkernenergie
        5:282-5  (July-Aug.), 1960.
The various kinds of radioactive compounds in
plants are not only of incerest from the science
point of view but the knowledge is also required
for critical judgment of questions regarding
radiation protection.  The RaD-content in plants,
after all, is quite considerable as it can be
measured by y-spectrographical methods, whereby
the 46.5 kev-line can be regarded as proof.
(From Nuclear Science Abstracts 14: Abstr. No.
21219, 1960)

181     Hansen, R.O., Vidal, R.D., and Stout, P.R.
        (Kearney Foundation of  Soil Sci., Univ.
        Calif., Berkeley):  RADIOISOTOPES IN SOILS:
        PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL  COMPOSITION.  In R.S.
        Caldecott and L.A.  Snyder, eds.:  A  Sym-
        posium on Radioisotopes in the Biosphere.
        Minnesota, University of Minnesota Center
                        for Continuation Study of the General Ex-
                        tension Division, 1960, pp. 23-36.
                The physical-chemical composition of radioelements
                in soils as reviewed by the authors is said to be
                as complicated as soil chemistry itself, but with
                the added features of radioelements being trans-
                formed continuously into new elements.  Soil chem-
                istry is considered from the point of view of a
                3-phase system:  gas, liquid, solid.  Of these,
                the liquid phase represents every kind of radio-
                element occurring in nature along with all of the
                essential mineral elements which plants must ex-
                tract from soils in order to grow.  Pb, of which
                the 210 isotope is included in the review, is one
                of the nonessential elements which is nonetheless
                absorbed by plants and has analogous chemical re-
                actions to essential elements.

                 182     Holtzman, R.B.:  THE RaD CONTENT OF SOME
                        POTABLE WATERS IN ILLINOIS.  In Argonne
                        National Laboratory Radiological Physics
                        Division Semiannual Report, Appendix III.
                        US Atomic Energy Commission Document No.
                        ANL-6199, 1960, pp. 115-8.
                Water samples  (1-2 1) were obtained from 15 dif-
                ferent locations in Illinois to determine the
                RaD (210pb) content of some potable waters.  The
                results of the measurements are presented in a
                table and show a correlation between 226Ra and RaD
                contents (-0.09-0.39 ppCi/1) of the samples ex-
                cept in Peoria 2 and LaSalle where they were some-
                what higher and those from Cuba which were low.

                 183      Idzikowski,  A.,  and Trzebiatowski,  W.:   OC-
                         CURRENCE  OF  CERTAIN TRACE  ELEMENTS  IN  THE
                         ASHES OF  UPPER SILESIAN  BITUMINOUS  COALS.
                         I  Bull.  Acad.  Polon.  Sci.,  SSr.  Sci.,
                         Chim., Geol.  et Geograph.  8:225-33,  1960.
                A report is given of Mn, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn,
                and Ge contents in the ashes of bituminous coals
                from various  seams of the coal pits Radzionkow and
                Julian.  The  Zn and Pb contents are up to 1 and
                that of Ge02  0.08, the average of 60 samples from
                1 coal seam being 0.04%.  The determinations were
                made by spectrographic methods.  (From Chemical
                Abstracts 55:15244, 1961)
                184
                 185
        Isojima, F.:  ANALYSIS  OF  THE  COMPONENTS
        OF MATCH-HEADS AND  DIFFERENTIATION OF
        MATCHES. III.  Kagaku Keisatsu Kenkyousho
        Hokoku  13:50-4,  1960; Chemical Abstracts
        55:14755,  1961.
        Kashkai, M.A., and Askerbeili, E.K. (Azer-
        baidzhan State Univ., USSR):  (MINERAL WA-
        TER DEPOSIT IN ADZHIKEND IN THE KHANLAR-
        SKII DISTRICT.) Uch. Zap. Azerb. Univ.,
        Ser. Geol.-Geogr. Nauk,"l960, No. 5:3-18.
Pb was detected spectrally in water from Adzhikend
springs.  (From Chemical Abstracts 57:1992, 1962)

186     Kick, H. (Univ. Bonn, Germany):   (THE USE
        OF COMPOSTS FOR SOIL IMPROVEMENT AND IN-
        CREASE OF YIELDS.)   Trans.  Intern.  Congr.
        Soil Sci.,  7th, Madison, Wise. I960, 3:
        321-8. (Pub. 1961)
When additions of 50 tons of fermented composts/
hectare are made, the availability of Cu, Pb,  Zn,
Ge, Mn, and B amounts to but a few hundred g/
30
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
hectare.  Detrimental effects to man are not like-
ly.  (From Chemical Abstracts 57:6346, 1962)

187     Lafon, K. , Couillaud, P., Caumeil, M., and
        Marche, M.:   (LEAD CONTENT OF COGNAC BRAN-
        DY.)  Ann. Inst. Nat. Recherche Agron.,
        Ser. E 9:109-16, 1960.
Most cognacs have less than 0.2 mg Pb/1, thus
meeting British import regulations.   Some very old
cognacs contain 0.3 mg/1 Pb.   Such levels may be
due to contact with Pb solder in the bottling
plant, or, if the cork is not paraffined, in the
bottle seal, or to keeping in crystal glass.
(From Chemical Abstracts 55:18004, 1961)

188     Makarochkin,  B.A., and Udenich,  D.M.:
        (MINERALS IN HONEY.)   Pchelovodstvo 37,
        No. 11:34, 1960.
Chemical analysis of  the ash of honey (raspberry-
fireweed)  showed:  Si 24.57,  Al 13.41, Mg 8.36,
P 4.61, Mn 2.14,  Fe  1.97, Ti  0.08, Mo 0.02,
Cu 0.01%.   Spectrographic analysis showed the
presence of Be, Mn, Pb, Sn, Si, Ga,  Fe,  Al, V,  Ti,
Cu, Ni, Zr, Ag.  An increased content of Mo, Cu,
and Ti can indicate their presence in the soil;
such analyses can help in detecting the presence
of such minerals in the soil.  (From Biological
Abstracts 38:Abstr. No. 9086, 1962)

189     Medvedeva, I.V. (Nutr. Lab.  Novosiber.
        Sci.-Res. San. Inst., USSR):  K voprosu o
        soderzhanii svintsa v pechenochnykh kon-
        servakh.   (CONTENT OF LEAD IN CANNED LIVER
        PRODUCTS.)  Gigiena i Sanitariya 25:105-
        7 (Aug.), 1960.
The analysis by the standard method, of canned
liver products (meat  pies) after storage for up to
10 yr revealed Pb in 15 of 22 samples, while Pb
was not found in the  product before canning.  The
transfer of Pb from the cans was not connected
with the duration of  storage and was not related
to the Sn content (eg, 1 sample contained 10.4 mg/
kg Sn and 1.33 mg/kg  Pb, another, 13.4 Sn and
1.67 Pb, and still another (9-yr storage), 111.8
Sn and no detectable  Pb.)  The author concludes
that at normal conditions of storage, liver prod-
ucts may be stored 9-10 yr without change in or-
ganoleptic or chemical properties.  (11 refer-
ences)

190     Nagy> Z-> Porcsalmy,  I.,  Andrassy, K.,
        Dezsb1,  I., Kovacs, E., and Polyik, E.
        (Med. Univ.,  Debrecen, Hungary):  A hajd-
        uszoboszloi hBforrasvizek kemiai elemzese.
        (CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HAJDUSZOBOSZLO THER-
        MAL SPRINGS.) Hidrologiai KBzlHny 40:300-
        3, 1960.
Analysis of the Hajduszoboszlo thermal springs
gave a Pb content of  18-48 pg/1.

191     Radkevich, E.A., Lobanova, G.M., Tomson,
        I.N., Borodaev, Y.S., Mozgova, N.N.,
        Khetchikov, L.N., Aleksandrov, A. I.,
        Solyanikov, V.P., and Smirnov, S.I.:
        GEOLOGY OF THE LEAD-ZINC DEPOSITS OF THE
        MARITIME TERRITORY. Trudy Inst.  Geol.
        Rudnykh Mestorozhden., Petrog.,  Mineral.
        i Geokhim. 34:5-326,  1960.
The geology of the 01 'ga-Tetyukhe region is de-
scribed, and analyses of galena are included in
the data presented.  Water samples, taken at var-
ious depths from the surface down to 90 m, show
increase in Zn, Cu, and Pb at 10-20 and 20-30 m
depth; at 20-40 m levels, the concentrations of
these elements decrease strongly; the decrease is
less pronounced at still greater depths.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 55:15238, 1961)

192     Russell, R.D., and Farquhar, R.M.:  LEAD
        ISOTOPES IN GEOLOGY.  New York, Inter-
        science Publishers, 1960, 243 pp.
As stated in the preface, the prime object of the
monograph by the Canadian authors was to draw to-
gether the various ideas which they had earlier
expressed on the subject, and to present them as a
coherent statement.  The isotopes of common Pb is
the main concern and the dating of U and Th is
dealt with in less greater detail.  Included in the
book are a number of tables of useful functions
made with the cooperation of the Computation Centre,
University of Toronto, which are found invaluable
in carrying out calculations from measured Pb iso-
tope ratios.  Several hundred isotopic analyses of
common Pb are included in an appendix, some of
them derived from earlier literature, while others
represent Toronto analyses and are published here
for the 1st time.  (106 references.)

193     Uzumasa, Y., and Akaiwa, H. (Hokkaido
        Univ., Sapporo, Japan):  (CHEMICAL IN-
        VESTIGATIONS OF HOT SPRINGS IN JAPAN. LV.
        HOT SPRINGS OF NARUGO, MIYAGI PREFECTURE.)
        Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 81:567-70, 1960.
Studies on 6 hot springs showed that Pb and Mn
were among the elements found mostly in waters
with low pH.  (From Chemical Abstracts 55:3882,
1961)

194     Yakushevskaya, I.V. (State Univ., Moscow,
        USSR):  (THE TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEVERAL
        SOILS OF OPOL'YA.) Pochvovedenie 1960, No.
        6:92-6.
The soil samples contained, among other elements,
700-1700 mg Mn and 19-24 mg Pb/kg soil.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 54:21577, 1960)

                    1961

195     Balks, R. (J.-Koenig~Inst., Munster/Westf.,
        Germany):  (LEAD CONTENT OF SOIL.)  Kali-
        Brief e, Fachgeb. 1, No. 11:1-7, 1161.
Analysis of 70 soil samples from Westfalen-Lippe
showed on crop land an average Pb content of 29.5
mg/kg.  The average Pb content in soils of grass-
land was 33.7 mg/kg.  A relation of clay content
to Pb content was observed.  Due to a former
mining of Pb ore near the village of Boenkhausen
the soils of a small-brook area contained >0.5%
Pb and caused toxic symptoms in livestock.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 57:1295, 1962)

19$     Belvakova, E.E.:  (LAWS GOVERNING THE WA-
        TER MIGRATION OF COPPER, LEAD, AND ZINC
        AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN PROSPECTING.)
        Sovet. Geol. 1961, No. 1:98-108.
Data on the distribution of Cu, Pb, and Zn in min-
eral waters of different metallogenic zones are
given.  The concentration of Pb is lowered in
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                31

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 neutral and  weakly alkaline waters.   The role  of
 sorption in  the water migration of the three ele-
 ments  is discussed.  (From Chemical  Abstracts  55:
 15239,  1961)

 197     Durum, W.H., and Haffty, J.:  OCCURRENCE
        OF MINOR ELEMENTS IN WATER.  U.S. Geologi-
        cal Survey, Circular No. 445, 1961, 11 pp.
A composite is presented of 3 studies with the use
of separate spectrographic methods for the deter-
mination of minor elements in natural water.  The
mechanics of each of the methods are briefly des-
cribed.  The major study updates basic information
in Clarke's "Data of Geochemistry," and provides
current data on rates of continental chemical
losses to the oceans.  In this study, water samples
obtained from the lower reaches just above the tide
of selected  rivers  were  quantitatively analyzed
for a variety of the most frequently tound minor
metals:  Sr,  Ba, Li, Rb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, B, Ti,
Mo, Mn, and V.  The 2nd study relates to the pres-
ence of Sr.
  Pb ranges in ug/1 for locations along the select-
ed rivers in the US and Canada were:  Apalachicola
River, State Highway 20, near Blounstown, Fla.,
2.1-6.2; Atchafalaya River, railroad bridge, US
Highway 190,  Krotz Springs, La., 1.1-11; Colorado
River, bridge, US Highway 80, Yuma, Ariz., <8.0-
16; Columbia River below the Dulles Dam, ^3 mi
above The Dalles, Ore., 1.2-5; Hudson River at Ford
Motor Co. power plant at Green Island, N.Y., 2.9-
11; Mississippi River, above bridge on US Highway
190 near Baton Rouge, La., 4.0-9.4; Mobile River,
Mount Vernon Landing, Ala., 1.2-15; Sacramento
River, tower bridge on Capital St., Sacramento,
Calif., 0-4.5; Susquehanna River, at hydroelectric
plant spillway, Conowingo, Md., 1.1-7.2; Yukon
River, Mountain Village, Alaska, 1.5-8.6; Churchill
River, east of island off Drachm Point, 8 mi south
of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, 2.5-4.3; Fraser
River, Mission City, British Columbia, Canada,
<0.62-3.9; MacKenzie River, ^3 mi upstream from
separation, at Arctic Red River, Northwest Terri-
tory, Canada, 2.9-7.6; Nelson River, near Amery,
Manitoba, Canada, upstream at Kelsey powersite,
0-22; St. Lawrence River, water works plant, Levis,
Quebec, Canada, 3.2-55.

198     Fillpovic,  Z., Stankovic, B., and Dusic,
        Z. (Univ. Belgrade, Yugoslavia):   DISTRI-
        BUTION OF Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, AND Co IN SOIL
        IN RELATION TO SOIL pH CHANGES.  Soil Sci-
        ence  91:147-50 (Feb.), 1961.
Polarographic analyses of certain Yugoslavian sur-
face soils (0-4 in) and subsoils (4-12 in) for  Cu,
Pb, Zn, Ni, and Co  (colorimetrically) were made
along with pH values.  Pb was evenly distributed
throughout the samples, the surface soil being
richer in Pb  than the subsoil.  AS Pb content de-
creased, pH increased.  Changes in trace element
content were also accompanied by corresponding
changes in pH values.  Further research is sug-
gested.  The Pb analyses were on samples from
Trepca and Ajvalija, the 1st being near a Pb mine.
In 3 samples from Trepca surface soil Pb content
was 516, 500, and 452 ppm with pH of 6.75, 6.91,
and 6.91, respectively; in subsoil, 126, 84, and
133, with pH 6.65,  6.65, and 6.75.  Ajvalija top-
soil, 24 and 82 with pH 6.05 and 6.10; subsoil,
                 10  and  17  with  pH  5.85  and  5.50.
                 199      Helliwell, T.M. (California Inst. Tech.,
                         Pasadena):  OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS OF LEAD
                         AND THE LEAD ABUNDANCE IN THE SUN.
                         Astrophys. J. 133:566-71 (Mar.), 1961.
                 The oscillator  strengths of  4 transitions in neu-
                 tral Pb were calculated and  compared with recent
                 experimental results.   The method of calculation
                 is described.   These values  are used to  investi-
                 gate the problem of  Pb  abundance in the  sun, which
                 is compared with the abundance predicted by the
                 theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.   (From Nuclear
                 Science Abstracts 15: Abstr. No.  16272,  1961)

                 200     Horiguchi, S. :   LEAD CONTENT OF  FOODS:  A
                         REVIEW.   Rodo no Kagaku 14, No.  10:665-71,
                         1959.   In Contributions from the Depart-
                         ment of Preventive Medicine and  Public
                         Health,  Osaka City University Medical
                         School,  Vol. 2, April 1959-March 1961, p.
                         57.

                 201      Kulik,  A.A., and Barabash,  T.P.:  (CON-
                         TENT OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN GORNYI ALTAI
                         APPLES.)  Tr. 1-oi  (Pervoi)  Vses. Konf. po
                         Biol. Aktivnym  Veshchestvam Plodov i Ya-
                         god, Sverdlovsk 1961:119-24.
                 Pb was found in 2 of 7  varieties  of upper foot-
                 hill apples; traces  of  Pb  were present in 38 of
                 140 varieties of lower  foothill apples.   (From
                 Chemical Abstracts 59:6725,  1963)

                 202      Legatowa,  B.:   (TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM
                         LEAD-TIN PACKAGES  USED IN THE COSMETIC
                         INDUSTRY.)  Rocznikl Panstwowego Zakladu
                         Hig. 12:329-38,  1961.
                 Tin plate prevents the  migration  of metals to
                 acidic and highly  basic cosmetics by stabilizing
                 the Pb cathode.   Tin plating has  to be accurate;
                 otherwise microbatteries are formed,  and deep  cor-
                 rosion of Pb occurs  resulting in  large amounts of
                 Pb dissolving in  the cosmetic.   (From Chemical Ab-
                 stracts 55:27784,  1961)

                 203      Novikova,  E.P.  (Med. Inst.,  Lvov,  USSR):
                         (TRACE  ELEMENTS IN THE DRINKING  WATER  OF
                         THE LVOV  DISTRICT  AND ENDEMIC GOITER.)
                         Gigiena  i  Sanit. 29, No.  9:80-2, 1961.
                 Pb,  Al,  Fe,  and Mn  were present  in about equal
                 concentrations  in  regions  of endemic goiter  and in
                 those  without it.   (From Chemical Abstracts  56:
                 7059,  1962)

                 204      Rama, K.M.,  and  Goldberg, E.D. (Univ.
                         California,  La  Jolla):  LEAD-210 IN  NATUR-
                         AL WATERS.   Science  134:98-9  (July 14),
                         1961.
                 The  distribution  of  210pb, which  enters  the  oceans
                 subsequent to its  production in the  atmosphere by
                 222Rn  decay, shows an increase with depth in
                 sea water.   By use of a simplified  two-layer model
                 of the ocean, a  residence  time of Pb  in  the  upper
                 mixed  layer of  <2  yr is derived.  It  is  suggested
                 that the marine  biosphere  is responsible for the
                 conveyance of Pb  from surface to  deeper  waters.
                 The distribution  of  21°Pb  in the  Colorado River
                 indicated rapid removal  along the path from  its
32
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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origin in  the feed waters to the reservoir at  Lake
Mead.  (authors' summary)

205     Rankine, B.C.  (Australian Wine Res.  lust.,
        Adelaide):  LEAD CONTENT OF AUSTRALIAN
        BRANDIES.  Journal of the Science of Food
        and Agriculture 12:194-6, 1961.
Analysis of 37 Australian brandies revealed 0.01-
0.06 ppm Pb, mean 0.029 ppm.  One sample contained
0.25 ppm.  No correlation was found between the Pb
content and the age, type of still, or total acidi-
ty.  The significance  of the results, in view  of
the proposed British limit of 0.5 ppm,is discussed.

206     Stebbins, A.K., III.:   SECOND SPECIAL  RE-
        PORT ON THE HIGH ALTITUDE SAMPLING PRO-
        GRAM (HASP).   Technical Analysis Report.
        US Atomic Energy Commission Document No.
        DASA-539B, 1961, 243 pp.
Progress is reported in the High Altitude Sampling
Program (HASP).  A study of natural radionuclides
in the stratosphere is included.  This assisted in
measurement of stratospheric processes.  Elements
studied include l^C, 3n, 210Pb) ?Be, and 32p.  7ge
and 32p concentrations in the stratosphere were
about that expected from cosmic ray production.
210pt in the stratosphere may partially result from
equatorial bomb tests.  Comments are presented on
surface fallout measurements which corroborate the
HASP measurements.  Seasonal and latitudinal ef-
fects were noted.  Contributions of French tests
were calculated.  Hazard of radioactive fallout was
assessed by nuclide and dose type.  The 30 yr  ge-
netic or whole body dose in the US from 1-^'Cs  and
elements of shorter 1/2 life is shown to be  <100
mrem or <3% of the natural background.  Lifetime,
70 yr, somatic bone dose to children in the US, is
shown to be ^200 mrem  of which  1/2 is from 90Sr.
This is <2% of the population MPD.  U-2 operational
scenes, constants and  conversion factors, and  a
summary of nuclear detonations  are included.   (From
Nuclear Science Abstracts 15:Abstr. No. 3279, 1961)

207     Tew,  R.P.,  Sillibourne,  J.M.,  and Silva-Fer-
       nandes,  A.M.  (East  Mailing Res.  Sta., Kent,
        England):   PESTICIDE RESIDUES  ON FRUIT.  V.
        HARVEST RESIDUES OF CODLING MOTH INSECTI-
        CIDES ON APPLES.   Journal  of the Science of
        Food  and Agriculture 12:666-74,  1961.
Persistence and harvest residues of various insecti-
cides  used to control  codling moth on  apples  were
examined.   Pb arsenate left undesirable residues
under  some conditions  of application.   Since  the
ratio  of  Pb to  As in PbHAs04 is 2.77:1,  but higher
ratios are found when  aged  residues are analyzed,
Pb constitutes  as serious a health hazard as  As,
and for this  reason the authors suggest the need
for limits.

208     Tugarinov, A.I., and Zykov, S.I.:  (LEAD
        ISOTOPES IN ORE DEPOSITS OF THE CAUCASUS
        AND CENTRAL ASIA.)  Byull.  Komissii po
        Opredelen. Absolyut. Vozrasta Geol. For-
        matsii, Akad.   Nauk SSSR, Otdel. Geol.-
        Geograf. Nauk  1961, No. 4:66-76.
The isotopic composition of Pb was determined  in
Pb deposits of Central Asia in mineralizations of
Variscan and Alpian ages.  Pb from the Alpian  de-
posits has a very variable isotopic composition.
(From Chemical Abstracts 56:208, 1962)

209     Udodov, P.A., and Parilov, Yu.S.  (Poly-
        tech. Inst., Tomsk, Russia):   (SOME REG-
        ULARITIES IN THE MIGRATION OF METALS IN
        NATURAL WATERS.) Geokhimiya 1961:703-7.
A hydrogeochemical study was conducted in 15 re-
gions in Siberia from which waters were analyzed
for their ore components.  Pb was grouped with
those metals which migrate in natural waters.
(From Chemical Abstracts 57:8357, 1962)

210     Uzumasa, Y., and Akaiwa, H. (Hokkaido Univ.,
        Sapporo, Japan):  (CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS
        OF HOT SPRINGS IN JAPAN.  LX. MINOR METAL-
        LIC CONSTITUENTS OF HOT-SPRING WATERS.)
        Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 82:834-7, 1961.
In 72 water samples of hot springs, Pb showed a
positive correlation with pH and sulfate and a
negative correlation with hydrogen sulfate and
C1-.   (From Chemical Abstracts 56:4531, 1962)
                      1962

211      Buraeva, M.I.:   (SALT COMPOSITION OF DRINK-
        ING WATER FROM VARIOUS SOURCES IN THE ALEK-
        SANDRO-ZAVODSK AND BALEI AREA OF THE CHITA
        REGION.)  Voprosy Gigieny v Vostochnoi
        Zabaikal'e, Chita, Sbornik 1962:67-9.
Subsurface waters from drill holes and mine shafts
in the Aleksandro-Zavodsk area had a low content of
Pb while water from other sources had elevated  con-
centrations.  In the  Bale! area, water from springs
and mine shafts was of good quality, but that from
drilling and deep wells was not, because of high
Pb and As contents.   (From Ref. Zh., Geol. 1964:
Abstr. No. 6E51; Chemical Abstracts 61:11748, 1964)

212      Cannon, H.L., and Bowles, J.M.   (US Geo-
        logical Survey,  Denver, Colo.):  CONTAMI-
        NATION OF VEGETATION BY TETRAETHYL LEAD.
        Science 137:765-6 (Sept. 7), 1962.
The Pb content of vegetation growing along the
highways was determined in 3 areas:  Denver, Colo.,
Canandaigua, N.Y., and Washington County, Md.   In
the Denver area, plant ash contained 100-700 ppm Pb
in samples collected within 5 ft of the highway,
and <5-50 ppm in samples collected 500-1000 ft  from
the highway.  Grass collected at an intersection
which carries a heavy volume of traffic contained
3000 ppm Pb.  Effect of wind direction on Pb con-
tent of vegetation was shown in samples collected
along a highway which has a traffic volume of 4300
cars/day; grass that contained >50 ppm extended
100 ft east from the highway but for only 10 ft to
the west against the prevailing winds.  Analysis of
homegrown vegetables in Canandaigua, N.Y., collect-
ed <50 ft from the street showed <10-700 ppm Pb (av
115) in contrast to an expected value of <5-20  ppm
Pb.   Soil samples averaged 515 ppm Pb.  A similar
relationship was found in Washington County, Md.
Samples collected within 25 ft of any road con-
tained 80 ppm Pb (av), but samples collected >500
ft from a road contained only 20 ppm Pb (av).

213      De Jager, C., and Neven, L. (Observatory,
        Utrecht, Netherlands):  THE ABUNDANCE OF
        LEAD IN THE SUN.  Bull. Astron. Inst.
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                33

-------
        Neth. 16:307-11, 1962.
On dry days at the Jungfraujoch Observatory, when
the amount of water in the atmosphere was very low,
a faint line was observed in the sun's spectrum
at 7229.036 A, which is in good agreement with
the wavelength of a Pb line at 7229.008 A.  From
an equivalent width of 0.26 mA, measured for the
solar line, a value of 1.4 x 10~H relative to H
was derived for the abundance of Pb in the sun,
in good agreement with the terrestrial abundance.
(From Chemical Abstracts 58:10857, 1963)

214      Fijinaga, T., Morii, F. , and Kanchiku, Y.
        (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):   (CHEMICAL STUDIES
        ON THE OCEAN.  XC.  CHEMICAL STUDIES ON  -
        SEAWEEDS 15.  SIMULTANEOUS POLAROGRAPHIC
        DETERMINATION OF ZINC,  COPPER, AND LEAD
        IN SEAWEEDS.)  Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 83:
        1033-5, 1962.
A sample of seaweed was decomposed by nitric acid
and perchloric acid.  Zn, Cu, and Pb were extract-
ed with dithizone in carbon tetrachloride at pH
9.0 in the presence of citrate; the ions were
back extracted into 6N HCL.  Polarographic deter-
mination was made in 2 different supporting elec-
trolytes;  0.1M ammonium acetate + 0.025M KSCN
+ 0.1% gelatin and 0.5M ammonium acetate + 0.1M
tartaric acid +0.1% gelatin.  Five samples of
Eisenia bicyclis contain Zn 109-127, Cu 11-24,
Pb 7-16 Ug/g °f sample dried at 105°.   (From
Chemical Abstracts 58:14442, 1963)

215      Grant, C.L., and Pramer, D. (Rutgers
        Univ., New Brunswick, N.J.):  MINOR-ELE-
        MENT COMPOSITION OF YEAST EXTRACT.  Jour-
        nal of Bacteriology 84, No. 4:869-70,
        1962.
The ash of yeast extract showed on analysis 6.8
ug Pb/g of dry weight.

216      Kee, N.S., and Bloomfield, C. (Rothemsted
        Expt. Sta., Harpenden, England):  THE EF-
        FECT OF FLOODING AND AERATION ON THE MOBIL-
        ITY OF CERTAIN TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOILS.
        Plant and Soil 16, No. 1:108-35, 1962.
Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, V, and Mo were mobilized when
soils were flooded and incubated anaerobically with
plant material.  Chrotnite was unreactive under
these conditions, but Cr was mobilized in a soil
of normal composition.  Among  the  reactions de-
scribed,  flooding  and redrying  increased  the  ex-
tractability of Fe and  trace metals; Pb was immo-
bilized to a certain extent with respect  to water
and neutral  ammonium acetate, probably because Pb
carbonate was  formed.   In  general,  reoxidation
decreased  the  amount of material extractable  by
water, but this decrease was  partly offset by
corresponding  increases  in  the  acetate  fractions.
 (From authors'  summary;  23  references)

217      Los, L.I., and Pyatnitskaya, L.K. (Div.
        Public Hyg., Saratov Med. Inst., USSR):
        Soderzhanie medi, margantsa, molibdena,
        nikelya i svintsa v nekotorykh pishchevykh
        produktakh rastitel'nogo proiskhozhdeniya
        saratovskoi oblasti.  (CONTENT OF COPPER,
        MANGANESE, MOLYBDENUM, NICKEL AND LEAD IN
        SOME FOOD PRODUCTS OF PLANT ORIGIN IN THE
        SARATOV REGION.)  Voprosy Pitaniia 21:82-
                        3 (Nov.-Dec.), 1962.
                The spectrographic method was used for the deter-
                mination of the title elements in food products
                collected in 1960.  The Pb contents were as fol-
                lows:  white cabbage  (not determined); rye, 0.012,
                wheat, 0.011, and potatoes, 0.039 mg%.

                218     Lllthi, H. (Swiss Exptl. Station, WHden-
                        swil):  Toleranzen fUr Schwermetalle in
                        FruchtsHften. (Empfehlungen der Inter-
                        nationalen Fruchtsaftunion.)  (TOLERANCES
                        FOR HEAVY METALS IN FRUIT JUICES.  RECOM-
                        MENDATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL FRUIT
                        JUICE UNION.) Schweizerische  Zeitschrift
                        fUr Obst- und Weinbau 71:412-15, 445-8;
                        FlUssiges Obst. 29, No. 10, X:ll-4, 1962.
                The metal content of  processed fruit juices and
                the necessity of establishing tolerance limits is
                discussed.  The metals considered here are Cu, Pb,
                and Zn.  On the basis of the literature, the daily
                ingestion of 0.7-1 mg Pb may have toxic effects on
                man.
                   For reasons of comparison, the content of these
                metals in some Swiss  drinking water supplies is
                listed.  In the case  of Pb, it ranged from 0.001-
                0.081 mg Pb/1; stagnant tap water may contain as
                much as 0.26 mg Pb/1.  Apples contain 0.01-0.16 mg
                Pb/kg, grapes 0.01-1.22; commercial apple and
                grape juice, 0-0.3  (av 0.06) and 0.1-1.22 (av 0.5)
                mg Pb/1, respectively.  Considering the fact that
                fruit juices are consumed for health and dietetic
                purposes, their Pb content should not exceed 0.5
                mg/1.  (25 references)

                219     Lyubofeev, V.N., Balitskii, V.S., and
                        Cherkasov, M.I.:   (A BIOGEOCHEMICAL METH-
                        OD.)  Tr. po  Geol. i Polezn. Iskopaemym
                        Sev. Kavkaza  1962, No. 2:281-7.
                Experimental biogeochemical investigations were
                conducted in areas  of known polymetallic deposits
                in the mountainous  forested part of the northwest
                Caucasus.  Biogeochemical samples were taken at
                intervals of 20-30 m  along profiles 50-70 m from
                each other and transverse  to the strike of silica-
                sulfide veins and zones.  Two  to 5 varieties were
                selected at each point to get  typical indicator
                plants.  Most of  the  samples were eastern beech
                and Caucasian fir.  A slab of bark 5 x 10 cm was
                cut from these trees  (tree diameter 0.4-1.0 m)
                1.5m above the  thick end; the sample weight was
                200 g.  The samples were burned in the field in
                a  closed container, and then reduced to ash in
                muffle ovens in  the laboratory and analyzed spec-
                trally.  Pb and  Cu were much better assimilated
                by the trees  than Zn.  Fir, pine, and ferns were
                the best accumulators of Pb.  A chart of Pb and Zn
                distribution was  constructed from these results;
                on this chart a  metal content  in plants 50-100
                times greater  than  the background concentrations
                indicates the presence of mineralization.  Because
                of the high sensitivity of  the method, small as
                well as large ore streaks  can be located.  This
                biochemical method  can be used successfully for
                prospecting for  polymetallic ore shows in wooded
                areas with deep  porous deposits, where metallo-
                metry  does not give  the required effect.   (From
                Ref. Zh., Geofiz. 1963, Abstr. No. 7D42; Chemical
                Abstracts 60:7805,  1964)
 34
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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220     Michelson, I., Thompson, J.C., Jr., Hess,
        B.W. , and Comar, C.L.  (Consumers Union of
        U.S., Mt. Vernon, N.Y.):  RADIOACTIVITY IN
        TOTAL DIET. Journal of Nutrition 78:371-83
        (Dec.), 1962.
Exposure of  the human population to radiation from
nuclear debris occurs predominantly from ingestion
of radionuclides in food and water.  Total diet
samples collected in 1961 from 10 to 25 major ci-
ties in the  United States were analyzed for radio-
nuclides (90Sr> 137Cr> 144Ce> 239pu> 65Zn)( for
natural radioactivity (226^a> 210p|,j 4°K) and for
the stable nuclides of Ca and K.  Average daily
intakes of 210pb were found as 4yyCi.

221     Mirchev, Sv.:  (CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF
        THE  SOILS OF SMOLYAN HEMATURIAL REGION.)
        Izv. Nauchnoizsled. Inst. Pochv. Agrotekhn.
        "Nikola Pushkarov," Akad. Selskostopansk.
        Nauki Bulgar. 4:229-37, 1962.
The soils in this region are acidic and poor in
the assimilated forms of N and P and available
forms of K and Mg.  Content of Pb was 23.3-42.2;
Co, 1.6-3.3; and Mo, 0.07-0.21 mg/kg.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 60:1059, 1964)

222     Paces, T. (Central Geolog. Inst., Prague,
        Czechoslovakia):  (A CONTRIBUTION TO THE
        GEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF MINERAL WATERS AT
        KARLOVY VARY (WEST BOHEMIA.))  Casopis
        Mineral. Geol. 7:418-27, 1962.
Pb among other trace elements was detected spec-
trographically in the granite waters of the Kar-
lovy Vary mineral springs.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 58:2267, 1963)

223     Polevaya, N.I., and Panteleev, A.I.: (POS-
        SIBILITY OF USING THE LEAD ISOTOPIC METHOD
        FOR DETERMINING THE AGE OF GLAUCONITE.)
        Inform. Sb., Vses. Nauchn.-Issled. Geol.
        Inst. 1962, No. 54:31-6.
The absolute age of a glauconite was determined by
using the Pb isotope method.   The Pb separated
from the glauconite consisted of 1.4% ^*Pb,
25.81% 206Pb, 21.07% 207Pb and 51.72% 208Pb.  Po-
larographic determination of Pb showed that heating
glauconite for 3 hr at 950° resulted in the sepa-
ration of only 60% of the Pb present.  206Pb,
207Pb and 208Pb which accumulate in the mineral
during its existence were calculated.  Corrections
for the presence of the radiogenic Pb affected
noticeably the ages determined from the
204
                                        206
'Pb/
  4Pb ratio, ie, 475 compared to 300 million yr
without correction.  Further development of the
method is suggested.  (From Chemical Abstracts 64:
6346, 1966)

224      Porutskii, G.V., Golovchenko, V.P., and
        Cherednichenko,  S.V.:  (CONTENT OF TRACE
        ELEMENTS IN VARIOUS PLANT ORGANS.)  Dokl.
        Akad. Nauk SSSR 146:1223-6, 1962.
Examination of trace element content (Fe, Sr, Ti,
Cu,  Ni, V, Co, Cr, Pb,  Be, Mo, and Sn) in leaves
and roots of typical plants (apple tree, pear
tree, potato, cotton, and ragweed) showed that the
greatest amount of these elements may be located
in the plastids; much smaller amounts are in the
fluid proper.  Appreciable differences in reten-
tion of the various metals by plants of different
species were noted  and  tabulated.   (From Chemical
Abstracts 58:2652,  1963)

225     Radmic, S., and Maksimovic, M.  (Univ.
        Belgrade, Yugoslavia):   (QUANTITATIVE DE-
        TERMINATION OF ARSENIC,  LEAD AND METHANOL
        IN WINES.) Arhiv Farm.  (Belgrade) 12, No.
        3:163-9, 1962.
The Pb content of 22 Yugoslav wines of  different
origin was 0.0-0.120 ug/1.  The  presence of Pb is
attributed to the insecticides  used on  the grapes.
(From Chemical Abstracts 58:10692, 1963)

226     Sanz Pedrero, P., and Fernandez  de Valder-
        rama, E. (Univ. Madrid,  Spain):   (POLARO-
        GRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF THE LEAD CONTENT
        OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES.) Anales  Bromatol.
        (Madrid) 14, No. 1:9-24, 1962.
Pb was determined in the contents of metal-topped
siphon and ordinary bottles.  With 27 siphon bot-
tles, only 5 had  <3 ppm.  The  lowest levels ap-
peared in 3 ordinary bottles  (0.04, 0.07, and 0.65
ppm).  The various polarographic methods for the
determination of traces of Pb in carbonated bev-
erages were reviewed.   (From Chemical Abstracts
58:877, 1963)

227     SillanpHM, M. (Helsinki, Finland):   ON
        THE EFFECT OF SOME SOIL  FACTORS  ON THE
        SOLUBILITY OF TRACE ELEMENTS.  Maatalouden
        Tutkimuskeskus Maantutkimuslaitos, Agrogeo-
        logisia Julkaisuja No. 81, 1962,  24 pp.
The effects of the total amounts, soil pH, tex-
ture, organic matter content and C/N ratio on the
amounts of acid ammonium acetate-soluble  Co, Cu,
Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in 217 Finnish soils were stud-
ied by means of multiple regressions.  The total
contents of trace elements (kg/ha) generally de-
creased in the order Mn>Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Co.

228     SillanpHH, M. (Agr. Res. Center, Helsinki,
        Finland) :   TRACE ELEMENTS IN FINNISH
        SOILS AS RELATED TO SOIL TEXTURE AND OR-
        GANIC MATTER CONTENT.  Maataloustieteel-
        linen Aikakauskirja 34, No. 1:34-40, 1962.
A  study was conducted to evaluate the relation of
the total content of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn to
soil texture and organic matter  content.  Single
and multiple regressions were calculated  for both
variables.  When the regression  and correlation
coefficients were compared, it was found  that in
contrast to the other metals tested neither the
texture nor the organic matter content of the soil
have any significant effect on the amount of Pb.

229     Suetin, Y.P.:   (METAL CONTENT OF NATURAL
        WATERS IN THE HIGH-FOOTHILL ZONE ON THE
        NORTH SLOPE OF THE ALAI  RANGE.)  Kirgiz
        SSR. Upravlenie Geologii i Okhrany Nedr.
        Trudy (Soviet Ministerstvo) Sb.  1962, No.
        2:93-6.
More than 20 ore elements, among them Pb, were
found in varying quantities in natural waters of
the high-foothill zone on the north slope of the
Alai Ridge.  (From Chemical Abstracts 60:299,
1964)

230     Sveshnikov, G.B., and Shen, C.-L.:  (HY-
        DROCHEMICAL SURVEY IN THE IRTYSH ORE PROV-
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                           35

-------
        INCE.)  Uch. Zap. Leningr. Cos. Univ. No.
        303, Ser. Fiz. i Geol. Nauk 1962, No. 13:
        301-19.
Content of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and that of Ca, Mg,
Na + K, S04, Cl, HC03, and pH were determined in
surface, subsurface, and soil waters.  The results
are given in numerous tables, hydrochemical maps,
and profiles.  The normal background for Cu, Pb,
Zn was determined as (av for 1957-58) 4, 4, and
20 !Jg/l, respectively,by statistical processing
of chemical analyses of water.  The background
content of Cu,_ Pb, and Zn is a subject of yearly
variation and depends on climatic changes.  In
addition to Cu, Pb, and Zn the samples of some
waters contained As, Sn, Bi, Mo, Ni, and Ag.  Ag
and Mo are good indicators of a possible presence
of polymetallic deposits.  The hydrochemical anom-
alies were observed in every area containing known
ore deposits.  (From Chemical Abstracts 60:13011,
1964)

231      Tyurina, G.I., and Shchibrik, V.I.:  (A
        BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A SECTION OF A
        POLYMETALLIC DEPOSIT IN CENTRAL KAZAKH-
        STAN. ) Tr. Tsentr.-Kazakhstansk. Geol.
        Upr., Min. Geol. i Okhrany Nedr. Kaz. SSR
        1962, No. 2:44-8.
Pb concentrates in leaves and stems of plants
growing over the ore bodies.  Pb content in plants
is greater in summer than in fall.  (From Chemical
Abstracts 58:1250, 1963)

232      Vinogradova, Z.A., and Kovaljskii, V.V.:
        (ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF THE BLACK SEA
        PLANKTON.) Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 147:1458-
        60, 1962.
Pb in a concentration of 0.2-0.3 x 10~2% is among
a considerable number of elements found in
Chaetoceras curvisetus.  Some copepods  (Calanus
helgolandicus, Anomalocera and Pontella) contain
Pb,  among other elements, in large amounts.
(From Chemical Abstracts 58:14441, 1963)

233      White, W.H., and Northcote, K.E. (Univ.
        Brit. Columbia, Vancouver, Can.):  DISTRI-
        BUTION OF METALS IN A MODERN MARINE EN-
        VIRONMENT. Economic Geology 57, No. 3:405-
        9, 1962.
The purpose of the investigation was to determine
whether base metals, Fe, and S are being concen-
trated preferentially in near-shore marine sedi-
ments, and whether their distribution patterns are
random or explainable in terms of environment.
Analysis of samples of sediments of the tidal
flats at Mud Bay, at the eastern end of Boundary
Bay, British Columbia, taken at high tides led to
the conclusion that generally metals tend to ac-
cumulate preferentially in fine-grained sediment.
In the case of Pb, no preferential concentration
could be detected; the concentrations found were
very low, usually 1 or 2 ppm.

234      Zyka, V.:  (CONTRIBUTION TO THE GEOCHEMIS-
        TRY OF BOHEMIAN RIVER WATERS.)  Sb. Geol.
        Ved, Technol. Geochemie 1962, No. 1:75-
        137.
Most waters in Bohemian  (Czech) rivers are of mix-
ed or intermediate type  (CaHC03, CaSO^, MgHC03,
MgSO,, NaHC03, and NaS04).  Their mineral content
                varies  from  several  to  9394  (mostly  ^500) mg/1.
                The  average  of  170 waters  is  a  CaCO-j type with a
                concentration of  165.5  mg/1.  This is  higher  than
                the  average  of  USSR  waters  (123.0 mg/1).  On  the
                average,  Bohemian river waters  contain Fe 1.2,
                Mn 0.255,  Cu 0.012,  Zn  0.094, Pb 0.035,  Cr  0.083,
                Ni 0.018,  and Sb  0.090  mg/1.  Spectral analysis
                detected  various  amounts of  additional 35 elements.
                The  biggest  Bohemian river,  the Labe (Elbe),  car-
                ries from Czechoslovakia 2.1  x  10" tons  of  various
                salts,  among them Fe 6.842,  Mn  2.531,  Zn 547, Cu
                136, and  Pb  136 tons/yr.   (21 references)   (From
                Chemical  Abstracts 59:310,  1963)

                                        1963

                235     Abernethy, R.F., and  Gibson,  F.H.:  RARE
                        ELEMENTS  IN  COAL.  U.S. Bureau of Mines,
                        Information  Circular  8163, 1963, 69 pp.
                Published  information since  1944 on  the  occurrence
                of rare elements  in  coal is  summarized.   (This re-
                view is based on  114 references on rare  and minor
                elements,  114 on  germanium and  gallium,  and 82 on
                U.)   The  following data are  given for the occur-
                rence of  Pb  in  ash  (%):  United States 0.01-0.13;
                Nova Scotia  0.0572  (av); England 0.02-0.08; Germany
                3.1  maximum. PbS  was found associated with  certain
                Missouri  coals.   Nineteen  out of 20  pyrite  samples
                contained  0.0001-0.0461% Pb  which demonstrates that
                atmospheric  dust  from coke works carries enough Pb
                compounds  to contaminate the  neighboring pastures.

                236     Andriescu,  E.,  Ancusa,  M., Telegut, M.,
                        Roscovanu, A.,  and Cutui, M. :  TRACE  ELE-
                        MENT CONCENTRATION IN THE  SECASENI  AREA
                         (BANAT) WATER SUPPLIES.  International  Sym-
                        posium  on Endemic  Nephropathy, Sofia  1963:
                        196-7.
                Preliminary  studies  of  the concentrations of  Cu,
                Zn,  Pb, B and Ni  and the ethiopathogeny of  endem-
                ic nephritis were inconclusive.  (From Chemical
                Abstracts 65:14126,  1966)

                237     Dobrovol'skii,  V.V.:  (DISTRIBUTION OF
                        TRACE ELEMENTS  BETWEEN  THE SOIL-FORMING
                        GROUND  LAYER, SOIL, AND VEGETATION UNDER
                        CONDITIONS OF THE MOSCOW REGION.)   Nauchn.
                        Dokl. Vysshei Shkoly, Biol.  Nauki 1963,
                        No.  3:193-8.
                By spectral  analysis the contents of Ti, Mn,  Cu,
                Pb,  Zn, Ni,  Co, Mo,  Ag, Sn, V,  Zr, Ga, Sr,  and Ba
                in the  soil-forming  ground  layers (fluvoglacial
                (a)  and alluvial  (b)  sands),  in the  genetic hori-
                zons Ag -  D  of  a  soddy  podzol,  and in the ash of
                the  covering vegetation (herbs, grasses,  conifer-
                ous  needles  and bark, and  green mosses)  were  de-
                termined.  Among  the findings,  the Pb and Zn  con-
                centrations  rise  in  the illuvial and humus  hori-
                zons.  Mn, Zn,  Cu, Pb,  Sn, Mo,  and Ag have  a  coef-
                ficient of biological accumulation  (CBA)  >1,  cal-
                culated from the  grassy vegetation as well  as from
                the  coniferous  needles.  (From  Chemical Abstracts
                 60:1064,  1964)

                238     Durum,  W.H., and Haffty, J.  (US Geol.
                        Surv.,  Washington,  D.C.):  IMPLICATIONS OF
                        THE  MINOR ELEMENT  CONTENT OF SOME MAJOR
                        STREAMS OF THE  WORLD.  Geochimica et  Cos-
                        mochimica Acta  27:1-11, 1963.
36
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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Most  trace elements  in river waters have  concen-
tration  ranges SlOO  ug/1 and median values of  10
)Jg  or less.  Only Al, Fe, Mn, Ba,  and  Sr  range much
over  100 pg/1.  Atlantic Coast  river waters are
slightly enriched in Ag, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni,  Sr, and
Ti, and  slightly deficient  in Ba and Li as compar-
ed  with  median continental  values.  Gulf  Coast
rivers exceed continental values for Al,  Ba, Cu,
Fe, Li,  Rb,  and Ti;  Cr, Pb, and Sr are lower.  Pa-
cific Coast  rivers are slightly enriched  in Mo and
Pb  and deficient in  Cr, Rb, and Ti.  Al,  Ba, Cu,
Pb, Mo,  and  Ag in North American runoff are of the
same  order as the world average for ocean waters.
Hydrologic and geochemical  significance of the
data  are discussed.  (From  authors' summary; 16
references)

239       Fang, C.-L.,Sung, T.-C.,and Yen, B.:
         (TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE SOILS OF NORTH-EAST-
         ERN  CHINA AND EASTERN INNER MONGOLIA.)
         T'u  Jang Hsueh Pao  11, No. 2:130-42, 1963.
Spectrographic analyses of  360 soil samples from
111 profiles gave the following average contents
of  trace elements:   Mn 840, Ti 6500, Cu 22, B  46,
Cr  103,  Zn,  85, Mo 2.2, Co  23, Ni  51,  V 92, Sr 270,
Ba  570,  Pb 26, and Sn 6 ppm.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts  60:9048, 1964)

240      Hayakawa, T. (Natl. Bur. Inspection Fer-
         tilizers Feeds, Tokyo, Japan): (LEAD CON-
        TENT IN FISH MEAL.) Igaku To Seibutsugaku
         66, No.  4:207-9,  1963.
Pb  in  fish meal was  determined by  treating the
sample with nitric, perchloric or  sulfuric acid
and measuring Pb in  the dithizone-carbon tetra-
chloride extract colorimetrically or polarograph-
ically.  The average Pb content of 24  kinds of
fish meal tested was 0.306 ± 0.08 ug/g-   (From
Chemical Abstracts 63:12230, 1965)

241       Holman, R.H.C.:  REGIONAL  GEOCHEMICAL
         RECONNAISSANCE OF  STREAM SEDIMENTS IN  THE
         NORTHERN MAINLAND  OF NOVA  SCOTIA, CANADA.
         Canada, Department  of Mines  and Technical
         Surveys, Geological Survey of  Canada,  Pa-
        per 63-23:1-19, 1963.
Concentrations of Zn, Pb,  and Cu in Nova Scotia
stream sediments are not random, but fall into
regions  (low, medium, or high),  definite enough
to be used for geochemical mapping.  Mean concen-
trations of Zn (80)  and Pb  (18)  agree with Vino-
gradov's general crustal abundances,  but the Cu
concentration (7 ppm) is  much lower.

242      lordanov,  N., and Povlova,  M.:  (GEOCHEM-
        ISTRY OF LEAD IN SOILS.)  Izv. Inst.  po
        Obshcha i Neorgan.  Khim.,  Bulgar.  Akad.
        Nauk 1:5-14, 1963.
The forms of Pb in soils were determined as (1)
Pb as a part of absorbed complex,   (2) Pb in inde-
pendent minerals,  and (3)  Pb as inclusions in
soil minerals.   Experiments made with Ca humate
and kaolin (considered as representatives  of the
absorbing complexes) proved that Pb is retained
by the Ca humate and kaolin at pH 5,  and fully
liberated from them at pH 1.5.  A small part of
the Pb, evidently,  is in the form of pyromorphite.
Most of the Pb is included in the Fe and Al hy-
droxide minerals and in CaC03-  The content of Pb
 in  52  samples  of  soils  of  12  types  is  0.00n%.
 This is  2-3  times the Pb content  in the  Earth's
 crust.   The  maximum Pb  content  was  observed  in the
 upper  soil horizons,   (From Ref.  Zh.,  Geol.  1964,
 Abstr. No. 1V70;  Chemical  Abstracts 61:1655,  1964)

 243      Jaliu,  A.,  Spinu,  S., Dinu, I.,  and  Zucman,
         I. (Dept. Hyg.  Occup. Dis., Bucharest,
         Romania):  La pollution de  1'eau carbo-
         gazeuse par le  plomb.   (CONTAMINATION  OF
         CARBONATED WATER BY LEAD.)   In Union des
         Societes  de Sciences  Medicales,  Societe
         d'Hygiene:   Premier Congres National
         d'Hygiene et de Se'curiteT  du Travail.
         Rapports  et Resume's des Travaux  (First
         National  Congress  of  Industrial  Health.
         Abstracts of Papers.)   Bucharest,  1963,
         pp.  252-3.
 Ninety-two samples  of carbonated  mineral water
 were analyzed  for Pb.   The original tap  water  con-
 tained 26-67 ug Pb/1.   Seventeen  samples taken
 from the vessels  in which  the water was  mixed  with
 C02 contained  100-410 pg Pb/1;  16 samples of  the
 mineral  water  obtained  after  mixing contained  >100
 Pg/1;  36 samples  taken  out of metal bottles  in
 which  the water was distributed to  workers con-
 tained from  70-1108 pg/1,  while the Pb content of
 samples  collected out of bottles  that  had been
 tinned under supervision,  did not exceed 100  ug/1.

244       Kvashnevskaya,  N.V.,  and  Shablovskaya,
         E.I.:   (STUDY OF CONTENT  OF ORE  ELEMENTS
         IN SUSPENSIONS  OF A RIVER SYSTEM.)  Dokl.
         Akad. Nauk  SSSR 151, No.  2:426-9,  1963.
 Determination of  content of Mo, Pb, Cu,  Zn, As,
 Sb, Co,  Ni,  Cr, W,  Sn,  Hg, Mn,  Ga,  Ag, and TI in
 suspension in Caucasian and Central Asian  rivers
 showed a considerable amount  of these  elements.
 (From Chemical Abstracts 59:12506,  1963)

 245      Marchesini, D., Barbieri,  G.,  Milanese, G.,
         and  Rosso,  S. (Offie. Cevolani,  Bologna,
         Italy):   ((PHYSICAL) BEHAVIOR  OF ELECTRO-
         LYTIC-TIN CANS  SOLDERED WITH ALLOYS CON-
         TAINING VARIOUS AMOUNTS OF  LEAD.)  Mostra
         Int.  Ind. Conserve Aliment., Congr. 18:97-
         105,  1963.
 A series of  mechanical  tests, including  solubility
 tests, were  made  on tins soldered with alloys con-
 taining  varying amounts of  Pb.  The 8  Sn-Pb alloys
 used, were chosen in such a way as  to  explore the
 whole range  of possible compositions,  and  to in-
 clude alloys  commonly used by can manufacturers.
 Alloys consisting of Sn 37-Pb 63% and  Sn 2-Pb 98%
were not taken into consideration.  The  preferred
 alloy contains 98% Pb.   (From Chemical Abstracts
 71:Abstr. No. 115950, 1969)

246      Marshall, R.R., and Feitknecht,  J. (Natl.
        Aeron.  Space Admin.):   PRIMITIVE LEAD FROM
         IRON METEORITES. National Aeronautics and
         Space Administration Document  N63-15726,
         20 pp., 1963.
 The Odessa and Toluca Fe meteorites were shown to
 contain primeval Pb.  Pb from samples  of the
Odessa meteorite has unusually  large amounts of
 206Pb.   A sample  of the Pinon Ni-rich  ataxite,
within the limits of error, contained  no detect-
 able Pb.   Octahedrites  can contain  as much as 0.25
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                37

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ppm Pb.  (From Chemical Abstracts 60:9055, 1964)

247     Mavlyanov, G.A., and Mirzaeva, K.Kh.:
        (CONTENT OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE UZBEKI-
        STAN NATURAL WATERS.) Doklady Akademii
        Nauk Uzbekskoi S.S.R. 20, No. 6:40-2,  1963.
The Uzbekistan waters are characterized by an ele-
vated content of trace elements.  Their Pb content
was found to range from 0.0001 to 0.003%.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 59:13687, 1963).

248     Minami, E. (Univ. Tokyo, Japan):  HOKUTO-
        LITE OF TAMAGAWA HOT SPRINGS. Geochem.
        Tamagawa Hot Springs 1963:108-28.
Analyses of Hokutolites from various regions
showed a Pb oxide content ranging from 1.46-21.96%.
Radioactivity measurements indicated that they
contained more 206Pb and 208Pb and less 2(WPb and
   Pb than does commercial tetramethyllead.
Chemical Abstracts 64:9440, 1966)
249
                                             (From
        Petkevich, A.N., and Viller, G.E. :  (DIS-
        TRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS AT VARIOUS
        DEPTHS OF THE NOVOSIBIRSK RESERVOIR.)
        Razvitie Ozernom Rybnom Khozyaistve Sibiri,
        Novosibirsk, Sbornik 1963:163-8.
Semiquantitative spectral analysis of surface and
near-bottom waters of the Novosibirsk Reservoir
gave a Pb content of 0.00n%, based on the dry
residue.  (From Ref. Zh., Geol. 1964: Abstr. No.
7V229; Chemical Abstracts 61:11749, 1964)
250     Podkorytov, P.M.:  (CONTENT AND DISPERSION
        OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOILS OF THE POTAPOV
        EXPERIMENTAL FARM.)  Tr. Krasnoyarsk.
        Sel'skokhoz. Inst. 16:104-11, 1963.
Trace elements play an important role in the fer-
tility of soil.  The content and the dispersion
of Co, Zn, Ni, Mo, V, Pb, and Sn in various hori-
zons are given and discussed.   (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 62:14375, 1965)

251     Potter, P.E., Shimp, N.F., and Witters, J.
        (Illinois State Geol. Surv., Urbana):
        TRACE ELEMENTS IN MARINE AND FRESH-WATER
        ARGILLACEOUS SEDIMENTS.  Geochimica et
        Cosmochimica Acta 27:669-94, 1963.
The trace elements B, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ni, Pb, V,
and Zn were studied in 66 samples of both modern
and ancient marine and fresh-water argillaceous
sediments to determine their value as environmen-
tal discriminators.  Samples of each group were
widely scattered geographically and represented
widely varying source areas, climates, tectonic
conditions, and rates of sedimentation.  Concentra-
tions of Pb found in modern marine specimens
ranged from 8-32 ppm; of fresh-water, 8-83, or
averages of 20.8 and 21.2, respectively.  In the
ancient marine sediments, Pb ranged from 4-52 ppm;
in fresh water sediments, 7-24; av 13.3 and 12.7
ppm, respectively.   (51 references)

252     Pryakhin, A.I., Chekhovskikh, M.M., and
        Shchebunyaeva, I.A.:  (TRACE ELEMENTS IN
        SUBSURFACE WATERS OF THE UPPER AMUR RE-
        GION.)  Izv. Vysshikh Uchebn. Zavedenii,
        Geol. i Razvedka 6, No. 1:90-8, 1963.
Mn, Ti, Cu, Ag, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Ga, Sb, Zr,
and Sr are typical trace elements in subsurface
waters of the Upper Amur Region.  This variety of
trace elements is caused by presence in the region
of a large variety of rocks of variable lithologi-
cal type.  According to the amount of trace ele-
ments the subsurface waters in the Upper Amur
Region are subdivided in 12 water-bearing com-
plexes.  They vary widely in trace elements:  Sb
0.003-0.03, Mn 0.0003-0.3, Pb traces-0.01, Ga
traces-0.003, V traces-0.006, Ti traces~0.03, Cu
traces-0.3, Ag traces-0.06, Zn traces-0.6, Ni
traces-0.03, Zr traces-0.03, Sr 0.001-0.03, Cr
traces-0.06, Co traces-0.003, Mo 0.00-0.003, and
In 0.00-0.003%.   (From Chemical Abstracts 59:
1374, 1963)

253     Rasmussen, G.K., and Henry, W.H. (US Dept.
        Agric., Orlando, Fla.):  EFFECTS OF LEAD
        ON THE GROWTH OF SWEET ORANGE SEEDLINGS IN
        NUTRIENT SOLUTION CULTURES.  Soil and Crop
        Science Society of Florida Proceedings
        23:70-4, 1963.
When Pb arsenate is sprayed on grapefruit trees in
Florida to lower the acidity of the fruit, much of
the Pb eventually is washed to the soil by rain
where it remains soluble for a certain time and
may influence the growth of plants.  Therefore a
study was undertaken to determine the effects of
Pb, at 3 levels of pH, on the growth of sweet
orange seedlings in solution cultures.  Two small
sweet orange seedlings were grown for 10 mo in
nutrient solutions containing 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1.25,
6.25 and 31.25 ppm Pb as nitrate or acetate, at pH
levels of 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5, respectively.  At har-
vest time, growth, Pb and citric, malic, and total
water-soluble organic acid contents of leaves and
roots were measured.  The Pb source had no signif-
icant effect on growth of roots or shoots.  In
the pH 4.5 and 5.5 solution cultures, root growth
was stimulated by intermediate levels of Pb and
inhibited by the highest levels.  Shoot growth in-
creased when a good root system was present at
these pH levels.  Root and shoot growth were in-
hibiteu by all but the lowest level of Pb in solu-
tion cultures adjusted to pH 6.5.  The Pb content
of the roots increased as the Pb content of the
solution cultures increased and was highest in the
6.25-and 31.25-ppm Pb solutions at pH 6.5.  The
organic acid content of the leaf tissue was not
influenced by either Pb or pH levels.  Malic and
total water-soluble organic acids in the root tis-
sue decreased slightly when Pb was increased in
the solution cultures.  A slightly higher amount
of organic acids was present in the root tissue at
pH 4.5 than at the other pH levels.  Citric acid
content of the root tissue was not affected con-
sistently though  the amounts were generally lower
in the high-Pb solutions except for the 6.25-ppm
Pb treatment.  Pb inhibited water absorption; the
sweet orange seedlings were wilted often, partic-
ularly those grown in the high-Pb solutions.

254     Sokolova, V.Yu., and Yatsyuk, M.D.: (CER-
        TAIN TRACE ELEMENTS IN FOOD PRODUCTS WITH
        HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF PROTEINS, FAT, AND
        CARBOHYDRATES.) Mikroelementy v Zhizni
        Rast., Zhivotn. i Cheloveka, Akad. Nauk
        Ukr. SSR, Inst. Fiziol. Rast., Tr. Koor-
        dinats. Soveshch. 1963:276-9.
38
                                     BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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Three groups of food products of high fat content,
high protein content, and high carbohydrate con-
tent, respectively, were analyzed spectroscopical-
ly.  Products containing 28-70% fat contained
more Zn and B, products containing 5.5-34% protein
more Fe, Cu, Mn, Mo and Ni, and products contain-
ing 7.8-70% carbohydrates more Ti and Pb.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 64:1328, 1966)

255     Still, G.W., and Fahey, J.E.:  INSECTICIDE
        RESIDUES ON GRAPES AND IN WINES.  US Dept.
        Agr., ARS 33-81, 1963, 7 pp.
Three applications of Pb arsenate to grapes after
bloom resulted in excessive residues of Pb and
arsenous oxide on the grapes at harvest;  practi-
cally all Pb and about 75% of As were lost j.n the
process of wine-making.   Filtering the wine did
not remove any Pb or As residues but there was no
Pb or As in excess of the tolerance.  (From Chem-
ical Abstracts 58:9596,  1963)

256     Stovbun,  A.T.,  Sokolova,  V.Yu.,  and
        Yatsyuk,  M.D.:   Mikroelementy  v  Sel'skom
        Khozyaistive i Meditsine.   (ACCUMULATION
        OF CERTAIN TRACE ELEMENTS IN VEGETABLE
        FOOD PRODUCTS.)   (Kiev:   Gos.  Izd.   Sel'
        skokhoz.  Lit.  Ukr.  SSR)   Sbornik 1963:643-
        7.
The content of some trace metals (among  them Pb)
was determined in cabbage,  onions,  carrots and
other vegetables grown in different districts.  It
is pointed out that, in establishing dietary re-
quirements for groups of population, variations in
trace-metal content due to varietal and  soil dif-
ferences should be taken into account.  (From
Referativnyi Zhurnal, Biologiya 1964:   Abstract
No. 15N107; Chemical Abstracts 62:1012,  1965)

257     Viller, G.E., and Khrapov, V.S.:  (CONTENT
        OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOILS OF THE BARABA
        AREA IN NOVOSIBIRSK REGION.)  Mikroelemen-
        ty v Sibiri, Inform. Byul. 1963, No. 2:3-
        5.
Analysis was made of 43 soil samples taken in
various parts of the Baraba area.  The Baraba
loamy soils contained:  Si 5, Al 3.0-5.0, Mg 0.5-
5, Ca 1-5, Fe 3, Mn 0.5-0.08, Ni  0.001-0.006, Co
0.001-0.003, Ti 0.5-2, W 0.01, Cr 0.01-0.03, Cu
0.001-0.003, Zr 0.007-0.01, Pb 0.001-0.003, Zn
0.007-0.01, Ga 0.003-0.005, Sc 0.003, P 0.01, Sr
0.01-0.1, and Ba 0.01-0.05%.  (From Ref. Zh.,
Geol. 1964, Abstr. No. 12V31; Chemical Abstracts
62:10249, 1965)

258     Warren, H.V. (Univ. of British Columbia,
        Vancouver, Canada):  TRACE ELEMENTS AND
        EPIDEMIOLOGY. Journal of the College of
        General Practitioners 6:517-31  (Nov.),
        1963.
The author believes that geochemistry plays an  im-
portant part in determining the causes of some of
the more newly recognized diseases, such as the
coronary, cancers, and multiple sclerosis.  He
then illustrates how geochemical and medical
knowledge can be integrated advantageously by
citing some recent investigations linking the ex-
cess absorption of Pb with some of the above dis-
eases .
   In discussing the biogeochemistry of Pb, on the
basis of the literature and own analyses,  the
usual Pb concentration of the ash of most  recent
vegetation is estimated to range from 50-100 ppm,
and that of growth of the previous year, 25-50
ppm; that growing over soil or rock rich in Pb may
contain in ash up to 1000 and even 3000 ppm.  Also.
vegetation may acquire Pb from chemical sprays,
smelter fumes, or automobile exhausts.  Pb concen-
trations in the ash of leaves and twigs exposed to
different concentrations of automobile exhausts,
made available to the author from London, Brussels,
and Helsinki, ranged from 30-930 ppm, compared
with 7-100 ppm in those from rural areas nearby.
  Comparison of the epidemiologic reports of can-
cer in several parts of Cornwall, Devonshire, and
Sussex with his analyses of soils and vegetables
for Pb,  although no direct association could be
found, leads the author to conclude that the evi-
dence of a relationship is suggestive.  This com-
parison includes an unpublished report (Howe,
1962)  implicating Pb-Zn polluted water as the
cause of gastric cancer.   The association with Pb
of the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Sweden,
Northern Ireland, Cornwall, and Derbyshire is
made on the basis of reported geologic formations
in the areas concerned, or on that of analysis of
soil and vegetable samples sent to the author.
The author's investigations in Canada have
revealed certain areas where the soil and vegeta-
tion have abnormally high Pb contents and areas
where the prevalence of multiple sclerosis is
high.
  In summarizing, the author states that these
"facts have been brought forward not to prove
that Pb was the cause of some cancers and multiple
sclerosis, but to demonstrate that there is evi-
dence that this assumption might well be taken as
a working hypothesis."  He also suggests that
epidemiologic data be plotted against biogeochem-
ical provinces rather than against political di-
visions.  (36 references)

259      Westoo, G. (Sweden):  (COPPER, ZINC,  CAD-
        MIUM, AND LEAD CONTENT OF SOME CANNED
        FOODS.)  Var Foda 15, No. 10:73-8,  1963.
The Pb content of apple,  grapefruit,  and pineapple
juice was <0.05 mg/kg, and tomato juice from 0.05-
0.3 mg/kg, Cd, Cu, and Zn content 0.05, 0.3-1.1,
and 1.3-8.6 mg/kg, respectively.  Anchovy fillets
packed in lobster sauce contained Pb <0.05-0.2,
Cd <0.05, Cu 0.9, and Zn 9-11 mg/kg, Cd, Cu, and
Zn content of Swedish, Norwegian, and Portuguese
sardines in tomato sauce or olive oil was <0.05-
0.3, 0.7-4.2, and 9-50 mg/kg, respectively.  The
Pb content of Portuguese sardines in tomato sauce
was, in some cases, very high, up to 6.5 mg/kg.
The other brands met Swedish standards.  Pb con-
tent varied from <0.05-0.5 mg/kg.  The Pb content
of canned sardines increased with storage time.
However, the Pb content of same brand varied in
different cans tested.  (From Chemical Abstracts
61:7599, 1964)

260      Youssef, M.S., and El-Kahwagy, A.S. (Geol.
        Surv. UAR, Cairo, Egypt):  GEOPHYSICAL AND
        GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT UNM GHEIG
        AREA, EASTERN DESERT.  U. Arab Repub.,
        Min. Ind., Geol. Surv. Miner. Res. Dep.,
        Paper No. 33:1-12, 1963.
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                39

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Geochemical prospecting tests for Pb and Zn were
useful  in delineating ore deposits.  (From Chem-
ical Abstracts  70:Abstr. No. 117022, 1969)
                      1964

261      Ahmad, S., Haq, A., and Faruqi, F.A. (West
        Regional Lab., Lahore, Pakistan):  TOXIC
        PROPERTIES OF INDIGENOUS EARTHENWARE. Pak-
        istan Journal of Science 16:9-14 (Jan.),
        1964.
The quantity of acid-soluble Pb in glazes of 16
samples of earthenware of which 10 were indigenous,
3 laboratory-made and 3 imported (2 British, 1
Japanese), was determined.  The earthenware sam-
ples were subjected to a "mild" test in 5% acetic
or 0.5% citric acid and a "drastic" test in 10%
citric acid.  Pb was determined spectrophotometri-
cally.  The British samples gave off 0.03-0.04 ppm
Pb in the mild tests, and 0.07-0.08 ppm in the
drastic one; the Japanese samples did not split
off any Pb in either test.  The laboratory-made
samples gave off 0.04-0.05 ppm in the former and
0.10-0.12 ppm in the latter test.  For the indige-
nous samples, the corresponding ranges were 0.08-
0.50 and 0.25-0.60, respectively.  Generally, the
5% acetic-acid solution gave slightly higher fig-
ures than the 0.5% citric-acid solution.  The 10%
citric-acid solution on the average yielded only
twice as high values as the 0.5% one.
  Considering the threshold limit of 2 ppm Pb as
the maximum permissible amount of acid-soluble Pb
in glazes (Caller and Creamer, 1939), none of the
samples tested with the exception of the indige-
nous sample No.  10, which was attacked appreciably
both by dilute and concentrated acid, constituted
a health hazard.

262     Chow, T.J., and Tatsumoto, M. (Univ. Cali-
        fornia,  La Jolla):  ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION
        OF LEAD IN THE SEDIMENTS NEAR JAPAN TRENCH.,
        In Recent Research in the Fields of Hydro-
        sphere,  Atmosphere and Nuclear Geochemis-
        try.  Tokyo, 1964, p. 179-83.
The isotopic composition of Pb in the sediments
near the Japan Trench was determined.  The values
are:  206Pb/204Pb = 18.45; 207pb/204pb = 15.63; and
208pt,/204Pb = 38.68.  The my and K values of the
source material are also calculated to be 8.8 and
3.9 respectively.   (From U.S. Government Research
and Development Reports 40:64 (Aug. 20), 1965)

263      Datsko,  V.G., Klimov, I.T., and Krasnov,
        V.N. (Hydrochem. Inst., Novocherkassk,
        USSR):  (HEAVY METALS IN THE WATER AND THE
        MUD OF THE TSIMLYANSK WATER RESERVOIR.)
        Gidrokhimicheskie Materialy 36:50-5, 1964.
Spectral analysis of samples of water and bottom
mud collected from the reservoir monthly for 1 yr
showed the presence of Ni, Cu, V, Mo, Al, Fe, Mn
and Ag in the water and Ni, Co, Cu, V, Fe, Pb and
Mn in mud samples from a depth of 4-24 m.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 63:2742, 1965)

264     deTreville, R.T.P. (Mellon Inst., Pitts-
        burgh, Pa.):  NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF LEAD.
        Archives of Environmental Health 8:212-21
         (Feb.),  1964.
                 The  concentration of  Pb  in soil,  water,  food,  and
                 air  is discussed and  data obtained by various  in-
                 vestigators  are  presented in tables.   The average
                 concentration of Pb in soil is 16 ppm, with urban
                 soils  sampled in old  residential  sections where Pb
                 paint  had  been applied and removed for many years,
                 ranging up to 360 ppm and certain anomalous soils,
                 near natural or  artificial sources of Pb, up to
                 10,000 ppm.   The average concentration of Pb in
                 public water supplies in the US is about 0.01  ppm,
                 or  1/5 of  the present standard of the US Public
                 Health Service for potable water.  The natural Pb
                 content of vegetation, including  the  edible por-
                 tions, in  the fresh state is of the order of a few
                 hundreaths of a  ppm,  with the exception of some
                 items  in which Pb had been concentrated.  The
                 flesh  of animals and  especially certain organs
                 (eg, the liver) tend to have higher Pb concentra-
                 tions  than food  of vegetable origin,  and skeletal
                 tissues have still higher Pb contents.  The edible
                 tissues of shellfish  and Crustacea are high in Pb.
                 Contamination of human food and beverage may in-
                 troduce Pb in amounts which vary  in significance
                 from negligible  to highly significant.  The Pb
                 concentration in the  ambient air  of cities of  the
                 US  averages  1-5  yg/m3.

                 265      Dios Vidal, R. (Spanish Polytech.  Inst.
                         Pontevedra):  (RADON-GENERATING ACTIVITY
                         IN DIFFERENT  GALICIAN SOILS IN RELATION
                         TO OTHER GREAT WORLD GROUPS AND THE TOTAL
                         LEAD CONTENT.)  An.  Edafol. Agrobiol.
                         (Madrid)  23:53-63,  1964.
                 Data are presented on the  222 RH  generating poten-
                 tial of different Galician prairie soils formed
                 from granite and gneiss  parent material, and com-
                 parisons with some of the major soil  types
                 throughout the world  were made.  The  number of
                 curies of  222Rn escaping from 2500 g of soil
                 material,  at equilibrium with its parent Ra, was
                 much greater in  some  Galician soils than in other
                 soil types,  with higher  Rn-generating potentials
                 in  the middle and lower  parts of  the  soil profile.
                 The  accumulation of Pb in soils and its absorption
                 by  native  plants, such as Ulex nanus, Pteris
                 aquilina and Carinephorus canescens showed cor-
                 relation with Rn generation even  though the soils
                 with highest Rn  levels provided for most of the
                 Pb  concentration in soils and plants.  (From
                 Nuclear Science  Abstracts 22:Abstr. No.  6826,
                 1968)

                 266       Doro,  B.,  and Remoli,  S.  (District Chem.
                         Lab.  of  Triest,  Italy):   Ricerca del
                         piombo ceduto dagli  strati vetrificati
                         degli utensili da cucina.   (DETERMINATION
                         OF LEAD  DERIVED  FROM GLAZED KITCHENWARE.)
                         Bollettino del Laboratori Chimici Provin-
                         cial! (Bologna)  15,  No. 5:482-9,  1964.
                 The  Italian  law  prohibits the use and sale of
                 utensils coming  in direct contact with foods and
                 beverages  (excluding  water)  which are made of  Pb
                 or  coated  inside with Sn, containing  >1% Pb or
                 which  are  soldered with  a mixture of  Sn  and Pb
                 where  Pb >10%.   The recent  sanitary law  of April
                 30,  1962,  includes the regulations first estab-
                 lished in  1901 whereby enameled and glazed uten-
                 sils (porcelain,  earthenware)  are required to
                 yield  no Pb  into a 1% solution of acetic acid  af-
 40
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 ter 24 hr of contact.  The fact  that the minimum
 tolerable amount of Pb as it may leach into the
 liquid has not been established, makes the problem
 of applying the law realistically a difficult one
 for the analyst and the legislator.  The order
 that  "no Pb be yielded" to a 1%  solution of acetic
 acid  in 24 hr had a different implication in 1901
 than  at the present time because of the degree of
 senstivity of the methods that have been developed
 since that time.
  The authors undertook the determination, quali-
 tatively and quantitatively, of  Pb extracted from
 numerous samples of pottery and  earthenware.  Sev-
 eral  of the samples containing notable amounts of
 Pb were repeated, and the results of the colori-
 metric method with dithizone titration, as used by
 the authors, were compared with  the gravimetric
 (PbS04) method.  By the modern methods quantities
 as small as 0.05 yg/ml (0.00005  mg) could be de-
 termined, while the limit of the older ones was
 0.5 mg.
  By  referring to permissible limits of Pb in
 drinking water supplies as adopted in various
 countries, the authors point out that their re-
 sults disclosed amounts of Pb greatly exceeding
 the highest limits, and urge that the regulation
 be amended to include the tolerable limits of Pb
 in the acetic-acid test of utensils.

 267     Durfor,  C.N.,  and Becker, E. (Water Re-
        sources Div.,  U.S.G.S.,  Washington, D.C.):
        SELECTED DATA ON PUBLIC SUPPLIES OF THE
        100 LARGEST CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES,
        1962.   Journal American Water Works Asso-
        ciation 56:237-46 (Mar.), 1964.
 Spectrographic analyses were made for trace ele-
ments in treated water supplies of the 100 largest
 cities in the US in 1962.  Data  found for Pb
were  as follows,  in ppb:  maximum, 62; median,  3.7;
minimum,  not detected; criterion value,  10; per-
centage of supplies with concentrations below the
criterion value,  95.

268      Dvornikov, O.G., Tkach,  B.I., Shtanchenko,
        M.S., and Antonov, V.M.:  (MINERALS OF
        THE NATIVE ELEMENT GROUP IN LOOSE ROCKS
        AND SOILS OF THE NAGOL'NYI RIDGE.)  Dopov-
        idi Akad. Nauk Ukr. RSR  1964, No. 9:1226-
        9.
 The following minerals were found during mineral-
 ogical study of soils and friable bedrocks of the
 Nagol'nyi Ridge in 1959:  native Au, Ag alloy, Pb,
 Zn, and Cu.  The Ag alloy was found in intergrowth
 with  embolite, ankerite, and cinnabar.  It con-
 tained Hg 33.2, Ag 64.31, A1203  0.22, Fe203 0.76,
 and insoluble residue 2.45%.  The native Pb was
 exceptionally abundant.  The occurrence of these
 minerals was closely related to  areas containing
 Pb-Zn and Au mineralizations.  Therefore, they can
 be used as indicators of Pb-Zn and Au mineraliza-
 tion  during geologic explorations in the Nagol'nyi
 Ridge.  (From Chemical Abstracts 62:1449, 1965)

 269     Dytkowska,  0.  (Inst.  Lekow,  Warsaw, Po-
        land) :  Zawartosc metali ciezkich w niek-
        torych surowcach roslinnyctu  (HEAVY-METAL
        CONTENT OF CERTAIN PLANT MATERIALS.)  Act a
        Poloniae Pharmaceutica 21,  No.  6:497-500,
        1964.
 Seven  samples of  each of  the  following  plants were
 analyzed  for Pb,  Cu, Zn and Fe.   The  average per-
 cent values found for Pb  were: caraway  seeds, 0.01;
 frangula  bark,  0.011; valerian rhizomes,  0.009;
 belladonna leaves,  0.007; belladonna  roots, 0.012;
 oak bark, 0.004.   Variations  between  plants col-
 lected in various regions were negligible.

 270     Eremenko, V.Y.:  (FORMS OF HEAVY METALS IN
        SOME NATURAL WATERS.)  Gidrokhimicheskie
        Materialy 36:125-33,  1964.
Heavy metals,  including Pb, are present in the wa-
ters of the Volga,  Don, and Tseline as colloids and
pseudocolloids, as  simple ions and complex ions
with positive and negative charges.   (From Chem-
ical Abstracts  63:2741, 1965)

271      Glazovskaya, M.A. (State Univ., Moscow,
        USSR):   (BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF ELEMENTS IN
        VARIOUS LANDSCAPE ZONES OF THE URALS.)
        Fiz.,  Khim., Biol. i Mineralog. Pochv.
        SSSR,  Akad. Nauk SSSR, Dokl.  k VHI-mu
        (Vos'momu) Mezhdunar. Kongr.  Pochvovedov,
        Bucharest 1964:148-57.
The accumulation of trace elements in plants was
followed by means of spectral analyses of soils
and plant ashes.  Samples were taken from various
soil zones of  the Urals:  tundra, taiga, forest-
steppe, and steppe.  The coefficients of biologi-
cal accumulation  (Kb) of the  20 elements studied
were calculated as  ratios of  the concentrations
of the given element in plants to that  in soil.
According to the Kb, the elements can be arranged
in the following order:   Kb = 100:  Ba, Sr, Pb;
Kb = 10:  Zn,  Mn; Kb = 1: Sn, Mo; Kb = 0.1:  Ni,
Ti, Cr; Kb = 0.01:  As,  V. Other elements were not
found.  From north  towards south, from  the moun-
tain tundra towards the coniferous and mixed
forests, meadow and arid steppes, the amounts of
trace elements in plant ashes and the values of
Kb decrease.   The contents of mobile forms of
trace elements and  their availability for plants
also decrease  with  increasing soil pH.  The ele-
ments absorbed by plants return to the  soil sur-
face at the end of  the growth period.   In the up-
per soil  layers the content of elements with the
highest Kb increases 3-10 times, as compared with
the lowest (rocky)  layer.  Elements with a low Kb
do not accumulate in soil.  The content and dis-
tribution of trace  elements in the profile of the
zonal soils depend  on the nature and capacity of
the biological absorption of  elements,  the rate
of the organic residue mineralization and the in-
tensity of leaching.  (From Chemical Abstracts 62:
4562, 1965)

272     Holtzman, R.B. (Argonne Natl. Lab., 111.):
        LEAD-210  (RaD) AND POLONIUM-210 (RaF) IN
        POTABLE WATERS IN ILLINOIS.  In Adams,  J.
        A.S.,  and Lowder, W.M., ed. :  The Natural
        Radiation Environment.  Chicago, Univer-
        sity of Chicago Press, 1964,  pp. 227-37.
A study of the concentrations of  210Pb and  210Pb
in potable well and surface waters in Illinois was
undertaken in order to estimate the contribution
of potable water  to the content of 210pb ancj 210po
in the human body.  210pb ancj its daughters have
been found in many  parts of the human environment,
the atmosphere, plants, animals, and in the human
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                41

-------
body itself.  Rain water contains about 2.5 pCi
210pb/l (Lockhart et al,  1958), ocean surface wa-
ter 0.054, Colorado river water 0.13-6.7 and tap
water at La Jolla, Calif., 0.054 (Rama and Gold-
berg, 1961).
  The samples for the present study were collected
mostly at the pumping station of the water system
and rarely from taps in private homes, in 18 com-
munities where the water was treated by filtration
or settling and 4 communities with untreated water.
210pb was determined from the amount of its daugh-
ter, 210pO; by a modification of Black's method
(1961) ; 226Ra was estimated by the Rn-emanation
technique of Lucas (1961).  In order to correct
the measured 210pb concentrations for build-up
from 226fta amj its daughters during storage, re-
tention of 222jjn in the storage containers had
also to be determined.  The contents of 226^a aruj
210pb in these 22 water supplies were tabulated.
Average 226Ra ancj 210pb concentrations, respec-
tively, in pCi/1, were as follows:  all waters,
0.14 ± 0.27, 0.039 ± 0.076; treated waters, 0.084
± 0.048, 0.019 i 0.012; untreated waters, 0.43 ±
0.60, 0.127 ± 0.054.  The low 210pb concentrations
indicate that the waters are very old with respect
to  210pb decay, ie, the average water precipitated
70  yr prior to measurement, or  that removal by
biological and chemical activity is significant.
In  another table, the contents of 226Ra, 210Pb,
and 210po> Well depths and type of aquifer for 28
untreated well-water supplies were listed.  Ranges
and averages of concentrations, pCi/1, were, re-
spectively:  226Ra> 0.02-22.6,  5.1 ±  3.9; 210Pb)
0.0-0.21, 0.051 ± 0.042;  210pO) 0.0-0.069, 0.016
+ 0.030.  The low ratio of 210pb to 226Ra indi-
cates an effective loss of 210pb, possibly due to
the presence of Pb precipitants, H sulfide, sul-
fate ion, biological activity,  and the highly
porous aquifer.  Considering that the concentra-
tions of 222ftn (which is  the precursor of 210pb)
range from 30-300 pCi/1,  the low 210Pb values in-
dicate that the residence time  of the 3.8-day
222gn in the water is short and that  its decay
does not contribute significantly to  the 210pb
concentration.  The 210pb xevel is inversely cor-
related with the 226Ra level and decreases with
increasing well depth.  No gross changes in 210pb
concentration seem to occur during storage or dis-
tribution.
   Based  on  previous studies of  the author  (1960,
1962) and on the report of  the  International Con-
gress for Radiation Protection  (1960) it was cal-
culated  that the contribution of 210Pb  from drink-
ing water  to the skeleton is ^0.017 pCi/g ash
assuming a  210pb concentration  in water  of 0.051
pCi/1,  this is 0.004  pCi/g of skeletal  ash.  Since
the average content of 210pb in subjects investi-
gated by the author is 0.15 pCi/g ash,  the contri-
bution  from well water would range from a maximum
of  11 to an average of 3% and from average surface
water  (which contains 0.019 pCi 210pb/i) about  17.
of  the  total body content.
   The conclusion was  drawn  that potable water does
not constitute an important source of 210pb in  the
human skeleton.

273     Ishibashi, M., Fujinaga, T., Morii, F. ,
        Kanchiku, Y.,  and Kamiyama, F. (Univ.  Kan-
        azawa,  Japan):  CHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE
                        OCEAN. XCIV. CHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE SEA-
                        WEEDS.  19.  DETERMINATION OF ZINC, COP-
                        PER, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND NICKEL IN SEAWEEDS
                        USING DITHIZONE EXTRACTION AND POLARO-
                        GRAPHIC METHOD. Rec. Oceanogr. Works Jap.
                        7, No. 2:33-6, 1964.
                The method of analysis of seaweeds was described.
                Eisenia bicyclis was found  to contain 112-127 yg
                Zn, 11-24 yg Cu, and 7-16 yg Pb/g dried material.
                Five species of seaweed contained 0.1-0.3 yg Cd
                and 2-4 yg Ni/g dried seaweed.  (From Chemical Ab-
                stracts 66:83094, 1967)

                274     Jochmann, F.:  (GLASS CONTAINING ARSENIC.)
                        Sprechsaal 97, No.  9:230-4,  1964.
                The author reviews the chemical properties  of As
                in glass, enamel containing Pb arsenate, and the
                solubility in boiling water of glass containing
                an appreciable amount of As.   (From  Chemical Ab-
                stracts 61:4037, 1964)

                275     Kaminski, B., and Dytkowska, 0. (Inst.
                        Lekow, Warsaw, Poland):   (HEAVY-METAL CON-
                        TENT IN SOME SELECTED GALENICS.) Acta
                        Poloniae Pharmaceutica 21, No. 6:493-6,
                        1964.
                Valerian rhizomes, belladonna leaves, absinth herb
                and Chelidouim herb were found to contain 50, 100,
                50 and 50 mg Pb respectively.  No Pb was detected
                in commercial tinctures.  (From Chemical Abstracts
                62:8943, 1965)

                276     Kato, N., Sunada, T.  (Radiation Center of
                        Osaka Prefecture, Japan): LEAD FROM TABLE-
                        WARE MADE OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PLASTIC.
                        Japanese Journal of Hygiene  19:214-8
                        (Aug.), 1964.
                Polyvinyl chloride plastics are often made  by
                using a stabilizer which contains Pb compounds.
                When drinking straws made of  this plastic were
                immersed in a 4% solution of  acetic  acid for 10
                min, amounts of Pb ranging  from 0 to >100 yg were
                dissolved.  Even water, pH  5.4, extracted some Pb.
                The amount of Pb dissolved  depended  on the  pH.   To
                eliminate the leaching of Pb  from straws, washing
                of the straws with acid was found to be effective
                and feasible.  As a  control measure, the straws
                should be immersed in an acidic solution of rho-
                dizonic soda for the development  of  a purple
                color.   (From authors' English summary)

                277     Kayser, P., and Meunier, A.  (Fac. Med.
                        Nancy, France):  Teneur en radioelements
                        naturels  (Unat, Thnat, K40, Ra
                                                       226
Rn
                                                              222
                         et Pb   ) des  eaux  thermales  de  Plombieres-
                         les-Bains.   (NATURAL  RADIOISOTOPES  (U,  Th,
                         K40> Ra226s  Rn2225  ancj  pb210)  CONTAINED IN
                         THE THERMAL  WATERS  OF PLOMBIERES-LES-BAINS
                         (VOSGES).) Annales  Pharmaceutiques  Fran-
                         caises  22, No.  5:365-72,  1964.
                Analyses of samples  from  9  different  sources  gave
                a  210pb  content of 1-7  uuCi/1.

                278      Kovalev,  V.F.,  Kozlov,  A.V.,  and Kralin,
                         G.A.:   (GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
                         NATURAL WATERS IN WESTERN PART OF THE
                         TURGAI  SYNCLINE.)  Tr.  Inst.  Geol., Akad.
                         Nauk  SSSR, Ural'sk. Filial 1964, No.  69:
                         37-48.
 42
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
In the studied territory most of the subsurface
waters are Cl and Cl-HCO-j waters, having total
mineral concentrations of 1.5-15 g/1.  Only in
the Tobol River valley do the Paleozoic formations,
outcropping as a narrow belt, contain waters of
mineral concentrations <1 g/1.  The anomalously
high content in waters of Cu, Zn, Mo, Bi, Ag, As,
Pb, and Sn was used as an exploration index during
prospecting for the Cu-pyritic and polymetallic
ores.  (From Chemical Abstracts 61:14350, 1964)

279     Krainov, S.R., and Korol'kova, M.Kh.:
        (DISTRIBUTION OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS IN
        THE MINERAL WATERS OF THE LESSER CAUCASUS.)
        Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'-
        skogo Instituta Gidrogeologii i Inzhenernoi
        Geologii (N.S.) 1964, No. 9:72-93.
A maximal amount of 0.04 mg Pb/1 was found in var-
ious mineral waters of the Lesser Caucasus, with
the carbonated waters containing the largest
amounts.  (From Chemical Abstracts 61:10439, 1964)

280      Malyuga, D.P.:  BIOGEOCHEMICAL METHODS OF
        PROSPECTING.  Authorized translation from
        the Russian Text published for the V.I.
        Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and
        Analytical Chemistry by the Academy of
        Sciences Press in Moscow, 1963.  New York,
        Consultants Bureau Enterprises, Inc.,
        1964, 205 pp.
The essence of the biogeochemical method of pros-
pecting lies in the discovery of aureoles of dis-
seminated ore deposits by analyzing soils and
plants.  In contrast to other geochemical methods
(metallometric surveys, hydrochemical method) the
biogeochemical prospecting method uses a group of
natural phenomena that are not taken into account
by other methods:  (1) increased content of metals
in the ash of land plants above ore deposits, (2)
biogenic accumulation of metals in the humus layer
of soil and changes in the ratios of these metals,
and (3) the restriction of biocoenoses to zones
of mineralization and the variability of vegeta-
tion (endemic forms) under the influence of ele-
vated contents of ore elements in the environment.
Subjects covered by the author Include:  History
of development of the method, internal factors
governing the migration of chemical elements over
ore deposits, external migration factors, ore de-
posit dispersion haloes, patterns of distribution
of heavy metals in soils, conditions for the ac-
cumulation of heavy metals in plants, experience
with the application of the biogeochemical explo-
ration method in different zones of the USSR,
practical problems involved in a plant-soil bio-
geochemical survey, geochemical interpretation of
the results of a biogeochemical survey, and a
critical evaluation of the biogeochemical explora-
tion method.
  In Chapter V on patterns of distribution of
heavy metals in soils, tables are given showing
distribution of heavy metals in zonal soils by
horizons and the percentage content of certain ore
elements in the zonal soils of the USSR.  Pb is
listed in these tables.
  The list of chemical elements required by plants
has been expanded considerably  (Chapter VI, Con-
ditions for the accumulation of heavy metals in
plants).  Many chemical elements in small quanti-
ties are stimulators of growth and development of
surface plants (ie, Ni, Cr, Pb, Ra), but have a
negative effect in large doses, being considered
poisonous to surface plants in high concentra-
tions .
  Geochemical characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb
in the zone of oxidation of the sulfide deposit
is one of the points of discussion in Chapter VII
(Experience with the application of the biogeo-
chemical exploration method in different zones of
the USSR).   In the process of the oxidation of
sulfide minerals, Cu, Zn, and Pb migrate with the
soil and ground water.  Depending on the composi-
tion of the ores and the ore-bearing rocks, the
migration of the ore elements occurs jointly or
separately.  In cases of acidic weathering, when
organic acids are present in the soil and ground
water, Cu,  Zn, and Pb migrate together.  In cases
when the climate is relatively dry, Pb is precipi-
tated in the form of a sulfate and enriches bar-
ites.  Cu,  Zn, and Pb are constant constituents
of soils and plants and their study in rocks and
the biosphere makes it possible to determine their
precise mean values in rocks, soils, water, and
surface plants.  In the process of oxidation of
sulfide minerals, Cu, Zn, and Pb migrate with
the soil and ground water.  Depending on the com-
position of the ores and the ore-bearing rocks,
the migration of the ore elements occurs jointly
or separately.  When values are compared with the
content of Cu, Zn, and Pb in soils and plants
taken from ore deposits, there often is a notice-
able lack of correspondence—ie, there is a
sharp increase in the content of these elements
over the zone of mineralization, which confirms
the basic principle relating to exploration for
these elements using soils and plants.
  The problem of selecting the method used in
biogeochemical survey, whether to use soils or
plants, and the selection and development of
methods for geochemical exploration in general is
a basic problem for geological exploration.  Of
>30 chemical elements investigated with respect
to applicability of the biogeochemical method,
only 10 have been studied relatively well (B, Fe,
Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mo, U) and therefore
recommendations are made for these elements.  Pb
is mobile in the podzol profile and thus is re-
flected clearly in woody vegetation; and it is
recommended that in exploration for Pb, plant
samples be obtained for analysis.  (12 pages of
references)

281      Masuda, A. (Univ. Tokyo, Japan):  DEPTH OF
        SOURCE OF LEAD. Nature 204:567-9 (Nov. 7),
        1964.
In this study, an attempt has been made to eval-
uate the liquid fraction values (ie, the quanti-
tative fraction occupied by a liquid at a certain
stage of solidification relative to the amount of
initial liquid, the latter amount being taken as
unity) for the source materials of Pb and to re-
duce them to depths within the earth.  It is
thought that the source of Pb originated from ma-
terial that had been produced by partial melting
shortly after the formation of the mantle and
pocketed in situ.  The study suggests that the
most frequent seats of original sources from which
Pb in ores was derived are at about 150 km and
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                43

-------
rarely below 400 km and above 75 kit
                                                      South Pole.
 282     Patterson, C.C. (California Inst. of
        Technol., Pasadena):  PRELIMINARY REPORT
        ON THE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF LEADS IN
        LAVAS FROM THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.  In
        Recent Researches in the Fields of Hydro-
        sphere, Atmosphere and Nuclear Geochemis-
        try.  Miyake, Y., Koyama, T., ed.: Nagoya,
        Japan, Sugawara Volume, Nagoya Univ., 1964,
        pp. 257-61.
 The isotopic compositions of some Pb's in Hawaiian
 lavas are listed.  These Pb's did not show the ex-
                      9Ofi
 pected high values of    Pb, but were even less
 radiogenic then continental basalt Pb's.  Further-
 more, the difference between Pb's from widely sep-
 arated magma chambers (islands of Oahu and Hawaii)
 was substantial.  There was a suggestion, in the
 Hualalai lavas, that Pb became more radiogenic in
 the acid differentiates, since the 2 Pb samples
 from the 1801 flow are regarded as isotopically
 different.  The data show that different areas of
 the Pacific contain Pb's of entirely different
 geneses.  (From Nuclear Science Abstracts 20:
 Abstr. No. 25299, 1966)

 283     Pencheva, E.N., and Pavlova, V.N.:  (TRACE
        ELEMENTS IN BRINES OF THE POMORIA LAKE.)
        Tr.  Vurkhu Geol. Bulgar. , Ser.  Inzh.  Geol.
        Khidrogeol., Bulgar.  Akad. Nauk 3:207-22,
        1964.
 The content and distribution of 29 trace elements
 (including Pb) in various phases and concentrates
 of the Pomoria-Lake brines was studied.   The con-
 tent of most trace elements increased gradually
with increased density of brine,  reaching a maxi-
mum usually in the mother brine of 36.2° Baume.
Pb increased especially rapidly at 30°  Baume'.
 (From Chemical Abstracts 62:8829, 1965)

284     Pereira, J.F., and Echandi, E.  (Univ.
        Costa Rica, San Jose): (RESIDUAL ARSENIC
        IN LEAVES AND SEEDS OF COFFEE PLANTS
        SPRAYED WITH LEAD ARSENATE.) Turrialba 14,
        No.  2:85-90, 1964.
When 20-yr-old coffee trees were sprayed with Pb
 arsenate, As concentrations in the beans were
 relatively low; qualitative analysis of the beans
 revealed also the presence of Pb.  (From Biologi-
cal Abstracts 47:Abstr. No. 44386, 1966)

 285     Picciotto, E., Crozaz,  G., and  De Breuck,
        W.  (Free Univ.,  Brussels, Belgium):   RATE
        OF ACCUMULATION OF SNOW AT THE  SOUTH POLE
        AS DETERMINED BY RADIOACTIVE MEASUREMENTS.
        Nature 203:393-4 (July 25), 1964.
 The rate of accumulation of snow at the  South Pole
 as determined by stratigraphic observations and by
measurements on the fission products and on 210pt,
 are reported.   The stratigraphic observations and
 fission product measurements were in good agree-
ment.  They indicate a mean annual accumulation of
 6.5 ± 0.5 cm of water between 1955 and  1962.   The
 21"pb activity was measured on a 2-m deep section
 covering the 1962-64 interval and on 60-cm thick
 specimens collected at intervals of ^4  m up to a
 depth of 26 m.  The 3 completely independendent
methods lead to a mean value of the annual rate of
accumulation between 6 and 7 cm of water at the
                 286      Reiter,  R.  (Fraunhof er-Ges.  Fiirderung
                         Angew.  Forschung,  Garmisch-Partenkirchen,
                         Germany):   Die  charakteristische  natUr-
                         liche und  kOnstliche  Radioaktivith't  der
                         meteorologischen Luftkdrper  in 700 und
                         1800 m.  SeehBhe.   (THE CHARACTERISTIC NAT-
                         URAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY OF METE-
                         OROLOGICAL BODIES  OF  AIR AT  700 AND  1800
                         m.  SEA  LEVEL.)  Nukleonik 6:313-20  (Oct.),
                         1964.
                 The  characteristic concentrations of 214pb and
                 212pb  an(j nuclear  decay products in  the different
                 meteorological  air bodies  were determined at 700
                 and  1800 m, and  the influences of the source and
                 movement of the  air bodies on their  radioactivity
                 content  were shown.

                 287      Sheftel',  V.O.  (Ukr.  Sci. Res.  Inst.  Com-
                         munal Hyg.,  Kiev,  USSR): 0  vyshchelachi-
                         vanii svintsovykh  stabilizatorov  iz  poli-
                         vinilkhloridnykh vodoprovodnykh trub.
                         (THE LIXIVIATION OF LEAD STABILIZERS FROM
                         POLYVINYL  CHLORIDE WATER PIPES.)  Gigiena
                         i Sanitariya 29, No.  10:105-6,  1964.  Hy-
                         giene and  Sanitation  (USSR)  29:121-2
                         (Oct.),  1964.
                 Among  the stabilizers used for the manufacture of
                 polyvinyl chloride plastics,  Pb compounds are the
                 most commonly used.  Although the transfer of Pb
                 into water  from vinyl plastics has been confirmed,
                 several  authors  have recently claimed that the
                 presence of Pb  stabilizers should not prevent the
                 use  of plastic  pipes for drinking water supplies.
                   In the tests  described,  the ratio  of the volume
                 of water to the  surface of plastic tubes  of  40-mm
                 diameter was chosen to  be  1:1.  Discs cut from 4
                 different makes  of plastic pipe (containing  2-6%
                 Pb)  were placed  in dechlorinated tap water.   In
                 the  first test,  when the water was allowed  to
                 stand  for 90 min,  no Pb was removed  from  the
                 discs; after vigorous stirring, the  concentrations
                 of Pb  were  0.16, 0.13,  0.28,  and 0.18 mg/1.   When
                 the  plastic was  allowed to stand in  the water for
                 24 hr  at 20°C,  the corresponding amounts  were
                 0.50,  0.35, 0.38,  and 0.28 mg/1.  After 10  days
                 these  rose  to 1.13, 0.64,  0.70, and  0.94  mg/1.
                 In another  test, the water was changed daily.  Al-
                 though Pb concentrations in the 24-hr infusions
                 gradually decreased,  after 4  days 0.30, 0.28, 0.21,
                 and  0.30 mg/1 were obtained,  and after 15 days,
                 0.19,  0.10, 0.15,  and 0.17 mg/1.  The findings
                 confirmed literature reports  that free C02 in-
                 creased  leaching of Pb.  To investigate the  effect
                 of temperature,  tests were run at 5, 20 and  50°.
                 The  respective  ranges at 5° were 0.09-0.19;  at 20°,
                 0.10-0.20;  and  at  50°,  0.19-0.58 mg/1.
                   The  conclusion is that the  leaching of  Pb  from
                 vinyl  plastic pipes in  which  Pb stabilizers  are
                 used would  cause Pb concentrations in drinking wa-
                 ter  exceeding maximum permissible concentrations,
                 and  that Pb stabilizers are not acceptable for use
                 in plastic  pipes conveying drinking  water.

                 288      Smelhaus,  V., and  Valek, B.  (Ceskoslov.
                         Akad. Vied.,  Prague,  Czechoslovakia):
                         Rozsirenie mikroelementov v  podach Cesko-
                         slovenska.   (OCCURRENCE OF TRACE  ELEMENTS
44
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        IN THE SOILS OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA.) Pol'-
        nohospodarstvo 10, No. 11:833-6, 1964.
Soils from 48 different regions in Czechoslovakia
were analyzed for trace elements.  If Pb was found
at all, it occurred in quantities of <0.1 mg/100
g of soil.

289     Starikov, V.S., Konovalov, B.T., and
        Brushtein, I.M. (Northern Caucasus Mining-
        Met. Trust., Ordzhomikidze City): (BIOCHEM-
        ICAL METHOD OF PROSPECTING AND RESULTS OF
        ITS APPLICATION IN THE GORNAYA OSETIA.)
        Geokhimiya 1964, No. 10:1070-2.
Analysis of 32 plants showed elevated amounts of
Pb, Zn and Cu in marjoram, coltsfoot, Alpine bell-
flower, centaurea and in leaves of hazel, birch,
alder, maple and sometimes rhododendron.  The Al-
pine bellflower which contained in its ash 0.001-
0.1% Pb and 0.01-0.3% Zn was found to grow in
soils of elevated content of Pb and Zn.  In gen-
eral, plants growing 250 m from the Main Sadonsk
fracture containing polymetallic mineralizations
were high in Pb, Zn and Cu.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 61:15847, 1964)

290     Strasheim, A., Norval, E., and Butler,
        L.R.P. (Council Sci. Ind. Res., Pretoria,
        S. Africa):  ATOMIC ABSORPTION DETERMINA-
        TION OF TRACES OF LEAD IN FISH FLOUR.
        Journal of the South African Chemical In-
        stitute 17, No. 2:55-60, 1964.
By the method described, concentrations of Pb
ranging from 0.75-12 ppm were found in the pres-
ence of about 12,000 ppm of Ca as phosphate.
(From Chemical Abstracts 62:9693, 1965)

291      Talipov, R.M.:  (CONCENTRATION OF NONFER-
        ROUS METALS IN SOILS AND PLANTS OF THE
        SARY-CHEKU AND UCH-KULACH DEPOSITS (UZBEK-
        ISTAN).)  Geokhimiya 1964, No. 5:457-67.
The contents of Cu and Pb were determined in soils
and plants in the area of the Sary-Cheku Cu-Mo
and the Uch-Kulach polymetallic deposit.  The
data obtained were sufficient to outline the areas
of enriched sections.  Parallel increases in the
contents of Cu and Pb in soils and in plants were
observed near known ore bodies.  The concentra-
tions of Cu, Pb, and other metals in soils in-
crease 10-20 times above average.  This permitted
detection of the presence of ore bodies not yet
discovered by exploration.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 61:4103, 1964)

292      Talipov, R.M.:  (RESULTS OF BIOGEOCHEMICAL
        SURVEY IN SOME UZBEKISTAN ORE FIELDS.)
        Poleznye Iskopaemye Uzbekistana i Voprosy
        ikh Genezisa, Akad. Nauk Uz. SSR, Otd.
        Geol.  Nauk 1964:95-102.
Plants growing over an ore body showed elevated
amounts of Pb, Zn and Cu compared with those grow-
ing at a certain distance from the ore body.   Cu
is localized in the leaves, Pb and Zn mostly in
the stems.   The ash of Ferula growing in soils
over ore bodies contained 0.02% Pb while the Pb
content in a plant growing several hundred meters
from the ore body was 0.002%.  (From Chemical
Abstracts 62:6268, 1965)
293
Tew, R.P., and Sillibourne, J.M. (East
        Mailing Res. Sta., Maidstone, Kent,
        England):  PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON FRUIT.
        VI.  LEAD AND ARSENIC RESIDUES ON APPLES.
        'Journal of the Science of Food and Agri-
        culture 15:678-83 (Oct.), 1964.
Further residue studies, including the measurement
of Pb, have confirmed previous findings that har-
vest residues of Pb and As from biologically ef-
fective programs of Pb arsenate sprays, applied by
hand lance to bush trees, may exceed official
limits at least on the earlier ripening varieties
of apple.  Pb deposits of 6.97 yg/cm2 and 2.0 ug/
cm2 of As were found at harvest.

294     Tilton, G.R., Davis, G.L., Hart, S.R.,
        Aldrich, L.T., Steiger, R.H., and Cast, P.
        W. (Carnegie Inst.,  Washington, D.C.):
        GEOCHRONOLOGY AND ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY.
        Carnegie Institution of Washington, Papers
        from the Geophysical Laboratory No. 1440:
        240-56 (Dec.), 1964.
Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of U,
Th, Pb, Sr, Rb, Ar and K isotopes for determining
ages of minerals and rocks were discussed and a
study of the isotopic composition of Pb in feld-
spars and galenas of different ages was reported.
The value quoted for the age of the earth of 4.55
x 10^ yr was based on a comparison of the isotopic
composition of some modern terrestrial Pb with
that of Pb from the troilite phase of Fe meteor-
ites.   (From Nuclear Science Abstracts 21:Abstr.
No. 10448, 1967)

295     Truhaut, R. (Univ. Paris, France):  Les
        substances minerales existant dans la na-
        ture.  (OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS IN NATURE.)
        In   Proceedings of the Seventh Meeting of
        the European Committee on Chronic Toxic
        Hazards (Eurotox), Brussels, June 3-6,
        1964.  Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 2:
        661-3 (Dec.), 1964.
The hazards connected with repeated absorption of
certain naturally occurring minerals such as F,
Se, As, Zn and Pb are discussed.  Concerning Pb,
the author mentions that experimental studies have
shown a toxic and possibly cancerogenic effect of
some of its compounds upon man.  Also,  the possi-
bility of contamination of foods and beverages by
Pb is pointed out.  The importance of the preven-
tion of hazards both in occupational and non-
occupational exposure is stressed.

296     Tso, T.C., Hallden, N.A., and Alexander,
        L.T.  (US Dept. Agric., Beltsville, Md.
        and US Atomic Energy Comm., New York,
        N.Y.):  RADIUM-226 AND POLONIUM-210 IN
        LEAF TOBACCO AND TOBACCO SOIL.  Science
        146:1043-5  (Nov. 20), 1964.
   uPo in  tobacco plants is derived from either soil
or air.   It may be  taken up directly from the soil
or may  result from radioactive decay of 210pb or
•"6Ra taken up from the soil.  It may also result
from radioactive decay of the daughters of 222Ra
deposited on leaves.  In attempting to establish
its origin, the authors studied natural radioac-
tivity  in different types of leaf tobacco produced
in various years in various localities, and in
soils producing tobaccos in 1963.  Included in the
analyses was the calculation of the equilibrium
                                              210P
                                           Environmental Surveys
                                                                                              45

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activity of 210pb (daughter of 22oRa an(j precursor
of 210p0) from both nuclides.  Comparison of cal-
culation from 210p0 with that calculated from
226Ra showed that 22&Ra is not (-j^ oniy source of
210Pb in tobacco.
  The results showed that contents of 226Ra an(j
210po jn leaf tobacco and tobacco-growing soils
vary with the source.  The differences may result
from production locality, culture, and curing.  Po
is not entirely derived from the Ra;  plants prob-
ably take it up from soil or air.  (15 references)
297      Vilenskii, V.D., Davydov, E.N., and Mal-
        akhov, S.G.:  (SEASONAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL
        CHANGES IN THE 210Pb CONTENT OF THE ATMO-
        SPHERE.)  In   Radioaktivnye Izotopy v
        Atmosfere i Ikh Ispol'zovanie v Meteor-
        ologii, Moscow, Atomizdat, 1964, pp. 120-
        31.
The concentration of Rn and  -^Pb was measured
over a 2-yr period in the surface boundary layer
of the atmosphere over Moscow and the Kheys Island,
and the influx of 210Pb and 90Sr into the atmo-
sphere of polar regions was studied.  Also, the
seasonal changes in the rate of purification of
the 210pb aerosol-carrier was evaluated.  (From
Nuclear Science Abstracts 20:Abstr. No. 16640,
1966)
298     Vilenskii, V.D., Dmitrieva, G.V., and
        Krasnopevtsev, Yu.V.:  (NATURAL AND ARTI-
        FICIAL RADIOACTIVITY OF THE ATMOSPHERE
        OVER THE OCEANS AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO
        METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS.) In  Radioaktivnye
        Izotopy v Atmosfere i Ikh Ispol'zovanie v
        Meteorologii, Moscow, Atomizdat, 1964,
        pp. 307-22.
The content and distribution of natural Rn and
artificial (210Pb and 90Sr) radioactivity in the
near-water layer of the atmosphere in the low and
equatorial latitudes was studied.  (From Nuclear
Science Abstracts 20:Abstr. No. 16699,  1966)

299     Wampler, J.M., and Kulp, J.L. (Columbia
        Univ., Palisades, N.Y.):  (AN ISOTOPIC
        STUDY OF LEAD IN SEDIMENTARY PYRITE.)
        Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 28:1419-
        58 (Sept.), 1964.
The Pb in sedimentary pyrite is typical of dis-
solved Pb in the sea from which the sediments are
deposited, provided that the pyrite is  formed at
the time of or soon after deposition, and its iso-
topic composition is not changed by radioactive
decay of U or Th.  These conditions appear to be
realized generally in pyrite from unmetamorphosed
sedimentary rocks.  In metasedimentary  rocks, the
origin of Pb in pyrite may be quite complex, but
in favorable cases the isotopic composition of
such Pb provides some information about the pre-
metamorphic history of the samples.  The Pb con-
tent of 30 samples of pyrite from sedimentary and
metasedimentary rocks has been determined by X-ray
fluorescence spectrometry.  Pb contents ranged
from a few ppm to several hundred ppm in both sed-
imentary and metasedimentary samples.   The U con-
tent of most samples was determined by  isotope
dilution; much of the U and in some cases much of
the Pb, associated with the samples, could be re-
moved by leaching for several days in hot HC1.
                 The U/Pb ratio was mostly  so  low that  the contri-
                 bution  of  radiogenic  Pb  by decay of U  was negligi-
                 ble.  The  isotopic abundances of Pb were  related
                 to a  2-stage model for development  of  oceanic  Pb
                 based on the isotopic composition of Pb in the
                 modern  North Pacific.  Samples from black schists
                                            9nfi
                 in Finland contained  excess ^UDPb which probably
                 originated in black shale  environments prior  to
                 metamorphism.  The amount  of  excess 2"°Pb and  the
                 composition of other  samples  indicate  deposition
                 times in excess  of 2100  million yr. A group  of
                 samples of Ordovician or Silurian age  have iso-
                 topic compositions similar to those observed  in
                 modern  marine Pb.

                 300     Wilkening, M.H.  (New  Mexico Inst. Mining
                        Tech.,  Socorro):  RADON-DAUGHTER  IONS IN
                        THE ATMOSPHERE.   In Adams,  J.A.S., and
                        Lowder,  W.M.,  ed.: Natural Radiation En-
                        vironment.   Chicago,  Univ.  of  Chicago
                        Press, 1964,  pp. 359-68.
                 222Rn,  220Rn an(j 219^ are present  in  the atmos-
                 iphere in measureable  amounts; 222^ w^t:h  a half--
                 life of 3.82 days has the  best chance  of  escaping
                 into the air.  The U-Ra  series from 222Rn to  the
                 22-yr 210pb isotope is shown  in a figure.   The Rn-
                 daughter small ions of positive charge and high
                 mobility that result during the decay  of  222Rn ancj
                 its short-lived  daughters  are measured with a
                 negative-wire apparatus.   The activity of the
                 220Rn daughters  is governed by the  10.6-hr decay
                 period  of  212pb.  The measurement of the  Rn-daugh-
                 ter ions is a useful  tool  in  studying  atmospheric
                 electrical environment.

                 301     Williams, H.A. (Public Analyst, City Lon-
                        don Labs, England):   THE OCCURRENCE OF Pb
                        IN TEA.  Journal Association Public An-
                        alysts 2, No. 1:8-12, 1964.
                 It was  suggested that a  fine  dust from a  Pb-bear-
                 ing soil introduces the  contaminant into  tea.
                 (From Chemical Abstracts 63:10584,  1965)

                 302     Zabugina, E.A.,  Los,  L.I.,  Polyakova,  E.G.,
                        and Pyatnitskaya,  L.K. (Med. Inst., Sara-
                        tov, USSR):   (TRACE ELEMENTS IN WELL  WATER
                        FROM VARIOUS  WATER-BEARING  HORIZONS OF THE
                        SARATOV  REGION.) Gigiena i  Sanitariya 29,
                        No. 5:88-91,  1964.
                 The Pb  content reported  for various water sources
                 ranged  from 0.67-19.36 ug/1.
46
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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                                     I.   PLANTS  AND ANIMALS
             A.  COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS,  LOWER ORGANISMS, PLANTS,  AND  IN VITRO  SPECIMENS
                     1950

303     Engelbreth-Holm,  J.,  and Plum,  C.M.  (Univ.
        Inst. Pathol. Anatomy,  Copenhagen, Den-
        mark) :   PRODUCTION OF STIPPLED  ERYTHROCYTES
        IN VITRO.   Nature  166:990 (Dec.  9),  1950.
Since no studies appear to have been carried out
to detect whether the direct  action of  a Pb  medium
on erythrocytes in vitro  may  cause basophilic stip-
pling (BSE),  the authors  suspended normal rabbit
erythrocytes  in plasma from rabbits poisoned with
daily iv injections of 0.25 g PbO suspended  in 10
ml water.  In 8 days the  BSE  increased  to 20% and
then declined to normal values  toward death  at 16
days.  No relation was found  between the number of
reticulocytes and BSE. To the plasma obtained
from the poisoned rabbits, washed red cells  from
normal rabbits were added and the specimens  were
placed in a water-bath of 37°C.  After  4 hr  6-14%
BSE were formed in the plasma culture from poisoned
rabbits vs 3-7% in that from  normal rabbits.  The
authors conclude that stippling may be  induced in
normal cells cultivated in vitro in a medium which
conditions stippling in vivo.

304     Olson,  C.K., and  Binkley, F. (Univ.  Utah
        Coll, of Med., Salt Lake City):   METABOLISM
        OF GLUTATHIONE.  III. ENZYMIC HYDROLYSIS OF
        CYSTEINYLGLYCINE.   Journal of Biological
        Chemistry 186:731-5,  1950.
Cysteinylglycine was prepared from glutathione
treated with  1.2 N HC1.  Cysteinylglycine could not
be isolated and apparently was  converted to  Cyste-
inylglycine during isolation  attempts.   CGase
(enzyme which hydrolyzes  Cysteinylglycine) was
separated from GSHase (enzyme which hydrolyzes
y-glutamyl linkage of glutathione) from  pig  kidney.
CGase was activated by Co++,  Fe++, and Mn++; un-
affected by Mg++,  Ca++, and glutamine;  inhibited by
Pb++.  Preincubation of CGase with Mn-H-  ions and
glutathione inhibited its  activity.  The maximum
hydrolysis of Cysteinylglycine  by the action of
CGase was approximately 50% at  pH 8.2 under  test
conditions.  (From authors'  summary)

                     1951

3Q5     Dzialoszynski, L.M.  (Univ.  Posnan,  Poland):
         (PHENOLSULFATASE. III. A NEW METHOD FOR
        THE ESTIMATION OF PHENOLSULFATASE ACTIVITY,
        INHIBITION,  INACTIVATION, FRACTIONAL PRE-
        CIPITATION.) Bull. Soc. Amis Sci. Lettres
        Poznan Bll,  87-99, 1951.
The molecular concentration  (M) and percentage in-
hibition respectively, for the following inhibi-
tors added to the previously published list  are:
AgN03 10-4, 66; NaCN 10~5, 10; NH20H 10~5,  7;
NH20H 10-4, 63; H2NCONHNH2 10-4, g; pb(N03)? 10  ,
44; Pb(N03)2 10-2, 59; KH2P04 10~2, 25; and AcONa
10-2, o.  (From Chemical Abstracts 46:7605, 1952)
                     1952

306     Ruffilli,  D.  (Univ.  Sassari,  Italy):
        Azione dell'ambiente biochimico sul]a
        riproduzione del virus influenzale in
        culture di tessuti.   III.   Azione di  al-
        cuni ioni  metallic!.  (INFLUENCE OF THE
        BIOCHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT ON THE REPRODUC-
        TION OF INFLUENZA VIRUS IN TISSUE CULTURES.
        III.  EFFECT OF SOME METAL IONS.)   Bollet-
        tino  della Societa  Italiana  di Blologia
        Sperimentale 28:828-32, 1952.
All cations studied, including Pb  and Ag inhibited
specifically the multiplication of the virus. The
latter 2 did so when present in concentrations of
1 x 10~8 and 10~"M, respectively,  but did not
destroy the vitality of transplants of chorioal-
lantoic membrane.   Pb was fixed in the tissue.

307     Yoshida, K. (Kyoto Univ.,  Japan):  MECH-
        ANISM OF LEAD POISONING. I. OXYGEN UPTAKE
        OF EXPERIMENTALLY LEAD-INJECTED ANIMAL
        TISSUES. II. THE OXYGEN UPTAKE OF TISSUE
        SLICES ON ADDING LEAD TO WARBURG'S FLASK.
        III. INFLUENCE OF LEAD SALT ON THE ADAP-
        TIVE PRODUCTION OF GLYCOLYSIS ENZYMES.
        Japan. J.  Nation's Health 21:2-4; 68-73;
        74-8, 1952.
I.  After intracardial injection of 9.1 mg Pb ace-
tate to guinea pigs the 0 consumption of tis-
sues was decreased; the decrease in the liver was
proportional to the log dose of the Pb, but the 0
consumption was not clear in other tissues.  The
0 consumption of tissues was increased gradually
with the decrease of Pb in tissues.
  II.  The 0 uptake of tissue slices  in vitro in
Warburg's flask containing asparagine and NaOH or
NaCl, glycine, and NaOH solution at pH 7.4 with
various amounts of Pb chloride (0.3-300 mg%)  was
retarded by the presence of  the Pb at the concen-
tration of 2 mg% for liver,  15 mg% for brain, and
11 mg% for kidney, and the retardation was propor-
tional to the concentration  of Pb  in  tissues.
However, the decrease of 0 uptake  by  the Pb-poison-
ed animal tissues  cannot be  explained on the  basis
that the direct inhibition is caused  only by  Pb.
  III.   Tests with bakers' yeast on the respira-
tion in media containing NaCl and  various amounts
of Pb chloride indicated that Pb++ was not the
direct cause of respiration  inhibition; it was at-
tributed to the damage of the production of gly-
colysis enzyme.  (From Chemical Abstracts 47:11535,
1953)
                                                  47

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                      1953

308     Hashimoto, K. (Kozo High School, Osaka,
        Japan):   REFRACT1LE BODIES WITH AFFINITY
        FOR LEAD IN STYLONYCHIA HISTRIO. Zool.
        Mag. (Tokyo) 62:241-4,  1953.
Refractile bodies with an affinity for Pb were
demonstrated in the ectoplasm of Stylonychia Pleu-
rotricha, and Oxytricha; physiological observa-
tions are given.  (From Chemical Abstracts 48:
13999, 1954)

309     Hewitt,  E.J. (Univ. Bristol Res. Station,
        Long Ashton, England):   METAL INTERRELA-
        TIONSHIPS IN PLANT NUTRITION.  I.  EFFECTS
        OF SOME METAL TOXICITIES ON SUGAR BEET,
        TOMATO,  OAT, POTATO, AND NARROW STEM KALE
        GROWTH IN SAND CULTURE.  Journal of Ex-
        perimental Botany (London) 4:59-64, 1953.
The title products were grown in sand cultures
with additions of several heavy metals, including
Pb (at 0.5 and 1.0 meq/1 in 1947 and 0.5 in 1948).
Pb was among the metals that were less active in
causing chlorosis (Cr, Zn, V, Mn, and Pb vs Cu,  Co,
and Cd).

310     Hiyama,  Y., and Ichikawa, R.  (Tokyo Univ.,
        Japan):   THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF
        TAGS AND LEAD INJECTION UPON' THE MORTALITY
        RATE OF FISH. Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish-
        eries 19:376-81, 1953.
By injection of Pb acetate a passage of time can
be recorded upon the layer of scales and other
hard tissues of fishes.  In aquarium experiments
Pb acetate injection (0.1 cc 0.1% Pb acetate/10 g)
had no influence on the mortality rate of goby
(Acanthogobius flavimanus).  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 49:5698, 1955)

311      Miyoshi, Y.  (Keio Univ., Tokyo, Japan):
        DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN BLOOD CONSTITU-
        ENTS.  I.  EXPERIMENTS IN VITRO WITH
        GOAT BLOOD.  Journal of Science of
        Labour (Japan) 29:488-95, 1953.
A Pb acetate solution (100 mg Pb/ml)  was mixed  with
15 ml goat plasma.  With increasing volumes of  Pb
solution the Pb  up to 100 yg was distributed uni-
formly between the supernatant fluid and sediment.
Beyond this point the sediment contained more Pb,
coagulating the plasma protein.  In goat blood
containing a small volume of Pb acetate solution
at 37° the Pb in plasma decreased to a minimum  in
2 hr and thereafter remained unchanged  (Pb dis-
tribution between the plasma and corpuscles at
equilibrium).  The Pb concentration (yg/dl) in
plasma (x) was related to that in corpuscles (y)
as y = 205.31 x x°'286.  (From author's
summary)

312     Monnier, A.M. (Univ. Sorbonne, Paris,
        France):  Les affinites des globulins
        se'riques pour divers cations  et leur vari-
        ations a la suite de la formolisation.
        (AFFINITY OF SERUM GLOBULINS FOR VARIOUS
        CATIONS  AND ITS VARIATION FOLLOWING TREAT-
        MENT WITH FORMALDEHYDE.)  Comptes Rendus
        des Seances de la Socie'te de Biologie et
        de ses Filiales 148:1548-51,  1953.
The effects of HCHO treatment and variations in pH
                 on  the affinity  of  highly diluted  serum  proteins
                 for small  amounts of  Cu, Zn,  Cd, La,  Ce,  Pb,  Co,
                 and Ni ions  are  discussed.

                 313     Reddi, K.K.  (Univ. Stockholm,  Sweden):
                        THE  UPTAKE  OF THORIUM B  (LEAD) BY THE
                        ERYTHROCYTES  OF THE RABBIT BLOOD. Arkiv.
                        Kemi 6:147-54, 1953.
                 When rabbit  blood was treated with Pb  salts the Pb
                 as  ThB was taken up by the erythrocytes  rather
                 than by the  plasma.   Of the total  ThB, 2.9% was
                 bound to the strotna,  equally  distributed between
                 stromal protein  and cholinesterase.   The hemoly-
                 zate containing  the bulk of the bound  ThB lost its
                 activity when dialyzed against acetate buffer of
                 pH  2.8.  A 21% loss occurred  after dialysis with
                 borate buffer of pH 10.0.  A  15-fold  increase in
                 activity occurred after addition of 1/3  volume of
                 absolute ethanol to the hemolyzate, accounting
                 also for 70% of  nondialyzable ThB.  By ionophore-
                 sis the denatured hemoglobin  became free  of ThB.
                 The alcohol  precipitate yielded protein  and non-
                 protein, probably phenolic, fractions.   The non-
                 protein fraction bound 2/3 of the  ThB  in  the  pre-
                 cipitate.  (From Chemical Abstracts 47:11560,
                 1953)

                 314     Reddi, K.K. (Univ. Stockholm  Sweden):
                        ISOLATION OF  THORIUM  B  (LEAD)-BINDING SUB-
                        STANCE FROM THE ERYTHROCYTE OF RABBIT
                        BLOOD.   Nature 172:202-3,  1953.
                 An  0 stream  striking  the surface of radio-Th  was
                 used to activate heparinized  rabbit blood.  The
                 plasma was removed  by centrifugation  and the  cells
                 washed 3  times with cold 0.9% Nad, then hemolyzed
                 with water and alcohol.  The  hemolyzate  was re-
                 moved by  centrifugation and dialyzed  against  dis-
                 tilled water; 61% of  the ThB  was in the  nondialyz-
                 able form  with the  remainder  in  the dialyzate.  A
                 precipitate  which had 15 times  the activity of  the
                 hemolyzate was formed by the  addition of absolute
                 alcohol at -10°. The precipitate  was insoluble  in
                 water, 0.9%  NaCl, and mineral acids;  slightly
                 soluble in 0.02N NaOH.  The biuret, Millon-Nasse,
                 xanthoproteic and ninhydrin  tests  were positive.
                 A weak blood group  B  was also evident.  A green
                 precipitate  was  formed with Benedict  reagent  but
                 no  sugars  were detected chromatographically.  The
                 precipitate  was  dissolved  in  0.02N NaOH  and the
                 protein denatured by  Sevag's  reagent.  The pre-
                 cipitated  protein was shaken  with  CHCl3-BuOH  10:1,
                 then centrifuged.   This was repeated  until the
                 supernatent  solution  gave a negative  ninhydrin
                 test.  C02 was passed through the  protein-free
                 solution  to  precipitate all of the active com-
                 ponent.  This water insoluble precipitate was dis-
                 solved in  0.02N  NaOH. NH4OH  and 20%  Pb  acetate
                 were added to form  the Pb salt which  contained
                 C 35.95, H 4.88, N  12.14 and  Pb 26.08%.  The Pb
                 salt was suspended  in water and acidified with 6N
                 HC1 and H2S  to saturation and centrifuged.  The
                 H2S free supernatent  gave a positive Millon-Nasse
                 reaction,  a  precipitate with  Br-^O,  an  orange
                 color with diazotized p-nitroaniline,  and a blue
                 color with phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic reagent.
                 It  is suggested  that  the substance which  takes up
                 the ThB in nondializable hemolyzate consists of a
                 protein and  a nonprotein component which  is prob-
                 ably a phenolic  compound.
48
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
315       Roth,  J.S.  (Hahnemann Med.  Coll.  and  Hosp.,
         Philadelphia,  Pa.): ' EFFECT OF SULFHYDRYL
         REACTANTS  ON LIVER RIBONUCLEASE.   Nature
         171:127-8,  1953.
 The method  of  Roth and Milstein was employed  to
 measure  the activity of  rat-liver  ribonuclease.
 Several  reagents which react with  sulfhydryl  (SH)
 groups increased the activity of the enzyme in
 homogenates.   The  activity was increased  ^25% by
 4 x 10~4M Ag and Pb ions.   Saturation of  the  sys-
 tem with p-chloromercuribenzoic acid or phenyl
 mercuric chloride  caused a similar increase.   Cu
 ions at  a concentration  of 4 x 10~^M inhibited the
 activity by VjO%.   The inhibitory  action  of Cu
 ions could  be  reversed by the addition of BAL.
 BAL had  no  effect  on the systems containing the
 other SH reacting  agents,  or on the enzyme alone.
 The possibility of a SH-containing ribonuclease
 inhibitor in liver homogenates is  discussed.

 316      Santi,  R. ,  and Taormina, A.:   (PHARMACO-
         LOGICAL STUDIES  ON ADENOSINETRIPHOSPHATE
         (ATP).  I.  COMBINED ACTION OF ATP AND
         HEAVY  METALS ON  THE ISOLATED FROG HEART.)
         Arch.  Ital. Sci.  Farmacol.  3:367-73,  1953.
 ATP (1:5000-1:10,000)  inhibits the toxic  action of
 Cu  and Pb on the isolated frog heart,  but not that
 of  Hg.   This is considered in relation to the no-
 table tendency of  Cu and Pb to form precipitates
 with ATP.   (From Chemical Abstracts 49:13510,
 1955)

 317      Yoshida, K. (Kyoto Univ.,  Japan):  MECHAN-
         ISM OF LEAD POISONING. IV.  INFLUENCE  OF
         LEAD ON THE PHOSPHATE AND  NUCLEIC ACID
         METABOLISM. Japan  J. Nation's Health 22:
         58-62,  1953.
 The synthesis  of enzymic protein from the forma-
 tion of  galactozymase  in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 was lowered in the presence of Pb;  the addition of
 adenosinetriphosphate  had  no influence while  ad-
 dition of ribonucleic  acid to 20 yg/ml allowed
 normal galactozymase production.   PbCl2 added to
 the extent  of  1000 ug/ml had no influence  on  res-
 piration.   The cause of  damage on  general  metabo-
 lism by  the Pb is  attributed to the damage on
 nucleic  acid metabolism.   (From Chemical  Abstracts
 48:6021,  1954)

                      1954

 318      Fusco,  M. ,  and Guarino, A.  (Univ.  Naples,
         Italy):  L'Azione  del Pb sull'attivita'
         succino-deidrasica.  (ACTION OF LEAD  ON
         SUCCINODEHYDRASE ACTIVITY.)  Bollettino
         della  Societa  Italiana di  Biologia Speri-
         mentale 30:195-6,  1954.
 Fresh tissue slices were frozen and washed, then
 immersed in buffer  solution of methylene blue  and
 Na  succinate at pH  7.7 for  15-20 min,  then placed
 between  slides  under water  and sealed  with paraf-
 fin,  and the discoloration followed to ^80 min.
 When Pb  nitrate or  acetate was included in the im-
 mersion  solution,  no discoloration  was  found with
 0.1N and 0.01N solutions.   At 0.001N slight re-
 tardation in discoloration was found,  and at
 0.0001N  the tests  ran  parallel with the buffer
 solutions.   Tl at  0.1N concentration did  not  in-
 hibit the succinodehydrase activity,  Mn acceler-
ated the reaction slightly, and Hg at 0.001N was
inhibitory.

319     Gurd, F.R.N., and Murray, G.R., Jr.
        (Harvard Univ. Cambridge, Mass.):  PREPARA-
        TION AND PROPERTIES OF SERUM AND PLASMA
        PROTEINS.  XXXIX.  THE INTERACTION OF HUMAN
        SERUM ALBUMIN.  Journal of the American
        Chemical Society 76:187-90, 1954.
The interaction of human serum mercaptalbumin with
plumbous ions at 0° has been studied by observing
the effect of the metal on the solubility of the
protein and by measurements of binding.  Pb ions
render the protein insoluble over almost the entire
pH range 2-8.  The reaction can be reversed; as
many as 70 Pb ions have been combined with albumin
without obvious effect on the properties of the
protein after removal of the metal.  Binding was
measured either by the dialysis equilibrium tech-
nique or by analysis of the Pb-protein precipitate
and of the supernatant solution.  Studies of the
competition between Pb and H ions indicated that
Pb ions are bound to carboxylate groups in this
protein.  The failure of Pb ions to compete with
Zn ions for common binding sites is taken as evi-
dence that Pb ions do not bind to the imidarole
groups in human serum mercaptalbumin.  (From
authors' summary; 35 references).

320     Joyce, C.R.B., Moore, H., and Weatherall,
        M. (London Hosp. Med. Coll., England):
        THE EFFECTS OF LEAD, MERCURY AND GOLD ON
        THE POTASSIUM TURNOVER OF RABBIT BLOOD
        CELLS.  British Journal of Pharmacology
        and Chemotherapy 9:463-70, 1954.
Rabbit red cells poisoned with Pb, Hg, or Au chlo-
rides lost K at 37° and 7°, and later hemolyzed
(except with  Pb chloride at 7°).  Pb chloride ac-
celerated the entry of **2K into the cells at the
same time net losses of K were occurring.  With
Hg chloride,   K entry was accelerated only with
large K losses and incipient hemolysis.  Au chlo-
ride acted less rapidly and produced effects in-
termediate between Pb and Hg.  (20 references)

321      Kostial, K., Vouk, V.B.,  and Puree, L.:
        (THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD IONS ON THE RELEASE
        OF ACETYLCHOLINE.) Arhiv Hig. Rada 5:351-
        4, 1954.
The preganglionic nerve of cat superior cervical
ganglion was stimulated with a current of 2 cy-
cles/sec and perfused with Ringer solution contain-
ing 1:100,000 eserine sulfate.  Addition of Pb
nitrate (1 yg/cc)' reduces the amount of acetyl-
choline in perfusate to 35% of its original value.
When nictitating membrane contractions were meas-
ured, the addition of Pb ions caused a complete
block of ganglionic transmission, while stimulat-
ing the preganglionic nerve fibers.  (From Chem-
ical Abstracts 49:16220, 1955)

322     Ono, S., and Hiromi, K. (Naniwa Univ.,
        Sakai, Japan):  NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITION
        OF BACTERIAL a-AMYLASE BY CALCIUM AND OTH-
        ER METALLIC IONS. Proc. Japan Acad. 30:467-
        72, 1954.
The effect of metallic ions on the action of crys-
talline bacterial a-amylase on amylose was measured
by determining the increase in reducing end groups
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                49

-------
 (small  fragments)  and  the  decrease  in  the  color  of
 amylose-iodine  complex (large  fragments).   The
 reaction was  carried out  in  acetate buffer,  pH
 5.8,  at 30°.  Next to  Hg,  Pb was  among the strong-
 est  inhibitors  of  the  production  of large  frag-
 ments.   (From Chemical Abstracts  49:3311,  1955)

 323      Saito,  G.:  (ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC  STUDIES
         ON THE  ACTION  OF  VARIOUS  METALLIC  SALT
         SOLUTIONS  UPON THE ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE.)
         Yokohama Igaku 4:16-21,  1954,  Japanese
         Science Review, Medical  Sciences Abstracts
         1955, Abstr. No.  2980.
 Defibrinated  human red blood cells  were hemolyzed
 in hypotonic  metal salt solution, and  the  changes
 which resulted  in  the  cell membrane were observed
 with the electron  microscope.  The  effects of  Cu,
 Ag,  Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Al, Sn,  Pb,  Cr, Mn, Fe,  Co,
 and Ni were tested.  (From Chemical Abstracts  52:
 9241, 1958)

 324      Shaw, W.H.R.   (Univ. Texas, Austin):  THE
         INHIBITION OF  UREASE BY VARIOUS METAL
         IONS.  Journal of  the American Chemical
         Society 76:2160-3, 1954.
 Data on the relative toxicity  of  metal ions  toward
 the enzyme urease  were collected  from  the  litera-
 ture.  It was found possible to arrange the  common
 metal ions in a toxicity  sequence:   Ag '^Hg++>Cu
 >Cd++>Co++>Ni~H">Mn++ with  Pb++ and  Zn"1"4" unassigned
 but  150 yg/g, while in the
                kidney inhibition was of greater extent.  The
                authors conclude that this behavior cannot be ex-
                plained entirely by chelation of Pb.  (13 refer-
                ences)

                327      Deszyck, E.J., and Ting,  S.V.:  EFFECT  OF
                        LEAD ARSENATE SPRAYS ON THE SUCROSE CON-
                        TENT OF GRAPEFRUIT.  Am.  Soc. Hort. Sci.,
                        52nd Ann. Meeting, East Lansing, 1955:
                        47-8.  Journal of the Science of Food and
                        Agriculture  7:1-259, 1956.
                Post-bloom sprays of Pb arsenate  applied to grape-
                fruic cause a low acid content and an increased
                sucrose content in the fruit.

                328      Eriksen, L.  (Univ. Oslo,  Norway):  LEAD
                        INTOXICATION.  I. THE EFFECT OF LEAD ON
                        THE IN VITRO BIOSYNTHESIS OF HEME AND FREE
                        ERYTHROCYTE  PORPHYRINS.   Scandinavian
                        Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investi-
                        gation 7:80-5, 1955.
                The  effect of Pb on  the biosynthesis of heme and
                free porphyrins in immature rabbit erythrocytes
                and  normal duck erythrocytes was  studied in vitro
                with  the  aid of Na acetate labeled in  the  carbonyl
                group with  1LfC and ferric ammonium citrate labeled
                with  55/59Fe.
                   It was  shown that  Pb exercises  a strong  inhibi-
                tory  effect on the formation of heme, but  the  ef-
                fect  is not due to a blocking of  the incorporation
                of  Fe  into protoporphyrin  (PP)  as suggested by
                Rimington (1938) but to  a diminished formation  of
                the  porphyrin part of heme.
                   It  is suggested  that free erythrocyte PP is used
                for  the biosyntheses of  heme.   (From author's  sum-
                mary;  15  references)

                329     Herrero, F.J.:  (EFFECT OF CATIONS OS THE
                        DEVELOPMENT OF CANDIDA ALBICANS.)  Arch.
                        farm, y bioquim. Tucuman  7:179-92, 1955.
                C. albicans grown on agar-peptone-glucose medium
                at pH 6.5 was grown  in an agar-free medium for 48
                hr at 28° and 0.1 ml placed in a Petri dish.  Af-
                ter 48 hr incubation, observations on growth inhi-
                bition were made.  Pb has the lowest toxicity
                level.  (From Chemical Abstracts  51:14895, 1957)

                330     Jachimowicz, Th. (Bundes-Lehr-u. Versuch-
                        sanstalt, Vienna-Grinzing, Austria):  (THE
 50
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        EFFECT OF LEAD OXIDE ON BEES.) Z. Bienen-
        forsch. 3:29-31, 1955.
The lethal dose of PbO when fed to bees in honey
was 0.32-0.50 rag/bee.  The toxic symptoms included
decreased inertia, slow wing movement, and inabil-
ity to climb, followed by paralysis, inability to
feed, and death.  (From Chemical Abstracts 49:
9826, 1955)

331      Kleinsorge, H., and Rosner, K^ (Med.  Univ.
        Polyclinic, Jena, Germany):  Uber die
        Beeinflussbarkeit der basophilen Substanz
        jugendlicher Erythrozyten durch Vitamin
        812-  (THE INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN B12 ON
        THE BASOPHILIC SUBSTANCE IN YOUNG ERYTHRO-
        CYTES.)  Folia Haematologica 73:75-9,
        1955.
The influence of vitamin B^2 on the erythrocytes
in the peripheral blood was studied.  Rabbits were
poisoned with Pb (6 mg/kg Pb acetate iv which pro-
duced anemia on the 4th day) and the resulting
basophil stippled cells were studied.  To 0.1 ml
of such blood was added equal parts of a solution
containing 3.8% Na citrate and 0.75-4.5 pg of vi-
tamin B}2-  This was kept from 1-48 hr at 37°.
The basophilic stippling did not disappear.  It
was not possible to demonstrate any effect of vi-
tamin Bi2 °n the peripheral erythrocytes.  (22
references)

332      Kostial, K. (Inst. Ind. Hyg., Zagreb,
        Yugoslavia):  (EFFECT OF SODIUM, POTASSI-
        UM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND LEAD IONS IN
        SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION.) Arhiv Hig. Rada
        6:193-200, 1955.
The acetylcholine output was measured after per-
fusing the superior cervical ganglion of cats
with 10-25 mM/1 Mg, 6.6-10.5 Ca, 23 K, and Na in
an unspecified concentration, single or in combin-
ations, and also 5.40 uM/1 Pb.  Results are given
in the form of columnar plots rather than numeri-
cal values.  (40 references)  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 50:5160, 1956)

333      Laroze, A.:  (EFFECT OF POISONS ON FISH.)
        Anais fac. farm. Porto 15:77-111, 1955.
Squalius cephalus 7-8 cm long, were used in a vol-
ume of 200 cc.  The time required to kill was de-
termined as a function of concentration, and was
nearly constant for ferric lactate 1.60-9.83.10~3N,
Al chloride 0.03-2.8.10"3N, and Cu sulfate 0.157-
b.28.10~3N, while for Hg chloride up to 10~3N and
for HC1 up to 10~2N there was a rapid increase.
Temperature studies showed that for Ag nitrate,
Ba chloride, Pb acetate, uranyl acetate, Cu
sulfate, NaF, and LiCl the velocity of fatality was
nearly constant up to 15° after which it in-
creased rapidly.  For Hg chloride, ferric lactate,
and NaCN, quinine sulfate, sparteine sulfate and
strychnine sulfate a minimum velocity of mortality
was found around 15°.  (From Chemical Abstracts 50:
10287, 1956)

334      Meier, R., Schuler, W., and Krueger,  R.
        (Laboratories, Ciba Co., Basel, Switzer-
        land) :  Pharmakodynamische Bedeutung  der
        Zell-Stoffwechselwirkung "cytotoxischer"
        Stoffe.  (PHARMACOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF
        THE ACTION OF CYTOTOXIC SUBSTANCES ON CELL
        METABOLISM.)  Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's
        Archiv fUr Experimentelle Pathologie und
        Pharmakologie 224:206-23, 1955.
In an evaluation of a certain metabolic effect on
yeast for the purpose of determining pharmacologic
effects on cells, a large series of irritants and
their effect on metabolism of yeast and of various
other substances was compared.  In addition to
irritants, the substances included nerve stimu-
lants, capillary poisons, cytotoxic substances,
histamine liberators, disinfectants, chemothera-
peutics, hormones, vitamins, etc.  Pb acetate was
1 of 15 substances tested which did not affect
respiration, but increased fermentation.  (23 ref-
erences)

335      Sapeika, N. (Univ. Capetown, S. Africa):
        ACTIONS OF LEAD EDTA COMPLEX.  Archives
        Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de
        Therapie 101, No. 4:488-94, 1955.
The PbEDTA complex is a water-soluble contrast
medium.  It is practically nontoxic.  Large iv
doses, eg, 1 ml/kg given experimentally in the
high concentration (50%) produce in cats, rabbits,
and rats a transitory fall of blood pressure that
rapidly returns to normal; it is not prevented by
atropine and is not due to vasodilation as shown
by intestinal plethysmography.  The fall of blood
pressure is due to depression of the auricles and
ventricles, and arises presumably from the pro-
duction temporarily of electrolyte imbalance.
Respiration is temporarily and slightly altered.
The muscle of the intestine and nonpregnant uterus
is not stimulated even by high concentrations of
the complex.  In rats no interruption of pregnancy
was produced.  The PbEDTA complex is excreted
without harm to patients in cases of Pb poisoning
given the Ca complex as antidote.  The PbEDTA
complex has radiographic value orally and paren-
terally as demonstrated experimentally.  (From
author's summary)

336     Wallen, L.L.  (Iowa State Coll., Ames):
        THE EFFECT OF ORGANOMETALLIC AND QUATER-
        NARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS ON THE GROWTH OF
        MICROORGANISMS.   Iowa State Journal of
        Science  29:526-8, 1955.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Acetobacter  suboxydans,
Lactobacillus delbrueckii, L. casei, Clostridium
acetobutylicum, and Aspergillus niger were sub-
jected to the presence of organometallic compounds
and quaternary ammonium compounds, when all other
growth conditions were optimum.  Tetrakis(p-di-
methylaminophenyl)Pb tetramethiodide and triphenyl
(2-(p-carboxyphenylazo)-5-(dimethylamino)phenyl)Sn
were so insoluble in water that their aqueous so-
lutions were not toxic.  Triphenyl(3-(diethylmeth-
ylammonium)propyl)Pb methosulfate was  toxic to all
microorganisms at a concentration of 10~5 M/ml.
Toxicity was probably due to reduction of surface
tension or adsorption on  the surface of the cells.
Replacing Pb of  this compound by C produced a
•new compound  (4,4 ,4-triphenylbutyl) diethyl-
methylammonium methosulfate  (444T).  This was
less  toxic  than  its Pb analog.  Diphenyl-Hg,
triphenylbenzyl-Pb, triphenyl-p-tolyl-Pb, and
triphenylsilanol were all toxic.  Tetraphenyl-
Pb and  tetraphenyl-Sn were not  soluble enough
to be  tested.  British  antilewisite  reduced  the
                                           Plants and Animals

-------
inhibition of glucose metabolism by triphenyl-
p-tolyl-Pb when used with S. cerevisiae and
L. casei but had no effect on the action of
diphenyl-Hg.

337      White, I.G. (Univ. Sydney, Australia):
        THE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO MAMMALIAN
        SPERMATOZOA.  Australian Journal of Ex-
        perimental Biology and Medical Science
        33:359-66 (June), 1955.
The motility of ram, bull, rabbit, and human sper-
matozoa was tested in the presence of bivalent
cations of Mn, Fe, Co, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb at 2.0,
0.20, and 0.02 mM for 4 hr at room temperature.
Fe and Cu were most consistently toxic, although
species differences exist, as shown by the suscep-
tibility of ram spermatozoa to the action of Cu.
Cd was slightly toxic to bull spermatozoa and more
so to human.  Glutathione decreased the toxicity
of Cu for ram spermatozoa and Cd for human.  High
concentrations of. Pb and Co depressed the motility
of rabbit and human spermatozoa.  The use of dis-
tilled water as an artificial insemination diluent
appears to be unnecessary in order to avoid metal-
lic contamination.  (23 references)

                      1956

338      Baier, H., Bassler,  K.H., and Lang, K.
        (Univ. Mainz,  Germany):  Wirkungen von
        Blei im Intermediarstoffwechsel.   (EFFECTS
        OF LEAD ON INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM.)
        Archiv fur Experimentelle Pathologic und
        Pharmakologie 229:495-504, 1956.
The effect of Pb, used as PbCl2, on the citric acid
cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and anaerobic glycol-
ysis was investigated by using isolated mito-
chondria, homogenates, and the cyclophorase system
according to Green et al (1948) .  The oxidative
decarboxylation of pyruvate and a-ketoglutarate
was inhibited; the other reactions of the citric
acid cycle were not influenced.  The fatty acid
oxidation was inhibited between the activation
step and the  &-ketothiolase reaction.  The anaero-
bic glycolysis of hexosediphosphate was not in-
hibited.  The respiratory chain does not seem to
be affected by Pb.

339      Catchpole, H.R., Joseph, N.R., and Engel,
        M.B. (Univ. Illinois, Chicago):  HOMEO-
        STASIS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE.  III.  MAG-
        NESIUM-SODIUM EQUILIBRIUM AND INTERACTIONS
        WITH STRONTIUM AND LEAD.  A.M.A.  Archives
        of Pathology 61:503-11, 1956.
Dilution potentials with 0.1 isotonic saline were
measured before and after equilibration of rabbit
connective tissue (skin and epiphysis) with iso-
tonic saline containing low concentrations of Mg,
Sr, or Pb (0.005, 0.005, and 0.001 M, respective-
ly) and the difference was a measure of the bi-
valent cation bound to the tissue colloid.  Free
energies of formation of metal-colloid complexes
were calculated to be -2700 cal for Mg, -2900 cal
for Sr, and -3500 cal for Pb.  Thus, the foreign
cations and, in particular Pb, have a strong
affinity for ground substance and would be ex-
pected to displace the physiological cations.  The
implications of this are discussed in relation to
homeostasis and to treatment of Pb poisoning.
                 340     Grebecki, A., and Kuznicki, L.  (Nencki
                        Inst. Exptl. Biol., Warsaw, Poland):  (AU-
                        TOPROTECTION IN PARAMECIUM CAUDATUM BY IN-
                        FLUENCING THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ITS
                        MEDIUM). Acta Biologiae Experimentalis
                        (todz)  17:71-107, 1956.
                 Self-protective reactions of the organism by in-
                 fluencing toxic properties of its environment were
                 studied in P. caudatum.  Toxicities of  and protec-
                 tive devices against salts of inorganic and organ-
                 ic acids were discussed.  Toxicity depended pri-
                marily on the cation involved.  Among other ele-
                ments Pb and Mn were studied.   (From Chemical Ab-
                 stracts 52:12251, 1958)

                 341      Nishizono, H.  (Kagoshima Univ., Japan):
                         THE DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOACTIVE LEAD
                          (THORIUM B)  IN BLOOD OF CATTLE.   Journal
                         of Science of Labour  (Japan)  32:434-9
                          (June), 1956.
                 The  distribution of Pb in the blood was studied in
                 vitro at 37°C by using fresh cattle blood  and ThB
                 as a radioactive tracer of Pb.  The blood was
                 treated with an anticoagulant  (oxalate) and ThB
                 was  added.  The results obtained were  as follows:
                 1.   The distribution of ThB in blood reached equi-
                 librium in about 2 hr after addition of ThB and
                 5-13% of added  ThB was found in plasma, 52-61% in
                 the  stroma of red.blood corpuscles, and 34-35% in
                 the  cytoplasm of these cells.  2.  1000-2000 cpm of
                 ThB  which was  added to fresh blood was detected in
                 hemoglobin crystals in such activity as from 43-98
                 cpm  and the fluid, from which ThB was  crystallized
                 out, had no ThB.  3.  The hemoglobin crystals pos-
                 sessed ThB not  in their heme fraction but  in globin
                 fraction.  4.   The distribution changed as follows
                 when fresh blood was stored in a refrigerator:  20-
                 25%  of added ThB was found in plasma, 15-25% in the
                 stroma of red blood corpuscles, and 50-60% in the
                 cytoplasm of these cells, when measurement was
                 made in 2 hr after addition of ThB to blood stored
                 for  7 days.  (From author's English summary)

                 342     Ogawa, M., Itakura, Y., and Imai, M.:   (IN-
                        FLUENCE OF COOKING ON CLAM THIAMINASE.  THE
                        EFFECT  OF HEAVY METALS.) Eiyo  to Shokuryo
                        9:59-62, 1956-57.
                 Hg++ and Fe+++  accelerated thiaminase activity at
                 higher concentrations (10~2 to  10~3 M)  but inhibi-
                 ted  at lower concentrations (10~4 M) .   A1+++ ac-
                 celerated at higher concentrations while Pb++,
                 Cd++, and Zn++  accelerated at lower concentrations.
                 Co"1"1" and Cu~H" inhibited at lower concentrations.
                 Glutathione and cysteine had antagonistic  action
                 with inhibition and acceleration of thiaminase
                 activity by Hg++ and Fe1' ' ' .  Among metal vessels
                 for  cooking, Cu vessels were the most powerful, Fe
                 vessel was less effective, and  glass and alumite
                 vessels were almost ineffective in inhibiting thi-
                 aminase activity.   (From Chemical Abstracts 51:
                 8920, 1957)

                 343     Parker, J.  (Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn.):
                        VARIATIONS IN COPPER, BORON, AND MANGANESE
                        IN LEAVES OF PINUS PONDEROSA. Forest
                        Science 2:190-8, 1956.
                 Spectrographic  analysis of P. ponderosa
                 needles showed  the presence of Mn, B,  Cu,
                 Pb,  Ti, Cr, Ft, Ub, Fe, Al, Ag, Mo, Sn, Na
 52
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 and  Ga.   Sought  for  and  not  found were  As,
 Be,  Au,  Zn, Tl and Os.   The  needles  appeared
 to accumulate 38-102 ppm Mn,  14-135  ppm B
 and  2-8  ppm Cu.

 344     Passow,  H.,  and  SchUtt, L. (Univ. Hamburg,
        Germany):  Versuche Uber den Einfluss von
        Komplexbildnern  auf die KaliumpermeabilitHt
        bleivergifteter Menschenerythrocyten.   (EX-
        PERIMENTS ON THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX FOR-
        MATION ON THE POTASSIUM PERMEABILITY OF
        LEAD POISONED HUMAN FRYTHROCYTES.)  Pflue-
        gers Archiv  fllr die Gesamte Physiologie des
        Menschen und der Tiere 262:193-206, 1956.
 The  loss  of K of human erythrocytes  in  Pb contain-
 ing  solutions of NaCl could be prevented by addi-
 tion of excess phosphate or EDTA.  Cyanide or
 azide were ineffective.  Cysteine, glutathione  or
 citrate decreased the loss of K only when present
 in concentrations many magnitudes above  that of
 Pb.  Later addition  of EDTA, chromate or phosphate
 to Pb poisoned cells stopped further loss of K but
 the  cells did not resorb K already lost.  At a
 given Pb  concentration 2 cell fractions may exist
 in the same suspension which give off K at differ-
 ent  rates.  Probably Pb  is not bound irreversibly
 but  may be exchanged among the cells.   It appears
 that the  rate of exchange of Pb is comparable to
 the  rate  of loss of  K.   (19 references)

                      1957

 345     Baler, H., and Lang, K. (Johannes-Guten-
        berg Univ.,  Mainz, Germany): Uber die
        Chinin-oxydase.  II.  (QUININE OXIDASE. II.)
        Biochemische Zeitschrift 329, No. 5:381-
        91, 1957.
 The  enzyme could be  reversibly separated into the
 apoenzyme and coenzyme,  the latter containing no
 flavine.  Concentrations of W~^H of Mg++, Ba++,
 Pb++, Mn++, Co++, Fe++,  and Ag+ were of no
 effect on the purified enzyme.  Cu++ in similar
 concentration caused 90% inhibition.

346     Dentzer,  G. (Germany):  Uber einige Mem-
       branwirkungen von Komplexsalzen der
       Athylendiamintetraessigsaure.  (MEMBRANE
       ACTION OF COMPLEX SALTS OF ETHYLENE-
       DIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID.  Archiv fur Ex-
       perimentelle  Pathologie und Pharmakologie
       232:311-2 , 1957.
 The  isolated phrenic-diaphragm preparation of the
 rat  was used to test the effect of complexes of
 EDTA on the action of a number of drugs.  KC1
 was  strongly influenced antagonistically, less
 so d-tubocurarine and flaxedil.  There was a re-
 inforcement of the actions of procaine, panto-
 caine, acetylcholine, and alcohol.  The effect
 of succinylcholine was not altered.  In tests on
 the  frog rectus muscle the contraction produced
 by isosmotic KC1 solution was inhibited 95% by
 the  Ca and Pb complexes of EDTA.  The caffeine,
 avertin, and acetylcholine contractions were not
 influenced.  There was no regularity in ionic di-
 rection of the compounds tested.

 347      Deschiens,  R., Bertrand, D., and Molinari,
        V. (Inst. Pasteur,  Paris,  France):  Cap-
        acite d'accumulation de certains metaux
        par  les mollusques  de  la  famille  des
        Planorbides.  (ACCUMULATION OF METALS  BY
        PLANORBOID MOLLUSKS.)  Comptes Rendus  des
        Seances de la  Societe  de  Biologie et  de
        Ses  Filiales 151:1356-8,  1957.
The mollusks  (Planorbis glabratus and Bulinus
contortus) were kept in strongly  ionized  aqueous
solutions of metal salts as  follows:  Zn  1.1  mg/1,
Cu 0.17 mg/1, Fe 0.29  mg/1,  and Pb 0.205  mg/1  for
24-48 hr; 6 mollusks were used per experiment.
Accumulation of Zn, Cu, Fe,  and Pb,  in  controls
and treated mollusks,  in mg metal/kg dried tissue,
were:  Zn 98, 368; Cu  56, 2280; Fe 592, 4600; and
Pb 0.16, 35.  Cu and Zn were extremely  toxic;  Fe
and Pb were well tolerated.

34g     Houck, J.C. (Georgetown Univ. Hosp.,
        Washington, D.C.):   INHIBITION,  OF RIBO-
        NUCLEASE.  Biochimica  et  Biophysica Acta
        26:649-51, 1957.
The inhibition of ribonuclease by various cations
and anionic  polyelectrolytes was  investigated.
Hg++, Pb"1"1", Mg*"1", K+ and Na+ were not inhibitory
under the experimental conditions.  Zn++, FC++,
Ag+, and Cu"*""*" were inhibitory, apparently through
competition with ribonuclease  for the anionic  sub-
strate.

349     Kostial, K., Lorkovic, H., and Vouk, V.B.
        (Inst. Med. Res. Yugoslav Acad. Sci. Arts,
        Zagreb):  ACETYLCHOLINE SENSITIVITY OF
        SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA AND STRIATED  MUSCLES
        IN PRESENCE OF LEAD IONS.  In XII Inter-
        national Congress on Occupational Health,
        Helsinki, Finland, 1957, Vol. Ill, Pro-
        ceedings, pp.   295-7.
See following abstract.

350     Kostial, K., and Vouk, V.B.  (Inst. Med.
        Res., Yugoslav Acad. Sci. Arts, Zagreb,
        Yugoslavia):  LEAD IONS AND SYNAPTIC
        TRANSMISSION IN THE SUPERIOR CERVICAL
        GANGLION OF THE CAT.  British Journal of
        Pharmacology and Chemotherapy 12, No. 2:
        219-22, 1957.
The Investigations were limited to the influence
of Pb ions on the contractions of the nictitating
membrane and on the output of acetylcholine (ACh)
in response to stimulation of pre- and postgangli-
onic nerve fibers in perfused superior cervical
ganglia of cats.   The effect of increasing the
concentration of Ca ions in the presence  of Pb
ions was also studied.  In the tests when ACh was
to be collected, eserine sulfate was added to the
perfusion fluid.   Pb nitrate was added to Locke
solution in gradually increasing concentrations
without altering the concentration of other com-
ponents.  Pb concentrations of 5-40 pM/1  caused
block of ganglionic transmission, and reduced the
output of ACh.  Ca ions relieved the block pro-
duced by Pb ions and restored the ACh output.  The
presence of Pb ions did not seem to change the sen-
sitivity of ganglion cells to injected ACh.  The
effects of Pb ions on synaptic transmission were
noticeable after 1-3 min.
  The authors conclude that the results seem to
indicate that the preganglionic nerve endings are
the main site of action of Pb ions.   The  influence
of Pb on nerve conductions, on ACh synthesis and
                                             Plants and Animals
                                                53

-------
on cholinesterase activity cannot be entirely
eliminated but seemed not to have played a major
role during the experiment.

351      Teisinger,  J.  (Czechoslovakia):   Influ-
        ence du sel monocalcique de 1'acide
        ethylene-diamine tetraacetique sur quel-
        ques liaisons.   (EFFECTS OF CALCIUM DI-
        SODIUM SALT OF  ETHYLENEDIAMINE TETRA-
        ACETIC ACID ON  SOME  LEAD BONDS IN THE OR-
        GANISM.)  In XII International Congress
        on Occupational Health,  Helsinki, Finland,
        1957, Vol.  Ill, Proceedings, pp. 278-80.
Ph"*"*" was bound to human erythrocytes by addition
of Pb solutions.  After allowing to stand for
several hours, EDTA was added at different con-
centrations for the study of its liberation both
in physiological saline solution and in an EDTA
medium.  It was found that EDTA influences very
substantially the liberation of Pb ions from
erythrocytes.  The same could be proved in experi-
ments with dialysis of  serum albumin treated with
low concentrations of Pb.  The question of the
spontaneous liberation of Pb and its liberation
under the influence of  EDTA was studied in perfu-
jion experiments on the liver of normal and Pb-
poisoned cats.  The liver very quickly binds large
amounts of Pb; its liberation into the blood
stream is however,  a slow process.  EDTA increases
substantially the amount of Pb liberated from the
liver.
  In vivo, Pb-j-ons move spontaneously from blood
cells to the plasma.  This process is the expres-
sion of a state of equilibrium between blood cells
and plasma.  EDTA apparently quickly binds spon-
taneously liberated Pb ions, thus, permanently
disturbing the equilibrium and accelerating the
reaction.  From the experiments, it seems probable
that EDTA does not penetrate into the cells.  This
already has been shown by Foreman for red blood
cells.  Chelating agents acting in a similar way
as EDTA are limited in their effects by their time
relationship.  Their effect cannot be enhanced by
excessively increasing dosage.  The study of the
mechanism of action of  these substances is of
great importance.  Substances acting in a similar
manner as does EDTA cannot fully achieve these re-
sults.  (From author's abstract)

352     Teisinger, J., Lustinec, K. , and Srbova',
        J.: Vliv vapenate soli kyseliny ethylen-
        diamino-tetraoctove na vazbu olova v
        jatrech.   (THE INFLUENCE OF Ca  SALTS OF
        ETHYLENEDIAMINOACTIC ACID ON THE BINDING
        OF LEAD IN THE LIVER.)  Casopis Lekafu
        Ceskych  (Prague), 96:1345-9 (Oct. 18),
        1957.
The question of immobilization of Pb in the liver
and the influence  of CaN^EDTA on the amounts
which  can be washed out by perfusion of the livers
of healthy cats and cats poisoned with  Pb have
been studied.   It  has been shown that the liver
can quickly bind a large quantity of Pb.  This
binding is reversible, but the reverse  reaction to
the blood  is slow.  Under the experimental  condi-
tions CaNa2EDTA accelerated this reverse reaction
by a factor of  2-4.  The concept has been put
forth  that CaNA2EDTA quickly binds Pb ions  freed
from liver cells;  in this way the reverse reaction
                is accelerated.  A direct effect in the sense of
                competitive binding of Pb within the liver cell is
                considered less probable.  Liver cells do not at
                all bind PbEDTA.  It is probable that neither
                PbEDTA nor CaNa2EDTA penetrates into the liver
                cell.  (From Bulletin of Hygiene 33:141, 1958).

                353     Teisinger, J., Zumanova, R., and Zezula,
                        I. :  Vliv vapenate soli ethylendiaminte-
                        traoctove kyseliny na vazbu olova v cer-
                        venych krvinkach a krevnich bilkovinach.
                        (INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM-DISODIUM ETHYLENE-
                        DIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID UPON THE COMBIN-
                        ATION OF LEAD WITH RED BLOOD CELLSfAND
                        BLOOD PROTEINS.  Pracovni Lekarstvi 9:277,
                        1957.
                In Pb poisoning, Pb mainly combines with the red
                blood cells and less with the proteins in the
                serum.  The reaction of Pb ions mobilized by
                CaNa2EDTA j.u --.he blood was studied.  It was
                found that up to 3 hr the blood corpuscles in
                physiological solution do not release any polaro-
                graphically detectable amounts of Pb.  After ad-
                dition of CaNa2EDTA Pb is released by the blood
                cells whereby an equilibrium is reached which re-
                mains unchanged for hours.  Authors believe that
                addition of CaNa2EDTA  results in a combination
                of the ionized Pb with the complex whereby the
                equilibrium between Pb in the blood cells and the
                plasma becomes disturbed.  Thus, another portion
                of Pb is transferred into the plasma which in turn
                reacts with CaNa2EDTA.   (From Zentralblatt fUr Ar-
                beitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz 8, No. 12:301, 1958)

                354     Vouk, V.B., Kostial, K., Hefer-Slat, B.
                        (Inst. Med. Res. Yugoslav Acad. Sci. Arts,
                        Zagreb):  A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF
                        MERCURY AND LEAD IONS ON SYNAPTIC TRANS-
                        iilSSION.  In XII International Congress
                        on Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland,
                        1957, Vol. Ill, Proceedings, pp. 283-4.
                Isolated sympathetic ganglia of the cat were per-
                fused with and without addition of Hg and Pb ions.
                Nictitating membrane contractions to pre- and
                postganglionic nerve stimulation and the level
                of acetylcholine (ACh) output to preganglionlc
                nerve stimulation were used as indicators of
                synaptic activity.  Both Pb and Hg ions caused a
                failure of the nictitating membrane response to
                preganglionic nerve stimulation if added to the
                perfusing  fluid in concentrations from 5 uM-
                40 uM/1.  The effect of Hg ions was much slower
                compared to the effect of Pb ions which acted al-
                most instantaneously.  The effects of Pb ions were
                easily reversed in contrast to the effects of Hg
                ions which persisted even after perfusing the
                ganglion with Locke's solution for longer periods.
                Both Pb and Hg ions reduced the ACh output on pre-
                yanglionic nerve stimulation.  The sensitivity of
                ganglionic cells to ACh was increased in presence
                of Pb ions and much reduced on addition of Hg
                ions.  The response of the nictitating membrane
                to postganglionic stimulation was not influenced
                either by Hg or by Pb ions.

                 355     Wallen,  I.E.,  Greer, W.C.,  and  Lasater,  R.
                         (Oklahoma Agr.  Mech.  Coll.,  Stillwater):
                        TOXICITY  TO  GAMBUSIA AFFINIS  OF  CERTAIN
                        PURE  CHEMICALS  IN TURBID WATERS.   Sewage
 54
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        and Industrial Wastes 29, No. 6:695-711,
        1957.
Data were collected on the toxlcity of 86 pure
chemicals to the mosquito-fish (Gambusia affinis).
Among chemicals tested were organic substances
such as phenol, cresol, naphthalene, pyridine; in-
organic substances such as chlorides, sulfates,
sulfides, sulfites, acetates, carbonates, chro-
mates, dichromates, hydroxides, fluorides, and
thiocyanates of Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb.  The fol-
lowing data were given for Pb nitrate (tempera-
ture 22-24°C, final turbidity, <25 ppm):  At 180
ppm and lower all fishes were normal; at 320 ppm
and higher all were dead in 24 hr.  Pb oxide (tem-
perature 18-20°, final turbidity 300 ppm):  At
56,000 ppm 1 fish was dead in 24 hr  out no other
fish seemed to be affected.  The median tolerance
limit was >56,000 ppm.  (46 references)

                      1958

356     Baler, H. (Physiol. Chem. Inst., Univ.
        Mainz, Germany):  Uber die Wirkung von
        Blei auf die Acetylcholinsynthese.
        (EFFECT OF LEAD ON ACETYLCHOLINE SYNTHE-
        SIS.)  Klinische Wochenschrift 36:681-2
        (July), 1958.
Since Pb intoxication frequently results in damage
of the peripheral nerves, a study was undertaken
to determine whether a disturbance of the acetyl-
choline (ACh) synthesis is involved.  The enzyme
was obtained from the brain of rabbits and rats.
It could be shown that Pb does not inhibit the
ACh synthesis with acetate, acetaldehyde and
citrate, whereas in the presence of pyruvate the
ACh synthesis is clearly inhibited.  Pb concentra-
tion used was 3 uM as Pb chloride.

357     Benard, H., Gajdos, A., and Gajdos-Torok,
        M. (Res. Lab., Med. Clinic Hotel-Dieu,
        Paris, France):  Etude de la biosynthese
        de I'heme in vitro jl 1'aide des isotopes
        radioactifs a partir du sang de Lapin in-
        toxique par le plomb.  (BIOSYNTHESIS OF
        HEME IN VITRO IN PRESENCE OF RADIOACTIVE
        ISOTOPES BY BLOOD OF RABBITS POISONED WITH
        LEAD.)  Comptes Rendus des Seances de la
        Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales
        152:296-9, 1958.
Blood from a rabbit made anemic by Pb acetate
(100 mg Pb/kg several times every 5 days), when
incubated with radio-active glycine or with a   Fe
compound, formed very small amounts of free por-
phyrin but was unable to inc orporate enough Fe to
,form more than traces of radioactive heme.

358     Clarkson, T.W., and Kench, J.E. (Univ.
        Manchester, England):  UPTAKE OF LEAD BY
        HUMAN ERYTRHROCYTES IN VITRO.  Biochemical
        Journal 69, No. 3:432-9, 1958.
On the basis of detailed experiments with human
blood,  the author concludes as follows: Pb appears
to exist in plasma as a peptized Pb phosphate so-
lution,  which is rapidly aggregated in a second-
order reaction to particulate form on the surface
of the erythrocytes.  More than 95% of small quan-
tities of added Pb are rapidly attached to the
cells.   No competitive inhibition of uptake of Pb
was observed with any of a number of potential
competitors tested.  Chelating agents  such  as EDTA,
hexametaphosphate and  glutathione  remove  Pb attach-
ed  to  erythrocytes only  slowly in  vitro;  intra-
cellular Pb was not withdrawn.   (From  authors'
summary)

359      Clarkson,  T.W.,  and Kench, J.E.  (Univ.
         Manchester,  England):  THE SEDIMENTATION
         RATE  AND  FRAGILITY OF  HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES
         IN VITRO  AFTER EXPOSURE  TO LEAD  CHLORIDE.
         British Journal  of Industrial  Medicine  15,
         No. 2:115-9,  1958.
A study is described of  the  interaction of  Pb with
human  erythrocytes as portrayed by  the sedimenta-
tion rate  and osmotic  fragility.   Sedimentation
rates  were reduced for RBC exposed  to  Pb  in media
containing excess phosphate, eg, whole blood and
Krebs  Ringer bicarbonate solution.  An increased
sedimentation rate was observed in  erythrocytes
exposed to Pb chloride in saline.  Little change
in  the osmotic fragility of  RBC was detectable
when Pb was added in the presence  of excess phos-
phate, but in saline there was a marked increase
in  resistance to hemolysis in hypotonic saline.
It  is  concluded that in vivo plasma Pb will cause
only minimal changes in  the  fragility  of  circula-
ting erythrocytes:  all  injurious  effect  (inhibi-
tion of heme synthesis and morphological  abnormal-
ities  such as punctate basophilia) will have al-
ready  been produced in precursor cells developing
in  the bone marrow.  (From authors' summary)

360     Dentzer, G. (Leipzig, Germany):   Uber
        einige Membranwirkungen von Komplexsalzen
        der XthylendiamintetraessigsHure.   (MEM-
        BRANE ACTION OF SOME COMPLEX SALTS OF
        ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID.)  Archiv
        fUr Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharma-
        kologie 232:311-2, 1958.
The author's previous work had established that
stable complex compounds of EDTA have an  antago-
nistic effect on Mg activity in the whole animal
as well as in isolated organs.   Since the effect
can be achieved with Pb, Mn and Ca complexes, it
was taken to be unspecific for Ca.  In view of
these  findings, the author examined the effect on
various membrane-active substances of EDTA com-
plexes having high constants.
  As anelectrotonics, 2-tubocurarine, flaxedril,
novocaine and pantocaine were used, and as cat-
electrotonics, decamethonium, acetylcholine  (ACh),
succinylcholine (SCh) , KC1 and alcohol.   In tests
on  the isolated phrenic diaphragm of the  rat, the
strongest antagonistic effect was found to be on
the activity of KC1; the antagonistic effect on
the activity of d-tubocurarine and flaxedril was
less marked.  The activity on novocaine,  panto-
caine, ACh and alcohol, on the other hand, was in-
creased.   That of SCh was not affected in the
dosage range used.
  In the frog rectus, the contraction caused by
isoosmotic KC1 solution was inhibited up  to 95%
by  the Ca as well as the Pb complex of EDTA.  The
contraction by caffeine, avertine and ACh was af-
fected to a negligible degree.
  On the basis of his experiments, the author con-
siders the classification of membrane-active com-
plex constants as part of the group of an- or
catelectrotonics to be difficult.  He is  unable to
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                55

-------
state whether the effects described can be explain-
ed as pure membrane effects or whether mechanisms
similar to the Ca-tubocurarine antagonism are in-
volved.

361      Fukumoto, J., Yamamoto, T., Tsuru, D.,  and
        Ichikawa, K. (Osaka Municipal Univ.,  Ja-
        pan) :   (ACTION OF BIVALENT METAL IONS ON
        BACTERIAL AMYLASE AND PROTEASE.) Koso Kag-
        aku Shimpoziumu 13:194-202; Discussion
        343-4, 1958.
Effects of several bivalent ions are studied  on
the production of amylase and protease by resting
cells of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and on the
activity of the enzymes produced.   The reactiva-
ting effect of bivalent ions is in the order:
Zn>Co>Mn>Mg>Ba>Pb>Sr>Cu>Cd>Hg.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 55:1734,  1961)

362      Duerksen, J.D., and Halvorson, H.  (Univ.
        Wisconsin, Madison):  PURIFICATION AND
        PROPERTIES OF AN INDUCIBLE g-GLUCOSIDASE
        OF YEAST.  Journal of Biological Chemistry
        233:113-20  (Nov.), 1958.
An inducible enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis
of aryl and alkyl-B-D-glucosides was purified from
Saccharomyces  cerevisiae strain yeast foam.  A
number of divalent cations as inhibitors of the
activity of 8-glucosidase were studied.  Ca,  Mg
and Mn had no  appreciable effect while Cu, Fe,  Zn,
Co,  Ag, Hg and Pb at 33.3 x 1Q-&M inhibited the
action.  (27 references)

363      Gramenitskii, E.M. (Med. Inst. Sanit. and
        Hyg.,  Leningrad, USSR):  EFFECT OF LEAD
        NITRATE ON THE SUPRAVITAL STAINING OF
        CELLS  OF POIKILOTHERMS.  Bulletin of  Ex-
        perimental Biology and Medicine (USSR)  45:
        97-100, 1958.
Effect of Pb nitrate was studied on various
cells of liver, kidneys, and nerves of frogs  using
a technique of supravital staining in situ with
neutral red.   Threshold paranecrotic doses of
Pb nitrate were:   liver cells, 3 mg/g body weight;
kidney tubule  cells, 7 mg/g body weight; and  sympa-
thetic nerve  cells,  10 mg/g body weight. Paranecro-
tic  changes were  not revealed in the sensory  nerve
cells of the spinal ganglia, although reflex acti-
vity of the laboratory animals was depressed.  A
supravital staining technique, consisting of  in-
jection into the body cavity of 1% aqueous neutral
red solution at dose levels of 0.3-0.5 mg dye/g
body weight and removal and examination of organs
within 1 hr after injection, is recommended for
use in toxicology.

364       Grigarzik,  H., and Passow, H. (Univ.
         Hamburg, Germany):  Versuche zum Mechanis-
         mus  der  Bleiwirkung auf die Kaliumper-
         meabilitat  roter Blutko'rperchen.   (THE
         ACTION OF LEAD ON THE POTASSIUM PERMEA-
         BILITY^OF ERYTHROCYTES.)   Pfluegers  Ar-
         chiv  fur die Gesamte Physiologie des
         Menschen und der Tiere, 267:73-92, 1958.
The  binding of 210Pb and the action of Pb on  the
K permeability of human erythrocytes was studied
as a function  of  Pb  concentration, temperature,
and  presence of EDTA.  Substances  from the cell
interior formed inactive complexes with the Pb.
                 The  action  of  Pb  on  K  permeability decreased with
                 time.   Renewed addition  of  Pb  led to  new losses  of
                 K, when simultaneously a very  small amount  of  cell
                 content was added.   These substances  were not  pro-
                 teins,  and  could  be  hydrolyzed for 2-3  hr by 0.1
                 M HC1 at 100°  without  loss  of  activity.   (18 ref-
                 erences)

                 365      Hayashi,  K.  (Kyoto  Prefectural  Med. Univ.,
                         Kyoto, Japan):  THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD  ION
                         ON  CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN
                         PEROXIDE. Kyoto  Furitsu Ika  Daigaku Zasshi
                         64:923-52,  1958.
                 Pb  ion  inhibits the  blood  catalase reaction or the
                 catalytic decomposition  of  H peroxide by
                 Pt-but  it accelerates  that  by  Pd.  Pb is fixed to
                 red  blood cells to an extremely slight  extent.  Pb
                 ion  is  adsorbed on catalase faster than dihydro-
                 streptomycin,  but the  former can be  displaced  by
                 the  latter.  (From Chemical Abstracts 54:24969,
                 1960)

                 366      Novak, J., and Majsky, A.:   (BINDING OF
                         LEAD ON ERYTHROCYTES.  I.  IN VITRO EFFECT
                         ON  GROUP  RECEPTORS.) Casopis  lekafu ce-
                         skych  97:71-5, 1958.
                 The  effect  of  Pb  on  the  activity of antigens A,
                 B, M, N,  P, H, and D was studied by using agglu-
                 tination and drying  tests.   It was shown that  the
                 binding of  Pb  inactivates  only the D  receptor.
                 (From Chemical Abstracts 53:7437, 1959)

                 367      Novak, J., and Majsky, A.:   (THE BINDING
                         OF  LEAD ON ERYTHROCYTES. II.  THE (ROLE  OF
                         THE D  RECEPTOR.) C'asopis lekaru ceskych
                         97:1455-7, 1958.
                 Solutions containing 10"^  ug Pb/1 erythrocytes
                 were used.   The concentration  of Pb was estimated
                 polarographically before the addition of erythro-
                 cytes and after the  binding of Pb.   The D receptor
                 had  no  quantitative  effect  on  Pb binding of eryth-
                 rocytes.   (From Chemical Abstracts 53:13241, 1959)

                 368      Piette, M.  (Fac. pharm., Paris, France):
                         Hydrolyse des  acides nucleiques des leuco-
                         cytes  sanguins apres traitement prolonge
                         par 1'acetate  basique  de plomb  en milieu
                         alcalin.   (HYDROLYSIS  OF THE  NUCLEIC ACIDS
                         OF  THE LEUKOCYTES  IN THE BLOOD  AFTER PRO-
                         LONGED TREATMENT WITH  BASIC  LEAD ACETATE
                         IN  ALKALINE  MEDIUM.)  Annales Pharma-
                         ceutiques Francaises 16:311-4,  1958.

                 369      Rondanelli,  E.G.,  Gorini, P., Colombi, R.,
                         and Verga, L.:  Ricerca sulla patogenesi
                         dell'  anemia saturnina. L'azione del
                         piombo sulla mitosi eritroblastica.
                         (STUDIES CONCERNING THE PATHOGENESIS OF
                         SATURNINE ANEMIA.   ACTION OF  LEAD UPON
                         ERYTHROBLASTIC MITOSIS.) Haematologica
                         43:1077-94,  1958.
                 The  action  of  Pb nitrate on basophilic  embryonal
                 megaloblasts of the  chicken, on normal  human bone
                 marrow  and  on  circulating  erythroblasts of  the
                 newt was studied. Pb  in high  concentrations  in-
                 hibits  karyokinesis  (karyostatic effect) while in
                 low  concentrations it  retards  karyokinesis  in
                 metaphase (statokinetic  effect).  Even  at weak
                 concentrations, however, the karyostatic effect
56
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
persists besides  the  statokinetic effect which
distinguishes the action of Pb from that of  col-
chicine.   (From Medicina del Lavoro 50:388  (Ab-
stracts),  1959)

370     Ruzdic, I., and Crepinko, I.  (Central
        Med.-Chem. Lab., Zagreb, Yugoslavia):
        Das Blei  als  Hemmstoff der Katalasewirkung.
        (INHIBITION OF CATALASE BY LEAD.)
        Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fUr Physiolo-
        gische Chentie, 312, No. 1/3:22-5, 1958.
The  experimental work described was undertaken to
study  the  influence of Pb on catalase because of
its  possible importance in causing the anemia
which  occurs in Pb intoxication.  As shown in
charts, Pb ion (Pb nitrate) definitely inhibits
the  catalase action of blood serum.  However,
this inhibition occurs only when the serum is
treated with the Pb salt for 30 min before being
incubated with the substrate.

371      Savay, G. (Inst. Anat. Histology, Med.
        Univ., Szeged, Hungary):  LEAD-REACTIVE
        SUBSTANCES IN MYONEURAL SYNAPSES.  Nature
        181:1137-8, 1958.
Diaphragms of rats were fixed for 15 min in  8%
formalin containing 5% Pb nitrate.  Frozen sections
of 30-40 v were cut,  washed rapidly in distilled
water  and  immersed in a 2% aqueous solution  of Na
sulfide.  The characteristic patterns of the sub-
neural apparatus were then visible.  The reaction
did not take place if the muscle was frozen  or in-
cubated in distilled  water before treatment  with
Pb nitrate, although  neither treatment affected
cholinesterase activity.  This suggests that the
reaction with Pb is not due to cholinesterase, but
to a substance of lower molecular weight, such as
cysteine, methionine  or glutathione.

372      Stauff, J., and Uhlein, E. (Johann-Wolf-
        gang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/M., Germany):
        Einige Beobachtungen liber die Beelnflussung
        der Denaturierungsgeschwindigkeit von
        Proteinen durch Schwermetallsalze.   (THE
        EFFECT OF HEAVY METAL SALTS ON THE DE-
        NATURATION RATE OF PROTEINS.) Biochemische
        Zeitschrift 329, No. 7:549-59, 1958.
The  effects of 10 metal ions on the aggregation
rate of protein solutions were compared in phos-
phate  buffer of pH 7.0 (used in ionic strengths of
0.25-0.4)  and acetate buffer of pH 3.6 (at 0.1).
With 0.2% bovine serum albumin at 67.2°, Mn++ and
Pb++ in either buffer have no effect on the  aggre-
gation rate.  With 0.2% bovine 6-lactoglobulin at
76.8°, Mn++ and Pb44"  in phosphate and Pb++ in
acetate do not change the rate but Mn"1"1" in acetate
accelerates.

373      Talafant,  E.   (Masarykovy Univ.,  Brno,
        Czechoslovakia):   Premena olovnate soli
        primeho zlucoveho barviva na rozpustnou
        sodnou sul pomoci Katexu FN.  (THE TRANS-
        FORMATION OF INSOLUBLE LEAD SALTS OF DI-
        RECT BILE PIGMENTS TO SOLUBLE SODIUM SALTS
        BY MEANS  OF KATEX FN.)  Casopis Lekaru
        Ceskych 97:186-8 (Feb.  14),  1958.
A conversion of insoluble Pb salts of bile pigment
to soluble Na salts was achieved by shaking the
suspension for 1/2 hr in vacuo with anion ex-
 changer  Katex  FN  (a  formaldehyde  resin with pheno-
 sulfonic and B-naphthalenesulfonic  acids)  in Na
 cycle.   After  centrifugatlon the  supernatant was
 evaporated  under  reduced  pressure and  room tem-
 perature until dry.   In the  dry residue 62% of
 bilirubin was  photometrically demonstrated by
 means of diazo reaction.   Only 55%  bilirubin
 was  found when using  the  Yamamoto oxidation
 method  (1951).  Calculated for Na diglucuronide:
 59.5% insoluble Pb salts.  (From  author's  sum-
 mary)

 374      Teisinger, J.,  Zumanova,  R., and Zezula,
         I.  (Inst. Ind.  Hyg.  Occup.  Dis., Prague,
         Czechoslovakia):   EFFECT  OF EDATHAMIL CAL-
         CIUM-DISODIUM ON  THE LEAD CONTENT  OF RED
         BLOOD  CELLS  AND BLOOD PROTEINS.  A.M.A.
         Archives  of  Industrial Health  17:295-301
         (Apr.), 1958.
 Experiments were  undertaken  to resolve the problem
 whether EDTA effects  the  release  of Pb"*"1" ions
 bound by red cells and  blood proteins.   Pb was
 bound in vitro  to human red  cells and  these were
 subject  to  the  action of  different  concentrations
 of EDTA.  It was  established that EDTA has a very
 considerable effect  on  releasing  the Pb    ions
 from red cells  and Pb is  then bound in the form
 of PbEDTA.  EDTA  has  the  same action on  Pb bound
 by blood proteins.   The mechanism of these reac-
 tions is very  probably  the speeding of the spon-
 taneous  transference  of the  Pb"*"^  ions  from blood
 cells into plasma by a  disturbance  in  the  equilib-
 rium of this system due to EDTA.  (From  authors'
 summary)

 375     Vincent, P.C.,  and Blackburn,  C.R.B.  (Univ.
        Sidney; Royal Prince Alfred Hosp.,  Camp-
        erdown, Australia):   THE  EFFECTS OF HEAVY
        METAL  IONS ON THE  HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE.  I.
        COMPARISONS OF  THE ACTION OF SEVERAL HEAVY
        METALS. Australian Journal  of  Experimental
        Biology and Medical  Science 36:471-8, 1958.
 Pb"^ in concentrations  
-------
phenylhydrazine or acetylphenylhydrazine into the
dog.  The heparinized blood is centrifuged and
reticulocyte rich upper part of the erythrocytes
layer is suspended in plasma.  59ye incorporation
is completely inhibited by 10"% pb acetate among
other substances so tested.

                      1959

378      Bahadur, K., and Chandra, V.  (Allahabad
        Univ., Agra, India):   (INHIBITION OF
        UREASE BY LEAD ACETATE.) Enzymologia 20:
        355-8, 1959.
Pb acetate inhibits the action of urease on urea
at pH 8.8.   (From Chemical Abstracts  55:3675,1961)

379     Cremer, J.E. (Toxicology Research Unit,
        M.R.C. Laboratories, Carshalton, England):
        BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE TOXICITY OF
        TETRAETHYL LEAD AND OTHER ORGANO-LEAD COM-
        POUNDS. British Journal of Industrial Med-
        icine 16:191-9 (July), 1959.
The actions  of purified tetra, tri, and di-ethyl
Pb  (TEL, TrEL, D1EL) on rats and rat brain
slices and brain brei have been examined.  The
method was developed based on a reaction with
dithizone and is capable of estimating tri- and
diethyl Sn in rat tissues.  After injection into
rats TEL is  converted into TrEL and this is
responsible  for the toxic effects.  MEL is much
less toxic and the effects are different.  The
utilization  of lactate and the oxidation of
glucose by brain brei and slices respectively
are inhibited by TrEL.  A similar effect is seen
in  slices taken from rats poisoned with TEL or
TrEL.  Rat liver cell microsomes readily con-
vert TEL to  TrEL and the latter is stable and
remains in the animal tissues for several days.
The concentration of TrEL in the brain is not
high in comparison with other tissues but brain
tissue appears to be unduly sensitive to its
toxic action.  Neither TEL nor TrEL reacts with
BAL or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).
DiEL reacts  with BAL but not with EDTA.  (From
author's summary)

380     Fujie, Y. (Univ. Tokyo, Japan):  (EFFECTS
        OF HEAVY METAL IONS ON THE ADENOSINETRI-
        PHOSPHATASE OF MUSCLE GRANULES.)  Japanese
        Journal of Pharmacology 9:6-13, 1959.
Adenosinetriphosphatase from rabbit skeletal mus-
cle granules was moderately inhibited by Pb.

381     Gitelman, H.J., and Neuman, W.F. (Univ.
        Rochester, N.Y.):  LEAD-HYDROXY APATITE
        INTERACTION.  US Atomic Energy Commission
        Document No. UR-551, 1959, 25 pp.
The present  investigation demonstrates that al-
though Pb-Ca exchange may occur it does not appear
to be a prominent factor in the process of uptake
reactions in bone mineral.   (From author's sum-
mary)

38Z     Grevisse, J. (Univ. Liege, Belgium):  Mod-
        ification par 1'acide ethylene-diamine-
        tetra-acetique des effects de 1'ion plomb
        sur  1"uterus non gravide et le jejunum
        isole's du Lapin.   (MODIFICATION BY ETHYL-
        ENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID OF THE EFFECTS
                        OF LEAD ION ON THE ISOLATED NON-GRAVID
                        UTERUS AND JEJUNUM OF RABBITS.)  Comptes
                        Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Bio-
                        logie 153:702-4 (Mar. 20), 1959.
                In these experiments in vitro (Grevisse, Goffart,
                (see also next abstract) Pb acetate in a concentra-
                tion of 10-i*M was found to inhibit the spontaneous
                movements of the non-gravid uterus and the tonus
                of the jejunum in the rabbit.  When CaEDTA was in-
                troduced following the Pb  (10-%), the resulting
                complex EDTA-Pb was inactive with regard to the
                uterus while in the intestine it acted as an ex-
                citant.  This behavior of EDTA explains why some
                symptoms of Pb intoxication disappear at the onset
                of EDTA treatment while others, such as colics, do
                not recede until a sufficient quantity of Pb has
                been eliminated by the kidneys.

                383      Grevisse,  J., and Goffart, M. (Univ. Liege,
                        Belgium):   Activation de 1'ion plomb par
                        la cysteamine sur certains muscles lisses
                        isoles du lapin.  (ACTIVATION OF THE LEAD
                        ION BY CYSTEAMINE ON CERTAIN ISOLATED
                        SMOOTH MUSCLES OF THE RABBIT.)  Journal de
                        Physiologie (Paris) 51:471-2 (June), 1959.
                The isolated tissues used were the aorta, tracheal
                rings, uterus and intestine of the rabbit, bathed
                in Locke's solution to which Pb acetate was added
                in a concentration of lO'^MO?.? mg/1) .  The same
                concentration of cysteamine was used.  As summa-
                rized by the author, Pb"*"1" as a complex with cyste-
                amine has a stronger effect on the aorta and the
                tracheal rings of the rabbit than either of the
                components has when acting separately.  In regard
                to other smooth muscles the complex reacts the
                same as Pb (intestines) or is less active (uterus).
                These phenomena are comparable to the reaction of
                As-BAL where the complex, though less toxic for
                the whole animal, produces a more intense Lunds-
                gaard effect on the isolated muscles of frogs.

                384     Leiner, M.,  and Beck, H.  (Johannes Guten-
                        berg Univ., Mainz, Germany):   (INHIBITION
                        OF CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF  CARBONIC ANHY-
                        DRASE. I.) Acta Biol. Med.  Ger.  2:631-49,
                         1959.
                The heavy metal ions studied inhibit  carbonic  an-
                hydrase  in this order  of decreasing  effects: Au,
                Co, Pd, Ag, Ni, Zn,  Cu, Hg, Pt, Pb,  Sn.  The sen-
                sitivity of carbonic anhydrase  to  heavy metals is
                much  greater at pH  4 then  at pH 7.   (From Chemical
                Abstracts 54:14336,  1960)

                385     Perlin, A.S. (Prairie Reg.  Lab. Natl.  Res.
                        Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada):
                        ACTION OF LEAD  TETRAACETATE  ON THE SUGARS.
                        Advances in  Carbohydrate  Chemistry 14:9-
                        61, 1959.
                The mechanism of glycol-cleavage  oxidation by  Pb
                tetraacetate, the oxidative cleavage of vic-diols
                in acyclic and alicyclic systems,  and  the oxida-
                tive  cleavage of N-containing carbohydrates is
                reviewed.   (219 references)

                386      Santhanam, M.S.  (Univ.  Madras,  India):
                         STUDIES ON  COLLAGEN, IV.   DEPOSITION OF
                         INORGANIC CRYSTALLITES  ON COLLAGEN.  Pro-
                         ceedings of  the  Indian  Academy of Sciences,
                         Section A,  49:210-14, 1959.
 58
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 Collagen  fibers were  treated with  10%  solutions or
 suspensions of inorganic salts  for 24  hr  and  then
 dried.  With Pb salts, basic Pb carbonate crystal-
 lized  in  the fibers.  This phenomenon  may be  of
 interest  in Pb poisoning.

 387     Simonovic, I., Kostial, K., and Marsic, A.
        (Univ. Zagreb and Inst. Med. Res., Zagreb,
        Yugoslavia):  CLOTTING  CHANGES INDUCED BY
        METAL IONS IN VITRO.  Arhiv za Higizenu
        Rada i Toksikologiju 10:227-34, 1959.
 Pb"*"1" ions were added  to the plasma from female
 rats in concentrations of 12.5-62.5 pg.   In a con-
 trol test 0.5 ml of saline was  added.  Prothrombin
 time,  as  determined by Quick's  method  8-180 min
 after  the addition of Pb, was not  influenced.

 388     Somers, E. (Univ.  Bristol,  England):
        FUNGITOXICITY OF METAL  IONS. Nature 184:
        475-6 (Aug. 8), 1959.
 Fungitoxicity of the nitrates of numerous  metals,
 including Pb, against conidia of Alternaria tenuis
 were studied.  It was concluded that the  primary
 toxic  action of metal cations is the formation of
 an unionized complex with surface  ionogenic groups
 and that  the different toxicities  of the metals
 can be correlated with the varying  strength of
 surface binding.

 389     Trim, A.R. (Plant Breeding  Inst.,  Trump-
        ington, Cambridge, England):  METAL IONS
        AS PRECIPITANTS FOR NUCLEIC ACIDS  AND
        THEIR USE IN THE ISOLATION OF POLYNUCLEO-
        TIDES FROM LEAVES.  Biochemical Journal
        73:298-304, 1959.
 The precipitation of nucleic acids by metal ions
was studied and 2 methods  were devised for the
 Isolation of nucleic acids from leaves, based on
 precipitation by metal ions.  Analytical  results
 on 10  preparations from leaves by  these methods
were given.   Pb caused 82% precipitation  in prep-
 aration without ethanol at pH 3; at pH 7 and with
 ethanol, no precipitation was observed.  The mech-
 anism  of the interaction between metal ions and
nucleic acids is discussed.  (23 references)

390     Vincent,  P.C.  (Univ. Sydney, Camperdown,
        Australia):  THE EFFECTS OF HEAVY METAL
        IONS ON THE HUMAN  ERYTHROCYTE.   III.  IN-
        HIBITION OF THE EFFECTS OF LEAD AND MER-
        CURY.   Australian  Journal of Experimental
        Biology and Medical Science 37:83-96,
        1959.
Two types  of inhibitor were studied:   (1)  chelat-
ing agents disodium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic
acid (di-Na EDTA), thiosorbitol, and cysteine
which combine with heavy metal ions in solution;
 (2) simple fractions of the red cell,  such as
stroma, lipid-free stroma, and hemoglobin, in com-
petition with whole red cells for  the uptake of
Pb.  Di-Na EDTA completely prevented the effects
of equimolar Pb and also removed most of the metal
from the cells  after combination was established.
In the latter instance,  the Pb-induced K efflux
was only partly curtailed.  Preincubation  of di-
Na EDTA with red cells decreased its inhibitory
capacity with respect to both Pb and Hg.    A simi-
lar effect following preincubation with Ca was de-
scribed.  Fresh stromata,  but not lipid-free stro-
matin  or hemoglobin,  competed  equally  with the  red
cell for the uptake of  Pb.   The  implications  of
these  findings were discussed.

391     Wang, H.  (Stritch  School Med., Loyola
        Univ., Chicago,  111.):  ANALYSES OF A TOXIC
        FACTOR, LETHAL  TO  PARAMECIUM PRESENT  IN
        NON-GLASS-DISTILLED  WATER.  Proceedings of
        the Society for Experimental Biology  and
        Medicine  101:682-5  (Aug.-Sept.), 1959.
The toxic  effects of  chloride, sulfate and nitrate
of Cu  and  acetate of  Pb and  Zn on paramecia aurelia
were tested.  The threshold  concentration, i  e,  the
concentration causing death  of all or nearly  all
paramecia  in 20-30 min,  of Pb acetate was  25~l*M.

392     Wu, H.W., Lu, S.H.,  and Chang, M.C.:
        (TREATMENT OF LEAD POISONING.  II.  EX-
        PERIMENTS ON THE EFFECT OF VITAMIN C  AND
        RUTIN.)   Chung  Hua Nei Ko Tsa  Chih 7:22-3,
        1959.
Five hundred tadpoles hatched from 1 batch of toad
ova were kept in 10 jars (50/jar) with well water
and weeds  for 7 days when  different drugs were
added  to the jars (in mg%:   10 vitamin C;  10  vita-
min C + 0.5 Pb; 2.7 rutin; 2.7 rutin + 0.5 Pb;  10
vitamin C  + 2.7 rutin;  10 vitamin C + 2.7  rutin +
0.5 Pb; 1  Pb; 0.5 Pb; 0.25 Pb; water).  Vitamin C
and rutin  had a beneficial effect on the develop-
ment of the tadpoles.
  When a number of 8-day tadpoles were put into a
solution containing 6.25 mg% Pb, half of them died
in 72 hr and this concentration was taken  as  the
LD
  50-
Of a 100 8-day tadpoles put in a solution
of the same concentration,  8 died in 24 hr.  The
remaining 92 were put into  3 jars:  30 in 25 mg
vitamin C in 80 ml water; 30 in 10 mg rutin in 80
ml water; 32 in 80 ml water (controls).  Tadpoles
in the vitamin C and rutin  solutions were alive
after 6 days while 28 of the controls had died.
(From Biological Abstracts  3:Abstract No. 1550,
1961; Chemical Abstracts 58:10647, 1963)

                     1960

393     Buffa, P., and Righi, L. (Univ. Modena,
        Italy):  (ADAPTATION OF PSEUDOMONAS PYO-
        CYANEA (AERUGINOSA) TO CHOLINE. V. A STUDY
        OF THE CHOLINE OXIDASE REACTION IN VIVO BY
        MEANS OF ENZYME INHIBITORS.) Giorn. Micro-
        biol. 8:25-44, 1960.
The effect of various inhibitors on the choline
oxidase reaction was studied by measuring 0 utili-
zation of cell suspensions  in choline-yeast ex-
tract medium.  The adaptive enzyme appeared to be
dependent on an essential SH group and to require
metal ions as cofactors.  Alkaline earth metal
ions did not affect the rate of 0 uptake.  They
activated the decline reaction of cells at 75%
final growth but not that of cells at 25% when
their activity was maximum.  Heavy metal ions in-
hibited 0 consumption in the following order:  Hg>
Ag>Pb>Ni>Cd>Zn>Co>Fe>Cr.  (From Chemical Abstracts
54:22827, 1960)

394      Cabejszek, I., and Stasiak, M. :  (TOXIC
        EFFECT OF SOME METALS ON WATER BIOGENESIS,
        WITH DAPHNIA MAGNA AS AN INDICATOR.  II.)
        Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny 11:
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                59

-------
        533-40, 1960.
Toxicity of the following metals was:  Hg>Cd>As>
Zn>Pb>Sn; the toxic effect increased with time and
was more pronounced in sulfates than in chlorides.

395     California State Water Pollution Control
        Board (Pearson, E.A.,  Pomeroy, R.D., and
        McKee, J.E.,  Research Consulting Board):
        SUMMARY OF MARINE WASTE DISPOSAL RESEARCH
        PROGRAM IN CALIFORNIA. Sacramento, Calif.,
        Publication No. 22, 1960, 77 pp.
The effects of waste discharges on kelp (Macro-
cystis pyrifera) are discussed in chapter 4, pp
44-9.  Toxicity tests with heavy-metal ions showed
Hg to be most toxic to kelp,  followed by Cu, Zn,
Pb and Ni as the least toxic.

396     Deszyck, E.J., and Ting, S.V. (Citrus Ex-
        ptl. Sta., Lake Alfred, Fla.):  SUGAR COM-
        POSITION,  BIOFLAVONOID CONTENT, AND pH OF
        GRAPEFRUIT AS AFFECTED BY LEAD ARSENATE
        SPRAYS.  Proceedings of the American
        Society for Horticultural Science 75:
        ^66-70, 1960.
Fruit from orchards sprayed with Pb arsenate in
concentrations up to 3 lb/100 gal for 4 seasons or
less, contained slightly less reducing sugar, sig-
nificantly more nonreducing sugar, and more total
sugar than nonsprayed fruit.

397     Fry, F.E.J.,  Cucin, D., Kennedy, J.C.,  and
        Papson, A.:  THE USE OF LEAD VERSENATE TO
        PLACE A TIME MARK ON FISH SCALES.  Trans-
        actions of the Aiaerican Fisheries Society
        89:149-53, 1960.
Satisfactory deposits of Pb in scales for time
marks were produced without adverse effects in
whitefish and lake trout by injection of 5%-7% Pb
di-Na versenate at doses of 50 mg/kg wt.

398     Glenner, G.G., and Cohen, L.A. (Natl.
        Insts. Health, Bethesda, Md.):  HISTOCHEM-
        ICAL DEMONSTRATION OF A SPECIES-SPECIFIC
        TRYPSIN-LIKE ENZYME IN MAST CELLS. Nature
        185:846-7  (Mar. 19),  1960.
In histochemical experiments  with fresh frozen
sections of animal and human skin, or sections
fixed in neutral formalin and a new incubation
medium Na-benzoyl-dl-arginine-B-naphthylamide hy-
drochloride localization by a simultaneous re-
action of enzymatic activity to mast cells was
noted.  Enzymatic activity was completely abolish-
ed by Pb nitrate (2 x 10~^M)   among the inhibitors
tested.  Subsequent tests identified the enzyme to
have properties relating to trypsin.

399     Hata, Y.:   (INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METALS
        UPON THE GROWTH AND THE ACTIVITY OF MARINE
        SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA.)  Norinsho
        Suisan Koskusho Kenkyu Hokoku 9:363-75,
        1960.
Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria strain SM 1 was
used throughout this work.  Heavy metals original-
ly contained in peptone and lactic acid employed
were removed by use of the 8-quinolinol treatment.
Among the conditions investigated, when Bi, Co,
Cr, Mn, Pb, and Sb were present in the culture
media, sulfides were accumulated in higher con-
centration than in the absence of these metals
                 although  the initial growth of  the bacteria was
                 considerably retarded  as  compared with the
                 latter  case.  These results may suggest that
                 the  above metals  acted not only as inhibitors
                 of the  bacterial  growth,  but  also as  precipita-
                 tors of free H2S  produced.  Removal  of free
                 HoS  by  precipitation from the media  has a
                 favorable effect  upon  the sulfate-reducing ac-
                 tivity  of these bacteria.  (From Chemical Ab-
                 stracts 58:11710,  1963)

                 400     Hayashi,  A.  (Kinki Univ., Osaka, Japan):
                         (BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES  ON OSTREA GIGAS.  IX.
                        LEAD CONTENT.) Seikagaku 32:871-3,  1960.
                 Seasonal  changes  of  the  Pb content in Ostrea
                 gigas were  determined  by using  the method of  Gage.
                 Except  for  September when the Pb content was  5.9
                 ppm  of  fresh tissue, rather constant  values,  rang-
                 ing  from  0.1-0.4  ppm,  were obtained.   Different
                 culture methods did  not  influence  the Pb content.
                 Distribution of Pb was highest  in  the mantle  (ppm
                 of ashed  sample).   (From Chemical Abstracts  60:
                 3307, 1964)

                 401      HBgberg,  B., and UvnHs, B.  (Karolinska
                         Inst.,  Stockholm; ABL Co.  HMlsingborg,
                         Sweden):   FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIS-
                         RUPTION OF RAT MESENTERY MAST CELLS
                         CAUSED BY COMPOUND 48/80,  ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY
                         REACTION, LECITHINASE A AND  DECYLAMINE.
                         Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 48:133-45,
                         1960.
                 Pb"1"1" was  among the bivalent metal  ions tested that
                 strongly  inhibited the disruptive action of com-
                 pound 48/80, antigen and lecithinase  A of rat  mes-
                 entery  mast cells in situ.  At  molar concentra-
                 tions of  10~6-10~5,  Pb nitrate  caused 50% inhibi-
                 tion of the disruptive action caused by 0.5 yg/ml
                 48/80 compound, 2 Vg/ml lecithinase  A or 1/100-
                 1/1000  horse serum.  No inhibition of mast  cell
                 disruption  was observed using 20 vig/ml of decyla-
                 mine with 10"3M pb nitrate.

                 402      Johnson,  L.A., and Seven,  M.J.:  OBSERVA-
                         TIONS  ON  THE  IN VIVO STABILITY OF METAL
                         CHELATES.  In  Seven,  M.J.,  and Johnson,
                         L.A.,  ed.:  Metal-Binding in Medicine.
                         Philadelphia,  Lippincott,  I960, pp  225-9.
                 The  authors summarize  their  review of the title
                 subject,  based on 29 references, as  follows:   The
                 in vivo stability of a metal  chelate may be in-
                 fluenced  by its  inherent stability (indicated by
                 its  equilibrium  constant, K), the  competition of
                 body cations  for  the chelate, pH and tendency of
                 the  metal to  form insoluble  hydroxides, the dis-
                 tribution and  metabolism of  the chelate and  the
                 competition of  physiological  complexing radicals
                 for  the metal  ion.  Many metal  chelates that  are
                 very stable in vitro,  including the  Fe and  Y  che-
                 lates of  N-hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic
                 acid (HEDTA),  Pb  and Bi chelates of  EDTA, have
                 been shown  to  break down in vivo.  Various  methods
                 of estimating  the relative stabilities of metal
                 chelates  in vivo  have  been attempted but, as  yet,
                 no ideal  method has  been devised.

                 403      Lindemann, B., and Passow,  H.  (Harvard
                         Med.  School,  Boston,  Mass.;  Physiol.  Inst.
                         Univ.,  Hamburg, Germany):   Kaliumverlust
 60
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        und ATP-Zerfall in bleivergifteten Mens-
        chenerythrocyten.  (POTASSIUM LOSS AND
        ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE DECOMPOSITION  IN
        LEAD-POISONED HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES . )  Pflli-
        gers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie
        des Menschen und der Tiere 271:369-73,
        1960.
As determined by addition of Pb at 0.9 x  10~7 and
7.2 x 10-7M/g cells, the conclusion was drawn that
the K loss after Pb poisoning was caused  by a di-
rect effect of Pb on the cell membrane and not by
the interruption of intermediary metabolism.  The
Pb effect on the cellular ATP was apparently pro-
duced by interactions of Pb with ligands  in the
cell membrane, since Pb was rendered inactive by
erythrocyte contents.

404     Madlo, Z. (Inst. Ind. Hyg. and Occupation-
        al Diseases, Prague, Czechoslavakia):
        (ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF CYSTEINE DE-
        SULFHYDRASE.) Collection of Czechoslov.
        Chem. Communs. 25:729-34, 1960.
Pb was  1 of the metals inhibiting the title enzyme.
The inhibition was partially reversed by  pyridoxal-
5-phosphate.  (From Chemical Abstracts 55:640,1961)

4Q5      Meyer, H.:  Der Synergismus von Schwermetal-
        lionen (Cu4"4; Cd++ Pb++, Hg++) und  kolloid-
        alem Schwefel bei der fungiciden Wirkung auf
        Conidien von Fusarium decemellulare.  (THE
        SYNERGISTIC ACTION OF Cu++, Cd++, Pb++, Hg++
        AND COLLOIDAL SULFUR IN THEIR FUNGICIDAL EF-
        FECTS ON THE CONIDIA OF F. DECEMECELLULARE.
        Archiv fur Mikrobiologie 37:28-48, 1960.
Formation of sulfides did not explain synergism of
above ions with colloidal S (CS) ; rate of Cu, Cd,
Pb uptake in cells increased in presence  of CS.

406     Miyata,  S. (Gifu Pref. Med. Coll., Japan):
        THE INTERACTION BETWEEN ALBUMIN AND HEAVY-
        METAL IONS.   Japanese Journal of  Indus-
        trial Health 2:495-501 (June), 1960.
For the purpose of clarifying the significance of
CaEDTA as an accelerator of heavy-metal excretion,
the interactions between albumin and heavy-metal
ions and the effect of CaEDTA on the combination
of the metal with albumin were studied under vari-
ous conditions by polarography.
  EDTA and CaEDTA were found to have the  ability
to combine with Cd,  Pb, and Mn stoichiometrically
at pH 7, and the complexes were stable.   Cd com-
bined with bovine serum albumin at the imidazol
group, but this combination was inhibited by
tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane.  Combination of
Pb ions with albumin was completely inhibited by
tartaric ions.   EDTA and CaEDTA reacted also with
the Cd or Pb combined with bovine serum albumin.
(From author's English abstract; 20 references)

407      Miyata,  S. (Gifu Pref. Med.  Coll., Japan):
        HEMOLYSIS OF ERYTHROCYTES BOUND WITH LEAD
        AND THE INFLUENCE OF Ca-EDTA.  Japanese
        Journal of Industrial Health 2:649-56
        (Aug.),  1960.
Studies on combination of erythrocytes with Pb
were made physically or chemically through hemoly-
sis.   Normal erythrocytes (A,  consisting of normal
human erythrocytes rinsed with physiological
saline solution and  suspended in physiological
saline solution at a  rate  of  2%),  erythrocytes
bound with Pb  (B, prepared by putting  5  x  10~^M of
Pb into A), and erythrocytes  whose bound Pb was
removed with CaEDTA  (C, obtained by  adding CaEDTA
twice the  equivalent  of Pb into B) were  respec-
tively hemolyz'ed by  the use of hypotonic saline
solution,  saponin, monoiodacetic acid, heat,  and
ultrasonic wave for  comparative studies  of their
behavior to the hemolytic  factors.
  It was found that  resistance to  hypotonic saline
solution was highest  in A, followed  in order  by C
and B; resistance to  saponin  was highest in A,
followed in order by  B and C; erythrocytes bound
with Pb showed remarkably  increased  resistance  to
the hemolytic activity of  monoiodacetic  acid; this
resistance was lost  following the  removal  of  Pb;
erythrocytes bound with Pb as well as  Pb-freed
erythrocytes were more apt to undergo  hemolysis by
heat; hemolysis by ultrasonic showed no  difference
among the  3.  These  findings  suggested that Pb  has
the greatest effect  on the blood cell  membrane.
Results of the experiments with saponin  and mono-
iodacetic  acid indicated that the  combination be-
tween Pb and blood cell membrane is  a  chemical
phenomenon, suggesting the presence  of a close  re-
lationship of Pb with lipoid  and SH  groups of pro-
tein in the cell membrane.  The combination veloc-
ity of Pb with erythrocytes was very high.  How-
ever, the  effect of  the binding did  not  appear
rapidly, but became  increasingly noticeable with
the lapse  of time.   (From  author's English ab-
stract; 25 references)

408      Passow, H.,  and Weiss, C.  (Univ. Hamburg,
        Germany):  Das Grenzflachen-pH roter
        Blutkorperchen in  Gegenwart  von  Schwer-
        metallionen.  (THE SURFACE pH  OF RED  BLOOD
        CELLS IN THE  PRESENCE OF HEAVY-METAL  IONS.)
        Pfluger's Archiv fur  die Gesamte Physiolo-
        gie des Menschen und  der Tiere 271:374-7,
        1960.
According to Hartley  and Roe  (1940)  the  surface  pH
of suspended particles can be calculated from the
pH of the bulk phase  if the electrophoretic mobil-
ity of the particles  is known.  The  mobility of
human red cells has been measured  in the presence
of low concentrations of Cu,  Cd, and Pb  (0.06 mM),
No differences between untreated cells and cells
treated with heavy metals were found.

409      Pecora,  L.,  Fati,  S.,  and  Vecchione,  C.
        (Univ.  Naples, Italy):  Patogenesi delle
        turbe porfiriniche nel saturnismo.   (PATHO-
        GENESIS OF PORPHYRIN DISORDERS IN SATURN-
        ISM.)   Folia Medica (Naples)  43:685-95
        (July),  1960.
Having observed in earlier experiments that the
addition of tissue homogenates of Pb poisoned
animals  stimulates the synthesis of  erythrocyte
protoporphyrin (PP)  of the system erythrocytes +
glycocoll,  the authors investigated  the  effect of
enzymatic inhibitors and stimulants  on the above
system.   The addition of Na citrate,  vitamin B-j^
and Fe saccharate strongly stimulated PP synthesis;
malonic  acid,  neoarsphenamide, cysteine,  NaF and
ATP inhibited it by ^50%,  while Pb nitrate (50 yg),
Na cyanide and iodoacetic acid strongly  inhibited
it.   The authors consider  that the homogenate acts
by stimulating the 1st phase of PP synthesis.
                                             Plants and Animals
                                                61

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They had also found that even  ether,  acetone and
aqueous extract of the tissues, and the serum of
these animals was capable of stimulating PP syn-
thesis in vitro.  (From authors' summary)

410     Reichel, L., and Mllller-Freymuth, H.
        (Humboldt Univ. Berlin, Germany):  fiber
        die Bedeutung gewisser lonen bei der
        Carotin-Biosynthese.  (SIGNIFICANCE OF
        CERTAIN IONS IN BIOSYNTHESIS OF CAROTENE.)
        Naturwissenschaften 47:62-3, 1960.
Phycomyces blakesleeanus (strain Nit(—) synthesizes
carotene only if Mn1""1", PC>4   , and Mg"1""1" are pres-
ent.  Small amounts of thiamine are necessary.
The composition of the nutritive solution is
given.  The following ions increase the produc-
tion of carotene:  Co"*4", Ca"1"1", Fe+++, Ni++, Zn"1"*,
Mo_+, Pb*"1", and Cu4"1".  A concentration of 9 x
10~ M Se02 doubles the formation of carotene,
but the effect of the concentration of Se02 is
very limited.
411      Sako, M.  (School Med., Keio Univ., Tokyo,
        Japan):  DIFFERENCE OF AFFINITY WITH LEAD
        BY ORGANS — AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY USING
        CaEDTA.  Japanese Journal of Industrial
        Health 2:657-64 (Aug.), 1960.
The chelating action of CaEDTA was applied to the
study of the different combining ability of or-
gans, ie, liver, brain, lung, muscle, etc, with
Pb.  As observed in homogenates to which Pb and
EDTA were added, in the liver of normal rabbits, f
the relationship between the dose of added Pb and
the composition of Pb-EDTA can be expressed by the
equation:  y = 4.70xO-^4) where y = dose of Pb,
x = Pb amount of Pb-EDTA.  The added Pb combines
more firmly with bone and liver than with brain
or lung.  In organs of rabbits with chronic Pb
poisoning, the combined Pb is more stable than the
complex forming in acute Pb poisoning.  The dif-
ferent state of Pb combination with the various
organs or the difference of affinity to Pb of the
organ is attributable not only to the difference
of chemical property of water-nonsoluble proteins,
but might also be due to water-soluble proteins
and other biological factors which were not de-
tected by this experiment.  (From author's English
abstract; 23 references)

412      Tarzwell, C.M., and Henderson, C. (Robt.
        A. Taft San. Eng. Center, Cincinnati, 0.):
        TOXICITY OF LESS COMMON METALS TO FISHES.
        Industrial Wastes 5:12 (Feb.), 1960.
Exploratory tests showed the toxicity of PbCl2 for
fathead minnows in soft and hard water, respective-
ly, as 2.4 and >75 mg/1 Pb as the 96 hr TLm.  Be
was the most toxic, followed by U (0.2 mg/1 in very
soft water, and 3 mg/1, respectively).

413      Waltner, K., Jr., and Csernovszky, M.
        (Univ. Med. School, Szeged, Hungary):
        EFFECTS OF METAL SALTS ON THE ELECTROLYTE
        CONTENT OF HUMAN RED BLOOD CELLS.  Clinica
        Chimica Acta 5:230-4, 1960.
The salts of the following metals were added to red
cell (RBC) suspensions from young healthy adults at
concentrations from 0.01-7 uM/ml: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd,
Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb (as chloride and
acetate), Sn, Zn, and Zr.  The chlorides (at 1 yM)
                reduced  the K content in the following order:
                Pb > Hg  > Cu > Sn > Zn > Ba > Co > Cr > Cd > Ni
                > Mn > Mg, and promoted the Na uptake in a rather
                similar  order (at 3 yM).  The effect of the sulfate
                or nitrate was more pronounced than that of the Cl.
                Addition of EDTA with the salts to the RBC suspen-
                sion brought about no change in the K or Na content
                when the EDTA concentration was 1-1/2 times that of
                the metal.  Cysteine HC1 also had no marked effect.
                The water content of RBC diminished by the action
                of some  salts, including Pb, nearly in parallel
                with the K content.  With Pb, Cu, and Co, the  loss
                of K began already after some minutes; a decrease
                in labile phosphate esters was found only after in-
                cubation for 1 hr.  The electrolyte changes are
                thought  by the authors to be produced by a direct
                membrane ("electrolyte pump") action.   (13 refer-
                ences)

                414      Weinberg,  E.D.:   THE RELATIONSHIP OF
                         METAL-BINDING TO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION.
                         In Seven,  M.J.,  and Johnson,  L.A.,  ed.:
                         Metal-Binding in Medicine.   Philadelphia,
                         Lippincott,  1960,  pp.  329-34.
                Many antimicrobial compounds have  the  ability  to
                bind metals.  The metals  that have been  found  to
                affect  in  some manner  the biological activities
                of  these compounds,  ie, Fe,  Cu,  Zn, Co, Mn, Ca, Al,
                Mg, and  Mo, are  those which  can  be activators  of
                specific enzymes.  Although  such ions  as Ni, Bi,
                Sb, Sn,  Cd, Sr,  Ba,  and Pb are bound quite firmly
                by  the  positive  group of antimicrobials,  it  is
                found almost always  that  these ions, which usually
                do  not  activate  enzymes  likewise do not  usually
                affect  the biological activities of the  compounds.
                (35 references)

                                      1961

                415      Britten, R.  (Univ. Inst. Microbiol.,
                         Copenhagen, Denmark):  HYDROLYSIS OF RNA
                         BY LEAD ACETATE.  Comptes Rendus des Tra-
                         vaux du Laboratoire Carlsberg  32, No.  23:
                         371-80,  1961.
                RNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis, Salmonella typhimu-
                rium and Escherichia coli was labelled by growth
                of  the cells in  the presence of  2-1'tC-uracil.  Af-
                ter washing the  cells in TSM buffer or "boiling"
                the cell suspension in TSM  (100°C for  15 min), the
                RNA was  extracted.  Ribosomes were prepared from
                Salmonella typhimurium cells suspended in TSM  and
                disintegrated in a modified Hughes press,  RNA
                samples  were hydrolyzed by 1M Pb acetate solutions
                (pH 5.5), precipitated with trichloroacetic acid
                (TCA), filtered  and  the filters were assayed for
                radioactivity.  Hydrolysis products were examined
                by paper chromatography and also separated on  a
                column of Dowex-1 formate.  Tetrahymena RNA was
                rapidly  hydrolyzed with a half life of 20 min.
                The hydrolysis of Salmonella RNA depended on the
                state of the RNA (whole cells, boiled  cells, ribo-
                somes, boiled ribosomes).  Ribonuclease had no ef-
                fect on  the hydrolysis and it was shown  that Pb
                acetate  inhibits the action  of beef ribonuclease.
                DNA was  not hydrolyzed by Pb acetate.  The hydrol-
                ysis products were not 5'-nucleotides, but a mix-
                ture of  2'- and  3'-nucleotides.  The precursors to
                ribosomal RNA in E.  coli were hydrolyzed twice as
                fast at  the average RNA of the cell.  The author
62
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
suggested that the RNA in the whole cell is bound
in such a way as to protect it from Pb ions, a way
that differs from the protection observed in iso-
lated ribosomes.

416     Cherchi, P. (Univ. Cagliari, Italy):  Sail
        di piombo ed attivita' esterasiche  (ricer-
        che in vitro). (LEAD SALTS AND ESTERASE
        ACTIVITY (RESEARCH IN VITRO).) Rassegna
        Medica Sarda 63:663-8 (Nov.-Dec.),  1961.
Blood sera of clinically healthy subjects were in-
cubated for 2 hr at 37° with either Pb nitrate or
chloride so that the resulting Pb concentration
was equal to 100 yg/100 cm3.  Measurements of
the activity of pseudocnolinesterase and procaine
esterase showed that neither of the 2 Pb salts had
an inhibitory action on these enzymes.  This con-
firms a previous statement of the author that the
decrease  of serum pseudocholinesterase and pro-
caine esterase in Pb intoxications is not due to
an action of Pb on these enzymes but rather to a
decreased production of the enzymes in the  forma-
tive organs, particularly in the liver.

417     Feldman, P., and Lichtman, H.C. (State
        Univ. of New York, Brooklyn):   IN VITRO
        PYRROLE SYNTHESIS IN LEAD POISONING. Amer-
        ican Journal of Diseases of Children 102,
        No. 4:485-6, 1961.
The anemia of Pb poisoning may be in part related
to inadequate heme production.  The following
scheme has been suggested for heme synthesis:
glycine + succinate  —> amino-B-ketoadipic acid
	> g-aminolevulinic acid	V porphobilinogen
	> porphyrins	>heme, each step being depend-
ent on one or more enzymes.   The ability to syn-
thesize porphobilinogen and porphyrins from &-
aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was studied  in vitro in
the erythrocytes of Pb-poisoned infants and com-
pared with that in the blood cells of  normal adults
and Fe-deficient children.  Porphobilinogen syn-
thesis which is a function of ALA dehydrase ac-
tivity,  tended to be less than normal  when the Pb-
poisoned erythrocytes were used as an  enzyme
source.   This deficit could be favorably influenc-
ed by preactivation of the incubation  mixture with
glutathione.  Uroporphyrins and coproporphyrin
synthesis from ALA was also diminished in the Pb-
poisoned blood cell.

418     Lloyd, R. (Water Poll. Res. Lab., Steve-
        nage, England):  EFFECT OF DISSOLVED OXY-
        GEN CONCENTRATIONS ON THE TOXICITY OF SEV-
        ERAL POISONS TO RAINBOW TROUT.  Journal of
        Experimental Biology 38:447-55 (June), 1961.
Reduction in dissolved 0 concentration increases
the toxicity to Salmo gairdnerii of Zn, Pb, and Cu
salts, and a mixture of monohydric phenols, to
approximately the same extent.  It is  suggested
that a given toxic effect is produced by a speci-
fied concentration of poison at the gill surface,
and that this concentration is governed by the
concentration of poison in the bulk of the solu-
tion and also by the velocity of respiratory flow.

419      Magistretti,  M., Peirone, E., and Majoni,
         A. (Univ.  Milan, Italy):   Azione in vitro
         del piombo-tetraetile sulla monoaminos-
         sidasi cerebrale.   (THE  ACTION OF TEL ON
        CEREBRAL MONOAMINE OXIDASE.)  Medicina del
        Lavoro 52:498-506 (Aug.-Sept.), 1961.
Recent investigations have shown that the content
of serotonin in the brain affects neuropsychologic
behavior.  Serotonin is metabolized by monoamine
oxidase and inhibition of the enzyme leads to accu-
mulation of serotonin in the brain.  The effect of
TEL on monoamine oxidase was studied in vitro by
preincubating brain homogenates from rats with
ethyl fluid (consisting of TEL, dichloroethane and
dibromoethane) in concentrations of 0.1-0.07-0.05
ml/ml of homogenate and determining the disappear-
ance curve of serotonin that had been in contact
with these homogenates.  While in the controls
^90% of the serotonin present was metabolized
within 1 hr, homogenates preincubated with 0.1 mg
of ethyl fluid/ml of homogenate led to inhibition
of the enzyme and homogenates containing lower con-
centrations of ethyl fluid caused a lesser but
still significant inhibition.  Corresponding exper-
iments made singly with the components of the ethyl
fluid, ie, 50 mg TEL, 150 mg dibromoethane and 90
mg dichloroethane, respectively, showed that the
inhibitory effect was caused only by TEL.
  The hypothesis is advanced that the accumulation
of serotonin in the brain is at least partly re-
sponsible for the neuropsychologic manifestations
characteristic of acute TEL poisoning.  (56 refer-
ences)
420     Murakami, T., Ishihara, Y., and Uesugi, K.
        (Himeji, Japan):   (INORGANIC CONSTITUENTS
        IN MARINE ORGANISMS. III. QUANTITATIVE DE-
        TERMINATION OF MOLYBDENUM, LEAD, AND CO-
        BALT IN SHELLFISH.) Himeji Kogyo Daigaku
        Kenkyu Hokoku No.  13:98-108, 1961.
High Pb levels were found  in the shell Paphia
philippinarum and Corbicula leana.  (From Chemical
Abstracts 56:1848, 1962)
421      Shkol'nik, M.Ya.:   (SOME RESULTS OF A
        THREE-YEAR STUDY  (1958-60) OF THE PHYSIO-
        LOGICAL ACTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS.)  Mikro-
        elementy v SSSR,  Byul. Vses. Koordinats.
        Komis. po Mikroelementam 1961, No. 1:23-
        9.
A study was made of  the  physiological effects of
trace elements on plants.   Most of the study con-
cerned the influence of  Cu, Co, Mn, Zn, Mo, B,
and Al.  At 28-32° more Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ni, Fe,
Al, Pb, Ag, and Ca were  assimilated by plants than
at 14-20°.  (From Ref. Zh., Biol. 1962, Abstr.
No. 14G75; Chemical Abstracts  58:8381, 1963)

422     Umegaki, I.E., and  Tanabe, M. (Kyoto Pref.
        Med.  Univ., Kyoto,  Japan):  (I. EFFECTS OF
        SALTS OF HEAVY METALS  ON ERYTHROCYTES.  II.
        TOTAL ERYTHROCYTES.) Kyoto Furitsu Ika
        Daigaku Zasshi 69:1413-18, 1442-4, 1961.
I.  Erythrocytes were suspended in solutions of Pb
acetate, Pb nitrate, and  other metal solutions
ranging in concentration  from  10~3>i_io~%.  Only
Ag nitrate solution strengthened both the maximum
and minimum hemolytic resistance.   II.  The hema-
tocrit always decreased  in  concentrations up to
10~%, regardless of the metal salt.  (From Chem-
ical Abstracts 57:2805,  1962)
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                                                                      63

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                      1962

423     Aldridge, W.N., Cremer, J.E., and Threl-
        fall, C.J.  (Med. Res. Council Lab., Car-
        shalton, Surrey, England):  TRIALKYLLEADS
        AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION: A STUDY OF
        THE ACTION  OF TRIALKYLLEADS UPON RAT LIVER
        MITOCHONDRIA AND RAT BRAIN CORTEX SLICES.
        Biochemical Pharmacology 11:835-46 (Sept.),
        1962.
The action of trimethyl-, triethyl-, tripropyl-,
and tributyllead upon processes associated with ox-
idative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria
and rat brain slices was studied and compared with
that of trialkyltins.  All the trialkyllead com-
pounds studied inhibited the stimulating effect of
apyrase on 02 uptake by liver mitochondria; tri-
methyllead was the  least active, the other trial-
kylleads were equally active.  Oxidative phosphor-
ylation, measured by using hexokinase and glucose
to trap ATP, and the stimulation of ATP by 2,4-
dinitrophenol were  inhibited by all trialkylleads.
The respiration and formation of creatinine by rat
brain slices were also inhibited.  Although a close
similarity was found between the series of trial-
kyltins and trialkylleads in regard to their action
studied in vitro, they do not bring about the same
signs of poisoning in animals.   Thus, there seems
to be a qualitative difference in their biological
properties which cannot be explained at present.

424     Cavagna, G., and Beard, R.R. (Univ. Milan,
        Italy):  POTASSIUM LOSS FROM LEAD-POISONED
        ERYTHROCYTES.  FAILURE TO DEMONSTRATE COR-
        RELATION WITH AGE OF CELLS.  Medicina del
        Lavoro 53:779-81 (Dec.), 1962.
In earlier experiments, the authors had observed
that when red cells were treated in vitro with Pb,
K loss occurred, and the result was an increase in
osmotic resistance.  At moderately low Pb concentra-
tions (0.008 mM/1), 2 groups of erythrocytes  could
be differentiated:  one showed rapid K loss, the
other a slow one.  Thus the authors inferred that
this was due to the enzyme content of the cells,
which considerably decreases with age, and that the
young cells could be separated by centrifugation.
Therefore, heparinized blood from clinically normal
persons was centrifuged, the top 20% and the bottom
20% red cells were removed and each group of cells
was exposed to several concentrations of Pb chlo-
ride.  At Pb concentrations of 0.003-0.008 mM/1,
both groups lost at about the same rate.  The au-
thors conclude that the results failed to prove
their hypothesis; however, this could be due to the
possibility that centrifugation is not a suitable
method for the separation of cells.

425     Crandall, C.A., and Goodnight,  C.J. (Pur-
        due Univ.,  Ind.) :   EFFECTS OF SUBLETHAL
        CONCENTRATIONS OF SEVERAL TOXICANTS ON
        GROWTH OF THE COMMON GUPPY, LEBISTES  RE-
        TICULATUS.  Limnology and Oceanography 7:
        233-9 (Apr.), 1962.
The effects of prolonged exposure to sublethal
concentrations of 3 industrial  by-products, ie,
Pb, Zn, and Na pentachlorophenate, were stud-
ied in the common guppy, Lebistes reticulatus.
The pH of the metal salts was 7.9-8.2,  total  hard-
ness was 80 ppra, and total alkalinity, 51 ppm.  In
                 the  case  of Pb  concentrations  of  2  ppm  analytical
                 grade  Pb  nitrate  (Pb,  1.24  ppm) were  used.   In  ad-
                 dition, fish were  placed  in 5  ppm Pb  nitrate (2.48
                 ppm  Pb) .   Control  fish were kept  in water.   After
                 30 days,  the fish  were weighed individually  every
                 15 days until the  90th day.  Size,  activity,  be-
                 havior, and sexual maturity were  observed.   Of  a
                 total  of  109 fish  in 5 groups  in  the  2  ppm Pb ni-
                 trate  solution, 29 or  26.6% were  dead at  the end
                 of 90  days, compared with 6.5  and 9.3%  in 2  con-
                 trol solutions.  Two groups of 12 and 10  fish in
                 the  5  ppm solution reached  a 50%  mortality at 76
                 and  35 days, respectively.   The median  weights  of
                 the  fish  in the Pb solutions were less  than  the
                 control medians at all times measured;  the median
                 confidence limits  at 90 days corresponded to those
                 of the controls at 30-45 days.  The weight distri-
                 butions in the Pb  solutions were  asymmetric,  indi-
                 cating the ability of  some  fish to  grow normally.
                 Of the 5  groups in the 2 ppm solution,  2  groups
                 did  not contain any recognizable  males  even  after
                 90 days,  in another group,  a single male  was ob-
                 served, and in the 2 remaining groups 1 male was
                 observed  at 86 days and 1 at 80 days, respectively.
                  The  results of this  study strongly  suggest that
                 Pb produced chronic intoxication.   The  occurrence
                 of such chronic or cumulative  toxicity  makes the
                 determination of "safe" pollution levels  for fish
                 difficult.

                 426     Cremer, J.E. (M.R.C. Laboratories, Car-
                        shalton, Surrey, England):  THE ACTION  OF
                        TRIETHYL TIN,  TRIETHYL LEAD,  ETHYL MERCURY
                        AND OTHER  INHIBITORS ON THE METABOLISM  OF
                        BRAIN AND  KIDNEY SLICES IN  VITRO  USING
                        SUBSTRATES LABELLED WITH  1*C. Journal of
                        Neurochemistry 9:289-98,  1962.
                 The  effect of triethyl-Pb on the  oxidation by rat
                 brain  and kidney slices of  substrates labeled with
                 l^C  has been measured.  At  concentrations of 1.2-
                 4.0  x  10~6M  triethyl-Pb inhibited  the  02 consump-
                 tion and  the output of 14c02 by brain slices when
                 U-14c  glucose was  added as  a substrate, but  was
                 inactive  against kidney slices.   The  reason  for
                 the  sensitivity of glucose  oxidation by brain
                 slices to triethyl-Pb  is not known.

                 427     Galzigna,  L.,  and Brugnone, F.  (University
                        Padua,  Italy): Azione dell'acido adenosin-
                        5-monofosforico nel saturnismo  sperimen-
                        tale.   Prove in vitro.  (EFFECT OF ADENO-
                        SINE-5-MONOPHOSPHATE IN EXPERIMENTAL SA-
                        TURNISM. EXPERIMENTS IN VITRO.) Bollettino
                        della Societa' Italiana di  Biologia  Speri-
                        mentale 38, No. 24:1827-8,  1962.
                 Blood  of  rabbits that  had been^poisoned with neu-
                 tral Pb acetate  was diluted with a physiological
                 solution  and incubated for  4 hr at  38°C with gly-
                 cine and  one of the following  compounds:  adeno-
                 sine-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine-diphosphate
                 (ADP), adenosine-triphosphate  (ATP),  pyridine-
                 phosphate (PLP).   Following incubation  the free
                 protoporphyrin  (PPE) in the blood cells was  deter-
                 mined. ATP and ADP were  found to increase the  pro-
                 duction of PPE  by  160% and  PLP did  so by  40%,
                 whereas AMP caused a 24%  inhibition and AMP  + PLP
                 a 72%  inhibition.  The data obtained  in vitro
                 agree  with results obtained in an in  vivo series.
64
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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 428     Ishizuka, Y., and Tanaka, A. (Hokkaido
        Univ., Sapporo, Japan):  (INORGANIC NUTRI-
        TION OF RICE PLANT. VIII. EFFECT OF LEAD,
        MAGNESIUM, AND ARSENIC LEVELS IN CULTURE
        SOLUTIONS ON YIELDS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSI-
        TION OF THE PLANT.) Nippon Dojo-Hiryogaku
        Zasshi 33, No. 9:421-3, 1962.
Pb was present in culture solutions at the level
of 0-50 ppm.  At 50 ppm Pb had no effect, for it
was precipitated as Pb sulfate; 10 ppm was the
critical level when SO^was absent.  Maximum
content of Pb was 200 ppm in straw and 300 ppm in
roots.  (From Chemical Abstracts 60:3448, 1964)

429     Koval'skii, V.V., Rezaeva, L.T., and Kol'-
        tsov, G.V.  (V.I. Vernadskii Inst. Geochem.
        and Anal. Chem., Moscow, USSR):  (THE CON-
        TENT OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE TISSUES AND
        BLOOD OF ASCIDIANS.) Doklady Akademii Nauk
        SSSR 147:1215-17, 1962.
The trace elements  found in Ascidiella aspersa in-
cluded 0.015% Pb  (relative to ash weight).   (From
Chemical Abstracts  58:9444, 1963)

430     Mambeeva, A.A., and Tikhonov, N.N.   (Inst.
        Regional Pathol., Acad. Sci. Kazakh SSR):
        Vliyanie uksusnokisloi soli svintsa na
        sokratimost' poperechnopososatykh myshts
        kholodnokrovnykh.  (EFFECTS OF LEAD ACE-
        TATE ON THE CONTRACTION OF TRANSVERSO-
        STRIATAL MUSCLES OF COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS.)
        Trudy Instituta Kraevoi Patologii,  Aka-
        demiya Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR 10:103-7,
        1962.
Pb acetate solutions used in these experiments on
the isolated frog muscle were of the following
concentrations:  0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.075,  0.1,
0.25,  0.5, 1.0,  2.0, 5.0, and 10.0%.  The results
showed that the contraction of transversostriatal
muscle was greatly reduced by Pb acetate.  The
magnitude of the contraction rose with increased
concentrations of Pb.  However, in respect to
comparatively weak solutions the known resistance
was observed as a result of which muscle contrac-
tion did not reach great height on the kymogram.
Pb contraction was characterized by having a
short  latent period, slow increase, no decrease
and irreversibility.

431     Moritsugu, M., and Kobayashi, J.  :  (TRACE
        METALS IN BIOMATERIALS. I. GEOGRAPHICAL
        DIFFERENCE OF METALS CONTAINED IN AYU.)
        Biol. J- Okayama Univ. 11:393-411,
        1962.
Pb,, among other trace elements, was determined with
the aid of a quartz spectrograph in Plecoglossus
altivelis.  Of the 116 sample locations along
Japanese rivers, Pb was detected in both the en-
trails and gills of the fish.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 57:6449, 1962)

432     Sijpesteijn, K.A. ,  Rijkens, F.,  Luijten,
        J.G.A.,  and Willemsens, L.C. (Org.  Chem.
        Inst. T.N.O., Utrecht, Netherlands):   (AN-
        TIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF
        SOME TRISUBSTITUTED ORGANOGERMANIUM,  OR-
        GANOTIN AND ORGANOLEAD COMPOUNDS.)  Antonie
        van Leeuwenhoek,  J. Microbiol.  Serol. 28:
        346-56,  1962.
 The  antifungal  and  antibacterial  activities of a
 number  of  acetates  of trialkyl- and triphenyl-
 substituted  Pb  were investigated.   High activity
 was  found  for certain Pb compounds.  A probable
 mode of action  of the compounds was discussed.
 (From Chemical  Abstracts 58:7308,  1963)

 433      Tikhonov,  N.N.,  and  Mambeeva,  A.A.:   (THE
         CHANGES OF  SORPTION  PROPERTIES OF MUSCLE
         TISSUE  OF COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS UNDER Pb
         ACETATE ACTION.)   Tr.  Inst. Kraevoi
         Patol., Akad. Nauk Kaz. SSR 10:100-2,
         1962.
 A  study of isolated frog muscles,  after intoxica-
 tion with  Pb acetate, revealed a  rise  of  sorption
 activity of  the muscular tissue which  is  evidently
 caused  by  paranecrosis.   (From Chemical Abstracts
 58:10653,  1963)

 434      Vulpis, N., and  Giorgino,  R.  (Univ.  Eari,
         Italy):  SOME EFFECTS  OF  METAL IONS ON
         BLOOD COAGULATION.  Thrombosis et Diathe-
         sis  Haemorrhagica 8:121-31, 1962.
 Clotting mixtures  consisting of 0.15 ml plasma
 containing 220,000  platelets/mm3 0.09  ml  salt  so-
 lution,  and  0.09  ml imidazole  buffer of pH  7.2-7.8
 were recalcified  with 0.03 ml  0.125M Cad2,  and
 clotting was recorded in the thromboelastograph.
 Salts of Cd,  Zn,  Hi,  Fe++, Co,  Pb,  Al,  Mn,  Ba,  Sr,
 Hg,  and Li were used. All salts increased  the
 reaction time and decreased  the maximum amplitude,
 the  first  3  markedly  in  small  amounts,  the  follow-
 ing  4 in larger amounts,  and the next  3 hardly at
 all.  When tested at  a concentration of 0.2  yg of
 ion/0.36 ml  final mixture, the reaction time de-
 creased from >200  to  5 sec in  the  order Cd,  Zn,
 Ni,  Pb,  Al,  Co,  Fe,  Sr,  Mn,  Ba, Li, and Hg;  the
 maximum amplitude  increased  from 0-50  mm  in the
 order Cd,  Hg, Zn, Ni, Co,  Sr,  Al,  Pb,  Fe, Li,  Mn,
 and  Ba.  Hg  was tested in several  dilutions  and
 gave very  short reaction times, which  were  ex-
 plained by lysis  of the  platelets.  To rabbit
 plasma  Pb nitrate was added  to a final concentra-
 tion of 1.70 yg/ml.   When this and normal plasma
 were mixed in various proportions,  the reaction
 times increased and the  maximum amplitudes  de-
 creased progressively.   Plasma was  fractionated by
 starch  electrophoresis,  and  0.65 yg Pb  in 0.05  ml
 was  added  to 0.30 ml  platelet-rich plasma,  0.13 ml
 plasma  fraction,  and  0.18 ml imidazole buffer  of
 pH 7.4.  The mixtures were recalcified and  examin-
 ed as before.   The  aj_-,  fibrinogen-, and  Y"gl°bu-
 lin  fractions showed  the  highest inhibitory  ac-
 tion.   Thromboelastograms, abnormal by the  action
 of metal ions,  could  be  restored  to normal  by  the
 addition of  Na2EDTA.

                      1963

435      Alber,  M.A.  (Univ. Palermo, Italy):  Api
         raccoglitrici di  vernici  al minio.   (COL-
         LECTING OF  RED LEAD  PAINT  BY HONEY  BEES.)
         Bollettino  dell'lnstituto  di Entomologia
         Agraria e dell'Osservatorio di Fitopato-
         logia di  Palermo  5:303-6,  1963-1964.
 It is known  that bees are attracted to paint
 mixed with rosins.   In 1963, bees  from an apiary
 in the  neighborhood of the new Pirelli factory
 at Villa-franca gathered  a mass of red Pb paint
                                             Plants and Animals
                                                65

-------
from the iron structures.  They filled crevices
and narrow spaces in the hives and varnished
the surface of honey combs with the poisonous
Pb paint.

436     Chandra, S.  (Univ. Lucknow, India):  PHYSI-
        COCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MILK.'l. COAGULA-
        TION OF COW MILK WITH VARIOUS ELECTROLYTES.
        Proc. Natl.  Acad. Sci. India, Sect. A 33,
        Ft. 1:17-24, 1963.
Pure milk can be coagulated with O.U067M and 0.168M
HC1.  ihe normal dilution law is applicable in the
1st zone; whereas in the 2nd the reverse is the
case, ie, the lower the concentration of colloid,
the higher the concentration of electrolyte needed
to coagulate.  Similarly, 2 separate zones of coag-
ulation are observed with HN03, acetic acid (AA),
A1C13, Al(1*03)3, H2C2°4> and tartaric acids.  In
the 2nd zone a change of charge from - to + took
place with HC1, HN03, AA, H^O^, and tartaric
acids due to the adsorption of H+, and with A1C13
and A1(N03)3 to the A1+++.  It is not possible to
distinguish the 2nd zone of coagulation with tar-
taric acid and AA at all dilutions and with
A1(N03)3 at  <0-°65M.  The results of  coagulation
of milk with H2S04, AgN03, Pb(N03)2, Pb acetate,
CuS04, ZnS04, CoS04, MnCl2, NiCl2, and FeCl2 in the
1st zone are listed.  Coagulation of pure milk and
reconstituted powdered milk both whole and skim and
their mixtures by Pb(N03)2. Pb acetate, ZnS04, and
A1C13 are studied.  Powdered milks obeyed the nor-
mal dilution law in the 1st zone of coagulation,
and the skim, powdered milk is more stable than
pure milk.   (From Chemical Abstracts 59:6902, 1963)

437     Evans,  E.A., Eisenlord, G., and Mine, C.H.
         (Med. School, Univ. California, San Fran-
        cisco):  STUDIES  IN DETOXICATION BY MEANS
        OF THE  ISOLATED PERFUSED LIVER.  Toxicolo-
        gy and  Applied Pharmacology 5:129-41
         (Mar.), 1963.
Clearance rate of Pb, morphine, ethanol, and pento-
barbital was measured using isolated perfused liv-
ers of normal rats and rats whose livers had been
damaged by intragastric administration of 50 mg/kg
of allyl alcohol or by sc administration of 480 mg/
kg of C tetrachloride.   Damaged livers cleared Pb
more rapidly than normal ones and also had higher
tissue concentrations of Pb than controls at the
end of perfusion.   (28 references)

438     Frenk, E.:  De 1'affinite de la peau pour
        certains metaus.  (AFFINITY OF THE SKIN TO
        CERTAIN METALS.) Dermatologica 127, No. 1:
        33-8, 1963.
Guinea pig skin sections  in 1% Pb nitrate solution
treated with diphenylcarbazone showed strong red
coloration of erythrocytes and musculature, but
very weak skin  reaction.  This confirmed marked
affinity of  erythrocytes  for Pb, poor fixation of
Pb  in skin,  and rare production of Pb eczema.

439     Granata, A., and Germano, D.  (Univ. Mes-
        sina, Sicily):  Diverse potere eritrole-
        sivo del piombo e dei suoi principal! com-
        posti inorganic!.  (ACTION OF LEAD AND ITS
        PRINCIPAL INORGANIC SALTS ON RED BLOOD
        CELLS.) Bollettino della Societa Italiana
        di Biologia Sperimentale 39:928-31  (Aug.
                        31), 1963.
                Slightly heparinized venous blood from 20 normal
                subjects was reacted at 25°C with 100 mg each of
                the compounds to be tested, and the spontaneous
                hemolyzing time was determined.  Highest hemolysis
                values were observed for Pb nitrate, Pb acetate,
                Pb carbonate and Pb sulfate in that order, whereas
                the chloride and oxide of Pb and metallic Pb were
                weak hemolyzing agents.  A relationship between
                toxicity and penetrating capacity of the substan-
                ces into the red cells is suggested.

                440     Granata, A., and Germano, D.  (Univ. Messi-
                        na, Italy):  Potere eritrolitico del rame
                        e analisi comparativa  del ''tempo di emolisi
                        provocata" di  alcuni metalli.  (THE HEMO-
                        LYTIC POWER OF COPPER  AND THE COMPARATIVE
                        ANALYSIS OF "TIME OF HEMOLYSIS" INDUCED
                        BY DIFFERENT METALS.)  Medicina del Lavoro
                        54:81-7  (Feb.), 1963.
                Hemolytic properties of Pb and 6 other metals were
                examined in vitro with red blood cells taken from
                the blood of 35 normal subjects.  (Metals were add-
                ed at 100 mg to 2 ml blood.)   Pb had a lower lytic
                power than many other  metals,  which confirms central
                action of Pb and its minimal capacity for poisoning
                through cell membrane  of mature erythrocytes.

                441     Granata, A., and Papalia, D.  (Univ. Messi-
                        na, Italy):  Potere eritrolitico in vitro
                        di alcune sostanze in  polvere d'interesse
                        professionale.   (HEMOLYTIC ACTION IN VITRO
                        OF SOME POWDERED SUBSTANCES USED IN IN-
                        DUSTRY.)  Medicina del Lavoro 54:519-23
                         (June-July), 1963.
                The time required by a number  of substances to in-
                duce hemolysis was determined  in vitro in the blood
                of 40 healthy adult subjects.  Pb304 produced hemol-
                ysis in all cases, a maximum effect being reached
                on the 3rd day.  A comparison  with hemolytic effect
                of Pb dust showed that Pb30^ damages red cells much
                more intensely than Pb.  With  Pb, maximum effect
                was reached on the 10th day.


                442     Granata, A., and Stilo, R. (Univ. Messina,
                        Italy):  L'azione dell'acido etilendiamino-
                        tetracetico sugli eritrociti in vitro.
                        (ACTION OF ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID
                        ON ERYTHROCYTES IN VITRO.) Bolletino della
                        Societa Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale
                        39:925-8 (Aug. 31), 1963.
                Venous blood was collected from 14 subjects with
                chronic Pb poisoning and 14 individuals with some
                kind of blood disease, and immediately mixed with
                solutions of disodium  ethylenediaminetetraacetate
                (Na2EDTA) at concentrations ranging from 15-0.93%.
                Sedimentation occurred quickly at concentrations
                <7.5% and more slowly  at the higher concentra-
                tions.  Hemolysis started at 48 hr in the 15% so-
                lution and on the 5th  day at concentrations of
                from 6.42-9%.  There was no significant difference
                in the time of hemolysis between the blood of Pb-
                poisoned subjects and  that of  the other group,
                only in advanced Pb poisoning  hemolysis started
                after 30 hr in the 15% solution.  After the 4th-
                5th day, all samples contained stippled cells;
                granulations were indistinct in both poisoned and
                not poisoned subjects.  The granulations caused by
 66
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
Na2EDTA were quite different  from  stippled baso-
phils as  they appear in Pb poisoning.  There was
also a pronounced anisocytosis with numerous
spherocytes; the neutrophils were  either  damaged
or anomalous due to degeneration while the lymph-
ocytes showed more resistence; the megakariocytes
were slightly increased and monocytes were absent
already after the 2nd day.  Consequently, EDTA, at
all concentrations except between  6 and 9%, had a
direct injurious effect on red blood cells in
vitro.  At  concentrations between  6 and 9% the red
cell was  preserved at least until  the 6th day.
The conclusion was drawn that EDTA should be ad-
ministered  for treatment only in concentrations of
6-9% and  that a dose of 500 mg/adult normal sub-
ject should not be exceeded.

443     Keller, R. (Univ. Zurich,  Switzerland):
        Zur Histochemie der Mastzellesterase.
        (THE HISTOCHEMISTRY OF THE ESTERASE OF
        MAST CELLS.) Schweizerische Medizinische
        Wochenschrift 93, No. 42:1504-5,  1963.
The effect  of various inhibitors on esterase,
leucine aminopeptidase  (LAP)  and adenosinetri-
phosphatase (ATP-ase) of isolated  rat mast cells
has been  studied.  Pb nitrate in a solution of
2 x 10  M did not affect esterase  or ATP-ase, but
inhibited LAP by 25%.

444      Lishko, V.K.  (Inst. Biochem. Acad. Sci.
        Ukr. SSR, Kiev):  (PROPERTIES OF  BRAIN
        CATHEPSIN.) Ukr. Biokhim.  Zh. 35, No. 6:
        874-80, 1963.
From purified cathepsin prepared from brain homog-
enate  by a method described  earlier (Polyakova
et al.,1962; 1960), a protein  fraction in  which the
cathepsin was concentrated by a factor of 1000 was
isolated  by absorption on diethylaminoethyl cell-
ulose and elution with 0.1M NaCl.  The maximum
proteolytic action of the concentrated cathepsin
was at pH 3.1 with bull hemoglobin as a substrate
and at pH 4.1 with serum albumin as a substrate.
The enzyme  exhibited a maximum stability  at pH
5.5-8.5.  Its activity was not affected by Pb ions
(0.001M).   Of the 3 protein substrates investigat-
ed, viz,  denatured hemoglobin, serum albumin, and
egg albumin, cathepsin split  hemoglobin best and
egg albumin least.  (From Chemical Abstracts 60:
12292, 1964)

445      Morihara, K.  (Shionogi Co. Ltd, Osaka,
        Japan):  PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PROTEINASE.
        I.  PURIFICATION AND GENERAL PROPERTIES.
        Biochimlca et Biophysica Acta 73:113-24,
        1963.
Heavy-metal ions such as Pb^+ inactivate  the en-
zymic activity of P.  aeruginosa.   (19 references)

446      Muraoka, S. (Okayama Univ., Japan):   MECH-
        ANISM OF SUBSTRATE INHIBITION AND ITS RE-
        VERSAL BY HISTAMINE.  Biochimica  et Bio-
        physica Acta 73:27-38, 1963.
In the presence of histamine or in dithizone-
treated medium the inhibition of milk xanthine
oxidase can be suppressed.   Since  the inhibition
caused by the substrate can be demonstrated  by the
addition of a minute amount of metallic ion,  such
as 6.6 x 10~7M Pb2+,  to the metal-free system,
the presence of a trace of some metallic ion in
the reaction mixture may be responsible for  the
inhibition.  (16 references)

447      Oborn, E.F.:  EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMON
        AQUATIC ORGANISMS IN REMOVAL OF DISSOLVED
        LEAD FROM TAP WATER. U.S. Department of
        the Interior, Geological Survey, Profes-
        sional Papers No. 475-C:220, 1963.
Four kinds of aquatic plants absorbed Pb approxi-
mately in proportion to the area of the plant-body
surface in contact with the water.  Symbiotic bac-
teria were the most active of the organisms  stud-
ied.

447a    Parkbok, T.A., and Kuznetsova, G.N.:  (EF-
        FECT OF THE SOIL TEMPERATURE ON THE AB-
        SORPTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELE-
        MENTS IN PLANTS.)  Tr. Botan. Inst., Akad.
        Nauk SSSR, Ser. 4, Eksperim. Botan.  1963,
        No. 16:27-48.
The effect of the soil temperature on the content
and distribution of B, Mn, Zn, Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Ni,
Pb, Mo, Ag, Cr, Ga, V, Sn, and Co in young bean,
barley, and tomato plants was investigated.  The
experiments were carried out during the summer
months in a light, air, and temperature-controlled
growth chamber with several podzol soils and in
sand cultures at 2 series of soil temperatures:
26, 28, 30° and 12, 14, 18° controlled by special
arrangement.  Soil moisture was maintained at 60%
of capacity.  The plants were irrigated daily.
After harvesting the plants were analyzed, leaves,
stems, and roots separately.  The effect of  the
soil temperture on the content of the same element
varied with different soils.  At higher tempera-
tures the increases of B and Mn were the highest.
In some instances the higher temperature affected
the distribution of Mn, Fe, and Ni in the differ-
ent parts of the plant, increasing their trans-
portation from the roots to the leaves.  In  the
young bean, sharp differences in trace element
contents were observed in various parts of the
plant.  Leaves and roots were characterized  by a
high content of Mn, Fe, Ti, Al, Cu, and Zn.  The
heavy metals Pb, Ag, Ga, Cr, V, and Sn accumulated
primarily in the roots.  The stems had a low con-
tent of all trace elements with the exception of
Ni and Mo.  In tomato plants the absorption of B
and Mn increased with the higher temperature.  The
differences in the B contents were more pronounced
in the leaves and not too significant in the stems
and roots.  It is assumed that in order to meet
the requirements of the plant for the trace  ele-
ments it would, in addition to availability, be
necessary to take into consideration the tempera-
ture of the soil.  Tables of the trace element
contents of the plants at the different soil tem-
peratures are presented.  (From Chemical Abstracts
59:14303, 1963)
448     Schweiger, H.G., Schweiger, E., and
        Vollertsen, I.  (Max Planck Inst. Sea Biol.,
        Wilhelmshaven,  Germany):  RibonucleinsHure-
        Abbau und Hamoglobinsynthese  in Reticulocy-
        ten.  (RIBONUCLEIC ACID DEGRADATION AND
        HEMOGLOBIN SYNTHESIS IN RETICULOCYTES.)
        Biochimica et Biophysica Acta  76:482-4
        (Nov. 22), 1963.
                                             Plants and Animals
                                                67

-------
 Since  the disappearance of RNA is a sign of reticu-
 locyte maturation, the authors set out to prove
 indirectly that RNA degradation is connected with
 Hb synthesis.  The reticulocytes used in the ex-
 periments were derived from rats made anemic by
 phenylhydrazine.  Washed cells were incubated in
 Krebs-Henseleit buffer to which were added -^C-
 labeled leucine, amino acids, glucose, Fe, and
 Pb (1 x 10  M).  The incorporation of leucine in
 the soluble protein was taken as a measure of Hb
 synthesis.  RNA was determined as RNA-P after acid
 extraction.  The results showed that leucine in-
 corporation and RNA degradation behaved synony-
 mously.  It was also found that both RNA degrada-
 tion as well as leucine incorporation were inhibit-
 ed almost completely by Pb.  The authors point out
 that the fact that Pb is not a general inhibitor
 for protein synthesis but acts specifically on Hb
 formation was seen in the finding that leucine in-
 corporation in the stroma proteins was not marked-
 ly affected by Pb.  (14 references)

449      Sirs,  J.A.  (Univ.  London,  England):   UPTAKE
        OF 02  AND CO BY HEMOGLOBIN IN SHEEP  ERYTH-
        ROCYTES AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES.   Journal
        of Applied Physiology 18:166-70 (Jan.),
        1963.
 The rate of uptake of 0 and of CO by hemoglobin in
 intact red cells of sheep increased by a factor of
 M..5 for each 10°C rise in temperature over the
 range of 10-35°C.  Metals (as chlorides, Ag at
 5 x 8~8 g/1, Mg at 20 mg, Cu at 10, and Pb at
 100 mg/1) increased the rate of uptake of both
 gases by a factor of 1.14-1.3 (Pb, 1.14).  The
 influence of metal ions appears to be one of in-
 creasing the membrane permeability.

 450      Tiunov, L.A.:   (ENZYMES AND POISONS.)  Vopr.
        Obshch. Prom.  Toksikol. Leningrad, Sb.
        1963:80-5.
 Commercial poisons are classified according to
 their effect on enzymes and action on the various
 enzyme systems governing organ functions and meta-
 bolic processes.  Pb is classified among the poi-
 sons acting on the prosthetic group of enzymes,  ie,
 disturbing synthesis of prosthetic groups.  (From
 Ref. Zh., Farmakol., Toksikol. 1965, Abstr. No.
 3.54.310; Chemical Abstracts 62:13747, 1965)


                      1964

 451      Aokl,  K., and Hori, J. (Univ. Nagoya,  City
        Univ., Japan):  EFFECT OF METALLIC CATIONS
        ON HUMAN SERUM:  STUDY BY STARCH-GEL ELEC-
        TROPHORESIS.  I. EFFECT OF Pb++, Cu++,  AND
        NH^"1".  Archives of Biochemistry and Bio-
        physics 106,  No. 1:317-25, 1964.
 The technique of one dimensional starch-gel elec-
 trophoresis has made possible the resolution of
 human serum into more than 12 components, enabling
 a more exact study of the effect of metallic cat-
 ions  on the protein components of serum.  When
 Pb nitrite or CuS04 was added to human serum,  the
 amount of precipitate increased with increase in
 the concentration of the cation.  Some protein
 components of human serum were precipitated at
 lower concentrations and some resisted precipita-
 tion even at higher concentrations of a cation.
The precipitability of a component depended on the
nature of the cation.  The main components in the
supernatant obtained, when serum diluted 50% con-
tained 30 mM Pb++, were transferrin and ^-globulin.
Almost all the y-globulin was precipitated when
serum diluted 50% contained 6 mM Cu"*"1"; almost all
the proteins were precipitated when the final con-
centration of Cu"*"1" was 20 mM.  It was observed
that the zone of a particular component disappear-
ed abruptly at a certain concentration of cation,
while a new zone appeared, indicating probably,
that the component was modified by the cation with
a change in mobility.  Also, that the intensity of
staining of a particular component increased with
increase in the cationic concentration.  An ex-
planation is that the metallic cation (Pb++ or
Cu++) bound to the protein binds dye  (eg,protein"-
Pb++ - dye-).

452     Beltschev, E.G.:   (INFLUENCE  OF BIVALENT
        METAL CATIONS ON THE DEGRADATION OF RNA IN
        RAT AND CHICKEN LIVER HOMOGENATES.) Iz-
        vestiya na Tsentralnata Laboratoriya po
        Biokhimiya, Bulgarska Akademiya na Naukite
        2:47-56, 1964.
The degradation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) by
ethylenediaminetetraacetate  (EDTA), Mg and Pb in
rat and chicken liver homogenates was studied.
After 6 hr incubation at 37°, 40% of  the whole-
tissue RNA was degraded.  EDTA at pH  8 blocked the
activity of ribonuclease but had no influence on
the enzyme in an acid medium (pH 5).  Mg and Pb
added in excess to EDTA removed the blocking ef-
fect both in rat and chicken liver homogenates.
As the ribonuclease inhibitor was absent in the
latter, the author concludes that the bivalent
metal ions do not inactivate the inhibitor but act
on the enzyme itself; also, that the mechanism of
the mode of action is far  from clear.  (From Chem-
ical Abstracts 62:13425, 1965)

453     Csillik, B., and Davis, R. (Univ. Pennsyl-
        vania, Philadelphia):  ELECTRON MICROSCOP-
        IC LOCALIZATION OF THE "LEAD-REACTIVE SUB-
        STANCE" IN THE MYONEURAL JUNCTION.  Acta
        Biologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
        15, No. 2:203-11, 1964.
Since Savay and Csillik (1958) had shown that the
myoneural junction has a conspicuous  affinity for
Pb salts, an electron-microscopic study was under-
taken to determine the localization of supravital-
ly administered Pb nitrate in the myoneural junc-
tions of the intercostal muscle of adult mice.
The dissected thorax of the mice was  immersed for
5, 10, 20 and 30 min in a  0.1% solution of Pb
nitrate, containing 10% formalin and  sufficient Na
nitrate to achieve isotonicity.  Best results were
obtained in samples kept in the solution for 30
min.  As anticipated, the Pb-reactive substance of
the myoneural junction was found in the postsynap-
tic membrane and its neighboring parts, ie, in the
same submicroscopic structures which  also contain
cholinesterase activity.  It is suggested that the
postsynaptic membrane consists of a mosaic-like
pattern of the acetylcholine receptor and displays
the role of a postsynaptic amplified  device of the
action of presynaptically  released acetylcholine.
454
Fisher, F.M.,  Jr. (Rice Univ., Houston,
                                      BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        Texas):  THE PROPERTIES AND  SPECIFICITY OF
        A  g-GLUCOSIDASE FROM BLABERUS  CRANIIFER.
        Biological Bulletin 126:220-34 (Apr.),
        1964.
Pb was one of  the 13 metal ions tested for  the
characterization of a  6-glucosidase  found to be
localized mainly in the cecal complex  of the ali-
mentary canal  of the roach, Blaberus craniifer.
At a concentration of  8.26 x 10-&M,  Pb caused 50%
inhibition of  the activity of the enzyme.   The
range of inhibition by the other ions  was from 2-
100%.

455      Flerova, T.P., and Flerov, V.E.:  (EXPERI-
        MENT ON BIOCHEMICAL AND GEOBOTONICAL PROS-
        PECTING IN THE DZUNGARIAN ALA  TAU.)  Ma-
        terialy po Geol. i Polezn. Iskop. Yuzhn.
        Kazakhs tana (Alma-Ata:  Akad.  Nauk  Kaz.
        SSR) Sb. 1964, No. 2:144-52.
Results are given on surveys made in the areas of
polymetallic deposits  already explored in Koksu,
Eastern Suuktyube, and Yablonovoe.  In each survey
unit (area 5 m^) , geobotanical, soil,  and geologi-
cal observations were  made and biochemical  and
metallometric  samples were taken.  It  was proved
that:  (1) the plants  spirea, mint (Mentha), yar-
row, St.-John's-wort,  and vetch (Vicia spp.) con-
centrate large amounts of Ag, Ga, and  Sb, while
iris, hollyhock, thoroughwax (Bupleurum), and
others concentrate little of the same  elements;
(2) the content of Zn, Pb, and Cu in the ashes of
plants, growing over the ore bodies, is 1.5-4%
(the background content is 0.0n-0.00n%) with a
simultaneous increase  in the content of Ag, Ga,
Sb, and other  elements; (3) the plant  indicators
of ore bodies  are gypsophila, astragalus, eye-
bright (Euphrasia), dock (Rumex acetosa), (Koksu),
and mountain bluet (Centaurea montana)  (Eastern
Suuktyube); and (4) on soil over the ore bodies
the amount of  plant species decreases  and there is
a sharp predominance of 1 or 2 species.  The ef-
fect of ore bodies on  plant shape is discussed and
illustrated.  The results of metallometric, bio-
geochemical, and geobotanical sampling  are  compar-
ed and interpreted.  (From Ref. Zh., Geol.   1964,
Abstr. No. 12D44; Chemical Abstracts 62:14351,
1965)

456     Goodman,  I.,  and Hiatt, R.B.  (Columbia
        Univ.,  New York,  N.Y.):   CHEMICAL FACTORS
        AFFECTING SPONTANEOUS MOTILITY OF THE SMALL
        INTESTINE IN THE RAT.   I.   SULFHYDRYL RE-
        ACTANTS.   Biochemical Pharmacology  13:871-
        9 (June),  1964.
To determine whether the sulfhydryl (SH) group is
involved in the mechanism of intestinal smooth
muscle contractility,  relative reactivities of a
variety of SH reactants with the cysteine SH group
were evaluated by a modification of the indophenol
method along with parallel studies of  the effects
of the same SH reactants on spontaneous motility
and response to acetylcholine (ACh)  of isolated
segments of rat ileum in Ringer's solution.   Com-
pounds highly reactive toward the SH group  included
Pb acetate among others.   Comparisons were made
with compounds that do not react with  the SH group.
Pb acetate reacted rapidly with the isolated gut
segment, causing inactivation at concentrations of
10  -ICT^M with inhibition of the normal ACh-in-
duced contraction.  At lower concentrations they
had no effect or even enhanced spontaneous intes-
tinal motility, causing increased amplitude of
contraction without inhibition of the ACh con-
traction.

457     Haider, G. (Inst. Technol., Stuttgart,
        Germany):  HEAVY METAL TOXICITY TO FISH.
        I.  LEAD POISONING OF RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO
        GAIRDNERII) AND ITS SYMPTOMS.  Z. angew.
        Zool. 51, No. 3:347-o8, 1964.
Rainbow trouts were chronically poisoned in an
aquarium by adding small amounts of Pb acetate  to
the water  for 2-3 mo or by giving lethal doses
orally or  by injectibn.  In acute poisoning,  the
gill epithelium and inner organs were destroyed
and the fish died of suffocation.  Staining with
Ag sulfide revealed the presence of Pb in bones,
liver, kidneys, gills and spleen.   (From Water
Pollution  Abstracts 39:Abstr. No. 1820, 1966)

458     Hirth, L. (Univ. Munich, Germany):  En-
        zymschaden bei Schwermetallvergiftung.
        (ENZYMIC DAMAGE DUE TO HEAVY METAL INTOX-
        ICATION.) Mllnchener Medizinische Wochen-
        schrift 106, No. 21:985-8, 1964.
In his introduction, the author states that also
in this age of plastics and chemicals, the use of
certain heavy metals, particularly Pb, provides
opportunity for exposure to them by man.  He cites
a report of increased Pb levels in the blood of
the urban population and questions whether Pb oc-
curs in primitive people.  As one of the main ef-
fects of heavy metals seems to be the inhibition
of enzymes, he reports his in-vitro experiments of
the effect of Hg on succinodehydrogenase and al-
kaline phosphatase in kidney tissue.  A 1 x 10~3M
solution of Hg chloride completely inhibited
succinodehydrogenase, and a similar though some-
what lesser effect was produced by a solution of
Pb acetate, whereas even a 1 x 10~2» solution of
Hg chloride or Pb acetate did not affect the ac-
tivity of alkaline phosphatase.   In-vivo experi-
ments were described only for Hg.  The brief dis-
cussion of the mechanism of the enzyme-inhibiting
effect revolves mainly around the affinity of Hg
and Pb to the SH-groups.

459      Huff, J.W., Sastry,  K.S., Gordon,  M.P.,
        and Wacker, W.E.C.  (Univ. Washington;
        Dept. Med. Harvard  Med.  School;  Peter Bent
        Brigham Hosp.  Boston,  Mass.):   THE ACTION
        OF METAL IONS ON TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS RI-
     1  BONUCLEIC ACID.   Biochemistry (Wash.)  3:
        501-6 (Apr.),  1964.
Added transition metal ions stabilize the second-
ary structure of tobacco virus RNA.   In spite of
this stabilization of secondary structure, heating
in the presence of metal ions results in the loss
of biological activity due to the hydrolysis of
phosphodiester bonds.   At pH 5.8 and room tempera-
ture Pb ions catalyzed the hydrolysis of RNA to
2'(3')-mononucleotides;  on long standing,  nucleo-
sides were formed.  (From authors' summary;  23
references)

460     Jonderko, G. (Acad. Med., Zabrze, Poland):
        WpXyw soli metali ciezkich na aktywnosc
        dehydrogenazy mleczanowej.  (THE EFFECT OF
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                69

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        HEAVY METAL SALTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF LAC-
        TIC DEHYDROGENASE.  Polskie Archiwum Medy-
        cyny Wewnetrznej 34, No. 12:1583-6, 1964.
The effect of Mn sulfate, Cd sulfate, Hg chloride,
Pb acetate and Co sulfate in concentrations of 5 x
10-6,  1 x 10-5 and 2 x 10-5M on the activity of
lactic dehydrogenase of human erythrocytes was
studied in vitro.  The results showed that the
salts  inhibited the action of the enzyme in a con-
centration as low as 5 x 10-&M.

461     Jonderko, G., and Dabrowski, Z.  (Silesian
        School Med., Zabrze, Poland):  THE EFFECT
        OF HEAVY METAL SALTS AND CALCIUM DISODIUM
        AND MAGNESIUM DISODIUM VERSENATE ON THE
        ACTIVITY OF SERUM PHOSPHOMONOESTERASE. I.
        IN VITRO STUDIES.  Archivum Immunologiae
        et Therapiae Experimentalis 12,  No. 5:592-
        601, 1964.
The behavior of phosphomonoesterase I in the pres-
ence of equimolar concentrations of heavy-metal
salts and chelating agents was  studied in vitro
with human blood serum.  Two ml of  the blood se-
rum using sera of 17 patients with  conditions un-
related to intoxication and healthy donors was in-
cubated for 1 hr at 37° with Mn sulfate, Cu sul-
fate,  Hg chloride, Pb acetate and Co sulfate in
amounts giving serum concentrations of 5 x 10~6,
1  x 10~5 and 2 x 10"5M after solution.  The activ-
ity of phosphomonoesterase I was then determined
in the test and in control samples.  Sera of 10
individuals were used to study  the  "prophylactic"
and "therapeutic" effect of Ca  disodium versenate
(EDTA) on the enzyme activity by incubating the
sera with EDTA either before or after incubation
with the heavy metals.
  The degree of inhibition of the enzyme activity
increased as the concentration of the heavy metals
increased from 5 x 10~6 to 1 x  10~5 and 2 x 10~5M,
with Hg and Pb showing the strongest effect.  Af-
ter prophylactic application of EDTA, Hg and Pb
also caused significantly greater inhibition of
enzymatic activity than the other salts but signi-
ficantly less than EDTA alone or than Hg and Pb
without preincubation with EDTA.  Incubation with
EDTA for 1 hr after incubation with the heavy
metals (therapeutic use) caused a significantly
greater decrease of phosphomonoesterase activity
than incubation with EDTA prior to  incubation with
the metal salts (prophylactic use of EDTA).
  The conclusion was drawn that prophylactic use
of EDTA is more effective than therapeutic use.
There was little change in effect when serum was
incubated with EDTA for 1, 2, or 24 hr.   Since all
heavy-metal salts including those of Pb inhibit
phosphomonoesterase at concentrations above 5 x
10-°M, determination of the activity of this en-
zyme may serve as a nonspecific diagnostic test in
intoxications with these metals.

462     Laboureur,  P.,  and Labrousse, M  (Joyen
        Josas,  Seine et Oise,  France):   Proprietes
        d'une lipase fongique a haute activite1.
        (PROPERTIES OF A HIGHLY ACTIVE FUNGAL LI-
        PASE.)   Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des
        Stances de 1'Academic des Sciences 259:
        4394-6 (Dec. 9), 1964.
The exocellular lipase of a Rhizopus rootstock
stimulates the hydrolysis of numerous glycerides
                between pH 2.5-9.5, is active in temperatures from
                20°-50° and is activated by Ca and albumin.  Among
                the mineral substances Ca"*""1" and to a lesser degree
                Mn4"1" are strong activators, while the inhibitors
                are:  Zn++ > Hg++ > Pb++ > Cu++ > Sn"1^ > Fe+++ >
                CO++ > Al+~l~l~ in concentrations of 2 x 10~*M.
                (From authors' summary)

                463     Li, H.C., and Hu, Y.C.:  EFFECTS OF LEAD
                        ARSENATE SPRAYS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNC-
                        TIONS AND FRUIT QUALITY OF SWEET ORANGE.
                        Yuan Yi Hsueh Pao 3, No. 2:129-37, 1964.
                Proper spraying of sweet orange with Pb arsenate
                improved quality, decreased acidity and increased
                the content of sugars, vitamin C and the ratio of
                sugar to acid.  It also increased the weight of
                the fruit and promoted the vigor of the tree.
                Spraying sweet orange with 0.25% Pb arsenate 3
                times between early young fruit drop and June drop
                is recommended.  (From Chemical Abstracts  62:7050,
                1965)

                464     Min, K.S.  (Coll. Med., Natl. Univ. Seoul,
                        Korea):  EFFECT OF LEAD ION ON THE POTAS-
                        SIUM TRANSPORT OF RABBIT BLOOD CELLS. Soul
                        Uidae Chapchi 5, No. 1:21-30, 1964)
                The effect of Pb on the permeability of rabbit red
                cells to K were studied on the basis of the dose-
                response, time-response curves and osmotic fragil-
                ity changes.  Pb chloride induced a prehemolytic
                loss of K from the erythrocytes over a range 0.5
                ^20  x  10-3 mM Pb chloride/1, and at concentra-
                tions above 20 x 10~^ mM/1, hemolysis began to ap-
                pear.  The K loss progressed rapidly for 1 hr and
                then slowed down.  A recovery of cell membrane
                occurred with time after poisoning the cells; it
                was complete in 5 hr.  The K loss was greatest at
                20-37° and pH 7.0.  Intracellular inorganic phos-
                phate increased during the phase of rapid  K loss
                and thereafter slowed down.  Pb induced K  leakage
                in the cells.  The relation between sulfhydryl
                groups and Pb binding on the cell membrane was
                discussed.  (From Chemical Abstracts 65:7886,
                1966)

                465     Ogawa, K. (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  METALLO-
                        PHILIA (AFFINITY FOR LEAD) OF THE  PLASMA
                        MEMBRANES OF JEJUNAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN
                        THE RAT. Abstracts of 77th Session of the
                        American Association of Anatomists, Den-
                        ver, 1964.  Anatomical Record 148, No. 2:
                        392, 1964.
                In the course of electron histochemical demonstra-
                tion of acid phosphatase in the jejunal epithelial
                cells of the rat, using the Gomori reaction, the
                nonenzymatic deposition of Pb in plasma membranes
                of microvilli and interdigitating plications be-
                tween adjacent cells was observed.  The mode of
                nonenzymatic Pb deposition did not differ  from
                that of enzymatic Pb.  Nonenzymatic Pb deposition
                was enhanced by fixation of tissues in cold for-
                mol-Ca at pH 7.4, and addition of sucrose.  The
                phenomenon of metallophilia can be overcome by
                decreasing the Pb concentration in the Gomori me-
                dium from the original 3.7-1 mM.  (Condensed ab-
                stract)

                466     Papke, E., and Pohloudek-Fabini, R.
                         (Pharmac.  Inst. Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Univ.,
 70
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        Greifswald, Germany):  Zur Kenntnis des
        KetosSurestoffwechsels von Datura stpamo-
        nium L., var. stramonium.  Tell V:  Uber
        die Wirkung einiger Stoffwechselinhibi-
        toren auf den KetosMurestoffwechsel von
        Datura stramonium L., var. stramonium.
        25. Mitteilung: lieitrage zur Chemie und
        Physiologie einiger stoffwechselchemisch
        wichtiger Sauren.  (METABOLISM OF KETO
        ACIDS IN DATURA STRAMONIUM VAR STRAMONIUM.
        V.  EFFECT OF CERTAIN INHIBITORS ON THE
        KETO ACID METABOLISM.  25.  CHEMISTRY AND
        PHYSIOLOGY OF SEVERAL METABOLICALLY IMPOR-
        TANT ACIDS.)  Pharmazie 19, ^o. 11:718-22,
        1964.
Healthy functioning leaves high on the stem of
plants 4-5 mo old were treated with various meta-
jolic inhibitors by suspending the leaves with
their petioles in the respective solutions for 24
hr   in darkness.  u-Ketoglutaric acid content was
reduced by K metaarsenite, Pb nitrate (1% solu-
tion), NaF, p-fluorobenzoic acid, acetaldehyde,
and  butalidon (phenylbutazone), whereas pyruvic
acid was  increased by the same compositions.  (22
references)

467     Patino, H. (Inst. Fomento Algodonero, Bo-
        gota, Colombia):  Efectos fitotoxicos del
        arseniato de plomo usado como insecticida
        en el cultivo de la soya.  (PHYTOTOXIC EF-
        FECTS OF LEAD ARSENATE USED AS AN INSECTI-
        SIDE IN SOYBEAN CULTURE.) Bol Notic Inst.
        Fomento Algodonero Bogota 4, No. 5:4-5,
        1964.
Toxicity  symptoms observed on soybean plants
sprayed with Pb arsenate for control of Lepidop-
tera larvae are described,  (From Biological Ab-
stracts 46:Abstr. No. 72893, 1965)

468      Pecora, L., Fati, S., Mole', R.,  and Pesar-
        esi, C.  (Univ. Naples, Italy):  Azione del
        piombo sulla sintesi porfirlnica nel mi-
        dollo osseo.  (EFFECT OF LEAD ON PORPHYRIN
        IN THE BONE MARROW.) In  XlVth Internation-
        al Congress of Occupational Health, Ma-
        drid, Spain, Sept. 16-21, 1963.   Interna-
        tional Congress Series No. 62, Amsterdam,
        Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1964, Vol.
        Ill, pp  1068-9.
Homogenates of bone marrow removed from the femur,
shoulder and tibia of 20 young rabbits were pre-
pared by the method of Morell (1958), and suspend-
ed in Krebs-Ringer phosphate solution.   Aliquot
portions were then treated with glycocoll and Pb
acetate in concentrations of lO'^M,  10~%,  10~7M
and  10~HM.  After an incubation of 4 hr at 37°,
the  protoporphyrin was determined by the method of
Grinstein and Wintrobe (1950).   In concentrations
of IO-IM and IQ-^M Pb acetate inhibited  the syn-
thesis of protoporphyrin by 38 and 61%,  respec-
tively,  whereas concentrations of 10~?M and 10~HM
increased the synthesis by 31 and 80%, respective-
ly.   The conclusion was drawn that,  since the Pb
concentration in the bone marrow of Pb-poisoned
rabbits is always below that capable of  causing
inhibition, the increased porphyrin metabolism in
Pb poisoning must be caused by a stimulating ac-
tion of Pb on the bone marrow.
  (The same paper was presented at a meeting of
the Society for Forensic Medicine, Indemnity and
Industrial Medicine, Feb. 26, 1965, an abstract of
which was published in Medicina del Lavoro  56:315-
6  (Apr.), 1965.)

469      Pickering,  Q.H.,  and Henderson,  C.  (Robert
         A.  Taft Sanit.  Eng.  Center,  Cincinnati,
         0.):   THE ACUTE TOXICITY  OF  SOME HEAVY
         METALS TO DIFFERENT  SPECIES  OF WARM WATER
         FISHES.  Proceedings  of  the 19th  Industrial
         Waste  Conference, Purdue  University, La-
         fayette,  Indiana, May 5-7, 1964, pp 578-
         91.
A  comparative  study was undertaken to determine
the acute toxicity of the salts of Cu, Zn,  Ni,
trivalent and  hexavalent Cr,  and  Pb to 4 species
of warmwater fishes and the  dependence of this
toxicity on certain other water quality  character-
istics.  The species used were fathead minnows,
bluegills, goldfish and guppies.   Ten individuals
of a species were used for each of the concentra-
tions tested and  in the control.   The test  solu-
tions were prepared in a logarithmic series of
numbers such as 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8  and 1.0 mg of
the metal salt/1  of water, and from the  mortali-
ties at different concentrations  the 24-, 48-, and
96-hr  median   tolerance limits (TL,,,)  were comput-
ed.  With all  4 species in soft water, Cu was  the
most,  and CrVI the least toxic while with the oth-
er metals, relative toxicity varied with the test
species.  With Pb (as chloride and acetate), the
mechanism of toxicity appeared to  be different at
high concentrations and short exposures  than at
low concentrations and long  exposures.   The 96-hr
TLm values in  soft water for the  fathead minnow
(7.33 and 31.5 mg/1) and goldfish were signifi-
cantly lower than the 24-hr values (11.5 and 45.4
mg), and the 96-hr TLm in soft water was signifi-
cantly lower for the fathead minnow than for the
other species.

470     Ponert, J.  (Czech. Bot. Soc., Csav,
        Prague, Czechoslovakia):   Einfluss  von
        Blei,  Silber, Kupfer  und  Kalium  auf den
        Gehalt an Kardenoliden in  BlHttern.  (IN-
        FLUENCE OF LEAD, SILVER,  COPPER, AND PO-
        TASSIUM ON THE CARDENOLIDE-CONTENT  OF
         LEAVES.)   Naturwissenschaften 51, No.  13:
        320-1,  1964.
The content of cardenolldes  in leaves of Conval-
laria majalis  L., after addition  of equimolar  so-
lutions of the nitrates of K, Cu,   Ag and Pb, re-
spectively, was found as follows,   10"^M/g of fresh
leaves:  25; 13; 39; 6; controls  16.   Thus, Ag and
K caused an increase of cardenolides, Pb and Cu a
decrease.

47]     Rezaeva, L.T.  (V.I.  Vernadskii Inst. Geo-
        chem.  Anal. Chem., Moscow, USSR):   (VANA-
        DIUM VALENCE STATE IN BLOOD CELLS OF AS-
        CIDIELLA ASPERSA.)  Zh. Obshch.   Biol. 25,
        No. 5:347-56,  1964.
Spectral analysis revealed the following average
content of elements (in yg/ml) in blood  cells of
A. aspersa:  Mg 20, Ca 20, Zn 30,   Cu 3,  Mo  0.6,
Mn 0.8, Ni 4,  Fe 140,  Sr 12, Ba 6, Be 0.06, Cr
1.2, Bi 0.2, Pb 3, Sn 0.8, Ag 0.4, Zr 0.3, Al 160,
and Ti 12; there was 0.31-1.66 mg  V/ml.   Analyti-
cal color reactions, spectrophotometric, and po-
                                            Plants and Animals

-------
tentiometric methods Indicated a dynamic equilib-
rium of V(III) and V(IV) in the blood cells, con-
nected with physiologic redox phenomena.  (20 ref-
erences)  (From Chemical Abstracts 62:3129,  1965)

472     Studzinski, G.P., and Love, R. (Jefferson
        Med.  Coll., Philadelphia, Pa.):   NUCLEOLAR
        ORGANELLES SHOWN BY LEAD PRECIPITATION IN
        UNFIXED CULTURED CELLS.  Stain Technology
        39:397-401 (Nov.), 1964.
A simple method is described for the demonstration
of nucleolar structure of HeLa cells, cultured on
circular coverslips, then placed in 4 mM Pb ace-
tate (or any other soluble Pb salt such as Pb ni-
trate)  dissolved in Na acetate-Na barbiturate buf-
fer at  pH 5.5 for 30 min at 37°C.  The phenomena
described suggest that the retention of Pb in
localized areas of the nucleolus is due to enzy-
matic reactions which produce inorganic phosphates
from endogenous substrates.

473     Waldron, H.A.  (Vauxhall Motors Ltd.,
        Luton, Gt. Britain):  THE  EFFECT OF LEAD
        ON THE FRAGILITY OF THE RED  CELL INCUBATED
        IN VITRO. Journal of Clinical Pathology
        17:405-6  (July), 1964.
In a recent study, de Kretser and  Waldron (1963)
were unable to confirm the hypothesis of Aub et al
(1926)  that alteration of the red  cell membrane by
Pb was  the cause of anemia in Pb poisoning.
  In further exploration of this question, blood
was collected from male volunteers who had had no
occupational exposure  to Pb.  Volumes of a stand-
ard Pb  acetate solution were added to give Pb con-
centrations of 10 and  20 ug/ml blood, and the mix-
tures were incubated for 24 hr at  37°.__ As a con-
trol, whole blood was  incubated without Pb.  Os-
motic fragility tests were done by the method of
Dacie (1956), using buffered saline  solution, and
the mechanical fragility index was determined as
described by de Kretser and Waldron.  The results
showed  that incubating whole blood without Pb
caused  the cells  to become more  fragile while the
addition of Pb caused  a marked resistance to hypo-
tonic saline solutions which was especially no-
ticeable in the samples incubated  with 20 yg Pb/
ml blood.  Incubation  per se resulted in an appre-
ciable  increase of the mechanical  fragility index
of the  red cells;  incubation with  Pb raised the
index only slightly above that of  the controls.
  The author concludes that although Pb caused a
slightly greater  increase in the mechanical fra-
gility  index of the red cells than that observed
in controls, the  difference was  not  great, and is
in accord with his  (and de Kretser's) finding that
this index was about the same in Pb-exposed and
control workers.   Therefore, an  increase in the
mechanical fragility index is not  a  major factor
in the  production of Pb anemia.
 72                                    BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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                                       B.   WARM-BLOODED  ANIMALS
                        1950

474     Allcroft, R.  (Vet.  Lab., Weybridge, Surrey,
        England):  LEAD AS  A NUTRITIONAL HAZARD TO
        FARM LIVESTOCK.  IV.  DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD
        IN THE TISSUES OF BOVINES AFTER INGESTION
        OF VARIOUS LEAD COMPOUNDS.  Journal of
        Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics 60,
        No. 3:190-208, 1950.
Blood, tissue, and fecal concentrations of Pb were
determined after single lethal doses of various Pb
compounds orally and  after  ingestion of small quan-
tities over long periods.   The experiments were
carried out on young  calves (a few days-10 mo old)
using large numbers of animals and feeding trial
methods.  In order to obtain an indication of Pb
in the liver and kidney of  "normal" animals, these
tissues were taken from 31  cattle and sheep (60 mo-
7 yr) slaughtered for other purposes, with results
showing no value >1.5 rag/kg fresh tissue (similar
to that in man).  Analyses  of Pb in whole blood of
30 young calves gave  a mean of 0.129 + 0.010 mg/1
(lower than that in man).
  In the experimental animals, tissue concentra-
tions of Pb after ingestion of various Pb compounds
showed that the highest concentrations were found
in kidney cortex and  liver  tissue (50.5-297.0, 9.3-
126.0 mg/kg, respectively) while the spleen, lung,
heart, and Drain contained  detectable but much
smaller amounts (<1.0-5.7,  2.0-3.6, <1.0-1.3, <1.0-
1.5 mg/kg, respectively).  Comparison of blood and
fecal levels made over a period of several weeks
after ingestion of sublethal amounts of Pb as galena
(0.5 g/kg body weight, total Pb 46.6 g) and acetate
(0.2 g/kg body weight, total Pb 6 g) showed that
even when fecal Pb values had returned to normal,
blood values still remained abnormally high.  In
the experiment attempting the chronic poisoning of
cattle, conditions that might occur on farms were
simulated as far as possible (ie, contamination of
water supplies, flaking of  paint from food recep-
tacles and stalls, rations  contaminated by soils,
etc).  The results showed that relatively large
quantities of Pb (1-2 g daily) ingested over a
period of 2 yr had no ill effect.

475      Allcroft, R., and Blaxter, K.L. (Vet. Lab.,
        Weybridge, Surrey,  England):  LEAD AS A
        NUTRITIONAL HAZARD  TO FARM LIVESTOCK.  V.
        THE TOXICITY OF LEAD TO CATTLE AND SHEEP
        AND AN EVALUATION OF THE LEAD HAZARD UNDER
        FARM CONDITIONS.  Journal of Comparative
        Pathology and Therapeutics 60, No. 3:209-
        18, 1950.
Data are presented in 2 parts:  (1) relating to
acute poisoning and (2) relating to chronic poison-
ing.  Summarization of data obtained on toxicity of
Pb in various forms when given in single doses in-
dicated that ingestion of 0.2-0.4 g/kg body weight
caused death in a few days.  The fatal dose for
older cattle and mature sheep was larger  (0.6-0.8
g/kg body weight).  In enumerating field  cases of
acute poisoning in cattle, it was suggested that
large numbers of calves die annually  throughout
Great Britain as a result of the ingestion of toxic
quantities of Pb, Pb paint and painters'  material
being the most frequent cause.  In chronic poison-
ing experiments, on continued daily ingestion of Pb,
a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight could be tolerated
for many months and 6 mg/kg body weight could be
tolerated for 3 yr, and it is concluded that cumu-
lative poisoning rarely occurs in ruminants.  On
the basis of a single experiment it was suggested
that much smaller amounts of Pb (1 mg/kg/day) were
sufficient to cause abortion in the ewe if ingested
during pregnancy by animals in poor condition.
  Levels of Pb in pastures were discussed, and it
was shown that the ingestion of herbage contaminated
with Pb soil dust in certain areas could  result in
the ingestion of >130 mg Pb/kg dry matter consumed.
The average annual ingestion of Pb by sheep in the
area of Derbyshire was high, the amount being much
greater in winter than in summer.  However, the Pb
content of the blood of sheep in this area suggest-
ed that there was no real danger of any form of Pb
poisoning.  Diagnosis of acute Pb poisoning was also
discussed briefly, emphasizing that a verdict on
analytical data alone without additional  evidence
is often difficult.

476      Blaxter, K.L.  (Veterinary Lab., Weybridge,
        Surrey, England):   LEAD AS A NUTRITIONAL
        HAZARD TO FARM LIVESTOCK.   III. FACTORS
        INFLUENCING THE DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN
        THE TISSUES.  Journal of Comparative
        Pathology and Therapeutics 60, No. 3:177-
        89, 1950.
The internal transport and deposition of  Pb ab-
sorbed in the bodies of sheep and rabbits were
studied.   Following the iv injection  of 400 mg Pb
acetate into sheep, the whole blood concentration
of Pb dropped slowly (ie,  72.8-1.0 mg Pb/1 blood
for 0.08-282 hr after injection).   Initially the
Pb content of the serum fell more quickly than
that of the erythrocytes.   In sheep given Pb oral-
ly, 85-90% of the Pb in the blood was in  cells.
In rabbits the serum Pb was largely bound to pro-
tein.  Pb given iv in increasing quantities (5-60
mg) to rabbits was distributed among the  reticulo-
endothelial cells, the most striking feature being
the enormous increase in Pb content of spleen and
bone marrow, compared with slower increase in the
Pb content of kidney and compact bone.  When given
orally (1-4 g) most of the Pb was found in the
skeleton with large concentrations in the kidney.
After iv administration of Pb, 5-10% was  present
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                73

-------
in the tissues on the 59th day.   Results were dis-
cussed in relation to the factors causing the dif-
ferential distribution of Pb and its implication.
(13 references)

477      Blaxter, K.L. (Veterinary Lab., Weybridge,
        Surrey, England):  LEAD AS A NUTRITIONAL
        HAZARD TO FARM LIVESTOCK.  II. THE ABSORP-
        TION AND EXCRETION OF LEAD BY SHEEP AND
        RABBITS.  Journal of Comparative Pathology
        and Therapeutics 60:140-59 (Apr.), 1950.
Experiments were carried out with 10 sheep from
which feces samples were collected quantitatively
for at least 4 days while the sheep were being fed
a constant ration with a daily intake of Pb ranging
from 1.9-115.5 rag.  Analyses of excreta and food
were made daily during this period.  It was clear
that within the range of 2-110 mg there was little
change in the percentage of Pb which was apparently
absorbed.  Regardless of food source or amount of
Pb given within this range, the mean excretion was
98.7%, absorption being 1.3% of Pb ingested with a
S.E. of ±0.8%.  The fecal Pb was largely excreted
as phosphate or sulfide.
  In 5 experiments with sheep, blood analyses were
carried out following the absorption of Pb from  the
digestive tract, with samples taken at intervals
before and after dosage.  In cases of massive doses
of Pb, the maximum blood level was reached at the
4th-6th hr following dosage.  Pb left the blood
stream at a very slow rate thus indicating that
absorption rate was low.  Data for 1 sheep receiv-
ing 30 mg Pb acetate showed the following mg Pb/1
blood for number of hours after dosage respective-
ly: 0.08, 0; 0.78, 2; 1.46, 4; 1.37, 6; 0.94, 12;
0.63, 24; 0.40, 72.  Two sheep receiving 400 mg  Pb
intravenously and 40 g Pb acetate orally died at
comparable times.  The greatest concentration of
Pb was found in the kidneys and livers of both
sheep.  The calculated percentage of Pb absorbed
by the tissues of the sheep which died as a result
of the oral poisoning ranged from 0.5-2.2%.
  In urine samples collected quantitatively, excre-
tion of Pb depended on Pb intake, but even when
large quantities were given, excretion did not
exceed 0.8 mg/1 daily.  On low intakes (2 mg)
urinary Pb excretion (0.07-0.08 mg/1) was of the
same order of magnitude as the excretion reported
in normal human beings.  Pb was excreted in the
milk of a. ewe given 5 g Pb acetate in its diet 7
days before lambing in relatively large quantities
(0.28, 0.18, 0.15 mg Pb/kg on 2nd, 4th, and 6th
day of lactation respectively).  A ewe given 100
mg Pb acetate commencing the 6th day of lactation
showed the following results:  7th day of lacta-
tion, 0.38 mg Pb/kg; 14th, 0.55.
  When large quantities of Pb were given to 2
sheep and 6 rabbits, the bile was the major
channel of Pb excretion, the colon and wall of the
intestine being of very little importance in ex-
creting Pb which had gained access to the body.
Data given to confirm the quantitative importance
of the liver in the excretion of Pb showed that  of
the Pb injected,1.27% was excreted in the urine
of the sheep, 5.31% in the bile, and only 0.17%
in the bile-free feces.  Of the  total Pb excreted
(11.15 mg), 17.1% was in the urine, 80.7% in the
bile, and 2.2%  in the bile-free feces.  Even 3
days after the  injection of Pb, the concentration
                  in the bile was always greater than tne concentra-
                  tion of Pb in the serum (1.16 and 0.11 mg/1 re-
                  spectively).  It was suggested that Pb is actively
                  excreted by the liver and that the excretion of
                  large quantities involves the breakdown of the
                  liver cells.
                    When <3 mg Pb were ingested daily by sheep,
                  there was no retention of Pb.  Above this quantity
                  Pb was retained in increasing quantities by the
                  tissues.  These results differ markedly from
                  those on mice, rats, and humans.  The avidity of
                  the  tissues in retaining Pb was shown by the
                  fact that when Pb was injected into the systemic
                  circulation, only 4-10% of the amount injected was
                  recovered over a period of 6 days following the
                  injection.  (33 references)

                  478      Chiodi, H., and Sammartino, R. (Inst.
                          Exptl. Biol. Med.; Inst. Pathol., Buenos
                          Aires, Argentina):  RENOTROPHIC ACTION OF
                          LEAD IN THE RAT.  Acta Physiologica Latino-
                          americana 1:32-45, 1950.
                  Chronic oral administration of 2 ml of a 0.5-12%
                  solution of Pb acetate daily by stomach tube to
                  rats for 10 days-11 mo produced renal hypertrophy
                  at the expense of tubular cells.  Percentage in-
                  creases in kidney weight was 34-81 according to
                  size of dose and number of days administered.
                  This action of Pb was believed to be specific, the
                  hypertrophy not being secondary to the destructive
                  lesions caused by Pb.  A protein-rich diet augment-
                  ed the renotrophic action of Pb.  Such a diet +  Pb
                  acetate showed a 91% increase in kidney weight
                  after 4 mo.  BAL, and to a lesser extent testo-
                  sterone propionate, inhibited the renotrophic and
                  renotoxic actions of Pb.

                  479      Di Porto, A. (Univ. Rome, Italy):  II
                          metabolismo dei metili nella intosslca-
                          zione sperimentale da piombo.  (METHYL ME-
                          TABOLISM IN EXPERIMENTAL POISONING FROM
                          LEAD.)  Policlinico (Rome), Sezione Medica
                          57:359-68, 1950.
                  Six rabbits (1400-1600 g), after having been kept
                  on a standard diet for 5 days, received iv injec-
                  tions of 5 mg Pb acetate in 2 ml distilled water
                  daily for 12 consecutive days and, on the last day,
                  received 4-j times higher doses.  Trimethylamine in
                  urine was determined just prior to the injection,
                  and every 3rd day thereafter (Monasterio'rf method,
                  1935).  Two of the last 3 animals died shortly af-
                  ter injection.  Histology x^as performed on liver,
                  bone marrow and kidney.
                    The body weight decreased by the 12th day to
                  840-1050 g; basophilia ranged from 2-7/1000, and
                  urinary trimethylamine increased from a normal of
                  1.80-2.89 to 4.03-7.56 mg/24 hr.  The increase
                  paralleled  the degree of weight decrease, increase
                  in basophilia, and  that of organ damage.

                  480      Gray, L.F., and Ellis,  G.H.  (Agric. Res.
                          Admin., Ithaca, N.Y.):  SOME  INTERRELATION-
                          SHIPS OF  COPPER, MOLYBDENUM, ZINC AND LEAD
                          IN  THE NUTRITION OF THE RAT.  Journal of
                          Nutrition 40:441-52  (Mar.), 1950.
                  A toxic state was produced in rats by additions
                  of Mo to 2  different basal diets  (mineralized
                  whole milk  powder  (supplemented with Cu, Fe, and
                  Mn) and rat chow). Using the milk powder diet,
 74
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 the  mineral  levels  selected  for  the  interrelation-
 ship study were 0.01%  Cu,  0.08%   Mo,  0.05% Zn,  and
 0.005% Pb.   Eighty  weanling  rats (3  males  and 2
 females (48-55  g weight)  on  each of  16 treatments)
 were used.   Good growth was  obtained for the rats
 on all diets containing no added Mo.   Mo retarded
 growth; Zn produced anemia,  and  together with Pb
 caused lowest mean  hemoglobin (Hb)  of any  treat-
 ment; Zn alone  did  not retard growth; but  Mo + Zn
 resulted in  poorer  growth.  From Hb  results no
 certain conclusions could  be drawn.   Pb alone had
 no effect on growth or Hb.  None of  the minerals
 affected leukocyte  count.   (20 references)

 481      Pecora,  L.  (Univ.  Naples, Italy):   Contri-
         bute allo studio del  mielograuima nell'-
         intossicazione sperimentale  da piombo.
         (Ricerche eseguite con il'metodo della
         mielobiopsia ripetuta).   (THE MYELOGRAM IN
         EXPERIMENTAL LEAD  POISONING.   (RESEARCH
         PERFORMED BY THE METHOD  OF REPEATED BONE-
         MARROW  BIOPSY).)   Folia  Medica (Naples)
         33:365-82,  1950.
 On alternate days 5-6-mo-old  male rabbits  received
 2  ml of 20%  Pb  acetate solution.  Every 10 days
 bone-marrow  punctures  were made.  The animals died
 ^30-50 days  after the  beginning  of  the experiments.
 Ten  tables give the results  of the bone marrow  and
 blood tests.  No characteristic  variations were
 noted,  although slight changes occurred after ^2
 wk.   (13 references)

482      Robert,  P., and Zllrcher,  H.  (Dermatol.
         Clin.,  Univ. Bern, Switzerland):   Pigment-
         studien.  1. Mitteilung.  Uber den Ein-
         fluss von Schwermetallverbindungen,  Hamin,
         Vitaminen,  Aminosauren,  mikrobiellen
         Toxinen,  Hormonen  und weiteren Stoffen  auf
         die  Dopamelaninbildung in vitro und die
         Pigmentbildung in  vivo.   (PIGMENTATION
         STUDIES.  I.   THE  ACTION  OF HEAVY-METAL
         COMPOUNDS,  HEMIN,  VITAMINS, AMINO  ACIDS,
         MICROBIAL TOXINS,  HORMONES, AND OTHER
         SUBSTANCES  ON  DOPA-MELANIN FORMATION IN
         VITRO AND ON PIGMENT  FORMATION IN  VIVO.)
         Dermatologica  100, No. 4/6:217-41,  1950.
 In all  experiments  a freshly  prepared 0.5% dopa
 solution in  carbonate  buffer  was  used.   Each se-
 ries  consisted  of 4 individual tests,  A, B,  C,  and
 D, A  contained no addition; B, C, and D contained
 0.001,  0.01,  and  0.1 ml of the test substances,
 each  with 3 ml  dopa solution  (=  15 rag dioxyphenyl-
 alanine).  Of the metals tested  in vitro,  Ag, Co,
Mn, Au,  Fe and Cu considerably increased the for-
mation  of dopamelanin,  while  Cr,  Pb,  As, Zn,  Th,
 and Ni  were without influence.  Pb was  not tested
 in the  in vivo  experiments with  rabbits; intra-
 cutaneous injections of solutions of  Fe, Cu,  Co,
Ni,  and As produced a  local pigmentation and ac-
 celerated growth  of hair,  believed to be due to  a
 raising of the  local oxidation process.

483       Schmid,  R., Schwartz, S., and Watson, C.J.
         (Univ. Minnesota Hosp., Minneapolis):
         PORPHYRINS  IN  THE  BONE MARROW AND  CIRCULA-
         TING  ERYTHROCYTES  IN  EXPERIMENTAL  ANEMIAS.
         Proceedings of  the Society of Experimental
         Biology  and Medicine  75:705-8,  1950.
 As summarized by  the authors, the coproporphyrin
 (CP)  and  protoporphyrin (PP)  of  bone marrow and
 circulating  erythrocytes in the  rabbit  exhibit
 dynamic changes  under  a variety  of  stimuli to
 erythropoiesis,  including Pb  poisoning,  phenylhy-
 drazine,  hemorrhage, and reduced OT tension.  The
 changes are  a  striking increase  of  CP in the de-
 veloping  erythrocytes  of the  bone marrow with a
 marked relative  reduction of  CP  concentration in
 circulating  red  cells,  and an inconstant but  gen-
 erally increased level of PP  in  the circulating as
 compared  with  the marrow erythrocytes.   These ob-
 servations point to  a  close relation between CP
 and hemoglobin (Hb)  synthesis, and  appear to  be
 consistent with  concepts which consider  CP either
 as a  direct  precursor  of Hb PP or as a by-product
 of the synthesis.  The precursor concept seems to
 permit a  more  reasonable correlation of  the por-
 phyrin findings  in bone marrow and  blood with
 those in  urine and feces.

4JJ4      SUmegi,  I.:  HAEMOCHROMATOSIS.   THE PATH-
        OGENESIS OF  PORPHYRINURIA IN LEAD POISON-
        ING  AND  HAEMOCHROMATOSIS. Orv. Hetil. 91:
        165, 1950.
 The author carried out experiments  to confirm his
 opinion that both in hemochromatosis and Pb poi-
 soning, Fe and Pb respectively cause generalized
 damage to the  reticuloendothelial system,  the ex-
 tent  and  principal site of the damage being reli-
 ably  indicated by the  presence and  type  of copro-
 porphyrin in the urine.   When white rats are  given
 Pb acetate daily in  a  1% solution intragastric-
 ally, in  a dose  of 1 ml/100 g body  wt, porphyrin-
 uria  is found  at the end of the  1st wk,  although
 fluoresence  in the bone marrow is detectable  mi-
 croscopically  only;  cultures  of  the marrow from
 these animals  show much fluorescence within 48 hr.
 The author believes  that when this  porphyrin  is
 formed in the  marrow Fe is no longer taken up in
 the formation  of hemoglobin and  that the substance
 which is  formed  without Fe is coproporphyrin  III;
 the anemia in  Pb poisoning is partly due to this
 failure to take  up Fe  and partly due to  the metal-
 lic damage to  the reticuloendothelial cells which
 prevents  them  from releasing  Fe  normally for  blood
 formation.   When the reticuloendothelial cells of
 white rats are thoroughly blocked by Indian ink
 before administration  of the  Pb  above, it  is  found
 that  the  animals show  no evidence of porphyrin
 formation at the end of 1 wk  and only 1/3  of  them
 have  a minimal production after  2 wk; anemia  de-
 velops in these  animals well  before its  appearance
 in the animals given Pb only.  The  author  believes
 that  in hemochromatosis the deposition of Fe  in
 the liver damages the  parenchymatous cells and
 Pb's  to the  appearance in the urine of copropor-
 phyrin I; because of the liver's power of  regener-
 ation this appearance  is inconstant in  the early
 stages of the  disease,  which  explains the variable
 findings  of  other authors.  When the deposition of
 Fe is such as  to affect seriously hemoglobin  for-
 mation in the  marrow,  then coproporphyrin III is
 formed.   The appearance of type  I and III in  hemo-
 chromatosis  and  heavy  metal poisoning depends on
 whether the  damage is  predominatly  of the liver or
 the marrow.  (From British Journal  of Industrial
 Medicine  7:206,  1950)
485
Tomson, N.M.:  TRACE ELEMENTS AS A MEDICO-
                                             Plants and Animals
                                                75

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        BIOLOGICAL AND HYGIENIC PROBLEM.  Vestnik
        Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR 1950, No. 5:29-35.
See Abstract No. 32J6.

                       1951

486      Allcroft, R.  (Ministry Agric., Weybridge,
        Surrey, England):  LEAD POISONING IN CATTLE
        AND SHEEP.  Veterinary Record 63:583-90
        (Sept.  15), 1951.
A brief review  on the absorption, excretion, re-
tention, and general metabolic effect of Pb in
farm animals is presented.  The concentration of
Pb found in various tissues depends considerably
on the portal of entry as well as on  the quantity
and nature of Pb compound and length  of exposure.
In farm animals 1'b enters the body most commonly
through the mouth.
  Because water-soluble Pb compounds  react with
alimentary contents to form insoluble Pb complexes,
intestinal absorption of insoluble Pb carbonate is
of the same order of magnitude as is  absorption of
water-soluble Pb acetate.  In reviewing findings
of the author's group, normal Pb contents in liver
and kidneys of  31 cattle were 0.3-1.5 ppm (wet
tissues); those in whole blood of 30  calves were
0.05-0.25 ppm (mean, 0.13 ppm); similar means were
found in the whole blood of goats, sheep, horses,
and cows.  Fecal Pb values obtained from 14 normal
calves were 1.5-30 ppm dry basis (mean, 12 ppm).
The range for 12 normal cows was 6-35 ppm (mean,
13 ppm).  Blood and tissue levels were given fol-
lowing ingest ion of lethal and sublethal doses of
Pb in different forms.  Highest concentrations
were found in the kidney cortex (50.5-297.0 ppm);
the liver also  contained high amounts (9.3-126.0
ppm).  After ingestion of Pb compounds there was
a considerable  and rapid rise in the  amount of Pb
in the blood.   In the case of subiethal doses of
Pb acetate there was  a fairly rapid fall to lower
levels but the  values did not return  to normal for
weeks.
  Useful information  could be obtained from the
study of blood  and fecal levels in surviving
animals in which Pb poisoning is suspected.  Il-
lustrative data showed that after administration
of sublethal doses of galena and Pb acetate, even
when fecal Pb levels had returned to  normal, blood
values still remained abnormally high (ie, galena
results:  0.10-1.0 mg Pb/L blood, 3-1220 mg Pb/kg
dry fecal matter; Pb acetate:  0.08-1.22 mg Pb/1
blood, 15-103,800 mg/kg dry fecal matter).  If
both blood and  fecal values are elevated it can be
assumed that ingestion of Pb was recent.  If blood
level is high and fecal level normal, then inges-
tion probably occurred a considerable time before.
  In accumulative Pb-poisoning experiments, 1
steer died after 35 mo of Pb acetate  feeding dur-
ing which time '^1600 g of Pb was ingested.  Tn
another experiment 400 g of Pb shot was given to
a calf over a period of 4 mo without  ill effect;
84% of the shot was recovered from the digestive
tract, chiefly  the reticulum, 5 mo after the last
dose.  The lethal dose of Pb in cattle and sheep
is ^0.2-0.4 g/kg body weight ingested on any 1 day
for calves up to 4 mo of age, while in older cattle
and sheep relatively larger doses are required.
Values >40 ppm  in the kidney cortex and >10 ppm in
the liver are of definite diagnostic  significance.
                  487      Coburn, D.R., Metzler, D.W.,  and  Treichler,
                          R.:  A  STUDY OF ABSORPTION AND  RETENTION
                          OF LEAD IN WILD WATERFOWL  IN  RELATION  TO
                          CLINICAL  EVIDENCE OF  LEAD  POISONING. J.
                          Wildl. Mng. 15:186-92, 1951.
                   Clinical  symptoms diagnostic  of  Pb poisoning in
                   ducks  in  relation to 2 levels of dosing are herein
                   established.
                    The  critical daily dosage level  was found to be
                   between 6-8 mg/kg.  The average  survival  time  for
                   birds  dosed at  a  level of 12  mg/kg was  3.5 days
                   less than for birds receiving Pb at the 8 mg/kg
                   level, but there  was no significant difference in
                   the deposition  of Pb in the tissues of  the 2
                   groups.
                    Pb metabolism studies for 3 consecutive periods
                   showed comparable rates of retention  for  the 2
                   dosage levels, with no significant difference  in
                   Pb retention.   The rate of deposition of  Pb in the
                   tissues,  as indicated by metabolism tests, was
                   found  to  be such  that related clinical  symptoms
                   could  be  predicted.
                    Any  1 of 3 units, skeleton,  liver,  or soft tis-
                   sues might be satisfactory as field samples for
                   the determination of Pb poisoning  by  chemical  an-
                   alysis.   (From  Veterinary Bulletin 22:540, 1952)

                  48J      Dean Guelbenzu, M., Lopez  de  Azcona, J.Ma.,
                          and Santos Ruiz, A.  (Inst.  espan  fisiol. y
                          bioquim., Madrid, Spain):   (TRACE ELEMENTS
                          TN THE WHITE RAT.) Rev.  espan.  fisiol. 7:
                          63-79,  1951.
                   The food, feces,  urine, bones, skin,  muscle, brain,
                   eyes,  blood, heart, lungs, stomach (with  contents),
                   intestines (with  contents), liver,  spleen, kidneys,
                   and testicles of  lactating and other  adult rats
                   were studied spectrochemically.  Pb was found  very
                   often  in  all organs but was distributed very ir-
                   regularly in the  muscle.  Some bone samples  lacked
                   Pb.  Most of the  oligoelements were found in
                   greater quantity  in the feces than in the urine.
                   (From  Chemical  Abstracts 46:2648,  1952)

                  489      Desoille, H., Derobert,  L. , LeBreton,  R. ,
                          and Martin, R.  (Dept.  Ind.  Hyg.,  Natl.
                          Inst. Hyg., Paris, France):  Du danger de
                          saturnisme au cours de 1'utilisation des
                          huiles  de coupe plombiferes.   (DANGERS OF
                          LEAD POISONING IN THE USE  OF  CUTTING OILS
                          CONTAINING LEAD.)  Proceedings  of the
                          Society of Industrial Medicine  and Hygiene.
                          Archives  des Maladies Professionnelles de
                          Medecine  du Travail et de  Securite Sociale
                          12:416-23, 1951.
                   Guinea pigs were  exposed to a mineral oil contain-
                   ing 0.8 g Pb/100  ml and the effects produced by
                   inhalation, skin  absorption and  ingestion were
                   periodically followed by determining  basophilic
                   stippling, Pb content in liver,  and pathologic
                   changes in lung,  liver and kidney.  Five  guinea
                   pigs,  exposed to  an aerosol containing  0.08 mg
                   Ph/nP  for 11 wk,  showed significant basophilic
                   stippling after 6 wk and liver Pb  contents of  26-
                   32 mg/100 g.  In  2 separate experiments,  the oil
                   was applied to  the back and neck of 5 animals.
                   Examination showed evidence of basophilic stippling
                   and liver Pb content of 8-10  mg/100 g.  In feeding
                   experiments, 3  out of 4 animals  fed 1 ml  oil/day
                   died after 5-7  days  and 4 out of 5 fed  0.25 ml/day
 76
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 died after  1  mo.   In  both  cases,  the  basophilic
 stippling was marked  and the  liver  Pb content  was
 4-8 mg/100  g.   The  renal parenchyma showed  hemor-
 rhages  in the intertubular and  intraglomerular
 spaces,  epithelial  nephritic  lesions  on the con-
 voluted tubules,  erythrocytes inside  the glomer-
 ulus,  cellular edema  of the vascular  element,
 significant lesions of  the epithelial element,
 marked  lesions in the cortical  regions and  along
 the labyrinth.  The hepatic parenchyma showed
 periportal  hemorrhages with infiltration of inter-
 trabecular  erythrocytes.   The pulmonary parenchyma
 showed  thickening of  the walls, as  well as  intra-
 parietal edema, and lymphocyte proliferation caus-
 ing typical lesions,  mainly in  the  perivascular
 region.  Emphysemic lesions,  diffuse  intraparietal
 hemorrhages,  and  fatty deposits around the  bron-
 chial openings  and  the alveolar parenchyma  were
 also found.
  The authors  conclude that the introduction of Pb
 in  any  form into  cutting oils be  forbidden.

 490      Fisher, H.J.  (Connecticut Agr.  Exptl.  Sta.,
        New Haven):   COMMON TOXICOLOGIC  FINDINGS
        IN  CONNECTICUT.  Journal  of the American
        Veterinary  Medical  Association 118:309-11,
        1951.
 For many years, the Connecticut Agricultural Ex-
 periment Station  has  been  examining animal  viscera,
 feeds,  foods,  and miscellaneous materials suspected
 of  containing  poison.  The  highlights of  the sta-
 tion's  tests  prior  to 1936  are listed and include
 the findings  in 1923  of a  sample  containing Pb ar-
 senate  poisoning  and  159 pointing to  Pb  poisoning
 were analyzed  of  a  total of 1387  examinations.
 There were  3  times  as many  cases  of poisoning  from
 Pb  as from  any  other  poison.

 491      Gorsheleva, L.S.:   Vliyanie tetraetils-
        vintsovoi Intoksikatsii na  vysshuyu
        nervnuyu  deyatel'nost' zhivotnykh (belykh
        krys).  (EFFECT OF  TETRAETHYL  LEAD  POI-
        SONING  ON THE HIGHER NERVOUS  ACTIVITY OF
        ANIMALS (WHITE RATS).)  Zhurnal  Vysshei
        NervnoT Deyatel'nosti imeni I.P. Pavlova
        1:727-38, 1951.
 Subcutaneous  injection of 0.04 g/kg of  TEL  into
 rats led to a 3-phase serious alteration of acti-
 vity of the higher  nervous  system.  In the  1st
 phase the cortical  activity and stimulability were
 increased with  decrease of  latent period of con-
 ditioned reflexes.  In the  2nd phase  the blocking
 process mounted and its course spread  to sub-
 cortical layers leading to  chaotic  motor functions.
 The last, 3rd,  phase was that of restoration of
 functions, with normalization first of  uncondi-
 tioned, then  the  conditioned reflexes.   Generally
 animals with weak level of  nervous  activity suf-
 fered more  severe signs of  such intoxication than
 did animals with  a  high level of nervous activity,
 or  animals with nervous stability.

492      Graziani, G.  (Univ. Naples, Italy):  Azione
        del B.A.L.  sulla crasi ematica  e sul mielo-
        gramma  nella  intossicazione sperimentale
        da piombo.  (ACTION OF DIMERCAPROL  ON THE
        BLOOD PICTURE AND MYELOGRAM IN  EXPERIMENTAL
        LEAD INTOXICATION.)  Haematologica  35:159-
        75, 1951.
 Rabbits  received  orally on alternate days  200 mg
 Pb  acetate.   One  group received  im 10 mg BAL/kg
 body  weight/day;  every 5-6 days  the  red  and  white
 cells were counted, hemoglobin,  leukocytic formula
 and globular  resistance were  determined.   One group
 treated  with  BAL was  sacrificied at  the  time the
 last  control  animal died,  and  the  myelogram  was
 examined; another group was observed beyond  the
 death of* the  controls.
  The results are shown in tables  for each animal.
 The bone marrow after the  BAL  administration had
 conserved its erythroblastic  activity, which
 appeared deeply affected in the  controls.  In the
 animals  in which  the  poisoning was continued after
 the death of  the  controls  a Pb anemia appeared
 finally, but  the  doses of  poison required  to
 produce  it were much  greater.

 493       MacDonald,  N.S., Ezmirlian,  F.,  Spain, P.,
         and McArthur, C. (School of  Med. Univ.
         California, Los Angeles):  THE ULTIMATE
         SITE  OF SKELETAL DEPOSITION  OF STRONTIUM
         AND LEAD.   Journal of Biological Chemistry
         189:387-99, 1951.
 X-ray diffraction studies  of  the bone ash  of rats
 receiving repeated  injections of Sr  chloride and
 of  Pb acetate indicate that both of  these  cations
 ultimately  enter  into the  internal structure of
 the inorganic salt  crystallites.  Powder patterns
 made  with the Debye camera showed  no evidence of
 a 2nd solid phase, even in bone  sanples  containing
 as  much  as 8% Sr  and  5% Pb.   Determinations  of the
 unit  cell dimensions  of such  bones laden with Sr
 or  Pb were made with  a precision of  ±0.01% by the
 use of a symmetrical  focussing back  reflection
 camera.   Cohen's method was used for extrapolation
 of  the data to a  Bragg angle  of  90°.   These  deter-
 minations clearly demonstrated distortions of the
 unit  cell as  a result of the  presence of foreign
 ions.  It was impossible to ascertain by density
 determinations whether the foreign cations were
 present  in the lattice interstices or had  taken up
 lattice  point positions by displacing the  normal
 ionic occupants of those positions.   Large ectopic
 calcifications were noted  on  the peritoneal  sur-
 faces of the  rats receiving intraperitoneal  in-
 jections of Pb acetate.  The  ash of  this material
 showed the same crystalline structure as bone salt
 except that the lattice was distorted by the pre-
 sence of Pb .
  Although the evidence sheds  little light on the
 initial  phases by which Sr and Pb  ions are accu-
 mulated  in bone,  it is  concluded that some,  and
 perhaps  most, of  the  cations  ultimately become
 part  of  the crystalline structure  of  the bone salt.
 The length of time during  which  such  material  re-
 mains fixed depends upon the  rate  of  bone  resorp-
 tion  and reformation.

494       Nordmann, M.  (Pathol.  Inst.,  Hannover,
         Germany):  Zur  Pathologie  der Bleivergif-
         tung.  (PATHOLOGY  OF LEAD  POISONING.)
         Srztlicher Dienst  DB  12:116-8, 1951.
 In  this  discussion, it  is  pointed  out first  that
 severe Pb poisoning is  seldom seen nowadays  by the
 pathologist.  Most frequently  the  decision must
 be  made  as to whether any  causal connection  exists
 between  serious organic changes  and  Pb poisoning.
 Primarily, the blood  vessels  that  react  through
                                             Plants and Animals
                                                77

-------
 specific  contractions, are  affected  (high blood
 pressure,  as well  as Pb-produced epilepsy, mus-
 cular  atrophy).  In animal  experiments, liver
 damage  could be observed only in rats fed an un-
 balanced  fatty diet which of itself made the ani-
 mals sick.  The development of hypertonia as a
 result  of  vascular spasm is easily explained, ar-
 teriosclerosis, however, more difficulty; Pb con-
 tracted kidney is  difficult to differentiate from
 the arteriosclerotic.  Gastric ulcers can be ex-
 plained by a complex of causes and it is possible
 that as an extreme factor Pb also can play a role.
 On the  part of the nervous  system, degenerative
 processes  principally were  observed but also re-
 active  changes (granuloma).  According to Speransky
 almost  every type  of poisoning acts on the nervous
 system.   The author warns against a simplification
 which  could be taken to be  decisive by the expert
 witness.   Only medical experience can be decisive.
 The question of Pb arteriosclerosis is considered
 along with the organic cirrhosis.  Since there are
 a number  of causes for the  development of liver
 cirrhosis,  angina  pectoris, and ulcers, extreme
 caution is recommended.  Still more questionable
 is the  connection  between liver cancer and gastric
 cancer.

495      Pimenta de Mello, R. (Univ. Minnesota
        Hosp., Minneapolis):  EFFECT OF LIGHT ON
        URINARY COPROPORPHYRIN EXCRETION IN LEAD-
        POISONED RABBITS.   Proceedings of the
        Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine
        76:823-5,  1951.
 Light exposure increased the urinary coproporphyrin
 excretion  in rabbits with Pb poisoning produced by
 100 mg/kg  of Pb acetate ip  or sc.  The increase was
 especially marked  after ultraviolet radiation.
 Subsequent radiation, however, failed to cause a
 renewed rise or was followed by only a small in-
 crease.  Whether the increase following light is
 due to  mobilization of preformed porphyrin, or to
 increased  porphyrin formation, was not determined.
 (From author's summary)

496      Plum,  C.M.  (Univ.  Inst.  Pathol.  Anat.,
        Copenhagen, Denmark):   LIVER AND SPLEEN IN
        HAEMATOPOIESIS.  II.  INVESTIGATIONS INTO
        THE INFLUENCE OF A NUMBER OF METALS ON THE
        PERIPHERAL BLOOD PICTURE,  WITH SPECIAL
        REFERENCE TO ERYTHROCYTE DIAMETER AND THE
        INJURIES  TO THE LIVER.   Archives Inter-
        nationales de Pharmacodynamie et de TheV-
        apie 86,  No.  1:52-79,  1951.
 Soluble salts of  Al,  Cr,  Cu, Zn,  Pb  and Cd were
 injected or given orally in toxic doses to rabbits.
When pronounced liver cirrhosis occurred there was
an associated macrocytic anemia (with increase in
 the diameter of the red cells)  suggesting that the
 liver has a function in regulating the size of the
 erythrocyte.
  In the experiments with Pb,  the oxide (PbO) was
 administered to rabbits (av 2500 g)  in suspensions
 by mouth in doses  of 0.25 g or iv at 10 ml of 2:
 1000 solution in saline daily.   The animals became
 highly  anemic,  with marked  anisocytosis, poikilo-
 cytosis and a few  erythroblasts in the peripheral
 blood,  and marked  basophilic stippling.  After 8-
 14 days the serum  bilirubin was elevated in all
 animals.  Post mortem examination showed extensive
                  changes in liver, kidneys, spleen, and bone marrow.
                  Among the blood findings, the diameter of erythro-
                  cytes increased from 6.53-6.78 on day 0 to 7.00-
                  7.59 on day 21.  In experiments with Pb acetate
                  given iv at 2 ml daily (5.55 g dissolved in 100 ml
                  saline), similar results were obtained, but the
                  liver injury appeared to be more severe and the
                  rise of bilirubin greater.  Erythrocyte diameter
                  increased from 6.60-6.72 on day 0 to 7.02-7.73 on
                  day 21.  Poisoning by a suspension of Pb30^ (be-
                  cause of difficult solubility) in a dose of 0.25
                  g, produced changes similar to PbO, but the effect
                  was somewhat weaker and a longer period passed be-
                  fore changes in the blood appeared.  The cause of
                  the variations in the effect are attributed to
                  differences in solubility of the salts.
                    In discussing the histologic picture of the
                  liver, the author states it to be different from
                  the one seen in obstructive jaundice.   There is
                  distinct fatty degeneration and often distinct
                  leukocyte infiltration, or incipient cirrhosis of
                  the liver.  (38 references)

                  497      Schubert,  J.,  and White,  M.R.:   EFFECT OF
                          SODIUM AND ZIRCONIUM CITRATES  ON BLOOD
                          LEVEL,  DISTRIBUTION,  AND  EXCRETION OF IN-
                          JECTED RADIOLEAD.   AECU-1227,  UAC-356,
                          Feb.  1951.
                  See Abstract No.  523.

                  498      Schwartz,  S.,  Keprios, M., and Schmid, R.
                          (Minneapolis,  Minn.):  EXPERIMENTAL "POR-
                          PHYRIA" IN RABBITS.  Proceedings of the
                          Central Society for Clinical Research.
                          Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medi-
                          cine 38:949, 1951.
                  Studies undertaken to develop extreme coproporphy-
                  rinuria in rabbits have led to the induction of a
                  condition which is chemically similar to porphyria
                  in human beings.   Over 1,500 pg of both copropor-
                  phyrin (CP)  and uroporphyrin (UP)  have been re-
                  covered from 24-hr-samples of urine.  As in acute
                  intermittent porphyria, the urinary porphobilino-
                  gen reaction is positive.  On the other hand, the
                  excretion of the porphyrin in the free form
                  (rather than as the Zn complex),  and the presence
                  of bone marrow are similf.r to the congenital or
                  photosensitive type of porphyria in human beings.
                    Highest values of UP have followed the combined
                  use of phenylhydrazide, Pb, and exposure to un-
                  filtered light from a Hg arc lamp.
                    These rabbits have been found to be of great
                  value for isotopic ^"*C studies of porphyrin me-
                  tabolism.  Following the administration of 250 x
                  106 counts/min of glycine-2-1'*C,  the UP of 1 rab-
                  bit showed 120 counts/min/yg.  The relationships
                  of this and other urinary and tissue porphyrins
                  to one another and to hemoglobin synthesis are
                  being investigated.

                  499      Soprana, C. (Univ. Padova, Italy):  (THE
                          ACTION OF SODIUM PYROCATECHOL DISULFONATE
                          ON THE FECAL ELIMINATION OF LEAD IN EXPER-
                          IMENTAL POISONING.) Folia Med.  (Naples)
                          34:456-60, 1951.
                  A 1% solution of Pb nitrate was injected intra-
                  muscularly daily for 8 days into 6 rabbits.   Of
                  these, 3 got 5 ml 5% Na pyrocatechol disulfonate
                  (PD) intravenously 15 min after Pb.  Feces were
 78
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 analyzed  spectrographically  for  Pb  on the 3rd,
 6th  and 9th  days.   Rabbits which received PD ex-
 creted a  significantly  higher  amount  of  Pb,  which
 was  probably complexed  with  PD and  eliminated in
 this form via the  bile.   (From Chemical  Abstracts
 46:6269,  1952)

 500     Sllmegi,  I.  (Hungarian  State Railways  (M.A.
        V.)  Hosp.):  THE PATHOGENESIS OF  PORPHYRI-
        NURIA IN HEMOCHROMATOSIS AND  IN LEAD  IN-
        TOXICATION.  Acta Morphologica Academiae
        Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest)  1:459-
        65,  1951.
 In order  to  determine how coproporphyrin  III  is
 formed in the bone marrow in the  course  of Pb in-
 toxication,  25 white rats were intoxicated with  1%
 solution  of  Pb acetate  (1 ml/100  g body weight via
 stomach tube).   Urinalysis revealed that  in  50%  of
 the  animals  porphyrin could  be demonstrated  in the
 urine by  the end of the 1st  wk;  during the 2nd wk
 it could  be  demonstrated in  all  the rats.  In the
 1st  wk the entire  quantity of  porphyrin  correspon-
 ded  to that  of coproporphyrin  III.  In ^3 wk, upon
 sacrificing  the  animals that had  lost a  great deal
 of weight, it was  seen  on naked  eye examination
 that the  bone marrow showed  a  vivid red  fluores-
 cence and in studying tissue cultures immediately
 following implantation, the  bone marrow  particle
 was  found to show  intensive  red  fluorescence, be-
 coming slightly  more intensive after  48 hr.
  In another experiment, 16  white rats were  block-
 aded with iv injections of china  ink  (0.5 ml  given
 on 4 consecutive days).  Following  this  treatment
 Pb intoxication was initiated  in  the  manner  des-
 cribed above.  Twelve animals  poisoned with  Pb only
 were used as controls.   Again,  at  the end of the
 1st  wk porphyrin appeared in the  urines  of Pb in-
 toxicated animals  but not in that of  the  blockaded
 rats.  Bone  marrow revealed  no porphyrin  production
 in either group  of animals.  During the  2nd  wk,
 coproporphyrin III appeared  in the  urine  of  the
 control rats and in every case the  bone  marrow
 showed vivid red fluorescence  with  the tissue cul-
 tures demonstrating production of large  amounts  of
 porphyrin.   This was not demonstrated in  the  case
 of the blockaded rats.  Blockaded animals  tolerated
 intoxication much  worse than the controls  who lived
 longer.   Anemia also developed earlier in the block-
 aded animals.
  In conclusion, according to  these animal experi-
 ments, the site of coproporphyrin III production
 in Pb poisoning is the bone  marrow and its appear-
 ance in urine  is indicative  of a special  lesion
 suffered  by  the bone marrow.    This lesion  may be,
 together  with  the  disturbed  Fe metabolism and me-
 tal-hemolysis, in  part  responsible for the anemia
 which develops in  Pb poisoning.  Coproporphyrin  I
 is synthesized in  the liver  and its appearance in
 the  urine is  the consequence of a severe  hepatic
 lesion.   In  cases  of hemochromatosis  the  excretion
 of coproporphyrin  I is  dominant, and  the  appear-
 ance of small  amounts of coproporphyrin III  is in-
 dicative  of  a special bone lesion.
                          1952
501
        Alexander, E.:   THORIUM B LABELLED RED
        CORPUSCLES.  Arkiv Kemi 4:363-8, 1952.
The ThB produced in rabbit blood by decaying Tn
is  found  to be almost quantitatively  taken  up  by
the  corpuscles.  Only 2% of  the  total  ThB content
remains in the plasma phase.  A  similar  result is
obtained when a solution of  ThB  +  C collected  orig-
inally in an electric field  is dissolved in blood.
The  distribution between plasma  and corpuscles of
RaD  obtained from tubes which formerly contained
Rn  also was found to be essentially the  same.   The
uptake of ThB-labeled Pb by  the  corpuscle phase
was  much  less pronounced.  The ThB content  of  the
plasma phase amounted in  this case to  16% of the
total activity of the blood.  The  Bi  isotopes  ThC
and  RaE showed no pronounced preference  for the
corpuscle phase and were  found in  about  equal
amounts in equal weights  of  plasma and corpuscles.
(From Nuclear Science Abstracts  7:Abstract  No.
2254, 1953)

502      Barka, T., Posalaky, Z., and Kertgsz,  L.
        (Univ. Budapest, Hungary):  DISTRIBUTION
        OF TRACED LEAD SALT  COLLOID IN THE  RETICU-
        LOENDOTHELIAL ORGANS.  Acta Morphologica
        Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest)
        2:267-74, 1952.
Mature female rabbits (2-3 kg body weight)  were
given 2 mg/kg colloidal Pb sulfide iv  (ear  vein).
The  isotope ThB with a half-life of 10.6 hr, atom-
ic number 82, and atomic weight  212 was  used for
tracing.   Blood was removed  from the opposite  ear
vein at regular intervals for 3  hr and the  animals
were then killed.  The colloid disappeared  from
the blood at an exponential  rate during  the 1st
60 min and after that the loss was linear.   The
colloid showed greatest affinity to the  spleen,
bone marrow,  and liver,  and  to a lesser  degree  to
the kidney,  lungs, and adrenals.   Thymus and pitu-
itary glands did not contain any colloid.   The
mean Pb sulfide content of the organs was:    spleen,
3.7 yg/100 mg wet weight; bone marrow, 3.37; liver,
1.7; lymph node,  0.08; thymus, under limit  of  mea-
surability;  kidney,  0.53; lungs,  0.29; adrenals,
0.12; hypophysis, under limit of measurability.
Three hours  after injection, the liver was  found
to contain an average of 27.0% of  the  2 mg/kg body
weight of Pb sulfide colloid injected, while the
kidney contained 1.3%, the spleen 0.78%,  and the
lungs 0.57%.   (12 references)

503      Bauer, R.O., Rullo, F.R., Spooner,  C., and
        Woodman,  E.  (Univ. School Med., Boston,
        Mass.):   ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY OF
        ETHYLENE DIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID (EDTA)
        SALTS.  Federation Proceedings 11:321
        (Mar.),  1952.
Considerable interest attaches to abstraction  of
metals from biologic systems by EDTA insofar as
specificity can be obtained.  Na2EDTA  should re-
move Pb and certain other metals  from  the body
with formation of PbNa2EDTA.   Toxicity data are
needed not only for EDTA but for PbEDTA  formed in
vivo.  Acute toxicity determinations with EDTA is
rendered difficult by solubility relations.   The
ip LDjg's  in mice, rats  and rabbits exceeded 4.5,
7, 6 g/kg respectively;  iv in rabbits was below
4 g/kg with  no death at  2 g/kg.   Daily (5/wk)  dos-
es (0.1,  0.2, 0.3, 0.5,  1.0 g/kg) ip in Wistar
rats (6/dose) have produced a graded weight depres-
sion during 14-wk administration.  Daily (5/wk) ip
injections of EDTA in rabbits (0.5 g/kg)  and cats
                                             Plants and Animals
                                                                                                     79

-------
 (0.25  g/kg)  resulted in time-50% mortality
 and  95%  confidence limits of  78  (59-103) and  78
 (35-170) days.  Dogs (20) challenged twice daily
 with 150, 250  and 500 mg/kg iv produced LT5g's of
 40  (27-59),  18.5  (12-28) and  13  (12-20) days.  In
 rabbits, 1 dose iv LDso of PbEDTA was 1000 mg/kg
 as Pb, whereas the ip LD5Q was 350 mg/kg.  The
 latter value was unexpected in view of the approx-
 imate  LD5Q equality of ip and iv EDTA.  Daily
 (5/wk) ip administration, 20  and 40 mg/kg Pb  as
 PbEDTA, was not toxic to rabbits over 105 days.
 PbEDTA in daily doses of 70 and 100 mg/kg as Pb
 produced LT50's of 8.5 (5.3-13.7) and 1.3 (1.0-1.6)
 days.  Chickens poisoned with metallic Pb depos-
 ited in crop sac were protected from weight loss,
 anemia, ataxia and wing drop  when 0.5% CaEDTA was
 included in  their drinking water.   (From authors'
 abstract)

 504     Beyers, J.A.:  Loodvergiftiging.  (LEAD
        POISONING.) Tijdschr. Diergeneesk. 77:587-
        605, 1952
 Three  cases of acute Pb poisoning of cattle herds
 are  reported.  The author has never found a "Pb
 line"  around the teeth, nor has he seen porphyrin-
 uria,  or basophil granules in the red blood cor-
 puscles, in acute or chronic  Pb poisoning of  cattle
 or horses.   (From Biological  Abstracts 27:17151,
 1953)

 505     Butt, E.M., Pearson,  H.E., and Simonsen,
        D.G. (Los Angeles County Hosp.; Univ.
        Southern California School Med.):  PRODUC-
        TION OF MENINGOCELES  AND CRANIOSCHISIS IN
        CHICK EMBRYOS WITH LEAD NITRATE.  Proceed-
        ings of the Society for Experimental Biol-
        ogy and Medicine 79:247-9, 1952.
 Injection of Pb into the albumen of fertile eggs
 may  result in tht production  of meningoceles in
 chick  embryos.  Cu and Hg ions were noted to be as
 toxic  as similar quantities of the Pb ion, but
 meningoceles were not seen in the embryos surviv-
 ing  13 days incubation.  Na salts of anion used
 in the metal experiments failed to produce meningo-
 celes.   (14 references)

506      Compton, L.S. (Clymer, N.Y.):  LEAD POISON-
        ING.  Michigan State  College Veterinarian
        12:161-65 (Spring), 1952.
 Although Pb poisoning in animals is very common
 and  its diagnosis should be relatively easy, many
 cases  are treated otherwise.  Examples of the
 difficulty encountered in diagnosing Pb poisoning
 in animals are cited.  One case involving a herd
 of cattle was  typical of how  Pb poisoning can be
 camouflaged.  The sick animals, which died during
 the  course of  treatment with  dextrose-Ca prepara-
 tion,  showed a nervous form of parturient paresis
 or acetonemia.  Investigation revealed that the
 animals were grazed in an area where fencing had
 been painted recently and that they had gnawed
 painted boards and posts and  had eaten paint-
 smeared grass.  Another case  diagnosed as hemor-
 rhagic septicemia was Pb poisoning due to water
 stored in heavily-coated 5-gallon paint pails.
 Another diagnosis of black leg was also Pb poison-
 ing  from empty paint pails used for feed and water.
 Other  cases  diagnosed incorrectly involved animals
 (cows, horses, goats) licking:  freshly painted
                   sign boards,  joints  of new water  lines  sealed with
                   red Pb  oxide,  paper  that had been used  to wrap
                   arsenate  of Pb,  empty cans that had held spray
                   material, wood preservatives containing Pb,  and
                   paint  from freshly opened paint cans.   Immediate
                   autopsies are necessary to establish  a  definite
                   differential  diagnosis.  Then  the primary objective
                   is to  discover the source in order to prevent
                   further losses.   In  all events, diagnosis must be
                   correct,  so that medication can be of value.

                   507      Graziani, G., Fusco, M.,  and  Rossi,  L.
                           (Univ. Naples,  Italy):  Ferro serico e
                           saturnismo.  Nota I.   Comportamento  del
                           ferro serico nella intossicazione  speri-
                           mentale.  (SERUM IRON  AND LEAD  POISONING.
                           I.  SERUM IRON  IN EXPERIMENTAL  POISONING.)
                           Folia Medica (Naples)  35:964-77,  1952.
                   Rabbits of 3  kg were poisoned  with daily doses of
                   0.2 g  Pb  nitrate given  orally  for ^3  wk when death
                   occurred.  The pretreatment Fe values were  100-
                   140 pg/100 ml serum. During treatment  the value
                   increased by  2-300%  during 15  days and  then  grad-
                   ually  dropped to levels below  the original values.
                   The porphyrins showed a continuous decrease.  The
                   phenomena are attributed  to  the failure of  Fe uti-
                   lization  by the direct  or indirect action of Pb.

                   508      Harashima, S., Miyoshi, Y., and Watanabe,
                           G. (Keio-Gijuku Univ., Tokyo, Japan):
                           (DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD  IN  BLOOD.  IV.  DIS-
                           TRIBUTION OF LEAD BETWEEN PLASMA AND COR-
                           PUSCLES OF GOAT BLOOD  IN  VITRO.)  Igaku  to
                           Seibutsugaku 24:189-91, 1952.
                   Oxalated  goat blood  was incubated at  37°  for 2 hr
                   with various  amounts of Pb(OAc)2  (in  a  concentra-
                   tion dilute enough to avoid precipitation  of the
                   plasma  proteins).  The Pb contents were determined
                   on both corpuscles and plasma  fractions.   The dis-
                   tribution of  Pb was  expressed  by  an equation:
                   y = 205.31x°-286, in which y and  x were Pb con-
                   tents  of  corpuscles  and plasma, respectively.
                   (From  Chemical Abstracts 47:10729, 1953)

                   509      Harbers, E.:  (INVESTIGATION  OF THE  DIS-
                           TRIBUTION AND ELIMINATION OF  DECAY PRO-
                           DUCTS OF THORIUM X PRODUCED IN  VIVO.)  Z.
                           Naturforsch. 7B:363-5  (June), 1952.
                   The tissue distribution and excretion of  decay
                   products, even if short-lived, frequently  differ
                   greatly from  those of  the parent  element  and can
                   constitute a  hazardous  complication in  radioiso-
                   tope  therapy  or tracer  studies.   Curves are  drawn
                   showing the variation with time of ThX  (224Ra),
                   ThC  (212Bi),  ThB (212pb) , and  total activity in
                   blood  cells,  serum,  liver, kidneys, spleen,  and
                   urine  of rabbits injected with ThX.   An initial
                   increase in  total activity in  blood cells  and
                   liver  is noted as the  ThC concentration builds up.
                   (From  Nuclear Science Abstracts 6:Abstract No.
                   6513,  1952)

                   510     Healy, G.M.,  Morgan, J.F., and Parker, R.C.
                          (Univ. Toronto,  Canada):   TRACE  METAL CON-
                          TENT OF SOME  NATURAL AND SYNTHKTIC MEDIA.
                          Journal of Biological Chemistry  198:305-12,
                          1952.
                   Pb was determined in the following media  (in
                   Vg/100 ml):   Chicken plasma, 10;  chicken  serum
 80
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
7.5; horse serum 20; chicken embryo extract 8.
Determination of Pb content of redistilled and
ion exchange water before and after storage for
2 wk showed in ug/1000 ml:  Barnsted water re-
distilled in Pyrex, 0.9; Barnsted water redis-
tilled in Pyrex then stored in Pyrex bottle, 3.0;
Barnsted water redistilled in Pyrex then stored
in paraffin-lined bottle, 4.1; Barnsted water
passed through mixed bed ion exchange column, 0.5;
water from ion exchange column stored in poly-
ethylene bag, 1.5.

511      Hesse, E., and Marquardt, H. (Gen. Hosp.
        St. Georg, Hamburg, Germany):  Berichtung
        zur Arbeit von E. Hesse and W. Floter:
        "Die Behandlung der Bleivergiftung mit
        Folsaure."  (CORRECTION OF WORK BY E. HESSE
        AND w. FLO'TER:  "TREATMENT OF LEAD POISON-
        ING WITH FOLIC ACID.")  Klinische Wochen-
        schrift 30:1100, 1952.
In his former experiments (1950) the author had
found survival time of rabbits suffering from Pb
poisoning and treated with "Folsan" to be 30 days.
In later experiments (1951), survival time of 5
rabbits was 18 days.  In experiments with 61 rab-
bits, under various conditions and with several
kinds of Folsan preparations, survival time was
8.2 days in comparison with 12 control animals,
where it was 7 days.  In earlier experiments
(1937) , Hesse had also determined the survival
time in pigeons and rats.  The authors assume that
the antagonism of Folsan against Pb poisoning seen
in rabbits either produced counter-effects in the
specific animal species by virtue of  unknown im-
purities, or that the favorable results seen ear-
lier had been only accidental.

512      Jordan, J.S.:  LEAD POISONING IN MIGRATORY
        WATERFOWL, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE
        MALLARD, ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS L.  Thesis,
        University of Michigan, 1952, 155 pp.
The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate
losses from Pb poisoning in migratory waterfowl
that ingest commercial shot pellets which have
been expended over their feeding areas, and  (2)
to attempt to reduce these losses by developing
and introducing a nontoxic shot.  The study was
divided into 2 phases:  (1) Field investigations,
and (2) pen experiments.  The frequency of occur-
rence of various numbers of shot ingested by water-
fowl was determined through fluoroscopy of live-
trapped ducks and fluoroscopy of gizzards from
samples of water fowl bagged by hunters throughout
the US.   Wild mallard drakes were trapped, banded,
dosed with shot pellets, and released alternately
with equal numbers of undosed control birds.  Sev-
eral species of waterfowl were held in captivity,
and the effects of given doses of commercial and
noncommercial shot pellets were observed.  It was
shown that the supply of available shot is largely
limited to the quantity expended over the feeding
areas by hunters each season.  Fluoroscopy of more
than 18,000 gizzards revealed that 6.57% of  the
ducks in 12 leading species had ingested 1 or more
shot pellets; 65% of these had taken only one.
Variations in the incidence of shot among species
were attributed to differences in methods of feed-
ing and in types of habitat preferred.  Band re-
turns from dosed mallards indicated that migration
was retarded, and Pb-poisoned birds were more
vulnerable to the gun.  The ingestion of not >1
shot pellet did not appear to materially lower the
numbers of drake mallards from one year to the
next.
  As shown by results of pen experiments, Pb from
ingested shot appeared to have a direct, damaging
effect on smooth muscles of the digestive tract,
and Pb-poisoned waterfowl failed to consume ade-
quate amounts of food.  Pb-induced starvation
appeared to be the direct cause of death.  The size
and hardness of food  items,  and the amounts con-
sumed had an important influence on the effect of
ingested Pb.   Food intake varied with sex and age,
and the effect of Pb varied accordingly.  Rates of
mortality increased with the shot dose, but symp-
toms and survival periods did not change.  Some
severely affected birds apparently recovered from
Pb poisoning following elimination of shot or re-
newal of appetite.  Shot alloys containing Pb show-
ed no promise of alleviating Pb poisoning in water-
fowl.  Fe shot was nontoxic when fed to mallards.
This alloy is not now on the market commercially,
but may be available to waterfowl hunters in the
near future.   Until Fe shot becomes obtainable,
losses from poisoning may be reduced by (1) in-
creasing the amounts of certain natural waterfowl
food plant resources, (2) dispersing waterfowl
from known focal areas of Pb poisoning, and (3)
exercising greater care in shooting and thereby
reducing the amount of shot expended on the feed-
ing grounds of waterfowl.  (From Dissertation
Abstracts 12:370, 1952)

513      Karnofsky, D.A., and Ridgway, L.P. (Sloan-
        Kettering Inst. Cancer Res., New York,
        N.Y.):  PRODUCTION OF INJURY TO THE NERVOUS
        SYSTEM OF THE CHICK EMBRYO OF LEAD SALTS.
        Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental
        Therapeutics 104:176-86 (Feb.), 1952.
Pb nitrate, injected into the yolk sac, produced a
severe and characteristic injury to the central
nervous system of the chick embryo; this began with
widespread hemorrhage in the brain and was followed
by necrosis of the brain tissue and hydrocephalus.
The response, not seen when Pb was injected at the
2nd day of incubation, first appeared in embryos
treated on the 3rd - 4th days.  A dose of 0.10-0.15
mg/egg of Pb nitrate was consistently neurotoxic
during the 4th - 10th day, but in contrast to this
uniform dosage, the embryo developed a progressive
tolerance of  Pb, so that on the 8th - 12th days,
it survived 5 - 10 mg of Pb, 50 - 100 times the
lethal dose at 4 days.  After the 12th day the
brain became  increasingly resistant to Pb, although
Pb could still specifically damage the brain of
the embryo at 15 days.  The embryo continued to
grow fairly well despite the Pb-induced brain in-
jury, and it showed normal yolk sac retraction at
the time for hatching, although it ordinarily
failed to hatch.
  Other organs of the embryo do not seem to be
grossly affected by the minimum doses of Pb dam-
aging the brain, but when large doses are given
there may be severe stunting and abnormalities in
bone and feather growth.  Thallium, which inter-
feres with bone growth, and Pb exert their speci-
fic and independent effects when given to the
same embryo.   (From authors' summary;  12  refer-
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                                                                      81

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 ences)

514      MacDonald, N.S., Ezmirlian, F., Spain, P.,
        and Rounds, D.E.:  INTRAVENOUS AGENTS DI-
        MINISHING ACCUMULATION OF METAL IONS.  I.
        LEAD.  US Atomic Energy Commission Document
        No. UCLA-229, 1952, 12 pp.
A preliminary search for readily available chemical
agents, suitable for iv administration and possibly
of use in therapy of poisoning by metals which
accumulate in bone, was carried out.  Young rats
were injected iv with 25 mg Pb/kg body weight, fol-
lowed 1/2 hr later by an injection of the chemical
agent.  After 1 day, the femurs and livers were re-
moved and analyzed for Pb++ by a polarographic
technique.  The same agents were also tested by
administration 1/2 hr before the Pb.  The materials
tested were the N34EDTA,  casein hydrolysate, pec-
tin, a copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic
anhydride, glucuronolactone, oxypolygelatin, poly-
vinyl pyrrolidone, dextran, Na thiosulfate, and a
hydrolzed polyacrylonitrile.  The 1st 4 agents sig-
nificantly reduced the bone burden of Pb and the
1st 7 agents showed enough promise to merit fur-
ther detailed evaluation.  The liver burden of Pb
also tended to decrease in the cases where the
bone burden was lowered.  (From Nuclear Science
Abstracts 7:Abstract No. 51, 1953)

515      Moeschlin, S., and Schechterman, L. (Univ.
        Zurich, Switzerland):   Vergleichende Un-
        tersuchungen tlber den therapeutischen
        Effekt von BAL Oder Natriumcitrat bei der
        experimentellen Bleivergiftung.  (COMPARA-
        TIVE STUDY OF THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF 2,3-
        DIMERCAPTOPROPANOL (BAL) OR SODIUM CITRATE
        ON EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)  Schweiz-
        erische Medizinische Wochenschrift 82,
        No. 45:1164-5, 1952.
Of 60 guinea pigs poisoned by intraperitoneal in-
jections of a total dose of 240 mg of Pb nitrate/
kg of body weight, 20 were given intramuscular in-
jections of dimercaprol ("BAL") for 14 days, 20
were given a 5% Na citrate solution through a
stomach catheter for 21 days,  and 20 served as
controls.  Experimental results indicated that di-
mercaprol is not only ineffective in the treatment
of guinea pigs with subacute Pb poisoning, but it
apparently increases the toxicity of the Pb.  Na
citrate was an effective therapeutic agent by pro-
longing the duration of life in the animals, de-
laying and reducing the occurrence of character-
istic changes in the blood, such as basophilia,
anisocytosis, and poikilocytosis, and by exerting
a favorable influence on appetite and increase in
weight.
  As a result of this experiment and of additional
clinical experience, the authors consider the use
of Na citrate as the method of choice for the
treatment of Pb poisoning.  For prophylactic pur-
poses, they recommend for workers heavily exposed
to Pb and suffering with recurrent illness, treat-
ment with 5 mg Na citrate 3 times daily for 1 wk
out of every month.

516      Mouriquand,  G.,  Edel,  V., Roche, L.,  anil
        Chighizola,  R.  (France):   Intoxication
        saturnine et chronaxie vestibulaire.
        (LEAD POISONING AND VESTIBULAR CHRONAXIE.)
                          Comptes Rendus des  Seances de  la  Societe1
                          de Biologie  et de ses  Filiales  146:1209-
                          11, 1952.
                  The  authors had been able to confirm Bourguignon's
                  findings  that  in  chronic CO poisoning vestibular
                  chronaxie (VC)  is  increased  (rise to i50 a ,  100 a ;
                  normal, 12-203 ),  and they had  found that this
                  also occurred  in  Pb  poisoning.   In the  experiments
                  here reported,  they  subjected  pigeons  to  both acute
                  and  chronic poisoning by oral  administration of Pb
                  acetate solution  in  a concentration of  0.02  g Pb/
                  drop.  As found in 6 pigeons,  the VC, which  rose
                  progressively,  produced death  in 3-5 wk.   The im-
                  portant finding was  that long  before appearance
                  of signs  of intoxication (asthenia, weight loss)
                  the  VC rise became evident.  The authors  wonder
                  in conclusion  whether this  "chronaxie  disease"
                  does not  also  occur  in excessive Pb exposure before
                  the  classical  signs  of poisoning appear and  would
                  thus indicate  early  treatment.   For the above ex-
                  periments they had chosen pigeons as the  test
                  animal because they  had earlier seen that the re-
                  sponse of VC to various drugs  in pigeons  was simi-
                  lar  to that in man,  children and adults.

                  517     Pardoe, A.U.  (London Hosp. Med. Coll., Eng-
                          land):  RENAL FUNCTION  IN LEAD  POISONING.
                          British Journal of Pharmacology and  Chemo-
                          therapy 7:349-57 (Sept.), 1952.
                  Measurements of blood pressure,  glomerular filtra-
                  tion rate, and tubular excretory mass were made on
                  a group of rats during prolonged treatment with Pb
                  acetate,  and compared with measurements made in a
                  control group  receiving Na  acetate.  Pb and  Na
                  acetates  were  first  given in a dose of  35 mg/100 g
                  3 times/wk; after 63 days the  dose was  increased
                  4-fold and continued for another 72 days; 89 days
                  after the last dose  of Pb, BAL  was given  to  4 of
                  this group intraperitoneally at 4 mg/100  g,  in NaCl
                  solution, twice daily for 5 days.  The  4  remaining
                  Pb animals received  NaCl solution only.   A com-
                  parison of the fresh weights of various organs of
                  rats from the  Pb  and control groups showed marked
                  enlargement of the kidneys  and  livers,  and some
                  increase  in weight of the hearts, spleens and
                  adrenals  of  the  Pb  rats.  Histologic  lesions were
                  observed  in the kidneys of  the  Pb rats, and  appear-
                  ed to affect mainly  the proximal limb  of  Henle's
                  loops and the  distal convoluted tubules.   No signi-
                  ficant rise in arterial blood  pressure  was observed
                  in Pb rats, even  after 4 mo exposure to Pb.  Reports
                  of positive results  are criticized on  the ground of
                  inadequately controlled observations.   Glomerular
                  filtration rates  showed no  significant  difference
                  between the groups receiving Pb and the control
                  group, throughout the period of dosing.   Tubular
                  excretory capacity,  assessed as  Tmp^jj,  rose  in the
                  group receiving Pb,  showing a  statistically  signif-
                  icant increase after prolonged  dosing.  This ef-
                  fect appeared to  be reversible; 100 days after
                  dosing with Pb had ceased, the  TmpAH had  fallen to
                  the  pretreatment  level.  Treatment with BAL  pos-
                  sibly accelerated  this recovery.  (20  references)

                  518     Pardoe, A.U., and Weatherall,  M.  (London
                          Hosp.  Med. Coll., England):  THE  UPTAKE AND
                          EXCRETION OF WATER  IN  RATS POISONED  WITH
                          LEAD.   British Journal of Pharmacology  and
                          Chemotherapy 7:358-69  (Sept.),  1952.
82
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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Some functions of the kidneys and the amount of
water  in  certain organs under various conditions
were studied in male albino rats.  Administration
of Pb  (as acetate)  in Series 1 was 3.3 meq/kg 3
times/wk, over 63 days orally; (2)  13.3 meq/kg as
above  for 1st 18 doses,  then 3 doses in 4 wk, then
2 times/wk over a total 98 days;  (3)  as in 2 in
2 doses over 7 days; 0.67 meq in 1 iv injection;
6.7 meq in 2 doses  over 7 days,  and 0.33 meq iv at
1st oral dose; (4)  0.67 uieq iv.   Controls received
equivalent amounts  of Na acetate.  Additional ex-
periments were carried out with frogs that had been
kept for 2-3 wk in water containing 1 mM Pb chlo-
ride which was changed 3 times/wk.  Of 24 frogs, 1
died;  all 12 kept in distilled water survived.
The onset of absorption of water from the alimen-
tary canal was delayed in rats which had received
Pb orally, but then proceeded normally.   It was
little affected when Pb was given iv.  Absorption
was possibly also somewhat delayed both in control
and Pb rats by nicotine.  In the Pb rats, the stom-
ach, small intestine, liver, kidneys, and adrenals
were heavier than in the controls.  In at least
the liver and kidneys there was  both an increase
in the dry weight and an increase in the water
content of the organs.  There was also an increase
in the contents of  the alimentary canal, particu-
larly but not only  in the rats which had received
Pb orally.  Water diuresis was slightly but not
significantly accelerated in rats given Pb orally.
The inhibitory effect of vasopressin on water
diuresis in the Pb  rats was variable.  In the first
few weeks of administering Pb, vasopressin had
more effect than in controls.   Later the animals
became abnormally insensitive, at first  reversibly
and later apparently irreversibly.  In rats which
were receiving large doses of Pb frequently, the
antidiuretic effect of nicotine was greatly in-
creased.  This increase was not  related  to an in-
creased sensitivity to vasopressin.  It  disappeared
within a few days of reducing the dose of Pb and
reappeared when intensive dosing was resumed.
Vasopressin in very large doses  had highly signi-
ficantly more effect on the weight of normal frogs
than it had on the weight of frogs which had been
kept in Pb-containing water.  Possible causes of
these  changes were  discussed,  taking into consid-
eration sensitivity to pituitary extracts and other
factors.

519      Pirrie, R.  (Univ. and Royal Infirmary,
        Glasgow, Scotland):  THE EFFECT OF SPLE-
        NECTOMY AND RETICULOENDOTHELIAL BLOCKADE
        UPON THE ANAEMIA OF LEAD POISONING IN
        GUINEA PIGS.  Journal of Pathology and
        Bacteriology 64, No. 1:211-22, 1952.
The anemia associated with chronic Pb poisoning
was studied in 18 guinea pigs for periods of up
to 150 days by the daily administration by pipette
of Pb  nitrate/100 mg.  Stippling of erythrocytes
and hemoglobinating normoblasts occurred in the
bone marrow of all animals, and to a higher de-
gree than in the peripheral blood.  A varying pro-
portion of the basophilic granules gave the histo-
chemical test for Fe.  Splenectomy performed before
or during Pb poisoning resulted in relatively high
red-cell and stippled-cell counts but the associ-
ated increase in hemoglobin was small, so that
anemia in splenectomized animals was hypochromic.
This effect lasted only  50-60  days,  then  the  num-
ber of red cells and  stippled  cells  gradually
diminished.  Reticuloendothelial blockage by  try-
pan blue effected after  this time  caused  rapid  in-
crease in these cells  in  circulation.   The  histo-
logical appearance of  the spleen resembled  that
seen in hemolytic anemia  in general.   There was
marked hemosiderosis  in  the liver  of  splenecto-
mized animals examined after the secondary  red-cell
fall.  The chemical Fe content  of  the  spleen  of Pb
poisoned animals was higher than that  of  controls,
and the amount of Fe  in  the liver  varied with the
prevailing blood picture.  Urobilinogen,  even in
trace amounts, was not isolated from  the  feces.
  The author concludes that these  findings  support
the contention that Pb exerts  its  hematological
effect primarily on the  red-cell precursors in
the bone marrow, and  that the  resultant defective
erythrocytes are removed  from  the  circulation by
the spleen and reticuloendothelial system in  gen-
eral.  Dyshematopoiesis  and hemolysis  both  appear
to play a part in producing the anemia in chronic
Pb poisoning.  (From  author's  summary;  12 refer-
ences)

520      Pletscher, A., Richterich, R.,  Thoelen,
        H., LUdin, H., and Staub,  H.  (Med.  Univ.
        Clinic, Basel, Switzerland):  Uber  das
        Verhalten von AminosHuren  und Fermenten
        bei Schwermetallvergiftungen.   2.   Mit-
        tellung.   Die Wirkung von  Calcium und
        LHvulose bei der  akuten experimentellen
        Bleivergiftung.   (THE BEHAVIOR  OF AMINO
        ACIDS AND ENZYMES IN HEAVY METAL POISONING.
        II.  THE ACTION OF CALCIUM AND LEVULOSE  IN
        ACUTE EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)
        Helvetica Physiologica  et  Pharmacologia
        Acta 10:328-38, 1952.
The effects of Ca and levulose on  acute experimen-
tal Pb poisoning  in rats were studied by the fol-
lowing methods:  Microbiological determination of
cystine,  methionine, serine, phenylalanine  and
leucine in liver  and blood; histochemical demon-
stration of the alkaline phosphatase and histo-
logical examination of liver and kidneys;  micro-
scopical examination of the erythrocytes in blood.
The results were  (1)  Favorable influence of Ca on
all changes caused by Pb.  (2)   Levulose has a
favorable effect  on Pb disturbances of  the  amino
acid and  enzyme metabolism as well as on changes
of the erythrocytes, while it produces unfavorable
effects on histological damage to liver and  kid-
neys.   (3)   The results point to a detoxifying
function of cystine in acute experimental Pb poi-
soning.   (From authors' summary)

521      Ridgway, L.P., and Karnofsky,  J.A.  (Sloan-
        Kettering Inst.  Cancer  Res.,  itew York):
        THE EFFECT OF  METALS ON THE  CHICK EMBRYO:
        TOXICITY AND PRODUCTION OF ABNORMALITIES
        IN DEVELOPMENT.   Annals of the New  York
        Academy of  Sciences 55, Art.  2:203-15,
        1952.
This is a review of experimental abnormalities
produced in chick embryos by injection  of Tl, Pb,
Co, B, As, iih, B, and  Se  salts.  (For  the study
conducted by the authors,  see Karnofsky, D.A.,
and Ridgway, L.P. (1952).)
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               83

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522     Schmid, R.,  Hanson, B., and Schwartz, S.
        (Univ. Minnesota Hosp., Minneapolis):
        EXPERIMENTAL PORPHYRIA.  I.  ISOLATION OF
        UROPORPHYRIN I FROM BONE MARROW OF LEAD
        POISONED RABBITS.  Proceedings of the
        Society of Experimental Biology and Medi-
        cine 79:459-62 (Mar.), 1952.
Of 23 rabbits used,  5 received 1 single sc injec-
tion of 100 mg Pb acetate (63.7 mg Pb)/kg body
weight, and were killed 25-44 days later.   The 2nd
group of 5 received daily iv injection of an aque-
ous solution of 5 mg crystalline riboflavin phos-
phate, and sc injection of 100 mg Pb acetate/kg
body weight for 25 days;  2 of this group also re-
ceived iv 500 mg ascorbic acid daily.   Two rabbits
were given repeatedly over several weeks prior to
the examination small amounts of Pb acetate iv, the
total being 85 mg and 100 mg respectively.  A
group of 11 rabbits  received repeatedly sc injec-
tions of 20-40 mg phenylhydrazine over periods of
6-45 days.  The total dosage ranged from 110-400
mg.  On the last day of phenylhydrazine adminis-
tration they received iv 20 mg Pb acetate/kg body
weight; they were sacrificed from 3-9  days later.
As summarized, crystalline uroporphyrin I was iso-
lated from the bone marrow and found to be identi-
cal with uroporphyrin I isolated from the urine
of a patient with photosensitive (erythropoietic)
porphyria.  The bone marrow of rabbits with acute
or chronic Pb poisoning was found to contain uro-
porphyrin I from 15-844 yg/100 ml.  In experimen-
tal Pb poisoning, significant amounts  of uropor-
phyrin are found in the circulating red blood cells
only during the very acute stage when  the erythro-
cyte coproporphyrin is likewise markedly increased.
(13 references)

523      Schubert, J., and White, M.R.  (Chicago,
        111.):  EFFECT OF SODIUM AND ZIRCONIUM
        CITRATES ON  DISTRIBUTION AND EXCRETION OF
        INJECTED RADIOLEAD.  Journal of Laboratory
        and Clinical Medicine 39:260-6, 1952.
The effects of Zr and Na citrates on the blood dis-
appearance, tissue distribution, and excretion of
soluble Pb salts injected iv into rats at 2 con-
centrations (carrier-free and with added carrier)
were studied.  Of the injected dose, ^10% of the
carrier-free ^lOpj, was ±n the blood (essentially
the cellular fraction) after 25 min, from which it
disappeared with a 1/2 time of 30 hr.   When in-
jected with carrier Pb, only 6% of the injected
210pb was in the cells and ^22% in the plasma.
The Pb in the plasma left rapidly, <2% of the dose
remaining after 3 hr.  Na or Zr citrate Injected
after carrier-free 210pb did not affect the rate
of disappearance of ^lOpj, from the blood, the tis-
sue distribution, or the fraction excreted.  In
rats injected with carrier amounts of  Pb labeled
with 210pb, Zr and Na citrate both caused some re-
distribution of 210pb, but neither affected the
immediate rate of disappearance of 210pb from the
blood.  Zr citrate caused at least a 3-fold in-
crease in the 210pb excreted during the 1st 24 hr
and a decrease in the kidney concentration.  The
authors conclude that the action of many drugs
used to treat Pb poisoning is explained by the
supposition that they slow down the rate of trans-
fer of Pb from the skeleton into the circulation;
the ensuing natural rapid drop in  the plasma Pb
level relieves the symptoms of Pb poisoning.

524     Schwartz, S., Keprios, M., and Schmid, R.
        (Univ. Minnesota Hosp., Minneapolis):  EX-
        PERIMENTAL PORPHYRIA.  II.  TYPE PRODUCED
        BY LEAD, PHENYLHYDRAZINE AND LIGHT.  Pro-
        ceedings of the Society  of Experimental
        Biology and Medicine 79:463-8, 1952.
Treatment of rabbits with phenylhydrazine, Pb ace-
tate and light produced a temporary condition
similar to porphyria in man.  Uroporphyrin I (UI)
appeared in the urine.  Values of up to 3466 ug/
day were observed.  The major portion of the uri-
nary porphyrin was excreted as the free form rather
than as the Zn complex.  Bone marrow U- and co-
proporphyrin values were elevated to 1500-2000 yg%
as compared to normal values of M3 to 50-10 iig% re-
spectively.  Liver porphyrin concentrations were
generally normal.  (From authors' summary; 21 ref-
erences)

525     Sedlmeier, H., and Dahme, E.:  Die Ver-
        Snderungen der SerumeiweisskBrper bei der
        experimentell erzeugten Bleivergiftung.
        (CHANGES IN THE SERUM ALBUMIN IN EXPERI-
        MENTAL LEAD POISONING.) Berl. Munch, tier-
        Hrztl. Wschr. 65:181-4, 1952.
The authors produced subacute and chronic Pb poi-
soning in rabbits by the intravenous injection of
5.5 mg Pb acetate/kg body weight  in aqueous solu-
tion.  There was a decrease of albumin and an in-
crease of a- and 8-globulins in the blood serum.
(From Veterinary Bulletin 23:2910, 1953)

526     Slobodchikova, A.I.  (Republic Specialties
        Hosp., Ufa, USSR):  Intoksikatsiya etili-
        rovannym ill svintsovym benzinom.   (THE
        TOXIC EFFECT OF LEADED GASOLINE.)  Zhurnal
        Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S.
        Korsakova 52, No. 4:27-31, 1952.
The concept by many authors that  the action of
TEL-containing gasoline or kerosine is due to the
TEL molecule appears erroneous to the author.  She
holds that in combination with gasoline, ethyl
fluid exerts new properties, differing from those
of pure TEL.  In her experiments, cats were ex-
posed to the inhalation of TEL-^asoline  (aviation
grade containing 4-8 ml/1) by applying with a soft
brush to all paws 3-4 times/day for 8-9  days when
death occurred  (150-170 g TEL gasoline,  in acute
experiments).   In chronic experiments, the same
procedure was used by applying to 2 paws a total
of 200-210 g TEL-^asoline over a  period  of 67
days.  AS summarized, the effects seen were those
on the central nervous system as  indicated by the
changes which took place in the behavior of the
cats as the poison accumulated in the organism.
At first a short period of excitement appeared,
followed by a state of inhibition accompanied by
the usual concomitants of the vegetative nervous
system and by cerebral effects.   The cats mani-
fested toxic effects in all the regions  of the
central nervous system but mostly in the cortical
and subcortical formations,  in the cerebellum, and
in the spinal cord.  This is not  characteristic of
TEL-sasoline only, since similar  effects result
from exposure to other poisons.   In TEL  gasoline
poisoning the cortical elements appear to be the
first to become affected.  In chronic intoxication
                                    BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
with small doses a satisfactory functional  compen-
sation  took place and  the pathomorphologic  changes
were not  as profound.

527     Thoelen, H., Richterich, R., Pletscher, A.,
        and Staub, H.  (Univ. Basel, Switzerland):
        Uber das Verhalten von Aminosauren  und
        Fermenten bei  Schwermetallvergiftungen.
        I. Die experimentelle, akute and subakute
        Bleivergiftung.  (AMINO ACIDS AND ENZYMES
        IN HEAVY-METAL INTOXICATION.  I. EXPERI-
        MENTAL ACUTE AND SUBACUTE LEAD POISONING.)
        Archiv fur Experimentelle Pathologie und
        Pharmakologie  215:389-401, 1952.
Adult rats were poisoned with a 0.5% Pb acetate
solution  by being given either 0.4 ml of solution
9  times intraperitoneally within 14 days, or 0.4
ml 2 times weekly for  3 mo.  After decapitation,
amino acids were determined by microbiological
methods.  In the rats with acute poisoning  blood
and liver showed an increased cystine content and
serine was unchanged.  The alkaline phosphatase
was increased in the li\er and decreased in the
kidneys.  In subacute poisoning there was no change
in the liver cystine, but most of the other amino
acids were reduced.  The alkaline phosphatase in
liver and kidneys was  lowered.

528     Van Klaveren, F.W.,  and Shrivastava, P.C.
        (Teddington Chem.  Factory. Ltd., Andheri,
        Bombay,  India):  LEAD ANEMIA IN THE RAB-
        BIT AND THE POTENCY OF LIVER EXTRACTS.
        Indian J.  Med. Research 40:495-504, 1952.
The hematopoietic potencies of 2 liver extracts
were evaluated by their ability to stimulate red-
cell regeneration in rabbits made anemic by Pb
acetate injection.   Both preparations gave a max-
imum response on the 7th day after administration
and had a greater potency  than expected from their
vitamin 8^2 content.   A purified liver concentrate
free of vitamin B-^ gave a marked hematopoietic
response.   (From Chemical  Abstracts 47:10731,
1953)

529     Weatherall,  M. (London Hosp.  Med.  Coll.,
        England):   THE FATE  OF INTRAVENOUSLY AD-
        MINISTERED  COPROPORPHYRIN III IN NORMAL
        AND LEAD-TREATED RABBITS.   Biochemical
        Journal  52:683-90,  1952.
Experiments were performed  to discover why copro-
porphyrin (CP)  III  appears  in the urine, but not
in the feces,  in Pb poisoning.   It was found that
at least 1/2 the urinary CP  in Pb-treated rabbits
is formed  from a precursor  after the urine is
passed.   CP III  was obtained from the urine of  Pb-
treated  rabbits,  crystallized as its methyl ester,
hydrolyzed and injected in  100 yg doses iv into
conscious  and  anesthetized  normal and Pb-treated
rabbits.  No additional urinary excretion of CP
III was  found.   In  anesthetized rabbits, the mean
rate of  excretion of  CP in the bile was 1.3 ± 0.6
yg/hr  for  normal rabbits and 1.7 ±  1.1 yg/hr for  Pb-
treated  rabbits.  When 100  yg CP were injected  iv,
this rose to 18-36  yg/hr and 35-75% of the dose
was accounted  for in 4 hr  after injection.  No  dif-
ference was apparent  between the biliary excretion
of the normal  and that of  Pb-treated rabbits.
  The author suggests that  the CP found in  the
urine in Pb-treated rabbits  is excreted entirely
 as a precursor,  and that the metabolic disorder
 produced by Pb is an overproduction or failure of
 utilization of a precursor of CP and not of CP it-
 self.  CP had no effect on the behavior, blood
 pressure or water diuresis of either normal or Pb-
 treated rabbits.  (From author's summary; 27 refer-
 ences)

 530      Weatherall,  M. ,  and  Comfort,  A.   (London
         Hosp.  Med.  Coll.,  England):   URINARY  POR-
         PHYRINS  IN  EXPERIMENTAL  LEAD  POISONING.
         Nature 169:587-8,  1952.
 Rabbits  were  poisoned  by the iv  administration of
 13.7  mg  PbCl2/kg and subsequent  feeding  of  250 ppm
 Pb(C03)2 for  4 mo.   Porphyrins  in  urifte  were  de-
 termined spectrophotometrically  and  characterized
 by paper chromatography.   Coproporphyrin (CP)  ex-
 cretion  of  normal rabbits  was 4.8  yg/kg/day;  after
 PbCl2 it rose to 79.5  yg/kg/day,  then declined
 gradually.  The  bulk of  the  porphyrin from  normal
 and  poisoned  animals ran with an RF .corresponding
 to the presence  of  material  with 4 carboxyl groups,
 identical with that of  the pure  CP marker.   3-,
 4-,  and  5-carboxyl  porphyrins were also  observed
 in all but  the smallest  fractions.  There was no
 evidence that chronic  Pb poisoning affects  the
 balance  between  the urinary  3-,  4- and 5-carboxyl
 porphyrins  compared with the normal rabbit.   Four
 Pb-poisoned rabbits were treated with 5  mg/kg of
 folic acid, pyridoxine,  cyanocobalamin,  or  0.9%
 Nad  (0.5 ml/kg) im twice  daily  for  3 days, re-
 peated at 5 weekly  intervals until each  animal had
 received each treatment.   Porphyrin  excretion was
 not  altered significantly  by any of  these treat-
 ments.

                       1953

 531      Cibic, B. (Ljubljana, Yugoslavia):  Bazo-
         filno  punktirani eritrociti in porfirin-
         urlja  pri eksperimentalnem in poklicnem
         saturnizmu.   (STIPPLED CELLS  AND  PORPHY-
         RINURIA  IN  EXPERIMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL
         LEAD  POISONING.) Zdravstveni  Vestnik  22,
         No. 7-8:189-95,  1953.
 Pb poisoning  was  produced  in rabbits  by  giving  Pb
 oxide or Pb chloride in  food  for 10-60 days,  or by
 injecting a solution of  Pb chloride intravenously
 (the  dose of  Pb  given  is not  clearly  stated).
 Blood films were made  at intervals and examined
 for punctate  basophilia  by dark-ground illumina-
 tion.  The  affected  red  cells were larger than
 normal (8.30 y diameter, compared with 6.70  u), and
 contained fine,  medium and coarse  basophilt; gran-
 ules.  The  proportion of basophile cells  began  to
 increase on the  3rd  day  of treatment  and  porphy-
 rinuria  appeared a  few days  later; the basophilia
 attained a maximum  of 5% between 15 and  25  days
 and then fell  although the administration of  Pb
 was continued.   It  rose again when the dose of  Pb
 was increased.   The  porphyrinuria was increased by
 provoking acidosis by giving  ammonium chloride.
 In acute Pb poisoning produced by  intravenous  in-
 jection marked porphyrinuria  appeared immediately;
 poikilocytosis and  anisocytosis were  seen,  but
 there was little or no increase in basophilia.
 After repeated injections hemoglobinuria  and  baso-
 philia appeared.  Observations were also made  on
miners who  had worked for  long periods in the  Pb
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                                                                     85

-------
mine at Mezica; basophilia up to 2.2% was seen and
symptoms of Pb poisoning appeared at levels >0.8%.
It is suggested that the production of acidosis
may be used as a test for latent saturnism in mass
investigations, a positive result being indicated
by the appearance of porphyrinuria.  A test of
this kind would be easier to carry out than the
mass examination of blood films for punctate baso-
philia.   (From Bulletin of Hygiene 29:173, 1954)

532      Comfort, A., and Weatherall, M. (London
        Hosp. Med. Coll., England):  URINARY POR-
        PHYRIN IN LEAD-TREATED RABBITS.  Biochem-
        ical Journal 54:247-52, 1953.
Chromatography has made it possible to separate
and identify porphyrins not previously described.
The ether-soluble porphyrins in urine from animals
exposed to Pb were always thought to be copropor-
phyrin III but recent studies have revealed di-,
tri-,penta-, hexa-, and heptacarboxylic porphyrins.
In rabbits maintained on a porphyrin-producing Pb
intake the chief ether-soluble porphyrin extracted
from the urine is coproporphyrin III, and possibly
a very small amount of coproporphyrin I.  By means
of kerosene chromatograms evidence was obtained for
the existence of porphyrins with 2, 3, 6, and
possibly 5 COOH groups.  Evidence was also obtained
for the existence of a tetracarboxylic porphyrin,
which is not identical with coproporphyrin I or
III.

533       Comfort, A., Weatherall, M.  (London Hosp.
         Med. Coll., England):  PORPHYRINS FROM
         THE URINE OF RABBITS EXPOSED TO LEAD.
         Journal of Physiology 119, No. 1:5P, 1953.
The urine of rabbits treated with Pb  contains sev-
eral other porphyrins besides the well-known cop-
roporphyrin III.  Porphyrins probably containing
3- and 6-carboxyl groups are detectable by paper
chromatography of the ether-extracted and partial-
ly purified free porphyrins;  these porphyrins are
also demonstrable in normal rabbit urine.  Addi-
tional fractions are found by chromatography on
alumina columns and by paper chromatography of
the methyl esters of porphyrins obtained from Pb-
treated animals.  It seems likely that these frac-
tions include 2- and 5-carboxyl porphyrins and
that >1 type of some of these porphyrins may be
present.

534      Cottier, P., Kunz, H.A., and  Zollinger,  H.
        U.  (Univ. Zurich, Switzerland):  Experi-
        menteller Beitrag zur Frage  der Bleihyper-
        tonie.   (EXPERIMENTAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE
        PROBLEM OF LEAD HYPERTONIA.)  Helvetica
        Medica Acta 20, No. 4/5:443-9, 1953.
In the 1st series of experiments 3 groups of adult
albino rats of 10 each received sc Pb phosphate
(J. g = 0.69 g Pb) in pectin suspensions as fol-
lows:  (1) 2 times/wk 2-10 mg; (2) 1 dose of 20
mg/wk; (3) 1 dose of 40 mg/wk.  In the 2nd series
4 groups of 5-10 rats received sc 1 dose/wk of
(1) 20 mg; (2) same; (3) 40 mg; (4) 2-10 mg.  Oth-
er groups served to determine the Pb  content of
kidney and other organs.  Their blood pressure  (BP)
was measured by an indirect plethysmographic method
under light ether narcosis.  Doses up  to 20 mg/wk
had no effect on BP.  An optimum dose of 20 mg/wk
led to labile intermittent increases  in the BP.
                  Higher doses, 40 mg/wk, caused a normotonic to
                  hypotonic reaction of the BP.  A partial factor
                  for the hypotonia was the anemia with its impair-
                  ment of the circulatory organs.  The individual BP
                  frequency coefficient was single-dose dependent,
                  independent of total dosage and survival period.
                  The hypertonia preceded the hypertonic vascular
                  changes (hypertrophy of the arteriole media) in
                  the kidneys, intestines, pancreas, and brain.  The
                  degree of the hypertrophy of the media depended on
                  the survival period of the hypertonic animals.
                  Even with prolonged survival (92 wk), no arterio-
                  sclerotic chronic nephritis was observed histolog-
                  ically.  However, the possibility could not be
                  excluded that in human beings, especially in those
                  with prolonged hypertonia, an  arteriosclerotic
                  chronic nephritis might gradually develop.
                    The percentage of basophilic stippled erythro-
                  cytes and time of their appearance in the blood
                  represented  an approximate index of intoxication
                  at the dosages used.  In all Pb-intoxicated ani-
                  mals, stippled erythrocytes were present.
                    The authors conclude that the experiments demon-
                  strate the importance of an optimum  dose for the
                  achievement of a high BP in the rat, since a sim-
                  ilar situation is assumed to hold true for human
                  beings; at least, they seem to explain the fact
                  that an elevated BP is not one of the chief symp-
                  toms observed in cases of human Pb poisoning and
                  that hypertonia as well as normo- and hypotonia
                  can be found in chronic Pb poisoning.  However, the
                  experiments do not explain the mechanism by which
                  Pb causes an elevation of the BP.

                  535     De Rosa, R. (Univ. Naples, Italy):
                          L'Azione dell'alfa-tocoferolo nella in-
                          tossicazione sperimentale da piombo.  Corn-
                          portamento della coproporfirinuria e della
                          crasi ematica.  (ACTION OF a-TOCOPHEROL IN
                          EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.  COPROPORPHY-
                          RINURIA AND BLOOD PICTURE.)  Bollettino
                          della Societa Italiana dl Biologia Speri-
                          mentale 29:1439-41, 1953.
                  Two groups of 4 rabbits each were given orally 200
                  mg Pb acetate every other day and, in the test
                  group, im injections of 200 mg a-tocopherol every
                  4th day.  The vitamin treated animals showed after
                  7 days a coproporphyrin excretion in the urine of
                  an average of 7 yg/100 ml or 21 yg/24 hr.  Toward
                  the end of the 37 days' test, the figures were 28
                  and 72.8 pg.  The animals receiving  no vitamin
                  started with excretion within a similar range, but
                  the figures increased rapidly to 112 and 358 and
                  finally to 135 and 378 wg/24 hr.  The vitamin-
                  treated group lived an average of 10 days longer
                  than the others.

                  535     De Rosa, R. (Univ. Naples, Italy):  L'Az-
                          ione dell'alfa-tocoferolo nella intossica-
                          zione sperimentale da piombo. - Comporta-
                          mento del quadro anatomo-istologico.
                          (ACTION OF a-TOCOPHEROL IN EXPERIMENTAL
                          LEAD POISONING.  THE ANATOMICAL HISTO-
                          LOGICAL PICTURE.)  Bollettino della
                          Societa Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale
                          29:1441-3, 1953.
                  Two lots of 6 rabbits each were administered oral-
                  ly 200 mg Pb acetate on alternate days; 1 of the
                  groups received simultaneously 200 mg a-tocopherol
86
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 (vitamin E) every 4 days.  Rabbits of both groups
were sacrificed at predetermined times, ie, every
 5 days, so that the organic changes could be ob-
 served in the different phases of intoxication.
Animals treated with tocopherol survived up to the
 30th day; those not treated died within 20 days.
 Pathologic changes in kidneys, liver, spleen, in-
 testine, lungs, heart and adrenal glands were
 followed.  The results showed that tocopherol ex-
 erted a protective action which, while not modify-
 ing to a significant extent the morphology of the
 lesions, limited their progression and consequent
 anatomic and functional damage.  The mechanism of
 this protective action is attributed to the im-
 provement of circulation in the tissues which be-
 comes compromised in Pb poisoning by vasospasm.

537      Ganguli, H.D., and Chowdhuri, S.  (Govt.
        West Bengal, Calcutta, India):  ACUTE LEAD
        POISONING IN CATTLE AND LEAD CONTENTS OF
        SOIL AND GRASS IN GRAZING GROUNDS.   Jour-
        nal and Proceedings of the Institution of
        Chemists, Calcutta 25:165-70 (July & Oct.),
        1953.
Five of 25 Pb poisoned dairy farm cattle died
within the course of a few days near Calcutta
 (1952).  Symptoms were:   Abdominal pain,  low tem-
perature, salivation,  bloody discharge from nos-
trils, convulsions, coma and death.   Autopsy re-
vealed subcutaneous hemorrhage, blood and metal
particles in congested stomach and intestinal
mucosa, easily detachable mucous membrane in rumen,
blood fluid in the peritoneal cavity, etc.   Stom-
ach contents included metallic bits mostly of Pb
shot.   The dairy farm was situated near a shooting
range.  Since Pb poisoning of cattle is rare  in
India and to establish correctness of diagnosis,
soil,  subsoil and grass (or herbage) samples were
taken from parks, grazing and agricultural fields
in and near Calcutta,  from 4 sides of various
shooting grounds and from plots away from shoot-
ing grounds, near military areas and paint works,
and from common grazing fields, to be examined for
Pb.    The colorimetric method of Lynch et al
 (1934) was used.  In the agricultural, grazing
and park samples, Pb contents ranged from 0.001-
0.008 ppm in soil, from trace to 0.005 in subsoil,
and from trace to 0.002 in grass or herbage.  In
the shooting range samples, Pb values  ranged from
0.22-0.88 ppm in soil, from 0.011-0.42 in subsoil,
and from 0.53-2.24 in grass.  In the plots remote
from shooting grounds, the highest values for the
3 groups of samples were 0.28, 0.03, and 0.53 ppm,
near military fields and paint works, 0.82, 0.28
and 1.88 ppm,  and in common grazing fields, 0.008,
0.005 and 0.002 ppm, respectively.  Pb content in
normal cattle ranged from 0.03 ppm in muscles to
0.52 in liver.   In the Pb poisoned animals the
maximum Pb values were:   liver, 5.0; kidney, 11.7;
spleen, 3.5; stomach walls, 7.1 and intestines
4.5 ppm.  The investigation confirmed the diagno-
sis of Pb poisoning caused by grazing near a shoot-
ing range.

538      Gerlich, N., and Remy, R. (Munic. Hosp.,
        Bielefeld, Germany):  AntiperniciHs wirk-
        same Stoffe bei der BleianHmie.  (SUBSTAN-
        CES ACTIVE AGAINST PERNICIOUS ANEMIA AND
        LEAD ANEMIA.)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's
        Archiv fUr Experimentelle Pathologic und
        Pharmakologie  220:351-7, 1953.
Male  rabbits of  2-3 kg weight  injected  on  3 con-
secutive days with 5.5 mg  Pb acetate/kg developed
anemia  reaching  on the 5th day a low of 2.5 million
erythrocytes and 50% hemoglobin.  Onset of the
anemia  was delayed by  simultaneous  administration
of  liver extract and vitamin B-^-   Comparing on
the basis of vitamin B^ content, liver extract is
4-5 times as potent as vitamin B-^.  The effect of
folic acid was less marked and of shorter duration.
Fairly  large doses of  Co 0.08  yg/g  had  a favorable
influence on the anemia, but quantities corres-
ponding to those contained in  efficacious doses of
vitamin Bi~ were without effect.  (41 references)

539      Graziani, G., Fusco, M., and Rossi, L.
        (Univ. Naples, Italy):  Ferro serico e
        saturnismo,  Nota  II:   La ferremia da
        carico nel saturnismo  sperimentale.  (SER-
        UM IRON AND LEAD POISONING.  II.  IRON
        TREATMENT IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD  POISONING.)
        Folia Medica (Naples)  36:218-33, 1953.
Rabbits were poisoned by doses  of 0.1 g Pb acetate
given every 2nd day.  One  group of  animals re-
ceived  50 mg reduced Fe, another group  0.5 mg Fe
as an intravenous preparation.  In  the  latter
case, the plasma Fe was markedly higher than be-
fore  the Pb poisoning, which proved a deficiency
in Fe utilization.  Oral administration did not
have  this effect which is  explained by  impaired
gastrointestinal absorption.

54Q      Harwood, P.O.  (Dr. Hess & Clark, Inc.,
        Ashland, 0.):  THE USE  OF LEAD  ARSENATE
        MIXED WITH PHENOTHIAZINE FOR THE REMOVAL
        OF TAPEWORMS FROM  SHEEP AND GOATS. Proc.
        Helminthol. Soc. Wash., D.C. 20:29-31,
        1953.
The results of tests with  Pb arsenate-phenothia-
zine mixtures on sheep and goats support the as-
sumption that the mixture  is as effective against
tapeworms as each drug administered independently.
There was very little difference in the  toxlcity
of the mixture and of Pb arsenate alone, as a dose
of 5-7 g Pb arsenate killed all animals  to which
such a dose was given.   However, a dosage level of
25 g phenothiazine + 1 g Pb arsenate was safe for
all but extremely debilitated  animals.   (From
Chemical Abstracts 48:7192, 1954)

541      Hermann, H.( Chatonnet, J., and Vial, J.
        (Univ. Lyon, France):   Modifications de
        la re'activite'  vasculaire par divers sels
        metalliques.   (MODIFICATION OF  VASCULAR
        REACTIVITY BY VARIOUS  METALLIC  SALTS.)
        Comptes  Rendus des Stances  de la Socie'te'
        de Biologie et de  ses  Filiales  147:1804-6,
        1953.
In dogs with spinal cord destroyed,  0.0044 meq/kg
of the salt was injected iv and the effect on the
action of  vasomotor agents (adrenaline,  noradrena-
line,  heptedine, histamine, acetylcholine)  was
studied.  Salts of Pb were among those which de-
creased the action more or less.

542      Holm, L.W., Wheat, J.D., Rhode, E.A., and
        Firch, G.  (Univ. California, Los Angeles):
        THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC LEAD POISONING
                                           Plants and Animals
                                                87

-------
        IN HORSES WITH CALCIUM DISODIUM ETHYLENE-
        DIAMINETETRAACETATE.  Journal of the
        American Veterinary Medical Association
        123:383-8 (Nov.), 1953.
Seven horses  (6-8 yr old) were presented to the
University clinic, 3 at  first and 4 2 wk later.
They had been quartered  on a pasture 2 mi froE a
smelter and within its smoke zone.  The owner
stated that several horses had died earlier; liv-
ers taken from the dead  animals were submitted for
toxicologic examination.  One of the 3 was edema-
tous in belly and legs;  2 and 3 had pharyngeal
paralysis and were roarers; 3 also showed Pb line
on gums, pneumonic signs, and died 48 hr after ad-
mission.  From preliminary analyses of blood,
urine, feces and liver and clinical examination,
a diagnosis of chronic Pb poisoning was made.
The 2 survivors and the  4 admitted later, showing
the same signs but not as marked, were treated
with CaEDTA in a 2% solution, administered iv at
1.0 g/30 Ib body weight  at a drop rate of 6-80/min.
No untoward effects were noted except in 1 that
had first received the injection at 80-100 drops/
min.  The edematous animal did not respond to
treatment as did the others.  The authors believed
that the edema was due to Pb-induced nephritis,
although no function tests were made.

543     Holm,  L.W.,  Rhode,  E.A.,  Wheat,  J.D. , and
        Firch, G.   (Univ. California,  Davis):
        TREATMENT OF ACUTE LEAD POISONING IN CALVES
        WITH CALCIUM DISODIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRA-
        ACETATE.   Journal of the American Veteri-
        nary Medical Association 123:528-33 (Dec.),
        1953.
Seven calves were poisoned orally with a single
dose of Pb acetate (1 g/5 Ib body sweight) to study
the effect of CaEDTA therapy.   Blood,  urine,  and
feces samples were taken before and during the
experimental period.   Subcutaneous CaEDTA treat-
ment (I g/30 Ib body weight as a 25% solution) was
started when marked central nervous system distur-
bances were observed and when the animals were con-
sidered to be in grave danger.   A table showing
the schedule of treatment for each animal is given.
Four of the animals survived.   Marked clinical im-
provement was noted soon after initiation of treat-
ment;  nervous signs disappeared after 24 hr; dull-
ness persisted for 3 days; animals began eating
on 2nd-4th days after treatment was started;  vis-
ion began to return 4-5 days after treatment, be-
coming normal within a week.  One calf recovered
after a single course (4 days)  of treatment;  3
were given a 2nd course  after a 9-day lapse.   One
calf died before any treatment could be instituted,
1 died with Kypical signs of Pb poisoning 3 days
after the 1st: treatment, and 1, after having made
an apparent recovery, fell dead on the 13th day
after poisoning as she was being prepared for a
2nd series of treatment.  One calf that recovered
was killed 41 days after treatment to determine
residual Pb in the tissues.  Necropsy of these 4
animals showed the Pb contents to range in mg/100
g:  kidney cortex, 0.29-6.88; liver, 0.34-4.10;
rumen contents, wet and  dry, 5.5-76.0 and 40-380.
A striking difference in the Pb level of rumen
contents between 2 of the animals was attributed
to the use of Mg sulfate, which presumably caused
purgation and the lowering of the rumen reservoir.
Distribution curves of Pb in blood, urine, and
feces for the surviving calves during the course
of Pb poisoning and CaEDTA treatment are given.
The 2nd course of treatment with 1 calf raised the
urinary output of PbEDTA significantly, but the
increase in excretion of the other 2 was not mark-
ed, indicating more complete complexing of the
tissue Pb with CaEDTA during the course of the 1st
treatment of these 2.
  In conclusion the authors state  that the 4
calves that survived made remarkable recoveries,
urinary  and fecal Pb levels indicating that
CaEDTA promoted rapid urinary excretion and en-
hanced biliary excretion of Pb complexed as PbEDTA.

544      Horiuchi, K., and Miki, M. (Osaka City
        Univ., Japan):  INDUSTRIAL LEAD POISONING.
        VI.  DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN EXPERIMENTAL
        ANIMALS.  1.  LEAD CONTENTS IN BLOOD AND
        URINE OF GUINEA PIGS.  Igaku to Seibutsu-
        gaku (Med. and Biol.) 27:197-9, 1953.
The contents of Pb in blood and urine of guinea
pigs, as determined by the flame spectrophoto-
metric method were 23 (SE, ±2.02) and 15.6 (SE,
±2.29) yg/100 g, respectively.  From observed
values theoretical distribution curves for Pb in
blood and urine were presented.  (From Chemical
Abstracts 48:1581, 1954)

545       Horiuchi, K. , Owada, K., Takada, I.,
         Ida, N., Fukumura, S., Imamura, Y., and
         Tamori, E.  (Osaka City Univ., Japan):
         INDUSTRIAL LEAD POISONING.  VII.  UPTAKE,
         DISTRIBUTION, AND ELIMINATION OF LEAD.
         1.  AN EXPERIMENT WITH RaD.  Igaku to
         Seibutsugaku (Med. and Biol.) 28:226-9,
         1953.
RaD was used as a tracer in the study of the fate
of Pb in Pb-poisoned guinea pigs.  RaD was much
increased in the blood at 2-6 hr after injection,
and decreased thereafter; it was more abundant in
blood cells than in serum.  RaD was excreted in
the urine immediately after injection, and the
amount of excretion decreased with time, while the
excretion of RaD in the feces showed a maximum at
3-4 days after injection.  At a later stage of the
experiment, excretion of RaD in the feces was
usually larger than in the urine."  Little RaD was
found in brain and muscle after injection.  The
contents of RaD in the spleen and kidney increased
gradually with time, while in the liver the con-
f at was larger in the early stage than later.
More RaD was found in bone than in any other organ
tested.  (From Chemical Abstracts 48:1581,, 1954)

546      MacDonald, N.S., Ezmirlian, F., Spain, P.,
        and Rounds, D.E.  (Univ. California Med.
        School, Los Angeles):  AGENTS DIMINISHING
        SKELETAL ACCUMULATION OF LEAD.  A.M.A.
        Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occu-
        pational Medicine 7:217-20 (Mar.), 1953.
A preliminary search for readily available chem-
ical agents, suitable for iv administration and
possibly of use in therapy of poisoning by metals
which accumulate in bone, was carried out.  Young
male rats (mean weight 78 g)  were placed in 11
groups of 25 each; 10 from a group each received
iv 25 mg Pb/kg (as aqueous Pb acetate solution),
followed 1/2 hr later by test agent;  another 10
                                    BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
received the test agent, followed 1/2 hr later
by Pb; the remaining 5 served as controls, receiv-
ing Pb but no agent.  After 1 day, the femurs and
livers were removed and analyzed for Pb by a po-
larographic technique.  The materials tested were
Na^ salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ca-
sein hydrolysate, pectin, a copolymer of methyl-
vinyl ether and malelc anhydride (PVM-MA), glu-
curonolactone, oxypolygelatin, polyvinylpyrroli-
done, dextran, Na thiosulfate, and a hydrolyzed
polyacrylonitrile ("krildium").  The first 4
agents significantly reduced the bone burden of
Pb and the first 7 agents showed enough promise
to merit further detailed evaluation.  The liver
burden of Pb also tended to decrease in the cases
where the bone burden was lowered.

547     MacDonald, N.S., Nusbaum, R.E., Ezmirlian,
        F., Barbera, R.C.,  Spain,  P., and Rounds,
        D.E.  (Univ. California, Los Angeles):
        MECHANISMS IN SKELETAL ACCUMULATION OF
        IONS.  Archives of  Biochemistry and Bio-
        physics 43:118-26 (Mar.), 1953.
The deposition of Sr and of Pb in the femurs of
white male rats  (120 used for Sr and 60 used for
Pb) as a function of parenteral dosage was studied.
A  single intraperitoneal injection was administer-
ed and the content of metal ion determined after
24 hr.  Dosages ranged from 0.10-75.00 mg of Sr"4"1"/
200 g body weight and from 0.03-6.00 mg/200 g body
weight in the case of Pb.  The uptake indicated
that at least 2 modes of accumulation occurred.
The dominant process at low doses was described
satisfactorily by an equation of the same form as
the Langmuir gas adsorption isotherm.  However, an
abrupt discontinuity in the graph of the data ap-
peared as the dose was increased.  This departure
from linearity was interpreted as the point where
saturation of the initial mode of deposition was
attained.   The values of these saturation levels
for Sr and Pb were 125 ppm and 60 ppm, respective-
ly.  The various compartments in which the cation
might conceivably be found in bone were discussed.
It was estimated that if the 1st stage saturation
were the result of adsorption or ionic exchange
at surfaces of bone salt crystals,  the average
burden would be "'32 atoms of Sr/crystal and 6/crys-
tal  in the case of Pb.   However,  the combining
power of the sulfate present in the  organic matrix
of bone could equally well account for the  binding
of the saturation levels of  Sr and Pb.

548     Matusevich, Ya.Z.:  (THE THERAPEUTIC BK-
        HAVIOR OF ASCORBIC ACID IN EXPERIMENTAL
        LEAD POISONING OF RABBITS.)  Trudy Lenin-
        grad. Sanit.-Gigien. Med. Inst. 14:62-5,
        1953.
In Group 1, 8 rabbits received daily doses of ]5
mg/kg of Pb.  In Group 2, 7 rabbits received  in
addition to Pb,ascorbic acid at 10 mg/kg.  Loss of
weight due to Pb poisoning in the 2 groups was
17.7 and 17%, respectively.   Average longevity from
the 1st day of Pb administration was 41.9 and 48.3
days.  During the period of intoxication Pb elim-
ination in urine was an av 0.420 and 0.312.
mg.  Daily elimination of ascorbic acid in the
urine of Group 1 was 2.442 mg, and in Group 2
1.243 mg during the period of intoxication as com-
pared with 1.380 mg and 2.440 mg before Pb admin-
istration.  In  the muscles,  lungs,  liver,  spleen,
and kidneys of  Group  2  the Pb  content was  8  times
as great as in  Group  1.  Administration  of ascor-
bic acid prolonged the  life  of  the  Pb poisoned
rabbits, increased the  tissue  tolerance  to Pb by
allowing more of the  Pb  to be  retained by  the tis-
sue and resulting in  a  lesser  elimination  of  it:
via the urine.   (From Referat.  Zhur. Khim. Biol.
Khim. 1955, No.  7277; Chemical  Abstracts  50:5916,
1956)

549     Moreili, A.,  and Preziosi,  P. (Univ.
        Naples,  Italy):  Variazione di alcuni in-
        dici biologic!  per intossicazione  da
        piombo  tetraetile.   (VARIATION OF  SOME
        BIOLOGICAL INDEXES IN  THE INTOXICATION WITH
        TETRAETHYL LEAD.)  Bollettino della
        Societa Italiana di  Biologia Sperimentale
        29:1453-5 (July) , 1953.
After intoxication of 3  rabbits with TEL  (50 mg/
kg, 10 mg/kg, solvent only),  there  were  changes in
glycemia (decrease'),  azotemia  (increase),  choles-
terolemia  (decrease) , and proteinemia (great de-
crease) ; no change was  noted  in bilirubinemia.
Reactions  of Takata and HMnger  were impossible  to
determine  on account  of  the  low protein  content.

550     Moreili, A.,  and Preziosi,  P. (Univ. Na-
        ples, Italy):   L'azione del piombo tetrae-
        tile sulla pressione  arteriosa e  sul  res-
        piro.   (ACTION  OF TETRAETHYLLEAD ON ARTER-
        IAL PRESSURE  AND ON  RESPIRATION.)  Folia
        Medica  (Naples)  36, No.  7:526-3"',  i953.
Intravenous injection of small  doses of TEL caused
in the unanesthetized rabbit hypotension and res-
piratory stimulation; larger doses  caused hyper-
tension and respiratory depression.   The hypo tensor
effect was proportional to the dosage,  but the
pressor effect was quite inconstant.  (From au-
thors' summary)

551      Moreili, A.,  and Preziosi,  P. (Univ Na-
        ples, Italy):  L'azione del piombo tetrae-
        tile sul sistema nervoso vegetative.  (AC-
        TION OF TETRAETHYL LEAD ON  THE AUTONOMIC
        NERVOUS SYSTEM.)  Folia Medica (Naples) 36,
        No. 7:538-50, 1953.
Intravenous injection of 0.001-JO mg TK7,/kg in
acacia-gum suspension caused in the nonanesthetized
rabbit an  increase of the depressor action of
acetylcholine (ACh);  higher doses prolonged but
reduced the intensity of the ACh action.   Ihe hypo-
tensive effect  of histamine was accentuated, but
the pressor effect,  if present, was abolished.
Small doses accentuated the pressor effect of
adrenaline, high doses reduced  it.  Small doses
Increased  the effect  of the stimulated peripheral
vagus; large doses prolonged the duration but re-
duced the  intensity of  this effect.  It augmented
progressively with dose and reflex  effect of the
depressor  nerve.  Small doses  increased, large
doses decreased the vasomotor reflexes of  the
carotid sinus.  The central vagus end was progress-
ively stimulated.  The respiratory  inhibition by
adrenaline, ACh, and  histamine was  abolished, but
that produced by stimulation of the central vagus
or depressor end was  stimulated.
552
Morelli, A., and Preziosi, P. (Univ. Na-
                                           Plants and Animals

-------
        pies, Italy):  Rllievl sull'intossicazione
        subacuta da piombo tetraetile.  (THE SUB-
        ACUTE TOXICITY OF TETRAETHYL  LEAD.)   Folia
        Medica (Naples) 36:551-6, 1953.
Ten rabbits were placed in 5 groups of 2 each.   One
group served as controls; the others  received sc
from 1-100 mg TEL in alcohol/kg body  weight  for
10 consecutive days to induce subacute poisoning.
From the results it appeared that the individual
resistance to TEL varied widely.   Symptoms were
usually not very characteristic,  even when death
approached, in contrast to acute poisoning.   Hypo-
tension was observed only in some animals.  The
autonomic nervous system was not markedly affected
at the end of treatment.

553     Morelli, A., and Preziosi, P. (Univ.  Naples,
        Italy):  La fosfatasi acida encefalica  in
        corso di intossicazione subacuta con piombo
        tetraetile.  (ACID PHOSPHATASE IN THE BRAIN
        DURING SUBACUTE POISONING WITH TETRAETHYL
        LEAD.)  Folia Medica 36:718-22,  1953.
No great variation of acid phosphatase was deter-
mined in the various parts of the brains of  rab-
bits which were either acutely or subacutely in-
toxicated with TEL by iv injection in doses  of  60-
90 mg/kg in gum arabic or 10 and 50 rag/kg in a 95%
alcohol solution for 10 consecutive days sc.   The
control group received the solvent equal in amount
to that received by the TEL-poisoned group in 10
days.

554      Morelli, A., and Preziosi, P. (Univ.
         Naples, Italy):  Rilievi ematologici
         nell'intossicazione subacuta da piombo
         tetraetile.  (HEMATOLOGY IN SUBACUTE
         POISONING WITH TETRAETHYL LEAD.)  Folia
         Medica (Naples) 36:723-8, 1953.
Rabbits, 1100-1500 g in weight, were placed in 5
groups of 2 animals each, which received sc TEL,
dissolved in 95% alcohol, in doses of 1, 10, 50, or
100 mg/kg daily for 10 days;  controls received
the solvent only.  The following were examined:
hemoglobin content, red and white blood cells,
basophilic stippling, form and color of erythro-
cytes, differential formula, cellular resistance,
and the bone marrow.  The results, presented in 2
tables, led the authors to conclude that the pe-
ripheral blood picture and the bone marrow are not
markedly affected by TEL, nor is the  resistance of
the blood cells changed.

555     Morelli, A., and Preziosi, P.  (Univ.
        Naples, Italy):  Ripartizione del piombo
        in animali intossicati in mode acuto e
        subacuto con piombo tetraetile.   (DISTRI-
        BUTION OF LEAD IN ANIMALS POISONED ACUTELY
        OR SUBACUTELY WITH TETRAETHYL LEAD.)
        Folia Medica (Naples) 36:788-800 (Oct.),
        1953.
The amounts of Pb recovered from the  organs  of
rabbits poisoned with TEL,  iv (1.111-150 mg/kg) or
sc (1-150 mg/kg, both for 10 days, in gum arabic),
to induce acute and subacute poisoning respective-
ly did not differ appreciably in the  2 groups.
The highest values were found in the adrenals and
the lungs, and the lowest, except for 1 rabbit,
in the brain.  In acute intoxication the lung
predominated in deposition of Pb (except for 1
                rabbit on the lowest dosage), followed by  the
                adrenal.  In subacute poisoning this order was
                reversed.  In the other organs examined  (kidney,
                liver, spleen, heart, bones, and embryo), no note-
                worthy differences between the organs were ob-
                served.  The data are presented in 4 tables both
                quantitatively and relatively, by assigning 100
                to  the adrenal content of Pb, and in bar graphs.
                The high amount found in the adrenal indicated to
                the authors a selective distribution in  some or-
                gans and tissues.  The relationship between Pb
                content and histologic findings is reported in
                the following publication.

                555     Morelli, A., and Preziosi, P. (Univ. Nap-
                        les, Italy):  Reperti istopatologici nell'
                        intossicazione subacuta da piombo  tetrae-
                        tile.  (HISTOPATHOLOGY IN SUBACUTE POISON-
                        ING WITH TETRAETHYLLEAD.)  Folia Medica
                        (Naples) 36:801-32 (Oct.), 1953.
                Detailed histologic studies were performed on the
                kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, lung, heart,
                brain and adrenals of rabbits (1.100-1.400 kg
                weight) subjected to subacute poisoning by the ad-
                ministration of 1, 10, 50, and 100 mg TEL  (in 95%
                alcohol)/kg; 2 rabbits were used at each dosage;
                controls received the solvent only.  Particular
                attention was paid to relationships between histo-
                logic findjngs and the amount of dose, quantity of
                Pb  found in the organs, and biological changes.
                In  their conclusions, the authors point to the
                congestive hemorrhagic and degenerative lesions
                which were of marked severity in the adrenals,
                lung, liver, myocardium and kidney.  They also
                point out that in the brain lesions such as would
                have been expected from the neurologic syndrome
                characterizing human poisoning, were not encounter-
                ed  or were only little evident.  The most severe
                degeneration was seen in the adrenal cortex.  Also
                conspicuous were the myocardial lesicns, accompan-
                ied by noteworthy quantities of Pb; kidney exhibit-
                ed  diffuse bilateral nephrosis.  The liver lesions
                were less intense.  The authors consider that these
                findings could explain some of the disturbances en-
                countered in human poisoning.  (15 references)

                557     Mosinger, M., and Fiorentini, H.:  Sur la
                        pathologie de 1'intoxication saturnine
                        experimental.  (PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN
                        EXPERIMENTAL LEAD INTOXICATION.) Travaux
                        du 26 Congres International de la  Medecine
                        Legale, Medecine Sociale et Medecine du
                        Travail de Langue francaise 1953:491-7.
                Eighteen guinea pigs received 2-6 subcutaneous in-
                jections per week of 1% aqueous Pb acetate solu-
                tion in doses of 0.1-1 ml  for 4 mo.  Three of the
                animals which had been given 13 injections of 0.5
                ml  Pb solution/mo, received in addition  daily in-
                jections of 5 mg ACTH.  The pathologic and histo-
                logic findings illustrated by photographs  were
                characteristic.  These were:   (1) in the liver
                changes pointing to diffuse parenchymatous damage,
                insular necrotic processes and parenchymatous as
                well as periportal histiolymphoid infiltrations.
                With simultaneous administration of ACTH the le-
                sions were still more intense and approached the
                picture of acute liver  atrophy.   (2) In  the adre-
                nal cortex there was diffuse hypertrophy with
                hyperlipoidosis of the  funicular zone; the latter
90
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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was absent when ACTH was administered, but in con-
trast, more degenerative changes.  (3)  In the
medulla of the adrenal gland, the volume of which
was not changed, there were large cells with
spongy, vacuolated plasma and nuclear hypertrophy
or pyknosis; with ACTH on the other hand, a degen-
erative medulla atrophy.  (4) In the reticuloendo-
thelium of the lymph nodes, of the bone marrow,
the lungs, liver and kidneys, typical reactions
which could be designated as Pb reticuloendotheli-
osis, intensified by ACTH, was especially note-
worthy.   (5) Hematologically, there was a marked,
progressive anemia with red cells dropping to 1.6
million, and a leukocytosis (108,000) with partial
relative lymphopenia.  The other cellular constit-
uents (eosinophils, basophils, and raonocytes) re-
mained unchanged.  ACTH had no effect on the hema-
tologic changes.   (From Deutsche Zeitschrift ftlr
die gesamte gerichtliche Medizin 45:107 (Ab-
stracts), 1956)

558     Miyoshi, Y.  (Univ. Tokyo, Japan):  DISTRI-
        BUTION OF  LEAD IN BLOOD CONSTITUENTS:
        II.  LEAD  DISTRIBUTION IN BLOOD OF EXPERI-
        MENTALLY LEAD-POISONED GOATS.  Journal of
        the Science of Labor  (Japan) 29:557-62,
        1953.
The ratio of Pb concentration in plasma to that in
corpuscles Increased with the amount of Pb in
whole blood.  The  relation between the 2 was ex-
pressed by y = 51.01 X x0'^1*0 (similarly parabolic
with human blood whose corpuscles, however, take
less Pb).  With the same y, x was slightly higher
in vivo than in vitro, explainable by the assump-
tion that the plasma and corpuscles of Pb-poisoned
goat blood changed more physicochemically than
those of normal blood.  (From Chemical Abstracts
48:7803, 1954).

559     Ottaviano, G., and L'Abbate, S. (Univ.
        Catania, Italy):  Prime ricerche sull'-
        azione della 4-mercapto-benzensulfonamide
        nell'avvelenamento acute e cronico da
        piombo.  (FIRST STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF
        4-MERCAPTO-BENZENESULFONAMIDE ON ACUTE AND
        CHRONIC LEAD POISONING.)  Bollettino della
        Societa Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale
        29:1219-22 (June), 1953.
The experiments described showed that 4-mercapto-
benzenesulfonamide (MBS) reacts with Pb acetate
in vitro,  forming an insoluble compound, which,
after administration in vivo (to guinea pigs) is
not separable and is thus nontoxic.  MBS, adminis-
tered orally and sc, does not protect the guinea
pigs from the toxic effects of Pb, but does not
aggravate the toxic syndrome.  It is believed that
MBS, while reacting with Pb ions with the forma-
tion of Pb 4-(sulfonamido) thiobenzene, as has
been shown,  could form intermediary organometallic
compounds that are more soluble and more toxic, or
that the administration of MBS could predispose
an easier and more rapid absorption of Pb ion.
The first hypothesis seems to be more acceptable
since BAL also, according to the experiments of
Braun, Lusky and Calvery, appears to aggravate
the toxic syndrome of Pb by the formation of more
toxic complexes.
560
Pardoe, A.U., and Weatherall, M. (Dept.
         Pharmacol., London Hosp. Med. Coll.,
         England):  ANTIDIURETIC ACTIVITY OF EX-
         TRACTS OF THE PITUITARY GLANDS OF LKAD-
         POISONED RATS.  Journal of Physiology
         119, No. 1:16P, 1953.
Nicotine delays diuresis considerably more in Pb-
poisoned rats than in normal rats.  Among possible
factors concerned in the increased response is a
greater formation and liberation of antidiuretic
hormone in the pituitary gland.  The amount of
antidiuretic activity in saline extracts of the
pituitary glands of rats poisoned with Pb acetate
and of controls treated with Na acetate has there-
fore been assayed by iv injection into rabbits
and sometimes into rats.  The pituitary glands of
the Pb-poisoned rats nearly always had more anti-
diuretic activity than the controls (av 540 com-
pared with 420 milliunits/100 g body weight) and
the mean difference was statistically significant
(t = 4.275, P <0.01).  Differences in body weight
were small and did not account for these differ-
ences.  The increase in antidiuretic activity is
comparable in magnitude to that seen in rats which
have been dehydrated for 48 hr (Ames and Van Dyke,
1950).   Its occurrence in Pb poisoning may repre-
sent a direct effect on the cells of the hypophysis
or be secondary to changes in water metabolism
elsewhere in the body (Pardoe and Weatherall, 1952).

561      Pribilla, W. , and Achenbach, W. (Univ.
        KBln, Germany):  Experimenteller Beitrag
        zur BleianSimie des Kaninchens.  (THE ANE-
        MIA OF LEAD POISONING IN RABBITS.)  Srzt-
        liche Wochenschrift 8:204 (Feb. 27), 1953.
Treatment with Co and folic acid of Pb-induced
anemia was attempted in 16 rabbits of approximate-
ly the same weight.  In preliminary tests, their
sensitivity to Pb varied markedly, but with 4 x 10
mg/kg Pb acetate (1% solution intravenously for 4
days) it was possible to achieve an anemia of ap-
proximately even severity in all animals.   This
dose was given to all 16 animals.  Of the 16, 8
received, in addition, Co (9 mg/day intramuscular-
ly) and 4, folic acid (15 mg/kg/day).   The injec-
tions were started 1 day before Pb administration
and were continued until a distinct increase in
the blood values was observed.  One Pb-folic acid
animal died early, leaving 15 animals for evalua-
tion.
  Erythrocytes and hemoglobin (Hb) decreased:  The
lowest Hb value in the 4 untreated animals occurred
after 5-9 days, reaching 32-45% of its initial
value.   Of the 8 Pb-Co animals, 7 reached their
lowest Hb value between the 5th and 7th days, 1
animal on the llth day amounting to 15-53% of the
initial value (mean decrease 30%).  The 4 Pb-folic
acid animals reached their lowest Hb value (25-
31% of the initial value) on the 5th-7th days.
There was no significant difference in the time
during which the Hb returned to its initial values
in the 3 groups of animals! thus, an influence of
Co or folic acid upon Pb-induced anemia was not
observed.
  For inducing fatal Pb intoxication, the animals,
after an interval of several weeks and return of
their blood levels to normal, received 20 mg/kg
Pb acetate on the 1st day, and 30 mg/kg on the
following days until their death.  Co and folic
acid were again given as above.  The survival time
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                                                              91

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of the untreated animals was 4-6 days, of the Pb-
Co animals, 4-10 days (av 6.5 days), and of the
Pb-folic acid animals, 4, 7, and 10 days.   Thus,
neither Co nor folic acid proved to be of efficacy
in prolonging the survival span of the Pb intoxi-
cated animals.  The authors, therefore, do not
believe that prophylactic folic acid administra-
tion to Pb exposed workers is useful.

5g2      Rieders, F.  (Jefferson Med. Coll., Phila-
        delphia, Pa.):  ACTION OF DIMERCAPROL (I)
        AND OF ETHYLENEDIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID
        (II) ON LEAD  IN TISSUES.  Federation Pro-
        ceedings 12:1188  (Mar.), 1953.
Affinities of (I) and (II)  for Pb were compared at
various pH values, in presence and absence of
plasma by electrometric measurements and by parti-
tioning Pb between chloroform solutions of dithi-
zone and buffered aqueous solutions of (I) or (II).
Abilities of  (I) and  (II) to remove Pb from iso-
lated tissues of rabbits which had received Pb by
slow intravenous infusion (10 mg/kg) were compared.
Erythrocytes, long bones and slices of liver, kid-
ney, striated muscle, small intestine, brain and
spleen were incubated with  (I) or  (II) in buffer.
Aliquots of supernatent were withdrawn at 1/2 hour-
ly intervals; these and tissue residues were ana-
lyzed for Pb content.  In conjunction with data on
the effects of (II) on urinary excretion of Pb and
coproporphyrin III and on blood levels, the rela-
tive efficiencies of  (I) and (II) with respect to
de-leading of tissues in vitro and in vivo will be
discussed.  Dependence of rate and extent of com-
plexation of Pb by  (I) or (II) on pH, drug concen-
tration and presence  of plasma components as well
as cell accessibility and permeability will also
be considered.

563      Sano, S. (Kyoto Univ., Japan):  THE EFFECT
        OF BAL UPON LEAD POISONING.  Japanese
        Journal of the Nation's Health 22:266-75,
        1953.
Animals treated with  BAL showed a Pb excretion in
urine and feces 2-3 times greater than untreated
animals did, and the  Pb contents in blood, bones,
livers and kidneys decreased remarkably after
treatment of acute Pb poisoning.  In subacute and
chronic cases Pb excretion  appears to be unaffect-
ed after BAL treatment.  The increase of Pb ex-
cretion was due to the increased excretion of Pb
from the blood and soft tissues, and was not due
to the mobilization of the  Pb in bones.

564      Sano, S. (Kyoto Univ., Japan):  THE EFFECT
        OF SODIUM CITRATE UPON LEAD POISONING.
        Japanese Journal of the Nation's Health
        22:276-9, 1953.
An injection  of 5 mg  Pb  as  Pb acetate  into the
heart of a guinea pig or  exposure of rats to in-
halation of Pb powder and oral administration of
1 g Na citrate daily  to guinea pigs or 0.3 g Na
citrate/kg to rats did not  give sufficient effect
on Pb excretion; in  chronic cases,  treatment of Na
citrate caused marked increase of Pb excretion in
urine while  there was no  change in  fecal excretion
of the Pb.

565      Taylor, A.,  Carmichael, N.:  THE EFFECT OF
        METALLIC CHLORIDES  ON THE GROWTH OF TUMOR
                          AND NONTUMOR TISSUE.  University of Texas
                          Publication No. 5314, Biochemical Institute
                          Studies 5, Cancer Studies 2:36-79 (July
                          15), 1953.
                  A series of 33 metallic chlorides (Cl) and 4 metal-
                  lic nitrates (N-0) were tested at various dosages
                  for their effect on the growth and survival of
                  chick embryos, and the tumors and embryos of eggs
                  bearing yolk sac implants of a mouse mammary adeno-
                  carcinoma.  The same series of compounds was also
                  tested at various dosages for their effect on dba
                  mice, and dba mice bearing  transplants of a sar-
                  coma.
                    Eleven-day chick embryos  were used in 222 ex-
                  periments involving 2484 eggs, and tumor-bearing
                  eggs were used in 118 experiments with 2403 eggs.
                  In the mouse experiments, nontumor-bearing mice
                  were used in 41 experiments involving 490 animals,
                  and mice bearing sarcoma transplants were used in
                  152 experiments including 2283 animals.
                    The 10 most  toxic compounds in  5-day tests with
                  11-day chick embryos, and 1-day tests with the
                  embryos of  tumor-bearing eggs were, beginning with
                  the most toxic CdCl, HgCl,  PbN-0, AgN-0, T1C1,
                  PbCl, CuCl, CoCl, LiCl, RhCl.  In the tests with
                  PbN-0 (some were also made  with PbCl), a dose of
                  0.1 mg injected into the yolk sac caused develop-
                  ment of meningoceles in many of the chick embryos.
                  The growth  of  tumors was accelerated by injection
                  over the chick membrane of  0.1 mg; the same dose
                  injected into  the yolk sac  inhibited tumor growth.
                    The growth of egg-cultivated tumors was inhibi-
                  ted 70-99%, and the host embryos, 10-29%, by CoCl,
                  MgCl, HgCl, NdCl, RbCl, AgN-0, SnCl, and SrCl.

                  566     Tsuchiya, K., Kondo, H.,  Hoshi, Y., and
                          Nakai, S. (Keio Univ., Tokyo, Japan): COR-
                          RELATION BETWEEN HEPATIC  FUNCTION AND LEAD
                          IN  BLOOD, URINE AND FECES IN EXPERIMENTAL
                          LEAD POISONING.  Journal  of Science of La-
                          bour 29:484-7, 1953.
                  In goats injected subcutaneously  with 10-20 mg
                  Pb/kg body  weight every other day for 10 days Pb
                  was excreted mostly in feces while the hepatic
                  function was not impaired.  After the impairment
                  Pb in urine decreased below normal, the serum albu-
                  min/globulin ratio decreased, and bilirubin in
                  plasma increased.  The urinary coproporphyrin was
                  variable.   With an increase of Pb in blood the
                  erythrocyte and hemoglobin  counts decreased, and
                  reticulocytes and basophilic stippled cells ap-
                  peared.

                  567     Valade, P., and Coste, E. (Bouchet Res.
                          Center, Paris, France):^  Toxicite de sels
                          organiques de  plomb.   (Etude  experimen-
                          tale.)   (TOXICITY OF ORGANIC LEAD SALTS.
                          EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.)  Archives  des Mal-
                          adies  Professionnelles de Medecine du
                          Travail et de  Securite Sociale  14:584-93,
                          1953.
                  Eight groups  of animals, each  containing  1 dog
                  and 2 rabbits, 2  also  containing  2 guinea pigs,
                  were exposed  to dusts  of Pb stearate  and Pb  acetyl-
                  salicylate  20  times for  30  min over  a period of  2
                  mo.  Dust  concentrations were  333 mg/m  , 95% of
                  the particles  were 1 y in diameter and 5%,  3y.   The
                  effects of  the 2  compounds  were similar.  Loss  of
                  weight was  the only  clinical  sign noted.  Hemato-
 92
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
logic studies showed nucleated erythrocytes, poly-
chromatophilia, anisocytosis, basophilic stippling,
but no anemia.  The liver was enlarged, yellow and
showed fatty degeneration leading to degenerative
hepatitis and cirrhosis.  Renal lesions were found
in the glomeruli and convoluted tubules, and the
lungs showed the general signs of defense against
the presence of foreign particles.  The microscopic
appearances of these lesions were illustrated.
Pb salts were detected histochemically in the
tissues and organs (method of Frankenberger, Cre-
tin) , mainly in the cells of the reticuloendothe-
lial system.
  The authors concluded that organic Pb salts were
toxic to animals,  and thus probably to man.

568      Wanntorp,  H., and Brickman, S.:  Blysul-
        fidens och blysligens toxicitet fbr idis-
        slare.  (TOXICITY OF GALENA AND OF LEAD
        SULPHIDE FOR RUMINANTS.) Nord. Vet. Med.
        6:306-30,  1953.
The authors mentioned 6 outbreaks of Pb poisoning
in sheep and cattle, caused by the ingestion of
galena (a mineral containing Pb sulfide) which had
fallen from motor or railway trucks, and described
the experimental reproduction of poisoning by ad-
ministering the mineral to 6 sheep and a calf.
The dose of galena necessary to produce symptoms
depended on the time that had elapsed since the
mineral was dug; galena which had been stored for
4 yr or longer was considerably more toxic than
the freshly-dug material, probably as a result of
oxidation of sulfide to sulfate.  (From Veterinary
Bulletin 24:3621,  1954)

569      Zaitseva,  A.F.  (Dept. Communal Hyg.,
        Lenin Med. Inst., Moscow,  USSR):  Eksperi-
        mental'nye issledovaniya k gigienicheskomu
        obosnovaniyu predel'no dopustimoi kontsen-
        tratsii svlntsa v vode vodoemov.  (EXPERI-
        i-jENTAL DETERMINATION OF PERMISSIBLE TOLER-
        ABLE CONCENTRATION OF LEAD IN WATER-
        STORAGE RESERVOIRS.)  Gigiena i Sanitariya
        1953, No.  3:7-11.
In experiments with mice which received aqueous
solutions of 5, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.005 mg Pb/kg body
weight for 4 mo, changes in conditioned reflex
response were observed  at the lowest dose used.
The author finds the limit concentration set for
drinking water by the USSR standard of 0.1 mg/1,
oeyond which it may affect self-purification by
biological means,  to be correct.  Taste of the
water is not affected by even higher concentra-
tions.

570      Zollinger, H.U. (Univ.  Zurich, Switzer-
        land):   Durch chronische Bleivergiftung
        erzeugte Nierenadenome und -carcinoma bei
        Ratten und ihre Beziehungen zu den entspre-
        chenden Neubildungen des Menschen.   (KID-
        NEY ADENOMAS AND CARCINOMAS IN RATS CAUSED
        BY CHRONIC LEAD POISONING AND THEIR RELA-
        TIONSHIP TO CORRESPONDING HUMAN NEOPLASMS.)
        Virchow's  Archiv fllr Pathologische Anato-
        mie und Physiologic und fllr Klinische Med-
        izin 323:694-710 (July), 1953.
In addition to 270 white rats weighing 150-180 g,
that were injected subcutaneously once a week with
1 ml of a 2% Pb phosphate suspension providing 20
mg, 40 controls were used.  The total dose received
varied from 40-760 mg.  A part of the rats were
sacrificed during the injection period, but a
large number died spontaneously.  Among the latter,
histologic examination was possible in 112.  Of
these, 21 had neoplasms.  In those that survived
10 mo or more a very high percentage (19 of 29)
showed adenomas, papillomas, and cystadenomas of
the kidney cortex.  In 3 cases adenocarcinomas
were detected.   The first appearance of tumors oc-
curred in the 4th mo.  There was no direct re-
lationship between time of exposure and frequency
of neoplasms.  The smallest dose producing a tumor
was 120 mg.  Investigations of changes in the kid-
neys showed increase in size of kidneys, increase
in the size of the nuclei, disturbance of mitosis,
polymorphia, deposition of Pb salts in the distal
tubules, pigment droplets in the tubular epithe-
lium, little fibrosis of the stroma, occasional
hypertrophy of arterioles, and no changes in the
glomeruli.  All indications pointed to a direct
action of Pb on nuclear metabolism followed by
an inhibition of mitosis.
  The author concludes that in regard to renal
damage, Pb seems to have a radiomimetic ability in
the way it disturbs the metabolism of the nucleus
with secondary hyperplasia.  However it is most
probable that processes of regeneration after epi-
thelial necrosis play a part in the development of
tumors.  However these processes as a cause for
tumor development are far less important in rats
than in human kidneys.  Hormonal stimulation of
hyperplasia seems not to be present.  Kidney tumors
resembling hypernephroma were not detected in the
experiment.

                      1954

571     Adam, K.R., and Weatherall, M. (Univ. Edin-
        burgh; London Hosp. Med. Coll., England):
        OBSERVATIONS ON DITHIOLS AND THE DISTRIBU-
        TION OF LEAD IN RABBITS.  Journal of Phar-
        macy and Pharmacology 6:403-9 (June), 1954.
Dimercaprol (BAL) promotes the excretion of Pb from
the body.  It is a dithiol, and there are others
which might be more effective.  Dimercaprol gluco-
side (DG), which has a low toxicity, dimercaptopro-
pionic acid (DP), 1,3-dimercaptopropanol, and 1,4
dimercaptoerythritol were chosen for an examination
of their effect on the distribution of Pb in the
body.  Pb chloride or Pb acetate, containing 210pb
or 212p]:,) was injected iv into rabbits in doses of
0.01 mM (2.07 mg Pb)/kg or 0.1 mM (20.7 mg Pb)/kg.
Either 1 and 5 hr later, the dithiols were injected
im in 2 doses of yM/kg as follows:  BAL, 400 and'
100; the above thiols, 600 and 150; 90 and 22.5;
100; 500 and 125, respectively.  DG was studied
more extensively, with repeat dosage at 19 and 23
hr after poisoning.   The animals were killed 24 hr
later, Pb in the tissues was estimated by measure-
ment of their radioactivity by means of a Geiger
counter.  DG produced a total excretion in 23 hr of
up to 30 or 40% of the Pb given.   The quantity of
Pb was reduced not only in the liver and bone mar-
row, but also in the kidneys, blood cells and bone.
In the urine and bile considerable increases oc-
curred, accounting for most of the Pb removed from
the tissues.
  The overall results showed DG and DP to be sub-
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               93

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stantially more effective than BAL in promoting
the excretion of Pb in the urine.  The other
dithiols were not more effective.  After DG, the
Pb remaining in the body was distributed more uni-
formly than in the control animals.  After a 10-
fold increase in the dose of Pb inequalities in
distribution were exaggerated.  BAL and DG caused
a bigger absolute increase in the excretion of Pb
after this dose than after the smaller dose.  Rel-
atively to the dose of Pb, they were less effec-
tive.
  The authors discuss the results on the basis that
Pb combines reversibly with various receptors in
the soft tissues, or with dithiols, and in each
reaction an equilibrium is reached.  Bone takes up
Pb more slowly than the soft tissues and Pb so tak-
en up is much less dissociable.  More Pb is ex-
creted while the dithiol is given, and the rise in
tissue-Pb thereafter is to a lower level than be-
fore treatment; similarly the bone-Pb reaches a
lower final level.

572     Aleksleva, Is. (Sci. Res. Inst., Ind. Hyg.
        Occup. Dis., Bulgaria):  Ultravioletovoto
        oluchvane kato profilaktichno sredstvo pri
        olovnoto otravyane.   (Predvaritelno sobsh-
        chenie.)  ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION AS A
        PREVENTIVE MEASURE IN LEAD POISONING; PRE-
        LIMINARY COMMUNICATION.)  Suvremenna Medi-
        tsina (Sofia) 5, No. 6:17-26, 1954.
Pb-poisoned guinea pigs exposed to ultraviolet ir-
radiation survived longer than those not so ex-
posed.

573     Ambrosio, L., and Mazza, V. (Univ. Naples,
        Italy) :  Comportamento del lisozima nel
        siero di sangue e negli organi nelle
        intossicazioni sperimentali (piombo, ben-
        zolo, manganese).  (BEHAVIOR OF LYSOZYME
        IN THE BLOOD SERUM AND IN SOME ORGANS IN
        EXPERIMENTAL POISONING (LEAD, BENZENE,
        MANGANESE).) Rivista dell'Istituto
        Sieroterapico Italiano 29:252-62,  1954.
Above poisonings were induced in groups of 4 dogs
each.  Pb was given by gastric tube (aqueous solu-
tion with 0.10 g Pb acetate) on alternate days for
50 days; 1 dog died on day 41 and 1 on day 35.
Lysozyme activity, determined by Caselli's method,
decreased progressively, with severity of poison-
ing.  In 1 dog, it dropped from 61-16 units after
10 days and remained at this level.  In the or-
gans, greatest decrease was in the spleen, fol-
lowed by the kidney and liver.  Hardly any reduc-
tion was seen in the lungs, heart and gastric
mucosa.  Decreases were also observed in the ex-
periments with benzene and Mn.  Those by benzene
were correlated to decreases in neutrophils; as to
Pb and Mn, reticuloendothelial tissue disorders
were held responsible.

574      Aub, J.C.  (Massachusetts  Gen. Hosp. ,  Cam-
          aridge):   BONE  METABOLISM STUDIED BY
         RADIOACTIVE  LEAD  AND RADIUM.   Indian  Jour-
         nal  of  Child Health  (Bombay)  3:601-7,
         1954.
In reviewing his studies, the author shows that
bones are not static, but are rapidly changing in
their structure throughout life.  This change is
more marked in children than in adult life, but
                  the exchange of salts goes on in both periods.
                  The metabolism of the trabeculae is very rapid
                  and can be dramatically influenced by changes in
                  the rate of Ca metabolism.  The metabolism of the
                  cortex is very slow.  Great influences on it or
                  on dental dentine would be difficult to produce
                  except with a very long lasting strain on bone
                  metabolism.
                    His group used radioactive Pb or Ra for the
                  studies discussed, because their metabolism runs
                  parallel to Ca in bones and their radioactivity
                  lasts for years.  Experiments with animals (cats
                  and dogs) showed that in cats on a 12 wk long
                  low-Ca diet the trabeculae practically vanished
                  from the bones while the hard structure of the
                  cortical bone remained essentially unchanged.
                  Films taken after treatment with radioactive Pb
                  showed that fresh inorganic salts were deposited
                  and the location of this deposition.  Pb radiation
                  was greatest in the trabeculae while there is lit-
                  tle activity in the cortex.  As the bone grew the
                  Pb which was present in the spongiosa near the
                  epiphysis continued to be redissolved and rede-
                  posited.  Bone growth, therefore, has a rapid me-
                  tabolism of inorganic salts which is analogous to
                  that found in the bone trabeculae.  An equilibrium
                  between the salts and the bone spongiosa and in
                  the cortex can be reached, after many years.  In
                  teeth of animals after radioactive Pb was injected,
                  the amount of the isotope concentrated in dentine
                  was analogous to that concentrated in the cortex
                  of the bone.
                    In man this can be studied in children who have
                  ingested painted surfaces.  i'he epiphyseal lines
                  are more dense due to an increased accumulation of
                  Pb and Ca, this pnenomenon is known by the name
                  Pb-line.

                  575     Baikie, A.G. (Univ. Dept. Med. Royal
                          Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland):  THE FECAL
                          EXCRETION OF UROBILINOGEN OF NORMAL AND
                          LEAD POISONED GUINEA PIGS.  Blood 9:461-72,
                          1954.
                  The method of Watson for the estimation of fecal
                  urobilinogen (UBG) was modified for use in guinea
                  pigs.  Estimations on 3 or 4 day fecal collections
                  gave less variable results than estimations on
                  single day collections.  Loss of UBG upon storage
                  to the 3rd or 4th day was small.  For normal guinea
                  pigs a mean daily excretion of 0.23 mg SD i 0.10
                  was found.  Serial estimations were carried out of
                  the UBG excretion of guinea pigs before and during
                  experimental poisoning with Pb nitrate.  During
                  Pb poisoning there was a statistically significant
                  increased excretion of UBG.  This was shown to be
                  correlated with the fall in Hb levels which occur-
                  red in the poisoned animals.  It is concluded that
                  these results provide confirmatory evidence for the
                  view that hemolysis plays an important part in the
                  anemia of chronic Pb poisoning.  (From author's
                  summary)

                  575     Baikie, A.G., and Valtis, D.J. (Royal
                          Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland):  THE OXYGEN
                          CONSUMPTION OF THE BLOOD IN EXPERIMENTAL
                          LEAD POISONING.  British Journal of Experi-
                          mental Pathology 35:434-8 (Oct.), 1954.
                  Guinea pigs were poisoned by the oral administra-
                  tion of Pb nitrate in doses varying from 75-150
94
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
mg daily.  Reticulocytosis was produced in other
guinea pigs either by repeated withdrawal of blood
by cardiac puncture or by administration of anti-
guinea-pig red cell serum resulting in hemolytic
anemia.  Blood for study of 0 consumption was ob-
tained by cardiac puncture, and after proper prep-
aration, the 0 content was determined in 1 ml
samples, with determination of packed cell volume,
red cell count, and total nucleated cell count
being carried out in duplicate.  The 0 uptake of
the blood of Pb-poisoned guinea pigs was much
higher than that of normal animals, and this cor-
related with the presence of stipple cells, which
are a form of reticulocyte. (15 references)

577     Bianchi, c., Ambanelli, U., and Salvi, G.
        (Univ. Parma, Italy):   ivicerche sperimen-
        tali sulla azione della beta-mercaptoeti-
        lamina nella intossicazione da tetraetile
        di piombo.  (EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE
        ACTION OF BETA-MERCAPTOETHYLAMINE ON IN-
        TOXICATIONS BY TETRAETHYL LEAD.) L'Ateneo
        Parmense 25, No. 6:419-45, 1954.
The technique of Ambanelli and Salvi (1953-4) was
used to expose 35 rabbits, j.n groups of 2 or 3
for 10-35 min to inhalation of air containing 3.5-
5.0 mg TEL/1 or to TEL-saturated air.  Half of the
rabbits were treated with 3-mercaptoethylamine
(MEA; cysteamine, NH2-CH2-CH2-SH (Lambratene,
Cilag)).  Throughout the experiments, the animals
were examined as to weight and body temperature.
In the 1st experiment, using 20 animals exposed to
high concentrations of TEL half of whom were treat-
ed with 10 or 14 eg MEA/day iv, 9 survived while
all of the 10 controls died in 3-4 days, under
constant progressive hypothermia.  In a 2nd experi-
ment, in 15 animals exposed to low concentrations
for up to 11 days, iv injection of MEA at 10-18
eg/day brought about a greater elimination of Pb
in the urine than in nontreated animals or in
those treated with a diuretic  (urea, iv, 1-1.2 ml
of 30% solution).  The authors attribute the action
of MEA to its metal-chelating properties.

578     Calhoun,  J.A., McLean,  R.,  Hudson,  J.C.,
        and Aub,  J.C.  (Harvard Univ.  Massachusetts
        Gen.  Hosp.,  Boston):   COMPARATIVE EXCHANGE
        OF CALCIUM,  LEAD,  AND  RADIOACTIVE LEAD IN
        DOGS.   A.M.A.  Archives of Industrial Hy-
        giene and Occupational Medicine 9:9-22
        (Jan.),  1954.
As concluded by the authors,  radioactive Pb, used
experimentally as an indicator for inert Pb, was
toxic to dogs when injected intravenously (iv) in
amounts ranging from 0.2-2.3 x 10~^ mCi/kg.  Vary-
ing the amount of inert Pb from 0.6-6.7 mg/kg did
not seem to influence the survival time.  Toxicity
appeared to be dependent upon  the amount of radio-
activity.   The average urinary excretion of the
tagged Pb analyzed as Ra D was roughly 67% of the
total excretion.   Parathyroid  hormone, low Ca diet,
or high Ca diet had no effect  on excretion of
tagged Pb.  This was not in agreement with their
previous findings with inert Pb.   A possible ex-
planation is discussed.   It was doubtful that the
toxic effects of radiation seriously impaired the
mechanism involved in the response to parathyroid
hormone, because this medication caused a satis-
factory increase in Ca excretion.   As much as 60-
dO% of the injected Pb was excreted during  the
lifetime of the animals which survived some months.
Only a small fraction of  the stored Pb was  present
in organs other than bone.  Dogs  given radioactive
Pb appeared to develop uremia after some months.
Apparently the azotemia,  leukopenia, and physical
deterioration in these animals were due to  the  ra-
dioactivity, since the injection  of 1.9 and 2.7
mg/kg of inert Pb had no  apparent deleterious ef-
fects on the health of 2  other animals.  The clin-
ical evidence of renal failure was more obvious
than the pathological evidence.   There were 5 cases
of known terminal azotemia, yet only 3 of them
showed histological evidence of kidney damage.  In
fact, 1 animal had a histologically normal kidney
in spite of increased permeability of this  organ
for 2 months before death.  (15 references)

573     De Rosa, R.  (Univ. Naples, Italy):
        L'azione dell'alfa-tocoferolo nella in-
        tossicazione sperimentale da piombo; corn-
        portamento della  coproporfirinuria  e della
        crasi ematica.   (ACTION OF a-TOCOPHEROL IN
        EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.  COPROPORPHY-
        RINURIA AND BLOOD PICTURE.)  Acta Vitamin-
        ologica (Milan)  8:167-72  (Aug.), 1954.
See Abstract No.  535.

580     Dhar, D.C., and Pradhan, S.N.:  ANEMIA.
        I.  EXPERIMENTAL  LEAD ANEMIA IN RATS.  J.
        Sci. Research (India)  13B:25-30, 1954.
Pb acetate injected into  rats ip and iv (6 mg/100
g body weight)  reduced erythrocyte and hemoglobin
values 33 and 30% and with repeated doses 60 and
54%.  The anemia reached  its peak after 7-8 days
and was macronormoblastic in nature.   (From Chem-
ical Abstracts 49:508, 1955)

581      Elder,  W.H.:  THE EFFECT OF LEAD POISONING
        ON THE FERTILITY  AND FECUNDITY OF DOMESTIC
        MALLARD DUCKS. J. Wildlife Mgmt. 18:315-
        23, 1954.
In an attempt to assess the effect on fertility
following consumption of  Pb shot by ducks,  experi-
mental birds were given Pb shot in gelatin  cap-
sules, sufficient to produce signs of Pb poisoning.
It could not be shown that ingested Pb shot de-
creases fertility or increases early embryonic
mortality.  (From Veterinary Bulletin 26:578, 1956)

582      Fisher,  L.E. (Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago,
        111.):   LEAD POISONING IN A GORILLA.
        Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
        Association 125:478-9, 1954.
On May 29, 1954,  a 9-yr-old male gorilla in the
Chicago Zoo showed symptoms of a developing neuro-
logical syndrome.   It was learned that on April 5
the animal had eaten some red Pb paint from the
bars of his cage,  which was being repaired.  He
vomited a short time later and some of the red
paint was seen in the vomit.   Urine collected on
May 30 was positive for Pb at the level of 0.290
mg/1 of urine.   A second  specimen collected June 4
contained 1.235 mg/1.  After May 30 the gorilla
showed a slight but definite daily improvement.
The vitamin B complex factors in his supplement
feed were greatly increased and liver was given
daily in the diet.   By June 13, he seemed entirely
normal and no other symptoms had developed.
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                95

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  The author points out that while Pb poisoning
has not been commonly recognized in zoo animals,
the possibility should be suspected in cases of
obscure neurological disorders, especially in
those animals that have had access to Pb-contain-
ing paints.  The diagnosis is made by combinations
of Pb determinations in urine, basophilic stippling
of the red cells, Pb lines in the gums and in the
radiographs of long bones of young growing animals,
and by the clinical neurological findings, all in
the presence of a clinical history of exposure.

583      Graziani, G., Fusco, M., and Rossi, L.
        (Univ. Naples, Italy):  Le variazioni del
        citocromo c nella intossicazione sperimen-
        tale da piombo.  (VARIATIONS IN CYTOCHROME
        C IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)  Ab-
        stracts of Meeting of the Campana Society
        of Legal Medicine, Insurance and Labor,
        Naples.  Medicina del Lavoro 45:53 (Jan.),
        1954; Folia Medica (Naples) 37:73-81
        (Feb.), 1954.
The behavior of cytochrome c in the hearts of 8
rabbits poisoned orally on alternate days with
0.20 g of Pb acetate was studied.  In preliminary
experiments cytochrome c was determined in the
hearts of 10 normal rabbits.  The method used was
that of Fujita with some modifications in order to
adapt to photometry with the Beckmann spectro-
photometer.  A distinct and constant increase in
the liver cytochrome c was seen in the poisoned
animals.  This increase of cytochrome c can be in-
terpreted to mean a compensation and the diminu-
tion of oxygen transport in the tissues, either by
the anemia caused by the toxic action of Pb or by
the diminished activity of codehydrases that enter
into the cytochrome chain in the oxidation-reduc-
tion reaction of cellular respiration.

534      Gllnther, H. (Veterinary Med. College,
        Hanover, Germany):  Ftltterungsversuche mit
        Flugstaub einer MetallhUtte an Pferden und
        einem Schaf.   (FEEDING EXPERIMENTS IN
        HORSES AND A SHEEP WITH FUME DEPOSITS FROM
        A METAL WORKS IN GERMANY.)  Inaug. Diss.
        Hanover, 1954, 47 pp.
The author investigated the symptoms in livestock
in a region affected by fumes from a metal found-
ry.  These included a condition resembling rick-
ets, swelling of the joints leading to stiffness,
and a poor state of nutrition.  He reported an ex-
periment in which fume deposits from the foundry
in question or from another foundry  were mixed
with the diet of 3 foals.  The result suggested
that the Pb content of the fume deposits played an
important role in the poisoning.   (From Veterinary
Bulletin 25:4142, 1955)

535      Holm,  L..W.  (Univ.  California, Davis):
        THE  USE OF CALCIUM DISODIUM SALT  OF VER-
        SENE  IN HEAVY-METAL POISONING OF LIVE-
        STOCK.  Proceedings of  the American Veter-
        inary  Medicine Association 1954:33-6.
Although intravenous and subcutaneous administra-
tion of CaNa2EDTA was effective in the treatment
of Pb poisoning of cattle  and horses, it was of no
value in treating organic  Hg poisoning in  swine.
The complex formed is probably  as  toxic to the
animal as the Hg itself.
                  586      Kaloyanova-Simeonova, F.  (Sci.  Res, Inst,
                          Ind. Hyg.,  uulgaria):   Vliyanieto  na  fi-
                          zicheskoto  natovarvane  vurkhu proticha-
                          neto na otravyaneto  s nyakoi olovni
                          suedineniya.   (Sobshchenie  I).   (EFFECT
                          OF PHYSICAL EFFORT ON RESISTANCE TO POI-
                          SONING WITH CERTAIN  LEAD  COMPOUNDS. I.)
                          Suvremenna  Meditsina (Sofia) 5, No. 6:
                          12-7, 1954.
                   In  the  1st experiment,  animals  trained  physically
                   (by swimming) for 16  days responded to  Pb  poison-
                   ing induced by oral doses for 60  days of 0.2  ml
                   20% Pb  acetate/100  g  body weight  and observed for
                   4 mo by 4 survivals out of 9 (1 drowned),  while
                   only 1  of 4 untrained animals survived.  In ex-
                   periments with rats,  TEL was administered  sc  0.008
                   g/kg daily, and the conditioned reflex  to  light
                   and sound stimuli was observed  in trained  and un-
                   trained rats.  The  authors conclude that physical
                   training may have an  influence  on the response of
                   the organism to poisons.

                  587      Kleinsorge, H.,  Morigerowski, E.,  and
                          Rosner, K.  (Univ. Jena, Germany):
                          Bleiana'mie  und  Vitamin  Bi2-   (ANEMIA  IN
                          LEAD POISONING  AND VITAMIN  B12.)   Zeit~
                          schrift fur Innere Medizin  und  Ihre
                          Grenzgebiete  9:903-6, 1954.
                   The authors studied the bone marrow and blood in
                   rabbits that had been rendered  anemic by injection
                   of  an aqueous solution  of Pb acetate into  the ear
                   vein on 3 successive  days.   Since difficulties had
                   been encountered in obtained marrow specimens from
                   the vertebral bodies  of rabbits,  they tried a new
                   method  by puncture  of the ilium crest.  They  ex-
                   plain that if the rabbit is  placed  in a certain
                   sitting posture, the  ilium crest  is readily acces-
                   sible.  They found  that the  administration of
                   vitamin Bi? either  simultaneously with  or  immedi-
                   ately after the Pb  dosage, resulted in  a much more
                   rapid recovery from the anemia.   Stimulation  of
                   the regenerative power  of the bone  marrow  was
                   demonstrated to be  the  cause of this more  rapid
                   recovery.  Vitamin  B-^  also  prevented deteriora-
                   tion of the general condition of  the rabbits  with
                   Pb  poisoning.  Furthermore,  when  Pb was  given
                   simultaneously with vitamin  B^2>  tne development
                   of  basophilic stippling of the  erythrocytes was
                   prevented.  The authors feel that either normal
                   maturation is stimulated so  that  supposedly im-
                   mature  erythrocytes with basophil stippling are
                   not flushed out, or a pathological process of
                   ripening  (perhaps resulting  from  the inhibition
                   of  the  nucleic acid metabolism  by Pb) is normal-
                   ized, because vitamin 812, an important factor in
                   the nucleic acid metabolism, is present in large
                   quantities.  (14 references)

                   588      Kocsar, L., Kesztylis, L. , Szalay,  S.,
                          Kertesz, L.,  and VSlyi-Nagy, T.   (Inst.
                          Pharmacol.  Exptl. Pathol. Med.  Univ.,
                          Debrecen, Hungary):   STUDIES ON EXPERI-
                          MENTAL LEAD POISONING.  III.  THE  EFFECTS
                          OF ALCOHOL  IN ACUTE  LEAD  POISONING.   Acta
                          Physiologica  Academiae  Scientiarum Hun-
                          garicae  (Budapest) 5:543-7, 1954.
                   Cats of 1.5-2 kg body weight were used.  One  group
                   was pretreated by gastric tube  with 3 ml/kg of
                   alcohol/day over 3  wk.   Two  days  after  pretreat-
 96
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 ment,  all  cats  received  15 mg  Pb  acetate in aque-
 ous  solution  and  labeled with  0.6-1.2  yCi ThB  by
 stomach  tube  in ^5  ml  fluid, and  the  activity  in
 the  organs was  determined 10-11 hr  thereafter.
 Blood  samples were  taken from  the external jugular
 vein at  5, 15,  30,  60, 90, 120, and 180  min, re-
 spectively, and the cats were  killed  after the
 last sampling.  In  additional  experiments, 2.5 ml/
 kg of  20%  alcohol was  injected intravenously,  fol-
 lowed  by 15 mg  Pb in 5 ml iv 5 min  later.   Controls
 were given Pb only.  The results  on the  organs are
 shown  on the  basis  of  radioactivity measurements
 (percentage of  activity  shown  by  1  g  of  the last
 blood  sample).  In  the controls,  activity of blood
 reached  its peak  at 30-120 min after  administra-
 tion of  Pb, and was not  affected  appreciably by
 alcohol.   The means of Pb contents  of  6  poisoned
 controls and  of 6 alcohol pretreated  cats, as tabu-
 lated, showed no  Pb deposits in the cerebral cortex
 and  hypothalamus  in the  controls, but  15 and 37%
 activity respectively  in these structures in the
 alcohol  group.  This was thought  to be due to  an
 acceleration  by alcohol  of Pb  absorption and in-
 crease of  cellular  permeability.  In  animals pre-
 treated  with  alcohol and given Pb iv  the Pb con-
 tent was increased  in  every organ except the spleen,
 kidneys, and  bones.  The increase amounts to 100%
 in  the liver  and  brain.  Upon  iv  injection of  Pb
 immediately following  the iv administration of
 alcohol  the amount  of  Pb deposited  in  various  or-
 gans was ^-200-400%  higher than without previous
 alcohol  injection.   The  authors conclude that  alco-
 hol  accelerates the absorption of Pb  from the  gas-
 trointestinal tract and  promotes  the  transfer  of
 Pb  from  the blood into the cells.

589       McLean, R. ,  Calhoun, J.A.,  and Aub, J.C.
         (Harvard  Univ.,  Massachusetts  Gen. Hosp.,
         Boston):  MIGRATION OF INORGANIC SALTS IN
         BONE  AS MEASURED BY RADIOACTIVE  LEAD AND
         BY ALIZARIN.  A.M.A. Archives  of Indus-
         trial Hygiene  and Occupational Medicine
         9:113-21  (Feb.), 1954.
In earlier  studies of bone metabolism,  considerable
evidence  had been  obtained  demonstrating a differ-
ence in the rate of  turnover  of Ca between trabec-
ula and cortex in  bone  and between dentin and enam-
el in teeth.   Such studies had  been  based on the
distribution  of  dyes (alizarin) or madder which is
selectively deposited with  Ca,  or  on the deposition
of Pb which behaves  similarly  to  Ca.  Natural ra-
dioisotopes of Pb  and Ra, and  suitable products of
the cyclotron  have been used  more  recently.
  The dogs  used  in these  experiments came from
those used earlier (Calhoun et al,  1954);  2 had  3
intravenous injections  of radio-Fb  (r-Pb)  over a
period of 6 or  7  days and died in a few days ap-
parently as a result of radiation;  the rest re-
ceived r-Pb in  5  or  6 doses  over 12 or 18  days;  2
dogs received Pb  in  6 doses over  15 days.   The
surviving dogs  remained on a high Ca intake from
8-51 days after  Pb was  injected,  then received a
meat diet low in  Ca.  Four dogs and the Pb  dogs
were then given parathyroid medication; 10  days
later they were  returned to high  Ca intake  for 10
days.  After  injection of r-i'b  and  at the  end of
the high Ca intake 1 tooth was removed from each
of 5 dogs;  1  also had a leg amputation, and an-
other,  a rib  resection.  At  necropsy bone  samples
 were taken from all animals as well as teeth cor-
 responding to those drawn during life.  The amount
 of radioactivity given to all dogs was certainly
 fatal;  all died within 246 days.  In addition,
 long bones of cats which had been fed madder were
 made available for this study.
   Soon  after administration Pb is deposited in the
 trabeculae (5-16 times the deposition in the cor-
 tex)  from where it is  slowly, with varying rapidi-
 ty,  removed to the cortex.   From 1/5 to 1/3 of the
 Pb given was found in  the skeleton.   The way in
 which Pb is transferred is  shown pictorially by
 what  happens to madder;  immediately  after admin-
 istration of madder, the dye was found in the tra-
 beculae, the shafts of the bone being unstained;
 months  later the trabeculae were pearly white,  and
 the  cortex was stained a deep pink.   The dosage of
 radioactivity did not  impair the rate of deposi-
 tion  or transfer of Pb in bone.   The amount of
 tagged  Pb deposited in bone and in the dentin of
 teeth varied with the  total dosage and with time;
 but  there was much less  in dentin.  Alizarin
 staining indicated exchange of Ca between trabecu-
 lae  and circulating blood.   (14 references)

 590      Morelli, A. (Univ.  Naples, Italy):  Altera-
         zioni elettrocardiografiche nell'intossi-
         cazione da piombo tetraetile.  (ELECTRO-
         CARDIOGRAPHIC  CHANGES INDUCED BY POISONING
         WITH TETRAETHYL LEAD.)  Folia Medica 37:
         541-61, 1954.
 A 1%  TEL solution in 95% alcohol was administered
 sc to 12 rabbits of both sexes,  ranging in weight
 from  1.35-2.40 kg in doses  of 1, 10, 50, or 100
 mg/kg/day (2-4 rabbits/dose)  over 2-10 consecutive
 days  in order to induce subacute intoxication.
 Electrocardiographic alterations were produced
 which showed pronounced  damage to the coronaries
 and myocardium, frequently  indicating infarction.
 Marked  bradycardia was noticed in all cases.

591       Morelli,  A. (Univ.  Naples,  Italy):  Mod-
          ificazioni elettroforeticne nell'iutossi-
          cazione da piombo  tetraetile.   (ELLCTRO-
          PHORETIC  CHANGES  INDUCED BY POISONING
          WITH TriTRAETHYL LEAD.)   Folia Medica 37:
          562-73,  1954.
 Eight rabbits,  1350-2400 g  body  weight,  were  in-
 jected  sc with TEL in  doses  of 1,  10,  50,  or  100
 mg/kg,  dissolved in 95%  alcohol.   Two controls  re-
 ceived  the  solvent only  at  a  dose  of 100 mg/kg,
 and 2 received no  treatment.   Injections were made
 daily for 2-4 days  at  the highest  dose,  and for
 5-10  days  at  the  lower doses.   The results showed
 changes  in  the  electrophoretic picture  of the se-
 rum proteins  consisting  of  an  inversion  of the
 ratio albumin/globulin,  an increase  of  cij-globu-
 lins, an  increase,  decrease,  or  even  disappearance
 of the  c^-globulins, an  increase of  3-globulin,
 and a decrease  of y-globulins.   The  author inter-
 prets the  results  confirm that TEL causes  a dena-
 turation  and  aggregation of blood  proteins.

592      Morelli, A. (Univ.  Naples, Italy):  Consume
         di 02 e process! di fosforilazione nel
         tessuto epatico, polmonare e celebrale di
         animali intossicati con piombo tetraetile.
         (OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND PHOSPHORYLATION
         PROCESSES IN LUNG,  LIVER,  AND BRAIN TISSUES
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                 97

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        OF ANIMALS POISONED BY 1ETRAETHYLLEAD.)
        Rassegna di Medicina Sperimentale 1:48-50,
        1954.
As determined in the tissues of rabbits poisoned
sc with 1-100 mg TEL/day for 2-10 days (acute and
subacute intoxication, as in earlier experiments),
the results showed no differences in the 0 consump-
tion nor in the inorganic P (in tests according to
Warburg in the presence of NaF and succinate and
of ATP), as compared with control animals.

593      Morelli, A.:  (CYTOCHROME OXIDASE ACTIVITY
        OF MYOCARDIUM IN ANIMALS TREATED WITH LEAD
        CHLORIDE.)  Rass. med. sper. 1:65-8, 1954.
In experiments with rabbits no change was found in
the cytochrome oxidase activity (method of Boeri,
et al) on treatment with Pb chloride (technique of
Weatherall, Biochem. J. 52:683-90, 1952).  (From
Chemical Abstracts 51:8299, 1957)

594      Morelli, A., and Preziosi, P.  (Univ.
        Naples, Italy):  Modificazioni istochimi-
        che surrenaliche nell'intossicazione da
        piombo tetraetile.  (HISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES
        IN THE ADRENALS IN POISONING WITH TETRA-
        ETHYL LEAD.)  Folia Medica  (Naples) 37:
        654-73, 1954.
Rabbits (1.300-2.400 kg) were subacutely poisoned
sc with varying doses of TEL (1, 10, 50, 100 mg/
kg/day in alcohol solution).  Most animals were
sacrificed after 5 and 10 days for histochemical
examination, or so examined shortly before death.
Controls were treated only with the solvent.  In
the latter, only slight edema was observed; the
sudanophil band was well preserved, though in
some areas it appeared pale.  The changes observed
are described in some detail for each dosage used>
and illustrated in 9 photomicrographs.  As a whole,
within certain limits, they were proportional to
the dosage.  The adrenals showed variable lesions
mainly in the fascicular zone.  The histochemical
examination showed a marked reduction or disappear-
ance of the sudanophil band and decrease, in polar-
ized light, of the birefringent lipid quota.
Minimal doses produced contrariwise an increase
in the sudanophil zone and of the birefringent
lipids.  The gland was depleted by the poisoning
of the precursors of hormone formation and of the
reserve lipids which included both cholesterol
fractions.

595       Morelli, A., and Preziosi,  P.  (Univ.
         Naples, Italy):   II colesterolo surrenali-
         co nell'intossicazione da piombo tetraet-
         ile.  (ADRENAL CHOLESTEROL IN POISONING
         FROM TETRAETHYLLEAD.)   Rassegna di
         Medicina Sperimentale 1:43-7,  1954.
Rabbits, 1350-2400 g body weight, in groups of 2-
4, received sc TEL daily in doses of 1, 10, 50,
or 100 mg/kg (dissolved in alcohol)  for 2-10 days;
controls received the solvent only.   The 2 higner
doses caused a considerable drop (to as low as 5%)
of both the free and the esterified fractions of
adrenal cholesterol.  The 2 rabbits receiving 10
mg/kg had almost normal levels, and the lowest
dose caused a sharp increase in both fractions.
596
Narpozzi, A. (Univ. Padova, Italy):  In-
fluenza di un sale di Pb sulla circola-
        zione vasale endorenale.  (EFFECT OF A
        LEAD SALT ON INTRARENAL CIRCULATION.)  Ar-
        chivio Italiano di Anatomia e Istologia
        Patologica 28:159-63, 1954.
Twelve rabbits received daily iv injections of 1-2
ml 0.5% solution of Pb nitrate; 4 died between
the 7th-9th day of experiment, and the rest were
sacrificed on the 10th.  After opening the abdomen,
the kidney was allowed to remain in situ, and dye
was injected into the renal artery to study the
effects on the intrarenal circulation.  Histologic
examination showed that the circulation is reduced
or abolished in the superficial area of the cortex
and maintained in the deeper layers.

597      Niederstadt, D. (Univ. GBttingen, Germany):
        Harngewinnung, Aufbereitung und quantita-
        tive Porphyrinbestimmung an chronisch blei-
        vergifteten Ratten.   (COLLECTION OF URINE,
        PREPARATION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION
        OF PORPHYRINS IN RATS WITH CHRONIC LEAD
        POISONING.)  Zentralblatt fUr Arbeitsroedi-
        zin und Arbeitsschutz 4:118-9 (July), 1954.
The author describes a method of collecting urine
from individual male rats.  In addition to the
quantitative porphyrin determination, the specific
gravity of the urine is determined by weighing 2
and 5 ml pyknometers against water.   Extraction of
porphyrins proceeds according to H.  Fischer's
method, and quantitative determination by use of
the Pulfrich-Photometer.  The author concludes
that the rat is particularly suited for studies of
chronic Pb poisoning.

ijjg      Rossi, L., Vitacca, L., and Pagano,  R.
        (Univ. Naples,  Italy):  Azione del citra-
        to di sodio nell'intossicazione da piom-
        bo.  Contribute clinico e Sperimentale.
        (ACTION OF SODIUM CITRATE IN LEAD POISON-
        ING.  CLINICAL  AND EXPERIMENTAL CONTRIBU-
        TION.)  Folia Medica  (Naples) 37:967-86,
        1954.
Ten rabbits  (av 2.5 kg  weight)  received 200  mg Pb
acetate/day orally; 3 were kept as controls,  the
others were treated with  5% Na  citrate at doses
of 4 ml/kg orally twice a day,  beginning at  the
same time as Pb administration.  Hematology  and
coproporphyrin elimination were followed every 5
or 6 days from the time before  Pb administration
until death.  The results showed that Na citrate
delayed the appearance  of  signs of Pb poisoning
and prolonged life of the animals, ie, the con-
trols died between the  20th and 30th day of  poi-
soning, and the treated survived up to 50 days.
  The authors also administered to 10 hospitalized
Pb poisoning patients 10 ml of  a 10% Na citrate
solution iv daily for 15  days.  Some of them had
high blood Pb values before treatment, 110-200
yg%, which were reduced after treatment to 100-150
pg%; Pb in urine was negative in all cases before
treatment and positive  in  6 after treatment.  This
was considered as confirmation of the therapeutic
efficacy of  the drug.

599      Pecora, L.  (Univ.  Naples, Italy):  Studio
        sul  comportamento  di  varie porfirini
         (protoporfirina libera eritrocitaria,
        coproporfirine  e  uroporfirine I e III)
        nella intossicazione  saturnina sperimen-
 98
                           BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        tale.  (BEHAVIOR OF VARIOUS PORPHYRINS
        (FREE PROTOPORPHYRIN OF THE ERYTHROCYTES,
        COPROPORPHYRIN AND UROPORPHYRINS I AND
        III) IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)
        Abstracts of Meeting of the Campana Socie-
        ty of Legal Medicine, Insurance and Labor,
        Naples.  Medicina del Lavoro 35:53 (Jan.),
        1954; Folia Medica (Naples) 37:82-92, 1954.
The behavior of free protoporphyrin (PP) in eryth-
rocytes and of urinary coproporphyrin (CP) and
uroporphyrin (UP) was studied in rabbits poisoned
chronically with Pb.  A noteworthy and early in-
crease in free PP was found as well as a notewor-
thy but more delayed increase in the level of urin-
ary CP.  UP III formed in small quantities only in
advanced phases of intoxication, and UP I only in
some cases and in the extreme phases of the intox-
ication.
   The author concludes that the results show that
the toxic effects of Pb involve, even though in
varying measure, all the different porphyrins.
This can be explained only by a general inhibitory
action on the enzymatic process of dehydrogenation
and decarboxylation which connect the individual
porphyrins.  (19 references)

600     Pecora, L., Piccoli, P., and Calabro, F.
        (Univ. Naples, Italy):  Analisi elettro-
        foretica del siero di sangue nell'intossi-
        cazione sperimentale saturnina.   (ELECTRO-
        PHORETIC ANALYSIS OF BLOOD SERUM  IN EXPERI-
        uENTAL LEAD POISONING.)  Folia Medica
        (Naples) 37:709-22 (Sept.), 1954.
Progressive  poisoning leading to death on the 40th
day was induced in 12 male rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg
weight) by oral administration on alternate days
of 2 ml 20% Pb acetate.  Electrophoretic  analyses
of proteins were performed before intoxication and
at 8-10-day  intervals during administration.  The
results showed that during the first phase of
chronic Pb poisoning in rabbits an increase of the
a- and  3-j,lobulin fractions was observed.  In the
advanced stage the total proteins decreased marked-
ly and  the a- and B-globulins increased consider-
ably more, while y-globulin was variable.  (16
references)

601      Rieders, F.  (Jefferson Med. Coll., Phila-
        delphia, Pa.):  EFFECT OF ORAL Na,Ca
        ETHYLENEDIAMINE TETRAACETATE ON URINARY AND
        FECAL EXCRETION OF LEAD IN RABBITS.  Feder-
        ation Proceedings 13:Abstract No. 1303
        (Mar.), 1954.
Pb poisoning was caused in rabbits by 1 mg Pb/kg/
day given iv for 3 wk as 0.05% Pb acetate in phys-
iologic saline.  Subsequently, half of the poisoned
animals and a group of nonpoisoned animals were
force-fed 0.25 g Na2CaEDTA/kg7day for 2 wk.  During
this 5-wk period, daily urinary and fecal Pb ex-
cretion was measured in these animals as well as
in a group of animals which had received neither
Pb nor Na2CaEDTA.  At the end of this period all
animals were killed.  Erythrocytes, plasma, liver,
kidney, brain, spleen, abdomiVai muscle, washed
small intestine, flat bone of the skull and long
bone of the hind limb were analyzed for Pb.  In
the rabbits which received Na2CaEDTA the excretion
of Pb shifted markedly from the fecal to  the uri-
nary route during the 2 wk of treatment.  However,
 the  total  amount  of  Pb  which  was  excreted (urinary
 and  fecal)  and  the amount  of  Pb which  remained  in
 the  tissues did not  differ significantly from the
 Pb values  found for  the corresponding  group which
 was  not treated with Na2CaEDTA.  (From  author's
 abstract)

602       Rothlin,  E., Taeschler , M. ,  and  Cerletti,
         A.  (Pharmocol.  Lab. Sandoz AG, Basel,
         Switzerland):   Beitrag  zur biologischen
         Wirkung von  komplexgebundenem  Calcium.
         (BIOLOGICAL  ACTION OF CALCIUM  COMPLEXES.)
         Schweizerische  Medizinische  Wochenschrift
         84:1286-9, 1954.
 Pharmacological comparison of CaNa2EDTA  with dis-
 sociable CaCl2  and Ca gluconate demonstrated that
 only CaCl2  and  Ca gluconate exert physiological Ca
 effects, i  e, inhibit the  elimination  of cardio-
 vascular reflexes by veratridine  in  the  whole ani-
 mal;  compensate the  hypocalcemic  insufficiency  of
 heart-lung  preparations; coagulate oxalated or
 citrated plasma.  Lack  of  Ca  effects with CaCl2 is
 due  to  its  stability in the  body, as  evidenced by
 its  hypocalcemic  symptoms  upon  in vivo administra-
 tion.   Whereas  CaCl2 cannot be utilized  for speci-
 fic  Ca  therapy, it is valuable as a  cation-exchange
 agent in heavy-metal (Pb,  Fe, Hg) poisoning,  as
 previously  reported. (16  references)

 603       Rubino, G.F., and  Chiesura,  P. (Univ.
         Turin,  Italy):  Effettl del  trattamento
         con acido etilendiaminotetracetico  sulla
         tossicita del nitrato di piombo.   (EFFECTS
         OF  TREATMENT WITH  ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRA-
         ACETIC  ACID  ON  THE TOXICITY  OF LEAD NI-
         i'RATE.)   Minerva Medica 45,  No.  69:404-6
         (Aug. 29), 1954.
 The  use of  the  Na salts of EDTA (Na2 and CaNa2) in
 the  treatment of  Pb  intoxication is  first discus-
 sed, and then compared  briefly with  other sequest-
 ering and chelating  agents.   The therapeutic  co-
 efficient,  ie,  the relation between  the  minimum
 lethal  dose and the  therapeutic dose, is almost 6.
 Experiments performed with rats showed that  the
 best prophylactic dose  of  EDTA is the one which is
 equimolecular to  the Pb content of the salt  in
 consideration.  EDTA doubled  the tolerance  of the
 rats against intoxication  with Pb nitrate.

 604     " Sano, S.  (Kyoto Univ., Japan):   STUDIES
         ON  THE  DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD  IN ANIMAL TIS-
         SUES.   Japanese Journal of the Nation's
         Health  23:59-72, 1954.
 The  iv  injection  of  large  doses of aqueous  solu-
 tion of Pb  acetate (100-5000  pg Pb)  to guinea
 pigs  and mice gave 50-60%  of  the Pb  depositon in
 the  liver within  2 hr.  The Pb  storage was  highest
 in bones after  24 hr.   The injection of  the same
 dose  to mice but  different in concentration caused
 at the  higher concentration of Pb acetate 50-60%
 of the  Pb  deposition in the liver and  only  a small
 amount  in bones and  very little in kidneys,  while
 20-25%  of  the Pb  was found in the liver  and much
 in bones and kidneys of the lower concentration.
 A single injection of the  Pb  caused  much deposi-
 tion  in the liver and a small amount in  excreta,
 while repeated  injections  caused  a small amount of
 deposition  in the liver and relatively large
 amount  in kidneys with  no  change  of  deposition  in
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                99

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bones.  The Pb adsorbed on serum protein was de-
posited in the liver, while that adsorbed on eryth-
rocytes gave low deposition of the Pb in the liver
and high in kidneys.  (From author's English sum-
mary; 21 references)

605      Sapeika, N. (Univ. Cape Town, South Africa):
        LEAD EDTA COMPLEX, A WATER-SOLUBLE CONTRAST
        MEDIUM.  South African Medical Journal 28:
        759-62 (Sept.),  1954.
In tests involving the use of PbEDTA complex as a
contrast medium in diagnostic radiology, 25 and 50%
concentrations were administered to animals.  A 25%
solution was applied to rabbit conjunctiva and to
the mouth and skin of human subjects.  Rabbits re-
ceived 100 mg/kg iv, rats 1 ml 25% solution (1 g/kg)
sc and iv.  The 25 and 50% solutions were also ad-
ministered to numerous animals by mouth through a
stomach tube (2 ml to rats weighing 160-200 g).
In parenteral administration,  0.5 ml of 25% solu-
tion in water and 3.5% solution in polyvinylpyrol-
lidone (PVP) was injected in rats in 2 places sc
on each side of the middle line of the anterior
abdominal wall.
  For microradiography,  a warmed solution of PbEDTA
50% in 10% gelatin solution was injected into the
renal arteries of a rabbit killed by a blow on the
head and bled from the jugular vessels.  No ill
effects or deaths resulted when PbEDTA was admin-
istered by mouth or injected;  autopsies on animals
which received large doses by injection showed
kidneys to be paler than normal.  No signs of ir-
ritation followed applications of the solutions to
the conjunctiva and the peritoneal membrane, or to
human mouth and skin.
  With different concentrations, varying degrees
of contrast were obtained in radiography.  By mouth,
the 50% concentration produced dense shadows in the
stomach and intestines;  good radiographs were also
obtained with the 25% concentration.  All evidence
of the medium had practically disappeared in 24 hr.
With injection sc, the complex was removed almost
completely in 1 hr and was not delayed beyond this
by administration of PVP.  However, within 1/2 hr
the kidneys and bladder were demonstrable on the
radiograph and were more clearly shown at the end
of 1 hr, along with the renal pelvis, the ureters,
and the urethrae.  Injection into the rabbits' ear
demonstrated the vessels.  Sections of kidney in-
jected into the renal artery with Pb complex in
gelatin solution also indicated that the medium
could be used in microradiography.
  In conclusion, the investigation of the PbEDTA
complex as a radiopaque medium showed it to have
many useful features which may make it of value in
radiographic diagnosis.

606      Taira, H.:  STUDY ON LEAD POISONING.  ON
        LEAD CONTENT OF BLOOD OF RABBIT ADMINI-
        STERED LEAD. J. Kyoto Prefect. Med. Univ.
        55:1-3 (English Summary), 1954.
Rabbits received various doses of Pb acetate oral-
ly, percutaneously or intravenously over different
periods of time.  The Pb content of blood did not
decrease  (sic) regularly, but showed interesting
extreme values which differed somewhat according
to method of administration, and are explained on
the basis of varying absorbability depending upon
the type of administration.   (From Deutsche Zeit-
                  schrift fUr die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 44:
                  299 G\bstracts} 1955)

                  607      Valyi-Nagy, T., Kocsar, L., Kelentei, B.,
                          and Csernyanszky, H.  (Inst. Pharmacol.
                          Exptl. Pathol. Med. Univ., Debrecen,
                          Hungary):  STUDIES ON EXPERIMENTAL LEAD
                          POISONING.  I. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL-INGES-
                          TION ON CHRONIC LEAD POISONING IN THE RAT.
                          Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientlarum
                          Hungaricae (Budapest) 5:531-6, 1954.
                  Clinical reports have indicated that by repeated
                  ingestion of alcohol, persons exposed to Pb be-
                  come sensitized to the damaging effects of Pb in-
                  toxication which manifests itself in increased
                  sensitivity to Pb, decreased tolerance, and ag-
                  gravation of toxic symptoms.  Pb mobilization from
                  bones is said to be promoted and abusive use of
                  alcohol may change latent Pb poisoning into acute,
                  with regard to nervous symptoms and colics.  Three
                  groups of 10 rats each (150-180 g), fed on a uni-
                  form diet during the experiment were used to test
                  the validity of these findings.  Group 1 received
                  by stomach tube  300 yg Pb  (as nitrate)/100 g body
                  weight for 2 wk, the dosage then was increased
                  every 2 wk to 600, 1200 and 2000 yg/day.  Group
                  2 received the same amounts of Pb plus 1 ml of 20%
                  ethanol.  Group 3 received only 1 ml of 20% ethanol
                  and no Pb.  The results showed that a considerable
                  retention of water occurred in all organs in the
                  Pb group, varying between 2 and 10%; it was fur-
                  ther increased by alcohol which by itself decreased
                  water retention.  It was also found that there was
                  no constancy of the Pb levels in  the different
                  organs  (liver, lung, heart, kidney, brain, colon,
                  spleen, testicles) in relation to  the amount of Pb
                  ingested.  In 60% of the organs examined the Pb
                  level increased due to combined Pb and alcohol
                  effect.  In 31.1% a decrease was observed and in
                  8.9% no change.  However, an  increased retention
                  in the heart and brain after  alcohol ingestion,
                  was seen regularly.  The liver Pb  content was
                  strikingly lower  than in other organs.
                    In a 2nd series,rats of 120-160  g weight received
                  4 mg Pb nitrate/day for 6 wk.  All were sacrificed
                  at the same time  and  the organs examined as in
                  series 1.  The tabulated results  showed that by
                  simultaneous alcohol  ingestion Pb  content of all
                  organs except kidneys increased.   This difference,
                  in comparison with series 1, was  attributed to the
                  higher amount of  Pb ingested  (140  vs 10-80 mg).
                  A 3rd experiment  of 5 wk duration  was set up to
                  decide whether in consequence of  ingested alcohol
                  storage is increased  in the parenchymatous organs
                  only or whether total Pb retention is enhanced.
                  Animals were treated with Pb, both with and with-
                  out alcohol.  The results showed  that the increase
                  amounted  to 93.6% on  the average  due to alcohol
                  ingestion.
                    In summarizing, the  authors  conclude  that Pb
                  storage in the organs  is increased by alcohol,
                  most regularly in the heart,  brain, adrenals,
                  testicles, and muscles.  There is  no demonstrable
                  connection between Pb  storing  capacity of  the
                  single organs  and the  amount  of Pb ingested, nor
                  is there between  water and  Pb  storage.

                  608       Valyi-Nagy,  T.,  Kelentei, B.,  and  Kocsar,
                           L.  (Inst.  Pharmacol.  Exptl.  Pathol.  Med.
 100
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        Univ., Debrecen, Hungary):   STUDIES  IN
        EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.   II.  FURTHER
        STUDIES  ON  THE  INFLUENCE  OF  ALCOHOL  INGES-
        TION UPON LEAD  POISONING.  Acta Physiolog-
        ica Academlae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Bud-
        apest) 5:537-42, 1954.
 Guinea pigs of about same weight  in  3  groups of  14
 each were  used as follows:   Group 1, controls (un-
 treated);  Group  2 was exposed  3  times/day  for 30
 min for 14 wk to a  Pb nitrate  spray  calculated  to
 give a daily intake of  700  yg  Pb;  Group 3  prior
 to being exposed to Pb  was  given  by  stomach  tube
 2 ml of 20% alcohol daily.   From  every group 1
 animal was sacrificed every week  and brain,  lungs,
 heart, liver, spleen, colon, kidneys,  adrenals,
 testicles, bones and a  sample  of  striated  muscle
 were weighed and examined.
  As in the experiments with rats  alcohol  inges-
 tion modified and aggravated chronic Pb poisoning
 in guinea  pigs.  Accumulation  of  Pb was primarily
 in organs  of high-lipoid content;  brain, adrenals,
 and testicles were  most seriously affected.   A
marked hypertrophy  of the adrenal  cortex was  no-
 ticed, more so in animals treated with  Pb  only
 than in those that  also received alcohol.  On
 this basis the authors assumed that Pb  poisoning
 effects some change in the metabolism  of cortical
 ketosteroid.     The marked Pb storage  in the  tes-
 ticles may explain  the occurrence of male  sterility
 reported in chronic Pb poisoning, and  confirms the
 clinical experience that alcohol  abuse  aggravates
 the symptoms of  chronic Pb intoxication.

609      Valyi-Nagy, T., Kocsa'r, L.( Kelentey, B.,
        Kesztyus, L., Csernyancky, H.,  Kertesz,  L.,
        and 6'krBs,  S. (Inst. Pharmacol.  Exptl.
        Pathol. , Med. Univ., Debrecen,  Hungary):
        Vizsgalatok az experimentalis  olommergezes
        targykorebo'l.   (EXPERIMENTAL LEAD  POISON-
        ING.)  Kiserletes Orvostudomany 6:124-37,
        1954.
 In the course of experimental  chronic  Pb poisoning
 in rats and guinea  pigs, by oral  administration
 and by inhalation,  the water content of  the  organs
 was generally increased; by  the administration of
 alcohol, it was  decreased.  When  Pb and  alcohol
were administered enterally at the same time, the
 Pb content of the organs increased in  both acute
 and chronic poisoning.  This increase  was  particu-
 larly pronounced in the adrenals,  testes and  brain.
 In comparison with  the controls,  a hypertrophy of
 the adrenal cortex was apparent.   (From German sum-
mary)

610      Van Klaveren, F.W.  (Res. Dept.,  Teddington
        Chem. Factory, Andheri, India):  THE  LEAD-
        ANAEMIA  IN  THE RABBIT AND THE  POTENCY OF
        LIVER EXTRACTS.  Proceedings of Symposium
        on Standardization and Therapeutic Use of
        Liver Extracts.  Indian Journal of Pharma-
        cy 16:14-6, 1954.
 The total  potency of liver  extracts can be deter-
mined by administering liver extract and different
 doses of vitamin B-^ to rabbits with Pb anemia and
 then extrapolating  the red blood  cell  counts  re-
 sulting from the former on  a graph obtained  from
 the latter.  (21 references)
611
Van Klaveren, F.W., and Shrivastava, P.C.
                                                       (Teddington  Chem.  Factory,  Ltd.,  Bombay,
                                                       India):   LEAD ANEMIA  IN THE RABBIT AND THE
                                                       POTENCY OF LIVER EXTRACTS.  II.  Intern.  Z.
                                                       Vitaminforsch.  25:139-47,  1954.
                                              Whole  liver  extracts were  assayed  (1)  biological-
                                              ly, by determination of  the hemopoietic potency in
                                              Pb anemia of  the  rat, and  (2)  photometrically  for
                                              vitamin  Bi2  content  by  concentration with
                                              PhOH-CHCl3  and measurement of the  purple  color de-
                                              veloped  by reaction  with KCN  in aqueous solution.
                                              The results  of the 2 methods  were  in agreement,
                                              and each method apparently measured the whole  vi-
                                              tamin  B|2 complex.   Liver  extract,  treated  with
                                              PhOH-CHCl3,  lacked hemopoietic  potency; and the
                                              total  potency was recovered from the organic sol-
                                              vent.  (From  Chemical Abstracts 48:5955,  1954)

                                                                     1955

                                              S12       Ardelean, I.,  Gontea, I.,  Sutescu, P.,
                                                       Vintila,  P., and Vaida, I.  (Inst. Hyg.,
                                                       RPRAcad., Bucharest, Romania):   Cercetari
                                                       asupra actiunii trofofilactice a  alimen-
                                                       tafiei in plumbismul  experimental
                                                       cronic.   II. Rolul vitaminelor.   (STUDY
                                                       OF THE TROPHOPHYLACTIC EFFECT OF FOOD  IN
                                                       EXPERIMENTAL CHRONIC LEAD POISONING.   II.
                                                       ROLE OF VITAMINS.)  Buletin Stiintific,
                                                       Sectia de Stiinte Medicale  7, No.  4:1339-
                                                       49, 1955.
                                              Pb poisoning was  induced in 358  rats,  injected sc
                                              with 10 mg Pb acetate/kg body weight on alternate
                                              days over 3-4 mo.  One group was maintained on
                                              cereals  and vegetables but received no milk, while
                                              another  group received  the same diet with milk.
                                              Others received on alternate days,  sc, vitamins
                                              A, D2, %2> PP> and C.  Comparison of the  results
                                              showed that the administration  of vitamins  did  not
                                              increase the resistance  of the  rats to Pb poison-
                                              ing,   nowever, the addition of  milk to the  diet
                                              increased resistance to  Pb 2-3  times; there was
                                              less loss of weight  and  anemia  was  more moderate;
                                              mortality also was greatly reduced.  The  authors
                                              conclude that the provision of  milk to workers
                                              exposed  to Pb is  justified.

                                              513       Austoni,  M. , Ziliotto,  D.,  and  Candiani, G.
                                                       (Univ. Padua,  Italy):   II  ferro radioat-
                                                       tivo nello studio  citochimico  del midollo.
                                                       I.   II comportamento  del midollo  di ratti
                                                       normal!  (richerche citoautoradiografiche).
                                                       II.   II comportamento del  midollo del
                                                       ratti tlroidectomizzati (ricerche cito-
                                                       autoradiografiche).   III.   II  comporta-
                                                       mento del midollo  di  ratti  intossicati con
                                                       piombo.   (RADIOACTIVE Fe IN THE CYTOCHEMI-
                                                       CAL  STUDY OF BONE MARROW.   I.   THE BONE
                                                       MARROW IN NORMAL RATS (CYTOAUTORADIOGRAPHY).
                                                       II.   THE  BONE MARROW  IN THYROIDECTOMIZED
                                                       RATS.  III.   THE BONE MARROW IN LEAD-
                                                       POISONED  RATS.   Acta  Med.  Patav.  15,
                                                       No.  3:343-65,  1955.
                                              I.  After ip  injections  of 0.5  yg/g of  59Fe (as
                                              ferrous  citrate;   specific  activity  3.79 yCi/yg of
                                              59Fe)  in the  rat, radio-Fe content  of  the red  cell
                                              series in bone marrow was  followed  from hour to
                                              hour by  a semiquantitative cytoautoradiographic
                                              method.  Erythroblasts  showed maximal  radioactivity
                                              at ^3  hr and  the  mature  erythrocytes after  ^24  hr,
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                                                                       101

-------
 the activity of  the latter, however, being much
 less  than that of the former.  The immature eryth-
 rocytes  (polychromatophils) showed intermediate
 behavior.  The significance of the findings is dis-
 cussed in connection with the maturation time and
 the probable function of accumulated Fe.
  II.   With the technique described in I it was
 shown that in thyroidectomlzed rats the uptake of
  Fe in all elements of the red cell line was
 smaller and slower than in normal rats.
  III.  In rats made anemic by administration of
 5 mg/100 g of Pb acetate 3 days before the experi-
 ment the uptake of 59Fe was earlier, more intense
 and more prolonged in the erythroblasts, whereas
 the mature erythrocytes showed lower than normal
 activity.  This points to a retardation of matura-
 tion and a limited utilization of Fe for Hb synthe-
 sis.  (From Excerpta Med. Sect. 2, 10, No. 2:777,
 1957)

614      Beccari, E., Bianchi, C., and Felder, E.
        (Res. Lab. Cilag Italiana, Milan; Univ.
        Turin; Univ. Parma, Italy):  Chemisch-
        physikalische, pharmakologische und
        klinische Untersuchungen liber 6-Mercapto-
        aethylamin, besonders im Hinblick auf die
        Bleivergiftung.  (CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL,
        PHARMACOLOGIC AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS
        ON e-MERCAPTOETHYLAMINE, ESPECIALLY IN
        REFERENCE TO LEAD POISONING.)  Arzneimit-
        tel-i-'orschung 5:421-8, 1955.
The stability constants of various complex com-
 pounds which are produced by combining cysteamine
with different metal ions were examined.  In ani-
mal experiments, the toxicity and compatibility
 of cysteamine was determined.  Following these
 experiments, the influence of cysteamine on the
distribution of Pb in tissues and on the urinary
 excretion of Pb was studied.  The results are dis-
 cussed in view of the problem of whether the pro-
 tective action of cysteamine in poisoning by or-
 ganic and inorganic Pb compounds may be explained
by the formation of a complex compound, ie( by a
 chelating effect.  Comparative investigations per-
 formed with EDTA and microrespirometric investiga-
 tions of organs isolated from normal and poisoned
 animals indicate that the formation of complex
 compounds is certainly one important component,
 but not the only factor, responsible for the pro-
 tective action of cysteamine.  (From authors'
 summary; 34 references)

615      Beccari, E., and David, I.  (Univ. Turin,
        Italy) :  Azione della 8-mercaptoetilamina
        sul consume di ossigeno negli organi di
        animali  intossicati cronicamente con Pb
         (N03)2.   (THE EFFECT OF 6-MERCAPTOETHYLA-
        MINE ON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN THE ORGANS
        OF ANIMALS POISONED CHRONICALLY WITH Pb
         (N03)2.)  Bollettino della Societa Italia-
        na di Biologia Sperimentale 31:52-4, 1955.
 The stimulation of 0 consumption produced in both
 the liver and kidney of the rat is optimum at a
 concentration of 10~2 of 2-mercaptoethylamine.
 The increase in 0 consumption of both tissues is
 decreased in the presence of Pb(N03)2.   (From au-
 thors' summary)
616
Beck, E., Lanini, G.,  and Beraud,  T.
         (Univ.  Med.  Clinic,  Lausanne,  Switzer-
         land):   Le metabolisme  du fer  dans  1'in-
         toxication au plomb.   (IRON METABOLISM  IN
         LEAD POISONING.)   Helvetica Medica  Acta
         22,  No.  4/5:442-5,  1955.
Iron metabolism was studied in  7 rabbits intoxi-
cated by Pb,  in 6 normal rabbits, and  in 6  rabbits
poisoned by Sedormid  (compound  causing porphyria
of nonmedullary origin}.  Fe was administered in
the form of 100-120Y   Fe bound to  ^-globulin.
The incorporation of   Fe into  the  erythrocytes
was not changed either by Sedormid, nor by  Pb.
In the rabbits poisoned by Pb,  there was consid-
erable accumulation of Fe in the spleen and very
high fixation of Fe in the bone marrow.

617      Bekes, M.: BeitrHge zur therapeutischen
        Beeinflussung der experimentellen Blei-
        anHmie. (CONTRIBUTIONS  CONCERNING THE
        THERAPY OF EXPERIMENTAL LEAD ANEMIA.)
        Acta Medica  (Budapest)  8:337-46, 1955.
Rabbits were  injected with a daily  dose of  6 mg/kg
Pb acetate.  At the same time,  intravenous  in-
jections of the following materials were made:
Pernaemon-forte, Neo-Perhepar,  vitamin B-^2  (2 and 5
mg/kg), Co citrate, and vitamin Bg.  Throughout
the next 14 days, hematological studies were made
and urinary porphyrins determined.  Under these
experimental  conditions, the liver  preparations
and vitamin B-^2 were  favorable  influences against
the red-cell  count and the hemoglobin  content.
The efficacy  of the liver preparations of Co ace-
tate used compensates for the anemia best.  Vita-
min Bg is the best guard against anemia, being as
good as a large dose  of Pernaemon-forte and vita-
min B12.  (From Chemical Abstracts  50:3650, 1956)

618      Belli, R., Giuliani, V., and Zazo,  S.
        (Univ. Siena, Italy):  Process! immunitari
        nell'intossicazione sperimentale da piombo
        tetraetile. II. Comportamento delle globu-
        line anticorpali in corso di immunizza-
        zione attiva.  (IMMUNOLOGIC PROCESSES IN
        EXPERIMENTAL POISONING WITH TETRAETHYLLEAD.
        II. ANTIBODY GLOBULINS DURING ACTIVE IM-
        MUNIZATION.)   Folia Medica  (Naples)  38:
        1009-13, 1955.
Rabbits poisoned with TEL (administered as  describ-
ed in Part I, in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg) and treat-
ed with streptococcus vaccine did not show  an in-
crease in antibody globulins in contrast to the
controls.  Animals poisoned with high doses showed
a drop in globulins as compared with pretreatment
levels.  (See Abstract No. 630  for  I)

619      Belli, R., Giuliani, V., and Zazo,  S.
         (Univ. Siena, Italy):   Processi immunitari
        nell'intossicazione sperimentale de piombo
         tetraetile.   III.  Comportamento elettro-
        foretico delle proteine sieriche in corso
        di immunizzazione attive.   (IMMUNOLOGIC
        PROCESSES  IN  EXPERIMENTAL POISONING WITH
        TETRAETHYL LEAD.   III.  ELECTROPHORESIS  OF
        THE SERUM PROTEINS DURING ACTIVE IMMUNIZA-
        TION.)  Folia Medica  (Naples)  38:1137-46,
        1955.
Rabbits  (groups of 3  each) were  poisoned with 1
and 10 mg TEL/kg/day  by sc injection for 33 days
and then injected with progressively increasing
102
                           BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 doses  of  streptococcic vaccine.   In  contrast  to  the
 controls,  there was no increase  in the  antibody
 globulins  in  the  poisoned animals.   The latter
 showed also a slight  decrease  in total  serum  pro-
 teins,  a  decrease of  albumin,  and an increase in
 a-  and 3-globulins.

 620     Belli, R., and Giuliani, V.  (Univ.  Siena,
        Italy):   Process! itnmunitarl nell 'intossi-
        cazione sperimentale da  piombo  tetraetile.
        IV.   Comportamento  degli anticorpi  antiti-
        fici  in corso di immunizzazione attiva.
        (IMMUNOLOGIC  PROCESSES IN EXPERIMENTAL
        POISONING WITH TETRAETHYL LEAD.  IV.  BE-
        HAVIOR OF ANTITYPHOID  IMMUNE BODIES IN
        ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION.)  Folia Medica (Nap-
        les)  38:1407-12, 1955.
 Antityphoid agglutinins were determined in  the
 serum  of  rabbits  poisoned with TEL and  treated with
 suspensions of Salmonella typhi.  TEL was adminis-
 tered  sc  in doses of  1 and  10  mg/kg,  for 24 days
 as  described  in the other articles in this  series.
  The  antibody response to  vaccine was  definitely
 deficient  with no trend towards  an increase during
 the duration  of the experiment.   The impairment
 of  immunity was noted even  with  doses which did
 not produce any toxic effects  and were-  tolerated
 for long  periods.

 621      Belli, R., Giuliani, V.,  and  Zazo,  S.
        (Univ. Siena, Italy):  Rapporto  tra 11
        tasso delle albumine e dell  acetilcolines-
        terasi nell'intossicazione sperimentale
        da piombo tetraetile.  (RELATION BETWEEN
        LEVELS OF ALBUMIN AND  ACETYLCHOLINESTRASE
        IN EXPERIMENTAL POISONING BY  LEAD TETRA-
        ETHYL.)   Rassegna de Mediclna Sperimentale
        2:220-4,  1955.
 The serum  of  rabbits  subjected in the earlier re-
 ported experiments to subacute and chronic  poison-
 ing by TEL and to simultaneous immunization with
 streptoccocus vaccine was used in the tests here
 reported.  Blood  was  withdrawn before the experi-
 ment and  on days  4, 9, 16,  22, and 33 of treat-
 ment.   While  the  control rabbits  and  those  treated
 only with  the solvent showed albumin  and acetyl-
 cholinesterase (ChE)  levels  that were within  normal
 limits, the TEL-poisoned rabbits  exhibited  a  cer-
 tain decrease of  both albumin  and ChE.   A parallel-
 lism was  found in the decrease of these  2 compon-
 ents .
  The  authors suggest that  the changes  observed
 point  to  liver damage by TEL.  (17 references)

622      Belli, R.  , Maggio,  M., and Arciello, G.
        (Univ. Siena, Italy):  Comportamento della
        temperatura corporea in  corso di intossi-
        cazione sperimentale con piombo  tetraetile.
        (BODY TEMPERATURE DURING EXPERIMENTAL
        POISONING WITH TETRAETHYL LEAD.)  Folia
        Medica (Naples)  38:790-7, 1955.
 Two  series of experiments were carried out  with
 rabbits of both sexes (1.350-3.100 kg weight); in
 the  1st, a total  of 17 received sc injections of
 TEL  (dissolved in alcohol)  at  doses of 100, 50,   10,
 and  1 mg/kg daily; 2  controls  received the  solvent
 in  the  same manner.   Body temperature taken rec-
 tally was  followed for 10 days after  start  of ad-
 ministration.   In the 2nd series, 15  rabbits
received TEL as above in doses of 50, 10 and  1
mg/kg/day and were  followed  for  35 days.   Initial
temperature ranging from 38.7-39.8 dropped abruptly
in rabbits receiving the 100 and 50 mg doses, in
some cases to the middle 30's.  At these doses all
but 1 animal died by the 8th day; 1 was sacrificed
on the 9th day.  Doses of 1-10 mg/kg did not  pro-
duce a change in temperature except immediately
preceding death.

623      Bianchi, C., Ambanelli,  U., and Salvi, G.
        (Italy):  Ricerche  sperimentali e  cliniche
        sull'azione della beta-mercaptoetilamina
        nella intossicazione da piombo-tetraetile.
        (EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL RESEARCH ON THE
        ACTION OF B-MERCAPTOETHYLAMINE IN  TETRA-
        ETHYL LEAD  POISONING.) II Policlinico
        (Rome) Sezione Pratica 62, No. 12:  397,
        1955.
Rabbits were exposed to TEL vapor to give  acute
poisoning; 9 of 10 animals were not poisoned  when
100-140 mg 8-mercaptoethylamine had been injected
intravenously daily.  In other animals subacute
poisoning was induced, and  100-180 mg/day  of  the
amine caused more elimination of Pb in urine  than
occurred with intravenous urea (1-1.2 cc of 30%
solution).  The protective  effect was considered
to be due to chelation or to the effect of the SH
group.

624      Biondi, S.  (Univ. Naples, Italy):   Le fos-
        fatasi intraleucocitarie nel sangue peri-
        ferico nel  corso della intossicazione sub-
        acuta sperimentale  da piombo.  (INTRALEUKO-
        CYTIC PHOSPHATASE IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD
        IN SUBACUTE EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)
        Abstracts of Meeting of  the Campana Society
        of Legal and Industrial Medicine.   Medi-
        cina del Lavoro 46:60-1  (Jan.), 1955; Folia
        Medica (Naples) 38:133-47 (Feb.),  1955.
Three groups of rabbits were used:  2 consisted of
5 and 1 of 2; in each group  1 rabbit served as
control and the others received  2 ml of 10% Pb
acetate solution on alternate days over 3  wk, then
observed until death (31-46 days) .  Before the ex-
periment and every  7 days thereafter, complete
hemochromocytometric examinations were performed.
Intraleukocytic alkaline phosphatase was determined
by Gomori's method on day 7  then every 4 days.
  From the results  observed, the author concludes
that Pb intoxication causes  a diminution in the
phosphatase content of the  leukocytes in circulat-
ing blood.  This diminution  is manifested  in  the
noteworthy progressive diminution in intensity of
the reaction, and not in the number of positive
cells, which remain constant at  100%.  The hypothe-
sis is advanced that this decrease in phosphatase
which parallels the known changes in the blood
picture stems from  the disturbances in the develop-
ment of erythrocytes as a consequence of the  ef-
fects of Pb on the hematopoietic organs.

625      Burnett,  G.W.,  and Lobene,  R.R.  (Army Med.
        Serv.  Grad.  School,  Washington,  D.C.):
        THE COMPOSITION OF TEETH.  II.   SPECTRO-
        CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ENAMEL AND DENTINE,
        FROM SYRIAN HAMSTERS.  Journal of Dental
        Research 38:814-9, 1955.
Quantitative spectrochemical analysis was made of
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                                                                     103

-------
enamel and dentin from incisors and molars of adult
hamsters.  The enamel always contained: Ag, Al, B,
Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Si,
Sr; all these elements, except Cr and Pb, were al-
ways present in the dentin.  The major constituents
were Ca and P; the only other elements exceeding
0.1% were Mn, Na, and Fe.  Other elements were
present in some, but not all, samples.

626     Field, J.B., Costa, F., and Boryczka, A.
        (Univ. S. California School Med.; Los
        Angeles County Hosp.):  INHIBITION OF SOME
        MOUSE TUMORS BY COMPOUNDS OF HEAVY METALS.
        Proceedings of the American Association
        for Cancer Research 2, No. 1:15 (Abstracts),
        1955.
A  consistent and reproducible inhibition of Sarcoma
180 in the mouse was observed with Cu, Pb, Cd, and
rubeanate at doses of 300, 100, and 6 mg/kg/day,
respectively, when the drugs were given ip.  The
average diameter of the tumors was 1/2-3/4 the
size of the controls.  While the Cu rubeanate was
without effect on leukemia L 4946 in AKR mice, Pb
rubeanate produced some prolongation of life in
leukemia L 4946 and inhibition of the Harding-
Passey melanoma in mice but had no effect on the
RC carcinoma in DBA mice.  Neither rubeanic acid
(dithiooxamide) nor a number of analogs had any
antitumor effect.  A number of inorganic salts of
univalent and divalent Pb and Cu and salts of Cd
were studied for tumor-inhibitory activity.  Pb
chromate (200 mg/kg/day) and Pb nitrate (54 mg/kg/
day) were mildly but consistently effective against
Sarcoma 180  but not on the RC carcinoma.  Pb
chloride (75 mg/kg/day), Pb carbonate  (50 mg/kg/
day) and CuCN  (25 mg/kg/day) gave borderline ef-
fects, while 3 additional Pb salts, 7 Cu salts, and
6  Cd salts had no detectable effect.  Although
metallic salts have received attention as anti-
cancer agents in the past, they have not been a
subject of interest in present chemotherapeutic
programs.  In part disinterest also stems from the
high toxicity of most heavy metals to  the animal
host.  Although the rubeanate derivatives of Cu,
Pb, and Cd appear to be somewhat active against
certain mouse  tumors it is doubtful that they de-
serve any particular further study or  interest.

627     Gajdos, A., Gajdos-TorHk, M., and Pecora,
        L. (Hotel Dieu Clinic, Paris, France):
        Studio dell'azione del piombo sulla sintesi
        della protoporfirina libera nei plobuli
        rossi periferici di coniglio.  (ACTION OF
        LEAD ON FORMATION OF FREE PROTOPORPHYRIN
        IN THE PERIPHERAL RED CORPUSCLES OF THE
        RABBIT.)  Folia Medica (Naples)  38:773-6
        (Aug.), 1955.
The protoporphyrin synthesis by erythrocytes of an
anemic rabbit, incubated with glycine was inhibited
by Pb acetate even in minute doses in vitro (con-
centrations as low as 0.0001 mg), but no inhibi-
tion was observed in rabbits previously made anemic
and poisoned with Pb in vivo.

628      Gibson, K.D., Neuberger, A., and Scott,
        J.J.   (Natl. Inst. Med. Res.,  London,
        England):  THE PURIFICATION AND PROPER-
        TIES OF 5-AMINOLAEVULIC ACID DEHYDRASE.
        Biochemical Journal 61:618-29, 1955.
                  In the presence of Pb, maximum activity of ALA
                  dehydrase was 80%.  (44 references)

                  629      Giuliani, V., and Belli, R. (Univ. Siena,
                          Italy):   Comportamento di alcuni tests di
                          funzionalita epatica nell'intossicazione
                          sperimentale da piombo tetraetile.  (SOME
                          LIVER FUNCTION TESTS IN EXPERIMENTAL TE-
                          TRAETHYL LEAD POISONING.)  Folia Medica
                          (Naples) 36:1286-94, 1955.
                  Thirteen rabbits (1.800-2.400 kg weight) were
                  divided into 5 groups, one of which served as con-
                  trols.  Group 2 received the TEL solvent (95% al-
                  cohol) , and the other 3 groups (3 animals each)
                  received sc 1, 10 or 50 mg TEL in alcohol solu-
                  tion/kg/day for 24 consecutive days.  The study
                  consisted of  (1) determination of total amount of
                  bilirubin, (2) the Hanger reaction, (3) the Takata-
                  Dohmoto reaction, (4) the determination of the
                  protein quotient, (5) the determination of the
                  mobilized bilirubinuria.  The results are present-
                  ed in  tables  showing that rabbits poisoned by TEL
                  incurred liver damage the severity of which was the
                  more evident, the more sensitive the test, the
                  higher the dose, and the longer the period of poi-
                  soning.  The bilirubin test with Na dehydrocholate
                  showed agreement with other tests and a high sensi-
                  tivity at an  early stage.

                  630     Giuliani, V., Belli, R., and Zazo, S.
                          (Univ. Siena, Italy):  Process! immunitari
                          nell'intossicazione sperimentale da piombo
                          tetraetile.  Nota I.  Comportamento del
                          titolo antistreptolisinico del siero in
                          corso di immunizzazione attiva.  (IMMUNITY
                          IN EXPERIMENTAL POISONING WITH TETRAETHYL
                          LEAD.  I.  ANTISTREPTOLYSIN LEVEL IN THE
                          SERUM DURING ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION.)  Folia
                          Medica (Naples) 38:1001-8 (Sept.), 1955.
                  Six rabbits poisoned with TEL (by sc injections of
                  1 or 10 mg/kg/day, as an alcohol solution) were
                  treated with iv injections of streptococcus vaccine
                  in increasing doses.  The immunizing defense mech-
                  anism was found to be completely inhibited as far
                  as streptococcic hemolysins are concerned.  The
                  phenomenon appears even at doses which are prac-
                  tically innocuous when administered over a long
                  time.

                  631     Giuliani, V., and Maggio, M. (Univ. Siena,
                          Italy):  Reattivita' termica in corso di
                          intossicazione sperimentale con piombo
                          tetraetile.   (THERMIC REACTIVITY IN EXPERI-
                          MENTAL TETRAETHYLLEAD POISONING.)  Folia
                          Medica (Naples) 38:798-806, 1955.
                  Rabbits in groups of 3 animals each (1.550-3.100
                  kg weight) were used.  One group served as an un-
                  treated control; 1 group was injected sc with a 0.1
                  ml of 95% alcohol solution/kg/day.  The test groups
                  received 50, 10, or 1 mg TEL (alcohol solution)/kg/
                  day to induce subacute or chronic poisoning.  On
                  the 6th, 12th, 14th, and 19th day, both controls
                  and poisoned animals received iv a streptococci
                  suspension, and the body temperature was followed.
                  Bacterial suspensions which were practically apyro-
                  genic to normal rabbits or to animals treated with
                  solvents for TEL, were pyrogenic to rabbits poison-
                  ed with TEL, provided the bacterial material was
                  not administered at a time just preceding death.
104
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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632     Graziani, G. , Fusco, M., and Rossi, L.
        (Univ. Naples, Italy):  Ferro serico e
        saturnismo.  Nota IV. La frazione insatura
        della proteina plasmatica capace di legare
        il ferro nella intossicazione sperimentale.
        (SERUM IRON AND LEAD POISONING.  IV.  THE
        UNSATURATED FRACTION OF PLASMA PROTEIN
        CAPABLE OF BINDING IRON IN EXPERIMENTAL
        POISONING.)  Folia Medica (Naples) 38:1-10
        (Jan.), 1955.
The transferrin-Fe complex was measured colorlmet-
rically at 520 my.  The unsaturated Fe-uinding
capacity (UIBC) was determined in 12 rabbits dur-
ing prolonged Pb poisoning as in the authors'
previous experiment.  The UIBC values declined for
2 wk and then increased again to attain values
higher than initially.  The serum Fe increased as
the intoxication progressed.  Intravenous Fe ad-
ministration caused the UIBC to drop to low values.
When on prolonged treatment the Fe administration
was repeated, the UIBC drop was far less marked.
The effect after oral administration was slower.
The authors conclude that the binding power be-
tween Fe and transferrin is profoundly disturbed
by Pb and the transport from the deposits of Fe
to the tissues is impaired.

533     Kubistova, J.  (Inst. Occup.  Hyg., Dis.,
        Prague, Czechoslovakia):  Vliv CaEDTA na
        experimentalni akutni otravu olovem.  (IN-
        FLUENCE OF CaEDTA ON EXPERIMENTAL LEAD
        POISONING.)  Pracovni Lekarstvi 7:329-35,
        1955.
See Abstract No. 679.

634     Kuwaki, T. (Kelo Univ., Japan):  STUDIES ON
        DETOXICATING FACTORS IN LIVER CONCENTRATE
        AGAINST LEAD POISONING.  I.   CORRELATION
        BETWEEN SOME KNOWN SUBSTANCES (VITAMIN B12.
        GLUCURONIC ACID) AND LIVER CONCENTRATE.
        Journal of Science of Labour (Japan) 31:
        450-60  (July), 1955.
The author's associates had found earlier that
there was some detoxicating substance in cattle
liver extract against Pb poisoning and the sub-
stance was purified by K. Tsuchiya.   However,
whether or not the detoxicating factors in the liv-
er concentrate are some already known substances
(vitamin B.-, glucuronic acid) is not yet decided.
Experiments were done to examine the effect of vi-
tamin B^2 and glucuronic acid on Pb poisoned ani-
mals in comparison with that of liver concentrate.
The following results were obtained:  Vitamin B-^
alone in about the same quantity as contained in
the liver concentrate was not so effective on Pb
poisoned animals as the liver concentrate.  Glucu-
ronic acid alone in about the same amount as that
contained in the concentrate was also not so effec-
tive as the latter.  But a far larger amount of
glucuronic acid was very effective.   Some of the
detoxicating factors of the liver concentrate
against Pb poisoning may be either vitamin B-^ or
glucuronic acid contained in the concentrate, but
these 2 factors do not represent the whole activ-
ity of the liver concentrate.  Whether detoxication
depends on some unknown factors in the concentrate
or on the cooperative action of some known and un-
known factors is not yet clear.  (From author's
English summary)
635     Kuwaki,  T.,  and  Tsuchiya,  K.  (School  Med.,
        Keio Univ.,  Japan):  A  STUDY  ON  TOLERANCE
        OF ANIMALS TO  LEAD POISONING.  Journal  of
        Science  of Labour  (Japan)  31:291-7  (May),
        1955.
Pb poisoning,  induced  by sc  injections,  with
appearance of  stippled cells, was  tolerated by  1
group of guinea  pigs,  whereas another  group,  re-
ceiving the same  injections, died  within the
early stages of  the  poisoning.  Resumption of the
injections after  a period when  animals seemed to
recover to almost normal conditions,  produced
signs of poisoning of  lesser severity  than in the
earlier period of injections; ie,  the  anemia  was
less severe and  the  number of basophilic cells
was lower.  It was concluded that  a resistance  or
tolerance developed  in this  group.  The  individual
differences to Pb poisoning  are classified as fol-
lows:   (1) the group that is most  sensitive to  Pb,
with lower adaptation, in which case animals  die
after a few injections;  (2) the group showing
good adaptation,  with  increased stippled cells
(considered one  of the adaptation  processes);   (3)
the group that survives  for  a long period of  time
without manifest  signs,  and  that is most resistant
against Pb.  (From authors'  English summary)

636      Mishima,  M.   (Univ.  Kyoto,  Japan):  HISTO-
        CHEMICAL  STUDIES ON LEAD POISONING.  I.
        TISSUE PHOSPHATASE DURING ACUTE LEAD EX-
        POSURE.   II.  TISSUE PHOSPHATASE DURING
        CHRONIC LEAD EXPOSURE.   III. TISSUE OXI-
        DASE DURING ACUTE AND CHRONIC LEAD EXPO-
        SURE.  Japaa J.  Nation's Health 24:68-96,
        1955.
Pb(OAc)2 (1.83 mg) was injected intravenously into
a  mouse and the effect on alkaline phosphatase
activities was examined.  Organs,  time in hr to
develop the maximum amount of alkaline phosphatase,
and hr required to return to normal amount of al-
kaline phosphatase, respectively,  are:  duodenum,
2, 8-48; liver, large  intestine, kidney and stom-
ach,  2-4,  24-48;   small intestine,  spleen, adrenal
gland,  heart and urinary bladder,  2-8, 24-48;  no
change in alkaline phosphatase was observed in
pancreas,  esophagus,  trachea, lung, cerebrum,  and
cerebellum.   Similarly,  the effect on acid phos-
phatase activities was examined:  adrenal gland
1-4,  24-48;  kidney,   liver and pancreas, 2-4,  24-
48; stomach and small  intestine 2-4, 8-48; duode-
num and large intestine, 4-8, 48;  spleen, heart,
cerebrum,  cerebellum, and urinary bladder, 2-8,
24-48;  no change was observed in the activities
of acid phosphatase in esophagus,  trachea, and
lung.
  Tissues of mice exposed to air with Pb dust for
3  mo were examined after keeping 30, 40,  50,  60,
70, 80, 90,  and 100 days in fresh air.  Intensive
activities of alkaline phosphatase were found in
kidney, adrenal gland,  and heart throughout the
periods, while lowered activities of alkaline
phosphatase were  found in esophagus, large intes-
tine, and cerebellum;  the alkaline phosphatase in
liver was increased at 1st, decreased at the mid-
dle stage then increased at the last period;  stom-
ach,  duodenum, small intestine, trachea,  lung,
pancreas,  urinary bladder, and  cerebrum showed in-
creased activities of  alkaline  phosphatase then
decreased gradually,  while spleen  showed an In-
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               105

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crease of alkaline phosphatase at the middle per-
iod with the decrease at the initial and last per-
iods; activities of acid phosphatase were observed
in kidney, liver, heart, stomach, small intestine,
adrenal gland, spleen, trachea, urinary bladder,
cerebrum, and cerebellum; pancreas showed a de-
crease of acid phosphatase of the middle period
with the increase in initial and last periods.   No
initial increase of alkaline phosphatase was ob-
served in esophagus and lung.
  The change in oxidase content in various organs
by the above treatment is given.  (From Chemical
Abstracts 50:6667, 1956)

537      Mizuno, M. (School Med., Keio Univ.,
        Japan):  ON THE CHANGES OF MUSCLE CHRO-
        NAXIE OF RABBITS POISONED BY CARBON DI-
        SULFIDE, BENZENE, MERCURY AND LEAD.  Jour-
        nal of Science of Labour (Japan) 31:59-73
        (Feb.), 1955.
The correlation between periodic chronaxie mea-
surements and blood findings was studied and the
features of the change in the former in each rab-
bit were also observed in detail.  In Pb poisoning,
the chronaxie of posterior extremity muscles of
rabbits is shortened temporarily in the initial
stage, but then gradually it is prolonged.  The
grade of change, however, is not so apparent com-
pared with that of decreased hemoglobin (Hb),
appearance of basophilic stippled red cells or loss
of body weight.  When the 4 kinds of poisoning are
compared, according to the change of chronaxie and
the decreasing rate of Hb level, the former is more
manifest than the latter in the order of C disul-
fide, benzene, Hg, and Pb.  Accordingly, the chro-
naxie measurements would be worth applying for the
diagnosis at least of the 1st 3.  The extensor and
flexor ratio of muscle chronaxie becomes nearly 1:1
in the early stage of each poisoning, and no dif-
ference among the 4 kinds of poisoning is recog-
nized.  This implies that the 4 poisons may have
some effects upon the central nervous system in
the early stage of poisoning.  The shortening of
chronaxie does not appear even in the initial
stage of poisoning except for Pb.  As to whether
this is due to the time interval of estimation or
due to other unknown factors, no comment can be
made here.  (From author's English summary)

538      Morelli, A.,  and Loscalzo, B. (Univ. Siena,
        Italy):  Sulla terapia dell'intossicazione
        sperimentale da piombo tetraetile con
        ormoni corticosurrenalici.  (TREATMENT OF
        EXPERIMENTAL POISONING WITH TETRAETHYLLEAD
        WITH ADRENOCORTICAL HORMONE.)  Folia Medi-
        ca (Naples) 38:545-9, 1955.
No protective effect was noted when groups of 5
rabbits each subacutely poisoned with TEL (100 nig/
kg/day in alcohol solution, im) were treated with
desoxycorticosterone acetate, cortisone acetate or
a combination of the 2 hormones.  Survival times
for the controls and treated animals were 91 and
70-77 hr, respectively.  The authors pointed out
that these results should not be considered con-
clusive with regard to human intoxication.

539     Morelli, A., and Loscalzo, B. (Univ.
        Siena, Italy) :  II versenato disodico cal-
        cico nell'intossicazione da piombo tetra-
                          etile.   (DISODIUM CALCIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINE-
                          TETRAACETATE  IN POISONING WITH  TETRAETHYL-
                          LEAD.)   Folia Medica  (Naples) 38:550-6
                          (June),  1955.
                  Two groups of  5  rabbits each  (average weight  1.800
                  kg) were poisoned with TEL  (100 mg/kg/day  in  al-
                  cohol  solution,  im).  Two other groups  of  9 and 10
                  rabbits received TEL  as above and CaNfl2EDTA at 500
                  and 110 mg/kg/day,  respectively.  Survival of the
                  control groups was  an average of 91  and 129 hr, and
                  of the treated groups, 61 and 108 hr, respectively.
                  EDTA therefore offered no protective action.
                    The  results  obtained are  briefly  discussed  for
                  the purpose  of further studies on the distribution
                  of Pb  in the different organs and tissues  and on
                  histologic studies  in intoxicated animals  and pro-
                  tected by EDTA,  compared to equally  intoxicated
                  but not protected animals.

                  640     Motouchi, M.  (School Med., Keio Univ.,
                          Japan):  A  STUDY ON BLOOD FINDINGS, LIVER
                          FUNCTION TESTS AND  HISTOLOGICAL APPEAR-
                          ANCES  IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING  AND
                          RELATIONSHIP  AMONG  THEM.)  Journal of Sci-
                          ence of  Labour (Japan) 31:371-84 (June),
                          1955.
                  Pb acetate (30 mg Pb/kg 6 times/wk)  was adminis-
                  tered  sc to  rabbits.  The progress of poisoning
                  was judged by  changes in the blood.  Various  liver
                  function tests showed that  the total quantity of
                  serum  protein  began to decrease in  the  compara-
                  tively early stage.   Serum  albumin began to de-
                  crease very  early.  Total quantity of serum glo-
                  bulin  did not  show  conspicuous changes  in  spite
                  of the progress  of  poisoning.  Albumin/globulin
                  ratio  in serum showed a remarkable decrease in the
                  very early stage.   This phenomenon appeared prior
                  to the various other  tests.  Fibrinogen decreased
                  gradually in parallel with  the progress of poison-
                  ing.   Hepatosulphalein test, Co reaction and  thymol
                  turbidity test showed a little change in the  later
                  stage.  Histopathological changes of the liver
                  were recognized  as  degeneration, chiefly in the
                  form of cloudy swelling, fatty change and  congest-
                  ion.   (From  author's  English summary and conclu-
                  sion)

                  641     Preziosi, P., and Loscalzo,  B.  (Univ.
                          Naples,  Italy):  L'Azione della g-mercapto-
                          etiliamina  nelle intossicazione sperimen-
                          tali da  piombo acetato e da  piombo tetrae-
                          tile.   (EFFECT OF  g-MERCAPTOETHYLAMINE  IN
                          EXPERIMENTAL  POISONING WITH  LEAD ACETATE
                          AND  TETRAETHYL LEAD.)  Folia Medica (Na-
                          ples)  38:1147-33,  1955.
                  In the' 1st experiment, 5 rabbits received  25  mg
                  Pb acetate/kg  iv daily, and 5 received  Pb  as  above
                  and 50 mg/kg B-rnercaptoethylamine (MEA) iv daily
                  in divided doses.   In the 2nd experiment 100  mg
                  TEL in alcohol/kg/day was given im alone to 1
                  group  of rabbits and  in combination  with MEA  as
                  above, both  im and  iv, to another.   In  neither
                  case did MEA exert  a  protective action  on  the
                  course of subacute  poisoning  in spite of the  fact
                  that it was  administered at relatively  high dos-
                  age, taking  into account the  toxicity of the  drug
                  for the rabbit.
                   642
Remy, R.,  and Gerlich, N. (City Hosp.,
 106
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        Bielefeld, Germany):  Zur Prophylaxe  und
        Therapie  der Bleivergiftung.   I.  Leber-
        extrakte, Vitamin B,, und FolsSure.   (PRO-
        PHYLAXIS  AND TREATMENT OF LEAD POISONING.
        I.  LIVER EXTRACTS, VITAMIN  B12 AND FOLIC
        ACID.)  Zentralblatt  fllr Arbeitsmedizin
        und Arbeitsschutz 5:37-40 (Jan.), 1955.
A brief review  and discussion of the effects  of Pb
on  the production of hemoglobin and  on the erythro-
cytes introduces  an account of some  experimental
work with  rabbits.  The  effect on the blood pic-
ture of the iv  injection of Pb acetate in doses
ranging from 2.0-6.0 mg/kg was first determined.
When vitamin B-^  in doses ranging between 2.5 and
5.0 ug/kg  was injected at the same time as the Pb
solution,  the blood changes were delayed in their
appearance and  lessened  in degree.   It was also
found that vitamin 8^2,  when  given to the animals
10-14 days after  being poisoned by Pb, had a  pro-
nounced curative  action.  In  some experiments
which are  not detailed,  it was found that injec-
tions of Co in doses considerably more than 0.02
yg/kg, also had a good effect in neutralizing  the
toxic action of Pb.   Liver extracts were also  test-
ed for their potency in  preventing blood changes
induced by Pb.  It was found that these had a
much more  potent effect  than could be  explained
by their vitamin B^ content alone.    Experiments
with folic acid showed that this had  but little
good effect and that only when given  in very  large
doses could any protective action be  demonstrated
and even this was only transitory.    (37 references)

543       Rieders, F. (Jefferson Med.   Coll.,  Phil-
         adelphia, Pa.):   EFFECTS OF ORAL M CA
         ETdYLENEDIAMINE TETRAACETATE  (EDTA)  ON
         DISTRIBUTION OF FE,  CU,  ZN,  AND PB IN
         RATS.  Journal of Pharmacology and Exper-
         imental Therapy 113:45 (Abstracts),   1955.
Five male  and 5 female weanling Wistar rats were
kept on a  diet containing Na2CaEDTA,  0.2% in  food
and 0.1% in drinking water for 4 mo.   The experi-
mental animals developed no significant differ-
ences from controls  during the 4 mo  as to appear-
ance, activity,  weight gain,  erythrocyte count or
Hb values.   No gross or histopathology (hematoxy-
lin and eosin stain)  was noted at autopsy.   Use
of Fe stain revealed slight hemosiderin deposits
in lung and spleen in 2 of 5  control males and in
4 of 5 control females but none in  any of the  tis-
sues of the experimental animals.   Chemical analy-
sis of exsanguinated organs showed  the following
mean Fe,  Cu,  Zn and Pb content in the experimental
animals as  compared to controls:   (values are ex-
pressed in  %  of corresponding mean  values of  con-
trols;  they are  given in the  order  Fe, Cu,  Zn, Pb;
if they are statistically not significantly differ-
ent from the  controls,  they are marked (*))  Liver,
males:   67, 131, 215,  200;  females:    71, 75,  106*,
175.  Kidney,  males:   47, 72,  67,  81; females:
39,  76,  77, 131.  Spleen, males:   42, 184,  217,
215; females:   83, 204, 139,  80.  Heart, males:
39,  90*,  82,  72; females:  59, 138,  132, 133.
Lung, males:   60, 127,  131,  150;  females:   73, 148,
164, 132.   Gut,  males:   133,  159,  146, 109*;  fe-
males:   95*.  95*, 455,  106*.   Skeletal muscle,
males:   25, 17,  27,  13; females:   29, 36,  50,  67.
B rain,  males:   160,  152, 71,  125;  females:    80,
191, 100*,  90*.   Bone,  males:   50,  106*, 35,   75;
females:  33, 80, 31, 63.

544     Sakaguchl, T.  (School Med., Keio-Gijuku
        Univ., Japan):  CHANGE OF SERUM PROTEIN
        AND ITS FRACTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY  IN-
        DUCED LEAD POISONING.  Journal of  Science
        of Labour  (Japan) 31:385-96  (June),  1955.
Experimental studies were made on the blood  find-
ings, liver function tests, microscopic changes
and Pb in organs of dogs with  subacute and  chronic
Pb poisoning by Pb acetate  (15 mg Pb/kg and  3 mg/kg
3 times/wk).  The conclusions are as follows:  In-
hibition oi albumin synthesis in the liver appeared
particularly in the very early stage.  Consequently
albumin/globulin ratio decreased more than any
other liver function.  The  decrease of total pro-
tein was parallel to the decrease of the albumin/
globulin ratio in serum in  the subchronic  cases,
but the former did not show itself in the early
stage of chronic cases.  Pigment excretion func-
tion of the liver was slightly hindered only in
the later stage.  As to the histopathologic  appear-
ances, the greatest changes were seen in the liver
and the kidney; there were  hardly any changes in
the other organs.  In 2 dogs killed in the early
stage (on about the 20th day of experiment)  the
liver was histologically damaged, but either only
mild changes were seen in the kidney or none at
all.  On the other hand, in the other 3 cases killed
after injection of Pb over  a long period of  time,
considerable changes both in the liver and in the
kidney occurred.  The liver and kidney contained
more Pb than any other soft organ,  and this re-
sult seemed to coincide with pathological  changes.
In 2 cases killed in the early stage, the  liver
tissue contained more Pb compared with that  of the
kidney which showed only little Pb.  In the  other
cases, however, the Pb in the kidney increased
tremendously in the later stage of poisoning.
  From these facts, the following results are con-
sidered:  the factor which  caused the decrease in
albumin/globulin ratio in serum in the early stage
is to be found in the hypofunction of albumin syn-
thesis in the liver, but, in the later stage, in
addition to this, the release of albumin from the
kidney and the decrease of  albumin removed have
also an influence.  It is difficult to obtain a
correlation between the function and the morphology
of liver, but from the above facts it is consider-
ed that the central part of lobules of the liver
participates mainly in metabolic functions while
the peripheral does so in excretory functions.
(From author's English summary)

645      Salvini, M. , and Scudier, U.  (Univ. Padua,
        Italy):  Sul trattamento dell'intossica-
        zione da piombo tetraetlle mediante iniezi-
        oni endovenose di Ca-etilendiaminotetrace-
        tato Na2.  (ON THE TREATMENT OF TETRAETHYL
        LEAD POISONING BY INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS
        OF CaNa2EDTA.)  Medicina del Lavoro 46:
        526-32 (Oct.), 1955.
Rabbits (16) were exposed to the inhalation of TEL
in a concentration of 5 mg/1 air; 8 were treated
with CaNa2EDTA iv 1 hr before exposure, and 8
were so treated immediately after exposure.  The
results showed no antidotal effect on TEL poison-
ing.  In a 2nd series, 24 rabbits were exposed to
TEL as above; 8 were pretreated with 20 mg EDTA/
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               107

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kg for 20 days; 6 received a single injection
before, and 6, an injection after exposure, and
4 received no treatment.  The results showed that
EDTA had an antidotal action when given for a
number of days before exposure to TEL.  The au-
thors attribute the favorable therapeutic result
to the gradual accumulation of effective doses of
EDTA in those tissues that are rapidly reached by
otherwise fatal quantities of TEL.  From their
personal experiences they believe that when the
object of a clinical therapy is to act antidotally
on the TEL by means of chelating agents,  the dif-
fusion characteristics of the agent used should not
differ from those of the TEL; otherwise it will be
necessary to follow a route other than the iv.
Preliminary results of experiments carried out with
EDTA administered intraspinally are also reported.
(19 references)

64b      Scarinci,  V. (Univ. Urbin, Italy):  PRE-
        LIMINARY STUDIES ON A LEAD TETRAETHYL
        ANTIDOTE.  Studi Urbinati, Facolta di Far-
        macia (C), 29, No. 4:102-4, 1955.
A solution, pH 6.8, sterilized at 100°, of Na tri-
thiolactate (2.88%) and Na thiolactate (3.84%) was
used as an antidote on rabbits that had developed
toxic symptoms by dripping  TEL    (lethal dose 0.6
ml)  on a large shaved portion of the abdominal
area.  The animals survived when the intramuscular
or intravenous dose given after 2 hr was 2 ml/kg,
or after 15 min, with 0.5 ml/kg with 3 additional
injections at 30-min intervals.  A survival of 50%
was obtained after 2 hr with 1.5 ml dose or after
3 hr with 2 ml dose.  Also, the antidote mixed in
any proportion with TEL   formed s  unionized salt
extremely soluble in water and insoluble in ab-
solute alcohol and  chloroform.   (From  Chemical
Abstracts  51:10736, 1957)

547      Sinitsyn,  S.N.:   (EVALUATION OF THE TOXIC-
        ITY OF SYNTHETIC GASOLINE AND ETHYL GAS-
        OLINE WITH A HIGH BENZENE CONTENT.) In-
        form.-Metod. Materially Gorsudarst.
        Nauch.-Issledovatel. Sanit. Inst. 1955,
        No. 2:21-7; Referat. Zhur. , Khim. 1956,
        Abstr. No. 49681.
Tbe absolute lethal concentration of the vapors of
synthetic gasoline (SG) (product of synthesis of
CO and H2, initial boiling temperature 42°, maxi-
mum boiling temperature 189°, octane no. 31) for
white mice was 125 mg/1 and that of the synthetic
ethyl gasoline (ESG) (SG 30.3% C6H6+0.5 ml/1 of
ethyl fluid) was 100 mg/1; the minimum lethal con-
centration of SG=95 mg/1, ESG 60 mg/1.  The tol-
erated concentration of SG=90 mg/1, ESG 55 mg/1.
Aviation gasoline caused 100% mortality at a con-
centration of 110 mg/1, 14.8% at 70 mg/1, at 60
mg/1 no mortality was observed.  The speed of on-
set of rigor mortis was increased in concentration
of ESG of 3 mg/1,  SG at 5 mg/1.  The index of work
ability decreased, starting with ESG concentration
of 10 mg/1 and SG 50 mg/1.  The cholinesterase of
brain decreased when the concentration of ESG was
10 mg/1 or SB at 15 mg/1.  In daily 2-hr exposures
of rabbits in the course of 5 mo and 4-hr expo-
sures in 6 mo to ESG in concentration 0.4-0.6 mg/1
there was a decrease of leukocytes, a slight in-
crease of segmented granulocytes, an insignificant
decrease of lymphocytes, and a decrease of blood-
                  serum cholinesterase.   (From Chemical Abstracts
                  52:21016, 1958)

                  648      Sobel, A.E., and Burger, M.  (Jewish Hosp.,
                           Brooklyn, N.Y.):  CALCIFICATION.  XIII.
                           THE INFLUENCE  OF CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, AND
                           VITAMIN D ON THE REMOVAL OF LEAD FROM
                           BLOOD AND BONE.  Journal of Biological
                           Chemistry 212:105-10, 1955.
                  In rats with experimental Pb poisoning a high Ca-
                  low P diet produced  the most rapid loss of Pb from
                  the skeleton, accompanied by the highest blood Pb
                  level.  A high P-low Ca diet produced the slowest
                  loss of Pb in the lowest blood Pb level.  The addi-
                  tion of vitamin D to the diets produced (a) a de-
                  crease in blood Pb,  (b) decreased loss of bone Pb,
                  (c) a rise in the serum Ca x P product, (d) an
                  increase in the per  cent of ash in bone, and (e)
                  an increase in weight of all the animals.  Vitamin
                  D during Pb administration enhances Pb absorption,
                  causing a rise in blood Pb.  After Pb administra-
                  tion has ceased, however, the antirachitic vitamin,
                  to the degree that it causes a rise in serum phos-
                  phate, depresses blood  Pb.  The high Ca-low P diet,
                  by decreasing serum phosphate, causes a concomi-
                  tant rise in blood Pb at the expense of bone Pb.
                  On the other hand, in the high P-low Ca diet the
                  resulting rise in serum phosphate is paralleled
                  by a low blood Pb level and decreased loss of bone
                  Pb.  High blood Pb is accompanied by low serum P
                  and vice versa, but  there is no simple reciprocal
                  relationship.  (From authors' summary)

                  649     Staples, E.L.J.  (Wallaceville Animal Res.
                          Station, Wellington, New Zealand):  EXPER-
                          IMENTAL LEAD POISONING IN DOGS.  New Zea-
                          land Veterinary Journal 3:39-46, 1955.
                  Nine young mature dogs were used in an experiment
                  designed to reproduce the clinical picture seen
                  in the field cases.   In series 1,  3 dogs received
                  basic Pb carbonate equivalent to 1000, 500, and
                  200 mg Pb/kg body weight 4, 2, and 3 times respec-
                  tively.   All vomited after the 1st dose, and the
                  blood Pb level was allowed to return to pre-dosing
                  figure before the next  dose.  A daily check was
                  made on the blood Pb level.  In series 2, 6 dogs
                  received daily the carbonate in doses ranging from
                  50-3 mg Pb/kg body weight.  The carbonate, con-
                  taining 79.25% Pb was administered in gelatin cap-
                  sules .
                    In series 1, results  were not very conclusive;
                  listlessness, anorexia, vomiting, and nervousness
                  were the main signs.  In view of the vomiting, it
                  was concluded that Pb poisoning in dogs is more
                  likely chronic rather than acute.  The liver of
                  the dogs contained 7.8, 22.1, and 10.5 ppm Pb.
                    In series 2, all animals, except those receiving
                  the lowest doses showed a marked drop in weight
                  and a distemper-like syndrome after 13-63 days,
                  which preceded convulsions.  Jaundice was seen in
                  some dogs.  A normal mean Pb level of 0.7 ppm
                  in the liver was obtained on 12 control dogs.  Two
                  dogs of series 2 had very high liver  Pb levels,
                  139.0 ppm and 120.0  ppm;  this could  be explained
                  by the high total of Pb ingested.  The  author  sug-
                  gests that values of 5.0-10.0 ppm should be re-
                  garded with suspicion,  and  >10.00 ppm are of de-
                  finite significance  in  diagnosis.  The blood Pb
                  levels did not drop  below 1.0 ppm in  any of them
108
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
after 1st symptoms were observed.  One dog only
showed basophilic stippling In each of the weekly
examinations.  From the histopathologic findings,
the author concludes that in cases of Pb poisoning
lesions of a significant nature cannot always be
expected; however, examinations of the cerebellum,
liver and kidney are recommended.  Highly sugges-
tive  are the intranuclear acidophilic inclusion
bodies in liver and kidneys and if these are ab-
sent, evidence of Purkinje cells degeneration in
cerebellum plus centrilobular degeneration and
renal tubular and vascular damage support Pb poi-
soning diagnosis.

650      Tolgskaya, M.S. (Inst. Ind.  Hyg.  Occup.
         Dis., Acad. Med. Sci., Moscow, USSR):
         Izmenenlya v nervnoi sisteme pri eksperi-
         mental'noi intoksikatsii svintsom.
         (CHANGES IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IN EXPERI-
         MENTAL LEAD POISONING.)  Arkhiv Patsvlogii
         17, No. 4:20-7, 1955.
Pb acetate was given by gastric tube in gradually
increasing doses from 0.008-0.3 g/kg to rats and
from 0.006-0.077 g/kg to guinea pigs until Pb tox-
icity developed or up to 7.5 mo.  The animals were
sacrificed at different time intervals; 4 guinea
pigs died while giving birth to young.  After
small doses of Pb early reversible changes appeared
first in the cortex when clinically no symptoms of
intoxication were noted.  With the onset of chronic
intoxication, in addition to the cortical, there
appeared changes in the subcortical nodes, in the
thalamohypothalamic region, in the trunk,  in the
spinal cord, and later in the peripheral nerves.
In acute and subacute effects of Pb (studied in
rabbits, ,-jiven sc 1% Pb nitrate solution in a
dose of 0.033 g or 0.12 g/kg orally daily) on the
nervous system there is a predominance of diffuse
vascular disturbances and diffuse but not clearly
defined changes in the cells of different regions
of the nervous system without specific localiza-
tion.  In chronic Pb intoxication in all sections
of the nervous system there is evidence of pre-
dominant damage to the cells of the anterior horns
of the spinal cord, of the peripheral nerves and
in the conducting motor paths.  The effects of
these are reflected in the clinical syndrome.  The
destructive changes in the nerve cells and fibers
are accompanied by considerable vascular distur-
bances and prollferative changes on the part of
the glia and in the internal organs.   After the
changes in the nerve cells there appear changes in
the walls of the smaller vessels, disturbances in
the circulation, and changes and disturbances in
the general blood picture.  The author concludes
that the findings refute the existing opinion re-
ported in the literature that changes in the ner-
vous system in Pb intoxication are secondary and
arise in connection with anemia or vascular dis-
turbances.  (13 references)

551     Ursano,  F.  (Univ.  Naples,  Italy):   L'iden-
        tificazione istochimica del piombo nelle
        intossicazioni acute e sub-acute.   (HISTO-
        CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF LEAD IN ACUTE
        AND  SUBACUTE POISONING.)   Abstracts of
        Meeting  of  the Campana Society of  Legal
        and  Industrial Medicine.   Medicina del
        Lavoro 46:60 (Jan.),  1955;  Folia Medica
         (Naples) 38:807-12  (Aug.),  1955.
Rabbits were poisoned with  10% aqueous  solution
of basic Pb acetate, given  by stomach tube.  Ani-
mals receiving  2 ml/kg  twice daily  died after  2
days;  the  same  dose given once daily caused  death
after  21 days.  Pb in tissues was identified with
NH/SH  and  staining with hemalum-eosin or by  treat-
ment with  ^C^Oy and staining with toluidine  blue
(Frankenberger).  Pb was found in the liver  cells,
in the kidneys, and in  the  spleen.  In  the lungs,
only the parenchyma showed  occasional Pb deposits.

652      Wilson, R.H., Poley, G.W.,  and DeEds,  F.
        (US Dept. Agric., Albany, Calif.):  TOXIC-
        ITY STUDIES ON  PEAR POMACE  CONTAINING  MIX-
        TURE OF INSECTICIDE RESIDUES.   Federation
        Proceedings 14:Abstract No. 1275 (Mar.), 1955.
Pear pomaces prepared from  fruit of several exper-
imental orchards, each with a known and controlled
spray  program, were analyzed separately for Pb, As,
F and  DDT and then mixed to obtain  the highest pos-
sible  level of each residue in a composite.  For
controls, pomaces from  an unsprayed orchard and
from orchards with uncontrolled spray programs
were used.   The control, composite, and run-of-the-
mill pomaces were mixed with diet at 10, 20, and
30% levels and fed to rats  for 315  days, when  the
supply was exhausted.   Growth rate was not signi-
ficantly affected,  although food intake increased
progressively with increased concentration of  pom-
ace.    Presumably, since the fiber of pomace was
not available to the rats,   they ate more to
achieve adequate nutritional intake.  Hemoglobin,
numbers of red and white cells,  and differential
counts were normal,  and abnormal red and white
cells were not observed.  The incisor teeth did
not bleach,  ^o pathological findings were noted
and organ weights were normal.   Although the pom-
aces from sprayed fruit contained more than per-
missible amounts of residues, the concentration of
each residual constituent was slightly below the
toxic  level after dilution with basal diet.  Com-
bination of slightly sub-toxic  amounts of these
dissimilar insecticides did not cause toxic symp-
toms in this study,  even though Pb and As may both
act on erythrocytes,  and both Pb and DDT can pro-
duce neurological disturbances.   On the other hand,
it has been reported that combination of subtoxic
amounts of similar insecticides (chlorinated hydro-
carbons) can cause additive toxicity.   (From
authors' abstract)

653      Wittgens, H., and Niederstadt, D. (German
        Soc. Ind. Safety, Frankfurt, Germany):
        Tierexperimentelle  Untersuchungen zur
        Frage der prophylaktischen Wirksamkeit der
        Milch bei chronischer Bleivergiftung.
        (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS ON THE  QUESTION OF THE
        PROPHYLACTIC EFFICIENCY OF  MILK IN CHRONIC
        LEAD POISONING.)  Archiv fUr Gewerbepath-
        ologie und Gewerbehygiene 13, No. 6:544-
        72, 1955.
Animal experiments were undertaken with the object
of ascertaining whether there is justification for
the widely held view that milk is a valuable pro-
phylactic and remedial  measure in Pb poisoning.
White  male rats were given  Pb acetate, both orally
and by intraperitoneal  injection over a period of
up to  8 mo.  One series received milk as their
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               109

-------
beverage, another only water.  Comparison with a
series of control animals established the fact
that in white rats the chief diagnostic signs of
chronic Pb poisoning are loss of weight, decrease
of hemoglobin, poor condition of the fur and de-
generative changes in the liver and kidneys.  De-
crease in erythrocytes, punctate basophilia and an
increased content of Pb in the bones occurred in
some animals but were not regarded of diagnostic
significance.  In assessing the effect of adminis-
tration of milk, the symptoms appeared to be more
severe in the milk-fed animals, and more of these
died in the series receiving intraperitoneal in-
jections of Pb.  There was no essential difference
in the blood findings, in the pathological appear-
ances of the internal organs, or in the liver
function tests, and though the levels of copropor-
phyrinuria were not conclusively distinctive, 2
milk-fed animals which were severely affected in
health and in  condition of the fur and which had
a high urinary excretion of coproporphyrin re-
covered completely, with an increase of hemoglobin
and a decrease of coproporphyrinuria when milk was
replaced by water.
  The data obtained are shown in 13 tables and 9
figures.  On these grounds the authors conclude
that milk has not only no protective action but
also possibly increases the risk of Pb intoxica-
tion in white rats, and if these effects can be
considered analogous to those in human beings the
administration of milk to Pb workers is of no
benefit.  (20 references)

$54      Zambrano, A., Mangieri, A., and Silves-
        troni, A. (Univ. Naples, Italy):  Elimi-
        nazione urinaria e fecale del piorabo e
        comportamento della coproporfirinuria
        nell'intossicazione cronica sperimentale
        da piombo trattata con calcio E.D.T.A.
        (URINARY AND FECAL ELIMINATION OF LEAD AND
        THE BEHAVIOR OF COPROPORPHYRINURIA IN
        CHRONIC EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING TREATED
        WITH CALCIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETATE.)
        Bollettino della Societa Italiana di Bio-
        logia Sperimentale 31:611, 1955.
Nine rabbits with chronic Pb poisoning induced by
1 ml of 10% solution/day were given iv 1 ml 20%
solution of CaEDTA for 7 consecutive days; 3 rab-
bits served as controls.  The urinary excretion
was increased 10-20-fold and the fecal, 2-3-fold.
The decrease was progressive.  The authors note
that Pb is eliminated in both feces and arine,
but much more copiously in urine.

655      Zambrano, A., Mangieri, A., and Silves-
        troni, A. (Univ. Naples, Italy):  II calcio
        EDTA nell'intossicazione sperimentale da
        piombo.   (Ellminazione fecale ed urinaria
        di piombo - Comportamento degli electtro-
        liti e della fosfatasi alcalina del siero
        di sangue).  (CALCIUM SALT OF VERSENE IN
        EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.  (URINARY
        AND FECAL LEAD EXCRETION.  ELECTROLYTES
        AND ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE IN THE BLOOD).)
        Folia Medica (Naples) 38:813-37 (Aug.),
        1955.
CaEDTA given to rabbits poisoned with Pb acetate
(25 eg Pb (as acetate)  orally and continued for
7 days by which time the animals had absorbed
                  70 eg Pb) caused an increase of Pb in the urine
                  and feces and progressively decreased porphyrin-
                  uria.  No changes occurred in the Ca, P, Cl, Na,
                  and K levels in the blood serum, which might be
                  a consequence of chelation.  The intoxication
                  caused considerable reduction of the phosphatase
                  activity in the blood.  Treatment brought about
                  recovery of this enzymic activity.

                                         1956

                  556     Balmus, G., Marinescu, G., and Nastac, E.:
                          Resultatele aplicraii tetrationatului de
                          sodiu in intoxicatia saturnina experi-
                          mentala".  (RESULTS OF THE APPLICATION OF
                          SODIUM TETRATHIONATE IN THE EXPERIMENTAL
                          SATURNINE INTOXICATION.)  Acad. rep. popu-
                          lare Romine, Bui.  stiint., Secf^. s,tiin{:.
                          med. 3:937-42, 1956.
                  The action of Na tetrathionate was studied on
                  rabbits at different stages of Pb intoxication.
                  Pb was administered in aqueous solution by stom-
                  ach tube, or pulverized Pb carbonate was mixed in
                  the diet.  Na tetrathionate was given at concen-
                  trations of 3, 5, 6, 8, and 10% sc or iv, and had
                  no effect in advanced stages of intoxication,
                  while in milder stages the survival was 3 times
                  that of nontreated animals.  The action was com-
                  parable to that of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol and was
                  a function of the reserves in glutathione of the
                  organism.  Na tetrathionate is recommended for
                  use in occupational Pb poisoning, where the de-
                  gree of intoxication is lower than in experimental
                  Pb intoxication.  (From Chemical Abstracts 51:
                  16881, 1957)

                  657      Biesiekierska, J., and Teuchmann, J.K.
                           (Centralny Inst., Ochrony Pracy, Warsaw,
                          Poland):  (EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL LEAD
                          POISONING ON THE ORGAN OF VISION.) Prace
                          Centralnego Inst. Ochrony Pracy 6, No. 1
                           (17):7-10, 1956.
                  Guinea pigs were poisoned with Pb(N03)2> 100 mg/kg
                  body weight, given as 5% solution in 2 or 3 por-
                  tions.  Early changes in eye muscles were observ-
                  ed,  particularly in the levator palpebrae superi-
                  oris muscle.  This may be useful in diagnosing a
                  continued Pb poisoning.  (From Chemical Abstracts
                  53:7434, 1959)

                  658     Blosser, T.H., Abbitt, W.H., Adams, M.F.,
                          and Ward, G.M. (State Coll. Washington,
                          Pullman):  TRACE MINERALS IN THE BLOOD AND
                          EXCRETA OF DAIRY COWS AT PARTURITION.
                          Proc. 37th Ann. Meeting Western Div. Am.
                          Dairy Sci. Assoc. 1956, 9 pp.
                  Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn levels in the blood, urine, and
                  feces of dairy cows were determined in 10 dairy
                  cows from "V30 days antepartum to 30 days postpartum.
                  Most marked changes in levels of these minerals
                  occurred between 5 days antepartum and 5 days post-
                  partum.  (From Chemical Abstracts 51:8237, 1957)

                  659      Buckup, H., BBhm, M., Zimmermann, H.,
                           Remy, R., Portheine,  F., and Voss, C.
                           (State  Inst. Ind. Med.,  Bochum, Germany):
                           Nahrungskomponenten  und  ihre Bedeutung
                           fllr die Prophylaxe beruflicher  Bleiver-
                           giftungen.   (Tell  1)   (Experimentelle
110
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        Untersuchungen am Kaninchen.)  (DIETARY
        COMPONENTS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN THE
        PROPHYLAXIS OF OCCUPATIONAL LEAD POISONING.
        I.  (EXPERIMENTS WITH RABBITS).)  Zentral-
        blatt fUr Arbeitsmedlzin und Arbeitsschutz
        6:1-4, 29-34 (Jan.), 1956.
The influence of various dietary components on Pb
poisoning was studied on 6 groups of 25 rabbits
each.  The animals were of about the same weight,
and were used in the experiment from Aug. 1953-
Jan. 1954.  As far as possible the rabbits were
kept in separate cages and received 50 g oats/day
and fresh cabbage ad lib.  The animals received
intraperitoneal injections of Pb acetate twice/wk
at 1 ml of a 0.05% Pb acetate solution (3.2 mg Pb/
kg body weight) in the 15th and 16th wk Pb acetate
was administered intravenously.  The Pb acetate
solution was adjusted to pH 5.  In addition, Group
I received by esophageal tube daily 2.5 ml of 2%
methionine solution;  Group II, 2.5 ml of 2.7%
cysteine HC1 solution; Group III, 1 ml of 5% ascor-
bic acid solution; Group IV, 8 ml whole milk; Group
V, 1 pg vitamin Bj2/kg subcutaneously; Group VI
served as control.  Although considerable changes
were seen in the blood pigment, the animals tole-
rated the Pb doses relatively well.  The weight
curves in the llth-13th wk showed no significant
variations.  However, the groups receiving methio-
nine and cysteine showed a tendency to increase
in weight; ascorbic acid and B-j^ had no effect one
way or the other; animals on milk and the controls
showed tendency to loss in weight.  Ascorbic acid,
as well as methionine in some cases, exerted a
protective action on erythropoiesis.  In animals
treated with milk, a lower deposition of Pb in
bone was observed.
  A diet high in nutrients is recommended for Pb
workers; excessive fat and protein should be avoid-
ed, as should misuse of alcohol.  There is no basis
for considering normal ingestion of milk as harm-
ful for Pb workers.   The authors, however, doubt
that milk in itself is protective.  Technical
safety and preventive measures are believed to be
the most important.

6£Q      Calapso, P., and Majorca, G. (Inst. Sci.
        Information, Milan, Italy) :  Glomeruloan-
        giopatia saturnina; ricerche sperimentali.
        (GLOMERULOANGIOPATHIA CAUSED BY LEAD; EX-
        PERIMENTAL STUDY.)  Biologica Latina 9,
        No. 4:483-500, 1956.
Of 48 rats, 12 served as controls; 36 received sc
1 ml of a 1/1000 solution of Pb acetate daily for
3 mo.  Histologic and histochemical examination of
the initial damage induced in the kidneys showed
that the first and most important damage appears
in the glomerular capillaries while the tubules
are only later involved in the degenerative pro-
cess.  Pb blocks the SH group thus inhibiting the
enzymes possessing such groups; these enzymes to-
gether with other factors control the chemical and
physical equilibrium of the glycoproteins of the
glomerular wall,  which are the main component of
the  ground substance around the loops.   The tubu-
lar  nephrosis is  produced by the exudation of plas-
ma following such damage and possibly by a direct
action of the Pb  on the epithelium.
  According to modern views on the pathology of
the  kidney, the authors consider this kind of renal
damage among the glomerular nephroses of toxic
ethiology.  (63 references)

661      Candela, R.R., Candela, J.L.R., and Sanz,
        P.:  INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE ON LEAD DEPOSIT
        IN EXPERIMENTAL INTOXICATION. Med. Seguri-
        dad 4:23-4 (Jan.-Mar.), 1956.
Rats of. both sexes, weighing from 200-250 g, were
intoxicated with 1 single dose of 0.5 mg Pb ni-
trate/kg weight.  During the following 10 days
they were submitted to physical exercise (running)
2 hr/day.  After this, on measuring the Pb deposit
in the muscles and bones of the legs, it was found
that it was much greater in the rats that had been
performing exercise than in those of the control
group.  (From Archives of Industrial Health 14:
573, 1956)

562      Desoille, H., Michon, R., and Truffert, L.
        (Inst. Ind. Hyg. Med., Paris, France):  A
        propos de 1'emploi d'une huile de coupe
        plombifere et soufree.  (THE USE OF LEAD
        AND SULFUR CUTTING OILS.)  Proceedings of
        the Institute of Industrial Hygiene and
        Medicine.  Archives des Maladies Profes-
        sionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de
        Securite Sociale 17:582-5 (Nov.), 1956.
The use in some countries of a cutting oil contain-
ing an organic Pb compound, such as Pb naphthenate,
had aroused the fear that it would endanger the
health of workers.  Several years earlier one of
the authors had shown that a hazard of Pb absorp-
tion did exist.  Since that time it was considered
that not all of these cutting oils would be accom-
panied by the same risks.  For this reason, an oil
containing a Pb and a S compound was used in ani-
mal experiments.  Application of an oil emulsion
at concentrations which would approach work con-
ditions (5 drops (increasing to 15)  of 10, 30,
and 50% emulsion daily, Pb and S contents are not
given) to the skin of guinea pigs for 2 mo, caused
no changes in the blood.  Application for 57 days
of 10 drops of 30% emulsion led to blood changes
(increased stippled cells).  The Pb content of the
liver and kidney was not increased significantly.
Although the Pb content of fumes and aerosols re-
leased by using a 10% aqueous emulsion of the oil
on a lathe was 0.22 mg and 0.35 mg/m3 of air at a
distance of 0.10-0.20 m from the head of the lathe,
under actual working conditions these concentra-
tions would not occur in the operator's breathing
zone.

663      Dresel, E.I.B., and FaJ.k, J.E. (Univ. Coll.
        Hosp. Med. School, London, England):  STUD-
        IES ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF BLOOD PIGMENTS.
        2.  HAEM AND PORPHYRIN FORMATION IN INTACT
        CHICKEN ERYTHROCYTES.  3.  HAEM AND POR-
        PHYRIN FORMATION FROM S-AMtNOLAEVULINIC
        ACID FROM PORPHOBILINOGEN IN HAEMOLYSED
        CHICKEN ERYTHROCYTES.  Biochemical Jour-
        nal 63:72-9; 80-7, 1956.
2.  Among the inhibitors studied, Pb inhibited
porphyrin formation from glycine, but did not ap-
parently interfere specifically with the incorpo-
ration of Fe into porphyrin.  (37 references)
  3.  Addition of 10  M Pb acetate caused almost
total,inhibition of heme synthesis from glycine,
scarcely any inhibition of heme and porphyrin for-
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               ill

-------
mation from PEG, and a considerable inhibition of
porphyrin formation from ALA.  The step most sen-
sitive to Pb must be among the early steps leading
to the synthesis of ALA.  (16 references)

564     Esyutina, O.S.  (Acad. Sci., Kazakh SSR):
        Vliyanie svintsovoi intoksikatsii na
        razvitie eksperimental'nogo raka.  (THE
        EFFECT OF LEAD INTOXICATION ON THE DE-
        VELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL CANCER.)  Trudy
        Instituta Kraevoi Patologii, Akademiya
        Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR 4, No. 11:55-63, 1956.
Since much work has been done on the effect of the
functional state of the nervous system on the de-
velopment and course of Pb poisoning, the author
wished to determine the effect of Pb poisoning on
the development and course of skin cancer produced
in white mice by application of coal tar.  In both
series, mice (total, 194)  received on the skin 1
drop of coal tar 3 times/wk for 30 wk, and were
observed thereafter.  Upon death,  the animals were
dissected and fixed in neutral formalin, and the
area of the skin to which coal tar had been ap-
plied was cut out together with surrounding sound
skin and followed microscopically.  In the 1st
series, control mice received daily by means of a
metal stomach tube 0.5 ml physiologic solution.
In the 2nd, mice received in the same manner daily
0.5 ml Pb acetate solution containing 0.4 mg Pb
acetate.  After 2 mo examination of blood showed
basophilic stippling of erythrocytes and a large
number of reticulocytes.  The results showed that
the coefficient of survival of control mice 2 mo
and 10 days after start of experiment was 0.90 and
in the experimental, 0.78; after 6 mo 10 days, it
was 0.64 and 0.47 and at the end of experiment,  11
mo from start, it was 0.20 and 0.02, respectively.
The time of the appearance of the 1st papillomas
in the experimental mice was after 3 mo, and in
the controls, after 4 mo.  Progression into malig-
nancies was obviously more frequent in the Pb
group:  after 6 mo 20 days from start, malignant
tumors were found in 2 controls, and 6 of the Pb
group; by the end of the experiment there were 10
in the controls, and 16 in the experimental.
  The author considers that the acceleration and
severity of the cancerous process was due to the
lowering of the resistance of the organism by the
effect of Pb on the central nervous system as well
as by the direct action of the Pb circulating in
blood.

665      Fried, J.F., Rosenthal, M.W., and Schu-
        bert, J. (Argonne Natl. Lab., Lemont,
        111.):  INDUCED ACCUMULATION OF CITRATE  IN
        THERAPY OF EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.
        Proceedings of  the Society of Experimental
        Biology and Medicine 92:331-3, 1956.
The concept of interference in a metabolic cycle
as a means of modifying metal toxicity was tested.
The accumulation of citric acid in certain soft
tissues of the rat was induced by administration
of small, nonlethal doses of Na fluoroacetate.
This was found to give partial protection to rats
acutely poisoned with Pb nitrate by iv injection.
Of rats given the LDgo of Pb nitrate, 53% survived
when treated with Na fluoroacetate.  The LDjQ of
Pb nitrate was increased from 58.2 mg/kg (as Pb)
in saline controls to 67.7 mg/kg in fluoroacetate-
                 treated rats.   (From authors' summary;  12  refer-
                 ences)

                 666     Fuse, T.  (Univ. Niigata School  Med. , Ja-
                         pan):   STUDIES ON THE FLUORESCYTE IN LEAD-
                         POISONING.  PART II.  PATTERNS  OF  FLUORES-
                         CYTES IN  EXPERIMENTALLY LEAD-POISONED
                         GUINEA-PIGS, (1).   Journal of  Science of
                         Labour  (Japan) 32:781-90  (Oct.), 1956.
                 In a previous paper the author has presented the
                 demonstration of  fluorescyte, the appearance of
                 which is followed by the anemia of Pb poisoning.
                 This communication deals with the change of fluor-
                 escyte counts in  the circulating blood  of  experi-
                 mentally Pb-poisoned guinea pigs.  The  findings are
                 as follows:  1.   The fluorescyte is found  in al-
                 most all Pb-poisoned animals.  2.  The  level of
                 fluorescytes in the circulating blood rose with
                 increased severity of Pb poisoning.  3.  The aver-
                 age number of fluorescyte^ increased hyperbolically
                 against the decrease of red cell counts as well as
                 of hemoglobin level, and also against the  increase
                 of reticulocyte counts.  4.  The fluorescyte can-
                 not be identified as the reticuloctye,  and, there-
                 fore, it has to be considered as another indica-
                 tion of anemia.  5.  The number of basophiiic
                 stippled red cells added to that of polychromatic
                 ones and the number of reticulocytes respectively
                 increased hyperbolically against the decrease of
                 red cell counts.  On this occasion, the rate of
                 increase in reticulocyte counts grew earlier than
                 that in basophilic stippled red cell counts added
                 to polychromatic ones at least in the Pb-poisoned
                 guinea pig.  (From author's English summary)

                 667     Fuse, T.  (Univ. Niigata School  Med.,
                         Japan):   STUDIES ON THE FLUORESCYTE IN
                         LEAD-POISONING.  PART II.  PATTERNS OF
                         FLUORESCYTES IN EXPERIMENTALLY  LEAD-POI-
                         SONED GUINEA-PIGS,  (2).  Journal of Science
                         of Labour (Japan)  32:933-44  (Nov.), 1956.
                 In this paper, the implication of the finding,
                 which has previously been reported is discussed
                 as follows.  An appearance of fluorescytes in the
                 circulating blood is possibly considered to be in
                 consequence of the occurrence of excessive free
                 porphyrins in the red cell, which are the  inter-
                 mediates in hemoglobin synthesis.  In Pb-poison-
                 ing, the increase of polychromatic red  cells, baso-
                 philic stippled ones and reticulocytes  may not be
                 indicative of the regenerative phenomenon  in hemo-
                 poiesls, while they may perhaps be a sign  of sup-
                 pression in the ripening process of the red cells.
                 The polychromatic red cell would be intrinsically
                 identified as the basophilic stippled one.  It is
                 supposed, however, that these 2 cells differ from
                 each other not only in quantity but in  the mode
                 of their occurrence in the basophilic substances
                 in the red cell.  However, it may be reasonable
                 to assume that the reticulocyte differs in its
                 formation process from them.  (From  author's
                 English summary)

                 668     Gerlich,  N., and Remy, R.  (City Hosp.,
                         Bielefeld, Germany):  Zur Prophylaxe und
                         Therapie  der Bleivergiftung.  II.   Methio-
                         nin, Cystein, Eiweisshydrolysate.   (PROPHY-
                         LAXIS AND THERAPY  OF LEAD POISONING.   II.
                         METHIONINE, CYSTEINE, PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES.)
112
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        Zentralblatt fur Arbeitsmedlzin und Arbeits-
        schutz 6:101-4  (May), 1956.
In continuation of research on the effects of liver
extracts, vitamin B^2 and folic acid on Pb intoxi-
cation induced in experimental animals, the influ-
ence of S-containing amino acids was studied.
Groups of rabbits (12 males in each group) were
given iv injections of  6.0 mg of Pb acetate/kg on
3 successive days and on each of these days the
amino acids under test  were also injected.  Hemo-
globin determinations and red cell counts were
carried out daily for a period of 7-10 days.  The
findings are recorded and discussed at some length.
A protective effect as  judged by a slower and ul-
timately a lesser fall  in the number of red cells
was demonstrated by the injection of methionine
(12.08 mg) , cysteine (15.28 mg and 7.64 mg) and
liver hydrolysate (0.4  ml of preparation 1255
Boehringer, Mannheim).  Oral administration of 100
mg of methionine was also effective and this in-
fluence was greatly enhanced when ascorbic acid,
100 mg daily,  was given at the same time.   Cysteine
was only effective when given iv.   No good protec-
tion was obtained with  cystine.   The author con-
cludes that it is quite possible to have a favor-
able influence on Pb poisoning with vitamin B^2>
folic acid and liver extracts as well as with S-
amino acids except for  cystine.  Favorable results
were generally achieved with combinations, eg
methionine and ascorbic acid.

669      Giuliani, V.,  and Belli,  R.  (Univ.  Flor-
        ence,  Italy):   Processi immunitari nell'
        intossicazione sperimentale da piombo
        tetraetile.   Nota V.   Sulla presenza di
        anticorpi bloccanti nel siero in corso di
        Immunizzazione attiva antitifica.   (TMyUNO-
        LOGIC  PROCESSES IN EXPERIMENTAL POISONING
        WITH TETRAETHYL LEAD.   V.   PRESENCE OF
        BLOCKING ANTIBODIES IN THE SERUM DURING
        ACTIVE TYPHOID  IMMUNIZATION.)   Folia Medica
        (Naples) 39:147-53 (Feb.),  1956.
Studies were carried out on the blood serum of
rabbits intoxicated  with TEL and  subjected to ac-
tive immunization by typhoid bacillus to  discover
whether blocking antibodies were present,  and to
obtain better  information on the deficient immuni-
zation response previously reported by the authors.
  Agglutination tests  carried out  on the serum
portion precipitated in 35% saturated ammonium
sulfate showed a higher antibody titration compar-
ed with that previously found in the total serum.
Wiener's test  confirmed the presence of blocking
antibodies.  The authors conclude  by stating that
the antibody concentration produced in an intoxi-
cated animal under vaccine stimulation must always
be considered  as definitely deficient.   (From au-
thors '  summary)

670      Giuliani, V.,  and Belli,  R. (Univ. Flor-
        ence,  Italy):    Processi immunitari nell'-
        intossicazione  sperimentale da piombo
        tetraetile.   Nota VI. - Comportamento
        degli  anticorpi antimelitense (completi
        ed incompleti)   in corso di immunizzazione
        attiva.   (IMMUNOLOGIC PROCESSES IN EXPERI-
        MENTAL POISONING WITH TETRAETHYL LEAD.
        VI.   BEHAVIOR OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BRU-
        CELLA  MELITENSIS DURING ACTIVE IMMUNIZA-
        TION.)  Folia Medica (Naples) 39:154-61
        (Feb.), 1956.
Ten rabbits (1.700-3.000 kg weight) were divided
into 4 groups:  Group 1 (2), controls; Group 2
(2) received sc 0.1 mg 95% alcohol/kg/day.  Groups
3 and 4 (3 animals each) received sc 1 and 10 mg
TEL in 95% alcohol/kg/day and on the 6th, llth,
16th and 21st day an iv injection of 0.25,  0.50,
0.50 and 1 ml of antimelitensis vaccine, respec-
tively.  On days 9, 14, 19, and 24,  1 animal was
sacrificed and the amount of agglutinin and the
presence of incomplete antibodies was studied.
  The antibody response to agglutination was found
to be absent in the blood of the poisoned animals.
Wiener's test showed the presence of blocking anti-
bodies which partially explained the negative test
for agglutinins.

671      Goldberg, A., Ashenbrucker, H., Cart-
        wright, G.E., and Wintrobe, M.M.  (Univ.
        Utah, Salt Lake City):   STUDIES ON THE
        BIOSYNTHESIS OF HEIffi IN VITRO BY AVIAN
        ERYTHROCYTES.  Blood 11:821-33, 1956.
The synthesis of heme was inhibited by raalonate
and Pb at several levels, particularly the forma-
tion of ALA and incorporation of Fe into proto-
porphyrin.  (38 references)

672      Grant, W.M., and Kern,  H.L.  (Harvard Med.
        School; Massachusetts Eye Ear Infirmary,
        Boston):  CATIONS AND THE CORNEA.  TOXI-
        CITY OF METALS TO THE STROMA.  American
        Journal of Ophthalmology 42, Ao. 4, Pt.  2:
        167-81  (Oct.), 1956.
Toxicity of salts of the metallic elements to cor-
neal stroma has been examined along with an analy-
sis of certain chemical reactions of cations in-
volved in corneal injury and attempts to reverse
these reactions for therapeutic purposes.  An ap-
proximately neutral 0.1M  solution of a salt of
each metal (Y, Be, La, Th, Ni,  Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg.  Pb)
was dropped on the scraped cornea of 1 or more rab-
bits for 10 min.  After exposure, the degree and
type of injury was evaluated by periodic examina-
tion during several months.  In control eyes re-
moval of the epithelium and exposure to water or
a neutral solution of ammonium chloride caused no
permanent damage.  In the case of Pb, solubility
was insufficient to provide a 0.1M  solution, but
when tests were carried out employing a more di-
lute solution, this metal was so toxic it caused
complete permanent opacity.
  The results are summarized as follows:  Toxicity
to the corneal stroma as measured by corneal opac-
ification in rabbits can in most instances be cor-
related with the tendency of the metal to bind to
the tissue and with the denaturing influence of
the metal on the cornea as measured by the decrease
in capacity to absorb water and by loss of solubi-
lity of corneal mucoproteins in water.  The cor-
nea exhibits a wide range of selectivity in its
reaction with different metals, quite analogous  to
the selectivity of a cation-exchange resin.  The
metals which compete most effectively for attach-
ment to the tissue are in general the most toxic.
The majority of toxic metals bind to the same re-
active sites in the tissue as do innocuous metals
such as Ca though with stronger affinity; certain
toxic metals,  however, react with the cornea at
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               113

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other sites.  Most effective reversals of the in-
fluence of toxic metals on corneal hydration and
mucoprotein extractability have been obtained by
using EDTA (Na, pH 8.0) following exposure of the
denuded corneas to salts of Cu and Pb and by treat-
ment with Na sulfosalicylate following exposure
to Be sulfate.

673     Great Britain:  THE WEST OF SCOTLAND AGRI-
        CULTURAL COLLEGE.  REPORT ON THE WORK OF
        THE COLLEGE FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30th SEPTEM-
        BER 1956.  Stirling, Jamieson and Munroe,
        Ltd.,  1956, 76  pp.
A case of Pb poisoning  in cattle from chewing Pb-
coated electric cable was reported.  (From Veteri-
nary Bulletin 28, No. 3:957, 1958)

574     Grishchenko,  E.D., and Nikitenko, \^.V.
        (Inst.  Ind.  Hyg. Occup.  Dis.,  Acad.  Med.
        Sci.,  Moscow,  USSR):   Vklyuchenie metionina
        v aktomiosin i v myshechnuyu tkan pri
        khronicheskom svintsovom otravlenii.  (IN-
        CLUSION OF METHIONINE INTO ACTOMYOSIN AND
        INTO MUSCLE TISSUE IN CHRONIC LEAD POISON-
        ING.)   Voprosy Meditsinskoi Khimii 2, No.
        5:328-37,  1956.
Experiments  were performed with young male rats
(115-260 g weight) to whom 100-200 mg Pb nitrate
was administered daily orally over a 5-mo period.
On days 10,  50, and 125 after start of experiment,
groups of rats (5-11  rats/group) were injected in-
to the stomach 1 ml of  -^^S-labeled methionine,
and both experimental and control groups were
sacrificed at each of the above periods designed
to represent the various stages of poisoning.
Body weight, ratio of organ (kidney, liver,  thy-
roid, lungs, heart,  brain) to body weight, baso-
philic stippling,  hemoglobin content of blood,
actomyosin content of heart and skeletal muscle,
and viscosimetric activity of heart and muscle
actomyosin,  were followed, and results were tabu-
lated.
  The results showed that the process of chronic
Pb intoxication could be divided into 3 distinct
periods:  During the 1st relatively short period
(^2 wk), the rate of   S incorporation had in all
cases a tendency to decrease; the animals lost
weight, the  content and viscosimetric activity of
muscle and heart decreased.  During the 2nd period
(within 3 mo) there was a temporary normalization
of vital functions.   The rate of protein resyn-
thesis, the  content and viscosimetric activity of
actomyosin,  the rate of weight increase, and other
values returned to their normal level or exceeded
it.  During the last period (3 mo and more of in-
toxication)  there was a change for the worse in
nearly all values; this condition was irreversible.

675     Hammond, P.B., Wright, H.N., and Roepke,
        M.H. (Univ.  Minnesota, Minn.):  A METHOD
        FOR THE DETECTION OF LEAD IN BOVINE BLOOD
        AND LIVER.  University of Minnesota, Agri-
        cultural Experiment Station Bulletin No.
        221, Dec., 1956, 14 pp.
The principal aim of the investigations was to per-
fect a simple method of detecting Pb in blood and
liver of cattle for diagnostic purposes.  It is
admitted not to be sufficiently accurate to be con-
sidered a quantitative  analytical procedure, so
that for toxicologic investigations, accepted
methods of analysis should be used.  The method in-
volves protein precipitation with trichloroacetic
acid, development of a color reaction by treatment
of the supernatant solutions with 2 reagents and
estimation of Pb concentrations by visual compari-
son to a series of standard color blocks which are
appended, showing color reactions for concentra-
tions of 0-1.2 yg Pb/ml blood and 0-32 yg/g liver.
Analyses of the blood of 16 apparently normal,
healthy cows gave Pb values of 0.10 yg/ml (SD ±0.06
Ug/ml).  From a comparison with a similar
survey (Allcroft, 1950), showing similar results,
the conclusion is drawn that Pb values of >0.24
yg/ml would be encountered in <5% of normal cattle.
The Pb content in the blood of 15 cattle visibly
ill as a result of Pb ingestion ranged from 0.35-
2.36 yg/ml.  Six of the animals died; their blood
Pb was 1.09-2.36 ug/ml.  However, 2 animals sur-
vived with Pb values of 1.40 and 1.52 yg/ml re-
spectively.  It is suggested that any color re-
action for blood intermediate between 0.2 and 0.5
yg/ml be considered strongly suggestive of Pb poi-
soning and that any color indicating higher con-
centration quite definitive evidence of Pb poison-
ing.
  The livers of 14 normal calves and 5 normal cows
were found to contain 0.2-1.9 yg/g fresh substance
(SD ±0.35 yg/g).   Pb concentrations in the livers
of 4 experimentally and 13 accidentally poisoned
cattle ranged from 5.0-240 ug/g.  The authors con-
clude on the basis of their data that a clear
color differentiation usually is possible between
normal concentrations of blood and liver Pb and
those found in cases of Pb poisoning.

676     Harada, A. (Univ.  Kyoto, Japan):  EFFECT
        OF VITAMIN Bl2 AND FOLIC ACID UPON THE
        BLOOD PICTURE OF LEAD WORKERS.  II.  IN-
        FLUENCE OF VITAMIN Bi2 AND FOLIC ACID UPON
        NUCLEIC ACID METABOLISM. Kokumin Eisei 25:
        121-9, 1956.
The nucleic acid content in blood of rabbits,
treated so as to give large reticulocyte counts by
repeated bleeding, is reduced markedly by the ad-
dition of Pb in vitro, but when vitamin B]_2 and
folic acid are administered to the blood in ad-
dition to Pb, the decrease is almost prevented.
The content of nucleic acid in guinea pig bone
marrow of femur and tibia  is also reduced marked-
ly by the injection of  Pb acetate,  but the reduction
is prevented when the guinea pigs are treated with
vitamin Bi2 ancl folic acid, and even the accelera-
tion of its synthesis is apparently noticed.  Thus,
the favorable effects of vitamin Bi2 and folic acid
upon the blood pictures affected by the Pb are
assumed to be caused by their favorable effects on
the metabolism of nucleic acid in erythropoiesis.
(From Chemical Abstracts 51:8992, 1957)

J77     Japanese Association of Industrial Medi-
        cine:  PROCEEDINGS OF THE 29TH GENERAL
        MEETING OF THE JAPANESE ASSOCIATION OF IN-
        DUSTRIAL MEDICINE.  Journal of Science of
        Labour (Japan) 32:217-347 (Apr.), 1956.
Among the 229 papers presented, the following con-
cerned Pb (numbers refer to Proceedings):
Tati, M:  Determination of Lead in Air with EDTA.
  Abstract No. 50.
114
                                    BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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Watanabe, H., Tomita, K., and Murayama, H.:  A
  Survey on  the Lead Poisoning among Workers in
  Newspaper  Printing Factories.  Abstract No. 64.
  See Abstract No.  3137.
Osamura, K., and Nakanishi, Y.:  Electrocardio-
  graphic Studies on the Worker at a Storage Bat-
  tery Manufacturing Plant.  Abstract No. 65.
Nisino, S.:  Treatment of the Lead Poisoned with
  Ca-EDIA by Oral Administration.  Abstract No. 66.
Horiuchi, K., Owada, K., Horiguchi, S., Nagao, Y.
  Iwataki, H., Ueda, T., Hirayama, A., Wada, N.,
  and Yuge, M. :  Prevention and Treatment of In-
  dustrial Lead Poisoning. (Report V):  Effect of
  Oral Administration of Ca-EDTA.  Abstract No. 67.
Horiuchi, K. , Tamori, E., Okada, A., and Yuge, M. :
  Reconsideration on the Distribution of Lead in.
  the Body of Healthy Japanese. (Report I).  Ab-
  stract No. 115.
Horiuchi, K., Horiguchi, S., Nagao, Y., Okada, A.,
  Yuge, M., and Wada, N.:  Studies on the Fate of
  Lead Introduced into the Body. (Report III).
  Oral administration of RaD in guinea pigs.  Ab-
  stract No. 116.
Mori, A.:  On Distribution of Lead in Erythrocyte
  Constituents and Form of Lead Combination.  Ab-
  stract No.  117.
Yokohashi, G. :   Experimental Studies on the Dis-
  tribution of Lead in Blood.   Abstract No.  118.
Sano, S., and Inoue, S.:   Studies on the Distur-
  bance of Hemoglobin Synthesis in Lead Poisoning.
  (Report I):  Studies on the Porphyrin Metabo-
  lism.   Abstract No.  119.
Nishio,  K.:   Effects of Lead Ions upon the Acti-
  vity of Muscle Phosphorylase and Phosphoglucomu-
  tase.   Abstract No.  120.
Orita, Z.( and Harada, A.:   Experimental Studies
  on the Effect of Ca-EDTA upon Lead Poisoning.
  (Report III).   Abstract No.  121.
Sano, S., and Harada,  A.:  Experimental Studies on
  the Effect of Vitamin B^2 upon Lead Poisoning.
  (Report III).   Abstract No.  122.
Fuji, T., Sakakibara,  E., and Hisanari, M.:   Stud-
  ies on the Detoxicating Mechanism of Lead Poi-
  soning.  (Report IV).   Abstract No. 123.
Ichinose, 0.:  Studies on the Metabolism of Serum
  Iron and Copper In Chronic Lead Poisoning.  Ab-
  stract No.  124.
Horiuchi, K., Horiguchi,  S.,  Nagao, Y., Okada, A.,
  Yuge,  M.,  Wada, N.,  and Iwataki,  N.  Initial
  Symptoms of Workers  Exposed to Lead for the
  First  Time.  (Report I).   Abstract No. 125.
Tsuchiya, K., and Nishimura,  M.:  Effects of Para-
  thyroid Function on Lead Poisoning.  Abstract
  No. 126.
Wakizaka, I.:  Lead Poisoning and Pituitary-Adre-
  nocortical Function,   (Report III):  Chronic
  Lead Poisoning of Rats.  Abstract No. 127.
Wakizaka, I.:  Lead Poisoning and Pituitary-Adre-
  nocortical Function.   (Report IV):  Lead Poison-
  ing of Adrenalectomized Rats.  Abstract No.  128.
Masukubo, M.:  Experimental Studies on the Influ-
  ence of Chronic Lead Poisoning on the Function
  of Genital Organs of Female Albino Rats.   Ab-
  stract No.  129.
Sudo, Y.:   Electrophoretic  Studies  on the Serum
  Proteins of Workers  Handling Lead, with Special
  Reference  to  y-Globulin,   Abstract No. 130.
Watanabe, G., and Fuse, T.:  Behaviour of Fluores-
  cyte in the Lead Poisoned.   (Report I):  On the
  Fluorescyte Patterns  in Experimentally Lead Poi-
  soned Guinea Pigs.  Abstract No.  131.
Wakizaka,  I., and Nukada, A.:  Starvation  and Lead
  Poisoning.  Abstract  No.  132.
Nagai, T.,  and Huse,  T.:  On  the  Blood  Glutathione
  Level in Experimentally Lead Poisoned Rabbits.
  abstract No. 133.
Nishlyama,  K., Ishizawa, S.,  Oshima,  M., and Miya-
  zaki, M.:   Experimental Studies on  the Lead Con-
  tent of  Hair.  Abstract No. 134.

678      Joardar,  S.N.D., and Baetjer, A.M.  (Johns
        Hopkins School Hyg.  Pub.   Health, Baltimore,
        Md.):  EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE
        AND DEHYDRATION ON SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MICE
        TO LEAD POISONING.   Federation Proceedings
        15:Abstract No. 326 (Mar.), 1956.
The majority of childhood Pb poisoning cases occur
in summer.  In order  to determine if high environ-
mental temperature and dehydration are responsible
for this seasonal distribution,  mice were exposed
to 60°F, 72°F, and 95°F environmental temperatures
for 3 days before and 2 wk after  injection with Pb.
The body temperature  did not average more than
±1.5°C  from normal.  Dehydration was produced by
restricting water intake leading  to a 12% loss of
body weight over a 3-day period preceding injection
and was maintained for 3 days after injection.
High temperature increased the mortality signifi-
cantly, hastened the  onset of deaths and acceler-
ated the rate of dying when a solution of Pb ace-
tate, Na thiocyanate  and Na citrate was injected
ip and when Pb acetate was  injected iv.   Tempera-
ture exerted no effect on mortality when Pb ace-
tate was administered ip, possibly because this
substance formed  a precipitate in the peritoneal
cavity.  Dehydration significantly increased mor-
tality at  all temperatures  and decreased the
latent period at  high temperature when either of
the  Pb solutions  was injected  ip.   Exposure to
60°F had no significant effect on mortality but
deaths continued  over a longer period.  The
effects of high temperature  cannot be explained
entirely on the basis of increased rate of  ab-
sorption from the peritoneal cavity since similar
results followed  iv injection; nor do the results
parallel body temperature and  expected metabolic
changes.   The marked effect  of dehydration indi-
cates that rate of urinary  excretion may be an
important  factor.   (From authors'  abstract)

679      Kubistova, J. (Dept. Ind. Hyg. Occupation-
        al Dis.,  Prague, Czechoslovakia):  EFFECT
        OF EDATHAMIL  CALCIUM-DISODIUM ON LEAD ACE-
        TATE INTOXICATION.   OBSERVATIONS OF EFFECT
        ON EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LETHAL INTOXICATION
        IN MICE.  Archives of Industrial Health 13:
        556-60 (June), 1956.
Female white mice, 7-8 wk old, were used in all
experiments.  Acute Pb intoxication was induced by
injection of an aqueous solution  of Pb acetate
(trihydrate) into the tail vein at a dose of 300
mg/kg.  (The author notes that this dose, injected
rapidly, will cause death within  a few seconds.
This can be prevented by decreasing the rate of
injection of the total volume of  °X),3 ml ovei ^5
min.)  The above dose caused an average mortality
of 67% in control animals,  the 1st after 12 hr,
most on the 5th and 6th days,  and the last after
                                            Plants and Animals
                                              115

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2 wk.  The mortality varied from 50-91% in various
experiments performed from May 1954-Feb. 1955, and
permitted statistically significant conclusions
concerning the effect of CaNa2EDTA.
  The toxicity of EDTA was first determined:  LD5Q
was >2375 rag/kg iv and 7125 mg/kg ip.  In Expt 1,
EDTA was administered to the mice 5 min after Pb
injection at a dose of 350 mg/kg iv, followed by
4 ip injections of 200 mg/kg at intervals of 3-5
hr.  The total mortality rate in both the control
and EDTA mice  (17/30 vs 11/30) was not statistic-
ally significant.  In Expt 2, EDTA was given at
350 mg/kg 5 min after Pb; 7 injections of 300 mg/
kg were given at intervals of 4-5 hr during the
following night and day, and continued by daily
injection of 200 mg/kg ip for 7 days.  A highly
significant improvement was observed:  13.4% mor-
tality among 15 experimental mice, and 81.4% among
20 controls.  Expt 3 was similar except that the
1st dose of EDTA (200 mg/kg ip) was given 20 hr
after Pb.  The results were also highly signifi-
cant:  5.8% mortality among 17 experimental mice,
and 56% among 16 controls.  Two other experiments
were arranged similarly, but instead of ip injec-
tion, EDTA was administered sc; the results were
highly significant.  In an additional experiment
according to the scheme recommended by Maison
(1953), 73 mg/kg EDTA  given iv daily,  and not >360
mg/kg weekly,  were not effective.
  The author concludes that it is clear that se-
vere Pb intoxication in experimental animals may
be dramatically improved by correct treatment with
EDTA.  Failures and successes of variations in the
treatment showed that it is of greater importance
to continue the administration of EDTA than to be-
gin early with the treatment.  It seems that the
drug does not exert its beneficial effect by sub-
stantially increasing Pb elimination from those
stores in the body that cause the symptoms and
deaths in acute poisoning, but rather that it is
effective predominantly by blocking the Pb that is
continually released from these stores into the
body fluids and by preventing it from reacting
with some sensitive tissue structures.  Some of
the author's observations and those of others
tending to substantiate this hypothesis are dis-
cussed.  Other experiments showed that sc admini-
stration is as effective as ip and that the omis-
sion of the massive dose at the beginning of the
medication or a considerable diminishing of the
doses greatly decreases the effectiveness of the
treatment.  Experiments with chronic Pb poisoning
are in progress.

680     Kubistova, J. (Ustav Hyg.  prace, Prague,
        Czechoslovakia):  (INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM
        VERSENATE ON EXPERIMENTAL CHRONIC LEAD
        POISONING IN ANIMALS.)  Pracovni Lekarstvi
        8:173-5, 1956; Chemical Abstracts 50:
        15961, 1956.
See preceding abstract.

631      Loscalzo, B., and Maggio,  M. (Univ.
        Florence, Italy):  Ripartizione del piombo
        nei surreni di conigli intossicati con
        piombo tetraetile e influenza su tale ri-
        partizione di sostanze diverse (ormoni
        corticosurrenali, CaEDTA,  g-mercaptoetila-
        mina).  (DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN THE
                         SUPRARENALS OF RABBITS  INTOXICATED WITH
                         LEAD TETRAETHYL AND THE INFLUENCE OF  SOME
                         SUBSTANCES  (CORTICO-SUPRARENAL  HORMONES,
                         CaEDTA,  6-MERCAPTOETHYLAMINE) ON THIS
                         DISTRIBUTION.)  Lavoro  Umano  8:324-9,
                         1956.
                The distribution of Pb in  the adrenal glands was
                investigated both in rabbits poisoned with TEL
                (100 mg/kg/day for 2-6 days) and in poisoned rab-
                bits treated with the following (in groups of 2-4
                rabbits  each):   (1)  cortisone,  (2)   desoxycorti-
                costerone,  (3)  cortisone  + 2,  (4)  CaEDTA at 500
                mg/kg/day,  (5)  CaEDTA at  100 mg/kg/day, (6)  B-
                mercaptoethylamine iv and  im.   There  was no re-
                lation between TEL dosage  used  and Pb content of
                the adrenals:  12.18-16.16 mg/100 g.  Both B-mer-
                captoethylamine and CaEDTA (110 mg/kg/day) were
                unable to diminish the Pb  contents.   In rabbits
                treated  with adrenocortical hormones  (especially
                cortisone)  or with CaEDTA  (500  mg/kg/day) however,
                the amount  of Pb found in  the adrenal glands was
                less than that found in the organs of the controls
                that died after the same periods of time:  3.86-
                .10.16 mg/100 g.

                682      Mclntosh, I.G. (Animal  Res. Stat., Wal-
                         laceville, New Zealand):  LEAD  POISONING
                         IN  ANIMALS.  Veterinary Reviews and Anno-
                         tations 2, Pt. 1:57-60  (Apr.),  1956.
                The author  presents this review because Pb is a
                much greater factor in the ill  health and death
                of a greater number of animals  than has been  pre-
                viously  realized.  He also states that  chemical
                examination for Pb in animals having  access to
                this material or exhibiting cerebral  symptoms is
                important for furthering knowledge of Pb poison-
                ing.  (17 references)

                683      Merville, R., Tuchmann, H., and Dequidt,
                         J.  (Toxicol. Lab.  Coll. Med.  and Pharmacy,
                         Lille, France):  Action de 1'Sthylene
                         diaminote'trace'tate de Ca et Na  dans le
                         saturnisme experimental.   (ACTION OF
                         CALCIUM-SODIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETATE
                         IN  EXPERIMENTAL SATURNISM.)   The"rapie 11,
                         .to. 6:1187-a, 1956.
                iwenty rats were injected  for 5 days  with 20  mg
                Pb acetate/day;  10 of them were left  alone, and
                10 received daily for 5 further days  150 mg EDTA.
                In another  experiment, to  study the protective
                action of EDTA,  10 rats were injected daily for
                4 days 40 mg Pb  acetate, and 10 rats  received
                daily for 4 days 40 mg Pb  acetate plus  2 injec-
                tions of 150 mg  EDTA.  The following  organs were
                examined upon sacrifice: spleen, liver, adrenals,
                kidneys, lymph nodes, hypophysis, muscle, ovaries,
                blood, embryos,  placenta.   The  results  showed that
                in the 1st  experiment, Pb  content  increased by
                215  and  43% in  the  livers  and spleen  in spite of
                EDTA  administration, and by 13  and 51%  in the
                kidneys  and liver in the 2nd.   In all other organs
                the Pb content decreased by 6-84% after EDTA
                whether  administered therapeutically  or simulta-
                neously  with Pb .

                684      Mori, A.  (Keio Univ., Japan):  DISTRIBU-
                         TION AND STATE OF  COMBINATION OF LEAD IN
                         BLOOD.   Journal of Science of Labour  (Ja-
                         pan) 32, No. 12:971-91, 1956.
 116
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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A series of experiments was undertaken on the
binding of Pb in blood, in view of conflicting re-
ports by Behrens (1927), Teisinger (1935) , and
Koizumi (1926) concerning the reversibility of
combination.  Particular attention was given to
the distribution and state of Pb in the internal
fluid and in the stroma of red cells.  Four nor-
mal dogs were sacrificed, and Pb determinations
were made by the USPHS method.  In order to dis-
tinguish the ionic and nonionic Pb, the Ross and
Lucas coprecipitation method was applied.  The
chemical property of CaEDTA was utilized for the
estimation of the affinity of Pb for red cells.
The principal results obtained were as follows.
Disparities in the binding capacity of Pb were
evidenced in the blood of normal dogs, that of ex-
perimentally Pb-poisoned dogs, and in blood with
Pb added in vitro.  There was much more Pb in the
red cells of normal dogs than in the plasma; also,
the greater proportion of firmly bound Pb that was
not released by hemolysis of the red cells, was
detected in the internal fluid of the red cells.
When Pb was added to the normal blood, it was re-
covered more easily from the red corpuscles than
from the plasma.  The added Pb may not penetrate
into the internal fluid of the red cells, and even
if a little of it did invade, the combination was
very feeble and could be easily released by hemol-
ysis.   The combination, accordingly,  must be a
physical one which takes place on the surface of
the red cells.  In the experimentally poisoned
dogs,  Pb concentrations increased both in the red
cells and in the plasma,  although the former con-
tained more Pb than the latter.  The Pb found in
the internal fluid of the red cells indicated
stronger combination than shown in the normal
blood.  This implies that the combination of Pb in
the fluid, including hemoglobin and to some extent
in the stroma of red cells, is stronger in the
case of Pb poisoning than when Pb is added to red
cells for a short time in vitro.  CaEDTA became
PbEDTA only to a certain degree when the chemical
was added to red cells from Pb poisoned animals.
Of the Pb combined in vivo 40% was retained, but
not chelated even 12 hr after adding CaEDTA.  On
the other hand, ^90% of the Pb combined in vitro
was released as PbEDTA 12 hr after adding CaEDTA.
Therefore, when a single injection of CaEDTA is
administered to a patient with Pb poisoning, only
a small proportion of Pb combining with the red
corpuscles would be released and excreted in the
urine.  (From author's summary;  23 references)

685      Nagai,  T.,  Huse,  T.,  and Saikawa,  S.  (Univ.
        Niigata School Med.,  Japan):   ON THE CHANGE
        OF BLOOD GLUTATHIONE LEVEL IN EXPERIMENTAL-
        LY LEAD-POISONED RABBITS.   Journal of Sci-
        ence of Labour (Japan)  32:390-403 (May),
        1956.
The authors investigated the change of blood glu-
tathione (B-GSH)  level in rabbits with experimental
Pb poisoning caused by subcutaneous injections of
Pb acetate.   As a rule the concentration of B-GSH
was found to be decreased in all poisoned animals.
To describe in detail, some rabbits  (the  1st
group) died before B-GSH was thoroughly decreased
in amount, the moderately long surviving ones (2nd
group) showed appreciable decrease in amount of
B-GSH, and the long surviving (3rd group) consider-
 able  decrease  of  it.   The  fall  of  B-GSH  level was
 not only manifest, but also  B-GSH  level  of  corpus-
 cles  fell  in the  Pb anemia.   Throughout  every group
 of rabbits  the change  of reticulocytes counted
 simultaneously was just a  mirror image of the change
 of B-GSH level, and the correlation between them
 was good,  r being -0.557 (P   <0.001).  Liver gluta-
 thione  appeared to decrease,  though different in
 grades  according  to the difference of observation
 times in each  rabbit.   Histopathological pattern
 of liver principally represented chronic cholangel-
 tis,  and,  moreover, atrophy  and fatty degeneration
 of parenchymal cells.   As  to  the mechanism  pro-
 posed for  the  fall of  B-GSH  level, the following
 4 circumstances would  possibly  be  considered ! (a)
 obstruction of GSH synthesis  in liver, (b)  in-
 fringement  on  SH  group by  Pb  as a  heavy  metal,  (c)
 as a phenomenon incidental to anemia, and (d) fi-
 nally formation by the adrenal  cortical  hormone
 of unknown  substance,  which  poisons SH group.
 (From   authors' English summary)

 686     Nakano, M:  EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON  THE
        PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM WITH RADIOISOTOPE
        p32.   2.  PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM  IN LEAD
        POISONING.  A.  AN  EXPERIMENT ON  CHRONIC
        LEAD POISONING.  B. AN  EXPERIMENT ON ACUTE
        LEAD POISONING. Journal of the Osaka City
        Medical Center  5:605-11; 612-24  (Nov.),
        1956.   In Contributions from the Depart-
        ment of Preventive Medicine and Public
        Health, Osaka City University Medical
        School, Vol.  1, April 1949-March 1959, p.
        35.
 2A.  When  "p  was injected iv into normal or Pb-
 poisoned guinea pigs,  urinary and  fecal  excretion
 of 32p  decreased  less  in the  Pb-poisoned animals
 than in the controls.   It  appears  that the P me-
 tabolism in the guinea pigs was somewhat disturbed
 by the  absorption of Pb.
  2B.  Na phosphate or  physiological saline  solu-
 tion, containing  labeled P, was administered iv  to
 acutely Pb-poisoned guinea pigs or to Pb-workers.
 The affinity of 32P to  the blood cells was lower
 in the Pb-poisoned guinea pigs  than in controls.
 After administration of phosphate,  the permeability
 of 32p increased.   In man,  the  permeability  into
 the blood cells of 32p  administered as phosphate is
 higher than that of physiological saline solution.
 (From author's English  summary)

 687     National Academy of Sciences-National Re-
        search Council, Division of Biology and
        Agriculture:   HANDBOOK OF TOXICOLOGY.
        VOLUME I.   ACUTE TOXICITIES OF SOLIDS,
        LIQUIDS AND GASES TO LABORATORY ANIMALS.
        Prepared under  the Direction of the  Com-
        mittee on the Handbook of Biological Data,
        edited by W.S.   Spector.  Philadelphia,
        Saunders,  1956, 408 pp.
Lethal doses of Pb and  its compounds are tabulated
 on pp 174-9 under columns showing the species,
 route, dose (LD, LD^Q etc), dosage, vehicle, time
 of death, and references.  The following com-
 pounds,  aside  from Pb  ion,  are  included:   Pb ace-
 tate,  arsenate, carbonate,  chloride,  chromate,
 dioxide, lactate,  monoxide, nitrate,  oleate, or-
 thoarsenate, orthophosphate, oxide, (red) oxide,
 silicate, stearate, sulfate,  sulfide, tetraethyl.
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               117

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688      O'Moore, L.B.:   LEAD POISONING IN CATTLE.
        Irish Veterinary Journal 10:194-202, 1956.
The more sensitive and  rapid methods of Pb estima-
tion have now made possible routine analysis of
postmortem  and other specimens.  Such analyses
show that the concentration of Pb is very much
greater in the kidney cortex than in other tis-
sues.  Experimentally it was found possible to
produce Pb poisoning in  2  calves by administra-
tion of Pb acetate.  One calf received 1600 g
over a period of 35 mo  when it died without show-
ing typical symptoms of Pb poisoning.  The second
calf received a total of 396 g over a period of 10
mo when it died with typical symptoms of acute Pb
poisoning.  The intravenous injection of the che-
lating agent "Calcium versenate" (CaMa 2 EDTA) is
recommended as being the best method of treatment.
(From Veterinary Bulletin 27, Ho. 6-1377, 1957)

ggg      Orita, J.  (Univ. Kyoto,  Japan):  EXPERI-
        MENTAL STUDIES  ON THE EFFECT OF MONOCALCIUM
        DISODIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETATE UPON
        LEAD POISONING.  Kokumin Eisei 25:22-55,
        1956.
Rats or rabbits with Pb poisoning were treated
with CaNa2 ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA).
Oral administration of  EDTA had a favorable effect
on urinary excretion of Pb but sometimes caused
diarrhea.  No harmful effects were observed in
continued and prolonged intraperitoneal treatment.
EDTA caused a marked increase of urinary excretion
of Pb but had no influence on fecal excretion.  It
had little influence on the mobilization of Pb
stored in bones.  EDTA  accelerated the increase of
the erythrocyte count and the hemoglobin level, and
the decrease in basophilic, polychromic erythro-
cyte, and reticulocyte counts.  These reversals
are caused by a secondary action of EDTA.  Admin-
istration of EDTA was followed by increased co-
proporphyrin excretion in urine.  This increase
did not coincide with the increase of the hemo-
globin level which accompanied the increase of Pb
excretion.  The increase of coproporphyrin excre-
tion was not accompanied by any clinical symptoms.
(From Chemical Abstracts 51:13185, 1957)  •

590      Orita, J., Harada, A., and Hamami, T.
        (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  VARIATION OF LEAD
        LEVEL IN BLOOD AFTER INTRAVENOUS INJECTION
        OF MONOCALCIUM-DISODIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINE-
        TETRAACETATE. Kokumin Eisei 25:130-2,
        1956.
Administration of CaNa2EDTA to Pb-poisoned rabbits
caused high Pb level in blood in 1-2 hr,  lower in
3^4 hr, increased again in ^6 hr then decreased
gradually.  The mechanism of action of CaNa2EDTA
is explained in that CaNa2EDTA affects first the
Pb more easily liberated from the tissues, then it
works on the Pb more firmly combined with the tis-
sues.  (From Chemical Abstracts 51:8992,  1957)

591      Orita, J., Harada, A., and Hamami, T.
        (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  EXPERIMENTAL STUD-
        IES ON THE EFFECT OF DICALCIUM ETHYLENEDI-
        AMINETETRAACETATE UPON LEAD POISONING.
        Kokumin Eisei 25:133-7,  1956.
Oral administration of  Ca2EDTA or its CaNa2 salt
to Pb-poisoned  rats  caused an increased excretion
of Pb  in urine, although  this caused the rat to
                  develop  hypocalcemia.   (From  Chemical  Abstracts
                  51:8992,  1957)

                  592      Remy, R.  (Inst. Physiol., Vet.  Coll.,
                          Hannover,  Germany):   Tierexperimentelle
                          Untersuchungen  zur  Bleivergiftung.   I.
                          Toxlkologie.  II.   Therapie  und Prophylaxe.
                          (EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON LEAD  POISONING
                          IN ANIMALS.  I.  TOXICOLOGY.   II. THERAPY
                          AND  PROPHYLAXIS.)   Deutsche  Tierarztliche
                          Wochenschrift 63:385-8; 405-8  (Oct.  1; 15),
                          1956.
                  Pb poisoning in man  and animals is briefly  review-
                  ed with  special emphasis on hematological findings
                  in acute and chronic intoxication.   In a study of
                  acute  Pb poisoning in 2-3 kg  rabbits,  Pb acetate
                  was  given iv on 3  successive  days at levels  of 2,
                  4, 6,  7,  and 8 rag/kg, respectively.  The 7  and 8
                  mg/kg  dose levels  of Pb acetate were uniformly
                  lethal and death occurred before there was  pro-
                  nounced  anemia.  Anemia occurred at  other dosage
                  levels,  but  was followed by recovery.   It was not-
                  ed further that pure strain rabbits  (Blue Vienna
                  and  Angora)  died at  a Pb dosage of 5 mg/kg.  Very
                  fat  rabbits  and growing rabbits also showed  a low-
                  er tolerance to Pb acetate.   A series  of experi-
                  ments  was also carried  out  on a large  number of
                  150-g  rats,  employing ip injection of  Pb acetate
                  after  it was found that such  injections did  not
                  cause  local  inflammation.   Rats receiving Pb ace-
                  tate at  150  mg/kg  in 1  injection died  within 24
                  hr;  of those receiving  Pb acetate at 50 mg/kg,
                  none died.   In the last group a repeat dose  after
                  several  days produced no deaths, but further in-
                  jections to  a total  of  200  mg of Pb  produced death
                  regularly.   In another  group  of rats given  Pb ace-
                  tate injections of 15 mg/kg at regular intervals
                  for  2  mo, practically all animals were alive after
                  reaching a total dosage of  360 mg.   Further, these
                  subacutely poisoned  rats now  uniformly withstood
                  a 100  mg/kg  dose of  Pb  acetate with  no deaths, and
                  4 days later they  again tolerated a  further  100
                  mg/kg  but 40% of them died  within 10 days.   The
                  remainder outlived the  research period and  thus
                  tolerated a  total  Pb acetate  dosage  of 560 mg/kg.
                   These  findings are discussed with  reference to
                  hemoglobin and nucleoprotein  synthesis and  hemo-
                  poiesis,  and the interference of Pb  in these sys-
                  tems is  postulated as being mediated through folic-
                  folinic  acid and vitamin B, --containing enzymes.
                   II.  Large doses of Vitamin B-j^»  folic acid, or
                  liver  extract helped retard or prevent the  appear-
                  ance of  anemia in  animals acutely poisoned  with Pb,
                  but  had  no beneficial effect  in chronic Pb  poison-
                  ing.  Cysteine, given iv, was beneficial in acute
                  Pb poisoning but not in subacute poisoning;  cystine
                  was  ineffective in either case.  Oral  methionine
                  (30-40 mg/kg) effectively retarded or  prevented
                  the  onset of anemia, but was  ineffective in re-
                  ducing skeletal deposition  of Pb.  BAL was  com-
                  pletely  ineffective.  For animals poisoned  acutely
                  with Pb,  a  complete  protein hydrolyzate plus vi-
                  tamin  Bjo injection  gave better protection  against
                  anemia than  either material alone.   Oral or in-
                  jected methionine  alone was also inferior  to the
                  mixture  in  its protection against anemia.   Ascorbic
                  acid was an  equally  effective preventive of Pb-
                  induced  anemia of  dogs  but  was ineffective  in rats
                  for  acute and subacute  poisoning.  As  to CaNa2-
118
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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EDTA treatment, 33 rats were poisoned by  Ip in-
jections of Pb acetate, 35 mg/kg, every 4 days to
a total of 315 mg.  At the same time, EDTA was
given by esophageal tube to 17 of these animals 6
times/wk in doses of 294 mg/kg to a  total of  7938
mg/kg.  The remaining 16 rats served as controls:
80% died and the remainder showed severe  poisoning
symptoms.  All the EDTA-treated rats lived', and
seemed well.  For the controls, the  reticulocyte
curves were from 2-3 times normal, but the treated
rats had essentially normal curves.  This may in-
dicate prevention of bone-marrow damage.  It  is
concluded that the EDTA is effective prophylacti-
cally against Pb poisoning as well as for acute,
subacute, and chronic Pb poisoning.  Oral EDTA
and methionine are suggested for chronic  Pb poi-
soning.  (62 references)

693     Rieders, F., and Copeland, J.E. (Jefferson
        Med. Coll., Philadelphia, Pa.):  INHIBITION
        OF ACCUMULATION OF CHRONICALLY INGESTED
        LEAD IN RATS BY SIMULTANEOUS FEEDING OF
        EDATHAMIL CALCIUM DISODIUM (Na-CaEDTA).
        Federation Proceedings 15:Abstract No. 1541
        (Mar.), 1956.
Two groups of weanling Sherman albino rats were
used.  Group 1 received a diet containing 2 ppm Pb,
incorporated into food and drinking water as Pb
acetate.  The diet of group 2 contained 760 ppm
Na2CaEDTA and 3 ppm Pb, this additional ppm of Pb
originating as an impurity from the Na2CaEDTA.  The
animals were maintained on the respective diets for
38 wk with no gross or hematological ill effects.
Then, 10 males and 10 females from each of the 2
groups were killed by chloroforming.   Stomach, in-
testine, skin and tail were removed and discarded.
The entire remainder of each animal was digested
and analyzed for its Pb content by a dithizone
method.   The Pb contents of the animals were as
follows:  (values are given in mg/100 g;  means and
standard deviations are reported) Group 1, males,
0.049 + 0.025; females, 0.054 + 0.028;  Group 2,
males, 0.020 + 0.008; females,  0.028 + 0.011.   Ac-
cumulation of Pb in the course of its ingestion by
rats is significantly diminished by the simulta-
neous ingestion of Na.CaEDTA.   (From author's
abstract)

694      Skripnichenko,  Z.M.  (V.P.  Filatov Ukrai-
        nian Inst.  of Eye diseases,  USSR):  Eks-
        perimental'nye dannye o vliyanii  tetra-
        etilsvintsa na regulyatsiyu vnutriglazno-
        go  davleniya.   (EXPERIMENTAL  INVESTIGA-
        TIONS  ON THE EFFECT  OF TETRAETHYL LEAD ON
        THE  REGULATION OF THE  INTRAOCULAR PRES-
        SURE.)   Oftal'mologicheskii Zhurnal 11:
        143-48,  1956.
Rabbits, 6-8 mo  old and weighing 2-2.5  kg, were
injected sc  daily or every 2 days with TEL, dis-
solved in oil,  at  the rate of  0.05 ml/kg  body
weight.   The animals became agitated after the
first few injections,  some developed  tremors and
convulsions  and  17 of 20 rabbits died within 10
days.  The  intraocular pressure was lowered in 2
and raised  in 2  other rabbits.   In another test  10
rabbits  were injected every 3rd day for 30 times
with 0.02 ml of  ethyl fluid/kg body weight and 3
survivors of the 1st series  received each 5 in-
jections of  0.05 ml/kg weight  and after a rest
period of 19 days 30 injections of 0.02 ml/kg
each.  Three of the 13 animals died after 9-18
injections, 4 after 30 injections and the remain-
ing 6 were observed for 3.5 more mo.  In 8 of the
13 rabbits the intraocular pressure rose from a
preexperimental range of 15.5-22.3 mm to 33.0-
36.3 mm.  The average daily fluctuations of the
intraocular pressure before the experiment was
3.7 mm for either eye.  During the period of in-
jections this fluctuation increased to 10.9 and
10.7 mm for the right and left eye, respectively,
while after the test the average fluctuation for
5 surviving rabbits was 3.4 and 2.4 mm, respec-
tively.  (13 references)

695     Stevens, C.D., Feldhake, C.J., and Kehoe,
        R.A. (Univ. Cincinnati, 0.):  ISOLATION
        FROM LIVER OF TETRAETHYLLEAD AFTER ITS
        INHALATION.  Journal of Pharmacology and
        Experimental Therapeutics 117:420-4 (Aug.),
        1956.
A qualitative analytical method specific for TEL
was developed and applied to analysis of liver
tissues of rats exposed to TEL, to clarify the
problems of certain potential defects in the ana-
lytical technics of those who assumed to have ob-
tained TEL as a volatile material from certain
tissues of subjects intoxicated with TEL.  The
method, based on extraction of TEL by pentane,
concentrated by low temperature vacuum distilla-
tion, and identified by infrared  spectra and Pb
analyses, is described and results are discussed
in detail.  The possibility that the tissues con-
tained triethyl Pb and diethyl Pb was ruled out.
TEL was shown to be present in liver tissues of
rats which had  inhaled TEL vapor.  No homologs
containing methyl groups were detected in the
concentrates.

696      Stewart, W.L., and Allcroft, R.:  LAMENESJ
        AND POOR THRIVING IN LAMBS ON FARMS IN OLD
        LEAD MINING AREAS IN THE PENNINES.  I.
        FIELD INVESTIGATIONS. Vet. Record 68:723-
        8, 1956.
The disorder,  in young Swaledale lambs, is char-
acterized by a specific locomotor disability and
is confined to flocks grazing near old Pb mines.
The history and symptoms are described.  Pb values
for blood, tissues and feces of affected lambs
were abnormally high, as were those of herbage
samples from affected areas, although symptoms
typical of acute Pb poisoning were never observed
and most affected lambs recovered spontaneously.
Breeding ewes on affected farms remained clinical-
ly healthy.  Blood Pb concentrations of ewes and
their newborn lambs were similar, but within 3-5
wk those of the lambs were double those of the
ewes.  Clinical symptoms, however, were not always
associated with high blood Pb levels .  Growth and
development were much poorer in lambs from an af-
fected area than in lambs from a healthy farm.
Although these results suggest that absorption of
abnormal amounts of Pb is associated with the
occurrence of the disorder, other possible factors
cannot be ruled out.  (From Veterinary Bulletin
27:Abstr. 236, 1957)

697       Stychinskaya, M.I.:  THE  THERAPY OF PA-
        TIENTS HAVING LEAD POISONING.  Trudy  Inst.
                                           Plants and Animals
                                               119

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        Kraevoi Patol.,  Akad. Nauk Kazakh.  SSR
        4:128-39, 1956.
Experiments were performed with Pb-poisoned rab-
bits.  After anemia developed, pentoxyl was admin-
istered per os in a 10% solution at doses of 0.01-
O.OJ5 g/kg for 20-30 days.  The hemoglobin percent
increased, as did the number of erythrocytes;
basophilic stippling vanished from the peripheral
blood, and the number of reticulocytes was re-
duced.  The simultaneous administration of pen-
toxyl with the Pb for 20 days changed the blood
picture to a lesser degree.  It is suggested that
pentoxyl stimulated and normalized the function-
ing of the bone marrow.   (From Chemical Abstracts
51:18315, 1957)

£98     SUmegi, I.,  Goreczky, L.,  and Rdth, I.
        (3rd Dept. Internal Dis.  Hungarian State
        Railway's Hosp., Budapest):  MORPHOLOGICAL
        DATA ON QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN THE NORMAL
        ANTIBODIES OF THE SERUM IN LEAD POISONING.
        Acta Morphologica Academiae Scientiarum
        Hungaricae 7:183-97, 1956.
In order to establish the possibility of demon-
strating objective morphologic changes in the  ner-
vous system in addition to and parallel with the
phenomena presenting themselves under the changed
immunobiological conditions of Pb poisoning, 1 ml/
kg body weight of 2% Pb  acetate was injected intra-
veneously into rabbits.   This was  repeated every
2nd day for 8-10 days.  Up to 4000 ug of porphyrin
appeared (largely coproporphyrin III).  Animals
also developed anemia and low erythrocyte counts
and hemoglobin levels.  Intense porphyrin fluores-
cence was observed in the kidneys, liver, and  other
organs.  In the experiments with porphyrin, injec-
tion of 2.5 ml of 0.1% hematoporphyrin (2500 yg)/kg
body weight produced similar immunobiologic changes.
(53 references)

599     SUmegi, I.,  Goreczky, L.,  and Roth, I.:
        (MORPHOLOGICAL DATA ON THE QUANTITATIVE
        CHANGES IN PROTECTIVE SUBSTANCES OF THE
        SERUM IN LEAD POISONING.)  Kiserletes
        Orvostudomany 8, No. 4:428-38, 1956.

700     Taddei, I.,  and Bianchini, M. :  (PLASMA
        PROTEINS AS CARRIERS OF HEAVY METALS.
        ELECTROPHORETIC INVESTIGATIONS WITH LEAD
        AND MERCURY SALTS.) Atti accad. fisiocrit.
        Siena, Sez.  med.-fis. 3:41-6, 1956.
The electrophoretic separation and microchemical
analysis of serum of rabbits injected with Pb  ni-
trate or Hg chloride showed that Pb circulates in
vivo bound to albumin and ai- and a2~globulins
and possibly to a lipoprotein fraction; Hg was
bound only to albumins.   (From Chemical Abstracts
51:14865, 1957)

701     Teuchmann, J.K.  (Centralny Inst. Ochrony
        Pracy, Warsaw, Poland):  (COMPARATIVE  EX-
        PERIMENTS ON LEAD POISONING OF ANIMALS
        PLACED IN A PRINTING SHOP.) Prace Central-
        nego Inst. Ochrony Pracy 6, No. 1(17):l-6,
        1956.
Ninety guinea pigs were kept for a year in various
places in a printing shop in which the air con-
tained Pb (0.03-0.22 mg/m3). The weights, Pb con-
tents in blood, roentgenograms of  bones, and ana-
                  tomic histopathological tests were compared with
                  10 control animals.  In general the animals were
                  in good health.  Some changes were found in the
                  organs of vision.  The accepted toxicity level of
                  0.03 mg% of Pb in blood was concluded to be too
                  low.  (From Chemical Abstracts 53:7434, 1959)

                  702      Ungher, J., iirosteanu, R. , Nestianu, V.,
                          Lillis, M. , Moscovici, B., and Pompilian,
                          V. ("I.P. Pavlov" Inst. Neurol. K.P.R.
                          Acad., Romania):   Cercetari electroencefa-
                          lografice pe animale intoxicate cu plumb.
                          (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC RESEARCH ON ANI-
                          MALS WITH LEAD POISONING.)  Comunicarile
                          Academiei Republicii Populare Romine 6:
                          1033-43, 1956.
                  Dogs were administered 2 mg Pb acetate/kg/day to
                  produce chronic poisoning; 0.5% solutions were
                  used.  The electroencephalograms (EEC) were regis-
                  tered once a week, prior to and after the adminis-
                  tration of Pb.  No linear progression was ob-
                  served, rather a cycle, ie the animals became
                  worse, then showed improvement, in spite of the
                  fact that the administration of Pb continued in
                  the same manner.  Four phases could be distin-
                  guished.  In the 1st, during the 1st 2 or 3 wk of
                  poisoning, slow theta and delta waves were noted.
                  the biocurrents showed reduced amplitude, inter-
                  mittent light did not stimulate.  The dogs were
                  excited.  In this phase the cerebral matter comes
                  for the 1st time into contact with Pb.  In the 2nd
                  phase, during the 4th-8th wk, the EEC's improved
                  but they showed spindles, ie, an inhibition had
                  set in.  After the Pb dose the light stimuli were
                  much more effective than before.  The dogs were
                  quieter now, they became adapted to Pb.  In the
                  3rd phase the compensation mechanisms were over-
                  stepped, the EEC's became worse again; epileptic
                  tracings were noted.  The dogs were obviously ill;
                  they vomited a lot, and showed bloody scars on the
                  skin.  The 4th phase was coma preceding death, the
                  tracings in the EEG were very flat.

                  703      Yamaguchi, S., and Katsuya, K.:  (METABO-
                          LISM OF LEAD ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETATE.
                          I. METABOLISM OF LEAD ETHYLENEDIAMINE-
                          TETRAACETATE GIVEN BY INTRAVENOUS INJEC-
                          TION.)  Igaky To Seibutsugaku 40:234-8,
                          1956.
                  Rabbits were treated with various amounts of Pb
                  ethylenediaminetetraacetate by intravenous injec-
                  tion in a single dose or in multiple doses.  Ap-
                  proximately 88% of Pb administered was excreted in
                  the urine within 3 hr and 99% in 9 hr.  Very
                  little Pb was found in the feces.  A  small but
                  distinct amount of Pb was deposited in the organs
                  after repeated administration of PbEDTA, amounting
                  as high as 1250 ug% in the liver and 146 yg% in
                  the kidney.  (From Chemical Abstracts 52:7530,
                  1958)

                          1957

                  704      Ambanelli, U., and Salvi, G.   (Univ.
                          Parma,  Italy):  Azione  comparata della
                          beta mercaptoetilamina  e  del  sale disodico
                          calcico  dell'acido etilendiaminotetraceti-
                          co  sulla  intossicazione  sperimentale  da
                          piombo  tetraetile.   (COMPARISON OF  g-MER-
120
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        CAPTOETHYLAMINE AND THE DISODIUM SALT OF
        CALCIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETATE IN
        TETRAETHYLLEAD POISONING.)  Folia Medica
        (Naples) 40:350-73, 1957.
g-Mercaptoethylamine showed in rabbits poisoned
acutely with TEL (by inhalation exposure) a pro-
tective action manifested by prevention of death
and increased urinary excretion of Pb.  Although
CaNa2EDTA increased the urinary excretion it
failed to protect against death and rather accel-
erated the onset of toxic signs.  In subacute
poisoning over a prolonged time the results were
variable and did not permit a definite statement
as to the value of either treatment.
  In order to study certain obscurities surround-
ing TEL poisoning, the authors determined the Pb
content of the kidneys, lungs, liver, urain, and
heart of a number of rabbits both by the dithizone
(Bambach and Winter) and the polarographic meth-
ods.  Certain differences in results were found,
which were attributed to analytical errors.  They
found also that the Pb contents varied as to the
time death occurred.  The sooner death occurred,
the greater were Pb contents,  regardless of dura-
tion and intensity of exposure.  In the organs of
a worker who died 6 days after onset of poisoning
in spite of treatment with the chelating agent,
the following amounts of Pb were found:  brain
11.63 mg, liver 20.6, kidneys 1.26, lungs 4.05,
stomach (in 26.2 g of fresh tissue) 248.12 yg.
(19 references)

705     Atchabarov, B.A., and Makashev, K.K.:
        (THE FATE OF LEAD IN THE ORGANISM.)  Trudy
        Inst. Kraevoi Patol., Akad. Nauk Kazakh
        SSR 4:5-21, 1956.
The absorption and distribution of Pb by the or-
ganism was tested on 99 white rats using radio-
active isotope of Pb (ThB) which was administered
intravenously, subcutaneously, and intragastrical-
ly in doses of 50-200 x 10^ impulses/min.  The
rate of Pb absorption by the organism and its dis-
tribution among the tissue organs varied greatly.
If administered once/os, Pb was completely ab-
sorbed within 2-4 hr; if administered repeatedly
to the point of appearance of chronic poisoning,
Pb absorption became progressively slower.  The
same was true of Pb repeatedly administered sub-
cutaneously.  Two to 2.5% of the Pb was eliminated
in 24 hr via the urine and 0.3-20% via the feces.
(From Referat. Zhur. Khim., Biol. Khim. 1957, No.
14516; Chemical Abstracts 51:18315, 1957)

706      Bersin, T.,  MUller, A., and Schwarz, H.
        (St. Gallen, Switzerland):  Zur pharmakol-
        ogischen Wirkung einiger anorganisch-
        organischer Komplexverbindungen.  (PHARMA-
        COLOGICAL ACTION OF SOME INORGANIC-ORGANIC
        COMPLEX COMPOUNDS.)  Archives of Biochem-
        istry and Biophysics 69:507-13, 1957.
A number of EDTA salts were prepared.  CaNa2EDTA,
orally administered to growing albino mice, was
somewhat better tolerated than C32EDTA.  However,
the author himself took 0.3 g Ca2EDTA/24 hr for 3
mo and tolerated the drug well.  Ca2EDTA is used
in the prophylaxis of Pb poisoning.  The LDgg'5
(g/kg) for albino mice iv were as follows:  CaMg-
EDTA 1.87; MgNa2EDTA 0.124, BiNaEDTA 0.075.  Al-
bino mice injected iv with 1.616 CaMgEDTA became
unconscious  for some hours but  recovered  complete-
ly.   Piperazine CaEDTA  is used  as vermicide.  Au-
thors  conclude that the pharmacological effect  is
produced by  the entire  EDTA molecule.

7Q/     Bessis, M., and Breton-Gorius, J.  (Natl.
        Blood Transfusion Center, France):  Gran-
        ules ferrugineux dans les cellules macro-
        phages et les erythrocytes au cours du
        saturnisme experimental.  Examen du micro-
        scope electronique.  (FERRUGINOUS GRANULES
        IN THE HACROPHAGES AND  ERYTHROCYTES IN  EX-
        PERIMENTAL SATURNISM; EXAMINATION WITH  THE
        ELECTRON MICROSCOPE.)   Comptes Rendus des
        Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de
        ses  Filiales 151, No. 2:275-6, 1957.
Adult rats received 3 intraperitoneal injections
of 0.2 ml Pb acetate (8 g%) and were sacrificed 3
wk later.  Blood and spleen were prepared for ex-
amination by electron microscope (Hoffman et al,
1956).  The  erythrocytes contained large numbers
of granules  of a nonhemoglobin  Fe complex 40-100A
diameter.  These granules were  also present in
very large amounts in the macrophages of the
spleen.

708     Bessis, M., and Breton-Gorius, J.:  (ELEC-
        TRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF THE BLOOD AND
        HEMATOPOIETIC ORGANS IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD
        POISONING.   IRON CYCLE INTERPRETED.) Path-
        ol. et biol., Semaine hop.  5:411-28, 1957.
Electron microscopic studies were made on rats  in-
jected intraperitoneally with several 0.5-ml doses
of 8% Pb subacetate and sacrificed thereafter at
intervals.  Granulations of 20-50 Fe atoms (50  A.
diam.) surrounded by protein of high molecular
weight were found in the erythrocvtes.
  The Fe is collected by pinocvtosis during the
erythroblast stage in the bone marroxv.  The Fe  is
also laid down in cytoplasmic structures without
hemoglobin, producing the basophilic punctations
characteristic of Pb poisoning.  The spleen is
overrun with macrophages containing much Fe from
phagocytosis of red cells.   The Fe-containing
masses in the macrophages vary greatly in size,
from small to very large.  The results show that
the mechanism of Pb poisoning is either an inhibi-
tion or a disruption of synthetic processes in  the
red cells.  Although the red cells contain much Fe
in an abnormal form, the amounts of hemoglobin
(containing Fe) are much lower than in normal red
cells.  (22 references.)  (From Chemical Abstracts
54:15717, 1960)

7Q9     Bessis, M., and Breton-Gorius, J.:  Etude
        au microscope electronique des granula-
        tions ferrugineuses des erythrocytes nor-
        maux et pathologiques.   Anemies hemoly-
        tiques, hemoglobinopathies, saturnisme.
        (ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF FERRUGINOUS
        GRANULATIONS OF NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL
        ERYTHROCYTES ; HEMOLYTIC ANF.MIAS ; HEMOGLO-
        BIN, DISORDERS; SATURNISM.) Revue d'Hema-
        tologie (Paris) 12, No. 1:43-63,  1957.
Erythroblasts and certain normal or pathologic
erythrocytes contain ferruginous granules which
form visible plaques upon staining with Prussian
blue.  In the course of cellular maturation the
granules scatter and consolidate as though partic-
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               121

-------
ipating in the genesis of the hemoglobin molecule.
These ferruginous granules arise from the lysis
of reticular cells which in turn have recovered
them from phagocytized red cells, the Fe having
been extracted from hemoglobin.  They were seen
in cases of thalassemia and in rats poisoned by
Pb.  (From Archives des Maladies Professionnelles
de Medicine du Travail et de Se'curite Sociale 18,
No. 6:812 (Abstracts), 1957)

710     Biondi,  S.  (Italy):  USE OF  SERUM-ALBU-
        MINS  IN  KERATINIZED CAPSULES  IN THE  PRE-
        VENTION  OF  SATURNISM.   In XII Internation-
        al Congress on Occupational  Health,  Hel-
        sinki, Finland,  1957,  Vol. II, Summaries,
        pp. 79-80.
See Abstract No. 829.

711     Caccuri,  S., Pecora,  L., Fati, S., and
        Vecchione,  C.  (Italy):   RESEARCHES ON THE
        PORPHYRINOGENESIS IN THE LEAD-POISONING.
        In XII International Congress on Occupa-
        tional Health, Helsinki, Finland,  1957,
        Vol.  II,  Summaries, p.  52.
See Abstract No.  779.

712     Candela,  R.R., Dehesa,  G.,  and Candela,
        J.L.R.:  (TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE
        INTOXICATION WITH LEAD.  II.  EFFECT OF
        CALCIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETATE.) Med.
        y seguridad trabajo 5,  No.  20:24-8, 1957.
Pb excretion in the urine of poisoned white rats
increased three-fold after treatment  with  CaEDTA
(From Chemical Abstracts 53:2472, 1959)

713     Cordy, D.R.  (Univ. California, Davis):
        OSTEODYSTROPHIA FIBROSA ACCOMPANIED BY
        VISCERAL ACCUMULATION OF LEAD.  Cornell
        Veterinarian 47:480-90  (Oct.), 1957.
Three cases of osteodystrophia fibrosa in growing
baboons were described and differentiated from
other bone diseases.  An abnormal Ca-to-P ratio in
the diet,  similar to that observed in horses with
the condition, was found.  Low renal levels of Pb
with accompanying inclusion bodies were an inci-
dental finding.  It is thought that the accumula-
tion of Pb was not significantly related to the
bone disease since no heavy deposition appeared in
bone radiography, anemia was not observed, and no
disturbances specifically referable to Pb toxico-
sis were seen.  The baboons may have obtained the
Pb as paint or as spray on fruit.  (19 references)

714     Dhar,  D.C. (Central Drug Res. Inst.,
        Lucknow,  India):   STUDIES ON  ANAEMIA:
        PART V - CHANGES  IN PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF
        BLOOD IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD ANAEMIA.  Jour-
        nal of Scientific and Industrial Research
        (India) 16C:123-6, 1957.
The results of studies of electrophoretic and
chemical fractionation of the blood proteins of
albino rabbits before and after anemia are re-
ported.  Albino rabbits weighing between 1.2 and
1.5 kg and maintained on a diet of water ad lib,
carrots, green leaves, and bran were  used in this
investigation.  After studying the normal protein
distribution of these rabbits,  anemia was produced
in them by the administration of 3 iv injections
of 2% Pb solution (6 mg/kg body weight)  given on
                   successive days.   In the  Pb-anemic  rabbit  an  in-
                   crease in plasma  protein  concentration was obser-
                   ved.   This result was  explained  on  the basis  that
                   a  drop in albumin and  a corresponding  rise in
                   globulin  concentration had  occurred.

                   715     Di Maggio, G.  (Inst.  Pharmacol. Exptl.
                          Therap.,  Univ. Catania,  Italy):  II metile-
                          sculetolo quale fattore  protettivo nell'-
                          avvelenamento  da  piombo.  (METHYLESCULETOL
                          AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR IN LEAD POISONING.)
                          Biochimica Applicata  4:149-56, 1957.
                   In groups of rats (1)  controls,  (2) given 50  mg Pb
                   acetate/100 g orally,  (3) given  2 mg methylescule-
                   tol/100 g daily,  and (4)  treated with  both Pb and
                   methylesculetol,  the body weight (within 30 days)
                   changed by +9.7,  -6.6, -2.2,  and +5.1%, respec-
                   tively, and liver weight  (fresh) to 5.420, 5.940,
                   4.980, and 5.110  g (water 63.92, 67.03, 72.55,  and
                   68.13%),  with the following contents:   free choles-
                   terol, 0.40, 0.84, 1.44,  and  0.56% (dry basis);
                   esterfied cholesterol, 0.91,  1.16,  0.80, and  0.45%;
                   cholesterol esters, 1.68,  2.14, 1.48, and 0.84%;
                   cholesterol ester soaps, 0.77, 0.98, 0.68,  and
                   0.39%; neutral fat soaps,1.11, 1,26, 2.44, and
                   1.00%; free soaps, 0.92, 0.30, 3.22, and 1.72%;
                   phosphatide soaps 3.34, 1.93, 1.71, and 1.67%;
                   phosphatides (as  distearinyllecithin), 5.31, 3.07,
                   2.72,  and 2.66%;  total lipides, 9.42, /.61, 11.20,
                   and 7.78  g % (dry basis); glycogen (as glucose),
                   2.040, 0.840, 0.530, and  1.560 g % (fresh basis).
                   The author concludes that methylesculetol exerts
                   a  protective action in Pb poisoning.

                   716     Durbin, P.W.,  Scott,  K.G.,  and Hamilton,
                          J.C.:  THE DISTRIBUTION  OF RADIOISOTOPES
                          OF SOME HEAVY  METALS  IN  THE RAT.  Univer-
                          sity of California Publications in Pharma-
                          cology 3, No.  1:1-34, 1957.
                   A  summary is presented of data on the  biological
                   half times and the principal  deposition sites of
                   18 heavy  metals in mature rats (Sprague-Dawley,
                   Curtis-Dunning,  and Slonaker  strains).  Radio-
                   isotopes  were administered  orally,  im,  or  iv  in
                   neutral isotonic  saline or  Na citrate.   Data  are
                   included  on the following elements: Cd, Hg,  In,
                   Tl,  Sn, Pb, Nb, Ta,  Mo, W,  Tc, Re,  Ru, Os, Rh,
                   Ir,  Pd, and Pt.
                     Pb was  among the metals that were characterized
                   by relatively slow absorption from an  im site un-
                   less given with a coinplexing  agent, transient re-
                   tention in liver  and kidney,  and prolonged re-
                   tention in the skeleton.   In  the U.C.  studies,
                   using  203pD iv, on the 1st  day,  liver, kidney,
                   blood, and bone  contained  55% of the  administer-
                   ed dose;  28% had  been  excreted in the  urine and
                   feces. By the 6th day most of the  Pb  in the  soft
                   tissues had been  eliminated (in  the feces), where-
                   as the skeletal Pb remained the  same as the 1st
                   day.   Given orally,  CaEDTA had no effect on the
                   distribution of radio  Pb  in either  soft tissue  or
                   skeleton, and failed to augment  its excretion sig-
                   nificantly.  (103 references)

                   717      Dutkiewicz, T.,  Paluch,  J., and Neuhorn,
                          U.:  Porownanie  toksycznego dziaXania
                           olowiu zawartego  w szkliwach ceramicznych
                          wysokoi niskooZowiowych.  (COMPARISON OF
                           TOXIC ACTION OF HIGH AND LOW LEAD LEVEL
122
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        CERAMICS.) Medycyna Pracy 8, No. 6:389-98,
        1957.
In order to compare the toxicity of Pb compounds
in high level glazes  (57% PbO) and in low Pb level
glazes  (10% PbO), 2 groups of rabbits were given
equal amounts of both sorts of glaze intratraehe-
ally, 15 and 16 mg Pb/kg of weight respectively.
Lead excretion in urine and its deposition in the
tissues, as well as histopathologic examination,
showed that both the absorption and the toxic ac-
tion of Pb compounds in these 2 kinds of glaze are
identical.  The solubility in acids of Pb com-
pounds present in the glazes is no criterion for
evaluation of their toxic action when absorbed by
way of the respiratory tract.  (From Excerpta
Medica Sect. XVII, 5, No. 1:226, 1959)

718     Fabre, R., and Girault, M.:  Contribution
        a 1'etude de 1'action des toxiques sur
        1'embryon de poulet.  Application au cas
        du plomb.  (EFFECTS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES ON
        THE CHICK EMBRYO.  EFFECTS OF LEAD.)
        Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances
        de 1'Academic des Sciences 244:535-8,1957.
The vitellin sacs of chick embryos were injected
with 0.1 ml of Pb acetate and the effect on the
development studied.  If injection was performed
before the embryo was 3 days old it died; after
10 days no effects were noted.  Injection on the
5th day caused 50% mortality.  The survivors were
stunted, had general atrophy of the encephalic
block with necrotic zones occupied by macrophages,
and an abnormal astrocyte density.  The cranium
was abnormally distended by a liquid consisting
of protein  (6-8 g/1), albumins and a-and g-globu-
lins.

719     Formijne, P.,  and Lehr,  C.F.G.,  with the
        technical assistance of  Linschoten,  J.
        (Univ.  Amsterdam, The Netherlands):   EF-
        FECTS OF COMBINED ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD
        CARBONATE AND ALLYLISOPROPYLACETYLCARBA-
        fflDE ON PORPHYRIN EXCRETION IN THE RABBIT.
        Koninklijke Nederlands e Akademie van Weten-
        schappen, Proceedings, Series C 60,  No.  4:
        531-6,  1957.
Male and female rabbits,  2.5-5 kg weight,  pre-
experimentally  excreted daily 0-50 yg of copropor-
phyrin (CP); both uroporphyrin (UP)  and porphobil-
inogen (PEG), were absent in all animals.   Two out
of 14 rabbits were given 200 mg of Pb carbonate/
kg/day, mixed with food;  12 rabbits were given the
same dose of "Sedormid" (allylisopropylacetylcar-
bamide).   (Administration of "Sedormid"  (allyliso-
propylacetylcarbamide)  causes intense excretion  of
porphyrins in the rabbit.)   After a  period  of  17-
42 days,  5 of the sedormid  rabbits received  ad-
ditionally Pb carbonate.  Administration of  Pb
carbonate  alone increased the excretion  of  CP  (even
though it  was irregular and  slow;  the peak was
reached on the  14th-17th  day)  and caused a  slight
excretion  of PEG.   Sedormid  alone produced  a mark-
ed excretion of porphyrins  and PEG in 5  of  12  rab-
bits.   Subsequent combined  administration of
sedormid and Pb carbonate in these 5 rabbits de-
creased the  excretion  of  UP  and  PEG  in all,  though
in different degrees.   Excretion of  CP was  not
changed significantly  by  addition of Pb  carbonate
in 4 animals while one showed a  marked increase.
  The results suggested  to the  authors that Pb can
inhibit to some extent the formation of PEG  and UP
in the sedormid rabbit, which could be explained
by an inhibitory effect  of Pb on CP formation  in
the liver, while the effect of Pb on the bone
marrow is responsible for the main CP  excretion
during the administration of Pb + sedormid.

720     Goreczky, L., Roth, I., Stlmegi, I., and
        Vajda, G. (Hungarian State Highways, Buda-
        pest):  IMMUNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE SERUM
        IN ACUTE LEAD POISONING. Schweizerische
        Zeitschrift fUr Allgemeine Pathologic und
        Bakteriologie 20:459-69, 1957.
Rabbits (2.5-3 kg)  were injected intravenously
with 20 mg Pb acetate/kg (2% aqueous solution).
Tests with rat leukocytes, Micrococcus pyogenes
var.  aureus,  and Salmonella typhosa showed that
the opsonic activity of the serum was increased
36.7 I 16.5 and 59.5 ± 22.8% at 6 and 24 hr, re-
spectively, after the Pb injection.   At the same
times, the bactericidal activity against Micro-
coccus pyogenes var. aureus and Salmonella typhosa
of the serum was decreased 27.4 i 16.6 and 52.5 -
21.8%, and the complement titer was 0.40 and 0.38
(normal 0.48).  It  was assumed that the porphyrin
which formed was involved in the actions of Micro-
coccus pyogenes var. aureus,  and 2.5 mg hemopor-
phyrin/kg was injected into another set of ani-
mals.  The changes  in the above tests were of the
same order of magnitude but slightly less than
with the Pb injections.  (37 references.)

721       Gorsheleva, L.S.:   THE ULTRAPARADOXICAL
         PHASE DURING RESEARCHES ON CONDITIONED
         MOTOR REFLEXES IN WHITE RATS UNDER THE
         INFLUENCE  OF VARIOUS INTOXICATIONS.  In
         Works of the Institute of  Higher Nervous
         Activity,  Pathological Series, Volume III.
         Experimental Investigations Into Disorders
         of the Higher Nervous Activity of Animals
         Under Intoxications  and Infections, and
         Search for a Pathogenetically Based Ther-
         apy.   Moscow Academy of Sciences of the
         USSR, 1957.  Translated by M.  Paenson,
         A. Peters, Z.  Lothan, and Z.S. Cole.
         Washington, D.C.,  National  Science Founda-
         tion.  U.S. Department of Commerce, Office
         of Technical Services, OTS 60-21086,
         1960, pp.  76-87.
Eleven white rats were tested for their conditioned
alimentary motor reflexes; 6 were found to be of
the strong balanced type of nervous system and 5
belonged to the weak type.  The animals were in-
jected sc with a 0.06 oil solution of TEL/kg body
weight (sic).  Responses of 3 individual rats are
singled out and charted in 3 tables.  One of them,
after showing completely appropriate motor reac-
tions before TEL injection, changed its behavior
suddenly on the 4th day.  The 2nd rat displayed
the same ultraparadoxical phase as the 1st one on
the 14th day and the 3rd rat disclosed on the 22nd
day of intoxication phenomena of completely  inhi-
bitory and ultraparadoxical phases.  Results of
the experiment thus showed that the period of TEL
intoxication is marked by several features: where-
as the animals rushed to the food box and stub-
bornly looked for food in response to  the inhi-
bitory stimulus (differentiation), in  response
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               123

-------
to the positive stimulus they not only did not
manifest any positive motor reaction nor run to-
wards the food box but on the contrary turned away
from it and hid.  A similar behavior was observed
in most animals of the weak type of nervous system.
(16 references)

122     Granati, A., and Andreani, D. (Univ.
        Rome, Italy):  Atteggiamenti del ricambio
        protidico nelle intossicazioni sperimen-
        tali.  Nota I. II "turnover" metabolico
        dell'albumina marcata nell'intossicazione
        da Pb.  (PROTEIN TURNOVER IN EXPERIMENTAL
        POISONING.  I. METABOLIC TURNOVER OF LA-
        BELED ALBUMIN IN LEAD POISONING.)  Rasseg-
        na di Fisiopatologia Clinica e Terapeutica
        29, No. 4:387-95, 1957.
Four rabbits (2 kg body weight)  were used; 2 of
them were poisoned by oral administration of 6 ml
of a 20% Pb acetate solution every 4 days over a
period of 2 mo.  Electrophoretic examination of
the serum at the end of the feeding period showed
hyposerinemia and a hypergamma-globinemia; total
proteins and especially albumin were lower than
normal.   No albuminuria was  observed throughout
this period.  Both poisoned and control rabbits
received then iv
                 13
poi
;1I-
                      labeled human albumin, and
24 and 48 hr thereafter blood was collected; this
was repeated every 48 hr over 8 days.  Before and
during the experiment, each rabbit received daily
3 drops of 10% K iodide so as to prevent the up-
take of the 131i by the thyroid.  The results of
the experiments showed that in the poisoned ani-
mals a decrease of the albumin pool and a slowing
of the metabolic turnover of the protein occur.
This is interpreted by the authors as being due
to a reduced breakdown, and that the intermediate
metabolites resulting from the splitting of the
albumin molecules are utilized to a lesser extent
than in the controls.

y23     Granati, A., Scavo, D., and Peruzy, A.D.
        (Univ. Siena, Italy):  II comportamento
        della protidemia serica nella intossica-
        zione sperimentale da piombo.  (SERUM PRO-
        TEINS IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)
        Folia Medica (Naples) 40:53-61 (Jan.),
        1957.
Eight days after determining the normal protein
fractions in the serum of 14 rats (by paper elec-
trophoresis), Pb poisoning was induced by admini-
stration of 0.15 g Pb acetate in aqueous solution
by stomach tube on alternate days.  The proteins
were determined after 30 and 60 days.  Between
these periods, 9 rats died, so that only 5 were
available for the last analysis.  After 30 days,
there was a slight increase in total blood pro-
teins, low albumins, and an absolute and relative
increase in globulins, especially a- and 3-globu-
lins, S-lipoproteins, and a^- and g-glycoproteins
After 60 days, the total proteins were reduced
with markedly low albumin, and also reduced globu-
lin.  A relative increase in a^-globulin, S-lipo-
proteins and a^- and g-glycoproteins was still
present.  The changes reflect protein deficiency
in the tissues and reduced mesenchymal reactivity.

724     Grosser, G. (Univ. Padua, Italy):  La
        terapia dell' awelenamento da piombo
        (ricerche sperimentali con Piro-Na).
        (THERAPY OF LEAD POISONING (EXPERIMENTAL
        STUDY WITH PIRO-Na).)  Rivista degli In-
        fortuni e delle Malattie Professional!
        44:1071-81 (Nov.-Dec.), 1957.
In the 1st experiment, rabbits (av 1900 g weight)
were divided into 3 groups: 1 received for 7 days
iv 1 ml of a 1% Pb nitrate solution/day; Group 2
received Na pyrocatechindisulfate (Plro-i-la) at 5
ml of 10% solution iv from the llth-20th day of
the experiment; Group 3 received for 7 days Piro-
Na followed by Pb nitrate; all rabbits were ob-
served for 28 days.  In the 2nd experiment, the
subacute poisoning was obtained in 9 days; 1 day
thereafter the 1st 2 lots were treated as above
for 11 and 18 days and together with the controls
were observed for 37 days.  As evidenced by im-
provement of the blood picture, particularly the
stippled cells and reticulocytes, Piro-Na acted
similarly to GaNa2EDTA in its antidotal effect on
the Pb absorbed in the organism.  (27 references)

725     Gusev, M.I.  (Ryazan  I.P. Pavlov Med.
        Inst.):   EFFECT OF LOW LEAD  CONCENTRATION
        ON PORPHYRIN  METABOLISM.  Gigiena  i  San-
        itariya,  1957,  No. 8:21-5.   In  Levine,
        B.S.:  U.S.S.R. Literature on Air  Pollu-
        tion and  Related  Occupational Diseases.
        Washington, U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,
        Office of Technical  Services, 1960,  VoL 1,
        pp.  105-10.
In order to help determine limits of allowable con-
centrations of Pb in the atmosphere, young male
rabbits (1160-2140 g weight) were exposed to Pb
oxide concentrations of 10 Ug/m3 and 3.9 Ug/m3
daily for 6 hr over a period of 6.5 mo.  The high-
er concentration increased the urine-eliminated
coproporphyrin to 5.5-10.59 g/day (twice that of
the control group), but exposure to  3.9 ug/m3
failed to effect any change in the coproporphyrins.

726     Hammond, P.B., Hoyt, H.H., and Nelson,
        B.J.  (St. Paul, Minn.):  RESULTS WITH
        NEWER THERAPEUTIC METHODS IN LARGE ANIMAL
        PRACTICE.  II.  THE ROLE OF FLUID AND ELEC-
        TROLYTE THERAPY IN LEAD ARSENATE POISON-
        ING.  Journal of  the American Veterinary
        Medical Association 131:91-2 (July 15),
        1957.
Four cows died and 2 others became sick after
being placed  in a new pasture  at a state hospital
farm.  A can  of Pb arsenate found in the pasture
showed evidence of having been disturbed by  the
cattle.  Analyses of material  from one animal that
died revealed >10 ppm As  in the rumen contents and
5-10 ppm in  the liver.  The Pb concentration in
the blood was normal  in 1 of the animals surviving
and 0.3 ppm  in the other  one.  Plasma bicarbonate
levels in both animals were below normal, indicat-
ing metabolic acidosis.  The signs observed were
characteristic of As poisoning rather than Pb
poisoning.  Therapeutic measures for the 2 surviv-
ing cows were described.

727     Hammond, P.B., and Sorenson, O.K.  (Univ.
        Minnesota, St. Paul):  RECENT OBSERVATIONS
        ON THE COURSE AND  TREATMENT  OF  BOVINE LEAD
        POISONING.  Journal of the American  Veter-
        inary Medical Association 130, No. 1:23-5,
124
                  BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        1957.
Approximately equal numbers of dairy and beef cat-
tle from 2 mo to several years old were involved.
Two showed marked excitement and convulsions and
died shortly after onset of signs.  The others
were in variable states of depression and weakness,
and the behavior of some suggested varying degrees
of pharyngeal or buccal paralysis.  The only diag-
nostically significant hematologic finding was the
presence of basophilic stippling.
  Twelve animals were subjected to treatment with
CaNa2EDTA at twice the dosage used for humans,
twice daily on an intermittent basis, intraperito-
neally, intravenously, or subcutaneously.  The
blood Pb values determined before and after treat-
ment (American Public Health Association dithizone
method) ranged from 0.25-0.5 yg/ml to 1.0-1.5 and
1.5-2.5; the 4 animals showing the last 2 ranges
died.  The remaining 8 required 4-16 days of treat-
ment before discharge.  After 8 days of treatment
the blood Pb had dropped to M3.2-0.8 Ug/ml.  All
signs, including blindness, were reversible.  Only
1 showed residual ataxia.
  The authors suggest that the levels of blood Pb
at the time of illness may be of diagnostic signi-
ficance.

728     Hartley, B. (General Hosp., Launceston,
        Tasmania):  LEAD POISONING IN A DOG. (Let-
        ters to the Editor.) Lancet 2:1338  (Dec.
        28), 1957.
An Alsatian pup developed Pb poisoning from chew-
ing at the tinfoil lining of his make-shift ken-
nel.  Pieces of foil were found in his lower bowel.
Radiographs showed thick white lines proximal to
the epiphysis in his hips.  He had a blue line
around his gums and abdominal colics.  He recover-
ed after treatment with colloidal Ca.

729      Hsu, Y.-H., Yu, C.-T., and Lou, D.-A.
        (Chekiang Med. Coll., Hangchow, China):
        (ARTERIOLOSCLEROSIS IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD
        POISONING.)  Chung Hua I Hstleh Tsa Chih
        43:886-74, 1957.
The authors suggested that Pb poisoning would
cause hypertension before arteriolosclerosis.
Thirty rabbits (^2 kg each) were given 5 ml of 0.1%
Pb acetate iv weekly for 10 wk.   Only the 17 sur-
vivors were observed for 11 mo.   Hypertension was
found in all 10 rabbits in which blood pressure
was measured.  Autopsies of 16 rabbits showed con-
tracted kidneys in all.  Arteriolosclerosis was
most apparent in heart and brain, then spleen and
adrenal glands.   The most likely mechanism of
arteriolosclerosis was given.  (From Chemical
Abstracts 53:4539, 1959)

730      Ichikawa, S.,  Ikeda, Y., Nanjo, M., Omori,
        Y., Hayashi,  E., Isono,  C., Kano, S.,
        Yoshimoto, H., and Koyama, T.:   (PERCUTANE-
        OUS ABSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS.)  Eisei
        Shikenjo Hokoku 1957, No. 75:373-80.
When rabbits were given 30% Pb nitrate solution
(0.2 ml/day) on the back skin, the blood Pb level
was increased markedly after a week's experimental
period, but neither growth rate nor macroscopic
change in organs was evidenced.   (From Chemical
Abstracts 52:17444, 1958)
731      Ivemark,  B.,  and Seldinger,  S.I.  (Univ.
        Upsala; Karolinska Hosp.,  Stockholm,  Swe-
        den):   RENAL  DAMAGE IN RATS  FROM THE  LEAD
        SALT OF EDTA  AND FROM UMBRADIL.   Acta Radi-
        ologica 48:366-75 (Nov.),  1957.
The histological renal  changes in rats  (170-200 g
weight) following iv and  intra-arterial  (ia)  in-
jections of PbEDTA are  briefly described.  For iv
injections, 17 rats were  given 1.0-3.0  g PbEDTA/kg
body weight; 7 (controls) were injected with  1.0-
214 g Umbradil (contrast  medium)/kg body weight
and 3 with  1.0-2.0 g/kg body weight hypertonic Na
chloride solution.  For ia  injection, 0.3-4.0 g/kg
body weight PbEDTA with 1%  CaEDTA was used with
7 rats; for control, 3  rats were injected with
0.4-0.8 g/kg body weight  Umbradil and 1 with  hyper-
tonic salt solution.  After iv injections, tubular
epithelial degeneration with  the formation of hya-
line casts and mineral  deposits were found.   Fol-
lowing ia injection of  EDTA, interstitial and peri-
glomerular hemorrhage occurred in addition to
moderate epithelial changes of the tubules.   The
lesions were similar to,  but more severe than those
appearing after the injection of comparable doses
of Umbradil.

732      Japanese Association of Industrial Medi-
        cine:  PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH GENERAL
        MEETING OF JAPAN  ASSOCIATION OF INDUSTRIAL
        HYGIENE.   Journal of Science of Labour
        (Japan) 33:451-588  (July), 1957.
Among the 232 papers presented, the following con-
cerned Pb (numbers refer  to Proceedings) :
Tsuchiya, K., and Tanaka, D.:  An Electrophoretic
  Study of Lead Worker's  Sera.  Abstract No.  158.
  See Abstract No. 1870.
Sano,  S., and Inoue,  S.:  Studies on the Distur-
  bances of Hemoglobin  Synthesis in Lead Poison-
  ing.   (Report II).   Porphyrin Biosynthesis from
  Glycine,  S-Amino-Levulinic Acid and Porphobili-
  nogen in Lead Poisoning.  Abstract No. 160.
Horiuchi, K., Horlguchi,  S., Nagao,  Y.   Hashimoto,
  K.,  and Yuge, M. :   Prevention and Treatment of
  Lead Poisoning.  (Report VI).  Administration
  Methods of Ca-EDTA.  Abstract No.  161.
Horiuchi, K., Okada,  A., Tamori,  E., and Yuge, M.:
  Reconsideration on the Distribution of Lead in
  the Body of Healthy Japanese.  (Report II).  Ab-
  stract No. 162.
Yokohashi,  G.:   Localization of Serum Protein-
  bound Radioactive Lead by Filter Paper Electro-
  phoresis.   Abstract No. 163.
Yoshida, Y., Mukai,  T., Ogata, A., and Matsui, K.:
  Experimental Studies on the Effect of Allithia-
  mine on Lead Poisoning.  Abstract No. 164.
Saruta, N., and Yamaguchi, S.:  On the Treatment
  of the Chronic Lead Poisoning - Especially the
  Administration of Parathyroid Hormone together
  with Ca-EDTA.  Abstract No. 165.
Saruta, N., Yamaguchi,  S., Ishinishi,  N., Tsutsumi,
  T.,  Asoo, M., Matsumoto, B., and Kotsubo, Y. :   A
  New Diagnostic Method of Plumbism in Case of
  Group Inspection.   Abstract No.  166.   See Ab-
  stract No. 1855.
Nishino, S.:  Occupational Hazards of Lead Sul-
  fide.  (Report  I).   Experimental Study of the
  Toxicity of Lead Sulfide by Oral Administration.
  Abstract No.  167.
Niinuma, K.:  Experimental Studies on the Effect
                                            Plants and Animals
                                              125

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   of  the EDTA-salts on the Lead or Manganese Poi-
   soning.  Abstract No.  168.
Suzuki, Y., and Matsuka,  Y.:   On the Strength and
   the Elongation of Hair of the Lead and Manganese
  Workers.   Abstract No.  169.  See Abstract No.
   1861.
Nishiyama,  K., Ishizawa,  M.,  and Ohshima, M.:  On
   the Lead Content of Hair of Lead Workers.  Ab-
   stract No.  188.

733     Kelentey, B., Szazados, I., Takacs, I.,
        Halmai, Z., and Valyi-Nagy, T. (Med. Univ.,
        Debrecen, Hungary):  STUDIES ON EXPERIMEN-
        TAL LEAD POISONING.  IV. METABOLISM OF RATS
        AT REST AND UNDER EXERCISE IN CHRONIC LEAD
        POISONING.  Acta Physiologica Academiae
        Scientiarum Hungaricae 12:277-81, 1957.
Male and female rats (240-400 g weight; 2 groups
of 10 each) were poisoned by administration of
5 rag/kg of Pb nitrate through a gastric tube every
other day for 1-1/2 yr (total Pb administered,
465.6-744.0 mg).   One group was sacrificed at the
end of the experiment and organs tested for Pb,
either by dithizone or by polarography.  The other
group was subjected to metabolic study, 7 control
rats being compared with the 10 poisoned animals.
Poisoned animals did not lose much weight as com-
pared to the controls.  On completion of chronic
Pb poisoning, the metabolic rate at rest in the
poisoned rats was 24% less than that of controls
 (9.2 g cal/min/100 g weight and 12.1, respective-
 ly).  The metabolic rate after exercise (5 min run-
ning) was 19% less in poisoned rats  (16.7  g cal/
min/100 g body weight vs 20.6).  This is statisti-
 cally significant.

734     Kirchgessner, M.  (Inst. Animal Husbandry,
        Stuttgart-iiohenhelm,  Germany) :  Der Men-
        gen-  und  Spurenelementgehalt von Rinder-
        blut.  (THE CONTENT OF MAJOR AND TRACE
        ELEMENTS  IN THE BLOOD OF CATTLE.)   Zeit-
        schrlft flir TierenHnrung und Futtermittel-
        kunde 12:156-69,  1957.
The contents  of major elements (Si, K, Na, Cl, S,
Ca, P, and  Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Zn,
Mo, Cu, Ni,  Co, F, I, and Pb) and their interre-
lationships in blood, colostrum and milk of dairy
cattle were investigated.  OelschlHger's method
(1956) was  used to analyze the samples col-
lected.  In healthy cows, the amounts in blood
fluctuated within certain physiologic limits.  Ab-
normal values existed in well producing cows 1-2
days post partum (PP): P, Ca,  Si, S, Fe, Al, Cu,
Ni and Co in the blood decreased; the last 5 ele-
ments were increased ante partum (AP).  Pb values
were, in mg/kg total blood: 0.35 PP (1-2 days)
and 0.42 AP and PP (10 days).  The reason for the
marked changes was the great need for these ele-
ments in colostrum formation.  The contents of
elements in the blood of 5 1-yr-old heifers showed
in comparison with that of cows an increase es-
pecially in Mg, Ni, Zn and Co.  As tabulated, the
average Pb  contents in colostrum (6 samples from
2  milkings) were 170 and 67 yg/kg milk; in the
blood serum,  0.14 mg/kg whole blood, as compared
with colostrum, 0.20 mg/kg milk.  The total secre-
tion of Pb in colostrum and in normal milk was:
1.4 mg/10.5 kg and 0.4 mg/10.0 kg.  The average
Pb contents in blood serum and in corpuscles were
                 0.27 and 0.22 mg/kg serum and cells, respectively.
                 The shifts in some major and minor elements in
                 various disease or deficiency states are also il-
                 lustrated and discussed.  (45 references)

                 735     Kiryachko, B.A.  (Ukrainian Inst. Post-
                         grad. Med.):   yiiyanie khronicheskogo
                         otravleniya svintsom na Immunobiologi-
                         cheskuyu reaktivnost organizma  zhivotno-
                         1,0.  (EFFECT OF  CHRONIC LEAD POISONING ON
                         THE IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTION OF THE ORGAN-
                         ISM.)  Gigiena i Sanitariya 22, No. 8:
                         30-4, 1957.  In Levine, B.S.: U.S.S.R.
                         Literature on  Air Pollution and Related
                         Occupational Diseases.  Washington, U.S.
                         Department of  Commerce, Office  of Techni-
                         cal Services,  1960, Vol.  1, pp. 137-42.
                 After  a 2-3 wk observation period, 30 rabbits
                 were divided into 3 equal groups  and treated as
                 follows:  (1) received typhoid vaccine  alone;
                 (2) typhoid vaccine together with Pb acetate or-
                 ally at 10 mg/kg daily for 4.5 mo, followed by 20
                 mg for 1 mo, and 30 mg/kg thereafter; (3) Pb ace-
                 tate as in 2, followed by vaccine.  AS  summarized
                 by the author, Pb poisoning was accompanied by a
                 reduction in the production of agglutinins in the
                 course of immunization with typhoid vaccine.
                 This was most pronounced in group 3.  Blood serum
                 complement activity was  lowered.  However, immu-
                 nization following Pb administration raised the
                 complement titer to a considerably higher level
                 than in the controls.  During immunization, con-
                 trol rabbits developed a small amount of acetyl-
                 choline (ACh) and a simultaneous  increase in serum
                 cholinesterase (ChE) activity, assumed  to be in-
                 dicative of the presence of humoral compensation.
                 Group 2, and particularly Group 3, accumulated a
                 considerable amount of ACh with simultaneous re-
                 duction in ChE activity.  Lowered capacity to gen-
                 erate agglutinins and disturbed interstitial me-
                 tabolism appeared early in the poisoned rabbits,
                 and were evident much earlier than the  classical
                 signs of Pb poisoning  (blood changes) .

                 736     Kosaki, T., Ikeda, T., Kotani,  Y., Naka-
                         gawa, S., and  Saka, T. (Mie Prefect. Univ.
                         School Med., Tsu, Japan):   (THE AFFINITIES
                         OF CELLS AND THEIR FORMATIVE ELEMENTS FOR
                         PORPHYRIN BODIES.  XII. THE AFFINITY OF
                         CELLS AND THEIR  FORMATIVE ELEMENTS FOR
                         COPROPORPHYRIN I AND III.) Mie  Medical
                         Journal 7:305-12, 1957.
                 Procedures are given for the isolation  of tetra-
                 methyl esters of coproporphyrin III and copropor-
                 phyrin I from urine of Pb-poisoned rabbits and
                 normal cattle bile, respectively.   (From Chemical
                 Abstracts 52:13820, 1958)

                 737     Kramer, W.:  Necrotische myelopathie t.g.v.
                         loodintoxicatie bij  een hond.   (NECROTIC
                         MYELOPATHY IN A DOG DUE TO LEAD POISONING.)
                         Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 82:411-
                         21, 1957.
                 Acute gastrointestinal disturbances developed in a
                 dog after ingestion of grass contaminated with
                 red Pb.  This was followed by paralysis of all 4
                 legs with spread from posterior to anterior.  Ex-
                 amination of the nervous system revealed myelitis
                 and increased number of  cells in  the cerebrospinal
 126
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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fluid, characteristic of subacute necrotic myelo-
pathy.  There was an abnormal amount of Pb in  the
nervous system  (390 ug/100 g of spinal cord, 90
Mg/100 g brain).  (From Veterinary Bulletin 28,
No. 7 Abstract No. 2287, 1958)

738     McConnell, W.C.:  OIL FIELD PROBLEMS CON-
        FRONTING THE VETERINARIAN. Veterinary Med-
        icine 52:159-63, 1957.
The legal aspects of pollution of streams and the
tolerance of farm animals for minerals in drinking
water are discussed.  Symptoms of salt-water poi-
soning, postmortem findings  and  treatment  are
described.  Poisoning by ingredients of crude oil
and by heavy metals, principally Pb, from discarded
containers, paint, pipe joint compound, and similar
products, may also occur in oil fields.   (From
Veterinary Bulletin 28, No. 4:1210, 1958)

739     Majorca, G. (Italy):  Alterations morpho-
        logiques initiales du rein dans le satur-
        nisme experimental.   (INITIAL MORPHOLOGI-
        CAL ALTERATIONS OF THE KIDNEY IN EXPERI-
        MENTAL LEAD POISONING.)   In XII Interna-
        tional Congress on Occupational Health,
        Helsinki, Finland, 1957, Vol. Ill, Pro-
        ceedings, p. 295.
Listed by title only.

74fl     Mokranjac, M.S., and Radmic, S. (Coll.
        Pharmacy, Belgrade, Yugoslavia):  (EFFECT
        OF PENICILLIN ON THE CONTENT OF LEAD IN
        BLOOD OF ANIMALS POISONED WITH LEAD.) Acta
        Pharm. Jugoslav. 7:143-8, 1957.
Results of the effect of penicillin on the content
of Pb in the blood of sheep chronically poisoned
with Pb are given.  A considerable effect of pen-
icillin on the increase of Pb in blood is found,
the increase resulting from the mobilization of
Pb in form of insoluble compounds.  (From Chemical
Abstracts 51:18288, 1957)

741     Morelli, A., Giuliani, V., and Serra, C.
        (Univ. Florence; Univ. Naples, Italy):
        Aspetti elettroencefalografici nell'intos-
        sicazione sperimentale da piombo  tetraetile.
        I.  Reperti nell'intossicazione acute.
        (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC ASPECTS  IN EXPER-
        IMENTAL POISONING BY TETRAETHYL LEAD.  I.
        FINDINGS IN ACUTE INTOXICATION.)  Lavoro
        Umano 9:433-40, 1957.
Rabbits (2.25 kg weight, in groups of not <2)  were
treated daily as follows:  (1)  control;   (2)   100
mg TEL/kg sc; (3)   same, iv; (4)  50 mg/kg iv;
(5)  0.1 ml ethyl alcohol/kg iv; and (6)   40 mg
Pb acetate/kg iv.   TEL was injected without sol-
vent.  Groups 2, 4 and 6 were observed until
death (Group 3 died between 20 min and 6 hr after
injection).  Electroencephalographs (EEG)  were
made before exposure and every 24 hr in the sub-
acute poisonings and continuously after treatment
for at least 30 min or other times in the iv
groups.  At high doses EEG changes occurred early
(depression in amplitude, slowing of frequency,
increase of the frequency with reduction of ampli-
tude or slowing of frequency with rise of the
amplitude).  In spite of these discordant findings
and others which do not make it possible to con-
sider TEL as a synchronizing or unsynchronizing
agent,  the authors conclude  that TEL  alters many
neuronic and polyneuronic  circuits and  relays be-
tween cortex and reticular substance, thereby dis-
organizing the electric activity.  The  modifica-
tion of the mode of synchronization is  probably
due to  the action of TEL on  the thermoregulatory
centers.
  In the rabbits given alcohol, only  a  slight
slowing of the rhythm was  observed which vanished
1 hr after administration.  With a slight increase
in frequency and a tendency  to desynchronization
was seen after doses subsequent to the  1st.  (20
references)

742     Morelli, A., Giuliani, V., and  Serra, C.
         (Univ. Florence; Univ. Naples,  Italy):
        Aspetti elettroencefalografici  nell'in-
        tossicazione sperimentale da  piombo tetra-
        etile.  Nota II-Repertl nell'intossicazione
        cronica.  (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC ASPECTS
        IN THE EXPERIMENTAL  POISONING WITH TEL.
        II.  CHRONIC INTOXICATION.)   Lavoro umano
        9:545-52, 1957.
Two groups of at least 2 rabbits in each (1.850-
2.850 kg) received sc TEL dissolved in  0.1 mg/kg
ethyl alcohol in doses of 10 and 1 mg TEL/kg body
weight/day until death and for 30 days, respective-
ly.  Another group was given only 0.1 ml/kg ethyl
alcohol and 1 group served as control.  EEC's were
taken pre-experimentally and on the 10th, 20th,
and 30th day of treatment; also for the 10 mg
group on the 70th day (most animals died in 10-20
days, administration to survivors was ceased on
the 20th day), and for the 1 mg group after 60
days.  Alterations in the EEG increased with the
dose of TEL and with the duration of administra-
tion.  When the treatment was suspended, the EEG
returned to normal in animals poisoned with the
smaller dose; remission was not always obtained
in the rabbits which had been given the larger
dose.

743     Nishimura, M. (Tokyo Dental Coll., Japan):
        EFFECTS OF PARATHYROID FUNCTION ON LEAD
        POISONING.  PART 1.  THE IMPEDIMENT OF
        CALCIUM METABOLISM BY REMOVAL OF PARATHY-
        ROID AND ITS RELATION TO LEAD METABOLISM.
        Journal of the Science of Labour  (Japan)
        33:923-32 (Dec.),  1957.
Parathyroidectomized albino rats were experimental-
ly poisoned with Pb and the relation between Ca
and Pb metabolism was studied.  Serum Ca tended to
decrease in acute Pb poisoning and more so in the
parathyroidectomized rats.   After ^2 wk a slight
recovery of serum Ca was noted. Urinary Ca excre-
tion decreased after parathyroidectomy but was
temporarily increased after administration of
Pb.  Normal rats given Pb showed no change in uri-
nary Ca excretion.   The pattern of serum and uri-
nary inorganic P was completely reversed to that
of Ca in both groups of animals.   Total retained
Ca decreased in both groups in acute Pb poisoning,
the Ca balance became negative in the parathyroid-
ectomized ones.  The connection of the parathyroid
function with the Ca and Pb metabolism  in acute Pb
poisoning was confirmed.   (From author's English
summary)  (34 references)
744
Nishio, K. (Univ. Kagoshima, Japan):
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               127

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        (PHOSPHORYLATION IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF THE
        ACUTE LEAD-INTOXICATED RABBIT.)  Seikagaku
        29:313-8, 1957.
Rabbits administered orally a total of 0.6-2.5 g
powdered Pb at doses of 0.1 g/day were anesthe-
tized, and the gastrocnemius was removed.  The
ATP content was 1.6 times, phosphocreatine 1.1
times, hexose monophosphate 1.4 times, and in-
organic phosphate 1.6 times as high as normal.
Special 32p activity decreased for phosphocreatine
but increased for ATP, hexose monophosphate, and
for inorganic P.  In vitro, Pb increased muscle
phosphorylase activity by 14, 26, 22 and 48% at
4.5x10-3,  5.9x10-4, 5.9x10-6, and 5.9xlO-?M Pb,
respectively.  Total inhibition was caused by
4.3x10-% Hg combined with 4.3x10-% Pb.  Acute
Pb intoxication produced increase in phosphoryla-
tion by breakdown of glycogen to hexose monophos-
phate.  (From Chemical Abstracts 55:4753, 1961)

745     Oliver, W.T.,  and MacGregor, K.L.:  LEAD
        ARSENATE POISONING IN DAIRY CATTLE.  Cana-
        dian Journal of Comparative Medicine and
        Veterinary Science 21:248-50, 1957.
An outbreak of poisoning in a dairy herd of 35
animals is described.   Fourteen deaths occurred
principally among young cattle.   The feed was
found to contain 37% Pb and 11% As in the form of
Pb arsenate.  Tissue analysis indicated that tox-
icity was due to the arsenical and not the Pb rad-
ical as has been reported.  This is supported by
clinical and pathological findings of acute gastro-
enteritis.  The source of the pois'on was a bag of
insecticide found buried in the granary.  (From
Veterinary Bulletin 28, No. 2:563, 1958)

745     Remy, R., and Buckup, H. (Bernward Hosp.,
        Hildesheim, Germany):  Zur kritlschen Beur-
        teilung der Symptome experimenteller Blei-
        verglftungen.   (CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE
        SIGNS OF EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)
        Zentralblatt flir Arbeitsmedizin und Ar-
        beitsschutz 7:233-7 (Oct.), 1957.
About 170 male albino rats^ (150 g body weight) were
injected intraperitoneally with a solution of Pb
acetate (pH 5) in doses^of 20-100 mg/kg body weight,
every 2-4 days for up to 36 days so that a total
of 300-500 mg Pb acetate/kg was administered.  In
some experiments single doses up to 400 mg Pb ace-
tate/kg and a total of 700 mg/kg were given.  Hemo-
globin (Hb) and erythrocytes (RBC) decreased more
rapidly and to a lower level as the Pb doses were
increased.  When 100 mg Pb acetate/kg was injected
every 4 days for 16 days, the RBC decreased in a
straight line and most of the rats died.  At a
dose of 35 mg/kg every 4 days RBC and Hb decreased
in a  straight line until the 16th day and irregu-
larly from the 16th to 21st day after which time
no further decrease was noted.  When 20 mg/kg/dose
was injected, the RBC after first decreasing in a
straight line, distinctly rose after the 20th day
reaching their initial count at the start of the
2nd mo of the experimental period, while the Hb
values decreased along with the RBC and then re-
mained constant.  The reticulocytes strongly in-
creased at the 35 mg dose during the 36-day exper-
imental period whereas at the 20 mg dose the retic-
ulocytes and stippled RBC increased for 20-22 days
and then decreased.  The authors concluded from the
                  experiment that in acute Pb poisoning death may
                  occur before a distinct anemia is obvious.   In
                  chronic poisoning,  however,  the RBC and Hb  curves
                  during the 1st 2  wk are indicative of the degree
                  of  the poisoning.   Analysis of the bones (shoulder)
                  of  the rats showed that up to a dose of 210 mg Pb
                  acetate/kg the Pb levels increased in proportion to
                  the doses.  Higher doses resulted only in very
                  small increases above the level reached at  210 mg/
                  dose.  Thus, the  Pb concentration in the bones,
                  within certain limits of the dose, also is  an in-
                  dication of the degree of intoxication.  Histologic
                  changes of liver,  spleen and kidney increased as
                  the doses increased.   Rats,  first poisoned and
                  then given Pb therapy, showed hardly any changes
                  in  the blood or bones but their livers, spleens
                  and kidneys were  always histologically affected.
                  Analysis of the bones of rats which had received
                  6 injections of 50 mg Pb acetate, revealed con-
                  siderable Pb storage for several months while the
                  RBC count returned to normal after 7 wk and the Hb
                  value after 10 wk.   Experiments to determine the
                  lethal Pb doses showed that 500 mg Pb acetate/kg
                  were fatal to all rats and survival after 200-400
                  mg/kg was only by very robust animals.  Single
                  doses of 100 mg/kg were generally tolerated; when
                  this dose was repeated every 4 days, most rats
                  died after the 3d injection and very few survived
                  a 4th one.  However,  there appeared to be a certain
                  adaptation to Pb.   Rats which had recovered from
                  a chronic poisoning by a total of 350 mg Pb ace-
                  tate/kg over a period of weeks although still
                  showing a distinct anemia, tolerated 2 additional
                  doses of 100 mg Pb/kg each without fatalities and
                  more animals survived 3 and 4 injections than in
                  the case of unadapted rats.

                  747      Salvini,  M. (Univ. Pavia, Italy):  Effica-
                          cia dell'etilendiamino-tetraacetato-
                          bisodicomonocalcico sulla eliminazione
                          urinaria del piombo nel trattamento della
                          intossicazione con acetato di piombo.
                           (EFFICACY OF DISODIUM MONOCALCIUM ETHYL-
                           ENEDIAMINETETRAACETATE IN THE URINARY
                           ELIMINATION OF LEAD IN THE TREATMENT OF
                           POISONING WITH LEAD ACETATE.)  Bollettino
                           della Societa Italiana di Biologia  Speri-
                          mentale 33, No. 4:409-10, 1957.
                  Six rabbits received iv injections of 3 mg/kg/day
                  Pb  (as acetate);  half of the group received im-
                  mediately after Pb, EDTA for 6 days, iv.  In the
                  rabbits that received no EDTA, of the total of
                  86.25 mg administered, 2.876 mg or 3.325% was
                  eliminated in the 1st 5 days; 2.113% in the 2nd 5
                  days, and by the  end of observation, 5.438% of the
                  administered dose was eliminated.  In the rabbits
                  treated with EDTA,  of 95.25 mg total Pb injected,
                  3.28% was eliminated in the 1st 5 days, and by the
                  end of the experiment, 18.57% was eliminated.  The
                  author concludes  that aside from increasing the
                  elimination of Pb,  EDTA furnished indication of
                  the existence of  prior absorption of Pb.

                  748      Salvini,  M. (Univ. Pavia, Italy):  Effica-
                          cia del calcio-etilen-diaminotetraacetato-
                          disodico sulla eliminazione del piombo con
                          le urine e con le feci nella intossicazione
                          saturnina sperimentale del coniglio.  (EF-
                          FICACY OF CALCIUM DISODIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINE
128
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        TETRAACETATE ON ELIMINATION OF LEAD BY
        URINE AND FECES IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POI-
        SONING IN RABBITS.)  Bollettino della
        Societa' Italiano di Biologla Sperimentale
        33, No. 5:590-3, 1957.
Of 6 rabbits poisoned with Pb acetate (3 mg/kg/24
hr iv), 3 received from the 6th day of poisoning
10 mg  EDTA/kg/24 hr over a 6-day period.  The re-
sults  showed that treatment with EDTA increased the
total  excretion of Pb from 18.31-26.5% of the
amount injected.  EDTA alters the pattern of excre-
tion of Pb so that almost all of the excretion
takes  place through the urine, and the fecal excre-
tion is unchanged or decreases.

749     Salvini, M. (Univ. Pavia, Italy):   Bilan-
        cio di distribuzione tissutale e di elim-
        inazione globale del Pb iniettato in ani-
        mali di controllo ed in animali trattati
        con etilendiamina-tetraacetato-disodico-
        monocalcico endovena.  (TISSUE DISTRIBU-
        TION AND TOTAL ELIMINATION OF Pb INJECTED
        INTO CONTROL ANIMALS AND ANIMALS TREATED
        INTRAVENOUSLY WITH DISODIUM-MONOCALCIUM
        ETHYLENEDIAMINE TETRAACETATE.)  Bollettino
        della Societa' Italiana di Biologia Speri-
        mentale 33, No. 6:711-6, 1957.
In rabbits treated daily with 5 mg Pb/kg for 5
days, ^80% of the Pb was retained as compared with
70% for rabbits which received the same dose of
Pb plus EDTA.  Pb was deposited in certain tissues
and later transferred to others.  This redistribu-
tion of Pb results from chelation between Pb and
EDTA.  (From author's summary)

750     Salvini, M., Vidali, U., and Scudier, U.
        (Univ. Pavia, Italy):  Efficacia tera-
        peutica ed effetto piomburico del Ca-
        EDTA-N32 nel saturnismo.  Esperienze in
        conigli intossicati per via endovenosa,
        intramuscolare e sottocutanea.
        (Ca-^DTA-Na2 IN SATURNISM: THERAPEUTIC
        EFFECT AND EFFECT ON THE URINARY LEAD EX-
        CRETION: EXPERIENCE WITH RABBITS INTOXI-
        CATED INTRAVENOUSLY, INTRAMUSCULARLY, AND
        SUBCUTANEOUSLY.)  II Policlinico. (Rome)
        Sezione Medica 64:82-99  (Mar.-Apr.), 1957.
Eighteen rabbits, 9-13 mo-old, (av  weight 2250 g)
were subdivided into 3 groups of 6 each.  Group 1
was given iv injections of 3 mg Pb acetate/kg body
weight for 5 days and then iv injections of 10 mg
EDTA/kg body weight for the next 5 days.  Group 2
was given im injections of 4 mg Pb acetate/kg for
6 days; then 3 of these animals were given iv in-
jections of EDTA for the next 6 days.  When it was
seen that the extra amount of Pb eliminated as a
result of the treatment was very low, the daily
EDTA dose was increased to 240 mg/kg for 6 days.
Group  3 received sc injections of 24 mg Pb ace-
tate/kg for 6 days; then 3 of the animals were
given  daily iv injections of 240 mg EDTA/kg for
the next 6 days.  Administration of EDTA caused
increased urinary Pb excretion in all animals.
But the increase represented only a minimal part
of the total Pb excreted by the animals.  The
authors believe that EDTA causes decomposition of
Pb in  the tissues, a reduction of the toxic effect
of Pb  on certain tissues and increased transfer of
chelate to the kidney. (37 references)
751      Selariu, C., and Mihaescu, S.:   (ACTIVITY
        OF PHOSPHATASES AND CHOLINESTERASE OF THE
        SERUM OF DOGS CHRONICALLY POISONED WITH
        LEAD NITRATE.) Comun. acad. rep. populare
        Romine 7:45-9, 1957.
The action of Pb nitrate given intravenously was
studied.  Dogs received 6-10 mg in intervals of 5-
6 days during 2 mo.  The blood samples were taken
at the beginning, after 4 days, and later each 14
days.  The alkaline phosphatase activity was mea-
sured after Bodansky and the acid phosphatase af-
ter Klemperer and Miller.  Immediately after the
first injection, modifications of the phosphatase
activities were noticed.  The activity was maximum
after the 4th day.  The results indicate the in-
tervention of Pb in the Ca metabolism of the bones
The cholinesterase did not show significant varia-
tions.  (From Chemical Abstracts 52:2260, 1958)

752     Sessa, T., Rossi, L., and Apollaro, A.
        (Univ. Naples, Italy):  La riboflavina nel
        sangue e nei  tessuti nella intossicazione
        sperimentale  da piombo.  (RIBOFLAVIN IN
        THE BLOOD AND TISSUES IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD
        POISONING.)  Bollettino della Societa
        Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 33:1249-
        51, 1957.  Biochimica Applicata  4:338-52,
        1957.
Rabbits were given orally 100 or 200 mg Pb acetate
daily (6 rabbits/dose).   The riboflavin content
of the liver,  kidney,  and heart decreased; the
values for muscle and brain showed  little change.
The decrease for the 200-mg dose (acute)  was about
twice that for the 100-mg dose.   An additional 5
rabbits were also studied after receiving 100 mg
Pb acetate for 30, 40, and 50 days.   After admin-
istration of 1 mg riboflavin im,  a  reduction in
blood riboflavin was seen which was more intense
in the more severe poisoning.
  The paper published in Biochimica Applicata is
given in greater detail and includes a comparison
of the urinary excretion of riboflavin before and
after various days of poisoning.  A progressively
higher excretion was observed in poisoning.  The
authors conclude that the findings point to a
deficient utilization of vitamin ^2 i-n i-ts role
of enzymic constituent need for oxidation-
reductions processes in cells.

753      Shibata, S.:  PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON
        THE ANTIDOTAL ACTION OF CHELATING AGENTS.
        II.  Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 53:602-13,
        1957.   Breviaria 30.
When 1.8 mg Pb acetate/kg rabbit was injected iv,
the urinary excretion was 1.83% in 0-1 hr, 2.75
in 2-4 hr, 0.96 in 4-8 hr, 0.8 in 8-12 hr, and
1.76 in 12-24 hr, and total 10.92% in 24 hr.
Following the iv injection of equivalent amount
of PbEDTA, the excretion of Pb was 17.4% in 0-1
hr, 10.06 in 1-2 hr, 14.2 in 2-4 hr, 3.8 in 4-8
hr, 3.1 in 8-12 hr, and 2.2 in 12-24 hr, and
total 49.8% in 24 hr.  When 1.8 mg/kg dose of Pb
acetate and 50 mg/kg dose of CaEDTA were injected
simultaneously, the total urinary excretion of Pb
in 24 hr was 49.5%.  An equimolecular dose of
CaEDTA against Pb dose gave the total excretion of
47.6% and half an equimolecular dose of the former
gave 25.0%,  Simultaneous injection of 50 mg/kg
dose of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL) gave the
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               129

-------
total excretion of Pb of 20.8%.  The equimolecular
dose gave 8.4% excretion.  Na citrate on simul-
taneous injection in the dose of 50 mg gave a
total of 12.7% Pb excretion in 24 hr;  the equi-
molecular dose gave 10.27,.   The Pb contents in
blood 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hr, respectively, af-
ter the injection of 18 mg/kg Pb acetate alone
were:  3.40, 1.80, 1.51, 0.88, 0.82, 0.75 mg%;
equimolecular dose of PbEDTA alone, 1.04, 0.82,
0.54, 0.43, 0.28, 0.25; 50  mg/kg CaEDTA with the
above dose of Pb acetate, 1.05, 0.94,  0.62, 0.46,
0.33, 0.30; equimolecular CaEDTA simultaneously,
1.03, 0.95, 0.45, 0.26, 0.22, 0.19; half an equi-
molecular dose CaEDTA simultaneously,  1.84, 1.45,
1.2, 0.89, 0.72, 0.54; 50 mg/kg BAL simultaneously,
2.80, 1.36, 0.95, 0.92, 0.85, 0.76; equimolecular
BAL simultaneously, 3.46, 2.45, 1.65,  0.86, 0.81,
0.69; 50 mg/kg Na citrate simultaneously, 3.48,
1.76, 1.01, 0.61, 0.40, 0.34; equimolecular Na
citrate simultaneously, 2.86, 1.80, 0.71, 0.63,
0.42, 0.31 mg%s respectively.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 52:15740, 1958)

754     Skripnichenko, Z.M.:   (INFLUENCE OF TET-
        RAETHYLLEAD  (TEL) ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE
        IN THE EXPERIMENT (SECOND REPORT).)
        Oftal'mol. Zhur. 1957, No.  6:372-9.
The influence of parenteral introduction of TEL
solution (in cod liver oil) on the  elastotono-
metric curve (EC), ophthalmotonus  (0) and the re-
sults of a compressive-tonometric test were
studied in 62 rabbits.  Acute  experiments were
conducted with doses which  killed  the animals
(0.05 ml/kg every other day).  Dynamic observa-
tions continued for 2 mo to 2  yr.   With doses
which induce chronic poisoning  (up  to 0.5 mg/kg
after 2 days) only some animals perished.  In
acute intoxication, attacks of motor excitement
of the rabbit occurred.  After the  attack, 0 de-
creased, and the EC character  changed.  Later 0
decreased day by day up to  the death of the ani-
mal and EC shortened and decreased.  In chronic
poisoning, the amplitude of 0  oscillations in-
creased with a tendency of  rise.  EC was charac-
terized by breaks, shortening, high start and
level.  The data of the compressive-tonometric
test pointed to the prevalence of neurovascular
elements in a disorder of 0.   In a  number of ani-
mals, the described disturbances of 0 and EC reg-
ulation were preserved for  3 to 4 mo after the
termination of poisoning.   (From Referat. Zhur.
Biol. 97976, 1958, transl.  OTS-JPRS; Biological
Abstracts 35:Abstr. No. 41481, i960)

755      Smusin, Ya.S.  (1st  Med.  Inst.,  Leningrad,
        USSR):  Deistvie nekotorykh veshchestv  na
         aktivnost  kholinesterazy mozga  i myshts.
        Gistokhimicheskoe opredelenie  istinnoi  i
         lozhnoi kholinesteraz  v thanyakh myshei
         pri  otravlenii  tetraetilsvintsom.   (THE
         EFFECT OF  SEVERAL SUBSTANCES ON  CHOLINES-
        TERASE ACTIVITY  OF  THE BRAIN AND MUSCLE.
         HISTOCHEMICAL  DETERMINATION OF  TRUE  AND
         PSEUDO CHOLINESTERASE  IN THE TISSUES  OF
        MICE  IN TETRAETHYLLEAD POISONING.)   Trudy
         Pervogo Leningradskogo Meditsinskogo  In-
         stituta.   Fiziologicheskaya Rol Atsetil-
        kholina i  Izyskanie Novykh Lekarstvennykh
        Veshchestv 1957:143-8.
                 The  experiments were performed with white mice
                 poisoned  sc with  1.07 g TEL/kg body weight;  this
                 dose produced death in 50% of the mice within 1
                 day.  The mice  (45) were sacrificed by decapita-
                 tion at hours 1,  2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 after admin-
                 istration.  Acetylthiocholine was used for local-
                 ization of  the  true cholinesterase  (ChE) and
                 butyrylthiocholine for the pseudo.  The results
                 showed a  sharp  depression of the true ChE in the
                 outer portion of  the main brain, the elongated
                 brain, and  in the tissue of the calf muscle, with
                 about the same  degree of intensity.  This effect
                 appeared  to a lesser extent in the  case of the
                 pseudo ChE.  Depression of the true ChE appeared
                 already after 1 hr and reached a maximum 4-8 hr
                 after poisoning.  A preliminary workup with  ace-
                 tone in the cold  did not influence  significantly
                 the  degree  of detection.  This indirectly indicat-
                 ed the ability  of TEL to penetrate  easily into
                 all  the tissue  structures, including the lipids.

                 756     Teuchmann, J.K. (Central Inst. Ind.  Hyg.,
                         Warsaw, Poland):  WpXyw zatrucia oZowiem
                         na odruchy rdzeniowe i nerw bjedny.  (EF-
                         FECT OF LEAD POISONING ON MEDULLARY  RE-
                         FLEXES AND ON THE VAGUS NERVE.)  Acta
                         Physlologica Polonica 8, 3-3a:545-8,
                         1957.
                 The  spinal reflexes were investigated on decapi-
                 tated cats.  Pb in 0.62 mg/100 ml concentration
                 gave a decrease of the limb reflexes and at  5 mg/
                 100  ml lowering of the blood pressure.  At ^83
                 mg/100 ml disturbance of spinal reflexes was
                 noted.  Pb  inhibited vagal conduction in a con-
                 centration of 24  mg/100 ml.   (Exerpta Med. Sect.
                 II,  11:4475, 1958).

                 757     Teuchmann, J.K.:  (INFLUENCE OF LEAD POI-
                         SONING  ON THE REFLEX ACTIONS OF DECAPITA-
                         TED CATS.) Prace Central Inst. Ochrony
                         Pracy 7,  No. 2(21):3-10, 1957.
                 Decapitated cats  were given intravenously 1% aque-
                 ous  Pb(N03)2 solution, and the reflexes excited by
                 electric  shocks were examined.  Reflexes were in-
                 hibited at 0.62 mg% concentration of Pb, blood
                 pressure  began  to drop at 5 mg%; large sublethal
                 concentrations  (up to 100 mg%) caused transient
                 paradoxical stimulation, a functional dissociation
                 of spinal nerves, and a complete paralysis of the
                 whole neuron.   (From Chemical Abstracts 52:20682,
                 1958)

                 758     Todd, J.R.:  NOTES ON THE USE OF CALCIUM
                         VERSENATE IN ACUTE LEAD POISONING.   Veter-
                         inary Record 69:31-2, 1957.
                 "Calcium  versenate" (NaCa edetate) was used  in 2
                 calves, a bullock, a heifer and a donkey.  Symp-
                 toms included blindness, nervousness, tongue par-
                 alysis, muscle  twitching and depression.  Diagno-
                 sis  was confirmed chemically in all cases.   Ca
                 versenate diluted in saline was given intravenous-
                 ly in single total doses varying from 3-6 g  de-
                 pending on  size of animal.  Oral Mg sulfate  was
                 not  given.  All the animals recovered except 1
                 calf which died shortly after treatment.  General
                 recovery  occurred in a matter of hours although
                 some tongue paralysis persisted over 3 days  and
                 blindness up to 10 days.  The author points  out
                 that the  efficiency of this treatment is probably
 130
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
related to the total amount of Pb absorbed and
stored in the body, and that therefore a 2nd
treatment may sometimes be necessary.  (From Vet-
erinary Bulletin  27, No. 6:1879, 1957)

759     Tb'nz, 0.  (Cantonal Hosp., St. Gallen,
        Switzerland):  NierenverSnderungen bei
        experimenteller chronischer  Bleivergiftung
        (Ratten).   (KIDNEY CHANGES IN EXPERIMENTAL
        CHRONIC LEAD POISONING IN RATS.)  Zeit-
        schrift fur die Gesamte Experimentelle
        Medizin 128, No. 4:361-77, 1957.
Rats (270) injected (route not stated) with 340-
440 mg Pb as phosphate for 4-9 1/2 mo, survived up
to 7 mo.  The kidneys gained in size and weight,
cysts formed and  in 2 cases there was a light
hydronephrosis.   The glomeruli were unchanged while
the tubular system showed significant alterations,
such as enlarged  epithelial cells, proliferations
of the center sections with occasional adenoma and
carcinoma and tnetastases (2 rats) , slight lympho-
cytic infiltrations and mild fibrosis of the inter-
stitium.  The author  found the picture to agree
with that in Pb-poisoned children while in adults
vascular changes  prevail over those of the tubular
system.  The specific effect of Pb is based on a
disturbance of the cellular and nuclear metabolism,
leading first to  enlargement of the cells and
nuclei, cellular  atypia and nuclear polymorphy,
and later to pathologic mitoses, proliferations
and tumor formation.  The cancerogenic effect of
Pb resembles that of X rays.  (56 references)

760     Tolgskaja, M.S. (Inst. Ind. Hyg. Occup.
        Dis., Acad. Med. Sci., Moscow, USSR) :
        VerHnderungen in den interneuronalen Ver-
        bindungen der Grosshirnrinde unter der
        Einwirkung von einigen Industriegiften.
        (CHANGES  PRODUCED IN THE INTERNEURONAL
        JUNCTIONS IN THE CEREBRAL CORTEX BY  SOME
        INDUSTRIAL POISONS.)  Archiv fUr Gewerbe-
        pathologie und Gewerbehygiene 16, No. 1:
        34-44, 1957.
Eleven white  rats  were given oral  doses  of  0.008-
0.04 g/kg  Pb  acetate or sc  injections of  0.0004-
0.0012 g/kg As or  0.3-0.5  g/kg aniline.   The ani-
mals were observed for 60 days and then killed.
Early changes of  the cerebral cortex consisted of
the formation of  irregular spherical thickenings
or swellings  of the dendrites and  a decrease in
the number of the thorny projections which are
seen in normal rats.  The changes  were reversible.
When 11 other rats were given orally or sc in-
creasing doses of Pb, As or aniline for 1-5 mo
more severe alterations of the dendrites were
noted.  Subcutaneous administration of 0.03 g/kg
Pb acetate,  6.0 g/kg aniline or 0.0012 g/kg Na
arsenate caused death in 7-12 days.   The damage
to the cerebral cortex was still more intense
than in chronic poisoning.   Details are described
and illustrated in 9 figures.  (25 references)

761      Tolgskaya, M.S.:  Morfologicheskie izmene-
        niya v mezhneironnykh svyazyakh kory bol1-
        shikh polusharii golovnogo mozga pri neko-
        torfykh professional'nykh neirointoksika-
        tsiyakh.  (MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN THE IN-
        TERNEURONAL JUNCTIONS OF THE CORTEX OF THE
        LARGE HEMISPHERES OF THE BRAIN IN SOME OC-
        CUPATIONAL NEUROINTOXICATIONS.)   In Trudy
        Yubileinoi Nauchnoi  Sessii Posvyashchen-
        noi 30-Letnei Deyatel'nosti Instituta
        1924-1954.  Leningrad, Ministerstvo Zdra-
        vookhraneniya RSFSR, Institut Gigieny Truda
        i Profzabolevanii, 1957, pp. 435-41.
Comparative experiments were carried out  by the
administration to white rats, of very small doses
of Pb acetate, aniline or As and in acute intoxi-
cation by the same substances.  It was observed
that the morphologic changes in the interneuronal
junctions are first reversible and disappear when
intoxication is discontinued; therefore,  they ap-
pear to be functional.  With continued intoxica-
tion, these changes progress to the point that ir-
reversible changes appear leading to destruction
of all neurons.

762     Ungher, I., Lillis, M., Moscovici, B., and
        Pompilian, V. :  Cercetari experimental
        asupra unor reactii compensatoare in
        intoxica£ia cu plumb.  (EXPERIMENTS ON
        COMPENSATION REACTIONS IN LEAD POISONING.)
        Igiena 6:115, 1957.
After producing a dynamic stereotype in 2 dogs the
animals were given repeated parenteral injections
of 2 mg Pb acetate/kg body weight.  One of the
dogs was a strong type, the other one was a ner-
vous animal.  By testing the nervous activity the
cyclic course of the manifestations was studied.
The manifestations were characterized by  a pro-
longation of the latent period after positive
stimuli, elimination of the inhibitions of differ-
entiation, followed by improvement until a normal
state was reached.  The results explain the com-
pensatory role of the cerebral cortex in Pb poi-
soning.   (From Zentralblatt fur Arbeitsmedizin und
Arbeitsschutz 7, No. 10:258  (Abstracts), 1957)

763    Ungher, J., Nestiano,  and Lillis,  M.
       (Neurol. Inst. "I.P. Pavlov," Acad. Rep.
       Pop.  Romania):  Richerche sperimentali sul
       saturnismo cronico.  (EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
       ON CHRONIC LEAD POISONING.)  Minerva Medi-
       ca 48,  No. 31:1361-4,  1957.
To determine whether adaptation to Pb poisoning
occurs, dogs were prepared by weekly iv injection
of 2 mg Pb acetate and the effect on conditJoned
reflexes was followed by the method of Kupalov.
After the 3rd  injection,  a dog with a strong ner-
vous system by Pavlov's classification showed
difficulty in distinguishing between different
stimuli and an increased latent period in response
to stimuli.   This increased to the 7th injection,
then decreased until the dog appeared normal after
the 13th with respect to conditioned reflex, but
agitation and dietary crisis forced suspension of
treatment.  A dog with a weak nervous system
showed increasing latenl period and difficulty in
distinguishing between stimuli after the  1st in-
jection, with convulsive crises after the 4th and
did not survive beyond the 10th.   EEC study showed
between the 2nd and 3rd injections a 1st  phase
characterized  by slow waves (theta and delta),
regular with rapid rhythm, and diminution of the
amplitude of the biocurrent of 25-75 pv.   A 2nd
was characterized by inhibitory processes and very
regular, rapid waves (2-5 wk),  The 3rd phase,
lasting 3-4 wk, showed rapid regular rhythm with
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               131

-------
slow waves and spikes.  The 4th and final phase
showed irregular delta waves, and no effect from
stimulation by light.  These experiments show
that adaptation to Ph poisoning occurs, but on
continued exposure, the various compensatory
mechanisms are damaged, and more intense nervous
activity results leading to death.

764     Vallejo-Freire, A., and Brunner, A., Jr.
        (Butantan Inst., Sao Paulo, Brazil):
        Eritrocitos na reticulocitose do saturnis-
        mo experimental.  Estrutura mitocondrial.
        (ERYTHROCYTES IN RETICULOCYTOSIS OF EXPERI-
        MENTAL SATURNISM.  MITOCHONDRIAL STRUC-
        TURE.)  Memories do Institute Butantan
        (Sao Paulo) 28:245-65, 1957-58.
Erythrocytes of guinea pigs, poisoned with sc in-
jections of 1 ml of a 1% aqueous solution of Pb
acetate/day for 3-9 days, were examined by electron
microscope.  The identity of the so-called "sub-
stantia granulo-filamentosa" with mitochondria  in
the reticulocytes was confirmed.  The increase  of
volume or tumefaction of mitochondria was found  to
be on an average 3 times greater than that observed
in reticulocytes in hemorrhagic anemia.  Similar
changes were obtained by means of osmotic varia-
tions in vitro in reticulocytes from guinea pigs
with reticulocytosis provoked by successive bleed-
ings.  In some reticulocytes the progressive dis-
integration of the mitochondrial structure could
be observed beginning with the loss of the external
membrane followed by successive dissolution of the
other constituents of the mitochondria.  The au-
thors interpret this to represent the natural
mechanism of the disintegration of mitochondria in
erythrocytes from the stage of the erythroblast to
the adult red cell.  (16 references)

765     Veiling, E.I., and Piskunova, V.V.:
        (THE DISTRIBUTION OF TETRAETHYL LEAD IN
        THE ORGANS OF ANIMALS.)  Materialy po
        Voprosam Prom. Toksikol. i Klin. Pro-
        fessional.  Boleznei (Gorky) 1957:27-
        35.
Rabbits were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 ml/
kg of TEL.  TEL became deposited in the organs as
organic Pb, most of it having become deposited in
the brain tissue:  the Pb content in the cerebral
hemispheres was 2.9 mg% and in the medulla ob-
longata 2.8 mg%.  The liver contained 0.91 mg%,
the heart muscles 0.87 mg%, and the lungs 0.61
mg%.  Most of the blood Pb was deposited in the
formed elements.   (From Referat. Zhur. Khim.,
Biol. Khim. 1959, Abstr. No. 12C52; Chemical
Abstracts 53:20543, 1959)

766     Veiling, E.I., and Preobrazhenskaya, A.A.:
        (THE EFFECT OF TETRAETHYL LEAD ON THE AC-
        TIVITY OF ENZYME SYSTEMS.)  Materialy po
        Voprosam Prom. Toksikol. i Klin.  Profes-
        sional.  Boleznei  (Gorky) 1957:36-44.
Rabbits were injected subcutaneously with 0.05-0.1
mg/kg of TEL.   The activity of blood carboxylase
and cholinesterase was depressed.  One-3 hr later
the concentration of blood acetylcholine (ACh) in-
creased to a maximum of 0.13-0.15 mg% on the 3rd-
5th day of intoxication; it then abated some, but
on the 20-40th day rose again; however, at the end
of the 3rd mo only traces of ACh could be found.
                  All organs of the TEL injected animals showed the
                  presence of increased ACh.  It reached 29.9 mg% in
                  the tissue of the medulla oblongata as against 8.4
                  mg% in the control and 5.5 mg% in the cerebral
                  tissue as against 1.33 mg% in the control.  The
                  content of ACh showed no detectable change in the
                  spinal cord.  ACh accumulated to 8 times its nor-
                  mal amount in the liver and heart muscles; it ap-
                  peared to be reduced in the tissue of the adre-
                  nals.  (From Referat. Zhur. Khim., Biol. Khim.
                  1959, Abstr. No. 12053;  Chemical Abstracts 53:
                  20543, 1959)

                  767      Vincent, J.  with the assistance of Nguete,
                          M. (Leopoldville, Belgian Congo):  Les
                          remaniements de 1'os compact marque a
                          1'aide de plomb.  (CHANGES OF COMPACT
                          BONE LABELED WITH LEAD.)  Revue Beige
                          de Pathologie et de Medecine Experimen-
                          tale 26, No. 3:161-8, 1957.
                  In order to determine whether Pb introduced into
                  the organism is distributed according to the same
                  plan as radio-Ca 7 adult dogs and a 3-mo-old cat
                  were given, for 1 wk, a 4% solution of basic Pb
                  acetate mixed into their ration so that each ani-
                  mal received 50 mg acetate/day/kg body weight.
                  After 1 wk intermission 3 of the dogs were given
                  the same dose again for another week.  A 2nd cat
                  of the same age was intoxicated with the same
                  daily dose for 7 consecutive weeks.  An additional
                  dog and cat served as controls.  The long bones of
                  the animals were studied histochemically and micro-
                  radiographically from 1 day to 3 mo after the end
                  of the experiment.  Pb seemed to behave exactly
                  like radio-Ca.  It was deposited mainly in the re-
                  cently formed osseous lamellae and to a lesser
                  degree in the older bone tissue which was not yet
                  saturated with Ca.
                    It is suggested that Pb may be used in deter-
                  mining the rate of osteogenesis:  a deposit occurs
                  in M> wk and calcification is complete after 3.5
                  mo.  The thickness of a pre-osseous layer is ^10
                  U/wk.  The use of Pb for the study of the Haversian
                  change is compared with that of radio-Ca and radio-
                  S.  Pb is in fact a convenient instrument for the
                  study of changes in bone tissue and it confirms the
                  results obtained from autoradiography.  (25 ref-
                  erences)

                  768      Von Backstrom,  U.:   SOME UNUSUAL CASES.
                          ATYPICAL LEAD POISONING—BULL.   SPECIFIC
                          THERAPY WITH CALCIUM DISODIUM VERSENATE.
                          Journal of the South African Veterinary
                          Medical Association 28:213-5,  1957.
                  A bull stopped eating and developed lacrimation,
                  salivation, severe colic, bronchitis, paralysis of
                  the bladder and weakness of the hindquarters.
                  Rapid recovery followed single intravenous injec-
                  tion of a solution containing 24 g calcium diso-
                  dium edetate.  Pb was identified in the feces.
                  It was believed to have been ingested from a pool
                  of rainwater in the exercise pen which had drained
                  off painted roofs.   (From Veterinary Bulletin 28,
                  No. 9:3000, 1958")

                  759     Wada,  N.:   STUDIES  ON  THE  INDUSTRIAL LEAD
                          POISONING.   I.  ABSORPTION, TRANSPORTATION,
                          DEPOSITION  AND  EXCRETION OF LEAD.  4.  AN
                          EXPERIMENTAL  STUDY  OF  LEAD  INTAKE IN DOGS.
132
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        Osaka City Medical Journal 4:113-33  (June),
        1957.  In   Contributions from the Depart-
        ment of Preventive Medicine and Public
        Health, Osaka City University Medical
        School, Vol. 1, April 1949-March 1959, pp.
        159-79.
Two female dogs were fed 2.73 mg Pb/kg (as solu-
tion of Pb acetate) for 61 and 99 days respective-
ly; a 3rd dog served as control.  The experimental
dogs lost 20% of their weight.  Variations in the
count of reticulocytes and punctate basophils in-
dicated that the degree of Pb poisoning could not
be assessed by the counting of abnormal erythro-
cytes; the increase of coproporphyrin constituted
a more reliable test of Pb absorption.  Fecal and
urinary Pb excretion, accounting for some 90% of
Pb ingested, rose sharply within 24 hr and then
remained fairly steady.  The remaining 10% Pb was
stored mainly in the teeth and bones, other  organs
contained small quantities, liver, kidney, spleen,
and lungs had the highest content.  Other organs
examined for the Pb content were:  pancreas, stom-
ach, intestine, trachea, brain, heart, bile, blood.
 (63 references)

770     Wassermann, M., Mihail, G.B., and Cojocaru,
        V. (Romania):  Recherches hematologiques
        dans 1'intoxication saturnine expe'rimen-
        tale des animaux home'othermes, a I1aide du
        microscope a contraste de phases.  (HEMA-
        TOLOGIC STUDIES IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POI-
        SONING OF HOMOTHERMIC ANIMALS USING THE
        PHASE-CONTRAST MICROSCOPE.)  In XII  Inter-
        national Congress on Occupational Health,
        Helsinki, Finland, 1957, Vol. Ill, Pro-
        ceedings, pp. 185-9.
See Abstract No. 824

771     Westermarck, H.:  Lyijymyrkytysten hoito
        kalsiumi-EDTA eli kalsiumiverzenaatilla ja
        BAL eli dimerkaptopropanolilla.  (CALCIUM-
        EDTA AND BAL (DIMERCAPROL) IN THE TREAT-
        MENT OF LEAD POISONING.)  Finska Vet.
        Tidsskr. 63:417-22, 1957.
Pb poisoning in cattle has occurred when the drink-
ing water contained 0.15 ppm Pb; in the blood 0.128
rag/1000 ml is found in cases of Pb poisoning.  Pb
oxide is the main cause of this poisoning in Fin-
land.  BAL has been given, 4-6 mg/kg; but EDTA is
preferred, in doses of 1-2 g/100 kg, repeated 2-3
times with 2-3 day intervals.  The intravenous in-
jection must be given slowly, otherwise shock oc-
curs.  Sheep were killed with 0.4-0.5 g/kg of
Na edetate.  (From Veterinary Bulletin 28, No. 5:
1562, 1958)

        1958

772      Afonova, V.N. (Pavlov Med, Inst., Ryazan,
        USSR):   Izmenenie nekotorykh reaktivnykh
        grupp syvorotochnykh belkov pri khroni-
        cheskoi svintsovoi intoksikatsii.  (CHANGES
        IN SOME REACTIVE GROUPS OF SERUM PROTEINS
        IN CHRONIC LEAD POISONING.)  Farmakologiya
        i Toksikologiya 21:64-9 (Nov.-Dec.),  1958.
In tests lasting 53-189 days, 14 rabbits were
given orally Pb acetate (aqueous solution)  in
doses starting  at 10 mg/kg and increasing every 2
wk by 10 mg/kg  to a maximum of 80 mg/kg;  8 rabbits
served as controls.  The animals were killed after
manifest poisoning had been established.  The
serum proteins were examined everv week.  Sulfhy-
dryl groups  (SH) were determined by Anson's iodo-
metric method; the amine groups, colorimetrically;
the carboxyl, by formol titration (Zerensen),
  Analysis showed active amine groups to decrease
by 16.3-42.6%, av 30%; active SH groups by 14.3-
42.9%, av 27,7%; active carboxyl groups by 11.6-
43.8%, av 29.3%.  The author concludes that in
chronic Pb poisoning, one of the causes for the
decrease in  the above protein groups is a blocking
action by Pb.  She does not, however, exclude the
possibility  that certain biochemical and physio-
logic processes occurring in prolonged poisoning
depress the  synthesis of proteins containing the
free reactive groups.

773     Agresti, A,, Biondi, S., and Catellani, G.:
        Di un raro caso di  saturnismo del cane
        sovrapponibile a quello professionale
        dell'uomo.   (LEAD POISONING IN A DOG.)
        Acta Med. Vet., Napoli  4:169-92, 1958.
An account of chronic Pb poisoning in a dog which
had been a watch dog in a printer's workshop for
7  yr is given.  The findings were in general
similar to those of the condition in man.  (From
Veterinary Bulletin 29:1548 (May), 1959)

774    Baier, H. (Med. Clin. Inst. Ferdinand-
       Sauerbruch, Wuppertal-Elberfeld, Germany):
       Uber  d:e> Wirkung von Blei auf die Fer-
       mentsynthese in vivo.  (EFFECTS OF LEAD ON
       ENZYME SYNTHESIS IN VIVO.)  Klinische
       Wochenschrift 36:970-2, 1958.
Rats were given Pb^Oj^ in their drinking water
at an approximate level of 50 mg/day.  When toxic
syrr.ptons were noted, the livers were analyzed for
arginase activity.  Values were 50% less than
those in untreated animals.  In vitro, 10~% Pb
resulted in  60-70% inhibition of the arginase
activity of  human red cell hemolyzates.

775     Baikie,  A.G., and Pirrie, R.  (Roy.  In-
        firmary, Glasgow,  Scotland):   THE EFFECTS
        OF ACTH AND CORTISONE IN EXPERIMENTAL
        HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIAS IN GUINEA PIGS;  STUD-
        IES ON ANAEMIAS DUE TO HETEROLOGOUS ANTI-
        RED-CELL-SERUM AND ON THE ANAEMIS OF
        CHRONIC LEAD POISONING.   Scottish Medical
        Journal 3,  No.  6:264-73, 1958.
Anemia of chronic Pb poisoning was induced in 18
adult male guinea pigs by  pipetting into the mouth
of each animal a daily dose of 50-300 mg Pb ni-
trate in solution.   On the 48th day when hypo-
chromic anemia had developed,  they were paired and
1 of each pair was given a daily intramuscular
(im) dose of 20 mg corticotrophin (ACTH)  for 15
days.  The reticulocyte and stipple-cell count in
the treated animals rose to about twice that of
the controls by the 10th day of treatment with
ACTH and declined slowly when ACTH was stopped,
reaching normal values about 16 days after its
discontinuance.   No concomitant rise in hemoglobin
(Hb) or red cell levels was noted.   Fecal excre-
tion of urobilinogen between the 54th and 65th
day of poisoning was 0.46  mg/day in treated ani-
mals and 0.53 mg/day in controls.   When 3 Pb-poi-
soned guinea pigs were given 12 mg cortisone ace-
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               133

-------
tate im twice/day for 28 days, mean Hb value and
red cell values in test and control animals did
not differ whereas the mean reticulocyte count
from the 4th-20th day of cortisone treatment was
twice as high in experimental as in control ani-
mals.  Three guinea pigs injected each with 0.2
ml of a potent liver extract between the 70th and
85th day of Pb poisoning showed no alteration in
reticulocyte counts.  Administration of a gelatin
and propylene-glycol vehicle with or without 20 mg
ACTH/day to 12 Pb-poisoned animals for 16 days,
while Pb doses were stopped from the 2nd-9th day,
produced a reticulocytosis similar in trend and
magnitude in both groups.  The discontinuance of
Pb doses caused a striking fall in reticulocyte
levels within 3 days which was followed by an
equally striking rise 4 days after Pb was recom-
menced.  In splenectomized Pb poisoned guinea pigs
ACTH administration was not associated with any
consistent change in reticulocyte and stipple cell
counts.  In normal (not Pb poisoned) guinea pigs
ACTH produced a 2-3-fold increase of reticulocytes
compared with non-ACTH-treated animals, without
marked difference in fecal urobilinogen excretion.
This led to the conclusion that this increase in
reticulocyte count does not indicate a proportion-
ate increase in erythropoiesis.  Similar results
were obtained after administration of gelatin and
propylene-glycol vehicle with or without ACTH.
The direct Coombs test was not applied in any of
the experiments.  It was concluded that ACTH and
cortisone had no beneficial effect on anemias
of chronic Pb poisoning.  (30 references)

776     BSnard, H., Gajdos, A., and Gajdos-Torb'k,
        M. (Natl. Inst. Health, France):  Biogenese
        de 1'hemoglobine par le sang peripherique
        du lapin; action du plomb, du fluorure de
        sodium et de 1'oxyde de carbone.  (SYNTHE-
        SIS OF HEMOGLOBIN BY THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD
        OF RABBITS; EFFECT OF LEAD, SODIUM FLUORIDE
        AND CARBON MONOXIDE.)  Exposes Annuels de
        Biochimie Medicale 1958, No. 20:41-54.
See Gajdos,  A., and Gajdos-Tb'r&'k,  M.

777      Borbely, F. (Univ. Zurich, Switzerland):
        (TOXIC PROPERTIES OF LEAD ARSENATE.)
        Schweiz. Z. Obst-u. Weinbau 67:333-5, 1958.
Toxicity of Pb arsenates to warm-blooded animals
is discussed.  (From Chemical Abstracts 54:14455,
1960)

778      Bunyan, J., Edwin, E.E., and Green, J.,
        (Walton Oaks Exptl. Sta., Tadworth, Surrey,
        England):  PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF TRACE ELE-
        MENTS OTHER THAN SELENIUM AGAINST DIETARY
        NECROTIC LIVER DEGENERATION.  Nature 181:
        1801 (June 28), 1958.
Rats wt:re fed necrogenic diets containing trace
elements at levels below their toxicity (where
they were known);  Pb (alone,  fed as Pb acetate at
0.5 ppm to 10 rats) and Ce,  Hg,  Ti, and V (to-
gether) were inactive.  Mo,  Os,  and Co (together
and separately) delayed deaths by necrosis beyond
130 days in 3 out of 7.   Se,  cystine,  and a-toco-
pherol prevented necrosis.  Of the Pb  rats, only
1 survived 88 days, and died on the 89th day.
779
Caccuri, S., Pecora, L.,  Fati, S., and
        Vecchione, C. (Inst. Ind.  Med. Univ. Na-
        ples, Italy):  Recherches  sur la porphy-
        rinogenese dans le saturnisme.  (STUDIES
        CONCERNING PORPHYRINOGENESIS IN LEAD POI-
        SONING.)  Archives des Maladies Profession-
        nelles de Medecine du Travail et de Secur-
        ite^Sociale 19:341-6 (July-Aug.), 1958.
Young rabbits were made anemic by  bleeding them for
3 days.  On the 4th day, a suspension of red blood
corpuscles from blood taken from their ear vein
was prepared and reacted at 37° for 6 hr  with a
homogenate obtained from fresh tissue of different
organs of these animals, in the presence of gly-
cocoll.  Synthesis of protoporphyrln (PP) in this
system was slightly inhibited compared with a con-
trol system of red blood corpuscles and glycocoll.
In another test, rabbits were fed  daily 4 ml of a
20% solution of Pb acetate for 5 days and sacri-
ficed on the 6th day.  Addition of a homogenate of
tissues from these Pb-poisoned rabbits markedly
stimulated the synthesis of free PP in the system
of red cells-glycocoll.  The greatest activation
was observed with lung tissue where the synthe-
sized amount of free PP was more than double of
that in the control tests.  Liver, bone marrow and
spleen, in this order, were the next active stimu-
lants.  Homogenates of tissues from Pb-poisoned
rabbits also promoted the synthesis of erythro-
cytic coproporphyrin in the above system.  The
stimulating action of Pb on the synthesis of por-
phyrin in the organism was thus directly proved.
(28 references)

780     Calapso,  P., and Maiorca, G.   (Inst. Sci.
        Information, Milan, Italy):  Glomerulojal-
        inosi  da  piombo; ricerche sperimentali.
        (GLOMERULAR HYALINOSIS OF LEAD; EXPERIMEN-
        TAL STUDIES.)  Biologica Latina 11, No.
        3:445-56, 1958.
A group of 30  albino rats of both sexes  (180 g
weight) were injected sc 10 mg Pb acetate/day  for
9 mo.  Mortality was 20% in the 1st 3 mo and 30%
from 4th-7th mo.  The histochemical studies were
made only on those that survived from  7-9 mo.  The
findings indicated that prolonged treatment with Pb
causes glomerular hyalinosis.  A primary alteration
of the glycoproteins in the glomerular mesangium
followed by mucosclerosis was assumed.  This change
of the mesangium  limits the activity of the glomer-
ular endothelium which favors the accumulation of
plasma proteins in the capillary loops.  The ab-
sense of vascular lesions which in man are charac-
teristic for Pb-induced atrophy of the kidney, may
be due to too  short an experimental period or to
peculiarities  of  the test animals towards Pb.  (36
references)

7gl      Di Maggio, G. (Univ. Catania, Italy):
        Fattori vitaminici P ed attivlta epatica.
        (VITAMIN P FACTORS AND HEPATIC ACTIVITY.)
        Minerva Medica 1958:1701-14.
In this discussion and review of the effect of 4-
methylesculetin (ME) and quercetin in protein,
lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, graphs are
shown of the efficacy of ME in lowering free, es-
terified and total cholesterol in the liver of rats
subjected to subchronic Pb poisoning.  Neutral fats
and total lipids were also reduced (Di Maggio, in
press).  (107  references)
134
                                    BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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782     Fabre, R., Truhaut, R., Girault, M.
        (Pharmacy Coll. Paris, France):  Utilisa-
        tion de 1'embryon de poulet en toxicologie
        experimentale.  Application a 1'etude des
        effets toxiques du plomb.  (CHICKEN EMBRYO
        IN EXPERIMENTAL TOXICOLOGY.  APPLICATION
        TO THE STUDY OF LEAD.)  Annales Pharma-
        ceutiques Franchises 16:545-57 (Sept.-
        Oct.), 1958.
The technique of  injecting substances to be tested
in the fertilized egg and incubation precautions
are described.  Neutral Pb acetate was injected
in doses of 200-4000 ug/egg at various periods of
incubation.  At a dose of 1000 pg injected on the
5th day, development of the embryo was rather good,
but there was  50% mortality and brain injury which
could be observed macroscopically and microscopic-
ally.  The severity of lesions was not in propor-
tion to the dose  employed.  Injections on the 10th
day had the. same  effect as injection made on the
5th day.  Large doses (4000 pg Pb/egg) given on
the 10th day occasionally caused only a minimum
inhibition of growth.  In 2 eggs that received
2000 ug each, 1015 and 990 yg Pb were found in the
embryo, 860 and 900 in the vitellin sac, and 90
and 110 in the shell.

733     Fusco, M., Fati, S., and Vecchione, C.
        (Univ. Naples, Italy):  II comportamento
        del ferro nei tessuti nell'intossicazione
        sperimentale da piombo.  (BEHAVIOR OF TIS-
        SUE IRON IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)
        Bolletino della Societa Italiana di Bio-
        logia Sperimentale 34, No. 8:382-5, 1958.
Eight rabbits were intoxicated by a daily oral
dose of 0.20 g Pb acetate and sacrificed after
^20 days.   The Pb and Fe contents were determined
in the lungs, liver, brachial and sciatic plexus
and bone marrow and compared with those in 8 con-
trol animals.  In a group of 4 Pb-intoxicated rab-
bits the Pb and Fe content in blood, urinary Pb,
protoporphyrin and coproporphyrin were determined
besides the Pb and Fe contents in the above men-
tioned tissues.  Two rabbits were intoxicated with
daily doses of 0.10 g Pb acetate for ^1 mo and
lungs, liver, brachial and sciatic plexus and bone
marrow were analyzed for Pb and Fe.  All experimen-
tal results pointed to the fact that Pb poisoning
causes a decrease of Fe in the tissues.  The re-
action of  catalase, peroxidase, myoglobin was not
studied.

784      Gajdos, A. and Gajdos-TBrBk, M. (Hotel
        Dieu, Paris, France):   Modifications du
        taux de la protoporphyrine libre et de
        1'activite catalasique dans les globules
        rouges du lapin intoxique par le plomb ou
        par la phenylhydrazine.  (CHANGES IN FREE
        PROTOPORPHYRIN LEVELS AND CATALASE ACTI-
        VITY IN ERYTHROCYTES OF RABBITS POISONED
        WITH LEAD OR PHENYLHYDRAZINE.)  Sang, Bi-
        ologie et Pathologie 29, No. 1:27-33,
        1958.
Six adult  rabbits were injected im with 250 mg Pb
acetate/kg body weight every 3 days for 6 wk.  The
catalase activity of the red blood cells was de-
termined at regular intervals in the above rabbits
and in 17  controls.  Activity in the controls var-
ied from 2500-4150 units/ml red blood cells, out
was practically constant  for  each  individual  ani-
mal.  The Pb-poisoned rabbits exhibited  a  signifi-
cant progressive  increase  of catalase activity,
red-cell protoporphyrin  (PP)  and urinary CP.   In
order to compare  the rate of  globular PP and
erythrocyte catalase activity,  6 rabbits were in-
jected  sc with 50 mg phenylhydrazine chlorhydrate/
kg every 5 days.  Determinations made every 2 wk
showed  a development of excessive  amounts  of  glob-
ular hyper-PP parallel to the degree of  phenyl-
hydrazinic catalase activity.   The mechanism  of
the increased catalase activity is discussed.
(13 references)

785      Gajdos, A.,  and  Gajdos-TBrBk, M. (Natl.
         Inst.  Hyg.,  France):   Anemie hypochrome,
         hypersideremique experimentale par intoxi-
         cation saturnine, fluoree  ou oxycarbonee
         du  lapin. Mecanisme  pathogenique.  (EX-
         PERIMENTAL HYPOCHROMIC HYPERSIDEREMIC ANE-
         MIA IN  THE RABBIT IN  LEAD,  FLUORIDE,  OR
         CARBON  MONOXIDE  POISONING.  PATHOGENETIC
         MECHANISM.)   Sang, Biologie et Pathologie
         29, No. 6:444-60, 1958.
Two experimental methods were used as  follows:
Rabbit blood was incubated, in the presence and
absence of the toxic substances (Pb acetate, NaF
and CO), with glycocoll marked with -^C or with
59pe.   The rabbits had been intoxicated by phenyl-
hydrazine prior to the experiment.   In vitro,  the
addition of Pb (30 mg)  to  the blood of  these rab-
bits,  incubated with 59pe> caused almost  complete
inhibition of heme synthesis.   In the 2nd  experi-
ment,  rabbits were rendered anemic by giving the
toxic test substances.   In the case of Pb,  the
anemia was produced by giving 100 mg of Pb (as
subacetate)/kg by gastric  tube several times every
5 days.   NaF was given by  the same route  every 2
days at a dose of 60 mg/kg.  For CO anemia, the
animals were kept for 2-3 hr/day in a metal cage
which was hermetically sealed but conveyed 0 and
CO by 2 rubber tubes.  When a distinct hypersider-
emic anemia was achieved with 20% reticulocytosis,
the rabbits were bled and  the blood (25 ml) was
incubated with labeled glycocoll and in 1  sample
with 150 mg NaF (known to  cause large increases in
free erythrocyte protoporphyrin).   After  incuba-
tion for 4 hr at  37°, free erythrocyte protoporphy-
rin (PP), Hb-PP or heme were isolated and  radio-
activity was measured.   The results showed that
the blood was practically  incapable of  synthesizing
heme;  Hb-PP was practically nil.  In the  experiment
where NaF was used alone,  there was no accumulation
of PP;  in the phenylhydrazine-anemic blood, after
addition of NaF,  the content of PP rose from 1400
pg/100 ml red cells to an  av 6300 ug.   In  the Pb-
poisoned blood, PP content remained practically
the same in the presence  or absence of NaF (430
and 500 yg) .  When the blood of the Pb  rabbits was
incubated with 59pe>  it was evident that  the ab-
sence of heme synthesis was due to a lack  of Fe
incorporation.  Both in this  case and in the phe-
nylhydrazine-poisoned rabbits  the percentage of
reticulocytes was about the same.
  The authors summarize their  experiments  as fol-
lows:   In rabbits poisoned with Pb, NaF and CO, a
hypochromic and hypersideremic anemia was  observed.
These characteristics of  the anemia can be explain-
ed by the inhibition of the combination of Fe with
                                            Plants and Animals
                                              135

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PP.  Hb synthesis thus inhibited causes a decrease
in the globular level and Fe accumulates causing
hypersideremia.  There is also an increase in the
free PP level in the red cells.   PP, the synthesis
of which is maintained, accumulates due to the
small utilization in the hematopoiesis.  The inhi-
bition of heme synthesis seems to be the factor
responsible for the coexistence of hypochromia and
hypersideremia.  (24 references)

786     Gentile, G. (Univ.  Messina, Italy):  Ri-
        cerche  sperimentali sull'intossicazione
        saturnina:   Risultati finora ottenuti e
        piano di nuove rlcerche.  (EXPERIMENTAL
        STUDIES ON LEAD POISONING:  RESULTS OB-
        TAINED AND PLANS FOR NEW RESEARCH.)  Folia
        Medica (Naples) 41:902-10 (Sept.), 1958.
After a brief review of the occupations in which
workers are most exposed to the hazards of Pb
poisoning, the author reviews the various efforts
made since 1910 (by Simon)  to obtain a compound
which, when administered to a Pb poisoned person,
is capable of forming an insoluble Pb compound by
binding the Pb cation.  Although at present vari-
ous antidotes are available, including the most
modern Na pyrocatecholdisulfonate, BAL, and EDTA,
the search is far from finished and many points
need resolution.  The author has been engaged in
such research, which he intends to publish in the
future.   (19 references)

787     Grezaffi, A.J.  (Texas A.  and M. Coll.,
        College Station):  AN ACUTE CASE OF LEAD
        POISONING IN A COW.  Southwestern Vet.
        11:140, 1958.
Poisoning in a cow by accidental  ingestion of Pb
arsenate powder could not be counteracted with
CaEDTA, Na thiosulfate, DCM  (composition not given),
or Havidote  (composition not given).   (From Chemical
Abstracts 52:18867, 1958)

788     Grishchenko, E.D.,  and Nikltenko, V.V.
        (Inst. Hyg  Occup.  Dis., USSR):  A STUDY
        OF CERTAIN INDICES, BIOCHEMICAL AND OTHER-
        WISE, IN ACUTE EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.
        Pharmacology and Toxicology 21, No. 1:88,
        1958.  Translation of Farmakoligiya i
        Toksikologiya 21, No. 1:81, 1958.
Acute Pb poisoning was induced by injecting 1.4 ml
of a 1% Pb acetate solution  (9 me. Pb) ip into rats
weighing  192-291 g  (av 224 g) .  One-1.5 hr after
the Pb was injected, the animals were given by
mouth 1 ml of a solution of  35g methionine, in a
dose of 10 uCi/rat.  The control and experimental
rats were killed after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 days.
The poisoning did not greatly change the distribu-
tion of the 35g methionine in the organs.  It was
significantly absent only in the muscle tissue and
the myosin B of the muscles and heart.  However,
there was no noticeable change in the myosin B con-
tent during the 8-day period after the poisoning.
After the 1st day,  the viscosimetric activity
decreased noticeably.  The heart  action was accel-
erated, but returned to normal on the 2nd day,
while in  the muscles, the process of neutralizing
the harmful effect of Pb was much retarded, and
the viscosimetric activity was just as low on the
8th day as on the 1st day.   A weight loss was ob-
served on the 2nd day, reaching 10% on the 4th
                 day.  In acute poisoning, the weight loss seems to
                 primarily occur in the lAuscle and fat tissues,
                 since the other organs were found to be their nor-
                 mal size or even larger during the period of maxi-
                 mal weight loss.  Some tendency of the dry matter
                 content of the organs to decrease was observed in
                 the poisoned rats.
                   Some of the symptoms of acute poisoning are simi-
                 lar to those appearing in the 1st stage of chronic
                 poisoning.  Some of these symptoms are more pro-
                 nounced in acute poisoning (eg, the decrease in the
                 viscosimetric activity of actomyosin), while others
                 are not as pronounced.  (From authors' abstract)

                 789     Harashima, S., Tsuchiya, K., Kondo, H.,
                         Motouchi, M.., Sakaguchi, T. , and Mori, A.
                         (Keio Univ., Tokyo,  Japan):  THERAPY AND
                         PREVENTION OF LEAD POISONING WITH CALCIUM
                         VERSENATE.  Keio Journal of Medicine 7:93-
                         105 (Nov.), 1958.
                 The study was divided into 3 parts.   (1)  Dogs
                 were injected sc with 3 mg Pb/kg body weight (as
                 Pb acetate) 3 times/wk for ^3 wk; on the days when
                 Pb was not administered, 2.5 ml of 20% CaEDTA in
                 glucose solution was given by iv drip for 1 hr;
                 controls were given glucose only.  Hemoglobin, red
                 and white cells, basophilic stippled cells and
                 reticulocytes were determined in experimental and
                 control dogs.  In these dogs, CaEDTA was very use-
                 ful in preventing the onset of poisoning as well as
                 in recovery from poisoning symptoms.  Liver func-
                 tion as determined by A/G ratio of serum and total
                 protein showed both criteria  to be decreased in
                 the control, but returned to nearly normal in the
                 treated dog.  No significant difference was seen
                 in protein fractions, although  y~globulin was
                 raised gradually in both dogs.  In the experimental
                 dogs, Pb distribution differed from that of the
                 control, ie, on 36th day of experiment, in poisoned
                 animals Pb content of plasma increased to 60  and
                 in red cells to 100 Mg/100 ml; controls:  Pb in
                 plasma 25 and red cells 40 ug/100 ml.  Pb in urine
                 was: experimental dog:  0.01 and 0.48 mg, through-
                 out the experiment; control dog:  2.0 mg  (22nd
                 experimental day).  Content of Pb in liver of the
                 treated dog was 'uL/2 that in liver of control ani-
                 mal; Pb in kidney of treated dog was 1/3 that in
                 kidney of control dog.  (2)  Pb workers suffering
                 from chronic Pb poisoning were treated iv with
                 EDTA.  This therapy did not increase the Pb level
                 in the blood while the urinary Pb level was highest
                 after 3 hr administration.  (3)  Oral therapy with
                 EDTA in workers with chronic Pb poisoning increased
                 urinary Pb excretion in only a few patients.  When
                 oral therapy was extended over more than 6 mo, both
                 blood and urinary Pb decreased and anemia was im-
                 proved.   (14 references)

                 790     Heggen, G.E., Olsen, K.B., Edwards, C.F.,
                         Clark, L.B., and Maisel, M.  (Saratoga
                         Springs Comm. Res. Lab.; Albany Med. Coll.;
                         Union Coll., Schenectady, N.Y.):   EFFECTS
                         OF X-IRRADIATION ON TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS
                         IN RAT TISSUES.  Radiation Research 9:285-
                         90  (Aug.), 1958.
                 Fourteen  trace elements, including Pb, were studied
                 in  the pooled samples of liver,  spleen, kidney,
                 and lungs of male Sherman rats  (140-200 g weight)
                 after they had received 600 r total-body  irradia-
136
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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tlon  (200 kv, 20 ma) at a target distance of 53 cm
at a  rate of 81.5 r/min.  In experiment 1 (46 rats),
the animals were killed at 4, 8, and 12 days after
irradiation; in experiment 2 (54 rats) at 2, 4, 6,
and 8 days after exposure.  Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, and Mn
were  found consistently in all organs analyzed; Cr
in most samples; and Al in all lung samples.  Ni
and Pb were found sporadically.

791      Horiuchi, K., and Horlguchi, S.:  STUDIES
        ON THE INDUSTRIAL LEAD POISONING.  I. AB-
        SORPTION, TRANSPORTATION, DEPOSITION AND
        EXCRETION OF LEAD.  5. AN EXPERIMENTAL
        STUDY WITH RADIOACTIVE LEAD (RADIUM D).
        Osaka City Medical Journal 4:159-70 (Jan.),
        1958.  In Contributions from the Depart-
        ment of Preventive Medicine and Public
        Health, Osaka City University Medical
        School, Vol. 1, April 1949-March 1959, pp.
        194-205.
Guinea pigs (400-500 g) given Pb acetate (in solu-
tion  of 16.38 mg Pb/ml) at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg
subcutaneously or orally for about 1 mo until Pb-
poisoned, were subsequently given a solution con-
taining some Pb acetate and a radioactive Pb trac-
er (RaD) either sc or orally or intratracheally.
Serial RaD measurements were made for 20 days.
Blood RaD levels reached maximum quickly (lowest
in oral group, highest in sc group) and fell rap-
idly  after the 2nd day.  Red cells contained most,
plasma and serum very little.  RaD concentrations
in tissues were as follows:  sc group, bones high-
est in early and late specimens; liver, spleen,
kidney high early, low by 10th day; lungs low, in-
creasing later.  Oral group, bones and teeth high-
est;  next liver and spleen; kidney low, gradually
increasing.  Intratracheal group, kidney highest;
bones and teeth next; liver and spleen high, de-
creasing gradually; cecum relatively high and re-
maining so.  Fecal excretion was greater than the
urinary except in the sc group.  Figures are given
for excreted and absorbed RaD.  (21 references)

792      Hosaka, Y. (Sewaga Children's Hosp., Tokyo,
        Japan):  IRON METABOLISM IN ANEMIAS IN THE
        GROWING STAGE.  II.  THE NONHEMIN IRON CON-
        TENTS OF THE ORGANS OF RATS IN RONTGEN-
        IRRADIATION ANEMIA, LEAD-POISONING ANEMIA,
        AND MALARIAL ANEMIA.  Nippon Shonlka Gaku-
        kai Zasshi 62:334-9, 1958.
In the cases of Rbntgen-irradiation anemia, Fe com-
pounds in the liver, spleen, kidney, and pancreas
increased.   However, in the bone marrow, ferrltin
decreased and all other fractions increased.  This
suggested that the reserve Fe was not utilized due
to the obstruction in the hematopoietic functions.
In Pb-poisoning anemia, a similar imperfect utili-
zation of the reserve Fe was noted as due to the
obstruction in the hematopoietic function and to
the increases in the hemosiderin content of the
liver, spleen, kidney, and small intestine.  (From
Chemical Abstracts 52:14831, 1958)

793      Ising, U. , and Voigt, G.E. (Univ. Lund,
        Sweden) :  Histochemische Untersuchungen
        Uber die Verteilung des Bleies bei experi-
        mentellen Bleivergiftungen.  (HISTOCHEMICAL
        STUDIES ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN EX-
        PERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)  Acta Histo-
         chemica 6:44-54,  1958.
 Several  methods for  demonstrating Pb were  tested;
 the  most satisfactory were the  Ag sulfide  and the
 dithizone methods.   Although  the  sulfide method
 was  considered  preferable because the  smallest Pb
 deposits which  could not  be demonstrated by  the
 dithizone method could be made  visible by  it, the
 dithizone method was considerably easier to  exe-
 cute.  Acute Pb intoxication  was  produced  in 2
 hamsters given  Pb acetate in  water solution  at a
 dose of  ^500 mg/100  g of  body weight either  orally
 or subcutaneously, and killed.  To produce chronic
 poisoning,  8 hamsters were given  20 mg Pb  phos-
 phate/100 g each, intramuscularly twice a  week for
 4-12 wk.   Survival ranged from  2-105 days.   Ne-
 cropsy showed no macroscopic  changes.   At  the in-
 jection  site and in  the mesenteric fatty tissue,
 peculiar grayish white formations,  Pb  granulomas,
 were found.  Histochemical examination showed in
 acute poisoning in the kidneys  the presence  of Pb
 in the interstitial  tubules,  in ascending  branches
 of Henle's  loop,  and in epithelial cells of  the
 glomeruli as well as in the basal membrane;  in
 chronic  poisoning, it occurred  chiefly in  the parts
 of the proximal epithelia and in  the fuchsinophile
 nuclear  inclusions in tubular epithelia in a
 streak-like region of the cortex  along the boundary
 of cortex and medulla.  The nuclei of  these  cells
 were substantially enlarged and swollen.   In the
 liver, Pb was found  in the Kupffer cells;  in
 chronic  poisoning it appeared to  be replaced by
 deposits of Fe.

 794      JHtten, K.W., and  KlosterkHtter, W.  (West-
         phalia  Wilhelms Univ., Munster,  Germany):
         Untersuchungen mit dem  Rostschutzgrundan-
         strichprMparat "Graubleimennige-Arcanol."
         (INVESTIGATIONS ON THE  RUST PREVENTIVE
         PAINT "GRAY  MINIUM ARCANOL.")   Zentral-
         blatt f{lr Arbeitsmedizin  und Arbeitsschutz
         8:140-2  (June), 1958.
 Experiments were  carried  out  to determine whether
 occupational hazards in the use of  "Gray minium"
 are  less  severe than in the use of  common  red mini-
 um.  Gray minium  contains  ^50% metallic  Pb,  red
 minium 77-80% Pbs04;  0.1N-HC1, within 30-120 rain,
 dissplves 6-7 times  as much Pb  from red minium  as
 from gray minium.  When rabbits were exposed to
 the  inhalation  of sprayed  fumes of  gray  and  red
 minium,  respectively, the  latter  proved  to be more
 toxic, causing  a  greater  number of  stippled  cells
 in 1 test and a higher mortality  in a  2nd.   Howev-
 er,  the  Pb  content in the  organs  was often higher
 with gray than  with  red minium which led to  the
 conclusion  that  Pb in this case was stored in the
 organism in a less reactive form.   The authors
 point out that  although gray  minium seems  to be
 less toxic  than red  minium, unprotected  rabbits
 exposed  to  its  fumes develop  distinct  symptoms  of
 Pb poisoning.   Thus, gray  minium  should  be used
.only with careful protective  measures.

 795     Klein,  J.R.  (Brookhaven  Natl.  Lab.,  Up-
         ton, N.Y.):  DEPRESSION OF  HEME  FORMATION
         AND PRODUCTION OF  FREE  PORPHYRIN IN  DUCK
         ERYTHROCYTES.  American Journal  of Physi-
         ology 203:971-4,  1958.
 Incorporation of  labeled  glycine  and acetate into
 heme and  free porphyrin formation in the presence
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               137

-------
of added glycine were depressed by Pb.   All stages
of heme formation by broken cells were  Inhibited,
but early stages were most sensitive.  (18 refer-
ences)

796     Klimova, L.K. (Ukrainian Scientific-Res.
        Chem.-Sanit. Inst., USSR):  PHARMACOLOGY
        OF THE NEW ANTIDOTE UNITHIOL.  Pharma-
        cology and Toxicology 21, No. 3:264-9,
        1958.  Translation of Farmakologiya i
        Toksikologiya 21, No. 3:53-8, 1958.
As determined in animals, unithiol (sodium 2,3-
dimercaptopropanesulfonate) is a substance of low
toxicity.  Toxic manifestations become  apparent
in animals only after administration of unithiol
in amounts >10 times the therapeutic dose.  It has
a wide range of therapeutic action and  lower tox-
icity than BAL.  The ratio of therapeutic dose to
toxic (LDso) is 1:2° on average.  When  35S-labeled
unithiol was given in a single sc injection to
animals, it was rapidly absorbed to give the maxi-
mal concentration in the blood possible with the
given dose within 30 min; the blood was free of
*5S after 24 hr.  35S disappeared from  the peri-
pheral blood after repeated sc injection, at the
same intervals of time as those following single
injections.  Unithiol (or metabolic products) was
eliminated from the body chiefly by the kidneys
(within the range of 70-80% of the administered
amount) within the first 5-6 hr.  It possesses no
cumulative properties.  Intravenous injection uni-
thiol to rabbits or dogs in therapeutic doses or
10 times greater exert no marked effect on the
circulatory system.  Hypotensive action became
manifest only when it is administered in doses
considerably >10 times the therapeutic  dose
(500 mg/kg to rabbits or 150-200 mg/kg  to dogs.)
797     Lang, H., and Fingerhut, M. (Univ. Mainz,
        Germany):  Verteilung von i.v. injiziertem
        Pb 210 in Kaninchenorganen.  (INTRACELLU-
        LAR DISTRIBUTION OF INTRAVENOUSLY INJECTED
        LEAD-210 IN THE ORGANS OF THE RABBIT.)
        Archiv fur Experimentelle Pathologie und
        Pharmakologie 235:41-50, 1958.
^lOpb  as Pb acetate was used in equilibrium with
 the  products  formed from the210Pb, and  the in-
 soluble part  was rendered soluble by treatment
 with HNOj and neutralization.  Doses of  0.14 to
 0.19 mg Pb were injected iv into rabbits.  In the
 liver  there was a marked and lasting accumulation
 of Pb  in the  mitochondria and a dilution of the
 activity in the microsomes and cytoplasma.  Be-
 tween  2 and 5 wk after th(- injection the specific
 activity in the mitochondria was about 8 times
 higher than that of the cytoplasm.  Other organs
 did  not show  a special trend to accumulate Pb.

 798     Matthews, J.J., and Walpole, A.L. (Imperi-
        al Chem. Ind. Ltd., Pharmaceuticals Div.,
        Cheshire, England):  TUMOURS OF  THE LIVER
        AND KIDNEY INDUCED IN WISTAR RATS WITH
        4'-FLUORO-4-AMINODIPHENYL.  British Jour-
        nal of Cancer 12:234-41 (June),  1958.
 Mention is made of tumors found by Zollinger in
 rats following repeated subcutaneous injection of
 Pb phosphate.  These were similar to spontaneous
 renal  adenomas described by Ecker.  Walpole con-
                 firmed  Zollinger's findings (unpublished).   The
                 appearance  of  the tumors in his rats,  however,  was
                 preceded  by severe pathological changes in  the
                 kidney  cortex,  occurrence of numerous  cysts in-
                 volving mainly the proximal convoluted tubules,
                 and of  bizarre nuclear abnormalities in the tubu-
                 lar epithelium.

                 799     Miani,  N., and Viterbo, B.  (Univ. Padua,
                        Italy):   Studio istoautoradiografico sulla
                        localizzazione del piombo (RaD) in  vari
                        organi di cane.  (HISTOAUTORADIOGRAPHIC
                        STUDY  OF  THE LOCALIZATION OF LEAD  (RaD) IN
                        VARIOUS ORGANS OF THE DOG.)  Zeitschrift
                        fUr Zellforschung und Mikroskopische
                        Anatomie  49, No. 2:188-208,  1958.
                 The histological  localization of Pb  (RaD) in var-
                 ious organs of dogs that were killed 10 hr, 3 or
                 10 days,  after intravenous administration of the
                 RaD, was  examined autoradiographically.  In the
                 kidneys RaD accumulated mainly in the  rod epithe-
                 lium.  In the  central nervous system (cerebellum,
                 telencephalon,  hypophyseal process,  and neurohy-
                 pophysis) it was  found in the structures forming
                 the capillaries and pyrenophores of  the nerve
                 cells and their dendrites while the  nerve fibers
                 of the  white brain substance did not store  the
                 metal.  In  the spleen RaD was present  mainly in
                 the sinoendothelial and reticular cells. In the
                 lungs it  was bound to the histiocytic  elements  and
                 in the  liver to the liver cells and  to Kupffer's
                 cells.  On  the basis of the histoautoradiograms
                 the conclusion was drawn that Pb accumulates prin-
                 cipally in  the following structures  which are
                 common  to all  organs:  mitochondria, cells  of
                 histiocytic macrophagic nature and structural
                 elements  of the capillaries.

                 800     Miki,  M.:  STUDIES ON THE LEAD CONTENT IN
                        THE BODIES OF TEST ANIMALS.   1.  LEAD IN
                        BLOOD, URINE AND FECES OF THE RABBITS.
                        Osaka  City Medical Journal 4:135-48 (Jan.),
                         1958.   In Contributions from the Depart-
                         ment of Preventive Medicine and Public
                        Health, Osaka City University Medical
                         School.   Vol. 1, April 1949-March 1959,
                         pp. 180-93.
                 Xhe Pb  content in blood, urine, and feces of ^300-
                 400 healthy, male adult rabbits was measured by
                 spectrochemical analysis (Horiuchi et al,  1952).
                 Statistical evaluation showed distribution  of Pb
                 to follow a log-normal relationship with a  mean of
                 34.6 yg/100 g, and an upper limit of 104.4  in
                 whole blood; in urine, the mean value was 21.13
                 ug/100  g, and  upper limit, 66.3; in the feces,  the
                 mean was  163.66 Mg/10 g, and upper limit,  268.5.
                 The author suggests that these representative val-
                 ues and their  upper limits may be applicable to a
                 larger  population, since each measured value fol-
                 lows statistical  laws of distribution.  (From
                 author's  summary)

                 801     Mokranjac, M.S., Radmic, S., and Soldatov-
                         ic, D. (Fac. Pharm., Belgrade, Yugoslavia):
                         (ACTION OF CERTAIN DRUGS ON GUINEA PIGS IN-
                         TOXICATED WITH LETHAL DOSES OF LEAD.) Acta
                         Pharm. Jugoslav. 8:197-204,  1958.
                 The action of  penicillin, p-aminosalicylic  acid,
                 BAL, Ca ethylenediaminetetraacetate and of  Na
 138
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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citrate on guinea pigs intoxicated with lethal
doses of Pb was studied.  Of all substances test-
ed, only Na citrate acted as a real antidote; all
other substances increased the mortality of in-
toxicated animals.  (From Chemical Abstracts 53:
15330, 1959)

802     Mokranjac, M., and Soldatovic, D.  (Toxicol.
        Lab., Pharmacy Coll., Belgrade, Yugoslav-
        ia):  Effet de certains antibiotiques sur
        la mobilisation du plomb chez 1'animal
        soumis aux conditions d'intoxication par
        de petites quantltes de plomb.  (EFFECT OF
        VARIOUS ANTIBIOTICS ON THE MOBILIZATION OF
        LEAD IN ANIMALS SUBJECTED TO POISONING
        WITH SMALL QUANTITIES OF LEAD.)  Comptes
        Rendus des Stances de I'Acade'mie des Sci-
        ences 246, No. 24:3386-7, 1958.
The experiments were carried out with sheep which
had first been treated with penicillin, then sub-
jected to chronic poisoning.  When, after  some
months their Pb level in blood and urine had return-
ed to normal (15-18 yg/100 ml blood and 22-27 yg/1
urine), they were again poisoned by daily  oral ad-
ministration of 25 mg Pb as nitrate until  the Pb
concentration in the blood reached 200 yg/100 ml.
Then streptomycin in a daily dose of 4 g was in-
jected for 6 days, or 5 g/day terramycin or 20 g/
day aminosalicylic acid (PAS) were given orally
for 6 days.  Blood and urine analyses showed a
marked increase of Pb in both fluids, starting on
the 2nd day of treatment; a maximum was reached
some days after cessation of the treatment and the
values returned to normal within 10-15 days.  The
greatest increase in blood Pb was observed after
terramycin, and the greatest increase in urine
following PAS.   Streptomycin produced the  smallest
changes.  With all 3 antibiotics the relative in-
crease of Pb concentration was greater in  the
blood than in the urine.  It is concluded  that
treatment of Pb poisoned patients with antibiotics
for any disease will produce a mobilization of Pb
with all possible undesirable consequences.

803      Nakade,  R. (Kanazawa Univ. Med. School,
        Japan):   (THE CONTENT OF THE FLUOROGENIC
        CORTICOIDS IN PLASMA AND ADRENAL GLAND OF
        THE RATS INTOXICATED WITH VARIOUS METALS.)
        Nippon Naibumpi Gakkai Shi 34:131-47,
        1958.
For the determination of fluorescent corticoster-
oids the specimens are extracted with CHClg, then
with 70% alcohol, followed by silica gel column
chromatography according to Takeda's modification
of Swent's method.  The compound B fraction (main-
ly corticosterone), eluted with alcohol-CHClj mix-
ture (1:99), in plasma and adrenal gland of the
rats is markedly lowered after injection of Hg, Fe,
Ag, Pt, Zn, Bi,  Mn, Mg, Sb, Ca, salt solutions,
and greatly increased by the Au salt injection,
while the compound F-like substance, eluted with
alcohol-CHC!3 mixture (5:95), is increased in all
cases of the tnetal intoxication.  Pb salt  causes
no definite tendency as to the amounts of both
fractions.   (From Chemical Abstracts 52:18832,
1958)

804      Nishinura, M.  (Tokyo Dental Coll., Japan):
        EFFECTS  OF PARATHYROID FUNCTION ON LEAD
        POISONING.  PART 2.  OBSERVATIONS ON LEAD
        METABOLISM AND SYMPTOMS OF THE INTOXICATION
        WHEN PARATHYROID GLANDS ARE REMOVED.  Jour-
        nal of Science of Labour (Japan)  34:8-16
        (Jan.), 1958.
Pb poisoning was induced in normal and parathy-
roidectomized albino rats.  The following obser-
vations were made:   (1) Pb anemia was more appar-
ent in the normal group than in the parathyroid-
ectomized one.  (2)  The amount of Pb in blood
and urine was smaller in the parathyroidectomized
rats than in the normals, but Pb retained in the
body (mostly in the bones) was higher in the para-
thyroidectomized animals.  (3)  It was concluded
that Pb poisoning becomes more chronic in the
hypo-functional state of the parathyroid.  (4)
Both serum Ca and Pb in the bones do not merely
depend on the Ca intake but on the hormonal func-
tion of the parathyroid.   (5)  The importance of
parathyroid function in acute and chronic Pb poi-
soning is pointed out.  (From author's English
summary; 35 references)

805     Noda,  E.  (Kyushu Univ.,  Japan):   (AN EXPER-
        IMENTAL STUDY OF TETRAETHYL-LEAD POISONING.)
        Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 49:2779-89,  1958.
The toxic action of TEL was studied in dd mice by
giving them sc TEL  in solution in olive oil.   Also
the action of certain drugs to prevent and cure TEL
poisoning were also examined in dd mice by giving
them the drugs by injection repeatedly at regular
intervals before and after sc administration
of TEL.   Results showed that the sc LD50 of TEL
was 13.02 mg/kg body weight.   CaNa2EDTA was most
effective in acute and subacute TEL poisoning,
followed by Na citrate.  BAL was effective when
the poisoning was acute but not statistically,  in
subacute.   Glutathione, glucuronic acid,  Na thio-
sulfate,  mercaptan and "yakriton" had no observ-
able effect on the poisoning.  (From author's  sum-
mary; 61 references)

806     Odescalchi, C.P. (Univ.  Pavia, Italy):
        Ricerche sull'attivita spontanea e sulla
        reattivita dell'intestino isolate di ratto
        e di coniglio nell'-intossicazione speri-
        mentale de piombo.  (THE SPONTANEOUS AC-
        TIVITY AND THE REACTIVITY OF THE ISOLATED
        INTESTINE IN EXPERIMENTALLY POISONED RATS
        AND RABBITS.) Lavoro umano 10:351, 1958.
As compared to controls, no changes in reactions
to certain substances were observed in the isola-
ted intestine of rats and rabbits poisoned with Pb
at various modes of administration when compared
with controls.  The author suggests that the in-
testinal structure possesses a complete anatomic
integrity, and concludes that colics appearing in
Pb poisoning are a local manifestation of the gen-
eral morbid condition of the patient.  (From
Zentralblatt  fUr Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz
10:289 (Abstracts), 1960.)

8Q7     Okada, M., and Asoda, A.  (Tokyo Med. &
        Dental Univ., Japan):  STUDIES ON DEPOSI-
        TION MECHANISM OF HEAVY METAL SALTS IN
        HARD TISSUES.  I.  ON THE OCCURRENCE OF
        ACTIVE INTERMEDIATE COMPOUNDS IN THE BLOOD
        WHICH LEAD TO DEPOSIT METAL  IN HARD TIS-
        SUES.  Proceedings of the Japanese Academy
                                             Plants and Animals
                                              139

-------
        34, No. 10:730-5, 1958.
Vital staining of hard tissues by Pb acetate, de-
vised by Okada and Mimura  (1938) is accomplished
by injecting a microquantity into an animal, and
the deposited Pb is demonstrated histochemically
as a distinct fine line.  This enables marking
passage of time in hard tissue and thus examining
growth and various responses of hard tissues under
experimental conditions.  In this study, a solution
of Pb acetate was injected into an ear vein of a
rabbit; the animal was sacrificed a few days later
and the teeth fixed in formaldehyde solution.  Af-
ter decalcification in 0.2N HC1 saturated with H2S,
frozen sections of the tooth were prepared to de-
termine Pb lines on dentin.  With a series of me-
tal acetates, Pb, with the minimum solubility prod-
uct  was superior to other metals.  The degree of
deposition was Ag>Cu>Zn.  Ni, Cr, and Al were not
detected.   Thus, the deposition of the metal was
pc'"allel to the solubility product of the phosphate.
A mixed solution of Ca and Pb salts produced a
lighter Pb line in dentin than that from Pb salt
alone.   The data further indicated that Pb added
to the serum is bound by serum protein, but in
the presence of excess Ca salt Pb is not bound.
The Pb present in the blood after intravenous in-
jection is apparently a labile type that easily
dissociates into Pb ion, while that in the blood
after intraarterial injection is a stable type
such as Pb phosphate.
  The authors conclude that Pb and other metals
entering the blood stream take transiently a form
that combines with some substance (receptor) in
competition with Ca, and then deposit in hard tis-
sues.

808     Reva, A.D., Tsikora, I.L., and Gribnikova,
        A.M.  (Dnepropetrovsk State Univ., Ukraine,
        USSR):  DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN
        THE LUMBAR ENLARGEMENT OF THE SPINAL CORD
        FROM THE RESULTS OF SPECTRAL ANALYSIS.
        Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medi-
        cine (English translation) 46:824-6, 1958.
Spinal cords were obtained from cows 7-12 min af-
ter killing by severing carotid arteries and anal-
yzed for their content of Pb, Cr, Ni, Al, Mn, Si,
Ti, Cu, and Ag, in various areas of the lumbar
part.  While generally, the trace elements were
found to be distributed unevenly, by examination of
the numerical results Pb was among those uniformly
distributed in all areas tested in an amount of
10~^% except for the white matter and the posterior
roots where it reached a 10~^% concentration as ash.
The concentrations of Pb in the individual areas
were in %:  whole area, 0.003; white matter, 0.0019;
gray matter, 0.0004; some of anterior horn, 0.0002;
some of posterior horn, 0.0006; anterior root,
0.0009; posterior root, 0.001.

809     Sacca., A., Aragona, F., and Ceruso, D.
        (Univ. Messina, Italy):  L'acido tioctico
        nell'intossicazione sperimentale acuta da
        acetato di piombo.  (THIOCTIC ACID IN EX-
        PERIMENTAL ACUTE LEAD ACETATE POISONING.)
        Gazzetta Internazionale di Medicina e
        Chirurgia 63:1284-91, 1958.
One of 2 groups of 10 rats (150 g mean weight)
each was treated intraperitoneally with 10 mg Pb
acetate dissolved in 1 ml distilled water/day.
                  Group  2  received  in  addition  to  Pb  2 mg/day  of
                  thioctic acid  in  2 daily  doses of  1 mg.   Treatment
                  was  over a  period of 10 days, whereafter  the ani-
                  mals were sacrificed by exsanguination.   Histo-
                  logic  changes  in  the various  organs (lungs,  liver,
                  spleen,  kidney and endocrine  glands) are  described,
                  and  illustrated in microphotographs.
                    Thioctic  acid was  able  to counteract  the carbo-
                  hydrate  disturbances (liver glycogen)  caused by
                  Pb.  However,  the pathologic  changes in the  vari-
                  ous  organs  examined  were  not  modified.   The  auth-
                  ors  conclude that on the  basis of  the  failure by
                  the  drug to protect  against Pb poisoning, Pb acts
                  not  only on enzymes  with  thiol function but  also
                  on other enzyme systems.

                  81Q      Sacca, A., Aragona,  F.,  and Ceruso,  D.
                          (Univ. Messina,  Sicily):  (THE SODIUM CAL-
                          CIUM  SALT OF ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC
                          ACID  (Na2Ca-EDTA) IN  EXPERIMENTAL SATURN-
                          ISM.)  Gazz.  intern, med. e chir.  63:1427-
                          38, 1958.
                  Ka2CaEDTA  was shown to  be able  to repair the
                  visceral lesions  of  Pb acetate  (rats)  but had ef-
                  fects  on the kidney  ascribed  chiefly to its  Na
                  content.  (From Chemical  Abstracts 53:9486,  1959)

                  811      Salisbury, R.M.,  Staples, E.L.J., and
                          Sutton, M. (Animal Res.  Div.,  Dept.  Agr. ,
                          Wellington,  New Zealand):   LEAD POISONING
                          OF  CHICKENS.   New Zealand Veterinary Jour-
                          nal 6:2-7, 1958.
                  Attempts to induce Pb poisoning  in  adult  fowl failed
                  to produce  any evidence of Pb poisoning by giving
                  single massive doses of Pb as red  Pb and  white  Pb
                  in capsules (maximum doses, 1000 and 200  mg/kg  body
                  weight, respectively).  The highest  liver  Pb  content
                  was  15.1 ppm with 1000 mg Pb/kg, the lowest, 0.3
                  ppm  at 200  mg/kg  red Pb.   The birds remained normal.
                  In several  episodes  of Pb poisoning in fowl  spent
                  Pb shot  was found in chicken  gizzards  and grit  con-
                  taining  a high Pb content fed to chickens had pro-
                  duced  a  severe mortality  in chickens,  with  the  find-
                  ing  of necrosis of the gizzard lining  and elevated
                  liver  Pb levels of 15-18  ppm.  This led to experi-
                  ments  with  45  1-day-old white Leghorn  chickens
                  which  were  fed the same  grit  ad  lib experimentally
                  for  66 days.   After  killing all  surviving chickens
                  (20),  identical gizzard  lesions  were found on post-
                  mortem examination.   Liver Pb levels ranged  from
                  0.4  (body condition, good)  to 34.6  ppm wet  tissue
                  (in  15 not  surviving to  the 66th day).   There ap-
                  peared to be a high  correlation  between the  gizzard
                  lesions  and the liver Pb  levels.
                    Adult  birds  were  tested with  the same grit fed
                  ad lib to 14 2-yr white  Leghorns and  1 white Leg-
                  horn cockerel. The  experiment  lasted  116 days  when
                  the  remaining  birds  (6)  were  visibly affected and
                  expected to succumb  eventually.  Liver Pb levels
                  ranged from 2.9 ppm  (in  a bird  surviving to  the
                  116th  day)  to  53.6  ppm (in the  1st to  die on the
                  56th day).  There was a marked  loss in weight in
                  all  birds,  and in the hens that  were in lay, even-
                  tual cessation of egg production.   Other signs
                  were:  severe  anemia (no stippling),  necrosis of
                  gizzard  lining, greenish discoloration of the liver
                  and  greenish  scour.   The grit,  shown to be  toxic,
                  was  examined  by a porcelain enamelling firm and
                  found  to be "frit,"  an ingredient  used in the man-
 140
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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 ufacture  of  enamelware.   Ingredients were:   Pb
 oxide  32%, Si  dioxide  30%,  the  rest, Si,  B,  Na,  Fe,
 Al,  Zn, and  Ca compounds.
   The  authors  conclude that  the susceptibility  to
 Pb intoxication in  poultry  decreases with age.   If
 massive,  high  doses of basic Pb carbonate and red
 Pb are given,  the compounds  are not  toxic to poul~
 try if given in a state in  which they  will not  be
 retained  in  the gizzard.

 812     Sano, S.:   STUDIES ON THE NATURE OF THE
        BASOPHILIC  STIPPLED CELLS IN LEAD POISON-
        ING.   1.  STUDIES ON THE CYTOLOGICAL INVES-
        TIGATION OF BASOPHILIC  STIPPLED CELLS.   2.
        STUDIES ON  THE MECHANISM OF GRANULE-FORMA-
        TION OF BASOPHILIC STIPPLED CELLS IN LEAD
        POISONING.   Acta Scholae Med.,  Univ. in
        Kioto 35, No. 2:149-57; 158-63, 1958.
1.  The following results were  found:  (1)  The
basophilic granule  contains ribonucleic acid, sug-
gesting it to be the residue of a cytoplasmic com-
ponent of the erythroblast.    (2)  As the granule
is devoid of desoxyribonucleic  acid it is probably
not derived from the nucleus of the erythroblast.
(3)  The basophilic stippled cell, polychromatophil-
ic  cell and the reticulocytes  all contain ribonu-
cleic  acid, and in  this respect the substances
which  characterize  these cells may be  considered
to be  identical.
2.  Using the phase constant microscope, obser-
vations were made on the basophilic granule of the
bone marrow and the peripheral blood cells in Pb-
poisoned mice.   It was found that:  (1)  The mito-
chondria were seen  in the red blood cell of both
the bone marrow and the peripheral blood in Pb
poisoning.   (2)  The number of  red blood cells
containing mitochondria nearly  approximated that
of basophilic stippled cells.   (3)  The vacuoles
were observed in the cytoplasma of the erythro-
blast  and red blood cell with basophilic stippling.
(4)  The stippling  is due to a vital aggregation of
ribonucleic acid around mitochondria in the cyto-
plasma of red blood cell.  (From Bulletin of Hy-
giene  34:1138,  1959)

813     Schoberl, A. (Veterinary College, Hannover,
        Germany):   Moderne Methoden flir den Nach-
        weiss von Bleivergiftungen.  (MODERN METH-
        ODS FOR THE DETECTION OF LEAD  POISONING.)
        Deutsche Tierarztliche  Wochenschrift 65:
        235-9,  1958.
Two modern micromethods for the determination of
Pb in biological material, ie,  the photometric
method using dithizone and a polarographic method,
are described and recommended to take the place of
the classical method based on precipitation of  Pb
as sulfide.   Pb determinations were made on some
cattle and deer.  The Pb content in the liver (mg/
100 g)  of  a normal animal was found to  be 0.05,  in
an animal  acutely poisoned with Pb^O^ 0.36-0.39;
for 4 cows and  2 deer chronically poisoned near a
Pb smelter the  following figures were found:  0.72,
0.63, 0.27,  0.23, 0.60, 0.71.  The bones of 2 old-
er deer in the  neighborhood of a Pb smelter con-
tained 4.34 and 7.9  mg Pb/100 g, respectively,  a
marrow-containing shank 5.6.  These animals showed
paralysis  of  the legs.

814     Shibuya, T.:  (NUCLEIC ACID CHANGES IN
         LEAD POISONING.)  Fukuoka-Iagku-Zasshi  49:
         972-90,  1958.
 Subcutaneous injection  of Pb  acetate  (20 rag/kg
 body weight, every other  day,  5  times)  to  rabbits
 decreased  the  content of  deoxyribonucleic  acid in
 the brain  and  of deoxyribonucleic  acid  and ribo-
 nucleic  acid in  the  spleen.   Ribonucleic acid  in
 the brain  and  both deoxyribonucleic acid and ri-
 bonucleic  acid in the liver,  kidney,  and bone  mar-
 row showed  little or no change.   (From  Chemical
 Abstracts  52:16617,  1958)

 815      Shimooku, M. (Kobe Med. Coll., Japan):
        THE AMOUNT OF VITAMIN A IN THE LIVER OF
        MICE FED A VITAMIN A AND Bj^ DEFICIENT  DIET.
         I.  THE AMOUNT  OF VITAMIN A IN THE LIVER
        OF NORMAL MICE  SUBJECTED TO VITAMIN A  AND
        B1 DEFICIENCY.  II.  THE AMOUNT OF VITAMIN
        A AND  THE PATHOHISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN
        MOUSE LIVER IN  VITAMIN A AND BI DEFICIENCY
        WITH ACETIC LEAD POISONING.  Acta  Soc.
        Ophthal. Jap. 62, No. 3:67-73; 74-82,  1958.
 I.  The  amounts  of vitamin A  in the liver  of mice
 fed a normal, vitamin A-deficient and vitamin  B-^-
 deficient diet were calculated by the glycerol di-
 chlorhydrin method.  The liver showed 2833 IU
 vitamin A/g in the normal mice fed a control diet
 containing 464 IU of vitamin A for 40 days.  Ani-
mals maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet  or
 Bi-deficient diet showed a vitamin A content in
 the liver of 216 and 1179 lU/g, respectively.
 II.  The relationship was discussed between the
 amount of vitamin A and the pathologic findings in
 the liver of mice subjected to experimental Pb in-
 toxication and maintained on a normal vitamin  A-
 and B-^-def icient diet.  It is concluded that Pb
 intoxication may easily promote liver degeneration
 in the vitamin B.-deficient mice as well as in the
 vitamin A-deficient animals.  (From Excerpta Med-
 ica Section XII, 12:Abstr. No. 1563, 1958)

 816     Stover, C.N., ed.:  SEMI-ANNUAL PROGRESS
        REPORT. US Atomic Energy Comm. Doc. No.
        COO-217, 1958,  184 pp.
Progress is reported in long-term studies  on the
 toxic effects of radioactive heavy metals  in dogs.
Data are included on the pathological effects  and
 clinical symptoms in dogs receiving    Pu,    Ra,
 228Ra,  and 9f)Sr.  Metabolism of 2l2Pb was  studied
 in dogs following intravenous injection and after
transfusion of
               212
                  Pb labeled blood cells.  (From
Nuclear Science Abstracts 13:4392, 1959)

817      Tarabaeva, G.I. (Acad. Sci. Kasakh SSR):
        Gonadotropnaya aktivnost gipofiza pri
        svintsovom otravlenii.  (GONADOTROPIC AC-
        TIVITY OF THE HYPOPHYSIS IN LEAD POISON-
        ING.)  Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoi
        SSR, Seriya Meditsiny i  Fiziologii 1958,
        No. 2:108-13.
Groups of 7 rats each were treated as follows:
(1)  was subjected to chronic Pb poisoning by the
intragastric administration of 0.2-0.3 ml 1% solu-
tion of Pb acetate daily for 4 mo; (2) treatment
as above with a 5% solution to induce acute poi-
soning; (3) served as controls.  Upon sacrifice or
death, the hypophysis was removed, and an emulsion
in physiologic saline was prepared to be injected
sc to infant female mice twice daily for 3 days.
                                            Plants and Animals
                                              141

-------
The mice were sacrificed 100 hr after the 1st in-
jection.  The results showed that the gonadotrop-
ic activity of the hypophysis of mice that re-
ceived the hypophyseal emulsion from rats poisoned
with the 5% solution was disturbed, while mice
that received the rat hormone from the 1% Pb ace-
tate group and mice injected the experimental
hormone from rats that received no Pb exhibited
normal gonadotropic function of the hypophysis
and in all cases the ovaries and other parts of
the genital organs showed typical reactions of
sexual development.


818     Teisinger, J., Lustinec, K., and Srbova,
        J. (Inst. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Dis., Prague,
        Czechoslovakia):  EFFECT OF EDATHAMIL CAL-
        CIUM-DISODIUM ON RETENTION OF LEAD IN THE
        LIVER. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial
        Health 17:302-6 (Apr.), 1958.
In the first experiments livers of normal cats
were removed, perfused with defibrinated ox blood
with Tyrode's solution and Pb nitrate solution at
different concentrations.  During perfusion, blood
was withdrawn at hourly intervals, and analyzed
for Pb.  In the 2nd series, 24 hr before perfusion
in vitro, 2 cats received intravenously  (iv) 10 ml
0.5% solution of Pb nitrate solution, and 1 re-
ceived 6 ml.  In the 3rd series, 24 and  48 hr be-
fore perfusion, 8 cats received iv 10 ml 0.5% Pb
nitrate.  After 1 hr of perfusion, a solution of
EDTA was added to the blood.
  Within 1-2 hr the livers of normal cats had ab-
sorbed about 50% of the circulating Pb from the
blood.  After this period an equilibrium between
liver and blood was reached and the Pb content in
the liver did not increase further.  Experiments
with cats poisoned with Pb showed that the mechan-
ism of binding Pb to liver cells is reversible but
the process of release of Pb into blood  is very
slow.  When a solution of EDTA was added to the
blood after perfusion this release action was ac-
celerated 2-4-fold.  It is assumed that  EDTA rap-
idly forms complexes with the Pb ions which are
released from the liver cells, thereby speeding up
this reaction.  Probably, neither EDTA nor PbEDTA
penetrate into liver cells as these cells are
practically unable to bind PbEDTA.  (3 references)
819     Teramoto, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Med. Univ.,
        Japan):   (LEAD POISONING.  THE CONTENT OF
        LEAD IN ORGANS OF RABBITS ADMINISTERED
        LEAD, DETERMINED BY THE MOBILIZING PRO-
        CEDURE.) Kyoto Furitsu Ikadaigaku Zasshi
        64:221-37, 1958.
Polarographic determinations of the Pb content in
various organs of rabbits administered Pb acetate
showed that BAL, EDTA, and KI did not mobilize Pb
but merely changed the Pb distribution between the
organs.  (From Chemical Abstracts 54:25314, 1960)


820     Timm, F., and Arnold, M.  (Max-Planck-Inst.
        Exptl. Med., GHttingen, Germany):  Histo-
        chemische Studien zur Ausscheidung des
        Bleisalzes der Sthylendiamintetraessig-
        saure durch die Rattenniere.   (HISTOCHEMI-
        CAL  STUDIES OF THE EXCRETION OF LEAD SALT
        OF ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID BY THE
                         RAT KIDNEY.)  Archiv filr Experimentelle
                         Pathologie und Pharmakologie 233:422-30,
                         1958.
                 The preparation of the Pb, Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn salts
                 of N32EDTA is described.  Albino rats were injected
                 intraperitoneally or subcutaneously with aqueous
                 solutions of these salts.  PbNa2EDTA was tolerated
                 without untoward effects in a single dose of 450 mg/
                 kg body weight or in daily doses of 140 mg/kg over
                 a period of weeks.  About 68% Pb of the injected
                 dose was excreted in the urine during 24 hr.
                 Histochemical examination showed that Pb was stored
                 in the bones and teeth.  A rat which had received
                 140 mg/kg/day for 17 days showed rings around the
                 incisors corresponding to the number of injections;
                 the rings were spaced corresponding to the time
                 intervals between administrations.  Pb was also
                 stored in the kidneys: in the glomeruli; their
                 lumina, and basal membranes of capillary loops;
                 in the lumina of the convoluted tubules and brush
                 border; particularly in  the canaliculi. The Cd and
                 Zn salts were tolerated  equally well as the Pb-
                 salts while the Cu and Hg salt was much more toxic.
                 The authors conclude that with an EDTA administra-
                 tion a reduction of Pb concentration may be achieved
                 but not a complete removal of Pb because the ratio
                 Ca:Pb is always more in  favor of the Ca.  (32 ref-
                 erences)

                 821     Tokovoi, N.A., Zolotoukhin, G.E., and
                         Voloshina, V.V.:  (DISTRIBUTION OF MINERAL
                         ELEMENTS IN TISSUES OF FARM ANIMALS.)
                         Trudy Krasnoyarsk. Sel'skokhoz, Inst. 2:
                         156-61, 1958.
                 Determinations of numerous trace elements in var-
                 ious animal species showed no Pb in cattle, sheep,
                 hogs, and no Mn in hogs  and horses.   (From Chem-
                 ical Abstracts 55:7590,  1961)
                  822      Ungher,  J.,  and Voinescu,  S.  (Inst.  Neu-
                          rology "I.P.  Pavlov,"  Academy RPR,  Roma-
                          nia) :   Contributii histopatologice  la
                          studiul  encefalopatiei saturnine experi-
                          mentale.   (HISTOPATHOLOGICAL  CONTRIBUTIONS
                          TO  THE STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL  LEAD ENCEPH-
                          ALOPATHY.)   Neurologia Psihiatria Neuro-
                          chirurgia 3:425-33 (Sept.-Oct.) , 1958.
                  Four dogs were injected iv 2 mg Pb acetate/kg
                  body weight every 2-3 days up  to  a total amount  of
                  180-600 mg  over  a period of 20 days to 2 mo.  His-
                  tological examination revealed serious degenera-
                  tive changes  of  the  gangliar cells, particularly
                  in the 3d and 4th cortical layer  of the cerebrum
                  and  the 2d  and 5th  layer of the cerebellum,  and
                  also of the subcortical formations, the neuro-
                  fibrils, the  myelin  sheath and the glia. In the
                  vascular system only hemodynamic  changes (edema,
                  hemorrhages,  dilations) were noted.  The authors
                  maintain (in  contrast to other authors)  that Pb
                  does not react through the vascular system  but
                  that it directly damages the parenchyma of  the
                  brain and other  organs (liver, kidney).   (13 ref-
                  erences)


                  823      Washburn, R.G., Gilmore,  L.O., and  Fech-
                          heimer,  N.S. (Ohio Agric.  Expt. Station,
                          Wooster):  THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF
 142
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        CATTLE HAIR.  I.  FAT, ASH, AND NITROGEN
        CONTENT.  Ohio Journal of Science 58:150-
        2, 1958.
Analysis of hair from 177 different cattle showed
the average fat, ash, and N content to be 1.49,
2.04 and 13.46%, respectively.  The following ele-
ments were identified from ash:  B, Ba, Ca, Cu,
Fe, Pb, K, Mg, Mn, P, Si, Ag, Na and Zn.  K was
not found in the ash from some of the samples of
white hair.  (From authors' summary)
(J24     Wassermann, M., Mihail, G. , and Cojocaru,
        V. (Inst. Med. lassy, Romania):  Recher-
        ches he'matologiques dans 1' intoxication
        saturnine experimentale des animaux ho-
        meothermes, "a 1'alde du microscope ^a con-
        traste de phases.  (HEMATOLOGIC STUDIES IN
        EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING OF HOMOTHERMIC
        ANIMALS USING THE PHASE-CONTRAST MICRO-
        SCOPE.)  Archives des Maladies Profession-
        nelles de Medecine du Travail et de Se'cur-
        ite' Sociale 19:233-42 (May-June), 1958.
According to the authors, the 3 fundamental bio-
logical signs of Pb poisoning, ie, number of
erythrocytes with basophilic stippling, copropor-
phyrinuria and Pb in blood and urine, vary indi-
vidually and taken separately do not give a real
picture of the degree of poisoning.  A hematologic
test using the phase-contrast microscope, is de-
scribed by which stippled erythrocytes and other
changes of the blood cells can be determined.  As
to the mechanism of Pb poisoning, the authors
point out that Pb absorption interferes with the
cytoplasmic process of oxidoreduction by inhibi-
ting the complete utilization of acid proteins.
The small portion of nonutilized proteins con-
stitutes the basophil granulations.
  Ten adult rabbits, 2000-2500 g weight, were
studied; 6 of them were poisoned by daily intra-
venous injection of 5 mg/kg of Pb acetate in a 1%
solution to a total of 25-30 mg.  Blood findings
were compared with those of Pb-poisoned pigeons,
in order to determine the origin of the granula-
tions.  Basophil granulations could easily be dif-
ferentiated from other alterations of the erythro-
cytes .
  Important alterations were also found in the
white cells.  In the cytoplasm of granulocytes
numerous vacuoles were seen, which were irregular
in shape, and probably many of them were toxic
granulations.  The cytoplasm of the lymphocytes
showed large vacuoles and granulations with changes
other than seen in erythrocytes.  In the erythro-
cytes, a series of black, round, irregularly dis-
tributed granulations were seen.  When their num-
ber was reduced (5-6) , it was hard to distinguish
the erythrocyte from the reticulocyte.  The small
granulations were easy to distinguish from the
spinous erythrocyte, because micrometrically it
could be seen that these remained dark and en-
closed in the body of the erythrocytes.  In an
advanced stage their number was great and filled
the entire erythrocyte.   There was also dimensional
change  and appearance of luminescent vacuoles of
various dimensions against the dark background.
The monocytes were irregular in shape, with many
vacuoles.  Thus,  in experimental Pb poisoning the
phase-contrast microscope permits the identifica-
 tion of stippled erythrocytes without vital  or
 postvital staining.  The fact that, as seen  in  the
 erythrocytes of the pigeon, basophilic granulations
 develop while  the  integrity of  the nucleus is pre-
 served, vouches in favor of the cytoplasmic  origin
 of  the granulations.


825      Wisotzky,  J., and Hein,  J.W. (Colgate-
        Palmolive  Co.; Rutgers  State Univ.,  New
        Brunswick, N.J.):  EFFECT OF DRINKING SO-
        LUTIONS CONTAINING METALLIC IONS ABOVE  AND
        BELOW  HYDROGEN IN THE ELECTROMOTIVE  SERIES
        ON DENTAL  CARIES IN THE SYRIAN HAMSTER.
        Journal of the American Dental Association
        57:796-800, 1958.
 Hamsters 25-35 days old were fed a cariogenic ra-
 tion and given ad  libitum for drinking distilled
 water which had also been passed through an  ion-
 exchange column.   The water for each group con-
 tained a metallic  salt; the concentration was
 1 meq/1 except Au  and Pb (0.5 meq/1) and Cd
 (0.25-0.5 meq/1);  Pb and K were used as acetates,
 other metals as chlorides or sulfates.  Experi-
 mental caries  was  not influenced by position of
 the cation in  the  electromotive series.  Caries
 incidence was  not  affected by Li sulfate, K  manga-
 nate, Pb chloride  and K acetate, was markedly in-
 hibited by Au  bichloride, markedly accelerated  by
 Pt  chloride, and accelerated in males by Mg  sul-
 fate or Pb acetate.  Cd sulfate could not be eval-
 uated because  of its toxicity and severe systemic
 effect.  Cu sulfate definitely  inhibited caries.
  The authors  conclude that, on the basis of their
 findings, strong caries inhibition is not a  common
 property of metallic ions but may be confined to
 certain groups of  elements, eg,  the Cu-Hg-Au group.
 Also that metallic ions can accelerate caries and
 therefore, any analysis of mineral content in
 diets in relation  to dental caries must include
 the possibility of a trace element accelerating
 as  well as inhibiting caries.

                       1959
g26     Akulov, K.I., Zaitseva, A.F.,  and Yundzel,
        N.K. (First Inst. Med.; Dept.  Communal
        Hyg.,  Moscow, USSR):  Gigienicheskoe norm-
        irovanie dopustimogo soderzhaniya rastvor-
        imykh soedinenil mysh'yaka, svintsa i rtuti
        v vode vodoema.  (SANITARY STANDARDS CON-
        CERNING THE PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF SOLUBLE
        COMPOUNDS OF ARSENIC, LEAD, AND MERCURY
        IN WATER SUPPLIES.)  Trudy Pervogo Muskov-
        skogo Meditsinskogo Instituta imeni I.M.
        Sechenova 5:143-7, 1959.
A study was made to determine the effects of vari^
ous salts of As, Pb, and Hg on the self-purifica-
tion of water, on the waterorganoleptic properties,
and the toxicity of water containing these elements
for rats and rabbits.  Soluble Pb salts, even in
concentrations as high as 0.1 mg/1 had no signi-
ficant inhibitory effect on the BOD of water and
the development of saprophytic microflora.  The
threshold organoleptic concentrations for Pb salts
were 100-200 mg/1.  Oral administration of 0.5 mg
Pb/kg as solutions of Pb salts produced in animals
disturbances in conditioned reflexes.   Animals
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               143

-------
receiving repeatedly 5 mg Pb/kg showed changes  in
blood and impairment of kidney function.   As a  re-
sult of these findings, 0.1 mg/1 is recommended as
the MAC for Pb.

827      Baetjer, A.M.  (Johns Hopkins Univ., Bal-
        timore, Md.):  EFFECTS OF SEASON AND TEM-
        PERATURE ON CHILDHOOD PLUMBISM.  Industrial
        Medicine and Surgery 28:137-40; discussion,
        140-3 (Mar.), 1959.
Pb poisoning in children has a marked seasonal
distribution with almost all cases occurring be-
tween the months of May and October.  Since the
ultraviolet radiation theory did not seem an ade-
quate explanation of this seasonal distribution,
the effects of environmental temperature and humid-
ity on the susceptibility of laboratory animals to
Pb poisoning was studied.
  The author reviews these experiments which were
performed by S. Joardar and were the subject of
her thesis submitted to the Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity in 1957.
  Experiments are currently in progress to test
various other theories which might account for  the
increase in susceptibility of mice to Pb poisoning
at high temperature.  (21 references)
828     Bellrose, F.C.:  LEAD POISONING AS A MOR-
        TALITY FACTOR IN WATERFOWL POPULATIONS.
        Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey, Bull. 27:235-
        88, 1959.
Author concludes on the basis of his study that at
present Pb poisoning in waterfowl is not of suffi-
cient magnitude as to warrant the prohibition of
Pb shot in waterfowl hunting.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 54:1727, 1960)
829      Biondi, S. (Univ. Naples, Italy):  Sull1-
        impiego delle sieroalbumine per la pre-
        venzione del saturnismo.  (Ricerche
        sperimentali).  (USE OF SERUM ALBUMIN
        FOR THE PREVENTION OF LEAD POISONING; EX-
        PERIMENTAL RESEARCH.)  Folia Medica  (Na-
        ples) 42:62-76 (Jan.), 1959.
The principle of the use of serum albumin in Pb
poisoning is the same as that which was held for
milk, ie, the formation in the intestine of Pb
albuminates which are insoluble and not absorb-
able, but are eliminated in feces.  The prepara-
tion, in addition to animal albumin, consisted of
Na phosphate, Ca carbonate, anhydrous Na carbonate,
vitamin PP and keratin in order to render it in-
digestible in the stomach so that the albumin
would be liberated in the intestine.  Twenty male
rabbits were given orally 1 ml of a 10% solution
of Pb acetate, or 54 mg/day; directly after Pb,
10 of them received the albumin capsule. After 12
days, the Pb in blood, urine and feces, and CP in
urine were determined; the determinations were
repeated every 7 days until day 54 after start of
treatment by which time all of the rabbits that
had not received albumin had died, while of the
treated  group,  3 died on days 42-44.  As judged
by the analytical findings, the preparation ex-
erted a protective action; fecal excretion was
considerably higher than in rabbits given Pb
alone.  (23 references)
                  830      Bonati, F. (Bracco Lab. Ind. Chem. Res.,
                          Milan, Italy) :   Rapporti tra constituzione
                          chimica e tossicata di derivati cistea-
                          minicl e loro complessi metallic!.  (RELA-
                          TION BETWEEN CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION AND
                          TOXICITY OF CYSTEAMINE DERIVATIVES AND
                          THEIR METALLIC COMPLEXES.)  Archivio Itali-
                          ano di Scienze Farmacologiche 9:125-7,
                          1959.
                  Cysteamines  were  investigated  because of  their ra-
                  dioprotective properties.   In  this  study  the
                  LD5Qis  of  the Pb,  Hg, and  Bi derivatives  were
                  determined.   Those for  Pb,  in  male  albino rats,
                  intraperitoneally,  were (mg/kg);  cysteamine-Pb
                  (2:1)  32;  Pb cysteaminemonoacetic acid 70;
                  Pb-cysteaminediacetic acid 1960,  Pb acetate  145.

                  831      Boyadzhiev, V.  (Univ.  Sofia, Bulgaria):
                          (EFFECT OF DIETARY FACTORS  ON THE DEVELOP-
                          MENT AND COURSE OF EXPERIMENTAL AND PRO-
                          FESSIONAL LEAD  INTOXICATION.)  Ceskoslov.
                          gastroenterol.  vyziva  13:328-34,  1959.
                  Rats  on a  low protein and  high fat  diet showed the
                  most  marked  changes after  Pb  poisoning.  The
                  changes were the smallest  on  a high protein diet.
                  Diets are  recommended for  persons exposed to Pb.
                  (From Chemical Abstracts 54:10158,  1960)
                  832      BrUschke,  G.  (Univ.  Jena,  Germany):   Ber-
                          merkungen  zur Pathogervese  der  Bleiankmie.
                          (COMMENTS  ON THE  PATHOGENESIS  OF LEAD ANE-
                          MIA.)   Deutsche Gesundheitswesen 14:1059-
                          62  (June 4), 1959.
                  Symptoms of Pb  poisoning  were  reviewed and  experi-
                  ments with  guinea  pigs described.   Normal and
                  splenectomized  guinea pigs were  poisoned orally
                  with 100 mg Pb/kg  body weight  as Pb acetate;  sider-
                  ocytes,  erythrocytes and  hemoglobin were deter-
                  mined.   Siderocytes were  found to  increase  after
                  splenectomy alone  and also after Pb poisoning.  The
                  results  of  the  experiment did  not  indicate  that
                  the  spleen, by  eliminating siderocytes, might pro-
                  mote the anemia and  that  after splenectomy  a  less
                  intense  anemia  would  occur.
                  833      Carminati,  G.M.   (Univ. Milan,  Italy):   II
                          comportamento  dell'eritrocitemia  e  dell'
                          indice  emoglobinico nell'intossicazione
                          saturnina  cronica.   (BEHAVIOR OF  THE  ERYTH-
                          ROCYTE  COUNT AND  HEMOGLOBIN  INDEX IN  CHRON-
                          IC LEAD POISONING.)  Bollettino della So-
                          cieta Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale
                          37:426-9  (Apr. 15), 1959.
                  Male  rabbits, about 2.5 kg body weight, were  in-
                  jected  iv every 2-3 days  with  2-5.5  mg  Pb/kg  as
                  neutral Pb acetate, for 8-12 times.   Erythrocytes
                  and hemoglobin  were determined 1 wk  before  the
                  treatment was started  and counts were continued  to
                  about 20 days after termination of the  treatment.
                  In normal rabbits  the  erythrocyte and hemoglobin
                  values  were  5.84 million/ml and 13.9 g/100  ml, re-
                  spectively.  The experimental  rabbits first devel-
                  oped  a  hypochromic anemia which was  followed  by a
                  stabilization of the red  blood cell  count at  about
                  2-3 million  below  the  initial  value, and  a  pro-
                  gressive increase  of the  hemoglobin  value which
                  finally was  above  the  initial  one, or a state of
144
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
hyperchromic anemia.  While the hypochromic anemia
was due to the destructive action of Pb on the red
blood cells, the subsequent hyperchromic anemia was
a consequence of the reduced production of erythro-
cytes by the bone marrow.

834      Carminati, G.M. (Univ. Milan, Italy):
        L'Effeto antagonista degli estratti epati-
        ci e della vitamina 6^2 sullo sviluppo
        dell'anemia da piombo nel coniglio.  (THE
        ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF LIVER EXTRACTS AND
        VITAMIN Bi2 UPON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEAD-
        INDUCED ANEMIA IN RABBITS.)  Farmaco Edi-
        zione Scientifica 14:3-14 (Jan.), 1959.
Male adult rabbits, 2.5 kg weight, were subjected
to the development of anemia by iv injection of
5.5 mg/kg Pb acetate/day for 3 days.  Groups of
rabbits were treated with the following:  crystal-
line vitamin B-j^, and 4 preparations of liver ex-
tract of various strengths of vitamin B-^-  The re-
sults showed that both liver extract and vitamin
Bio exerted a protective action in acute Pb-induced
anemia; this action was proportional to the amount
of the solution administered.
        of Industrial Health 20:473-6 (Dec.), 1959.
Three chelating agents, Ca ethylenediaminetetra-
acetic acid (EDTA),  Ca diethylenetriaminepenta-
acetic acid (DTPA),  and 2:2'-bis (dicarboxymethyl)
amino diethyl ether (BAETA), were compared for
their protective action against acute Pb poisoning
in rats.  Pb (as the nitrate) was injected intra-
venously  (iv) at 70 mg/kg  (LD5o), and 1 hr later,
EDTA and DTPA were given iv at 118 and 158 mg/kg.
In addition, Pb BAETA, Pb DTPA and Pb EDTA were
prepared and injected in doses from 110-1260 mg/kg
as Pb.  Sprague-Dawley female rats, 3-6 mo old
(225-285 g) were used.  Controls received saline
solutions.  As determined by survival times, nei-
ther EDTA nor DTPA were effective.  Pb DTPA was
more toxic than Pb EDTA, but both were consider-
ably less toxic than unchelated Pb (LD^g's were
1260  mg/kg for Pb DTPA and 55 mg/kg for Pb).
Pb BAETA was about as toxic as Pb.  The explana-
tion for these results is discussed in terms of
the relative affinities of these 3 chelating
agents for Pb^ and Ca++ and of Pb4"1" for the tis-
sue proteins, which were demonstrated in in vitro
experiments.  (22 references)
835     Cenacchi, G.C., Tucci, G., and Lodi, A.
        (Univ. Bologna, Italy):  Comportamento di
        alcuni enzimi sierici ed aspetti istologici
        in ratti intossicati sperimentalmente.
        Nota I.  Azione dell'acetato di piombo.
        (THE BEHAVIOR OF SOME SERUM ENZYMES IN EX-
        PERIMENTALLY POISONED RATS.  I.  THE ACTION
        OF LEAD ACETATE.)  Rivista Medica di
        Bologna 5:519-36, 1959.
Serum transarainases, aldolase, lactic and malic
dehydrogenases were studied in 50 rats injected ip
with Pb acetate (6 mg/kg/day) for 30 days; 30 rats
served as controls.  Determinations made on the
1st, 10th, 20th and 30th days of the experiment
were compared with the histological findings on
liver, kidney, myocardium and spleen.  Liver-cell
degeneration and swelling of the kidney tubular
cells were observed only on the 30th day.  The
other organs showed no changes.  No significant
changes of transaminases were observed.  Aldolases,
lactic and malic dehydrogenases increased slightly
on  the 1st day and demonstrated a marked but con-
stant increase on the other days of the experiment.
A modification of the serum values of these enzymes
in  Pb intoxication was observed before the estab-
lishment of pathological changes.  A direct action
of  Pb on the mitochondrial enzymic system is dis-
cussed.  (64 References).
836     Dmitriev, V.F., Gazarkh, L.A., and Ship-
        itsyn, S.A.:  .(CONTENT OF TRACE ELEMENTS
        IN THE PROTEINS OF BRAIN.) Izvest. Irkutsk.
        Sel'skokhoz.  Inst. 1959, No.  14:10-6.
Analysis of minced brain tissue for  trace elements
yielded 0.25-0.56 mg% Pb and 0.95-1.8 mg% Mn  (in
dry protein).  (From  Chemical Abstracts 55:24979,
1961)
 838     Gentile, G.  (Univ. Messina,  Italy):  Ri-
        cerche sperimentali  sull'intossicazione
        saturnina.   II.  Esperienze  di orientamen-
        to sulle dosi di nitrato di  piombo da
        usare nelle  esperienze di antidotismo.
        (EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON LEAD POISONING.
        II.  EXPERIMENT ON TRENDS IN DOSAGE OF
        LEAD NITRATE TO BE USED IN EXPERIMENTS ON
        ANTIDOTES.)  Folia Medica (Naples) 42:138-
        50 (Feb.) , 1959.
Doses of as high as  9 times  the intravenous MLD,
 (as established by Oliva in  1949: 0.0007 g/kg
rabbit) given by mouth to rabbits failed to pro-
duce considerable damage.  Administration of
0.001058 g/day/kg body weight for 13 days caused
the death of animals soon after the  end of the
13th day.  (From author's English summary)
839     Gentile, G. (Univ. Messina, Italy):  Ri-
        cerche sperimentali sull 'intossicazione
        saturnina.  III. Avvelenamento da nitrato
        di piombo e Ca EDTA Na2.   (EXPERIMENTAL
        STUDIES ON LEAD POISONING.  III. POISONING
        WITH LEAD NITRATE AND CaNa2EDTA) .  Folia
        Medica (Naples) 42:427-36  (Apr.), 1959.
Two rabbits were given daily by gastric tube 0.175
g/kg body weight of a 5% solution  of Pb nitrate.
One of them received at the same time an intra-
venous injection of 2 mg CaNa2EDTA and died after
19 days.  The 2nd animal which received a 4 mg
dose of CaNa2EDTA starting on the  7th day of Pb
administration, died after 15 days while controls
receiving no antidote, died after  an average of
11.5 days.  Blood counts (Hb, red  and white cells,
lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils,
eosinophils) did not show fundamental differences
in the 2 experimental animals.
837      Fried,  J.F.,  Schubert,  J.,  and  Lindenbaum,
         A.  (Argonne Natl.  Lab.,  Lemont,  111.):
         ACTION  OF  EDATHAMIL  (EDTA)  ANALOGS  ON EX-
         PERIMENTAL LEAD  POISONING.  A.M.A. Archives
        Gentile, G.  (Univ. Messina, Italy):  Ri-
        cerche sperimentali sull'intossicazione
        saturnina.   IV.  Avvelenamento da nitrato
        di piombo e  B.A.L.  (LEAD POISONING.  IV.
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               145

-------
        LEAD NITRATE POISONING AND BAL.)   Folia
        Medica (Naples) 42:580-90 (May),  1959.
Rabbits,poisoned with daily oral doses of 0.175 g
Pb nitrate for 16 days and treated im either over
the same time with 0.1 g BAL or with 0.2  g BAL  be-
ginning on the 7th day of poisonings showed no life-
saving effect of the antidote.  Death occurred  on
the last day of poisoning, except that death was
somewhat delayed.  Two rabbits survived an average
of 4 days longer than those that did not  receive
the antidote.
841      Haumont, S., and Vincent, J. (Univ. Lovan-
        ium, Leopoldville, Belgian Congo):  Action
        du versenate de calcium sur le plomb fixe
        in vivo dans 1'os compact.  (ACTION OF
        CALCIUM VERSENATE ON LEAD FIXED IN VIVO
        IN COMPACT BONE.)  Experimental Cell Re-
        search 18:404-6 (Oct.), 1959.
Pb was administered to dogs in the form of neutral
or basic acetate, either in gelatin capsules or in
solution mixed with food, in a dose of 50-100 mg/
kg/day for 3-6 days.  After varying intervals, the
long bones were fixed in ethanol at 96°.  The cen-
ter portion of the diaphysis was sawed in trans-
verse sections and the bone calcifications recorded
microradiographically.   Some of them were then im-
mersed in distilled water for 3 days to serve as
controls.  The others were placed in a 5% CaEDTA
solution for the same length of time.
  To visualize the Pb,  the sections were treated
with aqueous Na sulfide and formic acid solutions.
The Pb deposits were of a deep brown color.  As
shown in a figure of a section removed from a dog
sacrificed 1 day after cessation of a 3-day Pb
treatment,  comparison  of histologic and microradi-
ographic images of the same bone section not treated
with EDTA by superimposing one on the other, traces
'of Pb were found to correspond to the most interior
calcifications of the osteons in bone formation.
Bone sections obtained from the same animal treated
with EDTA showed less traces of Pb and it was evi-
dent that EDTA had extracted the major portion of
the Pb.  However, in cases where Pb was incorpor-
ated over a 6-wk period, EDTA did not seem to liber-
ate any Pb detectable by the authors'  histological
techniques.
  In a case in which 600 mg/kg EDTA was given 3
times at 2-day intervals to a Pb-intoxicated dog,
no evidence of in vivo mobilization of Pb from
bones was observed.  EDTA cannot remove Pb in
significant amounts except in animals with recent
intoxication.  Later on, Pb is inaccessible to the
chelate.
842     Hayashi, Y., Kondo, H., and Iwai, S.
       (School Med., Keio Univ., Tokyo, Japan):
       A PAPER ELECTROPHOTETIC STUDY ON SERUM
       PROTEINS IN LEAD POISONED RABBITS.  Japa-
       nese Journal of Industrial Health 1:678-82
       (Nov.), 1959.
Pb poisoning was induced by oral,sc, and inhala-
tion exposure, the latter in a chamber equipped
with Wright's British-made dust feed mechanism
designed for long-term inhalation.  Paper electro-
phoresis showed that the Y~gl°bulin level was
elevated in the course of poisoning by sc injec-
tion or inhalation.  No change was found in the
                  rabbits poisoned by oral administration.  With
                  all 3 techniques of exposure the a2~globu:1-in
                  level was slightly increased while the albumin
                  level was significantly decreased especially in
                  the inhalation experiment.   It was also noted
                  that the value of serum protein fractions could
                  be affected by foods, ie, commercial rabbit chow
                  and fresh greens.  (From authors' English sum-
                  mary; 15 references)

                  843      Inoue, S. (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  (PORPHY-
                          RIN METABOLISM IN LEAD POISONING.  I.  POR-
                          PHYRIN METABOLISM IN LEAD-POISONED RABBITS.
                          II.  PORPHYRIN METABOLISM IN LEAD-EXPOSED
                          WORKERS.  III.  PORPHYRIN BIOSYNTHESIS
                          FROM GLYCINE, a-AMINO-g-KETOADIPIC ACID,
                          AND PORPHYRINOGEN.)  Kokumin Eisei 28:180-
                          4;  185-8; 189-94, 1959.
                  In acute Pb poisoning in rabbits, porphyrin forma-
                  tion was highly increased even in the early stage.
                  Red blood cells and bone marrow showed remarkable
                  increases of coproporphyrin counts in acute and of
                  protoporphyrin values in chronic Pb poisoning.  In
                  determining the porphyrin content of the blood and
                  urine of 31 Pb workers, it  was found that the pro-
                  toporphyrin in the blood cells always increased
                  markedly in chronic Pb poisoning.  The importance
                  of porphyrin metabolism in  Pb poisoning was dis-
                  cussed.  In Pb-poisoned rabbits, protoporphyrin
                  formation from glycine, a-amino-S-ketoadipic acid,
                  and porphyrinogen was highly promoted; the red
                  blood cells and bone  marrow were rich in porphyrin
                  precursors.  (From Chemical Abstracts 55:2933,
                  1961)
                  844      Ishikawa,  I.:   STUDIES ON THE LEAD CONTENT
                          IN THE BODIES  OF TEST ANIMALS. 3. LEAD IN
                          BLOOD, URINE AND FECES OF RATS. Osaka City
                          Medical Journal 5:109-16 (Mar.), 1959.
                          In:  Contributions from the Department of
                          Preventive Medicine and Public Health,
                          Osaka City University Medical School, Vol.
                          1, April 1949-March 1959, pp. 287-94.
                  Male adult rats were used throughout.  For the de-
                  termination of Pb in blood, 69 rats were availa-
                  ble; for Pb in urine and feces, groups 50 each.
                  A spectrochemical method was used.  The Pb values
                  in blood and urine followed a logarithmic normal
                  distribution curve with upper limits of 62 and 78
                  yg/100 g, and means of 25.88 and 21.18 ug/100 g,
                  respectively.  The arithmetic mean of Pb in feces
                  was 65 pg/10 g.
                  845      Ishikawa, I.:  STUDIES ON THE LEAD CONTENT
                          IN THE BODIES OF TEST ANIMALS. 2. LEAD IN
                          BLOOD, URINE, AND FECES OF THE GUINEA
                          PIGS. Osaka City Medical Journal 5:99-107
                          (Mar.), 1959.  In:  Contributions from the
                          Department of Preventive Medicine and Pub-
                          lic Health, Osaka City University Medical
                          School, Vol. 1, April 1949-March 1959, pp.
                          278-86.
                  The Pb values in blood and urine of 68 normal
                  adult male guinea pigs followed a logarithmic nor-
                  mal distribution curve with upper limits 79 and 83
                  yg/100 g, respectively.  Pb in feces had a wide
                  distribution range with the arithmetic mean of 83
146
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 yg/10 g.   (The analytical method used was develop-
 ed by Horiuchi et  al in 1953.)

 846     Ishikawa,  I.:   STUDIES ON THE LEAD  CONTENT
        IN THE BODIES  OF  TEST ANIMALS.  4. LEAD  CON-
        TENT IN THE  ORGAN-TISSUES OF  RATS.  Osaka
        City Medical Journal 5:117-9  (Mar.),  1959.
        In: Contributions  from the Department of
        Preventive Medicine and  Public  Health,
        Osaka  City University Medical School, Vol.
        1, April 1949-March 1959, pp.  295-7.
 About  10 specimens per  organ of  rats  were analyzed.
 The Pb values  per  10 g  fresh weight were  the  fol-
 lowing:  Brain, <10-280 yg; lungs, trace-62 yg;
 heart, trace-320 pg; liver, trace-240 yg; pancreas,
 trace-29 yg; stomach,  trace-25 yg; spleen,  trace-
 10 yg; kidneys, trace-180  yg; intestines, trace-
 250 yg; muscle, 10-110 yg; bone, 18-2400 yg.
 847      Iwai, S.  (Kelo Univ., Japan):  AN EXPERI-
         MENTAL STUDY CONCERNING DIAGNOSTIC VALUE
         OF  SYMPTOMS OF LEAD POISONING.  Japan
         Journal of Industrial Health  (Tokyo) 1:
         746-55 (Nov.), 1959.
 Rabbits  were exposed to various concentrations of
 Pb  oxide dusts over a 1 1/2-yr period  for a maxi-
 mum of 4 hr/day,  3 days/wk.  Symptoms  such as
 stippled cells (SC) , polychromasia, reticulocyto-
 sis, hemoglobin (Hb) decrease and urinary copro-
 porphyrin (CP) increase were estimated and serum
 protein  fractions were analyzed by paper electro-
 phoresis.   To observe disappearance of signs after
 cessation of exposure, a  2-mo period free of ex-
 posure was  inserted.  It  was found that urinary
 CP  level and the  SC counts were increased before
 anemia developed.  The increase of SC  did not
 occur until 4-5 mo after  the urinary CP became
 positive.   The decrease of Hb occurred immediately
 after the rise of SC counts.  From these facts the
 author considers  it doubtful that the  increased
 excretion of urinary CP is merely due  to the block-
 ing by Pb of Fe incorporation into protoporphyrin.
 Urinary  CP, SC counts and reduction of Hb were
 increased parallel with the amount of  Pb inhaled.
 However,  the reticulocyte counts, polychromasia as
 well as  changes of serum  protein, ie, elevation of
 02  and Y~gl°bulin levels  and decrease  of the al-
 bumin level had no relation with the degree of Pb
 absorption.  Reduced Hb and increased  SC returned
 rapidly  to  the normal value after cessation of in-
 halation, but urinary CP  recovered with delay.


 848     Kerr,  S.H.,  and Brogdon, J.E.   (Agr.  Exp.
         Station,  Gainesville, Fla.):   RELATIVE
        TOXICITY TO MAMMALS OF 40 PESTICIDES.
        Agricultural Chemicals 14:44-5, 135-6
         (Sept.),  1959.
Pb  arsenate is included in the tabulation of lethal
doses.   According to data found in the literature,
 (Lehman,  1956) the acute LDcQ of Pb arsenate given
orally to rats is 100 mg/kg.  This varies consider-
 ably with different mammals, and as far as humans
are concerned, this can only be used as an indica-
tion of relative toxicity.


849     Koelsch, F. (Erlangen, Germany):  Bleiver-
       giftung und Zahnausfall.   (LEAD POISONING
        AND LOSS OF TEETH.)   Zentralblatt  fUr Ar-
        beitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz 9:114-7
        (May), 1959.
The  literature concerning  the effect  of  Pb  poison-
ing  on  the teeth of men or experimental  animals
(cats)  is reviewed.  The author  reports  then his
own  experiments with 2 rabbits and  2  cats which
were poisoned by feeding Pb  carbonate along with
their food.  The first symptoms  of  poisoning, such
as anorexia, loss of weight,  Pb  line, polychromasia
and  stippled cells occurred  within  1  wk.  The gums
had  become pale and atrophic and the  teeth  in the
rabbits (but not in the cats)  became  loose  and fell
out.  Necropsy showed grains  of  Pb  in the jaw bones,
the  gingival mucosa and the  dental  pulp.  Osteo-
clasia  and bone atrophy ensued producing loosening
and  falling out of the teeth.  The  possible mecha-
nism of these reactions is discussed.  The  author
points  out that loss of teeth due to  Pb  poisoning
must be considered as an occupational hazard and
dentures should be provided  in such cases.   (17
references)

850     Koike, S. (Univ. Kyoto,  Japan):  (ACTIVITY
        OF 6-AMINOLEVULINIC  ACID DEHYDRASE  (ALAD)
        IN LEAD POISONING.)  Kokumin Eisei 28:612-
        6, 1959.
The  activity of ALAD is decreased in  the bone-
marrow of Pb-poisoned rabbits, but  it is increased
in the  spleen and blood of phenylhydrazine-admin-
istered rabbits.  (From Chemical Abstracts  55:
2934, 1961)

851      Kosmider,  S.,  and  Petelenz,  T. (Silesian
        Acad.  Med.,  Zabrze, Poland):  Badania
        electrokardiograficzne w  dosViadczalnej
        ojowicy u krdlikow.   (ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH-
        IC STUDIES IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING
        IN RABBITS.)  Postepy Higleny i Medycyny
        Doswiadczalnej  13:765-75  (Nov.-Dec.),
        1959.
The  patterns of the EKG were  studied in 17  rab-
bits (2.5-3.5 kg weight)  by means of 59 record-
ings.  A drawing is presented of  the various
leads used on the rabbit.   Changes were then fol-
lowed in 13 rabbits in 71  EKG's after induction
of acute Pb poisoning by the administration  of
5.9 mg Pb  acetate/kg iv.    The pathologic changes
are  described and illustrated in  3  tracings.  (18
references)
852     Kosmider, S., Szczurek, Z., and Petelenz,
        T. (Silesian Acad. Med., Zabrze, Poland):
        Histopolatologia ukZadu sercowo-naczyni-
        owego w ojowicy u krolikdw.   (HISTOPA-
        THOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN
        LEAD POISONING IN RABBITS.)  Postepy Hi-
        gieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej 13:777-80
        (Nov.-Dec.), 1959.
Twenty-nine rabbits  (2.5-4.5 kg weight) were in-
jected iv with Pb acetate in doses of 5.9 mg/kg
body weight daily for 24 days.  EKG's were per-
formed on 13 rabbits, the results of which are
tabulated in detail and related to histopathologic
findings.
853
Kubota, K. (Univ. Kyushu, Japan):   EFFECT
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               147

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        OF PARATHION, TETRAETHYLLEAD, CARBONDISUL-
        FIDE, AND HEAVY METALS ON TISSUE METABOL-
        ISM.  Igaku Kenkyu 29, No. 11:4223-47,
        1959.
Parathion, tetraethyllead (TEL), Hg, carbon disul-
fide, or Pb was administered to male mice, weigh-
ing ^20 g for ^3 mo, and the respiratory metabol-
ism of their kidney, brain,  spleen, and liver was
determined by Warburg's first method.  The effect
of glutathione administration on the tissue metab-
olism of mice which had been acutely poisoned with
parathion, carbondisulfide,  or TEL was also in-
vestigated.  The Qo2 of the kidney, brain, spleen,
and liver of normal mice were -16.37, -10.78,
-7.70, and -8.34 yl/mg, respectively.  In the ex-
periment with TEL, 1 hr after injection of 0.1 cc
of 60% aqueous solution, Qo2 values for the kidney,
brain, spleen, and liver were -13.25, -7.13, -6.3
and -6.92 ul/mg, respectively.  When the animals
lay on their side in a critical state, the Qo2
values were -13.54 ul/mg for the kidney, -6.24 for
the brain, -6.7 for the spleen, and -6.0 for the
liver, and while dying the figures were -11.46,
-6.14, -6.24, and -4.46 yl/mg, respectively.  Two
mg of gluthathione were sc injected to a group of
mice and 1 hr later another 2 mg of glutathione
and 0.1 cc of 60% TEL solution were similary in-
jected.  The Qo2 values for the kidney, brain,
spleen, and liver, 1 hr after the last injection
were -14.67, -7.55, -5.78, and -7.23 ul/mg, re-
spectively.  The slight improvement of Qo2 in the
brain was significant.
  Mice were sc injected each with 0.1-0.5 cc Pb
acetate solution (equivalent to 0.1-0.5 mg of the
solute) every day or every other day, 52 times in
all, for ^90 days, and a total of 14.6-21.45 mg.
The Qo2 values at the end of the treatment averaged
-9.95 ul/mg for the kidney,  -8.48 for the brain,
-6.35 for the spleen, and -6.45 for the liver.

854      Link, R.P.:  CHEMICAL POISONINGS IN ANI-
        MALS. Mod. Vet. Practice 40, No. 1:36-43,
        1959.
A review of the sources, toxic action, clinical
signs, diagnosis, post mortem findings and treat-
ment of poisoning by Pb, As, Hg, nitrate, coumarin,
chlorinated hydrocarbon and organic phosphorus
parasiticides, and sodium fluoroacetate.   (From
Veterinary Bulletin 29:Abstr. No. 3614, 1959)
855      Masuda, Y. (Nippon Univ., Tokyo, Japan):
         (THE EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM SODIUM CITRATE
         ON LEAD INTOXICATION.)  Nichidai Igaku
         Zasshi 18:2983-94, 1959.
Male rabbits (12) ranging in weight from 2-2.6 kg
were divided into 4 groups:  (1) control, (2) given
KNa citrate (KNaC) sc (1.5 ml/kg body weight), (3)
given Pb orally  (0.02 g/kg), (4) Pb in conjunction
with KNaC.  The experiments were conducted for 7
consecutive days.  The effects of KNaC on Pb in-
toxication were studied, chiefly from the viewpoint
of the blood picture.  During the period of injec-
tion blood was taken for examination from each
group every other day, and after injection was fin-
ished the blood was collected at intervals of 5-7
days.  The rabbits were weighed daily.  An increase
in the stippled cell count was inhibited in Groups
3 and 4, but to a  greater degree in Group 4.  An
                  increase in the lymphocyte and monocyte counts
                  which took place in Group 3 was inhibited in Group
                  4.   No difference in changes in the eosinophil
                  polymorphonuclear leukocyte count was noted between
                  Groups 3 and 4.  The basic polymorphonuclear leuko-
                  cyte count was increased by KNaC in Groups 2 and 4.
                  A decrease in the pseudoeosinophil polymorphonu-
                  clear leukocyte count was also produced by the ad-
                  ministration of KNaC.  The most striking increase
                  in the erythrocyte count developed in Group 4.  Pb
                  and KNaC may act jointly.  Group 4 showed the most
                  significant increase in the leukocyte and reticulo-
                  cyte counts.  Body weight was decreased after the
                  various drug injections were stopped.  KNaC had an
                  antagonistic effect on Pb intoxication in part, but
                  its therapeutic effects were small.  (From Chemical
                  Abstracts 61:13796, 1964)

                  856      Matsukubo, M.:  (BINDING OF LEAD WITH SE-
                          RUM PROTEINS.) Tokyo Jikeikai Ika Diagaku
                          Zasshi 74:2484-94, 1959.
                  210Pb-containing solution was incubated with human
                  serum in an ice-box for 33 hr.  The mixture was
                  fractionated by paper electrophoresis.   Radioac-
                  tivity was observed in the albumin and c^-globulin
                  fractions of the serum of rats injected with
                  /1UPb.  (From Chemical Abstracts 55:23642, 1961)


                  857      Mentesana, G.:  L'azione dell'acido tioc-
                          tico nell'intossicazione sperimentale da
                          piombo. (EFFECT OF THIOCTIC ACID IN EXPER-
                          IMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)  Folia Medica
                          (Naples) 42:399-409 (Apr.), 1959.
                  After a short survey of the information available
                  on thioctic acid and its possible therapeutical
                  uses the author describes results obtained by
                  treating Pb-poisoned guinea pigs with thioctic
                  acid.  The same dosages produce different effects
                  in healthy and Pb-poisoned guinea pigs.  While 10
                  mg/kg of body weight/day of thioctic acid had a
                  eutrophic effect on healthy animals, a dose of 25-
                  50 mg induced a diseased condition.  In guinea
                  pigs poisoned with neutral Pb acetate 10 mg doses
                  of thioctic acid failed to produce any protective
                  action, 25 mg had a moderately beneficial action
                  and doses of 50 mg had a very obvious beneficial
                  effect.  (From author's summary).


                  858      Miyazaki, M. (Shinshu Univ., Matsumsto,
                          Japan):  (EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS ON COM-
                          PLEMENT ACTIVITY.)  Med. J. Shinshu Univ.
                          4:335-43, 1959.
                  The hemolytic action of the complement from guinea
                  pig serum was tested on bovine red cells.  Chlor-
                  ides of heavy metals, including Pb chloride, at
                  concentrations of 0.0005-0.02M, depending on the
                  metal, inhibited the hemolytic action of the com-
                  plement.  Its activity, however, was restored when
                  the inhibitory salt was removed by dialysis.  There
                  was no evidence that the heavy metals had a de-
                  structive action on any factor necessary for the
                  hemolytic reaction.  (From Chemical Abstracts 56:
                  J y / 9,  1962)


                  859      Mokranjac, M.S.,  and Radmic', S.  (Inst.
                          Chim. Toxicol., Belgrade, Yugoslavia):
                           (ACTION OF LEAD AND COBALT ON THE NUMBER
 148
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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        OF ERYTHROCYTES AND ON THE PROPORTION OF
        THESE ELEMENTS IN THE BLOOD OF RATS PAR-
        TIALLY POISONED BY LEAD.) Glasnik  Shumar-
        skog Fak. 22:499-507, 1959.
The normal Pb level in the blood of rats was 12
yg%.  Daily intraperitoneal treatment with 0.5-4
rag Pb/kg body wt reduced the erythrocyte count
sharply.  The effect of simultaneous administra-
tion of Pb and Co was also studied.  (From Chem-
ical Abstracts 54:13426, 1960)
860     Mokranjac, M.S., and Soldatovic, D.   (Fac.
        Pharm., Beograd, Yugoslavia):   (EFFECT OF
        SOME ANTIBIOTICS AND SOME SULFONAMIDES ON
        THE MOBILIZATION OF LEAD BY ANIMALS POI-
        SONED WITH SMALL QUANTITIES OF LEAD.) Acta
        Pharm. Jugoslav. 9:19-26, 1959.
The activity of streptomycin, p-aminosalicylate,
terramycin, tetracycline, gantrisin, and sulfadia-
zine on the Pb mobilization in sheep poisoned with
small amounts of Pb was examined.  The antibiotics
caused a stronger mobilization, visible in an in-
creased Pb level in blood and in urine, while on
the contrary the sulfonamides were without influ-
ence on the mobilization of Pb.  (From Chemical
Abstracts  53:14312, 1959)
 861     Nishino, S.  (Gifu Prefectural Med. School,
        Japan):  EFFECTS OF Ca-EDTA AND PARATHY-
        ROID HORMONE UPON THE EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE
        LEAD POISONING.  Japanese Journal of In-
        dustrial Health 1:607-14 (Nov.), 1959.
Parathyroid hormone  (PTH) and CaEDTA were admin-
istered iv, independently or combined, to rabbits
at an extremely early stage of acute Pb poison-
ing, and the effect of these drugs in removing Pb
from the body was observed.  It was found that
with PTH injection, the quantity of Pb in the
urine did not increase remarkably;  however, PTH
had the effect of mobilizing Pb deposited within
the bone tissue and thus the combined administra-
tion of PTH and CaEDTA accelerated removal of Pb
from the body.  No ill effect developed from PTH
injection.   (From author's English summary; 12
references)


862      Odescalchi, C.P., and Andreuzzi,  P. (Univ.
        Pavia, Italy):  Comportamento della resis-
        tenza capillare nell'intosslcazione sub-
        acuta da piombo;  ricerche sperimentali sul
        ratto.  (CAPILLARY RESISTANCE IN SUBACUTE
        LEAD POISONING.   EXPERIMENTS IN RATS.)
        Folia Medica (Naples)  42:111-31 (Feb.),
        1959.
Rats were injected ip and iv daily  for 4 days with
30 mg Pb acetate/kg to induce subacute poisoning;
capillary resistance was  measured daily from the
day before  experiment to  the 8th day from the
start,  and  5 days after termination of treatment.
In the 2nd  series,  the rats received at the same
time as Pb  as above, ascorbic acid, methylescutol,
cortisone,  and 5-hydroxytryptamine.  The results
showed that the reduction in capillary resistance
observed in subacute poisoning must be considered
to be due to functional disturbance, since  under
the action  of  the above substances, this reduction
was rapidly reversed to normal.  The changes are
attributed to a relative deficiency in cortico-
adrenal secretions.  (26 references)


863     Oliver, W.T., Geib,  L.W.,  and Sorrell, B.:
        LEAD POISONING  IN A  DOG. Can. J.  Comp.
        Med. 23:21-2, 1959.
Pb poisoning in a dog is described which  resulted
from eating linoleum.   Symptoms included  listless-
ness, inappetence, vomiting, constipation followed
by diarrhea, muscular spasms and convulsions.
Acidophilic, acid-fast  inclusion bodies in the
nuclei of renal parenchymal  cells, degenerative
changes in the Purkinje cells, together with de-
generative changes in the parenchymal organs, and
cerebral edema, are regarded as characteristic of
Pb poisoning in this species.  (From Veterinary
Bulletin 29:Abstr. 2637, 1959)
864     Oshima, M.:  (STUDIES ON THE LEAD POISON-
        ING.  PART 3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE
        URINARY CALCIUM AND LEAD EXCRETION IN LEAD
        POISONING.) Shikoku Acta Med. 15:701-10
        (Sept.), 1959.
Rabbits were injected subcutaneously with Pb ace-
tate.  No significant changes in the level of se-
rum and urinary Ca were noted between the experi-
mental and control animals.  After EDTA admini-
stration insignificant transitory changes of the
serum Ca level occurred which increased with the
size of the EDTA dose.   There was a remarkable
transitory increase of urinary Pb.  No significant
differences of Pb concentration were noted in liv-
er and bone.  (From Bulletin of Hygiene 35:347-8,
1960)
865      Pernis, B,, Bairati, A., Jr., and Giubileo,
        M. (Univ. Milan, Italy):  Alterazioni delle
        emazie nel saturnismo sperimentale visibili
        al microscopio elettronico.  (ALTERATIONS
        OF THE RED BLOOD CELLS IN EXPERIMENTAL
        SATURNISM, AS OBSERVED WITH THE ELECTRON
        MICROSCOPE.)  Medicina del Lavoro 50:358-
        67 (May), 1959.
Guinea pigs, intoxicated by daily oral administra-
tion of 2-3 ml of 10% Pb acetate for 15 days, de-
veloped a syndrome of Pb anemia with stippled
erythrocytes varying from 35,000-50,000/million.
Examination of ultrathin sections of erythrocytes
and erythroblasts by electron microscope showed
the presence of swollen and altered mitochondria
and/or clusters of dense granules with high elec-
tron scattering power  (ferritin molecules).
  Since it is known that Pb interferes with the
synthesis of heme and that several stages of this
synthesis take place in the mitochondria, it is
assumed that the morphological changes in the
mitochondria are caused by biochemical alterations
due to Pb.  Also, the accumulation of ferritin
might be related to the reduced utilization of Fe
for heme formation.  (28 references)
866      Savay, G., and Csillik, B. (Univ. Szeged,
        Hungary):  LEAD-REACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN
        PERIPHERAL SYNAPSES.  Experimentia 15:396-7
        (Oct. 15), 1959.
                                            Plants and Animals
                                                                                                     149

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Under urethane anesthesia, rats were injected
percutaneously into the short flexor muscle of
the hind pad with a solution of 1 g Pb nitrate,
urea and formalin, and killed 15 min  later.
Frozen sections showed the characteristic micro-
scopic pattern of the subneural apparatus of the
striated muscles and the synaptic structures of
the ganglia.  The authors discuss the question
whether the Pb reactive material ,is identical
with SH groups or with cholinesterase.   (14 ref-
erences)


857     Sroczynski, J.:   Uklad krwiotworczy kroli-
        kow w ostrym zatruciu o^owiem.   (HEMOPO-
        IETIC SYSTEM IN ACUTE LEAD POISONING.)
        Postepy Hig. i Med. Doswiadczalnej 13, No.
        6:741-53, 1959.
Intravenous injection of Pb oxide in doses of 4-7
mg/kg led to acute intoxication ending in death.
Anemia accompanied by erythroblastemia occurred
rapidly.  The increase in sideroblasts indicates
weakening of the ability of erythrocytes to use
Fe.  The pseudoeosinophils displayed considerable
hypoplasia in conjunction with considerable dis-
turbance of erythrocytopoiesis.  The clinical pic-
ture is similar to Fe-deficiency anemia.  Pb acts
first on the bone marrow, and then produces apla-
sia.  Pb poisoning basically produces the same
hematological changes in rabbits as it does in
man.  (From Biological Abstracts 35:59541, 1960)
868      Sroczynski, J., and Jonderko, G.  (Silesian
        Acad.  Sci., Zabrze, Poland):  Poziom gluta-
        tionu we krwi w przebiegu ostrej  oZowicy u
        krolikow.  (BLOOD GLUTATHIONE LEVEL DURING
        THE COURSE OF ACUTE PLUMBISM IN RABBITS.)
        Postepy Higieny I Medycyny Doswiadczalnej
        13:755-8 (Nov.-Dec.), 1959.
Pb acetate (4 mg/kg) was injected iv into 12 rab-
bits, and the glutathione (GT) level of the blood
was determined by Rausch's method.  The longest
survival was observed in animals with the least
decrease in GT or with its higher concentration be-
fore poisoning.  (As determined in all rabbits,
31-44 mg% before, to levels as low as 10  mg% after
poisoning.)
  These observations suggested to the authors that
GT was a protective factor in Pb poisoning in rab-
bits.

869      Sroczynski, J., and Piekarski, B.:  Obraz
        blatek surowicy krwi krolikow w ostrym
        zatruciu ojowie. (SERUM PROTEIN PICTURE IN
        THE BLOOD OF RABBITS IN ACUTE LEAD POISON-
        ING.)  Postepy Hig. i Med. Doswiadczalnej
        13, No. 6:781-5, 1959.
Quantitative measurements of blood plasma proteins
and their fractions were taken at the start of the
series, at onset of anemia, and subsequently.  On
the average albumin decreased, and globulin in-
creased, but not in the same absolute amounts, so
that total protein decreased.  The most clearcut
increase was in B-globulin, while a^ and 0.2 also
increased.  "y-Globulin was variable.  (From Bio-
logical Abstracts 35:59542, 1960)
870
Sroczynski, J., and Wieczorek, M.:  Bada-
                                                      nia  anatomopatologiczne u krolikow w
                                                      ostrym zatruciu  olowiem.   (ANATOMIC AND
                                                      PATHOLOGIC  STUDIES  IN RABBITS IN ACUTE
                                                      LEAD POISONING.)  Postepy Hig.  i Med.
                                                      Doswiadczalnej 13,  No.  6:759-63, 1959.
                                              Autopsies  were performed  on 20 rabbits  who died
                                              from experimental Pb  poisoning and changes in the
                                              liver,  kidneys,  heart muscles,  lungs, intestinal
                                              tract,  and adrenals were  described.   The results
                                              are similar  to those  obtained by other  investiga-
                                              tors of the  results of Pb poisoning.   (From Bio-
                                              logical Abstracts 35:59543, 1960)
                                              871      Stover,  B.J.  (Univ.  Utah, Salt Lake City):
                                                      Pb212 (ThB)  TRACER STUDIES IN ADULT BEAGLE
                                                      DOGS. Proceedings of the Society of Exper-
                                                      imental  Biology and Medicine 100, No. 2:
                                                      269-72,  1959.
                                              Metabolism of shortlived 212pb was studied in the
                                              beagle following intravenous (iv) injection, and
                                              after transfusion of  blood cells tagged with 2l2Pb
                                              in vitro.   The latter proved to be a satisfactory
                                              method to  determine  blood volume.  When 2J-2Pb was
                                              given iv,  in vivo tagging of blood cells occurred.
                                              A maximum  of 65% of  the activity in cells was
                                              reached at 2-3 hr after injection,  then 212Pb in
                                              blood cells decreased with a biological t i  = 37
                                              hr and an  effective  t, = 8.2 hr.   The same  de-
                                              crease occurred  after injection of in vitro tagged
                                              cells.   In both  experiments  essentially all 212Pb
                                              decayed inside the dog.  Half decayed in blood in
                                              the in vivo tagging  experiment; 4/5 decayed in
                                              blood when tagging was done  in vitro.  (From
                                              author's summary)
872      Sumiya, C. (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  (A FOL-
        LOW-UP STUDY OF PORPHYRIN METABOLISM IN
        LEAD POISONING.  I. RELATION BETWEEN GLY-
        CINE AND REDUCED GLUTATHIONE  (GSH)).  Ko-
        kumin Eisei 28:617-26, 1959.
In rabbits, Pb poisoning causes an increase in
glycine in red blood cells and bone marrow.   (From
Chemical Abstracts 55:1752, 1961)


873      Sumiya, C.  (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  (A FOL-
        LOW-UP STUDY OF PORPHYRIN METABOLISM IN
        LEAD POISONING.  II. IRON INCORPORATION
        INTO THE PORPHYRIN RING IN LEAD POISON-
        ING.) Kokumin Eisei 28:627-35, 1959.
The biosynthesis of protoporphyrin, coproporphy-
rin, and uroporphyrin in chicken red blood cells
is markedly inhibited by Pb acetate, while Fe in-
corporation into porphyrin is not inhibited as
much, and both Fe""" and Fe    can be incorporated.
In Pb poisoning hene synthesis proceeds markedly in
the peripheral blood, which may be ascribed to the
enzyme system in the mitochondria existing in the
basophilic stippled cells and reticulocytes.  The
activity of carboxylase in converting coproporphy-
rin to protoporphyrin seen in the mitochondria of
liver and bone marrow is not reduced even in Pb
poisoning.  (From Chemical Abstracts 55:1752,1961)


        Sykora, J., Kocher, Z.,  and Eybl, V.:
874       (EFFECT OF  CaNaaEDTA  ON THE EXCRETION OF
        LEAD  IN EXPERIMENTAL  LEAD POISONING.)
150
                            BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
        Cesk. Fysiol. 8:325 (July), 1959.   (From
        Cumulative Index Medicus 1:A-1247,  1960)

875      Tanabe, Y. (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  (METAB-
        OLISM OF 6-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID  (ALA) AND
        PORPHOBILINOGEN  (PEG)  IN LEAD POISONING.
        I. AMOUNTS OF ALA AND PEG IN THE URINE AND
        BLOOD.) Kokumin Eisei 28:386-97, 1959.
In rabbits, Pb poisoning caused an increase of ALA
and PBG in urine and blood, and increased copro-
porphyrin in urine.  In porphyrinuria of the he-
patic type, caused by allylisopropylacetamide or
allylisopropylacetylcarbamide (Sedormid), PBG is
excreted in a larger amount than ALA, as contrast-
ed with Pb poisoning.  (From Chemical Abstracts
55:2933, 1961)

876      Tanabe, Y. (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  (METAB-
        OLISM OF 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID  (ALA) AND
        PORPHOBILINOGEN  (PBG) IN LEAD POISONING.
        II. INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM OF  PORPHYRIN
        WITH ALA ADMINISTRATION.) Kokumin Eisei
        28:552-9,  1959.
Intravenous injection of ALA into Pb poisoned,
normal, and  allylisopropylacetamide-administered
rabbits, respectively, caused excretion of  large
amounts of ALA, PBG, uroporphyrin and coproporphy-
rin converted from ALA.  In Pb poisoning, urinary
coproporphyrin was twice as high as that of normal
rabbit, and excretion of PBG and uroporphyrin was
significantly reduced.  With allylisopropylaceta-
mide, all 3 were increased.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 55:2934, 1961)


877      Tanabe, Y. (Univ. Kyoto, Japan):  (METAB-
        OLISM OF 6-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID  (ALA) AND
        PORPHOBILINOGEN (PBG)  IN LEAD POISONING.
        III.  EFFECTS  OF Ca ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRA-
        ACETATE (EDTA)  UPON THE INTERMEDIARY ME-
        TABOLISM OF PORPHYRINS.) Kokumin Eisei 28:
        560-7, 1959.
In normal rabbits,  urinary excretion of ALA, PBG,
coproporphyrin or uroporphyrin is not affected by
the administration of CaEDTA,  but in poisoned
rabbits, small doses of it cause excretion of ALA
and PBG in large amounts, while no increase is ob-
served at large doses.   (From  Chemical Abstracts
55:2934,1961)


878      Tarabaeva, G.I.:  (DISTRIBUTION OF  RADIO-
        ACTIVE LEAD IN THE SEXUAL ORGANS OF ANI-
        MALS.) Izvest. Akad. Nauk Kazakh. SSR Ser.
        Med.  i Fiziol. 1959, No. 2:95-101.
In guinea pigs, orally administered radioactive Pb
was found in highest concentrations in  the chorion,
placenta, liver, and spleen.  Animals previously
administered 2 ml/kg of 2% Pb acetate for 5-6 mo,
showed lower values in the tissues after 1 day,
but greater than normal values after 5  days.
(From Chemical Abstracts 54:23059, 1960)


879      Timm,  F., and Neth,  R.  (Max-Planck-Inst.
        Exptl. Med.,  GHttingen, Germany):  Die
        normalen Schwermetalle der Niere.   (NORMAL
        OCCURRENCE OF HEAVY METALS IN THE KIDNEY.)
        Histochemie 1,  No. 6:403-19, 1959.
In histochemical examination of frozen sections of
kidneys from various animals (horse, cattle, sheep,
goat, dog, cat, pigs, rabbit, guinea pig, rat,
mouse) small quantities of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb could
be detected by means of the sulfide reaction.   (The
method used is described in detail.)  The detecta-
ble fractions of the trace elements were present
predominantly in the cell plasma, and found  to be
mobile; only very seldom were they seen in the
nuclei of normal kidneys.  Fe, Zn, Pb and Hg were
found to be absorbed and emitted by the epithelial
cells of the glomerulus.  They were also detected
in the basement membrane, in the tubular cells and
lumina.  A narrow ridge below the brush border of
the cells was found to bind metals with an affinity
to S, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg.

880      Van Esch, G.J., and Van Genderen, H.;
        Walpole, A.L.,  and Williams, M.H.C.:
        Personal Communication (on Lead-induced
        Tumors), 1959.
See Abstract No. 891.
881      Voigt,  G.E.,  and Larsson,  L.E.  (Univ.
        Lund,  Sweden):   DISTRIBUTION  OF LEAD AND
        MERCURY IN FEMUR OF ACUTELY POISONED RATS.
        Acta  Pathologica et Microbiologia  Scandi-
        navica 47:256-8,  1959.
When rats were given Pb  acetate im and  killed
after 15 min-4 hr, the Ag  sulfide method  showed
the presence of Pb around  and in Haversian canals.


882      Yokohashi, G. (Inst. Publ. Health, Tokyo,
        Japan) :  ABSORPTION AND EXCRETION OF LEAD
        THROUGH WALLS OF DIGESTIVE CANALS.  ESPE-
        CIALLY ON THEIR  RELATIVE EASE BY SEGMENTS
        OF CANALS.  Bulletin of the Institute of
        Public Health (Tokyo) 8:14-21,  1959.
Experiments with rabbits showed, by use of   ^Pb,
that absorption of Pb occurred mostly in the small
intestine, while the stomach and colon were very
inactive, and the cecum was the most inactive.  In
the excretion of Pb, the small intestines with
the duodenum were the most active, followed by the
colon, while the stomach and the cecum were very
inactive.  It  is  concluded that Pb passes freely
in either direction through the membrane  cells of
the digestive  canals which show their  own resis-
tance to the passage of  Pb.   (From author's Eng-
lish summary)

883      Yokohashi, G. (Inst. Pub. Health, Tokyo,
        Japan) :   IONIC  AND NON-IONIC  LEAD IN
        BLOOD PLASMA AND CELLS OF RABBITS.   Bul-
        letin of  the Institute of Public Health
         (Tokyo) 8:22-8,  1959.
Rabbits were injected for  5 days with  doses of 1.5
mg/Pb as chloride daily, to estimate the  relative
amount of ionic and non-ionic Pb in blood compon-
ents of the animals.  For  Pb in blood  plasma, ex-
traction with Na diethyldithiocarbamate and dial-
ysis with cellophane membrane and adsorption by
cation-exchange resin were applied.  Pb was also
determined by measuring  the added 21%b  as a tracer.
Although ionic Pb could  be estimated satisfactorily
in blood plasma, by the  above methods,  its ratio
to non-ionic Pb varied  so  widely  that  no  definite
value could be established.  Using fractionation
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               151

-------
of blood cells into endoplasm and stroma, using
toluene, showed 80% of the Pb to be present in the
latter and 20% in the former.  The relative amounts
of Pb in the endoplasm were 10-20% for the ionic,
and the non-ionic which were bound by hemoglobin
constituted 80-90%.  Endoplasm was fractionated
into heme and globin by hydrolysis with acetone-
HC1 mixture; about 90% of the Pb was in the heme
fraction and only 10% in the globin fraction; how-
ever, >90% was found to be absorbed on cation-ex-
change resin for the 1.5% HC1 hydrolyzate of endo-
plasm.  Therefore, the whole amount of Pb in the
heme fraction cannot be interpreted to be of metal-
porphyrin form, for Pb that was dissociated from
the globin moiety by acid may have been transfer-
red into the acid-acetone layer (heme fraction).
(From author's English abstract.)


                          1960


884      Abramova, Zh.I., and Kuz'minskaya, G.N.:
        (THE SPECIFIC FEATURES IN THE PICTURE OF
        LEAD POISONING IN RATS WHO HAD SUSTAINED
        RADIATION INJURY.)  Radiol. 5:80-1 (Dec.),
        1960.
Compensatory hematopoietic reactions to Pb poison-
ing were studied in 123 male rats 1-3 mo after
whole-body irradiation with 300 r and exposure for
24 days to Pb poisoning (daily doses of 0.3 ml of
40% solution/100 g weight).  The irradiated animals
exhibited a higher resistance to toxic anemia and
a much more rapid development of young cells in
the peripheral blood.  However, along with increas-
ed erythropoiesis were observed increased disturb-
ances in the bone marrow and greater degenerative
dystrophic changes in the spleen and liver.  (From
Nuclear Science Abstracts 15:Abstract No. 12784,
1961)

885      Afonova, V.N.:  THE METABOLISM OF PROTEINS
        AND PROTEIN NITROGEN IN THE BLOOD SERUM IN
        EXPERIMENTAL LEAD-POISONING. Sb. Nauchn.
        Tr. Ryazansk. Med. Inst. 12, No. 2:129-32,
        1960.
Administration per os of an aqueous solution of Pb
acetate (at the rate of 10 mg/kg) to rabbits elic-
ited a shift of the blood proteins.  Total proteins
were reduced by an average of 17.64%; globulins
were increased by an average of 21.66%.  In cases
of chronic Pb poisoning the blood non-protein N
rose to 64.18-157.77 mg%.  (From Chemical Ab-
stracts 59:10683, 1963)
886      Aldanazarov, A.T., and Sabdenova, Sh.S.:
        (EFFECT OF VITAMIN B;L2 AND FOLIC ACID ON
        THE APPEARANCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF LEAD-
        POISONING SYMPTOMS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANI-
        MALS.)   Trudy Inst.  Kraevoi Patol. Akad.
        Nauk Kazakh. SSR 8:62-8,  1960.
Simultaneous administration of vitamin B -^ with
toxic doses of Pb (1 ml/kg body wt of 1% Pb ace-
tate daily for 3-7 mo) to rabbits delayed the ap-
pearance and reduced the severity of Pb intoxica-
tion symptoms.   Better results were obtained when
both vitamin Bl2 and folic acid were administered.
No reduction of hemoglobin level was observed in
animals receiving both vitamins,  and in some cases
                 basophilic stippling was completely absent.   (From
                 Chemical Abstracts 55:26264, 1961)

                 887     Baetjer, A.M., Joardar, S.N.D. and McQuary,
                         W.A.  (John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md.):
                         EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE AND
                         HUMIDITY ON LEAD POISONING IN ANIMALS.
                         Archives of Environmental Health 1:463-77
                          (Dec.), 1960.
                 Swiss  strain  male mice were used in most of the
                 experiments.  Groups of mice,  injected ip or  iv
                 with approximate LD^Q doses of Pb acetate or
                 nitrate and exposed to various temperatures,  showed
                 a  higher mortality rate and shorter average sur-
                 vival  time at 95°F than at 72°F.  This effect  of
                 'high temperature on acute Pb poisoning was more
                 marked when the exposure followed immediately
                 after  the injection of Pb than when exposure  to
                 heat also preceded the Pb poisoning.  The results
                 were similar  whether a high or low humidity accom-
                 panied the high temperature.   Prolonged  exposure
                 to heat preceding the injection of Pb did not  re-
                 duce the harmful effect of heat exposure.  Removal
                 from heat at  nights alleviated the effect to  some
                 extent.  Exposure of rats to high temperature
                 similarly increased their mortality following the
                 iv injection  of Pb.  Mice exposed to  an  environ-
                 mental temperature of 60°F had a higher  mortality
                 and longer average survival time than those exposed
                 to 72 °F  temperature when injected ip  with Pb,  but
                 no significant differences were found when  the Pb
                 was injected  iv.  Mice with chronic Pb poisoning
                 produced by repeated injections of Pb, began  to die
                 sooner and had a higher mortality when exposed to
                 a  high temperature following  cessation of Pb  in-
                 jections.
                    Severe dehydration produced  by restricting  water
                 consumption increased the mortality of mice from
                 acute  Pb poisoning at all temperatures.   The  ef-
                 fect was much more marked when the Pb was  injected
                 ip than when  injected iv.  An  increase in basal
                 metabolism at normal temperature, produced by thy-
                 roxine,  increased  the susceptibility  of  female
                 mice to  Pb poisoning comparable to  that  produced
                 by heat but did not significantly affect male mice.
                 The influence of food and water restriction on
                 mortality was also studied.   Food restriction and
                 isolation at  normal temperature did not  increase
                 susceptibility to Pb.   (24 references)
                  888      Bezzubov,  A.D.  Vasil'eva,  O.G.,  and
                          Khatina, A.I.  (Inst.  Ind.  Hyg. Occup.  Dis.,
                          Acad. Med. Sci.,  USSR):  Vliyanie pektina
                          na vyvedenie svintsa  iz organisma.   (IN-
                          FLUENCE  OF PECTIN ON  THE ELIMINATION OF
                          LEAD FROM  THE  BODY.)   Gigiena Truda  i
                          Professional'nye  Zabolevaniya 4,  No. 3:
                          32-7, 1960.
                  In in-vitro experiments,  the  authors had  found
                  that  in an aqueous medium at  pH 3.76, pectin bound
                  91-92% of  Pb, and  in a gastric acid medium,  52-
                  69%.   Mice, rats,  guinea  pigs and  rabbits received
                  various oral doses of  Pb  acetate and pectin; in
                  some  experiments,  CaNa2EDTA was also administered
                  with  the pectin.   Although in acute poisoning at
                  high  dosage of Pb  (500 mg/kg) full protection was
                  not obtained  (of  the Pb group 5 of 10 animals
                  died, and  of  the Pb + pectin  + EDTA group,  2 of
152
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
 10  died),  in  chronic  poisoning  the  drugs  produced
 marked  increases  in the  elimination of  Pb.  With
 pectin,  the largest amounts were  eliminated in  the
 5th-6th  wk after  start of Pb dosage.  The adminis-
 tration  of pectin and EDTA greatly  ameliorated  the
 signs of Pb poisoning.

 889     Boyadzhiev, V. (Dept. Health, Ind. Hyg.,
        Clin.  Occup. Dis., Sofia, Bulgaria):
        Vliyanie na nyakoi beltuchinni i mastni
        rezhimi za vuznikvaneto i protichaneto
        na olovnoto otravyane.   (EFFECT OF CERTAIN
        PROTEIN AND FAT DIETS ON THE APPEARANCE
         AND COURSE OF LEAD POISONING.)  Nauchni
        Trudove na Visshiya Meditsinski Institut,
         Sofia 39, No.  3:171-88, 1960.
 The effect of 4 different diets, low and high fat,
 and low and high protein, respectively,  on the
 higher nervous system was studied in white rats
 given orally 213 mg Pb acetate/kg body weight/day
 for 3 mo.  The results showed that the variables
 in the diets did not prevent the appearance of Pb
 poisoning, but influenced the severity of its
 course according to the criteria studied.  Between
 the 1st and the 9th day of poisoning, alterations
 in the conditioned reflex activity of rats on
 diets 1, 2, 3, and 4 (independently of the diet)
 were observed which corresponded to changes in the
 regulatory reaction of the cortex under the in-
 fluence of the poisoning.  These changes had a
 cyclic course and in passing through the different
 phases,  especially of  the narcotic and paradoxical
 phases,  were marked by an inhibition of the con-
 ditioned reflex activity of the cortex.   Following
 repeated poisoning, alterations of the conditioned
 reflex activity quickly set in  (from 1-4 days af-
 ter beginning of the poisoning).  The most severe
 disturbances appeared  in animals fed the high-fat
 diet, followed by those on low-protein,  low-fat
 and high protein diets.   Changes in conditioned
 reflex activity under  the influence of low fat and
 high protein content in the diet were, to a. certain
 extent,  similar.  The  author considers that changes
 in conditioned reflex activity can serve as an
 early sign of Pb poisoning.

 890     Boyadzhiev, V., and Tyutyulkov, N.:  (MODI-
         FICATION OF LEAD CONCENTRATION IN THE
        BLOOD OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS BY  VITAMIN C
         AND SODIUM THIOSULFATE.)  Gigiena, Epi-
         demiol. i Mikrobiol. 4, No.  1:7-15, 1960.
 The effect of  vitamin  C (50 mg/kg) or Na2S20.j (2.5
ml 20% solution/kg) on Pb concentration in blood
 of guinea pigs was studied during chronic Pb in-
 toxication induced by  oral administration of 2 ml/
kg of 5% Pb acetate solution, up to 55 mg Pb/kg
 body weight.   The degree of  intoxication was de-
 termined from  the number of  erythrocytes, leuko-
 cytes, stippled cells, reticulocytes, and concen-
 tration of hemoglobin  in blood.  Administration of
 Na2S20j  and vitamin C  did not prevent the develop-
ment of  Pb poisoning.   The concentration of Pb in
 the blood was  lowest in the  animals treated with
 Na2S20-j  and the changes of the  blood components
 investigated paralleled Pb concentration.  (From
 Chemical Abstracts 56:7951,  1962)

 J91      Boyland,  E.:   RECENT  PROGRESS IN CARCINO-
        GENESIS.   BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS.   Progress in
        Experimental Tumor  Research  1:162-78,  1960.
The review  (55 references)  contains  the  following
concerning Pb:  "The induction of tumor  of the
kidney with Pb phosphate  first described by Zol-
linger  (1953) and confirmed by Van Esch  and Van
Genderen  (1959) and by Walpole and Williams (1959)
remains remarkable.  In the first place  it is  sur-
prising that  rats should  live for as  long as 1 yr
on diets  containing 17, of Pb phosphate or Pb ace-
tate.  Treatment with Pb  salts disturbs  hemoglobin
metabolism  leading to excretion of coproporphyrin
in the urine.  The immediate carcinogen  might
therefore be  the excreted porphyrln.  Ingested Pb
is usually  deposited in bone, so that if the Pb
itself were the carcinogenic agent,  bone tumors
would have  been expected."  (Van Esch, and Walpole:
Personal  communications to  author.)

892     De Nicola, P.,  Petronio, L.,  Nespoli,  M.,
        and Caraccia,  G.C.  (Univ.  Pavia,  Italy) :
        Ulterior! osservazioni sulle attivita'
        enzimatiche nel siero in alcune  intossi-
        cazioni sperimentali.   (ENZYMATIC ACTIVI-
        TIES IN SERUM IN SOME EXPERIMENTAL INTOX-
        ICATIONS .) Bollettino della Societa Itali-
        ana di Biologia Sperimentale 36,  No.  21:
        1145-8, 1960.
The experiments reported deal with the behavior of
several enzymes in the blood of rabbits  poisoned
by Pb, As, C,  sulfide and Ca.   Pb poisoning was
obtained  in 4 rabbits,  average weight 2.5 kg,  by
daily treatment with 6 mg Pb acetate/kg  body
weight for 30 days.   Enzymatic activities in the
serum were determined before,  and on the 15th and
30th days of the experiment.  The animals survived
treatment, but died shortly thereafter.  Aldolase
had increased from a normal of 17.1 units/ml serum
to 44.2 at 15 and 38.6 at 30 days.   The  increases
in activity of other enzymes were more moderate:
glutamic oxalacetic transaminase,  from 27.6 to
33.2 and 46,7; glutamic pyruvic transaminase,   from
22.6 to 24 and 28.2;  lactic dehydrogenase, from
410 to 495 and 444;  malic dehydrogenase,  from  180
to 208 and 292, respectively.   The authors con-
clude that no relation exists between the histo-
logic alterations caused by Pb and the increases
in the activity of enzymes.

893     Dhar, D.C., and Ghatak, S. (Central Drug
        Research Inst., Lucknow, India):   STUDIES
        ON EXPERIMENTAL LEAD ANAEMIA:  PART VI.
        CHANGES IN ASCORBIC ACID METABOLISM DURING
        LEAD ANAEMIA AND THE ROLE OF VARIOUS HAEMO-
        POIETIC SUBSTANCES.  Journal of  Scientific
        and Industrial Research (India)  19C, No.
        11:259-63, 1960.
Anemia induced in rats (VL50 g weight) by intra-
venous injection of Pb acetate (6 mg/100 g body
weight) caused a marked decrease in  the  level  of
ascorbic  acid in blood, urine, adrenal gland,
liver, spleen, testes,  kidney, heart, and muscle,
but not in brain and lung tissue.   The adrenal
gland was affected most.  Hemopoietic agents (vi-
tamin 6^2, liver extract, folic acid, and leuco-
vorin) alleviated the deficiency of  ascorbic acid
in most of  the tissues but  none of the supplements
raised its level in heart tissue.
894
Foreman, H.:  THE PHARMACOLOGY OF SOME
                                            Plants and Animals
                                               153

-------
         USEFUL CHELATING AGENTS.  In Seven, M.J.,
         and Johnson, L.A., ed.:  Metal-Binding in
         Medicine.  Philadelphia, Lippincott,
         1960, pp. 82-94.
The tissue distribution and excretion of
in experimental animals is first discussed and
illustrated in tables.  This is  followed by simi-
lar studies in humans; kidney toxicity by EDTA in
animals, as well as by CaNa2DTPA; behavior of other
metal chelates in the body; N32EDTA and N32DTPA
chelated with Pb, Co, Fe, Zn, Cr, and Y and whole
body retention of ions subsequent to chelation.
In closing, the natural binding  capacity of the
body for the various injected ions is:  Fe > Zn
> Pb > Cr > Co > Y; the order of effectiveness of
EDTA for mobilization is about equal for Zn, Cr,
Y, followed by Co, Pb, Fe; with  DTPA, Y > Co > Cr
> Pb > Zn > Fe.

895      Gajdos-TBrBk,  M.,  Gajdos, A., and Benard,
        H.:   Localisation de 1'inhibition de la
        synthese de 1'he'me par le plomb. (LOCALI-
        ZATION OF THE  INHIBITION OF THE SYNTHESIS
        OF HEME BY LEAD.)   Comptes Rendus de Sean-
        ces  de la Socie'te de Biologie et de ses
        Filiales 154:508-9, 1960.
For the study of the anemia of Pb poisoning, be-
lieved to be due to the inhibition of heme forma-
tion beginning with the protoporphyrins, the au-
thors gave a daily dose of 200-400 mg of Pb ace-
tate to adult rabbits  by gastric tube and bled the
animals on the 8th day.  Blood was incubated with
radioactive Fe and glycocoll in  order to measure
the heme formation in vitro.  The remainder of the
blood was used to extract the hemesynthetase (ac-
cording to Goldberg) whose activity was measured
by incubation with pure protoporphyrins and radio-
active Fe.  Immediately before being bled, 1 of the
rabbits showed signs of a Pb-induced anemia.  The
rabbit showed 3,460,000 red cells; 73% hemoglobin;
1.9% reticulocytes stippled cells 4/100 white
cells; 9 mg ALA, 103 mg porphobilinogen, 767 ug
uroporphyrin, and 2640 yg coproporphyrin/1 urine;
in 3 other Pb poisoned rabbits,  the same results
were seen.  Measurement of heme formation showed
a weak incorporation of Fe into  the protoporphy-
rins.  Measurement of the hemesynthetase activity
showed it to be elevated.
  For an explanation of this contradiction, ie,
weak Fe incorporation into protoporphyrins and an
elevated hemesynthetase activity, the observations
by Allen and Jandl are cited.  Using radioactive
Fe, these authors had noted that Fe passes through
3 steps in order to combine with the siderophilins
of plasma in the Hb stage in the rabbit  reticulo-
cytes.  The conclusions of these authors are taken
for an explanation of the apparent contradiction
of the observations in this report, namely, the
inhibition of heme synthesis at  the  time of incu-
bation with radioactive Fe in the red cells of Pb-
intoxicated rabbits which contain an abundance of
active hemesynthetase.  In this  sense, their ex-
periments confirm those of Allen and Jandl and
demonstrate the extreme biochemical complexity of
hemoglobinogenesis.

89J      Gorby,  C.K.,  and  Rieders, F.  (Jefferson
        Med. Coll.  of  Philadelphia,  Pa):  THE  EF-
         FECT OF  SIMULTANEOUS ORAL EDATHAMIL CAL-
                          CIUM DISODIUM AND LEAD  ACETATE ON LEAD
                          ACCUMULATION IN TISSUES OF RATS.   Archives
                          Internationales de Pharmacodynamie 125:
                          153-60 (Apr. 1),  1960.
                  The Pb uptake by susceptible tissues  from the
                  chelate in the interval between intestinal absorp-
                  tion and urinary excretion was  studied in male and
                  female Sherman albino rats.   One group of 50 rats
                  (25 males, 25 females)  served as controls.  The
                  food and drinking water of the  other  groups con-
                  tained the following amounts of drugs:  Group A,
                  2 ppm  Pb as acetate; Group B,  760 ppm
                  Na2CaEDTA-2H20;  Group C,  3 ppm  Pb and 760 ppm
                  Na2CaEDTA-2H20;  chemical analysis showed for C, 3
                  ppm Pb, with 1 ppm introduced by EDTA.  Pb analyses
                  of kidney, small intestine,  brain, skeletal mus-
                  cle, blood, and food were done  by a dithizone tech-
                  nique.  Incorporation of the EDTA into Pb-contain-
                  ing diets retarded Pb accumulation mainly in brain
                  and renal tissues of male rats.  Food and water
                  consumption and growth of the rats were not af-
                  fected by 2 ppm Pb or 3 ppm Pb  + 760  ppm EDTA in
                  the diet.  Hematologic studies, including red
                  blood cell counts, white blood  cell counts, and
                  hemoglobin determinations did not show significant
                  differences between the Pb and  Pb-EDTA groups.
                  Breeding studies showed that the Pb group had
                  least ability to raise its young to weaning age.
                  The EDTA group showed some reduction, and the Pb-
                  EDTA, though having the lowest  mean litter numbers,
                  showed no reduction in raising  litters.   A pro-
                  tective effect of EDTA is suggested.   There was an
                  unexplained increase in infection incidence in
                  males on diets containing Pb +  EDTA.

                  397      Gorham,  J.R., Farrell,  R.K.,  and Burger,
                          D.:  DISEASES AND PARASITES OF MINK. Vet-
                          erinary Scope (Upjohn Company) 5, No.  3:2-
                          12, 1960.
                  Paints containing Pb should not be used on wire
                  netting and the interior  of pens or nest boxes for
                  minks.  Acute Pb poisoning in minks is character-
                  ized by stupor,  weakness, convulsions, coma and
                  sudden death.  In chronic Pb poisoning no charac-
                  teristic signs develop, but the animals gradually
                  lose weight and  die within 2-4  mo. Microcytic
                  hypochromic anemia and basophilic stippling has
                  been observed; there is increased Pb  in liver and
                  blood.  Treatment with CaEDTA is suggested but
                  has not yet been tried.

                  898      Gusev, M.I.:  LIMITS OF ALLOWABLE LEAD
                          CONCENTRATION IN THE AIR OF INHABITED LO-
                          CALITIES.  In Ryazanov, V.A., ed.:  Limits
                          of Allowable Concentrations of Atmospheric
                          Pollutants, Book 4,  Moskow, Medgiz, 1960,
                          translated by B.S. Levine. Washington,
                          US Department of Commerce, Office of Tech-
                          nical Services, 1961, pp. 5-31.
                  Since Pb is used extensively in the national econ-
                  omy of the USSR, a study of the effects of Pb in
                  air on the higher nervous activity was made to de-
                  termine the limit of allowable  concentration with
                  the aid of physiological and biological methods of
                  application.  Using changes in  the motor condi-
                  tioned reflex as the vital index, 14  young male
                  white rats ("x-lOO g weight) were divided into 3
                  groups for exposure 6 hr/day for 6 mo (total of
                  148-150 days) to average Pb concentrations in air:
 154
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

-------
1st group, 6 rats, 11 yg/m^;  2nd group, 6 rats,
1.13 ug/m3; 3rd group, 2 rats, control.  At the
higher concentration, functional shifts in the
higher nervous activity of the rats were noted;
pathologic and histologic changes were observed In
the organs and tissues, especially in the brain
and spinal cord; the content of Pb in the bone was
10 times greater than that in the bone of the con-
trol animals.  The lower exposure (1.13 yg/m3)
produced no changes in the activity of cerebral
cortex.  An additional 9 rats were exposed to the
same concentrations of Pb oxide for supplemental
blood studies.  No differences were noted between
the blood composition of control and test animals.
  To study the effect of low Pb concentrations on
porphyrin metabolism, 2 groups of 3 rabbits each
(weight 1160-2140 g each) were exposed 6 hr/day
for 6.5 mo to 10 ug Pb/m3 air or 3.9 yg/m^ air
respectively.  Rabbits exposed to the higher con-
centration eliminated twice as much coproporphyrin
as did a control group.  No changes in porphyrin
metabolism were discernible in the animals exposed
to the lower concentration.  Pathohistological
changes in the nervous system and microscopic
changes of tissues and organs were found in the
rabbits exposed to 10 yg.  The accumulation of Pb
in the bones of these rabbits was 8 times as great
as that in the control animals.
  The author concluded that his studies confirmed
the USSR limit of allowable 24-hr average concen-
tration of 0.7 vig/m^ in ambient air, and 10 ug/m-^
of single concentration for workroom air.  (29
references)

899     Hammond, P.B., and Aronson,  A.L. (Div.
        Physiol. Pharmacol.,  Univ. Minnesota,  St.
        Paul) :  THE MOBILIZATION AND EXCRETION OF
        LEAD IN CATTLE:  A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF
        VARIOUS CHELATING AGENTS.  Annals of the
        New York Academy of Sciences 88, Art.  2:
        498-511 (Aug. 18), 1960.
The authors studied the following chelating agents
to determine their effect in the treatment of  Pb
poisoning:  Ca ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA),
ethylenediaminediacetic acid (EDDA) , N,N 'dihydroxy-
ethylenediaminediacetic acid (HEDDA), diethylene-
triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), cyclohexanediamine-
tetraacetic acid (CDTA), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol
(BAL), 2,3-dimercaptopropionic acid (BAL acid),
ethane-l,2-dithiol, propane-1,3-dithiol, 2,5-di-
thiohexane, penicillamine, 2-aminoethanethiol, Na
citrate, di-Na catechol-l,3-disulfonate.  Pb ni-
trate was administered orally in doses of 0.25-1.0
g at 1-3-day intervals to female Holstein-Friesian
calves, age 2-4 mo, until a concentration of 0.3-
1.0 ppm Pb in the blood was reached.  Experimental
studies were begun 3-5 days after the last dose of
Pb.  Signs of Pb poisoning were found in only 1
case.  In the 24-hr period before administration
of chelating agents, the base line rate of Pb ex-
cretion in urine and feces and the rate of de-
crease of Pb in blood were established.  Chelating
agents were administered intravenously in a 10-min
period.  Pb analyses were done with acid oxidizers
to digest biomaterials and a standard dithizone
spectrophotometric procedure.  Eight calves were
given 110 mg CaEDTA/kg, the dosage found to give
maximal response.  Results showed increased Pb ex-
cretion in the urine lasting for 48 hr, increased
Pb concentration in blood plasma, and decreased Pb
concentration in erythrocytes.  The authors  infer-
red that there was a  steady  state relationship be-
tween  the  concentration  of Pb  in erythrocytes and
the amount which can  be  mobilized and excreted in
the urine by CaEDTA.  Around  10% of Pb  excreted in
urine  could be accounted for  by a decrease in
erythrocyte Pb.  The  remaining 90% was  shown to
originate  in other tissues,  eg, liver.   CaEDTA
could  only remove part of the Pb from soft tissue.
The kidney was found  to  be the major route of
PbEDTA excretion.  Unless otherwise noted, in all
the following studies, the dose administered was
equivalent to 110 mg/kg  CaEDTA.  Of the  polyamino-
acetic acids studied, CaEDDA was inferior to
CaEDTA, while CaHEDDA, CaCDTA, and CaDTPA acted
similarly to CaEDTA.
  The  authors conclude that  in spite of  the  dis-
tinct  possibility that permeability factors may
impose serious limitations upon the activity of
polyaminoacetic acids, it remains to be  demonstra-
ted that there exists a  "stability constant
plateau" that exhausts the possibility of improving
upon detoxification by increasing the stability of
the metal-ligand bond.   BAL  (dose equivalent to 55
mg/kg  CaEDTA), administered  to 4 calves, produced
an increased urinary  Pb  excretion, but  less  than
that with CaEDTA.  Blood Pb  decreased and then
showed a partial rebound after BAL administration.
Of the other dithiols studied  (dose equivalent to
55 mg/kg), 2,5-dithiohexane and propane-1,3-dithiol
showed no effect, ethane-l,2-dithiol caused  a de-
crease of erythrocyte Pb and  a complete  rebound,
and BAL acid seemed to be as  active as CaEDTA.
BAL acid is toxic unless administered together
with Ca chloride.  DL-Penicillamine acted similar-
ly to  CaEDTA; 2-aminoethanethiol, Na citrate, and
di-Na  catechol-l,3-disulfonate had no effect.  (14
references)

900     Hashimoto,  K.:  AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON
        THE BILIARY EXCRETION OF LEAD IN DOGS.
        Journal of Osaka City Medical Center 9:
        2317-39 (July),  1960.  In Contributions
        from the Department of Preventive Medicine
        and Public Health,  Osaka City University
        Medical School, Vol.  2, April 1959-March
        1961, pp. 27-31.
Thirty mg Pb acetate  (16.38 mg Pb/kg of body
weight) was administered orally,  intravenously (iv),
and intratracheally to adult male dogs in order to
elucidate a Pb excretion in the bile.  The biliary
Pb excretion was compared with blood concentrations,
urinary excretion,  and distribution of Pb thus
introduced into the animals'  bodies.  It was found
that the blood levels of Pb after iv injection
were higher than those of cases administered by
other  routes.  Following the oral administration,
the biliary excretion of Pb reached the maximum
within about 10 hr, and  then decreased rapidly.
For 30 hr after the administration,  a small por-
tion (1/1000-1/4000)   of  the Pb absorbed into the
body was excreted into the bile.   A total dose of
the Pb eliminated in  the urine was 2-7 times that
in the bile.  Following  intratracheal administra-
tion,  the appearance  of Pb in the bile was diverse
in time among the animals.   The amount of Pb ex-
creted in the bile was 1/400-1/2700 portion of the
absorbed Pb.  A total dose of Pb eliminated in
                                           Plants and Animals
                                               155

-------
the urine was 3 times that in the bile during the
experiment.  Following iv administration,  the
biliary excretion of Pb showed a sharp increase
with the peak at about 3 hr.   About 1/4500 portion
of administered Pb was excreted in the bile and
the Pb excreted in the bile was 1/15-1/21  portion
of the Pb in urine.  Little relation was found
between biliary pH values and Pb concentrations.
Concentrations of Pb in the liver were higher than
in the bile for all cases.

901      lordanidis, P.  (Inst. Ind. Med. Hyg.,
        Paris, France):  Etude comparative de 1'-
        hematie ponctuee, du siderocyte et du
        reticulocyte dans le saturnisme experimen-
        tal.  (A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STIPPLED
        ERYTHROCYTES, SIDEROCYTES, AND RETICULO-
        CYTES IN EXPERIMENTAL LEAD POISONING.)
        Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de
        Medecine du Travail et de Securite' Sociale
        21:719-26  (Dec.), 1960.
Nineteen guinea pigs (age ranging from 7-14 mo;
weight, 580-720 g) which had never been used in
other studies, and the females among whom had never
been pregnant, were placed into 3 groups:   (1)  3
males and 2 females; (2)  2 males, 2 females;  (3)
6 males, 4 females.  After an observation period
of 20 days, each animal received intraperitoneally
1 mg Pb acetate (aqueous 0.5% solution)/100 g body
weight every 2 days.  As soon as stippled cells
exceeded 100 ± 10/100 white cells, the dose was
doubled and administered twice/wk until the counts
reached 200 ± 10 stippled cells.  The results of
the control tests showed no stippled cells, nor
siderocytes in the blood and bone marrow.   Stip-
pled cells appeared first in the bone marrow, 3 ±
1 days after the 1st injection and 8 ± 2 days in
the peripheral blood.  Siderocytes appeared in the
bone marrow around day 16 ± 2, and in the  blood,
on day 19 ± 4 after injection.  Their evolution
was transient and they disappeared before  the
stippled cells did   (av 112 ± 3 days vs 124 ± 3
days in blood; bone marrow stippled cells  dis-
appeared after an av 142 ± 5 days).  There appeared
to be no correlation between these 2 constituents.
Reticulocytes, however, increased in number before
stippled cells did; however reticulocytosis is a
commonplace finding and for this reason is of no
true interest in the diagnosis of occupational Pb
poisoning.  An increase in the bone marrow retic-
ulocytes was seen from day 5 ± 1 after the 1st in-
jection, and on day 6 ± 1 in the blood.  In this
case also there was no close correlation to stip-
pled erythrocytes.  No Heinz bodies were found.
(56 references)

902      Ishii, Y.:  A STUDY ON THE EXCRETION OF
        LEAD ADMINISTERED INTO THE INTESTINAL CA-
        NAL. Journal of Osaka City Medical Center
        12:5001-14 (Dec.), 1960.  In Contribu-
        tions from the Department of Preventive
        Medicine and Public Health, Osaka City
        University Medical School, Vol. 2, April
        1959-March 1961, pp. 38-9.
Vella-Like fistulae were made in the ileocecol re-
gion of 30 adult dogs to obtain samples of intest-
inal fluid continuously.  Normal intestinal fluid
contained ^ 1  pg Pb/hr excretion.  There was a
slight increase of Pb in the fluid after intra-
                  venous administration of  300  mg  Pb  acetate  and  a
                  marked increase  after administration of  600 mg
                  (15-26 mg/hr,  and a total of  50-90  ug 24 hr after
                  administration) .

                  903      Kar,  A.B., and Sarkar,  S.L. (Central Drug
                          Research Inst., Lucknow, India):   EFFECT
                          OF SOME  METALS ON THE ACTION OF  MALE AND
                          FEMALE SEX HORMONES.  J. Sci. Ind.  Res.
                          (India)  19C:241-3, 1960,
                  Gonadectomized albino rats received 0.04 mM/kg
                  body weight of aqueous metal  salts  sc for 4 days
                  and, concurrently, intramuscular injections of
                  testosterone propionate and estradiol dipropionate
                  (62.5 mg/day/rat) and were sacrificed 1  day later.
                  Studies of the seminal vesicles, ventral prostate,
                  levator ani muscle, and uterus  showed that  Pb was
                  among the elements which depressed  androgenic,
                  myotropic and estrogenic activity of the hormones.
                  (From Chemical Abstracts 55:8633, 1961)

                  904      Klimmer, O.R., and Nebel, I.U.  (Univ. Bonn,
                          Germany):  Experimentelle Untersuchungen
                          zur Frage der ToxizitHt  einiger  Stabili-
                          satoren  in Kunststoffen  aus Polyvinyl-
                          chlorid.   (EXPERIMENTAL  STUDIES  CONCERNING
                          THE TOXICITY OF SOME  STABILIZERS IN POLY-
                          VINYLCHLORIDE PLASTICS.) Arzneimittel-
                          Forschung 10:44-8, 1960.
                  The  aim of the investigation  was to examine the
                  extent to which  stabilizers used for the manufac-
                  ture of PVC packaging materials  and pipes can
                  escape into foods, beverages  and water and  the  mag-
                  nitude of their  toxicity.
                    Examined were  10 types of PVC  foils and 3 powders
                  containing 1 or  more of the following:   S-contain-
                  ing  di-n-octyl and dibutyl Sn compounds; dibasic
                  Pb phosphite and stearate; Cd stearate;  2-phenyl
                  indol + Sr stearate.  The stabilizers,  softeners
                  and  (emulsifiers) were tested in amounts used
                  commercially.
                    The PVC foils  were cut Into 5  X 1 cm strips of
                  0.2  mm thickness, folded and 5  g of each type of
                  foil suspended in flasks containing 75 ml each  of
                  tap  water, Mosel wine, olive oil, synthetic wine,
                  synthetic fruit  and marmalade juices, and com-
                  mercial herring brine.  After extraction, 14 days
                  (336 hr) at 32°  C, the extracts  were analyzed,
                  either by the colorimetric dithizone method or  by
                  paper chromatography.
                    From the "hard" PVC foils (without softener),
                  only small amounts of stabilizer were extracted
                  into the non-fatty liquids (dibasic Pb phosphide  =
                  0, or <1 ppm (yg/ml) for water,  wine and olive
                  oil).  The amounts of stabilizers extracted from
                  the  foils increased as the pH value decreased and
                  the  fat-soluble properties of the solutions in-
                  creased.  From the "soft" PVC foils (with soften-
                  er)  , the stabilizers escaped into the extracts  in
                  much greater amounts  (dibasic Pb stearate = 0,  or
                  <1 ppm for water and wine, 8 ppm for olive oil).
                    The toxicity of stabilizers was tested in male
                  rats.  The largely water-insoluble substances were
                  given orally in peanut oil with alcohol or emulsi-
                  fied with "Tween 80."  Due to the considerable
                  scatter of values, the LD5Q range was established
                  as well as the LD5Q values.  In the case of the Pb
                  compounds the acute oral toxicity was very  low.
                  The oral LD50 range  for  dibasic Pb phosphite and
156
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAD

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 Pb stearate was  >6000  mg/kg (0%  lethality at 6000).
 All animals tested remained well,  gained weight,
 showed normal behavior and survived.   Necropsy
 showed no pathological changes  in  the organs.
   PVC powders were also tested  in  rats.   Of  26
 male white rats  that received 3  ppm Pb stearate/
 rat/day orally for 7 calendar months, 2  died of
 intercurrent bronchopneumonia.   All other rats,
 including controls (fed PVC powder without addi-
 tives) survived  and showed normal  behavior.
 Blood and urine  analyses were normal. No patho-
 logical changes