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                                   i'i
                                     PROTECTION
           906R87108
                                       •*' ' •« J.,« !
                PART II



            GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

     1.1  Legislation
     1.2  Scope of Report
     ^..3  Report Organization
     "»
CHAPTER 2 - OVERVIEW OF GEOTHERMAL
            RESOURCES

     2.1  Background
     2.2  Hot Igneous Systems
     2.3  Geopressured Systems
     2.4  Hydrothermal Systems
     2.5  Geographic Distribution of
          Geothermal Energy Systems

CHAPTER 3 - INDUSTRY PROFILE

     3.1  Methodology
     3.2  Exploration and Development
     3 . 3  Electrical Power Production
     3.4  Direct Use Applications
                                      <•
                                       £
CHAPTER 4 - SOURCES AND VOLUMES OF WASTE
 1
 2
 3
 6
 9
12
14
19
20
21
32
46
     4.1  Methodology                             61
     4.2  Exploration and Development Wastes      62
     4.3  Geothermal Power Plant Wastes           67
     4.4  Waste Generation from Direct Users      73

CHAPTER 5 - WASTE CHARACTERIZATION

     5.1  Liquid Wastes                           76
     5.2  Solid Wastes                            81
     5.3  Analysis of Waste Constituents          91
     5.4  Data Needs                              92

CHAPTER 6 - WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

     6.1  Current Practices                       94
     6.2  Alternative Disposal Methods           106
     6.3  Regulatory Requirements                107
     6.4  Damage Cases                           108

CHAPTER "1 - ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF WASTE
            MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

     7.1  Cost Estimation Methodology            111
     7.2  Costs of Current and Alternative       112
          Practices

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CHAPTER 8 - ECONOMIC  IMPACT   OF   ALTERNATIVE   WASTE  MANAGEMENT
            PRACTICES

                                                 PAGE

     8.1  Methodology                             114
     8.2  Forecast of Future Profitability       115
     ^     for the Geothermal Industry
     »
CHAPTER 9 - CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS      118
                  OLncomp|ei-«O
CHAPTER 10 -               '

    10.1  Abbreviations of Units and Scientific  120
          Terms Used in the Figures and Tables

    10.2  Glossary                               121

CHAPTER 11  BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIES

     A.   Database Bibliography

     B.   Federal and State Geothermal
          Regulations Summaries      ' <

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                             FIGURES


CHAPTER 2                                        PAGE

    II - 1  Concentric Layers of the Earth       7

    II - 2  Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System       10

    T& - 3  Hydrothermal Geothermal Reservoir    13

    II - 4  Known and Potential Geothermal       19
            Resources


CHAPTER 3

   III - 1  Typical Rotary Drilling Rig and Mud  24
            Circulation Arrangement

   III - 2  Typical Hydrothermal Well            27

   III - 3  Dry-Steam Schematic                  33

   III - 4  Flashed-Steam Schematic              38

   III - 5  Binary Schematic         '  f          39

   III - 6  Geothermal Power Plants Capacity     45
            Distribution by Process Type

   III - 7  Geothermal Direct Users -            58
            Site Distribution by Utilization

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                              TABLES
CHAPTER 3                                            PAGE

III - 1   Common Drilling Fluid Systems              29
          Prevalent in Geothermal Drilling

III - 2   Summary of Geothermal Drilling             31
    ^     Activity by State Geothermal
          Production, Injection and Wildcat
          Wells (1981-1985)

III - 3   Production Statistics, The Geysers         37
          Geothermal Steam Field

III - 4   Site Listing - Power Plants                44

III - 5   Fluid Temperatures Required for            48
          Various Direct-Use Applications

III - 6   Site Listing - Direct Users                54-57

III - 7   Geothermal Direct Users - Site             60
          Distribution by State
CHAPTER 4

 IV - 1   Estimated Waste Volumes for Drilling       66
          Activities Associated with Exploration
          and Development of Geothermal Resources

 IV - 2   Estimated Liquid Waste Volumes from        71
          Both Binary and Flash Process Plants

 IV - 3   Estimated Liquid Waste Volumes from        75
          Direct Users

CHAPTER 5

  V - 1   Power Plant Liquid Analysis Summary        77

  V - 2   Direct Users Liquid Analysis Summary       78-79

  V - 3   Liquid Waste - Test Well Brine Analysis    82

  V - 4   Metals Detected in the Extracts of         83
          Geothermal Brines

  V - 5   Solid Waste - Bulk Composition             85

  V - 6   Solid Waste Acid Extract - Bulk            86
          Composition

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  V - 7   Solid Waste Neutral Extract - Bulk         87
          Composition

  V - 8   Solid Waste Acid Extract - Trace           88
          Analysis

  V - 9   Solid Waste Neutral Extract - Trace        89
          Analysis
     '•»
  V -10   Metals Dected in the Extracts of           90
          Geothermal Solid Wastes from the
          Imperial Valley Area
CHAPTER 6

 VI - 1   Waste Disposal Practices for Power        100
          Generation Facilities

 VI - 2   Waste Disposal Practics for Direct        104
          Users
CHAPTER 7

VII - 1   Solid Waste Management Practices          113

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                            CHAPTER 1

                          INTRODUCTION



1.1  Legislative Background
     ^
     Section  3001  (b)(2)(A)   of  the  1980  amendments  to  the

     Resource Conservation and Recovery Act temporarily exempted

     from regulation as  hazardous  wastes  several types  of  solid

     wastes  associated  with  geothermal  energy.    Specifically,

     drilling fluids,  produced waters, and other wastes generated

     during  the  exploration,   development,   or  production  of

     geothermal  energy  were excluded  from regulation  until  the

     Environmental  Protection Agency  reported  to  Congress  on

     these  wastes.     In  Section  8002(m)  of  the  amendments,

     Congress directed EPA to report on the following elements:
     1.   The sources and volumes of discarded material generated
          per year from such wastes;

     2.   Present disposal practices;

     3.   Potential  danger  to human  health and  the environment
          from the surface runoff or leachate;

     4.   Documented  cases  that prove  or have caused  danger to
          human health and the environment from surface runoff or
          leachate;

     5.   Alternatives to current disposal methods;

     6.   The cost of such alternatives; and

     7. '  The  impact of  those alternatives  on  the exploration
          for, and development and production of,  crude  oil and
          natural gas or geothermal energy.

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1.2  Scope Of Report

     The types  of  wastes to be  examined for this  study  include

     those wastes  originally  exempted under Section  3001  (b)(2)

     of the  1980 amendments.    Using selection  criteria  derived
     t*
     fVom  RCRA's  language  and   the  accompanying  legislative

     history, EPA  has determined  that  the following  geothermal

     energy wastes are considered exempt under Section 3001(b)(2)

     and are therefore within  the scope of this study:



     o    Drilling media and cuttings;

     o    Reinjection well fluid wastes;

     o    Piping scale  and flash  tank  solids  (except  for those
          associated with electrical power generation);

     o    Precipitated solids  from brirfe effluent; and

     o    Settling pond wastes.


     Geothermal wastes that are not exempt and are not within the

     scope of this study include the following:
     o    Wastes  resulting  from  the  generation  of  electricity;
          such as

             hydrogen sulfide wastes
             cooling tower drift
             cooling tower blowdown

     o    Waste lubricants;

     o    Waste hydraulic fluids;
        f
     o    Waste solvents;

     o    Waste paints; and

                                2

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     o    Sanitary wastes.


1.3  Report Organization

     This report begins  in  Chapter 2 with a basic discussion  of

     the various types  of  geothermal resource systems.  Included
     >
     within this discussion are brief descriptions of hot igneous

     systems,  geopressured  resources,  and hydrothermal systems.




     Chapter 3 profiles  the geothermal  industry by  presenting  a

     complete  listing  by   type  of  operation  and  geographical

     location for all known geothermal commercial activities. The

     types  of  geothermal activities  that  are  profiled  include

     surface exploration and geothermal  well drilling operations,

     electric  power  generation  from ^ both  vapor-dominated and

     liquid-dominated    systems,     and    several    direct-use

     applications that are  currently being practiced.



     Waste  sources  and volumes   that  are  generated  from the

     industries  described   in  Chapter  3  are then discussed  in

     Chapter 4.   The most  significant  wastes described  in this

     Chapter include  drilling mud  and  cuttings  from geothermal

     exploration  and  development   operations   and   reinjection

     fluids and settling pond precipitated solids from electrical

     power generation operations.




     In  Chapter  5,  a limited  number  of  chemical  analyses  the

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solid and liquid wastes described in Chapter 4 are given for

a range of  constituents.   The constituent concentrations of

the  liquid wastes  and  liquid extractions  from the  solid

wastes  are then compared  to regulatory  limits.  Since  data

characterizing geothermal wastes  are  lacking in most cases,
 ?n
Chapter 5  concludes  by presenting a  status  of current data

availablity and  by  outlining suggestions for  further  data

gathering programs.



A  presentation  of  current  waste  disposal  practices  and

alternatives to  current  practices is provided in Chapter 6.

Along  with this presentation,  geothermal  regulations  that

have been  implemented by the states  are reviewed. Finally,

this  chapter  also  discusses  the  types of  environmental

damages or  threats to human health  that have occurred, from

the  perspective of  geothermal  waste management practices

that are in compliance with regulatory requirements as well

as waste management  practices that are  improper and not in

compliance with established regulatory requirements.



A  methodology  for  determining  the  costs  of  current  and

alternative geothermal waste  disposal practices is provided

in Chapter 7.   Chapter 8 describes a methodology where waste

disposal costs  generated in  Chapter  7  are used to forecast

protfable impacts  on  the geothermal  industry resulting  from

the use of the alternative waste disposal practices.

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Finally,  in  Chapter 9  conclusions and  recommendations  are



made.

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                            CHAPTER 2
            OVERVIEW OF THE NATURE AND OCCURRENCE OF
                   GEOTHERMAL ENERGY RESOURCES
     The  purpose  of  this  section  is  to  provide  background
     ?i

information  on  the  nature  of  geothermal  energy  resources  by


briefly  describing  geothermal energy  systems,  where  geothermal


energy  systems  are  found,   and how  usable  geothermal  energy


pockets are naturally formed.



2.1  Background

          The  crust  and  the  atmosphere of  the  earth account for


          less than  one-half of a  percent  of the total  mass of


          the earth.  The remaining 99.5 percent lies beneath the
                                     f

          crust,   and scientific knowledge  of the nature  of the


          material beneath the crust is largely  a  result of the


          study  of  earthquake waves and  lavas,  and measurements


          of  the flow  of heat from  the  interior towards  the


          earth's surface.  Nevertheless,  this indirect knowledge

          has  allowed  geophysicists to construct a  fairly clear

          and  consistent  model of  the internal  structure of the


          earth.



          The  currently  accepted model  of  the  earth's internal


          structure consists of four concentric spheres; from the


          outermost  to  the  innermost  they are  the  crust,  the


          mantle, the liquid core,  and the  innermost core, which

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About

2100 'km


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is believed  to  be solid.   This model is  presented  in


Figure II-l.




Temperatures and  densities  rise rapidly as  the center

of the earth is approached.



The  term  "geothermal  energy"  is  often  defined  to

include  all  of  the  heat  contained  in  these  four

concentric  spheres  (approximately 260  billion  cubic

miles that constitute  the entire volume of  the earth)

(Chilinger, et al, 1982).  The exploitable part of this

enormous energy supply, however, is represented by that

small fraction  of the earth's volume  in which crustal

rocks, sediments, volcanic  deposits,  water,  steam, and
                            f
other gases  occur  at  usefully  high  temperatures and

accessible depths from  the earth's  surface  and from

which useful heat can  be economically extracted.  Even

this  small  portion   of  the  total   is  an  enormous

reservoir of thermal  energy.   It  is  estimated that up

to 1.2 million  quads  (a  quad  is one  thousand trillion

British  Thermal Units)  are available  from  geothermal

energy resources.   The  classification,  location, and

recovery  of  this  portion  of  the   available thermal

energy are the subjects of this  section.



Geologists  and  engineers  classify   geothermal   energy

systems into three major  categories:

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      »
o Hot igneous systems;



  - Hot dry rock



       Magma



o Geopressured systems; and



o Hydrothermal systems



  - Vapor-dominated reservoirs



       Liquid-dominated reservoirs.





The first  two  categories may contain the  largest amount



of useful  heat energy,  but are not  economically and/or



technologically exploitable  at  this time.   Advancements



in  current  technology would  be  required  in  order  to



economically  use  these  potential  heat  sources  on  a



commercial basis.

                             t
                              £


The  third  category,  hydrothermal  energy  systems,  is



commercially viable  and has received the  most  attention



because  extraction  technology  exists  for the  economic



recovery of heat from these resources.
2.2  Hot Igneous Systems (Hot Dry Rock and Magma)


        Hot igneous  systems  are created  by the buoyant  rise of



        molten rock  (magma)  from deep  in the crust.   There are



        two major  types of  hot igneous  systems:   hot  dry rock



        systems,  where  the rock is  no  longer molten  (less than



        650° C or  1200° F) and magmatic  systems,  where the rock



        is still molten or partly molten  (greater than 650° C).

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\
                                10

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Figure  II-2   presents  a   schematic   diagram    of   a


representative hot dry rock system.



Because of the great depth  (3 km)  and  high temperatures


(650-1200° C  or  1200-2200°  F)  associated  with  magmatic


systems,  the  heat   is   not  recoverable  with  current


technology.  However,  the  scientific feasibility of  heat


extraction has been demonstrated in the laboratory and on


a small scale  basis  by near-surface field experiments at


an encrusted  lava lake in  Hawaii.   The  engineering and


economic feasibility of using magma resources has not yet


been determined.





The hot dry rock systems,  located on the margins of magma


chambers,   are  favorable   candidates   for  heat  energy


extraction.    In  order  to  accomplish  heat  extraction


efficiently,   it  will  be  necessary, in  some  cases,  to


create  a  system of  hydraulic  fractures  between special,


directionally-drilled  wells  to improve  rock permeability


and  provide  circulation  loops.     This  technology  was


originally developed  for  the oil  and gas industry, but a


research program at  Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in


New  Mexico is  underway  to  develop this  technology for


geothermal applications.    Heat  has been  extracted and


electricity  produced  from  hot  dry rock resources  at
f

Fenton  Hill,   New Mexico  on a  small  scale.    A  heat


extraction  system has now  been  completed which  is of


                        11

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        sufficient  size  and  longevity  to  attract  commercial

        interest.   The economics of using  hot dry  rock  systems

        remain uncertain, but use of these  systems  appears to be

        an attractive mid- to long-term national energy option.



      •^
2.3  Geopressured Systems

        Geopressured systems are characterized by the presence of

        hot  fluids  under high  pressure,  usually  found  in  deep

        sedimentary basins where a  low level  of sediment compac-

        tion  has taken  place over  geologic   time  and where  an

        effective   caprock   exists.     For   example,   wellhead

        pressures  in  excess  of 11,000 pounds  per  square  inch

        (psi) and  temperatures  up  to  237°  C  (459°  F)  have been

        recorded   in   some   geopressured   zones  in  Texas  and

        Louisiana  (Chilinger,  et al,  1982).   Since  there  is no

        deep circulation of the water,  it only reaches moderately

        elevated temperatures.   Because  geopressured reservoirs

        are  usually  associated with   petroleum,  the  water  is

        generally  saturated  with methane  and  other hydrocarbon

        gases.   Therefore,  these  reservoirs   could  represent an

        important natural gas supply.   There  is  still no direct

        evidence that heat,  natural gas,.or both can be extracted

        economically  from  geopressured  reservoirs,  but  large-

        scale field experiments are  now underway  in  Texas and

        Eouisiana to investigate this possibility.
                                12

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13

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  2.4  Hydrothermal Systems

          Hydro-thermal  systems  are  the  geothermal  resources  of

          current economic importance.   These systems consist of


          high-temperature water and/or steam trapped in porous and


          permeable  reservoir  rocks.   Because  of the  convective

        i\
        *  circulation  of  water  and   steam  through  faults  and


          fractures,  the  heat  is   transported  near  the  earth's


          surface.   The  density  difference  between cool and heated


          fluid causes cool water or steam to move downward and the

          heated water or steam to move upward.



          The heat  that is  available  in the  geothermal  reservoir

          rock is  produced by bringing hot water and/or  steam to

          the surface.  Figure II-3 presents a schematic diagram of
                                        *•
          a simplified hydrothermal system.



          There are  two classes  of  hydrothermal  systems:   vapor-

          dominated  systems,  which  liberate  mostly  steam,  and


          liquid-dominated  systems.    Liquid-dominated sytems  are


          much more abundant  than vapor-dominated systems.   They

          are usually found  in  permeable  sedimentary rock  or in


          competent  rock systems,  such as  volcanic  formations, if


          open channels  along  faults or fractures  exist.   A brief

          discussion of both systems is presented below.




2.4.1  Vapor-Dominated Systems


       If the caprock in  a  hydrothermal  reservoir is  not able to



                                  14

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sustain the pressure level  to  prevent  boiling,  then pockets
of  steam  will  form.   When the pressure  is relieved  (for
example, by  drilling a well  into  the pocket) , most  of  the
dissolved minerals  are left  behind in  the  formation,  and
relatively pure  steam  is  recovered.   Except  for  a variable
cJontent of  noncondensible  gases  (which  could be methane,
carbon  dioxide,  radon, and hydrogen sulfide), the evolved
steam can be an economical energy source.   Frequently, it is
used to drive turbines and generate electricity.

The  existence of  a large,  bounded volume  of rock  within
which  temperatures  are high  enough and  pressures are  low
enough to permit boiling  within the cavity is rare; this is
why vapor-dominated systems are far less common than liquid-
dominated  systems.     Nevertheless,  the   technology  for
utilizing  energy   from   vapor-dominated   systems  is  well
developed; the largest geothermal power plant development in
the world  (at The  Geysers  in  California)  uses  steam from a
vapor-dominated system (Chilinger,  et al,  1982).

Power  generation  from vapor-dominated  resources produces
relatively  small  quantities  of  solid  wastes.    This  is
primarily due to the nature of the vapor transport mechanism
that carries  the volatile  components  to the surface.  Some
secondary waste  components,  however,  are  generated from use
of .the vapor  or off-gas  hydrogen sulfide  (H,S)  abatement
systems employed at some  power  plants.   These solid wastes

                           15

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       could include measurable  levels  of hydrogen sulfide  treat-

       ment by-products such as used  Stretford  solution  (Stretford

       solution is a component of H_S abatement  systems;  it  breaks

       the H,S  into elemental  sulfur and water using a  vanadium

       catalyst),  elemental  sulfur  and  cooling  tower  sludge along

       w*Lth boric acid, arsenic,  and mercury (US EPA,  1978) .



2.4.2  Liquid-Dominated Systems

       In  liquid-dominated   systems,   water  percolates   through

       permeable  rocks,   encounters  high-temperature  crystalline

       rock and, becoming less dense  as  it  is  heated,  rises  toward

       the surface.   If some  geologic  barrier  prevents  the water

       from actually reaching the surface,  an  undergound reservoir

       may  form,  within  which  the water  will  circulate  convec-

       tively.     This  slow  circulation  allows  the   water   to

       continuously extract enough  heat  from the lower part  of  the

       reservoir to  compensate  for the heat  that escapes  upward

       through the formation.  Thus,  an  equilibrium may eventually

       be  reached  in  which  the water  temperature throughout  the

       reservoir  is  approximately  uniform  (this  temperature  may

       range anywhere  from slightly  above  ambient temperature  to

       350° C/6620 F or higher).


       Hydrostatic pressure on the  water is  usually high enough to

       keep  it from  boiling.   Because  of high temperature  and
          f
       residence time in the reservoir,  the water can become saline

       or  saturated   with   the  dissolved   constitutents  of  the

                                 16

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minerals with which  it  comes  in  contact.   Since the solubi-


lities  of  a number  of  minerals increase  with temperature,


the  hotter  geothermal  waters  generally  contain  greater


amounts   of  dissolved   solids  than   water   at   ambient


temperatures.   This  condition  is,  however,  strongly site-

 ^.
dependent  because  the   mineralogical  composition  of  rock


formations  in geothermal  reservoirs  varies widely from site


to site  (US EPA, 1978) .



Geothermal  liquids  range  rather  widely   in  hydrogen  ion


concentration, with  pH  values generally  between 2.0 and 8.5


(US  EPA,  1978) .   Most  geothermal liquids have  a  pH value


above 7.0.   Liquids of higher  salinity  generally have very


low  pH  values   and  can  be  highly  corrosive  to  man-made


materials.



Noncondensible gases  -  those  that  do not condense at normal


operating   temperatures   -   are  environmentally  important


constitutents  of  geothermal  liquids.    These  may be  free


gases, dissolved or entrained in the liquid phase.  Hydrogen


sulfide  traditionally has  been the  component  of  greatest


concern  because  of  its toxicity.    Noncondensible  gases


usually  comprise between  about  0.3 percent and 5 percent of


flashed steam from geothermal liquids (US  EPA, 1978).
                           17

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       Radioactive elements  are also  occasionally  found  in  geo-


       thermal liquids  in very low  concentrations.   Thse  include


       uranium and thorium isotopes,  radium,  and radon.   Radon,  a


       radioactive gas and one of the products  of  radium decay, is

        ^
       the most  significant radioactive  components  in  geothermal


       liquids.   EPA  data covering  136  geothermal sites showed  a


       range of  13 to 14,000 pCi/L  (picoCuries per  liter),  with  a


       median of about 510 pCi/L (US  EPA,  1978).



       Chemicals such as  acids, bases, and  various flocculants and


       coagulants may be added to  geothermal  liquids  to  minimize


       scaling  and  corrosion  or  to  remove  certain  constituents.


       Although these chemicals may  not  in  themselves  be  of great


       consequence as pollutants,  consideration must  be given  to


       interactions that might alter the  geothermal liquid composi-


       tion.   This  is  particularly  true  of any  metal  compounds


       which may be added during this process.  Most such chemicals


       will be acids and/or bases  used for pH adjustments.





2.5    The Geographic Distribution of Geothermal Energy Systems


       The  locations   of hydrothermal  and  geopressured  resource


       areas  are shown  in  Figure II-4.    Identified  hydrothermal


       systems with  temperatures  greater  than or equal to  90°  C


       (194° F) are located primarily in  the western United States,
           **

       while  low-temperature geothermal   waters are  found  in the


       central and eastern United  States.

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                            CHAPTER 3



                         INDUSTRY PROFILE
      Prior to discussing the types and volume of wastes generated



during ^geothermal  energy  activities,   it  is  first necessary  to



accurately  describe  and  characterize,  by location  and type  of



operation,  the  geothermal  industry.     The  following  sections



present analyses of geothermal exploration activities for the past



five years, current electrical power generation operation for both



vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated systems,  and current direct-



user applications.







3.1    Methodology
                                       t
                                        £L

       A   review   of   information  from  pre-selected  databases



       indicates that  available  literature is limited in areas of



       identifying and quantifying current operations, production,



       operational characteristics, and management techniques for



       specific  wastes  derived   from   geothermal   activities.



       Nevertheless,  there  appears  to  be enough data to formulate



       fairly   accurate   conclusions   regarding   the   types  and



       characteristics of current operations.





       Abstracts and  other data  sources that  have been searched



       include:



       o  ^Chemical Abstracts;



       o  Enviroline;





                                 20

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       o  U.S.  Geological Survey Library;



       o  U.S.  Department of Energy,  Geothermal  Division Reports;



       o  Cambridge Scientific Abstracts;



       o  Sandia National Laboratories Technical Publications;



       o  Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Publications;



       o  Proceedings of the Geothermal Resource Council;



       o  U.S.  Bureau of Land Management;



       o  Oregon Institute of Technology,  Geo-Heat Center;  and



       o  Numerous State Regulatory Agencies







3.2    Exploration and Development Operations







3.2.1  Surface Exploration



       The overall objective of any geothermal exploration program



       is to locate  geothermal  resource systems from which energy



       can  be  profitably  extracted.    Rapid,  low-cost  surface



       reconnaissance techniques  are employed in the  early stage



       of exploration  to screen  large land areas  for commercial



       potential.  Surface reconnaissance  may include geophysical,



       geological and/or remote sensing surveys.





       A wide variety of  geophysical methods  are used for surface



       geothermal  exploration.    The  objectives  are  to identify



       certain     geophysical    characteristics,     such     as



       electromagnetic or gravitational anomalies,  or attenuation



       of seismic waves,  which  arises  from  contrasts in  rock



       characteristics  inside  and   outside  of  the  geothermal



                                21

-------
       systems  (Hochstein,  1982) .    The   selected   geophysical



       methods depend primarily  on  the type of geothermal  system



       being explored.  For  example,  the  U.S.  Geological Survey's



       interpretation  of  a  seismic  refraction   survey  in  the



       Imperial Valley  showed that  most  of the geothermal  areas



       are along axes of apparent seismic  rifting  (Reed,  1981).





       Surface geological  methods apply where leakage of liquids



       through  impermeable  caps   occur  in  natural   geothermal



       systems.    These  leaks  and/or  seeps  may  produce  such



       features as fumaroles, hot springs,  warm springs, geysers,



       mud volcanoes,  or mud pots,  and  are the  most direct  and



       obvious  indicators   of   the  presence  of   a   geothermal



       reservoir  or  system.    Seeps  can   provide  quantitative



       information on the  nature  of the reservoir  and  the liquids



       contained within.





       Remote  sensing  technology,  such as   infra-red  imagery,  is



       used  on a  broad  scale  to  identify potential  geothermal



       resources.     On   a  smaller  scale,   in areas  of  known



       geothermal  potential,  remote  sensing  helps  to  identify



       surface features such as  faults and  joints,  and  thus aids



       in the design of more efficient drilling programs.







3.2.2  Geothermal Well Drilling



       Well drilling operations are conducted after a potential
                                 22

-------
geothermal resource is identified.   Initial exploratory

drilling  is  undertaken  to  confirm  the  existence  of  a

geothermal  resource   and   to  determine  the  extent  and

physical/chemical characteristics of  the resource.   When a

commercially  producible  resource  if  confirmed,  further
^
drilling  may  be  required  to  develop  and  utilize  the

resource.


Methods and equipment used for geothermal well drilling are

similar to those used in petroleum and gas drilling.  Major

differences between  geothermal and oil  and  gas wells have

been  described  in  the  literature   (Armstead,  1986)  as

follows:
o  Nearly  all  geothermal  well. drilling  is  performed at
   relatively  low pressures,  except for  the geopressured
   geothermal testing now underway in the Gulf Coast area;

o  The majority of the geothermal wells are relatively  deep
    (about  2,700 mi.), with  high formation temperatures;

o  The   rocks  being   drilled  are  mostly   igneous  and
   metamorphic;

o  Geothermal  wells  are usually  50-100°  C  (122-212° F)
   hotter  than oil and gas  wells of comparable depths
    (Armstead, 1983);

o  Cooling towers  are  sometimes  required  to   lower  the
   temperature of the geothermal drilling fluids; and

o  Gas/drilling fluid  separation  is sometimes required for
   geopressurized field drilling.
Figure  III-l  shows  a  typical  drilling  rig.    In  this
   «-
instance  a concrete  cellar  is shown  housing the  wellhead

valving.   Beneath the valving system a steel  casing or

                          23

-------
CD
                  24

-------
"conductor pipe"  extends  into the  ground.   A portion  of



this casing is grouted to prevent blowouts from the



accidental ascension  of  gas or steam between  the borehole



wall and the casing.





Rotary drilling, as depicted in Figure III-l, uses a swivel



head,  kelly,  rotary  table  and drill  string  (or "stem").



The swivel head allows free rotation of the kelly and drill



string.  The  kelly  is an  hexagonal  steel  pipe which passes



through  and  is  turned  by  the  rotary table  to  transmit



rotary motion  to  the drill string.   As drilling advances,



additional sections of drill  pipe,  20  or  30 feet long,  are



added to the top of the drill string.





The terminus  of the drill string is a  drill bit.   A wide



variety  of  drill  bits are  available  and  selection depends



on  the  nature of  the  rock  being drilled.    It  is  not



uncommon to  change  drill bits as different rock types are



encountered.





Drilling  difficulties,  such  as  low penetration  rates  and



short bit lives, result from elevated temperatures and hard



rocks   encountered   in   typical   geothermal    reservoirs



(Varnado, et  al,  1981).   Federal research programs such as



the   Geothermal   Drilling   and   Completion    Technology



Development Program  and  the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling



Program  have  contributed  to  the development  of improved



hardware  which  is  better  able  to withstand   the  harsh



                          25

-------
       subsurface  environment   (Varnado,  1981;  Wallace,  et  al,



       1986).     Such  technological  advances   encourage   deeper



       drilling   for  better   quality   hydrothermal   resources



       (Wallace,  1986).





       A variety of ancillary equipment  is necessary for drill rig



       operation.   The derrick  is a still  framework  tower  that



       supports  a  pulley system.   The pulley  system  hoists  and



       lowers equipment used in drilling  and  completing the well.



       Diesel generators  provide  power  to electric motors  that



       drive the rotary table, winch, and mud pumps.   Sections of



       casing and drill pipes are stocked  on racks.





       One of the most important  factors  in the  installation of a



       production well is the provision of  adequate,  high quality



       steel casings.   The functional purpose of the casing is to



       lend  support to  the borehole wall  and  to help  prevent



       ground-water contamination.    Figure III-2 is a diagram of



       a   completed  liquid-dominated  hydrothermal   well   with



       installed casing.   As many as four  concentric casings may



       be  installed in a  single  well.   Each  casing  is  rigidly



       fixed with cement to the surrounding rock matrix.







3.2.3  Drilling Mud



       The drilling fluid  or  mud is a  formulation of  clay and



       chemical  additives,   such  as  caustic  soda   or  other



       materials, in a water or oil base.   This fluid is pumped





                                26

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from  a reservoir,  pit,   or  tank  down through  the  drill



string and  circulated  up  through the annulus  (between  the



drill  stem  and the  wall  of the bore) .   After removal  of



drill cuttings, the mud may be directed to  a cooling tower



if excessive heating has  occured downhole.   After coaling,



the mud returns to the reservoir  (see Figure III-l).





Drilling  mud  serves  multiple   purposes.    It  cools  and



lubricates the drill bit  and  flushes rock chippings  out of



the  borehole.   Weighted  drilling  mud, with  high specific



gravity  additives  such   as  barite,  prevents blowouts  by



maintaining hydrostatic pressure in the borehole  to  offset



excessive   geologic   formation   pressures.      The  proper



selection and management  of  drilling fluid  is essential in



geothermal  drilling operations.    The drilling fluid used



for  both  the vapor-dominated and  liquid-dominated systems



may  be similar.   However,  drilling  into  vapor-dominated



systems generally utilizes compressed air as a circulating



medium instead of mud so as not to kill the production zone



with  a  hydrostatic  column   of  fluid.    Liquid-dominated



systems  are normally  drilled with  conventional  drilling



muds.   90 percent of muds are  composed  of bentonite-water



and  bentonite-lignite  (Robinson,  1987).   Various types of



drilling  muds may be used and the  type and composition of



the  mud  depends  upon  the drill  site conditions.   Some of



the  more  common  drilling  fluid  systems are listed in Table



III-l.



                          28

-------
                           TABLE III-l

           Common Drilling Fluid Systems Prevalent in
                       Geothermal Drilling
Bentonite-Water
Bentonite  provides
fluid loss control.
viscosity  and
Bentonite-Lignite
Lignite  is   incorporated   in  the
fluid  to provide  greater  thermal
stability  and   better  viscosity/
fluid  loss   cntrol   than  a  simple
bentonite-water system.
Polymer System
Predominantly composed of polymers.
This results in bentonite extension
and  flocculation  of  drill  solids,
thus  creating  a   low-solids  mud
system.
Sepiolite System
Sepiolite  clay is  substituted for
bentonite   because  it   does  not
flocculate at high temperatures and
provides better  viscosity control.
Modified  polymers  are  added  for
fluid  loss  reduction  and  caustic
soda for pH adjustment.
                                 29

-------
       Research is  continuing to  develop  new  muds  for  drilling



       geothermal  systems.   McDonald,  et  al,  (1978)  state  that



       improved  geothermal  drilling  fluids  will  reduce   well



       drilling costs by ten percent and reduce the costs  of  power



       on-line three to five percent.   Bufe (1982)  reports that in



       1981,  drill-pipe  corrosion  was  greatly  reduced  in  tests



       using  nitrogen  drilling   fluids  at  Valles  Caldera,  New



       Mexico.







       When drilling  operations  are completed, the  used  drilling



       fluids constitute the major  waste source, and thus, are of



       primary  environmental  importance.   The  waste  aspects  of



       drilling fluids are  covered in detail in Chapters  4  and 5



       of this report.







3.2.4  Distribution of Geothermal Drilling Activity



       Table III-2  presents data  on  the  locations  of geothermal



       drilling activity in the  United States  during the  years



       1981  through  1985  (Williams,   1986).    Thermal  gradient



       holes, which are  inexpensive holes  drilled  to locate  high-



       temperature  zones,  are not included  in this  tabulation.



       California has,  by far,  the greatest amount of  activity;



       The Geysers and Imperial Valley are the primary development



       sites.
                                 30

-------
                            TABLE III-2
          Summary  of  Geothermal  Drilling Activity by State
         Geothermal Production,  Injection and Wildcat Wells
                            (1981-1985)
                                        NUMBER OF WELLS
 Alaska

 California

 Colorado

 Hawaii

 Idaho

 Louisiana

 Montana

 New Mexico

 Nevada

 New York

 Oregon

 Texas

 Utah

 Washington
81
-
55
1
2
6
1
-
6
14
-
3
-
-
_!
1982
4
67
-
1
-
-
1
3
2
1
-
1
2
	 1
1983
-
47
-
-
3
-
1
3
4
-
1
1
1
—
1984 1985 Total
4
88 64 321
1
3
9
1
2
12
3 3 26
1
1 5
2
2-5
- - 3
TOTAL EACH YEAR
90
83
61
93
68
395
Source:  Williams 1986
                                  31

-------
       In 1986  development and  scientific  research continued  at
       identified  geothermal  fields.     Two  important  research
       projects are the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling  Program and
       the  Cascades Thermal  Gradient  Program  (Wallace,  et  al,
       1986) .   The  Salton  Sea  Program,  which is  jointly sponsored
       by the  Department  of Energy,   the U.S.  Geological  Survey
       and the National Science Foundation,  completed a 3221-meter
       (10,564 foot) well  on March 17, 1986.  Core  holes drilled
       by DOE/Industry  Cascades  Thermal Gradient Program went to
       depths of  1372  meters (4500 feet)  at Newberry  Caldera and
       1524   meters   (5000  feet)  at  Breitenbush  Hot  Springs
       (Wallace, et al, 1986).

3.3.   Electrical Power Production Operations
       There  are   economically   viable  methods   for  producing
       electrical  power  using  the  two   types  of  hydrothermal
       systems.   Vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems  consist of
       high-temperature  steam  which  can  be  used  directly  to
       generate electricity.  Liquid-dominated systems contain hot
       saline waters which can be converted to steam by a flashing
       process.  The following sections describe electrical energy
       production using these two hydrothermal systems.

3.3.1  Vapor-Dominated Systems
       Electrical power  is generated  in  a  vapor-dominated system
       using the conventional steam cycle (see Figure III-3).

                                 32

-------
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Vapor-dominated   systems   generally   maintain   downhole



temperatures of around 240   F  and  vent  steam at a pressure



498 psi (EPA, 1977); the steam is piped from the production



well to a manifold where it provides direct power to drive



the turbine generator.





Production  wells  are  connected  to  a  gathering  system



composed  of  carbon  steel  pipes.   A  centrifugal  axial



separator is located  on  the steam  line,  at the wellhead of



each  well,  to  remove solids  from  the  steam  and prevent



fouling  of  the pipelines.    Typically,   seven wells  are



connected  to a  gathering  system,  delivering  one million



pounds  of  steam per  hour.   This  amount  is sufficient to



power one 55 megawatt plant  (US DOE, 1980a).





The  exhaust  steam  from the  turbine  is  condensed in  a



surface  or direct  contact condenser.   The  condensate is



then  pumped to  a  cooling tower  where  it is  cooled  and



reused  as  a cooling  medium.   The  cooling  tower acts  as a



concentrating unit  for dissolved solids in the  condensate.



The  condensate  is  then  transported  to  a  settling  pit so



that  dissolved  solids  will  settle  out.    The  purified



condensate  is reinjected into  the  geothermal reservoir and



the sludge  from the  pit  is dewatered.  The disposal method



for the filter cake from the dewatered sludge is determined



by"the  applicable  state  regulations.  Using The Geysers as



an example, California law  requires  that the concentrations
                          34

-------
of listed  chemical  constituents  be determined for  a  given
waste   sample   by  an   extraction  procedure.      If   the
concentration of any of the listed constituents exceeds the
established threshold value, the  waste  must be disposed of
in  a  Class  I  waste  management  unit   (landfill,  surface
impoundment,  or  waste  pile)  for hazardous  wastes.   If the
concentrations  in  the  extracts  do  not exceed  threshold
values, the waste  can  be disposed of in a  Class  II or III
waste  management unit.    (See  Appendix, California  State
Regulations Summary).


Noncondensible gases are removed from the condenser through
an  off-gas ejector  system.     Before  the  gas mixture is
vented  into  the  atmosphere,  hydrogen  sulfide  is  removed
using  one  of  the following processes:  incineration of the
hydrogen  sulfide  followed by   sulfur  dioxide  scrubbing;
precipitation  of  hydrogen  sulfide  by an iron  catalyst
(Ferifloc  process);   or   the   Stretford-Peroxide-Surface
Condenser  (SPSC) System  (California Division of Oil & Gas,
1985).

The  Geysers   in  California   is  the  largest  geothermal
electrical generating complex in the world.   It is also the
only  known  vapor-dominated hydrothermal   reservoir  under
commercial development and operation in the United States.
  f
The electrical generating  capacity exceeded 1000 megawatts
late  in 1982  when Pacific Gas  &  Electric Company  (PG&E)
                          35

-------
       Unit 17 began operation  (California Division  of  Oil  &  Gas,

       1983).   In 1985, four power plants were  brought  on-line at

       The Geysers geothermal field:


       o  PG&E Units  16 and  20  (each  generating 113  megawatts,
          net) ;

       o  The California Department of Water Resources Bottle Rock
          Power Plant (generating 52  megawatts,  net); and

       o  The Northern  California  Power Agency (NCPA)  2  (Unit 3,
          generating 55 megawatts, net).


       The four power plants raise the total electrical generating

       capacity  at  The  Geysers  to  1718  megawatts, net,  as  of

       December 31,  1985 (California Division of Oil  & Gas,  1986) .

       Unocal, one  of  PG&E's  suppliers, is  responsible for the

       extraction of  steam from The Geysers  geothermal reservoir

       and reinjection of any returned condensate (Morton, 1987).


       Table  III-3  presents   production   statistics  from  1960

       through 1986 for The Geysers geothermal field.



3.3.2  Liquid-Dominated Systems

       Two processes are commonly used to produce electricity from

       liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs:   the  flash process

       and the binary process.   Figures • III-4 and  III-5 present

       flow diagrams of these two processes.


       The Flash Process
         f
       The flash process utilizes the conventional steam cycle  in
                                 36

-------
                           Table III-3

       Production Statistics, The Geysers Geothermal  Field
Year Plants

1960 PG&E
1963
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971

1972

1973

1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

1980

1981
1982
1983
    Smudged
     NCPA
1984 Oxy
1985 Bottle
     PG&E

     NCPA
1986 NCPA
                 Steam
    Net Capacity Prod  Inject1
 Unit MWe  CUM MWe     101  kg
                          Avg.  No.
                          10 *  kg
                           Prod. Wells
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
15
13
14

17
18
 1
 1
 1
Rock
16
20
 2
 3
 11
 13
 27
 27
 53
 53
 53
 53
 53
 53

106
110
 59
134
110

110
110
 72
110
 80
 55
113
113
 55
 55
  11
  24
  51
  78
 184

 290

 396

 502
 671

 915

1025
1135
1207
1317
1397
1452
1565
1678
1733
1788
 3.5
 6.8
 6.4

 7.8

15.8

21.5
26.3
30.5
32.0
32.5
27.7

36.2

47.0
52.8
49.4
65.9
80.0
95.9
54.4
 0.5

 1
 2
 3
 6
 7
 8
 7
 6
 9
10

12.5
13.7
13.8
19.5
24.6
26.7
N.A
 16
 20
 20

 22
 37
 53
 65
 81
 91
 94
 94

118

151

163
175
224
252
N.A
1    Injection amounts prior to 1981 are estimated  from graphs.

Sources:    Calif. Div. of Oil and Gas 1983,  1984a,  1986
            Williams 1986
                             37

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                                39

-------
which geothermal  brine  is "flashed" to produce  the  steam.
The flash process is the partial evaporation to steam of
the hot liquid brine by sudden reduction of pressure in the
system.   The  steam from the flash step is  fed directly to
the  turbine,   with  subsequent  usage  and   disposal  as
described in the subsection on vapor-dominated systems.

The  Vulcan  Power  Plant  in  California's  Imperial  Valley,
owned by  the Magma  Power  Plant,  is  an  example of a liquid-
dominated system  which  uses  a flashing process to generate
electricity.  The Vulcan Power Plant is designed to produce
35   megawatts,    net,   of   electricity   from  the   high
temperature, highly saline geothermal fluid  in the Salton
Sea  area.  A  crystallizer-clarifier process,  patented by
Magma,  is used to  produce the  steam  needed  to drive the
turbine generator.

The  brine supply to the  Vulcan Power Plant  comes from 12
production  wells  and is transmitted to the plant via  four
brine headers.  (A  brine header is a pipe which  distributes
fluid  from a  smaller  series  of  pipes.)     The two-phase
geothermal  fluid mixture is combined at the plant and  split
into  two  trains.   The brine first goes  through  a  high-
pressure  crystallizer where the silica is seeded (caused to
crystallize) to prevent scaling of the pipe and  tank walls.
The pressure in  the containment vessel is  reduced to  flash
sufficient  steam   to  drive  the  29.4  megawatt  turbine-

                          40

-------
generator.   The remaining heavily seeded,  unflashed  brine



flows  to  a  low-pressure crystallizer  where  the  second



flashing step is undertaken to generate more steam to drive



the 9.4 megawatt turbine generator.





The  unflashed  brine  from  the  low-pressure  crystallizer



flows  to  a reactor-clarifier  where  the   fully  developed



crystals begin  to  settle.  The crystals are pushed  to the



center of the vessel by a rake mechanism to agglomerate and



thicken.   Clarified brine  flowing  out of  the  top  of the



clarifier  is  filtered  to remove any remaining  solid prior



to injection.   The solids are drawn off the bottom  of the



clarifier  to a  thickener.     A portion  of the  sludge  is



retained  to seed the  incoming brine.    The rest  is  mixed



with the filtered solids and disposed of in a Class I waste



management unit if it is a designated hazardous waste, or a



Class  II  or  III waste  management  unit  if it is  a non-



hazardous waste.





The  steam exhaust  from  both  turbines  is  stripped  of the



non-condensible gases at the condensers.  The condensate is



cooled  in  a  counterflow  cooling  tower  where  heat  is



rejected  to the  atmosphere.    The  condensate  is used  as



make-up to the cooling tower.






The non-condensible gases are brought into  contact with the
  f


brine to allow the hydrogen sulfide to react with the heavy



metals  in  the  brine.  The  remaining gas  mixture, composed



                          41

-------
mostly of carbon dioxide, is vented out of the low-pressure

crystallizer.


The Binary Process

The   45   megawatt  Heber  Demonstration   Plant,   also  in

California's  Imperial  Valley,  is the  largest binary power

plant  in the world  (California Division  of  Oil  &  Gas,

1985).    The  Heber   Plant  uses  a  simple  binary-cycle

conversion process which consists of three fluid loops:   a

geothermal  fluid loop,  a  hydrocarbon working  fluid loop,

and  a cooling  water  loop.    The  single-phase  geothermal

fluid  is  withdrawn  from the reservoir  into  the production

well.    Production  lines  from  thirteen production wells

connect to a  common header.  The combined geothermal stream

then  flows  to a  desanding  vessel and  a  metering station.

Next,  the  geothermal  brine  passes  through  two  parallel

brine/hydrocarbon  heat  exchanger  trains  at  the rate  of

about  8 million  Ibs/hour.   The temperature of the brine at

Heber  is  approximately 182   C (359   F); the binary process

utilizes brines in the 150° C to 210° C (320-410° F)  range.

The  brine and  the  hydrocarbon  are contained  in separate

closed   loops,   allowing   no   direct  contact   with  the

atmosphere.   The saturated hydrocarbon mixture  of 90 mole

percent isobutane and  10 mole percent isopentane is heated

from  a liquid state at  38° C to  a supercritical vaporous
  «*
state at 152° C  (305°  F) by the heat transferred from the
                          42

-------
       brine.      The  vaporous hydrocarbon  expands  through  the



       turbine which drives the 70  megawatt electric generator.



       Spent brine is reinjected into the  geothermal  reservoir at



       about 72° C  (162°  F) .   The brine temperature must be kept



       above 65° C  (149°  F) to prevent  precipitation  of  dissolved



       solids prior to reinjection.







       The owners  of the  Heber Binary Facility  (SDG&E)  purchase



       hot brine  from Chevron  (Morton, 1986).   The hot brine is



       pumped to Heber,  the heat is extracted,  and the spent brine



       is returned to Chevron for reinjection.







3.3.3  Annual Production



       Table III-4 lists  geothermal power  facility sites that are



       either operating  or are under  construction in the  United



       States.  This  table  lists  a total  of 25 sites.   A site is



       defined  as  a  single  power plant  or  multiple  operating



       units.    For  example,  power generating  facilities  at  The



       Geysers are shown  as four different sites,  although these



       four  sites  contain  25 operating  units,   owned  by  four



       different  power   companies.     Table  III-4   also   lists



       information on  capacity,  location,  ownership,  and  process



       type.       Figure    III-6    graphically    shows   capacity



       distributions  of  geothermal power  plants  by  process type



       and by state.   96 percent of geothermal power plant
                                 43

-------
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       electrical capacity if in California alone;  the  other  four



       percent is distributed throughout other states.








3.4    Direct-Use Applications



       In some  areas of  the country,   it  is  often efficient  and



       economical to use  geothermal  energy as a direct source of



       heat.  This heat can  be  extracted  from the  condensate  from



       an  electrical  generating  facility  or  directly  from  a



       geothermal production well.   Geothermal  resources with low



       to moderate temperatures, suitable  for direct  application,



       are more  widespread  than electric generation sites.   This



       is  because   direct-use  applications   are   less  capital-



       intensive and can be developed on a relatively small scale.



       The  high  cost  of  transporting  the   available  heat  from



       hydrothermal  resources  has  limited  the  development  of



       multi-user  direct  heat  systems  to   areas  close  to  the



       geothermal  source.    As  a  result,  for hydrothermal direct



       heat use to be economical,  prospective users must be within



       close proximity to the geothemal production well.





       Direct-use systems consist  of two  basic types:   those that



       conduct the hydrothermal fluid  directly through the entire



       system, and those  that  utilize  heat exchangers to transfer



       hydrothermal  heat  to  a secondary working fluid.   Examples



       of the various types of geothermal systems are discussed in
         «-


       the following sections.
                                 46

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       Table  III-5  shows the  various  direct-use applications  of

       geothermal fluid corresponding to  fluid  temperature.   Many

       processes require  fluid temperatures of 150° C  (320°  F) .


       However,  power  generation  is  expected  to dominate  those

       resources.
3.4.1  Downhole Heat Exchangers fKlamath Falls.  Oregon)

       Some 400-500  shallow wells are  used  for space heating  in

       the  Klamath  Falls  and  Klamath  Hills   geothermal  areas

       (Geonomic 1978; Lienau,  1986).   Of these, only a  few pump

       geothermal fluid to the surface.   The rest utilize downhole

       heat  exchangers  consisting  of  one  or  two  tube  loops

       suspended  down  the  well   in   direct  contact  with  the

       hydrothermal  fluid.   Downhole  exchangers have the lowest

       investment cost of all types of heat exchangers.



       In most  cases,  the water inside  the  heat exchanger cycles

       thermally   (thermo-syphon);   therefore,    pumps   are   not

       required to move the  water  and  the need  for fluid disposal

       is eliminated (Zimmerman, et al., 1984).



       Downhole  exchangers  are  feasible  only  where  reservoir

       depths are typically  less  than  500 feet  (Zimmerman, et al,

       1984).   Wells in  the Klamath Falls area are commonly less

       than  700 feet  deep;    most  are  less  than 250 feet deep.
         r'
       Presently, about 500 homes, offices, commercial buildings,
                                 47

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                           TABLE III-5

 Fluid  Temperatures Required for Various Direct-Use Applications
 C°       Application

190+  —

180   —  Evaporation of highly concentrated solutions
          Refrigeration by ammonia absorption
          Digestion in paper pulp, kraft

170   —  Heavy water via hydrogen sulfide process
          Drying diatomaceous earth

160   —  Drying fish meal
          Drying timber

150   —  Alumina via Bayer's process

140   —  Drying farm products at high rates
          Food canning

130   —  Evaporation in sugar refining
          Extraction of salts by evaporation and crystallization

120   —  Fresh water by distillation
          Most  multiple-effect   evaporation,   concentrations   of
          saline solution

110   —  Drying and curing light aggregate cement slabs

100   —  Drying organic  materials,  seaweeds,  grass,  vegetables,
          etc.
          Washing and drying wool

 90   —  Drying stock fish
          Intense de-icing operations

 80   —  Space heating
          Greenhouses by space heating

 70   —  Refrigeration (lower temperature limit)

 60   —  Animal husbandry
          Greenhouses by combined space and hot bed heating
                                 48

-------
 50   —  Mushroom growing
          Balneological bath

 40   —  Soil warming

 30   —  Swimming pools, biodegradation, fermentations
          Warm water for year-round mining in cold climates
          De-icing

 20   —  Fish hatching and farming


Source:  Lienau, et al., 1979
                                 49

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       schools,  churches,  and greenhouses are heated by geothermal



       water from  the shallow wells  (Lienau,  1986).   Typically,



       well temperatures range from 38° C to 110° C (100-230° F).
3.4.2. Surface Heat Exchangers



       Unlike downhole  exchangers,  all types of  surface  exchange



       systems  require  extraction  of geothermal  fluid  from  the



       reservoir  and  subsequently  some  means of  fluid  or  brine



       disposal.   Of  the  various  types  of  surface  exchangers



       available, the plate type seems to be the most suitable for



       hydrothermal systems (O'Banion, et al, 1981).





       Applications of  this type  of energy system  are numerous,



       ranging  from  heating  of  private  residences  to  various



       commercial  uses.    One  such  application  is  the  Pagosa



       Springs Geothermal District space heating system, which has



       successfully  demonstrated  the  feasibility  of  utilizing



       moderate  temperature  (60° C) geothermal  fluid  for direct-



       use  application   (Goering,  et  al,  1984).     This  system



       provides   space   heating   to  public  buildings,   school



       facilities,  residences,  and  commercial  establishments  at



       significantly lower cost than conventional fuels.





       At Pagosa  Springs,  geothermal fluid  is withdrawn  from the



       production well  at about  60° C  (140°  F)  and  is  directed



       through a  plate  heat exchanger where heat  is extracted to



       produce  hot,  recirculated  city  water.    This  city  water



                                 50

-------
exits the  heat exchanger  at  about 58°  C  (136° F) and  is



distributed via  a closed  loop  system to  individual  users



who  extract  heat for  space  heating  at  the point  of  use.



Cooled water  is  recirculated  back to  the heat  exchanger



where it is reheated by  the geothermal  fluid.   The flow of



geothermal  fluid  from  the  well  is  controlled  by  the



discharge temperature of the circulating fluids.  The spent



geothermal fluid  is  discharged from  the heat  exchanger at



about 40° C (104° F)  directly to the San Juan River.





Space Conditioning



Hydrothermal   fluid    is   a  suitable   heat   source   for



conventional  forced  air, hydronic space heat  systems,  gas



heat  pumps,   and  refrigeration  units   (O'Banion,  et  al,



1981) .   In a forced air system,  air is blown  from a heat



source and distributed by ducts to outlets.   In a hydronic



system,  hot  water is  used directly  as a heat  source in



radiant  panels,   convectors,  and  radiators.   Heat  pumps



operate by transferring  energy  from a low-temperature heat



reservoir such  as a  hydrothermal  fluid  to a warmer medium



such as  indoor air.    A  gaseous working or energy transfer



medium such as  freon is  exposed to the hydrothermal fluid;



the  cool gas  absorbs heat and  expands  and then moves to  a



heat sink  where the gas condenses,  driving off  heat into



the  sink  or  the air  to be   heated.    The  freon  then



evaporates  and  is  pumped back  to  the  heat source  for



recirculation.   Hydrothermal  temperatures  as  low  as  10°  C



                          51

-------
(50°  F)   can  be  utilized  for  heat pumps;  however,  the

feasibility of using low-temperature resources is dependent

upon cost-effectiveness, taking into account the price of a

pump and associated power.



No documented  usage  of  geothermal  energy for refrigeration

was  found  in  the  literature  that  has  been  reviewed,

however,  several  technologies  exist.    These technologies

include the ammonia-water and water-lithium- bromide cycles

which  operate  in  the  110°  C - 150°    C (230°  F-302°  F)

geothermal fluid temperature range  (O'Banion, et al, 1981).



Agricultural and Industrial Uses

Lower    geothermal   temperatures   are   applicable   to

agricultural uses  (O'Banion, et al,  1981) which can consist

of any of the  following:


o  Greenhousing -  This  application involves the raising of
   plants in a controlled environment to  improve yields and
   enable  harvesting  of  off-season  crops.    The  basic
   concept is  to  trap solar  heat  by enclosing the growing
   area  and  to offset  heat losses  with a secondary source,
   such  as  geothermal  energy.   Hydrothermal  fluid can be
   utilized  as a  secondary heat source via a forced air or
   hydronic  space heating  system.   The fluid temperature
   can be as low as  32  C  (90° F)  (Lienau, et al, 1979).

o  Mushroom  Culturina   -  Direct   heat  applications  in
   mushroom  culturing  temperature  requirements   include:
   54-60  C  (129-140  F)  for compost preparation;  22-24   C
   (72-75  F)   for  fertilization;   and   26°  C  (79°  F)  for
   production.   Heat is  distributed by  exposed  hot pipes
  "along  the mushroom-house  walls.    Cooling may  also be
   hydrothermally  driven   if  the  fluid  temperature  is
   adequate  (Lienau, et al, 1979).
                          52

-------
       o  Livestock  Raising  -   For this  application,  geothermal
          heat   is   used  to  maintain   an   optimum  temperature
          environment.    Good environmental  control  results  in
          lower mortality, faster growth, lower animal fat levels,
          and  easier disease control  in livestock  raising.   The
          mechanisms  for environmental  control  range  from  floor
          heating  in  open  feed  lots  to a  completely  enclosed
          system  of  raising  hogs  and  chickens.    The  enclosed
          system employs both radiant panel and forced air heating
          and requires a minimum intake temperature of 32  C
          (90  F) (Lienau, et al, 1979).

       o  Aquaculture   -  One   location  in  Coachella   Valley
          (O'Banion,  et  al,   1981)   uses water  from  three  (3)
          geothermal wells and five (5) irrigation wells to supply
          sixty-one  (61)  aquaculture ponds.   The  supplied  water
          first flows to a series of prawn production ponds before
          cascading  through  irrigation  pipes  to  ponds  growing
          other species  of fish.   These aquaculture projects have
          the  advantage  of  year-round  production.    For  these
          applications, the fluid temperature ranges from 30° C to
          40  C (86-140  F).


3.4.3  Annual Utilization

       Table   III-6  presents  a   site  listing   of   direct-use

       commercial and community applications that  are  currently

       operating  in  the United  States.    This  table  includes

       process type, owner,  location, and daily flowrate.


       Table  III-6   is  constructed  from a  database  containing

       numerous references.    The primary reference (Lienau,  1986)

       provided much  of the  flowrate  and operational data.   All

       database references are listed in Section 11.2.


       Table III-6  contains  a total  of 122   sites  that  have been

       identified from the literature.  Figure III-7 shows the
                                53

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breakdown of types of direct-user for 107 of the 122 sites.



Sufficient information  to determine the  exact application



of the other 15 sites is not currently available, but these



sites are believed to be space heating applications.





Table III-7 shows a distribution of direct-users per state.



The geographical  location of  direct-users  is shown  to  be



much more widespread than that of electric power generation



facilities.  This is due, in part, to the fact that direct-



use applications can use a wider range of temperatures (see



Table III-5)  than electric power generation facilities.
                          59

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                           Table III-7

                     Geothermal Direct Users
                    Site  Distribution  by State
                                 Percent of Total
State                            Number of Users

Alaska                                  3
Arizona                                 1
California                             19
Colorado                                5
Idaho                                  23
Montana                                 6
New Mexico                              7
Nevada                                 12
New York                                1
Oregon                                 11
South Dakota                            3
Texas                                   2
Utah                                    3
Washington                              2
Wyoming                              	2

Total                                 100
                                 60

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                            CHAPTER 4



                   SOURCES AND VOLUMES OF WASTE







    The  previous  chapter  described the  geothermal industry  in



terms  of three  categories;  (i.e.,  exploration and  development



operations,   electrical  power   production,    and   direct   use



applications).   This chapter  continues  the characterization  of



these geothermal activities with  a description  of  the geothermal



operations or  processes that  generate waste and a  discussion of



the  waste  volumes.     Where  quantitative  data are  missing,  a



methodology for estimating waste volumes is also presented.








4.1   Methodology



      The geothermal industry profiles,  described in the previous



      chapter, were prepared from an extensive  literature search



      and a  subsequent  data  compilation project.   The data base



      established by these activities provided a pool of informa-



      tion from which a methodology for identifying waste sources



      and estimating waste volumes was  formulated.   The applica-



      tions  of this  methodology  are  discussed  in  detail  in the



      following sections.








      In developing  the data  base, raw  data  from  the literature



      search  was  loaded  into  a  computerized data  management



      program that flagged areas where information was deficient.



      To correct these  deficiencies, personal contacts with state




                                61

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      and  federal  agencies,  universities and  selected  authors

      were made to obtain the required information.

      During the  data gathering process, certain limitations  in

      data  availability  became evident.   These limitations  are

      summarized as follows:



      o   Very   little   site-specific    information   on   waste
          generation is available directly from the  literature;

      o   Many  of the  references  are  old  and the  information
          outdated; and

      o   Among   the  various   references,   there   are   many
          discrepancies  regarding  names  of  geothermal  sites,
          owners, waste quantities, etc.


4.2   Exploration and Development Wastes

      Well  drilling  activities generate the bulk of  wastes from

      geothermal  exploration  and  development  operations.    In

      general,  wastes  from  well drilling fall within one of the

      following two categories:



      o   Drilling fluid/mud and drill cuttings; and

      o   Small quantities of miscellaneous wastes.



4.2.1 Drilling Mud and Cuttings

      During well drilling operations, large quantities of wastes

      are generated  that  consist of discarded  drilling  muds and

      residues  from  drilling  mud  cleaning  processes.    Used

      drilling muds  are  cleaned by circulating the  fluid through

      solids removal equipment such as shale shakers, sand traps,

                                62

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hydrocyclones,  and   centrifuges.     After   the   cleaning



process,  the  solids  which  consist of  drill cuttings  are



discharged as  a  waste residue, and the mud  is  recycled to



the drilling operations.  Further treatment of the recycled



muds, in  the  form  of  additives,  is required  to  control mud



characteristics such as pH and viscosity (loss of viscosity



reduces  the  usefulness  of  the  mud).    Drilling  muds  are



discharged to  reserve pits  for storage, disposal,  or when



the  drilling  mud system must be purged due  to  a  change in



drilling  conditions.







Documentation of drilling mud and cuttings waste volumes is



very sparse.   One study  (US DOE, 1982), based on experience



of drilling 50 wells  in the Imperial Valley,  indicated that



about 600 metric tons of mud and cuttings resulted from the



drilling  of  a typical  1,500-meter well.    Because  of the



scarcity  of actual waste generation data, a methodology was



developed  to  estimate waste  volumes  of drilling  muds and



cuttings.  For the annual drilling activity,  shown in Table



III-2, average values for well depth and diameter have been



determined by geothermal  resource  area.     These average



dimensions were  calculated  from  -site-specific well  data



contained  in  the  data  base.    For  states  where  no



information   on   well   dimensions   were    available,   a



determination of average well dimensions was made based on
                          63

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      fluid flowrate,  temperature,  and  intended application  of



      the well.







      Cuttings  volumes   for   specific  geothermal  areas   were



      calculated from  the number of  wells in  the area and  the



      average depths and diameters.   From the  calculated cuttings



      volumes, an associated mud volume was computed based  upon a



      cuttings/drilling  mud  conversion  or  correlation  factor



      derived  from site-specific drilling information  (Morton,



      1986).    In  the  preparation  of Table  IV-1, cuttings  and



      drilling  mud waste volumes  were  combined,  converted  to



      thousands  of barrels, and  summarized  for the years  1981



      through 1985.







4.2.2 Miscellaneous Wastes



      Miscellaneous  waste  quantities   are    relatively   small



      compared  to  the  volumes  of  mud  and  cuttings  generated.



      Miscellaneous wastes are generally categorized as follows:







      o   Deck drainings;



      o   Cooling tower wastes; and



      o   Maintenance and trash.







      Typically,  drilling  operations generate deck  drainings.



      These wastes are composed of rig washdown, rinses, drilling



      fluids,  and  other miscellaneous waste  materials  generated





                                64

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on or around the drill derrick.
Depending on the type of drilling operations,  these volumes
can be substantial.

Some operations may  necessitate  that the drilling fluid be
cooled before  being  recycled  into  the  well  bore.   Under
such  circumstances,  the  drilling   fluid  is  circulated
through  a  cooling tower.   The  tower requires  occasional
cleaning of  scale  and other deposits that build  up in the
tower.
                          65

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                          Table IV - 1

         Estimated Waste Volumes for Drilling Activities
          Associated with Exploration and Development
                     of Geothermal Resources
                      Total Mud and Cutting Volume
State
California
The Geysers
Imp. Valley
Other
Nevada
Idaho
Montana
Wyoming
New Mexico
Oregon
Washington
Utah
South Dakota
North Dakota
Hawaii
Total U.S.
1981
97.3
49.8
47.2
0.3
7.2
0.6
NA
NA
2.8
0.3
0.2
NA
NA
NA
5.1
210.8
1982
103.7
59.5
43.3
1.0
1.0
NA
0.1
NA
1.4
0.1
0.1
2.3
NA
NA
2.5
215.0
1983
51.2
46.2
3.9
1.1
2.0
0.3
0.1
NA
NA
0.1
NA
1.2
NA
NA
NA
107.5
1984
199.0
52.2
145.6
1.1
1.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2.3
NA
NA
NA
401.2
1985
109.4
53.4
55.1
0.8
1.5
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
220.3
NA - No Activity

Source:  See Appendix A.
                                66

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      Other wastes  produced  in  drilling  operations  consist  of



      empty containers, bags,  broken tools, paint wastes,  minor



      spills  and  leaks  of diesel  fuel,  hydraulic  fluid,  wood



      pallets, solvents,  and miscellaneous trash.







4.3   Geothermal Power Plant Wastes



      Wastes generated from geothermal power  operations  include



      spent brine,  flash  tank  scale  and  separated  solids  from



      pre-injection  treatment of  spent  brines  (Royce,   1985).



      Depending on  the  nature  of  the  geothermal  fluid,  scale



      formed in process lines, valves,  and turbines,  must  also be



      removed and  disposed.  These  wastes generally consist  of



      heavy metal  salts.    The amount  and composition of  these



      wastes are highly dependent on site mineralogy  and the type



      of power production  process used.   Very  little information



      describing and quantifying these wastes was discovered from



      the literature  review.   Most of  the  available information



      was from areas such as The Geysers and Imperial Valley.







      For estimating  waste  volumes  from geothermal power  plants,



      different approaches were developed depending on the amount



      of detail available per  geothermal site.



      Steam   flows   for   all  vapor-dominated   electric  power



      generation facilities were estimated using operating data



      (California Div.  of  Oil  & Gas  1986)  from 1985  for PG&E,



      from which a "pounds of  steam per MW" conversion factor was





                               67

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calculated.   Also,  ratios  of  steam  usage to  condensate

reinjection for  vapor-dominated  facilities  were calculated

from  historical  operating data  for The  Geysers  over  the

past five years  (Calif. Div. of Oil  &  Gas 1987).   From the

ratios, steam  condensate  for these  flows were calculated,

but  values are  not reported as  fluid wastes  since these

flows  are  likely  to  be  considered  non-exempt  wastes.

Verification was received  from  PG&E  that  all condensate is

cycled through cooling  towers prior  to reinjection, making

these  reinjection  fluids  part  of  the  intrinsic  power

generation  cycle.     By  excluding  these  flows   as  waste

streams, it is assumed that the other vapor-dominated power

producers  are   operating   in  the  same  manner  as  all

geothermal power operations  at The  Geysers are non-exempt

and thus outside the scope of this report.



Brine  flows  for both  binary and  flash power production

processes  were  calculated  from  equations  derived  from a

plot  of   hydrothermal  fluid   requirements  versus  fluid

temperature  (Zimmerman, 1984).    The  following   equations

were generated from extrapolation of data points taken from

the above referenced plot.

    Binary Process:
    KG Brine/KWH = 583,903-4.141T+0.007611T2

    Flash Process:
  " KG Brine/KWH = 456.78-2.576T+0.003855T2
    where T = temperature in degrees Celsius.
                          68

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          KWH = kilowatt hour
          KG  = kilograms
      Hydrothermal temperatures were obtained from  four separate
      sources  (DiPippo  1985, U.S.Geological  circular  790  1978,
      and California  Div.  of Oil &  Gas  1984 and 1985)  and, were
      coupled  with  site-specific power  ratings  (See Appendix  A
      for  Development of  Data)   to  calculate daily volumes  of
      brine throughput.   From this  daily flow throughput  and by
      applying  an annual  operating  factor  of between  90  to  95
      percent,  (depending  on type of  process,  plant age,  etc.)
      brine  volume  was  obtained for  a  particular  facility  in
      millions  of gallons per  year.   (See Table  IV-2.)    This
      value  is  considered  conservative  since  no   loss  due  to
      solids formation or  evaporation  prior to disposal is taken
      into account.

      The  types  of  wastes  generated   from geothermal  power
      production are discussed briefly in the following sections.

4.3.1 Spent Brine for Injection

      Spent  brine  from  The  Geysers  is   generated  from  steam
      condensate  which  is  used in  the   cooling  tower  before
      reinjection.  The condensate from the cooling tower is sent
      to" a  sump  where  some  solids  or  sludge  settles  prior to
      reinjection.

                               69

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Spent  brines  from  operations  in the  Imperial Valley  are



also reinjected  (Morton,  1986)  to the producing  zone,  but



in much larger quantities.   Brines  from  binary systems are



maintained under  set temperatures and pressure  to prevent



precipitation of dissolved solids.  This allows reinjAction



of  almost 100  percent  of  the  geothermal  fluid.    Brine



produced  at  the  flash  plants  requires treatment  prior to



reinjection due to  a very high  TDS  content (Morton, 1986).



This   treatment   process   consists  of   a   series   of



crystallization,   clarification,    and   filtration   steps



resulting  in  a solid  precipitate that is  hauled offsite.



80  to  90  percent of  the brine  is reinjected  after  this



treatment.
                          70

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                          Table IV - 2

         Estimated Liquid Waste Volumes from both Binary
                    and Flash Process Plants*
                                           Billions of
State          Number of Sites          Gallons per Year
California          9                        43.70

Nevada              5                         9.26

New Mexico          1                          .24

Hawaii              1                          .06

Utah                2                         3.17

Total              18                        56.43



*Plants  that are  currently  operational;  does  not  include  the

estimated volume for the three facilities under construction.

Source:  See Appendix A for Development of Data.
                                71

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4.3.2 Sludges from Brine Precipitation
      One method of treating brine is via precipitation  in  spent
      brine holding ponds.   A holding pond  is used at  the  East
      Mesa site for treatment of spent brine.   This  holding  pond
      has sufficient residence time so that  liquid withdrawn from
      the  end  opposite  the  inlet  is sufficiently  clear to  be
      reinjected  into  the producing  reservoir.    Solids  that
      accumulate  in  the  pond  are  dredged  and then  dried  by
      evaporation;  the  solids are  disposed  of at  the  type  of
      landfill  prescribed by  state  regulations,  based on  the
      characteristics  of  the  waste.     This  method has  been
      successful in those  cases  where the salinity  of the  brine
      is low.   At  the East Mesa site, the salinity  of the  brine
      is low compared to other areas in the  Imperial Valley.   (US
      DOE, 1982).

4.3.3 Estimate of Waste Volumes
      Table IV-2 shows  estimated liquid waste volumes for the 18
       operational  power  generation  facilities  that utilize  a
      "liquid" type process.   Of the estimated 56 billion gallons
      per year  (BGY),  62 percent are generated at "flash" process
      facilities,  and 38  percent at  "binary" process facilities.
      If the estimated  production  rates for the three facilities
      under  construction are  included,  the  total  waste  volume
      increases to 71.63 BGY.
                                72

-------
      (See Appendix A for Development of Data.)







      Due to  the  lack of data,  no  attempt was made to  quantify



      the solid waste generated from power generation facilities.



      Several  facilities  in California  (Morton,  1986)  generate



      solids  using  a patent  clarification/thickening  process.



      Based on  the literature  review,  these facilities are  the



      sole source of significant solids generation.







4.4   Waste Generation from Direct Users



      The primary  waste generated  from direct-use  applications



      consists  of   the  spent  geothermal  fluid  remaining  after



      usable heat has been  extracted.   In  most cases,  this fluid



      is of adequate  quality to  allow surface  water  discharge to



      nearby  water  bodies.   There  are some  cases  where  spent



      geothermal fluids  meets  the drinking water standards,  and



      it may be discharged to the community water supply.







      Waste generated by direct-use  applications was  calculated



      in  a   similar  manner  to  waste   quantities   for   power



      generation  facilities.     Time  of   operation  factors  for



      industrial direct-users  were  estimated  to  be  80 percent



      (292 days per year).   It was estimated that all other types



      of direct-users operate 25 percent of the time (91 days per



      year),  or less, depending on  geographical  location.   By



      multiplying daily  flowrates  by operating  days per year,





                                73

-------
annual rates in millions of gallons per year were obtained.







No  mention  of   significant   solid  waste  generation  is



contained  in the  literature   for  direct  users.   At  this



site,  barium sulfate  is  added to  the cooled  geothermal



fluid  to  precipitate  radium  prior  to discharge  into  a



river.   The  quantity of  this  solid is unknown;  however,  it



is  presumed to  be  small  in  quantity  and  handled  as  a



hazardous waste under state requirements.







Table  IV-3 shows  estimated liquid  waste  volumes for  104



direct users in  12 different  states.  This represents over



85 percent of the  sites  on Table  III-5.   These volumes are



calculated as described in Section 4.1.
                          74

-------
                          Table VI - 3
                 Estimated Liquid Waste Volumes
                   Estimated for Direct Users
State

California

Oregon

Idaho

Montana

South Dakota

Utah

Wyoming

New Mexico

Nevada

Colorado

New York

Washington

Totals
Number of Sites

     18

     14

     27

      7

      4

      4

      3

      8

     10

      6

      1
    104
   Billions of
Gallons per Year

     1.41

      .60

     3.02

      .09

      .78

      .31

      .15

      .50

      .61

      .50

      .01

      .10

     8.09
Source:  See Appendix A for Development of Data
                                75

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                            CHAPTER 5



                     WASTE CHARACTERIZATION





     To assess the potential  environmental  impacts  due to wastes



generated  from  the   geothermal   industry,  it  is  necessary  to



characterize various  waste streams  resulting from  exploration,



development, and production  operations.   The following  discus-



sions  contain  a summary  of  the  analytical  data  found   in  the



literature  for both  liquid  and  solid  wastes.    These data  are



summarized   in  tables   and   are   compared   to  current  RCRA



characteristic     thresholds,     (ignitability,     corrosivity,



reactivity, and extraction procedure toxicity) for both solid and



liquid wastes.








5.1  Liquid Wastes



     Tables  V-l  and  V-2  contain  temperature,  pH,   and chemical



     constituent analysis summaries for selected power generation



     and direct use application waste streams.  These tables were



     constructed from several references listed in Section 11.2.








     Table  V-l  contains  analyses   of  seven  different  power



     generation  facilities.  Five of the seven facilities produce



     power  via the binary process.    For these  facilities,  the



     analysis  parameters  are  shown for the incoming brine,  with



     the  exception  of  the   temperature,   which  is the  actual



     discharge value.   Since there is no change of physical state
                                76

-------
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-------
of  the  geothermal  liquid  in  the  binary  process,  it  is
expected  that  these  results  are  representative  of  the
discharged brine.

This assumption is not necessarily valid,  however,  for power
plants utilizing  the flash  process.   In these  situations,
the various chemical constituents can be concentrated in the
liquid that  remains after  the  progressive  series  of steam
generation steps.

Only  one  set   of   analyses   (Salton  Sea   -   Vulcan)   is
representative  of  a  fluid  that remains after  a  flashing
process.    The  analysis  for the  other flash processes,  at
Heber, CA, applies  only  to the  incoming  fluid.   Comparison
of these two results provides an estimate of the  increase in
concentration    of  constituents  that  can  occur  from  the
flashing process.   Table V-l indicates that  there is about
one order of magnitude increase in concentration.

Table  V-2 reports  analyses  of  geothermal  fluids   for  43
direct users in  13  states.    In  general,  the  levels  of
chemical  constituents  are much  lover than for  power plant
reinjection brines.
                           80

-------
     Table V-3  contains  analyses of  three brine samples  tested



     for both major  and  trace constituents.  These  samples  were



     collected in Imperial Valley, CA, at  three test well  sites



     in  1980  (Accurex,  1980) .    This  test data   can  only  be



     considered as preliminary since the  chemical analyses  have



     not been verified through further testing.   The first eight



     elements reported  under  the trace  element  analyses  column



     are  contaminants  from  the RCRA  extraction procedure  (EP)



     toxicity test for determining whether a waste is hazardous.







     Table V-4  (Morris,  1981}  also  contains  analyses of  three



     sites,  two  of  which are  from  the  same sites as Table  V-3.



     All  three  are  test well  samples  were  taken  from  on-site



     fluid pits or tanks.  Again, the first eight elements shown



     are the eight RCRA EP toxicity contaminants.







5.2  Solid Wastes



     Very  little  site-specific data relating to  the composition



     of solid wastes from  geothermal operations  have been found



     in  the  literature.   Two references  (Accurex   1980,  1983)



     discuss the  analyses of  33  samples  of  various  solid and



     liquid  samples  collected in 1980.    As stated before, these



     data  can  only  be   considered  as preliminary  at  this  time



     since the  results  have  not been verified  or been subjected



     to -a  quality  assurance  procedure.    These   samples  were



     analyzed in considerable detail, including leachate analyses





                                81

-------
                            Table V-3
Location:

Site:

Owner:
  Liquid Waste - Test Well  Brine Analyses

Imperial Valley

            East Mesa       Niland        Westmoreland

                                              MAPCO
 Republic
Geothermal
 Republic
Geothermal
Bulk
Composition  (mg/1)
Al
Ca
Fe
Mg
K
Na
Cl
F
Si02
S04
S
Trace Analysis (/
-------
                            Table V-4

      Metals Detected in the Extracts  of  Geothermal  Brines'

Ag
As
Ba
Cd
Hgb
Pb
Se
B
Be
Cu
Li
Ni
Sb
Sr
Zn
Al
Ca
Co
Fe
K
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Rb
Si
Sn
Ti
V
Imperial
Macrmamax
.1
25
250
<5
50
NA
600
<.2
5
130
<1
<5
400
200
<1
MC
<1
250
MC
100
400
<2
MC
10
300
<4
<.5
<4
Republic
Fee
.5
<5
400
<4
200
NA
400
<.4
10
2000
5
<10
800
1000
10
MC
<1
1000
MC
400
800
<4
MC
25
30
<4
<10
<4
MAPCO
Courier
w
20
1300
<3
130
NA
130
<.
< .
1000
<3
<7
1750
400
70
MC
<1
650
MC
250
250
<3
MC
17
20
<4
<10
<4
1 -



2


3
,1


















a
b
Units - milligrams of constituent per liter of extract.
MC - Major constituent, ranging from approximately 2000 mg/1
to higher levels.
NA - Not applicable.
     *•
Determinations by opticla emission spectroscopy.
Preconcentration  using CuS carrier  prior to spectographic
analysis.

                              83

-------
for EP toxicity.  Tables V-5 through V-9 list results of the



analyses  for  11  of  these samples  which are applicable  to



this study.







Table  V-5,  V-6  and  V-7 lists  concentrations  for  major



constituents   contained   in   the   11   samples.      These



constituents provide an  indication  of  the mineralogy of the



sample.  Results are reported for total constituent content,



neutral and acid  extractable  values,  along with pH,  percent



moisture,  and radium concentrations.







Table  V-8  and  V-9  lists   concentrations  for  16  trace



constituents  for  the   same   11  samples.    Eight  of  these



constituents are EP toxicity contaminants.







In  addition  to  the  analyses  for  the  eight  EP  toxicity



contaminants,  tests were also  conducted  for  eight  other



metals.   These  metals  (Sb, Be,  B, Cu,  Li,  Ni,  Sr,  Zn) were



included  because  of  being  listed  in  the water  quality



standards of several western states.  Analytical results for



these metals are  summarized  in  Table V-10.  In general, the



measured  concentrations  of   these  metals  are  fairly low,



except for the  levels of boron and zinc.
                           84

-------



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                           Table V-10

       Metals^Setected in the Extracts o^Geothermal Solid
              Wastes from the Imperial Valley Area*"
             Well drilling Mud and Cuttings
     Occidental. Occidental  Republic    MAPCO
     Fed.  Lease   Neasham
Fee
Courier
Scale  Brine
(GLEFr Prec.
       (GLEF)
<.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 .01
.3 .5 3 25 3.5
<.02 <.01 <.03 <.03 <.02
<.l <.l .06 .1 7
<.5 <.5 <.5 <.5 Int.
.02
7
<.04
.07
Int.
Ag
Asc
Ba
Cd
Cr
Hgc
Pb
Sec

B
Bd
Cu
Li
Ni
Sb
Sr
Zn

Al
Ca
Co
Fe
K
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Rb
Si
Sn        <.l       <.l         <.l        <.l      <.l    <.l
Ti        <.l       <.l         <.3        <.3      <.l    <.l
V        <.l        <.l         <.l        <.l      <.2    <.4

Units - Milligrams of constituent per liter of extract.
Int - Interference.
MC -  Major constituent,  ranging from approximately 5000 mg/L to
     higher levels.
a Determinations by  optical  emission  spectroscopy  except  as
  noted.
b Values represent mean of 5 samples analyzed.
c  As,   Hg,  and   Se  were   determined  by  atomic  absorption
  spectrophotometry.    Interference   on   Hg   precludes  lower
  detection level of Hg.
d GLEF - Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility.
Source:' Morris 1981
•
<
<


1
<

MC
<
2
5
10

<
MC
<
5
02
.003
.02
.02
.5

-1
.05

.03



.4
.03

. 1

•
<.
•
•
•
2
<•
•
MC
<.
2
40
10
1.
<.
MC
•
30
1
003
02
04
1

1
6

03



3
03

15

2
<.01
.01
3
.1
10
.5
.2
MC
<.03
1
MC
10
4
.1
MC
1
10
6
<.01
.03
10
.2
25
15
.1
MC
<.03
1
MC
15
10
<. 1
MC
2
3
4
<.
•
15
•
5
•
•
MC
<.
•
MC
2
5
< .
MC
1
2

007
7

07

5
07

02
2



1



7
<.
1
30
<.
13
•
•
MC
<.
<.
MC
3
10
<.
MC
1
4

01


02

7
1

04
4



1



                               30

-------
     One other study (Morris 1981)  provided analyses  of a similar

     group of  samples  with both major  and trace elements.   The

     results are presented in Table V-8 and V-9  and  are based on

     the acid  extract  from the six solid  samples.   Four  of  the

     samples are from  various  drilling mud pits.  The other  two

     are  from the  GLEF  test   facility.    Two  of  the  drilling

     samples are the same  as those shown in Tables V-5,  V-6  and

     V-7.



5.3  Analysis of Waste  Constituents

     A few  of the geothermal wastes  that were  characterized in

     the previous sections could be classified as hazardous under

     RCRA because  they exhibit hazardous  characteristics.   The

     hazardous   characteristics   that   are   present   include

     corrosivity and EP toxicity for certain metals.



     The  corrosive  characteristic applies to  wastes  with  pH

     values equal to or less  than 2.0, or  greater than or equal

     to 12.5.  Maximum concentration levels for EP toxicity metal

     contaminants are as follows:

                                        Maximum Concentration
          Metal Contaminant                    (mg/L)	

          Arsenic                              5.0
          Barium                             100.0
          Cadmium                              1.0
          Chromium                             5.0
          Lead                                 5.0
         - Mercury                              0.2
          Selenium                             1.0
          Silver                               5.0
                                91

-------
     Two of the three brine  samples, characterized  in  Table V-3,



     exceed allowable levels of RCRA hazardous  characteristics.



     The sample  from the  Niland site  exhibits  the  corrosivity



     characteristic with  a  pH  of 1.6  and also  exceeds the  EP



     toxicity  concentration   for  barium.   At  the  Westmoreland



     site,  the brine  sample  exceeds the EP toxicity  limits  for



     metals;    i.e.,   arsenic,  cadmium,   lead,   and   selenium.



     Similarly, the three  geothermal brine samples  characterized



     in   Table    V-4    also   exceed    allowable    contaminant



     concentrations for arsenic, barium,  and lead.







     Sufficient constituent  data are  not  available  to  further



     evaluate  the  other waste  streams  with respect  to the  EP



     toxicity contaminant concentrations.







5.4  Data Needs



     Sufficient data  are  not presently  available  to  accurately



     characterize  or   quantify  wastes   generated   from  power



     production and  drilling  activities  related  to  geothermal



     operations.    Waste information available in  the literature



     applies   to   only  a   few  site-specific  cases.     Since



     characteristics of geothermal wastes relate directly to the



     geology and mineralogy  of  a  resource area,  additional site-



     specific data are required to more fully characterize wastes



     from" the geothermal industry.
                                92

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Presently,  available  historical data  are  insufficient  for



making future  projections  of total volumes  of  drilling  mud



and  cuttings  generated  by  the geothermal  industry.    To



predict  future waste  disposal  requirements  and  associated



potential problems, it is important to establish an accurate



historical  record  from which to extrapolate.  The  type of



data needed is not generally published in the literature and



industry  cooperation  is  essential.    Information must be



obtained  concerning  volume, characteristics  and  chemical



constituents   of   mud  pit   solids,   drill  cuttings   and



reinjection fluids.   Waste  treatment,  handling  and disposal



practices need  to  be established for  each  facility (or, at



the very least, for each geothermal region).
                           93

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                            CHAPTER 6



                   WASTE MANAGEMENT  PRACTICES








     This chapter  describes current waste disposal  practices  for



wastes  generated  from geothermal   exploration,  development  and



operations.    Also explored  are alternatives to  current disposal



practices that  may be  required if  geothermal  wastes were  to be



regulated under RCRA.   Finally,  a summary  of  state  regulatory



requirements for geothermal  operations  requirements  is presented.



Accompanying this  summary  is a discussion of  the availability of



information documenting the potential  danger to  human  health  and



environment resulting from geothermal operations or waste disposal



practices.








6.1    Current Practices



       The  following  discussions   pertain  to  waste  management



       techniques  that are practiced during  geothermal drilling,



       power production, and direct-use applications.







6.1.1  Disposal Practices for Drilling Wastes



       A  review   of   the   literature   indicated  that  only  two



       references  addressed handling and disposal  of wastes  from



       geothermal drilling activities.   At Heber, Imperial Valley,



       California,  drilling wastes  are  discharged  to  a reserve



       pit,  and  from  there the wastes  are  collected for off-site



       disposal (US DOE, 1980).



                                 94

-------
One  reference (Royce,  1985)  describes  the waste  handling
and disposal methods employed at The Geysers.    These waste
management methods  reflect current regulatory  policies  in
California.   At  The Geysers,  an  on-site  reserve pit  is
constructed with a two-foot thick clay liner with a permea-
bility of less than 10  cm/s.  If wastes within the pit are
tested and shown to be non-hazardous,  according to the RCRA
characteristic test, then  these wastes will  remain  in the
pit. «   Wastes that are  determined  to be  hazardous  are
transported to approved hazardous waste disposal sites (For
more details  on  waste  toxicity testing and  approved waste
disposal facilities, see  California Geothermal Regulations
Summary  in  Appendix B) .    After the solids settle and the
liquid is pumped off for reinjection into the well, the pit
is  capped.    Pit  dewatering consists  merely  of  allowing
liquids  to  evaporate from  the  surface  of the  reserve pit
prior to back filling.   A more complex technology involves
the  use  of  alum  and   polymers   as  flocculants.    After
separation,  the  water is  discharged and  thickened solids
are  covered  with   backfill  (Hansen,   et  al,  undated).
Problems  associated  with  this  method involve  potential
future  liabilities  that  could  result  from waste  sludge
remaining buried at the site  (Hansen, et al, undated).

Land farming, another reserve pit disposal option, involves
the mechanical distribution and mixing of reserve pit waste

                          95

-------
into soils in  the vicinity  of  the  drilling site (Fairchild



1980, Hansen,  et  al undated).    In  the  petroleum industry



this method  of disposal  is controversial  because of  the



high   chloride  content   of   drilling   wastes   in   some



geographical   locations   (Tucker  1985,   Hansen,   et   al,



undated).





In   California,   off-site  waste  disposal   is  used   for



disposition  of hazardous  wastes from  geothermal drilling.



However, instead  of vacuum truck removal,  the  reserve  pit



contents  are  allowed  to  desiccate  and  the  solids  are



transported to an approved disposal site.







Stringent  permitting requirements  and  state prohibitions



limit  the  general  application  of  annular  disposal  of



drilling  wastes  in  the   United  States  (Hansen,  et  al,



undated).   When applied to geothermal drilling,  this method



is not  particularly applicable if it  will  have an adverse



effect on the development of the geothermal well.





Solidification  of reserve  pit wastes may  be economically



attractive  and  is   more  environmentally  acceptable  than



backfilling  of   the wastes   (Hansen,  et  al,  undated).



Solidification methods  typically involve mixing fly ash or



kiln dust with the  drilling fluids to decrease the overall



moisture content  of the  mixture  (Hansen,  et al undated).



One  reference  (Hansen,  et al  undated)  states that problems





                          96

-------
associated with  this waste  management method  include  the

potential  for leaching  toxic  metals,  organics  and  non-

metallicions  (particularly chlorides)  into  groundwater,  or

possible  bioaccumulation  of  these  constituents  in  plants

and the food chain.


The  primary  wastes from  either  geothermal or  petroleum

drilling  activities are  drilling muds  and  drill  cuttings.

Methods currently  practiced  by  the geothermal industry for

handling  and disposal  of these  materials  have  generally

been developed by  the petroleum industry.


After completion or abandonment of a well, drilling mud and

cuttings  remain within the reserve mud pit.  The following

quote  from  Raferty  (1985)   is  offered to provide  some

perspective on the nature of the reserve pit.
    "In  the  early days of  drilling,  the reserve
    pit  was  used  to  remove  drilled  solids  and
    store  the   active mud  system.     As  more
    advanced  solids control  and  drilling  fluid
    technology  became  available  to the  oil  and
    gas  industry,  mud  tanks  began replacing the
    reserve  pit  as  the  storage  and  processing
    area  for  the active  mud  system.   Today's
    reserve  pit  is  little  more  than oversized
    collection  point for  drill  site  waste,  well
    bore cuttings, and rainwater."
Fairchild  (1985a)  lists the  following  five  methods  for

handling of reserve pit contents:

o - dewatering of pit wastes with subsequent backfilling;

o   land farming the wastes into surrounding soils;


                          97

-------
       o   vacuum truck removal and hauling to  an  off-site  pit;



       o   pumping the waste down the well  annulus;  and



       o   chemical solidification of the wastes.







6.1.2  Waste Management Practices- Power Generation  Facilities



       Seven types of liquid waste disposal have been described in



       the  literature  for  power  generation  facilities.    These



       seven include:







       1)  Direct release to surface waters;



       2)  Treatment and release to surface waters;



       3)  Closed cycle ponding and evaporation;



       4)  Injection into a producing horizon;



       5)  Injection into a non-producing horizon;



       6)  Treatment and injection; and



       7)  Consumptive secondary use.







       An  international review of  waste disposal  methods showed



       potential applications  for  each  of  these methods depending



       on the  legal,  technical,  and environmental  aspects of the



       different power  generation  sites  (US DOE,  1980) .   At least



       one  of  the  above  mentioned disposal methods  is  being



       practiced or will be implemented at the 25  power generation



       facilities   that  are   currently   opeational  or  under



       construction.   These data  are  summarized in  Table VI-1.



       For the  seven methods,  a brief  description  follows,  with





                                 98

-------
discussion of sites where each type is practiced.



Direct release to  surface waters  is  the  most simple method



of disposal and  consists of  discharging  the  spent fluid to



a local drainage system.  In the past, this method has been



practiced at  some  time at all power generation facilities



(US  DOE,  1980).   Current  environmental  constraints  have



made  this  practice almost  non-existent  for  facilities  in



the  United  States.   One small  binary  facility  (Wendell-



Amedee,  Wendell   Hot   Springs)   has  been  identified  as



performing surface discharge.   (California Div. of Oil and



Gas  1985) .    This  situation is  justified  due  to  the good



high  quality  of the brine,  as is indicated  in Table V-l.



Treatment  and release to  surface  waters can  also be  a



relatively  simple process;  however,  it  can  become  cost



intensive,  depending   on  the  type  of treatment  required.



Treatment can vary from simple settling and flocculation to



sophisticated physical/chemical processes   (US DOE, 1980).



Currently,  no  power   facilities  have been  identified  as



using this type of brine treatment.







Closed  cycle  ponding  and  evaporation consists of cycling



the  spent  brine  through one  or a  series of  ponds where



salts can settle out  and the  liquid is  able to evaporate.



Ponds can be  either natural  or man-made.  Currently, there



are  no  power  generation facilities  utilizing this method,



but this method could be applicable  in areas where the





                          99

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climate is arid and land is relatively inexpensive (US DOE,



1980).



Injection  of  liquid  wastes  into  the  producing  horizon



consists of recycling the spent brine back into a different



location of the  geothermal  reservoir.   This process has to



be carefully planned  to  ensure injection into an area that



is  permeable enough  to  handle large  volumes of  liquid.



Also, the injection well should be far enough away from the



production well  to  keep  from cooling the production brine.



Even  with such  constraints,  22  of  the power  generation



facilities practice this method of disposal  (Source:   See



Appendix  A  for  Development of Data) .    This is the  most



often  used  liquid  waste  management  practice  for  power



generation facilities located in the United States.








Injection into a non-producing horizon is identical to the



management  practice   previously  mentioned,   except  the



reinjection well is drilled to a zone  that  is vertically



separated or laterally located  from the production well (US



DOE,  1980) .   This  is primarily done  in regions where the



production zone  is fractured and can be easily contaminated



by  the cooler   injection  fluid.    Reinjection  to   a  non-



producing zone has only been tested at one  location.  Tests



of injection into a non-producing horizon at the Roosevelt



Hot  Springs  flash  facility in Utah proved  successful in



1980 (US DOE, 1980).






                         101

-------
Treatment  and  injection  is  utilized  in  instances  where
either the brine quality is so poor that potential plugging
is high,  or  in the case where a usable  byproduct could be
recovered  from the brine  prior to  reinjection.   Several
examples of pretreatment to  prevent  plugging are currently
operational in the United States.   The Heber flash facility
in   Imperial   Valley  operates  a  crystallizer/clarifier
processing   arrangement   for  silica   removal   prior   to
reinjection.    (Royce,  1985).  The Salton  Sea-Vulcan plant
uses  this same  process  and  is  investigating  turning  the
silica  solids product into  a commercial  product (Morton,
1986).

Consumptive secondary use of liquid wastes is utilized as a
waste disposal  method  when the spent  fluid  can be re-used
as part of the power generation process or by some adjacent
facility.  Six of the facilities shown in Table VI-1 re-use
condensate or  clarified  brine  as  make-up   water to  the
cooling towers  (Source:  See Appendix A for Development of
Data).     The  Wabasha  Hot  Spring   facility  in  Nevada
discharges warm water to a neighboring fish farm, where the
water passes  through a  series of  fish ponds  and is then
surface discharged  (Lienau,  1986).

The solid wastes described in Section 4.3 can be managed by
either of  two methods:   on-site, or off-site disposal.   In

                         102

-------
       some instances,  a combination of both alternatives is  used.
       Some  facilities  use brine  holding  ponds  to  accumulate
       solids.     Once   these  ponds  are  full,  the  material  is
       excavated  and  hauled  to  a  landfill,  much  the  same  as
       desiccated  drilling  mud.     Facilities  using  the  EIMCO
       process  (Vulcan-Magma Power) produce  a  solid  material that
       is filtered and then hauled to a California Class I, II,  or
       III landfill  depending on  how the waste  tests  with regard
       to RCRA characteristics.   (Morton,  1986).   Small quantities
       of waste  generated,  such as  scale,  are collected  in  35-
       gallon  drums  on  site  and  then  similarly  hauled  away
       (Morton, 1986).

       As previously indicated, all  solid  wastes generated from
       geothermal  power  plants  in  California  are  handled  as
       hazardous  wastes -  if  tests  are  positive  for the  RCRA
       characteristics  - and are  disposed  of in state-specified
       waste   management  units.      Solids   disposal   practices
       implemented  in   each  state  are addressed  in Appendix  B,
       State Geothermal Regulations Summaries.

6.1.3  Current Waste Management  Practices - Direct Users
       The  seven  methods  of   liquid   waste  disposal  for  power
       generation   facilities   are   applicable  to,   but   not
       neeessarily  required by the  direct users.     Table  VI-2
       presents the waste disposal status for 104 direct  users in

                                103

-------
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12  states.    Closed  cycle  ponding,   and  treatment  and
injection have been  eliminated  as  waste management options
from  the  table  since  no  facilities   that  utilize  these
methods have been identified.  For each of the four methods
shown, at  least  one  example of  the waste disposal practice
has been found in the literature.

Direct release to surface  waters is by far the most common
method  of  liquid  disposal  for direct  users.    (Refer to
Figure VI-1).   90 of the  104 direct users listed practice
surface  discharge.      (Source:     See   Appendix  A  for
Development  of  Data).    This practice  is  justified  due to
the low  flowrates and  high quality of  the geothermal fluid
being  used.    Some  states  (i.e.,  Oregon)  are  starting to
encourage  direct users away   from  surface discharge  and
towards  reinjection as an alternative  since  in certain
areas   serious   drops  in  aquifer   levels   have   been
experienced.

Injection  into  the  producing  horizon  is  the  next  most
common method  of disposal.  14 sites  are currently listed
as  using  this  method,  with an  increase expected  in  the
future.

Consumptive  secondary  use  is used at two  facilities  (White
Sulfur  Springs,  MT,  and Newcastle, UT) .   Both  facilities

                         105

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       discharge into holding basins where the water  is  collected



       for irrigation.







6.2    Alternative Disposal Methods



       Very  little  information has  been  discovered  for  newly



       developed  disposal  methods.     Several  refinements   to



       existing processes  have been mentioned  in the  literature



       and these are briefly discussed.







       With  the  development  of   new  geothermal  resources,  the



       chemical constituents  of the brine can vary  considerably.



       This  chemical variation  could  lead  to  discovery of  new



       constituent  recovery  operations.   As mentioned  in Section



       6.1.2,   Magma   Power   Company   is   investigating   the



       marketability  of   the  silica   solid   residue   that   is



       crystallized from the spent brine prior to injection.   They



       are  exploring  the  potential  market  for  "Geocrete",  a



       business  decision   that  could turn  what  is   currently  an



       operating  debit  for  disposal into  a  credit,  or at  the



       least,  reduction  or  elimination  of  the  current  waste



       disposal cost.







       Another example of potential resource recovery is currently



       being considered at The Geysers.  Here,  it has  been found



       that  elemental  sulfur  can  be recovered  from the residue



       generated  from  the H-S  abatement system.  This operation





                                106

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       could possibly provide a saleable  sulfur  product.







       One new liquid  waste  disposal practice is included  in  the



       October 31,  1986 Technical Report  comments.   (Lowes,  1987).



       However,  it  is more  suited  to the  Oil  and Gas  Industry.



       The process,  developed by Aquatech Services,  Inc.,  consists



       of a proprietary evaporation  process  for  disposal  of spent



       brines.  Stated evaporation capacities of 16,800 gallon  per



       day fall far  below normal power plant flowrates;  however,



       there are some small direct users  for which  this flow range



       is  applicable.     Since  the  process  is  stated  as  being



       competitive  with  reinjection  costs,   it   could   have  a



       potential application for some direct-use operation.







6.3    Regulatory Requirements



       State statutes  and rules and regulations obtained  from 35



       different states have been examined for their applicability



       to geothermal energy exploration and development.  Fourteen



       of these  states have geothermal  acts passed by  the state



       legislature  mandating  the  implementation  of  geothermal



       rules  and  regulations.    Typically,  these regulations  are



       very  comprehensive and,  in  general,  address  permitting,



       solid  and   liquid  waste  disposal,  well   design,  well



       plugging, and restoration of surface.







       Of the states that do not have geothermal  acts,  11 states





                                107

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       have rules and regulations that pertain to  some  aspects  of



       geothermal  exploration  and  development.    Most  of  these



       regulations are located in water  quality  control standards



       or  oil  and  gas  regulations  which address  some areas  of



       geothermal development, especially drilling and  injection



       well requirements.







6.4    Damage Cases



       A  total  of 42  state  and  local  contacts were  made  in



       connection  with  geothermal  energy  damage   cases.     No



       significant  existence  of  damages  associated   with  the



       exploration,  development,  or  production   of  geothermal



       energy was  found.   In fact,   only  three incidents relating



       to potential damage cases were  identified.   Two  reports of



       pollution  from  geothermal waste   in  The Geysers area  of



       California were  obtained  from  the California Division  of



       Oil and Gas.   Also in California,  another  incident  in the



       Heber area of the Imperial Valley  was described by the U.S.



       Bureau of Land Management.







       One of The  Geysers  incidents  occurred  in  Lake  County where



       a waste sump containing drilling  fluids and bentonite muds



       was pumped  and  discharged to an  adjacent  gulley  during a



       period of high rainfall.   This discharge caused a temporary



       increase in the turbidity of  a nearby stream resulting in a



       small fish  kill.   The incident was written up  in  a local





                                108

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newspaper, but  no official  documentation  or studies  were

performed.  This incident was exceptional because there are

procedures  for  reinjecting  waste  drilling  fluids  during

unusual rainfall events.   In Sonoma County,  a  sump pumping

truck  loaded  with  drilling  fluids and  brine  illegally

dumped  its  contents  along a roadside.   This  incident was

documented by the local Regional Water Quality Board.



At a  Chevron well in Heber,  a  brine blowout occurred, but

the salt  water  migration  was confined only to  the pad area

of  the operation.    The discharged brine  was  eventually

collected  and  re-injected.    County  officials  took  no

actions regarding  the blowout,  but  a  report may have been

made to the local Regional Water Quality Control Board.

At present,  there  is  a  potential  damage case evolving at a

site in California.  This case is currently being

researched.



There  are   three  possible   reasons  why  no  significant

geothermal damage cases were  found.
1)  There  may   not   be   any  significant  damage  to  the
    environment  from geothermal waste;

2)  The regulations  may  not be properly  enforced and thus
    some damages may go unnoticed; or

3), The  regulations  may not  be  adequate  for monitoring
    potential damages.
                         109

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An  additional study  would  be  required  to determine  the



status of both the  enforcement  procedures and the adequacy



of  the  regulations now  in  place.   As  the status  of  the



regulations and enforcement  sector  now stands,  however,  no



significant documentation  of damage cases  from geothermal



activity exists.
                         110

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                             CHAPTER 7



          ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES








      This chapter outlines  a  methodology  for estimating costs of



the current and alternative waste disposal  practices identified in



the previous chapter.








7.1    Cost Estimation Methodology



       After  a  thorough  review  of  the  published  waste disposal



       cost data, it was determined that actual producer cost data



       would be required.  The published data were not only out of



       date  (1975-1978) ,  but  were  primarily  rough  estimates  of



       waste disposal costs  rather than  actual costs.  Also, most



       publications  dealing with  waste  disposal  cost used  one



       article published in 1979 as the basis for discussions.








       When actual waste  disposal  cost data are available,  a cost



       review  and   update   technique will  be  applied.     Cost



       estimates can be  constructed by reviewing the actual data



       and then  organizing  the data  into  cost categories  such as



       capitalized   investment  costs  and  annual  operation  and



       maintenance costs.








       Each  cost  estimate  will  be normalized to  account  for



       inflation, geographic location, geothermal production rate,



       and similar  factors  that might tend to  skew  a comparison






                                111

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       between existing and  alternative practices.   Similar  cost



       estimate categories will be  used so that the same  adjust-



       ments  can  be  made  in  order to  determine  total  economic



       impacts.








7.2    Costs of Current and Alternative Practices



       The geothermal waste  disposal  practices in current use  in



       California, along with the possible alternatives,  are  shown



       in Table VIl-l.  The  majority  of geothermal  operations use



       reinjection into the  producing horizon primarily to  avoid



       falling  pressures  and  flows,   as  well  as   to  prevent



       subsidence.    In  most  liquid  geothermal  areas,   power



       producers operate at conditions that avoid precipitation of



       solids in order to eliminate the expense of disposal.   Only



       a small number of  locations  currently  produce solid wastes



       that require off-site disposal.
                                112

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                           Table VII-1

                    Waste  Management  Practices
Current Practice
          Alternative Practice
Reinjection into a producing
horizon
          Upgrade  injection well  to  a
          Class V level.
On-site earthen pit storage and
disposal

On-site disposal in a
Class II or III landfill
          Use off-site Class I land-
          waste management unit.
          Use  off-site  Class  III
          waste management unit.
land-
                                    Convert solids to a "Geocrete"
                                    building material by-product
KEY;

Class V injection well
Class I waste manage-
ment unit
Class II waste
management unit
Class III waste
management unit
Federal Underground Injection Control
(UIC) Program classification for
geothermal injection well.

Most secure, double-lined landfill,
surface impoundment, or waste pile;
RCRA-approved facility.

Landfill, or surface impoundment class
designed for "designated wastes";
commonly used for drilling muds, fluids,
cuttings, sump solids.

 on- or off-site landfill for non-
hazardous, non-designated wastes.
                                113

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                             CHAPTER 8



     ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES








     This chapter addresses the economic impact of the alternative



disposal methods, which  were described in  Chapter  6,   concerning



the  exploration,   development,   and  production   of  geothermal



energy.  First, a methodology for determining the economic impacts



is described.  This  presentation  is then followed by a discussion



of how these impacts may  affect  the future  profitability  of the



geothermal industry.








8.1  Methodology



     An  economic  impact  assessment analysis  will be conducted in



     future work on a facility-by-facility basis.  This assessment



     will encompass  evaluation  of impacts on production costs and



     profitability  due  to  requirements  for  more  stringent waste



     disposal  practices.    The  impact on plant  profitability and



     the  likelihood  of   plant   closure  will  be  made  using



     computerized discounted cash flow techniques.








     The  cost  of  disposal  practices  evolving  from  the  cost



     analysis  will  provide both capital  investment  and  opera-



     tions/maintenance  costs for both  existing and  alternative



     waste  treatment/disposal  systems.     The  impacts  of  the



     existing  treatment/disposal  systems will be  subtracted from



     the baseline  financial data, and the  cost  of  installing and



                                114

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     operating the new system will  be added.   The impact  of  this



     change will be  reflected  in a  mills/kwh or similar  measure



     that can  be compared  to  the  estimated  cost of  alternative



     energy.    The  impact on profitability is  the  final  step  of



     determining the  economic impacts.   A closure analysis  will  be



     conducted  wherein  the current  liquidation value  of  the



     facility will be compared to the present values of  cash  flow



     over the  remaining  life of the facility.   From this  closure



     analysis,  the impact on employment,  small business,  and the



     community can be estimated.







     In order to account for uncertainty,  sensitivity studies  will



     be conducted wherein major cost items and assumptions  will  be



     varied  to determine the  impact.   Ideally, these  financial



     comparisons will be  conducted  at the facility  level  so  that



     the  economic  impact  on   the  geothermal  facility  can  be



     isolated and quantified.







8.2  Forecast of Future Profitability for the Geothermal Industry



     The recent  drop  in  energy prices,  with  the reduced growth  in



     demand  for  electrical power  and  cutbacks  in  government



     support and incentives has  initiated a consolidation  phase



     for the geothermal industry.   Development will  continue  at



     The Geysers in  northern  California due   to  the  favorable



     economics of this  area.   Exploration for new  resources has



     dropped significantly  with  most new drilling  occurring  at





                                115

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currently operating fields.  (Wallace 1986).



Geothermal energy production increased  during 1986 primarily



due  to  increases  in  direct  use  projects  and small  scale



modular  binary  units  for  reduced  cost  electrical  power



generation.   Electrical power  generation capacity  for  1986



remained  basically  unchanged  from  1985.   Under  the current



energy   market   conditions,   future  developments   will  be



restricted to expanding  existing  economic fields (Wallace et



al,  1986) .    As existing  older  plants  reach  their economic



life and are phased out, it is quite possible that electrical



power generation capacity will actually decrease.  This would



be  due to the  poor  economics  and higher economic  risk  of a



brand new facility over an existing one in the current energy



market.   (Geothermal Resource Council, 1986).  .







The  future  profitability of the geothermal  industry is  tied



directly to the price of energy available from other sources,



primarily hydrocarbon  fuels.   When the  price of these fuels



rise again  in the future, the  level  of new  geothermal field



development  will  increase as  well.    For  the majority  of



current  producers,  the  profit  margins have  been  reduced



significantly   in  the   past   several  years.     (Geothermal



Resource Council, 1986).
                           116

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This is a very  important consideration in any implementation



of  more  restrictive  waste  management  practices,  as  any



increase in  cost  could  have a  very  serious  impact on  the



industry.
                           117

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                           CHAPTER  10
          ABBREVIATION OF UNITS AND SCIENTIFIC TERMS USED
                    IN THE FIGURES AND TABLES
10.1

BGY
G/cm
Kg
Km
MGD

Al
Alk
As
B
Ba
BaSO
Be
Ca
Cd
Cl
Cr
Co
Cu
CuS
F
Fe
Ht.S
Hg
Zn
Billions of gallons per year
Grams per cubic centimeter
Kilogram
Kilometer
Millions of gallons per day

Aluminum
Alkalinity
Arsenic
Boron
Barium
Barium sulfate
Berylluim
Calcium
Cadmium
Chlorine
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Copper sulfide
Fluorine

Hy'Sr'ogen sulfide
Mercury
Zinc
Mg/L
MW
pCi/g
pCi/s

Li
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Ni
Pb
Rb
S
Sb
Se
Si
SiO
Sn
SO

Tl
Milligrams per liter
Megawatts
Micrograms per liter
PicoCuries per gram
PicoCuries per second

Lithium
Magnesium
Manganese
Molybdenum
Sodium
Nickel
Lead
Rubidium
Sulfur
Antimony
Selenium
Silicon
Silicon dioxide
Tin
Sulfate
Vanadium
TDS - Total Dissolved Solids
                                TSS - Total Suspended Solids
                              120

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10.2 GLOSSARY
                           CHAPTER 10
ANNULUS
BALNEOLOGICAL BATH
BAYER'S PROCESS
BINARY PROCESS
The  space  between  the casing and
wall of a hole  or between  a drill
pipe and casing.

A  therapeutic  bath, usually asso-
ciated with hot mineral springs.

A process developed by the Austrian
chemist,  Karl  Josef  Bayer,  used
almost   universally   to   extract
alumina from bauxite.

A   geothermal  conversion  process
that utilizes  a  secondary working
fluid that has a boiling point less
than that of water.  The  heat from
the geothermal brine is transferred
to the  working  fluid  via  a heat
exchanger;  the  working  fluid  is
vaporized, then used  to  power the
turbine  generator.   The brine and
the working fluid  are  in separate
closed loops.  The geothermal fluid
is maintained in  the  liquid state
by   high   pressure,   and  it  is
reinjected into the reservoir after
use.
BRINE
An  aqueous  solution  containing a
higher  concentration  of dissolved
salt than ordinary sea water (about
35,000mg/l, or 35%).
CASING
A steel pipe placed in an oil, gas,
or  geothermal   well  as  drilling
progresses to prevent  the  wall of
the  hole  from  caving  in  during
drilling and to provide  a means of
extracting  petroleum  or  brine if
the well is productive.
                              121

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CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
CENTRIFUGE
CONDENSATE
CONDENSIBLE GAS
The  force  exerted  as  a material
moving along  a curve reacts to the
body that constrains the motion and
is impelled by inertia to move away
from the center  of  curvature; the
force directed  outwardly along the
radius of curvature.

A  rotating  device  for separating
liquids   of   different   specific
gravities    or    for   separating
suspended  colloidal  particles  by
centrifugal force.

The liquid obtained by  the conden-
sation of a gas, vapor or liquid.

Gas that can be reduced to a denser
form, as from steam to water.
CONDUCTOR PIPE
COOLING TOWER BLOWDOWN
COOLING TOWER DRIFT
DERRICK
DIRECT-USE GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM
DRILL BIT
A relatively short length  of steel
pipe,    with    slightly   greater
diameter  than  that  of  the first
string of casing, inserted into the
drill hole to guide installation of
the casing.

The  removal  of  liquids or solids
from a process  vessel  or  line by
the use of pressure.

A fine  mist of water droplets that
escape from the top or sides of the
tower during normal operation.  Any
compound  normally  present  in the
circulating  water  will be carried
out with the drift.

A large apparatus  for  lifting and
moving   heavy   objects,  and  for
supporting drilling  machinery on a
drilling rig.

The   utilization   of   geothermal
energy as  heat  without converting
it to another form of energy.

The cutting  or boring element used
in drilling oil, gas, or geothermal
wells.
                              122

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DRILL CUTTINGS
DRILL STEM
DRILL STRING
EFFLUENT
EXTRACTION PROCEDURE
(EP) TOXICITY
Fragments of rocks dislodged by the
drill bit  and brought  to the sur-
face in the drilling mud.

The element  that rotates the drill
bit  and   provides   a  passageway
through which the drilling fluid is
circulated.

A term used in  rotary drilling for
the  assemblage  in  a  borehole of
drill pipes, drill  bit  and either
core   barrel   or  drill  collars,
connected  to  and  rotated  by the
drill machine.

An outflow  of treated or untreated
liquid  waste  from  an  industrial
facility  or  from a holding struc-
ture, such as a pit or pond.
A solid waste exhibits  EP toxicity
if,  using   the  test  methods  as
described in 40  CFR  or equivalent
methods  approved  by  the  Admini-
strator,   the   extract   from   a
representative  sample contains any
of the  contaminants  listed  in 40
CFR   261.24, Table I, at a concen-
tration equal  to  or  greater than
the value  given for  that waste in
the table.   If  the waste contains
less  than  0.5  percent filterable
solids, the waste, after filtering,
is considered to be the extract.

If   a   solid  waste  exhibits  EP
toxicity, but is  not  listed  as a
hazardous waste  in 40 CFR, Subpart
D, an EPA  hazardous  waste number,
that corresponds to the toxic con-
taminant  causing  it  to be hazar-
dous, is specified by statute.
                              123

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FERIFLOC PROCESS
(IRON CATALYST PROCESS)
FILTER CAKE
FLASH PROCESS
FLOCCULATION
FLY ASH
FORCED AIR SYSTEM
FREON
A  process   of   hydrogen  sulfide
emissions   control   developed  by
Pacific Gas  and Electric  Co. as a
downstream  system  for retrofit to
existing geothermal plants that use
direct  contact  condensers.    The
process has  been modified signifi-
cantly since  its introduction. The
improved  system  is  known  as the
Iron-Catalyst-Peroxide-Caustic
(ICPC) system.

The  compacted  solid  or semisolid
material  separated  from  a liquid
and  remaining  on  a  filter after
pressure filtration;  the  layer of
concentrated    solids   from   the
drilling  and  left  behind  on the
walls of the borehole.

Partial evaporation of hot condens-
ed liquid by  a  stepwise reduction
in system pressure; vaporization of
volatile liquids by either  heat or
vacuum.

Aggregation or  coalescence of fine
particles   to   form   a  settled,
filterable mass.

Fine solid particulate, essentially
non-combustible refuse.  Fly ash is
carried  by  draft  out of a bed of
solid   fuel   and   deposited   in
isolated spots  within a furnace or
flue,  or  carried  out  through  a
chimney.

A space  heat system  where hot air
is blown from a heat source  and is
then   distributed   by   ducts  to
outlets.

A  trade  name  used   for  any  of
various  nonflammable  gaseous  and
liquid   fluorinated   hydrocarbons
used as refrigerants and as aerosol
propel1ants.
                              124

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FUMAROLE
A volcanic  vent  from  which gases
and vapors are emitted.
GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
GEOPRESSURED SYSTEM
GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT
GEYSER
HOT DRY ROCK
HOT SPRING


HYDROCYCLONE
HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)
The  use  of  one  or  more  of the
following geophysical techniques in
geophysical  exploration:  electri-
cal resistivity  surveys, infra-red
surveys,   heat   flow  monitoring,
magneto-telluric    surveys,    and
seismic monitoring.

Hot,  high-pressure brines contain-
ing dissolved natural gases.

The rate of increase of the earth's
temperature  with increasing depth.
The  average  gradient  is approxi-
mately  1  deg  C/30  meters (2 deg
F/100 feet).

A type  of  hot  spring  from which
columns of hot water and steam gush
into  the  air  at   more  or  less
regular intervals.

Non-molten  hot   rocks  where  the
geothennal   gradient    is   above
normal,  but  neither steam nor hot
water can be produced economically.

A spring whose temperature is above
that of 98 • F.

A  device  which  separates  a pulp
into  coarse,   heavy  product  and
fine,  light  product.    The  pulp
takes a circular path  in a conical
vortex where centrifugal forces act
to separate the pulp  into a coarse
fraction,  which  is  discharged at
the  apex,  and  a  fine  fraction,
which  is  removed  by  the  vortex
finder.

A flammable,  toxic,  colorless gas
with offensive odor, commonly found
in petroleum fractions.
                             125

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HYDRONIC SYSTEM
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
A space  heat system  that uses hot
water  directly  in radiant panels,
convectors  or   radiators,  either
singly  or  in combination with one
another.

The pressure at a point in  a fluid
at  rest  due  to the weight of the
fluid  above  it.    Also  known as
gravitational pressure.
IGNEOUS ROCK
KELLY
KILN
LAVA
LEACHATE
LIQUID-DOMINATED
GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM
MAGMA
MOLE
Rock  solidified   from  molten  or
partly molten  materials.  Examples
are granite, andesite and basalt.

The heavy square or hexagonal steel
pipe   which   transmits   twisting
torque from the rotary machinery to
the drill string and  ultimately to
the bit.

A large furnace for baking, drying,
or burning  firebrick  or refracto-
ries,  or  for  calcining  ores  or
other substances.

A fluid rock  which  issues  from a
volcano or a fissure in the earth's
surface; such  rock when solidified
upon cooling.

A  liquid  that  percolates through
soil, sand, or other media, usually
migrating from a pit or landfill.
A subsurface reservoir of hot water
or a mixture of liquid and vapor.

A naturally  occurring  mobile rock
material generated within the earth
and   capable   of   intrusion  and
extrusion.      Igneous  rocks  are
thought to have  been  derived from
magma  through  solidification  and
related processes.

The   amount   of   pure  substance
containing   the   same  number  of
elementary units as there are atoms
in exactly twelve grams of carbon.
                             126

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MUD
MUD POT
MUD VOLCANO
 The   natural   drilling  fluid  circu-
 lated through the well   bore  during
 rotary    drilling    and   workover
 operations.   The  mud  brings drill
 cuttings  to   the surface,  cools and
 lubricates   the    bit   and  drill
 system,   protects   against blowouts
 by   holding   back   subsurface pres-
 sures,  and   deposits  a coating on
 the  wall   of   the   bore to prevent
 loss of fluids to the formation.

 Type  of  hot spring containing
 boiling   mud,   commonly associated
 with geysers   and other hot springs
 in volcanic areas.

 An   accumulation,   usually conical,
 of mud and rock ejected by volcanic
 gases; also,  a similar  accumulation
 formed by escaping  petroliferous
 gases.
NITROGEN DRILLING
ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
PERMEABILITY
PH
A    drilling   technique   utilizing
nitrogen as   drilling  fluid.   It  is
used  in  drilling  vapor-dominated
systems   so   as  not   to  damage the
production  zone  with hydrostatic
columns   of   water.    Nitrogen   is
preferred over  air  because the
oxygen  in  air  can promote  corro-
sion.

A  range  of magnitudes  of  a quantity
extending from  some  value  of the
quantity to  some  small multiple  of
the quantity.

The  capacity  of  a   porous   rock,
sediment or  soil  to transmit fluid
without  damage to  the structure  of
the  medium;  a  measure  of the
relative  ease of  fluid  flow under
unequal  pressures.

The  negative  logarithm  of the
hydrogen  ion  activity;  the  degree
of  acidity   or  basicity   of   an
aqueous   solution.     At  25*C, 7  is
the neutral  value;  acidity increas-
es with   the decreasing value below
7   and   basicity  increases with
increasing value  above 7.
127

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POLYMERIZATION
PORE PRESSURE
PRECIPITATION
PRODUCING HORIZON
The   joining   together  of  small
molecules to form larger molecules.

The stress  transmitted through the
fluid that  fills the voids between
particles of  a rock  or soil mass;
that  part   of  the  total  normal
stress in a saturated  soil that is
due to the presence of interstitial
water.

The  chemical  process  of bringing
dissolved  and  suspended particles
out   of   solution;   producing  a
separable  solid  phase in a liquid
medium.

The  rock  stratum  of  an  oil  or
geothermal field  that will produce
oil   or   geothermal   fluid  when
penetrated by a well.
REMOTE SENSING
RESERVE PIT
ROTARY DRILLING
ROTARY TABLE
SALINITY
The  gathering   and  recording  of
information about  some property of
an  object  or  area by a recording
device  that  is   not   in  actual
physical contact with the object or
area being studied.

A  pit  in  which  muds  and  other
drilling  fluids  are stored, or an
excavated earthen  walled  pit used
for wastes.

A drilling  method in  which a hole
is drilled  by  a  rotating  bit to
which a  downward force is applied.
The bit is fastened  to and rotated
by the drill stem.

The  geared   rotating  table  that
propels the kelly and drill stem.

The  total  quantity  of  dissolved
salts in water, expressed by weight
in parts per thousand.
                              128

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SAND TRAP
SCALE
SCRUBBING


SEDIMENTARY ROCK
SENSIBLE HEAT
SHALE SHAKER
SLUDGE
A  device   for  separating  heavy,
coarse particles from the cuttings-
laden  fluid  overflowing  a  drill
collar; a  trap separating sand and
other particles  from flowing water
and generally  including a means of
ejecting them.

A hard incrustation on  the surface
of well  and plant equipment formed
by the  precipitation  of dissolved
and suspended solids.

The  process  of separating soluble
gases with extracting liquids.

Rock resulting  from  the accumula-
tion   of   sediments   or  organic
matter. Examples  are  shale, sand-
stone, and limestone.

The heat  transferred to  or from a
body when its temperature changes.

A series of trays  with sieves that
vibrate to remove cuttings from the
circulating  fluid   in   a  rotary
drilling operation.
A residue
or  other
control.
from air
residues
or waste water
from pollution
SULFUR DIOXIDE
SUPERCRITICAL
SURFACE RUN-OFF
A toxic,  irritating, colorless gas
or liquid  compound  formed  by the
oxidation of  sulfur.  It dissolves
in water to form sulfurous acid.

Property of gas which  is above its
critical  pressure  and temperature
and which  makes  it  impossible to
liquify no matter how much pressure
is applied.

Water that  travels  over  the soil
surface  to   the  nearest  surface
stream; the  runoff  of  a drainage
basin  that  has not passed beneath
the surface since precipitation.
                             129

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SWIVEL HEAD                   An assembly at the top of the kelly
                              that  allows  free  rotation of the
                              kelly   while    not   transferring
                              rotation to  the mud hose and hoist
                              cables.

TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS)  The total content of  suspended and
                              dissolved solids in a solution.

VAPOR-DOMINATED
GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM             A  subsurface   reservoir  of  high
                              temperature steam and gases.

VISCOSITY                     The  resistance  of  liquids, semi-
                              solids  and  gases  to  movement or
                              flow.

VOLCANO                       A vent in the earth's crust through
                              which  molten   rock  (lava),  rock
                              fragments, gases,  ashes, etc., are
                              ejected from the earth's interior.
                              130

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                            CHAPTER  It

Report Bibliography
     Accurex 1980.  Identification of solid wastes in geothermal
          operations.   Final draft  report to the  EPA Technical
          Project Monitor. Cincinnati, Ohio.

     Accurex 1983.  Analysis of geothermal wastes for hazardous
          components.    Cincinnati,  Ohio:    Industrial  Environ-
          mental Research Lab.

     Armistead, C.H. 1983.  Geothermal energy:  its past,
          present and  future  contribution to the energy needs of
          man.  2nd ed.  London:  E&FN Span.

     Bufe, C.G. 1982.  Geothermal energy.  Geotimes, Feb. 1982
          pp. 37-39.

     California Division of  Gas &  Oil 1983, Geothermal hotline
       Vol. 13, No. 1
          	 1984, Geothermal hotline Vol. 14, No. 1
          	 1985a, Geothermal hotline Vol. 15, No. 1
          	 1985b, Geothermal hotline Vol. 15, No. 2
          	 1986, Geothermal hotline Vol. 16, Nos. 1 & 2
          	  1987,  Geohot  computer  printout:    Total  state
               production  and  injection,  1982-1986.   Retrieved
               Jan. 17,  1987.

     Chilinger, G.V. et  al 1982.  The handbook of qeothermal
          energy.   Houston:  Gulf Publishing Co.

     DiPippo, R. 1986.   Geothermal power plants, Worldwide Status
          - 1986.    Geothermal  Resources Council  Bulletin,  Vol.
          15, No.  11, pp 9-18.
          	 1985.    Worldwide  Geothermal Power  Development.
          EPRI Annual Geothermal Meeting.  San Diego, California.

     Fairchild, D.M.  1985.   National conference  on disposal of
          drilling   wastes,   ed.   D.M.   Fairchild.     Norman:
          University of  Oklahoma.

     Fairchild, D.M., Knox, R.  1985.  A case study of off-site
          disposal   pits  in   McCloud,   Oklahoma.      National
          conference  on disposal  of  drilling  wastes,  ed.  D.M.
          Fairchild.  pp 47-67.  Norman:  University of Oklahoma.

     Geonomic 1978.  Geothermal environmental impact assessment:
          Subsurface environmental assessment for four geothermal
          systems.   NTIS  PB-300 851.   Cincinnati,  Ohio.   U.S.
          Environmental    Protection    Agency,    Environmental
                              131

-------
     Monitoring and Support Lab.

Goering, S.W. et al 1984.  Direct utilization of geothermal
     energy  for  Pagosa Springs, Colorado.   U.S.  Department
     of   Energy,   Division   of  Geothermal   &   Hydropower
     Technologies.

Hansen, P.N., Jones, F.V. (undated).  Mud disposal, an
     industry  perspective  (received  from IMCO Services  by
     RCRA docket, Dec. 15,  1986).

Hochstein, H.P. 1982.  Introduction to Geothermal
     Prospecting.     Auckland,   New  Zealand:     Geothermal
     Institute, University of Auckland.

Lienau,  L.J.  1986.    Status  of  direct  heat projects  in
     western states, pp.3-7.   CMC Bulletin, Fall,  1986.

McDonald, W.J. et al 1978.   Improved geothermal drilling
     fluids.  Geothermal Resources Council Transaction, Vol.
     2.

Morris, W.F., Stephens, F.B.  1981.  Characterization of
     geothermal solid wastes.  U.S. Department of Energy.

Morton, R.E. 1987.  Salton Sea and Geysers geothermal area
     trip report  to  Bob Hall, U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Office of Solid Waste.

O'Banion, K., Layton, D. 1981.  Direct use of hydrothermal:
     review  of environmental  aspects.    U.S.  Department of
     Energy,  Office  of the  Asst.  Sec.  for  Environmental
     Safety  & Emergency Preparedness.

Rafferty, J. 1985.  Recommended practices  for the reduction
     of  drill  site  wastes.   National conference on disposal
     of  drilling  wastes,  ed.  B.M.  Fairchild.    pp.35-46.
     Norman:  University of Oklahoma.

Reed, M.J. 1981.  Geothermal energy.  Geotimes, Feb. 1981,
     pp.35-36.
     	  (Unpublished).    Selected  low-temperature   (less
          than   90°C)   geothermal   systems  in  the  United
          States; reference  data for U.S. Geological Survey
          Circular 892, open-file report  83-250.

Robinson, J. 1987.  Unocal docket No. F-86-OGRN-FFFFF.

Royce, B.A.  1985.  Impact of environmental regulations on
     the  safe  disposal  of  geothermal wastes.  Department of
     Applied  Science,  Brookhaven   National   Laboratory.
     Upton,  New York.
                         132

-------
        •^r                         -^

Tucker, B. 1985.  Soil applications of drilling wastes.
     National  conference  on  waste  disposal  of  drilling
     wastes,  ed.   B.M.   Fairchild,   pp.102-112.     Norman:
     University of Oklahoma.

U.S. Department of Energy 198Oa.  Environmental data -
     Energy technology  characterization.   Washington,  D.C.,
     U.S. Department of Energy Report DOE/EV-0077.
     	  198Ob.     Environmental  assessment,  geothermal
          energy,     Heber      geothermal     binary-cycle
          demonstration     project,     Imperial     County,
          California.

U.S. Geological Survey Circular 790, 1978.  Assessment of
     geothermal resources of the United States - 1978
     in  cooperation  with the  U.S.  Department  of  Energy.
     Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Government Printing Office.

Varnado,  S.G.   et  al   1981.     Geothermal   drilling  and
     completion technology development program plan.

Wallace, R.H. 1986.  Geothermal energy.  Geotimes, Feb. 986,
     pp. 25-27.

Wallace,  R.H.,   Schwartz, K.L.  1987.    Geothermal  energy.
     Geotimes, Feb.  1987, pp.28-29.


Williams,  T.  1986.   DOE  comments on the technical  report
     "Waste from  exploration,  development and production of
     crude  oil,  natural  gas  and  geothermal  energy:   An
     interim  report on methodology  for  data  collection and
     analysis."

Zimmerman,   R.E.    1984.     Environmental  technology  for
     geothermal  energy.    U.S.  Department  of  Energy,  Idaho
     Falls, Idaho.
                         133

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                           APPENDIX A

                         Data Management


     An extensive literature  search was conducted to obtain data

for this study.  Raw data  from  this literature search was loaded

into  a  computerized data  management  program  that automatically

flagged data  areas where  information  was lacking or deficient.

To  respond  to these deficiencies,  personal contacts  with state

and federal agencies, universities and selected authors were made

to obtain the required information.



     The data  base  established by the  literature search and the

follow-up inquiries  collectively produced a pool of information

that  provided the  necessary  parameters  upon which  geothermal

waste volumes  were  estimated.  Since waste volumes could not be

extracted directly form the literature,  the information stated in

the data  base was  critical  to  the  calculations  leading  to the

estimation of waste volumes.



     The data  sources  that provided the input to the data base

are listed below.



11.2      Data Sources

          Accurex  1983.    Analysis  of  geothermal  wastes  for
               hazardous components.   Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S.
               Environmental    Protection   Agency   Industrial
               environmental Research Lab.

          Bloomquist,  R.G.  1985.   Evaluation  and  ranking  of
               geothermal  resources for electrical generation or
               electrical  offset  in Idaho,  Montana,  Oregon and
               Washington,  Vols.   I-III.     Portland,   Oregon:

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     Bonneville  Power  Administration,  U.S.  Department
     of Energy.

California Division  of  Oil and Gas  1983a.   Geothermal
     hotline Vol. 13, No. 1.
	 1983b.  Geothermal hotline, Vol. 13, No. 2
	 1984.   Geothermal hotline, Vol. 14, No. 2
	 1985a.  Geothermal hotline, Vol. 15, No. 1
	 1985b.  Geothermal hotline, Vol. 15, No. 2
	 1986.   Geothermal hotline, Vol. 16, Nos. 1 & 2
	  1987.     Geohot computer  printout:   Total state
     production  and injection,  1982-1986.   Retrieved
     Jan. 27,  1987.

Cosner,  S.R.,  Apps,  J.A. 1978.   A compilation of data
     on  fluids from  geothermal  resources in the United
     States.   U.S. Department of Energy.

DiPippo,   R.   1985.      Worldwide   geothermal   power
     development.   EPRI  Annual geothermal  meeting in
     San Diego,  California, June,  1985.

Ellis,   P.,   Conver,   M.  1981.    Material  selection
     guidelines   for  geothermal   energy  utilization
     systems.  DOE/RA/27026-1.

Geological  Survey Circular 790  1978.    Assessment of
     geothermal  resources  of  the United States - 1978.
     In  cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy.

Geological  Survey Circular 892  1982.    Assessment of
     geothermal  resources  of  the United States - 1982.
     In  cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy.

Geonomic   1978.     Geothermal   Environmental   Impact
     Assessment:   Subsurface  Environmental Assessment
     for  Four  Geothermal  Systems.   NTIS  PB-300  851.
     Cincinnati,  Ohio.   U.S.  environmental Protection
     Agency, Environmental  Monitoring & Support Lab.

Goering,  S.W.   et  al  1984.     Direct   utilization  of
     geothermal  energy  for Pagosa  Springs,  Colorado.
     U.S.  Department of Energy  Div.  of  Geothermal &
     Hydropower  Technologies.

Greene,  R.  (Undated).    Geothermal  well  drilling  and
     completion.  Handbook  of geothermal energy.

Harding-Lawson  Associates  1979.    Geothermal  impact
     assessment:  ground water  monitoring guideline  for
     geothermal  development.   Las Vegas, Nevada:  U.S.
     Environmental   Protection   Agency  Environmental
     Monitoring  & Support Lab.

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Hooper,  G.   1987.    Geothermal  electric power  plants
     operational in the United States.  U.S. Department
     of Energy.

Kroopnick, R.W. 1978.  Hydrology and geochemistry of an
     Hawaiian  geothermal  system:     HGP-A.    National
     Science  Foundation/Energy Research  &  Development
     Agency.

Lawrence Berkely Laboratory  1986.   Case studies of low
     to   moderate    temperature   hydrothermal   energy
     development.    U.S.  Department  of  Energy,  Idaho
     Operations Office.

Lienau, L.J.  1986.   Status of direct heat  projects in
     western states.  GHC Bulletin, Fall, 1986: pp.3-7

Meridian  1985.    Directory of  direct  heat geothermal
     projects in the United States.  U.S. Department of
     Energy    Div.    of   Geothermal    &   Hydropower
     Technologies.

Morton,  R.E.  1986.   Imperial Valley and  The Geysers
     geothermal area trip  report to  Bob  Hall,  US EPA,
     Office of Solid Waste, Dec.  16, 1986.

O'Banion,   K. ,   Layton,   D.   1981.     Direct  use  of
     hydrothermal  energy:    review  of  environmental
     aspects.  U.S.  Department of Energy Office of the
     Asst.  Sec.  for  Environmental Safety  &  Emergency
     Preparedness.

Read, M.J.  (Undated).   Selected  low temperatures  (less
     than   90°C)   geothermal   systems  in  the  United
     States; reference data  for  U.S.  Geological Survey
     Circular 892.   Open-file report 83-250.

Royce, B.A.  1985.   Impact of environmental regulations
     on the safe disposal  of geothermal wastes.  Dept.
     of    Applied    Science,     Brookhaven   National
     Laboratory, Upton New York.

Schultz, L.E.  1985.   Recovering  zinc-lead  sulfide from
     a geothermal  brine.  U.S.  Department  of Interior
     Bureau  of Mines  RI8922.    Washington,  D.C.  U.S.
     Government Printing Office.

U.S.   Department   of  Energy  1980a.     Environmental
     assessment,  geothermal  energy,   Heber geothermal
     binary-cycle    demonstration   project,   Imperial
     County, California.
	 1980b.   State of the art of liquid waste disposal
     for  geothermal energy  systems:    1979.    DOE/EV-
     0083.

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Varnado, S.G.,  Maish,  A.B. 1948.   Geothermal drilling
     research in the United States:  alternative energy
     sources II.

Williams, T. 1986.   U.S.  Department of Energy comments
     on the Technical Report,  "Wastes from exploration,
     development and  production of  crude  oil,  natural
     gas and geothermal  energy:   an  interim report on
     methodology for data collection and analysis."

Zimmerman,   R.E. 1984.    Environmental technology  for
     geothermal  energy.    U.S.  Department  of  Energy,
     Idaho Falls, Idaho.

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                     APPENDIX B

 FEDERAL AND STATE GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS SUMMARIES
Federal Regulations                 P, - I
Alaska                              B-10
California                          a  |$
Delaware                            £~*2.
Georgia                             6-35
Hawaii                              6 - I &
Idaho                               £-*$
Illinois                            6-5-1
Indiana                             6"55
Iowa                                6-kO
Louisiana                           6~'*5
Maryland                            b - ir
Montana                             fe-li
Nevada                              &-11
New Hampshire                       £ -$3
New Jersey                          P - ?'/•
New Mexico                          !i -
North Carolina                      6-
Oregon                              6>
South Carolina                      P>
South Dakota                        0-
Texas                               6 ,
Utah                                6^
Virginia                            6-12-5"
Washington                           > -'^/

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                             APPENDIX





FEDERAL REGULATIONS



REGULATORY AGENCIES



     The  Geothermal Steam  Act,  as  amended  (U.S.C.  1001-1025),



gives the U.S.  Department  of the Interior the authority to issue



leases  for  the development  and  utilization  of  geothermal steam



and   associated   geothermal  resources.      The   implementing



regulations  (43 CFR, Part  3200)  are now administered exclusively



by  the  Bureau  of  Land  Management   (BLM)   except  for  royalty



functions administered by  the Minerals Management Service (MMS).



BLM may  issue  leases on  federal  lands under its jurisdiction and



on  lands  administered  by  the  U.S.   Forest  Service,  with  the



consent  of  the latter.   In addition  to  leasing responsibility,



BLM evaluates and classifies geothermal resources on federal land



and  supervises all pre- and post-leasing  operations,  including



exploration, development, and production.







GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES OPERATIONAL ORDERS



     Geothermal Resources  Operational  (GRO)  Orders  are  formal,



enforceable  orders, originally  issued  by  the U.S.  Geological



Survey,  to  supplement the general regulations  found in  43  CFR



Part 3200.   They detail the procedures  that lessees,  and others



in  the  case  of  Notice  of  Intent (NOI)  to  Conduct  Geothermal



Resources Exploration  Operations permits,  must follow in a given



area or region.   The purpose of this  arrangement is to allow



consideration  of  more  area-specific  operating and environmental

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conditions.

     GRO Order No. 1 outlines the BLM requirements for conducting
exploratory operations  on  federal  lands.   According to GRO Order
No.  1,  plans  for exploratory  operations  for geothermal  energy
must include "provisions for appropriate environmental protection
and reclamation  of  disturbed lands."   Before any exploration can
begin, a  Notice of Intent  (NOI) to Conduct Geothermal Resources
Exploratory  Operations must  be submitted  by  the lessee  to the
Area  Geothermal  Supervisor.    Any proposed  variances  from the
requirements in  GRO Order No. 1 must be submitted with the NOI.

     Three  categories  of  actions  are  considered  exploratory
operations:   casual use,  geophysical exporation, and drilling of
shallow holes.  Casual  use,  which is the only type of exploratory
operation that does not require an NOI permit is "any entrance on
the  leased  lands  for  geological  reconnaissance  or  surveying
purposes."    Spring  water  and well   sampling  for  geochemical
analyses would  fall into this category.  Geophysical exploration
includes  surface electrical resistivity surveys,  seismic ground
noise  surveys,  and  all  other types  of geophysical  surveys,
including  airborne  techniques.    Airborne  operations  do  not
require an NOI.   The third types of exploratory operation is the
drilling   of  shallow  holes   for  the   purpose   of  measuring
temperature  gradients   or  heat  flow.    The NOI  must  include the
type of drilling system to be used, approximate depth of hole and
casing, type of  drilling sump, and proposed method of abandonment
                             b-l

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of the  sump and the hole itself  and  other itemized information.
There  are Wipulations  on  depth of xne hole  and return  line
temperatures.   There  are  also special  provisions  for  proposed
drilling  sites  in known natural  thermal areas, such  as special
drilling   and  completion   techniques,   in  order  to   protect
formations  containing  geothermal  or  other  resources.    When
drilling  holes  are abandoned,  the Order  requires  that  measures
are  taken   to   prevent  interzonal  migration  of  fluids   and
subsurface  leakage.    For  example, the  top  3  meters of tubing
below the surface must be filled with cement.

     Upon  cessation  of exploratory  operations, the lessee  must
file a  Notice of Completion of Geothermal Resources Exploration
Operations.     The  Notice   of  Completion  must   include   any
information  on  drilling  difficulties  or unusual  circumstances
which  would  be useful  in  assuring  future  safe   operations  or
protection  of the environment.   Some other protective  measures
set  forth in  GRO Order No.  1 regarding  exploratory  operations
are:   (1)  drilling fluids  and cuttings cannot be discharged onto
the  surface where they could  contaminate  lakes and streams; (2)
excavated pits  and sumps used in drilling must be backfilled as
soon  as  drilling  is  completed,  and  the   original  topography
restored;  and   (3)  unattended  sumps  must  be fenced   for  the
protection of the public, domestic animals,  and wildlife.
                              6-3

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     Other types of liquid wastes, such as toxic drilling fluids,
must be disposed of in a manner approved by BLM and in accordance
with federal, state, and regional standards.

Solid Waste Disposal
     Solid wastes,such as drill cuttings, precipitates, and sand,
must be disposed of as directed  by the BLM either on location or
at approved disposal sites.

Pits and Sumps
     The lessee is  required to provide and use pits and sumps to
retain all wastes  generated during drilling,  production, and any
other  operation,  unless  other  specifications are  made by  the
Supervisor.   Pits and sumps containing drilling wastes must be
lined  with  impervious  material  and  purged  of  environmentally
harmful  chemicals  and precipitates  before backfilling.   43  CFR
3262.6-3 states that  in  no event shall the contents  of a pit or
sump  be  allowed to  contaminate  streams,  lakes,  or groundwater,
and that there must be minimal damage to the natural environment
and  the  aesthetic   values  of   the  leased  land  or  adjacent
properties.   Pits  and sumps which  are unattended must be fenced
for the protection of wildlife, domestic animals, and the public.
When  no longer  needed,  pits and sumps  are to  be  filled  and
covered and  the premises  restored,  in a manner prescribed by the
BLM.
                                6-7-

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Pollution Inspection and Reports



     Geothernral Resources  Operational    der No. 4  requires  that



the lessee  inspect drilling  and production facilities  daily  to



safeguard  against  pollution.    Preventive maintenance  must  be



performed as necessary to prevent malfunctions that could lead to



pollution.     Wells   and   areas  not   under  production   must



nevertheless be inspected  by  the lessee,  at intervals prescribed



by  the Supervisor.   All  pollution incidents  must  be  reported



within 18 hours to the BLM and a written report stating the cause



and corrective action taken must follow within 30 days.







UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM



     The  Bureau   of   Land Management   is  in  charge  of  most



geothermal waste disposal operations on Federal and Indian lands.



However,  the  Safe Drinking Water  Act  (P.L. 93-523)  of  1974,  as



amended,  requires  that the EPA establish a national  program  to



assure  that underground injection  of  wastes would not  endanger



subsurface  drinking water  sources.   EPA implemented this mandate



by  enacting the Underground Injection Control  (UIC)  Program for



Federal,  Indian, State,  and private  lands.   Under the UIC rules,



EPA has jurisdiction over the five categories of injection wells,



including  Class II  injection  wells,  which  are  often  used  to



retain  drilling wastes  from  geothermal  energy production.    In



some  cases,  EPA gives  primacy to the  States  regarding  the UIC



Program.   The  Bureau of  Land Management defers  to EPA or the



primacy state  the  task of  determining whether  underground  fresh



water  sources  are   safe,  and  issues   permits   for  Class  II
                             B-3

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underground ^^inj ection  wells.     BLM^^does,  however,   retain
involvement in  approval  of wells drilled  or  converted for Class
II  injection  of  Federal  and  Indian  lands,  mostly  in order  to
carry out other mandated responsibilities.   BLM permits wells for
production  rather   than  injection;   in   this  case,   BLM  is
responsible for protection  of subsurface  water  sources  in the
vicinity of the well.
                             3-1

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     DEC  has the  authority under Alaska  Statute  46.03-40,  and
Alaska Admitstrative Code Title 18,  Chapters 20, 40, 50, 60, 70,
72,  75  and 80  to control  and regulate  all aspects  regarding
water, air, land and subsurface land pollution.

PERMITS
Department  of Natural Resources
     Under  the  Geothermal Regulations and Statutes of  May 1983,
an operator must file an application for geothermal exploration.
An exploration  bond may be required.   Also,  a drilling permit is
required  before the  drilling,  redrilling,  or deepening  of any
well and  before the re-entry of an abandoned well.  11AAC87.030,
11AAC87.050, and 11AAC87.070.
     A well drilled for the purpose of injection of fluids into a
reservoir requires  a permit.   A separate permit must be obtained
from  the Commissioner  before any fluids  are injected  into any
underground reservoir.   11AAC87.230.

Alaska Oil  and Gas  Conservation Commission
     A  permit  must  be  approved by the  Alaska  Oil  and  Gas
Conservation Commission before drilling,  redrilling, or deepening
an exploratory  or development well or before  the re-entry of an
abandoned well.   20AAC25.005.  Approval  is  also required before
the abandonment of  an existing well.  20AAC25.105(e).
                             6-H

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Department of Environmental Conservation
     WastewRer  Disposal  Regulations crce addressed  in  Title 18,
Chapter  72.   The  department must  issue  a permit  before anyone
disposes of nondomestic wastewater  into or onto waters  or lands.
The department also  regulates  and issues permits for disposal of
sludge resulting from  a manufacturing  or production process or a
nondomestic   wastewater    treatment   works.       18AAC72.240.
Nondomestic wastewater is  defined  in  18AAC72.990,  in part,  as
"liquid or water-carried wastes resulting from ...  development of
natural resources .... "

     Water Quality  Standards are set by  the  Department in Title
18, Chapter 70.  In general,  the water quality standards specify
the degree of degradation that may not be exceeded as a result of
human  actions.    18AAC70.010(b).   Short-term  variances or  re-
classifications  may  be requested  in writing.   178AAC70.015  and
70.055.

WELL DESIGN
Department of Natural Resources
     Extensive design requirements and testing procedures must be
followed  as  precautions  against  blow-out.     11AAC87.120  and
11AAC87.130.

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Alask Oil and Gas Conservation Commission
     AOGCC  also  regulates well design under  20AAC25.030 through
.047.   Extensive  design requirements for casing  and cementing
must be followed.   Secondary well control and blowout prevention
equipment requirements  are  also stated.    In  addition/ a reserve
pit  must be  constructed  or appropriate  tankage  installed  for
drilling  fluids  and  cuttings  to  prevent  contamination   of
groundwater and damage to the surface environment.

DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES
Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission
     AOGCC regulates disposal of water and oil field waste fluids
under  20AAC25.250.     Specifically,  underground   disposal   of
freshwater, salt water, brackish water,  or other waste fluids are
prohibited  except  as  ordered by the commission in response to an
application  for  injection  for  underground disposal  or storage.
The  operator  is  required to dispose of or solidify in place  all
pumpable  fluids,  and must  leave  the reserve pit  in a condition
that does not constitute a hazard to groundwater.  20AAC25.017.

Department of Environmental Conservation
     The  Solid Waste Management  regulations, Title  18,  Chapter
60, require anyone owning or operating property where solid waste
is accumulated to store the waste  in a neat,  safe, and sanitary
way until it is removed to a permitted solid waste disposal site.
Contractual or other  arrangements for the removal of accumulated

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                            REFERENCES
State  of  Alaska,  Geothermal  Regulations  and  Statutes,  as
     contained in  the  Alaska Administrative Code and the Alaska
     Statutes, includes Title 27,  Capter 5, Article 1; Title 38,
     Chapter 5, Article 1 through 7, 11 and 12; Title 41, Chapter
     6, Chapter  20;  Title 46, Chapter 15;  Title 11, Chapter 82,
     Article  1  through  8;   Chapter  84,  Article  1 through  8;
     Chapter 87, Article  1 through 5;  Chapter 88 and Chapter 96,
     Article 1 through 3.

State  of  Alaska,  Title 20,  Chapter 25,  Administrative Code for
     Alaska  Oil  and  Gas Regulations  and  Title 31,  Chapter  5,
     Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Act, 1985.

State  of  Alaska,  Title 18,  Chapter 60,  Solid Waste Management,
     Department of Environmental Conservation.

State  of  Alaska,   Title 18,  Chapter  15,  Permit   Procedures,
     Department of Environmental Conservation.

State  of  Alaska, Title 10, Chapter 70, Water Quality Standards,
     Department of Environmental Conservation.

State  of  Alaska,  Title  18,  Chapter  72,  Wastewater  Disposal
     Regulations,  Department of Environmental Conservation.

State  of  Alaska,  Title  46,  Chapter 3, Water, Air,  Energy,  and
     Environmental  Conservation,  Department  of Environmental
     Conservation.
Personal Communications;

Lynn  Cochrane,  Permit  Information  Specialist,  Department  of
     Environmental Conservation  (907) 274-2533.

Joseph  M.  Joyner, Chief  Legal/Land  Status Unit,  Department  of
     Natural Resources  (907) 465-2400.
                             -IT-

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                             APPENDIX


CALIFORNIA

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     The  following agencies regulate the  geothermal industry in
California:

     The  Geothermal  Section  of  the  California  Department  of
     Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas

     The California Energy Commission

     The California Public Utilities Commission

     The  California  Water Resources Control Board,  and the nine
     Regional Water Quality Control Boards

     The California Department of Health Services

-    County Government agencies

GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The  following California statutes are  either applicable to

or specific to geothermal energy operations:
1.   The  California  Environmental  Quality  Act   (CEQA).    The
     requirements  of  CEQA must be  fulfilled  before drilling and
     use  permits  can  be issued.  Under CEQA, government agencies
     must consider environmental impacts that may result from the
     implementation of  certain geothermal  projects.   Since many
     projects   require   permits   from   different   agencies,
     overlapping   agency  studies  could   result;   to  minimize
     duplication  of agency effort and unnecessary time delays, a
     CEQA procedure has been established.   This procedure calls
     for   a   lead   agency    to   prepare   the   environmental
     documentation,  and  the  remaining  permitting agencies  to
     function as responsible agencies.

2.   California   Administrative  Code,  Title   14,   Chapter  2:
     Implementation of  CEQA.   This chapter of  the Code defines
     the  scope  of the CEQA  regulations,  designates  the  lead
     agency, and sets guidelines for the CEQA process with regard
     to geothermal exploratory  projects.

3.   California   Administrative  Code,  Title   14,   Chapter  4,
     Subchapter   4:      Division   of   Oil  and   Gas   Statewide

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     Regulations.   This subchapter provides  detailed guidelines
     for drilling,  blowout prevention,  production  ,  injection,
     subsidence, and abandonment.

4.   California  Administrative   Code,   Title  23,   Chapter  3,
     Subchapter 15.   This  subchapter  covers discharges of wastes
     to  land  from  sumps, ponds,  landfills,  and  other  waste
     management units.


5.   California Administrative  Code,  Title 22,  Chapter 30.  This
     chapter establishes criteria for determining if  a  waste is
     hazardous, designated, or nonhazardous.

6.   The  Porter-Cologne Water  Quality  Control Act,  California
     Water Code.   This law covers discharges into the waters of
     the state  from many waste sources.

7.   California  Public  Resources Code,  Chapter  4,  Division  3
     (Publication No.  PRC02,  Jan. 1985): California Laws for the
     Conservation of Geothermal Resources.

8.   California  Administrative  Code,   Title  20,   Chapter  2,
     Subchapters  1,  2,  and   5:  California  Energy Commission,
     Regulations  Pertaining to  Rules of Practice  and Procedure
     and Power  Plant Site Certification.

9.   California Assembly Bill No. 2948,  The Tanner  Bill.   This
     law requires  local jurisdictions to prepare hazardous waste
     management  plans describing types  of waste  streams,  waste
     management practices and treatment.

     The  State Oil   and   Gas  Supervisor  must  supervise  the

drilling,  operation,  maintenance and abandonment  of geothermal

resource wells.   The  district  deputy in  each  district  collects

information  regarding the wells, which is  kept  on  file  in the

office of the district deputy of the respective district.  Copies

are sent to  the Director of Water Resources,  the State Geologist

and the  appropriate Regional Water Quality Control  Board.   The

Supervisor  must notify the  Department of Fish  and Game,  the

Department  of  Water  Resources,  and  the Regional  Water Quality

Control Board  in the area affected,  of  the location, operation,

maintenance,  and  abandonment  of all  wells.    (Sections  3714-

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3717, California Public Resources Code).



PERMITS



     A Notice of Intention  must be submitted for approval by the

appropriate  district   office  for  drilling   and  exploration,

development, injection  or temperature  observation  well,  and for

reworking,  converting  to  injection,  or  abandoning  an existing

well.  Well type determines the permitting procedure required for

drilling, producing, injecting, and abandoning geothermal wells:



1.   Exploratory Wells


     The  Division  of  Oil  and Gas  has been  designated  by the

California  State Legislature  (Section  3715.5,  Public Resources

Code)  as  the lead agency for all geothermal exploratory drilling

projects  occurring  on private and state lands in California.  To

be  considered exploratory,  a proposed geothermal well must be at

least   one-half  mile,   surface   distance,   from  any  existing

geothermal well with commercial capability.
     High-temperature  exploratory  wells  - after the CEQA process
     is   completed,   applications  must   be   filed   with  the
     appropriate  county planning  department.    In  addition,  an
     operator  must  apply  for  permits  from  state  agencies,
     including the  Division of Oil and Gas.

     Low-temperature exploratory wells - these wells require the
     same  CEQA  documentation  as  high-temperature  wells;  the
     differences between the  requirements for  the two well types
     are  in bonds,  fees,  and  drilling  procedures.   Additional
     differences  may   exist   if  the   well   is   classified  as
     noncommercial.

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2.   Development Wells

     When a geothermal resource is discovered through exploratory

drilling, resource development may  ensue.   The city or county is

the  lead agency  for  geothermal  development  projects.   A  Use

Permit must be obtained from the county or city where the project

would be implemented before any operations begin.



     High-temperature  development  wells  - development  project
     operators  must  adhere  to county CEQA  regulations  in  the
     county  where   the  well  is  drilled.     After  the  CEQA
     requirements  are met, the county permitting  processes  are
     the same as those for exploratory wells.  County governments
     issue land use, air, noise, and construction permits.

     Low-temperature development wells - same requirements as for
     low-temperature exploratory wells.

3.   Injection wells

     Injection  wells may  be  drilled  as  new wells  or converted

from existing wells.  In either event, a project description must

be  submitted to  the  proper  division district  office and  the

project must be approved by the division before injection begins.



     If  a new well is to  be  drilled, a CEQA  document,  a county

use  permit,   and  all  other  permits  that  are  needed  for high-

temperature exploratory wells are required.



     If  an  existing  well  is  to  be converted  into  an injection

well, a Rework/Supplementary Notice must be filed with the proper

district office.   Injection  cannot begin  until written approval

has been received from the Division of Oil and Gas.  The Regional

Water Quality  Control Board  has 30 days  to review the injection

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plan  and  make  suggestions  to  the  division  before  division
approval  may be  issued;  generally, the  Board only  comments on
injection wells if underground sources of drinking water might be
affected.

4.   Temperature Observation Wells

     Procedures  for  permitting temperature-observation wells are
the  same  as  those   for  permitting  high-  or  low-temperature
exploratory  wells,  including the need to  designate an agent and
secure a bond.

Other Permits;

     The  California   Department  of  Conservation,  Oil  and  Gas
issues   Underground    Injection  Control   (U.I.C.)   Permits  for
geothermal injection wells.

     The California Resources Control Board issues NPDES permits,
and  the  nine Regional Water Quality Control  Boards  issue Waste
Discharge Permits  within  their respective regions for discharges
of produced  waters and drilling wastes.

     The  local  city  or county governments issue Land Use Permits
for  geothermal operations and for disposal facilities.
                               „•?

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WELL DESIGN

     Extensive  design requirements  for  all types  of geothermal
wells are  given in the California Administrative Code, Title 14,
Chapter  4.   Design and testing  procedures must be  followed as
precautions against blowout  and as prevention of damage to life,
health, property, and natural resources.

SOLID AND  LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL

     Disposal   of   nonhazardous  solid  and  liquid  wastes  from
geothermal operations fall  primarily  under the  jurisdiction of
the Department  of Conservation in the Division of Oil and Gas and
the  California Regional Water  Quality Control  Board; hazardous
geothermal wastes  are  regulated  by  the  Department of  Health
Services.

Licruid Waste  Subsurface  Injection

     The Division  of Oil and Gas  is in  charge of all geothermal
injection  projects, whether  for disposal  of  spent nonhazardous
geothermal fluids from power production or  for reservoir pressure
maintenance.   Geothermal injection  wells are Class  V under the
Federal  U.I.C.  Program.  The  Division  is mandated by  law to
ensure  that  no damage at  the surface  or subsurface  occurs  as a
result  of  injection  projects.    The   Division makes  decisions
whether  to approve or  disapprove  an  application for  a project

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based  on  extensive  data  from  the  operator,  including  such
information as:   a cross-sectional map with  formation depth and
age;  source and  analysis of  the  injection  water;  analysis  of
water in the injection zone; reservoir characteristics; method of
injection;  precautions  to  ensure  that the  injection  fluid  is
confined to the injection zone; and well-drilling and abandonment
plans.   Operators of  proposed projects must give proof  to the
Division that the reservoir will not suffer damage and freshwater
strata will not be infiltrated.

     Project   approval   cannot  be  granted   until  an  aquifer
exemption  is  granted by the Federal EPA,  or until  it  is known
that  the  total dissolved solids  content  (TDS) of  the injection
zone  is greated than  10,000  ppm.   Exemptions  are not required to
inject  into a  formation with  water that  has TDS  content over
10,000 ppm, and/or is proven to be unfit  as a source of drinking
water.   Procedures for  obtaining  an exemption to inject into an
aquifer that  does not  meet these  criteria are  outlined  in the
Division's  Geothermal  Injection Handbook.   If the EPA grants the
aquifer exemption and the appropriate agencies give the project a
favorable   review,   the  District  Engineer   will   approve  the
application  for  the  injection  project.     The  Regional  Water
Quality  Control  Board  is  the  primary  reviewing  agency  for
proposed injection wells.   Injection wells must  be inspected by
the District Engineer every six months to ensure that the well is
in good  condition and there is no leakage.   A Monthly Injection
Report  must be  submitted  by  the operator  to  the  appropriate

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district office  providing injection data and  information  on any
changes or remedial work.

Surface Disposal - Water

     The  Porter-Cologne  Water  Quality  Control  Act  prescribes
waste  discharge  requirements  as  established  by   the   Water
Resources Control Board.  Operators must file a report with their
Regional Water  Quality Control Board on the  proposed discharge,
providing  all  information that  the Regional  Board may require.
If protection of water quality and precautions against pollution
and  contamination appear adequate, the  Board wil issue a Waste
Discharge  Permit (California's NPDES  permit)  to discharge wastes
to the surface  waters of the  state.   The Regional  Boards must
implement  requirements  at  least  as  stringent as  those  of the
State  Board;  some regions  have  established  requirements  more
stringent  than  those  of the State  Board.   Surface  discharge for
beneficial uses,  such as agricultural uses,  is allowed if water
quality meets the Regional  Board's standards.  Discharge permits
will specify the maximum chemical constituent values  allowed for
beneficial uses.

Surface Disposal - Land

     Land   disposal   of  nonhazardous  drilling  wastes   from
geothermal operations  is under the jurisdiction  of the Regional
Water  Quality Control  Board and the county in which  the project

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is being implemented.  Land disposal of nonhazardous solid wastes
from power  production and hazardous wastes  from  either drilling
or power production  is under the jurisdiction  of the Department
of Health Services.

     During   drilling  operations,   all   drilling   wastes   are
contained in  sumps.    The counties,  which are  the lead agencies
for geothermal  resource development,  issue Use Permits for each
site,  into  which  county waste  disposal  requirements  have  been
incorporated.    Waste  Discharge  Requirements  issued  by  the
Regional  Water  Quality  Control  Board on  a site-by-site basis
serve as the primary discharge permit.

     At the end  of drilling operations, state regulations require
that the  materials  in the sump be analyzed  for  listed chemical
constituents  using the California Department of Health Service's
Waste  extraction  test.   Total  threshold  level concentrations
(TTLC)   and  soluble   threshold  level   concentrations   (STLC),
established under California Administrative Code  23.3.15, are the
basis for determining  whether a waste is hazardous.
     Sump contents  are generally considered hazardous  is  any of
the following chemical constituent lavels are exceeded:

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          Constituent              (mq/L)  Of Extract


          Arsenic                          5
          Cadmium                          1.0
          Chromium III                    25
          Chromium VI                      5
          Nickel                          20
          Mercury                          0.2
          Zinc                           250
          Boron                          100


     California Administrative Code 23. 3.15, Appendix III, lists

other  chemical constituent  whose presence in  the waste  would

result in hazardous  classification.   All  hazardous waste must be

disposed of  in a  Class I waste  management unit, which  has  the

highest level of containment ability of any class.  Sump contents

which may contain  any of the listed  constituent,  but  in a lower

concentration  than   the   hazardous   concentration,   are . called

designated  wastes.   Next  drillings  wastes  are classified  as

designated  wastes.   California  Administrative  Code  Title  22,

Division   4,   Chapter   30,   establishes   the   waste   extract

concentration differences  between hazardous and designated waste

categories.  Designated wastes can be disposed of either Class II

or Class I waste management units.

  Solid wastes  which do not  contain any of  the listed chemical

constituents are classified  as nonhazardous and  may  be disposed

of  at a class  III,   II,  or  I waste  management  unit.   Drilling

wastes   which   fit   the   designated   or   the   nonhazardous

classification are often  dewatered and disposed of on-site.  The

following table  describes  the various types  of waste management

units used in California:

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              SUMMARY OF WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

                      FOR DISCHARGES TO LAND
Waste
Category
Liquid
Hazardous
Waste
Management Unit Primary
Contain-
Class Type ment
I Surface Double
Impoundment Liners
Siting
and
Geologic
Criteria
(a) Natural featun
capable of con
Solid
 Hazardous

Dry
 Solid
 Hazardous
       Landfill
       Waste
       Pile
             Double
             Liners

             Double
             Liners
Liquid
 Designated
 (including
 underwatered
 sludge)
Solid
 Designated

Dry
Solid
Designated
II
Surface      Double
Impoundment  Liners
II
II
Nonhazardous   III
 Solid Waste
 (including
 dewatered
 sludge and
 acceptable
 incinerator ash
 Landfill
 Waste
 Pile
        Landfil
Single
Liner

Single
Liner
             None
          (b)
          (a)
                                                  taining waste and
                                                  leachate as backup
                                                  to primary con-
                                                  tainment.
    Not located in
    areas of unaccept-
    able risk from
    geologic or en-
    vironmental ha-
    zards.

    Natural "features
    capable of con-
    taining waste and
    leachate may
    satisfy primary
    containment re-
    quirements .
(b)  May  be located  in
    most areas except
    high risk areas.

(a)  Consideration of
    factors listed in
    Subsection 2333(b)
(b)  May be located in
    most areas except
    high risk areas.
Source:  California Administrative Code, Title 23, Subchapter 15.
                             (rlfc

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     Disposal of solid  wastes,  such as sludges and filter cakes,
from power  production is regulated by the Department  of Health
Services.     The   department   requires   plant  operators   to
periodically test production  wastes at licensed laboratories for
the  listed  chemical  constituents  in  California  Administrative
Code 23.3.15 (the  same list  as for drilling wastes).   TTLC and
STLC  are again  the  criteria  for  hazardous waste  designation;
Class I, II, and III  designations  apply,  and each class of waste
must be disposed of in the corresponding class of landfill.  Some
production   wastes   in   California  fall   into  the   Class   I
designation;  for example,  solid  waste from  the Geysers  Power
Plant  are  generally  treated  as Class I wastes because  of  the
presence and concentrations of listed trace constituents.

WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT

     S3717  requires  the State  Oil  and Gas Supervisor  to notify
the  Department  of  Fish  and  Game,  the  Department  of  Water
Resources,  and  the Regional  Water  Quality Control  Board in the
area affected, of the abandonment of all wells.

     Temperture-observation  wells   must be  abandoned  two  years
from the date of completion.

     Requirements  for  abandonment  of  an  injection  well  are
determined   by   the  District  Engineer,   based  on  subsurface
conditions  and the casing and cementing record of the well.

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SURFACE RESTORATION



     Title  14,   Section  1776  of  the  Oil and  Gas  Regulations

establishes procedures for surface restoration.  Concrete cellars

must be  removed from the well site  or filled with  earth.   Well

locations  must  be  graded and cleaned  of equipment,  trash,  and

other  wastes,  and  returned  to  as  near a  natural  state  as

possible.   Sumps  must  be  filled with earth  after  removal  of

harmful  materials,  and  the  surface  graded  and  revegetated.

Unstable  slope   conditions  created  as  a  result  of  the  project

operation must be corrected.
BONDS
     An  indemnity  bond  or  a  cash  bond  must  be  on file  or

accompany  a  Notice of  Intention  to Drill a Well.   Bond amounts

are based  on resource types  (low-  or high-temperature) and well

depths:


     High-temperature   exploratory   and  development  wells  are
     required  to  have a  $25,000  bond filed for each  well,  or a
     $100,000 blanket bond for a group of wells.
     Low-temperature   exploratory   and  development   wells  are
     required  to  have a  $2,000 bond  for  each well  under 2,000
     feet; and $10,000 bond for a well deeper than 2,000 but less
     than 5,000 feet; a $15,000 bond for a well deeper than 5,000
     but less than  10,000  feet;  and  a  $25,000 bond  for  a well
     10,000 feet or deeper.

     A  $100,000  blanket bond  covers a group  of  low-temperature
     wells regardless of depth.

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                            REFERENCES


Title   14,   California    Administrative    Code,    Chapter   2,
Implementation  of the  California Environmental  Quality Act  of
1970, Department of Conservation

Title  14,   California Administrative  Doce,  Chapter 3,  Section
1776, Well Site Restoration, Department of Conservation, Division
of Oil and Gas

Title 14, California Administrative Code, Chapter 4, Oil and Gas,
Department of Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas

Title 14, California  Administrative  Code,  Chapter 5, Enforcement
of  Solid  WAste  Standards  and  Administration of  Solid  Waste
Facilities Permits, Solid Waste Management Board

Title 20, California  Administrative  Code,  Chapter 2, Subchapters
1, 2 and 5, California Energy Commission

The  Porter-Cologne   Water  Quality   Control  Act,  1985,  Water
Resources Control Board

California  Department of  Conservation,  Division of  Oil and Gas,
Lavs for Conservation of  Geothermal  Resources. 1985, Publication
No. PRCO2

California  Department of  Conservation,  Division of  Oil and Gas,
Drilling and Operating Geothermal Wells in California.  1986

Personal Communications;

Dan I. Daniels,  California Regional  Water Quality Control Board,
Central Valley Region, (916) 361-5666

Mark Dellinger,  Geothermal Coordinator, Lake  County,   (707)  263-
2221

George Eowan, California Solid Waste Management Board,  (916) 322-
1442

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                             APPENDIX
DELAWARE

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

          Department   of   Natural  Resources  and  Environmental
          Control.

GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The  Department   of   Natural  Resources  and  Environmental
Control,   State  of   Delaware,   issued   regulations  governing
underground  injection control,  effective August  15,  1983,  and
regulations governing the  construction of water wells, effective
January 15, 1986.

     The definition of a  Class V well includes an injection well
associated  with the  recovery  of geothermal  energy  for heating,
aquaculture and production of electric power.  122.22.
     The  Department   of   Natural  Resources  and  Environmental
Control also regulates solid waste disposal.

PERMITS
     Any underground   injection  except as  authorized  by  permit
issued under the UIC  program or otherwise authorized under these
regulations, is prohibited.  A temporary  emergency permit may be
issued if  there is an imminent and  substantial  endangerment to
the health of the public.   122.30.   When  a new injection well is
constructed, the permittee  must  submit a  notice of completion of
construction to the  Secretary.   122.31(2)(i).   Permits  may be
modified,  revoked and reissued,  or  terminated  either   at  the
request  of  any  interested  person  or   upon  the  Secretary's
initiative.   124.4.   A  permit  is also  required for any  well
installed  for  the purpose of obtaining  geologic or hydrologic
information.     (Section   1.02C   of  Regulations  Governing  the

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Construction of Water Wells).
     A  permit   is   required   from  The  Department  of  Natural
Resources  and  Environmental Control  before anyone  manages  land
for the purpose of disposing of solid waste.

WELL DESIGN
     Extensive   design  requirements   are   specified   for   UIC
injection wells  and  water  wells.   146.08  (Rules and Regulations
Governing Underground  Injection Control and Section 5, Rules and
REgulations Governing Water Well Construction.)

SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL
     Any underground injection is prohibited except as authorized
by permit.  122.23.
     The  Delaware Solid Waste  Disposal Regulations  address the
disposal  of  all solid waste  into or the  land.   Solid  waste is
defined,  in  part,  as  ...  "any garbage, refuse,  sludge from a
waste  treatment  plant,  water  supply  treatment  plant  or  water
pollution control facility and other discarded material  . .  .
"Certain  solid wastes  are exempt.   These include  disposal of
dirt,  sand,  crushed rock, or  asphalt  debris,  and  disposal of
inert   solid  wastes.      The   regulations   specify  responsible
governmental agencies for providing facilities.

WELL PLUGGING
     Any  applicant  for a UIC  permit  must submit  a  plan for
plugging and abandonment.  122.32(e).
     Within  30  days of  abandoning a water  well,  the contractor
must submit a well abandonment report to the Department.  Section
9.OLD.

RESTORATION OF SURFACE
     A  UIC permit requires the permittee  to  maintain  financial
responsibility  and  resources  to  close, plug,  and  abandon the
operation in a manner prescribed by the Secretary.  122.32(f).

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SURETY BOND
     The permittee must show evidence of financial responsibility
by  submission of  a  surety bond  or  other adequate  assurance.
122.32(f).

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                           REFERENCES
State of Delaware, Regulations Governing the Construction of
     Water   Wells,   Department   of   Natural   Resources   and
     Environmental Control.

State of Delaware, Regulations  Governing Underground Injection
     Control, Parts 122, 124 and 146, Department  of  Natural
     Resources and Environmental Control.
Personal Communications:

Phil Cherry, Supervisor,  Water  Supply  Branch,  Division of Water
     Resources, Department of Natural  Resources  and Environment
     Control (302) 736-4793.

Rick Folmsbee,  Solid Waste Permits, (302)  736-3688
                       6-34"

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                             APPENDIX
GEORGIA

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     One  agency   in   Georgia  has  jurisdiction  over  Class  V

underground injection wells, which apply to geothermal energy:

          The   Georgia    Department   of   Natural   Resources,
          Environmental Protection Division.


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     Class V  wells used  for geothermal purposes  are  defined in

the Rules for Underground Injection Control (UIC), Chapter 391-3-

.13(3)(e):   "An injection  well  associated with the  recovery of

geothermal  energy for  heating,   aquaculture,  and  production of

electric power."  The UIC Rules include statutes for the drilling

of Class  V wells  for  geothermal  purposes.  The  Director of the

Department   of  Natural   Resources   oversees  the   regulatory

activities  of the  Department.    The Director's duties  include:

reviewing applications  for well  construction  permits,  approving

or denying applications for permits, taking enforcement action to

stop a  violation of  the rules,  and taking emergency action if

there is a direct  threat to the public water  system  as  a result

of drilling or production activities.  UIC 391-3-6-.13(11)(d).



PERMITS

     Anyone who wants to operate or construct a Class V well must

apply in writing  to the  Director for an  injection well  permit.

The following  information  is required  on  the  application:   a map

of the  proposed  injection well,  the proposed  construction  plan,

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injection  rate and  pressure,  and the  chemical,  physical,  and
radioactive characteristics  of the fluid  to be injected.   Upon
receipt of the application, the Director shall:  (1)  determine if
it  is in  fact  a Class  V  well,   (2)  assess potential  adverse
effects on underground  drinking water sources, and (3) determine
methods to protect drinking water sources.  If the information is
sufficient and satisfactory,  the Director shall issue a permit.
The Director may  include  conditions for monitoring,  testing, and
reporting on the  well  site,  if considered necessary.   UIC 391-3-
6-.13(11) and  (12).

WELL DESIGN
     Class V wells must be constructed by a water well contractor
licensed in  Georgia  in accordance  with  the  Water  Well Standards
Act of 1985;  Georgia Laws 1977, p.1509,  (Georgia Annotated Code,
Sec.  84-7506).   Casing depth specifications are  given,  and the
annular  space  around the casing must be grouted and sealed to
prevent   migration   and   pollution.      Special   construction
requirements   may  be   issued  by   the  Director   to  prevent
contamination  of an  underground  source of  drinking water.   A
method for evaluating the presence or absence of detectable leaks
is  required;  either monitoring of annulus  pressure  or pressure
tests  with   liquid   or   gas  is  acceptable.    UIC  391-3-6-
.13(12)(c).

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DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES
     Although  there are  provisions in  the  regulations  against
allowing well  fluids  from migrating to and polluting underground
drinking  water  sources,  the  problem  of  disposal  of  wastes
resulting  from the drilling  and  operation of the  well  is  not
specifically addressed.  Well operators must, however, be able to
demonstrate that  pollution of  groundwater will not  occur under
any circumstances.

WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT
     The Director may  order a Class V  well plugged and abandoned
by the  owner when  it  no longer serves the intended  purpose,  or
when  it poses a  direct  threat  to underground  drinking water
sources.     It  is  the   owner's   responsibility   to  have  all
exploratory, injection, and test wells plugged and abandoned by a
water well contractor before any  drilling  equipment  is removed.
The  entire depth  of  the well  must be  completely  filled with
cement  grout  or  another  impervious  material.    UIC  391-3-6-
RESTORATION OF SURFACE
     Not addressed in the regulations reviewed.

SURETY BONDS
     Not addressed in the regulations reviewed.

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                           REFERENCES
Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental
     Protection Division.  Rules for Underground Injection
     Control, Chapter 391-3-6.  Revised September 17, 1984


Personal Communication

Patricia Franzen, U.I.C. Program, Georgia Department of Natural
     Resources.  (404)656-3214

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                             APPENDIX
HAWAII

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     Two  state  agencies  regulate  the  geothermal  industry  in
Hawaii:

     Board of Land and Natural Resources

-    Department of Health

GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The Board of Land and Natural Resources regulates the use of
the  surface  of the  land.    Geothermal  Resource Subzones  may be
designated within the  State's urban,  rural,  agricultural,  and
conservation  land  use  districts.   The   use  of  a  Geothermal
Resource  Subzone within the  State's  Conservation District  is
governed by the Board of Land and Natural Resource's Chapter 2 of
Title  13,  Administrative Rules  on Conservation Districts.   The
use  of a Geothermal Resource  Subzone within the  State's  urban,
rural, or agricultural  districts  is governed by the "appropriate
county authority."   In each county,  the authority  is  the County
Planning Commission.  Each County Planning Commission establishes
procedures  for  obtaining  Geothermal  Resource  Permits.     The
Planning Commission's approval of an application for a geothermal
resource  permit does  not  in  any way supercede  state  laws  nor
abrogate  the  necessity  of  obtaining permits  from the  Board  of
Land and Natural Resources or other state agencies, as required.

     For  the  subsurface  use  of  land  within  the  Geothermal
Resource  Subzone,  the  Board  of  Land  and  Natural  Resource's
Chapter  183  of  Title  13,  Administrative  Rules  on Leasing  and
Drilling of Geothermal Resources is the primary regulation.  Some
of  the  State's  Department  of  Health's   regulations  are  also
applicable.  These include Chapter 23 of Title 11,  Administrative
Rules  for Underground  Injection Control;  Chapter 55 of Title 11,
Administrative Rules for Water Pollution Control;  and Chapter 58
of  Title  11  Administrative  Rules  for Solid  Waste  Management
Control.

PERMITS

Board of Land and Natural Resources

State and Reserved Lands

     An exploration permit is required to conduct any exploration
activity  on  state or  reserved lands for evidence  of  geothermal
resources.   All applications are subject to the approval of,  and

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the terms  and conditions set  by,  the Board of  Land  and Natural
Resources.   The Board may also grant geothermal mining leases on
state  and reserved  lands.    A  plan of  operations  is  required
before drilling  commences.   Section  13-183-7  through 13-183-19,
and Section 13-183-55.

Other Lands

     The Board of  Land and  Natural Resources must issue a permit
before  any person drills,   modifies,  modifies  the  use of,  or
abandons a well.  A  supplementary application must  be  filed if
there  is  any  contemplated  change  in  the  original  approved
application.

     The Board of Land and Natural Resources also issues a permit
for the modification of any existing well for injection purposes.
Section 13-183-65, 13-183-66, and 13-183-77.

Department of Health

     Title  11,   Department  of  Health,  Chapter  23,  Underground
Injection  Control,  states  that  no  injection  well  shall  be
constructed until  a construction  application  is made for  a UIC
permit  and   the  department  has  approved  the  start  of  the
construction.   Approval of the  start of the  construction  shall
not be construed as  approval  for the operation of that injection
well.  No  injection well shall be operated, modified or otherwise
utilized without a UIC permit issued by the department.  11-23-08
and 11-23-11.

     The director  may issue UIC permits  for wells which propose
to inject  into exempted aquifers on the following basis:

1.   Existing  or new  injection  wells that do  not or  will not
     endanger  the  quality  of  underground  sources  of  drinking
     water.

2.   Existing or new injection wells that are designed and are or
     will  be constructed or modified to operate without causing a
     violation of these rules or other applicable laws.

3.   Proposed  injection wells  that  are designed  and  built  in
     compliance  with  the   standards  and  limitations stated  in
     sections 11-23-07 to 11-23-10.

     The  issuance of  a UIC  permit for  wells which  propose  to
inject   into  USDW   are  basd   upon   the  evaluation   of  the
contamination  potential  of  the  local  water  quality  by  the
injection  fluids and the water  development  potential for public
or private consumption.  11-23-16.

     Title 11,  Department of Health,  Chapter 55, Water Pollution
Control, states that a NPDES permit is required before any person
discharges any pollutant, or substantially alters the quality of

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any  discharge,  or  substantially increases  the  quantity  of  any
discharge.

County Planning Commissions

     A study of each County Planning Commission's regulations was
not  done.   However,  for  the  County  of  Hawaii,  a  geothermal
resource  permit  is required  from the Planning  Comission before
any person may conduct geothermal development activities on land
that is  located within a geothermal resource subzone and located
within   the  Agricultural,   Rural,  or  Urban   State   Land  Use
Districts.    The  Planning  Commission  determines  whether  the
geothermal  development  activities  would   have  an  unreasonable
adverse   health,   environmental,  or  socioeconomic   effect  on
residents or surrounding property.  12.3 and 12.6(a).

WELL DESIGN

Board of Land and Natural Resources

     Extensive design requirements and testing procedures must be
followed  as precautions against blowout.   Section  13-183-71,
Section  13-183-76.

Department of Health

Underground Infection Wells

     Section  11-23-10  gives  provisions   for  artesian  aquifer
protection.  A NPDES permit may  be  issued  only  if the treatment
works  are designed,  built  and  equipped  in accordance  with  the
best  practicable   control   technology   or  the  best  available
technology economically  achievable,  for  point sources other than
publicly  owned treatment  works.   11-55-15.   The  director  may
issue a  permit to  an existing facility  not in compliance only if
the permit includes a schedule of compliance.  11-55-15(d).

County Planning Commissions

     In  the  County of Hawaii,  the applicant must  submit to the
Planning  Director   final   plans  for  monitoring  environmental
effects of the project before construction  is initiated.  12.8.

DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES

The Board of Land and Natural Resources

     Section  13-183-87  requires  the  operator  of  any  well  to
comply with  all applicable  federal, state, and  local standards
with respect  to air,  land,  water, and noise pollution,  and the
disposal of liquid, solid, and gaseous effluent.  The disposal of
well effluents must  be done in a manner that does not constitute
a hazard to surface or groundwater resources.
                          6-J.-

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Department of Health

     Title  11,  Department  of  Health,  Chapter  58,  Solid  Waste
Management  Control,  defines "solid  waste"  in part  as "garbage,
refuse,  and  other discarded  solid  materials,  including  solid
waste   materials   resulting   from  industrial  and  commercial
operations  ...."   Section 11-58-6 specifies that a person owning
or  operating a business or industry  has the responsibility of
removing  accumulated  solid waste  to  an  approved  solid  waste
disposal facility.

     Section  11-23-06   addresses  classification   of  injection
wells.  Wells  in Classes  I through IV are prohibited.  Only Class
V wells are permissible.   11-23-06(b).   The Department of Health
currently interprets  geothermal  wells as being "Class V Subclass
B,"  since they are not  defined elsewhere.   ll-23-06(b)(3)(A).
Subclass  B  is  defined  as  "injection  wells  which inject  non-
polluting  fluids  into  any geohydrologic  formation,  including
nonexempted aquifers."

      If  the operation   of  the  injection  wells  is aditionally
regulated  by other pollution  control  programs,  e.g.,  National
Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES),  the adherence to
their monitoring  and  reporting requirements will be considered  a
requirement of this chapter.   Section 11-23-18(b).

County  Planning Commissions

     In the  County of  Hawaii,  the  applicant for  a  geothermal
resource  permit  must include  information on  existing  and the
proposed  uses and locations of  disposal  systems and methods for
disposing  of  well  effluent  and  other  wastes.    12.3(c)  and
12.3(g).

WELL PLUGGING

Board of Land and Natural Resources

     Any  person  proposing to  abandon  a well must  first  file an
application  for  a permit  to abandon with the Board of  Land and
Natural Resources.   The mehthod  of  abandonment  must be approved
by  the  Board.  Section 13-183-81.

Department of Health

Underground Injection Wells

     Any  owner who  wishes  to abandon  an  injection  well  shall
submit  an  application containing  the details  of  the  proposed
abandonment.  Section 11-23-19(a).

     The department may order an injection well to be plugged and
abandoned  when  it  no longer  performs  its intended purpose,  or
when it is determined to be a threat to the groundwater resource.

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Section 11-23-19(b).

Water Pollution Control

     A NPDES permittee  roust report to the director within thirty
days  after permanent  discontinuance  of  the  treatment  works  or
waste outlet for which the NPDES permit had been issued.  Section
11-55-18.

County Planning Commissions

     In  the County  of Hawaii,  an application for  a geothermal
permit must include a  written description of the  proposed well
completion program.  12.3(e).

RESTORATION OF SURFACE

Board of Land and Natural Resources

For Leased Lands

     Within  90  days of revocation, surrender, or  expiration of
any mining lease,  the  lessor or  surface owner may require the
lessee to  restore the  land  to its original  condition insofar as
it  is  reasonable  to  do  so,  except  for  roads,  excavations,
alterations  or  other  improvements which  may  be designated for
retention  by the surface owner.   The Board or State agency has
the  authority  to  require  that cleared sites  and  roadways  be
replanted with grass, shrubs or trees by the lessee.  Section 13-
183-63.

For Other Land

     Equipment must be  removed and premises at the well site must
be  restored  as  near  as reasonably  possible to   its  original
condition  immediately  after  plugging operations are completed,
except as otherwise authorized by the Chairperson of the Board of
Land and Natural Resources.  Section 13-183-82(b).

Department  of Health

Underground Injection Control

     Any  owner who wishes  to  abandon  an  injection well  must
submit  an  application containing  the  details  of  the  proposed
abandonment.  Section 11-23-19.

County Planning Commissions

     In  the County of  Hawaii, the application for  a geothermal
resources  permit must include  a   statement  addressing how the
proposed development  would  mitigate or  reconcile any effects to
residents  or surrounding properties  in  the  areas of  health,
environmental and socioeconomic activities.  12.3(k)(i).

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SURETY BONDS

Board of Land and Natural Resources

State and Reserved Lands

     Exploration  permits  - Section  13-183-8 requires  a  $10,000
bond for each exploration permit, or a $150,000 blanket bond.

Other Lands

     Section 13-183-68  requires  a $50,000 bond  for  each  well to
be  drilled,  re-drilled,  deepened,  or abandoned,  or  a $250,000
blanket bond.

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                            REFERENCES
State  of  Hawaii,  Title  11,Chapter  23,  Underground  Injection
Control, Department of Health

State of  Hawaii,  Title 11, Chapter 55,  Water Pollution Control,
Department of Health

State of  Hawaii,  Title 11, Chapter  58, Solid  Waste Management
Control, Department of Health

State  of  Hawaii,  Title  13,  Chapter  2,  Administrative  Rules,
Department of Land and Natural Resources

State of  Hawaii,  Title 13, Chapter 183,  Leasing and Drilling of
Geothermal Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources

Planning  Commission,  County  of  Hawaii,  Rule  12,  Geothermal
Resource Permits

Personal Communications:

Albert Lono Lyman, Planning Director,  Planning Department, County
of Hawaii

Dean Nakano, Board of Land and Natural Resources (808)548-7541

Dennis Lau, Department of Health (808)961-8288
                            6-44-

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                            APPENDIX


IDAHO

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     In Idaho, two agencies regulate the geothermal industry:

          Department of Water Resources

          Department of Lands


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The  following  state rules  and regulations are  specific to

geothermal activities in Idaho:

     The  Geothermal  Resources Act  of 1971  (Idaho  Code,  Chapter
     40,  Sec.  42-4001  through 42-4015) .  This  act  was passed to
     encourage  development   of   geothermal   resources  for  the
     benefit  of  the  people of the  state while minimizing damage
     and costs that could occur.

-    Rules  and Regulations:  Drilling for Geothermal Resources.
     The  state  of  Idaho  adopted  these rules and  regulations
     governing  geothermal  drilling   operations   in   1972,  and
     revised them in 1975 and 1978.  The Geothermal Resources Act
     gives  the Idaho  Department of  Water  Resources regulatory
     authority for all drilling operations,  as well as operation,
     maintenance, and abandonment of  all geothermal wells in the
     state.

     Rules  and Regulations Governing the Issuance  of Geothermal
     Resources  Leases.    Adopted in  1974 and amended in  1978,
     these  rules  cover all  aspects of  geothermal  activities on
     leased lands.   The Idaho State  Board of Land Commissioners
     has the authority to promulgate these rules and regulations.


PERMITS

     The Department of Water Resources must issue a permit before

the production of or exploration for  geothermal resources or the

construction  of  an  injection well.    The  Department  must also

issue a permit before any person may deepen or modify an existing

well.   If an owner plans to  convert  an existing  geothermal well

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into  an  injection well,  approval  must  be received  from  the



Department.  The owner  of  a  proposed injection  well must provide



the Director with information necessary to evaluate the impact of



the  injection  on  the  geothermal  reservoir and  other  natural



resources.    Permits   may  be  amended  subject  to  Department



approval.  (Rules 4.2 and 7.1)







     Leasing -  Application to lease state lands must  be made to



the State Board of Land Commissioners.  Prior to drilling for any



purpose  to  1,000 feet  or  deeper,  the lessee must  submit to the



Director,  for  approval, a  plan of  operations.   This  plan must



include  the  methods  that the  operator .intends  to  use  to dispose



of waste material.  Rule 3.







WELL DESIGN



     Section  6  sets  forth  extensive design  requirements  and



testing procedures to be implemented as precautions against blow-



out.







DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES



Disposal by Injection



     The operation of  a proposed injection well must provide all



information that the Director deems necessary for evaluating the



impact that  the well would have on  the reservoir,  other natural



resources,  and  the  environment.   Rule  7.2.1  requires  that an



owner of  an  injection  well must demonstrate to  the Director that



the well  casing has  complete integrity,  using a test approved by

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the Director.  Rule 7.2.7 requires that the owner make sufficient
surveys  into a  well to  prove that  all  the  injected  fluid  is
confined  to  .the intended  zone of  injection.   The  Director may
order  a  representative to  be present,  or if in  the Director's
opinion such tests are not necessary,  a waiver may be granted.

Surface Disposal
     Rule  16 of  the Idaho  State  Board of  Land  Commissioners,
states that  the lessee must  be in compliance with  all federal,
state,  and  local  waste  disposal  and  pollution  control  laws.
Specific  methods  for disposal of wastes must be  included in the
lease  agreement,   subject  to  approval  by the  Director of  the
Department of Lands.

     There are  regulations  for surface discharges promulgated by
the  Idaho  Water  Quality  Standards  and  Wastewater  Treatment
Standards.

WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT
     For  leased lands  - Section  16.10 requires  the  lessee  to
promptly  plug  and  abandon any nonproductive well  in conformance
with abandonment  procedures promulgated by the  Idaho Department
of Water Resources.

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     For all land - The Department requires a notice of intent to



abandon  geothennal  resource wells  5  days prior  to  beginning



abandonment procedures.   A history of  geothermal  resource wells



must be  filed.   The abandoned wells must be monumented  to the



description included in the history  of well report.   Injection



wells are  required to be  abandoned  in  the same manner  as other



wells.







     Specific  plugging and  abandonment procedures are  given in



order to  block interzonal migration  of fluids.    Heavy  drilling



fluid must be  used  to  replace water  in  the well  hole and to fill



parts not plugged with cement.   Cementing requirements are based



on casing and  aquifer locations.  Casing must be cut off at least



5 feet from the surface.  Rules 8.1 - 8.2.







RESTORATION OF SURFACE



     For  leased  lands -  Lessee must reclaim all  State  lands in



accordance with  applicable  reclamation procedures  contained in



Sections 47-1509 and 47-1510, Idaho Code.







     For all  land - The Director may correct or stop any person



who is operating  any well  in a  manner that causes damage to life



or property and  to mitigate any  injury caused by such practice.



Rule 13.1

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SURETY BOND



     For leased  lands  - Upon execution of the  lease,  the  lessee



must pay the Director a  $2,000 bond.   Prior  to  drilling any well



to 1,000  feet  or deeper, the bond must be increased  to $10,000,



or the lessee  may pay  a blanket bond of $50,000.   Rule 26.1 and



Rule 26.2.







     For  other  lands  -  A  $10,000  bond  is required for  each



individual well.  Rule 4.4.1.

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                           REFERENCES
State of Idaho, Geothermal Resources Act of 1971,  Chapter 40,
     Sec. 43-4001 through 42-4015, Department of Water Resources

State of Idaho, Rules and Regulations:  Drilling for Geothermal
     Resources, Department of Water Resources

State of Idaho, Rules and Regulations Governing The Issuance of
     Geothermal Resources  Leases, Idaho State Board of Land
     Commissioners

State of Idaho, Title I, Chapter 2, Water Quality Standards and
     Wastewater Treatment Requirements, Department of Health and
     Welfare
Personal Communications

Leah V. Street, Geologist, Department of Water Resources
     (208)734-3578

Mr. Koenig, Department of Health and Welfare
     (208)334-5839

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                             APPENDIX


ILLINOIS

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     One agency regulates the oil and gas industry in Illinois:

          Department of Mines and Minerals, Division
          of Oil and Gas.


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The Department of  Mines and Minerals operates under "An Act

in Relation to Oil, Gas,  Coal,  and Other Surface and Underground

Resources".   These regulations  may be  applicable  to geothermal

energy as an underground resource.  Section 3.



     Section 3 gives  the Mining Board the  duty  of enforcing the

Act  and   all  rules,   regulations  and  orders   promulgated  in

pursuance of this Act.



PERMITS

     The Mining  Board must issue a permit  before any person may

drill a  geological  or structural test hole or water supply well

in  connection   with   any  operation  for   the   exploration  or

development of oil  or gas.   Rule II  (4).   The Mining Board also

requires permits for  salt water disposal or for  gas, air, water,

or  other liquid  input wells.    Rule 11(4).   Approval  must  be

obtained  from  the  Department of Mines  and Minerals  before any

subsurface  injection  or  disposal project  can  begin.    Rule  II

A(l) .   Rule II A(3)  sets forth the  information  required in the

application for approval of the disposal operations.  Rule II

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connection therewith to  file a  2,5000  individual  well  bond,  or a



$25,000  blanket  bond  to  ensure  compliance with  plugging  and



abandonment requirements.

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                           REFERENCES
State of Illinois, An Act in Relation to Oil, Gas,  Coal and Other
     Surface and Underground Resources and Rules and Regulations,
     Department of Mines  and Minerals, Division of  Oil  and Gas,
     Revised Edition, 1984


Personal Communications;

John Morgan, Illinois Department of Mines and Minerals
     (217) 782-4970
                         B-5-t

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                                         	           Rev. 4/19/87
                             APPENDIX
INDIANA

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     The Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil

and Gas, regulates the oil and gas industry in Indiana.



GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     There  are  no regulations  specific to geothermal  energy in

Indiana.   However,  some sections  of the Oil  and Gas  Laws are

applicable; Section 310 IAC 7-1-1 of the Oil and Gas Rule defines

a  "well  for oil  and gas  purposes"  as  "a  hole drilled  for any

purpose for which a permit is required under 1C 13-4-7, including

a  permit for a seismographic  test crew or  a permit  to drill,

deepen,  or  convert an  oil,  gas, or  test well; a  geological or

structural  test  well;   an  enhanced  recovery  well;  a  disposal

well..."    The  Oil  and  Gas  Division  of  the  Department  of

Conservation was  created  pursuant  to  1C 13-4-7-1,  and thereby

charged  with  the  duties  of  carrying  out  and  enforcing  the

provisions  of the Oil and Gas  Laws.   The  Department of Natural

Resources Division  of Oil and Gas  is  authorized under 1C 4-22-2

to obtain primary enforcement authority for and implementation of

Class II wells  under the Underground  Injection Control Program,

promulgated  under part  C of  the  Safe  Drinking Water Act.   A

Natural  Resource  Commission was  created under 1C 14-3-3-3,  to

adopt rules, regulations,  and orders  necessary for the  Oil  and

Gas Division to administer the Oil and Gas Laws.

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PERMITS



     An application  must  be filed for permits  to drill,  deepen,



or convert any type of well.  Detailed surveying requirements are



required, which  include  location  and spacing  of wells.    For a



disposal or enhanced  recovery well,  a detailed  plan of operation



for the  proposed well must be included with  the application for



permit to drill.   310 IAC-7-1-21.







WELL DESIGN



     Casing,  tubing,  and  drill  pipe must  be run  and  set  in



conformance  with  the  standards   set  forth  by  the  American



Petroleum Institute.  There are specifications for casing string,



surface  casing,  and cementing.   The  well  operator must use more



than one string  of casing where  necessary to protect underground



drinking water sources.   310 IAC 7-1-42.







     Before commencing to drill,  at least one proper and adequate



slush pit must be constructed for the reception of mud that can



be reused when the hole is plugged.   310 IAC 7-1-40.







DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES



     The disposal of solid wastes from drilling activities is not



addressed.  There  are regulations  for disposal  of salt water and



liquid  wastes.     To  prevent   surface   or  underground  waste,



contamination, or pollution, only those disposal methods approved



by  the  Commission  are permitted.    Salt  water,  sulfur-bearing
                         B-SV

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water  or other  waste liquids  from  drilling  operations may  be
injected into^P subsurface  formation  if ^Ppermit has been issued
by  the Commission.   Evaporation pits  are prohibited.   Holding
pits are permitted for gathering of  saltwater  for injection and
disposal, or  for emergency  use.   If  a  pit  is used for emergency
purposes, the liquid in the  pit must  be  purged as soon as the
emergency ceases.  310 IAC 7-1-38.

WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT
     A well must be immediately plugged and capped where the well
is  incomplete one year  after issuance of  a permit,  and is not
afforded temporary abandonment  status.  A cement plug must  be
placed  to  100  feet  above  the top  of   a  formation.    Where
insufficient  casing  has  been  set or the casing  not cemented, the
production  string of casing  must be removed  50  feet below the
deepest aquifer  containing  potable  water.   310  IAC 7-1-22(g) and
310 IAC 7-1-33.

SURFACE RESTORATION
     Upon completion  of  a well,  pits  must  be filled and leveled.
Within  6  months of  plugging  and abandoning a  well,  an operator
must clear  the area of any refuse  and  equipment,  drain and fill
excavations,  and restore the surface  to  as near  its condition
prior to drilling as possible.  310 IAC 7-1-40(c) and  310 IAC  7-
1-33(b).
                         5-5?

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SURETY BONDS



     A surety b"ond, certificate of deposi£7 or cash in the amount



of $2,000  covers  one well.   A blanket bond of  $30,000  covers a



group of wells.

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                           REFERENCES
Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil and
     Gas.  Oil and Gas Law, 310 IAC 7-1, Revised 1986.
Personal Communications;

Gary M. Fricke, Division of Gas and oil.  (317)232-4055

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W                             APPENDIX





IOWA



STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES



          Department of Natural Resources



GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS



     The Department of  Natural  Resources regulates water quality



standards.    Chapter  61,  Water  Quality  Standards  gives  the



Commission authority  to protect and enhance the  quality  of the



water  of  the State  of Iowa by attempting to prevent  and abate



pollution  to   the  fullest  extent possible   consistent  with



statutory and technological limitations.








     The  Department  of  Natural  Resources  also  regulates  the



production  and  utilization of  oil, gas,  and  other  minerals.



Chapter 84 gives the Department the authority to  promulgate and



enforce rules and orders to effectuate the purposes and intent of



the chapter.   Section 84.1, declaration of policy, requires that



the underground  and surface water  of the state be  protected from



pollution.







PERMITS



     A  permit  from  the  Department  of  Natural   Resources  is



required  for  water  withdrawals.     455.B.269.     Aquifers  are



considered to be waters of  the  state.   455.B.  A permit from the



Department  of  Natural  Resrouces  is  also  required  before  a



discharge may be made into an aquifer.  455.B.186.

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     All wastes discharged to the waters of  the  state must be of



such quality that  the discharge will not cause  the  narrative or



numeric criteria limitations to be exceeded.   61.2(3).  There are



also temperature limitations on water added to streams, lakes, or



other bodies of water.  61.3(3).

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                           REFERENCES
State of Iowa, Chapter 93, Energy Development and Conservation.

State of  Iowa,  Chapter 305,  Geological  Survey, Department  of
     Natural Resources.

State  of  Iowa,  Chapter  84,  Oil,  Gas  and  Other  Minerals,
     Department of Natural Resources.

State of Iowa, Chapter 61, Water Quality Standards, Department of
     Natural Resources.
Personal Communications:

Keith Bridson, Iowa Department of Natural Resources
     (515) 281-8868.

Pete Haniin, Iowa Department of Natural Resources
     (515) 281-8852.

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                             APPENDIX

LOUISIANA
STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES
     The  Louisiana Department  of Natural  Resources,  Office  of
Conservation has  jurisdiction over  geothermal  operations in the
State of Louisiana.

GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS
     Louisiana  has legislation  specific  to geothermal  energy;
Statewide Order No.  29-P adopts rules  and regulations governing
the  drilling  for  and production   of  geothermal  energy.    The
Commissioner of Conservation derives authority from  Title  30  of
the  Louisiana  Revised Statutes  to issue  and promulgate  rules
regarding geothermal operations.

     The definition of geothermal resources, given in State Order
No. 29-P, includes steam, hot water, hot brines, and geopressured
waters,  either indigenous   to  or  artificially  introduced  into
geothermal or  geopressured  water formations.   The  provisions  in
State  Order  No.   29-P apply  to  all   drilling  and  operational
aspects  of  geothermal  exploration,  production  and  injection
wells.

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PERMITS



     All applications for permits to drill or convert an existing



well  to a  geothermal well  must  be  sent to  the  Department  of



Conservation  District  Office   for  approval   by  the  District



Manager.  The application must include a location plat, detailing



all pertinent  lease  and  property lines  and other wells  of any



kind.    A well  location  certificate  must be  included  with the



plat.   Rule II.







WELL DESIGN



     There  are  extensive  specifications  for surface  casing and



production  casing in  all geothermal wells,  based on  the total



depth  of the contract.    Intermediate  casing  is  to be used  as



required by the District Manager.  Casing tests must be conducted



before operations proceed.  Rule II.







     All drilling wells are  required to  have  a master gate and



blowout preventer, together with a flow valve of recommended size



and working pressure.  Rule VI.







SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL



     Any rubbish  or debris that might  constitute  a  fire  hazard



must  be removed  to a  distance  of at  least  100  feet  from any



tanks, wells, or  pump stations.    All wastes and produced fluids



must be disposed  of  in  such a manner  as to avoid creating a fire



hazard  or polluting streams and fresh  water strata.   Salt water



and related  liquid waste material may  be sorted into pits which

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have been  approved by  the  Commissioner of   Conservation.   Salt



water can  be injected  into  a subsurface formation;  a  permit is



required   for  this   form   of  disposal.     Disposal   of  all



geothermal/geopressure  operation  waste  material  into  surface



waters  must be  done  pursuant  to  regulations set  forth by  the



Stream  Control  Commission or other appropriate  state or federal



regulatory agency.  Rules VIII, XIV.







WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT



     If  an   owner/operator  intends  to   cease  production   or



injection activities, a notification of intention to plug must be



given  to  the  District  Manager  in   writing.    A   schedule  of



abandonment   must  be  set.     There  are  different  plugging



requirements  for wells with different types of casing and lining,



but in  general, a cement plug  must be placed at  least 150 feet



immediately   above  the  uppermost  perforated  reservoir.     If



freshwater  zones are  exposed,  a cement  plug must be  placed at



least 50  feet from the base  of the aquifer.  A 30-foot plug at



the top of the well is also required.  Rule XVI.







RESTORATION OF SURFACE



     Not addressed in the regulations reviewed.







SURETY BONDS



     A  reasonable bond with good  and sufficient surety may be



required by  the Commissioner to ensure proper well plugging.   An



exact dollar amount is not stated.   Rule XVI.


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                            REFERENCES
State of Louisiana, Office of Conservation, Statewide  Order
     No. 29-P.  May 4, 1978.
Personal Coitonvmication

Jim Welsh, Office of Conservation.   (504)342-5540.

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                             APPENDIX


MARYLAND

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     Two agencies regulate geothermal operations in Maryland:

-    The Department of Natural Resources (DNR), which issues
     permits for oil, gas, and geothermal well drilling, and
     promulgates rules and regulations for well construction
     and drilling practices.

-    The  Department of  Health and  Mental  Hygiene (DHMH),
     which  is  responsible  for  protection of  water quality
     and   disposal   of   solid   and  liquid   drilling  and
     production wastes.


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The  Maryland  Geothermal  Resources Act,  Annotated  Code of

Maryland,  Subtitle  8A,   gives  authority  to  the  Department of

Natural  Resources  for geothermal  energy regulation  and defines

DNR's powers and  duties.   Maryland Well Construction Regulations

Code  of  Maryland 10.17.13,  establishes  standards and procedures

applicable  to  well  construction,  and  integrates DNR's  and the

Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's programs into a unified

regulatory  program.   The regulations  in  this chapter  apply to

well  construction  activities  from  initial  ground  penetration

through  development,  equipment installation,  and final approval

of the well for production.



     The  Maryland   Health-Environmental  Article,   Sec.  9-217,

regulates pollution of water by industrial  wastes.   It provides

authority for the Secretary of DHMH to issue discharge permits or

prohibit discharges.   Other sections of the Health-Environmental

-------
Article provid^ authority for solid wast^^management (10.17.11)
and  standards  for water  quality  and water  pollution  control
(10.50.01).

PERMITS
     As  mentioned before,  a permit  must  be  obtained  from  DNR
before any drilling operation commences.  A permit to construct a
well  will  only  be  granted  to those persons  licensed by  the
Maryland  state Board of Well  Drillers.  The  licensed person to
whom  a  permit is  issued  is responsible  for construction of the
well in accordance with DHMH's safety standards.

     The  DHMH  has  authority  to  issue  NPDES  and  Underground
Injection Control permits for waste discharges.

     Permits  must  be  issued  by  DHMH  for  discharge  of  any
pollutant  into   the  waters  of  the  state.    Details  on  the
permitting  process  are  included  in  the section  on solid  and
liquid waste disposal.

WELL DESIGN

     Well  design requirements in  Code of Maryland  10.17.13  are
written  for  groundwater  wells,  but are applicable to geothermal
wells.   Specifications are  given  for types and  installation of
well casing grouting and grouting materials.
                            5-ka

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     DHMH also^pecifies construction st^dards  in 10.17.13 for
wells installed  for the purpose of  injecting water,  wastewater,
and  other  liquids  into  a  subsurafce  formation  or  aquifer.
Standards   may   include   requirements    for  testing,   casing
specifications,   grouting  material,   and   well-head  pressure
monitoring devices.

DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES

     Any discharge  or disposal of waste  waters into the surface
or underground waters of the state requires the approval of DHMH.
If  DHMH determines that  the  proposed activity will  not cause a
violation  of the  standards  in Code  of  Maryland  10.50.01,  the
Department will  issue water quality  certification.   Issuance of
water  quality certification  does  not  relieve the  applicant of
responsibility  to comply  with all  federal  and state  laws.   By
agreement  with  either federal  or  state agencies  in  order to
facilitate  the certification  process,  DHMH  may  develop a joint
application  for  a  federal  license  or  permit  and  state  water
quality  certification.   A  separate  state  discharge  permit or
NPDES  permit  is  required  for  discharge  of leachate from  a
landfill, pit,  or sump to surface or groundwater.   Pits must be
lined   with   impervious   material   to   prevent   groundwater
contamination.  Materials  in the pit must be  removed and disposed
of at a permitted disposal facility,  in or out-of-state.  Unlined
pits must have groundwater discharge permits.  Permit approval is
granted by DHMH on a site-by-site basis.

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     An  underground   injection   permit   issued  under  Code  of
Maryland  10.50.04  constitutes  a  discharge  permit  under  this
regulation.    All  injection  wells  must  be  maintained  in  a
condition to protect groundwater standards.

     Liquid wastes and wastes containing free liquids may only be
disposed of  at a solid  waste acceptance  facility  that  has been
specifically  authorized  by  DHMH  to  handle  such waste.    The
presence of  free liquids is determined by the  free liquid test,
FR Vol. 47, 38.

     On-site,  nonhazardous  industrial  waste  landfills  must  be
permitted and meet the following DHMH requirements  (10.17.11.07):
the waste  must be spread in uniform layers and compacted to the
smallest practical  volume  before covering.   The  disposal site
must be graded and drained to minimize runoff and prevent erosion
and ponding.   Features  and systems to protect groundwater from
any leachate are required.

WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT
     A well must be abandoned when  it is in a state of disrepair,
when use  is impracticable,  or when it is  not  productive.   Well
abandonment procedures are specified in 10.17.13.11.

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     Before  filing the  hole,  casing afl|  any obstructions  to



filling must be removed.  A well must be  filled with clay,  silt,



sand, gravel,  or a mixture of these materials, and sealed with



concrete or sodium-base bentonite clay.  All wells must be sealed



and  abandoned  in  such a way that no  interchange of  waters  of



varying quality may occur.







SURFACE RESTORATION



     The objective of standards  described in  10.17.13.11  is  to



restore  as nearly as  possible  those  surface  conditions  which



existed before the well was constructed.







SURETY BOND



     A surety bond in  the amount of $2,500 per well is required.



General 6-105.  In practice, a blanket bond of $1,000 may also be



issued.   Although  bonding  procedures  are not  specified  in the



regulations,  the  legal  section of  the   Department of  Natural



Resources  may  enter  into  a  contractual  arrangement  with  the



owner/operator,  (General  law 6-105).

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                           REFERENCES
State  of  Maryland,  Title  10,  Subtitle  17,  Chapter  13,  Well
     Construction, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

State  of  Maryland,  Title  10,  Subtitle  17,   Chapter  11,
     Installation and Operation of Systems of Refuse Disposal  for
     Public Use, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

State of Maryland,  Code  of Regulations,  Subtitle 50,  Chapter  1,
     Water Management, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
Personal Communications

John Lawther
Dept. Health and Mental Hygiene
Solid Waste Division
(301) 225-5659

Ken Schwarz
Dept. of Natural Resources
Environmental Geology and Mineral Resources Division
(301) 554-5525
                       B-72.

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                            APPENDIX
MONTANA
STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     Two  state  agencies  regulate oil  and  gas  activities  in
Montana:
     -    The  Montana   Department  of   Natural   Resources  and
          Conservation, Oil and Gas Conservation Division.
          The  Montana  Department  of   Health  and  Environmental
          Sciences, Water Quality Bureau.

GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS
     There are no  regulations specific to geothermal operations,
but sections of the General Rules and Regulations Relating to Oil
and Gas Administrative Rules of Montana, Part 36, Ch.22  outlined
below may  apply.   Title 82 of the  Montana Annotated Code places
certain restrictions on geophysical exploration, but these appear
to  apply  only  to  geophysical  exploration  for  oil  and  gas
resources.

PERMITS
     A notice  of  intent  to drill  a  stratigraphic test  well  or
core  hole  must  be  submitted  to the  Board  of  Oil  and  Gas
Conservation before any drilling may commence.   If the notice is
approved by the Department, a permit will be issued for drilling.
The notice  of intent  to  drill  must be accompanied by  a survey
plat,  certified by a registered surveyor.  Section 36.22.601-602.
     A permit  for  waste  discharges must  be  obtained  from  the
Department of  Health  and  Environmental  Sciences.   Montana  has
primacy for the issuance of NPDES permits.

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WELL DESIGN
     Suitable WKL  safe  surface casing isViguired for all wells.
In areas where  pressure levels and formation characteristics are
unknown, surface  casing must be  run  to reach a  depth  below all
potable fresh water resources that are accessible for domestic or
agricultural use.   Surface  casing must be set and cemented in an
impervious  formation.   Blowout-prevention equipment  is required
on  all  drilling  wells,  and   should   be   used  according  to
established practice  in the  area.   Adequate slush pits for the
reception  of  drilling  muds  must  be  constructed  before  any
drilling commences.  Section 36.22.1001-1002.

SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL
     All solid  wastes  that accumulate during drilling operations
must be contained and  disposed of in  an appropriate manner.  The
waste must  either be removed  from the well site or buried at the
well  site  to  a  minimum  depth  of  3 feet  below the restored
surface.  Section 36.22.1005.

     Salt or  brackish  water may be disposed of by injection into
the strata  from which it was produced  or other salt-water bearing
strata.   Salt  or  brackish  water may  also be  disposed  of  by
evaporation  in  pits that are underlain  by tight  soil,  such as
heavy clay or hardpan.  Section 36.22.1227-1228.

WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT
     Plugging is required for any well that is no longer used for
the purpose for which  it was  drilled or converted, with limited
exceptions.  Section 36.22.1303.

RESTORATION OF  SURFACE
     All operators are required  to restore the  surface area to
its previous  grade and productive capability, unless  the Board
approves a different plan of restoration.  Section 36.22.1307.

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SURETY BOND  ^
     A $10,00^^or $25,000 surety  bond !^ required  to indemnify
owners of  property  within  the state  against damages  caused  by
geophysical exploration.   The Board requires, from  any operator
proposing to  drill or acquire  any oil,  gas, or service  well  on
private or  state lands, a plugging and restoration bond in the
sum of $5,000  for one well,  and $10,000 for  more  than one well.
If the Board deems  it necessary, they  can  increase the amount of
the bond.  The bond remains  in  force until  the well plugging and
surface  restoration has  been  approved  by the  Board.   Section
36.22.1308.

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                            REFERENCES
Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Oil
     and Gas Division.  General Rules and Regulations Relating to
     Oil  and Gas.   Administrative  Rules  of Montana,  Part 36,
     Chapters 22,  Revised July 1984.


Personal Communications;

Tom Richmond, Oil and Gas Division.  (406)656-0040.

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                             APPENDIX


NEVADA

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     Two agencies regulate the geothermal industry in Nevada:

     -    Department of Minerals,

     -    Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural
          Resources,    Division    of    Environmental
          Protection    (for   underground    injection
          control).


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The   Nevada   Commission   on  Mineral  Resources   adopted

regulations specific to geothermal activities on August 16, 1985,

and filed the regulations with the Secretary of State on November

12, 1985.   Authority  to make and  adopt regulations  is derived

from Section  534A.090 Nevada  Revised Statutes and  authority to

adopt rules  of practice and  procedure is  derived  from Sections

233B.040 to 233B.0617 Nevada Revised Statutes, the Administrative

Procedures Act.



     New  underground  injection   control  regulations  have  been

adopted by the State Environmental Commission.  These regulations

are administered by the Division of Environmental Protection, but

do not  replace or  in any  other  way  affect the  regulations and

rules  of  practice  and procedure  administered  by  the  Nevada

Department of Minerals as they apply  to Class II injection wells

and Class V geothermal wells.  Permits must be obtained from each

agency.

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PERMITS
     The  Department of  Minerals divides  geothermal  wells  into
three categories:   (1) domestic wells (used for domestic purposes
or by a commercial  user  who does not produce geothermal heat for
sale or the generation of power); (2) commercial wells  (used to
provide geothermal  resources on a commercial  basis for purposes
other  than the  generation of  power);  and  (3)  industrial wells
(used to operate power).  Section 16  (NAC 534A.170).

     A permit  must be obtained from the Department of Minerals
before any person  drills an  observational or  thermal gradient
well for  observational purposes.  Authorization is also required
from  the  Department  for  deepening  or  plugging  any geothermal
well.  Section 36  (NAC 435A.370).

     Unless  the  director  approves  an  alternative  method  of
disposal,  all  fluids derived  from geothermal resources  must be
reinjected  into  the  same reservoir  from  which the  fluids  were
produced.   Section 41.1  (NAC  534A.420).  The  operator must file
with  the  Department  an  application  for   a  permit to  inject
geothermal  fluids.    No  re-entry is  allowed  except  for routine
clean-out or repair work until an application has been filed with
and approved by the Department.  Section 22  (NAC 534A.230).

     If  any  water  is   consumed in  the  process,  a permit  to
appropriate  water must  be obtained  from  the Division  of Water
Resources.   The  Division  of Water Resources  may  also recommend

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conditions   for  Department  of   Minerals  permits   to  ensure
compliance  with the  purposes  of Chapters  533  and  534  Nevada
Revised Statutes.

WELL DESIGN
     Section  25.  (NAC  534A.260   -  NAC   534A.2300)   sets  forth
extensive design requirements as precautions against blowout.

DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE
     Effective February 2, 1987, an application must be submitted
to  and a  permit  obtained  from  the  Division of  Environmental
Protection  to comply  with UIC regulations.    As stated  in the
section on  permits,  unless the Director  approves an  alternative
method of disposal,  all fluids  derived from geothermal resources
must be reinjected into the same  reservoir from which the fluids
were  produced.    There  are  also  reporting  and  notification
requirements  for  injection.    Section  41.1   (NAC  534A.  420),
Section 45.  (NAC 534A.460), and Section 44.1 (NAC 534A.450).

     Currently,  Nevada does not  require  any solid  wastes  to be
transported off-site.  Solid waste which may be hazardous must be
deposited at a  land  disposal site  only  if provisions  for such
disposal were required by the solid waste management authority.
Solid waste  management authority  is  defined as "the officers and
agents of the division of environmental protection,  any district
board of health or any other entity given specific  authority by
the division."   In general,  the solid  waste management authority

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must approve  a system for the  handling,  processing,  salvage,  or



disposal of hazardous waste  before  the  system may be placed into



operation.  However, the method of handling or disposing of solid



waste may not be done in a manner  which  creates  a health hazard



or impairment to the environment.  444.624-444.646.







     Each municipality  implements  a  plan for the management  of



solid   wastes  within  its  jurisdiction.     Jurisdictions  are



contained within the boundary of each county, except where a city



develops  its  own  plan  or  several  municipalities  develop  a



combined  plan.     In  general,  the   storage,   collection,   or



transportation  of  solid  waste  is regulated by the city, town,  or



county  where  the services are  performed.   However, the method of



storage,  collection, or transportation  may  not be  done in  a



manner  that  creates  a  health  hazard  or  impairment  to  the



environment.  444.660-444.658.
WELL PLUGGING




     The  Department  must  grant  permission  before  any  person



abandons a well.  Section 46.1  (NAC 534A.470).








RESTORATION OF SURFACE



     The surface  must be restored as near  as practicable to its



original condition.  Section 47.3  (NAC 534A.480).








SURETY BOND

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     Section 24.1  (NAC 534A.250)  requires  a  bond not  less  than



$10,000 per individual well, or a $50,000 blanket bond to insure



compliance with plugging and abandonment requirements.

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                            REFERENCES
State of Nevada,  Chapter 534 A,  Geothermal Resources, Department
     of Minerals

State of Nevada,  Regulations and Rules of Practice and Procedure
     Adopted Pursuant to NRS 534 A, Department of Minerals

Underground   Injection   Control   Regulations,   January   1987,
     Department of  Conservation and Natural  Resources,  Division
     of Environment Protection

Nevada  Annotated  Code  444.570  through  444.748,  Solid  Waste
     Disposal


Personal Communications;

Richard  L.  Reyburn, Executive  Director,  Department  of  Minerals
     (702) 885-5050

Dan  Gross,   Department  of  Conservation  and Natural  Resources,
     Division of Environmnetal Protection (702) 885-4670

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                             APPENDIX





NEW HAMPSHIRE



STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES



     The  State  of  New  Hampshire Water  Supply  and  Pollution



Commission  sets  regulations  for  any  activities  which  affect



groundwater in the state.








GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS



     There  are  no  regulations  specific  to geothermal  energy;



however,   some  sections   of   the  New   Hampshire  Codes   of



Administrative Rules  WS 410 may be applicable.   The definitions



of "well", "injection", and "fluid" given in WS410.04 are written



in such a way  that geothermal  resources  could be included.   Part



WS410 of the New Hampshire Code derives authority from RSA 149:8,



III(a);  its purpose   is  to  protect  groundwaters  as  potential



sources for drinking water.







PERMITS




     A  groundwater  permit  issued  by  the  Commission  is  required



for  operation  of  any  facility  which  may  significantly  and



adversely  affect groundwater.   Applications  for a  groundwater



permit  must contain   a  complete  description  of  the  facility,



including environmental  assessment, groundwater monitoring plan,



design plans, and closure plans.  Anyone planning to inject fluid



must  include information  on the  type  of  fluid being  injected,

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depth and  diameter of the well, and injection rate.   (WS 410.06



and .08).







WELL DESIGN



     Not addressed in the regulations reviewed.







DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES



     Discharge  or injection  into groundwater  of  any hazardous



waste is  prohibited.   Injection of a  fluid below drinking water



aquifers  is  prohibited.   Disposal of  solid or  liquid waste from



drilling  or  production of any  type  of well is  not addressed in



the regulations which were reviewed.

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                           REFERENCES
New Hampshire "Water Supply and Pollution Control Commission, Part
     Ws 410  of Ntl Code  of Administration Rules:  Protection of
     Groundwaters of the State.

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                            APPENDIX


NEW JERSEY

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     One  agency regulates  well  drilling of  all  types  in  New

Jersey:

          The New Jersey  Department of Environmental Protection.
          (Division  of Water Resources  and  Division  of Solid
          Waste Management).


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     New  Jersey's  water  quality  and  water  supply regulations,

N.J.A.C.  7:9-7.2, set general standards and establish procedures

for  construction,  permits,  installation  and  modification of all

types  of  wells.  Specific  regulations for geothermal  wells are

found  in  N.J.A.C. 7:9-8.6.  The Well Drillers and Pump Installers

Act, N.J.S.A. 58:4A, provides authority for these rules, and also

establishes  a  Well  Drillers and  Pump  Installers Examining Board

to issue  licenses and make recommendations to the Commissioner of

the Department.



PERMITS

     No drilling or  any other type of  construction  on  a well is

allowed without  an  approved well permit.  Permits  are  valid for

one  year.    Applications  for  permits  must  provide  complete,

accurate  information  about  the  proposed  well  site  and  the

operation of the well.  For geothermal wells,  a site plan must be

submitted with  the permit  application, showing location  of  the

proposed well, drawings of distances from the proposed geothermal

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wells to  potable wells,  potential sources of  contamination and
pollution, and all proposed structures.

     There  are well  driller  and pump  installer  licensing and
certification procedures  and requirements.  There  are extensive
eligibility  requirements  in  order  to  become  licensed.    No
drilling or construction of a well is allowed by anyone without a
license.   (7:9-7.2 and 7:9-8.6)

WELL DESIGN
     Specific  procedures  apply for the  construction of vertical
loop  geothermal  systems.    When  installing  a  vertical  loop
geothermal  system,  the  borehole must  be  sealed  in order  to
protect   the  quality  of   water  present  in  the  geological
formations.   A geothermal well must  be  constructed a minimum of
50  feet  from any potable  well.  The geothermal well installation
must  be  sealed from  the bottom  up  under  pressure  to  prevent
groundwater  contamination,  maintain  the  hydrostatic  head  of
aquifers  encountered,  and  prevent mixing  of  waters  of  varying
quality.   The  well  casing must be at least 6 inches in diameter,
Schedule  40 steel,  weighing  19  Ibs/foot.   Casing installation
requirements  vary  from  one  environmental  Region to  another;
Regions   are  established  by  the   New  Jersey   Department  of
Environmental Protection.

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WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT
     There are specific requirements governing the sealing of all
types of wells.  Some  wells,  such as  those that present a direct
risk  of groundwater contamination,  may not  be  sealed  without
departmental approval.   A  detailed written description  must be
filed with  the Department after  each  plugging operation.  (9:7-
9.1) .

DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES
     No treatment or discharge of any pollutant may occur without
a  New  Jersey  Pollutant  Discharge  elimination  System  (NJPDES)
permit  that has  been issued by the Department.  The NJPES permit
covers  discharge of pollutants to all surface and ground waters,
and  discharges  of  pollutants into wells  (Underground Injection
Control).    The permitting process  is  extensive and  includes
provision for  all conceivable wastes types.
     New Jersey  has primary for its Underground Injection Control
Program; its rules  are clearly preventative and provide  specific
regulatory  controls for five classes  of injection wells.   In New
Jersey,  geothermal wells  are  Class  III  if  used   to  produce
electric  power,  and  Class  V if  used  for  direct   heating or
aquaculture.     No   U.I.C.   authorization  shall  be  given  for
injection  of  any  fluid  with  containants  which may  cause  a
violation   of  any  primary drinking water standards.   Details are
given  in N.J.S.A.   7:14  for selecting  appropriate formation for
injection.

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     Disposal  of solid  waste is  regulated by  the Division  of
Solid  Waste  Management   in   the   Department   of  Environmental
Protection.   All  solid wastes  must  be disposed  of  at  State-
approved  facilities  in  a manner consistent  with  New  Jersey
regulations.

RESTORATION OF SURFACE
     Not addressed in the regulations reviewed.

SURETY BONDS
     A $5,000  bond must  be filed with  the Department  prior  to
construction, installation, replacement,  repair,  or modification
of any well.  New bonds must be submitted to the Department prior
to  the  expiration  or cancellation  of  the bond  or  insurance
policy.  (7:9-7.3).

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                           REFERENCES
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of
     Water Resources.  N.J.A.C. 7: 9-7, 8, and 9.  Water
     Quality and Water Supply.  1986.

New  Jersey Department of  Environmental Protection,  Division of
     Water Resources.  N.J.A.C. 58.10A, Chapter 14A, the New
     Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.

New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of
     Solid Waste Management,  N.J.A.C.  7:  26-1 through 6,  14,  and
     15.
                             6-50

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                            APPENDIX


NEW MEXICO

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     Two agencies regulate the geothennal industry in New Mexico:

     -    Oil  Conservation  Division of the  New Mexico
          Energy and Minerals Department

     -    Oil Conservation Commission


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The Geothermal Resources  Conservation Act of 1978 gives the

Oil Conservation Commission and the Oil Conservation Division of

the  Energy   and   Minerals   Department  authority  over  matters

relating to  geothermal  resources.   Specifically,  the division is

authorized to enforce the Geothermal  Resources Conservation Act

and any other laws of the State relating to geothermal resources.

The  Commission is  given concurrent  jurisdiction and authority

with the  Division  to the extent necessary  for the Commission to

perform its duties.



     Under the Oil  Conservation Division  Geothermal Rules and

Regulations  of  1983,  the Division has the  duty of enforcing all

statutes,  rules,  and regulations  of  the  State relating  to the

conservation of geothermal resources.   In general, all geothermal

operations, exploratory, drilling and producing must be conducted

in a  manner  that  will  afford  maximum reasonable protection to

human life and health and to the environment.

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PERMITS
     Rule  G-102 (a)  requires that  the owner  or operator  of  any
proposed   well   to  be   drilled  for   geothermal   exploration,
production, observation, or thermal gradient, or for injection or
disposal  purposes,   obtain a  permit  from  the Division  before
commencement of  operations.   Notice  of such intention  to drill
must be given to the governing body of any city, town, or village
within the corporate limits of  which the well  will  be drilled.
Rule G-102(b).   Evidence of  this notification must accompany the
permit application.  Rule G-102(b).

WELL DESIGN
     Extensive design requirements and testing procedures must be
implemented as  precautions against blowouts.   Rule G-601*  Rule
G-107.

DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES
     Rule  G-116  requires that  disposal  of highly  mineralized
waters  produced  from  geothermal  resource wells  be  made in  a
manner that  will not  constitute a hazard to  surface  waters or
underground supplies of usable  waters.    The  practice  (although
not stated in the regulations)  is to dump the cuttings in reserve
pits and bury them.

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WELL PLUGGING



     Prior to  plugging/  notice must be  filed with the Division.



Rule G-30.2.   Before  any well  is  abandoned it must be plugged in



a manner that will permanently confine all fluids in the separate



strata originally containing them.  Rule G-303.








SURETY BOND



     Plugging bonds are required prior to drilling any geothermal



resource well.   Bonds may  be either one-well bonds or multi-well



bonds.  The  amount  of the  bond depends on the depth of the well.



Rule G-101.








RESTORATION  OF SURFACE



     Not addressed  in the regulations reviewed.
                           6-73

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                            REFERENCES
State of New Mexico,  Geothennal Resources Rules and Regulations,
     Department   of  Energy  and   Minerals,   Division   of  Oil
     Conservation, 1983.

State of New Mexico, Geothennal Resources Conservation Act, 1978.
Personal Communications:

Roy  Johnson,  State  of  New  Mexico  Department of  Energy  and
     Minerals (505) 827-5800

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                             APPENDIX
NORTH CAROLINA

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     One agency regulates injection wells in North Carolina:
          Department of  Natural  Resources and Community Develop-
          ment.

GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     North  Carolina Administrative  Code, Title  15,  Chapter 2,
Subchapter 2C,  and Section  .0200 contain criteria  and standards
applicable  to  injection wells.    At  .0209,  Classification  of
Injection Wells,  Class II wells  are defined  as  including wells
which injectfor recovery of  geothermal energy to produce electirc
power.  Class  V wells are defined  as including geothermal wells
used in heating and aquaculture.

     Solid  waste  disposal   is  regulated by  the North Carolina
Department  of  Human  Resources,  Division of Health  Services,
Environmental Health Section.

PERMITS

     A permit  must be  obtained from the Director of the Division
of Environmental Management  prior to construction,  operation, or
use of  any well for  injection.   Where  the  individual injection
wells in the well  field will be essentially similar in construct-
ion, operation,  reporting,  and abandonment,  and  are of the same
type,  the director may issue an area permit.  No permit will be
granted  for  the  injection  of  wastes  or  contaminants.    All
applications  for  a  new  permit  or  renewal,  modification  or
transfer of  an existing permit must  be  filed  in  sufficient time
prior to  construction  and operation  or expiration,  modification
or  transfer  to  allow  compliance  with all  legal  procedures.

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Injection may  not commence  until construction is  complete,  the
permittee has  submitted notice of completion  or  construction to
the director and the director has inspected or otherwise reviewed
the  injection  well and found it  in compliance with  the permit
conditions.   If the permittee  has not received notice from the
director of  intent to  inspect or  otherwise  review the injection
well within  10 days after the director receives  the notice, the
permittee  may  commence  injection.    A permit  may not  exceed  5
years.  However,  the permittee may file  for  an extension.  Also,
a permit may be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated for
cause.  .0211.

     No  one may  establish  a  solid  waste  management facility
unless  a  permit  for  the facility  has  been  obtained  from the
Division of Health Services of the Department of Human Resources.
A permit  is issued only after site  and  construction  plans have
been approved  and  the Department determines that the facility can
be operated  in accordance with the requirements set forth in the
Solid Waste Management  Rules, 10 NCAC 10G.

SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE  DISPOSAL

     As stated above,  waste  disposal wells are prohibited.  NACA
Title 15, Chapter  2, Subchapter 2C, Section .0200.
     The Solid Waste  Management Rules stipulate that solid waste
must be  disposed  of  at a solid  waste disposal site.    No waste
that is hazardous, liquid, or infections  may be disposed of at a
solid  waste disposal   site,   except as  may  be  approved  by  the
division.
     A  solid   waste   generator  is  responsible   for  (1)   the
satisfactory   storage  and  collection of solid  waste and  (2)
ensuring  that  the waste is  disposed of  at  a site or facility
which is permitted to receive the waste.

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WELL DESIGN

     Extensive  design  requirements  and  testing procedures  are
allowed for prevention of blow-outs.  .0213(d) and .0213(3)(A).

WELL PLUGGING

     Any injection well which has been abandoned, either tempora-
rily  or permanently,  must  follow  procedures  as stated  in the
regulations or  other alternatives as specified  by  the Director.
.0214.

RESTORATION OF SURFACE

     Not addressed.

SURETY BOND

     The  permittee  must maintain  financial  responsibility and
resources,  in the form  of  performance  bonds or other equivalent
forms  of  financial  assurances  approved  by  the   Director,  as
specified in  the permit, to close, plug, and  abandon the injecti-
on operation.   .0208.
                            References

North  Carolina Administrative  Code,  Title  15,  Chapter  2,  Sub-
chapter 2C, Section  .0200.

Personnel Communications:
     Nathanel Wilson, VIC Program Hydrogeologist,
     Groundwater  Section,   Department of  Natural Resources  and
     Community Development  (919) 733-3221

Carl  Bailey,  Department   of  Natural  Resources  and  Community
     Development  (919)  733-3221

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                             APPENDIX
              •
OREGON
STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES
     In Oregon nine agencies regulate or are authorized to review
and approve geothermal activity:

-    State Department of Geology and Mineral Industries
     Department of Water Resources
     Department of Environmental Quality
-    Department of Land Conservation and Development
     Division of State Lands ( on state lands)
     Department of Fish and Wildlife
     Division of Parks and Recreation
     Energy Facility Siting Council
     The County affected

GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS
     Oregon  Revised   Statutes  (ORS)  Chapter   522   gives  the
Department  of  Geology  and Mineral  Industries the authority to
adopt rules  governing the drilling, redrilling  and deepening of
wells for the discovery and production of geothermal resources.
The Department also has the authority to adopt rules which govern
disposal,  by reinjection  or other  means,  of geothermal  fluids
derived  from geothermal  resources  from  wells  of 250 or  more
degrees Fahrenheit bottom hole temperature.

     ORS Chapter 537  gives the Department of Water Resources the
authority to adopt  rules  for the development,  use and management

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of any  groundw^ter,  used for its  geotherj«l  properties,  that is
                                        irjul
                                       :r
(low-temperature geothermal resources).
found  in wells  with bottom-hole temperatures  less than  250° F
     Geothermal power plants greater than  25 MW require  a site
certificate  from  the Energy Facility Siting  Council.   Operation
of such plants and disposal of production wastes, is provided for
in ORS  Chapter 469.   Local governments  can site plants under 25
MW in size.

     The  Department  of  Land  Conservation  and Development  is
responsible   for  ensuring  that   geothermal   activities  are
consistent with Statewide planning goals.

     Other   agencies   that   may  regulate  geothermal  resources
include  (1)  the Division of State Lands for development on state
lands;  (2)  the  Bureau  of  Land Management  for development  on
federal  lands;  (3)  the U.S.  Forest Service  for development  on
national  forest lands; and  (4)  the  Health  Division of the Human
Resources Department  for any heating system connected to a public
or  community  water   supply  system,  although at  this time,  no
community has  such a  system.

     Other  regulations  that may  apply regulate air  and water
pollution  control  permits  for  geothermal  well  drillings  and
operations,  and exploration, mining, and processing of geothermal
resources in areas zoned for farm use.   ORS 468.350 and 215.213.
                          E-fl

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PERMITS

     The State Geologist must issue a permit before anyone drills
a prospect well  (less  than  2,000  feet deep)  or a geothermal well
(greater than  2,000  feet deep).  Well  drilling permits,  even on
federal land, are issued by the Department of Geology and Mineral
Industries.  Protection  of  groundwater through well construction
is included.   Copies of both  permit applications are circulated
by the  Department of Geology to the  agencies  cited on the first
page of this Appendix.  These agencies may suggest conditions for
issuing permits.  ORS.522.

     The  Department  of  Environmental  Quality  may  require  a
National  Pollution  Discharge  Elimination  Systems  Permit  for
effluent   disposal  to   the  surface   (except  for  irrigation
purposes).

     The Department  of Environmental Quality  must  issue  a Water
Pollution Control Facilities permit before reinjection whenever:
(1) the  reinjection  is to a different aquifer than the producing
aquifer; or  (2)  the receiving  aquifer  is  of higher quality than
the  producing  aquifer;  or  (3)  contaminants   are  added  to  the
effluent.   The permit requirement  may  be  waived for reinjection
into the reservoir from which the fluid came if standards are met
and tests  are done  to ensure that  the  fluid  is uncontaminated.
In  general,   it  is  state  policy  to inject  spent  fluids  into

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production  reservoir.   The  Department of  Geology  and Mineral
Industries,  tl^r  Department  of  Environmeraal  Quality,   and  the
Water Resources Department all work together on injection.

     The Department of Environmental Quality issues disposal site
permits.  Section 459.205.   The permits may be renewed.  Section
459.270.

      Energy  facilities  25  MW  and  greater  require an Energy
Facilities  Siting  Council   (EFSC)  Site  Certificate.    EFSC  is
intended to be  "one-stop" siting process.   All above-cited state
permits  are  issued  as  a  part  of  a  Site  Certification.   ORS
Chapter 469.

     Standards  for  the  siting,  construction  and operation  of
geothermal power plants under EFSC are being developed.  Adoption
is  likely  later  this  year.    Issue  of wells  as  supporting
facilities  is resolved with  DOGAMI given  lead agency status for
such.

     EFSC  sends  application copies  to state  agencies  and  any
local governments affected by the application.  This coordination
with  other  agencies makes  siting a  one-stop  process  for  the
applicant to  satisfy  Oregon  requirements.  The agencies must make
provisions that  they would normally make in their own permitting
process.   Any stipulations  must be  included as site certificate
conditions,  and  once a  site certificate is granted,  the agency

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permits or  licenses  must be granted as a matter  of course.   The
applicant, howaBlr, does need to apply di^ltly for the necessary
permits  and   licenses.     The  permitting  agency  retains  the
authority to enforce the requirements of the license.

     A site certificate authorizes the applicant to construct and
operate  a geothermal  plant under  conditions  set forth  in the
certificate.   The  signed  certificate  binds  the state  and all
affected  political  subdivisions to  approval  of  the site  for
construction and  operation of the plant.   All necessary permits
and  licenses  must be  issued,  subject only to  the conditions of
the  site  certificate.   EFSC can only initiate  changes on a site
certificate based upon a clear indication of danger to the public
health and safety.

WELL DESIGN
     Oregon  Administrative  Rules  (OAR)   633-20-175   sets  forth
extensive  requirements and  testing  procedures for  well  design.
There are special low-temperature geothermal rules in OAR Chapter
690,  Division  65.   However,  all rules in  Chapter 690, Division
60-63   pertaining   to  well   construction,    maintenance,   and
abandonment also apply to  low temperature geothermal wells.

DISPOSAL OF LIQUID AND SOLID WASTES
     Two   agencies,   the  Department  of   Geology  and  Mineral
Industries  and the  Department  of  Environmental  Quality,  share
                           S-/02,

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responsibility through a  memorandum of understanding which gives
lead agency ro9s to each for different aWas.

     The  Department  of  Geology  and  Mineral  Industries  has
authority for regulating reinjection of geothermal fluids derived
from geothermal resources.  OAR 632-20-150(1).

     The  Department of Environmental  Quality has  authority for
regulating  other  methods  for  disposal  of  fluids  and  wastes
derived from geothermal operations.  OAR 632-20-150(1).

     Local government has the primary responsibility for planning
solid waste management.  Where the  solid waste management plan of
a  local government  unit  has  identified a  need for  a landfill
disposal  site,  the state  Department of Environmental Quality has
responsibility  for assisting local  government and private persons
in  establishing the  site.    ORS  459.017  and  ORS  459.047.   As
stated above, the Department of Environmental Quality also issues
disposal  site permits. ORS 459.205.    When solid waste  is no
longer  received at the  site,  it  must be  closed according to
statutory requirements and  any other requirements imposed by the
department.  ORS 459.268.

WELL PLUGGING
     The  State  Geologist  issues a  permit  before geothermal well
are  abandoned.    The  owner or  operator must  notify  the  State
Geologist  at  least  24  hours  before  the  proposed  date  for

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beginning abandonment procedures.  The mel^^d of abandonment must



be approved by the Department.  OAR 632-20-125.







     After discontinuance  of use,  a waste  disposal  well must be



immediately plugged  and sealed to prevent  the  well  from being a



channel  for vertical movement of water and a possible source of



contamination of the groundwater supply.  340-44-040.







RESTORATION OF SURFACE



     The  State  Geologist must determine  that the site  has been



restored  as near  as  possible to  its original condition,  prior to



granting  approval  for final abandonment  of any well drilled for



geothermal resources.  OAR 632-20-125(2)(b).







SURETY BONDS



     For  prospect  wells - Not less than  $5,000 for  each hole to



be  drilled or a blanket bond of $25,000  for all prospect wells



which are included in the application.  OAR 632-20-035(2).







     For  geothermal  wells - A $10,000 bond  for each well  or a



$50,000 bond for all wells to be drilled.   OAR 632-20-035(1).







     For  reinjection wells  -  The operator must post a bond in



compliance with OAR  632-20-035.







     Bonds   are   conditioned   upon    compliance  with  proper



abandonment procedures.  OAR 632-20-035(3).

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                            REFERENCES
Forcella,   Lauren  S.,   Low  Temperature   Geothermal   Resource
     Management.  Oregon  Water  Resources  Department for  Oregon
     Department of Energy, 1984.

State  of Oregon,  Chapter 522,  Geothermal Resources Act,  1981,
     Department of Geology and Mineral Industries.

State   of   Oregon,    Chapter   632,   Division   20,   Geothermal
     Regulations, Department of Geology and Mineral Industries.

State  of  Oregon, Water  Resources  Department,   Low Temperature
     Geothermal Resources. 1984.

State  of Oregon,  Chapter 459,  Solid Waste Control, Department of
     Environmental Quality.

State   of  Oregon,   Chapter  340,  Division  61,   Solid  Waste
     Management,  Department  of Environmental Quality.


Personal  Communications;

Alex  Sifford,  Geothermal  Program Manager,  Resource Development
     Division, Oregon  Department of Energy  (503)   378-2778

Ernie  Schmidt,   Solid Waste  Permits  Division,  Department  of
     Environmental Quality (503) 229-5630

Marshall  Gannett, Department of Water Resources,   (503) 378-2778.

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                             APPENDIX
SOUTH CAROLINA

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     Two  agencies  regulate  the  geothermal   industry  in  South
Carolina:
     -    South Carolina Water Resources Commission
          Department of Health and Environmental Control.

GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     Chapter  43  of Title   48,  of the Code  of  Laws of  South
Carolina regulates oil and gas exploration, drilling, production,
and transportation.  Section 48-43-315 makes the above-referenced
statute  generally applicable  to geothermal resources.   Section
48-43-315 states  "All  provisions of this  article  regulating the
leasing  for,  exploration  for,  drilling for,  transportation of,
and  production  of  oil  and  gas  and  their  products  apply  to
geothermal resources to the extent possible.   The provisions of
this  article  do  not  apply to  wells  drilled for  water  supply
only."

     The Water Resources Commission's  regulations  implement the
statutes.  Although these regulations do not specifically address
geothermal resources,  these regulations would be  applied  to the
extent possible  as required by  Section 48-43-315.   Section 48-
443-30  gives  the  Commission  jurisdiction  and  authority  to
administer and enforce this  Chapter.

     The  South Carolina  Department  of Health and Environmental
Control  regulates standards for industrial  solid  waste disposal
sites  and   facilities  in  PC-SW-2.    These  regulations  are
promulgated pursuant to the authority  contained  in Sections 63-
195  to 63-195.36,  South Carolina Code of laws  and cummulative
supplement thereto.

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     The  Pollution Control  Act (Section  7)  requires  the  South
Carolina  Pollution  Control  Authority  to  promulgate  rules  and
regulations for the  control  of pollution.   The Pollution Control
Authority  finds  that  improper disposal of solid  waste pollutes
the  air and water within the meaning  of  the  Pollution Control
Act.

     This  regulation  adopts  the  definitions  set  form in  the
Pollution Control Act  of 1970  and adopts the following  definition
of  Solid  Waste:    "Solid Waste includes garbage, refuse, litter,
rubbish,  or any  waste material resulting industrial, commercial,
agricultural,  or  residential  activities not  disposable by means
of  a sewerage system  operated in  accordance  with State of South
Carolina regulations."

     Section   48-43-520   gives  the  Department  of  Health  and
Environmental  Control the  power  to  require  containment  and
removal  of pollution  resulting from the  transfer of  pollutants
and to  otherwise deal with  the hazards posed by such  transfers.
The Department  of  Health  and Environmental  Control   has  also
applied for and received primacy from the EPA for the Underground
Injection  Control Program for all  classes of  Injection wells.
Regulations for  classes  of injection wells are contained in R61-
87.   In addition, the Department  regulates all wells  (except as
otherwise specified by State law) under the provisions  of R61-71.
PERMITS

     No one may explore for oil or gas without first obtaining an
exploration permit  from the South Carolina Resources Commission.
121-8.4.   A well being drilled under an  existing  permit may be
deepened  if the existing permit is amended.   A new well drilling
permit  is required to reopen and  deepen a plugged and abandoned
well.   121-8.5C.    No well drilling permit can  be issued within
the  corporate limits of  any  municipality  until  the  governing

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authority of  the municipality has  approved the activity.   121-
8.5D.

     No system  for land disposal of solid  waste may be operated
without a  written permit  issued by the  State Board  of Health.
The Board may issue  a special permit for  disposal  of essentially
unit materials which do not contribute to pollution and which do
not create vector problems or public health nuisances.

     No system  for the disposal  of  industrial solid waste may be
operated in South Carolina without a written permit issued by the
Pollution  Control  Authority.   Applications for permits must be
accompanied by an appropriate plan,  where applicable, which  must
be in  sufficient detail to support  a judgment that the operation
of the disposal  system will  not violate  the  Pollution Control
Act.

     Disposal  of  waste sludge  and slurries  must be  done  with
special consideration of air and water pollution,  and the health
and  safety  of employees.  Provisions acceptable to the Pollution
Control Authority  must be madew for the  handling  of these waste
materials on  a case by  case basis.

     A permit must be obtained from the Department of Health and
Environmental Control prior to  constructing,  operating or using
any  Class  V.A.  well  for injection.   R61-87.13.  Class V.A. wells
are  defined,  in part, as "...(f) injection wells associated with
the  recovery of  geothermal energy  for heating,  aquaculture or
production of electric  power..."  R61-87.11E(f).

     No well  drilling permits are  required under  Well standards
and  Regulations,   R. 61-71.    However,   the  water  Resources
Commission's  Regualtions require well  drilling permits  for  any
well, as well as defined in those regulations.  R.121-8.5.

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SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL

     In addition  to the above, the Water  Resources Commission's
regulations  at R.121-8.26,  require  that  after  a well  has  been
abandoned,  all the drilling mud remaining  in the pits must be
returned to  the well  on location or  an acceptable adjacent well,
or  removed  to a  lawfully approved landfill,  or disposed  of as
directed by the Commission  within 90 days  of completion of the
well, except as otherwise approved by the Commission.

WELL DESIGN

     Adequate  blow-out  preventers and high pressure fittings for
keeping the well under control must  be attached  to  anchor and
cement casing  strings. R.121-8.15.  Production testing procedures
are  required.   R.121-8.19.    Design  requirements  for  injection
wells also apply. R.121-8.22.

     Construction,  development and materials  specifications are
outlined in  Well Standards and Regulations R.61.71.6 and
R.  61-71.7

WELL PLUGGING

     When any  well is  temporarily  abandoned,  it must be sealed
with a  watertight  cap  or  seal.   The well must  be  maintained so
that it does  not become a  source  or  channel of contamination.
When the  well is permanently abandoned,  it must be filled with
sand or gravel  to within twenty feet of  the  surface  and the
remainder filled  with  cement  grout  or compacted clay for bored
holes.   R.61-71.10.

     The Underground  Injection Control  Regulations  specify that
180 days advance  notice must be given to the Department prior to
plugging or abandoning  any injection  well.  A plugging plan must
be  submitted  to   the  department.    Prior  to  receiving  final

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approval  to  abandon  the 'injection well,  the  permittee  must
demonstrate that  movement of fluids between underground sources
of drinking water will not occur R61-87.15.

RESTORATION OF SURFACE

      All pits  and  sumps must be  properly filled,  compacted and
leveled, in such  a manner so  as  to be  returned to a near natural
state.  121.8.26.D.

     The UIC  regulations  specify that  the permitte must take all
reasonable steps to minimize or correct any adverse impact on the
environment   resulting   from  noncompliance  with   the  permit.
R61-87.13X.(2).

SURETY BOND

     The  Water   Resource  Commission's   regulations  require  a
reasonable  performance bond  before a well  drilling  permit  is
granted.   The amount of the bond  is based on  the proposal depth
of the well as follows:

     Depth In Feet                 Amount of Bond Required
     0      - 10,000                         $20,000
     10,000 - 15,000                         $30,000
     15,000 - 20,000                         $40,000
     20,000 or more                          $50,000

     Alternatively, ablanket bond  of $100,000 may be allowed.

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                            REFERENCES

South Carolina Well Standards and Regulations R.61-71, Department
     of Health and Environmental Control.

South Carolina Underground Injection Control Regulations R61-87.

Code  of laws  of South  Carolina Chapter  43  of Title  48,  1976,
     Water Resources Commission

Personal Communications:
Paul S. League, Legal Counsel, Water Resources Commission   (803)
     737-6550
Michael E. Rowe, Department of Health and Environmental Control
      (803) 734-5000
Don Duncan, Director, Groundwater Protection Division, Department
     of Health and Environmental Control   (803) 734-5332

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                            APPENDIX
SOUTH DAKOTA

     One agency regulates potential  geothennal  activity in South
Dakota:

     -    South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources
GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     There  are  no  injection  wells used  in  conjunction  with

geothermal activities in the State of South Dakota.  However, any

use  of  injection  wells  in conjunction  with geothermal  energy

would be treated as  Class V wells and would  be  regulated  by the

South Dakota Department  of Water and Natural  Resource's Board of

Water Management.  Any geothermal use of water,  if  more than 18

gallons per minute,  would be  regulated by the South Dakota Board

of  Water Management's  Division  of  Water Rights.  Solid  waste

disposal is regulated by the South Dakota Department of Water and

Natural Resource's Office of Air Quality and Solid Waste.



     Well construction and plugging procedures  are  outlined in

the South Dakota Well Construction Standards.



PERMITS



     A water  permit  is  required from the South  Dakota Board of

Water  Management  for  use  of water,  except  that  no  permit  is

required for water distribution systems  diverting 18 gallons per

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minute  or less or  for geothennal  heat for  a  single household.



SDCL 46-1-15,46^5-9, 46-5-10.
     A permit  must be obtained before construction of a well for



which  a  water  permit  is  required.    74:02:04:21.    In  this



situation, the well owner must obtain a permit for use of water,



as specified above.  No other construction permits are required.







     In  general,  local  governments  are  responsible  for  waste



management.    Standards  and  liabilities for  nonhazardous  solid



waste management are defined by the local or regional authority.



Section 74:27:02:02.







WELL DESIGN



     The  Well  Construction  Standards   for  the  State of  South



Dakota  specify minimum  cement grouting requirements  for  wells;



(74:02:04:28);   other  construction  standards  concerning  well



casing  (74:02:04:42); and pump  installation  (74:02:04:60).   Also,



wells must be developed  by a  method which  will remove drilling



mud or  other aquifer material  that will pass  through the screen



openings or casing perforations.







     The Water Rights Law,  Section 46-6-10,  specifies that wells



must be constructed to prevent  underground leakage of waters into



other reservoirs.   The Water Management  Board may specify methods



of  construction  or other  control  devices necessary  to  prevent



waste.

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DISPOSAL OF LIQUID AND SOLID WASTES
     As previously  stated,  solid waste disposal  is  regulated by
local governments.   Standards  and liabilities for  frequency of
collection,  temporary storage  solid  waste specifications,  and
maintenance  of storage  containers are defined  by the  local or
regional  person in  charge  of  solid  waste management.   Section
74:27:02:02.   Political  subdivisions or  regions may apply  for
solid waste grants for the purpose of developing and implementing
an  approved   solid  waste   management  system  plan.     Section
74:27:06:02.

     Class V wells may inject subject to the provisions governing
the prevention of pollution  of  the waters  of the state.   Section
74:03:12:03.

WELL PUGGING
     The  Well  Construction  Standards  for  the  State  of  South
Dakota specify requirements  for plugging artesian wells  and test
holes  with  cement  grout.     Section  74:02:04:67  and  Section
74:02:04:68.

     The  Water Rights  Law  Section  46-6-18  specifies that  any
abandoned or  forfeited well  must be plugged by its owner so that
no leaking of  its waters occurs underground or over the surface.

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RESTORATION OF SURFACE



     Not addre^^d in the regulations
SURETY BOND



     Not addressed in the regulations reviewed,

-------
                            REFERENCES
State of  South Dakota,  Article 74:27, Solid  Waste,  Chapter
     74:27:01, Administration,  Department  of Water and Natural
     Resources.

State of  South Dakota,  Chapter 34A-6,  Solid Waste Disposal,
     Codified Laws, Department of Water and Natural Resources.

State of  South Dakota,  Article 74:02,  Water Rights, Chapter
     74:02:01, General Rules,  Department of Water and Natural
     Resources.

State of  South Dakota, Chapter 1-40,  Water Rights Law, Sections
     1-40-15 through 1-40-20, Chapters 43-17 and 46-1 through 46-
     10A, 1986.


State of  South Dakota,  Article 74:03, Underground Injection
     Control  -  Class  I,  IV  and V wells,  Chapter  74:03:12,
     Department of Water and Natural Resources.


State of  South Dakota,  Chapter 74:02:04,  Well  Construction
          Standards, 1985.
Personal Communications;

Barbara  K.  Hershly,  Hydrologist,  Office  of Water  Quality,
     Department of Water and Natural Resources  (605) 773-3296.

Ron  Duvall,  Natural Resources Engineer, Water Rights  Division,
     Department of Water and Natural Resources  (605) 773-3352.

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                             APPENDIX


TEXAS

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     The  Texas  Railroad   Commission,   Oil  and  Gas  Division,

regulates most  areas of the geothermal industry in  Texas.   The

one   area   which    lies   outside   the  Railroad   Commission's

jurisdiction  is the use  of groundwater  heat  pumps,  which  is

regulated by the Texas Water Commission.



GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The  following  sections  of the  Texas  Annotated Code (TAG)

apply to oil, gas, and geothermal wells in Texas:

          16  TAG,   Section  3.5  provides   guidelines  for  the
          application to drill, deepen, or plug back a well.

          16  TAG,  Section  3.13  gives well  design  requirements,
          specifically for  casing,  cementing,  drilling,  and well
          completion.

          16  TAG,   Section  3.8  related  to  water  protection,
          defines  the  types  of  pits  that  can  be  used  and
          operational requirements for the pits.

          16 TAG Section 3.9 sets regulations for injection wells
          used for disposal.

          16  TAG   Section  3.46  sets  regulations   for  fluid
          injection  into productive reservoirs.

          16  TAG  Section  3.14 establishes well  plugging  and
          abandonment procedures.


     The Texas  Railroad  Commission promulgates  and  enforces  all

of the above rules.

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PERMITS
     An application  is  needed  to drill,  deepen,  or plug back any
oil, gas, geothermal,  exploratory,  or fluid injection well.  The
application  must  be   made to  and  filed  with  the  Railroad
Commission  on an  approved  form.    Operations may  not commence
until the permit is granted by the Commission.  16 TAG 3.5.

     Permits from the Railroad Commission are required for anyone
who   engages  in   fluid  injection  operations   in  reservoirs
productive of oil, gas,  or geothermal resources.  16 TAG 3.46.

     Oil,   gas,   or   geothermal  resource  wells   drilled  for
exploratory purposes shall be governed by provisions of statewide
or  field  rules  applicable  to  drilling,  safety,  production,
abandoning, and plugging of wells.  16 TAG 3.8.  Since Texas does
not have NPDES  jurisdiction, NPDES permits must be obtained from
EPA for waste discharges.

WELL DESIGN
     There are extensive requirements for well casing, cementing,
drilling,  and completion.    In  all  instances,  casing must  be
securely anchored, with usable-quality  water zones sealed off to
prevent contamination,  and  potentially  productive zones isolated
to  prevent  fluid migration.    Casing  must be  hydrostatically
pressure-tested  steel.    Wellhead  assemblies are  required  to
maintain surface  control.   A  blowout prevention  unit or control
head  is also  required.   Surface,  intermediate,  and production

-------
casing are  all required; specifications  for type,  installation,

and testing apply.  16 TAG 3.13.



     Several   types   of  pits   can  be  used   during  drilling

operations:
          Reserve pits, used in conjunction with the drilling rig
          for  collection  of  spent drilling  fluids,  cuttings,
          sands,  silts,   and  wash  water used  for cleaning  the
          drill pipe and other equipment at the well site.

          Mud circulation pit, used for storage of drilling fluid
          currently being used in the drilling operation.

          Drilling  fluid   storage  pit.   used  for  storage  of
          drilling fluid  which is not currently  being used,  but
          which  will  be  used  in  future  drilling  operations.
          Drilling fluid storage pits are often located centrally
          among several leases.
     Drilling   fluid  storage   pits  require   a   permit;   mud

circulation and  reserve  pits do not.  165 TAG  3.8.   Other types

of  pits  for  solid  and  liquid  waste storage  and  disposal  are

described in the following section.



SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL

     Disposal of geothermal  resource fluids,  mineralized waters,

brines,  and  drilling fluids,   by  any  method,  is  not  allowed

without a permit.



     The  following types  of pits  can be used for  storage  and

disposal of liquid and solid waste, as specified:

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          Collecting pit, used  for storage of saltwater prior to
          disposal  at  a tidal disposal  facility,  disposal well,
          or fluid injection well.

          Drilling fluid disposal pit, used for disposal of spent
          drilling fluid.

          Completion/workover pit,  used for  storage  or disposal
          of spent  completion fluids, workover  fluids, drilling
          fluid,  silt,  debris water,  brine  and  other materials
          which have been cleared out of the well bore.

          Saltwater disposal  pit, used  for  disposal  of produced
          saltwater.
     Saltwater disposal pits, collecting pits, and drilling fluid

disposal  pits require  a  permit from  the  Railroad Commission.

Completion/workover  pits  do  not require  a permit;  an operator

may, without a permit, dispose of wastes in a completion/workover

pit,  provided  the  wastes have been  dewatered,   and  they  are

disposed of at the same well site at which they are generated.



     Other types of disposal methods which are authorized without

a  permit are:   disposal  of  freshwater condensate,  disposal of

inert wastes  (such  as glass and concrete), low chloride drilling

fluid  (less  than  3,000  mg/L),  drill  cuttings,  sand,  and silt.

These types of wastes can be landfilled, provided the landfill is

on the site where the wastes  were generated and the operator has

written permission  of the  landowner.   Water-base drilling fluids

with  more  than   3,000  mg/L  chloride,   but  which  have  been

dewatered, may be disposed of by burial in the same way.



     There are extensive dewatering,  backfilling,  and compacting

requirements for the wastes,  depending on  the  classification of
                           6'

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the pit.  16 TAG 3.8.







     Saltwater may be  disposed of by injection into nonproducing



zones  of oil,  gas,  or  geothennal resources  bearing  formations



that contain  water mineralized by processes of  nature to such a



degree that the water is unfit  for  domestic,  stock, irrigation,



or other general uses.  Before  such  formations  are approved for



disposal  use,  the  applicant  must  show  that  formations  are



separated  from freshwater  formations by  impervious beds.   The



applicant  must submit  a letter  from Texas Department  of Water



Resources stating the above.   16 TAG  3.9.







WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT



     Notification  of intention to plug any well  drilled for oil,



gas, or geothermal  resources  or  for any other purpose must be



given  in writing to the Railroad Commission  five  days prior to



plugging.   The notification must  include the  proposed procedure



and complete  casing  record.







     The landowner/operator may  file  an application  to convert an



abandoned well  for  usable-quality water production operations,



provided he  is willing to assume   responsibility  for eventual



plugging.







     General  plugging  requirements are as follows:   Cement plugs



must  be set  to  isolate  each  productive  horizon and usable-



quality   water   strata.    Plugging   must  proceed   according  to

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American  Petroleum   Institute   Standards.     Specific  plugging
procedures  may  apply when  well  fluids  are  high  temperature,
highly saline,and/or  corrosive.   A ten-foot cement  plug must be
placed in the  top of the well,  cut off  three  feet below the
surface.   Mud-laden fluids must  be placed in all  portions of the
well  not  filled with cement.    Additional  specific  requirements
apply  for wells  with surface,  intermediate,  and/or  production
casing, and open-hole completions.  16 TAG 3.14.

SURFACE RESTORATION
     Requirements  for   surface   restoration  are  not  addrssed
specifically in the regulations; they are usually included in the
lease agreements.

SURETY BOND
     Bonds are not required before wells are drilled.  However, a
bond  will  be  required  for  an  extension  of  time to  plug  an
inactive well.  A one-year extension may be granted beyond the 90
day   time  limit   for  plugging  an   inactive   well   if   the
owner/operator  posts  a bond in  the dollar amount equal  to $1.50
per foot times the total depth of the well.  Statewide Rule 14-B.

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                            REFERENCES
State of Texas, Statewide Rule 9, Disposal Wells, Railroad
     Commission of Texas, Oil and Gas Division

State of Texas, Statwide Rule 8, Water Protection, Railroad
     Commission of Texas, Oil and Gas Division

Texas Annotated Code 16, Section 3.14, Plugging, Railroad
     Commission of Texas, Oil and Gas Division

Texas Annotated Code 16, Section 3.13, Casing, Cementing,
     Drilling, and Completion Requirements, Railroad
     Commission of Texas, Oil and Gas Division

Texas Annotated Code 16, Section 3.5, Guidelines for Drilling,
     Railroad Commission of Texas, Oil and Gas Division


Personal Communication;

Richard Ginn, Texas Railroad Commission (512)463-6796

Richard Buerger, Administrative Chief, Legal Enforcement
     Section  (512)463-6796

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                             APPENDIX


UTAH

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     One agency regulates the geothermal industry in Utah:

          The  Division  of Water Rights,  Department of
          Natural Resources.


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The  Geothermal Resource  Conservation Act  of  1981  assigns

regulatory  authority  regarding the  development  of  geothermal

resources to the Division of Water Rights.



     The  Rules and Regulations of  the  Division of  Water Rights

for  Wells Used  for the  Discovery  and  Production  of  Geothermal

Energy  in the State of  Utah gives  the Division of  Water Rights

the  authority  to  regulate  all  wells  for  the  discovery  and

production  of water to  be  used  for geothermal  energy.    These

rules and regulations are in the process  of being  revised and at

this time, they are not available in draft form.



     The   Utah   State    Department   of   Health,    Division   of

Environmental  Health  regulates  solid  waste   disposal.    The

regulations are based on statutory authority conferred by Section

26-14, UCA, as amended,  and are enforceable throughout the state.

The  regulations  are  designed  for  adoption  and enforcement  by

local health departments in cooperation with the State Department

of Health for the  purpose  of establishing minimum requirements

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for the  disposal of  solid wastes.   The term "solid  wastes"  is



defined  as  garbage,  trash and other  wastes generated by daily



living processes and  also  includes those produced in commercial,



industrial and agricultural operations.







PERMITS



     Before  drilling  an  exploratory  or  production  well,  an



applicant must  submit a plan of operation to  the State Engineer



for approval.    These plans must  include the  methods that the



applicant intends to  use for disposal of waste  materials.   Rule



2-1-2.  If the  owner  plans to deepen  or  modify an existing well,



an  application  must  be filed  with  the Department and  written



approval  received,  except  in an  emergency  where the  owner must



take  action  to report damage  and  report  his action  to  the



Division  as  soon as  possible.   Rule 2-1-3.  A permit  is also



required to convert an existing geothermal well into an injection



well.   Rule  2-1-4.   Permits may be amended  upon approval by the



State  Engineer.   Rule  2-1-5.   Rule 6-2 requires  a  permit  to



abandon a geothermal resource well.







WELL DESIGN



     Extensive design requirements and testing procedures must be



implemented as precautions against blowout.   Rule 2-7 and Rule 3.

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DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES
     As  stated above,  the plan  of operation  must  include  the
methods  that  the  applicant  will use   for  disposal  of  waste
materials.   Rule  2-1-2.    The owner or  operator of a  proposed
injection  well  must  provide the Department  with  information
necessary to  evaluate the impact  of injection  on the geothermal
reservoir and other natural resources.   Rule 5-1.

     The Utah Code of Solid Waste Disposal specifies that is is
unlawful to deposit any solid waste in any place except at a site
which has  been designated by  a city, county,  district,  or other
properly  designated  agency,  and  approved by  the  Utah  State
Department of Health.

WELL PLUGGING
     A  notice  of  intent  to abandon  must  be  filed  with  the
Division  five  days  prior  to beginning  abandonment  procedures.
Rule 6-2a.  A history of geothermal resource  wells must be filed
within  60  days after completion  of abandonment procedures.  Rule
6-26.   All abandoned wells must be marked and the description of
the marker must be  included  in  the history of  the well report.
Rule  6-2c.   Marker  and  plugging specifications  are  required.
Rule 6-2c - 6-2k.   Injection  wells must  be abandoned  in the same
manner  as other wells.  Rule 6-21.

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RESTORATION OF SURFACE

     The owner is required to rehabilitate disturbed lands.  Rule

9-7.   Also,  a bond  is  required for proper  abandonment  in order

to:

     a.   Prevent  contamination  of  fresh  waters  or
          other natural resources;

     b.   Prevent loss of reservoir energy;

     c.   Prevent damage to geothermal reservoirs, and

     d.   Protect   life,   health,   environment   and
          property.  Rule 6-1.


SURETY BOND

     Rule 2-3-1  requires a surety bond of $10,000 per individual

well,  or  a  $50,000  blanket  bond  for  all  wells,  to  ensure

compliance with plugging and abandonment procedures.
                        6-123

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                            REFERENCES
Utah  Code of  Solid Waste  Disposal  Regulations,  June  20,  1981,
     State Department of Health, Division of Environmental Health

Utah Geothermal Resource Conservation Act, 1981

Utah  Rules  and Regulations  of  the Division of Water Rights for
     Wells Used  for the  Discovery and Production  of Geothermal
     Energy in the state of Utah, 1978


Personal Communications;

Earl  Staker, Apropriations  Engineer,  State of Utah Department of
     Natural Resources  (801) 533-7169

Robert  L.  Morgan,  State  Engineer, State  of Utah  Department of
     Natural Resources  (801) 533-6071

Stanley Green,  Directing  Appropriations Engineer,  State  of Utah
     Department of Natural Resources  (801) 533-6071

William  J.   Sinclair,   Manager  Permits  Section,  State of  Utah
     Department of Health, Division of Environmental Health
                          6-12.4-

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                             APPENDIX

VIRGINIA

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     The  Virginia  Department  of  Mines,  Minerals  and  Energy
regulates geothermal operations in Virginia.


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     The Geothermal  Energy Regulations, adopted  by the Director

of the  Department of Mines, Minerals and  Energy  are the primary

regulatory  guidelines  for  the  exploration,  development,  and

production of geothermal energy.  The regulations are promulgated

pursuant to  Title 45.1, Chapter  15.1,  Code of Virginia,  and in

accordance  with  the  provisions  of  Title  9,  Chapter  1.1:1,

Administration  Process Act.    The  regulations cover geothermal

resource  conservation,  permits  and fees,  plans  for operation,

well construction and maintenance, well plugging and abandonment,

and environmental protection.



PERMITS

     Section  3.B of the  Virginia Geothermal  Energy Regulations

requires  that  geothermal  operators  obtain  a  permit  for  any

exploration, production, or injection activities.  Along with the

application  for a permit  for exploration,  the  application must

include  an inventory  of  local water  resources  in the area  of

proposed development.

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     A notice  of  intention to proceed with geothermal production



or  injection must  be filed  with  the Department,  in accordance



with the provisions of Section 4.   The notice  of intent must be



accompanied  by:   (1) an operations plan,  (2)  a geothermal fluid



analysis,  and (3)  a proposal  for injection of  used geothermal



fluids.  The operations plan must consist of detailed information



about  the  site and proposed  activities,  such as  a map  of the



site,  geologic report, method for erosion  control,  and methods



for disposal of all  liquid and solid wastes.







WELL DESIGN



     Requirements   for  well   construction  and  maintenance  are



contained  in Section 5 of the regulations.   There are extensive



requirements for  casing  and cementing of  both  projection and



injection wells.  There are also provisions for the protection of



underground  freshwater zones.   Developers  are required  to use



drilling  mud  and  pressure  valves to prevent  blowouts.   When



working  pressures  on  the  wellhead connection  exceed 1,000 psi,



blowout preventers  must be used during drilling.   Because of the



rarity  of high-pressure  zones  in Virginia,  more sophisticated



blowout-prevention  equipment  is not  required.   The regulations



require  operators   to  keep  well  logs  during  every  phase  of



drilling  and  production.    Logs  must identify  each well,  and



include  a  record  of casings,  formations  encountered,  deviation



tests, cementing procedures and downhole geophysical information.

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DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES

     Plans for  disposal  of all wastes  resulting  from geothermal
operations must  be included in the operations plan.   All wastes
must be handled  in such  a way  as  to prevent  fire  hazards  or
pollution of  surface and  groundwater,  in accordance  with state
and federal  laws.   Geothermal  fluids must be injected into the
same  formation  from  which  they  were  drawn  using  a  method
specified in the regulations.  Drilling muds must be removed from
the drilling site  when the well  is completed,  and disposed of as
specified in the operations plan.  All methods of disposal must
comply with applicable state and federal laws and regulations.

WELL PLUGGING
     Notice of  intent to abandon any  exploration,  production,  or
injection well  must be  given  at least one day before beginning
plugging  operations.  Specific  plugging procedures  apply.   If
drilling operations  are  suspended  for 60  days, the well shall  be
plugged unless  permission  for temporary abandonment  is given  by
the  Inspector.     A  written  report  must  follow  any  plugging
operation.

RESTORATION OF SURFACE
     The  operations plan  must  present  the   intended plan  for
reclamation of  land at  the production and injection  sites.   The
drilling  site and any associated  pits  must be reclaimed within
one year after drilling ceases.

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SURETY BONDS



     A $10,000 completion  bond  from a surety company is required



for each  exploratory and injection well, and a  $25,000 bond for



each production well.   Blanket  bonds of $100,000 may be granted.



Return   of  the   bonds  are   conditional   upon  plugging   and



abandonment,   reclamation,    and   general    compliance   with



regulations.    Land  stabilization  bonds of $1,000  per acre are



required,  and  are   held   until  drilling  and  reclamation  is



completed.

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                            REFERENCES
Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy.  Geothennal
     Energy Regulations.  May 1, 1984.


Personal Communications

Katherine Pearsall, Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy
     (804)257-1310

Bill Edwards, Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy
     (804)257-6898

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                             APPENDIX


WASHINGTON

STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES

     Two agencies regulate the geothermal industry in Washington:


     -    The  Washington State  Department  of  Natural  Resources
          administers and enforces most regulations on geothermal
          activities.

          The Washington State  Department of Ecology administers
          and  enforces  regulations  relating  to  discharge  of
          produced formation fluids.


GEOTHERMAL REGULATIONS

     Washington   has   specific   legislation   for   geothermal

operations in  the form of the  Geotherraal Resources  Act (GRA) of

1974.    The  Act  was  passed  to  "further  the  development  of

geothermal resources  for the benefit  of all of  the citizens of

the  state  while  at  the  same  time   fully providing  for  the

protection  of  the  environment."    There  are  provisions  for

exploration, drilling, production, and abandonment operations, as

well  as  for prevention  of damage  due to  wastes  generated from

geothermal resources,  and  for the protection of  underground and

surface waters, land, and air.



     The  regulatory  authority  of  the  Department  of  Natural

Resources  is  stated   in   the   introductory  paragraph  of  the

Geothermal  Resources  Act.     The  regulatory   code  which  the

Department promulgates and  enforces is  in Chapter  332-17  WAC,

Geothermal Drilling  Rules  and  Regulations.   General rules  are

statewide in application unless otherwise stated.

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PERMITS
     Written applications must  be filed for a permit to commence
drilling,  redrilling  an abandoned  hole,  or  deepening a  hole.
Application  details must include proposed drilling  and casing,
survey  plat, methods  of  disposing of waste  materials,  and  a
narrative statement describing  proposed measures to be taken for
protection of  the environment.    Any well  drilled for production
is subject to fees, public notice, and possibly a public hearing.
A well  drilled only for the purpose of obtaining geothermal data
must  be permitted,  but  is not  subject to  fees,  notice,  or  a
public hearing, unless the hole is more than 750 feet deep, or in
the event that  a  geothermal zone  is discovered.  No well will be
permitted  that will unreasonably decrease  access to groundwater
for which prior water  rights exist.  WAC 332-17-100 and GRA Sec.
7,8.

WELL DESIGN
     All wells  must be  equipped  with  casing and safety devices,
as  approved by the Department.    Specifications are  given for
surface,  intermediate,  and production casing,  as  well  as the
cementing  of the casing.   Blowout equipment  must  be installed,
tested  immediately, and properly maintained  until  the drilling
operation  is complete.  The various  components required for the
blowout  prevention  unit are  described in  detail.   Sufficient
drilling fluid  to ensure well  control  must  be maintained  in the
field area readily  accessible for use at all times.  The drilling

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hole must  be reasonably full at all times,  and  a drilling fluid
monitoring system  is required.   Mud cooling techniques  must be
used  as necessary,  and mud  testing and  treatment  is  required
daily.  WAG 332-17-110, -120, -130, and GRA Sec.  9.

     The owner or operator must provide pits or sumps of adequate
capacity and  design  to retain all fluids and materials necessary
to drilling,  production,  and  related  operations.   There  are no
specific  requirements for  lining.   When  no longer  needed,  the
pits and sumps must be pumped out and the contents disposed of at
approved  sites.   The  pits  cannot be allowed to contaminate any
fresh water  bodies,  groundwater, cause  harm to  the environment,
persons, or  wildlife,  or adversely affect the aesthetic value of
the area.  WAC-332-17-460.

DISPOSAL OF SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES
     The application for permit to commence  drilling, redrilling,
or  deepening  requires a  written plan  including  a method  for
disposal   of  wastes.     Waste   disposal  is   then  addressed
specifically   by  the  affected  county,   usually  through  the
Department of Public Health,  and the Department of Ecology under
the State  Environmental  Policy Act,  and disposers are subject to
the rules and regulations of each of those agencies.

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Surface Disposal

     The  Department of  Ecology sets  conditions  under which  it

will  grant a  categorial exclusion  for a class  of waste:   the

class must be exempt  under RCRA, and either (1) the  class has

been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt to pass all DOE's tests

for  designation  as   dangerous,   or  (2)   the  class  has  been

identified  by  DOE  as  one  which  would  be  inappropriate  to

regulate,  due  to  considerations which demonstrate that the waste

class  does   not   pose  a  threat   to  public  health  and  the

environment.   A  temporary  exclusion was initially  provided for

oil,  gas  and geothermal  waste.    However,   due  to  a  lack  of

sufficient  information on drilling  fluids, produced waters, and

other wastes associated with oil, gas, and geothermal activities,

these wastes are now subject to dangerous waste designation tests

under WAC,  Chapter  173-303.   Under DOE's procedures, a waste may

be designated  a dangerous waste by way of three mechanisms:


     1)    Dangerous Waste Lists  (WAC 173-303-081 through  173-303-
           084) ;

     2)    Characteristics   of   Dangerous  Wastes,  including  EP
           Toxicity Test  (WAC 173-303-090)

     3)    Damgerous Waste  Criteria (WAC 173-303-101 through 173-
           303-103).

Wastes   must  be  checked   against   the   various   lists  and

characteristics    for    chemical    constituents    and    their

concentrations  to  determine  if  they  are   designated  wastes.

Produced  wastes  from geothermal  operations  generally  are not

designated dangerous  waste.    Some  drilling  fluids  have been

designated by charateristics   of  EP  Toxicity,  notably  high
                         6-/33

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concentrations of barium and chromium.

Concentrations  higher  than  the  threshold  values  for  primary
drinking  water standards  (arsenic,  barium,  cadmium,  hexavalent
chromium, lead, and  mercury)  can also result in designation as a
hazardous waste.   DOE has set  concentrations  for other chemical
constituents  found  in drilling fluids  which  could  result  in
dangerous waste designation:
                              Concentration* in Waste Which
Compound                      Could Cause Book Designation

Sodium Chloride                         10%
Calcium Hydroxide                       10%
Sodium Pentachlorophenate                0.01%
Sodium Hydroxide                         1.0%
Sodium Bichromate                        1.0%
Sodium Bicarbonate                      10%
Ammonium Nitrate                        10%
Ammonium Bisulfate                      10%

     *Concentration would be a weight/weight ratio.


     Any wastes which are designated as dangerous will be subject
to  applicable waste  management  standards.    Current management
practice for  non-hazardous  wastes are either to backfill them in
                            6-134-

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practice for non-hazardous  wastes  are  either to backfill them in
a pit,  or to  landspread  them and incorporate  them  into surface
soils.    These   practices   are  permissble  under  the  state's
dangerous  waste   regulations,   but  the   conditions   are  more
stringent.    Liners  and  caps  for  disposal  pits,  groundwater
monitoring,  and  financial  assurances  for  well closure  are all
required.    Management  standards  provide  for  less  stringent
requirements  if  geothermal  wastes  are  identified by  DOE  as
moderate risk.

Subsurface Disposal
     DOE  is the  primary regulator  of liquid  waste disposal by
injection,  although the Department of Natural  Resources and the
Oil   and   Gas   Conservation  Commission  provide  technical  and
enforcement   assistance  to   DOE   for  permit  and  compliance
assurance, and corrective action.

     Geothermal  injection wells are Class V  for the  state.   A
State  Waste Discharge Permit must be  issued  by DOE.  Any permit
issued by the  Department must  specify conditions  necessary to
prevent  and control  injection  of  fluids into  the  waters of the
State,  and conditions necessary to  preserve underground sources
of drinking water.  WAC-173-218-090.

WELL PLUGGING AND ABANDONMENT
     Plugging  and abandonment are required when:   (1)  it is not
technologically practical to derive energy to produce electricity

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commercially, or  (2)  usable minerals cannot be derived, or owner



has no  intention  of deriving usable minerals.   Before proceeding



with any plugging and abandonment operations,  the owner/operator



must file  a Notification of Abandonment  with  the Department for



approval   of  methods.     Adequate  measures  to   protect  the



environment  and aesthetic  qualities  of the disturbed  areas are



required.    All wells  to  be  abandoned must  have  cement  plugs



placed  in  the well as prescribed in the regulations.  Open holes



must  have  cement  plugs placed across  fresh water  zones  and



geothermal  resource zones,  to isolate  formations  and to prevent



migration  and contamination of fluids.







     In the event that the  abandoned well will be converted to a



water well,  jurisdiction over the well may be transferred to the



Department of  Ecology,  if  that  department is  willing  to assume



responsibility  for  it.    This   relieves  the  owner of  further



compliance with the Geothermal  Resources  Act,  but now makes the



owner subject  to  applicable laws and regulations for groundwater



wells.  WAS 332-17-200,  -300, -310, and GRA Sec. 10.







RESTORATION OF  SURFACE



     Cellars,  pads, structures,   and  other facilities related to



geothermal operations  must be  removed.   The  surface  must  be



restored  to its  natural condition,  or to  such  a  condition  as



prescribed by  the  Department   of  Natural  Resources.    Surface



grading and revegetation is  the responsibility of  the owner  or



operator.   WAG  332-17-300 and GRA Sec.  3(13).
                           6'

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SURETY BONDS



     A performance bond,  cash  deposit,  negotiable securities,  or



an assignment  of  a savings account is required.   A $15,000  bond



is required  for one  well; a $50,000 blanket bond covers  a group



of wells.   Termination or  cancellation  of any bond will  not  be



permitted until the  well, or wells, for which the bond has  been



issued have  been  properly  abandoned or  another valid bond  for



such  well  or  wells has been  submitted  and  approved  by  the



Department.  WAG-332-17-160.

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                            REFERENCES
WAC, Chapter 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations.  Amended June
     1986.  State of Washington, Department of Ecology.  Olympia,
     WA  98504

WDOE Position Paper:  Discussion of Bases for Not Excluding Oil,
     Gas, and Geothermal  Exploration,  Development and Production
     Wastes.  March 1984.

State of Washington, Substitute House Bill No. 135, Geothermal
     Resources Act.  January 24, 1974.

WAC, Chapter 332-17, Geothermal Drilling Rules and Regulations.

WAC, Chapter 173-218, Underground Injection Control Program.


Personal Communications;

Denis Erickson, Department of Ecology.  (206)459-6274

Bill Lingley, Department of Natural Resources.  (206)459-6372.

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